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Sample records for lice pediculus capitis

  1. Repellency against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis).

    PubMed

    Semmler, Margit; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Klimpel, Sven; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2010-02-01

    The head louse problem increases at all levels of the international societies due to activities or life conditions that lead to often hair contacts among people. Lice occur exclusively on humans. Thus, they avoid dropping down from a head and therefore accept even a bad smelling hair of new a host. Due to this behaviour, there are only a few products on the markets which dare to claim a repellency activity that protects humans from infestation with head lice. The present study shows that a combination of an extract of the seeds of the plant Vitex agnus castus (monk pepper) and the compound paramenthan-3,8-diol (which is also found in some plants, e.g. Eucalyptus) act synergistically and are able to protect human hair for at least 7 h from invasion of head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis). The recently developed product containing both compounds is named Licatack Preventive Spray. PMID:20054562

  2. Pediculus humanus capitis (head lice) and Pediculus humanus humanus (body lice): response to laboratory temperature and humidity and susceptibility to monoterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, A; Mougabure Cueto, G; Picollo, M I

    2009-07-01

    Human pediculosis is produced by Pediculus humanus humanus (Linnaeus 1758) and Pediculus humanus capitis (De Geer 1767). Laboratory-reared body lice, susceptible to insecticides, were used as reference in toxicological studies on head lice. In this work, we evaluated the survival of both subspecies at different temperatures and relative humidities and we propose the optimal conditions for comparative bioassays. Moreover, we used these conditions to test the activity of three monoterpenoids against both lice. The results showed differential response to changes in temperature and humidity between both organisms. The survival of body lice ranged between 83% and 100% and was not affected for the tested conditions. The survival of head lice depended on temperature, humidity, and exposure time. The optimal conditions for head lice were 18 masculineC and 97% relative humidity at 18 h of exposition. The insecticidal activity of three monoterpenoids (pulegone, linalool, and 1,8-cineole), evaluated according the selected conditions by topical application, showed no significant differences between males of body and head lice. To conclude, as head lice required more special laboratory conditions than body lice, the optimal head lice conditions should be used in both organisms in comparative bioassays. Body louse is an appropriate organism for testing products against of head louse. PMID:19242723

  3. Bioactivity of Argentinean essential oils against permethrin-resistant head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis.

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel C; Zygadlo, Julio; Biurrun, Fernando; Rotman, Alicia; Picollo, María I

    2010-01-01

    Infestation with the head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), is one of the most common parasitic infestation of humans worldwide. Traditionally, the main treatment for control of head lice is chemical control that is based in a wide variety of neurotoxic synthetic insecticides. The repeated overuse of these products has resulted in the selection of resistant populations of head lice. Thus, plant-derived insecticides, such as the essential oils seem to be good viable alternatives as some have low toxicity to mammals and are biodegradable. We determined the insecticidal activity of 25 essential oils belonging to several botanical families present in Argentina against permethrin-resistant head lice. Significant differences in fumigant activity against head lice were found among the essential oils from the native and exotic plant species. The most effective essential oils were Cinnamomum porphyrium, followed by Aloysia citriodora (chemotype 2) and Myrcianthes pseudomato, with KT(50) values of 1.12, 3.02 and 4.09; respectively. The results indicate that these essential oils are effective and could be incorporated into pediculicide formulations to control head lice infestations once proper formulation and toxicological tests are performed. PMID:21062140

  4. Bioactivity of Argentinean Essential Oils Against Permethrin-Resistant Head Lice, Pediculus humanus capitis

    PubMed Central

    Toloza, Ariel C; Zygadlo, Julio; Biurrun, Fernando; Rotman, Alicia; Picollo, María I

    2010-01-01

    Infestation with the head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), is one of the most common parasitic infestation of humans worldwide. Traditionally, the main treatment for control of head lice is chemical control that is based in a wide variety of neurotoxic synthetic insecticides. The repeated overuse of these products has resulted in the selection of resistant populations of head lice. Thus, plant-derived insecticides, such as the essential oils seem to be good viable alternatives as some have low toxicity to mammals and are biodegradable. We determined the insecticidal activity of 25 essential oils belonging to several botanical families present in Argentina against permethrin-resistant head lice. Significant differences in fumigant activity against head lice were found among the essential oils from the native and exotic plant species. The most effective essential oils were Cinnamomum porphyrium, followed by Aloysia citriodora (chemotype 2) and Myrcianthes pseudomato, with KT50 values of 1.12, 3.02 and 4.09; respectively. The results indicate that these essential oils are effective and could be incorporated into pediculicide formulations to control head lice infestations once proper formulation and toxicological tests are performed. PMID:21062140

  5. Ovicidal and adulticidal effects of monoterpenoids against permethrin-resistant human head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis.

    PubMed

    Toloza, A C; Vassena, C; Picollo, M I

    2008-12-01

    The improper use of pediculicides containing permethrin has led to the development of resistance. Thus, new alternatives for control are needed. Plant-derived insecticides are attractive alternatives to common chemical insecticides because most of them are environmentally friendly and non-toxic to mammals. The toxic activity of 23 monoterpenoids belonging to several chemical classes was tested against the eggs of permethrin-resistant head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae). Significant differences in ovicidal action were observed among the tested substances. The most effective chemicals were hydrocarbons and ethers, followed by ketones, alcohols, phenols and esters. A linear relationship between egg mortality and knockdown time (KT(50)) on adults by the tested components revealed that most of the components were effective on both egg and adult stages. The monoterpenoids described herein are good candidates as effective pediculicides. PMID:19120961

  6. Use of a poultry model to assess the transfer inhibition effect of head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) products.

    PubMed

    Ketzis, Jennifer K; Clements, Kathleen; Honraet, Kris

    2014-05-01

    Head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) remain a nuisance, predominantly in school age children. Despite the availability of pediculicidal products, children, after treatment, easily become re-infested if the outbreak has not been controlled on a class or school level. Lice repellents and re-infestation deterrents have been developed to protect children post-treatment. In vitro assays, which are used to evaluate the performance of these products, have limited correlation to in vivo efficacy. In this study, a chicken model was developed as an alternative to in vitro models, more closely mimicking the in vivo situation of children at school. Chickens with natural infestations of Menopon spp. and Menacanthus spp. were divided into three groups and co-housed for 23 h: Group 1 was treated with a commercial product designed to kill lice and protect from re-infestation (Oystershell Laboratories); group 2 was used to assess lice re-population onto lice-free, untreated chickens; and group 3, the seeder group, consisted of lice-infested chickens. The chickens were examined for lice before and at regular intervals after treatment. The group 1 chickens had an average of 40 lice pre-treatment, 0 lice post-treatment and did not become re-infested during the 23-h period. Lice were slow to re-populate the group 2 chickens but were seen 3 h after co-housing with an average of 6 lice each at the end of the study. Group 3 chickens maintained their lice throughout the study (average of 32 at end of study). Based on this study, chickens can be used as a model to test the performance of lice repellents and re-infestation deterrents. PMID:24647985

  7. Effectiveness of isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone D5 solution of removing cuticular hydrocarbons from human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the treatment of human head lice infestation, healthcare providers are increasingly concerned about lice becoming resistant to existing pesticide treatments. Traditional pesticides, used to control these pests, have a neurological mechanism of action. This publication describes a topical solution with a non-traditional mechanism of action, based on physical disruption of the wax layer that covers the cuticle of the louse exoskeleton. This topical solution has been shown clinically to cure 82% of patients with only a 10-minute treatment time, repeated once after 7 days. All insects, including human head lice, have a wax-covered exoskeleton. This wax, composed of hydrocarbons, provides the insect with protection against water loss and is therefore critical to its survival. When the protective wax is disrupted, water loss becomes uncontrollable and irreversible, leading to dehydration and death. A specific pattern of hydrocarbons has been found in all of the head louse cuticular wax studied. Iso-octane effectively removes these hydrocarbons from human head lice’s cuticular wax. Methods A method of head louse cuticle wax extraction and analysis by gas chromatography was developed. Human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) were collected from infested patients and subjected to any of three extraction solvents comprising either the test product or one of two solvents introduced as controls. A gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID) was used to determine the presence of hydrocarbons in the three head lice extracts. Results In the study reported herein, the test product isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone D5 (IPM/D5) was shown to perform comparably with iso-octane, effectively extracting the target hydrocarbons from the cuticular wax that coats the human head louse exoskeleton. Conclusions Disruption of the integrity of the insect cuticle by removal of specific hydrocarbons found in the cuticular wax appears to offer a

  8. Comparative efficacy of commercial combs in removing head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Anabella; Toloza, Ariel; Vassena, Claudia; Picollo, María Inés; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón

    2013-03-01

    The use of a fine comb for removing lice from the head of the human host is a relevant tool both in the diagnosis of infestations and as part of an integrated control strategy of head lice. The effectiveness of a fine comb depends, in part, on the design and material they are built. The aim of this study was to compare in vivo the efficacy of metal and plastic combs that are currently used in the removal of head lice and eggs worldwide. The space between comb teeth and the length was 0.23 and 13 mm in KSL® plastic, 0.3 and 10.7 mm in NOPUCID® plastic, 0.15 and 31 mm in KSL® metal and 0.09 and 37 mm in ASSY® metal. The assays were performed comparing the combs in pairs: (a) KSL® vs. NOPUCID® plastic combs, (b) KSL® vs. ASSY® metal combs and (c) KSL® plastic comb vs. ASSY® metal comb. The most effective plastic comb was KSL®, removing a higher number of individuals of all stages. The most effective metal comb was ASSY®, removing more insects of all stages (except adults). The comparative test between KSL® plastic and ASSY® metal showed that ASSY® was the most effective in removing head lice and their eggs. PMID:23212391

  9. Comparative efficacy of new commercial pediculicides against adults and eggs of Pediculus humanus capitis (head lice).

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Anabella; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Vassena, Claudia; Picollo, María Inés; Toloza, Ariel Ceferino

    2012-05-01

    The use of pyrethroids to control head louse infestations have suffered considerable loss of efficacy due to the development of resistance. In the last past years, several new alternative products to synthetic pyrethroids have been developed and are sold in the Argentinean market against head lice. The present study investigated the efficacy of two new Argentinean products Nopucid Qubit® and Nopucid Bio Citrus® and its comparison with two reference products Nyda® and Hedrin®. Nopucid Qubit® is a two-phase lotion containing geraniol and citronellol (phase 1) and ciclopentaxiloxane (phase 2); while Nopucid Bio Citrus® contains dimethicone, ciclopentaxiloxane, and bergamot essential oil. These products are physically acting compounds. The sensitivity of two laboratory assays for testing insecticide activity of new formulations was also compared. Mortality (100%) of motile forms occurred after they were exposed to any product for 1 and 2 min, either by in vitro or ex vivo test. Concerning ovicidal activity, the most effective pediculicides were Nopucid Bio Citrus® and Nyda®, followed by Hedrin® and Nopucid Qubit®. The present study revealed, for the first time, the efficacy of over-the-counter commercial pediculicides available in Argentine (Nopucid Bio Citrus® and Nopucid Qubit®) on either motile stages or eggs against head lice. PMID:21984369

  10. Treatment of head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) infestation: is regular combing alone with a special detection comb effective at all levels?

    PubMed

    Kurt, Özgür; Balcıoğlu, I Cüneyt; Limoncu, M Emin; Girginkardeşler, Nogay; Arserim, Süha K; Görgün, Serhan; Oyur, Tuba; Karakuş, Mehmet; Düzyol, Didem; Gökmen, Aysegül Aksoy; Kitapçıoğlu, Gül; Özbel, Yusuf

    2015-04-01

    Head lice infestation (HLI) caused by Pediculus humanus capitis has been a public health problem worldwide. Specially designed combs are used to identify head lice, while anti-lice products are applied on the scalp for treatment. In the present study, we aimed to test whether combing only by precision detection comb (PDC) or metal pin comb (MPC) could be effective alternatives to the use of anti-lice products in children. A total of 560 children from two rural schools in Turkey were screened. In the PDC trial, children were combed every second day for 14 days, while in the MPC trial, combing was performed once in every four days for 15 days. Children were divided into two groups (dry combing and wet combing) for both trials and results were compared. The results showed no significant differences between dry and wet combing strategies for both combs for the removal of head lice (p > 0.05). The number of adult head lice declined significantly on each subsequent combing day in both approaches, except on day 15 in the MPC trial. In the end, no louse was found in 54.1 and 48.9% of children in the PDC and MPC trials, respectively. Since family members of infested children were not available, they were not checked for HLI. Four times combing within 2 weeks with MPC combs was found effective for both treatment of low HLI and prevention of heavy HLI. In conclusion, regular combing by special combs decreases HLI level in children and is safely applicable as long-term treatment. PMID:25604670

  11. Ex vivo effectiveness of French over-the-counter products against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, 1778).

    PubMed

    Combescot-Lang, Catherine; Vander Stichele, Robert H; Toubate, Berthine; Veirron, Emilie; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y

    2015-05-01

    Head lice infestation is still a public health problem worldwide, with an intracountry and intercountry prevalence variation of 0.7 to 59%. There is a large variety of over-the-counter anti-louse products, but their efficacy is not always well assessed. Our objective was to test the pediculicidal and ovicidal efficacy of 21 over-the-counter head louse products, available in France during the period of 2008 to 2012. We tested children living in Tours City in central France and visiting preschools, primary schools, kindergarten, camps, and child care facilities, as well as children in their family houses, and were examined for the presence of lice. The products were collected from randomly selected pharmacies by covert investigators and then tested in the laboratory on an ex vivo sample of head lice and their eggs, collected from the hair of infested children. Living lice and unharmed eggs were collected from the scalps of 3-12 years old. The laboratory conditions for ex vivo testing mimicked the manufacturers' instructions for exposure time and application method. In 21 runs, 3919 living lice and 4321 undamaged living eggs were collected from the scalp of over 400 children. The 21 products were classified in three groups: 6 products in a group of potentially 100% pediculicidal activity and potentially 100% ovicidal activity, 8 products in a group of potentially 100% pediculicidal activity but insufficient ovicidal activity (including 2 products with claims of single application treatment), and 7 products in a group of insufficient pediculicidal activity and ovicidal activity. The pharmaceutical market for head lice products in France is swamped with poorly tested and ineffective products. Rigorous efficacy testing preregistration and periodic screening and testing of effectiveness in the post-registration period should be endorsed by the health authorities. PMID:25716822

  12. Determination, mechanism and monitoring of knockdown resistance in permethrin-resistant human head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis.

    PubMed

    Clark, J Marshall

    2009-03-01

    Permethrin resistance has been reported worldwide and clinical failures to commercial pediculicides containing permethrin have likewise occurred. Permethrin resistance in head lice populations from the U.S. is widespread but is not yet uniform and the level of resistance is relatively low (~4-8 fold). Permethrin-resistant lice are cross-resistant to pyrethrins, PBO-synergized pyrethrins and to DDT. Nix((R)), when applied to human hair tufts following manufacture's instructions, did not provide 100% control when assessed by the hair tuft bioassay in conjunction with the in vitro rearing system. Resistance to permethrin is due to knockdown resistance (kdr), which is the result of three point mutations within the alpha-subunit gene of the voltage-gated sodium channel that causes amino acid substitutions, leading to nerve insensitivity.A three-tiered resistance monitoring system has been established based on molecular resistance detection techniques. Quantitative sequencing (QS) has been developed to predict the kdr allele frequency in head lice at a population level. The speed, simplicity and accuracy of QS made it an ideal candidate for a routine primary resistance monitoring tool to screen a large number of louse populations as an alternative to conventional bioassay. As a secondary monitoring method, real-time PASA (rtPASA) has been devised for a more precise determination of low resistance allele frequencies. To obtain more detailed information on resistance allele zygosity, as well as allele frequency, serial invasive signal amplification reaction (SISAR) has been developed as an individual genotyping method. Our approach of using three tiers of molecular resistance detection should facilitate large-scale routine resistance monitoring of permethrin resistance in head lice using field-collected samples. PMID:20161186

  13. Lice, body with stool (Pediculus humanus) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... capitis ), or the pubic area ( Phthirus pubis ). Some body lice may carry diseases such as epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, or trench fever. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and ...

  14. Head Lice (Pediculosis Capitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pronto®, R&C®, RID®, Triple X®) and permethrin lotion 1% (Nix®). Both medicines kill only live lice, ... than recommended. Before applying the over-the-counter lotions, do not use conditioner on the hair, as ...

  15. The fumigant and repellent activity of aliphatic lactones against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Zygadlo, Julio; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Zerba, Eduardo; Faillaci, Silvina; Picollo, María Inés

    2006-02-01

    New alternative insecticides are necessary for the chemical control of head lice. In this study the fumigant knockdown time 50% (KT50) and repellency index (RI) of three aliphatic lactones was compared with two essential oils and DDVP, against permethrin-resistance Pediculus humanus capitis from Argentina. In the fumigant assay, none of the lactones were effective compared to the highest activity of eucalyptus (KT50 15.53 m). In the repellency test, the three lactones were equally or more effective (RI ranging from 60.50 to 76.68) than the positive control (piperonal). These lactones are promising as head lice repellents. PMID:16699710

  16. Efficacy of herbal shampoo base on native plant against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, Pediculidae: Phthiraptera) in vitro and in vivo in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Soonwera, Mayura

    2014-09-01

    Head lice infestation (or pediculosis) is an important public health problem in Thailand, especially in children between the ages 5 and 11 years. Head lice resistance is increasing, chemical pediculicides have lost their efficacy, and, therefore, alternative pediculicides such as herbal shampoos have been proposed to treat head lice infestation. Thus, the present study investigated the efficacy of three herbal shampoos based on native plants in Thailand (Acorus calamus Linn., Phyllanthus emblica Linn., and Zanthoxylum limonella Alston) against head lice and compared them with carbaryl shampoo (Hafif shampoo, 0.6% w/v carbaryl), malathion shampoo (A-Lice shampoo, 1.0% w/v malathion), and commercial shampoos (Babi Mild Natural' N Mild and Johnson's baby shampoo) in order to assess their in vitro and in vivo efficacy. For in vitro study, doses of 0.12 and 0.25 ml/cm(2) of each herbal shampoo were applied to filter paper, then 10 head lice were place on the filter paper. The mortalities of head lice were recorded at 5, 15, 30, and 60 min. The results revealed that all herbal shampoo were more effective on pediculicidal activity than chemical and commercial shampoos with 100% mortality at 15 min; LT₅₀ values ranged from 0.25 to 1.90 min. Meanwhile, chemical shampoos caused 20-80% mortality, and LT₅₀ values ranged from 6.50 to 85.43 min. On the other side, commercial shampoos showed 4.0% mortality. The most effective pediculicide was Z. limonella shampoo, followed by A. calamus shampoo, P. emblica shampoo, carbaryl shampoo, malathion shampoo, and commercial shampoo, respectively. In vivo results showed that all herbal shampoos were also more effective for head lice treatment than chemical and commercial shampoos with 94.67-97.68% of cure rate after the first treatment; the second treatment, 7 days later, revealed that the cure rate was 100%. Meanwhile, chemical shampoo showed 71.67-93.0% of cure rate and, unfortunately, commercial shampoos were nontoxic to

  17. Clinical efficacy and safety in head lice infection by Pediculus humanis capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae) of a capillary spray containing a silicon-oil complex.

    PubMed

    Izri, A; Uzzan, B; Maigret, M; Gordon, M S; Bouges-Michel, C

    2010-12-01

    Head lice are endemic worldwide. Resistance to permethrin and doubts about the safety of pesticides promoted the use of physical therapies (wet-combing, dry-on suffocation). The aim of our study was to test the pediculicidal and ovicidal effects of one application of a silicon-oil complex composed of dimethiconol and castor oil. The study was a prospective cohort of 108 infested patients (11 males, 97 females; 58 children, 50 adults), in Sri-Lanka. Pediculicidal efficacy was evaluated as the percentage of patients free of live lice one hour after the application of the treatment and at day 1 (wet combing). Ovicidal efficacy was calculated as the proportion of subjects without larval stages at days 1 and 7 among subjects followed up all over the study. In normal conditions of use, in this open cohort, a pediculicidal effect of a dimethiconol-castor-oil lotion was.shown one hour after application in 99/108 (91.7%) treated subjects and at day 1 in 86/99 (87%) subjects and an ovicidal effect at day 7 in 79/108 (73.2%) treated subjects. A second application of the same product was necessary to increase the cure rate to 79.6% (86/108) at day 8. In our study, the second application of the same product was performed seven days later, but the best time for additional applications should be defined in further studies. However, the efficacy of this safe physical treatment was similar to that of chemical pediculicides (malathion, permethrin). PMID:21275239

  18. The prevalence of pediculus capitis among the middle schoolchildren in Fars Province, southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Davarpanah, Mohammad Ali; Rasekhi Kazerouni, Akbar; Rahmati, Hashem; Neirami, Roxana Neirami; Bakhtiary, Hamid; Sadeghi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pediculosis capitis is a common parasitic infection of children. In this study we assessed the prevalence of head pediculosis among the middle schoolchildren in the urban and rural areas of Fars province, southern Iran. Methods: All middle schoolchildren ages 11-14, in all the urban and rural areas of the province were screened for head lice infestation by examining their hair and scalp. The parents of the infested children were also examined. The study was repeated in the different seasons in the same areas. Moreover, the infested children were treated with permethrin shampoo and re-examined one week later for any relapse. Results: The general prevalence of head lice infestation in middle school students was 0.23% in autumn, 0.27% in winter and 0.11% in spring. In all three seasons, pediculosis capitis prevalence was higher among females and in the rural areas. Treatment with permethrin shampoo was markedly more successful in males from both regions in all months except the urban areas in spring. Conclusion: The results show that pediculus capitis is generally uncommon among Fars Province middle schoolchildren. It is needed that health providers promote heath education programs especially in the rural areas. PMID:24009945

  19. Effect of Environmental Conditions and Toxic Compounds on the Locomotor Activity of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Ortega-Insaurralde, I; Toloza, A C; Gonzalez-Audino, P; Mougabure-Cueto, G A; Alvarez-Costa, A; Roca-Acevedo, G; Picollo, M I

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we evaluated the effect of environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and light on the locomotor activity of Pediculus humanus capitis. In addition, we used selected conditions of temperature, humidity, and light to study the effects of cypermethrin and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) on the locomotor activity of head lice. Head lice increased their locomotor activity in an arena at 30°C compared with activity at 20°C. When we tested the influence of the humidity level, the locomotor activity of head lice showed no significant differences related to humidity level, both at 30°C and 20°C. Concerning light influence, we observed that the higher the intensity of light, the slower the movement of head lice. We also demonstrated that sublethal doses of toxics may alter locomotor activity in adults of head lice. Sublethal doses of cypermethrin induced hyperactivated responses in adult head lice. Sublethal doses of DEET evocated hypoactivated responses in head lice. The observation of stereotyped behavior in head lice elicited by toxic compounds proved that measuring locomotor activity in an experimental set-up where environmental conditions are controlled would be appropriate to evaluate compounds of biological importance, such as molecules involved in the host-parasite interaction and intraspecific relationships. PMID:26336260

  20. Prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis infestation among kindergarten children in Bahía Blanca city, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, María Mercedes; González, Jorge Werdin; Stefanazzi, Natalia; Serralunga, Gabriela; Yañez, Loreto; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia

    2012-09-01

    The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae), is a worldwide public health concern. This human obligate ectoparasite usually infests school age children. The aim of this work was to investigate the prevalence of head lice in kindergarten children from Bahia Blanca. In addition, the influence of risk factors for pediculosis infestation, such as gender, hair characteristics, and socioeconomic class, was studied in relation to the prevalence of this ectoparasite. From a total of 220 pupils examined (125 girls and 95 boys), 94 showed pediculosis. The overall prevalence of head lice infestation was 42.7 %. Pediculosis was more frequent in girls (53.6 %) than in boys (28.4 %) and in medium, long, and very long hairs. No differences were found between socioeconomic classes. This indicated that head lice are relatively common in kindergarten children from Bahía Blanca. PMID:22752696

  1. The potential application of plant essential oils to control Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, María Mercedes; Werdin-González, Jorge Omar; Stefanazzi, Natalia; Bras, Cristina; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia

    2016-02-01

    The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae), is an ectoparasite confined to the scalp and human hairs. The repeated use of insecticides for the control of head lice during past decades has resulted in the development of marked levels of resistance. Natural compounds such as essential oils (EOs) have been suggested as alternative sources for insect control agents. In order to introduce a new pediculicide based on EOs, the effectiveness of the product and their effects on human being must be analyzed. In consequence, the biological activity of EOs from the leaves and fruits of Schinus areira (Anacardiaceae) and the leaves of Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Aloysia polystachya and Aloysia citriodora (Verbenacea) were evaluated against the eggs and adults of P. humanus capitis by fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays. Additionally, dermal corrosion/irritation tests were performed on New Zealand albino rabbits. In a fumigant bioassay, EOs from the leaves and fruits of S. areira were the most toxic against P. humanus capitis adults while these EOs and T. vulgaris were the most effective against the eggs. In contact bioassay, the EO from T. vulgaris was the most toxic against both stages. In the corrosion/irritation tests, the EOs did not produce dermal effects. According to the results, the essential oils from the leaves of T. vulgaris would be a valid tool for the management of P. humanus capitis. This EO produces a high knockdown effect in adults (followed by mortality) and toxicity in the eggs when it is applied for 21 min at a low concentration. PMID:26462802

  2. Epidemiological and Clinical Study of Infested Cases with Pediculus capitis and P. corporis in Khorasan-e-Razavi, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Riabi, H Ramezani Awal; Atarodi, AR

    2012-01-01

    Background Pediculosis (head lice) is considered as one of the most common health problems of the students in primary schools. The purpose of this study was to survey the prevalence rate of the infestation in the schools of Gonabad City (south of Khorasan-e-Razavi Province) to prevent its outbreak by on-time planning. Methods In this retrospective-descriptive study, data were collected from the files of recorded health examinations of 55,997 female and male students of Gonabad City. We surveyed the infested cases to Pediculus capitis and P. corporis during 2006-2010. We used schools health unit of the city health center and review reports of infestation to head lice and body lice in cumulative centers. Results The reports showed 398 cases of P. capitis and 3 P. corporis infestations, which 91.5% were female (P <0.05). Generally 46.4% were from rural and 63.6% were from urban areas (P <0.05). 71.3% of the infestation to head lice was from the last month and the rest had recently been infested. The most age group being infested were students of 6-10 years old and the lowest were >17 yr. Conclusion Pediculosis infestation has become a major health problem in primary school students in south of Khorasan-e-Razavi. PMID:23133477

  3. Nuclear Genetic Diversity in Human Lice (Pediculus humanus) Reveals Continental Differences and High Inbreeding among Worldwide Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ascunce, Marina S.; Toups, Melissa A.; Kassu, Gebreyes; Fane, Jackie; Scholl, Katlyn; Reed, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of parasites is important to both basic and applied evolutionary biology. Knowledge of the genetic structure of parasite populations is critical for our ability to predict how an infection can spread through a host population and for the design of effective control methods. However, very little is known about the genetic structure of most human parasites, including the human louse (Pediculus humanus). This species is composed of two ecotypes: the head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer), and the clothing (body) louse (Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus). Hundreds of millions of head louse infestations affect children every year, and this number is on the rise, in part because of increased resistance to insecticides. Clothing lice affect mostly homeless and refugee-camp populations and although they are less prevalent than head lice, the medical consequences are more severe because they vector deadly bacterial pathogens. In this study we present the first assessment of the genetic structure of human louse populations by analyzing the nuclear genetic variation at 15 newly developed microsatellite loci in 93 human lice from 11 sites in four world regions. Both ecotypes showed heterozygote deficits relative to Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium and high inbreeding values, an expected pattern given their parasitic life history. Bayesian clustering analyses assigned lice to four distinct genetic clusters that were geographically structured. The low levels of gene flow among louse populations suggested that the evolution of insecticide resistance in lice would most likely be affected by local selection pressures, underscoring the importance of tailoring control strategies to population-specific genetic makeup and evolutionary history. Our panel of microsatellite markers provides powerful data to investigate not only ecological and evolutionary processes in lice, but also those in their human hosts because of the long-term coevolutionary

  4. Nuclear genetic diversity in human lice (Pediculus humanus) reveals continental differences and high inbreeding among worldwide populations.

    PubMed

    Ascunce, Marina S; Toups, Melissa A; Kassu, Gebreyes; Fane, Jackie; Scholl, Katlyn; Reed, David L

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of parasites is important to both basic and applied evolutionary biology. Knowledge of the genetic structure of parasite populations is critical for our ability to predict how an infection can spread through a host population and for the design of effective control methods. However, very little is known about the genetic structure of most human parasites, including the human louse (Pediculus humanus). This species is composed of two ecotypes: the head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer), and the clothing (body) louse (Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus). Hundreds of millions of head louse infestations affect children every year, and this number is on the rise, in part because of increased resistance to insecticides. Clothing lice affect mostly homeless and refugee-camp populations and although they are less prevalent than head lice, the medical consequences are more severe because they vector deadly bacterial pathogens. In this study we present the first assessment of the genetic structure of human louse populations by analyzing the nuclear genetic variation at 15 newly developed microsatellite loci in 93 human lice from 11 sites in four world regions. Both ecotypes showed heterozygote deficits relative to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and high inbreeding values, an expected pattern given their parasitic life history. Bayesian clustering analyses assigned lice to four distinct genetic clusters that were geographically structured. The low levels of gene flow among louse populations suggested that the evolution of insecticide resistance in lice would most likely be affected by local selection pressures, underscoring the importance of tailoring control strategies to population-specific genetic makeup and evolutionary history. Our panel of microsatellite markers provides powerful data to investigate not only ecological and evolutionary processes in lice, but also those in their human hosts because of the long-term coevolutionary

  5. Eucalyptus essential oil toxicity against permethrin-resistant Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel C; Lucía, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo; Masuh, Hector; Picollo, María Inés

    2010-01-01

    During the past decades, chemical control against the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer has been based in the application of products containing permethrin. The repetitive overuse of pediculicides has resulted in the development of high levels of resistance to one or more of these products worldwide. Essential oils obtained from aromatic plants like Eucalyptus are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. In the present study, we reported the chemical composition of Eucalyptus dunnii and Eucalyptus gunni, and the fumigant activity of five Eucalyptus essential oils and their main compounds against permethrin-resistant head lice from Argentina. The most effective essential oils were Eucalyptus sideroxylon, Eucalyptus globulus ssp globulus, and Eucalyptus globulus ssp maidenii, with knockdown time 50% (KT(50)) values of 24.75, 27.73, and 31.39 min. A linear regression analysis between percentage of 1,8-Cineole and KT(50) values of the essential oils showed a significant correlation at a p < 0.01. Since Eucalyptus essential oils showed to be effective against head lice and are classified as safer compounds, they can be employed into pediculicide formulations. PMID:19902249

  6. Epidemiology of Pediculus humanus capitis infestation in Malaysian school children.

    PubMed

    Sinniah, B; Sinniah, D; Rajeswari, B

    1981-05-01

    A survey of 308,101 primary school children in Peninsular Malaysia conducted in 1979 by the School Health Services, Ministry of Health, Malaysia, revealed that 10.7% of children were infested with Pediculus humanus capitis. The prevalence rate was higher in the economically less advanced states of Terenganu (34%), Kelantan (23%), and Perlis (21%) than in the other states (4-13%). Of 14,233 school children examined in the State of Melaka, 26% of Indians, 18.7% of Malays, 6.1% of Europeans, and 0.7% of Chinese had pediculosis. The prevalence rate, which has remained unchanged over the past 5 years, does not appear to vary with age but is higher in children with long hair and those from the lower socioeconomic groups. Boys have a lower infestation rate than do girls. The higher incidence in Indians and Malays correlates well with their lower socioeconomic status in the community, and their cultural habit of maintaining longer hair than do the Chinese. The difference become less apparent in the higher socioeconomic groups. PMID:7258487

  7. Evidence of pyrethroid resistance in eggs of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cueto, Gastón Mougabure; Zerba, Eduardo Nicolás; Picollo, María Inés

    2008-07-01

    Insecticide resistance in Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer 1778 (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) from different countries has been well documented in the last years. Otherwise, little research has been reported about insecticide resistance in insect embryos and none in human louse embryos. In this work, we studied insecticide resistance in eggs of three head lice populations whose pyrethroid resistance was shown in adults and nymphs compared with a susceptible laboratory body louse strain. All head louse populations showed high permethrin resistance in eggs. Levels of permethrin resistance (LCRs) assessed in eggs by immersion technique were higher than those previously reported for the corresponding populations of adults by topical application. Comparison of LCR values for different populations showed that there was a direct relationship between the resistance levels assessed in eggs and those in adults. All permethrin-resistant eggs showed high resistance to d-phenothrin and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and low resistance to carbaryl, which is in common with the resistance profile established for adults and nymphs. The results concerning the high resistance to pyrethroid (permethrin and d-phenothrin) and the cross-resistance to DDT and carbaryl detected in head louse eggs and adults suggested similar resistance mechanisms in eggs and adults of head louse populations from adults. PMID:18714869

  8. Increased monooxygenase activity associated with resistance to permethrin in Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    González Audino, P; Barrios, S; Vassena, C; Mougabure Cueto, G; Zerba, E; Picollo, M I

    2005-05-01

    We studied the profile of permethrin resistance in populations of head lice infesting children 6-12 yr old in schools and their homes in and around Buenos Aires, Argentina. Five permethrin-resistant populations with different levels of resistance were collected: Hogar Loyola (HL), Republica de Turquia (RT), Hogar Mitre (HM), Guardia de Honor (GH), and Ricardo Guiraldes (RG). One susceptible population, Bandera Argentina (BA), also was collected. Their level of resistance was evaluated, and results showed resistance ratios of 13 for HL, 16 for RT, 22 for HM, 61 for GH, and 69 for RG. To elucidate the possible involvement of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system in conferring permethrin resistance, ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (ECOD) activity was measured in abdomens of individual third instars and adults by using a fluorometric assay. The ECOD activity was lower in the susceptible BA population (4.7 ng per louse) than in the resistant ones (13.7 ng per louse for RG, 12.3 ng per louse for GH, 8.6 ng per louse for RT, and 8.2 ng per louse for HL). ECOD activity was significantly correlated with the level of resistance in the field populations (r = 0.97, P = 0.0009), suggesting a role for cytochrome monooxygenase P450 system in permethrin resistance by head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer. PMID:15962785

  9. In vitro pediculicidal activity of herbal shampoo base on Thai local plants against head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer).

    PubMed

    Rassami, Watcharawit; Soonwera, Mayura

    2013-04-01

    Head lice infestation, a worldwide head infestation caused Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, is an important public health problem in Thailand. Several chemical pediculicides have lost in efficacy due to increasing resistance of lice against insecticide. Therefore, non-toxic alternative products, such as natural products from plants, e.g. plant extract pediculicides, are needed for head lice control. The aims of this study were to evaluate the potential of pediculicidal activity of herbal shampoo base on three species of Thai local plants (Accacia concinna (Willd.) DC, Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. and Tamarindus indica Linn.) against head lice and to compare them with carbaryl shampoo (Hafif shampoo®; 0.6% w/v carbaryl) and non-treatment control in order to assess their in vitro. Doses of 0.12 and 0.25 ml/cm2 of each herbal shampoo were applied to filter paper, and ten head lice were place on the filter paper. The mortalities of head lice on the filter paper were recorded at 1, 5, 10, 30 and 60 min by sterio-microscope. All herbal shampoos at 0.25 ml/cm2 were more effective pediculicide than carbaryl shampoo with 100% mortality at 5 min. The median lethal time (LT50) of all herbal shampoos at 0.25 ml/cm2 showed no significant differences over at 0.12 ml/cm2 (P<0.01). The most effective pediculicide was T. indica extract shampoo, followed by Av. bilimbi extract shampoo and Ac. concinna extract shampoo, with LT50 values<1.0 min. Our data showed that all herbal shampoos have high potential of pediculicide to head lice treatments for schoolchildren. PMID:23334727

  10. Resistance to insecticides and effect of synergists on permethrin toxicity in Pediculus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae) from Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Picollo, M I; Vassena, C V; Mougabure Cueto, G A; Vernetti, M; Zerba, E N

    2000-09-01

    Permethrin-resistant colonies of Pediculus capitis (De Geer) from Buenos Aires were used to establish a resistance profile and to examine resistance mechanisms. All permethrin-resistant head lice (resistance ratio from 52.8 to > 88.7) were also resistant to d-phenothrin (resistance ratio from 40.86 to > 48.39) and deltamethrin (resistance ratio from 16.24 to 38.06). No cross-resistance to carbaryl was found in any of the pyrethroid-resistant P. capitis tested. Otherwise, all resistant colonies showed low to high levels of resistance to beta-cypermethrin. This pyrethroid had never been applied as a pediculicide in Argentina; however, the high level of resistance found in these permethrin-resistant colonies (resistance ratio from 9.74 to 50.97) demonstrated that pyrethroid cross-resistance occurred to this novel insecticide. Treatment with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) or triphenylphosphate (TPP) significantly decreased the toxicity of permethrin in the four colonies tested. The esterase inhibitor TPP produced lower enhancement of toxicity than the multifunction oxidase inhibitor PBO in the colonies having the highest resistance levels. Results presented here concerning the cross-resistance profile and synergism by enzyme inhibitors in permethrin-resistant head lice demonstrated that enhanced metabolism was involved in the pyrethroid resistance. However, the substantial degree of resistance that remained after synergism suggested the presence of another resistance mechanism. Cross-resistance to pyrethroid and susceptibility to the carbamate carbaryl suggested a common action mechanism. PMID:11004784

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of Pediculus (humanus) capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae), in primary schools in Sanandaj City, Kurdistan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, A; Shemshad, K; Sayyadi, M; Biglarian, A; Vahabi, B; Sayyad, S; Shemshad, M; Rafinejad, J

    2012-06-01

    Human head lice, Pediculus (humanus) capitis, infest people worldwide and are most prevalent in children. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of head lice, in relation to socioeconomic status of the family and hygienic practices in the home. The prevalence rate was determined in 27 primary schools that had 810 students in Sanandaj city who were selected by multistage, systematic random sampling. A total of 38 students from all grades were infested with different rates of infestations. In addition, standard questionnaire recorded information about demographic features of each student were fulfilled. Children aged 10-11 years were the most frequently affected, there was a significant relationship between head louse infestation, family income and parents education level (α=5%). Pediculosis is a public health problem in many parts of the world. Pediculosis was found to be more prevalent among children of fathers with lower level of education and socioeconomic status, it is necessary to give health education to families in order to prevent pediculosis in this area. PMID:22735841

  12. The prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis and the coexistence of intestinal parasites in young children in boarding schools in Sivas, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Değerli, Serpil; Malatyali, Erdoğan; Çeliksöz, Ali; Özçelik, Semra; Mumcuoğlu, Kosta Y

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis and the coexistence of intestinal parasites in boarding primary schools in Sivas, Turkey. Seven hundred seventy-two students (350 [45.3%] girls, 422 [54.7%] boys) were evaluated with combing for the presence of head lice, collection of fecal samples, and examination of the perianal region for intestinal parasites using the cellophane tape method. The overall infestation rate for head lice was 6% (n=46). Nine children had evidence of nits only (1.2%), whereas living lice and nits or eggs were found in 37 children (4.8%). Girls were significantly more commonly infested (12.9%) than boys (0.2%). Of the parameters evaluated, socioeconomic level, number of rooms per family, and size and weight of the children were statistically significantly different between the children with and without lice. Although the infestation rate of children with intestinal parasites was higher in the head louse-infested group (23.9%) than in the group of children without lice (17.6%), the differences were not statistically significant. PMID:22107034

  13. Lethal effects of treatment with a special dimeticone formula on head lice and house crickets (Orthoptera, Ensifera: Acheta domestica and Anoplura, phthiraptera: Pediculus humanus). Insights into physical mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Richling, Ira; Böckeler, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    The present study provides the first convincing explanation of the mode of action of the medical device NYDA, a special dimeticone (CAS 9006-65-9) formula containing 92% of two dimeticones with different viscosities specifically designed for the physical treatment of head lice infestations (pediculosis capitis) by suffocation. Both, lice (Pediculus humanus) and house crickets (Acheta domestica) treated with this anti-head lice product are knocked out to the status "of no major vital signs" within less than 1 min that in consequence is accompanied irreversibly with the death of the respective insects. Scanning electron microscopical investigations have revealed that the cuticle is coated by a thin closed layer of the dimeticone formula that also enters the stigmata. In vivo observations and dissections of Acheta domestica have shown that application of the medical device to the thoracic stigmata invariably leads to rapid death; this is strongly correlated with the influx of the special dimeticone formula into the head trachea, whereby the solution effectively blocks the oxygen supply of the central nervous system. Dissections after application of the stained product show that it also enters the finest tracheal branches. Analogous in vivo observations in Pediculus humanus have confirmed the correlation between the disappearance of major vital signs and the displacement of air by the dimeticone formula in the tracheal system of the head. For both insect species, statistical data are provided for the chronological sequence of the filling of the tracheal system in relation to the respective vitality conditions of the Insects. On average, the special dimeticone formula reaches the insect's head tracheae within 0.5 min in house crickets and in less than 1 min in lice with a complete filling of the entire head tracheal system of lice within 3.5 min. In addition, a timed sequence of images illustrates this process for lice. The experiments clearly reveal the exclusive and

  14. In vitro efficacy of over-the-counter botanical pediculicides against the head louse Pediculus humanus var capitis based on a stringent standard for mortality assessment.

    PubMed

    Heukelbach, J; Canyon, D V; Oliveira, F A; Muller, R; Speare, R

    2008-09-01

    Infestation of the head louse Pediculus humanus var capitis DeGeer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) is an important public health problem in Australia, with up to a third of children infested in some primary schools. Insecticide resistance and inadequate attention to the application instructions of topical pediculicides are common reasons for treatment failure. This study evaluated six popular Australian over-the-counter products against head lice, primarily comprised of different botanical extracts, and compared them with permethrin 1% (Quellada) and a non-treatment control in order to assess their in vitro efficacy. We also assessed commonly used criteria for evaluating pediculicide efficacy in vitro. All tested products failed to demonstrate high levels of efficacy with the exception of Tea Tree Gel((R)), which outperformed 1% permethrin. Permethrin had a high level of efficacy, but using stringent criteria 18% of lice were not dead at 3 h, indicating some resistance to Quellada. Commonly used less stringent criteria were shown to overestimate mortality of head lice as a result of the protective phenomenon of stasis or sham death observed in exposed lice that may recover after some time. Using two different levels of stringency resulted in different rankings of efficacy for most products, with the exception of the first ranked product, Tea Tree Gel. Rankings of efficacy also varied over time, even within the different assessment criteria. Government regulatory agencies should require standard in vitro tests using stringent mortality criteria, with an observation period of >or= 6 h, to determine the efficacy of new pediculicides, and only products that cause a minimum mortality rate (e.g. 80%) in head lice collected from the target population should be licensed for sale. PMID:18816275

  15. Identification and characterization of an esterase involved in malathion resistance in the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Deok Ho; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Young Ho; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Clark, J Marshall; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2014-06-01

    Enhanced malathion carboxylesterase (MCE) activity was previously reported to be involved in malathion resistance in the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis (Gao et al., 2006 [8]). To identify MCE, the transcriptional profiles of all five esterases that had been annotated to be catalytically active were determined and compared between the malathion-resistant (BR-HL) and malathion-susceptible (KR-HL) strains of head lice. An esterase gene, designated HLCbE3, exhibited approximately 5.4-fold higher transcription levels, whereas remaining four esterases did not exhibit a significant increase in their transcription in BR-HL, indicating that HLCbE3 may be the putative MCE. Comparison of the entire cDNA sequences of HLCbE3 revealed no sequence differences between the BR-HL and KR-HL strains and suggested that no single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with enhanced MCE activity. Two copies of the HLCbE3 gene were observed in BR-HL, implying that the over-transcription of HLCbE3 is due to the combination of a gene duplication and up-regulated transcription. Knockdown of HLCbE3 expression by RNA interference in the BR-HL strain led to increases in malathion susceptibility, confirming the identity of HLCbE3 as a MCE responsible for malathion resistance in the head louse. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that HLCbE3 is a typical dietary esterase and belongs to a clade containing various MCEs involved in malathion resistance. PMID:24974112

  16. Study of archaeological nits/eggs of Pediculus humanus capitis by scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Arriaza, Bernardo; Standen, Vivien; Núñez, Hipólito; Reinhard, Karl

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents and discusses archaeological samples of Pediculus humanus capitis nits/eggs in Arica, northern Chile, dating between 2000 B.C. and A.D. 500. Eight samples of nits/eggs taken directly from seven mummified bodies of both the valley and the coast of Arica, were collected and studied. Samples were analysed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), uncoated, using low and variable pressure modes. The aim was to study the morphology of the nits/eggs, the different degrees of preservation and their research potential. All samples were in good external condition and due to manipulation before SEM analysis, the oldest ones were fractured allowing the observation in situ of the hatching ad portas of an embryo. This inside view of the egg allowed observation and identification of microstructures of the embryo such as abdominal and thoracic spiracles and claws. In the most recent and best preserved samples, external structures characteristic of the egg such as aeropyles and operculum were observed. SEM can contribute significantly to the study of ectoparasites that affected ancient American populations and in this particular case to illustrate the stages and morphology of Andean archaeological specimens of P. humanus capitis. PMID:23176818

  17. Contact and fumigant toxicity of hexane flower bud extract of Syzygium aromaticum and its compounds against Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Bagavan, Asokan; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath

    2011-11-01

    The head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer is an obligate ectoparasite of humans that causes pediculosis capitis, a nuisance for millions of people worldwide, with high prevalence in children. P. humanus capitis has been treated by methods that include the physical remotion of lice, various domestic treatments, and conventional insecticides. None of these methods render complete protection, and there is clear evidence for the evolution of resistance and cross-resistance to conventional insecticides. Non-toxic alternative options are hence needed for head lice treatment and/or prevention, and natural products from plants are good candidates for safer control agents that may provide good anti-lice activity. The plant extracts are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. The present study carried out the pediculocidal activity using the hexane flower bud extract of Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtaceae) against P. humanus capitis examined by direct contact and fumigant toxicity (closed- and open-container methods) bioassay. The chemical composition of S. aromaticum flower bud hexane extract was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major chemical constituent (58.79%) of flower bud hexane extract S. aromaticum was identified as chavibetol (5-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) by comparison of mass spectral data and retention times. The hexane extract of S. aromaticum was subjected to gas chromatography analysis, and totally 47 compounds were detected, of which chavibetol was predominantly present. The other major constituents present in the hexane extract were eugenol acetate (phenol,2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)-,acetate (15.09%), caryophyllene-(I1) (2,6,10,10-tetramethyl bicyclo [7.2.0] undeca-1,6-diene (13.75%), caryophyllene oxide (3.04%), 2,6,6,9-tetramethyl-1,4,8-cycloundecatriene (1.67%), and copaene (1.33%). The filter paper contact bioassay study showed pronounced pediculicidal activity in the flower bud hexane

  18. Ovicidal and adulticidal activity of Eucalyptus globulus leaf oil terpenoids against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Young-Cheol; Choi, Han-Young; Choi, Won-Sil; Clark, J M; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2004-05-01

    The toxic effects of Eucalyptus globulus leaf oil-derived monoterpenoids [1,8-cineole, l-phellandrene, (-)-alpha-pinene, 2-beta-pinene, trans-pinocarveol, gamma-terpinene, and 1-alpha-terpineol] and the known Eucalyptusleaf oil terpenoids (beta-eudesmol and geranyl acetate) on eggs and females of the human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, were examined using direct contact and fumigation bioassays and compared with the lethal activity of delta-phenothrin and pyrethrum, two commonly used pediculicides. In a filter paper contact bioassay with female P. h. capitis, the pediculicidal activity was more pronounced with Eucalyptus leaf oil than with either delta-phenothrin or pyrethrum on the basis of LT(50) values (0.125 vs 0.25 mg/cm(2)). 1,8-Cineole was 2.2- and 2.3-fold more toxic than either delta-phenothrin or pyrethrum, respectively. The pediculicidal activities of (-)-alpha-pinene, 2-beta-pinene, and (E)-pinocarveol were comparable to those of delta-phenothrin and pyrethrum. l-Phellandrene, gamma-terpinene, and 1-alpha-terpineol were relatively less active than delta-phenothrin and pyrethrum. beta-Eudesmol and geranyl acetate were ineffective. 1-alpha-Terpineol and (E)-pinocaveol were highly effective at 0.5 and 1.0 mg/cm(2), respectively, against P. h. capitis eggs. At 1.0 mg/cm(2), (-)-alpha-pinene, 2-beta-pinene, and gamma-terpinene exhibited moderate ovicidal activity, whereas little or no ovicidal activity was observed with the other terpenoids and with delta-phenothrin and pyrethrum. In fumigation tests with female P. h. capitis at 0.25 mg/cm(2), 1,8-cineole, (-)-alpha-pinene, (E)-pinocarveol, and 1-alpha-terpineol were more effective in closed cups than in open ones, indicating that the effect of the monoterpenoids was largely due to action in the vapor phase. Neither delta-phenothrin nor pyrethrum exhibited fumigant toxicity. Eucalyptus leaf oil, particularly 1,8-cineole, 1-alpha-terpineol, and (E)-pinocaveol, merits further study as potential

  19. Chemical composition and efficacy of some selected plant oils against Pediculus humanus capitis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yones, Doaa A; Bakir, Hanaa Y; Bayoumi, Soad A L

    2016-08-01

    Natural compounds have been suggested as alternative sources for pediculosis capitis control. We aimed to investigate the chemical composition and evaluate the pediculicidal activity of spearmint, clove, cassia, thyme, eucalyptus, and anise essential oils in addition to sesame oil against human head lice in vitro. A filter paper contact bioassay method was used by applying 0.25 and 0.5 mg/cm(2) of each tested oil to filter paper in Petri dishes with 15 females head lice and another with ten nits. The lice mortalities were reported every 5 min for 180 min. The percentage of inhibition of hatch (PIH) was used to calculate ovicidal activity by daily microscopic inspections 5 days after the hatching of controls. Comparison with the widely used pediculicide (malathion) was performed. The most effective essential oil was spearmint followed by cassia and clove with KT50 values of 4.06, 7.62, and 12.12 at 0.5 mg/cm(2) and 8.84, 11.38, and 19.73 at 0.25 mg/cm(2), respectively. Thyme, eucalyptus, and anise were also effective adulticides with KT50 values of 18.61, 32.65, and 37.34 at 0.5 mg/cm(2) and 29.92, 43.16, and 45.37 at 0.25 mg/cm(2), respectively. Essential oils were also successful in inhibiting nymph emergence. Spearmint oil was the most effective, with a complete inhibition of emergence at 0.5 mg/cm(2). Sesame fixed oil did not show any adulticidal or ovicidal activity against head lice in vitro. The observed insecticidal activity was comparable to malathion. The results herein described the effectiveness of these essential oils as potential pediculicides for head lice control. Incorporation of essential oils in pediculicide formulations needs proper formulation and clinical trials. PMID:27112758

  20. Fumigant and repellent properties of essential oils and component compounds against permethrin-resistant Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Zygadlo, Julio; Cueto, Gastón Mougabure; Biurrun, Fernando; Zerba, Eduardo; Picollo, María Inés

    2006-09-01

    The repeated use of permethrin and other insecticides for the control of head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae), during past decades has resulted in the development of marked levels of resistance. Thus, new alternative insecticides are needed for the control of head lice. We studied the fumigant and repellent properties of essential oils from 16 native and exotic plants in Argentina, and 21 chemical components against permethrin-resistant head lice from Argentina. With a direct vapor-exposure bioassay, the most effective oil was from the native Myrcianthes cisplatensis Cambess (Myrtaceae) with a time to 50% knockdown (KT50) of 1.3 min, followed by exotic species, Eucalyptus cinerea F.V. Muell., Eucalyptus viminalis Labill., and Eucalyptus saligna Smith. with KT50 values of 12.0, 14.9, and 17.4 min, respectively. The most effective components were 1,8-cineole and anisole, with KT50 values of 11.1 and 12.7 min, respectively. Regression analysis of KT50 values and vapor pressures and water-partition coefficients for the essential oil components revealed that the most effective fumigants were among the more volatile components. Repellency assays indicated that the essential oil from Mentha pulegium L. and its benzyl alcohol component were the most effective repellents, having repellency indices of 75.5 and 57.8%, respectively. Thus, some Argentinean plants contain essential oils and components that function as fumigants or as repellents and thereby show potential for development of new control products for head lice. PMID:17017225

  1. Effectiveness of lotions based on essential oils from aromatic plants against permethrin resistant Pediculus humanus capitis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez Audino, Paola; Vassena, Claudia; Zerba, Eduardo; Picollo, María

    2007-10-01

    In Argentina, field populations of the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) have developed resistance to permethrin and other pyrethroids. Thus, the aim of this work was the development of a lotion containing essential oils from plants and an alcoholic coadjuvant to improve biological effect. Ethanol + isopropanol (1 + 1 in volume) 50% in water and ethanol 96% were taken as bases for preparation of experimental lotions containing essential oils from plants. We found that experimental lotions containing lavender, peppermint and eucalyptus oils in a 5% composition and the combination of eucalyptus and peppermint in a total concentration of 10%, dissolved in 50% ethanol + isopropanol (1 + 1) in water, showed the best knockdown effect. On the other side, lotion containing peppermint oil and eucalyptus oil (1 + 1) 10%, dissolved in ethanol 96%, showed to be as effective as the best commercial lotion now available in Argentina. Furthermore, addition of 1-dodecanol in all cases increased the effectiveness of all the experimental lotions. This difference is significantly important for 1-dodecanol concentration of 10%, reaching a toxic activity compared to the best commercial lotion available in the market. PMID:17647002

  2. A ghost covered in lice: a case of severe blood loss with long-standing heavy pediculosis capitis infestation.

    PubMed

    Hau, Veronica; Muhi-Iddin, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    An 11-year-old child presented with poor school attendance, and signs and symptoms of severe anaemia. He was heavily covered in lice. He was investigated for other causes of anaemia. Following treatment for head lice and also iron supplementation, he was back in full-time education. This case highlights the link between head lice (pediculosis capitis) infestation and iron-deficiency anaemia. PMID:25527684

  3. Lice.

    PubMed

    Do-Pham, Giao; Monsel, Gentiane; Chosidow, Olivier

    2014-09-01

    Pediculosis (capitis, corporis, and pubis) share well-known features: worldwide prevalence (involving millions of people annually); parasites inducing skin lesions directly, and indirectly as a result of itching and hypersensitivity to parasites; and treatment based on good entomological knowledge of the parasite and practical considerations (ie, most available treatments do not act on eggs and should be repeated, depending on the life cycle of the parasites). Infestations are spread most commonly by close contacts. Social stigma and persistent misconceptions complicate the implementation of appropriate management strategies. Head and pubic lice infestations are diagnosed by the visualization of insects or viable nits (eggs). Primary treatments are topical pediculicides (permethrin or malathion), used twice, but emergence of resistance against pediculicides has created the need of alternative treatments including topical or oral ivermectin. Pubic lice are treated the same as head lice, but this finding should prompt evaluation for other sexually transmitted diseases. Body lice infestation should be suspected when symptoms of generalized itching occur in persons who do not change or wash their clothing or bedding regularly; lice may be found in the seams of their clothing.Topically administered permethrin may help to eradicate body lice, but personal hygiene measures are essential for successful treatment. Environmental treatment is also necessary for the eradication of the infestation. Health care personnel who come into contact with this population need to be well informed of the facts in order to disseminate accurate information for diagnosis and management. PMID:25577849

  4. Prehistorical Pediculus humanus capitis infestation: quantitative data and low vacuum scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Juliana M F; Alves, Arthur Daniel; Pessanha, Thaila; Rachid, Rachel; Souza, Wanderley de; Linardi, Pedro Marcos; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Souza, Sheila Mendonça de; Araujo, Adauto

    2014-01-01

    A pre-Columbian Peruvian scalp was examined decades ago by a researcher from the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. Professor Olympio da Fonseca Filho described nits and adult lice attached to hair shafts and commented about the origin of head lice infestations on mankind. This same scalp was sent to our laboratory and is the subject of the present paper. Analysis showed a massive infestation with nine eggs/cm2 and an impressive number of very well preserved adult lice. The infestation age was roughly estimated as nine months before death based on the distance of nits from the hair root and the medium rate of hair growth. A small traditional textile was associated with the scalp, possibly part of the funerary belongings. Other morphological aspects visualized by low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy are also presented here for adults and nits. PMID:24626412

  5. PREHISTORICAL Pediculus humanus capitis INFESTATION: QUANTITATIVE DATA AND LOW VACUUM SCANNING MICROSCOPY

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Juliana M.F.; Alves, Arthur Daniel; Pessanha, Thaila; Rachid, Rachel; de Souza, Wanderley; Linardi, Pedro Marcos; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; de Souza, Sheila Mendonça; Araujo, Adauto

    2014-01-01

    A pre-Columbian Peruvian scalp was examined decades ago by a researcher from the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. Professor Olympio da Fonseca Filho described nits and adult lice attached to hair shafts and commented about the origin of head lice infestations on mankind. This same scalp was sent to our laboratory and is the subject of the present paper. Analysis showed a massive infestation with nine eggs/cm2 and an impressive number of very well preserved adult lice. The infestation age was roughly estimated as nine months before death based on the distance of nits from the hair root and the medium rate of hair growth. A small traditional textile was associated with the scalp, possibly part of the funerary belongings. Other morphological aspects visualized by low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy are also presented here for adults and nits. PMID:24626412

  6. Pediculicidal effect of herbal shampoo against Pediculus humanus capitis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Watcharawit, R; Soonwera, M

    2013-06-01

    Human head lice infestation is an important public health problem in Thailand. Lice resistance is increasing, chemical pediculicides have lost their efficacy and thus alternative products such as herbal shampoos have been proposed to treat lice infestation. The present study investigated the efficacy of twenty nine herbal shampoos based on zinbiberaceae plants, piperaceae plants and native plants against human head lice and compared them with malathion shampoo (A-lices shampoo®: 1% w/v malathion) and commercial shampoo (BabiMild Natural'N Mild®) in order to assess their in vitro efficacy. All herbal shampoo were more effective than commercial shampoo with 100% mortality at 60 seconds and LT50 values ranged from 11.30 to 31.97 seconds, meanwhile, commercial shampoo caused 14.0-15.0% mortality and LT50 values ranged from 83.96 to 87.43 seconds. The nine herbal shampoos from Zingiber cassumunar, Piper betle, Piper ribesioides, Averrhoa bilimbi, Clitoria ternatea, Plectranthus amboincus, Myristica fragrans, Tacca chantrieri and Zanthoxylum limonella were more effective pediculicide than malathion shampoo with 100% mortality at 30 seconds and LT50 values ranged from 11.30-13.58 seconds, on the other hand malathion shampoo showed LT50 values ranging from 12.39 to 13.67 seconds. LT50 values indicated the order of pediculicidal activity in the herbal shampoos as Z. cassumunar shampoo > P. betle shampoo > Za. limonella shampoo > Av. bilimbi shampoo > P. ribesioides shampoo > My. fragrans shampoo > T. chantrieri shampoo > Pl. amboincus shampoo. Our data showed that eight of the twenty nine herbal shampoos in this study were of high potential pediculicide to human head lice treatments for Thai children. PMID:23959497

  7. Insecticidal activity of individual and mixed monoterpenoids of geranium essential oil against Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Gallardo, A; Picollo, M I; González-Audino, P; Mougabure-Cueto, G

    2012-03-01

    The major components of geranium (Geranium maculatum L.) oil and their mixtures were tested against female Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae). Chemical analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry revealed four major constituents: citronellol (38%), geraniol (16%), citronellyl formate (10.4%), and linalool (6.45%) (concentration expressed as percentage of total). Topical application demonstrated that the most potent component was citronellol and geraniol, with LD50 values 9.7 and 12.7 microg/insect, respectively. Linalool and Citronellyl formate were less toxic with LD50 values 24.7 and 38.5 microg/insect, respectively. Toxicity of these four major constituents in the same proportion as the natural oil, was greater than whole oil and each individual component. Removal of any four constituents produced a decreased in effectiveness. The absence of citronellol caused the greatest decrease in toxicity (DL50 from 2.2 to 10.9 microg/insect), leading us to conclude that this constituent is the major contributor to oil toxicity. The knowledge of the role of each constituent in the toxicity of the whole oil gives the possibility to create artificial blends of different constituents for the development of more effective control agents. PMID:22493851

  8. Influence of the formulations in removing eggs of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Ortega-Insaurralde, Isabel; Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Picollo, María Inés; Vassena, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    Head lice lay eggs in human head hairs in order to reproduce. There is a difficulty associated to the process of detaching these eggs: they are tightly gripped to the hair by a secretion produced by female head lice. The physical removal of eggs has become an important part of treatment of louse infestations. The finding of new products to loosen the eggs is necessary to avoid mistaken diagnosis or reinfestations. This work aimed to compare different kinds of pediculicide formulations in order to find if their presentations represented differences in the egg remover effect. We also wanted to present a new device to test the efficacy of the egg remover formulations. Products with creamy presentations (Bio infant lice and egg remover and hair conditioner) and one containing dimethicone (Nyda) showed the lower mean forces compared with the control (lower mean forces represented best removal activity). Whereas, the Biferdil egg remover (gel) and Nopucid Tribit (hydroalcoholic lotion) had no egg removal effect, presenting the highest mean forces (177.82 and 189.99 mN, respectively) compared with the control. Additionally, we proposed a removal index (RI) to compare the efficacy of different products on the egg removal activity (RI > 0, good performance). The higher index values were for Bio infant lice and egg remover (0.72) and Biferdil hair conditioner (0.58). The lowest index values were for Biferdil egg remover (-0.26) and Nopucid Tribit (-0.35).The formulation of over the counter pediculicides in the egg remover effect was discussed. PMID:25033812

  9. Lousicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles using Lawsonia inermis leaf aqueous extract against Pediculus humanus capitis and Bovicola ovis.

    PubMed

    Marimuthu, Sampath; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Bagavan, Asokan; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Velayutham, Kanayairam

    2012-11-01

    In the present work, we describe inexpensive, nontoxic, unreported and simple procedure for synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using leaf aqueous extract of Lawsonia inermis as eco-friendly reducing and capping agent. The aim of the present study was to assess the lousicidal activity of synthesized Ag NPs against human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), and sheep body louse, Bovicola ovis Schrank (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae). Direct contact method was conducted to determine the potential of pediculocidal activity and impregnated method was used with slight modifications to improve practicality and efficiency of tested materials of synthesized Ag NPs against B. ovis. The synthesized Ag NPs characterized with the UV showing peak at 426 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra clearly shows that the diffraction peaks in the pattern indexed as the silver with lattice constants. XRD analysis showed intense peaks at 2θ values of 38.34°, 44.59°, 65.04°, and 77.77° corresponding to (111), (200), (220), and (311) Bragg's reflection based on the fcc structure of Ag NPs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra of Ag NPs exhibited prominent peaks at 3,422.13, 2,924.12, 2,851.76, 1,631.41, 1,381.60, 1,087.11, and 789.55 cm(-1). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrograph showed mean size of 59.52 nm and aggregates of spherical shape Ag NPs. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) showed the complete chemical composition of the synthesized Ag NPs. In pediculocidal activity, the results showed that the optimal times for measuring percent mortality effects of synthesized Ag NPs were 26, 61, 84, and 100 at 5, 10, 15, and 20 min, respectively. The average percent mortality for synthesized Ag NPs was 33, 84, 91, and 100 at 10, 15, 20, and 35 min, respectively against B. ovis. The maximum activity was observed in the aqueous leaf extract of L. inermis, 1 mM AgNO(3) solution, and synthesized Ag NPs against P. humanus

  10. Prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis among school girls of Chuang-Wei and Nan-Ao Districts in I-Lan County and Man-Chow District in Ping-Tung County, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chao, D; Liu, H Y; Fan, P C

    1981-03-01

    By using the naked eye examination and comb method, a field survey and combing collection of head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) among school girls in three different area (Man-Chow, Nan-Ao and Chuang-Wei) of Taiwan were performed from July 1979 to February, 1980. The general infestation rate of head louse was 39.8% (or 998/2,509). In the primary schools, comparatively, the rate at Man-Chow (66.7%) was highest, the next at Nan-Ao (55.4%) and the lowest at Chuang-Wei (39.4%). While in the junior high schools, the rate was apparently higher at Nan-Ao (38.4%) than that at Man-Chow (15.6%) and Chang-Wei (12.0%). The highest rate in the primary schools was found in 3rd graders except at Chuang-Wei in 5th graders. The corresponding figure in the junior high schools was found in 1st graders except at Nan-Ao in 2nd graders. Of 774 infested girls studied, according to the number of lice per infested girl, the percentages of infestation in the 5 groups were: the very light (nits only) 54.5, light (1-10) 38.5, moderate (11-50) 6.5, heavy (51-100) 0.4 and very heavy (over 100) 0.1 respectively. Of 2,178 head lice examined, 53.0% was nymphs; 28.7% females; 18.2% males. The average number of head louse in each infested girl 6.2. PMID:7261698

  11. Efficacy of products to remove eggs of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) from the human hair.

    PubMed

    Lapeere, Hilde; Brochez, Lieve; Verhaeghe, Evelien; Stichele, Robert H Vander; Remon, Jean-Paul; Lambert, Jo; Leybaert, Luc

    2014-03-01

    Head lice infestations are very common in children aged between 3 and 12 yr old. The eggs of the head louse are difficult to remove and remain firmly attached to the hair even after any head louse treatment. Solid in vitro and in vivo evidence to support the use of any of the proposed products to facilitate nit removal is scarce. The objective of the current study was to determine the efficacy of several products to remove eggshells from human hair using an objective measurement procedure. Water and ordinary hair conditioner significantly facilitated the removal of nits in vitro. We found no difference between ordinary conditioner and products specifically marketed for the purpose of nit removal. Other products such as formic acid solution and almond oil did not have a beneficial effect. PMID:24724290

  12. Lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... Intense itching Rash Visible nits (lice eggs) or crawling lice Lice spread most commonly by close person- ... do not spread human lice. Lice move by crawling. They cannot hop or fly. If you get ...

  13. [Pyrethroid resistance mechanisms in the body lice Pediculus humanus humanus L.: detoxification enzyme systems].

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu; Iakovlev, É A

    2014-01-01

    Synergists (piperonyl butoxide, MGK-264 (N-octyl bicycloheptene dicarboximide), DEF (S, S, S, tributyl phosphorotrithioate), and diethylmaleate) were used to investigate the metabolic resistance of body lice to permethrin. Instances of the synergistic activity ofpermethrin when combined with enzyme system inhibitors have been identified. The synergic ratios were 3.3 to 52.0 for monooxygenase inhibitors; 5.2 to 7.4 for esterases, and about 4 for glutathione-S-transferases. Since the use of the synergists did not lead to full inhibition of resistance, it was concluded that the lice had also a kdr-like type of resistance. PMID:24738222

  14. Cytogenetic Features of Human Head and Body Lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Bressa, María José; Papeschi, Alba Graciela; Toloza, Ariel Ceferino

    2015-09-01

    The genus Pediculus L. that parasitize humans comprise two subspecies: the head lice Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer and the body lice Pediculus humanus humanus De Geer. Despite the 200 yr of the first description of these two species, there is still a long debate about their taxonomic status. Some authors proposed that these organisms are separate species, conspecifics, or grouped in clades. The sequencing of both forms indicated that the difference between them is one gene absent in the head louse. However, their chromosomal number remains to be determined. In this study, we described the male and female karyotypes, and male meiosis of head and body lice, and examined the chromatin structure by means of C-banding. In P. h. humanus and P. h. capitis, the diploid chromosome complement was 2 n = 12 in both sexes. In oogonial prometaphase and metaphase and spermatogonial metaphase, it is evident that chromosomes lack of a primary constriction. No identifiable sex chromosomes or B chromosomes were observed in head and body lice. Neither chiasmata nor chromatin connections between homologous chromosomes were detected in male meiosis. The meiotic behaviour of the chromosomes showed that they are holokinetic. C-banding revealed the absence of constitutive heterochromatin. Our results provide relevant information to be used in mapping studies of genes associated with sex determination and environmental sensing and response. PMID:26336229

  15. Pediculosis capitis: new insights into epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Feldmeier, H

    2012-09-01

    Pediculosis capitis is a ubiquitous parasitic skin disease caused by Pediculus humanus capitis. Head lice are highly specialised parasites which can propagate only on human scalp and hair. Transmission occurs by direct head-to-head contact. Head lice are vectors of important bacterial pathogens. Pediculosis capitis usually occurs in small epidemics in play groups, kindergartens and schools. Population-based studies in European countries show highly diverging prevalences, ranging from 1% to 20%. The diagnosis of head lice infestation is made through the visual inspection of hair and scalp or dry/wet combing. The optimal method for the diagnosis of active head lice infestation is dry/wet combing. Topical application of a pediculicide is the most common treatment. Compounds with a neurotoxic mode of action are widely used but are becoming less effective due to resistant parasite populations. Besides, their use is restricted by safety concerns. Dimeticones, silicone oils with a low surface tension and the propensity to perfectly coat surfaces, have a purely physical mode of action. This group of compounds is highly effective and safe, and there is no risk that head lice become resistant. The control of epidemics requires active contact tracing and synchronised treatment with an effective and safe pediculicide. PMID:22382818

  16. Solanum trilobatum extract-mediated synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles to control Pediculus humanus capitis, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Anopheles subpictus.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Elango, Gandhi; Arora, Pooja; Karthikeyan, Rajan; Manikandan, Sivan; Jose, Sujin

    2014-02-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used in paints, printing ink, rubber, paper, cosmetics, sunscreens, car materials, cleaning air products, industrial photocatalytic processes, and decomposing organic matters in wastewater due to their unique physical, chemical, and biological properties. The present study was conducted to assess the antiparasitic efficacies of synthesized TiO2 NPs utilizing leaf aqueous extract of Solanum trilobatum against the adult head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae); larvae of cattle tick Hyalomma anatolicum (a.) anatolicum Koch (Acari: Ixodidae), and fourth instar larvae of malaria vector Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). The green synthesized TiO2 NPs were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). XRD analysis of synthesized TiO2 NPs revealed that the particles were in the form of nanocrystals as evidenced by the major peaks at 2θ values of 27.52°, 36.21°, and 54.43° identified as 110, 101, and 211 reflections, respectively. FTIR spectra exhibited a prominent peak at 3,466 cm(-1) and showed OH stretching due to the alcoholic group, and the OH group may act as a capping agent. SEM images displayed NPs that were spherical, oval in shape, individual, and some in aggregates with an average size of 70 nm. Characterization of the synthesized TiO2 NPs using AFM offered a three-dimensional visualization and uneven surface morphology. The pediculocidal and acaricidal activities of synthesized TiO2 NPs showed the percent mortality of 31, 42, 63, 82, 100; 36, 44, 67, 89, and 100 at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mg/L, respectively, against P. h. capitis and H. a. anatolicum. The average larval percent mortality of synthesized TiO2 NPs was 38, 47, 66, 79, and 100 at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mg/L, respectively, against A. subpictus

  17. Efficacy of ivermectin for the treatment of head lice (Pediculosis capitis).

    PubMed

    Glaziou, P; Nyguyen, L N; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Cartel, J L; Martin, P M

    1994-09-01

    Twenty six male and female patients aged 5 to 17 years who had head lice infestation confirmed by eggs presence and received treatments with a single 200 mu/kg oral dose of ivermectin in open fashion. At day 14 after treatment, 20 responded to the treatment (77%), and 6 patients (23%) presented with a complete disappearance of eggs and all clinical symptoms. At day 28, 7 patients were healed (27%), but 4 patients of the 6 healed at day 14 presented with signs of reinfestation. This study suggests that ivermectin is a promising treatment of head lice, and a second dose at day 10 should be appropriate for a further comparative trial. PMID:7899799

  18. Ovicidal and adulticidal activities of Origanum majorana essential oil constituents against insecticide-susceptible and pyrethroid/malathion-resistant Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Young-Cheol; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, J Marshall; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2009-03-25

    The toxicity of essential oil constituents from marjoram, Origanum majorana, to eggs and adult females of the susceptible KR-HL and dual malathion- and permethrin-resistant BR-HL strains of human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, was examined using contact + fumigant mortality bioassay. Results were compared with those following treatment with two pyrethroid pediculicides, d-phenothrin or pyrethrum. As judged by the lethal time to 50% mortality (LT(50)) values at the exposure rate of 0.25 mg/cm(2), 1,8-cineole (14.1 min) was the most toxic compound, followed by linalool (15.4 min) to KR-HL females. These compounds were faster acting than either d-phenothrin (24.1 min) or pyrethrum (33.4 min). Based on the lethal concentration causing 50% mortality (LC(50)) values, (-)-camphor (0.022 mg/cm(2)) was the most toxic compound, followed by linalool (0.035 mg/cm(2)), (-)-terpinen-4-ol (0.040 mg/cm(2)), alpha-terpineol (0.045 mg/cm(2)), and 1,8-cineole (0.068 mg/cm(2)) against KR-HL females. These monoterpenoids were less toxic than either d-phenothrin (LC(50), 0.0015 mg/cm(2)) or pyrethrum (0.0013 mg/cm(2)). However, the toxicities of these monoterpenoids were almost identical against females from either of the two strains, even though the BR-HL females exhibited high levels of resistance to d-phenothrin [resistance ratio (RR), 667] and pyrethrum (RR, 754). After a 24 h exposure to linalool, BR-HL egg hatch was inhibited 100 and 84% at 0.25 or 0.125 mg/cm(2), respectively, while (-)-terpinen-4-ol caused 94 and 69% inhibition of egg hatch at 0.25 and 0.125 mg/cm(2). alpha-Terpineol caused 88 and 76% inhibition of egg hatch at 0.5 and 0.25 mg/cm(2), respectively. Thus, certain monoterpenoids from O. majorana essential oil, particularly linalool, (-)-terpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol, merit further study as potential pediculicides and ovicides for the control of insecticide-resistant P. h. capitis populations as fumigants with contact action. PMID:19292466

  19. Examining the prevalence rate of Pediculus capitis infestation according to sex and social factors in primary school children

    PubMed Central

    Doroodgar, Abbas; Sadr, Fakhraddin; Doroodgar, Masoud; Doroodgar, Moein; Sayyah, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence rate of head louse infestation among elementary students, and examine the associated factors with infection in the city of Aran and Bidgol. Methods A total of 19 boys' and girls' primary schools were selected by multistage, systematic random sampling. Overall, 3 590 students were examined for head lice infestation in urban areas of Aran and Bidgol during 2008. The diagnosis was based on live louse or nit on the scalp of students. The students were screened by standard questionnaire and demographic data in addition to related information were obtained by interview and observation. The data were analyzed by SPSS software using chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Results The mean age of students was (8.68±1.58) years ranging between 6-12 years. The total prevalence of head louse infestation was 0.47%. This rate was 0.42% and 0.05% in female and male, respectively. There was a significant association between pediculosis and sex, father's job, mother's education, access to bathroom in home, prior infection, drug use and nationality, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusions The results showed that pediculosis was not a major health priority among primary school in city of Aran and Bidgol. However, enhancing the knowledge of students about head lice infestation and the existence of health teachers in schools can play a significant role in disease control.

  20. Ovicidal effects of a neem seed extract preparation on eggs of body and head lice.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Schmidt, Jürgen; Semmler, Margit

    2011-11-01

    The eggs (nits) of head and body lice (Pediculus humanus capitis, Pediculus humanus corporis) were incubated for 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 or 45 min into a neem seed extract contained in a fine shampoo formulation (e.g. Wash Away® Louse), which is known for its significant killing effects of larvae and adults of head lice. The aim of the study was to test whether the developmental stages inside the eggs are also killed after the incubation into the shampoo. It was found that an incubation time of only 5 min was sufficient to prohibit any hatching of larvae, whilst 93 ± 4% of the larvae in the untreated controls of body lice hatched respectively about 76% of the controls in the case of head lice. Apparently, the neem-based shampoo blocked the aeropyles of the eggs, thus preventing the embryos of both races of lice from accessing oxygen and from releasing carbon dioxide. Thus, this product offers a complete cure from head lice upon a single treatment, if the lice (motile stages, eggs) are fully covered for about 10 min. PMID:21484346

  1. Response of Pediculus humanus humanus (Pediculidae: Phthiraptera) to water or 70% ethanol immersion and determination of optimal times for measuring toxic effects.

    PubMed

    Mougabure Cueto, Gastón; Inés Picollo, María

    2010-05-01

    Human pediculosis is caused by Pediculus humanus humanus (Linnaeus 1758) and Pediculus humanus capitis (De Geer 1767). We studied the response of body lice to immersion in water and ethanol 70% and determined the optimal times for measuring knockdown and mortality. After immersion in water, all lice remained alive from 5 min to 22 h for both times of exposure. A low proportion of lice were affected after 2 min of immersion in ethanol in the 10-min exposure test, but recovered completely after 5 min. Different proportions of lice were affected between 2 and 7 h after immersion in ethanol, depending on the immersion time. However, a high proportion of lice recovered after 22 h. The results suggest that the optimal times for measuring early knockdown effects of insecticides are the 5-min to 7-h interval for water and 5-min to 1-h interval for ethanol. On the other hand, the best time for measuring mortality is 22 h after immersion. These results should improve the interpretations of the effects of pediculicides in immersion bioassays. PMID:20358227

  2. [Understanding mitochondrial genome fragmentation in parasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera)].

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen-Ge; Guo, Xian-Guo; Jin, Dao-Chao; Xue, Shi-Peng; Qin, Feng; Simon, Song; Stephen, C Barker; Renfu, Shao

    2013-07-01

    Lice are obligate ectoparasites of mammals and birds. Extensive fragmentation of mitochondrial genomes has been found in some louse species in the families Pediculidae, Pthiridae, Philopteridae and Trichodectidae. For example, the mt genomes of human body louse (Pediculus humanus), head louse (Pediculus capitis), and public louse (Pthirus pubis) have 20, 20 and 14 mini-chromosomes, respectively. These mini-chromosomes might be the results of deletion and recombination of mt genes. The factors and mechanisms of mitochondrial genome fragmentation are currently unknown. The fragmentation might be the results of evolutionary selection or random genetic drift or it is probably related to the lack of mtSSB (mitochondrial single-strand DNA binding protein). Understanding the fragmentation of mitochondrial genomes is of significance for understanding the origin and evolution of mitochondria. This paper reviews the recent advances in the studies of mito-chondrial genome fragmentation in lice, including the phenomena of mitochondrial genome fragmentation, characteristics of fragmented mitochondrial genomes, and some factors and mechanisms possibly leading to the mitochondrial genome fragmentation of lice. Perspectives for future studies on fragmented mt genomes are also discussed. PMID:23853355

  3. A Study of Head Lice Infestation (Pediculosis Capitis) among Primary School Students in the Villages of Abadan in 2012.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Shayesteh; Ban, Maryam; Motaghi, Minoo

    2014-07-01

    Head lice contamination has a global distribution and it is regarded as a main health problem throughout the world. Given the importance of physical health of students and head lice prevalence at school age, we aimed to examine the rate of head lice contamination among primary school students in the villages of Abadan in 2012. In this descriptive study, 624 students were randomly selected from primary schools. The hair of all students under the study was examined by the researcher (community health nurse) and the result was registered in the checklist confidentially. Moreover, one questionnaire including personal and family information was filled out for each student. The obtained data were later analyzed in SPSS software, version 18, using statistical test Chi-square and central qualitative and distribution statistics. The frequency of lice contamination was 27 cases (4.33%) in total, all of whom were girls. Although the difference between the head lice contamination and gender was statistically significant (P=0.00), the difference between this contamination type and grade of students and their parents' education and fathers' occupation was not significance. The highest rate of contamination (6.73%) was, however, observed in fifth graders. All contaminations were seen in girls, which could be due to their longer hair or wearing scarf as compared with boys. Unfavorable health condition and regional hot weather can be effective as well. Therefore, it is essential to provide the students, especially girls, with health training. PMID:25349862

  4. A Study of Head Lice Infestation (Pediculosis Capitis) among Primary School Students in the Villages of Abadan in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Shayesteh; Ban, Maryam; Motaghi, Minoo

    2014-01-01

    Head lice contamination has a global distribution and it is regarded as a main health problem throughout the world. Given the importance of physical health of students and head lice prevalence at school age, we aimed to examine the rate of head lice contamination among primary school students in the villages of Abadan in 2012. In this descriptive study, 624 students were randomly selected from primary schools. The hair of all students under the study was examined by the researcher (community health nurse) and the result was registered in the checklist confidentially. Moreover, one questionnaire including personal and family information was filled out for each student. The obtained data were later analyzed in SPSS software, version 18, using statistical test Chi-square and central qualitative and distribution statistics. The frequency of lice contamination was 27 cases (4.33%) in total, all of whom were girls. Although the difference between the head lice contamination and gender was statistically significant (P=0.00), the difference between this contamination type and grade of students and their parents’ education and fathers’ occupation was not significance. The highest rate of contamination (6.73%) was, however, observed in fifth graders. All contaminations were seen in girls, which could be due to their longer hair or wearing scarf as compared with boys. Unfavorable health condition and regional hot weather can be effective as well. Therefore, it is essential to provide the students, especially girls, with health training. PMID:25349862

  5. Of lice and math: using models to understand and control populations of head lice.

    PubMed

    Laguna, María Fabiana; Laguna, Mara Fabiana; Risau-Gusman, Sebastián

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we use detailed data about the biology of the head louse (pediculus humanus capitis) to build a model of the evolution of head lice colonies. Using theory and computer simulations, we show that the model can be used to assess the impact of the various strategies usually applied to eradicate head lice, both conscious (treatments) and unconscious (grooming). In the case of treatments, we study the difference in performance that arises when they are applied in systematic and non-systematic ways. Using some reasonable simplifying assumptions (as random mixing of human groups and the same mobility for all life stages of head lice other than eggs) we model the contagion of pediculosis using only one additional parameter. It is shown that this parameter can be tuned to obtain collective infestations whose characteristics are compatible with what is given in the literature on real infestations. We analyze two scenarios: One where group members begin treatment when a similar number of lice are present in each head, and another where there is one individual who starts treatment with a much larger threshold ("superspreader"). For both cases we assess the impact of several collective strategies of treatment. PMID:21799752

  6. Of Lice and Math: Using Models to Understand and Control Populations of Head Lice

    PubMed Central

    Laguna, Mara Fabiana; Risau-Gusman, Sebastián

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we use detailed data about the biology of the head louse (pediculus humanus capitis) to build a model of the evolution of head lice colonies. Using theory and computer simulations, we show that the model can be used to assess the impact of the various strategies usually applied to eradicate head lice, both conscious (treatments) and unconscious (grooming). In the case of treatments, we study the difference in performance that arises when they are applied in systematic and non-systematic ways. Using some reasonable simplifying assumptions (as random mixing of human groups and the same mobility for all life stages of head lice other than eggs) we model the contagion of pediculosis using only one additional parameter. It is shown that this parameter can be tuned to obtain collective infestations whose characteristics are compatible with what is given in the literature on real infestations. We analyze two scenarios: One where group members begin treatment when a similar number of lice are present in each head, and another where there is one individual who starts treatment with a much larger threshold (“superspreader”). For both cases we assess the impact of several collective strategies of treatment. PMID:21799752

  7. Treatment of head lice.

    PubMed

    Diamantis, Stephanie A; Morrell, Dean S; Burkhart, Craig N

    2009-01-01

    Pediculosis capitis, or head lice, is a common infestation among children worldwide. Multiple therapies exist for the treatment of this condition, including topical pediculicides and oral medications. When used in combination with environmental decontamination, these drugs can be very effective in eradicating head lice infestation without significant adverse events. The present study discusses the use of available over-the-counter and prescription treatments, including pyrethroids and permethrin, lindane, malathion, ivermectin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, in the treatment of head lice. PMID:19580574

  8. Head lice surveillance on a deregulated OTC-sales market: a study using web query data.

    PubMed

    Lindh, Johan; Magnusson, Måns; Grünewald, Maria; Hulth, Anette

    2012-01-01

    The head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, is an obligate ectoparasite that causes infestations of humans. Studies have demonstrated a correlation between sales figures for over-the-counter (OTC) treatment products and the number of humans with head lice. The deregulation of the Swedish pharmacy market on July 1, 2009, decreased the possibility to obtain complete sale figures and thereby the possibility to obtain yearly trends of head lice infestations. In the presented study we wanted to investigate whether web queries on head lice can be used as substitute for OTC sales figures. Via Google Insights for Search and Vårdguiden medical web site, the number of queries on "huvudlöss" (head lice) and "hårlöss" (lice in hair) were obtained. The analysis showed that both the Vårdguiden series and the Google series were statistically significant (p<0.001) when added separately, but if the Google series were already included in the model, the Vårdguiden series were not statistically significant (p = 0.5689). In conclusion, web queries can detect if there is an increase or decrease of head lice infested humans in Sweden over a period of years, and be as reliable a proxy as the OTC-sales figures. PMID:23144923

  9. Heteroplasmy in the Mitochondrial Genomes of Human Lice and Ticks Revealed by High Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Haoyu; Barker, Stephen C.; Burger, Thomas D.; Raoult, Didier; Shao, Renfu

    2013-01-01

    The typical mitochondrial (mt) genomes of bilateral animals consist of 37 genes on a single circular chromosome. The mt genomes of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus, and the human head louse, Pediculus capitis, however, are extensively fragmented and contain 20 minichromosomes, with one to three genes on each minichromosome. Heteroplasmy, i.e. nucleotide polymorphisms in the mt genome within individuals, has been shown to be significantly higher in the mt cox1 gene of human lice than in humans and other animals that have the typical mt genomes. To understand whether the extent of heteroplasmy in human lice is associated with mt genome fragmentation, we sequenced the entire coding regions of all of the mt minichromosomes of six human body lice and six human head lice from Ethiopia, China and France with an Illumina HiSeq platform. For comparison, we also sequenced the entire coding regions of the mt genomes of seven species of ticks, which have the typical mitochondrial genome organization of bilateral animals. We found that the level of heteroplasmy varies significantly both among the human lice and among the ticks. The human lice from Ethiopia have significantly higher level of heteroplasmy than those from China and France (Pt<0.05). The tick, Amblyomma cajennense, has significantly higher level of heteroplasmy than other ticks (Pt<0.05). Our results indicate that heteroplasmy level can be substantially variable within a species and among closely related species, and does not appear to be determined by single factors such as genome fragmentation. PMID:24058467

  10. Heteroplasmy in the mitochondrial genomes of human lice and ticks revealed by high throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Haoyu; Barker, Stephen C; Burger, Thomas D; Raoult, Didier; Shao, Renfu

    2013-01-01

    The typical mitochondrial (mt) genomes of bilateral animals consist of 37 genes on a single circular chromosome. The mt genomes of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus, and the human head louse, Pediculus capitis, however, are extensively fragmented and contain 20 minichromosomes, with one to three genes on each minichromosome. Heteroplasmy, i.e. nucleotide polymorphisms in the mt genome within individuals, has been shown to be significantly higher in the mt cox1 gene of human lice than in humans and other animals that have the typical mt genomes. To understand whether the extent of heteroplasmy in human lice is associated with mt genome fragmentation, we sequenced the entire coding regions of all of the mt minichromosomes of six human body lice and six human head lice from Ethiopia, China and France with an Illumina HiSeq platform. For comparison, we also sequenced the entire coding regions of the mt genomes of seven species of ticks, which have the typical mitochondrial genome organization of bilateral animals. We found that the level of heteroplasmy varies significantly both among the human lice and among the ticks. The human lice from Ethiopia have significantly higher level of heteroplasmy than those from China and France (Pt<0.05). The tick, Amblyomma cajennense, has significantly higher level of heteroplasmy than other ticks (Pt<0.05). Our results indicate that heteroplasmy level can be substantially variable within a species and among closely related species, and does not appear to be determined by single factors such as genome fragmentation. PMID:24058467

  11. Epidemiology of Pediculosis capitis in elementary schools of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel; Vassena, Claudia; Gallardo, Anabella; González-Audino, Paola; Picollo, María Inés

    2009-06-01

    The infestation with the human obligate ectoparasite Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer is a common public health problem affecting mainly schoolchildren worldwide. The aim of the present study was to investigate the infestation levels of head lice in elementary schools from Buenos Aires with resistant levels to permethrin >100. A total of 1,856 children aged 3-13 years old from eight selected elementary schools were examined for head lice. Pediculosis was observed in all the studied schools. The overall infestation rate was 29.7%. Girls were statistically significant more infested than boys, with infestation rate values of 36.1% and 26.7%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Only 42 of the infested girls (12%) and 23 of the infested boys (11.4%) had >10 lice on their hair. The proportions of infested children-both girls and boys-in each age group were not found to differ significantly from one another. The infestation rate among schools varied from 19.12% to 42.74%. This indicated that pediculosis is relatively common in elementary schools from Buenos Aires, and those levels are of epidemic importance. The differences of pediculosis among the studied schools could be explained by the different control strategies applied by parents or advisors to eradicate head lice. PMID:19148682

  12. Severe head lice infestation in an Andean mummy of Arica, Chile.

    PubMed

    Arriaza, Bernardo; Orellana, Nancy C; Barbosa, Helene S; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F S; Araújo, Adauto; Standen, Vivien

    2012-04-01

    Pediculus humanus capitis is an ancient human parasite, probably inherited from pre-hominid times. Infestation appears as a recurrent health problem throughout history, including in pre-Columbian populations. Here, we describe and discuss the occurrence of pre-Columbian pediculosis in the Andean region of the Atacama Desert. Using a light microscope and scanning electron microscopy, we studied a highly infested Maitas Chiribaya mummy from Arica in northern Chile dating to 670-990 calibrated years A.D. The scalp and hair of the mummy were almost completely covered by nits and adult head lice. Low- and high-vacuum scanning electron microscopy revealed a well-preserved morphology of the eggs. In addition, the excellent preservation of the nearly 1,000-yr-old adult head lice allowed us to observe and characterize the head, antennae, thorax, abdomen, and legs. Leg segmentation, abdominal spiracles, and sexual dimorphism also were clearly observed. The preservation of the ectoparasites allowed us to examine the micromorphology using scanning electron microscopy; the opercula, aeropyles, and spiracles were clearly visible. This case study provides strong evidence that head lice were a common nuisance for Andean farmers and herders. Head lice are transmitted by direct head-to-head contact; thus, this ancient farmer and herder was potentially infesting other people. The present study contributes to the body of research focusing on lice in ancient populations. PMID:22010860

  13. In vitro screening of anti-lice activity of Pongamia pinnata leaves.

    PubMed

    Anbu Jeba Sunilson, John Samuel; Suraj, Radhamani; Rejitha, Gopinath; Anandarajagopal, Kalusalingam; Vimala, Anita Gnana Kumari Anbumani; Husain, Hj Azman

    2009-12-01

    Growing patterns of pediculocidal drug resistance towards head louse laid the foundation for research in exploring novel anti-lice agents from medicinal plants. In the present study, various extracts of Pongamia pinnata leaves were tested against the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis. A filter paper diffusion method was conducted for determining the potential pediculocidal and ovicidal activity of chloroform, petroleum ether, methanol, and water extracts of P. pinnata leaves. The findings revealed that petroleum ether extracts possess excellent anti-lice activity with values ranging between 50.3% and 100% where as chloroform and methanol extracts showed moderate pediculocidal effects. The chloroform and methanol extracts were also successful in inhibiting nymph emergence and the petroleum ether extract was the most effective with a complete inhibition of emergence. Water extract was devoid of both pediculocidal and ovicidal activities. All the results were well comparable with benzoyl benzoate (25% w/v). These results showed the prospect of using P. pinnata leave extracts against P. humanus capitis in difficult situations of emergence of resistance to synthetic anti-lice agents. PMID:19967085

  14. Activity of increased specific and non-specific esterases and glutathione transferases associated with resistance to permethrin in pediculus humanus capitis (phthiraptera: pediculidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Silvia; Zerba, Eduardo; Picollo, Maria I; Audino, Paola Gonzalez

    2010-01-01

    Enhanced metabolism by oxidative enzymes is a major cause of pyrethroid resistance in insects. In this work, we evaluated the role of specific and non-specific esterases in head louse populations from Buenos Aires with different levels of resistance to permethrin. As esterase activity is substrate-dependent, four different esters were used as unspecific substrates in order to obtain a better characterization of the possible role of these enzymes in the resistance phenomenon. The unspecific substrates were phenylthioacetate, 1- and 2-naphtyl-acetate, and p-nitrophenyl acetate. A 7-coumaryl permethrate was synthesized and used as a specific substrate to measure pyrethroid esterases by a very sensitive microfluorometric method. The results on pyrethroid esterase activity obtained with this substrate showed that these enzymes contribute to the detoxifying activity in resistant populations, although no correlation was found between pyrethroid esterase activity and resistance ratios. In this study, we established that the activity of esterase against specific and non-specific substrates is increased in pyrethroid-resistant populations of head lice from Buenos Aires. Also, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) resistance values demonstrated that there is a DDT cross-resistance phenomenon in pyrethroid-resistant head louse populations and suggested that an alteration in the receptor of the nervous system (kdr gen) is a key factor of the resistance phenomena in these head louse populations. PMID:19921258

  15. Pediculosis capitis: an update.

    PubMed

    Madke, Bhushan; Khopkar, Uday

    2012-01-01

    Head louse infestation, or pediculosis capitis, caused by Pediculus humanus var. capitis, is a common health concern in pediatric age group. An itching of the scalp is the chief symptom, whereas presence of viable nits confirms the diagnosis of head louse infestation. Secondary bacterial infection with impetignization with cervical and occipital lymphadenopathy can complicate the clinical scenario with physician misdiagnosing pediculosis to a primary bacterial infection. Screening and treatment of all close contacts is necessary for an adequate management of pediculosis. Medical management of head louse infestation requires proper application of topical pediculicidal agents', chiefly permethrin lotion and wet combing with a fine toothcomb. Severe cases with high parasitic load justify the use of either oral cotrimoxazole or Ivermectin. Other described technique involves a single application of hot air for 30 minutes. Radical but culturally unacceptable method would be shaving of scalp in resistant cases. Environmental fogging with insecticides is neither necessary nor recommended. PMID:22772612

  16. A preliminary pilot survey on head lice, pediculosis in Sharkia Governorate and treatment of lice with natural plant extracts.

    PubMed

    El-Basheir, Zeinab M; Fouad, Mahmoud A H

    2002-12-01

    Twelve different representative areas in Sharkia Governorate were surveyed for head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis. The pre-valence was investigated among 120 houses containing 2,448 individual, with different age, sex and socioeconomic status. Examination was done by naked eye aided with hand-lens. A total of 137 individuals were infested. Infestation rates were higher in the rural areas with low socioeconomic levels, concrete houses with over-crowded family members. Children had significantly higher infestation rates than adults. Males had lower infestation rates than females. However, the hair length and permanent hair washing were the factors accounted for both age and sex difference in prevalence of pediculosis. Head lice infestations were found all over the year, but increased in summer and spring. One hundred infested patients (90 females and 10 males) with different aged and hair length were treated with tour mixed cream from plants Lawsonia alba L. (Henna). Trigonella faemum-gracanum (Fenugreek), Hibiscus cannabinus (Hibiscus) and Artemisia cina (Wormseed). The head lice completely disappeared within a week among those patients treated by henna mixed with aqueous extract of sheah (100%) or mixed with helba (75%) or with karkada (50%). PMID:12512805

  17. Spinosad: in pediculosis capitis.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Paul L

    2011-10-01

    Spinosad 0.9% suspension is a topical treatment for head-lice infestation (pediculosis capitis) that has been approved in the US as a prescription medicine. Spinosad is a natural mixture of the pediculicidal tetracyclic macrolides spinosyn A and spinosyn D. Spinosad 0.9% mainly interferes with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in insects, thereby producing neuronal excitation that results in paralysis of lice from neuromuscular fatigue after extended periods of hyperexcitation. Spinosad 0.9% kills both permethrin-susceptible and permethrin-resistant populations of lice. It is also ovicidal, killing both eggs (nits) and lice. Systemic absorption was not detectable after a single topical application of spinosad 1.8% for 10 minutes in children. In randomized, evaluator-blind, multicenter clinical trials, topical spinosad 0.9% without nit combing was significantly more effective than permethrin 1% with nit combing in the eradication of head lice assessed 14 days after one or two treatments. The majority of subjects treated with spinosad 0.9% without nit combing required only a single treatment to eradicate head lice, while the majority of those treated with permethrin 1% with nit combing required two treatments. Spinosad was generally well tolerated in clinical trials, with no severe or serious adverse events. Cutaneous and ocular irritation were the most common adverse events. PMID:21834600

  18. Second-generation sequencing of entire mitochondrial coding-regions (∼15.4 kb) holds promise for study of the phylogeny and taxonomy of human body lice and head lice.

    PubMed

    Xiong, H; Campelo, D; Pollack, R J; Raoult, D; Shao, R; Alem, M; Ali, J; Bilcha, K; Barker, S C

    2014-08-01

    The Illumina Hiseq platform was used to sequence the entire mitochondrial coding-regions of 20 body lice, Pediculus humanus Linnaeus, and head lice, P. capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), from eight towns and cities in five countries: Ethiopia, France, China, Australia and the U.S.A. These data (∼310 kb) were used to see how much more informative entire mitochondrial coding-region sequences were than partial mitochondrial coding-region sequences, and thus to guide the design of future studies of the phylogeny, origin, evolution and taxonomy of body lice and head lice. Phylogenies were compared from entire coding-region sequences (∼15.4 kb), entire cox1 (∼1.5 kb), partial cox1 (∼700 bp) and partial cytb (∼600 bp) sequences. On the one hand, phylogenies from entire mitochondrial coding-region sequences (∼15.4 kb) were much more informative than phylogenies from entire cox1 sequences (∼1.5 kb) and partial gene sequences (∼600 to ∼700 bp). For example, 19 branches had > 95% bootstrap support in our maximum likelihood tree from the entire mitochondrial coding-regions (∼15.4 kb) whereas the tree from 700 bp cox1 had only two branches with bootstrap support > 95%. Yet, by contrast, partial cytb (∼600 bp) and partial cox1 (∼486 bp) sequences were sufficient to genotype lice to Clade A, B or C. The sequences of the mitochondrial genomes of the P. humanus, P. capitis and P. schaeffi Fahrenholz studied are in NCBI GenBank under the accession numbers KC660761-800, KC685631-6330, KC241882-97, EU219988-95, HM241895-8 and JX080388-407. PMID:25171606

  19. Hemocytes from Pediculus humanus humanus are hosts for human bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Coulaud, Pierre-Julien; Lepolard, Catherine; Bechah, Yassina; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Raoult, Didier; Ghigo, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Pediculus humanus humanus is an human ectoparasite which represents a serious public health threat because it is vector for pathogenic bacteria. It is important to understand and identify where bacteria reside in human body lice to define new strategies to counterstroke the capacity of vectorization of the bacterial pathogens by body lice. It is known that phagocytes from vertebrates can be hosts or reservoirs for several microbes. Therefore, we wondered if Pediculus humanus humanus phagocytes could hide pathogens. In this study, we characterized the phagocytes from Pediculus humanus humanus and evaluated their contribution as hosts for human pathogens such as Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella Quintana, and Acinetobacter baumannii. PMID:25688336

  20. Hemocytes from Pediculus humanus humanus are hosts for human bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Coulaud, Pierre-Julien; Lepolard, Catherine; Bechah, Yassina; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Raoult, Didier; Ghigo, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Pediculus humanus humanus is an human ectoparasite which represents a serious public health threat because it is vector for pathogenic bacteria. It is important to understand and identify where bacteria reside in human body lice to define new strategies to counterstroke the capacity of vectorization of the bacterial pathogens by body lice. It is known that phagocytes from vertebrates can be hosts or reservoirs for several microbes. Therefore, we wondered if Pediculus humanus humanus phagocytes could hide pathogens. In this study, we characterized the phagocytes from Pediculus humanus humanus and evaluated their contribution as hosts for human pathogens such as Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella Quintana, and Acinetobacter baumannii. PMID:25688336

  1. White piedra and pediculosis capitis in the same patient.

    PubMed

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão; Camargo, Rosângela Maria Pires de

    2012-01-01

    White piedra is a superficial mycosis caused by the genus Trichosporon. It is characterized by nodules on the hair shaft. Pediculosis capitis is caused by Pediculus humanus var. capitis of the suborder Anoplura. Whereas pediculosis is a common infestation, clinical reports of white piedra are rare. Molecular biology procedures identified T. inkin as the agent of white piedra in this case report. The authors present associations between the two diseases in the same patient in order to highlight their clinical differences. PMID:23044579

  2. A systematic literature review of pediculosis due to head lice in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories: what country specific research on head lice is needed?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lack of guidelines on control of pediculosis in the Solomon Islands led to a search for relevant evidence on head lice in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). The aim of this search was to systematically evaluate evidence in the peer reviewed literature on pediculosis due to head lice (Pediculus humanus var capitis) in the 22 PICTs from the perspective of its value in informing national guidelines and control strategies. Methods PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL and Scopus were searched using the terms (pediculosis OR head lice) AND each of the 22 PICTs individually. PRISMA methodology was used. Exclusion criteria were: i) not on topic; ii) publications on pediculosis not relevant to the country of the particular search; iii) in grey literature. Results Of 24 publications identified, only 5 were included. Four related to treatment and one to epidemiology. None contained information relevant to informing national guidelines. Conclusions Current local evidence on head lice in the PICTs is minimal and totally inadequate to guide any recommendations for treatment or control. We recommend that local research is required to generate evidence on: i) epidemiology; ii) knowledge, attitudes and practices of health care providers and community members; iii) efficacy of local commercially available pharmaceutical treatments and local customary treatments; iv) acceptability, accessibility and affordability of available treatment strategies; and iv) appropriate control strategies for families, groups and institutions. We also recommend that operational research be done by local researchers based in the PICTs, supported by experienced head lice researchers, using a two way research capacity building model. PMID:24962507

  3. A new ivermectin formulation topically kills permethrin-resistant human head lice (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Strycharz, Joseph P; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Clark, J Marshall

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a new ivermectin formulation for the topical treatment of the human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae). Permethrin-resistant lice originally obtained from south Florida and maintained on an in vitro rearing system were 100% susceptible to ivermectin formulations by using a semiclinical hair tuft bioassay. The formulation was 100% effective at killing lice using 1, 0.5, and 0.25% ivermectin concentrations after 10-min exposures. As judged by the lethal time (LT)50 and LT95 values, 0.5% formulated ivermectin was 3.8 and 3.2 times faster at killing lice, respectively, than 0.5% nonformulated ivermectin, indicating that the formulation may facilitate the penetration of ivermectin into the louse. The hair tuft-based bioassay in conjunction with the in vitro rearing system provides a standardized method to assess the comparative efficacy of pediculicide formulations in a reproducible format that mimics the exposure scenario that occurs on the human scalp. PMID:18283945

  4. A pediculid case: autosensitization dermatitis caused by pediculosis capitis.

    PubMed

    Takcı, Zennure; Tekin, Ozlem; Karadağ, Ayşe Serap

    2012-01-01

    Pediculosis capitis is a worldwide infestation caused by Pediculus humanus capitis ectoparasite that only lives on the hairs of the scalp. As a result of severe itching excoriation, secondary bacterial infection, cervical and occipital lymphadenopathy are seen frequently where, sometimes bite reaction, viral exanthema mimicking hypersensitivity eruption and conjunctivitis may occur. Hereby, with the presentation of a quite rarely seen pediculid case, characterized with common autosensitization dermatitis as an -id reaction to pediculosis capitis, the importance of exploring the source of the infection and/or infestation on the patients who have presented with generalized pruritic maculopapular eruption, is emphasized. PMID:23169166

  5. Tinea capitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... special test that uses a lamp called a Wood's lamp can help diagnose a fungal scalp infection. ... scalp; Ringworm - scalp Images Ringworm of the scalp Wood's lamp test - of the scalp Ringworm, tinea capitis - ...

  6. Tinea capitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... tinea capitis. A special test that uses a lamp called a Wood's lamp can help diagnose a fungal scalp infection. Your ... ketoconazole or selenium sulfide. Shampooing may slow or stop the spread of infection, but it does not ...

  7. Wet combing for the eradication of head lice.

    PubMed

    2013-03-01

    Manual removal (using conditioner and comb or a wet comb) can be used in the treatment of head lice. Head lice infestation (Pediculosis humanus capitis) is a common problem. It is diagnosed by visualising the lice. As half of people infested with head lice will not scratch, all people in contact with a person affected with head lice should be manually checked for infestations. Wet combing is easily and safely performed at home, but persistence is needed. This article describes the process of head lice removal using a wet comb. It has NHMRC Level 2 evidence of efficacy and no serious adverse effects have been reported. PMID:23529522

  8. Pyrethrins combined with piperonyl butoxide (RID) vs 1% permethrin (NIX) in the treatment of head lice.

    PubMed

    Carson, D S; Tribble, P W; Weart, C W

    1988-07-01

    In a randomized controlled trial, 58 subjects were treated for Pediculus humanus var capitis with either pyrethrins combined with piperonyl butoxide (RID, Pfizer Inc, New York) or 1% permethrin (NIX, Burroughs Wellcome Co, Research Triangle Park, NC); 31 subjects received RID and 27 subjects received NIX. Both products were applied according to manufacturer's directions so that NIX was applied only on the first visit and RID was applied on the first visit and again seven days later. After each treatment with a pediculicide, the comb supplied by the manufacturer was used to remove nits. Seven days after the initial visit, NIX was determined to be significantly better than RID for eradicating the lice infestation. Of the 27 subjects receiving NIX, 26 were live free vs 14 of the 31 RID-treated subjects. At day 14, there was no statistically significant difference in the treatments (27 of 27 NIX-treated vs 29 of 31 RID-treated subjects were lice free). The RID comb was superior to the NIX comb for nit removal. Both treatments were effective and well tolerated, and no subject experienced adverse reactions. PMID:3381781

  9. Clinical Practice Update: Pediculosis Capitis.

    PubMed

    Bohl, Brittany; Evetts, Jessica; McClain, Kymberli; Rosenauer, Amanda; Stellitano, Emily

    2015-01-01

    A review of the current evidence on primary treatment modalities of head lice demonstrates increasing resistance to current regimens. New and alternative therapies are now available. A treatment algorithm was created to address safety and efficacy of treatments, as well as to guide clinicians through navigation of the regimens. Through an online journal search, 59 articles were selected for the review. Literature searches were performed through PubMed, Medline, Ebsco Host, and CINAHL, with key search words of "Pediculosis capitis" and "head lice" in the title, abstract, and index. Meta-analyses and controlled clinical trials were viewed with greater weight if they had a large sample size, were statistically significant, and did not allude to bias. When resistant infestations are well-documented in a locality, changes to the treatment regimen are indicated, and alternative treatments should be considered. Recent studies and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals have changed the available treatment options for Pediculosis capitis, including benzyl alcohol, topical ivermectin, spinosad, and the LouseBuster. Further, environmental management and prevention measures should be taken to avoid reinfestation and to prevent the spread of head lice. Continued study is recommended to establish long-term safety of new and alternative agents. PMID:26665422

  10. Evidence that clade A and clade B head lice live in sympatry and recombine in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Boutellis, A; Bitam, I; Fekir, K; Mana, N; Raoult, D

    2015-03-01

    Pediculus humanus L. (Psocodea: Pediculidae) can be characterized into three deeply divergent lineages (clades) based on mitochondrial DNA. Clade A consists of both head lice and clothing lice and is distributed worldwide. Clade B consists of head lice only and is mainly found in North and Central America, and in western Europe and Australia. Clade C, which consists only of head lice, is found in Ethiopia, Nepal and Senegal. Twenty-six head lice collected from pupils at different elementary schools in two localities in Algiers (Algeria) were analysed using molecular methods for genotyping lice (cytochrome b and the multi-spacer typing (MST) method. For the first time, we found clade B head lice in Africa living in sympatry with clade A head lice. The phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequences of these populations of head lice showed that clade A and clade B head lice had recombined, suggesting that interbreeding occurs when lice live in sympatry. PMID:25346378

  11. Efficacy of a grapefruit extract on head lice: a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Semmler, Margit; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Klimpel, Sven; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Twenty children aging 2-9 years old--four boys with short hair and 16 girls with long hair--were included in a clinical test on the efficacy of a product against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis). Their hair were exposed to Licatack, which is a recently developed new anti-louse medicinal product containing extracts of grapefruits besides high quality shampoo components. Prior to this field trial, the product Licatack was tested dermatologically to be skin safe receiving the grade "very good". The children's mothers combed the kids prior to the start of the test in order to confirm that they were all lice-infested. The obtained lice were used for in vitro tests. All children were heavily infested. After combing and preservation of the living lice, the hair was wet with tap water. Then, 50 ml of the Licatack shampoo was placed onto the top of each child's head. Then, the mothers distributed the rather fluid product all over the hair thoroughly from their base at the skin until the free end. During this process, a type of massage, the product became foamy and it was easily recognized where the product covered the hair, thus, avoiding untreated spots. The hair of half of the treated children were washed with tap water after 10 min of exposition; while in the other half of the children, the exposition period was prolonged to 20 min before washing. When combing the kids with a metal louse comb after the washing, the lice were found immobile and they did not recover during the following observation period of 4 h. Only two lice from the group with an exposition time of only 10 min showed some slight leg movements after they had been combed off, but they died within the next 2 h. Thus, this new anti-louse medicinal product has a very quick and efficient activity besides its advantages of being non-inflammable, skin safe, and nice smelling. None of the kids claimed any burning at the skin or other side effects, although the skin showed, prior to treatment, lots of scars

  12. The origin and distribution of human lice in the world.

    PubMed

    Boutellis, Amina; Abi-Rached, Laurent; Raoult, Didier

    2014-04-01

    Two genera of lice parasitize humans: Pthirus and Pediculus. The latter is of significant public health importance and comprises two ecotypes: the body louse and the head louse. These ecotypes are morphologically and genetically notably similar; the body louse is responsible for three infectious diseases: Louse-borne epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Mitochondrial DNA studies have shown that there are three obviously divergent clades of head lice (A, B and C), and only one clade of body lice is shared with head lice (clade A). Each clade has a unique geographic distribution. Lice have been parasitizing humans for millions of years and likely dispersed throughout the World with the human migrations out of Africa, so they can be good markers for studying human evolution. Here, we present an overview of the origin of human lice and their role in vector pathogenic bacteria that caused epidemics, and we review the association between lice clades and human migrations. PMID:24524985

  13. Evolution of Extensively Fragmented Mitochondrial Genomes in the Lice of Humans

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Renfu; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Barker, Stephen C.; Herd, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral animals are featured by an extremely compact mitochondrial (mt) genome with 37 genes on a single circular chromosome. The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, however, has its mt genes on 20 minichromosomes. We sequenced the mt genomes of two other human lice: the head louse, P. capitis, and the pubic louse, Pthirus pubis. Comparison among the three human lice revealed the presence of fragmented mt genomes in their most recent common ancestor, which lived ∼7 Ma. The head louse has exactly the same set of mt minichromosomes as the body louse, indicating that the number of minichromosomes, and the gene content and gene arrangement in each minichromosome have remained unchanged since the body louse evolved from the head louse ∼107,000 years ago. The pubic louse has the same pattern of one protein-coding or rRNA gene per minichromosome (except one minichromosome with two protein-coding genes, atp6 and atp8) as the head louse and the body louse. This pattern is apparently ancestral to all human lice and has been stable for at least 7 Myr. Most tRNA genes of the pubic louse, however, are on different minichromosomes when compared with their counterparts in the head louse and the body louse. It is evident that rearrangement of four tRNA genes (for leucine, arginine and glycine) was due to gene-identity switch by point mutation at the third anticodon position or by homologous recombination, whereas rearrangement of other tRNA genes was by gene translocation between minichromosomes, likely caused by minichromosome split via gene degeneration and deletion. PMID:23042553

  14. Evolution of extensively fragmented mitochondrial genomes in the lice of humans.

    PubMed

    Shao, Renfu; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Barker, Stephen C; Herd, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral animals are featured by an extremely compact mitochondrial (mt) genome with 37 genes on a single circular chromosome. The human body louse, Pediculus humanus, however, has its mt genes on 20 minichromosomes. We sequenced the mt genomes of two other human lice: the head louse, P. capitis, and the pubic louse, Pthirus pubis. Comparison among the three human lice revealed the presence of fragmented mt genomes in their most recent common ancestor, which lived ∼7 Ma. The head louse has exactly the same set of mt minichromosomes as the body louse, indicating that the number of minichromosomes, and the gene content and gene arrangement in each minichromosome have remained unchanged since the body louse evolved from the head louse ∼107,000 years ago. The pubic louse has the same pattern of one protein-coding or rRNA gene per minichromosome (except one minichromosome with two protein-coding genes, atp6 and atp8) as the head louse and the body louse. This pattern is apparently ancestral to all human lice and has been stable for at least 7 Myr. Most tRNA genes of the pubic louse, however, are on different minichromosomes when compared with their counterparts in the head louse and the body louse. It is evident that rearrangement of four tRNA genes (for leucine, arginine and glycine) was due to gene-identity switch by point mutation at the third anticodon position or by homologous recombination, whereas rearrangement of other tRNA genes was by gene translocation between minichromosomes, likely caused by minichromosome split via gene degeneration and deletion. PMID:23042553

  15. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... or prescription products. Over-the-counter shampoos and lotions containing pyrethrin (one brand name: Rid) or permethrin ( ... commonly used to treat head lice. Shampoos and lotions that kill head lice contain pesticides and other ...

  16. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    Head lice are parasitic wingless insects. They live on people's heads and feed on their blood. An adult louse ... Children ages 3-11 and their families get head lice most often. Personal hygiene has nothing to ...

  17. Body lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... also get lice from infected clothing, towels, or bedding. Body lice are bigger than other types of ... last if you: Bathe regularly Wash clothes and bedding at least once a week Placing clothes in ...

  18. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    Head lice are parasitic wingless insects. They live on people's heads and feed on their blood. An adult ... Children ages 3-11 and their families get head lice most often. Personal hygiene has nothing to do ...

  19. Head lice.

    PubMed

    Devore, Cynthia D; Schutze, Gordon E

    2015-05-01

    Head lice infestation is associated with limited morbidity but causes a high level of anxiety among parents of school-aged children. Since the 2010 clinical report on head lice was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics, newer medications have been approved for the treatment of head lice. This revised clinical report clarifies current diagnosis and treatment protocols and provides guidance for the management of children with head lice in the school setting. PMID:25917986

  20. Pubic lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Pubic lice URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000841.htm Pubic lice To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pubic lice are tiny insects that infect the pubic hair area and lay ...

  1. Geographical distribution of pyrethroid resistance allele frequency in head lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Ascunce, Marina S; Reed, David; Picollo, María Inés

    2014-01-01

    The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), is an obligate ectoparasite that causes pediculosis capitis and has parasitized humans since the beginning of humankind. Head louse infestations are widespread throughout the world and have been increasing since the early 1990s partially because of ineffective pediculicides. In Argentina, the overuse of products containing pyrethroids has led to the development of resistant louse populations. Pyrethroid insecticides act on the nervous system affecting voltage-sensitive sodium channels. Three point mutations at the corresponding amino acid sequence positions M815I, T917I, and L920F in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene are responsible for contributing to knockdown resistance (kdr). The management of pyrethroid resistance requires either early detection or the characterization of the mechanisms involved in head louse populations. In the current study, we estimated the distribution of kdr alleles in 154 head lice from six geographical regions of Argentina. Pyrethroid resistance kdr alleles were found in high frequencies ranging from 67 to 100%. Of these, 131 (85.1%) were homozygous resistant, 13 (8.4%) were homozygous susceptible, and 10 (6.5%) were heterozygous. Exact tests for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for each location showed that genotype frequencies differed significantly from expectation in four of the six sites studied. These results show that pyrethroid resistance is well established reaching an overall frequency of 88%, thus close to fixation. With 30 yr of pyrethroid-based pediculicides use in Argentina, kdr resistance has evolved rapidly among these head louse populations. PMID:24605463

  2. Scalp Ringworm (Tinea Capitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Ringworm, Scalp (Tinea Capitis) A parent's guide to condition and treatment ... fungal infection may be the cause. Overview Scalp ringworm (tinea capitis) is a common mild infection of ...

  3. Management and Treatment of Human Lice

    PubMed Central

    Sangaré, Abdoul Karim; Doumbo, Ogobara K.

    2016-01-01

    Of the three lice (head, body, and pubic louse) that infest humans, the body louse is the species involved in epidemics of louse-borne typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever, but all the three cause pediculosis. Their infestations occur today in many countries despite great efforts to maintain high standards of public health. In this review, literature searches were performed through PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and EBSCOhost, with key search words of “Pediculus humanus”, “lice infestation”, “pediculosis”, and “treatment”; and controlled clinical trials were viewed with great interest. Removing lice by hand or with a lice comb, heating infested clothing, and shaving the scalp were some of the oldest methods of controlling human lice. Despite the introduction of other resources including cresol, naphthalene, sulfur, mercury, vinegar, petroleum, and insecticides, the numbers of lice infestation cases and resistance have increased. To date, viable alternative treatments to replace insecticides have been developed experimentally in vitro. Today, the development of new treatment strategies such as symbiotic treatment and synergistic treatment (antibiotics + ivermectin) in vitro has proved effective and is promising. Here, we present an overview on managing and treating human lice and highlight new strategies to more effectively fight pediculosis and prevent resistance. PMID:27529073

  4. Management and Treatment of Human Lice.

    PubMed

    Sangaré, Abdoul Karim; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Raoult, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Of the three lice (head, body, and pubic louse) that infest humans, the body louse is the species involved in epidemics of louse-borne typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever, but all the three cause pediculosis. Their infestations occur today in many countries despite great efforts to maintain high standards of public health. In this review, literature searches were performed through PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and EBSCOhost, with key search words of "Pediculus humanus", "lice infestation", "pediculosis", and "treatment"; and controlled clinical trials were viewed with great interest. Removing lice by hand or with a lice comb, heating infested clothing, and shaving the scalp were some of the oldest methods of controlling human lice. Despite the introduction of other resources including cresol, naphthalene, sulfur, mercury, vinegar, petroleum, and insecticides, the numbers of lice infestation cases and resistance have increased. To date, viable alternative treatments to replace insecticides have been developed experimentally in vitro. Today, the development of new treatment strategies such as symbiotic treatment and synergistic treatment (antibiotics + ivermectin) in vitro has proved effective and is promising. Here, we present an overview on managing and treating human lice and highlight new strategies to more effectively fight pediculosis and prevent resistance. PMID:27529073

  5. Head lice.

    PubMed

    Frankowski, Barbara L; Bocchini, Joseph A

    2010-08-01

    Head lice infestation is associated with limited morbidity but causes a high level of anxiety among parents of school-aged children. Since the 2002 clinical report on head lice was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics, patterns of resistance to products available over-the-counter and by prescription have changed, and additional mechanical means of removing head lice have been explored. This revised clinical report clarifies current diagnosis and treatment protocols and provides guidance for the management of children with head lice in the school setting. PMID:20660553

  6. Evidence that head and body lice on homeless persons have the same genotype.

    PubMed

    Veracx, Aurélie; Rivet, Romain; McCoy, Karen D; Brouqui, Philippe; Raoult, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Human head lice and body lice are morphologically and biologically similar but have distinct ecologies. They were shown to have almost the same basic genetic content (one gene is absent in head lice), but differentially express certain genes, presumably responsible for the vector competence. They are now believed to be ecotypes of the same species (Pediculus humanus) and based on mitochondrial studies, body lice have been included with head lice in one of three clades of human head lice (Clade A). Here, we tested whether head and body lice collected from the same host belong to the same population by examining highly polymorphic intergenic spacers. This study was performed on lice collected from five homeless persons living in the same shelter in which Clade A lice are prevalent. Lice were individually genotyped at four spacer loci. The genetic identity and diversity of lice from head and body populations were compared for each homeless person. Population genetic structure was tested between lice from the two body regions and between the lice from different host individuals.We found two pairs of head and body lice on the same homeless person with identical multi locus genotypes. No difference in genetic diversity was found between head and body louse populations and no evidence of significant structure between the louse populations was found, even after controlling for a possible effect of the host individual. More surprisingly, no structure was obvious between lice of different homeless persons.We believe that the head and body lice collected from our five subjects belong to the same population and are shared between people living in the same shelter. These findings confirm that head and body lice are two ecotypes of the same species and show the importance of implementing measures to prevent lice transmission between homeless people in shelters. PMID:23049889

  7. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the hair, skin, or clothing. Finding lice eggs (nits). The eggs are yellow, brown, or tan and about the ... These seem glued to the hair. If the eggs have hatched, you will see clear shells. Swollen ...

  8. Pubic lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... Have sexual contact with an infected person Share bedding or clothing with an infected person ... are treating pubic lice: Wash all clothing and bedding in hot water. Spray items that cannot be ...

  9. Host switching of human lice to new world monkeys in South America.

    PubMed

    Drali, Rezak; Abi-Rached, Laurent; Boutellis, Amina; Djossou, Félix; Barker, Stephen C; Raoult, Didier

    2016-04-01

    The coevolution between a host and its obligate parasite is exemplified in the sucking lice that infest primates. In the context of close lice-host partnerships and cospeciation, Pediculus mjobergi, the louse of New World primates, has long been puzzling because its morphology resembles that of human lice. To investigate the possibility that P. mjobergi was transmitted to monkeys from the first humans who set foot on the American continent thousands of years ago, we obtained and compared P. mjobergi lice collected from howler monkeys from Argentina to human lice gathered from a remote and isolated village in Amazonia that has escaped globalization. Morphological examinations were first conducted and verified the similarity between the monkey and human lice. The molecular characterization of several nuclear and mitochondrial genetic markers in the two types of lice revealed that one of the P. mjobergi specimens had a unique haplotype that clustered with the haplotypes of Amazonian head lice that are prevalent in tropical regions in the Americas, a natural habitat of New World monkeys. Because this phylogenetic group forms a separate branch within the clade of lice from humans that were of American origin, this finding indicates that human lice have transferred to New World monkeys. PMID:26867815

  10. Eradication of head lice with a single treatment.

    PubMed

    DiNapoli, J B; Austin, R D; Englender, S J; Gomez, M P; Barrett, J F

    1988-08-01

    Single application of Nix (permethrin 1% creme rinse) and Rid were compared as treatments for Pediculosis capitis in 435 patients, the majority of whom were children. Seven days after the treatment, 98 per cent of the permethrin-treated and 85 per cent of the Rid-treated patients were free of lice. At 14 days, prior to nit removal, 96 per cent of the permethrin-treated and 62 per cent of the Rid-treated patients were still lice free. Seventeen (7 per cent) permethrin-treated and 32 (16 per cent) Rid-treated patients were reported to have adverse experiences. PMID:3291623

  11. [Ectoparasites. Part 1: lice and fleas].

    PubMed

    Nenoff, P; Handrick, W; Krüger, C; Herrmann, J; Schmoranzer, B; Paasch, U

    2009-08-01

    Ectoparasites and epidermal parasitic skin diseases are a heterogeneous group of infections of the external layer of the skin. The most common forms world-wide are scabies, lice (Pediculosis capitis, corporis, vestimentorum and pubis), tungiasis and the hookworm-associated Larva migrans cutanea. The head louse is the most widespread parasite in children in Germany. The symptoms, apart from pruritus, eczematous skin eruptions and ictus reactions of the skin, are often unspecific and many differential diagnoses must be considered. Treatment of ectoparasites includes manual procedures, such as repeated cleansing and combing out of lice-infected hair and also local antiparasitic treatment with permethrin, pyrethrum extract, allethrin and dimeticon. Lindan which has been used for decades can no longer be used in medications after 2008 after a decision of the EU Commission. Failure of treatment of head lice can be a result of errors in the treatment which favor survival of the eggs, larvae or adults. This can be a result of too short reaction times and too economical use or unequal distribution of medications, excessive dilution due to wet hair or omitting repeated treatment stages. Additionally resistance of head lice to pyrethrum is a known phenomenon and has been reported in several countries. PMID:19633823

  12. Head Lice: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... it may be necessary to use a second bottle. Pay special attention to instructions on the label ... or printed on the label. Nit (head lice egg) combs, often found in lice medicine packages, should ...

  13. Tinea capitis mimicking dissecting cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Torok, Rachel D; Bellet, Jane S

    2013-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a common disease of childhood that typically follows one of several clinical patterns. Our patient and several previously reported cases demonstrate the existence of a dissecting cellulitis-like presentation of tinea capitis. This variant should be recognized to prevent misdiagnosis of dissecting cellulitis and allow proper treatment to prevent scarring alopecia. PMID:24134312

  14. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Pediculosis Capitis in an Impoverished Urban Community in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Lesshafft, Hannah; Baier, Andreas; Guerra, Humberto; Terashima, Angelica; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pediculosis capitis is a ubiquitous parasitic skin disease associated with intense pruritus of the scalp. In developing countries it frequently affects children and adults, but epidemiological data at the community level are rare. Objectives: To assess prevalence and risk factors associated with pediculosis capitis in a resource-poor community in Lima, Peru. Materials and Methods: In total, 736 persons living in 199 households in a circumscribed neighbourhood were examined for head lice and nits by visual inspection. At the same time, socio-demographic data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Variables associated with pediculosis were identified by performing a bivariate analysis, followed by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Prevalence of pediculosis capitis was 9.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.0-11.2 %) in the general population and 19.9% (CI: 15.4-24.4%) in children ≤15 years of age. Multivariate analysis showed that pediculosis capitis was significantly associated with age ≤ 15 years (OR: 16.85; CI:7.42-38.24), female sex (OR: 2.84; CI: 1.58-5.12), household size of >4 persons (OR: 1.98; CI: 1.11-3.55), low quality of house construction material (OR:2.22; CI: 1.20-4.12), and presence of animals in the household (OR: 1.94; CI: 1.11-3.39). Conclusion: Pediculosis capitis was a very common disease in the studied community in Lima, Peru. Our logistic regression analysis affirms that young age is the most important risk factor for pediculosis capitis. Moreover, female sex, large household size, living in wooden houses and the presence of animals were identified as being significantly associated with head lice infestation. PMID:24672174

  15. Tinea Capitis in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, Brent D.

    2012-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a reasonably common infection among the pediatric population; however, it is still a relatively rare entity among infants less than one year of age. As such, a high index of suspicion is necessary for diagnosis among infants and an appropriate diagnostic work up should be employed in any case where a dermatophyte infection is suspected. Several methods are available for diagnosis. In addition, proper identification of the specific dermatophyte genera involved should be considered as treatment options may be altered based on the causative pathogen identified. PMID:22468173

  16. Treatment of Pediculosis Capitis.

    PubMed

    Verma, Prashant; Namdeo, Chaitanya

    2015-01-01

    An endeavour to delineate the salient details of the treatment of head lice infestation has been made in the present article. Treatment modalities including over the counter permethrin and pyrethrin, and prescription medicines, including malathion, lindane, benzyl alcohol, spinosad are discussed. Salient features of alternative medicine and physical treatment modalities are outlined. The problem of resistance to treatment has also been taken cognizance of. PMID:26120148

  17. Treatment of Pediculosis Capitis

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Prashant; Namdeo, Chaitanya

    2015-01-01

    An endeavour to delineate the salient details of the treatment of head lice infestation has been made in the present article. Treatment modalities including over the counter permethrin and pyrethrin, and prescription medicines, including malathion, lindane, benzyl alcohol, spinosad are discussed. Salient features of alternative medicine and physical treatment modalities are outlined. The problem of resistance to treatment has also been taken cognizance of. PMID:26120148

  18. Differential gene expression in laboratory strains of human head and body lice when challenged with Bartonella quintana, a pathogenic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Previte, D; Olds, B P; Yoon, K; Sun, W; Muir, W; Paige, K N; Lee, S H; Clark, J; Koehler, J E; Pittendrigh, B R

    2014-04-01

    Human head and body lice are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites that belong to a single species, Pediculus humanus. Only body lice, however, are vectors of the infectious Gram-negative bacterium Bartonella quintana. Because of their near identical genomes, yet differential vector competence, head and body lice provide a unique model system to study the gain or loss of vector competence. Using our in vitro louse-rearing system, we infected head and body lice with blood containing B. quintana in order to detect both differences in the proliferation of B. quintana and transcriptional differences of immune-related genes in the lice. B. quintana proliferated rapidly in body lice at 6 days post-infection, but plateaued in head lice at 4 days post-infection. RNAseq and quantitative real-time PCR validation analyses determined gene expression differences. Eight immunoresponse genes were observed to be significantly different with many associated with the Toll pathway: Fibrinogen-like protein, Spaetzle, Defensin 1, Serpin, Scavenger receptor A and Apolipoporhrin 2. Our findings support the hypothesis that body lice, unlike head lice, fight infection from B. quintana only at the later stages of its proliferation. PMID:24404961

  19. Differential gene expression in laboratory strains of human head and body lice when challenged with Bartonella quintana, a pathogenic bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Previte, D.; Olds, B. P.; Yoon, K.; Sun, W.; Muir, W.; Paige, K. N.; Lee, S. H.; Clark, J.; Koehler, J. E.; Pittendrigh, B. R.

    2014-01-01

    Human head and body lice are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites that belong to a single species, Pediculus humanus. Only body lice, however, are vectors of the infectious Gram-negative bacterium Bartonella quintana. Because of their near identical genomes, yet differential vector competence, head and body lice provide a unique model system to study the gain or loss of vector competence. Using our in vitro louse-rearing system, we infected head and body lice with blood containing B. quintana in order to detect both differences in the proliferation of B. quintana and transcriptional differences of immune-related genes in the lice. B. quintana proliferated rapidly in body lice at 6 days postinfection, but plateaued in head lice at 4 days postinfection. RNAseq and quantitative real-time PCR validation analyses determined gene expression differences. Eight immunoresponse genes were observed to be significantly different with many associated with the Toll pathway: Fibrinogen-like protein, Spaetzle, Defensin 1, Serpin, Scavenger receptor A and Apolipoporhrin 2. Our findings support the hypothesis that body lice, unlike head lice, fight infection from B. quintana only at the later stages of its proliferation. PMID:24404961

  20. Variable microsatellite loci for population genetic analysis of Old World monkey lice (Pedicinus sp.).

    PubMed

    Scholl, Katlyn; Allen, Julie M; Leendertz, Fabian H; Chapman, Colin A; Reed, David L

    2012-10-01

    Parasitic lice have been valuable informants of their host's evolutionary history because they complete their entire life cycle on the host and move between hosts primarily through direct host-to-host contact. Therefore, lice are confined to their hosts both in ecological and evolutionary time. Lice on great apes have been studied to examine details of their host's evolutionary history; however, species of Pedicinus, which parasitize the Old World monkeys, are less well known. We sampled lice from 2 groups of red colobus (Procolobus spp.) in Kibale National Park in Uganda and from red colobus and black and white colobus (Procolobus polycomos) in Taï National Park in Côte d'Ivoire. We used next-generation sequencing data analysis and the human body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus) genome to search for microsatellites for population genetic studies of Pedicinus lice. The 96 primer sets for microsatellite loci designed from the human body louse genome failed to amplify microsatellites in Pedicinus sp., perhaps due to the fast rate of evolution in parasitic lice. Of 63 microsatellites identified by next-generation sequencing data analysis of Pedicinus sp., 12 were variable among populations and 9 were variable within a single population. Our results suggest that these loci will be useful across the genus Pedicinus. We found that the lice in Uganda are not structured according to their hosts' social group; rather, 2 non-interbreeding populations of lice were found on both groups of red colobus. Because direct host-to-host contact is usually required for lice to move among hosts, these lice could be useful for identification and study of behavioral interactions between primate species. PMID:22509906

  1. Evolutionary relationships of "Candidatus Riesia spp.," endosymbiotic enterobacteriaceae living within hematophagous primate lice.

    PubMed

    Allen, Julie M; Reed, David L; Perotti, M Alejandra; Braig, Henk R

    2007-03-01

    The primary endosymbiotic bacteria from three species of parasitic primate lice were characterized molecularly. We have confirmed the characterization of the primary endosymbiont (P-endosymbiont) of the human head/body louse Pediculus humanus and provide new characterizations of the P-endosymbionts from Pediculus schaeffi from chimpanzees and Pthirus pubis, the pubic louse of humans. The endosymbionts show an average percent sequence divergence of 11 to 15% from the most closely related known bacterium "Candidatus Arsenophonus insecticola." We propose that two additional species be added to the genus "Candidatus Riesia." The new species proposed within "Candidatus Riesia" have sequence divergences of 3.4% and 10 to 12% based on uncorrected pairwise differences. Our Bayesian analysis shows that the branching pattern for the primary endosymbionts was the same as that for their louse hosts, suggesting a long coevolutionary history between primate lice and their primary endosymbionts. We used a calibration of 5.6 million years to date the divergence between endosymbionts from human and chimpanzee lice and estimated an evolutionary rate of nucleotide substitution of 0.67% per million years, which is 15 to 30 times faster than previous estimates calculated for Buchnera, the primary endosymbiont in aphids. Given the evidence for cospeciation with primate lice and the evidence for fast evolutionary rates, this lineage of endosymbiotic bacteria can be evaluated as a fast-evolving marker of both louse and primate evolutionary histories. PMID:17220259

  2. An unusual autopsy case of lethal hypothermia exacerbated by body lice-induced severe anemia.

    PubMed

    Nara, Akina; Nagai, Hisashi; Yamaguchi, Rutsuko; Makino, Yohsuke; Chiba, Fumiko; Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Yajima, Daisuke; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2016-05-01

    Pediculus humanus humanus (known as body lice) are commonly found in the folds of clothes, and can cause skin disorders when they feed on human blood, resulting in an itching sensation. Body lice are known as vectors of infectious diseases, including typhus, recurrent fever, and trench fever. An infestation with blood-sucking body lice induces severe cutaneous pruritus, and this skin disorder is known as "vagabond's disease." A body lice infestation is sometimes complicated with iron deficiency anemia. In the present case, a man in his late 70s died of lethal hypothermia in the outdoors during the winter season. The case history and autopsy findings revealed that the cause of the lethal hypothermia was iron deficiency anemia, which was associated with a prolonged infestation of blood-sucking body lice. Also, he had vagabond's disease because the skin on his body was abnormal and highly pigmented. This is an unusual autopsy case since the body lice contributed to the cause of the death. PMID:26384507

  3. The single mitochondrial chromosome typical of animals has evolved into 18 minichromosomes in the human body louse, Pediculus humanus

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Renfu; Kirkness, Ewen F.; Barker, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    The mitochondrial (mt) genomes of animals typically consist of a single circular chromosome that is ∼16-kb long and has 37 genes. Our analyses of the sequence reads from the Human Body Louse Genome Project and the patterns of gel electrophoresis and Southern hybridization revealed a novel type of mt genome in the sucking louse, Pediculus humanus. Instead of having all mt genes on a single chromosome, the 37 mt genes of this louse are on 18 minicircular chromosomes. Each minicircular chromosome is 3–4 kb long and has one to three genes. Minicircular mt chromosomes are also present in the four other species of sucking lice that we investigated, but not in chewing lice nor in the Psocoptera, to which sucking lice are most closely related. We also report unequivocal evidence for recombination between minicircular mt chromosomes in P. humanus and for sequence variation in mt genes generated by recombination. The advantages of a fragmented mt genome, if any, are currently unknown. Fragmentation of mt genome, however, has coevolved with blood feeding in the sucking lice. It will be of interest to explore whether or not life history features are associated with the evolution of fragmented chromosomes. PMID:19336451

  4. Epidemiology of Lice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juranek, Dennis D.

    1977-01-01

    Research into the epidemiology of lice indicates that infestation is uncommon in blacks, more common in females than males, significantly higher in low income groups, and transmission is by way of articles of clothing. (JD)

  5. Pubic "Crab" Lice Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir A lice-killing lotion containing 1% permethrin or a mousse containing pyrethrins ... persons who weigh less than 110 pounds. Malathion* lotion 0.5% (Ovide*) is a prescription medication that ...

  6. Treating Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Prevention. Head lice are most common among preschool children attending child care, elementary school children, and ... Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health ...

  7. Pubic Lice (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... area with pubic hair, they are not good protection against pubic lice. A teen who is being ... knows how STDs can be spread (during anal, oral, or vaginal sex) and that these infections often don't have ...

  8. Mitochondrial genome deletions and minicircles are common in lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The gene composition, gene order and structure of the mitochondrial genome are remarkably stable across bilaterian animals. Lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) are a major exception to this genomic stability in that the canonical single chromosome with 37 genes found in almost all other bilaterians has been lost in multiple lineages in favour of multiple, minicircular chromosomes with less than 37 genes on each chromosome. Results Minicircular mt genomes are found in six of the ten louse species examined to date and three types of minicircles were identified: heteroplasmic minicircles which coexist with full sized mt genomes (type 1); multigene chromosomes with short, simple control regions, we infer that the genome consists of several such chromosomes (type 2); and multiple, single to three gene chromosomes with large, complex control regions (type 3). Mapping minicircle types onto a phylogenetic tree of lice fails to show a pattern of their occurrence consistent with an evolutionary series of minicircle types. Analysis of the nuclear-encoded, mitochondrially-targetted genes inferred from the body louse, Pediculus, suggests that the loss of mitochondrial single-stranded binding protein (mtSSB) may be responsible for the presence of minicircles in at least species with the most derived type 3 minicircles (Pediculus, Damalinia). Conclusions Minicircular mt genomes are common in lice and appear to have arisen multiple times within the group. Life history adaptive explanations which attribute minicircular mt genomes in lice to the adoption of blood-feeding in the Anoplura are not supported by this expanded data set as minicircles are found in multiple non-blood feeding louse groups but are not found in the blood-feeding genus Heterodoxus. In contrast, a mechanist explanation based on the loss of mtSSB suggests that minicircles may be selectively favoured due to the incapacity of the mt replisome to synthesize long replicative products without mtSSB and thus the

  9. Present status of head louse (Pediculus capitis) infestation among school children in Yunlin County, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fan, P C; Chung, W C; Kuo, C L; Hsu, H M; Chow, C Y

    1991-04-01

    In December 1990, 35 children in one kindergarten; 7,870 children in twenty-six primary schools and 2,657 students in three junior high schools in Kou-Hu, Ku-Keng and Szu-Hu Districts in Yunlin County, Taiwan, were examined by naked eye observation (NEO) for head louse infestation. The overall infestation rate was 16%. The infestation rate was highest in Kou-Hu (25%) and lowest in Ku-Keng (8%). The rate was higher among primary school children (21%) than among junior high school students (2%). The infestation rate of girls (34% in primary school children and 4% in junior high school students) was higher than that of boys (9%, less than 1% respectively). Among the primary school children the rate was highest in girls in grade 5 (39%) and boys in grade 4 (14%). The lowest rates were in girls in grade 6 (27%) and in boys in grades 5 and 6 (6%). In junior high school students, the rate of grade 1 (4%) was higher than those of grade 2 (less than 1%) and 3 (less than 1%). PMID:2030521

  10. Impact of family ownerships, individual hygiene, and residential environments on the prevalence of pediculosis capitis among schoolchildren in urban and rural areas of northwest of Iran.

    PubMed

    Dehghanzadeh, Reza; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Salimian, Shahin; Asl Hashemi, Ahmad; Khayatzadeh, Simin

    2015-11-01

    In the appraisal of head lice outbreak, in addition to socioeconomic factors and availability of health care services, environmental conditions of the households must be taken into account. However, interviewing with children or mailing questionnaires to families may not reflect the actualities. Therefore, in this study, all the inclusive factors which may be associated with head lice outbreak were thoroughly and closely investigated. The data were collected by examining students at schools and surveying patients' households. A questionnaire concerning children's personal hygienic practices, family features, and environmental conditions of the households was filled out during the close assessment of the residential area. The overall prevalence of head lice was obtained as 5.9%, and the difference was not significant within the urban (5.1%) and rural (6.1%) communities. Overall, the number of infested students was more frequent in girls (6.6%) than boys (2.8%), but the difference was not significant. The highest infestation rate was obtained in the examined students whose fathers were unemployed, farmer, and herdsman. Family income showed greater correlation with the prevalence of pediculosis capitis. A high frequency of pediculosis capitis was identified among the students who were sharing individual items with siblings. Assessment of households showed that room flooring material and keeping animals at home were highly correlated with head lice prevalence. Households should be informed that infestations happen, irrespective of socioeconomic status. However, the physical and environmental conditions of living areas and households play an important role in head lice prevention. PMID:26276644

  11. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P; Clark, John M; Reynolds, Stuart E; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Feil, Edward J; Urrutia, Araxi O

    2015-10-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation. PMID:26169943

  12. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice

    PubMed Central

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M.; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P.; Clark, John M.; Reynolds, Stuart E.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Feil, Edward J.; Urrutia, Araxi O.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation. PMID:26169943

  13. Assessment of topical versus oral ivermectin as a treatment for head lice.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Hesham M; Abdel-Azim, Eman S; Abdel-Aziz, Rasha T

    2014-01-01

    Many medications are available for treatment of pediculosis capitis including ivermectin. Our aim is to compare the efficacy and safety of topical versus oral ivermectin in treatment of pediculosis capitis. Sixty-two patients with proved head lice infestation were included and divided into group I (31 patients; received single topical application of 1% ivermectin) and group II (31 patients; received single dose of oral ivermectin). Treatment was repeated after 1 week for nonresponders. At 1 week after treatment, the eradication rates and improvement of pruritus were significantly higher among patients who received topical than oral ivermectin. When a second treatment, topical or oral, was given to nonresponders, the cure rates of infestation and pruritus was 100% and 97% among patients treated with topical and oral ivermectin, respectively with no significant difference between the two groups. This study suggests that both topical and oral ivermectin demonstrate high efficacy and tolerability in treatment of pediculosis capitis. However, a single treatment with topical ivermectin provides significantly higher cure of infestation and faster relief of pruritus than oral ivermectin. In addition, whether topical or oral ivermectin is used to treat head lice, a second dose is required in some cases to ensure complete eradication. PMID:25041547

  14. Survey assessment on pediatricians’ attitudes on head lice management

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pediculosis capitis is a worldwide health problem. One of the most important factor in effective head lice eradication is to ensure that infestation is adequately recognized and treated. Our survey investigated the knowledge and practice among primary care Italian pediatricians regarding to the prevention and treatment of head lice. Methods The questionnaire was distributed to all the pediatricians registered at the Annual Congress of Practice in Pediatrics held in Florence, Italy, November 11–12, 2011. It includes 10 questions in a multiple choice format, and one answer for each question was provided. The questionnaire was conceived by pediatricians at the Infectious Disease Unit of the Department of Science for the Health of Woman and Child, University of Florence. Questions were designed according to the guidelines by the Italian Pediatric Society (SIP), and international guidelines, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Results Overall, 364/600 pediatricians (60.7% of physicians registered to the Congress) returned the questionnaire. The majority of them (232/364; 63,7%) believe that parents consult their primary care pediatrician only after the failure of other “remedies”. Mostly, they prescribe Malathion (116/364, 31,8%) as first line treatment. Two-hundred-fourty-three (66.7%) of participants consider creams, foams and gels the most effective formulations. Two-hundred-sixty-two of pediatricians interviewed (72.0%) suggest to repeat the treatment after one week, 37/364 (10.2%) after two weeks. The majority of the pediatricians interviewed reported that recurrences occur in less than 30% of cases (279/364; 76,6%). In their own opinion, most of recurrences are the consequence of a reinfestation in the community (259/264; 77%). Three-hundred-thirty-four (91.7%) of them have never prescribed oral therapy for the treatment of head lice. Finally, 289/364 (79.4%) pediatricians

  15. Apes, lice and prehistory

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Robin A

    2009-01-01

    Although most epidemic human infectious diseases are caused by recently introduced pathogens, cospeciation of parasite and host is commonplace for endemic infections. Occasional host infidelity, however, provides the endemic parasite with an opportunity to survive the potential extinction of its host. Such infidelity may account for the survival of certain types of human lice, and it is currently exemplified by viruses such as HIV. PMID:19232074

  16. What's bugging you? An update on the treatment of head lice infestation.

    PubMed

    Tebruegge, Marc; Pantazidou, Anastasia; Curtis, Nigel

    2011-02-01

    Head lice infestation (pediculosis capitis) is a common problem in paediatric practice. It can cause considerable distress to children and their families and may lead to bullying and social stigmatisation. Therapy with "conventional" topical pediculicides with neurotoxic mode of action-such as malathion, permethrin, phenothrin and carbaryl-is increasingly associated with treatment failure as a result of the emergence of resistance within the parasite population. This review provides an overview of the natural history, clinical symptoms and diagnosis of head lice infestation. It also discusses general management principles and summarises the current data on novel treatment strategies, including wet combing, dimeticone, isopropyl myristate, benzyl alcohol, plant-based compounds and oral medication. PMID:20688849

  17. High diversity and rapid diversification in the head louse, Pediculus humanus (Pediculidae: Phthiraptera).

    PubMed

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Prosser, Sean; Nasir, Saima; Masood, Mariyam; Ratnasingham, Sujeevan; Hebert, Paul D N

    2015-01-01

    The study analyzes sequence variation of two mitochondrial genes (COI, cytb) in Pediculus humanus from three countries (Egypt, Pakistan, South Africa) that have received little prior attention, and integrates these results with prior data. Analysis indicates a maximum K2P distance of 10.3% among 960 COI sequences and 13.8% among 479 cytb sequences. Three analytical methods (BIN, PTP, ABGD) reveal five concordant OTUs for COI and cytb. Neighbor-Joining analysis of the COI sequences confirm five clusters; three corresponding to previously recognized mitochondrial clades A, B, C and two new clades, "D" and "E", showing 2.3% and 2.8% divergence from their nearest neighbors (NN). Cytb data corroborate five clusters showing that clades "D" and "E" are both 4.6% divergent from their respective NN clades. Phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of all clusters recovered by NJ analysis. Divergence time estimates suggest that the earliest split of P. humanus clades occurred slightly more than one million years ago (MYa) and the latest about 0.3 MYa. Sequence divergences in COI and cytb among the five clades of P. humanus are 10X those in their human host, a difference that likely reflects both rate acceleration and the acquisition of lice clades from several archaic hominid lineages. PMID:26373806

  18. High diversity and rapid diversification in the head louse, Pediculus humanus (Pediculidae: Phthiraptera)

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Prosser, Sean; Nasir, Saima; Masood, Mariyam; Ratnasingham, Sujeevan; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2015-01-01

    The study analyzes sequence variation of two mitochondrial genes (COI, cytb) in Pediculus humanus from three countries (Egypt, Pakistan, South Africa) that have received little prior attention, and integrates these results with prior data. Analysis indicates a maximum K2P distance of 10.3% among 960 COI sequences and 13.8% among 479 cytb sequences. Three analytical methods (BIN, PTP, ABGD) reveal five concordant OTUs for COI and cytb. Neighbor-Joining analysis of the COI sequences confirm five clusters; three corresponding to previously recognized mitochondrial clades A, B, C and two new clades, “D” and “E”, showing 2.3% and 2.8% divergence from their nearest neighbors (NN). Cytb data corroborate five clusters showing that clades “D” and “E” are both 4.6% divergent from their respective NN clades. Phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of all clusters recovered by NJ analysis. Divergence time estimates suggest that the earliest split of P. humanus clades occured slightly more than one million years ago (MYa) and the latest about 0.3 MYa. Sequence divergences in COI and cytb among the five clades of P. humanus are 10X those in their human host, a difference that likely reflects both rate acceleration and the acquisition of lice clades from several archaic hominid lineages. PMID:26373806

  19. The impact of well-developed preventative strategies on the eradication of head lice.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Joanna; Fry, Frances; Wickenden, Clarice; Jenner, Maryan; Franks, Andrea

    2009-07-01

    In the 1970s Donaldson applied the principles of infectious disease surveillance to pediculosis capitis infestation with head lice. This provided a lasting insight into an effective strategy for prevention. Research in Teesside, UK, proved that the first step in breaking the chain of transmission is the engagement of parents in an intensive detection/treatment campaign. United action halved the infestation rate, even though failing lindane treatments were in use. Subsequently although effective malathion treatment was introduced, it became clear that the late detection of light cases of head lice still undermines eradication. This paper analyzes the development by the health charity, Community Hygiene Concern, of the Bug Busting programme based on this solid evidence. In the 1990s the charity solved the problem of detecting asymptomatic lice using a specially designed Bug Buster louse comb in wet, conditioned hair. It undertook the popularization of this method and the co-ordination of national detection days (Bug Busting Days) through primary schools. In 2004 this structured approach to prevention was adopted in Chester. It produced a 24% reduction in health authority spending on treatment products in the first year and appreciable savings in professional time. It is concluded that participation in the Bug Busting programme benefits community health providers and schools. Provision of dependable detection combs with the correct instructions to families at risk, empowers them to gain sustainable, cost-effective control of head lice. PMID:19650551

  20. Head Lice: Malathion Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... signs of infestation. Does malathion kill head lice eggs? Yes. The malathion lotion (Ovide*) available by prescription in the United States can kill some lice eggs. Back To Top *Use of trade names is ...

  1. Lice Aren't So Nice

    MedlinePlus

    ... to buy a special medicated shampoo, cream, or lotion that kills lice. An adult will need to ... to remove the nits. The shampoo, cream, or lotion usually kills the lice right away. The itching ...

  2. A New Clade of African Body and Head Lice Infected by Bartonella quintana and Yersinia pestis-Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Drali, Rezak; Shako, Jean-Christophe; Davoust, Bernard; Diatta, Georges; Raoult, Didier

    2015-11-01

    The human body louse is known as a vector for the transmission of three serious diseases-specifically, epidemic typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella quintana, and Borrelia recurrentis, respectively-that have killed millions of people. It is also suspected in the transmission of a fourth pathogen, Yersinia pestis, which is the etiologic agent of plague. To date, human lice belonging to the genus Pediculus have been classified into three mitochondrial clades: A, B, and C. Here, we describe a fourth mitochondrial clade, Clade D, comprising head and body lice. Clade D may be a vector of B. quintana and Y. pestis, which is prevalent in a highly plague-endemic area near the Rethy Health District, Orientale Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo. PMID:26392158

  3. Microbial symbiosis and the control of vector-borne pathogens in tsetse flies, human lice, and triatomine bugs

    PubMed Central

    Sassera, Davide; Epis, Sara; Pajoro, Massimo; Bandi, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Symbiosis is a widespread biological phenomenon, and is particularly common in arthropods. Bloodsucking insects are among the organisms that rely on beneficial bacterial symbionts to complement their unbalanced diet. This review is focused on describing symbiosis, and possible strategies for the symbiont-based control of insects and insect-borne diseases, in three bloodsucking insects of medical importance: the flies of the genus Glossina, the lice of the genus Pediculus, and triatomine bugs of the subfamily Triatominae. Glossina flies are vector of Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of sleeping sickness and other pathologies. They are also associated with two distinct bacterial symbionts, the primary symbiont Wigglesworthia spp., and the secondary, culturable symbiont Sodalis glossinidius. The primary symbiont of human lice, Riesia pediculicola, has been shown to be fundamental for the host, due to its capacity to synthesize B-group vitamins. An antisymbiotic approach, with antibiotic treatment targeted on the lice symbionts, could represent an alternative strategy to control these ectoparasites. In the case of triatominae bugs, the genetic modification of their symbiotic Rhodococcus bacteria, for production of anti-Trypanosoma molecules, is an example of paratransgenesis, i.e. the use of symbiotic microorganism engineered in order to reduce the vector competence of the insect host. PMID:24188239

  4. Odorant receptor-based discovery of natural repellents of human lice.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Julien; Xu, Pingxi; Yoon, Kyong S; Clark, John M; Leal, Walter S

    2015-11-01

    The body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus, is an obligate blood-feeding ectoparasite and an important insect vector that mediates the transmission of diseases to humans. The analysis of the body louse genome revealed a drastic reduction of the chemosensory gene repertoires when compared to other insects, suggesting specific olfactory adaptations to host specialization and permanent parasitic lifestyle. Here, we present for the first time functional evidence for the role of odorant receptors (ORs) in this insect, with the objective to gain insight into the chemical ecology of this vector. We identified seven putative full-length ORs, in addition to the odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco), and expressed four of them in the Xenopus laevis oocytes system. When screened with a panel of ecologically-relevant odorants, PhumOR2 responded to a narrow set of compounds. At the behavior level, both head and body lice were repelled by the physiologically-active chemicals. This study presents the first evidence of the OR pathway being functional in lice and identifies PhumOR2 as a sensitive receptor of natural repellents that could be used to develop novel efficient molecules to control these insects. PMID:26494014

  5. Head louse control by suffocation due to blocking their oxygen uptake.

    PubMed

    Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2015-08-01

    The present study shows that head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) are killed by suffocation when submersed into the anti-louse shampoo Licener®, which contains a mild shampoo component and an extract of neem seeds after their oil components had been pressed off. It is shown that the inner tracheal system becomes completely filled by the very fluid product. Within 3-10 min, oxygen uptake is prohibited and death of all thus treated lice stages occurred. PMID:25990060

  6. Black Dot Tinea Capitis in an Immunosuppressed Man

    PubMed Central

    Mendese, Gary W.; Loo, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a common superficial fungal infection of the scalp primarily afflicting young children. In adults, this infection may have an atypical presentation that may lead to a delay in diagnosis. The authors present a case report of black dot tinea capitis in an immunosuppressed Asian man with psoriasis and provide a review of the literature. PMID:23710273

  7. Detection of a knockdown resistance mutation associated with permethrin resistance in the body louse Pediculus humanus corporis by use of melting curve analysis genotyping.

    PubMed

    Drali, Rezak; Benkouiten, Samir; Badiaga, Sékéné; Bitam, Idir; Rolain, Jean Marc; Brouqui, Philippe

    2012-07-01

    Louse-borne diseases are prevalent in the homeless, and body louse eradication has thus far been unsuccessful in this population. We aim to develop a rapid and robust genotyping method usable in large field-based clinical studies to monitor permethrin resistance in the human body louse Pediculus humanus corporis. We assessed a melting curve analysis genotyping method based on real-time PCR using hybridization probes to detect the M815I-T917I-L920F knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation in the paraorthologous voltage-sensitive sodium channel (VSSC) α subunit gene, which is associated with permethrin resistance. The 908-bp DNA fragment of the VSSC gene, encoding the α subunit of the sodium channel and encompassing the three mutation sites, was PCR sequenced from 65 lice collected from a homeless population. We noted a high prevalence of the 3 indicated mutations in the body lice collected from homeless people (100% for the M815I and L920F mutations and 56.73% for the T917I mutation). These results were confirmed by melting curve analysis genotyping, which had a calculated sensitivity of 100% for the M815I and T917I mutations and of 98% for the L920F mutation. The specificity was 100% for M815I and L920F and 96% for T917I. Melting curve analysis genotyping is a fast, sensitive, and specific tool that is fully compatible with the analysis of a large number of samples in epidemiological surveys, allowing the simultaneous genotyping of 96 samples in just over an hour (75 min). Thus, it is perfectly suited for the epidemiological monitoring of permethrin resistance in human body lice in large-scale clinical studies. PMID:22573588

  8. Borrelia recurrentis in Head Lice, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Boutellis, Amina; Mediannikov, Oleg; Bilcha, Kassahun Desalegn; Ali, Jemal; Campelo, Dayana; Barker, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1800s, the only known vector of Borrelia recurrentis has been the body louse. In 2011, we found B. recurrentis DNA in 23% of head lice from patients with louse-borne relapsing fever in Ethiopia. Whether head lice can transmit these bacteria from one person to another remains to be determined. PMID:23648147

  9. Identification of repellent odorants to the body louse, Pediculus humanus corporis, in clove essential oil.

    PubMed

    Iwamatsu, Takuma; Miyamoto, Daisuke; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Yoshioka, Yoshiaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2016-04-01

    The control of body lice is an important issue for human health and welfare because lice act as vectors of disease such as typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever. Body lice exhibit avoidance behavior to some essential oils, including clove essential oil. Therefore, odorants containing clove essential oil components may potentially be useful in the development of repellents to body lice. However, such odorants that induce avoidance behavior in body lice have not yet been identified from clove essential oil. Here, we established an analysis method to evaluate the avoidance behavior of body lice to specific odorants. The behavioral analysis of the body lice in response to clove essential oil and its constituents revealed that eugenol, a major component of clove essential oil, has strong repellent effect on body lice, whereas the other components failed to induce obvious avoidance behavior. A comparison of the repellent effects of eugenol with those of other structurally related odorants revealed possible moieties that are important for the avoidance effects to body lice. The repellent effect of eugenol to body lice was enhanced by combining it with the other major component of clove essential oil, β-caryophyllene. We conclude that a synthetic blend of eugenol and β-caryophyllene is the most effective repellent to body lice. This finding will be valuable as the potential use of eugenol as body lice repellent. PMID:26864790

  10. Head Lice to Dead Lice: Safe Solutions for Frantic Families. A New Treatment Program To Address Persistent Head Lice Infestations. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer Mac Productions, Weston, MA.

    Head lice affect over 10 million Americans each year. Noting that head lice are becoming resistant to conventional pediculicide (insecticide) treatments, this video combines live action and animation to education parents, children, and health professionals about the use of olive oil for successfully preventing and getting rid of head lice. The…

  11. The Lice-Buster Book: What To Do When Your Child Comes Home with Head Lice!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Lennie

    Noting that every year, 10 to 12 million children contract head lice, this book aims to demystify and provide information about the problem of head lice infestation of children. The first chapter gives statistical details about the problem and its effects on health. Chapter 2 provides factual information concerning the features, life-cycle,…

  12. Insights on virulence from the complete genome of Staphylococcus capitis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, David R.; Jiang, Jhih-Hang; Hassan, Karl A.; Elbourne, Liam D. H.; Tuck, Kellie L.; Paulsen, Ian T.; Peleg, Anton Y.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus capitis is an opportunistic pathogen of the coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS). Functional genomic studies of S. capitis have thus far been limited by a lack of available complete genome sequences. Here, we determined the closed S. capitis genome and methylome using Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT) sequencing. The strain, AYP1020, harbors a single circular chromosome of 2.44 Mb encoding 2304 predicted proteins, which is the smallest of all complete staphylococcal genomes sequenced to date. AYP1020 harbors two large mobile genetic elements; a plasmid designated pAYP1020 (59.6 Kb) and a prophage, ΦAYP1020 (48.5 Kb). Methylome analysis identified significant adenine methylation across the genome involving two distinct methylation motifs (1972 putative 6-methyladenine (m6A) residues identified). Putative adenine methyltransferases were also identified. Comparative analysis of AYP1020 and the closely related CoNS, S. epidermidis RP62a, revealed a host of virulence factors that likely contribute to S. capitis pathogenicity, most notably genes important for biofilm formation and a suite of phenol soluble modulins (PSMs); the expression/production of these factors were corroborated by functional assays. The complete S. capitis genome will aid future studies on the evolution and pathogenesis of the coagulase negative staphylococci. PMID:26441910

  13. Management of tinea capitis in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Bennassar, Antoni; Grimalt, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    Tinea capitis (TC) is a common dermatophyte infection affecting primarily prepubertal children. The causative pathogens belong to only two genera: Trichophyton and Microsporum. Although there is a great local variation in the epidemiology of TC worldwide, T. tonsurans is currently the most common cause of TC with M. canis second. Even though there is an emerging number of anthropophilic scalp infections, M. canis remains the predominant causative organism in many countries of the Mediterranean basin, the most important dermatophyte carriers being stray cats and dogs as well as pet puppies, kittens and rabbits. TC always requires systemic treatment because topical antifungal agents do not penetrate down to the deepest part of the hair follicle. Since the late 1950s, griseofulvin has been the gold standard for systemic therapy of TC. It is active against dermatophytes and has a long-term safety profile. The main disadvantage of griseofulvin is the long duration of treatment required which may lead to reduced compliance. The newer oral antifungal agents including terbinafine, itraconazole, ketokonazole, and fluconazole appear to have efficacy rates and potential adverse effects similar to those of griseofulvin in children with TC caused by Trichophyton species, while requiring a much shorter duration of treatment. They may, however, be more expensive. PMID:21437064

  14. 21 CFR 880.5960 - Lice removal kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lice removal kit. 880.5960 Section 880.5960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... § 880.5960 Lice removal kit. (a) Identification. The lice removal kit is a comb or comb-like...

  15. Compromising on School for Students with Head Lice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Pediculosis, or head lice infestation, has been a public health nuisance for thousands of years. Since most affected children are under 12 years of age, head lice is an elementary school issue. The question then becomes how schools should handle cases of head lice. Some organizations advocate immediately sending children home from school, while…

  16. Head Lice - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Head Lice - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional ( ...

  17. Head Lice - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Korean (한국어) Portuguese (português) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog ( ... 한국어 (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Portuguese (português) Head Lice Piolho - português (Portuguese) Bilingual PDF Health ...

  18. Perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens successfully controlled with topical isotretinoin.

    PubMed

    Karpouzis, Anthony; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Sivridis, Efthymios; Kouskoukis, Constantin

    2003-01-01

    Perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens (or dissecting folliculitis of the scalp or dissecting cellulitis of the scalp or dissecting perifolliculitis of the scalp) is a rare entity and constitutes the equivalent over the scalp, of hidradenitis suppurativa and acne conglobata. Etiologic factors are unknown. Diagnosis is proven histologically. Management is very difficult and consists in systemic administration or intralesional injection of several drugs or in surgical manipulations. An 18 year-old white patient with cystic infiltrations, alopecia plaques, pustules and other inflammatory elements (clinicohistological features consistent with dissecting folliculitis of the scalp), is presented. Isotretinoin topical application assured successful control of the disease and averted the evolution of the clinical aspect to scarring alopecia and nodule formation. Topical isotretinoin exercises a curative, inhibitory and antiproliferative action, in perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens. PMID:12695138

  19. Tinea capitis in Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Morar, Nilesh; Dlova, Ncoza C; Gupta, Aditya K; Aboobaker, Jamila

    2004-01-01

    Tinea capitis is the most common dermatophyte infection in children. The hair involvement can be classified as endothrix, ectothrix, or favus, and the clinical appearance is variable. The goal of this study was to determine the demography, etiology, and clinical patterns of tinea capitis in South Africa. A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted over a 1-year period. All cases were classified clinically and subject to Wood light examination, microscopy, and culture. One hundred patients were studied. The male:female ratio was 1.4:1. The mean age was 4.6 years (range 1-11 years). Trichophyton violaceum was isolated in 90% of positive cultures. Wood light was positive in one patient with Microsporum gypseum. The most common clinical variety was the "black dot" type, seen in 50% of patients. Twenty percent of the children presented with more than one clinical type simultaneously. We concluded that the most common cause of tinea capitis in South Africa is T. violaceum. The presentation is variable. PMID:15283786

  20. [Insecticide resistance in lice collected from homeless people in Moscow].

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu

    2011-01-01

    Permethrin and malathion resistance in body and head lice collected from homeless people in Moscow was investigated in March 2009 to March 2010. Most micropopulations were found to have permethrin-resistant individuals. Their proportion varied from 8.7 to 100%. Cross resistance of body lice to 5 insecticides (the pyrethroids permethrin, d-phenothrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and the organic chlorine compound DDT) was revealed in one case. The lice remained susceptible to organic phosphorus insecticides (fenthion, malathion). The data on permethrin resistance in the lice, obtained by the standard method (immersion of the insects into an insecticide solution), correlated with those yielded by the modified WHO method. PMID:22308710

  1. [Chewing lice (Mallophaga) on birds in the Central Ciscaucasia].

    PubMed

    Liakhov, O M; Kotti, B K

    2010-01-01

    Mallophaga parasitizing wild and domestic birds in the Central Ciscaucasia were studied; 8805 chewing lice specimens were collected and identified. At present, 102 species of Mallophaga are known from this territory, including 15 species recorded in the Central Ciscaucasia for the first time. Most of the chewing lice species in the region under study are parasites of Passeriformes. Species diversity of chewing lice connected with each of other 12 bird orders is several times lesser. The exchange of chewing lice between some species of hosts, particularly between domestic and wild birds, seems possible. PMID:21309151

  2. SdrX, a serine-aspartate repeat protein expressed by Staphylococcus capitis with collagen VI binding activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yule; Ames, Brenda; Gorovits, Elena; Prater, Bradley D; Syribeys, Peter; Vernachio, John H; Patti, Joseph M

    2004-11-01

    Staphylococcus capitis (S. capitis) has been implicated in a large proportion of coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections in very-low-birth-weight infants. To identify potential therapeutic targets, the S. capitis genome was probed for the presence of genes encoding microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMM). By using Southern blot analysis, an S. capitis gene, designated sdrX, that contained sequence motifs consistent with the Sdr family of MSCRAMM proteins was identified. By using monospecific antisera in Western blot and flow cytometry, SdrX was demonstrated to be expressed on the surface of S. capitis. Human collagen type VI was found to bind both the recombinant A domain of SdrX and viable S. capitis expressing SdrX. SdrX is the first collagen-binding Sdr protein described and is the first MSCRAMM protein identified in S. capitis. PMID:15501749

  3. An unusual presentation: trichomycosis (trichobacteriosis) capitis in an infant.

    PubMed

    Takcı, Zennure; Karadağ, Ayşe Serap

    2014-01-01

    Trichomycosis (trichobacteriosis) is an asymptomatic superficial bacterial colonization of the hair shaft that is clinically characterized by pale yellowish, reddish or blackish sticky, cylindrical concretions surrounding the hair shaft in the axillary or pubic region. As far as we know, the first and only case of trichomycosis capitis was reported in a 8-year-old boy in 2011. We encountered no cases of trichomycosis in infancy in the literature. The current case displays an atypical presentation of trichobacteriosis involving head hair in a 10-month-old male infant. PMID:26388604

  4. [Management of lice infestations, recommendations for 2012].

    PubMed

    Maillard, Alexia; Trellu, Laurence Toutous; Eicher, Nicole; Michaud, Mélanie; Laffitte, Emmanuel

    2012-04-01

    Pediculosis is the most frequent and contagious ectoparasitic infestation in human, particularly in children from 3 to 8 years of age. Epidemics are observed from time to time, in schools or in adults in prisons. Even though benign, these infections remain unpleasant and can have an important psyco-social impact. Since a few years, caregivers have to face increasing problems while treating lice: appearance of insecticide resistances, lindane's withdrawal from the market and the marketing of new products which are not always well evaluated. This article offers first recalls about pediculoses and then a sum up of the different available treatments with an evidence based management strategy. PMID:22545493

  5. Pediculosis capitis is a growing neglected infestation due to migration in southeast Turkey.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Fadime; Basaran, Ümit; Kürklü, Cennet Gizem; Yüceer, Mervenur; Yalcıntürk, Rabia Gül; Tanrıverdi, Mustafa; Daglı, Eda Icbay; Koltas, Ismail Soner

    2016-06-01

    Demographic, socio-economical, and environmental changes affecting prevalence of Pediculosis capitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of P. capitis and external factors affecting the distribution of P. capitis. A total of 6004 primary-school students between 5 and 11 years were screened for P. capitis at 28 different primary-schools in Gaziantep, located in southeastern of Turkey, during different two education terms (First education term is in September 2013 to May 2014, second education term is in September 2014 and May 2015). The prevalence of P. capitis was found to be positive 1.5 % (90/6004) and 6.9 % (415/6004) in first education term and in second education term, respectively. In this study shown that the rate of P. capitis's prevalence was increased 5.4 % in Gaziantep. P. capitis is a neglected infestation and it has re-emerged in Gaziantep, located in the southeastern of Turkey. Health staff member must improve health education programs in primary-school students especially girl students. PMID:27038249

  6. Human lice show photopositive behaviour to white light.

    PubMed

    Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón; Picollo, María Inés; Lazzari, Claudio R

    2011-10-01

    We studied the behavioural response of body lice and head lice to white light. We also evaluated the influence of starvation and the presence of other individuals on this response. Experiments were performed in a rectangular arena, half of which was illuminated and the other half kept in the dark. Two experiments were performed: in the first, a single louse was released into the arena for 60 min and the percentage of time spent in the illuminated half was recorded; in the second experiment, a group of lice was released and the number of insects in the illuminated half was recorded. The results showed that the average number of lice and time spent in the illuminated side of the arena was statistically higher than for the controls. Starvation did not influence the reaction of lice, but the number of insects in the illuminated area did increase with the size of the group. This study shows that human lice are photopositive towards white light and that this behaviour is not affected by the nutritional state of the insects. Moreover, it is enhanced by the presence of other lice. PMID:21806991

  7. Salmon lice – impact on wild salmonids and salmon aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Torrissen, O; Jones, S; Asche, F; Guttormsen, A; Skilbrei, O T; Nilsen, F; Horsberg, T E; Jackson, D

    2013-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are naturally occurring parasites of salmon in sea water. Intensive salmon farming provides better conditions for parasite growth and transmission compared with natural conditions, creating problems for both the salmon farming industry and, under certain conditions, wild salmonids. Salmon lice originating from farms negatively impact wild stocks of salmonids, although the extent of the impact is a matter of debate. Estimates from Ireland and Norway indicate an odds ratio of 1.1:1-1.2:1 for sea lice treated Atlantic salmon smolt to survive sea migration compared to untreated smolts. This is considered to have a moderate population regulatory effect. The development of resistance against drugs most commonly used to treat salmon lice is a serious concern for both wild and farmed fish. Several large initiatives have been taken to encourage the development of new strategies, such as vaccines and novel drugs, for the treatment or removal of salmon lice from farmed fish. The newly sequenced salmon louse genome will be an important tool in this work. The use of cleaner fish has emerged as a robust method for controlling salmon lice, and aquaculture production of wrasse is important towards this aim. Salmon lice have large economic consequences for the salmon industry, both as direct costs for the prevention and treatment, but also indirectly through negative public opinion. PMID:23311858

  8. Advancements in the treatment of head lice in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Eisenhower, Christine; Farrington, Elizabeth Anne

    2012-01-01

    Head lice infestations occur commonly each year in children of all socioeconomic statuses. However, head lice have become more of a nuisance as resistance to first-line agents, such as permethrin 1% and pyrethrins, has increased. Newer topical products provide unique mechanisms of action without current signs of resistance. As with older agents, proper application of products must be emphasized to ensure that treatment is effective. In addition, nonpharmacologic measures should be taken to avoid reinfestation in the patient and to prevent the spread of lice to close personal contacts. PMID:23099312

  9. Lice update: new solutions to an old problem.

    PubMed

    Wadowski, Lisa; Balasuriya, Lily; Price, Harper N; O'Haver, Judith

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 6 to 12 million children are affected by lice annually in the United States.(1) Knowledge of the various treatment options for this diagnosis is essential. This paper aims to provide an overview of the myriad therapeutic options available for lice infestations in children. U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, off-label drug therapies, over-the counter-products, and herbal remedies are all discussed in detail. Clinicians may use this information to teach patients and families about the latest available care for the eradication of head lice in pediatric patients. PMID:25889137

  10. Human pediculosis: a critical health problem and what about nursing policy?

    PubMed

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Abdel, Fadil Eman Ebrahim; Morsy, Tosson A

    2012-12-01

    Lice infestation on the human body (also known as pediculosis) is very common. Cases number in the hundreds of millions worldwide. Three distinct presentations of lice infection exist and each is caused by a unique parasite. Head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) is by far and away the most common infestation and favors no particular socioeconomic group. A genetically close "cousin," Pediculus humanus corporis, is responsible for body lice and is more commonly associated with poverty, overcrowding, and poor hygiene. Pubic lice (crabs) are caused by Pthirus pubis and is transmitted by intimate and/or sexual contact. No doubt, human lice infestation is an increasing problem worldwide, Apart from being an irritating and a shaming human ecto-parasite, they transmit serious infectious diseases; epidemic or classical typhus, epidemic relapsing fever as well as Trench fever. Eradication of lice infestation prevents transmission of infectious diseases. People who live and work in close proximity to louse-infested individuals may secondarily acquire lice even if they regularly wash their clothes and have good hygiene. Thus, all louse-infested persons and workers in close contact with such persons should periodically inspected and use long-acting safe insecticides. Human lice can be treated with agents such as DDT, malathion, and lindane, but reports of resistance to one or more of them have recently appeared. Pyrethroid permethrin when applied as a dust or spray to clothing or bedding is highly effective against lice and is the delousing agent of choice. Fabric treated with permethrin retains toxicity to lice even after 20 washings, thereby offering significant long-term passive protection against epidemic typhus. Itching may continue even after all lice are destroyed. This happens because of a lingering allergic reactionto their bites. Over-the-counter cortisone (corticosteroid) creams or calamine lotion may help. PMID:23469630

  11. Malathion for head lice and scabies: treatment and safety considerations.

    PubMed

    Idriss, Shereene; Levitt, Jacob

    2009-08-01

    Malathion is an under-recognized and under-utilized therapy for head lice and scabies largely due to misperceptions about its safety profile. Specifically, its pure form as it exists in pharmaceutical preparations is non-toxic to humans in the low doses available. While labeled for ages six and up, recent studies showed no cholinesterase inhibition in head lice patients aged two-to-six treated with malathion. Flammability of malathion in isopropyl alcohol has reportedly resulted in human injury once in over one million prescriptions filled. Recent efficacy studies of malathion in United States (U.S.) head lice demonstrate efficacy rates of 97-98%. In the present era of permethrin and lindane resistance to head lice, malathion is a first-line option. For scabies, it is a reasonable alternative to permethrin 5% cream, especially when treatment of the scalp or hairy areas is desired. PMID:19663108

  12. Why is it crucial to test anti-lice repellents?

    PubMed

    Semmler, Margit; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to stop lice propagation just by treating infested heads, since reinfections are possible just a few hours after a successful elimination of all lice from a child's head by application of an active anti-louse product. Therefore, several products have been developed that claim to have a louse repellent activity; however, definite proofs are scarce. The present study involving two louse repellents (Linicin® Preventive Spray, Picksan® NoLice) and three substances (at 10% dilution) known for their general repellency activity shows that there are much more difficulties to repel lice when compared to other insects or even ticks. Thus, it must be feared that several repellents on the market might have used a problematical test system and thus might not be as effective as they claim. PMID:21674296

  13. Head Lice No Cause for Panic, Expert Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sheehan, a pediatric emergency medicine specialist at the Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago. Children ... detection and treatment of head lice infestations. SOURCE: Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, news ...

  14. Head lice. Dimeticone is the pediculicide of choice.

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    Infestation of the scalp by head lice, or pediculosis, is a common, unpleasant but harmless parasitosis. For patients with pediculosis, which topical treatment eradicates the parasites effectively while causing the least harm? We reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. Lice can be eradicated by shaving the head or combing the hair several times a day for several weeks with a fine-toothed lice comb, although combing is only completely effective in about 50% of cases. Pyrethroids (permethrin, phenothrin and bioallethrin), often combined with piperonyl butoxide, are insecticides that are neurotoxic to lice. The lice eradication rates achieved in trials of these agents are highly variable, ranging from 13% to 75% depending on the country, probably due to the development of resistance. In five randomised trials, the organophosphorus insecticide malathion was more effective than permethrin or phenothrin, achieving eradication rates of 80% to 98%. Topical application of the insecticides ivermectin or spinosad was effective in 75% to 85% of patients in randomised trials. Insecticides have mainly local adverse effects: pruritus and irritation of the scalp. Cases of malathion poisoning have been reported following topical application or ingestion. The long-term toxicity of insecticides is unclear; it therefore appears preferable to minimise their use. Agents that kill lice through physical mechanisms have few known adverse effects. It seems unlikely that lice will develop resistance to them. Dimeticone, a silicone compound, is not absorbed through the skin and provokes very few adverse effects. It is one of the better evaluated agents: in three randomised trials, 70% to 97% of patients were lice-free after two weeks. Other agents with a physical action on lice have been evaluated, each in one randomised trial including a few dozen patients. One of these, 1,2-octanediol, applied in an alcoholic solution, seemed to eradicate lice effectively

  15. Prevention and treatment of head lice in children.

    PubMed

    Mumcuoglu, K Y

    1999-01-01

    Head louse infestations (pediculosis) are prevalent worldwide. In developed countries, the infestation rate of 4- to 13-year-old children remains high despite preventive efforts. This is due to the existence of numerous ineffective pediculicides, the incorrect use of the effective agents, toxicological concerns and the development of louse strains resistant to insecticides. One of the most effective tools for the prevention and control of lice is the louse comb, which should be used regularly for the detection of living lice at an early stage of infestation, and as an accessory to any treatment method to remove living and dead lice. The louse comb can also be used systematically for the treatment of infestations, for confirmation that treatment with pediculicides has been successful, and for the removal of nits (dead eggs or egg shells). Most pediculicides are only partially ovicidal. Therefore, 10 days after beginning treatment with any antilouse product, the scalp of the child should be examined. If no living lice are found, the treatment should be discontinued. If living lice are still present, treatment should be continued with a product containing a different active ingredient. Suffocating agents such as olive, soya, sunflower and corn oils, hair gels and mayonnaise are able to kill a significant number of lice only if they are applied in liberal quantities for more than 12 hours. However, they lubricate the hair and therefore may facilitate combing and removing lice and eggs from the scalp. Nits may remain glued on the hair for at least 6 months, even after a successful treatment, and lead to a false positive diagnosis of louse infestation. If nits are seen on the hair, the child should be examined, but treatment should be initiated only if living lice are found. Formulations containing 5% acetic acid or 8% formic acid, as well as acid shampoos (pH 4.5 to 5.5) and conditioners, in combination with a louse comb, can be helpful for removing nits. There is no

  16. [Current approaches to overcoming permethrin resistance in lice].

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Iu V

    2013-01-01

    The paper gives information on pediculosis morbidity worldwide. It summarizes the data available in the literature on the resistance of head and clothes lice to pyrethroids and on the mechanisms of this resistance. The formation of head and clothes louse populations resistant to pyrethroids is shown to be a global problem. New groups of chemical substances that are alternatives to pyrethroids and the mechanisms of their action on lice are considered. PMID:24003525

  17. [Micromorphology of the malpighian tubules in the louse Pediculus humanus corporis (Anoplura)].

    PubMed

    Chaĭka, S Iu

    1985-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the Malpighian tubes in human louse Pediculus humanus corporis has been studied. The cells of the Malpighian tubules have the uniform structure: the apical surface is covered with microvilli, the basal plasmatic membrana forms relatively small invaginations. The microvilli are most developed in cells of the proximal department of the Malpighian tubules. Microvilli of the apical surface of the cells do not contain mitochondria which are localized mainly in supranuclear part of the cell. Cells are lined with a homogenous basal membrane. PMID:3986247

  18. Evaluation of two methods for quantifying passeriform lice

    PubMed Central

    Koop, Jennifer A. H.; Clayton, Dale H.

    2013-01-01

    Two methods commonly used to quantify ectoparasites on live birds are visual examination and dust-ruffling. Visual examination provides an estimate of ectoparasite abundance based on an observer’s timed inspection of various body regions on a bird. Dust-ruffling involves application of insecticidal powder to feathers that are then ruffled to dislodge ectoparasites onto a collection surface where they can then be counted. Despite the common use of these methods in the field, the proportion of actual ectoparasites they account for has only been tested with Rock Pigeons (Columba livia), a relatively large-bodied species (238–302 g) with dense plumage. We tested the accuracy of the two methods using European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris; ~75 g). We first quantified the number of lice (Brueelia nebulosa) on starlings using visual examination, followed immediately by dust-ruffling. Birds were then euthanized and the proportion of lice accounted for by each method was compared to the total number of lice on each bird as determined with a body-washing method. Visual examination and dust-ruffling each accounted for a relatively small proportion of total lice (14% and 16%, respectively), but both were still significant predictors of abundance. The number of lice observed by visual examination accounted for 68% of the variation in total abundance. Similarly, the number of lice recovered by dust-ruffling accounted for 72% of the variation in total abundance. Our results show that both methods can be used to reliably quantify the abundance of lice on European Starlings and other similar-sized passerines. PMID:24039328

  19. Walk or ride? Phoretic behaviour of amblyceran and ischnoceran lice.

    PubMed

    Bartlow, Andrew W; Villa, Scott M; Thompson, Michael W; Bush, Sarah E

    2016-04-01

    Phoresy is a behaviour where one organism hitches a ride on another more mobile organism. This is a common dispersal mechanism amongst relatively immobile species that specialise on patchy resources. Parasites specialise on patchily distributed resources: their hosts. Although host individuals are isolated in space and time, parasites must transmit between hosts or they will die with their hosts. Lice are permanent obligate ectoparasites that complete their entire life cycle on their host. They typically transmit when hosts come into direct contact; however, lice are also capable of transmitting phoretically. Yet, phoresy is rare amongst some groups of lice. Fundamental morphological differences have traditionally been used to explain the phoretic differences amongst different suborders of lice; however, these hypotheses do not fully explain observed patterns. We propose that a more fundamental natural history trait may better explain variation in phoresy. Species able to disperse under their own power should be less likely to engage in phoresy than more immobile species. Here we experimentally tested the relationship between independent louse mobility and phoresy using a system with four species of lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera and Amblycera) that all parasitize a single host species, the Rock Pigeon (Columba livia). We quantified the relative ability of all four species of lice to move independently off the host, and we quantified their ability to attach to, and remain attached to, hippoboscid flies (Pseudolynchia canariensis). Our results show that the most mobile louse species is the least phoretic, and the most phoretic species is quite immobile off the host. Our findings were consistent with the hypothesis that phoretic dispersal should be rare amongst species of lice that are capable of independent dispersal; however other factors such as interspecific competition may also play a role. PMID:26896575

  20. Prevalence of Tinea Capitis among School Children in Nok Community of Kaduna State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Dogo, Josephine; Afegbua, Seniyat Larai; Dung, Edward Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of tinea capitis, an infection of the scalp by dermatophytes, has increased in children worldwide. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factor of tinea capitis among school children in Nok community of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 100 children were screened and 45% were diagnosed to have tinea capitis after fungal culture and microscopy. The prevalence of tinea capitis among girls was higher (51.4%) than that among boys (41.5%) but not significantly different (p = 0.402). The prevalence with respect to age was lower for the age group 5-10 years (42.6%) than that of 11-15 years (50%) but was not significantly different (p = 0.524). Trichophyton rubrum (28.8%) and Microsporum canis (22.7%) were the most prevalent dermatophytes isolated and the least were Trichophyton verrucosum (4.5%) and Trichophyton tonsurans (4.5%). There were 73.3% single infection while 26.7% had 2-4 dermatophytes of the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. The predisposing factors with statistically significant association with tinea capitis were number of children in the family (p = 0.02) and sharing of the same bed (p = 0.002). This indicates the high tendencies of spread of tinea capitis through human-to-human mode of transmission and possible animal contact. Community health education on the cause, mode of transmission, prevention, and prompt treatment of tinea capitis is recommended. PMID:27471603

  1. Prevalence of Tinea Capitis among School Children in Nok Community of Kaduna State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dogo, Josephine; Dung, Edward Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of tinea capitis, an infection of the scalp by dermatophytes, has increased in children worldwide. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factor of tinea capitis among school children in Nok community of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 100 children were screened and 45% were diagnosed to have tinea capitis after fungal culture and microscopy. The prevalence of tinea capitis among girls was higher (51.4%) than that among boys (41.5%) but not significantly different (p = 0.402). The prevalence with respect to age was lower for the age group 5–10 years (42.6%) than that of 11–15 years (50%) but was not significantly different (p = 0.524). Trichophyton rubrum (28.8%) and Microsporum canis (22.7%) were the most prevalent dermatophytes isolated and the least were Trichophyton verrucosum (4.5%) and Trichophyton tonsurans (4.5%). There were 73.3% single infection while 26.7% had 2–4 dermatophytes of the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. The predisposing factors with statistically significant association with tinea capitis were number of children in the family (p = 0.02) and sharing of the same bed (p = 0.002). This indicates the high tendencies of spread of tinea capitis through human-to-human mode of transmission and possible animal contact. Community health education on the cause, mode of transmission, prevention, and prompt treatment of tinea capitis is recommended. PMID:27471603

  2. Common Hair Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... lice (pediculosis capitis), and fungal infection of scalp ringworm (tinea capitis). Itching and excessive flaking of the scalp ... sites of shaving, skin friction, or rubbing from… Ringworm, Scalp (Tinea Capitis) Scalp ringworm (tinea capitis) is ...

  3. Amazonian head lice-specific genotypes are putatively pre-Columbian.

    PubMed

    Boutellis, Amina; Veracx, Aurélie; Abrahão, Jônatas; Raoult, Didier

    2013-06-01

    Head and body lice are strict obligate human ectoparasites with three mitochondrial phylotypes (A, B, and C). Using molecular methods for genotyping lice (Cytochrome b and multi-spacer typing), and comparing our results with all the sequences of human lice that were genotyped previously, we assessed the presence of a specific American genotype that most likely predates the Columbian era in head lice collected from Amazonia. PMID:23610158

  4. Akirins in sea lice: first steps towards a deeper understanding.

    PubMed

    Carpio, Yamila; García, Claudia; Pons, Tirso; Haussmann, Denise; Rodríguez-Ramos, Tania; Basabe, Liliana; Acosta, Jannel; Estrada, Mario Pablo

    2013-10-01

    Sea lice (Copepoda, Caligidae) are the most widely distributed marine pathogens in the salmon industry. Vaccination could be an environmentally friendly alternative for sea lice control; however, research on the development of such vaccines is still at an early stage of development. Recent results have suggested that subolesin/akirin/my32 are good candidate antigens for the control of arthropod infestations, including sea lice, but background knowledge about these genes in crustaceans is limited. Herein, we characterize the my32 gene/protein from two important sea lice species, Caligus rogercresseyi and Lepeophtheirus salmonis, based on cDNA sequence isolation, phylogenetic relationships, three dimensional structure prediction and expression analysis. The results show that these genes/proteins have the main characteristics of akirins from invertebrates. In addition, immunization with purified recombinant my32 from L. salmonis elicited a specific antibody response in mice and fish. These results provide an improvement to our current knowledge about my32 proteins and their potential use as vaccine candidates against sea lice in fish. PMID:23850998

  5. Different trichoscopic features of tinea capitis and alopecia areata in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    El-Taweel, Abd-Elaziz; El-Esawy, Fatma; Abdel-Salam, Osama

    2014-01-01

    Background. Diagnosis of patchy hair loss in pediatric patients is often a matter of considerable debate among dermatologists. Trichoscopy is a rapid and noninvasive tool to detect more details of patchy hair loss. Like clinical dermatology, trichoscopy works parallel to the skin surface and perpendicular to the histological plane; like the histopathology, it thus allows the viewing of structures not discovered by the naked eye. Objective. Aiming to compare the different trichoscopic features of tinea capitis and alopecia areata in pediatric patients. Patients and Methods. This study included 40 patients, 20 patients with tinea capitis and 20 patients with alopecia areata. They were exposed toclinical examination, laboratory investigations (10% KOH and fungal culture), and trichoscope examination. Results. Our obtained results reported that, in tinea capitis patients, comma shaped hairs, corkscrew hairs, and zigzag shaped hairs are the diagnostic trichoscopic features of tinea capitis. While in alopecia areata patients, the most trichoscopic specific features were yellow dots, exclamation mark, and short vellus hairs. Conclusion. Trichoscopy can be used as a noninvasive tool for rapid diagnosis of tinea capitis and alopecia areata in pediatric patients. PMID:25024698

  6. Spinosad for the treatment of head lice infestations.

    PubMed

    Villegas, S C

    2012-09-01

    Head lice infestations continue to be an issue in today's society, with an increase in economic cost and resistance. Spinosad 0.9% topical suspension was recently introduced in the U.S. market as a novel agent with both pediculicidal and ovicidal activity, approved in children 4 years of age and older for the treatment of head lice infestations. In clinical trials, it has demonstrated effectiveness against head lice with permethrin resistance. In two clinical trials comparing spinosad to permethrin, efficacy was observed in the spinosad-treated groups at 84.6% and 86.7%, respectively, when compared to the permethrin-treated groups (respective values of 44.9% and 42.9%; P < 0.001). Overall, spinosad was well tolerated in clinical trials. PMID:23032800

  7. Fish Lice (Argulus japonicus) in Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Wafer, Lemnique N; Whitney, Jesse C; Jensen, V Behrana

    2015-01-01

    Fish lice (Argulus spp; family Argulidae) are branchiuran crustaceans that parasitize both marine and freshwater fishes. Argulus spp can be a major threat to fish health, because heavy infestations can cause significant morbidity and mortality. In addition, fish lice are known to be the vehicle for other fish diseases. During rounds at our facility, Argulus japonicus was collected from the caudal and anal fins of 3 goldfish (Carassius auratus).These goldfish were asymptomatic, and no additional cases were noted after manual removal of the lice. As soon as any Argulus organisms are identified, management and treatment are recommended because infections can escalate rapidly. Currently, there are no FDA-approved drugs for the control and treatment of this parasite, but several chemicals including organophosphates and diflubenzuron have been used with success. The screening and quarantine of incoming fish is the best way to avoid a facility-wide Argulus infestation. PMID:25926394

  8. Fish Lice (Argulus japonicus) in Goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Wafer, Lemnique N; Whitney, Jesse C; Jensen, V Behrana

    2015-04-01

    Fish lice (Argulus spp; family Argulidae) are branchiuran crustaceans that parasitize both marine and freshwater fishes. Argulus spp can be a major threat to fish health, because heavy infestations can cause significant morbidity and mortality. In addition, fish lice are known to be the vehicle for other fish diseases. During rounds at our facility, Argulus japonicus was collected from the caudal and anal fins of 3 goldfish (Carassius auratus). These goldfish were asymptomatic, and no additional cases were noted after manual removal of the lice. As soon as any Argulus organisms are identified, management and treatment are recommended because infections can escalate rapidly. Currently, there are no FDA-approved drugs for the control and treatment of this parasite, but several chemicals including organophosphates and diflubenzuron have been used with success. The screening and quarantine of incoming fish is the best way to avoid a facility-wide Argulus infestation. PMID:25926394

  9. Keep Your Wits Not Your Nits: A Rational Approach to Head Lice from the National Pediculosis Association. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altschuler, Deborah Z.; And Others

    This booklet was intended to teach parents about head lice, which are small, wingless, crawling insects that feed on human blood. The booklet briefly discusses: (1) physical characteristics of lice; (2) ways of becoming infested with head lice, such as sharing combs; (3) nits, which are the eggs of lice; (4) the difference between nits and hair…

  10. Evolutionary history of mammalian sucking lice (Phthiraptera: Anoplura)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sucking lice (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) are obligate, permanent ectoparasites of eutherian mammals, parasitizing members of 12 of the 29 recognized mammalian orders and approximately 20% of all mammalian species. These host specific, blood-sucking insects are morphologically adapted for life on mammals: they are wingless, dorso-ventrally flattened, possess tibio-tarsal claws for clinging to host hair, and have piercing mouthparts for feeding. Although there are more than 540 described species of Anoplura and despite the potential economical and medical implications of sucking louse infestations, this study represents the first attempt to examine higher-level anopluran relationships using molecular data. In this study, we use molecular data to reconstruct the evolutionary history of 65 sucking louse taxa with phylogenetic analyses and compare the results to findings based on morphological data. We also estimate divergence times among anopluran taxa and compare our results to host (mammal) relationships. Results This study represents the first phylogenetic hypothesis of sucking louse relationships using molecular data and we find significant conflict between phylogenies constructed using molecular and morphological data. We also find that multiple families and genera of sucking lice are not monophyletic and that extensive taxonomic revision will be necessary for this group. Based on our divergence dating analyses, sucking lice diversified in the late Cretaceous, approximately 77 Ma, and soon after the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (ca. 65 Ma) these lice proliferated rapidly to parasitize multiple mammalian orders and families. Conclusions The diversification time of sucking lice approximately 77 Ma is in agreement with mammalian evolutionary history: all modern mammal orders are hypothesized to have diverged by 75 Ma thus providing suitable habitat for the colonization and radiation of sucking lice. Despite the concordant timing of diversification events

  11. Identification and comparative analysis of G protein-coupled receptors in Pediculus humanus humanus.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengjun; Song, Xiaowen; Chen, Xuhong; Liu, Xing; Sang, Ming; Wu, Wei; Yun, Xiaopei; Hu, Xingxing; Li, Bin

    2014-07-01

    The body louse has the smallest genome size among the known genome-sequenced insects. Here, 81 GPCRs were identified in Pediculus humanus humanus, 56, 14, 6 and 5 GPCRs for family-A, -B, -C and -D, respectively. These GPCRs constitute the comparable repertoire of GPCRs with other insects. Moreover, it contains a more complete set of neuropeptide and protein hormone receptors not even than Acyrthosiphon pisum but also Drosophila melanogaster, for example, Sulfakinin, Corazonin, Trissin and PTHRL only presented in P. h. humanus but lost either in A. pisum or D. melanogaster. However, it has less duplication among the sub-families. Meanwhile, ACP, AVPL, HE6 receptors and Boss were also absent from P. h. humanus. These results indicated that the repertoire of GPCRs in P. h. humanus were not affected by its smallest genome size, and further suggested that P. h. humanus has a relatively original and concise GPCR regulation system. PMID:24952173

  12. Prophylactic Ketoconazole Shampoo for Tinea Capitis in a High-Risk Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Bookstaver, P. Brandon; Watson, Holly J.; Winters, Shauna D.; Carlson, Adrian L.; Schulz, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Although topical agents for the treatment of tinea capitis decrease viable fungal elements and reduce shedding, their use as a prophylactic agent has not been investigated. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a prophylactic ketoconazole shampoo (Nizoral 2%) protocol to reduce the number of clinically evident tinea capitis infections in a high-risk African American, urban population. METHODS We conducted a retrospective analysis of a ketoconazole prophylaxis protocol that was implemented at an urban pediatric clinic for medically fragile children. Patients at high risk for tinea capitis received twice-weekly ketoconazole shampoo. The primary outcome of the study was a reduction in the number of documented tinea capitis infections between the 12-month preprotocol and 12-month postprotocol periods. A secondary outcome included the evaluation of predisposing risk factors for acquiring tinea infections. RESULTS Ninety-seven patients, with a mean age of 8.06 years, were included. Most patients (78%) were African American. There were a total of 13 tinea capitis infections during the 12-month preprotocol period. During the 12-month postprotocol period, 41 infections were documented: 37 (90.2%) in the prophylaxis group and 4 (9.8%) in the nonprophylaxis group. The average numbers of per-patient infections in the postprotocol period were 0.79 and 0.08 in the prophylaxis and nonprophylaxis groups, respectively. Initiation of prophylaxis did not reduce tinea capitis infections (p=NS). Previous history of infection and a high level of care were significant predictors of infections (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Improved hygiene, adherence to prescribed treatment regimens, and prevention of recurrent environmental exposure to surviving fomites should be stressed in high-risk patients and supersede the need for an antifungal (ketoconazole shampoo) prophylaxis protocol. PMID:22479162

  13. Efficacy of spray formulations containing binary mixtures of clove and eucalyptus oils against susceptible and pyrethroid/ malathion-resistant head lice (Anoplura: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Choi, Han-Young; Yang, Young-Cheol; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, J Marshall; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2010-05-01

    The control efficacy of clove, Eugenia caryophyllata, and eucalyptus, Eucalyptus globulus, essential oils and 15 formulations containing these essential oils alone (8, 12, and 15% sprays) and their binary mixtures (7:3, 5:5, and 3:7 by weight) against adult females of insecticide-susceptible KR-HL and dual malathion- and permethrin-resistant BR-HL strains of head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis (De Geer), was examined by using contact plus fumigant and human hair wig (placed over the head of mannequin) mortality bioassays. In contact plus fumigant mortality bioassay, essential oils from eucalyptus (0.225 mg/cm2) and clove (1.149 mg/cm2) were less effective than either d-phenothrin (0.0029 mg/cm2) or pyrethrum (0.0025 mg/cm2) based on 6-h median lethal concentration values. However, the efficacies of eucalyptus and clove oils were almost identical against females fromn both strains, despite high levels of resistance of the BR-HL females to d-phenothrin (resistance ratio, 667) and pyrethrum (resistance ratio, 754). In human hair wig mortality bioassay, eucalyptus oil spray treatment gave better control efficacy than either spray treatment with clove oil alone or their binary mixtures. Thus, eucalyptus applied as 8% sprays (15 or 20 ml) appears to provide effective protection against pediculosis even to insecticide-resistant head louse populations. Once the safety issues resolved, covering the treated hair and scalp with bath shower cap or hat would ensure the fumigant action of the essential oil. PMID:20496586

  14. Socioeconomic status, family background and other key factors influence the management of head lice in Norway.

    PubMed

    Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Soleng, Arnulf; Lindstedt, Heidi Heggen; Ottesen, Preben; Birkemoe, Tone

    2014-05-01

    How head lice infestations are managed by households is an important but generally neglected issue in head lice research. In the present study, we investigate actions taken against head lice by Norwegian households in association with socioeconomic status, family background, school-related variables and other key factors. Repeat questionnaires distributed to caretakers of the same elementary school children during a 2-year period enabled us to study both previous head lice management and any changes in this management through time. Households from 12 schools spanning the main socioeconomic variation found in Norway participated in the study. All students with active head lice infestation were treated in the four investigated periods. Most caretakers used a thorough head lice checking technique and informed others of own infestation. Checking frequency was low as most children were inspected less than monthly. The best determinant of increased checking frequency and thoroughness was personal experience with head lice. The increased awareness, however, seemed to be somewhat short-lived, as there was a decrease in checking frequency and thoroughness within 1 year after infestation. Personal experience with head lice also increased general knowledge related to the parasite. Parents born in developing countries checked their children for head lice more frequently, although less thoroughly, informed fewer contacts when infested, used pediculicides preventively more often and knew less about head lice than parents born in developed countries. Households with highly educated mothers had a lower checking frequency, but their knowledge and willingness to inform others was high. Single parents were more concerned about economic costs and kept children home from school longer while infested than other parents. As head lice management varied among socioeconomic groups and with parental background, differentiated advice should be considered in the control of head lice. The

  15. A Policy Change Strategy for Head Lice Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andresen, Kathleen; McCarthy, Ann Marie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to formulate an effective change strategy for head lice management in a group of five separate school districts within one county. Despite a desire to use evidence to support their practice, school nurses often encounter educational system barriers that prevent independent management of health conditions. The use of…

  16. Estimating costs of sea lice control strategy in Norway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yajie; Bjelland, Hans Vanhauwaer

    2014-12-01

    This paper explores the costs of sea lice control strategies associated with salmon aquaculture at a farm level in Norway. Diseases can cause reduction in growth, low feed efficiency and market prices, increasing mortality rates, and expenditures on prevention and treatment measures. Aquaculture farms suffer the most direct and immediate economic losses from diseases. The goal of a control strategy is to minimize the total disease costs, including biological losses, and treatment costs while to maximize overall profit. Prevention and control strategies are required to eliminate or minimize the disease, while cost-effective disease control strategies at the fish farm level are designed to reduce the losses, and to enhance productivity and profitability. Thus, the goal can be achieved by integrating models of fish growth, sea lice dynamics and economic factors. A production function is first constructed to incorporate the effects of sea lice on production at a farm level, followed by a detailed cost analysis of several prevention and treatment strategies associated with sea lice in Norway. The results reveal that treatments are costly and treatment costs are very sensitive to treatment types used and timing of the treatment conducted. Applying treatment at an early growth stage is more economical than at a later stage. PMID:25443395

  17. Risk Factors for Human Lice and Bartonellosis among the Homeless, San Francisco, California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Cole-Porse, Charsey; Kjemtrup, Anne; Osikowicz, Lynn; Kosoy, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Homeless persons in San Francisco, California, USA, have been shown to have head and body lice infestations and Bartonella quintana infections. We surveyed a self-selected population of homeless persons in San Francisco to assess infestations of head and body lice, risks of having body lice, and presence of B. quintana in lice. A total of 203 persons who reported itching were surveyed during 2008–2010 and 2012: 60 (30%) had body lice, 10 (4.9%) had head lice, and 6 (3.0%) had both. B. quintana was detected in 10 (15.9%) of 63 body lice pools and in 6 (37.5%) of 16 head lice pools. Variables significantly associated (p<0.05) with having body lice in this homeless population included male sex, African–American ethnicity, and sleeping outdoors. Our study findings suggest that specific segments of the homeless population would benefit from information on preventing body lice infestations and louseborne diseases. PMID:25280380

  18. Inflammatory tinea capitis (kerion) mimicking dissecting cellulitis. Occurrence in two adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sperling, L C

    1991-03-01

    Tinea capitis is unusual in postpubertal individuals and is frequently misdiagnosed. In cases of inflammatory disease, prompt initiation of therapy is essential to prevent scarring and permanent hair loss. Two examples are presented to illustrate principles of evaluation and treatment. PMID:2037403

  19. Aspergillus niger - a possible new etiopathogenic agent in Tinea capitis? Presentation of two cases.

    PubMed

    Chokoeva, Anastasiya Atanasova; Zisova, Liliya; Chorleva, Kristina; Tchernev, Georgi

    2016-01-01

    Tinea capitis is generally considered as the most frequent fungal infection in childhood, as it accounts for approximately 92% of all mycosis in children. The epidemiology of this disease varies widely ranging from antropophillic, zoophilic, and geophillic dermatophytes, as the main causative agent in different geographic areas, depending on several additional factors. Nowadays, the etiology is considered to vary with age, as well with gender, and general health condition. The former reported extraordinary Tinea capitis case reports have been replaced by original articles and researches dealing with progressively changing patterns in etiology and clinical manifestation of the disease. This fact is indicative that under the umbrella of the well-known disease there are facts still hidden for future revelations. Herein, we present two rare cases of Tinea capitis in children, which totally differ from the recently established pattern, in their clinical presentation, as well as in the etiological aspect, as we discuss this potential new etiological pattern of the disease, focusing on our retrospective and clinical observation. Collected data suggest that pathogenic molds should be considered as a potential source of infection in some geographic regions, which require total rationalization of the former therapeutic conception, regarding the molds' higher antimitotic resistance compared to dermatophytes. Molds-induced Tinea capitis should be also considered in clinically resistant and atypical cases, with further investigations of the antifungal susceptibility of the newest pathogens in the frame of the old disease. Further investigations are still needed to confirm or reject this proposal. PMID:26963152

  20. An experience from an outbreak of tinea capitis gladiatorum due to Trichophyton tonsurans.

    PubMed

    Ergin, S; Ergin, C; Erdoğan, B S; Kaleli, I; Evliyaoğlu, D

    2006-03-01

    'Tinea corporis gladiatorum' describes a dermatophytosis transmitted mainly from close skin contact among wrestlers. Although tinea corporis is well recognized, no data are available for tinea capitis infections in wrestlers. After finding tinea capitis infection in a student wrestler, we aimed to search for possible ringworm infections among wrestlers in a wrestling boarding-school. Of the 32 wrestlers, 29, aged 12-18 years, were affected, of whom 22 had scalp involvement. Trichophyton tonsurans was isolated from 20 of the patients, and T. mentagrophytes from the remaining two. Isolated strains of dermatophytes were susceptible to terbinafine and itraconazole. The patients with tinea capitis received oral terbinafine for 4 weeks, and patients with more than two lesions but without scalp involvement received oral terbinafine for 2 weeks. Overall clinical and mycological cure rate was 72.4% and 70%, respectively, at assessment at week 6. The asymptomatic dermatophyte carrier rate was negative 1 year after control of the epidemic. Terbinafine seems to be an alternative drug for the treatment of tinea capitis caused by T. tonsurans; however, control of an outbreak may be very difficult and effective preventive measures should be considered. PMID:16487093

  1. [Comparative activity of different groups of insecticides against permethrin-resistant lice (anoplura: pediculidae)].

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu

    2013-01-01

    The activity of insecticides (CK50, CK95 ) from different chemical classes against permethrin-resistant body and head lice was investigated. Having developed resistance to pyrethroids (permethrin, d-phenothrin, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin), the lice remain susceptible to organophosphorus compounds, phenylpyrazoles, neonicotinoids, and avermectins. The susceptibility of lice to the insecticides having a mechanism of action that is different from that of pyrethroids does not depend on the level of their resistance to permethrin. PMID:23805484

  2. Taxonomy of lice and their endosymbiotic bacteria in the post-genomic era.

    PubMed

    Boyd, B M; Reed, D L

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies of molecular and genomic data from the parasitic lice of birds and mammals, as well as their mutualistic endosymbiotic bacteria, are changing the phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy of these organisms. Phylogenetic studies of lice suggest that vertebrate parasitism arose multiple times from free-living book and bark lice. Molecular clocks show that the major families of lice arose in the late Mesozoic and radiated in the early Cenozoic, following the radiation of mammals and birds. The recent release of the human louse genome has provided new opportunities for research. The genome is being used to find new genetic markers for phylogenetics and population genetics, to understand the complex evolutionary relationships of mitochondrial genes, and to study genome evolution. Genomes are informing us not only about lice, but also about their obligate endosymbiotic bacteria. In contrast to lice and their hosts, lice and their endosymbionts do not share common evolutionary histories, suggesting that endosymbionts are either replaced over time or that there are multiple independent origins of symbiosis in lice. Molecular phylogenetics and whole genome sequencing have recently provided the first insights into the phylogenetic placement and metabolic characteristics of these distantly related bacteria. Comparative genomics between distantly related louse symbionts can provide insights into conserved metabolic functions and can help to explain how distantly related species are fulfilling their role as mutualistic symbionts. In lice and their endosymbionts, molecular data and genome sequencing are driving our understanding of evolutionary relationships and classification, and will for the foreseeable future. PMID:22429457

  3. Substantial Variation in the Extent of Mitochondrial Genome Fragmentation among Blood-Sucking Lice of Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Haowei; Barker, Stephen C.; Shao, Renfu

    2013-01-01

    Blood-sucking lice of humans have extensively fragmented mitochondrial (mt) genomes. Human head louse and body louse have their 37 mt genes on 20 minichromosomes. In human pubic louse, the 34 mt genes known are on 14 minichromosomes. To understand the process of mt genome fragmentation in the blood-sucking lice of mammals, we sequenced the mt genomes of the domestic pig louse, Haematopinus suis, and the wild pig louse, H. apri, which diverged from human lice approximately 65 Ma. The 37 mt genes of the pig lice are on nine circular minichromosomes; each minichromosome is 3–4 kb in size. The pig lice have four genes per minichromosome on average, in contrast to two genes per minichromosome in the human lice. One minichromosome of the pig lice has eight genes and is the most gene-rich minichromosome found in the sucking lice. Our results indicate substantial variation in the rate and extent of mt genome fragmentation among different lineages of the sucking lice. PMID:23781098

  4. Severe pediculosis capitus: a case of "crusted lice" with autoeczematization.

    PubMed

    Connor, Cody J; Selby, John C; Wanat, Karolyn A

    2016-01-01

    Pediculosis humanus capitus infestations are common and classically present with intense pruritus of the scalp. Although many treatment options are available, lice are becoming more resistant to conventional therapies and severe clinical presentations are bound to become more prevalent. We present a case of treatment-resistant pediculosis capitus resulting in diffuse autoeczematization of the torso and extremities and severe crusting and scaling of the scalp, which we called "crusted lice." This eruption differs from the well-described id reaction known as "pediculid" and represents a more dramatic manifestation of rampant infestation. This paper provides an up-to-date review of treatment options available for pediculosis humanus capitus, including newer medications like the ones that eventually led to resolution of our patient's extreme infestation. PMID:27136626

  5. Drug resistance in sea lice: a threat to salmonid aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Aaen, Stian Mørch; Helgesen, Kari Olli; Bakke, Marit Jørgensen; Kaur, Kiranpreet; Horsberg, Tor Einar

    2015-02-01

    Sea lice are copepod ectoparasites with vast reproductive potential and affect a wide variety of fish species. The number of parasites causing morbidity is proportional to fish size. Natural low host density restricts massive parasite dispersal. However, expanded salmon farming has shifted the conditions in favor of the parasite. Salmon farms are often situated near wild salmonid migrating routes, with smolts being particularly vulnerable to sea lice infestation. In order to protect both farmed and wild salmonids passing or residing in the proximity of the farms, several measures are taken. Medicinal treatment of farmed fish has been the most predictable and efficacious, leading to extensive use of the available compounds. This has resulted in drug-resistant parasites occurring on farmed and possibly wild salmonids. PMID:25639521

  6. Head lice treatments: Searching for the path of least resistance.

    PubMed

    Heymann, Warren R

    2009-08-01

    Based on the dialogue "Head lice" between Drs Kimberly D. Morel and Stephen Stone. Dialogues in Dermatology, a monthly audio program from the American Academy of Dermatology, contains discussions between dermatologists on timely topics. Commentaries from Dialogues Editor-in-Chief Warren R. Heymann, MD, are provided after each discussion as a topic summary and are provided here as a special service to readers of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. PMID:19615542

  7. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from wild birds in southern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Tomás, André; Palma, Ricardo L; Rebelo, Maria Teresa; da Fonseca, Isabel Pereira

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out to determine chewing louse species of wild birds in the Ria Formosa Natural Park, located in southern Portugal. In addition, the hypothesis that bird age, avian migration and social behaviour have an impact on the louse prevalence was tested. Between September and December of 2013, 122 birds (belonging to 10 orders, 19 families, 31 genera and 35 species) captured in scientific ringing sessions and admitted to the Wildlife Rehabilitation and Investigation Centre of Ria Formosa were examined for lice. Twenty-six (21.3%) birds were found to be infested with at least one chewing louse species. The chewing lice identified include 18 species. Colonial birds (34.9%) and migratory birds (29.5%) had statistically significant higher prevalence than territorial birds (6.8%) and resident birds (13.1%), respectively. This paper records 17 louse species for the first time in southern Portugal: Laemobothrion maximum, Laemobothrion vulturis, Actornithophilus piceus lari, Actornithophilus umbrinus, Austromenopon lutescens, Colpocephalum heterosoma, Colpocephalum turbinatum, Eidmanniella pustulosa, Nosopon casteli, Pectinopygus bassani, Pseudomenopon pilosum, Trinoton femoratum, Trinoton querquedulae, Craspedorrhynchus platystomus, Degeeriella fulva, Falcolipeurus quadripustulatus, Lunaceps schismatus. Also a nymph of the genus Strigiphilus was collected from a Eurasian eagle-owl. These findings contribute to the knowledge of avian chewing lice from important birds areas in Portugal. PMID:26899014

  8. Ecomorphology of parasite attachment: experiments with feather lice.

    PubMed

    Bush, Sarah E; Sohn, Edward; Clayton, Dale H

    2006-02-01

    The host specificity of some parasites can be reinforced by morphological specialization for attachment to mobile hosts. For example, ectoparasites with adaptations for attaching to hosts of a particular size might not be able to remain attached to larger or smaller hosts. This hypothesis is suggested by the positive correlation documented between the body sizes of many parasites and their hosts. We adopted an ecomorphological approach to test the attachment hypothesis. We tested the ability of host-specific feather lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) to attach to 6 novel species of pigeons and doves that vary in size by nearly 2 orders of magnitude. Surprisingly, Rock Pigeon lice (Columbicola columbae) remained attached equally well to all 6 novel host species. We tested the relative importance of 3 factors that could facilitate louse attachment: whole-body insertion, tarsal claw use, and mandible use. Insertion, per se, was not necessary for attachment. However, insertion on coarse feathers of large hosts allowed lice to access feather barbules with their mandibles. Mandible use was a key component of attachment regardless of feather size. Attachment constraints do not appear to reinforce host specificity in this system. PMID:16629310

  9. Survival away from sheep and alternative methods of transmission of sheep lice (Bovicola ovis).

    PubMed

    Crawford, S; James, P J; Maddocks, S

    2001-01-01

    Transmission of sheep lice is thought to occur mainly by sheep to sheep contact although the possibility of other sources of infestation is often suggested. This study investigated the period of survival of Bovicola ovis after removal from sheep under varying conditions and assessed the likelihood of new infestations arising from contaminated facilities, wool caught on fences and shearers' footwear. In laboratory studies with lice held away from sheep at 4, 20, 25 and 36.5 degrees C, adults and nymphs survived longest at 25 degrees C (LT90 of 11.7 and 24.1 days for adults and large nymphs, respectively). Nymphs survived longer than adults and lice provided with raw wool survived longer than lice provided with wool that had been degreased. Nymphal lice survived for up to 29 days on unscoured wool at 36.5 degrees C, but the LT50 was less than 9 days in most experiments. In shearing sheds in winter and early spring lice survived for up to 14 and 16 days, respectively. These periods of survival are considerably longer than previously indicated for B. ovis. Most lice dropped out of wool staples attached to a fence within 1 h and only two of a total of 225 lice were still present after 24 h, suggesting that sheep are unlikely to become infested from wool caught on fences. Adult and nymphal lice readily transferred to shearers' moccasins and survived there for up to 10 days, indicating that transmission of lice on the footwear of shearers or other sheep handlers may be a cause of new infestations. Microwaving each moccasin for 5 min killed all lice and may provide a simple method of reducing the likelihood of transmission of B. ovis between properties. PMID:11113551

  10. Patterns of attachment of the myodural bridge by the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao-Ying; Yu, Sheng-Bo; Li, Yun-Fei; Chi, Yan-Yan; Zheng, Nan; Gao, Hai-Bin; Luan, Bing-Yi; Zhang, Zhao-Xi; Sui, Hong-Jin

    2016-03-01

    The myodural bridge was first described by Hack in 1995 and was thought to be related to chronic cervicogenic headaches. For a long time, few studies revealed the patterns of the myodural bridge considering the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle. In this study, P45 plastination technology and anatomical dissection were performed on head specimens, and four different terminal region types of the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle were observed, including the posterior atlanto-occipital interspace, posterior arch of the atlas and posterior atlanto-axial interspace. We propose that the myodural complex structures in the posterior atlanto-occipital and posterior atlanto-axial interspace have cooperative effects on cerebrospinal fluid and work together. This force might be an important source for the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:25859757

  11. Intractable occipital neuralgia caused by an entrapment in the semispinalis capitis.

    PubMed

    Son, Byung-Chul; Kim, Deok-Ryeong; Lee, Sang-Won

    2013-09-01

    Occipital neuralgia is a rare pain syndrome characterized by periodic lancinating pain involving the occipital nerve complex. We present a unique case of entrapment of the greater occipital nerve (GON) within the semispinalis capitis, which was thought to be the cause of occipital neuralgia. A 66-year-old woman with refractory left occipital neuralgia revealed an abnormally low-loop of the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery on the magnetic resonance imaging, suggesting possible vascular compression of the upper cervical roots. During exploration, however, the GON was found to be entrapped at the perforation site of the semispinalis capitis. There was no other compression of the GON or of C1 and C2 dorsal roots in their intracranial course. Postoperatively, the patient experienced almost complete relief of typical neuralgic pain. Although occipital neuralgia has been reported to occur by stretching of the GON by inferior oblique muscle or C1-C2 arthrosis, peripheral compression in the transmuscular course of the GON in the semispinalis capitis as a cause of refractory occipital neuralgia has not been reported and this should be considered when assessing surgical options for refractory occipital neuralgia. PMID:24278663

  12. Head lice predictors and infestation dynamics among primary school children in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Birkemoe, Tone; Lindstedt, Heidi Heggen; Ottesen, Preben; Soleng, Arnulf; Næss, Øyvind; Rukke, Bjørn Arne

    2016-01-01

    Background. Health providers need to know which measures to take and children to prioritize in order to decrease costs associated with head lice infestations. Objective. Our aim was to determine the most important predictors for head lice and identify the major drivers of an infestation outbreak in a low-prevalence area. Methods. The study was based on three datasets of head lice prevalence (retrospective, point prevalence and prospective approach) from primary school children (ages 6–12) at 12 schools in Oslo, Norway. The tested predictors were siblings with lice, individual and household characteristics as well as class and school affiliation. Self-reported monthly incidences (prospective approach) of head lice were used to evaluate infestation dynamics. Results. Infested siblings strongly increased the odds of head lice infestation of school children (odds ratio 36, 26 and 7 in the three datasets) whereas having short hair halved the odds. Household characteristics were of minor importance, and class affiliation proved more important than school affiliation. Having head lice in one school term increased the odds of an infestation in the next, but this effect diminished over time. About 97% of all self-reported infestations were noted in two consecutive months or less. Conclusions. With the exception of hair length, we have found that individual and household characteristics are of minor importance to predict head lice infestations in a low-prevalence country and that unnoticed transmissions in school classes and families are likely to be the major driver upon outbreaks. PMID:26511728

  13. Network centrality and seasonality interact to predict lice load in a social primate

    PubMed Central

    Duboscq, Julie; Romano, Valeria; Sueur, Cédric; MacIntosh, Andrew J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Lice are socially-transmitted ectoparasites. Transmission depends upon their host’s degree of contact with conspecifics. While grooming facilitates ectoparasite transmission via body contact, it also constrains their spread through parasite removal. We investigated relations between parasite burden and sociality in female Japanese macaques following two opposing predictions: i) central females in contact/grooming networks harbour more lice, related to their numerous contacts; ii) central females harbour fewer lice, related to receiving more grooming. We estimated lice load non-invasively using the conspicuous louse egg-picking behaviour performed by macaques during grooming. We tested for covariation in several centrality measures and lice load, controlling for season, female reproductive state and dominance rank. Results show that the interaction between degree centrality (number of partners) and seasonality predicted lice load: females interacting with more partners had fewer lice than those interacting with fewer partners in winter and summer, whereas there was no relationship between lice load and centrality in spring and fall. This is counter to the prediction that increased contact leads to greater louse burden but fits the prediction that social grooming limits louse burden. Interactions between environmental seasonality and both parasite and host biology appeared to mediate the role of social processes in louse burden. PMID:26915589

  14. Molecular typing study of the Microsporum canis strains isolated from an outbreak of tinea capitis in a school.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin; Wan, Zhe; Chen, Wei; Wang, Wenling; Li, Ruoyu

    2004-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection of the scalp that occurs most often in prepubescent children. Tinea capitis may be transmitted by shared use of contaminated hairbrush, by contact with fomites or by direct physical contact with an infected person. Occasionally, outbreak of tinea capitis would happen under some special conditions. Last year, we found an outbreak of tinea capitis in a school due to Microsporum canis. In epidemiological study, we performed the prevalence survey to all of the exposed persons by physical examinations and mycological laboratory tests, including KOH preparation and fungal cultures. We also investigated the environment in the school. In molecular typing study of the M. canis isolated from patients and the environment, random primer amplification polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method, the specific amplification of subrepeat element in the ribosomal DNA nontranscribed spacer (NTS), and the analysis of DNA sequence in the intertranscribed spacer (ITS) of rDNA were performed. The total number of exposed children was seventy-one, among them forty-two were attacked by tinea capitis. The ratio between boy and girl was 13:1. The ages of the patients was ranged from 3.5 years old to 10 years old. Four patients bred cat or dog as pet. Most patients appeared noninflammatory type of tinea capitis and several patients were inflammatory type. Under microscopic examination the invaded hair were all ectothrix. The pathogens isolated from these patients were M. canis. And we also isolated M. canis from the carpet and the pillowcase in the school. The patterns of total strains of M. canis in the RAPD method and PCR amplification of the rDNA NTS region study were identical, and the isolates from patients and the environment contained the same DNA sequences in the ITS region. The outbreak of tinea capitis was caused by M. canis. The M. canis isolated from patients and from the environment were probably the same origin. PMID:15008343

  15. Towards the eradication of head lice: literature review and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Koch, T; Brown, M; Selim, P; Isam, C

    2001-05-01

    Head lice infestation is a public health issue. In the effort to compile an evidence-base about the physiology, detection, treatment, effects and management strategies of head lice infestations we reviewed current literature. This literature signalled significant evidence gaps and these gaps provide incentives for further research. Our conclusions from the literature are that parents of children are responsible for head lice detection and treatment but have varying access to advice about how best to treat this condition. Concern is exacerbated by misconceptions surrounding the circumstances of infestation. Head lice are a low priority for health professionals in Australia, whereas parents and teachers believe the problem necessitates greater attention. It is important to provide a unified evidence-based approach to good information. It is timely for health care professionals to re-examine and prioritize this public health issue. They should research and work collaboratively towards the eradication of head lice. PMID:11820546

  16. Repeated adaptive divergence of microhabitat specialization in avian feather lice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Repeated adaptive radiations are evident when phenotypic divergence occurs within lineages, but this divergence into different forms is convergent when compared across lineages. Classic examples of such repeated adaptive divergence occur in island (for example, Caribbean Anolis lizards) and lake systems (for example, African cichlids). Host-parasite systems in many respects are analogous to island systems, where host species represent isolated islands for parasites whose life cycle is highly tied to that of their hosts. Thus, host-parasite systems might exhibit interesting cases of repeated adaptive divergence as seen in island and lake systems. The feather lice of birds spend their entire life cycle on the body of the host and occupy distinct microhabitats on the host: head, wing, body and generalist. These microhabitat specialists show pronounced morphological differences corresponding to how they escape from host preening. We tested whether these different microhabitat specialists were a case of repeated adaptive divergence by constructing both morphological and molecular phylogenies for a diversity of avian feather lice, including many examples of head, wing, body and generalist forms. Results Morphological and molecular based phylogenies were highly incongruent, which could be explained by rampant convergence in morphology related to microhabitat specialization on the host. In many cases lice from different microhabitat specializations, but from the same group of birds, were sister taxa. Conclusions This pattern indicates a process of repeated adaptive divergence of these parasites within host group, but convergence when comparing parasites across host groups. These results suggest that host-parasite systems might be another case in which repeated adaptive radiations could be relatively common, but potentially overlooked, because morphological convergence can obscure evolutionary relationships. PMID:22717002

  17. Evolution of tinea capitis in the Nanchang area, Southern China: a 50-year survey (1965-2014).

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ping; Geng, Chengfang; Li, Zhihua; Jin, Yun; Jiang, Qing; Tao, Li; Luo, Yunpeng; Xiong, Zhiwei; Wu, Shaoxi; Li, Dongmei; Liu, Weida; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2015-05-01

    Tinea capitis remains a common public health problem worldwide especially in developing areas. Aetiologic agents and clinical pattern vary with geography and history of socioeconomic conditions. Three community surveys and a prospective study were carried out over the past 50 years (1965-2014) in the Qingyunpu District of Nanchang, Southern China. Clinical presentation and spectrum of aetiological agents were monitored to understand the evolution of tinea capitis. In 1965 favus was highly epidemic and Trichophyton schoenleinii presented as the overwhelming aetiological agents of scalp infection in the study area, with a prevalence of 3.41% of the population. During a governmental campaign to eliminate tinea capitis initiated in mid of 1960s, favus was successfully controlled and the prevalence decreased to less than 0.01% in 1977. After that period, clinical presentation and spectrum of fungi changed with social development. Trichophyton schoenleinii was replaced by Trichophyton violaceum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Nowadays, the species corresponds with a dominant black dot type of tinea capitis in the Nanchang area. The prevalence of causative agents of tinea capitis is not only related to geography but also to socioeconomic factors. Multiple factors have to be considered for the management for control of this disease. PMID:25756741

  18. Fragmented mitochondrial genomes in two suborders of parasitic lice of eutherian mammals (Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina, Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Renfu; Barker, Stephen C; Li, Hu; Song, Simon; Poudel, Shreekanta; Su, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic lice (order Phthiraptera) infest birds and mammals. The typical animal mitochondrial (mt) genome organization, which consists of a single chromosome with 37 genes, was found in chewing lice in the suborders Amblycera and Ischnocera. The sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) known, however, have fragmented mt genomes with 9–20 minichromosomes. We sequenced the mt genome of the elephant louse, Haematomyzus elephantis – the first species of chewing lice investigated from the suborder Rhynchophthirina. We identified 33 mt genes in the elephant louse, which were on 10 minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3.5–4.2 kb in size and has 2–6 genes. Phylogenetic analyses of mt genome sequences confirm that the elephant louse is more closely related to sucking lice than to the chewing lice in the Amblycera and Ischnocera. Our results indicate that mt genome fragmentation is shared by the suborders Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina. Nine of the 10 mt minichromosomes of the elephant louse differ from those of the sucking lice (Anoplura) known in gene content and gene arrangement, indicating that distinct mt karyotypes have evolved in Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina since they diverged ~92 million years ago. PMID:26617060

  19. Vertical transmission of feather lice between adult blackbirds Turdus merula and their nestlings: a lousy perspective.

    PubMed

    Brooke, M de L

    2010-12-01

    There is limited information about the natural history of the transmission of feather lice (Phthiraptera) from parent birds to their young. This article therefore examines the transmission of 4 species of feather lice from parent blackbirds to their nestlings in an English population, and addresses questions formulated from the perspective of the lice. The lice that disperse onto the several young in the nest were mostly found on the larger chicks, those with higher survival prospects. The lice dispersing to chicks were overwhelmingly nymphs, which cannot be sexed morphologically, and so the prediction that the adult lice dispersing would be disproportionately female, potential founders of a new population, was only supported for the most numerous species, Brueelia merulensis. There was no evidence that louse dispersal to chicks was density dependent and more likely when the parents were more heavily infested. Finally, I predicted that lice might aggregate on female blackbirds, which undertake more brooding, to increase their chance of transmission to nestlings. For 1 louse species, B. merulensis, prevalence, but not louse intensity, was higher on female than male blackbirds. For 2 other louse species, Philopterus turdi and Menacanthus eurysternus, no differences between male and female blackbirds were detected. PMID:21158613

  20. Proteomic analysis of epidermal mucus from sea lice-infected Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    PubMed

    Provan, F; Jensen, L B; Uleberg, K E; Larssen, E; Rajalahti, T; Mullins, J; Obach, A

    2013-03-01

    Health diets that contain immunostimulants and other functional ingredients can strengthen the immune response in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, and thereby reduce sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infection levels. Such diets can be used to supplement other treatments and will potentially reduce the need for delousing and medication. A sea lice infection trial was conducted on fish with an average weight of 215 g. One control diet and four experimental diets containing functional ingredients were produced. The diets were fed to salmon for 4 weeks before infection with sea lice copepodids. When lice had developed to chalimus III/IV, 88 fish per diet were examined for lice loads. Mucus samples from fish fed the different diets were taken before and after lice infection. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics was used to characterize the protein composition in the epidermal mucus of Atlantic salmon and to identify quantitative alterations in protein expression. Multivariate analysis of the generated data sets was performed to identify protein biomarkers. Putative biomarkers associated with functional feed intake and with sea lice infection have been identified and can form the basis for strategic validation experiments with selected functional feeds. PMID:23305410

  1. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) species of wild birds in northwestern Turkey with a new host record☆

    PubMed Central

    Girisgin, Ahmet Onur; Dik, Bilal; Girisgin, Oya

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the chewing lice species of migratory and non-migratory wild birds in the province of Bursa, which is located in northwestern Turkey, between August 2009 and November 2012. Sixty-eight birds brought to the animal hospital in need of medical intervention, which belonged to 25 species, 20 genera and 15 families in 10 orders, were examined for ectoparasites. To sample for the presence of chewing lice, an insecticide was pulverised on the feathers of each bird over a white piece of paper, and then all of the lice were collected and placed in tubes containing 70% alcohol. The lice specimens were cleared in 10% KOH for 24 h, mounted in Canada balsam and identified using a light microscope. Forty (58.8%) out of 68 birds examined were infested with at least one species of chewing lice, and a total of 29 lice species were found on the birds. This study represents the first documentation in Turkey of 9 of these lice species and also provides the first worldwide record of Degeeriella nisus on the Common buzzard (Buteo buteo). PMID:24533339

  2. Rates of genomic divergence in humans, chimpanzees and their lice

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kevin P.; Allen, Julie M.; Olds, Brett P.; Mugisha, Lawrence; Reed, David L.; Paige, Ken N.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2014-01-01

    The rate of DNA mutation and divergence is highly variable across the tree of life. However, the reasons underlying this variation are not well understood. Comparing the rates of genetic changes between hosts and parasite lineages that diverged at the same time is one way to begin to understand differences in genetic mutation and substitution rates. Such studies have indicated that the rate of genetic divergence in parasites is often faster than that of their hosts when comparing single genes. However, the variation in this relative rate of molecular evolution across different genes in the genome is unknown. We compared the rate of DNA sequence divergence between humans, chimpanzees and their ectoparasitic lice for 1534 protein-coding genes across their genomes. The rate of DNA substitution in these orthologous genes was on average 14 times faster for lice than for humans and chimpanzees. In addition, these rates were positively correlated across genes. Because this correlation only occurred for substitutions that changed the amino acid, this pattern is probably produced by similar functional constraints across the same genes in humans, chimpanzees and their ectoparasites. PMID:24403325

  3. The rhizome of Reclinomonas americana, Homo sapiens, Pediculus humanus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mitochondria are thought to have evolved from eubacteria-like endosymbionts; however, the origin of the mitochondrion remains a subject of debate. In this study, we investigated the phenomenon of chimerism in mitochondria to shed light on the origin of these organelles by determining which species played a role in their formation. We used the mitochondria of four distinct organisms, Reclinomonas americana, Homo sapiens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and multichromosome Pediculus humanus, and attempted to identify the origin of each mitochondrial gene. Results Our results suggest that the origin of mitochondrial genes is not limited to the Rickettsiales and that the creation of these genes did not occur in a single event, but through multiple successive events. Some of these events are very old and were followed by events that are more recent and occurred through the addition of elements originating from current species. The points in time that the elements were added and the parental species of each gene in the mitochondrial genome are different to the individual species. These data constitute strong evidence that mitochondria do not have a single common ancestor but likely have numerous ancestors, including proto-Rickettsiales, proto-Rhizobiales and proto-Alphaproteobacteria, as well as current alphaproteobacterial species. The analysis of the multichromosome P. humanus mitochondrion supports this mechanism. Conclusions The most plausible scenario of the origin of the mitochondrion is that ancestors of Rickettsiales and Rhizobiales merged in a proto-eukaryotic cell approximately one billion years ago. The fusion of the Rickettsiales and Rhizobiales cells was followed by gene loss, genomic rearrangements and the addition of alphaproteobacterial elements through ancient and more recent recombination events. Each gene of each of the four studied mitochondria has a different origin, while in some cases, multichromosomes may allow for enhanced gene exchange

  4. Synergistic activity of antibiotics combined with ivermectin to kill body lice.

    PubMed

    Sangaré, Abdoul Karim; Rolain, Jean Marc; Gaudart, Jean; Weber, Pascal; Raoult, Didier

    2016-03-01

    Ivermectin and doxycycline have been found to be independently effective in killing body lice. In this study, 450 body lice were artificially fed on a Parafilm™ membrane with human blood associated with antibiotics (doxycycline, erythromycin, rifampicin and azithromycin) alone and in combination with ivermectin. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation and spectral deconvolution were performed to evaluate bacterial transcriptional activity following antibiotic intake by the lice. In the first series, a lethal effect of antibiotics on lice was observed compared with the control group at 18 days (log-rank test, P≤10(-3)), with a significant difference between groups in the production of nits (P=0.019, Kruskal-Wallis test). A high lethal effect of ivermectin alone (50ng/mL) was observed compared with the control group (log-rank test, P≤10(-3)). Fluorescence of bacteriocytes in lice treated with 20μg/mL doxycycline was lower than in untreated lice (P<0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis test). In the second series with antibiotic-ivermectin combinations, a synergistic lethal effect on treated lice (log-rank test, P<10(-6)) was observed compared with the control group at 18 days, associated with a significant decrease in the production of nits (P≤0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test). Additionally, survival of lice in the combination treatment groups compared with ivermectin alone was significant (log-rank test, P=0.0008). These data demonstrate that the synergistic effect of combinations of antibiotics and ivermectin could be used to achieve complete eradication of lice and to avoid selection of a resistant louse population. PMID:26897755

  5. Chewing lice in Azorean Blackcaps ( Sylvia atricapilla ): a contribution to parasite island syndromes.

    PubMed

    Literák, Ivan; Sychra, Oldřich; Resendes, Roberto; Rodrígues, Pedro

    2015-04-01

    Focusing upon chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) parasitizing blackcaps ( Sylvia atricapilla ) in the Azores (Portugal), we found a lower number of louse species in the Azores compared to mainland Europe. Only chewing lice host specific to blackcaps were found in the Azores. Louse prevalences were much higher in blackcaps from the Azores compared to those of various mainland populations. Chewing lice are permanent parasites of birds, and for such parasites the parasite island syndrome could be characterized by higher parasite prevalence on the islands compared to the mainland. PMID:25279583

  6. The Chewing Lice (Insecta, Phthiraptera) Fauna of the Swainson's Warbler, Limnothlypis swainsonii (Aves, Parulidae).

    PubMed

    Valim, Michel P; Reiley, Bryan M

    2015-09-01

    We examined Swainson's warblers (Limnothlypis swainsonii (Audubon, 1834), Aves: Parulidae) for lice fauna during 2 yr at three study sites in Arkansas, USA. A total of 66 individuals were examined; eight birds (10.6%) were parasitized with 16 lice of two new species belonging to two genera Myrsidea Waterson, 1915 (Amblycera: Menoponidae) and Brueelia Kéler, 1936 (Ischnocera: Philopteridae). Parasitological parameter data are given on the prevalence of lice on Swainson's warblers. Species descriptions and illustrations are provided for Myrsidea bensoni sp. nov. and Brueelia limnothlypiae sp. nov.; including a key for females of the genus Myrsidea that parasitize Parulidae (Passeriformes). PMID:26336250

  7. [Identification of geophilic and zoophilic dermatophytes in siblings with tinea capitis. A pathogenic factor or contamination?].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, S; Ott, H; Barker, M; Heimann, G; Poblete-Gutiérrez, P; Frank, J

    2004-10-01

    Two siblings of African origin presented with multiple scaling patches and alopecia on the scalp four weeks after returning from a vacation in Eritrea. Direct KOH examination revealed fungal elements; Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton terrestre were identified in the fungal culture. We discuss the putative pathogenic role of both microorganisms in causing disease. Although infection with Microsporum canis currently accounts for almost fifty percent of all cases of tinea capitis in Germany, other fungi have gained importance due to tourism and increasing migration. PMID:15340708

  8. Understanding and Managing Head Lice | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... treated at the same time. Over-the-counter lotions and shampoos that contain pyrethrin—a common synthetic ... or numbness. Prescription-strength five-percent permethrin, malathion lotion, or benzyl alcohol lotion may be needed. Lice ...

  9. Casuarinacola, a new genus of jumping plant lice (Hemiptera: Triozidae) from Casuarina (Casuarinaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus, Casuarinacola comprising four new species, namely C. equisetifoliae, C. acutialata, C. melanomaculata and C. warrigalensis, of jumping plant lice (Hemiptera: Triozidae), specific to the host genus Casuarina sensu stricto (Casuarinaceae) from Australia, are described. They are characteri...

  10. Studies of Ancient Lice Reveal Unsuspected Past Migrations of Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Drali, Rezak; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Yesilyurt, Gonca; Raoult, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Lice are among the oldest parasites of humans representing an excellent marker of the evolution and migration of our species over time. Here, we analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) developed in this study the mitochondrial DNA of seven ancient head louse eggs found on hair remains recovered from two sites in Israel: 1) five nits dating from Chalcolithic period (4,000 bc) were found in the Cave of the Treasure located at Nahal Mishmar, in the Judean Desert and 2) two nits dating from Early Islamic Period (ad 650–810) were found in Nahal Omer in the Arava Valley (between Dead Sea and Red Sea). Our results suggest that these eggs belonged to people originating from west Africa based on identification of the louse mitochondrial sub-clade specific to that region. PMID:26078317

  11. Studies of Ancient Lice Reveal Unsuspected Past Migrations of Vectors.

    PubMed

    Drali, Rezak; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Yesilyurt, Gonca; Raoult, Didier

    2015-09-01

    Lice are among the oldest parasites of humans representing an excellent marker of the evolution and migration of our species over time. Here, we analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) developed in this study the mitochondrial DNA of seven ancient head louse eggs found on hair remains recovered from two sites in Israel: 1) five nits dating from Chalcolithic period (4,000 bc) were found in the Cave of the Treasure located at Nahal Mishmar, in the Judean Desert and 2) two nits dating from Early Islamic Period (ad 650-810) were found in Nahal Omer in the Arava Valley (between Dead Sea and Red Sea). Our results suggest that these eggs belonged to people originating from west Africa based on identification of the louse mitochondrial sub-clade specific to that region. PMID:26078317

  12. [Pyrethroid resistance in human lice (Anoplura, Pediculidae): toxicological and molecular genetic methods].

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu; Karan', L S

    2015-01-01

    The paper gives the data obtained in toxicological experiments versus analysis by a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay in permethrin-resistant human lice (VSSC1 gene kdr mutations leading to the amino acid replacements T9171 and L920F have been found). It is shown that the results of toxicological experiments may be indirectly indicative of the genetic composition of a study sample of lice. PMID:25850312

  13. The control of sea lice in Atlantic salmon by selective breeding.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Karim; Matthews, Louise; Bron, James; Roberts, Ron; Tinch, Alan; Stear, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Sea lice threaten the welfare of farmed Atlantic salmon and the sustainability of fish farming across the world. Chemical treatments are the major method of control but drug resistance means that alternatives are urgently needed. Selective breeding can be a cheap and effective alternative. Here, we combine experimental trials and diagnostics to provide a practical protocol for quantifying resistance to sea lice. We then combined quantitative genetics with epidemiological modelling to make the first prediction of the response to selection, quantified in terms of reduced need for chemical treatments. We infected over 1400 young fish with Lepeophtheirus salmonis, the most important species in the Northern Hemisphere. Mechanisms of resistance were expressed early in infection. Consequently, the number of lice per fish and the ranking of families were very similar at 7 and 17 days post infection, providing a stable window for assessing susceptibility to infection. The heritability of lice numbers within this time window was moderately high at 0.3, confirming that selective breeding is viable. We combined an epidemiological model of sea lice infection and control on a salmon farm with genetic variation in susceptibility among individuals. We simulated 10 generations of selective breeding and examined the frequency of treatments needed to control infection. Our model predicted that substantially fewer chemical treatments are needed to control lice outbreaks in selected populations and chemical treatment could be unnecessary after 10 generations of selection. Selective breeding for sea lice resistance should reduce the impact of sea lice on fish health and thus substantially improve the sustainability of Atlantic salmon production. PMID:26289656

  14. The control of sea lice in Atlantic salmon by selective breeding

    PubMed Central

    Gharbi, Karim; Matthews, Louise; Bron, James; Roberts, Ron; Tinch, Alan; Stear, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Sea lice threaten the welfare of farmed Atlantic salmon and the sustainability of fish farming across the world. Chemical treatments are the major method of control but drug resistance means that alternatives are urgently needed. Selective breeding can be a cheap and effective alternative. Here, we combine experimental trials and diagnostics to provide a practical protocol for quantifying resistance to sea lice. We then combined quantitative genetics with epidemiological modelling to make the first prediction of the response to selection, quantified in terms of reduced need for chemical treatments. We infected over 1400 young fish with Lepeophtheirus salmonis, the most important species in the Northern Hemisphere. Mechanisms of resistance were expressed early in infection. Consequently, the number of lice per fish and the ranking of families were very similar at 7 and 17 days post infection, providing a stable window for assessing susceptibility to infection. The heritability of lice numbers within this time window was moderately high at 0.3, confirming that selective breeding is viable. We combined an epidemiological model of sea lice infection and control on a salmon farm with genetic variation in susceptibility among individuals. We simulated 10 generations of selective breeding and examined the frequency of treatments needed to control infection. Our model predicted that substantially fewer chemical treatments are needed to control lice outbreaks in selected populations and chemical treatment could be unnecessary after 10 generations of selection. Selective breeding for sea lice resistance should reduce the impact of sea lice on fish health and thus substantially improve the sustainability of Atlantic salmon production. PMID:26289656

  15. Perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens in a caucasian: diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

    PubMed

    Mihić, Liborija Lugović; Tomas, Davor; Situm, Mirna; Krolo, Iva; Sebetić, Klaudija; Sjerobabski-Masnec, Ines; Barišić, Freja

    2011-01-01

    Perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens or dissecting cellulitis of the scalp is a rare, chronic destructive folliculitis of the scalp, characterized by painful nodules, purulent drainage, sinus tracts, keloid formation and cicatricial alopecia. The cause of the disease is unknown, but it is similar in many features to hidradenitis suppurativa and acne conglobata. In our case report, the patient's dermatologic appearance included one slightly erythematous, infiltrated alopecic area with draining lesions in the right parietal part of the scalp with a few alopecic areas in other parts of the scalp. The identification of the infectious agent, repeated swabs and KOH examination/or fungal cultures and tissue sampling for histopathologic analysis were necessary to confirm the diagnosis of perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens. The patient received systemic antibiotics (azithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanate) and oral antimycotic therapy (fluconazole), followed by a long period of oral isotretinoin with local skin care, which led to resolution and thus inhibited the evolution to scarring and nodular stage of the disease. Thus, such combined approach could be useful for other patients with these dermatologic problems. PMID:21703156

  16. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Infestation Deterrents Against Lice.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyong Sup; Ketzis, Jennifer K; Andrewes, Samuel W; Wu, Christopher S; Honraet, Kris; Staljanssens, Dorien; Rossel, Bart; Marshall Clark, J

    2015-09-01

    The human head louse is a cosmopolitan ectoparasite and frequently infests many people, particularly school-age children. Due to widespread pyrethroid resistance and the lack of efficient resistance management, there has been a considerable interest in the protection of uninfested people and prevention of reinfestation by disrupting lice transfer. In this study, two nonclinical model systems (in vitro and in vivo) were used to determine the efficacy of the infestation deterrents, Elimax lotion and Elimax shampoo, against human head lice or poultry chewing lice, respectively. With in vitro assessments, female head lice exhibited significantly higher avoidance responses to hair tufts treated with either of the test formulations, which led to significantly higher ovipositional avoidance when compared with female lice on control hair tufts. Additionally, both formulations were determined to be competent infestation deterrents in a competitive avoidance test in the presence of a known attractant (head louse feces extract). In in vivo assessments using a previously validated poultry model, Elimax shampoo was determined to be an efficacious deterrent against poultry chewing lice within Menopon spp. and Menacanthus spp. PMID:26336209

  17. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Infestation Deterrents Against Lice

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kyong Sup; Ketzis, Jennifer K.; Andrewes, Samuel W.; Wu, Christopher S.; Honraet, Kris; Staljanssens, Dorien; Rossel, Bart; Marshall Clark, J.

    2015-01-01

    The human head louse is a cosmopolitan ectoparasite and frequently infests many people, particularly school-age children. Due to widespread pyrethroid resistance and the lack of efficient resistance management, there has been a considerable interest in the protection of uninfested people and prevention of reinfestation by disrupting lice transfer. In this study, two nonclinical model systems (in vitro and in vivo) were used to determine the efficacy of the infestation deterrents, Elimax lotion and Elimax shampoo, against human head lice or poultry chewing lice, respectively. With in vitro assessments, female head lice exhibited significantly higher avoidance responses to hair tufts treated with either of the test formulations, which led to significantly higher ovipositional avoidance when compared with female lice on control hair tufts. Additionally, both formulations were determined to be competent infestation deterrents in a competitive avoidance test in the presence of a known attractant (head louse feces extract). In in vivo assessments using a previously validated poultry model, Elimax shampoo was determined to be an efficacious deterrent against poultry chewing lice within Menopon spp. and Menacanthus spp. PMID:26336209

  18. Modelling sea lice dispersion under varying environmental forcing in a Scottish sea loch.

    PubMed

    Amundrud, T L; Murray, A G

    2009-01-01

    The spread of infectious larval sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1838), between wild salmonids and farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, remains a contentious area of uncertainty. However, as laboratory and field experiments increase our knowledge of sea lice behaviour under environmental forcing, numerical modelling tools can be used to predict the spread of infectious sea louse larvae from a point source. A three-dimensional numerical model has been developed and recently validated within Loch Torridon, a fjordic sea loch on the west coast of Scotland. Output from the numerical model is used to drive a particle tracking model which follows statistical representations of sea lice through the planktonic stages of a louse life cycle. By including maturation and mortality, the models can be used to predict the dispersion and transport of infectious sea lice from a point source and can be used to produce maps of infectivity under varying environmental conditions. Results highlight the importance of the wind-driven circulation for larval lice transport and suggest that local environmental conditions have considerable impact on the probability of sea lice infection spreading between wild and farmed fish populations. PMID:19245629

  19. Can neck exercises enhance the activation of the semispinalis cervicis relative to the splenius capitis at specific spinal levels?

    PubMed

    Schomacher, Jochen; Erlenwein, Joachim; Dieterich, Angela; Petzke, Frank; Falla, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    The deep cervical extensor, semispinalis cervicis, displays changes in behaviour and structure in people with chronic neck pain yet there is limited knowledge on how activation of this muscle can be emphasized during training. Using intramuscular electromyography (EMG), this study investigated the activity of the deep semispinalis cervicis and the superficial splenius capitis muscle at two spinal levels (C2 and C5) in ten healthy volunteers during a series of neck exercises: 1. Traction and compression, 2. Resistance applied in either flexion or extension at the occiput, at the level of the vertebral arch of C1 and of C4, and 3. Maintaining the neck in neutral while inclined on the elbows, with and without resistance at C4. The ratio between semispinalis cervicis and the splenius capitis EMG amplitude was quantified as an indication of whether the exercise could emphasize the activation of the semispinalis cervicis muscle relative to the splenius capitis. Manual resistance applied in extension over the vertebral arch emphasized the activation of the semispinalis cervicis relative to the splenius capitis at the spinal level directly caudal to the site of resistance (ratio: 2.0 ± 1.1 measured at C5 with resistance at C4 and 2.1 ± 1.2 measured at C2 with resistance at C1). This study confirmed the possibility of emphasizing the activation of the semispinalis cervicis relative to the splenius capitis which may be relevant for targeted exercise interventions for this deep extensor muscle. Further studies are required to investigate the clinical efficacy of these exercises for people with neck pain. PMID:25935795

  20. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) on chickens (Gallus gallus) from small backyard flocks in the eastern part of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Sychra, O; Harmat, P; Literák, I

    2008-04-15

    One hundred and sixty chickens (Gallus gallus) from 31 small, private backyard flocks in the eastern part of the Czech Republic were examined for chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera). At least one species of chewing lice was found on every bird examined. Seven species of chewing lice were identified in all; they had the following prevalences and mean intensities: Goniocotes gallinae (100%; 110 lice), Menopon gallinae (88%; 50), Menacanthus stramineus (48%; 17), Lipeurus caponis (35%; 12), Menacanthus cornutus (12%; 9), Cuclotogaster heterographus (1%; 4) and Goniocotes microthorax (1%; 3). Just two birds from a single flock were heavily infested with the ischnoceran species G. gallinae. PMID:18280661

  1. Efficacy and Safety of Dimeticone in the Treatment of Lice Infestation through Prophylaxis of Classmates

    PubMed Central

    FERRARA, Pietro; DEL BUFALO, Francesca; ROMANO, Valerio; TIBERI, Eloisa; BOTTARO, Giorgia; ROMANI, Lorenza; MALAMISURA, Monica; IANNIELLO, Francesca; CENI, Laura; MOTTINI, Giovanni; GATTO, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Background We conducted a study to evaluate efficacy and safety of dimeticone 4%, a lotion with no conventional insecticide activity, to cure lice infection and to prevent spread of infestation/reinfestation by prophylaxis of classmates. Methods: The study is carried out between April 2008 and June 2008 in Petranova International Institute in Rome. A total of 131 children, aged 3 to 13 years (median age: 7 years) were included in the study. All participants received treatment with dimeticone 4% that was applied both to children with the infestation, to cure it, and to all classmates, to prevent the spreading of the infestation. They have been controlled after 7 and 30 days from the application of dimeticone. Results: At baseline we found a positivity of lice infestation in 23/131 children (17.6%), whereas 108/131 (82.4%) children were free from lice. After 7 days of treatment with dimeticone 4%, 7/23 (30.4%) positive children still had lice infestation, with a cure rate of 69.6% (16/23). At 30 days 26/131 children (19.9%) were infested: 15 children were lice free at baseline whereas 11 had lice at both evaluations; the cure rate amounted to 52.2% (12/23). The reinfestation rate (percentage of positive children that showed negativity at baseline) was 5.3% (7/131) at 7 days and 11.5% (15/131) at 30 days. Conclusion: The lower reinfestation rate showed in our trial suggests that this approach could be effective in reducing spreading of head lice in small communities. More studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:24427749

  2. Predicting the effectiveness of depth-based technologies to prevent salmon lice infection using a dispersal model.

    PubMed

    Samsing, Francisca; Johnsen, Ingrid; Stien, Lars Helge; Oppedal, Frode; Albretsen, Jon; Asplin, Lars; Dempster, Tim

    2016-07-01

    Salmon lice is one of the major parasitic problems affecting wild and farmed salmonid species. The planktonic larval stages of these marine parasites can survive for extended periods without a host and are transported long distances by water masses. Salmon lice larvae have limited swimming capacity, but can influence their horizontal transport by vertical positioning. Here, we adapted a coupled biological-physical model to calculate the distribution of farm-produced salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) during winter in the southwest coast of Norway. We tested 4 model simulations to see which best represented empirical data from two sources: (1) observed lice infection levels reported by farms; and (2) experimental data from a vertical exposure experiment where fish were forced to swim at different depths with a lice-barrier technology. Model simulations tested were different development time to the infective stage (35 or 50°-days), with or without the presence of temperature-controlled vertical behaviour of lice early planktonic stages (naupliar stages). The best model fit occurred with a 35°-day development time to the infective stage, and temperature-controlled vertical behaviour. We applied this model to predict the effectiveness of depth-based preventive lice-barrier technologies. Both simulated and experimental data revealed that hindering fish from swimming close to the surface efficiently reduced lice infection. Moreover, while our model simulation predicted that this preventive technology is widely applicable, its effectiveness will depend on environmental conditions. Low salinity surface waters reduce the effectiveness of this technology because salmon lice avoid these conditions, and can encounter the fish as they sink deeper in the water column. Correctly parameterized and validated salmon lice dispersal models can predict the impact of preventive approaches to control this parasite and become an essential tool in lice management strategies. PMID

  3. Tinea capitis due to Trichophyton soudanense with a papular IDE reaction in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Landro, A; Marchesi, L; Passera, M; Arosio, M

    2008-12-01

    A little boy from a Nigerian family who lives in a little industrialized village in the suburbs of Bergamo, (Northern Italy), has never been to his country but presented with tinea capitis and with a secondary papular pruritic eruption of the trunk. Fungal cultures analysis have shown the development of Trichophyton soudanense, an anthropophilic dermatophyte which is endemic in Africa, but only rarely reported in Italy and in other European countries. The growing racial mixing related to migratory movements is favoring, also in Italy, the integration of this strain with the species which are most commonly responsible for dermatophytoses and the appearance of papular IDE reactions which were only occasionally seen in the Italian children population. PMID:19169215

  4. Benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms after childhood irradiation for Tinea capitis. [X-ray

    SciTech Connect

    Ron, E.; Modan, B.

    1980-07-01

    The incidence of all thyroid surgery was studied among 10,842 persons whose thyroid glands had been exposed in childhood to an average dose of 9 rads of x-radiation during treatment for tinea capitis and among 2 matched control groups. A statistically significant increased risk for both benign and malignant neoplasms was found in the exposed group. The excess risk was 8.3 cases/year/rad/million population. There were no differences in other surgical conditions between the irradiated and nonirradiated groups. Persons irradiated under age 6 years had the highest excess risk for developing carcinomas. The incidence of thyroid neoplasms was approximately threefold higher in women than in men among the irradiated persons and among the controls, but the relative risk for the irradiated group of women was greater than the addition of the relative risks of the other groups. Low-dose radiation is instrumental in the development of both benign and malignant thyroid neoplasms.

  5. Assessment of the efficacy and safety of a new treatment for head lice.

    PubMed

    Mac-Mary, Sophie; Messikh, Rafat; Jeudy, Adeline; Lihoreau, Thomas; Sainthillier, Jean-Marie; Gabard, Bernard; Schneider, Catherine; Auderset, Philippe; Humbert, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Infestation with head lice is a widespread, persistent, and recurring issue leading to serious health problems if untreated. We are facing resistance phenomena to usual pediculicides and questions about their direct or cumulative toxicity. The aim of this trial was to assess the efficacy of a new product, free of chemical insecticides but with a physical effect. This product contains components whose antilice efficacy has already been demonstrated, as well as Andiroba oil which asphyxiates the lice and Quassia vinegar which dissolves the chitin of the nits (they are then inactivated). 30 patients with head lice infestation, aged 3-39 years, applied the treatment one to three times, 5 days apart. Cure was defined as the absence of live lice after 5, 10, or 14 days, and symptoms are usually associated with infestation. Easiness and safety of the treatment were assessed by the patients and/or their parents. Overall cure rates were 20% on D5 after one treatment, 37% on D10 after two treatments, and 90% on D14 after three treatments. Symptoms such as itch, scalp dryness, redness, and flakiness rapidly diminished. This treatment seems to be a beneficial addition or a valuable alternative to existing treatments, considering the total absence of chemical insecticides, the absence of drug-resistance induction in head lice, the absence of major toxicological risks compared with usual pediculicides, and the favourable patient use instructions. PMID:23209928

  6. Assessment of the Efficacy and Safety of a New Treatment for Head Lice

    PubMed Central

    Mac-Mary, Sophie; Messikh, Rafat; Jeudy, Adeline; Lihoreau, Thomas; Sainthillier, Jean-Marie; Gabard, Bernard; Schneider, Catherine; Auderset, Philippe; Humbert, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Infestation with head lice is a widespread, persistent, and recurring issue leading to serious health problems if untreated. We are facing resistance phenomena to usual pediculicides and questions about their direct or cumulative toxicity. The aim of this trial was to assess the efficacy of a new product, free of chemical insecticides but with a physical effect. This product contains components whose antilice efficacy has already been demonstrated, as well as Andiroba oil which asphyxiates the lice and Quassia vinegar which dissolves the chitin of the nits (they are then inactivated). 30 patients with head lice infestation, aged 3–39 years, applied the treatment one to three times, 5 days apart. Cure was defined as the absence of live lice after 5, 10, or 14 days, and symptoms are usually associated with infestation. Easiness and safety of the treatment were assessed by the patients and/or their parents. Overall cure rates were 20% on D5 after one treatment, 37% on D10 after two treatments, and 90% on D14 after three treatments. Symptoms such as itch, scalp dryness, redness, and flakiness rapidly diminished. This treatment seems to be a beneficial addition or a valuable alternative to existing treatments, considering the total absence of chemical insecticides, the absence of drug-resistance induction in head lice, the absence of major toxicological risks compared with usual pediculicides, and the favourable patient use instructions. PMID:23209928

  7. Bioactivity of tea tree oil from Melaleuca alternifolia against sheep lice (Bovicola ovis Schrank) in vitro.

    PubMed

    James, P J; Callander, J T

    2012-07-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) from the Australian native plant Melaleuca alternifolia has wide ranging bio-active properties, including insecticidal and repellent activity against arthropods. Furthermore, composition of commercially available Australian TTO is specified under an International Organization for Standardization standard (ISO 4730), reducing the potential for variable effects often noted with botanical pesticides. The effect of TTO, meeting the ISO standard for terpinen-4-ol chemotype, was tested against sheep lice (Bovicola ovis Schrank) in a series of laboratory studies. Immersion of wool for 60s in formulations containing concentrations of 1% TTO and above caused 100% mortality of adult lice and eggs. Exposure to vapours from TTO, delivered as droplets in fumigation chambers and when applied to wool also caused high mortality in both lice and eggs. The main active component of TTO in the fumigant tests was terpinen-4-ol. Treated surface assays and tests with wool where the formulation was allowed to dry before exposure of lice indicated low persistence. These studies demonstrate that TTO is highly toxic to sheep lice and active at concentrations that suggest potential for the development of TTO-based ovine lousicides. PMID:22398149

  8. Insecticide resistance in head lice: clinical, parasitological and genetic aspects.

    PubMed

    Durand, R; Bouvresse, S; Berdjane, Z; Izri, A; Chosidow, O; Clark, J M

    2012-04-01

    Insecticide treatment resistance is considered to be a major factor in the increasing number of infestations by head lice. The large insecticide selection pressure induced by conventional topical pediculicides has led to the emergence and spread of resistance in many parts of the world. Possible mechanisms of resistance include accelerated detoxification of insecticides by enzyme-mediated reduction, esterification, oxidation that may be overcome by synergistic agents such as piperonyl butoxide, alteration of the binding site, e.g. altered acetylcholinesterase or altered nerve voltage-gated sodium channel, and knockdown resistance (kdr). Clinical, parasitological and molecular data on resistance to conventional topical pediculicides show that treatments with neurotoxic insecticides have suffered considerable loss of activity worldwide. In particular, resistance to synthetic pyrethroids has become prominent, probably because of their extensive use. As other treatment options, including non-insecticidal pediculicides such as dimeticone, are now available, the use of older insecticides, such as lindane and carbaryl, should be minimized, owing to their loss of efficacy and safety concerns. The organophosphorus insecticide malathion remains effective, except in the UK, mostly in formulations that include terpineol. PMID:22429458

  9. LiCe9Mo16O35

    PubMed Central

    Gougeon, Patrick; Gall, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The structure of lithium nona­cerium hexa­deca­molybdenum penta­trideca­oxide, LiCe9Mo16O35, is isotypic with LiNd9Mo16O35 [Gougeon Gall, Cuny, Gautier, Le Polles, Delevoye & Trebosc (2011 ▶). Chem. Eur. J. 17, 13806–13813]. It is characterized by Mo16O26 iO10 a units (where i = inner and a = apical) containing Mo16 clusters that share some of their O atoms to form infinite molybdenum cluster chains running parallel to the b axis and separated by Li+ and Ce3+ cations. The Mo16 cluster units are centred at Wyckoff positions 2c and have point-group symmetry 2/m. The Li+ atom, in a flattened octa­hedron of O atoms, is in a 2a Wyckoff position with 2/m symmetry. The Ce3+ cations have coordination numbers to the O atoms of 6, 9 or 10. Two Ce, two Mo and five O atoms lie on sites with m symmetry (Wyckoff site 4i), and one Ce and one O atom on sites with 2/m symmetry (Wyckoff sites 2b and 2d, respectively). PMID:22412396

  10. Epidemiological comparative study of pediculosis capitis among primary school children in Fayoum and Minofiya governorates, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abd El Raheem, Talal A; El Sherbiny, Naglaa A; Elgameel, Alkasseem; El-Sayed, Ghada A; Moustafa, Nada; Shahen, Sally

    2015-04-01

    Pediculosis is a frequent public health problem. The pattern and prevalence of Pediculosis is dependent on many socio-demographic and economic factors. It is common in schoolchildren especially primary level; it may affect their learning performance. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of head louse among primary students, in Fayoum and Bagor districts, and explore the predisposing factors of head louse infestation in both public and private schools. The study was a cross-sectional descriptive study, conducted in two governorates: Fayoum and Minofiya governorates which represent upper and lower Egypt respectively during the academic year of 2012-2013. The students were selected from different grades with a total of 10,935 students. The prevalence of head lice in the study group was 16.7 %. The incidence was higher in public schools 20.7 % than private schools 9.04 % and in girls 25.8 % more than boys, especially covered hair girls 6.2 %. There was a socio-demographic influence of louse infestation on residence, presence of water supply, number of house rooms, and number of family member. It is concluded that head lice are a common childhood problem related to poor hygiene and socioeconomic status. There is a need for collaboration effort between family, school, community, and media, to create an environment that establishes healthy behaviors and health promotion. PMID:25086565

  11. Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans presenting as an obscure patchy hair loss due to daily antifungal shampoo use.

    PubMed

    Sombatmaithai, Alita; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Tuchinda, Papapit; Surawan, Theetat; Muanprasart, Chanai; Matthapan, Lalita; Bunyaratavej, Sumanas

    2015-04-01

    Tinea capitis is unusual and often misdiagnosed in healthy adults. We report a case of a healthy woman with a several-year history of asymptomatic, bizarre-shaped, non-scarring alopecia. She had used over-the-counter ketoconazole shampoo regularly for a long time. An initial potassium hydroxide preparation showed negative result for fungal organism. The scalp biopsy revealed endothrix infection, and dermoscopic examination demonstrated the comma hair and corkscrew hair signs. The fungal culture showed Trichophyton tonsurans. The daily use of antifungal shampoo could be the important factor to conceal clinical and laboratory findings for diagnosis of T. tonsurans tinea capitis in our case, which required high clinical suspicion and histopathology and dermoscopic examinations. PMID:26114071

  12. An ultrastructural study on corkscrew hairs and cigarette-ash-shaped hairs observed by dermoscopy of tinea capitis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mao; Ran, Yuping; Dai, Yaling; Lei, Song; Zhang, Chaoliang; Zhuang, Kaiwen; Hu, Wenying

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to explain the formation mechanisms of corkscrew hairs and cigarette-ash-shaped hairs observed by dermoscopy of tinea capitis. In the present work, the ultrastructure of the involved hairs collected from a girl with tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton violaceum was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). SEM observation of the corkscrew hair revealed bent hair shaft and asymmetrically disrupted cuticle layer. TEM findings demonstrated the hair shaft became weak. The corkscrew hairs closely covered by scales on the scalp were observed under dermoscopy. We speculate that the formation of corkscrew hairs is a result of a combination of internal damage due to hair degradation by T. violaceum and external resistance due to scales covering the hair. SEM observation of the cigarette-ash-shaped hair revealed irregularly disrupted and incompact end, which might represent the stump of the broken corkscrew hair after treatment. PMID:26301780

  13. Emergence of linezolid resistance in a clinical Staphylococcus capitis isolate from Jiangsu Province of China in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yiling; Xu, Yanling; Liu, Genyan; Mei, Yaning; Xia, Wenying; Xu, Ting

    2014-01-01

    Linezolid (LZD) is an important antimicrobial agent for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococci. And until now, LZD resistance in clinical is still rare. Here we reported the first case of LZD resistance Staphylococcus capitis in Jiangsu, China. This strain was isolated from a 92-year old female who received long-term and repeatedly antibiotics treatment because of recurrent pulmonary infections in August 2012. Isolated from blood, the Staphylococcus capitis showed a resistance to LZD with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 64 µg/mL, and the followed gene detection showed that the isolates existed C2190T and C2561Y point mutations in the 23S rRNA. Moreover, the isolation was also found carrying the cfr gene. PMID:24822125

  14. Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans presenting as an obscure patchy hair loss due to daily antifungal shampoo use

    PubMed Central

    Sombatmaithai, Alita; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Tuchinda, Papapit; Surawan, Theetat; Muanprasart, Chanai; Matthapan, Lalita; Bunyaratavej, Sumanas

    2015-01-01

    Tinea capitis is unusual and often misdiagnosed in healthy adults. We report a case of a healthy woman with a several-year history of asymptomatic, bizarre-shaped, non-scarring alopecia. She had used over-the-counter ketoconazole shampoo regularly for a long time. An initial potassium hydroxide preparation showed negative result for fungal organism. The scalp biopsy revealed endothrix infection, and dermoscopic examination demonstrated the comma hair and corkscrew hair signs. The fungal culture showed Trichophyton tonsurans. The daily use of antifungal shampoo could be the important factor to conceal clinical and laboratory findings for diagnosis of T. tonsurans tinea capitis in our case, which required high clinical suspicion and histopathology and dermoscopic examinations. PMID:26114071

  15. Origin of Clothing Lice Indicates Early Clothing Use by Anatomically Modern Humans in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Toups, Melissa A.; Kitchen, Andrew; Light, Jessica E.; Reed, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Clothing use is an important modern behavior that contributed to the successful expansion of humans into higher latitudes and cold climates. Previous research suggests that clothing use originated anywhere between 40,000 and 3 Ma, though there is little direct archaeological, fossil, or genetic evidence to support more specific estimates. Since clothing lice evolved from head louse ancestors once humans adopted clothing, dating the emergence of clothing lice may provide more specific estimates of the origin of clothing use. Here, we use a Bayesian coalescent modeling approach to estimate that clothing lice diverged from head louse ancestors at least by 83,000 and possibly as early as 170,000 years ago. Our analysis suggests that the use of clothing likely originated with anatomically modern humans in Africa and reinforces a broad trend of modern human developments in Africa during the Middle to Late Pleistocene. PMID:20823373

  16. Perifolliculitis Capitis Abscedens et Suffodiens in a 7 Years Male: A Case Report with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gaopande, Vandana L; Kulkarni, Maithili M; Joshi, Avinash R; Dhande, Ashish N

    2015-01-01

    Perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens is the least common of the three conditions included in the follicular occlusion triad. It is one of the causes of scarring alopecia in adult males. Clinically it has to be differentiated from other causes of folliculitis affecting the scalp. The histopathology is diagnostic. The treatment is prolonged and the clinical course is characterized by remissions and relapses. PMID:26903747

  17. Perifolliculitis Capitis Abscedens et Suffodiens in a 7 Years Male: A Case Report with Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Gaopande, Vandana L; Kulkarni, Maithili M; Joshi, Avinash R; Dhande, Ashish N

    2015-01-01

    Perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens is the least common of the three conditions included in the follicular occlusion triad. It is one of the causes of scarring alopecia in adult males. Clinically it has to be differentiated from other causes of folliculitis affecting the scalp. The histopathology is diagnostic. The treatment is prolonged and the clinical course is characterized by remissions and relapses. PMID:26903747

  18. In vitro infection of sheep lice (Bovicola ovis Schrank) by Steinernematid and Heterorhabditid nematodes.

    PubMed

    James, P J; Hook, S E; Pepper, P M

    2010-11-24

    Control of sheep lice with conventional pesticides can be compromised by difficulty in contacting lice in the dense water repellent fleeces of sheep, particularly when sheep have not been recently shorn. Entomopathogenic nematodes (ENs) are motile and are able to actively seek out insect hosts. They have particular advantages for the control of pests in cryptic habitats, such as the fleeces of sheep and avoid many of the problems frequently associated with chemical controls. This study investigated whether ENs were able infect and kill Bovicola ovis and compared the effectiveness of different species at different temperatures and when applied to wool. Four species of nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae, Steinernema riobrave, Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora were tested. All were shown to infect and kill lice in Petri dish assays at 30°C. At 35°C, the percent infection for S. carpocapsae and S. riobrave was significantly higher than for the other two species and percent infection by S. feltiae was significantly greater than for H. bacteriophora (P<0.05). At 37°C the percent mortality induced by S. riobrave was significantly greater than for S. carpocapsae (P<0.05). All species were able to locate and infect lice in wool when formulated in water with 8% Tween 80. In wool assays the percent lice infected with nematodes was significantly greater for S. riobrave than H. bacteriophora at 25°C, but there were no other differences between species (P=0.05). S. carpocapsae, S. riobrave and S. feltiae caused significantly higher lice mortality than H. bacteriophora at both 25 and 35°C in wool assays, but mortality induced by the three steinernematid species did not differ significantly (P>0.05). It is concluded that of the ENs studied S. riobrave is likely to be most effective against B. ovis when applied to live sheep because of its greater tolerance to high temperatures and 'cruiser' foraging strategy. PMID:20800970

  19. Inflammatory tinea capitis mimicking dissecting cellulitis in a postpubertal male: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Stein, Loretta L; Adams, Erin G; Holcomb, Katherine Z

    2013-09-01

    Tinea capitis in postpubertal patients is unusual and may be misdiagnosed as dissecting cellulitis. We report a case of a healthy 19-year-old Hispanic male presenting with a 2-month history of a large, painful subcutaneous boggy plaque on the scalp with patchy alopecia, erythematous papules, cysts and pustules. Although initially diagnosed as dissecting cellulitis, potassium hydroxide evaluation (KOH preparation) of the hair from the affected region was positive. A punch biopsy of the scalp demonstrated endothrix consistent with tinea capitis, but with a brisk, deep mixed inflammatory infiltrate as can be seen with chronic dissecting cellulitis. Fungal culture revealed Trichophyton tonsurans, and a diagnosis of inflammatory tinea capitis was made. The patient was treated over the course of 17 months with multiple systemic and topical antifungal medications, with slow, but demonstrable clinical and histopathological improvement. A rare diagnosis in adults, clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for this condition in an adult with an inflammatory scalp disorder not classic for dissecting cellulitis or with a recalcitrant dissecting cellulitis. Prompt, appropriate diagnosis and treatment is necessary to prevent the long-term complications of scarring alopecia. PMID:23582018

  20. Sea-cage aquaculture, sea lice, and declines of wild fish.

    PubMed

    Frazer, L Neil

    2009-06-01

    A sea cage, sometimes referred to as a net pen, is an enclosure designed to prevent farm fish from escaping and to protect them from large predators, while allowing a free flow of water through the cage to carry away waste. Farm fish thus share water with wild fish, which enables transmission of parasites, such as sea lice, from wild to farm and farm to wild fishes. Sea lice epidemics, together with recently documented population-level declines of wild salmon in areas of sea-cage farming, are a reminder that sea-cage aquaculture is fundamentally different from terrestrial animal culture. The difference is that sea cages protect farm fish from the usual pathogen-control mechanisms of nature, such as predators, but not from the pathogens themselves. A sea cage thus becomes an unintended pathogen factory. Basic physical theory explains why sea-cage aquaculture causes sea lice on sympatric wild fish to increase and why increased lice burdens cause wild fish to decline, with extirpation as a real possibility. Theory is important to this issue because slow declines of wild fish can be difficult to detect amid large fluctuations from other causes. The important theoretical concepts are equilibrium, host-density effect, reservoir-host effect, and critical stocking level of farmed fish (stocking level at which lice proliferate on farm fish even if wild fish are not present to infect them). I explored these concepts and their implications without mathematics through examples from salmon farming. I also considered whether the lice-control techniques used by sea-cage farmers (medication and shortened grow-out times) are capable of protecting wild fish. Elementary probability showed that W ≈ W* - εF (where W is the abundance of wild fish, W* is the prefarm abundance, F is the abundance of farm fish, and ε is the ratio of lice per farm fish to lice per wild fish). Declines of wild fish can be reduced by short growing cycles for farm fish, medicating farm fish, and keeping

  1. Evaluation of emamectin benzoate and substance EX against salmon lice in sea-ranched Atlantic salmon smolts.

    PubMed

    Skilbrei, Ove Tommy; Espedal, Per Gunnar; Nilsen, Frank; Garcia, Enrique Perez; Glover, Kevin A

    2015-04-01

    Experimental releases of Atlantic salmon smolts treated with emamectin benzoate (EB) against salmon lice have previously been used to estimate the significance of salmon lice on the survival of migrating smolts. In recent years, the salmon louse has developed reduced sensitivity to EB, which may influence the results of such release experiments. We therefore tested the use of 2 anti-lice drugs: EB was administered to salmon smolts in high doses by intra-peritoneal injection and the prophylactic substance EX (SubEX) was administered by bathing. A third, untreated control group was also established. Salmon were challenged with copepodids of 2 strains of salmon lice (1 EB-sensitive strain and 1 with reduced EB-sensitivity) in mixed-group experimental tanks. At 31 d post-challenge, the numbers of pre-adult lice on treated fish were around 20% compared with the control fish, with minor or no differences between the 2 treatments and lice strains. Both treatments therefore appeared to give the smolts a high degree of protection against infestation of copepodids of salmon lice. However, significantly lower growth of the EB-treatment group indicates that bathing the fish in SubEX is less stressful for smolts than intra-peritoneal injection of EB. PMID:25850396

  2. First records of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) in Pacific migratory shorebirds wintering in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Haase, Ben; Alava, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    Chewing lice were collected from small shorebirds (Charadriformes: Scolopacidae) overwintering in foraging grounds of coastal Ecuador. On 27 occasions at least one louse (3.7%) was collected from six host species. Based on external morphological characters, at least two species of chewing lice could be preliminary identified (family: Menoponidae), including Actornithophilus umbrinus (Burmeister, 1842) and Austromenopon sp. A. umbrinus was found in the Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri), Least Sandpiper (C. minutilla), Stilt Sandpiper (C. himantopus), Semipalmated Plover (Charadrius semipalmatus) and Wilson's phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), while Austromenopon sp. is presumably the first record collected from the Surfbird (Aphriza virgata). These findings indicate that the distribution of these chewing lice species covers at least the regions around the equator (latitude 0°) until the Arctic in the north, but probably also includes the entire winter distribution area of the host species. This is the first study of chewing lice from Ecuador's mainland coast and more research is required to understand the host-parasite ecology and ectoparasitic infection in shorebirds stopping over the region. PMID:25054510

  3. [Chewing-lice (Phtihiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) occurring on birds in the Konya zoo].

    PubMed

    Dik, Bilal; Uslu, Uğur

    2009-01-01

    In this study, 25 birds belonging to 15 different species at the zoo in Konya were inspected for the presence of chewing-lice. Three Long-legged Buzzards (Buteo rufinus), one Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) and one Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus) were found to be infested by chewing-lice. Two hundred and eleven chewing-lice specimens were collected from the birds and seven species were identified. They were mounted on slides separately in Faure forte medium or Canada balsam after clearing in 10% KOH. Morphologic characteristics of the chewing-lice were examined and measured under the light microscope. Laemobothrion maximum (Scopoli, 1763), Craspedorrhynchus platystomus (Burmeister, 1838) and Degeeriella fulva (Giebel, 1874) were detected on Long-legged buzzards; Craspedorrhynchus fraterculus (Eichler & Zlotorzycka, 1975), Degeeriella aquilarum (Eichler, 1943) and Colpocephalum impressum (Rudow, 1866) on the Imperial Eagle; and Degeeriella fusca (Denny, 1842), on the Mars Harrier. C. fraterculus, D. aquilarum, C. impressum and D. fusca were found for the first time on these raptors in Turkey and information about these species were given in this paper. PMID:19367546

  4. A genome-wide identification of basic helix-loop-helix motifs in Pediculus humanus corporis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu-Hua; Wang, Yong; Zhang, De-Bao; Liu, A-Ke; Yao, Qin; Chen, Ke-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins comprise a large superfamily of transcription factors, which are involved in the regulation of various developmental processes. bHLH family members are widely distributed in various eukaryotes including yeast, fruit fly, zebrafish, mouse, and human. In this study, we identified 55 bHLH motifs encoded in genome sequence of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus corporis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae). Phylogenetic analyses of the identified P. humanus corporis bHLH (PhcbHLH) motifs revealed that there are 23, 11, 9, 1, 10, and 1 member(s) in groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, respectively. Examination to GenBank annotations of the 55 PhcbHLH members indicated that 29 PhcbHLH proteins were annotated in consistence with our analytical result, 8 were annotated different with our analytical result, 12 were merely annotated as hypothetical protein, and the rest 6 were not deposited in GenBank. A comparison on insect bHLH gene composition revealed that human body louse possibly has more hairy and E(spl) genes than other insect species. Because hairy and E(spl) genes have been found to negatively regulate the differentiation of insect preneural cells, it is suggested that the existence of additional hairy and E(spl) genes in human body louse is probably the consequence of its long period adaptation to the relatively dark and stable environment. These data provide good references for further studies on regulatory functions of bHLH proteins in the growth and development of human body louse. PMID:25434030

  5. Little known chewing lice (Phthiraptera) infesting crab plover Dromas ardeola Paykull, 1805 (Charadriiformes: Dromadidae) from the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Alahmed, Azzam; Shobrak, Mohammed; Kheir, Salah; Nasser, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    Scanty information is available for many species of chewing lice of marine birds. Through this work we investigated one of most characteristic marine bird for chewing lice. Seven individuals of crab plovers Dromas ardeola Paykull, 1805 were trapped using standard mist nets on Humr Island in Farasan Archipelago, Saudi Arabia. Two species of chewing lice were found to infest these birds: Actornithophilus ardeolae Timmermann, 1954 of suborder Amblycera and Quadraceps brunneus (Nitzsch in Giebel, 1866) of suborder Ischnocera. Diagnostic characters, data of specimens examined, high definition photos and host distribution map are provided through this paper. PMID:26232655

  6. Evidence of Sympatry of Clade A and Clade B Head Lice in a Pre-Columbian Chilean Mummy from Camarones

    PubMed Central

    Boutellis, Amina; Drali, Rezak; Rivera, Mario A.; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Raoult, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Three different lineages of head lice are known to parasitize humans. Clade A, which is currently worldwide in distribution, was previously demonstrated to be present in the Americas before the time of Columbus. The two other types of head lice are geographically restricted to America and Australia for clade B and to Africa and Asia for clade C. In this study, we tested two operculated nits from a 4,000-year-old Chilean mummy of Camarones for the presence of the partial Cytb mitochondrial gene (270 bp). Our finding shows that clade B head lice were present in America before the arrival of the European colonists. PMID:24204678

  7. Tinea capitis outbreak among paediatric refugee population, an evolving healthcare challenge.

    PubMed

    Mashiah, Jacob; Kutz, Ana; Ben Ami, Ronen; Savion, Mihal; Goldberg, Ilan; Gan Or, Tamar; Zidan, Omri; Sprecher, Eli; Harel, Avikam

    2016-09-01

    Outbreaks of tinea capitis (TC) represent a major medical and economic burden. Population migrations have become a phenomenon of increasing relevance for medical conditions management. Given the recent massive arrival of immigrants, we sought to determine epidemiologic trends for TC among paediatric populations at the Tel Aviv Medical Center. We conducted a retrospective study of all TC cases diagnosed between 2010 and 2014 in a paediatric dermatology unit of a tertiary medical centre, serving as a referral centre for the paediatric refugee population from the great Tel Aviv area. Epidemiologic, clinical and treatment data including effectiveness and safety were reviewed. In all, 145 children met the inclusion criteria. Trend analyses showed increases in TC rates over the study period. Incidence rates were higher in boys than in girls. Children of African origin had the highest TC incidence rates as compared with other ethnic groups. Trichophyton violaceum and Microsporum audouinii were the predominant causative organisms. Treatment with griseofulvin was satisfactory in all cases. There was a significant increase in TC incidence rates in the Tel Aviv area over the study period. TV and MA were the predominant organisms. These trends may be a result of poor living conditions and crowded school premises. PMID:27061446

  8. Microsporum canis infection in three familial cases with tinea capitis and tinea corporis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Bin; Xiao, Yuling; Ran, Yuping; Kang, Daoxian; Dai, Yaling; Lama, Jebina

    2013-10-01

    We report a familial infection caused by Microsporum canis. The first two patients were a 30-year-old female and her son, a 5-year-old boy, who came in contact with a pet dog at a farm house. The boy then suffered from hair loss for 3 months. There were circular and patchy alopecia with diffuse scaling on his scalp. Meanwhile, his mother also developed patchy erythema and scaling on her face. Several weeks later, the boy's sister, a 4-year-old girl, was noted to have inconspicuous scaly plaques in the center of her scalp. The development of tinea capitis in the two children and tinea corporis in their mother were diagnosed based on the positive KOH examination. Morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, amplified from primary culture isolates, confirmed that their infections were caused by the zoophilic M. canis. Repetitive sequence-based molecular typing using the DiversiLab system secreted enzymatic activity analysis, and antifungal susceptibility indicated that these isolates might share the same source. The boy and girl were cured by the treatment with oral itraconazole and topical naftifine-ketoconazole cream after washing the hair with 2 % ketoconazole shampoo, and their mother was successfully treated by terbinafine orally in combination with topical application of naftifine-ketoconazole cream. PMID:23918090

  9. [Tinea capitis profunda due to Trichophyton verrucosum with cMRSA superinfection in an infant].

    PubMed

    Blömer, R-H; Keilani, N; Faber, A; Rodeck, B; Krüger, C; Uhrlaß, S; Gräser, Y; Nenoff, P

    2012-08-01

    A 28-month-old boy developed a cutaneous and subcutaneous lesion of the scalp together with alopecia. Treatment with sulfadiazine silver ointment and oral administration of cefaclor failed. The boy lived on a farm where cows and calves were present. He presented with a 5 cm erythematous, erosive, edematous, and sharply defined lesion with yellow crusts and circumscribed alopecia on the temporoparietal scalp. Peripheral hairs were easily epilated. Swabs from the wound revealed cMRSA (community acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Panton Valentine Leukocidin [PVL] toxin negative). There was no improvement after treatment with cefuroxime intravenously over 3 days. Therapy was changed to vancomycin and fosfomycin. Because of the purulent abscess, surgical incision was performed. PCR (polymerase chain reaction)-Elisa assay detected Trichophyton (T.) interdigitale-DNA from wound secretion and skin biopsy. Because of the clinical and molecular diagnosis of tinea capitis, oral antifungal therapy with fluconazole 5 mg kg(-1) body weight was started, along with cotrimoxazole and fosfomycin for the cMRSA. After 4 weeks incubation, the causative agent T. verrucosum was grown on culture and its identity confirmed by sequencing of the "internal transcribed spacer" (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA. After 4 weeks of fluconazole, the lesion was nearly healed. PMID:22406762

  10. Pediculicidal treatment using ethanol and Melia azedarach L.

    PubMed

    Rutkauskis, João Ricardo; Jacomini, Debora; Temponi, Livia Godinho; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena; da Silva, Edson Antonio Alves; Jorge, Tereza Cristina Marinho; Jorge, Tereza Cristina Marino

    2015-06-01

    Pediculosis is an infestation of the scalp caused by Pediculus humanus capitis, known as lice, which affects thousands of people throughout the world. Disease control is achieved by topical insecticides, whose indiscriminate use has led to the emergence of resistant populations of lice. Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) is an Asian tree that is found in Brazil, where it is popularly known as cinnamon or santa-bárbara. This study aimed to evaluate a pediculicidal treatment, made from a hydroethanolic extract of M. azedarach, and to study the effect of extraction solvents (ethanol and water) on insect mortality. The chemical composition of crude extract was studied by gas chromatography, identifying 32 methyl esters of fatty acids, with esters of heneicosanoic, palmitic, and arachidic acids present in greatest abundance. The (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra suggested the presence of flavonoids and terpenes. Quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) were isolated from the extract. The bioassay of pediculicidal activity shows that the M. azedarach extract had a pediculicidal activity, inducing the death of all lice faster than 1% permethrin, a topical insecticide commonly used to control lice. PMID:25758585

  11. Prevalence of sucking and chewing lice on cattle entering feedlots in southern Alberta.

    PubMed Central

    Colwell, D D; Clymer, B; Booker, C W; Guichon, P T; Jim, G K; Schunicht, O C; Wildman, B K

    2001-01-01

    Beef calves from 2 sources entering southern Alberta feedlots in the winters of 1997-98 and 1998-99, were surveyed for the presence of lice. A random sample of multiple source (MS), that is, auction market-derived, calves entering commercial feedlots and single source (SS) calves entering a backgrounding feedlot were examined for the presence of lice at entry to the feedlot. A standardized examination, which involved hair-part examination of 8 louse predilection sites, was conducted on each selected calf to determine prevalence and intensity of infestation. The long-nosed sucking louse, Linognathus vituli, was the most commonly encountered species. This species infested from 57.8% to 95.6% of the calves selected from both MS and SS calves during both winters. Louse index values, indicating intensity of infestation, for L. vituli ranged from 1 to 243 lice per animal. The chewing louse, Bovicola bovis, was present on MS and SS calves only in the winter of 1998-99. The louse index values for B. bovis ranged from 1 to 230 lice per animal. Mixed infestations of the L. vituli and B. bovis were common. The little blue cattle louse, Solenopotes capillatus, was present only on the SS calves in the winter of 1997-98. The short-nosed sucking louse, Haematopinus eurysternus, was present at very low intensities, 1-2 lice per animal, on 2.6% to 4.4% of the MS calves during both winters. Comparison of results from the current study with published literature suggests that efforts to determine the economic impact of louse infestations are confounded by the lack of a uniform method to assess louse population levels. PMID:11326630

  12. Preliminary studies on the isolation of bacteria from sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infecting farmed salmon in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Barker, Duane E; Braden, Laura M; Coombs, Maria P; Boyce, Brad

    2009-10-01

    Using standard OIE bacteriological screening protocols, we sampled the external carapace and internal stomach contents of motile stages (preadult and adult) of Lepeophtheirus salmonis collected from farmed Atlantic salmon from May 2007 to April 2008 in British Columbia, Canada. Three potentially pathogenic bacteria (Tenacibaculum maritimum, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Vibrio spp.) were isolated from external (58-100%) and internal (12.5-100%) samples of sea lice. The prevalence of bacteria was higher from lice collected during the months with higher water temperatures and among adult lice. These preliminary results have led to a comprehensive, multi-year study where we plan to examine the possible role of sea lice as a vector for disease. PMID:19565269

  13. Characterization of a Novel Composite Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec-SCCcad/ars/cop) in the Neonatal Sepsis-Associated Staphylococcus capitis Pulsotype NRCS-A

    PubMed Central

    Rasigade, J.-P.; Lemriss, H.; Butin, M.; Ginevra, C.; Lemriss, S.; Goering, R. V.; Ibrahimi, A.; Picaud, J. C.; El Kabbaj, S.; Vandenesch, F.; Laurent, F.

    2013-01-01

    Multiresistant Staphylococcus capitis pulsotype NRCS-A has been reported to be a major pathogen causing nosocomial bacteremia in preterm infants. We report that the NRCS-A strain CR01 harbors a novel 60.9-kb composite staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) element, composed of an SCCmec with strong homologies to Staphylococcus aureus ST398 SCCmec and of an SCCcad/ars/cop harboring resistance genes for cadmium, arsenic, and copper. Whole-genome-based comparisons of published S. capitis strains suggest that strain CR01 acquired the two elements independently. PMID:24060879

  14. Differences in straggling rates between two genera of dove lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) reinforce population genetic and cophylogenetic patterns.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, Noah Kerness; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego; Johnson, Kevin P; Parker, Patricia G

    2004-09-01

    Differences in dispersal abilities have been implicated for causing disparate evolutionary patterns between Columbicola and Physconelloides lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera). However, no study has documented straggling (when lice are found on atypical hosts) rates within these lineages. We used the fact that the Galapagos Hawk, Buteo galapagoensis (Gould) (Falconiformes) feeds on the Galapagos Dove Zenaida galapagoensis Gould (Columbiformes) within an ecologically simplified setting. The Galapagos Dove is the only typical host of Columbicola macrourae (Wilson) and Physconelloides galapagensis (Kellogg and Huwana) in Galapagos. We quantitatively sampled and found these lice on both bird species. A DNA barcoding approach confirmed that stragglers were derived from Galapagos doves. We also collected a Bovicola sp. louse, likely originating from a goat (Capra hircus). On hawks, C. macrourae was significantly more prevalent than P. galapagensis. On doves, the two lice were equally prevalent and abundant. Differences in prevalence on hawks was a function of differences in straggling rate between lice, and not a reflection of their relative representation within the dove population. This provides further evidence that differences in dispersal abilities may drive differences in the degree of cospeciation in Columbicola and Phyconelloides lice, which have become model systems in evolutionary biology. PMID:15380682

  15. Environment-related and host-related factors affecting the occurrence of lice on rodents in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Stanko, Michal; Fričová, Jana; Miklisová, Dana; Khokhlova, Irina S; Krasnov, Boris R

    2015-06-01

    We studied the effects of environment- (habitat, season) and host-related (sex, body mass) factors on the occurrence of four species of lice (Insecta:Phthiraptera:Anoplura) on six rodent species (Rodentia:Muridae). We asked how these factors influence the occurrence of lice on an individual host and whether different rodent-louse associations demonstrate consistent trends in these effects. We found significant effects of at least one environment-related and at least one host-related factor on the louse occurrence in five of six host-louse associations. The effect of habitat was significant in two associations with the occurrence of lice being more frequent in lowland than in mountain habitats. The effect of season was significant in five associations with a higher occurrence of infestation during the warm season in four associations and the cold season in one association. Host sex affected significantly the infestation by lice in three associations with a higher frequency of infestation in males. Host body mass affected the occurrence of lice in all five associations, being negative in wood mice and positive in voles. In conclusion, lice were influenced not only by the host- but also by environment-related factors. The effects of the latter could be mediated via life history parameters of a host. PMID:25651932

  16. Purification and molecular characterization of glycylglycine endopeptidase produced by Staphylococcus capitis EPK1.

    PubMed Central

    Sugai, M; Fujiwara, T; Akiyama, T; Ohara, M; Komatsuzawa, H; Inoue, S; Suginaka, H

    1997-01-01

    A novel staphylolytic enzyme, ALE-1, acting on Staphylococcus aureus, was purified from a Staphylococcus capitis EPK1 culture supernatant. The optimal pH range for staphylolytic activity was 7 to 9. ALE-1 contains one Zn2+ atom per molecule. Analysis of peptidoglycan fragments released by ALE-1 indicated that the enzyme is a glycylglycine endopeptidase. The effects of various modulators were determined, and we found that o-phenanthroline, iodoacetic acid, diethylpyrocarbonate, and Cu2+ reduced the staphylolytic activity of ALE-1. beta-Casein, elastin, and pentaglycine were poor substrates for ALE-1. Molecular cloning data revealed that ALE-1 is composed of 362 amino acid residues and is synthesized as a precursor protein which is cleaved after Ala at position 35, thus producing a mature ALE-1 of 35.6 kDa. The primary structure of mature ALE-1 is very similar to the proenzyme form of lysostaphin. It has the modular design of an N-terminal domain of tandem repeats of a 13-amino-acid sequence fused to the active site containing C-terminal domain. Unlike lysostaphin, ALE-1 does not undergo processing of the N-terminal repeat domain in broth culture. ale-1 is encoded on the plasmid. Protein homology search suggested that ALE-1 and lysostaphin are members of the novel Zn2+ protease family with a homologous 38-amino-acid-long motif, Tyr-X-His-X(11)-Val-X(12/20)-Gly-X(5-6)-His. PMID:9023202

  17. Fibre type composition of female longus capitis and longus colli muscles.

    PubMed

    Miller, Alexandra; Woodley, Stephanie J; Cornwall, Jon

    2016-03-01

    Effective management of neck pain requires detailed knowledge of cervical muscle structure and function. Information on muscle fibre type assists in determining function; few data exist on the fibre type composition of many cervical muscles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the fibre type composition of longus capitis (LCa) and longus colli (LCo) to provide a better understanding of their function. Muscle sections were harvested unilaterally from LCa (C2-C7) and LCo (C3, C6, T1) in seven female cadavers (mean age 86 ± 9 years). Immunohistochemistry was used to identify type I and type II fibres, and stereology (random systematic sampling) used to determine fibre numbers. Data were assessed using descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA (significance P < 0.05). Fifty-two sections were assessed (82,785 fibres; mean 1,592 ± 927 per section). LCa had a significantly greater proportion of type I fibres than LCo (64.3 % vs 55.7 %, P = 0.011). The percentage of fibre types varied significantly between individuals in LCa, but not LCo. No significant difference was found in the proportion of type I fibres between cervical levels for either LCa or LCo. LCa and LCo appear functionally different in elderly females, with LCa potentially having a more postural role (higher type I fibre proportion). Fibre types were homogenous throughout each muscle, indicating that contractile function is similar across the length of individual muscles. Further studies across a larger age-span and in males are required to determine whether results are representative of other populations. PMID:25794488

  18. [The Prevalence and Management of Pediculosis Capitis in Turkey: A Systematic Review].

    PubMed

    Özkan, Özlem; Hamzaoğlu, Onur; Yavuz, Melike

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to examine scientific articles performed in Turkey on the prevalence and management of PK (diagnosis, contagion, prevention, treatment) from a critical perspective. The population of the systematic review consisted of total 63 published and unpublished theses or dissertations and peer-reviewed articles published in Turkish or English in national or foreign scientific journals from studies performed in Turkey between 1982 and 2012 years. It reached 578,938 people in 63 studies. Seventy-eight percent of the studies were related to the prevalence of PK and/or associated factors. The number of the studies was limited regarding diagnosis, prevention, contagion, treatment compliance, difficulties and causes of failure. Of the studies, 90.5% had been performed in public schools, almost exclusively elementary schools. The prevalence of PK was 0.3-34.1%, 0-35.4%, and it was 0.3-34.1% in elementary school children. It increased with years of education. It was double that of the boys in the girls (p<0.05). The prevalence among the subjects with low economic status were 1.9-42.3%, and it increased with worsening economic status (p<0.05). The prevalence reached up to 44.1% among children with illiterate mother. Basic recommendations include increasing the number of studies on the diagnosis, prevention, contagion, treatment compliance and efficacy, treatment failures and difficulties; public health workers also should prioritize investigation of head lice infestation. PMID:26081888

  19. Chewing lice Trichodectes pinguis pinguis in Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos).

    PubMed

    Esteruelas, Núria Fandos; Malmsten, Jonas; Bröjer, Caroline; Grandi, Giulio; Lindström, Anders; Brown, Paul; Swenson, Jon E; Evans, Alina L; Arnemo, Jon M

    2016-08-01

    In April 2014 and 2015, we noted localized alopecia (neck, forelimbs, and chest) and hyperpigmentation on two adult brown bears (Ursus arctos) captured in central-south Sweden for ecological studies under the Scandinavian Brown Bear Research Project. In spring 2015, a brown bear was shot because of human-wildlife conflict in the same region. This bear also had extensive alopecia and hyperpigmentation. Ectoparasites were collected from the affected skin areas in all three individuals and preserved in ethanol for identification. Based on morphological characteristics, the lice were identified as Trichodectes spp. and Trichodectes pinguis pinguis. To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of chewing lice in free-ranging brown bears in Scandinavia. PMID:27330984

  20. SNPs in Entire Mitochondrial Genome Sequences (≈15.4 kb) and cox1 Sequences (≈486 bp) Resolve Body and Head Lice From Doubly Infected People From Ethiopia, China, Nepal, and Iran But Not France.

    PubMed

    Xiong, H; Campelo, D; Boutellis, A; Raoult, D; Alem, M; Ali, J; Bilcha, K; Shao, R; Pollack, R J; Barker, S C

    2014-11-01

    Some people host lice on the clothing as well as the head. Whether body lice and head lice are distinct species or merely variants of the same species remains contentious. We sought to ascertain the extent to which lice from these different habitats might interbreed on doubly infected people by comparing their entire mitochondrial genome sequences. Toward this end, we analyzed two sets of published genetic data from double-infections of body lice and head lice: 1) entire mitochondrial coding regions (≈15.4 kb) from body lice and head lice from seven doubly infected people from Ethiopia, China, and France; and 2) part of the cox1 gene (≈486 bp) from body lice and head lice from a further nine doubly infected people from China, Nepal, and Iran. These mitochondrial data, from 65 lice, revealed extraordinary variation in the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms between the individual body lice and individual head lice of double-infections: from 1.096 kb of 15.4 kb (7.6%) to 2 bps of 15.4 kb (0.01%). We detected coinfections of lice of Clades A and C on the scalp hair of three of the eight people from Nepal: one person of the two people from Kathmandu and two of the six people from Pokhara. Lice of Clades A and B coinfected the scalp hair of one person from Atherton, Far North Queensland, Australia. These findings argue for additional large-scale studies of the body lice and head lice of double-infected people. PMID:26309307

  1. Tinea Capitis: Mixed or Consecutive Infection with White and Violet Strains of Trichophyton violaceum: A Diagnostic or Therapeutic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Roma

    2015-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a common dermatophyte infection affecting scalp and hair of pre-pubertal children. With introduction of Griseofulvin in 1958, there has been considerable improvement in the treatment of tinea capitis. A seven-year-old male child was brought to the dermatology clinic. He presented with diffuse white scaly patches of alopecia on scalp of one-year duration. The child was sent to the microbiology section of the National Health laboratory, Botswana for the collection of the samples. The samples consisted of scalp scrapings and few plucked hairs from the suspicious areas, which were collected by swab and scalpel blade methods. Potassium hydroxide (10% KOH) mounts were prepared for scales and hair samples. Scales were positive for fungal elements and endothrix type of perforation was seen in hair. Cultures on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar (SDA) and Derm agar were incubated at 25°C, which yielded white variant of Trichophyton violaceum after two weeks of incubation. T. vioaceum (white variant) grew in all the plates. After six weeks of treatment with griseofulvin, the repeat culture grew only T. violaceum (violet strain). The child showed a definite clinical improvement. PMID:26814801

  2. Comparative in vitro tests on the efficacy and safety of 13 anti-head-lice products.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Semmler, Margit; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Klimpel, Sven; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Head lice are an emerging social problem, not only in economically poor countries but also in practically all other societies. Several of the common anti-louse products have lost--at least in part--their efficacy due to increasing resistance of lice against insecticides such as permethrin or allethrin. Other compounds, like lindan, were redrawn or banned due to high toxicity. Some recently developed products are based on dimethicones or cyclomethicones and turned out to be easily inflammable. Other styled medicinal products are based on plant extracts-some were proven of high efficacy-others of ineffectivity. The present study investigated in in vitro tests the anti-head louse efficacy of 13 products, the contents of which are used worldwide: Aesculo-Gel L, EtoPril, Goldgeist Forte, InfectoPedicul, Jacutin Pedicul Fluid, K.Laus, Liberalice, Licatack, Mosquito Läuse-Shampoo, Nyda, Paranix, Picksan Louse Stop, and Wash Away Louse. It turned out that several of them are easily inflammable, and therefore, they endanger users (InfectoPedicul, Paranix, EtoPril, Nyda, Goldgeist Forte, and K.Laus, see Table 1). Others have to remain for many hours on the hair in order to reach efficacy (Table 4). During such long periods, highly dosed oils may become inhaled and thus may become dangerous for the user's lung epithelia by covering them. When incubating the lice for 3 or 10 min in vitro, only the following products killed all lice exposed to these products: InfectoPedicul, Paranix, Jacutin Pedicul Fluid, Nyda, K.Laus, Picksan Louse Stop, Licatack, and Wash Away Louse. When evaluating the possible dangers for the users, the last three products, especially, derived from plant extracts, are safe and highly effective at the same time. Furthermore, they had been tested dermatologically as "very good". PMID:19908068

  3. Wild juvenile salmonids in Muchalat Inlet, British Columbia, Canada: factors associated with sea lice prevalence.

    PubMed

    Elmoslemany, Ahmed; Revie, Crawford W; Milligan, Barry; Stewardson, Lance; Vanderstichel, Raphael

    2015-12-01

    The Muchalat Inlet, British Columbia, is among the most westerly points at which aquaculture is practiced in Canada. In this paper, we summarise data from over 18000 wild fish sampled at 16 sites over an 8 yr period, between 2004 and 2011. The most prevalent wild species was chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta (82.4%), followed by Chinook O. tshawytscha (10%) and coho O. kisutch (4.3%). However, inter-annual and seasonal variation was evident, and smaller numbers of other Pacific salmon and stickleback species were sporadically observed. A high percentage of wild salmon (~95%) had no sea lice parasites present, with less than 1% of the fish hosting a mobile-stage sea louse. Of the data for which sea lice species were recorded, just over 96% of samples were identified as Lepeophtheirus salmonis. Logistic regression models assessed the association between the presence of lice and a range of independent variables. These models indicated a significant degree of spatial variation, much of which could be explained in terms of salinity levels. There were also important variations through time, both over the season within a year and across years. In addition, coho salmon were significantly more likely (odds ratio = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.20-2.3) to be infected than chum salmon. The protective effect of low salinity was most clearly seen at values lower than 15 psu, although this was dependent on fish species. PMID:26648103

  4. Temperature effects on hatching and viability of Juvenile Gill Lice, Salmincola californiensis.

    PubMed

    Vigil, E M; Christianson, K R; Lepak, J M; Williams, P J

    2016-07-01

    Salmonids of the genus Oncorhynchus, distributed throughout the Pacific Rim, can be infected by the gill lice species Salmincola californiensis (Dana, 1852), which makes them one of the most broadly distributed gill lice species. Despite their broad distribution and valuable obligate salmonid hosts, relatively little is known about S. californiensis. We evaluated effects of temperature on timing of S. californiensis hatching and survival of copepodids, and provide information on brood size and variability. Our results suggest that temperature was a primary driver of timing of S. californiensis hatching and post-hatching survival. Prior to this study, the free-swimming stage of S. californiensis was reported to survive approximately 2 days without a suitable host. We observed active copepodids 13 days after hatch with some individuals from most (>90%) viable egg sacs at all temperature treatments surviving ≥5 days. Our findings indicate that warmer temperatures could increase development rates of gill lice at certain life stages, potentially increasing fecundity. This information coupled with predictions that warmer water temperatures could intensify crowding of coldwater fishes, stress, and parasite transmission suggests that climate change could exacerbate negative effects of S. californiensis on ecologically and economically important salmonids. PMID:26538200

  5. Novel gene isolated from Caligus rogercresseyi: a promising target for vaccine development against sea lice.

    PubMed

    Carpio, Yamila; Basabe, Liliana; Acosta, Jannel; Rodríguez, Alina; Mendoza, Adriana; Lisperger, Angélica; Zamorano, Eugenio; González, Margarita; Rivas, Mario; Contreras, Sergio; Haussmann, Denise; Figueroa, Jaime; Osorio, Verónica N; Asencio, Gladys; Mancilla, Jorge; Ritchie, Gordon; Borroto, Carlos; Estrada, Mario Pablo

    2011-03-24

    Sea lice (Copepoda, Caligidae) are the most widely distributed marine pathogens in the salmon industry in the last 30 years. Caligus rogercresseyi is the most important species affecting Chile's salmon industry. Vaccines against caligid copepods have the potential to be a cost-effective means of controlling the infestation and avoid many of the disadvantages of medicine treatments. However, research in the development of such vaccines has begun only recently and approaches used thus far have met with little or no success. In the present study, we characterized a novel gene (denoted as my32) from C. rogercresseyi which has the highest identity with the Lepeophtheirus salmonis gene akirin-2. To assess the function of the gene an RNA interference experiment was developed and a reduction in the number of ectoparasites on fish in the my32-dsRNA treated group was observed. The recombinant my32 protein was used in a vaccination-challenge trial to evaluate its ability to protect against sea lice infestations. A significant reduction in the number of parasites per fish was observed at 24 days post-challenge. These results, together with the delay observed in the development of parasites from the vaccinated group suggest that the major effect of immunization was on the second parasite generation. The results of these experiments suggest that the my32 protein may be a promising target for vaccine development to control sea lice infestations in fish. PMID:21320542

  6. The sex ratio distortion in the human head louse is conserved over time

    PubMed Central

    Perotti, M Alejandra; Catalá, Silvia S; Ormeño, Analía del V; Żelazowska, Monika; Biliński, Szczepan M; Braig, Henk R

    2004-01-01

    Background At the turn of the 19th century the first observations of a female-biased sex ratio in broods and populations of the head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, had been reported. A study by Buxton in 1940 on the sex ratio of lice on prisoners in Ceylon is still today the subject of reanalyses. This sex ratio distortion had been detected in ten different countries. In the last sixty years no new data have been collected, especially on scalp infestations under economically and socially more developed conditions. Results Here we report a female bias of head lice in a survey of 480 school children in Argentina. This bias is independent of the intensity of the pediculosis, which makes local mate competition highly unlikely as the source of the aberrant sex ratio; however, other possible adaptive mechanisms cannot be discounted. These lice as well as lice from pupils in Britain were carrying several strains of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis, one of the most wide spread intracellular sex ratio distorters. Similar Wolbachia strains are also present in the pig louse, Haematopinus suis, suggesting that this endosymbiont might have a marked influence on the biology of the whole order. The presence of a related obligate nutritional bacterium in lice prevents the investigation of a causal link between sex ratio and endosymbionts. Conclusions Regardless of its origin, this sex ratio distortion in head lice that has been reported world wide, is stable over time and is a remarkable deviation from the stability of frequency-dependent selection of Fisher's sex ratio. A female bias first reported in 1898 is still present over a hundred years and a thousand generations later. PMID:15140268

  7. Transcriptomic responses to emamectin benzoate in Pacific and Atlantic Canada salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis with differing levels of drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Ben J G; Poley, Jordan D; Igboeli, Okechukwu O; Jantzen, Johanna R; Fast, Mark D; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2015-01-01

    Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis are an ecologically and economically important parasite of wild and farmed salmon. In Scotland, Norway, and Eastern Canada, L. salmonis have developed resistance to emamectin benzoate (EMB), one of the few parasiticides available for salmon lice. Drug resistance mechanisms can be complex, potentially differing among populations and involving multiple genes with additive effects (i.e., polygenic resistance). Indicators of resistance development may enable early detection and countermeasures to avoid the spread of resistance. Here, we collect sensitive Pacific L. salmonis and sensitive and resistant Atlantic L. salmonis from salmon farms, propagate in laboratory (F1), expose to EMB in bioassays, and evaluate either baseline (Atlantic only) or induced transcriptomic differences between populations. In all populations, induced responses were minor and a cellular stress response was not identified. Pacific lice did not upregulate any genes in response to EMB, but downregulated degradative enzymes and transport proteins at 50 ppb EMB. Baseline differences between sensitive and now resistant Atlantic lice were much greater than responses to exposures. All resistant lice overexpressed degradative enzymes, and resistant males, the most resistant group, overexpressed collagenases to the greatest extent. These results indicate an accumulation of baseline expression differences related to resistance. PMID:25685190

  8. Analysis of [Gossypium capitis-viridis × (G.hirsutum × G.australe)2] Trispecific Hybrid and Selected Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiling; Li, Fuguang

    2015-01-01

    Speciation is always a contentious and challenging issue following with the presence of gene flow. In Gossypium, there are many valuable resources and wild diploid cotton especially C and B genome species possess some excellent traits which cultivated cotton always lacks. In order to explore character transferring rule from wild cotton to upland tetraploid cotton, the [G. capitis-viridis × (G. hirsutum × G. australe)2] triple hybrid was synthesized by interspecies hybridization and chromosome doubling. Morphology comparisons were measured among this hybrid and its parents. It showed that trispecific hybrid F1 had some intermediate morphological characters like leaf style between its parents and some different characters from its parents, like crawl growth characteristics and two kind flower color. It is highly resistant to insects comparing with other cotton species by four year field investigation. By cytogenetic analysis, triple hybrid was further confirmed by meiosis behavior of pollen mother cells. Comparing with regular meiosis of its three parents, it was distinguished by the occurrence of polyads with various numbers of unbalanced microspores and finally generating various abnormal pollen grains. All this phenomenon results in the sterility of this hybrid. This hybrid was further identified by SSR marker from DNA molecular level. It showed that 98 selected polymorphism primers amplified effective bands in this hybrids and its parents. The genetic proportion of three parents in this hybrid is 47.8% from G. hirsutum, 14.3% from G. australe, 7.0% from G. capitis-viridis, and 30.9% recombination bands respectively. It was testified that wild genetic material has been transferred into cultivated cotton and this new germplasm can be incorporated into cotton breeding program. PMID:26035817

  9. Cophylogenetic analysis of New World ground-doves (Aves: Columbidae) and their parasitic wing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Columbicola).

    PubMed

    Sweet, Andrew D; Johnson, Kevin P

    2016-10-01

    Hosts-parasite interactions are plentiful and diverse, and understanding the patterns of these interactions can provide great insight into the evolutionary history of the organisms involved. Estimating the phylogenetic relationships of a group of parasites and comparing them to that of their hosts can indicate how factors such as host or parasite life history, biogeography, or climate affect evolutionary patterns. In this study we compare the phylogeny generated for a clade of parasitic chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) within the genus Columbicola to that of their hosts, the small New World ground-doves (Aves: Columbidae). We sampled lice from the majority of host species, including samples from multiple geographic locations. From these samples we sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear loci for the lice, and used these data to estimate phylogenetic trees and population networks. After estimating the appropriate number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for the lice, we used cophylogenetic analyses to compare the louse phylogeny to an existing host phylogeny. Our phylogenetic analysis recovered significant structure within the louse clade, including evidence for potentially cryptic species. All cophylogenetic analyses indicated an overall congruence between the host and parasite trees. However, we only recovered a single cospeciation event. This finding suggests that certain branches in the trees are driving the signal of congruence. In particular, lice with the highest levels of congruence are associated with high Andean species of ground-doves that are well separated altitudinally from other related taxa. Other host-parasite associations are not as congruent, and these often involved widespread louse taxa. These widespread lice did, however, have significant phylogeographic structure, and their phylogenetic relationships are perhaps best explained by biogeographic patterns. Overall these results indicate that both host phylogeny and biogeography can be

  10. A review of potential pathogens of sea lice and the application of cleaner fish in biological control.

    PubMed

    Treasurer, James W

    2002-06-01

    There are many examples of successful biological control of pest populations in aquatic environments. This approach to sea louse control has environmental benefits and is cost-effective. The range of possible pathogens of lice is reviewed and epibionts recorded from sea lice, including the monogenean Udonella caligorum and ciliates, are examined. Baculoviruses when ingested by insects form occlusion bodies resulting in severe damage to the digestive system and subsequent death, and this may be a promising approach. Cleaner wrasse (Labridae) have been stocked commercially with farmed salmon since 1989, and recent work on improving the method is reviewed. Wrasse are sourced from a wild fishery and stocked at ratios of 1 to 25-150 salmon. Over 5 million wrasse are stocked annually in Norway and c 30% of smolts in Scotland were stocked with wrasse until 1998, when an outbreak of infections salmon anaemia (ISA) deterred many farmers from transferring wild fish to cages. A case study is given showing that salmon in cages stocked with wrasse had a burden of one to eight lice through the first year compared with up to 40 lice per fish on unprotected and untreated fish. Electivity indices were used to compare the relative composition of lice developmental stages on salmon in stocked and unstocked cages, and adult male and female lice were found to comprise only 6% of the population in cages with wrasse, compared with 49% adults on fish in control cages. Measures to improve the efficacy of wrasse as a way of cleaning salmon in the second production year include the use of refuges to assist over-wintering survival, and stocking ballan wrasse. Health hygiene includes sourcing wrasse in the farm locality, testing for pathogens, vaccination of wrasse and ultimately rearing wrasse for stocking. The role of wrasse in an IPM strategy is described. PMID:12138621

  11. Synthesis of pediculocidal and larvicidal silver nanoparticles by leaf extract from heartleaf moonseed plant, Tinospora cordifolia Miers.

    PubMed

    Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Vishnu Kirthi, Arivarasan; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Bagavan, Asokan; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Elango, Gandhi

    2011-07-01

    Insecticide resistance and inadequate attention to the application instructions of topical pediculicides are common reasons for treatment failure. Essential oils or plant extracts are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. The present study was carried out to establish the pediculocidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using leaf aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia Miers (Menispermaceae) against the head louse Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) and fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). We reported the aqueous plant extract and synthesized AgNPs against head lice and vectors. Direct contact method was conducted to determine the potential of pediculocidal activity. The synthesized AgNPs characterized by UV-vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, and X-ray diffraction. Head lice and mosquito larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extracts and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The results suggest that the optimal times for measuring mortality effects of synthesized AgNPs were 33% at 5 min, 67% at 15 min, and 100% after 1 h. The maximum activity was observed in the synthesized AgNPs against lice, A. subpictus and C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) = 12.46, 6.43 and 6.96 mg/L; r (2) = 0.978, 0.773 and 0.828), respectively. The findings revealed that synthesized AgNPs possess excellent anti-lice and mosquito larvicidal activity. These results suggest that the green synthesis of AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of head lice and vectors. PMID:21212979

  12. HEAD LICE IN HAIR SAMPLES FROM YOUTHS, ADULTS AND THE ELDERLY IN MANAUS, AMAZONAS STATE, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Suellen Cristina Barbosa; Moroni, Raquel Borges; Mendes, Júlio; Justiniano, Sílvia Cássia Brandão; Moroni, Fábio Tonissi

    2015-01-01

    A study of head lice infestations among young people, adults and elderly individuals was conducted from August 2010 to July 2013 in Manaus, AM, Northern Brazil. Hair samples collected from 1,860 individuals in 18 barber shops and beauty parlors were examined for the ectoparasite. The occurrence of pediculosis and its association with factors, such as sex, age, ethnicity, hair characteristics and the socioeconomic profile of salon customers, salon location and seasonal variation were determined. The overall occurrence rate was 2.84%. Occurrence was higher in hair samples from non-blacks and the elderly. Higher occurrence was also observed during kindergarten, elementary and junior education school holidays. The results indicate that the occurrence of head lice among young people, adults and the elderly in Manaus is relatively low compared to that determined in children and in other regions of the country. After children, the elderly were the most affected. The study also indicated the need to adopt additional procedures to improve surveys among the population with low or no purchasing power, which is usually the most affected by this ectoparasitic disease. PMID:26200965

  13. HEAD LICE IN HAIR SAMPLES FROM YOUTHS, ADULTS AND THE ELDERLY IN MANAUS, AMAZONAS STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    NUNES, Suellen Cristina Barbosa; MORONI, Raquel Borges; MENDES, Júlio; JUSTINIANO, Sílvia Cássia Brandão; MORONI, Fábio Tonissi

    2015-01-01

    A study of head lice infestations among young people, adults and elderly individuals was conducted from August 2010 to July 2013 in Manaus, AM, Northern Brazil. Hair samples collected from 1,860 individuals in 18 barber shops and beauty parlors were examined for the ectoparasite. The occurrence of pediculosis and its association with factors, such as sex, age, ethnicity, hair characteristics and the socioeconomic profile of salon customers, salon location and seasonal variation were determined. The overall occurrence rate was 2.84%. Occurrence was higher in hair samples from non-blacks and the elderly. Higher occurrence was also observed during kindergarten, elementary and junior education school holidays. The results indicate that the occurrence of head lice among young people, adults and the elderly in Manaus is relatively low compared to that determined in children and in other regions of the country. After children, the elderly were the most affected. The study also indicated the need to adopt additional procedures to improve surveys among the population with low or no purchasing power, which is usually the most affected by this ectoparasitic disease. PMID:26200965

  14. Mapping the social network: tracking lice in a wild primate (Microcebus rufus) population to infer social contacts and vector potential

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of host-parasite interactions have the potential to provide insights into the ecology of both organisms involved. We monitored the movement of sucking lice (Lemurpediculus verruculosus), parasites that require direct host-host contact to be transferred, in their host population of wild mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus). These lemurs live in the rainforests of Madagascar, are small (40 g), arboreal, nocturnal, solitary foraging primates for which data on population-wide interactions are difficult to obtain. We developed a simple, cost effective method exploiting the intimate relationship between louse and lemur, whereby individual lice were marked, without removal from their host, with an individualized code, and tracked throughout the lemur population. We then tested the hypotheses that 1) the frequency of louse transfers, and thus interactions, would decrease with increasing distance between paired individual lemurs; 2) due to host polygynandry, social interactions and hence louse transfers would increase during the onset of the breeding season; and 3) individual mouse lemurs would vary in their contributions to the spread of lice. Results We show that louse transfers involved 43.75% of the studied lemur population, exclusively males. Louse transfers peaked during the breeding season, perhaps due to increased social interactions between lemurs. Although trap-based individual lemur ranging patterns are restricted, louse transfer rate does not correlate with the distance between lemur trapping locales, indicating wider host ranging behavior and a greater risk of rapid population-wide pathogen transmission than predicted by standard trapping data alone. Furthermore, relatively few lemur individuals contributed disproportionately to the rapid spread of lice throughout the population. Conclusions Using a simple method, we were able to visualize exchanges of lice in a population of cryptic wild primates. This method not only provided insight into the

  15. Expansion of the Knockdown Resistance Frequency Map for Human Head Lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) in the United States Using Quantitative Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Gellatly, Kyle J.; Krim, Sarah; Palenchar, Daniel J.; Shepherd, Katie; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Rhodes, Christopher J.; Lee, Si Hyeock; Marshall Clark, J.

    2016-01-01

    Pediculosis is a prevalent parasitic infestation of humans, which is increasing due, in part, to the selection of lice resistant to either the pyrethrins or pyrethroid insecticides by the knockdown resistance (kdr) mechanism. To determine the extent and magnitude of the kdr-type mutations responsible for this resistance, lice were collected from 138 collection sites in 48 U.S. states from 22 July 2013 to 11 May 2015 and analyzed by quantitative sequencing. Previously published data were used for comparisons of the changes in the frequency of the kdr-type mutations over time. Mean percent resistance allele frequency (mean % RAF) values across the three mutation loci were determined from each collection site. The overall mean % RAF (±SD) for all analyzed lice was 98.3 ± 10%. 132/138 sites (95.6%) had a mean % RAF of 100%, five sites (3.7%) had intermediate values, and only a single site had no mutations (0.0%). Forty-two states (88%) had a mean % RAF of 100%. The frequencies of kdr-type mutations did not differ regardless of the human population size that the lice were collected from, indicating a uniformly high level of resistant alleles. The loss of efficacy of the Nix formulation (Prestige Brand, Tarrytown, NY) from 1998 to 2013 was correlated to the increase in kdr-type mutations. These data provide a plausible reason for the decrease in the effectiveness of permethrin in the Nix formulation, which is the parallel increase of kdr-type mutations in lice over time. PMID:27032417

  16. Epidemiological prediction of the distribution of insects of medical significance: comparative distributions of fleas and sucking lice on the rat host Rattus norvegicus in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zuo, X H; Guo, X G

    2011-12-01

    Determining the distribution patterns of ectoparasites is important for predicting the spread of vector-borne diseases. A simple epidemiological model was used to compare the distributions of two different taxa of ectoparasitic insects, sucking lice (Insecta: Siphonaptera) and fleas (Insecta: Anoplura), on the same rodent host, Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout (Rodentia: Muridae), in Yunnan Province, China. Correlations between mean abundance and prevalence were determined. Both fleas and sucking lice were aggregated on their hosts, and sucking lice showed a higher degree of aggregation than fleas. The prevalence of both fleas and sucking lice increased with log-transformed mean abundance and a highly linear correlation and modelling efficiency of predicted prevalence against observed prevalence were obtained. The results demonstrate that prevalence can be explained simply by mean abundance. PMID:21453420

  17. [Prevalence and seasonal variation of Pediculosis capitis in children and the young population of the health region, Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Castro, D del C; Abrahamovich, A H; Cicchino, A C; Rigoni, A M; Raffaeli, C; de Barrio, A

    1994-08-01

    The prevalence of the parasitic disease Pediculosis capitis was studied over a period of one year from 1-8-1992 to 31-7-1993, in Sanitary Region XI of the Buenos Aires province, Argentina which is composed of 15 districts located on the ENE, and in other areas under the influence of the Hospital Interzonal de Agudos, Especialidad Pediatría "Sup. Sor María Ludovica" de Plata, center of this Sanitary Region. A total number of 552 individuals of from medium to medium low social level of the child population of from 0 to 16 years of age were sampled at random over 52 consecutive weeks. All individuals who actually had the parasite at the time of examination were considered as positive for this disease. The results are expressed in terms of prevalence and its monthly and seasonal variations analyzed. Prevalence showed high values during all months, the lowest being in February (12%) and the highest in August (56.8%), the annual mean being of 38.04% (+/- 4.05%). Seasonally, its lowest value occurred in the summer (16.8%), the values for the remaining seasons being very similar to one another, but always higher than 38%. PMID:7660026

  18. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from Calidris fuscicollis (Aves: Scolopacidae) in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Sâmara Nunes; Pesenti, Tatiana Cheuiche; Cirne, Maximiano Pinheiro; Müller, Gertrud

    2014-08-01

    During April and September from 2010 to 2012, 80 birds of the species Calidris fuscicollis (white-rumped sandpiper) were collected for parasitological studies in the southern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, under ICMBIO license No. 26234-1. For ectoparasite collection, the birds were first submerged in water with detergent. The parasites found were fixed in 70% alcohol, cleared in 10% potassium hydroxide and mounted in Canada balsam. Of 80 birds examined, 79% were parasitized. Actornithophilus umbrinus (47.5%), Actornithophilus lacustris (37.5%), Actornithophilus spp. (13.75%), Carduiceps zonarius (26.25%), Lunaceps incoenis (27.5%), and Lunaceps spp. (16.25%) were the species found with their respective prevalence. We record for the first time parasitism by chewing lice in Calidris fuscicollis. PMID:24742904

  19. Comparative toxicity of oxygenated monoterpenoids in experimental hydroalcoholic lotions to permethrin-resistant adult head lice.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Audino, Paola; Picollo, María Inés; Gallardo, Anabella; Toloza, Ariel; Vassena, Claudia; Mougabure-Cueto, Gastón

    2011-07-01

    The use of botanical compounds such as essential oils has recently become the subject of great interest as a natural means of pest control because of their ovicidal, larvicidal, or adulticidal activity against various insect species including head lice. We tested and compared the efficacy of pure oxygenated monoterpenoids that are main ingredients of essential oils of good biological activity. We used pulegone and citral, components of Aloysia citrodora, and geraniol, citronellol, and linalool, components of Geranium sp. oil. We found that citronellol and geraniol showed the highest knockdown and mortality effect (>60%) on adults of both sexes (50:50%) and third-stage nymphs. Pulegone, linalool, and citral showed knockdown percentages between 42 and 55%, and mortality percentages between 47 and 53%. A simple linear regression analysis showed statistically significant relationships between the studied toxic effects and viscosity of the monoterpenoids (p < 0.05), but not with their partition coefficient (log P). PMID:21174108

  20. Seizure caused by dermal application of over-the-counter eucalyptus oil head lice preparation.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Neil

    2011-10-01

    Natural plant oils such as eucalyptus are common worldwide in non-prescription natural health products. Oral ingestion of eucalyptus oil is well known to produce neurological symptoms and seizures; however, its dermal use is presumed to be safe. We describe a brief, self-limited, tonic-clonic seizure in a healthy 4-year-old girl following dermal exposure to eucalyptus oil as directed for treatment of head lice. Initial symptoms were vomiting, lethargy, and ataxia followed by a grand mal seizure. Recovery occurred rapidly after the skin was washed. Health care providers should be aware that eucalyptus oil toxicity may occur with dermal exposure and should report additional cases. PMID:21867365

  1. Effect of households' social networks on lice infestation among vulnerable Mexican children: a qualitative comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Marín, Lydia; Márquez-Serrano, Margarita; Lara-López, Luz M; Moncada, Ligia I; Idrovo, Alvaro J

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of pediculosis is high among elementary and secondary school children, which favors the belief that infestation occurs more often in schools than in homes. This study explored the role of households' social networks in the transmission of head lice. Seventeen school children and their social networks (n = 22) from Acatlipa (Morelos, Mexico) participated in a prospective observational study during school vacation. The hair of all the school children was washed with shampoo containing permethrin at the beginning of the study and the incidence of pediculosis (O) was evaluated at the beginning of the school term (follow-up at 1.5 months). The sets included in the qualitative comparative analysis were sex (S), length of hair (H), baseline diagnostic of pediculosis (I) and degree (D) and infestation index (N) obtained through the analysis of social networks. The prevalence of pediculosis was the same at the beginning and the end of follow-up (17.6%). The degree of the school children's networks ranged between 2 and 14. There were 8 configurations, the most frequent being F*i*d*n*h. The most parsimonious configuration associated with the incidence of pediculosis was F*I*d*H (female, previous infestation, low degree and long hair), with a coverage of 0.344 and a consistency of 0.941. Indicators of social networks made it possible to identify the role of households' social networks in the transmission of lice. Individual actions such as the use of shampoo containing insecticides are temporary and, therefore, structural actions should be favored. PMID:23751254

  2. Body lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... off the body. Your provider may prescribe a skin cream or a wash that contains permethrin, malathione, or benzyl alcohol. If your case is severe, the provider may prescribe medicine that you take by mouth.

  3. Head lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... et al, eds. Dermatology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2012:chap 84. Devore CD, Schutze GE; ... Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2015:chap 294. Elston DM. Arthropods ...

  4. Head lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 294. Elston DM. Arthropods and ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 359 Habif TP. Infestations and ...

  5. Parasites - Lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  6. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  7. Variation in mitochondrial minichromosome composition between blood-sucking lice of the genus Haematopinus that infest horses and pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genus Haematopinus contains 21 species of blood-sucking lice, parasitizing both even-toed ungulates (pigs, cattle, buffalo, antelopes, camels and deer) and odd-toed ungulates (horses, donkeys and zebras). The mitochondrial genomes of the domestic pig louse, Haematopinus suis, and the wild pig louse, Haematopinus apri, have been sequenced recently; both lice have fragmented mitochondrial genomes with 37 genes on nine minichromosomes. To understand whether the composition of mitochondrial minichromosomes and the gene content and gene arrangement of each minichromosome are stable within the genus, we sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the horse louse, Haematopinus asini. Methods We used a PCR-based strategy to amplify four mitochondrial minichromosomes in near full-length, and then amplify the entire coding regions of all of the nine mitochondrial minichromosomes of the horse louse. These amplicons were sequenced with an Illumina Hiseq platform. Results We identified all of the 37 mitochondrial genes typical of bilateral animals in the horse louse, Haematopinus asini; these genes are on nine circular minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3.5–5.0 kb in size and consists of a coding region and a non-coding region except R-nad4L-rrnS-C minichromosome, which contains two coding regions and two non-coding regions. Six of the nine minichromosomes of the horse louse have their counterparts in the pig lice with the same gene content and gene arrangement. However, the gene content and arrangement of the other three minichromosomes of the horse louse, including R-nad4L-rrnS-C, are different from that of the other three minichromosomes of the pig lice. Conclusions Comparison between the horse louse and the pig lice revealed variation in the composition of mitochondrial minichromosomes within the genus Haematopinus, which can be accounted for by gene translocation events between minichromosomes. The current study indicates that inter

  8. Use of agent-based modelling to predict benefits of cleaner fish in controlling sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestations on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    PubMed

    Groner, M L; Cox, R; Gettinby, G; Revie, C W

    2013-03-01

    Sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, are ectoparasites of farmed and wild salmonids. Infestations can result in significant morbidity and mortality of hosts in addition to being costly to control. Integrated pest management programmes have been developed to manage infestations, and in some salmon farming areas, these programmes include the use of wrasse. Wrasse prey upon the parasitic life stages of L. salmonis and can be stocked on farms at varying densities. Despite considerable variation in the usage of wrasse, there are few quantitative estimates of how well they can control sea lice and how best to optimize their use. To explore at what densities wrasse should be stocked in order to meet specific control targets, we built an individual-based model that simulates sea lice infestation patterns on a representative salmonid host. Sea lice can be controlled through the use of chemical treatments as well as by wrasse predators. We found that the wrasse can effectively control sea lice, and the densities of wrasse needed for effective control depend upon the source of the infestation and the targeted level of control. Effective usage of wrasse can result in decreased use of chemical treatments and improved control of sea lice. PMID:23121261

  9. Pigeon lice down under: taxonomy of Australian Campanulotes (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae), with a description of C. durdeni n. sp.

    PubMed

    Price, R D; Claytont, D H; Adams, R J

    2000-10-01

    Campanulotes flavus (Rudow, 1869) from Phaps chalcoptera is redescribed and illustrated. C. defectus Tendeiro, 1969, erroneously recorded from the extinct passenger pigeon Ectopistes migratorius, is shown to be a junior synonym of C. flavus, thus removing it from the list of lice thought to have gone extinct with the passenger pigeon. C. flavus elegans (Tendeiro, 1978) from P. elegans is elevated to specific rank and redescribed. Finally, C. durdeni n. sp. is described from its type host Ocyphaps lophotes. PMID:11128516

  10. Effects of 16S rDNA sampling on estimates of the number of endosymbiont lineages in sucking lice.

    PubMed

    Allen, Julie M; Burleigh, J Gordon; Light, Jessica E; Reed, David L

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees can reveal the origins of endosymbiotic lineages of bacteria and detect patterns of co-evolution with their hosts. Although taxon sampling can greatly affect phylogenetic and co-evolutionary inference, most hypotheses of endosymbiont relationships are based on few available bacterial sequences. Here we examined how different sampling strategies of Gammaproteobacteria sequences affect estimates of the number of endosymbiont lineages in parasitic sucking lice (Insecta: Phthirapatera: Anoplura). We estimated the number of louse endosymbiont lineages using both newly obtained and previously sequenced 16S rDNA bacterial sequences and more than 42,000 16S rDNA sequences from other Gammaproteobacteria. We also performed parametric and nonparametric bootstrapping experiments to examine the effects of phylogenetic error and uncertainty on these estimates. Sampling of 16S rDNA sequences affects the estimates of endosymbiont diversity in sucking lice until we reach a threshold of genetic diversity, the size of which depends on the sampling strategy. Sampling by maximizing the diversity of 16S rDNA sequences is more efficient than randomly sampling available 16S rDNA sequences. Although simulation results validate estimates of multiple endosymbiont lineages in sucking lice, the bootstrap results suggest that the precise number of endosymbiont origins is still uncertain. PMID:27547523

  11. Effects of 16S rDNA sampling on estimates of the number of endosymbiont lineages in sucking lice

    PubMed Central

    Burleigh, J. Gordon; Light, Jessica E.; Reed, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees can reveal the origins of endosymbiotic lineages of bacteria and detect patterns of co-evolution with their hosts. Although taxon sampling can greatly affect phylogenetic and co-evolutionary inference, most hypotheses of endosymbiont relationships are based on few available bacterial sequences. Here we examined how different sampling strategies of Gammaproteobacteria sequences affect estimates of the number of endosymbiont lineages in parasitic sucking lice (Insecta: Phthirapatera: Anoplura). We estimated the number of louse endosymbiont lineages using both newly obtained and previously sequenced 16S rDNA bacterial sequences and more than 42,000 16S rDNA sequences from other Gammaproteobacteria. We also performed parametric and nonparametric bootstrapping experiments to examine the effects of phylogenetic error and uncertainty on these estimates. Sampling of 16S rDNA sequences affects the estimates of endosymbiont diversity in sucking lice until we reach a threshold of genetic diversity, the size of which depends on the sampling strategy. Sampling by maximizing the diversity of 16S rDNA sequences is more efficient than randomly sampling available 16S rDNA sequences. Although simulation results validate estimates of multiple endosymbiont lineages in sucking lice, the bootstrap results suggest that the precise number of endosymbiont origins is still uncertain. PMID:27547523

  12. Transcriptome immunomodulation of in-feed additives in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar infested with sea lice Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Gonçalves, Ana Teresa; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Pino-Marambio, Jorge; Wadsworth, Simon; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-11-01

    One of the most significant threats to the Chilean salmon aquaculture industry is the ectoparasitic sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. To cope with sea lice infestations, functional diets have become an important component in strengthening the host immune response. The aim of this study was to evaluate molecular mechanisms activated through immunostimulation by in-feed plant-derived additives in Atlantic salmon infected with sea lice. Herein, a transcriptome-wide sequencing analysis was performed from skin and head kidney tissues, evidencing that the immune response genes were the most variable after the challenge, especially in the head kidney, while other genes involved in metabolism were highly expressed individuals fed with the immunostimulants. Interestingly, defensive enzymes such as Cytochrome p450 and serpins were down-regulated in infested individuals, especially in skin tissue. Additionally, MHC-I and MHC-II genes were differentially expressed after the incorporation of the in-feed additives, giving some cues about the protection mechanisms of plant-derived compound as immunostimulants for infested salmons. This is the first published study that evaluates the transcriptomic response of sea lice-infested Atlantic salmon fed with in-feed additives. PMID:26363235

  13. How long do louse eggs take to hatch? A possible answer to an age-old riddle.

    PubMed

    Burgess, I F

    2014-06-01

    There are no rigorous data on how long eggs of the head louse, Pediculus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), take to hatch. Pediculicide users often report reinfestations after apparently successful treatments in the absence of infective contacts. This study aimed to resolve the question of whether some louse eggs hatch after the completion of treatment, thereby giving rise to a new infestation. Data were extracted from the records of lice collected after treatments in 20 clinical intervention trials. All datasets were eliminated except those in which only newly hatched louse nymphs were found prior to the final assessment. This excluded the possibility that new eggs were laid after the first treatment and thus any young lice found must have originated from eggs laid before the start of treatment. This identified 23 of 1895 (1.2%) records with evidence of louse nymphs emerging at 13 days or more after the first treatment, 3–6 days longer than previous estimates. Current treatment regimens for pediculicides of two applications 7–10 days apart appear inadequate, which may explain continuing infestation in the community. Therefore, it is suggested that a revised approach using three treatments applied at intervals of 1 week should prevent the survival of any nymphs and their development into a new generation of adults. PMID:24987776

  14. Ovicidal Response of NYDA Formulations on the Human Head Louse (Anoplura: Pediculidae) Using a Hair Tuft Bioassay

    PubMed Central

    STRYCHARZ, JOSEPH P.; LAO, ALICE R.; ALVES, ANNA-MARIA; CLARK, J. MARSHALL

    2012-01-01

    Using the in vitro rearing system in conjunction with the hair tuft bioassay, NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations (92% wt:wt dimeticones) were 100% ovicidal (0% of treated eggs hatched) after an 8-h exposure of the eggs of the human head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer) following the manufacturer’s instructions. Comparatively, 78 and 66% of eggs similarly exposed hatched after distilled deionized water or Nix (1% permethrin) treatments, respectively. NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations were also statistically and substantially more ovicidal than either distilled deionized water or Nix treatments after 10, 30 min, and 1 h exposures. Only the 10 min exposure of eggs to NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations resulted in hatched lice that survived to adulthood (5–8% survival). Of the lice that hatched from eggs exposed to NYDA formulations for 10 min, there were no significant differences in the time it took them to become adults, female fecundity or the viability of eggs laid by surviving females. The longevity of adults, however, was reduced after the 10 min treatments of eggs with NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations compared with either the distilled deionized water or Nix treatments. PMID:22493852

  15. Ovicidal response of NYDA formulations on the human head louse (Anoplura: Pediculidae) using a hair tuft bioassay.

    PubMed

    Strycharz, Joseph P; Lao, Alice R; Alves, Anna-Maria; Clark, J Marshall

    2012-03-01

    Using the in vitro rearing system in conjunction with the hair tuft bioassay, NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations (92% wt:wt dimeticones) were 100% ovicidal (0% of treated eggs hatched) after an 8-h exposure of the eggs of the human head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer) following the manufacturer's instructions. Comparatively, 78 and 66% of eggs similarly exposed hatched after distilled deionized water or Nix (1% permethrin) treatments, respectively. NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations were also statistically and substantially more ovicidal than either distilled deionized water or Nix treatments after 10, 30 min, and 1 h exposures. Only the 10 min exposure of eggs to NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations resulted in hatched lice that survived to adulthood (5-8% survival). Of the lice that hatched from eggs exposed to NYDA formulations for 10 min, there were no significant differences in the time it took them to become adults, female fecundity or the viability of eggs laid by surviving females. The longevity of adults, however, was reduced after the 10 min treatments of eggs with NYDA and NYDA without fragrances formulations compared with either the distilled deionized water or Nix treatments. PMID:22493852

  16. Evaluation of quality and efficacy of an ethnomedicinal plant Ageratum conyzoides L. in the management of pediculosis

    PubMed Central

    Shailajan, Sunita; Wadke, Priyanka; Joshi, Harshvardhan; Tiwari, Bhavesh

    2013-01-01

    Background Infestation with the head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, is one of the most common parasitic infestations of human worldwide. Traditionally, the main treatment for control of head lice is chemical control that includes wide variety of neurotoxic synthetic insecticides. The main difficulty posed in controlling the head louse infestation is increasing lice resistance to synthetic pediculicidal drugs. Plant-based drugs; especially essential oil components and standardized extracts have been suggested as an alternative source of materials for insect control. Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) has been reported to possess antifungal and insecticidal properties. In the present research work, an attempt has been made to evaluate in vitro pediculicidal activity of A. conyzoides. Methods A filter paper diffusion bioassay was carried out in order to determine the pediculicidal activity of different extracts of A. conyzoides. Results The study elucidates the active plant part and suitable extract responsible for the therapeutic efficacy of this plant in the management of pediculosis. Conclusion Findings of the present study indicate the potential of A. conyzoides extract to be included in the formulations as a pediculicidal agent. PMID:24563592

  17. Laboratory and clinical trials of cocamide diethanolamine lotion against head lice.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ian F; Brunton, Elizabeth R; Brown, Christine M

    2015-01-01

    Context. During the late 1990s, insecticide resistance had rendered a number of treatment products ineffective; some companies saw this as an opportunity to develop alternative types of treatment. We investigated the possibility that a surfactant-based lotion containing 10% cocamide diethanolamine (cocamide DEA) was effective to eliminate head louse infestation. Settings and Design. Initial in vitro testing of the lotion formulation versus laboratory reared body/clothing lice, followed by two randomised, controlled, community-based, assessor blinded, clinical studies. Materials and Methods. Preliminary laboratory tests were performed by exposing lice or louse eggs to the product using a method that mimicked the intended use. Clinical Study 1: Children and adults with confirmed head louse infestation were treated by investigators using a single application of aqueous 10% cocamide DEA lotion applied for 60 min followed by shampooing or a single 1% permethrin creme rinse treatment applied to pre-washed hair for 10 min. Clinical Study 2: Compared two treatment regimens using 10% cocamide DEA lotion that was concentrated by hair drying. A single application left on for 8 h/overnight was compared with two applications 7 days apart of 2 h duration, followed by a shampoo wash. Results. The initial laboratory tests showed a pediculicidal effect for a 60 min application but limited ovicidal effect. A longer application time of 8 h or overnight was found capable of killing all eggs but this differed between batches of test material. Clinical Study 1: Both treatments performed badly with only 3/23 (13%) successful treatments using cocamide DEA and 5/25 (23.8%) using permethrin. Clinical Study 2: The single overnight application of cocamide DEA concentrated by hair drying gave 10/56 (17.9%) successes compared with 19/56 (33.9%) for the 2 h application regimen repeated after 1 week. Intention to treat analysis showed no significant difference (p = 0.0523) between the treatments

  18. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas, ticks, mites and lice on dogs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The studies reported here were conducted to ascertain the efficacy of imidacloprid/flumethrin incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against infestations of dogs by fleas, ticks, mites and lice. Efficacy was evaluated against the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis, the ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes scapularis, Dermacentor reticulatus and Dermacentor variabilis, the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and the biting louse Trichodectes canis. Methods Groups of collar-treated dogs (n = 7–10) were infested with fleas and/or ticks at monthly intervals at least, over a period of up to 8 months. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 to 48 h after treatment and 24 h after each re-infestation. Efficacy against ticks was evaluated at 48 h (acaricidal), 6 h (repellent) and 48 h (sustained) after infestation. The effect of regular shampooing or immersion in water on the efficacy of the collars was also tested. Efficacy against flea larvae was assessed by incubating blanket samples after dog contact with viable flea eggs. Effectiveness against lice and mites was evaluated after treatment of naturally infested animals. With the exception of the mites, efficacy was calculated by comparison with untreated negative control groups. Results Efficacy against fleas (24 h) generally exceeded 95%, and against flea larvae it exceeded 99% for 8 months. Sustained acaricidal (48 h) efficacy, covering a period of 8 months was 100% against I. ricinus, starting 2 days after treatment (in vivo), and 100% against I. scapularis (in vitro), above 97% against R. sanguineus, generally above 97% against D. reticulatus and above 90% for D. variabilis. Repellent (6 h) efficacy 2 days after treatment and continuing for 8 months was consistently 100% against I. ricinus, and above 90% against R. sanguineus. Regular shampooing affected efficacy against fleas and ticks to a lesser extent than regular immersion in water. The collars eliminated

  19. Laboratory and clinical trials of cocamide diethanolamine lotion against head lice

    PubMed Central

    Brunton, Elizabeth R.; Brown, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Context. During the late 1990s, insecticide resistance had rendered a number of treatment products ineffective; some companies saw this as an opportunity to develop alternative types of treatment. We investigated the possibility that a surfactant-based lotion containing 10% cocamide diethanolamine (cocamide DEA) was effective to eliminate head louse infestation. Settings and Design. Initial in vitro testing of the lotion formulation versus laboratory reared body/clothing lice, followed by two randomised, controlled, community-based, assessor blinded, clinical studies. Materials and Methods. Preliminary laboratory tests were performed by exposing lice or louse eggs to the product using a method that mimicked the intended use. Clinical Study 1: Children and adults with confirmed head louse infestation were treated by investigators using a single application of aqueous 10% cocamide DEA lotion applied for 60 min followed by shampooing or a single 1% permethrin creme rinse treatment applied to pre-washed hair for 10 min. Clinical Study 2: Compared two treatment regimens using 10% cocamide DEA lotion that was concentrated by hair drying. A single application left on for 8 h/overnight was compared with two applications 7 days apart of 2 h duration, followed by a shampoo wash. Results. The initial laboratory tests showed a pediculicidal effect for a 60 min application but limited ovicidal effect. A longer application time of 8 h or overnight was found capable of killing all eggs but this differed between batches of test material. Clinical Study 1: Both treatments performed badly with only 3/23 (13%) successful treatments using cocamide DEA and 5/25 (23.8%) using permethrin. Clinical Study 2: The single overnight application of cocamide DEA concentrated by hair drying gave 10/56 (17.9%) successes compared with 19/56 (33.9%) for the 2 h application regimen repeated after 1 week. Intention to treat analysis showed no significant difference (p = 0.0523) between the treatments

  20. Genome Sequence of Candidatus Riesia pediculischaeffi, Endosymbiont of Chimpanzee Lice, and Genomic Comparison of Recently Acquired Endosymbionts from Human and Chimpanzee Lice

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Bret M.; Allen, Julie M.; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Reed, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The obligate-heritable endosymbionts of insects possess some of the smallest known bacterial genomes. This is likely due to loss of genomic material during symbiosis. The mode and rate of this erosion may change over evolutionary time: faster in newly formed associations and slower in long-established ones. The endosymbionts of human and anthropoid primate lice present a unique opportunity to study genome erosion in newly established (or young) symbionts. This is because we have a detailed phylogenetic history of these endosymbionts with divergence dates for closely related species. This allows for genome evolution to be studied in detail and rates of change to be estimated in a phylogenetic framework. Here, we sequenced the genome of the chimpanzee louse endosymbiont (Candidatus Riesia pediculischaeffi) and compared it with the closely related genome of the human body louse endosymbiont. From this comparison, we found evidence for recent genome erosion leading to gene loss in these endosymbionts. Although gene loss was detected, it was not significantly greater than in older endosymbionts from aphids and ants. Additionally, we searched for genes associated with B-vitamin synthesis in the two louse endosymbiont genomes because these endosymbionts are believed to synthesize essential B vitamins absent in the louse’s diet. All of the expected genes were present, except those involved in thiamin synthesis. We failed to find genes encoding for proteins involved in the biosynthesis of thiamin or any complete exogenous means of salvaging thiamin, suggesting there is an undescribed mechanism for the salvage of thiamin. Finally, genes encoding for the pantothenate de novo biosynthesis pathway were located on a plasmid in both taxa along with a heat shock protein. Movement of these genes onto a plasmid may be functionally and evolutionarily significant, potentially increasing production and guarding against the deleterious effects of mutation. These data add to a growing

  1. Genome sequence of Candidatus Riesia pediculischaeffi, endosymbiont of chimpanzee lice, and genomic comparison of recently acquired endosymbionts from human and chimpanzee lice.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Bret M; Allen, Julie M; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Reed, David L

    2014-11-01

    The obligate-heritable endosymbionts of insects possess some of the smallest known bacterial genomes. This is likely due to loss of genomic material during symbiosis. The mode and rate of this erosion may change over evolutionary time: faster in newly formed associations and slower in long-established ones. The endosymbionts of human and anthropoid primate lice present a unique opportunity to study genome erosion in newly established (or young) symbionts. This is because we have a detailed phylogenetic history of these endosymbionts with divergence dates for closely related species. This allows for genome evolution to be studied in detail and rates of change to be estimated in a phylogenetic framework. Here, we sequenced the genome of the chimpanzee louse endosymbiont (Candidatus Riesia pediculischaeffi) and compared it with the closely related genome of the human body louse endosymbiont. From this comparison, we found evidence for recent genome erosion leading to gene loss in these endosymbionts. Although gene loss was detected, it was not significantly greater than in older endosymbionts from aphids and ants. Additionally, we searched for genes associated with B-vitamin synthesis in the two louse endosymbiont genomes because these endosymbionts are believed to synthesize essential B vitamins absent in the louse's diet. All of the expected genes were present, except those involved in thiamin synthesis. We failed to find genes encoding for proteins involved in the biosynthesis of thiamin or any complete exogenous means of salvaging thiamin, suggesting there is an undescribed mechanism for the salvage of thiamin. Finally, genes encoding for the pantothenate de novo biosynthesis pathway were located on a plasmid in both taxa along with a heat shock protein. Movement of these genes onto a plasmid may be functionally and evolutionarily significant, potentially increasing production and guarding against the deleterious effects of mutation. These data add to a growing

  2. New records of sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae) from marine fishes in Jaramijó, an area with potential for sea-cage aquaculture in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Morales-Serna, Francisco Neptali; Caña-Bozada, Víctor; Mera-Loor, Geormery; Loor-Andrade, Peggy; Fajer-Ávila, Emma J; Ho, Ju-Shey

    2015-01-01

    Farming of finfish in sea cages is gaining popularity worldwide. These systems are a suitable environment for the emergence, establishment and transmission of parasites or pathogens, such as sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae), known to cause serious diseases and economic losses in finfish aquaculture worldwide. In coastal waters of Jaramijó, Ecuador, there are plans to culture spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) and longfin yellowtail (Seriola rivoliana); however, the information about the occurrence of sea lice on fish from this country is scarce. To address this problem, a parasitological survey of economically important fish caught by artisanal fishermen was conducted between June 2013 and May 2014. A total of 608 fish belonging to 66 species were examined. Sea lice were found on 23 fish species. The diversity of these parasites consisted of 22 species of Caligus and 5 species of Lepeophtheirus. Most sea lice species (66%) occurred in a single fish species only, with low infection levels. The most frequently encountered species were Caligus asperimanus Pearse, 1951, Caligus mutabilis Wilson, 1905 and Caligus rufimaculatus Wilson, 1905. Taxonomic remarks are presented for some of the species recorded during this survey. All but two sea lice records are new to Ecuador, considerably expanding the geographical range of some species. PMID:25781254

  3. Demographic correlates of sexual size dimorphism and male genital size in the lice Philopterus coarctatus.

    PubMed

    Tryjanowski, Piotr; Adamski, Zbigniew; Dylewska, Magdalena; Bulkai, Lajos; Rózsa, Lajos

    2009-10-01

    Sexual selection is an influential agent of evolution, often shaping the sex ratio, sexual size dimorphism (SSD), and genital size in animals. To explore its effects in ectoparasites, we quantified SSD and male genital size in relation to intensity and sex ratio across subpopulations of Philopterus coarctatus, a philopterid louse of the great grey shrike. SSD was calculated separately for the width and length of the head and abdomen. Presuming that sexual selection affects the evolution of avian lice, we would expect that infestation intensities should covary with sex ratio, relative male size, and relative male genital size, either positively or negatively depending upon presumptions. Contrary to former studies, there was a weak negative relationship between infestation intensity and sex ratio. The relative width of male abdomens exhibited a highly significant negative interaction with the intensity of infestations. In contrast, sex ratio did not predict any of the dimorphism measures. Similarly, male genital size did not covary with the intensity of infestations or sex ratios. These findings may indicate that intensity covaries positively with levels of inbreeding in this species, suggesting that more-inbred subpopulations, wasting less energy for sexual rivalry, can multiply more intensively. Thus, small subpopulations have more frequent males which also possess larger abdomens. Alternatively, however, the same pattern may also arise due to male-biased starvation in overcrowded habitats; thus, males are rarer and have smaller abdomens in larger infrapopulations. PMID:19320542

  4. Caries Experience among Adults Exposed to Low to Moderate Doses of Ionizing Radiation in Childhood - The Tinea Capitis Cohort.

    PubMed

    Vered, Yuval; Chetrit, Angela; Sgan-Cohen, Harold D; Amitai, Tova; Mann, Jonathan; Even-Nir, Hadas; Sadetzki, Siegal

    2016-01-01

    While the impact of therapeutic levels of ionizing radiation during childhood on dental defects has been documented, the possible effect of low doses on dental health is unknown. The study aim was to assess the association between childhood exposure to low-moderate doses of therapeutic radiation and caries experience among a cohort of adults 50 years following the exposure. The analysis was based on a sample of 253 irradiated (in the treatment of tinea capitis) and 162 non-irradiated subjects. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index was assessed during a clinical dental examination and questions regarding dental care services utilization, oral hygiene behavior, current self-perceived mouth dryness, socio-demographic parameters, and health behavior variables were obtained through a face-to-face interview. An ordered multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the association of the main independent variable (irradiation status) and other relevant independent variables on the increase in DMFT. Mean caries experience levels (DMFT) were 18.6 ± 7.5 for irradiated subjects compared to 16.4 ± 7.2 for the non-irradiated (p = 0.002). Controlling for gender, age, education, income, smoking, dental visit in the last year, and brushing teeth behavior, irradiation was associated with a 72% increased risk for higher DMFT level (95% CI: 1.19-2.50). A quantification of the risk by dose absorbed in the salivary gland and in the thyroid gland showed adjusted ORs of 2.21 per 1 Gy (95% CI: 1.40-3.50) and 1.05 per 1 cGy (95% CI: 1.01-1.09), respectively. Childhood exposure to ionizing radiation (0.2-0.4 Gy) might be associated with late outcomes of dental health. In line with the guidelines of the American Dental Association, these results call for caution when using dental radiographs. PMID:26942172

  5. Long-Term Effects of Exposure to Ionizing Irradiation on Periodontal Health Status - The Tinea capitis Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Sadetzki, Siegal; Chetrit, Angela; Sgan-Cohen, Harold D; Mann, Jonathan; Amitai, Tova; Even-Nir, Hadas; Vered, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Studies among long-term survivors of childhood cancer who had received high-dose irradiation therapy of 4-60 Gy, demonstrated acute and chronic dental effects, including periodontal diseases. However, the possible effects of low to moderate doses of radiation on dental health are sparse. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between childhood exposure to low-moderate doses of ionizing radiation and periodontal health following 50 years since exposure. The study population included 253 irradiated subjects (treated for Tinea capitis in the 1950s) and, 162 non-irradiated subjects. The estimated dose to the teeth was 0.2-0.4 Gy. Dental examination was performed according to the community periodontal index (CPI). Socioeconomic and health behavior variables were obtained through a personal questionnaire. Periodontal disease was operationally defined as "deep periodontal pockets." A multivariate logistic regression model was used for the association of irradiation status and other independent variables with periodontal status. The results showed that among the irradiated subjects, 23%, (95% CI 18-28%) demonstrated complete edentulousness or insufficient teeth for CPI scoring as compared to 13% (95% CI 8-19%) among the non-irradiated subjects (p = 0.01). Periodontal disease was detected among 54% of the irradiated subjects as compared to 40% of the non-irradiated (p = 0.008). Controlling for education and smoking, the ORs for the association between radiation and periodontal disease were 1.61 (95% CI 1.01-2.57) and 1.95 (95% CI 1.1-3.5) for ever never and per 1 Gy absorbed in the salivary gland, respectively. In line with other studies, a protective effect for periodontal diseases among those with high education and an increased risk for ever smokers were observed. In conclusion, childhood exposure to low-moderate doses of ionizing radiation might be associated with later outcomes of dental health. The results add valuable data on the long

  6. Caries Experience among Adults Exposed to Low to Moderate Doses of Ionizing Radiation in Childhood – The Tinea Capitis Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Vered, Yuval; Chetrit, Angela; Sgan-Cohen, Harold D.; Amitai, Tova; Mann, Jonathan; Even-Nir, Hadas; Sadetzki, Siegal

    2016-01-01

    While the impact of therapeutic levels of ionizing radiation during childhood on dental defects has been documented, the possible effect of low doses on dental health is unknown. The study aim was to assess the association between childhood exposure to low–moderate doses of therapeutic radiation and caries experience among a cohort of adults 50 years following the exposure. The analysis was based on a sample of 253 irradiated (in the treatment of tinea capitis) and 162 non-irradiated subjects. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index was assessed during a clinical dental examination and questions regarding dental care services utilization, oral hygiene behavior, current self-perceived mouth dryness, socio-demographic parameters, and health behavior variables were obtained through a face-to-face interview. An ordered multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the association of the main independent variable (irradiation status) and other relevant independent variables on the increase in DMFT. Mean caries experience levels (DMFT) were 18.6 ± 7.5 for irradiated subjects compared to 16.4 ± 7.2 for the non-irradiated (p = 0.002). Controlling for gender, age, education, income, smoking, dental visit in the last year, and brushing teeth behavior, irradiation was associated with a 72% increased risk for higher DMFT level (95% CI: 1.19–2.50). A quantification of the risk by dose absorbed in the salivary gland and in the thyroid gland showed adjusted ORs of 2.21 per 1 Gy (95% CI: 1.40–3.50) and 1.05 per 1 cGy (95% CI: 1.01–1.09), respectively. Childhood exposure to ionizing radiation (0.2–0.4 Gy) might be associated with late outcomes of dental health. In line with the guidelines of the American Dental Association, these results call for caution when using dental radiographs. PMID:26942172

  7. Long-Term Effects of Exposure to Ionizing Irradiation on Periodontal Health Status – The Tinea capitis Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sadetzki, Siegal; Chetrit, Angela; Sgan-Cohen, Harold D.; Mann, Jonathan; Amitai, Tova; Even-Nir, Hadas; Vered, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Studies among long-term survivors of childhood cancer who had received high-dose irradiation therapy of 4–60 Gy, demonstrated acute and chronic dental effects, including periodontal diseases. However, the possible effects of low to moderate doses of radiation on dental health are sparse. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between childhood exposure to low–moderate doses of ionizing radiation and periodontal health following 50 years since exposure. The study population included 253 irradiated subjects (treated for Tinea capitis in the 1950s) and, 162 non-irradiated subjects. The estimated dose to the teeth was 0.2–0.4 Gy. Dental examination was performed according to the community periodontal index (CPI). Socioeconomic and health behavior variables were obtained through a personal questionnaire. Periodontal disease was operationally defined as “deep periodontal pockets.” A multivariate logistic regression model was used for the association of irradiation status and other independent variables with periodontal status. The results showed that among the irradiated subjects, 23%, (95% CI 18–28%) demonstrated complete edentulousness or insufficient teeth for CPI scoring as compared to 13% (95% CI 8–19%) among the non-irradiated subjects (p = 0.01). Periodontal disease was detected among 54% of the irradiated subjects as compared to 40% of the non-irradiated (p = 0.008). Controlling for education and smoking, the ORs for the association between radiation and periodontal disease were 1.61 (95% CI 1.01–2.57) and 1.95 (95% CI 1.1–3.5) for ever never and per 1 Gy absorbed in the salivary gland, respectively. In line with other studies, a protective effect for periodontal diseases among those with high education and an increased risk for ever smokers were observed. In conclusion, childhood exposure to low-moderate doses of ionizing radiation might be associated with later outcomes of dental health. The results add

  8. Negligible Egg Positive Rate of Enterobius vermicularis and No Detection of Head Lice among Orphanage Children in Busan and Ulsan, Korea (2014)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Son, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Sang Hwa; Park, Mi Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Park, Sang Kyun; Choi, Jun-Ho; Park, Jung Ha; Yu, Hak-Sun

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether pinworm infections and head lice infestations spread among children in orphanages, 117 children from 4 orphanages in Busan-si and Ulsan-si, Korea, were examined for enterobiasis and head lice infestation between January and February 2014. The overall rate of Enterobius vermicularis egg positivity was 0.85%, whereas none of the children had head lice infestations. The rate of pinworm infection was much lower among the orphanage children compared to the rates observed in previous studies among kindergarten and primary school students. Moreover, the risk factors for enterobiasis were less frequent among these subjects than previously reported. The personal hygiene and health of the orphanage children were supervised by a regular, employed nurse through a health education program. In conclusion, pinworm infection was efficiently controlled among the children in orphanages, and this might be related to good personal hygiene practices in Korea. PMID:26323851

  9. Negligible Egg Positive Rate of Enterobius vermicularis and No Detection of Head Lice among Orphanage Children in Busan and Ulsan, Korea (2014).

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Son, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Sang Hwa; Park, Mi Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Park, Sang Kyun; Choi, Jun-Ho; Park, Jung Ha; Yu, Hak-Sun

    2015-08-01

    To determine whether pinworm infections and head lice infestations spread among children in orphanages, 117 children from 4 orphanages in Busan-si and Ulsan-si, Korea, were examined for enterobiasis and head lice infestation between January and February 2014. The overall rate of Enterobius vermicularis egg positivity was 0.85%, whereas none of the children had head lice infestations. The rate of pinworm infection was much lower among the orphanage children compared to the rates observed in previous studies among kindergarten and primary school students. Moreover, the risk factors for enterobiasis were less frequent among these subjects than previously reported. The personal hygiene and health of the orphanage children were supervised by a regular, employed nurse through a health education program. In conclusion, pinworm infection was efficiently controlled among the children in orphanages, and this might be related to good personal hygiene practices in Korea. PMID:26323851

  10. Evolutionary co-variation of host and parasite diversity-the first test of Eichler's rule using parasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera).

    PubMed

    Vas, Zoltán; Csorba, Gábor; Rózsa, Lajos

    2012-07-01

    The taxonomic richness of lice (Phthiraptera) varies considerably among their avian and mammalian hosts. Previous studies explored some factors shaping louse diversity; however, the so-called Eichler's rule-according to which taxonomic richness of parasites co-varies with that of their hosts-has never been tested. Our study incorporates all families of birds and mammals and the whole order of lice to test this co-variation, thus we present the widest taxonomic range to test any correlates of louse richness. Louse richness data were controlled for uneven sampling effort. We used the method of independent contrasts to control for phylogenetic effects. We found a strong correlation between the species richness of avian and mammalian families and generic richness of their lice. We discuss some alternative macroevolutionary and macroecological hypotheses that may explain this phenomenon that may well be a general feature of parasitism and it seems possible that this effect contribute considerably to global biodiversity. PMID:22350674

  11. Spatial and temporal variations in sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae) infestations of three salmonid species farmed in net pens in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Zagmutt-Vergara, Francisco J; Carpenter, Tim E; Farver, Thomas B; Hedrick, Ronald P

    2005-04-18

    Sea lice infestations have become a major health problem for farmed salmonids throughout the world including Chile. In southern Chile, 6 geographical areas, divided into 22 geographical zones with a total of 127 salmon farming centers and 1519 sea pens, were regularly sampled from December 1999 to April 2002. A linear mixed-effects model (LME) approach was used to describe the infestations of adult forms of sea lice on 3 salmonid species farmed in southern Chile. The variables fish species, water temperature, water salinity, fish weight, juvenile parasite count, pen shape, treatment status in previous month and the interaction of previous and current month treatments were found to be statistically significant fixed effects for the population sampled. The most susceptible species to sea lice infestation was rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, while the least susceptible species was coho salmon O. kisutch. Fishes in pens treated in the previous month with avermectins were associated with the smallest sea lice count compared to fishes in pens not treated or treated with other products. The variability in sea lice infestations in areas and zones within areas was not statistically significant when controlling for the previously mentioned fixed variables. The variability between centers, the within-pen variability, and the interaction between within-pen effect and the date of measurement were statistically significant and not explained by the fixed effects. Potential sources for this variability are discussed. We conclude that the epidemiology of sea lice infestations in farmed salmonids in southern Chile is complex and in need of further study. PMID:15918480

  12. Technical note: Modifying Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) jumping behavior to facilitate innovation of parasitic sea lice control techniques.

    PubMed

    Dempster, T; Kristiansen, T S; Korsøen, Ø J; Fosseidengen, J E; Oppedal, F

    2011-12-01

    Industrial salmon farms are reservoirs of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus spp.), which causes both production inefficiencies and contributes to population-level declines of wild salmon and trout. Current control methods vary in effect and stimulate controversy by the discharge of chemicals into the environment. An alternate control method uses a thin, chemical-infused oil layer on the sea surface. As farmed salmon jump through the surface, the treatment makes contact with the lipophilic carapace of sea lice and kills them. To enhance the effectiveness of this method, we tested whether the natural jumping behavior of salmon could be increased and directed. In a 2,000-m(3) experimental sea-cage, we removed the ability of groups of salmon to access the surface for different periods (0 to 48 h) and measured their surface behaviors after the surface became accessible again. Surface removal for 24 and 48 h induced 93% of salmon to jump in the 2 h after surface access was reinstated, a result that differed (P < 0.001) from the shorter duration (0 to 12 h) treatments. Salmon without surface access for 24 and 48 h jumped 2 to 3 times more often (P < 0.001), and made their first jump 2 to 3 times sooner (P = 0.003) on average after surface access became available than salmon in the shorter duration treatments. Our results indicate that removal of surface access for short periods may lead to loss of air from the physostomous swim bladder and cause negative buoyancy. This creates a behavioral drive for salmon to jump, swallow air and fill their swim bladders once surface access is reinstated. By combining the increased jumping behavior induced by this technique with a floating, oil-infused treatment, efficiency of sea lice treatments may be improved and treatment chemicals can be re-collected, thus decreasing environmental pollution. PMID:21821806

  13. Lousicidal, ovicidal and repellent efficacy of some essential oils against lice and flies infesting water buffaloes in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Khater, Hanem F; Ramadan, Mohamed Y; El-Madawy, Reham S

    2009-10-14

    The lousicidal and repellent effects of five essential oils were investigated for the first time against the buffalo louse, Haematopinus tuberculatus, and flies infesting water buffaloes in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt. For the in vitro studies, filter paper contact bioassays were used to test the oils and their lethal activities were compared with that of d-phenothrin. Four minutes post-treatment, the median lethal concentration, LC50, values were 2.74, 7.28, 12.35, 18.67 and 22.79% for camphor (Cinnamomum camphora), onion (Allium cepa), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) and rosemary oils (Rosmarinus officinalis), respectively, whereas for d-phenothrin, it was 1.17%. The lethal time (50) (LT50) values were 0.89, 2.75, 15.39, 21.32, 11.60 and 1.94 min after treatment with 7.5% camphor, onion, peppermint, chamomile, rosemary and d-phenothrin, respectively. All the materials used except rosemary, which was not applied, were ovicidal to the eggs of H. tuberculatus. Despite the results of the in vitro assays, the in vivo treatments revealed that the pediculicidal activity was more pronounced with oils. All treated lice were killed after 0.5-2 min, whereas with d-phenothrin, 100% mortality was reached only after 120 min. The number of lice infesting buffaloes was significantly reduced 3, 6, 4, 6 and 9 days after treatment with camphor, peppermint, chamomile, onion, and d-phenothrin, respectively. Moreover, the oils and d-phenothrin significantly repelled flies, Musca domestica, Stomoxys calcitrans, Haematobia irritans and Hippobosca equina, for 6 and 3 days post-treatment, respectively. No adverse effects were noted on either animals or pour-on operators after exposure to the applied materials. Consequently, some Egyptian essential oils show potential for the development of new, speedy and safe lousicides and insect repellents for controlling lice and flies which infest water buffaloes. PMID:19596520

  14. Salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) showing varying emamectin benzoate susceptibilities differ in neuronal acetylcholine receptor and GABA-gated chloride channel mRNA expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Caligid copepods, also called sea lice, are fish ectoparasites, some species of which cause significant problems in the mariculture of salmon, where the annual cost of infection is in excess of €300 million globally. At present, caligid control on farms is mainly achieved using medicinal treatments. However, the continued use of a restricted number of medicine actives potentially favours the development of drug resistance. Here, we report transcriptional changes in a laboratory strain of the caligid Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837) that is moderately (~7-fold) resistant to the avermectin compound emamectin benzoate (EMB), a component of the anti-salmon louse agent SLICE® (Merck Animal Health). Results Suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH) was used to enrich transcripts differentially expressed between EMB-resistant (PT) and drug-susceptible (S) laboratory strains of L. salmonis. SSH libraries were subjected to 454 sequencing. Further L. salmonis transcript sequences were available as expressed sequence tags (EST) from GenBank. Contiguous sequences were generated from both SSH and EST sequences and annotated. Transcriptional responses in PT and S salmon lice were investigated using custom 15 K oligonucleotide microarrays designed using the above sequence resources. In the absence of EMB exposure, 359 targets differed in transcript abundance between the two strains, these genes being enriched for functions such as calcium ion binding, chitin metabolism and muscle structure. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel (GABA-Cl) and neuronal acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits showed significantly lower transcript levels in PT lice compared to S lice. Using RT-qPCR, the decrease in mRNA levels was estimated at ~1.4-fold for GABA-Cl and ~2.8-fold for nAChR. Salmon lice from the PT strain showed few transcriptional responses following acute exposure (1 or 3 h) to 200 μg L-1 of EMB, a drug concentration tolerated by PT lice, but

  15. Efficacy and Safety of a Mineral Oil-Based Head Lice Shampoo: A Randomized, Controlled, Investigator-Blinded, Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Luise; Eertmans, Frank; Wolf, Doerte; Rossel, Bart; Adriaens, Els

    2016-01-01

    Background Due to increased resistance and safety concerns with insecticide-based pediculicides, there is growing demand for head lice treatments with a physical mode of action. Certain mineral oils kill lice by blocking spiracles or by disrupting the epicuticular wax layer. The present study was performed to evaluate efficacy and safety of a mineral oil-based shampoo. Methods This randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, monocentric study (EudraCT registration no. 2014-002918-23) was performed from October 2014—June 2015 in Germany. A mineral oil shampoo (Mosquito® Med Läuse Shampoo 10 in Germany, Paranix or Silcap shampoo elsewhere), registered as medical device, was compared to a conventional, locally reimbursed, pyrethroid-based pediculicide (Goldgeist® Forte solution). In total, 107 patients (>1 year) with confirmed head lice infestation were included (test arm: n = 53; control arm: n = 54). All subjects received two applications of either test or control product at day 0 and day 7, according to the instructions for use. Efficacy and safety was evaluated directly, 1h and 24h after first application, before and after second treatment, and at day 10. The main objective was demonstrating a cure rate for the test product, being superior to 70% at day 10. Results Cure rates at day 10 (corrected for re-infestation) for the test product (96.1%) and control (94%) significantly exceeded the pre-defined target (70%) (p < 0.001, 2-sided, 1-sample, chi-square test) with confirmed non-inferiority for the test product. Over all visits, cure rates were consistently higher for the test product, whereas more initially-cured subjects remained lice-free until end of study (78%; control: 60%). Both products were safe and well tolerated, offering good esthetical effects. Conclusion This study showed that substance-based medical devices (including the tested mineral oil shampoo) can be safe and effective alternatives for insecticide-based pediculicides, with less risk for

  16. Mechanism behind Resistance against the Organophosphate Azamethiphos in Salmon Lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis)

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Helgesen, Kari Olli; Bakke, Marit Jørgensen; Horsberg, Tor Einar

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the primary target for organophosphates (OP). Several mutations have been reported in AChE to be associated with the reduced sensitivity against OP in various arthropods. However, to the best of our knowledge, no such reports are available for Lepeophtheirus salmonis. Hence, in the present study, we aimed to determine the association of AChE(s) gene(s) with resistance against OP. We screened the AChE genes (L. salmonis ace1a and ace1b) in two salmon lice populations: one sensitive (n=5) and the other resistant (n=5) for azamethiphos, a commonly used OP in salmon farming. The screening led to the identification of a missense mutation Phe362Tyr in L. salmonis ace1a, (corresponding to Phe331 in Torpedo californica AChE) in all the samples of the resistant population. We confirmed the potential role of the mutation, with reduced sensitivity against azamethiphos in L. salmonis, by screening for Phe362Tyr in 2 sensitive and 5 resistant strains. The significantly higher frequency of the mutant allele (362Tyr) in the resistant strains clearly indicated the possible association of Phe362Tyr mutation in L. salmonis ace1a with resistance towards azamethiphos. The 3D modelling, short term survival experiments and enzymatic assays further supported the imperative role of Phe362Tyr in reduced sensitivity of L. salmonis for azamethiphos. Based on all these observations, the present study, for the first time, presents the mechanism of resistance in L. salmonis against azamethiphos. In addition, we developed a rapid diagnostic tool for the high throughput screening of Phe362Tyr mutation using High Resolution Melt analysis. PMID:25893248

  17. Brief exposures of human body lice to sub-lethal amounts of ivermectin over transcribes detoxification genes involved in tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, K. S.; Strycharz, J. P.; Baek, J. H.; Sun, W.; Kim, J.H.; Kang, J.S.; Pittendrigh, B. R.; Lee, S. H.; Clark, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling results, using our non-invasive induction assay [short exposure intervals (2–5 h) to sub-lethal amounts of insecticides (lice are identified by quantitative real-time PCR analyses. Of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase and ATP binding cassette transporter genes induced by ivermectin, CYP6CJ1, CYP9AG1, CYP9AG2 and PhABCC4 were respectively most significantly over-expressed, had high basal expression levels and were most closely related to genes from other organisms that metabolized insecticides, including ivermectin. Injection of dsRNAs against either CYP9AG2 or PhABCC4 into non-induced female lice reduced their respective transcript level and resulted in increase sensitivity to ivermectin, indicating that these two genes are involved in the xenobiotic metabolism of ivermectin and in the production of tolerance. PMID:21895817

  18. Housing and dustbathing effects on northern fowl mites (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) and chicken body lice (Menacanthus stramineus) on hens.

    PubMed

    Martin, C D; Mullens, B A

    2012-09-01

    Hen housing (cage or cage-free) did not impact overall abundances of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago) (Acari: Macronyssidae), or chicken body lice, Menacanthus stramineus (Nitzsch) (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae). Cage-free hens received a dustbox with sand plus diatomaceous earth (DE), kaolin clay or sulphur. Weekly use varied from none to 100% of hens; 73% of hens used the dustbox at least once. Ectoparasite populations on dustbathing hens (users) were compared with those on non-user cage-free and caged hens. All materials reduced ectoparasites on user hens by 80-100% after 1 week of dustbox use. Diatomaceous earth and kaolin failed to reduce ectoparasites on non-user hens, and ectoparasites on user hens recovered after dustbox removal. A sulphur dustbox eliminated mites from all hens (including non-users) within 2-4 weeks. Residual sulphur controlled mites until the end of the experiment (up to 9 weeks), even after the dustbox was removed. Louse populations on hens using the sulphur dustbox were reduced in 1-2 weeks. Residual sulphur effects were less evident in lice, but the use of a sulphur dustbox by a higher proportion of hens extended louse control to all hens. This is the first experimental study to show that bird dustbathing in naturally and widely available dust materials (particularly kaolin) can suppress ectoparasites and thus the behaviour is probably adaptive. PMID:22458590

  19. Epidemiological aspects of lice (Menacanthus species) infections in laying hen flocks from the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rezende, L Do Carmo; Martins, N R Da Silva; Teixeira, C M; Oliveira, P R De; Cunha, L M

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of chicken lice species such as Menacanthus stramineus, M. cornutus and M. pallidulus were studied during an observational, analytical and sectional survey, to determine predisposing factors for their occurrence in laying hen farms in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 431 houses on 43 farms were visited in 2012. M. cornutus, M. stramineus and M. pallidulus occurred in 20.9%, 11.6% and 11.6% of farms, respectively. The frequencies of occurrence of M. cornutus, M. stramineus and M.pallidulus in poultry houses were 10.4%, 8.8% and 3.7%, respectively. The epidemiological determinants for the occurrence of these species were investigated using Poisson or logistic regression models. The region of the farm, the recent use of acaricides and the presence of birds, such as saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola), feral pigeon (Columba livia) and Guira cuckoo (Guira guira) around the farms were related to the epidemiology of M. cornutus. Infestation by M. stramineus was associated with age of birds, number of birds per cage and the presence of Guira cuckoo and Chopi blackbird (Gnorimopsar chopi) near the poultry houses. The occurrence of M. pallidulus was influenced by the type of facilities, presence of cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) and free-range domestic hens around the farm. The use of wire mesh nets in the houses and of forced moulting did not influence lice infestation. PMID:26642864

  20. Space-time cluster analysis of sea lice infestation (Caligus clemensi and Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on wild juvenile Pacific salmon in the Broughton Archipelago of Canada.

    PubMed

    Patanasatienkul, Thitiwan; Sanchez, Javier; Rees, Erin E; Pfeiffer, Dirk; Revie, Crawford W

    2015-06-15

    Sea lice infestation levels on wild chum and pink salmon in the Broughton Archipelago region are known to vary spatially and temporally; however, the locations of areas associated with a high infestation level had not been investigated yet. In the present study, the multivariate spatial scan statistic based on a Poisson model was used to assess spatial clustering of elevated sea lice (Caligus clemensi and Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infestation levels on wild chum and pink salmon sampled between March and July of 2004 to 2012 in the Broughton Archipelago and Knight Inlet regions of British Columbia, Canada. Three covariates, seine type (beach and purse seining), fish size, and year effect, were used to provide adjustment within the analyses. The analyses were carried out across the five months/datasets and between two fish species to assess the consistency of the identified clusters. Sea lice stages were explored separately for the early life stages (non-motile) and the late life stages of sea lice (motile). Spatial patterns in fish migration were also explored using monthly plots showing the average number of each fish species captured per sampling site. The results revealed three clusters for non-motile C. clemensi, two clusters for non-motile L. salmonis, and one cluster for the motile stage in each of the sea lice species. In general, the location and timing of clusters detected for both fish species were similar. Early in the season, the clusters of elevated sea lice infestation levels on wild fish are detected in areas closer to the rivers, with decreasing relative risks as the season progresses. Clusters were detected further from the estuaries later in the season, accompanied by increasing relative risks. In addition, the plots for fish migration exhibit similar patterns for both fish species in that, as expected, the juveniles move from the rivers toward the open ocean as the season progresses The identification of space-time clustering of infestation on wild

  1. Parasiticide resistance in flies, lice and ticks in New Zealand and Australia: mechanisms, prevalence and prevention.

    PubMed

    Heath, Acg; Levot, G W

    2015-07-01

    This review outlines the history of parasiticide resistance in the principal ectoparasites of sheep and cattle in New Zealand and Australia, blowflies, buffalo fly (Haematobia irritans exigua), sheep biting louse (Bovicola ovis) and cattle ticks, and discusses recent changes in their response to insecticides and acaricides. Mechanisms of resistance and evaluation methods are described, with ways in which insecticide resistance can be avoided or ameliorated also discussed. Resistance in sheep blowflies (Lucilia cuprina; L. sericata) to organophosphates and benzoylphenyl urea compounds is widespread in Australia and New Zealand, but there are lesser concerns about a pyrimidine carbonitrile product as well as cyromazine and macrocyclic lactone actives which still offer the promise of long-term protection. In Australia the effectiveness of synthetic pyrethroid and benzoylphenyl urea products against the biting louse of sheep have been reduced by widespread resistance but effective temephos, macrocyclic lactone, imidacloprid and spinosyn-based products are now available. Pyrethroid-resistant sheep lice are also present in New Zealand. Buffalo fly remains a significant problem in Australia and control relies heavily on insecticide use. Resistance to synthetic pyrethroids is widespread and organophosphate resistance common, but less evenly distributed. There is no evidence of resistance to acaricides used against the New Zealand cattle tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis and experience in Japan with the most commonly available active, flumethrin (a synthetic pyrethroid), suggests that this three-host tick is, in the short term, likely to remain susceptible. The same cannot be said for Rhipicephalus australis (formerly Boophilus microplus) which, in some strains, is highly resistant to many of the active ingredients in the acaricides used against it. A formamidine, a benzoylphenyl urea and macrocyclic lactones still show efficacy although some resistance is being detected to

  2. Beak condition and cage density determine abundance and spatial distribution of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum, and chicken body lice, Menacanthus stramineus, on caged laying hens.

    PubMed

    Mullens, B A; Chen, B L; Owen, J P

    2010-12-01

    Adult White Leghorn hens (Hy-Line strain W-36) were inoculated with either northern fowl mites or chicken body lice, and the ectoparasite populations were monitored over periods of 9 to 16 wk. Two beak conditions (beak trimmed or beak intact) and 2 housing densities (1 or 2 hens per 25 × 31 cm suspended wire cage) were tested. Populations of both ectoparasites were at least 10 times lower on beak-intact hens compared with populations on beak-trimmed hens. Cage density did not influence mite numbers, but higher numbers of lice (2 to 3 times) developed on hens held at the higher cage density. Louse distribution on the body and louse population age structure were also influenced by host beak condition. Beak-intact hens had a higher proportion of lice under the wings, whereas beak-trimmed hens had the majority of lice on the lower abdomen. Louse populations on beak-trimmed hens also comprised relatively more immature stages than populations found on beak-intact hens. The effects are likely related to decreased grooming efficiency by beak-trimmed hens and, in the case of lice, the higher host density. The high mite and louse populations on most commercial caged laying hens are probably a direct result of beak trimming. However, selection of more docile breeds that can be held without trimming may allow the hens themselves to reduce ectoparasites below economically damaging levels. This could benefit producers, animal welfare advocates, and human health by reducing 1) costs of beak trimming, 2) pesticide treatment costs (including human and bird chemical exposure concerns), and 3) objections to beak trimming from the animal welfare community. PMID:21076093

  3. Resistance to insect growth regulator insecticides in populations of sheep lice as assessed by a moulting disruption assay.

    PubMed

    James, P J; Cramp, A P; Hook, S E

    2008-12-01

    Low-volume, backline applications with the benzoylphenyl urea insecticides triflumuron and diflubenzuron represent in excess of 70% of treatments for the control of sheep lice, Bovicola ovis (Schrank) (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae), in Australia. Reports of reduced effectiveness from 2003 and subsequent controlled treatment trials suggested the emergence of resistance to these compounds in B. ovis populations. A laboratory assay based on the measurement of moulting success in nymphs was developed and used to assess susceptibility to diflubenzuron and triflumuron in louse populations collected from sheep where a control failure had occurred. These tests confirmed the development of resistance to triflumuron and diflubenzuron in at least two instances, with estimated resistance ratios of 67-94X at LC(50). PMID:19120959

  4. The Chewing Lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Amblycera) of Japanese Pigeons and Doves (Columbiformes), with Descriptions of Three New Species.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Daniel R; Tsurumi, Miyako; Bush, Sarah E

    2015-06-01

    The chewing louse fauna of pigeons and doves in Japan is reviewed based on published records and new collections. An updated checklist of the chewing lice of Japanese pigeons and doves is provided, and 3 new species are described: Columbicola asukae n. sp. and Coloceras nakamurai n. sp., both from Columba janthina Temminck, 1830 (Japanese wood pigeon), and Columbicola lemoinei n. sp. from Treron formosae permagnus Stejneger, 1887, and Treron formosae medioximus (Bangs, 1901) (whistling green-pigeons). This checklist includes data on the first records of Coloceras chinense (Kellogg and Chapman, 1902), Coloceras piriformis ( Tendeiro, 1969 ), and Columbicola guimaraesi Tendeiro, 1965, in Japan. New host records of Hohorstiella sp. from Columba janthina and Treron formosae permagnus, and Coloceras sp. from Treron sieboldii sieboldii (Temminck, 1835) (white-bellied green-pigeon) are provided. PMID:25738214

  5. Fragmented mitochondrial genomes of the rat lice, Polyplax asiatica and Polyplax spinulosa: intra-genus variation in fragmentation pattern and a possible link between the extent of fragmentation and the length of life cycle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood-sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) parasitize eutherian mammals with 67% of the 540 described species found on rodents. The five species of blood-sucking lice that infest humans and pigs have fragmented mitochondrial genomes and differ substantially in the extent of fragmentation. To understand whether, or not, any life-history factors are linked to such variation, we sequenced the mt genomes of Polyplax asiatica and Polyplax spinulosa, collected from the greater bandicoot rat, Bandicota indica, and the Asian house rat, Rattus tanezumi, respectively. Results We identified all of the 37 mitochondrial genes common to animals in Polyplax asiatica and Polyplax spinulosa. The mitochondrial genes of these two rat lice are on 11 circular minichromosomes; each minichromosome is 2–4 kb long and has 2–7 genes. The two rat lice share the same pattern for the distribution of the protein-coding genes and ribosomal RNA genes over the minichromosomes, but differ in the pattern for the distribution of 8 of the 22 transfer RNA genes. The mitochondrial genomes of the Polyplax rat lice have 3.4 genes, on average, on each minichromosome and, thus, are less fragmented than those of the human lice (2.1 and 2.4 genes per minichromosome), but are more fragmented than those of the pig lice (4.1 genes per minichromosome). Conclusions Our results revealed distinct patterns of mitochondrial genome fragmentation within the genus Polyplax and, furthermore, indicated a possible inverse link between the extent of mitochondrial genome fragmentation and the length of life cycle of the blood-sucking lice. PMID:24438034

  6. epr, which encodes glycylglycine endopeptidase resistance, is homologous to femAB and affects serine content of peptidoglycan cross bridges in Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Sugai, M; Fujiwara, T; Ohta, K; Komatsuzawa, H; Ohara, M; Suginaka, H

    1997-01-01

    Staphylococcus capitis EPK1 produces a glycylglycine endopeptidase, ALE-1 (M. Sugai, T. Fujiwara, T. Akiyama, M. Ohara, H. Komatsuzawa, S. Inoue, and H. Suginaka, J. Bacteriol. 179:1193-1202, 1997), which hydrolyzes interpeptide pentaglycine chains of cell wall peptidoglycan of S. aureus. Characterizations of the enzyme activity and cloning of ale-1 revealed that ALE-1 is very similar to prolysostaphin produced by S. simulans bv. staphylolyticus. Strain EPK1 is resistant to lysis by ALE-1 and by lysostaphin. A gene that renders the cells resistant to glycylglycine endopeptidase (epr) was found 322 bp upstream of and in the opposite orientation to ale-1. The deduced amino acid sequence of epr showed similarities to FemA and FemB, which have been characterized as factors essential for methicillin resistance of S. aureus. Inactivation of either femA or femB causes decreased resistance to methicillin, increased resistance to lysostaphin, and decreased glycine content in the interpeptide chains of peptidoglycan. Therefore, femAB is suggested to be involved in the addition of glycine to pentapeptide peptidoglycan precursor. S. aureus with epr on a multicopy plasmid had phenotypes similar to those of femAB mutants except that it did not alter resistance level to methicillin. These results suggest that epr and femAB belong to the protein family involved in adding amino acids to the pentapeptide peptidoglycan precursor and that epr is involved in the addition of serine to the pentapeptide. PMID:9209049

  7. Prevalence of Head Lice Infestation and Its Associated Factors among Primary School Students in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Afshari, Mahdi; Keianian, Hormoz; Nezammahalleh, Asghar; Enayati, Ahmad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Head lice infestation is one of the most important health problems, generally involving children aged 5–13 years. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of head lice infestation and its associated factors among primary school children using systematic review and meta-analysis methods. Methods Different national and international databases were searched for selecting the relevant studies using appropriate keywords, Medical Subject Heading terms, and references. Relevant studies with acceptable quality for meta-analysis were selected having excluded duplicate and irrelevant articles, quality assessment, and application of inclusion/exclusion criteria. With calculating standard errors according to binomial distribution and also considering the Cochrane's Q test as well as I-squared index for heterogeneity, pediculosis prevalence rate was estimated using Stata SE V.11 software. Results Forty studies met the inclusion criteria of this review and entered into the meta-analysis including 200,306 individuals. Using a random effect model, the prevalence (95% confidence interval) of head lice infestation among primary school children was estimated as 1.6% (1.2–2.05), 8.8% (7.6–9.9), and 7.4% (6.6–8.2) for boys, girls, and all the students, respectively. The infestation rate was found to be associated with low educational level of parents, long hair, family size, mother's job (housewife), father's job (worker/unemployed), using a common comb, lack of bathrooms in the house, and a low frequency of bathing. Conclusion This meta-analysis revealed that the prevalence of head lice infestation among Iranian primary school children is relatively high with more prevalence among girls. We also found that economic, social, cultural, behavioral, and hygienic factors are associated with this infestation. PMID:26835244

  8. Community of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera and Ischnocera) parasites of resident birds at the Archipelago of São Pedro and São Paulo in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, H M; Valim, M P; Gama, R A

    2014-09-01

    The current study describes the chewing lice community associated with seabird populations resident at the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Adults of three species of seabirds were captured using hand-nets for the collection of biometric data and specimens of ectoparasites. In total, 320 birds were examined (120 Sula leucogaster (Boddaert), Brown Booby; 120 Anous stolidus (L.), --Brown Noddy; and 80 Anous minutus Boie, Black Noddy) of which 95% were infested with 8,625 chewing lice, representing eight species of the genera Actornithophilus, Austromenopon, Eidmanniella, Pectinopygus, Quadraceps, and Saemundssonia. On S. leucogaster, Pectinopygus garbei (Pessôa & Guimarães) was more prevalent and had a mean and median intensity of infestation significantly greater than those recorded for Eidmanniella albescens (Piaget). On the two Noddies, the species of Actornithophilus and Quadraceps were significantly more prevalent and abundant than Austromenopon atrofulvum (Piaget) and Saemundssonia remota Timmermann Most of the louse species had a highly aggregated distribution, with k exponent of the negative binomial distribution ranging from 0.04 to 3.06. A weak but significant correlation was found between the abundance of chewing lice and morphometric variables (body weight, wing, beak, tail, and tarsus lengths). It is possible that high rates of infestation have a negative effect on the morphological characteristics of the hosts, including the health of the plumage. All the lice species collected--except for P. garbei (ex S. leucogaster)--were reported for the first time from Brazilian populations of these seabird species. PMID:25276921

  9. Confirmation of the efficacy of a novel fipronil spot-on for the treatment and control of fleas, ticks and chewing lice on dogs.

    PubMed

    Kužner, Jernej; Turk, Sandra; Grace, Sarah; Soni-Gupta, Jyoti; Fourie, Josephus J; Marchiondo, Alan A; Rugg, Douglas

    2013-03-31

    A novel spot-on formulation containing fipronil (Eliminall(®)/Exproline vet™) Spot-on Solution for Dogs, Pfizer Animal Health, registered and manufactured by Krka, d.d, Novo mesto) was evaluated in three laboratory studies to confirm efficacy against fleas, ticks and chewing lice on dogs for at least one month. Control of two laboratory strains of cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis), two tick species (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor reticulatus) and the chewing louse (Trichodectes canis) was evaluated. In all studies, dogs were randomly allocated to treatment groups and compared with untreated dogs. The studies also included a commercial, comparator product containing fipronil (Frontline(®) spot-on, Merial Limited). All treatments were applied to the skin at one spot between the scapulae on Day 0. In the studies, dogs were infested with fleas and/or ticks prior to treatment and then reinfested at weekly intervals for up to 8 weeks after treatment and evaluated for efficacy at 2 days (48 h) after treatment and each reinfestation. These studies confirmed that treatment with the novel fipronil spot-on at the proposed commercial dose rate rapidly reduced existing infestations of fleas, ticks and chewing lice on dogs. Treatment provided control of reinfesting fleas for up to 8 weeks, up to 4 weeks control of ticks, and control of chewing lice. PMID:23290278

  10. The Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I Gene Occurs on a Minichromosome with Extensive Heteroplasmy in Two Species of Chewing Lice, Geomydoecus aurei and Thomomydoecus minor.

    PubMed

    Pietan, Lucas L; Spradling, Theresa A; Demastes, James W

    2016-01-01

    In animals, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) typically occurs as a single circular chromosome with 13 protein-coding genes and 22 tRNA genes. The various species of lice examined previously, however, have shown mitochondrial genome rearrangements with a range of chromosome sizes and numbers. Our research demonstrates that the mitochondrial genomes of two species of chewing lice found on pocket gophers, Geomydoecus aurei and Thomomydoecus minor, are fragmented with the 1,536 base-pair (bp) cytochrome-oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene occurring as the only protein-coding gene on a 1,916-1,964 bp minicircular chromosome in the two species, respectively. The cox1 gene of T. minor begins with an atypical start codon, while that of G. aurei does not. Components of the non-protein coding sequence of G. aurei and T. minor include a tRNA (isoleucine) gene, inverted repeat sequences consistent with origins of replication, and an additional non-coding region that is smaller than the non-coding sequence of other lice with such fragmented mitochondrial genomes. Sequences of cox1 minichromosome clones for each species reveal extensive length and sequence heteroplasmy in both coding and noncoding regions. The highly variable non-gene regions of G. aurei and T. minor have little sequence similarity with one another except for a 19-bp region of phylogenetically conserved sequence with unknown function. PMID:27589589

  11. A Modelling Framework for Assessing the Risk of Emerging Diseases Associated with the Use of Cleaner Fish to Control Parasitic Sea Lice on Salmon Farms.

    PubMed

    Murray, A G

    2016-04-01

    Sea lice are the most damaging parasite of marine salmonids, both economically and in terms of potential impacts on wild fish. An increasingly widely applied control is the use of cleaner fish (CF) such as wrasse that eat lice. However, such CF can carry pathogens that may cause disease in salmon, including the potential emergence of new diseases. This is not just a theoretical risk, as demonstrated by a recent outbreak of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in wrasse held on salmon farms in Shetland. A modelling framework is developed to identify conditions in which emergence might occur, and, from this, means of reducing risk. Diseases that might emerge easily in farmed salmon would be likely to have already done so by other routes of exposure, and if risks are very low, they would need to be greatly enhanced to become significant relative to costs of lice control. CF may most enhance risks from disease with moderate probability of emerging. Risks of emergence can be reduced by replacing wild-caught with hatchery-reared CF, minimizing mixing of CF from different sources, surveillance for clinical disease in the CF and ensuring strategic biosecurity (area management with synchronized fallowing). Reuse of CF for a second salmon production cycle may reduce costs and even probability of infection (especially from wild-caught CF), but should only be considered as part of a rigorous area management programme because the practice presents opportunities for pathogens to adapt to salmon by weakening fallowing. PMID:25208602

  12. Feeding response in marine copepods as a measure of acute toxicity of four anti-sea lice pesticides.

    PubMed

    Van Geest, Jordana L; Burridge, Les E; Fife, Frederick J; Kidd, Karen A

    2014-10-01

    Anti-sea lice pesticides used in salmon aquaculture are released directly into the environment where non-target organisms, including zooplankton, may be exposed. The toxicity of four pesticides to field-collected copepods was examined in 1-h exposures with lethality and feeding endpoints determined 5-h post-exposure using staining techniques. Copepods were immobilized within 1 h, at aquaculture treatment concentrations of deltamethrin (AlphaMax), cypermethrin (Excis), and hydrogen peroxide (InteroxParamove50). All organisms showed vital staining, indicating immobilized organisms were still alive, thus LC50s were not determined. Feeding on carmine particles was inhibited and EC50s ranged from 0.017 to 0.067 μg deltamethrin/L, 0.098-0.36 μg cypermethrin/L, and 2.6-10 mg hydrogen peroxide/L, representing 30- to 117-fold, 13- to 51-fold, and 120- to 460-fold dilutions of the respective aquaculture treatments. No effects were observed in copepods exposed to azamethiphos (Salmosan) at 5-times the aquaculture treatment. Acute exposure to three of the four pesticides affected feeding and mobility of copepods at environmentally-realistic concentrations. PMID:25440784

  13. Determination of permethrin resistance allele frequency of human head louse populations by quantitative sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Deok Ho; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Strycharz, Joseph P; Clark, J Marshall; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2008-09-01

    A quantitative sequencing (QS) protocol that detects the frequencies of sodium channel mutations (M815I, T917I, and L920F) responsible for knockdown resistance in permethrin-resistant head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer) was tested as a population genotyping method for use as a preliminary resistance monitoring tool. Genomic DNA fragments of the sodium channel a-subunit gene that encompass the three mutation sites were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-1 amplified from individual head lice with either resistant or susceptible genotypes, and combined in various ratios to generate standard DNA template mixtures for QS. After sequencing, the signal ratios between resistant and susceptible nucleotides were calculated and plotted against the corresponding resistance allele frequencies. Quadratic regression coefficients of the plots were close to 1, demonstrating that the signal ratios are highly correlated with the resistance allele frequencies. Resistance allele frequencies predicted by QS, using either "pooled DNA" (DNA extracted from individual louse specimens and pooled) or "pooled specimen DNA" (DNA simultaneously extracted from multiple louse specimens), agreed well with those determined by individual sequencing, confirming the reliability and accuracy of QS as a population genotyping method and validating our approach of using the pooled specimen DNA as the DNA template for QS. Our protocol for QS was determined to be highly reliable for the prediction of resistance allele frequencies higher than approximately 7.4% at the 95% confidence level. According to the resistance allele frequencies determined by QS, pyrethroid resistance varies substantially among different geographical regions, emphasizing the importance of early resistance detection and proper management strategies. PMID:18826035

  14. A new species and five new records of chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) from an isolated population of the solitary tinamou Tinamus solitarius (Aves: Tinamiformes).

    PubMed

    Valim, Michel P; Silveira, Luís F

    2014-01-01

    We report the first records of chewing lice from an isolated population of the solitary tinamou (formerly known as Tinamus solitarius pernambucensis Berla, 1946) in the Pernambuco Centre of Endemism (PCE), Brazil. All louse records previously published from the solitary tinamou came from the populations south of the São Francisco River, formerly known as Tinamus solitarius solitarius (Vieillot, 1819). Five known species of the family Heptapsogasteridae were identified from the northern population of this host: Heptarthrogaster grandis Carriker, 1936; Ornicholax alienus (Giebel, 1874); Pterocotes solitarius Guimarães & Lane, 1937; Rhopaloceras oniscus (Nitzsch [in Giebel], 1866); and Strongylocotes wernecki Guimarães & Lane, 1937. Also, the new species Heptagoniodes guimaraesi is described and illustrated from the northern population of this host, and a key for identification of all the species of Heptagoniodes Carriker, 1936 is included. The discovery of H. guimaraesi is the first Brazilian example of a bird ectoparasite represented by two different species of the same genus living on two distinct populations of the same host species. Records of eight louse species and 31 new localities from the southern population of the solitary tinamou in Brazil are given, and an updated list of all the chewing lice known from both host populations [subspecies] is included. PMID:25081764

  15. Interspecific hybridization of Eucalyptus as a potential tool to improve the bioactivity of essential oils against permethrin-resistant head lice from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo; Masuh, Hector; Picollo, Maria Inés

    2008-10-01

    The essential oils extracted from Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus tereticornis, and the hybrids E. grandisxE. camaldulensis, and E. grandisxE. tereticornis were analyzed by GC-MS, and evaluated for their fumigant and repellent effects on permethrin-resistant head lice. Fumigant activity of both hybrids was higher than that for pure species. E. grandisxE. tereticornis and E. grandisxE. camaldulensis showed KT50 values of 12.99 and 13.63min, respectively. E. grandis, E. camaldulensis, and E. tereticornis showed KT50 values of 25.57, 35.01, and 31.31, respectively. A simple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between KT50 data and % of 1,8-cineole in these essential oils. Repellency varied from 47.80+/-16% to 80.69+/-6% for the five Eucalyptus essential oils tested. Interspecific hybridization improves the pediculicidal activity of Eucalyptus essential oils. PMID:18261899

  16. Pubic Lice (Crabs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse ... also need to dry clean or use very hot water and a hot dryer cycle to wash ...

  17. Pubic Lice (Pediculosis Pubis)

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    ... 2006-2013 Logical Images, Inc. All rights reserved. Advertising Notice This Site and third parties who place ... would like to obtain more information about these advertising practices and to make choices about online behavioral ...

  18. Pubic "Crab" Lice Diagnosis

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    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  19. Head Lice: Diagnosis

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    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  20. Pubic "Crab" Lice

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    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  1. Body Lice Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  2. Body Lice Treatment

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    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  3. Head Lice: Disease

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  4. Head Lice (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and seek treatment if necessary. Wash all bed linens and clothing in very hot water, then put ... least 20 minutes. Dry clean any clothing, bed linens, and stuffed animals that aren't machine washable. ...

  5. Using Agent-Based Modelling to Predict the Role of Wild Refugia in the Evolution of Resistance of Sea Lice to Chemotherapeutants

    PubMed Central

    McEwan, Gregor F.; Groner, Maya L.; Fast, Mark D.; Revie, Crawford W.

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge for Atlantic salmon farming in the northern hemisphere is infestation by the sea louse parasite Lepeophtheirus salmonis. The most frequent method of controlling these sea louse infestations is through the use of chemical treatments. However, most major salmon farming areas have observed resistance to common chemotherapeutants. In terrestrial environments, many strategies employed to manage the evolution of resistance involve the use of refugia, where a portion of the population is left untreated to maintain susceptibility. While refugia have not been deliberately used in Atlantic salmon farming, wild salmon populations that migrate close to salmon farms may act as natural refugia. In this paper we describe an agent-based model that explores the influence of different sizes of wild salmon populations on resistance evolution in sea lice on a salmon farm. Using the model, we demonstrate that wild salmon populations can act as refugia that limit the evolution of resistance in the sea louse populations. Additionally, we demonstrate that an increase in the size of the population of wild salmon results in an increased effect in slowing the evolution of resistance. We explore the effect of a population fitness cost associated with resistance, finding that in some cases it substantially reduces the speed of evolution to chemical treatments. PMID:26485023

  6. A new genus and twenty new species of Australian jumping plant-lice (Psylloidea: Triozidae) from Eremophila and Myoporum (Scrophulariaceae: Myoporeae).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Gary S; Fagan-Jeffries, Erinn P; Austin, Andy D

    2016-01-01

    The Triozidae is a diverse, cosmopolitan family of jumping plant-lice (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) from an exceptionally diverse range of plant families, but with few described Australian species. As a direct outcome of the Australian Biological Resources Study Bush Blitz species discovery program, many new Psylloidea from novel host plants in remote localities have been revealed. In this study a new genus Myotrioza Taylor gen. nov. and 20 new species are described from southern and central Australia which also establishes the first host plant records from Eremophila and Myoporum (Scrophulariaceae: Myoporeae). New species, delineated using a combination of morphological and mitochondrial COI sequence data, are: Myotrioza clementsiana sp. nov., M. darwinensis sp. nov., M. desertorum sp. nov., M. eremi sp. nov., M. eremophili sp. nov., M. flindersiana sp.nov., M. gawlerensis sp. nov., M. insularis sp. nov., M. interioris sp. nov., M. interstantis sp. nov., M. longifoliae sp. nov., M. markmitchelli sp. nov., M. myopori sp. nov., M. oppositifoliae sp. nov., M. pantonii sp. nov., M. platycarpi sp. nov., M. remota sp. nov., M. scopariae sp. nov., M. serrulatae sp. nov., and M. telowiensis sp. nov. Genetic divergence data, host associations, biogeographic data, diagnoses and a key to species are presented. Myotrioza appears to be particularly diverse in ephemeral southern Australia, especially in inland Western Australia and South Australia, matching regions of high diversity of the host genera; some species are likely to be short range endemics. PMID:27395952

  7. Analysis of ectoparasites (chigger mites, gamasid mites, fleas and sucking lice) of the Yunnan red-backed vole (Eothenomys miletus) sampled throughout its range in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Peng, P-Y; Guo, X-G; Song, W-Y; Hou, P; Zou, Y-J; Fan, R; He, X-S

    2015-12-01

    The Yunnan red-backed vole Eothenomys miletus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) is an endemic rodent species and reservoir host of zoonoses in southwest China. Based on a large host sample (2463 voles collected from 39 localities between 2001 and 2013), a general analysis of four categories of ectoparasite (fleas, sucking lice, chigger mites and gamasid mites) on E. miletus across its entire range of distribution was made. This analysis identified a total of 71 895 ectoparasites belonging to 320 species (30 species of flea, 9 of sucking louse, 106 of gamasid mite and 175 of chigger mite) with a high prevalence (87%), mean abundance (29.19) and mean intensity (33.69). Of the 18 vector species of zoonoses found on E. miletus, the flea Ctenophthalmus quadratus (Siphonaptera: Hystrichopsyllidae) and chigger mite Leptotrombidium scutellare (Trombidiformes: Trombiculidae) were the dominant species; these are the main vectors of zoonoses in China. All of the dominant parasite species showed an aggregated distribution pattern. Male voles harboured more species of parasite than females. Chigger mites represented the most abundant species group on voles and their prevalence was positively correlated with mean abundance (r = 0.73; P < 0.05). As a single rodent species, E. miletus has a high potential to harbour abundant ectoparasites with high species diversity and high rates of infestation. The sex of the vole affects ectoparasite infestation. PMID:26345365

  8. Observations on effects of a neem seed extract (MiteStop®) on biting lice (mallophages) and bloodsucking insects parasitizing horses.

    PubMed

    Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Mehlhorn, Julia; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    The hair of 300 horses belonging to short hair and long hair races had been routinely treated during the last 3 years with a neem seed extract (MiteStop®) in order to kill mallophages (e.g., specimens of the genus Werneckiella). It was found that in all cases, a hidden infestation with these biting lice had existed, which became visible when the product (diluted 1:20 with tap water) was brushed onto the hair. The mallophages left the body surface and became visible as a fine "wooly looking" layer at the tips of the hair. Furthermore, this treatment stopped the forming of dandruff of the skin of the horses, which, in case of heavy mallophage infestations, had looked like being powdered. Another interesting result of the treatment was reported by the riders. They described that the product had a considerable repellent effect on bloodsucking tabanids, mosquitoes, ceratopogonids, simuliids, as well as on licking flies. This repellency effect was noted to last for up to 7 days if the horses were not washed. PMID:21695566

  9. Chewing lice of genus Ricinus (Phthiraptera, Ricinidae) deposited at the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia, with description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We revised a collection of chewing lice deposited at the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia. We studied 60 slides with 107 specimens of 10 species of the genus Ricinus (De Geer, 1778). The collection includes lectotype specimens of Ricinus ivanovi Blagoveshtchensky, 1951 and of Ricinus tugarinovi Blagoveshtchensky, 1951. We registered Ricinus elongatus Olfers, 1816 ex Turdus ruficollis, R. ivanovi ex Leucosticte tephrocotis and Ricinus serratus (Durrant, 1906) ex Calandrella acutirostris and Calandrella cheleensis which were not included in Price’s world checklist. New records for Russia are R. elongatus ex Turdus ruficollis; Ricinus fringillae De Geer, 1778 ex Emberiza aureola, Emberiza leucocephalos, Emberiza rustica, Passer montanus and Prunella modularis; Ricinus rubeculae De Geer, 1778 ex Erithacus rubecula and Luscinia svecica; Ricinus serratus (Durrant, 1906) ex Alauda arvensis. New records for Kyrgyzstan are R. fringillae ex E. leucocephalos and ex Fringilla coelebs. A new record for Tajikistan is R. serratus ex Calandrella acutirostris. The new species Ricinus vaderi Valan n. sp. is described with Calandra lark, Melanocorypha calandra; from Azerbaijan, as a type host. PMID:26902646

  10. Using Agent-Based Modelling to Predict the Role of Wild Refugia in the Evolution of Resistance of Sea Lice to Chemotherapeutants.

    PubMed

    McEwan, Gregor F; Groner, Maya L; Fast, Mark D; Gettinby, George; Revie, Crawford W

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge for Atlantic salmon farming in the northern hemisphere is infestation by the sea louse parasite Lepeophtheirus salmonis. The most frequent method of controlling these sea louse infestations is through the use of chemical treatments. However, most major salmon farming areas have observed resistance to common chemotherapeutants. In terrestrial environments, many strategies employed to manage the evolution of resistance involve the use of refugia, where a portion of the population is left untreated to maintain susceptibility. While refugia have not been deliberately used in Atlantic salmon farming, wild salmon populations that migrate close to salmon farms may act as natural refugia. In this paper we describe an agent-based model that explores the influence of different sizes of wild salmon populations on resistance evolution in sea lice on a salmon farm. Using the model, we demonstrate that wild salmon populations can act as refugia that limit the evolution of resistance in the sea louse populations. Additionally, we demonstrate that an increase in the size of the population of wild salmon results in an increased effect in slowing the evolution of resistance. We explore the effect of a population fitness cost associated with resistance, finding that in some cases it substantially reduces the speed of evolution to chemical treatments. PMID:26485023

  11. Epidemiology and control of human head louse in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sinniah, B; Sinniah, D; Rajeswari, B

    1983-12-01

    A survey of 4.112 primary school children living in and around Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, revealed that 12.9% of the children were infested with Pediculus humanus capitis. Indians (28.3%) and Malays (18.9%) have a higher prevalence than Chinese (4.6%). The higher prevalence among Indians and Malays correlates well with their lower socio-economic status in the community; long hair also contributes to the higher rates of pediculosis among them. The prevalence rate was found to be related to socio-economic status, length of hair, family size, age, crowding and personal hygiene. Treatment with 0.2% and 0.5% malathion in coconut oil gave cure rates of 93% and 100%. Treatment with gammexane and actellic at 0.5% concentration gave a cure rate of 100% against adults and nymphs of Pediculus humanus capitis. PMID:6670116

  12. Ivermectin treatment of free-ranging endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups: effect on hookworm and lice infection status, haematological parameters, growth, and survival.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Gray, Rachael

    2015-07-01

    A placebo-controlled study was used to investigate the effectiveness of ivermectin to treat hookworm (Uncinaria sanguinis) and lice (Antarctophthirus microchir) infections in free-ranging Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups and to test the hypotheses that these parasitic infections cause anaemia, systemic inflammatory responses, and reduced growth, and contribute towards decreased pup survival. Ivermectin was identified as an effective and safe anthelmintic in this species. Pups administered ivermectin had significantly higher erythrocyte counts and significantly lower eosinophil counts compared to controls at 1-2 months post-treatment, confirming that U. sanguinis and/or A. microchir are causatively associated with disease and demonstrating the positive effect of ivermectin treatment on clinical health parameters. Higher growth rates were not seen in ivermectin-treated pups and, unexpectedly, relatively older pups treated with ivermectin demonstrated significantly reduced growth rates when compared to matched saline-control pups. Differences in survival were not identified between treatment groups; however, this was attributed to the unexpectedly low mortality rate of recruited pups, likely due to the unintended recruitment bias towards pups >1-2 months of age for which mortality due to hookworm infection is less likely. This finding highlights the logistical and practical challenges associated with treating pups of this species shortly after birth at a remote colony. This study informs the assessment of the use of anthelmintics as a tool for the conservation management of free-ranging wildlife and outlines essential steps to further the development of strategies to ensure the effective conservation of the Australian sea lion and its parasitic fauna. PMID:25911163

  13. Dispersion and toxicity to non-target aquatic organisms of pesticides used to treat sea lice on salmon in net pen enclosures.

    PubMed

    Ernst, W; Jackman, P; Doe, K; Page, F; Julien, G; Mackay, K; Sutherland, T

    2001-06-01

    Pesticides are used extensively in the finfish aquaculture industry to control sea lice infestations on farmed salmon. The most prevalent method of use is to enclose a net pen with an impervious tarpaulin and mix a pesticide solution within that enclosure. After treatment for short periods (1 h) the pesticide solution is released to the environment. Concerns have been raised that there is a potential risk to non-target aquatic organisms from those releases. The fate of dispersing pesticide solutions was measured after six simulated treatments in the Lower Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick. Three simulated treatments were done with azamethiphos and three with cypermethrin. Rhodamine dye was added to all pesticide solutions in order to facilitate tracking of the dispersing plume through real-time measurements of dye concentrations by a flow-through fluorometer coupled with a differential global positioning system (DGPS). Water samples were obtained from within the plumes at various times after release and analysed for pesticide content and toxicity to a benthic amphipod Eohaustorius estuaris. Dye concentrations were detectable for time periods after release which varied from 2 to 5.5 h. Distances travelled by the dye patches ranged from 900 to 3000 m and the dye concentrations at the final sampling period were generally 1/200-1/3000 the pre-release concentrations and cypermethrin concentrations were generally 1/1000-1/2000 the pre-release concentrations. Cypermethrin concentrations in water samples were closely correlated with dye concentrations, indicating that dye analyses were an accurate surrogate for cypermethrin concentrations. Most samples taken after the releases of azamethiphos were not toxic to test organisms in 48 h exposures and none were beyond 20 min post-release. By contrast, almost all samples taken after the release of cypermethrin, even up to 5-h post-release, were toxic. Data indicate the potential to cause toxic effects over areas of hectares from a

  14. Novel Primers From Informative Nuclear Loci for Louse Molecular Phylogenetics (Insecta: Phthiraptera).

    PubMed

    Sweet, Andrew D; Allen, Julie M; Johnson, Kevin P

    2014-11-01

    While parasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) have historically been an important model taxon for understanding host-parasite coevolution, very few molecular markers have been developed for phylogenetic analysis. The current markers are insufficient to resolve many of the deeper nodes in this group; therefore, sequences from additional genetic loci are necessary. Here, we design primers targeting several nuclear protein coding genes based on a complete genome and transcriptome of Pediculus humanus L. plus transcriptomes and modest coverage genomic data from five genera of avian feather lice. These primers were tested on 32 genera of avian feather lice (Ischnocera), including multiple species within some genera. All of the new primer combinations produced sequences for the majority of the genera and had similar or higher divergences than the most widely used nuclear protein-coding gene in lice, EF-1α. These results indicate that these new loci will be useful in resolving phylogenetic relationships among parasitic lice. PMID:26309297

  15. Dissecting cellulitis (Perifolliculitis Capitis Abscedens et Suffodiens): a comprehensive review focusing on new treatments and findings of the last decade with commentary comparing the therapies and causes of dissecting cellulitis to hidradenitis suppurativa.

    PubMed

    Scheinfeld, Noah

    2014-05-01

    Dissecting cellulitis (DC) also referred to as to as perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens (Hoffman) manifests with perifollicular pustules, nodules, abscesses and sinuses that evolve into scarring alopecia. In the U.S., it predominantly occurs in African American men between 20-40 years of age. DC also occurs in other races and women more rarely. DC has been reported worldwide. Older therapies reported effective include: low dose oral zinc, isotretinoin, minocycline, sulfa drugs, tetracycline, prednisone, intralesional triamcinolone, incision and drainage, dapsone, antiandrogens (in women), topical clindamycin, topical isotretinoin, X-ray epilation and ablation, ablative C02 lasers, hair removal lasers (800nm and 694nm), and surgical excision. Newer treatments reported include tumor necrosis factor blockers (TNFB), quinolones, macrolide antibiotics, rifampin, alitretinoin, metronidazole, and high dose zinc sulphate (135-220 mg TID). Isotretinoin seems to provide the best chance at remission, but the number of reports is small, dosing schedules variable, and the long term follow up beyond a year is negligible; treatment failures have been reported. TNFB can succeed when isotretinoin fails, either as monotherapy, or as a bridge to aggressive surgical treatment, but long term data is lacking. Non-medical therapies noted in the last decade include: the 1064 nm laser, ALA-PDT, and modern external beam radiation therapy. Studies that span more than 1 year are lacking. Newer pathologic hair findings include: pigmented casts, black dots, and "3D" yellow dots. Newer associations include: keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome, Crohn disease and pyoderma gangrenosum. Older associations include arthritis and keratitis. DC is likely a reaction pattern, as is shown by its varied therapeutic successes and failures. The etiology of DC remains enigmatic and DC is distinct from hidradenitis suppurativa, which is shown by their varied responses to therapies and their

  16. Head Lice: Prevention and Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  17. Head Lice: Information for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  18. Body Lice Prevention and Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  19. Head Lice (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... following organizations also provide reliable health information. ● National Library of Medicine ( www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/headlice. ... BEEN INVOLVED IN THE CREATION, PRODUCTION, PROMOTION OR MARKETING OF THE LICENSED MATERIALS BE LIABLE TO YOU ...

  20. Demystifying pediculosis: school nurses taking the lead.

    PubMed

    Pontius, Deborah J

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of Pediculosis capitis, or head lice, is fraught with misinformation, myths, and mismanagement. Common myths include the need to exclude children from school, the need to remove all visible nits ("no-nit" policies), the need for massive environmental cleaning, that head lice live for long periods of time, and that schools are a common location for lice transmission. Head lice are a common childhood nuisance, causing embarrassment and emotional trauma in both children and families. This article explores and challenges the commonly held beliefs about the identification, management, and treatment of Pediculosis by presenting current recommended evidence-based practice. It also challenges pediatric nurses, and school nurses in particular, in alignment with the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) Position Statement on Pediculosis Management in the School Setting, to act as change agents for reasonable and effective school policies and practices. PMID:25929113

  1. Three mutations identified in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel alpha-subunit gene of permethrin-resistant human head lice reduce the permethrin sensitivity of house fly Vssc1 sodium channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    SupYoon, Kyong; Symington, Steven B; Hyeock Lee, Si; Soderlund, David M; Marshall Clark, J

    2008-03-01

    Point mutations in the para-orthologous sodium channel alpha-subunit of the head louse (M815I, T917I, and L920F) are associated with permethrin resistance and DDT resistance. These mutations were inserted in all combinations using site-directed mutagenesis at the corresponding amino acid sequence positions (M827I, T929I, and L932F) of the house fly para-orthologous voltage-sensitive sodium channel alpha-subunit (Vssc1(WT)) gene and heterologously co-expressed with the sodium channel auxiliary subunit of house fly (Vsscbeta) in Xenopus oocytes. The double mutant possessing M827I and T929I (Vssc1(MITI)/Vsscbeta) caused a approximately 4.0mV hyperpolarizing shift and the triple mutant, Vssc1(MITILF)/Vsscbeta, caused a approximately 3.2mV depolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of activation curves. Vssc1(MITI)/Vsscbeta, Vssc1(TILF)/Vsscbeta, and Vssc1(MITILF)/Vsscbeta caused depolarizing shifts ( approximately 6.6, approximately 7.6, and approximately 8.8mV, respectively) in the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation curves. The M827I and L932F mutations reduced permethrin sensitivity when expressed alone but the T929I mutation, either alone or in combination, virtually abolished permethrin sensitivity. Thus, the T929I mutation is the principal cause of permethrin resistance in head lice. Comparison of the expression rates of channels containing single, double and triple mutations with that of Vssc1(WT)/Vsscbeta channels indicates that the M827I mutation may play a role in rescuing the decreased expression of channels containing T929I. PMID:18252244

  2. Pubic "Crab" Lice Prevention and Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  3. Head Lice: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  4. Head Lice: Treatment Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  5. Body Lice Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  6. [A case of Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans].

    PubMed

    Urano, Shoko; Shirai, Shigeko; Suzuki, Yoko; Sugaya, Keiko; Takigawa, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    A 10-year-old Peruvian girl, living in Japan since 1996, visited our hospital in August 2000 complaining of alopecia which had been present on her scalp for one year. The bald areas appeared as multiple small, scattered, angular patches with indistinct margins. Follicular pustules, erythemic nodules and lymphadenopathy were also seen. In the culture of the affected hair, a tan surface with wiry undulations grew on Sabouraud's media. The colony reverse had reddish-brown central pigmentation. Slide cultured fungi produced great numbers of round and short club-shaped microconidia, hyphae and intercalary chlamydospores. These fungi showed the following characteristics: positive urease test, no pigment production on cornmeal agar and positive thiamine dependency. The restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern and the nucleotide sequences of ribosomal-DNA internal transcribed spacer region of the causative fungus was compatible with Trichophyton tonsurans. Daily administration of 125 mg of terbinafine resulted in a satisfactory response and the lesion healed almost completely. PMID:12590256

  7. Genome Sequences of Multiresistant Staphylococcus capitis Pulsotype NRCS-A and Methicillin-Susceptible S. capitis Pulsotype NRCS-C.

    PubMed

    Lemriss, H; Dumont, Y; Lemriss, S; Martins-Simoes, P; Butin, M; Lahlou, L; Rasigade, J P; El Kabbaj, S; Laurent, F; Ibrahimi, A

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequences of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus captis pulsotype NCRS-C (CR02 strain) and multiresistant Staphylococcus captis pulsotype NCRS-A (CR07 strain). PMID:27284154

  8. Genome Sequences of Multiresistant Staphylococcus capitis Pulsotype NRCS-A and Methicillin-Susceptible S. capitis Pulsotype NRCS-C

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Y.; Lemriss, S.; Martins-Simoes, P.; Butin, M.; Lahlou, L.; Rasigade, J. P.; El Kabbaj, S.; Laurent, F.; Ibrahimi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequences of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus captis pulsotype NCRS-C (CR02 strain) and multiresistant Staphylococcus captis pulsotype NCRS-A (CR07 strain). PMID:27284154

  9. [Pediculosis in rural schools of Lublin Province].

    PubMed

    Buczek, A; Kawa, I M; Markowska-Gosik, D; Widomska, D

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the work was to study the prevalence of pediculosis capitis among schoolchildren in rural areas of Lublin Province in Eastern Poland and to examine its correlation with socio-economic conditions. A group of 42759 schoolchildren aged between 6 and 15 years from 52 rural primary schools were examined. The level of unemployment, number of physicians and number of nurses per 10000 inhabitants were examined in the area of experiment. We achieved the following results: a total of 682 children were found to be infested with Pediculus humanus capitis, mean prevalence was 1.6%. The girls were more frequently infected than boys (75% for girls and 24% for boys). The children most frequently affected were those aged 6 (1.6%) and 8 to 12 years (1.6-2.1%). The children least affected were those aged 13 to 14 years (0.8-1.1%). The infestation rate was strictly correlated with the number of nurses per 10000 inhabitants. There was no relationship between the level of unemployment or the number of physicians and the infestation rate on experimental area. Our investigations seems to confirme that the prevalence of P. h. capitis is influenced by the level of primary health care, particulary quality of school nurses' work. PMID:16894747

  10. Spinosad: An effective and safe pediculicide.

    PubMed

    Aditya, Suruchi; Rattan, Aditya

    2012-09-01

    Although head lice are not a major health hazard, they have been a source of irritation and disgust for thousands of years. Despite the use of over-the-counter (OTC) treatments, it has high prevalence, and epidemics occur regularly. Permethrin 1% is currently recommended as a drug of choice, but many areas have shown resistance to this insecticide. A 0.9% suspension of spinosad, a naturally occurring pest control product, has recently been approved by the USFDA for treatment of pediculosis capitis. It acts by enhancing the action of nicotinic acetylcholine, resulting in paralysis of the parasite. Clinical trials show that spinosad is more effective and safe than current drugs of treatment. Additionally, it does not require nit combing. Spinosad appears as a powerful recruit in the battle against head lice. PMID:23189260

  11. Spinosad: An effective and safe pediculicide

    PubMed Central

    Aditya, Suruchi; Rattan, Aditya

    2012-01-01

    Although head lice are not a major health hazard, they have been a source of irritation and disgust for thousands of years. Despite the use of over-the-counter (OTC) treatments, it has high prevalence, and epidemics occur regularly. Permethrin 1% is currently recommended as a drug of choice, but many areas have shown resistance to this insecticide. A 0.9% suspension of spinosad, a naturally occurring pest control product, has recently been approved by the USFDA for treatment of pediculosis capitis. It acts by enhancing the action of nicotinic acetylcholine, resulting in paralysis of the parasite. Clinical trials show that spinosad is more effective and safe than current drugs of treatment. Additionally, it does not require nit combing. Spinosad appears as a powerful recruit in the battle against head lice. PMID:23189260

  12. Human phthiriasis. Can dermoscopy really help dermatologists? Entodermoscopy: a new dermatological discipline on the edge of entomology.

    PubMed

    Scanni, G

    2012-02-01

    The diagnosis of human phtiriasis (often referred to as the "crab" or the "pubic louse") can be more difficult than other types of pediculosis (Pediculus corporis and Pediculus capitis) because this insect has a smaller body of 1.2 x 0.8 mm, may be lighter in color, not as mobile and therefore harder to see to the naked eye. Can dermoscopy aid to perform a better analysis of the skin? The clinical experience developed in two patients gives an affirmative answer, moreover adding useful information of insect and its eggs already known to entomologists but never used in dermatological diagnosis. The identification in vivo can distinguish Phthirus pubis from other skin signs while the conical shape of the operculum and the wide fixing sleeve of egg to hair, tells what species of louse is infesting, even if the insect is unavailable or nits are elsewhere from the pubic area. Entodermoscopy, provided that dermatologists have some knowledge of entomology, therefore promises advantages over standard microscopic examination. PMID:22370575

  13. Drought and epidemic typhus, central Mexico, 1655-1918.

    PubMed

    Burns, Jordan N; Acuna-Soto, Rudofo; Stahle, David W

    2014-03-01

    Epidemic typhus is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Rickettsia prowazekii and transmitted by body lice (Pediculus humanus corporis). This disease occurs where conditions are crowded and unsanitary. This disease accompanied war, famine, and poverty for centuries. Historical and proxy climate data indicate that drought was a major factor in the development of typhus epidemics in Mexico during 1655-1918. Evidence was found for 22 large typhus epidemics in central Mexico, and tree-ring chronologies were used to reconstruct moisture levels over central Mexico for the past 500 years. Below-average tree growth, reconstructed drought, and low crop yields occurred during 19 of these 22 typhus epidemics. Historical documents describe how drought created large numbers of environmental refugees that fled the famine-stricken countryside for food relief in towns. These refugees often ended up in improvised shelters in which crowding encouraged conditions necessary for spread of typhus. PMID:24564928

  14. [Cockroaches and co. The role of health pests as allergen source].

    PubMed

    Raulf, M; Sander, I; Gonnissen, D; Zahradnik, E; Brüning, T

    2014-05-01

    In most of the cases health pests are carriers of pathogens or parasites which have a negative impact on human health or affect the health of other mammals. What is lesser known is that they can also act as allergens. Most of the health pests in this sense belong to the arthropods, such as cockroaches (Blattaria), mosquitos (Culiciformia), lice (Pediculus humanus corporis), fleas (Siphonaptera) and ticks (Argasidae). In the group of vertebrates rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus), house mice (Mus musculus) and pigeons (Columba livia domestica) are also classified as health pests. Also storage pests which are not carriers of pathogens can induce secondary infestation with hygiene pests or molds and have an underestimated impact on human health. In this article selected examples of health pests and also storage pests as an allergen source are described, taking into account the sensitization prevalence and identified single allergens. PMID:24781916

  15. Drought and Epidemic Typhus, Central Mexico, 1655–1918

    PubMed Central

    Acuna-Soto, Rudofo; Stahle, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemic typhus is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Rickettsia prowazekii and transmitted by body lice (Pediculus humanus corporis). This disease occurs where conditions are crowded and unsanitary. This disease accompanied war, famine, and poverty for centuries. Historical and proxy climate data indicate that drought was a major factor in the development of typhus epidemics in Mexico during 1655–1918. Evidence was found for 22 large typhus epidemics in central Mexico, and tree-ring chronologies were used to reconstruct moisture levels over central Mexico for the past 500 years. Below-average tree growth, reconstructed drought, and low crop yields occurred during 19 of these 22 typhus epidemics. Historical documents describe how drought created large numbers of environmental refugees that fled the famine-stricken countryside for food relief in towns. These refugees often ended up in improvised shelters in which crowding encouraged conditions necessary for spread of typhus. PMID:24564928

  16. Insect bite reactions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanjay; Mann, Baldeep Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods. Insect bite reactions are commonly seen in clinical practice. The present review touches upon the medically important insects and their places in the classification, the sparse literature on the epidemiology of insect bites in India, and different variables influencing the susceptibility of an individual to insect bites. Clinical features of mosquito bites, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites Epstein-Barr virus NK (HMB-EBV-NK) disease, eruptive pseudoangiomatosis, Skeeter syndrome, papular pruritic eruption of HIV/AIDS, and clinical features produced by bed bugs, Mexican chicken bugs, assassin bugs, kissing bugs, fleas, black flies, Blandford flies, louse flies, tsetse flies, midges, and thrips are discussed. Brief account is presented of the immunogenic components of mosquito and bed bug saliva. Papular urticaria is discussed including its epidemiology, the 5 stages of skin reaction, the SCRATCH principle as an aid in diagnosis, and the recent evidence supporting participation of types I, III, and IV hypersensitivity reactions in its causation is summarized. Recent developments in the treatment of pediculosis capitis including spinosad 0.9% suspension, benzyl alcohol 5% lotion, dimethicone 4% lotion, isopropyl myristate 50% rinse, and other suffocants are discussed within the context of evidence derived from randomized controlled trials and key findings of a recent systematic review. We also touch upon a non-chemical treatment of head lice and the ineffectiveness of egg-loosening products. Knockdown resistance (kdr) as the genetic mechanism making the lice nerves insensitive to permethrin is discussed along with the surprising contrary clinical evidence from Europe about efficacy of permethrin in children with head lice carrying kdr-like gene. The review also presents a brief account of insects as vectors of diseases and ends with discussion of prevention of insect bites and some serious adverse effects

  17. Association of Drought with Typhus Epidemics in Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acuna-Soto, R.; Stahle, D.; Villanueva Diaz, J.; Therrell, M.

    2007-05-01

    Typhus is an acute infectious disease caused by the bacteria Rickettsia prowazekii, which is transmitted among humans by the body lice (Pediculus humanus corporis). The disease is highly contagious and transmission is favored in populations living in crowded conditions. Under these circumstances, typhus transmission is facilitated by factors that favor the colonization and proliferation of body lice such as absence of personal hygiene and wearing the same clothes for long periods of time. Historically, periods of war and famine were associated with devastating epidemics with high mortality rates in many parts of the world. Central Mexico has a long record of typhus epidemics. In this region, at > 2000 meters above sea level, the disease was endemic and occurred with a seasonal pattern in winter, with occasional large epidemics. Recently, we completed a chronology of epidemics in Mexico. A total of 22 well-defined major typhus epidemics were identified between 1650 and 1920. All of them caused periods of increased mortality that lasted 2 - 4 years (more than one standard deviation from the previous ten year period). The record of typhus epidemics was evaluated against the tree-ring record of Cuauhtmoc La Fragua, Puebla. This chronology, based on Douglas fir, has demonstrated to be a faithful record of precipitation in central Mexico. The results indicate that a statistically significant drought (t test, p < .05) prevailed during the first year of all 22 large outbreaks of typhus in recent Mexican history. No distinction is made between times of peace and war. This indicates that drought alone was capable of inducing the social conditions for increased transmission of typhus in pre-industrial central Mexico.

  18. Patterns of cryptic host specificity in duck lice based on molecular data.

    PubMed

    Escalante, G C; Sweet, A D; McCracken, K G; Gustafsson, D R; Wilson, R E; Johnson, K P

    2016-06-01

    Documenting patterns of host specificity in parasites relies on the adequate definition of parasite species. In many cases, parasites have simplified morphology, making species delimitation based on traditional morphological characters difficult. Molecular data can help in assessing whether widespread parasites harbour cryptic species and, alternatively, in guiding further taxonomic revision in cases in which there is morphological variation. The duck louse genus Anaticola (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae), based on current taxonomy, contains both host-specific and widespread species. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences of samples from this genus were used to document patterns of host specificity. The comparison of these patterns with morphological variations in Anaticola revealed a general correspondence between the groups identified by DNA sequences and morphology, respectively. These results suggest that a more thorough taxonomic review of this genus is needed. In general, the groups identified on the basis of molecular data were associated with particular groups of waterfowl (e.g. dabbling ducks, sea ducks, geese) or specific biogeographic regions (e.g. North America, South America, Australia, Eurasia). PMID:26753998

  19. Materials Data on LiCe2HO3 (SG:71) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-11

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  20. The Lice, Turkey, earthquake of September 6, 1975; a preliminary engineering investigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yanev, P. I.

    1976-01-01

    The Fifth European Conference on Earthquake Engineering was held on September 22 through 25 in Istanbul, Turkey. The opening speech by the Honorable H. E. Nurettin Ok, Minister of Reconstruction and Resettlement of Turkey, introduced the several hundred delegates to the realities of earthquake hazards in Turkey:

  1. Understanding and Managing Head Lice | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... physical contact, sharing clothing, such as hats or bedding, and sharing combs or brushes with someone who ... live for two weeks. Hats, scarves, coats, and bedding should be washed in hot water and dried ...

  2. Insect phylogenomics: results, problems and the impact of matrix composition

    PubMed Central

    Letsch, Harald O.; Meusemann, Karen; Wipfler, Benjamin; Schütte, Kai; Beutel, Rolf; Misof, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationships among insect orders with a main focus on Polyneoptera (lower Neoptera: roaches, mantids, earwigs, grasshoppers, etc.), and Paraneoptera (thrips, lice, bugs in the wide sense). The relationships between and within these groups of insects are difficult to resolve because only few informative molecular and morphological characters are available. Here, we provide the first phylogenomic expressed sequence tags data (‘EST’: short sub-sequences from a c(opy) DNA sequence encoding for proteins) for stick insects (Phasmatodea) and webspinners (Embioptera) to complete published EST data. As recent EST datasets are characterized by a heterogeneous distribution of available genes across taxa, we use different rationales to optimize the data matrix composition. Our results suggest a monophyletic origin of Polyneoptera and Eumetabola (Paraneoptera + Holometabola). However, we identified artefacts of tree reconstruction (human louse Pediculus humanus assigned to Odonata (damselflies and dragonflies) or Holometabola (insects with a complete metamorphosis); mayfly genus Baetis nested within Neoptera), which were most probably rooted in a data matrix composition bias due to the inclusion of sequence data of entire proteomes. Until entire proteomes are available for each species in phylogenomic analyses, this potential pitfall should be carefully considered. PMID:22628473

  3. Insect phylogenomics: results, problems and the impact of matrix composition.

    PubMed

    Letsch, Harald O; Meusemann, Karen; Wipfler, Benjamin; Schütte, Kai; Beutel, Rolf; Misof, Bernhard

    2012-08-22

    In this study, we investigated the relationships among insect orders with a main focus on Polyneoptera (lower Neoptera: roaches, mantids, earwigs, grasshoppers, etc.), and Paraneoptera (thrips, lice, bugs in the wide sense). The relationships between and within these groups of insects are difficult to resolve because only few informative molecular and morphological characters are available. Here, we provide the first phylogenomic expressed sequence tags data ('EST': short sub-sequences from a c(opy) DNA sequence encoding for proteins) for stick insects (Phasmatodea) and webspinners (Embioptera) to complete published EST data. As recent EST datasets are characterized by a heterogeneous distribution of available genes across taxa, we use different rationales to optimize the data matrix composition. Our results suggest a monophyletic origin of Polyneoptera and Eumetabola (Paraneoptera + Holometabola). However, we identified artefacts of tree reconstruction (human louse Pediculus humanus assigned to Odonata (damselflies and dragonflies) or Holometabola (insects with a complete metamorphosis); mayfly genus Baetis nested within Neoptera), which were most probably rooted in a data matrix composition bias due to the inclusion of sequence data of entire proteomes. Until entire proteomes are available for each species in phylogenomic analyses, this potential pitfall should be carefully considered. PMID:22628473

  4. Epidemic typhus.

    PubMed

    Bechah, Yassina; Capo, Christian; Mege, Jean-Louis; Raoult, Didier

    2008-07-01

    Epidemic typhus is transmitted to human beings by the body louse Pediculus humanus corporis. The disease is still considered a major threat by public-health authorities, despite the efficacy of antibiotics, because poor sanitary conditions are conducive to louse proliferation. Until recently, Rickettsia prowazekii, the causal agent, was thought to be confined to human beings and their body lice. Since 1975, R prowazekii infection in human beings has been related to contact with the flying squirrel Glaucomys volans in the USA. Moreover, Brill-Zinsser disease, a relapsed form of epidemic typhus that appears as sporadic cases many years after the initial infection, is unrelated to louse infestation. Stress or a waning immune system are likely to reactivate this earlier persistent infection, which could be the source of new epidemics when conditions facilitate louse infestation. Finally, R prowazekii is a potential category B bioterrorism agent, because it is stable in dried louse faeces and can be transmitted through aerosols. An increased understanding of the pathogenesis of epidemic typhus may be useful for protection against this bacterial threat. PMID:18582834

  5. A Novel Nit Comb Concept Using Ultrasound Actuation: Preclinical Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Mark N; Brunton, Elizabeth R; Burgess, Ian F

    2016-01-01

    Nit combing and removal of head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae), eggs is a task made more difficult because "nit combs" vary in efficiency. There is currently no evidence that the binding of the eggshell to the hair can be loosened chemically and few hair treatments improve the slip of the louse eggs along the hair. Ultrasound, applied through the teeth of a nit comb, may facilitate the flow of fluids into the gap between the hair shaft and the tube of fixative holding louse eggs in place to improve lubrication. Ultrasound alone had little effect to initiate sliding, requiring a force of 121.5 ± 23.8 millinewtons (mN) compared with 125.8 ± 18.0 mN without ultrasound, but once the egg started to move it made the process easier. In the presence of a conditioner-like creamy lotion, ultrasound reduced the Peak force required to start movement to 24.3 ± 8.8 mN from 50.4 ± 13.0 mN without ultrasound. In contrast, some head louse treatments made removal of eggs more difficult, requiring approximately twice the Peak force to initiate movement compared with dry hair in the absence of ultrasound. However, following application of ultrasound, the forces required to initiate movement increased for an essential oil product, remained the same for isopropyl myristate and cyclomethicone, and halved for 4% dimeticone lotion. Fixing the nit comb at an estimated angle of 16.5° to the direction of pull gave an optimum effect to improve the removal process when a suitable lubricant was used. PMID:26545717

  6. Dermatoscopy in inflammatory and infectious skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Lacarrubba, F; Verzì, A E; Dinotta, F; Scavo, S; Micali, G

    2015-10-01

    Dermatoscopy is a non-invasive technique that allows a rapid and magnified in vivo observation of the skin surface. By definition, it is performed with handheld devices (dermatoscopes) allowing X10 magnification. More expensive, computer-assisted digital systems (videodermatoscopes) may be equipped with lenses that ensure magnifications up to X1000; in this case the term videodermatoscopy is generally used. Dermatoscopy is mainly utilized for the evaluation of pigmented skin lesions, and has increasing applications in dermatology. In this paper the use of dermatoscopy in a variety of inflammatory (psoriasis, lichen planus, pityriasis lichenoides, rosacea, lichen sclerosus, Darier's disease, pigmented purpuric dermatoses) and infectious (human papillomaviruses infections, molluscum contagiosum, tinea capitis, tinea nigra, scabies, head and pubic lice, tungiasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis and cutaneous larva migrans) cutaneous disorders will be analyzed. In these conditions, dermatoscopy may assist the clinical diagnosis, reducing the need of semi-invasive or invasive procedures such as skin scrapings and/or biopsy. Depending on the disease, the choice to use low or high magnifications may be crucial. Dermatoscopy may also be useful for prognostic evaluation and monitoring of response to treatment, representing an important and relatively simple aid in daily clinical practice. PMID:26333553

  7. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults and children ... It works by killing the lice. Benzyl alcohol lotion will not kill lice eggs, so the medication ...

  8. Differentiating size-dependent responses of juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) to sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infections.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Ben J G; Jantzen, Stuart G; Sanderson, Dan S; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2011-06-01

    Salmon infected with an ectoparasitic marine copepod, the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis, incur a wide variety of consequences depending upon host sensitivity. Juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) migrate from natal freshwater systems to the ocean at a young age relative to other Pacific salmon, and require rapid development of appropriate defenses against marine pathogens. We analyzed the early transcriptomic responses of naïve juvenile pink salmon of sizes 0.3 g (no scales), 0.7 g (mid-scale development) and 2.4 g (scales fully developed) six days after a low-level laboratory exposure to L. salmonis copepodids. All infected size groups exhibited unique transcriptional profiles. Inflammation and inhibition of cell proliferation was identified in the smallest size class (0.3 g), while increased glucose absorption and retention was identified in the middle size class (0.7 g). Tissue-remodeling genes were also up-regulated in both the 0.3 g and 0.7 g size groups. Profiles of the 2.4 g size class indicated cell-mediated immunity and possibly parasite-induced growth augmentation. Understanding a size-based threshold of resistance to L. salmonis is important for fisheries management. This work characterizes molecular responses reflecting the gradual development of innate immunity to L. salmonis between the susceptible (0.3 g) and refractory (2.4 g) pink salmon size classes. PMID:21543273

  9. Redescriptions and new host records of chewing lice of the genus Ricinus (Phthiraptera: Ricinidae) from the Neotropical Region.

    PubMed

    Valan, Miroslav; Sychra, Oldrich; Literak, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Two species of the chewing louse genus Ricinus are redescribed and illustrated: Ricinus dalgleishi Nelson, 1972 from Helmitheros vermivorum (Gmelin, 1789), a new host-louse association, and Ricinus tanagraephilus Eichler, 1956 from Euphonia laniirostris d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837. Also, new host-louse associations are recorded for Ricinus vireoensis Nelson, 1972 from Vireo pallens Salvin, 1863, and for females of an unidentified species of Ricinus sp. from Corythopis delalandi (Lesson, 1831), which are described and illustrated. PMID:27615833

  10. Sea lice, Caligus rotundigenitalis infestations and its management in pond cultured pearlspot, Etroplus suratensis in Gujarat: a case study.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Haresh G; Patil, Prasanna Kumar; Vanza, Jesing G; Patel, Pritesh; Sethi, Satyanarayana; Gopal, Chavali

    2016-06-01

    Highly popular and delicious fish of Kerala (India), pearlspot, Etroplus suratensis is known for its ability to tolerate wide range of salinity, omnivorous feeding behavior. Present report documents the occurrence and management of Caligus rotundigenitalis in brackishwater pond meant for culture demonstration of pearlspot in Gujarat, (India). A brackishwater aquaculture pond (1,500 sq m) was stocked with pearlspot fry (2.60 ± 0.83 g; 4.31 ± 0.82 cm) @ 25,000 ha(-1). On the 46th day of culture couple of dead fish were observed which gradually increased to 120 per day by 52nd day. Following the close observation parasitic infestation was noticed on gills cavities ranging from 15 to 20 numbers per fish. These characteristic features confirmed the parasite as C. rotundigenitalis. As a therapeutic measure the infested pond was successfully treated with Butox(®) @ 300 ml/ha (Deltamethrin 12.5 mg) and repeat dose was administered 2 weeks later. The results of the study suggest the possible therapeutic value of Deltamethrin in treatment of caligid infestation in pond cultured pearlspot. PMID:27413343

  11. Review of the systematics, biology and ecology of lice from pinnipeds and river otters (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Anoplura: Echinophthiriidae).

    PubMed

    Soledad Leonardi, Maria; Palma, Ricardo Luis

    2013-01-01

    We present a literature review of the sucking louse family Echinophthiriidae, its five genera and twelve species parasitic on pinnipeds (fur seals, sea lions, walruses, true seals) and the North American river otter. We give detailed synonymies and published records for all taxonomic hierarchies, as well as hosts, type localities and repositories of type material; we highlight significant references and include comments on the current taxonomic status of the species. We provide a summary of present knowledge of the biology and ecology for eight species. Also, we give a host-louse list, and a bibliography to the family as complete as possible. PMID:26131525

  12. Ivermectin and clorsulon (ivomec super) in treatment of goats naturally infested with scab mites and biting lice.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; Habib, K S; Haridy, F M

    2001-08-01

    Five goats naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei, Psoroptes ovis and Bovicola caprae were treated with a combination of ivermectin and clorsulon. A subcutaneous injection in a dose of 1 ml/50 kg live weight was given. This provides dose levels of 200 ug ivermectin and 2 mg clorsulon. Four goats were cured from the three ectoparasites within one to two weeks. The last elder goat, which was anaemic and naturally infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis, was still infested with the two scab mites, but was free from B. caprae. A postal dose of 0.5 ml/50 kg live weight was given one week later (=3 weeks after the 1st injection). This goat was cured within a week, but still passed some T. colibriformis eggs. The result was discussed. PMID:11478437

  13. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... lice. Benzyl alcohol lotion will not kill lice eggs, so the medication must be used a second ... kill the lice that may hatch from these eggs. ... to remove the dead lice and nits (empty egg shells) after this treatment. You may also need ...

  14. MALATHION EXPOSURE DURING LICE TREATMENT: USE OF EXPOSURE RELATED DOSE ESTIMATING MODEL (ERDEM) AND FACTORS RELATING TO THE EVALUATION OF RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a product of this collaboration as it relates to the exposure assessment of organophosphorus (OP) insecticide, malathion, (O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate diethyl mercaptosuccinate; CAS 121-75-5) labeled for use as a pediculicide.

  15. Distribution and persistence of the anti sea-lice drug teflubenzuron in wild fauna and sediments around a salmon farm, following a standard treatment.

    PubMed

    Samuelsen, Ole B; Lunestad, Bjørn T; Hannisdal, Rita; Bannister, Raymond; Olsen, Siri; Tjensvoll, Tore; Farestveit, Eva; Ervik, Arne

    2015-03-01

    The salmon louse (Lepeoptheirus salmonis) is a challenge in the farming of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). To treat an infestation, different insecticides are used like the orally administered chitin synthetase inhibitor teflubenzuron. The concentrations and distribution of teflubenzuron were measured in water, organic particles, marine sediment and biota caught in the vicinity of a fish farm following a standard medication. Low concentrations were found in water samples whereas the organic waste from the farm, collected by sediment traps had concentrations higher than the medicated feed. Most of the organic waste was distributed to the bottom close to the farm but organic particles containing teflubenzuron were collected 1100 m from the farm. The sediment under the farm consisted of 5 to 10% organic material and therefore the concentration of teflubenzuron was much lower than in the organic waste. Teflubenzuron was persistent in the sediment with a stipulated halflife of 170 days. Sediment consuming polychaetes had high but decreasing concentrations of teflubenzuron throughout the experimental period, reflecting the decrease of teflubenzuron in the sediment. During medication most wild fauna contained teflubenzuron residues and where polychaetes and saith had highest concentrations. Eight months later only polychaetes and some crustaceans contained drug residues. What dosages that induce mortality in various crustaceans following short or long-term exposure is not known but the results indicate that the concentrations in defined individuals of king crab, shrimp, squat lobster and Norway lobster were high enough shortly after medication to induce mortality if moulting was imminent. Considering food safety, saith and the brown meat of crustaceans contained at first sampling concentrations of teflubenzuron higher than the MRL-value set for Atlantic salmon. The concentrations were, however, moderate and the amount of saith fillet or brown meat of crustaceans to be consumed in order to exceed ADI is relatively large. PMID:25474168

  16. Three new species of chewing lice of the genus Emersoniella Tendeiro, 1965 (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae) from Papua New Guinean kingfishers and kookaburras (Aves: Coraciiformes: Alcedinidae).

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Daniel R; Bush, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Three new species of the ischnoceran louse genus Emersoniella (Phthiraptera) are described from four species of New Guinean kingfishers and kookaburras (Coraciiformes: Alcedinidae: Halcyoninae). They are: Emersoniella crassicarina n. sp. ex Dacelo gaudichaud Quoy & Gaimard (rufous-bellied kookaburra) and Dacelo leachii intermedia Salvadori (blue-winged kookaburra); E. reninoda n. sp. ex Melidora macrorrhina macrorhina Lesson (hook-billed kingfisher); and E. persei n. sp. ex Tanysiptera danae Sharpe (brown-headed paradise-kingfisher). In addition, we illustrate Emersoniella regis Emerson & Price, Emersoniella halcyonis Tendeiro, and the male genitalia of Emersoniella galateae Emerson & Price, as well as provide a complete host-louse checklist, and an updated key to all seven species of this genus.  PMID:24870691

  17. Scabies - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Afaan Oromo) Spanish (español) Amharic (amarunya) Pubic Lice ("Crabs") and Scabies English amarunya (Amharic) PDF Minnesota Department of Health Oromo (Afaan Oromo) Pubic Lice ("Crabs") and Scabies English Silmii Torbaanqabaa riffensa nannoo qaama ...

  18. Alphabetical Index of Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infection ) Back To Top K Kala-azar (Leishmaniasis, Leishmania Infection) Keratitis ( Acanthamoeba Infection) Back To Top L Leishmaniasis (Kala-azar, Leishmania Infection) Lice Infestation (Body, Head, or Pubic Lice, ...

  19. 21 CFR 524.770 - Doramectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... bovis and Hypoderma lineatum; sucking lice: Linognathus vituli, Haematopinus eurysternus, and Solenopotes capillatus; biting lice: Bovicola (Damalinia) bovis; mange mites: Chorioptes bovis and Sarcoptes...) bovis for 77 days after treatment. (3) Limitations. Do not slaughter cattle within 45 days of...

  20. 21 CFR 524.770 - Doramectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... bovis and Hypoderma lineatum; sucking lice: Linognathus vituli, Haematopinus eurysternus, and Solenopotes capillatus; biting lice: Bovicola (Damalinia) bovis; mange mites: Chorioptes bovis and Sarcoptes...) bovis for 77 days after treatment. (3) Limitations. Do not slaughter cattle within 45 days of...

  1. 21 CFR 524.770 - Doramectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... bovis and Hypoderma lineatum; sucking lice: Linognathus vituli, Haematopinus eurysternus, and Solenopotes capillatus; biting lice: Bovicola (Damalinia) bovis; mange mites: Chorioptes bovis and Sarcoptes...) bovis for 77 days after treatment. (3) Limitations. Do not slaughter cattle within 45 days of...

  2. What to Do If Your Child Feels Lousy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Lawrence C.

    1991-01-01

    Describes head, body, and crab lice so parents can recognize and respond to the problem in their children, noting that head lice are common in grade school children. The article includes an insert that describes 10 steps in recognizing signs of lice and providing treatment. (SM)

  3. Kerion mimicking bacterial infection in an elderly patient

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Sheikh Manzoor; Wani, GH Mohiuddin; Khursheed, Bilques

    2014-01-01

    Tinea capitis is generally thought to be a common disease in children but not in adults. When infection does occur in adults, it may have an atypical appearance. We report an elderly female with inflammatory tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton rubrum. She had numerous pustular lesions throughout the scalp with alopecia, initially treated for bacterial infection. We concluded that tinea capitis should remain in the differential diagnosis of elderly patients with alopecia and pyoderma like presentations and culture test should be routinely done in such patients to avoid complications. PMID:25396139

  4. Hydrodynamique dans les milieux gaz/liquide non-newtoniens, agités mécaniquement, étude de l'hélice à profil mince [HPM] et de la turbine à disque de Rushton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loukili, A.; Desplanches, H.; Gaston Bonhomme, Y.; Chevalier, J. L.; Bruxelmane, M.; Ouazzani Chahdi, T.; El Ghadraoui, H.

    1999-03-01

    The power consumption is measured for non-newtonian gas-liquid systems. The useful zone situated beyond the flooding point was defined by using the power caracteristics plot and hydrodynamic observations. Correlations were established in dimensional or adimensional form, to estimate the stirrer speed at the flooding point, and the power consumption in the working zone. Those correlations established in a large scale of rheological behaviour, for two kind of impellers in different geometrical ratios and for two tanks for scaling up, are used to compare an axial impeller (the thinny profile propeller) to a radial one (the Rushton's disc turbine). La puissance d'agitation est mesurée pour des systèmes gaz-liquides non-newtoniens rhéofluidifiants. Le domaine utile de fonctionnement du réacteur gaz-liquide, situé au-delà du point de désengorgement complet, est défini à partir de la courbe caractéristique de puissance et d'observations hydrodynamiques. Des corrélations sont établies sous forme dimensionnelle ou adimensionnelle pour prédire la vitesse d'agitation au point de charge, et la puissance consommée dans la zone utile. Ces corrélations définies pour une gamme étendue de comportements rhéofluidifiants, pour différentes géomètries de mobiles et sur deux tailles de cuves en extrapolation, permettent en outre de comparer deux mobiles, l'un axial et l'autre radial.

  5. L'Education des Adultes et les Problemes de Main-D'Oeuvre (Adult Education and Manpower Problems). Les Cahiers de L'I.C.E., 6-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Inst. for Adult Education, Montreal (Quebec).

    The impact of continuing education on the complex problems encountered in developing and implementing overall manpower policies is discussed and documented in this anthology. An introductory chapter on adult education and the labor force is followed by surveys and critiques of manpower policy and the organization of the labor market in Sweden, the…

  6. Prevalence of Haemodipsus (Anoplura: Polyplacidae) species found on hares (Lepus europaeus L.) in Konya Province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dik, Bilal; Uslu, Ugur

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of lice on hares (Lepus europaeus L.) in the Konya province of Turkey from October 2003 to January 2007. During this period, 54 hares were examined for lice, 5 of them (11%) were found to be infested with lice and a total of 41 lice specimens were collected from the infested hares. Two species; Haemodipsus lyriocephalus (Burmeister, 1839) and H. setoni Ewing, 1924 were identified and H. lyriocephalus was more abundant than H. setoni. PMID:18645947

  7. 21 CFR 522.1193 - Ivermectin and clorsulon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... bovis, H. lineatum); lice (Linognathus vituli, Haematopinus eurysternus, Solenopotes capillatus); mites (Psoroptes ovis (syn. P. communis var. bovis), Sarcoptes scabiei var. bovis); and for control of...

  8. Recent developments in the management of common childhood skin infections.

    PubMed

    Oranje, Arnold P; de Waard-van der Spek, Flora B

    2015-06-01

    A literature review and clinical commentary on diagnosis and treatment of common childhood bacterial, fungal and viral skin infections is presented including impetigo, folliculitis, staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, tinea capitis, warts and molluscum contagiosum. PMID:25936745

  9. Hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... continual hair pulling or scalp rubbing Radiation therapy Tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp) Tumor of the ovary or ... a plucked hair Skin biopsy If you have ringworm on the scalp, you may be prescribed an ...

  10. Dermatophytosis among Schoolchildren in Three Eco-climatic Zones of Mali

    PubMed Central

    Coulibaly, Oumar; Kone, Abdoulaye K.; Niaré-Doumbo, Safiatou; Goïta, Siaka; Gaudart, Jean; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A.; Piarroux, Renaud; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Thera, Mahamadou A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dermatophytosis, and particularly the subtype tinea capitis, is common among African children; however, the risk factors associated with this condition are poorly understood. To describe the epidemiology of dermatophytosis in distinct eco-climatic zones, three cross-sectional surveys were conducted in public primary schools located in the Sahelian, Sudanian and Sudano-Guinean eco-climatic zones in Mali. Principal Findings Among 590 children (average age 9.7 years) the overall clinical prevalence of tinea capitis was 39.3%. Tinea capitis prevalence was 59.5% in the Sudano-Guinean zone, 41.6% in the Sudanian zone and 17% in the Sahelian eco-climatic zone. Microsporum audouinii was isolated primarily from large and/or microsporic lesions. Trichophyton soudanense was primarily isolated from trichophytic lesions. Based on the multivariate analysis, tinea capitis was independently associated with male gender (OR = 2.51, 95%CI [1.74–3.61], P<10−4) and residing in the Sudano-Guinean eco-climatic zone (OR = 7.45, 95%CI [4.63–11.99], P<10−4). Two anthropophilic dermatophytes species, Trichophyton soudanense and Microsporum audouinii, were the most frequent species associated with tinea capitis among primary schoolchildren in Mali. Conclusions Tinea capitis risk increased with increasing climate humidity in this relatively homogenous schoolchild population in Mali, which suggests a significant role of climatic factors in the epidemiology of dermatophytosis. PMID:27124571

  11. Two Bacterial Genera, Sodalis and Rickettsia, Associated with the Seal Louse Proechinophthirus fluctus (Phthiraptera: Anoplura)

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Julie M.; Koga, Ryuichi; Fukatsu, Takema; Sweet, Andrew D.; Johnson, Kevin P.; Reed, David L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Roughly 10% to 15% of insect species host heritable symbiotic bacteria known as endosymbionts. The lice parasitizing mammals rely on endosymbionts to provide essential vitamins absent in their blood meals. Here, we describe two bacterial associates from a louse, Proechinophthirus fluctus, which is an obligate ectoparasite of a marine mammal. One of these is a heritable endosymbiont that is not closely related to endosymbionts of other mammalian lice. Rather, it is more closely related to endosymbionts of the genus Sodalis associated with spittlebugs and feather-chewing bird lice. Localization and vertical transmission of this endosymbiont are also more similar to those of bird lice than to those of other mammalian lice. The endosymbiont genome appears to be degrading in symbiosis; however, it is considerably larger than the genomes of other mammalian louse endosymbionts. These patterns suggest the possibility that this Sodalis endosymbiont might be recently acquired, replacing a now-extinct, ancient endosymbiont. From the same lice, we also identified an abundant bacterium belonging to the genus Rickettsia that is closely related to Rickettsia ricketsii, a human pathogen vectored by ticks. No obvious masses of the Rickettsia bacterium were observed in louse tissues, nor did we find any evidence of vertical transmission, so the nature of its association remains unclear. IMPORTANCE Many insects are host to heritable symbiotic bacteria. These heritable bacteria have been identified from numerous species of parasitic lice. It appears that novel symbioses have formed between lice and bacteria many times, with new bacterial symbionts potentially replacing existing ones. However, little was known about the symbionts of lice parasitizing marine mammals. Here, we identified a heritable bacterial symbiont in lice parasitizing northern fur seals. This bacterial symbiont appears to have been recently acquired by the lice. The findings reported here provide insights

  12. Lindane

    MedlinePlus

    Lindane is used to treat scabies (mites that attach themselves to the skin) and lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin on the head or ... mites.Lindane does not stop you from getting scabies or lice. You should only use lindane if ...

  13. Increased susceptibility to infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) in Lepeophtheirus salmonis – infected Atlantic salmon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The salmon louse and infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) are the two most significant pathogens of concern to the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture industry. However, the interactions between sea lice and ISAv, as well as the impact of a prior sea lice infection on the susceptibility of th...

  14. Pediculosis Management in the School Setting. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontius, Deborah; Teskey, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that the management of pediculosis (infestation by head lice) should not disrupt the educational process. No disease is associated with head lice, and in-school transmission is considered to be rare. When transmission occurs, it is generally found among younger-age children with…

  15. Dermoscopy applied to pediculosis corporis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Martins, Luiz Gustavo; Bernardes Filho, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Bellott, Thiago Rubin; Botelho, Larissa Nascimento; Prata, Ana Cecília Studart

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 47-year-old homeless male with a massive infestation of Pediculus humanus corporis on his entire body. Dermoscopy helped to diagnose pediculosis by showing the involvement of scalp, beard and the genital region in this disease. PMID:24937833

  16. An analysis of the activity and muscle fatigue of the muscles around the neck under the three most frequent postures while using a smartphone

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jung-Hyun; Jung, Min-Ho; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify changes in the activity and fatigue of the splenius capitis and upper trapezius muscles, which are agonists to the muscles supporting the head, under the three postures most frequently adopted while using a smartphone. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 15 college students in their 20s. They formed a single group and had to adopt three different postures (maximum bending, middle bending, and neutral). While the 15 subjects maintained the postures, muscle activity and fatigue were measured using surface electromyography. [Results] Comparison of the muscle fatigue caused by each posture showed statistically significant differences for the right splenius capitis, left splenius capitis, and left upper trapezius muscles. In addition, maintaining the maximum bending posture while using a smartphone resulted in higher levels of fatigue in the right splenius capitis, left splenius capitis, and left upper trapezius muscles compared with those for the middle bending posture. [Conclusion] Therefore, this study suggests that individuals should bend their neck slightly when using a smartphone, rather than bending it too much, or keep their neck straight to reduce fatigue of the cervical erector muscles. PMID:27313393

  17. Functional variation of neck muscles and their relation to feeding style in Tyrannosauridae and other large theropod dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Snively, Eric; Russell, Anthony P

    2007-08-01

    Reconstructed neck muscles of large theropod dinosaurs suggest influences on feeding style that paralleled variation in skull mechanics. In all examined theropods, the head dorsiflexor m. transversospinalis capitis probably filled in the posterior dorsal concavity of the neck, for a more crocodilian- than avian-like profile in this region. The tyrannosaurine tyrannosaurids Daspletosaurus and Tyrannosaurus had relatively larger moment arms for latero-flexion by m. longissimus capitis superficialis and m. complexus than albertosaurine tyrannosaurids, and longer dorsiflexive moment arms for m. complexus. Areas of dorsiflexor origination are significantly larger relative to neck length in adult Tyrannosaurus rex than in other tyrannosaurids, suggesting relatively large muscle cross-sections and forces. Tyrannosaurids were not particularly specialized for neck ventro-flexion. In contrast, the hypothesis that Allosaurus co-opted m. longissimus capitis superficialis for ventro-flexion is strongly corroborated. Ceratosaurus had robust insertions for the ventro-flexors m. longissimus capitis profundus and m. rectus capitis ventralis. Neck muscle morphology is consistent with puncture-and-pull and powerful shake feeding in tyrannosaurids, relatively rapid strikes in Allosaurus and Ceratosaurus, and ventroflexive augmentation of weaker jaw muscle forces in the non tyrannosaurids. PMID:17654673

  18. An analysis of the activity and muscle fatigue of the muscles around the neck under the three most frequent postures while using a smartphone.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Hyun; Jung, Min-Ho; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify changes in the activity and fatigue of the splenius capitis and upper trapezius muscles, which are agonists to the muscles supporting the head, under the three postures most frequently adopted while using a smartphone. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 15 college students in their 20s. They formed a single group and had to adopt three different postures (maximum bending, middle bending, and neutral). While the 15 subjects maintained the postures, muscle activity and fatigue were measured using surface electromyography. [Results] Comparison of the muscle fatigue caused by each posture showed statistically significant differences for the right splenius capitis, left splenius capitis, and left upper trapezius muscles. In addition, maintaining the maximum bending posture while using a smartphone resulted in higher levels of fatigue in the right splenius capitis, left splenius capitis, and left upper trapezius muscles compared with those for the middle bending posture. [Conclusion] Therefore, this study suggests that individuals should bend their neck slightly when using a smartphone, rather than bending it too much, or keep their neck straight to reduce fatigue of the cervical erector muscles. PMID:27313393

  19. Host defence mediates interspecific competition in ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Bush, Sarah E; Malenke, Jael R

    2008-05-01

    1. Interspecific competition influences which, how many and where species coexist in biological communities. Interactions between species in different trophic levels can mediate interspecific competition; e.g. predators are known to reduce competition between prey species by suppressing their population sizes. A parallel phenomenon may take place in host-parasite systems, with host defence mediating competition between parasite species. 2. We experimentally investigated the impact of host defence (preening) on competitive interactions between two species of feather-feeding lice: 'wing' lice Columbicola columbae and 'body' lice Campanulotes compar. Both species are host-specific parasites that co-occur on rock pigeons Columba livia. 3. We show that wing lice and body lice compete and that host defence mediates the magnitude of this competitive interaction. 4. Competition is asymmetrical; wing louse populations are negatively impacted by body lice, but not vice versa. This competitive asymmetry is consistent with the fact that body lice predominate in microhabitats on the host's body that offer the most food and the most space. 5. Our results indicate that host-defence-mediated competition can influence the structure of parasite communities and may play a part in the evolution of parasite diversity. PMID:18194262

  20. New record of Afrimenopon waar (Eichler) (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) from budgerigar Melopsittacus undulatus (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) from Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sychra, Oldrich; Naz, Saima; Rizvi, S Anser

    2007-08-01

    Chewing lice of the species Afrimenopon waar (Eichler) were collected from captive budgerigar Melopsittacus undulatus (Shaw) in Pakistan. This is the first record of amblyceran lice from this host. It is also the first record of the genus Afrimenopon from Pakistani region. The primary host species of Afrimenopon waar is the rosy-faced lovebird Agapornis roseicollis (Vieillot). The finding of A. waar on budgerigars is, most likely, a result of a contamination in captivity. Morphological variation and origin of these lice are discussed. PMID:17334969

  1. Ectoparasites of Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) wintering in southern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skoruppa, M.K.; Pearce, B.; Woodin, M.C.; Hickman, G.C.

    2006-01-01

    Fifteen Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) were captured over two winters (2001-2003) in southern Texas and examined for ectoparasites. Four of the 15 owls (27%) harbored feather lice, and the maximum number of lice found on any individual was ??? three. Two species of feather lice were found: Colpocephalum pectinatum occurred on three of the owls, and Strigiphilus speotyti was found on four owls. No fleas or other ectoparasites were found on any of the Burrowing Owls. The low diversity and numbers of ectoparasites suggest that ectoparasites are not threatening the health of wintering Burrowing Owls in southern Texas.

  2. Fungal infections and parasitic infestations in sports: expedient identification and treatment.

    PubMed

    Winokur, Rebecca C; Dexter, William W

    2004-10-01

    Common fungal infections include tinea corporis, capitis, cruris, versicolor, and pedis, as well as onychomycosis. Prevention of spread is important and involves frequent skin surveillance, avoidance of shared equipment, and regular equipment cleaning. The NCAA recommends treatment of tinea corporis and capitis infections and covering any exposed infection before return to play. Parasitic infestations occur because of the close physical contact of team members and athletes in contact sports. Both scabies and pediculosis should be treated before return to play, according to NCAA guidelines. Cutaneous larva migrans, a chronic parasitic infection caused by a hookworm, may be seen in beach volleyball players. PMID:20086381

  3. Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.

    PubMed

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Małgorzata

    2013-10-01

    Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. PMID:24075554

  4. A Lousy Reason for Surgery Cancellations.

    PubMed

    Walker, Christian; Sebastian, Roby; Krishna, Senthil; Tobias, Joseph D

    2016-07-01

    Cancellation of surgery has significant adverse impact on patients, health care providers, and their associated facilities. Although head lice infestation has not been shown to be associated with adverse surgical outcomes, it often prompts case cancellation by surgical and anesthesia personnel. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the extent and impact of surgery cancellations due to head lice infestation. In our study, a total of 9 patients were cancelled over a 3-year period. Although there is no direct evidence to show that head lice infestation poses a risk to surgical outcomes, the possibility of underlying secondary bacterial infection at the skin excoriation site is often the concern in these patients. This study offers the first investigation into the impact of head lice infections on operating room cancellations, which may prove to be a potential source of intervention to prevent cancellations. PMID:26450979

  5. Ask Dr. Sue--Updates: Infectious Diseases, SIDS, HIV/AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Susan S.

    1995-01-01

    Describes new concerns about infectious diseases in childcare settings (tuberculosis, gastrointestinal infections, and lice); sleep position and SIDS; HIV/AIDS issues; and the use of sterilized sand in sand boxes. (DR)

  6. Applicator Training Manual for: Public Health Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, E. E.

    This manual gives the life cycle and habitats, public health importance, methods of non-chemical control, and pesticides and methods of application for mosquitoes, flies, bedbugs, fleas, lice, cockroaches, venomous anthropods, ticks and chiggers, and rodents. (BB)

  7. 21 CFR 358.603 - Definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE MISCELLANEOUS EXTERNAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Pediculicide Drug Products § 358.603..., pubic (crab), and body lice....

  8. 21 CFR 358.603 - Definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE MISCELLANEOUS EXTERNAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Pediculicide Drug Products § 358.603..., pubic (crab), and body lice....

  9. Perinatal exposure to the pesticide DDT impairs energy expenditure and metabolism in adult female mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) has been used extensively to control malaria, typhus, body lice and bubonic plague worldwide, until countries began restricting its use in the 1970s. Individuals exposed to elevated levels of DDT and its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene have an increa...

  10. Development of a Human Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetics (PBPK) Model For Dermal Permeability for Lindane

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lindane is a neurotoxicant used for the treatment of lice and scabies present on human skin. Due to its pharmaceutical application, an extensive pharmacokinetic database exists in humans. Mathematical diffusion models allow for calculation of lindane skin permeability coefficient...

  11. School Health Screening of Indochinese Refugee Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickwell, Sheila M.

    1981-01-01

    Indochinese children registering for the first time in American schools are appearing with multiple health problems. These frequently include lice and scabies, intestinal parasites, vision and hearing defects, and severe dental decay. (JN)

  12. Rate of population increase of poultry shaft louse, Menopon gallinae in vivo condition.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Surendra; Singh, Padam; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-09-01

    Attempts were made to determine the rate of expansion of Menopon gallinae by releasing 10 healthier looking adult lice on each of the twelve similar aged fowls and delousing two fowls fortnightly (up to 90 days). The experiments were performed in the months of summer as well as in the months of winter. It was found that an initial inoculum of 10 M. gallinae could produce 636 lice in summers (doubling time 15 days). During winter months 323 M. gallinae were recovered from an inoculum of 10 lice (doubling time 18 days). Thus, summer months appear to be more favorable for the population build up of lice. PMID:27605797

  13. 21 CFR 524.814 - Eprinomectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... per kilogram). (2) Indications for use. The drug is used in beef and dairy cattle for treatment and... viviparus, adult and L4); cattle grubs (all parasitic stages Hypoderma lineatum, H. bovis); lice...

  14. 21 CFR 524.814 - Eprinomectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... per kilogram). (2) Indications for use. The drug is used in beef and dairy cattle for treatment and... viviparus, adult and L4); cattle grubs (all parasitic stages Hypoderma lineatum, H. bovis); lice...

  15. Mites and Wee Beasties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, George H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A review is made of public health aspects of some arthropods that might be seen on a college or university campus. The diseases and infestations caused by mites, lice, bed bugs, fleas, and ticks are discussed. (JMF)

  16. Insect ectoparasites on wild birds in the Czech Republic during the pre-breeding period

    PubMed Central

    Sychra, O.; Literák, I.; Podzemný, P.; Harmat, P.; Hrabák, R.

    2011-01-01

    Wild passerine birds (Passeriformes) from the northeastern part of the Czech Republic were examined for ectoparasites during the pre-breeding period in 2007. Two species of fleas of the genera Ceratophyllus and Dasypsyllus (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae), and 23 species of chewing lice belonging to the genera Ricinus, Myrsidea, Menacanthus (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae), Brueelia, Penenirmus, and Philopterus (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) were found on 108 birds of 16 species. Distribution of insect ectoparasites found on wild birds during pre-breeding was compared with previous data from the post-breeding period. There was no difference in total prevalence of chewing lice in prebreeding and post-breeding periods. Higher prevalence of fleas and slightly higher mean intensity of chewing lice were found on birds during the pre-breeding period. There was a significant difference in total prevalence but equal mean intensity of chewing lice on resident and migrating birds. PMID:21395201

  17. Insect ectoparasites on wild birds in the Czech Republic during the pre-breeding period.

    PubMed

    Sychra, O; Literák, I; Podzemný, P; Harmat, P; Hrabák, R

    2011-02-01

    Wild passerine birds (Passeriformes) from the northeastern part of the Czech Republic were examined for ectoparasites during the pre-breeding period in 2007. Two species of fleas of the genera Ceratophyllus and Dasypsyllus (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae), and 23 species of chewing lice belonging to the genera Ricinus, Myrsidea, Menacanthus (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae), Brueelia, Penenirmus, and Philopterus (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) were found on 108 birds of 16 species. Distribution of insect ectoparasites found on wild birds during pre-breeding was compared with previous data from the post-breeding period. There was no difference in total prevalence of chewing lice in pre-breeding and post-breeding periods. Higher prevalence of fleas and slightly higher mean intensity of chewing lice were found on birds during the pre-breeding period. There was a significant difference in total prevalence but equal mean intensity of chewing lice on resident and migrating birds. PMID:21395201

  18. 21 CFR 524.1450 - Moxidectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...)); lungworms (Dictyocaulus viviparus, adult and L4); cattle grubs (Hypoderma bovis, H. lineatum); mites (Chorioptes bovis, Psoroptes ovis (P. communis var. bovis)); lice (Linognathus vituli, Haematopinus eurysternus, Solenopotes capillatus, Bovicola(Damalinia) bovis); and horn flies (Haematobia irritans)....

  19. 21 CFR 524.1450 - Moxidectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...)); lungworms (Dictyocaulus viviparus, adult and L4); cattle grubs (Hypoderma bovis, H. lineatum); mites (Chorioptes bovis, Psoroptes ovis (P. communis var. bovis)); lice (Linognathus vituli, Haematopinus eurysternus, Solenopotes capillatus, Bovicola(Damalinia) bovis); and horn flies (Haematobia irritans)....

  20. 21 CFR 524.1450 - Moxidectin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...)); lungworms (Dictyocaulus viviparus, adult and L4); cattle grubs (Hypoderma bovis, H. lineatum); mites (Chorioptes bovis, Psoroptes ovis (P. communis var. bovis)); lice (Linognathus vituli, Haematopinus eurysternus, Solenopotes capillatus, Bovicola(Damalinia) bovis); and horn flies (Haematobia irritans)....

  1. A new two-phase dimeticone pediculicide shows high efficacy in a comparative bioassay

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Dimeticones kill head lice by physical means. Here we assessed in a comparative bioassay the ex vivo efficacy of "NYDA® sensitiv", a new two-phase dimeticone-based pediculicide similar to a product established on the market, but without fragrances. Methods We compared efficacy of the new product to a positive dimeticone control group, a sample of four other insecticidal and natural head lice products marketed in Germany, and an untreated control. In a bioassay, lice were exposed ex vivo to products and examined for activity for up to 24 hours, following a standard protocol. Results After 6 and 24 hours, 13.7 and 88.5% of untreated control lice did not show major vital signs. In contrast, no lice showed major vital signs 5 minutes after treatment with the new product or the control dimeticone group (NYDA®). This effect persisted at all observation points (100% efficacy). Efficacy of 0.5% permethrin (Infectopedicul®) ranged between 76 and 96% in evaluations between 5 min and 6 hours. All lice treated with a coconut-based compound (mosquito® Läuseshampoo) did not show major vital signs after 5 min, but mortality was only 58% after one hour. Pyrethrum extract (Goldgeist® forte) showed an efficacy of 22 - 52% between 5 min and 3 hours after treatment; after 6 hours, 76% of lice were judged dead. An oxyphthirine®-based compound (Liberalice DUO LP-PRO®) killed 22 - 54% of lice in the first 6 hours. Conclusions The two-phase dimeticone compound NYDA® sensitiv is highly efficacious. The removal of fragrances as compared to an established dimeticone product did not affect in vitro efficacy. PMID:20003435

  2. Plastic detection comb better than visual screening for diagnosis of head louse infestation.

    PubMed

    Balcioglu, C; Burgess, I F; Limoncu, M E; Sahin, M T; Ozbel, Y; Bilaç, C; Kurt, O; Larsen, K S

    2008-10-01

    Finding lice can be difficult in head louse infestation. We compared a new louse detection comb with visual inspection. All children in two rural Turkish schools were screened by the two methods. Those with lice were offered treatment and the results monitored by detection combing. Children with nits only were re-screened to identify latent infestations. Using visual inspection we found 214/461 children (46%) with nits but only 30 (6.5%) with live lice. In contrast detection combing found 96 (21%) with live lice, of whom 20 had no nits. Detection combing was 3.84 times more effective than visual inspection for finding live lice. Only 10/138 (7.2%) children with nits and no lice were found to have active infestation by day 16. We found that the detection comb is significantly (P<0.001) more effective than visual screening for diagnosis; that nits are not a good indicator of active infestation; and that treatment with 1% permethrin was 89.6% effective. PMID:18177517

  3. Exotic pediculosis and hair-loss syndrome in deer (Odocoileus hemionus) populations in California.

    PubMed

    Roug, Annette; Swift, Pamela; Puschner, Birgit; Gerstenberg, Greg; Mertins, James W; Johnson, Christine Kreuder; Torres, Steve; Mortensen, Jack; Woods, Leslie

    2016-07-01

    Infestation with nonnative, "exotic" lice was first noted in Washington black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) in 1994 and has since then spread throughout the western United States. In California, infestation with the exotic louse Damalinia (Cervicola) sp. was first detected in black-tailed deer from northern California in 2004, and, in 2009, the exotic louse species Bovicola tibialis and Linognathus africanus were identified on mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus californicus) in central Sierra Nevada in association with a mortality event. Exotic lice have since been detected in various locations throughout the state. We describe the geographic distribution of these exotic lice within California, using data from 520 live-captured and 9 postmortem-sampled, free-ranging mule deer examined between 2009 and 2014. Data from live-captured deer were used to assess possible associations between louse infestation and host age, host sex, migratory behavior, season, and blood selenium and serum copper concentrations. Damalinia (Cervicola) sp. and B. tibialis lice were distinctively distributed geographically, with D. (Cervicola) sp. infesting herds in northern and central coastal California, B. tibialis occurring in the central coastal mountains and the Sierra Nevada, and L. africanus occurring only sporadically. Younger age classes and low selenium concentrations were significantly associated with exotic louse infestation, whereas no significant relationship was detected with serum copper levels. Our results show that exotic lice are widespread in California, and younger age classes with low blood selenium concentrations are more likely to be infested with lice than older deer. PMID:27240567

  4. Parasitic Skin Infections for Primary Care Physicians.

    PubMed

    Dadabhoy, Irfan; Butts, Jessica F

    2015-12-01

    The 2 epidermal parasitic skin infections most commonly encountered by primary care physicians in developed countries are scabies and pediculosis. Pediculosis can be further subdivided into pediculosis capitis, corporis, and pubis. This article presents a summary of information and a review of the literature on clinical findings, diagnosis, and treatment of these commonly encountered parasitic skin infestations. PMID:26612378

  5. Microcystic adnexal carcinoma following radiotherapy in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Borenstein, A.; Seidman, D.S.; Trau, H.; Tsur, H. )

    1991-04-01

    A 36-year-old man was treated by radiotherapy for tinea capitis many years before discovery of microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC). Because of patient's refusal of any surgical intervention, we were able to follow the natural course of this tumor for 13 years. This case emphasizes the typical slow development of (MAC). The implication of the association of MAC and radiotherapy are discussed.

  6. Diagnosis and management of tinea infections.

    PubMed

    Ely, John W; Rosenfeld, Sandra; Seabury Stone, Mary

    2014-11-15

    Tinea infections are caused by dermatophytes and are classified by the involved site. The most common infections in prepubertal children are tinea corporis and tinea capitis, whereas adolescents and adults are more likely to develop tinea cruris, tinea pedis, and tinea unguium (onychomycosis). The clinical diagnosis can be unreliable because tinea infections have many mimics, which can manifest identical lesions. For example, tinea corporis can be confused with eczema, tinea capitis can be confused with alopecia areata, and onychomycosis can be confused with dystrophic toenails from repeated low-level trauma. Physicians should confirm suspected onychomycosis and tinea capitis with a potassium hydroxide preparation or culture. Tinea corporis, tinea cruris, and tinea pedis generally respond to inexpensive topical agents such as terbinafine cream or butenafine cream, but oral antifungal agents may be indicated for extensive disease, failed topical treatment, immunocompromised patients, or severe moccasin-type tinea pedis. Oral terbinafine is first-line therapy for tinea capitis and onychomycosis because of its tolerability, high cure rate, and low cost. However, kerion should be treated with griseofulvin unless Trichophyton has been documented as the pathogen. Failure to treat kerion promptly can lead to scarring and permanent hair loss. PMID:25403034

  7. Knockdown resistance allele frequencies in North American head louse (Anoplura: Pediculidae) populations.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyong Sup; Previte, Domenic J; Hodgdon, Hilliary E; Poole, Bryan C; Kwon, Deok Ho; El-Ghar, Gamal E Abo; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, J Marshall

    2014-03-01

    The study examines the extent and frequency of a knockdown-type resistance allele (kdr type) in North American populations of human head lice. Lice were collected from 32 locations in Canada and the United States. DNA was extracted from individual lice and used to determine their zygosity using the serial invasive signal amplification technique to detect the kdr-type T917I (TI) mutation, which is most responsible for nerve insensitivity that results in the kdr phenotype and permethrin resistance. Previously sampled sites were resampled to determine if the frequency of the TI mutation was changing. The TI frequency was also reevaluated using a quantitative sequencing method on pooled DNA samples from selected sites to validate this population genotyping method. Genotyping substantiated that TI occurs at high levels in North American lice (88.4%). Overall, the TI frequency in U.S. lice was 84.4% from 1999 to 2009, increased to 99.6% from 2007 to 2009, and was 97.1% in Canadian lice in 2008. Genotyping results using the serial invasive signal amplification reaction (99.54%) and quantitative sequencing (99.45%) techniques were highly correlated. Thus, the frequencies of TI in North American head louse populations were found to be uniformly high, which may be due to the high selection pressure from the intensive and widespread use of the pyrethrins- or pyrethroid-based pediculicides over many years, and is likely a main cause of increased pediculosis and failure of pyrethrins- or permethrin-based products in Canada and the United States. Alternative approaches to treatment of head lice infestations are critically needed. PMID:24724296

  8. Knockdown Resistance Allele Frequencies in North American Head Louse (Anoplura: Pediculidae) Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kyong Sup; Previte, Domenic J.; Hodgdon, Hilliary E.; Poole, Bryan C.; Kwon, Deok Ho; El-Ghar, Gamal E. Abo; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, J. Marshall

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the extent and frequency of a knockdown-type resistance allele (kdr type) in North American populations of human head lice. Lice were collected from 32 locations in Canada and the United States. DNA was extracted from individual lice and used to determine their zygosity using the serial invasive signal amplification technique to detect the kdr-type T917I (TI) mutation, which is most responsible for nerve insensitivity that results in the kdr phenotype and permethrin resistance. Previously sampled sites were resampled to determine if the frequency of the TI mutation was changing. The TI frequency was also reevaluated using a quantitative sequencing method on pooled DNA samples from selected sites to validate this population genotyping method. Genotyping substantiated that TI occurs at high levels in North American lice (88.4%). Overall, the TI frequency in U.S. lice was 84.4% from 1999 to 2009, increased to 99.6% from 2007 to 2009, and was 97.1% in Canadian lice in 2008. Genotyping results using the serial invasive signal amplification reaction (99.54%) and quantitative sequencing (99.45%) techniques were highly correlated. Thus, the frequencies of TI in North American head louse populations were found to be uniformly high, which may be due to the high selection pressure from the intensive and widespread use of the pyrethrins- or pyrethroid-based pediculicides over many years, and is likely a main cause of increased pediculosis and failure of pyrethrins- or permethrin-based products in Canada and the United States. Alternative approaches to treatment of head lice infestations are critically needed. PMID:24724296

  9. Pediculosis and scabies: treatment update.

    PubMed

    Gunning, Karen; Pippitt, Karly; Kiraly, Bernadette; Sayler, Morgan

    2012-09-15

    Pediculosis and scabies are caused by ectoparasites. Pruritus is the most common presenting symptom. Head and pubic lice infestations are diagnosed by visualization of live lice. Finding nits (louse egg shells) alone indicates a historical infestation. A "no nit" policy for schools and day care centers no longer is recommended because nits can persist after successful treatment with no risk of transmission. First-line pharmacologic treatment of pediculosis is permethrin 1% lotion or shampoo. Multiple novel treatments have shown limited evidence of effectiveness superior to permethrin. Wet combing is an effective nonpharmacologic treatment option. Finding pubic lice should prompt an evaluation for other sexually transmitted infections. Body lice infestation should be suspected when a patient with poor hygiene presents with pruritus. Washing affected clothing and bedding is essential if lice infestation is found, but no other environmental decontamination is necessary. Scabies in adults is recognized as a pruritic, papular rash with excoriations in a typical distribution pattern. In infants, children, and immunocompromised adults, the rash also can be vesicular, pustular, or nodular. First-line treatment of scabies is topical permethrin 5% cream. Clothing and bedding of persons with scabies should be washed in hot water and dried in a hot dryer. PMID:23062045

  10. Pigments, Parasites and Personalitiy: Towards a Unifying Role for Steroid Hormones?

    PubMed Central

    Kittilsen, Silje; Johansen, Ida Beitnes; Braastad, Bjarne Olai; Øverli, Øyvind

    2012-01-01

    A surging interest in the evolution of consistent trait correlations has inspired research on pigment patterns as a correlate of behavioural syndromes, or “animal personalities”. Associations between pigmentation, physiology and health status are less investigated as potentially conserved trait clusters. In the current study, lice counts performed on farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar naturally infected with ectoparasitic sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis showed that individual fish with high incidence of black melanin-based skin spots harboured fewer female sea lice carrying egg sacs, compared to less pigmented fish. There was no significant association between pigmentation and lice at other developmental stages, suggesting that host factors associated with melanin-based pigmentation may modify ectoparasite development to a larger degree than settlement. In a subsequent laboratory experiment a strong negative correlation between skin spots and post-stress cortisol levels was revealed, with less pigmented individuals showing a more pronounced cortisol response to acute stress. The observation that lice prevalence was strongly increased on a fraction of sexually mature male salmon which occurred among the farmed fish further supports a role for steroid hormones as mediators of reduced parasite resistance. The data presented here propose steroid hormones as a proximate cause for the association between melanin-based pigmentation and parasites. Possible fundamental and applied implications are discussed. PMID:22493685

  11. Determination of knockdown resistance allele frequencies in global human head louse populations using the serial invasive signal amplification reaction

    PubMed Central

    Hodgdon, Hilliary E.; Yoon, Kyong Sup; Previte, Domenic J.; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Aboelghar, Gamal E.; Lee, Si Hyeock; Clark, J. Marshall

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pediculosis is the most prevalent parasitic infestation of humans. Resistance to pyrethrin- and pyrethroid-based pediculicides is due to knockdown (kdr)-type point mutations in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel α-subunit gene. Early detection of resistance is crucial for the selection of effective management strategies. RESULTS Kdr allele frequencies of lice from 14 countries were determined using serial invasive signal amplification reaction. Lice collected from Uruguay, UK and Australia had kdr allele frequencies of 100% while lice from Ecuador, Papua New Guinea, South Korea and Thailand had kdr allele frequencies of 0%. The remaining 7 countries investigated, including seven US populations, two Argentina, Brazil, Denmark, Czech Republic, Egypt and Israel, displayed variable kdr allele frequencies, ranging from 11% to 97%. CONCLUSION The newly developed and validated SISAR method is suitable for accurate monitoring of kdr allele frequencies in head lice. Proactive management is needed where kdr-type resistance is not yet saturated. Based on sodium channel insensitivity and its occurrence in louse populations resistant to pyrethrin- and pyrethroid-based pediculicides, the T917I mutation appears a key marker for resistance. Results from the Egyptian population, however, indicate that phenotypic resistance of lice with single or double mutations (M815I and/or L920F) should also be determined. PMID:20564731

  12. Unlocking the black box of feather louse diversity: A molecular phylogeny of the hyper-diverse genus Brueelia.

    PubMed

    Bush, Sarah E; Weckstein, Jason D; Gustafsson, Daniel R; Allen, Julie; DiBlasi, Emily; Shreve, Scott M; Boldt, Rachel; Skeen, Heather R; Johnson, Kevin P

    2016-01-01

    Songbirds host one of the largest, and most poorly understood, groups of lice: the Brueelia-complex. The Brueelia-complex contains nearly one-tenth of all known louse species (Phthiraptera), and the genus Brueelia has over 300 species. To date, revisions have been confounded by extreme morphological variation, convergent evolution, and periodic movement of lice between unrelated hosts. Here we use Bayesian inference based on mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (EF-1α) gene fragments to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among 333 individuals within the Brueelia-complex. We show that the genus Brueelia, as it is currently recognized, is paraphyletic. Many well-supported and morphologically unified clades within our phylogenetic reconstruction of Brueelia were previously described as genera. These genera should be recognized, and the erection of several new genera should be explored. We show that four distinct ecomorphs have evolved repeatedly within the Brueelia-complex, mirroring the evolutionary history of feather-lice across the entire order. We show that lice in the Brueelia-complex, with some notable exceptions, are extremely host specific and that the host family associations and geographic distributions of these lice are significantly correlated with our understanding of their phylogenetic history. Several ecological phenomena, including phoresis, may be responsible for the macroevolutionary patterns in this diverse group. PMID:26455895

  13. Does allopreening control avian ectoparasites?

    PubMed

    Villa, Scott M; Goodman, Graham B; Ruff, James S; Clayton, Dale H

    2016-07-01

    For birds, the first line of defence against ectoparasites is preening. The effectiveness of self-preening for ectoparasite control is well known. By contrast, the ectoparasite control function of allopreening-in which one birds preens another-has not been rigorously tested. We infested captive pigeons with identical numbers of parasitic lice, and then compared rates of allopreening to the abundance of lice on the birds over time. We documented a negative relationship between rates of allopreening and the number of lice on birds. Moreover, we found that allopreening was a better predictor of louse abundance than self-preening. Our data suggest that allopreening may be a more important means of ectoparasite defence than self-preening when birds live in groups. Our results have important implications for the evolution of social behaviour. PMID:27460233

  14. [Peculicidal activity of plant essential oils and their based preparations].

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Iu V; Eremina, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The peculicidal activity of eight plant essential oils in 75% isopropyl alcohol was in vitro investigated. Of them, the substances that were most active against lice were tea tree (Melaleuca), eucalyptus, neem, citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oils; KT50 was not more than 3 minutes on average; KT95 was 4 minutes. After evaporating the solvent, only five (tea tree, cassia, clove, anise (Anisum vulgare), and Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum) oils) of the eight test botanical substances were active against lice. At the same time, KT50 and KT95 showed 1.5-5-fold increases. Citronella and anise oils had incomplete ovicidal activity. Since the lice were permethrin-resistant, the efficacy of preparations based on essential oils was much higher than permethrin. PMID:25296426

  15. Comparative ectoparasite loads of five seabird species in the Galapagos Islands.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Parra, Jose L; Levin, Iris I; Parker, Patricia G

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we describe the ectoparasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) found on 5 species of seabirds (magnificent frigatebird Fregata magnificens; great frigatebird Fregata minor ; Nazca booby Sula granti ; blue-footed booby Sula nebouxii ; and red-footed booby Sula sula ) on the Galapagos Archipelago. We found 9 species of ectoparasitic lice: 5 species of Pectinopygus ischnocerans, 1 infesting each host; 2 species of Colpocephalum amblyceran lice, 1 on each frigatebird species; and 2 shared amblycerans, Eidmanniella albescens (Piaget, 1880) found on Nazca and blue-footed boobies and Fregatiella aurifasciata (Kellogg, 1899) found on the 2 frigatebirds. We tested the relative importance and interactions of host sex, body size, host, island, host family, and breeding status and found that inter-island differences were the main predictors of prevalence and infestation intensity. These differences could be related to host density or weather, but further evidence is needed. PMID:24911632

  16. Uncovering deep mysteries: the underwater life of an amphibious louse.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Maria Soledad; Aznar, F Javier; Crespo, Enrique A; Lazzari, Claudio R

    2014-12-01

    Despite the incredible success of insects in colonizing almost every habitat, they remain virtually absent in one major environment--the open sea. A variety of hypotheses have been raised to explain why just a few insect species are present in the ocean, but none of them appears to be fully explanatory. Lice belonging to the family Echinophthiriidae are ectoparasites on different species of pinnipeds and river otters, i.e. they have amphibious hosts, who regularly perform long excursions into the open sea reaching depths of hundreds of meters (thousands of feets). Consequently, lice must be able to support not only changes in their surrounding media, but also extreme variations in hydrostatic pressure as well as breathing in a low oxygen atmosphere. In order to shed some light on the way lice can survive during the diving excursions of their hosts, we have performed a series of experiments to test the survival capability of different instars of Antarctophthirus microchir (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) from South American sea lions Otaria flavescens, when submerged into seawater. These experiments were aimed at analyzing: (a) immersion tolerance along the louse life; (b) lice's ability to obtain oxygen from seawater; (c) physiological responses and mechanisms involved in survival underwater. Our experiments showed that the forms present in non-diving pups--i.e. eggs and first-instar nymphs--were unable to tolerate immersion in water, while following instars and adults, all usually found in diving hosts, supported it very well. Furthermore, as long as the level of oxygen dissolved in water was higher, the lice survival capability underwater increased, and the recovery period after returning to air declined. These results are discussed in relation to host ecology, host exploitation and lice functional morphology. PMID:25449903

  17. Common Blepharitis Related to Phthiriasis Palpebrarum: Argon Laser Phototherapy.

    PubMed

    Sundu, Cem; Dinç, Erdem; Kurtuluş, Umut Can; Yıldırım, Özlem

    2015-09-01

    A 42-year-old woman was admitted to Mersin University, Department of Ophthalmology Clinic with itching and burning sensation of the right eye for 3 weeks. In her slit-lamp examination, nits and lice, attached to the upper and lower eyelashes of her right eye, were observed. Lice and nits were destroyed by argon laser phototherapy and were removed with the help of a fine forceps thereafter. Argon laser phototherapy is a quick, effective, and safe treatment modality for phthiriasis palpebrarum. PMID:26470938

  18. [PEDICULOSIS: CURRENT ASPECTS OF THE OLD PROBLEM].

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Yu V

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of data on the incidence of pediculosis worldwide has shown that this disease still remains one of the major health problems in many countries. The ways of transmitting lice and different (social and biological) factors influencing lice infestation are considered. The country's real morbidity rate, such as the ratio of the number of reported pediculosis cases to the amount of pediculicides sold at drugstores in both Russia as a whole and its individual federal districts in particular, has been investigated. The actual morbidity rate has been found to be higher than the officially recorded one. PMID:26152040

  19. Relationships between beak condition, preening behavior and ectoparasite infestation levels in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Vezzoli, Giuseppe; Mullens, Bradley A; Mench, Joy A

    2015-09-01

    The effects of beak condition on ectoparasite populations and preening in laying hens were investigated. Beak-trimmed and beak-intact caged Hy-Line W-36 hens were infested with either chicken body lice or northern fowl mites using a 2×2 factorial design with 4 replicate cages (each containing 2 hens)/treatment: 1) BTL: (beak-trimmed lice-infested); 2) BTM: (beak-trimmed mite-infested); 3) BIL: (beak-intact lice-infested); and 4) BIM: (beak-intact mite-infested). Mite scores and lice numbers were estimated weekly. Hens were video recorded the wk before infestation and at wk 6 and 9 post-infestation. Time spent preening on 6 body areas and in total were analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA. There was a wk×beak condition interaction for lice loads, with BTL harboring approximately 17 times more lice than BIL from wk 7 to 10 post-infestation (P<0.0001). Beak condition affected mite loads (P<0.0001), with BTM having a higher mite score (3.8±0.26) than BIM (1.4±0.26). At peak infestation, BTL spent more total time preening (P=0.02, s±SE: 232.1±37.6) than prior to infestation (33.9±37.6) and directed their preening behavior towards the vent. In contrast, BIL (73.9±37.6), BTM (9.4±1.6), and BIM (8.6±1.6) did not increase total time spent preening over pre-infestation levels (103.6±37.6, 5.8±1.6, 6.7±1.6 respectively), although BTM did redirect their preening behavior toward the vent. This study confirmed previous studies showing that an intact beak is important for reducing ectoparasite infestations. Preening behavior increased in response to lice infestation, but only in beak-trimmed hens; preening behavior and louse load were correlated at peak infestation. In contrast, mite infestation did not lead to increased preening, and there was no correlation between preening and mite load. However, both lice- and mite-infested hens directed preening behavior predominantly towards the vent where these parasites are typically found. PMID:26155987

  20. Changes in cervical muscle activity according to the traction force of an air-inflatable neck traction device.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jong Ho; Park, Tae-Sung

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze cervical muscle activity at different traction forces of an air-inflatable neck traction device. [Subjects] Eighteen males participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects put on an air-inflatable neck traction device and the traction forces administered were 40, 80, and 120 mmHg. The electromyography (EMG) signals of the splenius capitis, and upper trapezius were measured to assess the muscle activity. [Results] The muscle activity of the splenius capitis was significantly higher at 80, and 120 mmHg compared to 40 mmHg. The muscle activity of the upper trapezius did not show significant differences among the traction forces. [Conclusion] Our research result showed that the air-inflatable home neck traction device did not meet the condition of muscle relaxation. PMID:26504278

  1. Changes in cervical muscle activity according to the traction force of an air-inflatable neck traction device

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jong Ho; Park, Tae-Sung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze cervical muscle activity at different traction forces of an air-inflatable neck traction device. [Subjects] Eighteen males participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects put on an air-inflatable neck traction device and the traction forces administered were 40, 80, and 120 mmHg. The electromyography (EMG) signals of the splenius capitis, and upper trapezius were measured to assess the muscle activity. [Results] The muscle activity of the splenius capitis was significantly higher at 80, and 120 mmHg compared to 40 mmHg. The muscle activity of the upper trapezius did not show significant differences among the traction forces. [Conclusion] Our research result showed that the air-inflatable home neck traction device did not meet the condition of muscle relaxation. PMID:26504278

  2. Radiation-induced cerebral meningioma: a recognizable entity

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, A.B.; Shalit, M.N.; Cohen, M.L.; Zandbank, U.; Reichenthal, E.

    1984-11-01

    The authors retrospectively analyzed the clinical and histopathological findings in 201 patients with intracranial meningiomas operated on in the period 1978 to 1982. Forty-three of the patients (21.4%) had at some previous time received radiation treatment to their scalp, the majority for tinea capitis. The findings in these 43 irradiated patients were compared with those in the 158 non-irradiated patients. Several distinctive clinical and histological features were identified in the irradiated group, which suggest that radiation-induced meningiomas can be defined as a separate nosological subgroup. The use of irradiation in large numbers of children with tinea capitis in the era prior to the availability of griseofulvin may be responsible for a significantly increased incidence of intracranial meningiomas.

  3. Mycology - an update. Part 1: Dermatomycoses: causative agents, epidemiology and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nenoff, Pietro; Krüger, Constanze; Ginter-Hanselmayer, Gabriele; Tietz, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-03-01

    Dermatomycoses are caused most commonly by dermatophytes. The anthropophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum is still the most frequent causative agent worldwide. Keratinolytic enzymes, e.g. hydrolases and keratinases, are important virulence factors of T. rubrum. Recently, the cysteine dioxygenase was found as new virulence factor. Predisposing host factors play a similarly important role for the development of dermatophytosis of the skin and nails. Chronic venous insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, disorders of cellular immunity, and genetic predisposition should be considered as risk factors for onychomycosis. A new alarming trend is the increasing number of cases of onychomycosis - mostly due to T. rubrum - in infancy. In Germany, tinea capitis is mostly caused by zoophilic dermatophytes, in particular Microsporum canis. New zoophilic fungi, primarily Trichophyton species of Arthroderma benhamiae, should be taken into differential diagnostic considerations of tinea capitis, tinea faciei, and tinea corporis. Source of infection are small household pets, particularly rodents, like guinea pigs. Anthropophilic dermatophytes may be introduced by families which immigrate from Africa or Asia to Europe. The anthropophilic dermatophytes T. violaceum, T. tonsurans (infections occurring in fighting sports clubs as "tinea gladiatorum capitis et corporis") and M. audouinii are causing outbreaks of small epidemics of tinea corporis and tinea capitis in kindergartens and schools. Superficial infections of the skin and mucous membranes due to yeasts are caused by Candida species. Also common are infections due to the lipophilic yeast fungus Malassezia. Today, within the genus Malassezia more than 10 different species are known. Malassezia globosa seems to play the crucial role in pityriasis versicolor. Molds (also designated non-dermatophyte molds, NDM) are increasingly found as causative agents in onychomycosis. Besides Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, several species of

  4. Tinea corporis due to Trichophyton violaceum: A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Smriti, C; Anuradha, S; Kamlesh, T; Isampreet, K; Nitin, K

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are Fungi which infect keratinized tissues, that is, skin epidermis, hair and nails. Trichophyton violaceum is an anthropophilic, cosmopolitan dermatophyte. It primarily causes tinea capitis and less commonly tinea corporis and tinea unguium. We present a report of two cases of tinea corporis due to T. violaceum in children. Infections due to T. violaceum are important because of its transmissibility within families and community and its potential to spread and establish in new geographical areas. PMID:26470976

  5. Itch Management in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Fölster-Holst, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Itch in children is a very common symptom and is mainly related to a skin disease rather than an underlying systemic disorder. The most common dermatoses include atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, insect bites, scabies, and pediculosis capitis. There are specific diagnostic patterns which require the evaluation of a careful history and dermatological examination. For dermatological treatment, we have to consider that children, especially infants, show differences in physiology and pathophysiology, and also in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics compared with adults. PMID:27578087

  6. Red face revisited: Disorders of hair growth and the pilosebaceous unit.

    PubMed

    Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia; Pirmez, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent literature on the diseases of the hair and pilosebaceous unit that may cause a red face. We discuss the epidemiology, clinicals, pathogenesis, and therapy of lichen planopilaris with its variants, discoid lupus erythematosus, folliculitis decalvans, dissecting folliculitis, acne keloidalis nuchae, pseudofolliculitis barbae, tinea capitis, tinea barbae, folliculitis of diverse causative factors and inflammatory follicular keratotic syndromes, ulerythema ophryogenes, atrophoderma vermiculatum, keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans, and folliculitis spinulosa decalvans. PMID:25441472

  7. Hypertrophy in the cervical muscles and thoracic discs in bed rest?

    PubMed

    Belavý, Daniel L; Miokovic, Tanja; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2013-09-01

    The impact of prolonged bed rest on the cervical and upper thoracic spine is unknown. In the 2nd Berlin BedRest Study (BBR2-2), 24 male subjects underwent 60-day bed rest and performed either no exercise, resistive exercise, or resistive exercise with whole body vibration. Subjects were followed for 2 yr after bed rest. On axial cervical magnetic resonance images from the skull to T3, the volumes of the semispinalis capitis, splenius capitis, spinalis cervicis, longus capitis, longus colli, levator scapulae, sternocleidomastoid, middle and posterior scalenes, and anterior scalenes were measured. Disc height, anteroposterior width, and volume were measured from C2/3 to T6/7 on sagittal images. The volume of all muscles, with the exception of semispinalis capitis, increased during bed rest (P < 0.025). There were no significant differences between the groups for changes in the muscles. Increased upper and midthoracic spine disc height and volume (P < 0.001) was seen during bed rest, and disc height increases persisted at least 6 mo after bed rest. Increases in thoracic disc height were greater (P = 0.003) in the resistive vibration exercise group than in control. On radiological review, two subjects showed new injuries to the mid-lower thoracic spine. One of these subjects reported a midthoracic pain incident during maximal strength testing before bed rest and the other after countermeasure exercise on day 3 of bed rest. We conclude that bed rest is associated with increased disc size in the thoracic region and increases in muscle volume at the neck. The exercise device needs to be modified to ensure that load is distributed in a more physiological fashion. PMID:23813530

  8. [Serological analysis of coagulase-negative staphylococci: study of characteristic agglutinogens in type strains of the nine species individualized by Schleifer and Kloos (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Pillet, J; Orta, B

    1977-01-01

    The occurrence of characteristic agglutinogens has been searched for in the type strains of the following species: Staphylococcus xylosus, S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. capitis, S. saprophyticus, S. warneri, S. haemolyticus, S. hominis and S. simulans. Serotyping of these nine strains and study of their antisera have been carried out with formalin-treated and autoclaved bacteria. It has been shown that the characteristic agglutinogens of S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus were respectively identical to the agglutinogens previously described in the coagulase-negative type strain 52.186 and in the S. aureus type strain 18. Characteristic agglutinogens have been found in each of the other seven type strains. Agglutinogens found in S. xylosus and S. saprophyticus are thermolabile, the corresponding absorbed sera reacting only with the formalin-treated homologous strain. Concerning S. cohnii, S. capitis, S. hominis and S. simulans, their absorbed sera reacting both with formalin-treated and autoclaved homologous strains, the observed reactions can be accounted either by one thermostable agglutinogen or by two characteristic agglutinogens, one thermostable, the other thermolabile. In S. warneri, only one thermostable agglutinogen has been characterized, the specificity of the reaction observed between the absorbed S. warneri antiserum and the homologous formalin-treated strain having to be confirmed. The use for serotyping of absorbed sera prepared against the type strains of the species S. xylosus, S. cohnii, S. capitis, S. saprophyticus, S. warneri, S. hominis and S. simulans should permit to improve the individualization of coagulase-negative staphylococci. PMID:610502

  9. Bacterial response to acetate challenge: a comparison of tolerance among species.

    PubMed

    Lasko, D R; Zamboni, N; Sauer, U

    2000-08-01

    Although acetate formation and tolerance are important criteria for various aspects of biotechnological process development, available studies on acetate tolerance in different species are disparate. We evaluate the response of eight bacterial strains, including two variants of Escherichia coli, two variants of Staphylococcus capitis, and one each of Acetobacter aceti, Gluconobacter suboxydans, Lactobacillus acetotolerans, and L. bulgaricus, to acetate challenges under identical conditions. Our findings were: (1) wild-type organisms of species that are considered tolerant of acetate perform only slightly better than E. coli in unadapted shaker cultures; (2) the ability to tolerate acetate is strongly dependent on the carbon source, and is, especially for E. coli, much greater on glycerol than on glucose; (3) respiration is not as important to acetate tolerance in E. coli and S. capitis as has been reported for the acetic acid bacteria; (4) S. capitis was the least affected by acetate under all conditions and grew at up to 44 g/l acetate without any preconditioning; and (5) qualitative high-throughput screening of growth characteristics can be achieved with relatively inexpensive multiwell plate readers. PMID:10968640

  10. European guideline for the management of pediculosis pubis, 2010.

    PubMed

    Scott, G R; Chosidow, O

    2011-06-01

    Transmission of the crab louse Phthirus pubis generally occurs by close body contact. Diagnosis is usually clinical and screening for other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is indicated. While most evidence is extrapolated from studies of head lice treatments, topical pediculicides are recommended and treatment of sexual contacts is indicated. PMID:21680662

  11. Infectious Diseases in Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleator, Esther K.

    Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

  12. ERCMExpress. Volume 2, Issue 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This issue of ERCMExpress presents the topic "Schools Respond to Infectious Disease." Every year, schools confront a range of infectious diseases such as chicken pox, lice, ringworm and seasonal influenza. In response, faculty and staff work together to control the outbreak, quell fears and dispel rumors. For example, school administrators may…

  13. Public Health Pest Control Category Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. It presents pest control guidelines for those organisms of public health significance. Fact sheets with line drawings discuss pests such as cockroaches, bedbugs, lice, ants, beetles, bats, birds, and rodents. (CS)

  14. Identification of Different Bartonella Species in the Cattle Tail Louse (Haematopinus quadripertusus) and in Cattle Blood

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Cohen, Liron; Morick, Danny; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella spp. are worldwide-distributed facultative intracellular bacteria that exhibit an immense genomic diversity across mammal and arthropod hosts. The occurrence of cattle-associated Bartonella species was investigated in the cattle tail louse Haematopinus quadripertusus and in dairy cattle blood from Israel. Lice were collected from cattle from two dairy farms during summer 2011, and both lice and cow blood samples were collected from additional seven farms during the successive winter. The lice were identified morphologically and molecularly using 18S rRNA sequencing. Thereafter, they were screened for Bartonella DNA by conventional and real-time PCR assays using four partial genetic loci (gltA, rpoB, ssrA, and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]). A potentially novel Bartonella variant, closely related to other ruminant bartonellae, was identified in 11 of 13 louse pools collected in summer. In the cattle blood, the prevalence of Bartonella infection was 38%, identified as B. bovis and B. henselae (24 and 12%, respectively). A third genotype, closely related to Bartonella melophagi and Bartonella chomelii (based on the ssrA gene) and to B. bovis (based on the ITS sequence) was identified in a single cow. The relatively high prevalence of these Bartonella species in cattle and the occurrence of phylogenetically diverse Bartonella variants in both cattle and their lice suggest the potential role of this animal system in the generation of Bartonella species diversity. PMID:24973066

  15. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Public Health Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with recognition of pests and vectors such as lice, fleas, mosquitoes, flies and rodents. There is also discussion on methods of control without pesticides or in combination with pesticide treatment. Sections of the text are devoted to…

  16. Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Manual 90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agricultural animal pest control category. The text discusses pesticide hazards, application techniques, and pests of livestock such as mosquitoes, flies, grubs and lice. (CS)

  17. Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Bulletin 767.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Maxcy P., Jr.

    Included in this training manual are descriptions and pictures of the following agricultural animal pests: mosquitoes, stable flies, horse flies and deer or yellow flies, house flies, horn flies, wound-infesting larvae, lice, mites, ticks, and bots and grubs. Information is given on the life-cycle and breeding habits of the pests. Methods of…

  18. Spinosad Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the hair to cover all of the hair on your head. Keep the suspension on your hair and scalp ... share combs, brushes, towels, pillows, hats, scarves, or hair accessories. Be sure to check everyone in your immediate family for head lice if another family member is being treated ...

  19. Presence and effects of the dog louse Trichodectes canis (Mallophaga, Trichodectidae) on wolves and coyotes from Minnesota and Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Thiel, R.P.; Fritts, S.H.; Berg, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    The dog louse was found on 19 wolves (Canis lupus) and six coyotes (C. latrans) from Minnesota and Wisconsin during the July-February, 1973 through 1983, period. No evidence was found that lice had any serious effect on wolf survival.

  20. Prehistoric Iroquois Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosbach, Richard E.; Doyle, Robert E.

    1976-01-01

    Study of pre-1750 medicine reveals that Iroquois diagnosis and treatment of disease was more advanced than the medicine of their European counterparts. The Iroquois developed a cure for scurvy, treated hypertension, and head lice, and even designed sauna baths. Indian psychiatry also included modern day techniques such as dream analysis. (MR)