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Sample records for lichen simplex chronicus

  1. Lichen simplex chronicus

    MedlinePlus

    Lichen simplex chronicus is a skin condition caused by chronic itching and scratching. ... You can control lichen simplex chronicus by controlling scratching and reducing stress. The condition may return or move to different areas on the ...

  2. Lichen simplex chronicus on the ankle (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Lichen simplex chronicus on the ankle: Lichen simplex chronicus is also known as neurodermatitis. A minor itch may encourage scratching which increases the irritation, leading to more scratching. This ...

  3. Lichen Simplex Chronicus That Accompanies Anogenital Warts during the Childhood.

    PubMed

    Seçilmiş Kerimoğlu, Ozlem; Doğan, Nasuh Utku; Tazegül, Aybike; Karameşe, Mehtap; Beyhekim, Hasan; Celik, Cetin

    2012-01-01

    Anogenital warts and lichen simplex chronicus (LSC) are rarely seen during the childhood. A 9-year-old girl has been presented to hospital by her parents with itching in the anogenital area. There were anogenital warts and a different erythematous lesion in the perianal region. On the pulpa of the right thumb, there was a wart extending under the nail. The lesions are surgically removed. The results of the histopathological examination were reported as condyloma acuminata and LSC. Children with anogenital warts should be examined carefully to discover the transmission route and other possible concomitant cutaneous diseases. PMID:23118760

  4. Lichen Simplex Chronicus That Accompanies Anogenital Warts during the Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Seçilmiş Kerimoğlu, Özlem; Doğan, Nasuh Utku; Tazegül, Aybike; Karameşe, Mehtap; Beyhekim, Hasan; Çelik, Çetin

    2012-01-01

    Anogenital warts and lichen simplex chronicus (LSC) are rarely seen during the childhood. A 9-year-old girl has been presented to hospital by her parents with itching in the anogenital area. There were anogenital warts and a different erythematous lesion in the perianal region. On the pulpa of the right thumb, there was a wart extending under the nail. The lesions are surgically removed. The results of the histopathological examination were reported as condyloma acuminata and LSC. Children with anogenital warts should be examined carefully to discover the transmission route and other possible concomitant cutaneous diseases. PMID:23118760

  5. Homoeopathy for the treatment of lichen simplex chronicus: a case series.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ramji; Gupta, R; Manchanda, R K; Arya, B S

    2006-10-01

    Twenty-seven patients with chronic lichen simplex involving various parts of the body were treated. Hydrocotyle was prescribed to 21 patients in different potencies (6c, 30c, 200c, 1 M, 10 M), Thuja to three patients (1 M, 10 M), Graphites (6c), Kali bich (30c) and Sulphur (200c) to one patient each during 1 year study period. Only two patients showed complete improvement with Thuja and one with Graphites. In other cases, the response was limited to partial relief of [corrected] itching. PMID:17015196

  6. Lichen Simplex Chronicus

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2006-2013 Logical Images, Inc. All rights reserved. Advertising Notice This Site and third parties who place ... would like to obtain more information about these advertising practices and to make choices about online behavioral ...

  7. Lichen simplex chronicus

    MedlinePlus

    ... may have: Counseling to help you realize the importance of not scratching Stress management Behavior modification You ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  8. A double-blind, multicenter, parallel-group trial with 0.05% halobetasol propionate ointment versus 0.1% diflucortolone valerate ointment in patients with severe, chronic atopic dermatitis or lichen simplex chronicus.

    PubMed

    Brunner, N; Yawalkar, S

    1991-12-01

    In a double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter, comparative trial in 120 evaluable patients with chronic, localized atopic dermatitis or lichen simplex chronicus, the success rate (described as "healed" and "marked improvement") was 91.5% in patients treated with halobetasol propionate ointment and 83.6% in those in the diflucortolone valerate treatment group. Of patients treated with halobetasol propionate ointment, 40.7% reported healing within 17 days, whereas of those in the diflucortolone valerate treatment group, 32.8% reported healing within that time. Early onset of therapeutic effect, that is, within 3 days of the start of treatment, was reported in a higher percentage of patients treated with halobetasol propionate ointment than in those treated with diflucortolone valerate ointment (70% versus 59%). Adverse effects at the site of application were less frequently reported in patients belonging to the halobetasol propionate treatment group than in those treated with diflucortolone valerate ointment (3% versus 8%). PMID:1757609

  9. Does lichen sclerosus play a central role in the pathogenesis of human papillomavirus negative vulvar squamous cell carcinoma? The itch-scratch-lichen sclerosus hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Scurry, J.

    1999-03-01

    In the past decade, two types of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) have been delineated, Human papillomavirus (HPV) positive and negative. Clinicopathologic, virologic, cytomorphometric, and genetic differences support the view that these two types of carcinoma are fundamentally different and that HPV-negative carcinoma is not simply carcinoma where viral DNA has not been able to be identified. The traditional view of HPV-negative carcinoma is that it is caused by chronic tissue damage from itching and scratching. However, itching and scratching alone do not explain the close association of carcinoma with lichen sclerosus, nor the absence of such an association with other itchy conditions such as eczema or psoriasis. These observations point to a role for lichen sclerosus in the pathogenesis of vulvar carcinoma. Most observations about the etiology of lichen sclerosus can be grouped into its immunogenetic or genital predisposition, or the Köbner phenomenon. In the itch-scratch-lichen sclerosus hypothesis, lichen sclerosus is postulated to occur as a Köbner phenomenon in women with the susceptible immunophenotype who scratch because of genital irritants such as urine, vaginal secretions and smegma, and psychological factors. Lichen sclerosus, itself a very itchy condition, contributes to a vicious cycle of itching and scratching which leads to superimposed lichen simplex chronicus, squamous cell hyperplasia, and ultimately carcinoma. The itch-scratch-lichen sclerosus hypothesis reconciles the traditional itch-scratch hypothesis with the strong clinicopathologic association of lichen sclerosus with carcinoma. PMID:11240748

  10. Lichen Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of lichen sclerosis is unknown. Scientists have different theories to try to explain the cause, including an overactive immune system, genetic traits, or changes in hormones. Since lichen sclerosis is not caused ...

  11. Lichen planus

    MedlinePlus

    Mouth sores are one symptom of lichen planus. They: May be tender or painful (mild cases may not ... the area and make eating more comfortable (for mouth sores) Topical corticosteroids or oral corticosteroids to reduce swelling ...

  12. Lichen Planus

    MedlinePlus

    ... scalp problems Itchy skin Painful skin / joints Rashes Diaper rash: How to treat Lichen planus Lupus and your skin Nickel allergy Pityriasis rosea Rash 101 in adults: When to seek treatment Scaly skin Skin cancer ...

  13. Lichen Sclerosus

    MedlinePlus

    ... of lichen sclerosus is unknown. Scientists have different theories to try to explain the cause, including an ... Other symptoms caused from chronic skin irritation Painful urination (peeing) due to urine flowing over irritated skin ...

  14. Lentigo Simplex

    MedlinePlus

    ... body, including areas that are not exposed to sunlight. Multiple lentigos are associated with several inherited syndromes, ... as identical to those caused by exposure to sunlight. Who's At Risk Lentigo simplex may occur in ...

  15. Esophageal lichen planus*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Janine Pichler; Uribe, Natalia Caballero; Abulafia, Luna Azulay; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the skin, mucous membranes, nails and scalp. Esophageal lichen planus is a rarely reported manifestation of lichen planus, presenting itself commonly in middle-aged women, with symptoms such as dysphagia. We report a case of esophageal lichen planus in a 54-year-old woman associated with oral, cutaneous and ungual lichen planus. Although lichen planus is a disorder well known by dermatologists, reports of esophageal lichen planus are rare in dermatologic literature. The esophageal lichen planus is little known and underdiagnosed, with a significant delay between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis. PMID:26131872

  16. Toxicity of Iceland lichen and reindeer lichen.

    PubMed

    Airaksinen, M M; Peura, P; Antere, S

    1986-01-01

    Iceland lichen (Cetraria islandica) is sold in health food stores to prevent various disorders. In olden times it and sometimes also reindeer lichen (Cladonia sp.) have been used as emergency food. Lichen contains bitter and potentially toxic lichen acids and it also concentrates heavy metals. Therefore lichen toxicity was studied with traditional pretreatment methods (boiling, ash-soaking or both). Untreated and only shortly boiled lichens were lethally toxic to mice in 50 and 25% w/w mixtures in food, but when ash-soaking was added mice tolerated Cetraria (but not Cladonia) reasonably well for 3 weeks. In a 3 month test in rats 25% mixture of Cladonia was tolerated well and blood tests were normal at the end. However, urinary protein was increased, the autopsies revealed kidney changes corresponding to a mild heavy metal poisoning, as the lead concentrations in kidney and lichen were high. PMID:3468923

  17. Herpes Simplex

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an infection that is caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). Oral herpes causes cold sores around the mouth or face. ... affects the genitals, buttocks or anal area. Other herpes infections can affect the eyes, skin, or other parts of the body. The virus can be dangerous in newborn babies or in ...

  18. Lichen physiology and cell biology

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents information on topics relating to mineral element accumulation in bog lichens, nitrogen losses from diazotrophic lichens, influence of automobile exhaust and lead on the oxygen exchange of lichens, temporal variation in lichen element levels, and lead and uranium uptake by lichens. Other topics include the architecture of the concentric bodies in the mycobiont of Peltigera praetextata; multiple enzyme forms in lichens, photosynthesis, water relations multiple enzyme forms in lichens, photosynthesis, water relations and thallus structure of strictaceae lichens; and aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in lichens. The distribution of uranium and companion elements in lichen heath associated with undisturbed uranium deposits in the Canadian Arctic is also discussed.

  19. Lichens and lepidopterons

    SciTech Connect

    Sigal, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    The newly found association of Usnea strigosa (Ach.) A. Eat. and the lichenophagous larva of the moth Zanclognatha theralis (Walker) is described. The possible biological role of lichen acids in the lichen-moth relationship is discussed.

  20. What Is Lichen Sclerosus?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sclerosus PDF Version Size: 57 KB Audio Version Time: 09:12 Size: 8.6 MB November 2014 What Is Lichen Sclerosus? Fast Facts: An Easy-to-Read Series of Publications for the Public What Is Lichen ...

  1. Lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Yesudian, P D; Sugunendran, H; Bates, C M; O'Mahony, C

    2005-07-01

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the skin and mucosa, presenting to genitourinary physicians and dermatologists. It affects both sexes and all age groups. Although the exact aetiology is uncertain, genetic predisposition, infections and autoimmune factors have been implicated in its pathogenesis. Symptoms include pruritus and soreness, but asymptomatic presentations are not uncommon. The classical clinical picture is of atrophic white plaques in the anogenital region. Histopathology is specific with basal cell degeneration, upper dermal oedema, homogenization of collagen and a chronic inflammatory infiltrate. Short courses of potent topical corticosteroids form the mainstay of treatment. The condition tends to be remitting and relapsing, with spontaneous regressions reported in a few. In men, the term balanitis xerotica obliterans is sometimes used to describe late and severe LS of the penis. Scarring and progression to squamous cell carcinomas can occur in chronic LS, resulting in significant morbidity. A multidisciplinary approach to care and the need for long-term monitoring cannot be overemphasized. PMID:16004624

  2. Oral lichen planus preceding concomitant lichen planopilaris.

    PubMed

    Stoopler, Eric T; Alfaris, Sausan; Alomar, Dalal; Alawi, Faizan

    2016-09-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is an immune-mediated mucocutaneous disorder with a wide array of clinical presentations. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is characterized clinically by striae, desquamation, and/or ulceration. Lichen planopilaris (LPP), a variant of LP, affects the scalp, resulting in perifollicular erythema and scarring of cutaneous surfaces accompanied by hair loss. The association between OLP and LPP has been reported previously with scant information on concomitant or sequential disease presentation. We describe a patient with concomitant OLP and LPP, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on OLP preceding the onset of LPP. PMID:27544399

  3. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide to condition and treatment ... skin or mouth sores with the herpes simplex virus (HSV) is called primary herpes. This may be ...

  4. Serum herpes simplex antibodies

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/003352.htm Serum herpes simplex antibodies To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Serum herpes simplex antibodies is a blood test that looks for antibodies ...

  5. Lichens in the Churchyard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldershaw, Cally; Hilton, Barbara; Rocca, Alis

    2010-01-01

    The late Tom Chester, in his role as the British Lichen Society churchyard coordinator, did a great deal to encourage the use of the churchyard as an educational tool. In his honour, the Society has created an award as part of its "Lichen Project". When the Society approached the Association for Science Education (ASE) for help in contacting…

  6. Exploiting the Lichen Liaison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raham, R. Gary

    1978-01-01

    For teachers in search of an easily obtainable, readily dissectable, and unique living specimen to arouse the interest of their students and illustrate important biological principles, lichens are the perfect selection. Background information and experiments on lichen anatomy, physiology, and chemistry are given. An appendix gives culture media.…

  7. Lichens as Bioindicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gregory L.; Baker, Thomas R.

    2003-01-01

    Lichens, small and unobtrusive organisms, are seldom noticed as they cling to rocks, trees, and soil in fragile veils or crusts of splendid color and ornate textures. Their beauty is captivating and fascinating, and their purpose and origins are thought-provoking. Lichens make particularly good "bioindicators". They are bioindicators of sulfur…

  8. Learning about Lichens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Danny

    1982-01-01

    Provides background information and teaching suggestions for collecting and using lichens in the classroom and for conducting field investigations. Focuses on structure, reproduction, photosynthesis, and effects of air pollution. (DC)

  9. Oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Olson, Meredith A; Rogers, Roy S; Bruce, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Lichen planus is an inflammatory mucocutaneous disease that can affect the skin, hair, nails, and mucosal surfaces. Mucosal sites of involvement include oral, genital, ocular, otic, esophageal, and, less commonly, bladder, nasal, laryngeal, and anal surfaces. Oral lichen planus is a mucosal variant of lichen planus, which tends to affect women more often than men, with a typically more chronic course and potential for significant morbidity. Treatment can be challenging, and there is potentially a low risk of malignant transformation; however, therapeutic benefits can be obtained with various topical and systemic medications. Clinical monitoring is recommended to ensure symptomatic control. Increasing awareness and recognition of this entity have continued to fuel advances in therapy and in our understanding of the disease. PMID:27343965

  10. Phytase activity in lichens.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Niall F; Crittenden, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    Phytase activity was investigated in 13 lichen species using a novel assay method. The work tested the hypothesis that phytase is a component of the suite of surface-bound lichen enzymes that hydrolyse simple organic forms of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) deposited onto the thallus surface. Hydrolysis of inositol hexaphosphate (InsP6 , the substrate for phytase) and appearance of lower-order inositol phosphates (InsP5 -InsP1 ), the hydrolysis products, were measured by ion chromatography. Phytase activity in Evernia prunastri was compared among locations with contrasting rates of N deposition. Phytase activity was readily measurable in epiphytic lichens (e.g. 11.3 μmol InsP6 hydrolysed g(-1)  h(-1) in Bryoria fuscescens) but low in two terricolous species tested (Cladonia portentosa and Peltigera membranacea). Phytase and phosphomonoesterase activities were positively correlated amongst species. In E. prunastri both enzyme activities were promoted by N enrichment and phytase activity was readily released into thallus washings. InsP6 was not detected in tree canopy throughfall but was present in pollen leachate. Capacity to hydrolyse InsP6 appears widespread amongst lichens potentially promoting P capture from atmospheric deposits and plant leachates, and P cycling in forest canopies. The enzyme assay used here might find wider application in studies on plant root-fungal-soil systems. PMID:25963718

  11. Serum herpes simplex antibodies

    MedlinePlus

    ... when it detects harmful substances such as the herpes virus. This test does not detect the virus itself. ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2014:chap 308. Whitley RJ. Herpes simplex virus infections In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  12. Anogenital lichen sclerosus in women.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, R H; Ridley, C M; McGibbon, D H; Black, M M

    1996-01-01

    A study of 350 women with lichen sclerosus, originally made to elucidate the relationship between lichen sclerosus and autoimmunity, led to the amassing of a considerable amount of clinical material. Our review is confined to those with anogenital lesions (342), supplemented by some new cases (15), giving a total of 357 women with biopsy proven lichen sclerosus. It demonstrates the wide age range of the condition, the association with morphoea and lichen planus and the occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma in some cases. It also shows that inappropriate surgery has continued to be carried out for benign disease. PMID:9014881

  13. The Significance of Lichens and Their Metabolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huneck, S.

    Lichens, symbiontic organisms of fungi and algae, synthesize numerous metabolites, the "lichen substances," which comprise aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, aromatic, and terpenic compounds. Lichens and their metabolites have a manifold biological activity: antiviral, antibiotic, antitumor, allergenic, plant growth inhibitory, antiherbivore, and enzyme inhibitory. Usnic acid, a very active lichen substance is used in pharmaceutical preparations. Large amounts of Pseudevernia furfuracea and Evernia prunastri are processed in the perfume industry, and some lichens are sensitive reagents for the evaluation of air pollution.

  14. Nongenital herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Usatine, Richard P; Tinitigan, Rochelle

    2010-11-01

    Nongenital herpes simplex virus type 1 is a common infection usually transmitted during childhood via nonsexual contact. Most of these infections involve the oral mucosa or lips (herpes labialis). The diagnosis of an infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 is usually made by the appearance of the lesions (grouped vesicles or ulcers on an erythematous base) and patient history. However, if uncertain, the diagnosis of herpes labialis can be made by viral culture, polymerase chain reaction, serology, direct fluorescent antibody testing, or Tzanck test. Other nonoral herpes simplex virus type 1 infections include herpetic keratitis, herpetic whitlow, herpes gladiatorum, and herpetic sycosis of the beard area. The differential diagnosis of nongenital herpes simplex virus infection includes aphthous ulcers, acute paronychia, varicella-zoster virus infection, herpangina, herpes gestationis (pemphigoid gestationis), pemphigus vulgaris, and Behçet syndrome. Oral acyclovir suspension is an effective treatment for children with primary herpetic gingivostomatitis. Oral acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir are effective in treating acute recurrence of herpes labialis (cold sores). Recurrences of herpes labialis may be diminished with daily oral acyclovir or valacyclovir. Topical acyclovir, penciclovir, and docosanol are optional treatments for recurrent herpes labialis, but they are less effective than oral treatment. PMID:21121552

  15. [Lichen striatus. Epidemiologic study].

    PubMed

    Sittart, J A; Pegas, J R; Sant'Ana, L A; Pires, M C

    1989-01-01

    The authors are showing a retrospective study of 53 cases of lichen striatus concerning sex, colour, age, place of lesions, associated diseases and period of the year of occurrence of the dermatosis. There was a larger number of cases in females of white race and age-between 2 and 5 years old. A greater occurrence was observed in the months of September and March which correspond to spring and summer. Adding the fact that there have been more cases in children, at times in brothers and the trend to spontaneous involution, the authors suggest the possibility of a virus as etiology to this entity. PMID:2666785

  16. Lignin phenols derivatives in lichens.

    PubMed

    Zavarzina, A G; Romankevich, E A; Peresypkin, V I; Ulyantzev, A S; Belyaev, N A; Zavarzin, A A

    2015-01-01

    Lignin monophenols have been measured in the cupric oxide oxidation products from lichens of different systematic groups. It is shown for the first time that syringyl structures in most lichens strongly dominate over vanillyl and p-hydroxyl ones (S/V 7-583, S/P 3-30). This distinguishes lichens from algae and mosses (p-hydroxyl phenols are dominant) and from higher plants (S/V ratios are from 0 in gymnosperms to 1.1-5.2 in angiosperms). Molecular ratios of phenols as well as the ratios of acids to aldehydes in lichens were different from lignin of higher plants, suggesting contribution of non-lignin phenols in CuO oxidation products. The contents of syringyl and vanillyl phenols in some lichen species were comparable to non-woody tissues of higher plants. Results of the study suggest that lichens can be important source of aromatic structures in soils and hydrosphere, particularly in the regions were lichens are abundant. PMID:26728733

  17. Oral lichen planus: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Krupaa, R. Jayasri; Sankari, S. Leena; Masthan, K. M. K.; Rajesh, E.

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is an immunologically mediated mucocutaneous disease that is triggered by varied etiological agents. The oral lichenoid reaction is considered a variant of the disease that needs to be clearly diagnosed as a separate entity from oral lichen planus and treated. They follow a strict cause-effector relationship, protocols that suggest the differentiation. Lichen planus has varied clinical forms in the oral mucosa and cutaneously that has different prognosis. This condition also arises in association with various other systemic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus. There have been cases reported in the esophagus, larynx, scalp, nail, cutaneous areas, especially arms and wrists, trunk. There is reported malignant transformation that essentiates careful examination, treatment protocol and regular follow-up sessions. This article throws light on the disease condition of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reaction that is essential for the differentiation and treatment. PMID:26015696

  18. Erosive lichen planus: a therapeutic challenge*

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Williams; Giesen, Laura; Navajas-Galimany, Lucas; Gonzalez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Erosive lichen planus is an uncommon variant of lichen planus. Chronic erosions of the soles, accompanied by intense and disabling pain, are some of its most characteristic manifestations. We present the case of a woman who developed oral and plantar erosive lichen planus associated with lichen planus pigmentosus and ungueal lichen planus that were diagnosed after several years. The patient failed to respond to multiple therapies requiring longstanding medication but remained refractory. Knowledge of the treatment options for erosive lichen planus is insufficient. Further research is required to clarify their effectiveness, ideally adopting an evidence-based methodology. PMID:26982784

  19. Exploring symbiont management in lichens.

    PubMed

    Grube, Martin; Spribille, Toby

    2012-07-01

    Lichens are unique among fungal symbioses in that their mycelial structures are compact and exposed to the light as thallus structures. The myriad intersections of unique fungal species with photosynthetic partner organisms (green algae in 90% of lichens) produce a wide variety of diverse shapes and colours of the fully synthesized lichen thallus when growing in nature. This characteristic complex morphology is, however, not achieved in the fungal axenic state. Even under ideal environmental conditions, the lichen life cycle faces considerable odds: first, meiotic spores are only produced on well-established thalli and often only after achieving considerable age in a stable environment, and second, even then in vivo resynthesis requires the presence of compatible algal strains where fungal spores germinate. Many lichen species have evolved a way around the resynthesis bottleneck by producing asexual propagules for joint propagation of symbionts. These different dispersal strategies ostensibly shape the population genetic structure of lichen symbioses, but the relative contributions of vertical (joint) and horizontal (independent) symbiont transmission have long eluded lichen evolutionary biologists. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Dal Grande et al. (2012) close in on this question with the lung lichen, Lobaria pulmonaria, a flagship species in the conservation of old growth forests. By capitalizing on available microsatellite markers for both fungal and algal symbionts, they show that while vertical transmission is the predominant mode of reproduction, horizontal transmission is demonstrable and actively shapes population genetic structure. The resulting mixed propagation system is a highly successful balance of safe recruitment of symbiotic clones and endless possibilities for fungal recombination and symbiont shuffling. PMID:22916345

  20. Male Genital Lichen Sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  1. Male genital lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  2. Grape Cells (Multinucleated Keratinocytes) in Noninfectious Dermatoses: Case Series and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sulit, Daryl J.; Adams, Erin G.; Shvartsman, Katerina R.; Rapini, Ronald P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Multinucleated keratinocytes (also known as multinucleated epidermal giant cells) are a frequently overlooked histological finding in noninfectious inflammatory dermatoses. They are sometimes found in conditions characterized by chronic rubbing and pruritus, such as lichen simplex chronicus or prurigo nodularis, and may be a helpful clue in making the clinical diagnosis. This finding must be differentiated from other conditions characterized by multinucleated keratinocytes on histopathology, specifically herpes simplex, varicella zoster, or measles viral infections. The authors present a case series of 2 patients with unique clinical noninfectious diagnoses but similar histopathologic findings on biopsy. The histopathologic findings on both cases demonstrated multinucleated keratinocytes, which were related to manipulation of the epidermis. PMID:26588345

  3. Lichens survive in space: results from the 2005 LICHENS experiment.

    PubMed

    Sancho, Leopoldo G; de la Torre, Rosa; Horneck, Gerda; Ascaso, Carmen; de Los Rios, Asunción; Pintado, Ana; Wierzchos, J; Schuster, M

    2007-06-01

    This experiment was aimed at establishing, for the first time, the survival capability of lichens exposed to space conditions. In particular, the damaging effect of various wavelengths of extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was studied. The lichens used were the bipolar species Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans, which were collected above 2000 m in the mountains of central Spain and as endolithic communities inhabiting granites in the Antarctic Dry Valleys. Lichens were exposed to space in the BIOPAN-5 facility of the European Space Agency; BIOPAN-5 is located on the outer shell of the Earth-orbiting FOTON-M2 Russian satellite. The lichen samples were launched from Baikonur by a Soyuz rocket on May 31, 2005, and were returned to Earth after 16 days in space, at which time they were tested for survival. Chlorophyll fluorescence was used for the measurement of photosynthetic parameters. Scanning electron microscopy in back-scattered mode, low temperature scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the organization and composition of both symbionts. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, in combination with the use of specific fluorescent probes, allowed for the assessment of the physiological state of the cells. All exposed lichens, regardless of the optical filters used, showed nearly the same photosynthetic activity after the flight as measured before the flight. Likewise, the multimicroscopy approach revealed no detectable ultrastructural changes in most of the algal and fungal cells of the lichen thalli, though a greater proportion of cells in the flight samples had compromised membranes, as revealed by the LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability Kit. These findings indicate that most lichenized fungal and algal cells can survive in space after full exposure to massive UV and cosmic radiation, conditions proven to be lethal to bacteria and other microorganisms. The lichen upper cortex seems to provide adequate

  4. Lichens Survive in Space: Results from the 2005 LICHENS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sancho, Leopoldo G.; de la Torre, Rosa; Horneck, Gerda; Ascaso, Carmen; de los Rios, Asunción; Pintado, Ana; Wierzchos, J.; Schuster, M.

    2007-06-01

    This experiment was aimed at establishing, for the first time, the survival capability of lichens exposed to space conditions. In particular, the damaging effect of various wavelengths of extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was studied. The lichens used were the bipolar species Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans, which were collected above 2000 m in the mountains of central Spain and as endolithic communities inhabiting granites in the Antarctic Dry Valleys. Lichens were exposed to space in the BIOPAN-5 facility of the European Space Agency; BIOPAN-5 is located on the outer shell of the Earth-orbiting FOTON-M2 Russian satellite. The lichen samples were launched from Baikonur by a Soyuz rocket on May 31, 2005, and were returned to Earth after 16 days in space, at which time they were tested for survival. Chlorophyll fluorescence was used for the measurement of photosynthetic parameters. Scanning electron microscopy in back-scattered mode, low temperature scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the organization and composition of both symbionts. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, in combination with the use of specific fluorescent probes, allowed for the assessment of the physiological state of the cells. All exposed lichens, regardless of the optical filters used, showed nearly the same photosynthetic activity after the flight as measured before the flight. Likewise, the multimicroscopy approach revealed no detectable ultrastructural changes in most of the algal and fungal cells of the lichen thalli, though a greater proportion of cells in the flight samples had compromised membranes, as revealed by the LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability Kit. These findings indicate that most lichenized fungal and algal cells can survive in space after full exposure to massive UV and cosmic radiation, conditions proven to be lethal to bacteria and other microorganisms. The lichen upper cortex seems to provide adequate

  5. Bacterial communities associated with the lichen symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Bates, Scott T; Cropsey, Garrett W G; Caporaso, J Gregory; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah

    2011-02-01

    Lichens are commonly described as a mutualistic symbiosis between fungi and "algae" (Chlorophyta or Cyanobacteria); however, they also have internal bacterial communities. Recent research suggests that lichen-associated microbes are an integral component of lichen thalli and that the classical view of this symbiotic relationship should be expanded to include bacteria. However, we still have a limited understanding of the phylogenetic structure of these communities and their variability across lichen species. To address these knowledge gaps, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to survey the bacterial communities associated with lichens. Bacterial sequences obtained from four lichen species at multiple locations on rock outcrops suggested that each lichen species harbored a distinct community and that all communities were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria. Across all samples, we recovered numerous bacterial phylotypes that were closely related to sequences isolated from lichens in prior investigations, including those from a lichen-associated Rhizobiales lineage (LAR1; putative N(2) fixers). LAR1-related phylotypes were relatively abundant and were found in all four lichen species, and many sequences closely related to other known N(2) fixers (e.g., Azospirillum, Bradyrhizobium, and Frankia) were recovered. Our findings confirm the presence of highly structured bacterial communities within lichens and provide additional evidence that these bacteria may serve distinct functional roles within lichen symbioses. PMID:21169444

  6. Neonatal herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Berardi, Alberto; Lugli, Licia; Rossi, Cecilia; Maria, Chiara Laguardia; Guidotti, Isotta; Gallo, Claudio; Ferrari, Fabrizio

    2011-10-01

    Herpes simplex virus is an important cause of neonatal infection, which can lead to death or long-term disabilities. Rarely in utero, the transmission frequently occurs during delivery. The disease may be disseminated, localized to the central nervous system, or involving skin, eye and/or mouth. Mortality rates markedly decreased with high-dose antiviral treatment. Diagnosis of neonatal infection is based on viral isolation from ulcerated vesicles or by scarifying mucocutaneous lesions. Recently polymerase chain reaction plays a central role for both viral detection (skin, mucosal, cerebrospinal fluid samples) and response to therapy. Vertical transmission may be decreased by prophylactic antiviral treatment. PMID:21942600

  7. Condyloma with lichen nitidus.

    PubMed

    Scheinfeld, Noah S; Lehman, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    A 32-year-old black man presented with two separate eruptions on his penis (Figure). He has had a 10-year history of asymptomatic 1-3 mm shiny papules on the shaft of his penis. He also has had one asymptomatic verrucous brown plaque 1.5 cm in diameter on his penis. A small shave biopsy was performed for each process. The former showed lymphocytes and histocytes in the papillary dermis in a "ball-in-claw" relation to the rete ridges of the epidermis. The latter showed an acanthotic epidermis with papillomatosis. Diagnoses of lichen nitidus and condyloma acuminata were respectively made. As the shiny papules did not bother the patient, but he wanted to be rid of the verrucous plaque, only the latter was treated. Liquid nitrogen was applied to the plaque. The patient was also given podofilox 0.5% gel to apply to the condyloma overnight on Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday, with a 4-day respite. This cycle was to be repeated for 3 more weeks. He was examined several more times and treated with cryotherapy and podofilox gel with the near disappearance of the condyloma over 4 months. PMID:15891255

  8. Simplex turbopump design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, Matt; Cowan, Penny

    1994-01-01

    Turbomachinery used in liquid rocket engines typically are composed of complex geometries made from high strength-to-weight super alloys and have long design and fabrication cycle times (3 to 5 years). A simple, low-cost turbopump is being designed in-house to demonstrate the ability to reduce the overall cost to $500K and compress life cycle time to 18 months. The simplex turbopump was designed to provide a discharge pressure of 1500 psia of liquid oxygen at 90 lbm/s. The turbine will be powered by gaseous oxygen. This eliminates the need for an inter-propellant seal typically required to separate the fuel-rich turbine gases from the liquid oxygen pump components. Materials used in the turbine flow paths will utilize existing characterized metals at 800 deg R that are compatible with a warm oxygen environment. This turbopump design would be suitable for integration with a 40 K pound thrust hybrid motor that provides warm oxygen from a tapped-off location to power the turbine. The preliminary and detailed analysis was completed in a year by a multiple discipline, concurrent engineering team. Manpower, schedule, and cost data were tracked during the process for a comparison to the initial goal. The Simplex hardware is the procurement cycle with the expectation of the first test to occur approximately 1.5 months behind the original schedule goal.

  9. Water isotopes in desiccating lichens

    PubMed Central

    Cuntz, Matthias; Máguas, Cristina; Lakatos, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The stable isotopic composition of water is routinely used as a tracer to study water exchange processes in vascular plants and ecosystems. To date, no study has focussed on isotope processes in non-vascular, poikilohydric organisms such as lichens and bryophytes. To understand basic isotope exchange processes of non-vascular plants, thallus water isotopic composition was studied in various green-algal lichens exposed to desiccation. The study indicates that lichens equilibrate with the isotopic composition of surrounding water vapour. A model was developed as a proof of concept that accounts for the specific water relations of these poikilohydric organisms. The approach incorporates first their variable thallus water potential and second a compartmentation of the thallus water into two isotopically distinct but connected water pools. Moreover, the results represent first steps towards the development of poikilohydric organisms as a recorder of ambient vapour isotopic composition. PMID:19888598

  10. Water isotopes in desiccating lichens.

    PubMed

    Hartard, Britta; Cuntz, Matthias; Máguas, Cristina; Lakatos, Michael

    2009-12-01

    The stable isotopic composition of water is routinely used as a tracer to study water exchange processes in vascular plants and ecosystems. To date, no study has focussed on isotope processes in non-vascular, poikilohydric organisms such as lichens and bryophytes. To understand basic isotope exchange processes of non-vascular plants, thallus water isotopic composition was studied in various green-algal lichens exposed to desiccation. The study indicates that lichens equilibrate with the isotopic composition of surrounding water vapour. A model was developed as a proof of concept that accounts for the specific water relations of these poikilohydric organisms. The approach incorporates first their variable thallus water potential and second a compartmentation of the thallus water into two isotopically distinct but connected water pools. Moreover, the results represent first steps towards the development of poikilohydric organisms as a recorder of ambient vapour isotopic composition. PMID:19888598

  11. Xanthones of Lichen Source: A 2016 Update.

    PubMed

    Le Pogam, Pierre; Boustie, Joël

    2016-01-01

    An update of xanthones encountered in lichens is proposed as more than 20 new xanthones have been described since the publication of the compendium of lichen metabolites by Huneck and Yoshimura in 1996. The last decades witnessed major advances regarding the elucidation of biosynthetic schemes leading to these fascinating compounds, accounting for the unique substitution patterns of a very vast majority of lichen xanthones. Besides a comprehensive analysis of the structures of xanthones described in lichens, their bioactivities and the emerging analytical strategies used to pinpoint them within lichens are presented here together with physico-chemical properties (including NMR data) as reported since 1996. PMID:26950106

  12. Clinical recommendation: pediatric lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Bercaw-Pratt, Jennifer L; Boardman, Lori A; Simms-Cendan, Judith S

    2014-04-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the anogenital region that may present in the prepubertal or adolescent patient. Clinical presentations include significant pruritus, labial adhesions, and loss of pigmentation. Treatment includes topical anti-inflammatory agents and long-term follow-up as there is a high risk of recurrence and an increased risk of vulvar cancer in adult women with history of lichen sclerosus. These recommendations are intended for pediatricians, gynecologists, nurse practitioners and others who care for pediatric/adolescent girls in order to facilitate diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24602304

  13. [Neonatal herpes simplex infection].

    PubMed

    van Ham-Borawitz, V E J; Stam, E D; Welborn, K M; Sas, T C J

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal encephalitis caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a familiar disease with a high mortality and morbidity rate. Isolated skin-eye-mouth infection is less familiar among professionals. In this article we present two neonates with an isolated skin lesion caused by an HSV infection. Of the neonates infected with HSV, 40-45% show isolated skin-eye-mouth disease. With correct treatment, the risk of spread to the central nervous system will decrease from 50-60% to 5-10%. Typical HSV skin lesions may present at a late stage of the disease or may be masked by a secondary bacterial infection. When a neonate presents with atypical skin lesions starting 7-12 days after the birth, immediate testing for HSV and immediate treatment are required, to decrease the risk of further progression of the disease. PMID:27122069

  14. Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the skin, eyes, and mouth. This is a life-threatening infection that can lead to permanent brain damage or even death. Herpes simplex viruses also cause encephalitis, an infection of the brain. ...

  15. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petzold, Donald E.; Goward, Samuel N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the midlatitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 microns, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future.

  16. Lichens of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, L.C.; Rope, S.K.

    1987-09-01

    A study begun in 1984 to evaluate the feasibility of using lichens to monitor air pollution at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has provided good baseline data on the lichen flora of the site. To date, 111 lichen taxa, including 25 genera and 110 species, have been identified. Six genera (Agrestia, Heterodermia, Microthelia, Polyblastiopsis, Teloschistes, and Verrucaria) and 49 species were previously unrecorded in Idaho. A key to the lichen species of the INEL and a general description of the genera are included as appendices to this report. Voucher specimens of lichens found at the INEL are being stored at the Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory. As of May 1987, 43 species have been curated in the lichen herbarium there.

  17. Herpes simplex keratitis.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Stephen; Choudhary, Anshoo

    2006-07-01

    Herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) results from an infection with the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) also known as human herpesvirus type 1 (HHV-1). Primary infection may involve an ocular or non-ocular site, following which latency might be established principally in the trigeminal ganglion but also in the cornea. During latency, the virus appears as a circular episome associated with histones with active transcription only from the region encoding the latency-associated transcript (LAT). The LAT region is implicated in neuronal survival, anti-apoptosis, virulence, suppression of transcription, establishment of and reactivation from latency. The initial keratitis may develop after infection through the "front door route" (entry into the ocular surface from droplet spread) or "back door route" (spread to the eye from a non-ocular site, principally the mouth). The initial ocular infection may be mild. Visual morbidity results from recurrent keratitis, which leads to corneal scarring, thinning and neovascularisation. Although, recurrent disease may potentially occur through anterograde axonal spread from the trigeminal ganglion to the cornea, recent evidence suggests that HSV-1 in the cornea may be another source of recurrent disease. The pathogenesis and severity of HSK is largely determined by an interaction between viral genes encoded by the strain of HSV-1 and the make up of the host's immune system. Herpetic stromal disease is due to the immune response to virus within the cornea and the ability of the strain to cause corneal stromal disease is correlated with its ability to induce corneal vascularisation. The pathogenesis of corneal scarring and vascularisation is uncertain but appears to be a complex interaction of various cytokines, chemokines and growth factors either brought in by inflammatory cells or produced locally in response to HSV-1 infection. Evidence now suggests that HSV-1 infection disrupts the normal equilibrium between angiogenic and anti

  18. Lichens: unexpected anti-prion agents?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Bennett, James P.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The prion diseases sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease are transmitted, in part, via an environmental reservoir of infectivity; prions released from infected animals persist in the environment and can cause disease years later. Central to controlling disease transmission is the identification of methods capable of inactivating these agents on the landscape. We have found that certain lichens, common, ubiquitous, symbiotic organisms, possess a serine protease capable of degrading prion protein (PrP) from prion-infected animals. The protease functions against a range of prion strains from various hosts and reduces levels of abnormal PrP by at least two logs. We have now tested more than 20 lichen species from several geographical locations and from various taxa and found that approximately half of these species degrade PrP. Critical next steps include examining the effect of lichens on prion infectivity and cloning the protease responsible for PrP degradation. The impact of lichens on prions in the environment remains unknown. We speculate that lichens could have the potential to degrade prions when they are shed from infected animals onto lichens or into environments where lichens are abundant. In addition, lichens are frequently consumed by cervids and many other animals and the effect of dietary lichens on prion disease transmission should also be considered.

  19. Cicatricial keratoconjunctivitis associated with lichen planus

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Susan; Channa, Prabjot

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a case of cicatricial keratoconjunctivitis associated with lichen planus. Methods: Case report. Results: To our knowledge, this is the sixth reported case of cicatricial keratoconjunctivitis associated with lichen planus. A 73-year-old woman had persistent cicatricial keratoconjunctivitis. Histopathologic studies of the buccal mucosa biopsy specimen revealed lichen planus. Conclusion: Lichen planus is a possible cause of cicatricial keratoconjunctivitis. Topical cyclosporine may stabilize the ocular surface, and additional systemic immunosuppression may be needed in severe cases. A correct diagnosis through biopsy is essential to start aggressive anti-inflammatory treatment to avoid vision loss.

  20. Anisakis simplex: current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Pravettoni, V; Primavesi, L; Piantanida, M

    2012-08-01

    Anisakiasis, firstly described in 1960s in the Netherlands, is a fish-borne parasitic disease caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked fish or cephalopods contaminated by third stage (13) larvae of the Anisakidae family, in particular Anisakis simplex (As), A. pegreffii and Pseudoterranova decipiens. Every year, approximately 20,000 cases of anisakiasis were reported worldwide, over 90% are from Japan and most others in Spain, the Netherlands and Germany, depending on the habits of fish consuming. Live As larvae can elicit i) a parasitic infection of the digestive tract or, occasionally, other organs, causing erosive and/or haemorrhagic lesions, ascites, perforations until granulomas and masses, if larva is not removed, and ii) allergic reactions, as anaphylaxis, acute/chronic urticaria and angioedema. Like other parasite infestations, As larva induces an immune adaptive response characterised by T-lymphocyte proliferation with polyclonal and monoclonal (responsible for As allergic symptoms) IgE production, eosinophilia and mastocytosis. Several As allergens, many of which thermostable, were described In particular the major allergen Ani s 1 and Ani s 7 could characterized a past or a recent infection. There is a general agreement that an active infection is required to initiate allergic sensitivity to Anisakis. Until now, the only effective treatment for anisakiasis is the endoscopic removal of live larvae and the best protection against anisakiasis is to educate consumers about the dangers of eating raw fish and to recommend avoiding the consumption of raw or inadequately thermally treated marine fish or cephalopods. PMID:23092000

  1. Vulvar Skin Disorders throughout Lifetime: About Some Representative Dermatoses

    PubMed Central

    Doyen, Jean; Demoulin, Stéphanie; Delbecque, Katty; Goffin, Frédéric; Kridelka, Frédéric; Delvenne, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present general considerations which should be kept in mind by clinicians in charge of women with vulvar diseases. Four representative vulvar dermatoses are described. Lichen simplex chronicus is a pathological condition related to chemical and mechanical irritant agents. Detrimental effects of these irritants, in the presence of other dermatoses, have to be considered when therapeutic responses are unsatisfactory. Lichen sclerosus is the most common vulvar dermatosis in elderly. However, it should be kept in mind that it may be diagnosed at any age. Lichen planus, in spite of sharing a similar range of etiological factors with lichen sclerosus, is a very distinct entity. Finally, Paget's disease, although rare, is also described especially because of the challenge it represents both clinically and therapeutically. PMID:24511539

  2. Host use of a specialist lichen-feeder: dealing with lichen secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Pöykkö, Heikki; Backor, Martin; Bencúrová, Elena; Molcanová, Viktoria; Backorová, Miriam; Hyvärinen, Marko

    2010-10-01

    Host use by herbivores is largely determined by host properties such as nutrient content and chemical defence against foragers. The impacts of these attributes on a herbivore may largely depend on its life cycle stage. Lichen species are known to differ in nutritional quality and level of chemical defence and, consequently, vary as fodder for herbivores. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of several lichen species and the presence of their secondary metabolites on their use as hosts by a specialist lichen-feeder, Cleorodes lichenaria. This study also addressed, for the first time, how a specialist lichen-feeder deals with different lichen secondary metabolites. In the beginning of their development, larvae grew better on Xanthoria parietina than on the other host lichens, whereas older larvae grew best on Ramalina fraxinea. Lichen secondary chemicals in R. fraxinea and Parmelia sulcata hindered larval growth in the beginning but after 75 days lichen secondary chemicals had no impact on the mass of larvae. Physodic acids in Hypogymnia physodes were lethal to larvae. In general, larvae metabolized 70-95% of ingested lichen secondary chemicals and the rest of these were excreted in frass. Lichen secondary metabolites in P. sulcata restrict and in H. physodes prevent their use as a host for C. lichenaria larvae. Our main finding, the ability of larvae to metabolize several lichen secondary metabolites, indicates digestive adaptation to these chemicals. No signs of sequestration of these chemicals were found. PMID:20585810

  3. The "Ride for Russia" Tree Lichen Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of nine indicator lichens found on trees in Northern Europe and Western Russia was used for monitoring air quality. The 4200 mile route of the survey went through eight countries. Surveys were carried out in cities, towns, countryside and forests, and along motorways. The author has conducted tree lichen surveys with pupils from…

  4. Lichen striatus with onychodystrophy in an infant

    PubMed Central

    Krishnegowda, Shilpa Y.; Reddy, Sudhir Kumar Ninga; Vasudevan, Periswamy

    2015-01-01

    Lichen striatus with nail involvement is rare and is often unnoticed. Nail changes are often nonspecific but they are usually localized to one portion of the nail. Also single nail involvement and presence of skin lesions near the nail are often noticed. We report the case of an infant with lichen striatus and nail involvement. PMID:26500864

  5. [How lichen was translated as Chii].

    PubMed

    Kubo, Teruyuki

    2009-01-01

    Chii, the Japanese term for 'lichen', is widely used in contemporary East Asia. However, precisely when and by whom this term was first used to refer to lichen is not known. In addition, Japanese botanists from the 1880s to the 1950s had doubts regarding whether Chii was an accurate translation of lichen, given that Chii originally referred to moss that grows on the ground, whereas most species of lichens grow on barks of trees or on rocks. In this paper, the author shows that Li Shanlan and A. Williamson et al., in the late Qing dynasty of China, first used the term Chii to refer to lichen in Zhiwuxue, published in 1858. In Japan, Tanaka Yoshio, who was influenced by Zhiwuxue, first used the term Chii in 1872. However, further investigations led to the discovery that ITO Keisuke translated lichen as Risen in 1829. In 1836, UDAGAWA Yoan also translated lichen as Risen by using a different kanji (Chinese character) to represent sen. In 1888, in his article, MIYOSHI Manabu suggested a new equivalent term, Kisoukin, to refer to lichen (algae-parasitized fungi). In the article, he proposed the term Kyosei as the Japanese translation of symbiosis. Ever since the late 1880s, Kyosei has been used as the Japanese biological term for symbiosis. PMID:19824315

  6. The Significance of Herpes Simplex for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensor, Deirdre

    2005-01-01

    Herpes simplex is a common recurrent viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. The two closely related but distinct viruses that cause herpes simplex infections are herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 is commonly associated with infections around the oral mucosa and is the cause of herpes labialis, often referred…

  7. Microbiome change by symbiotic invasion in lichens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Stefanie; Wedin, Mats; Fernandez-Brime, Samantha; Cronholm, Bodil; Westberg, Martin; Weber, Bettina; Grube, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSC) seal the soil surface from erosive forces in many habitats where plants cannot compete. Lichens symbioses of fungi and algae often form significant fraction of these microbial assemblages. In addition to the fungal symbiont, many species of other fungi can inhabit the lichenic structures and interact with their hosts in different ways, ranging from commensalism to parasitism. More than 1800 species of lichenicolous (lichen-inhabiting) fungi are known to science. One example is Diploschistes muscorum, a common species in lichen-dominated BSC that infects lichens of the genus Cladonia. D. muscorum starts as a lichenicolous fungus, invading the lichen Cladonia symphycarpa and gradually develops an independent Diploschistes lichen thallus. Furthermore, bacterial groups, such as Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria, have been consistently recovered from lichen thalli and evidence is rapidly accumulating that these microbes may generally play integral roles in the lichen symbiosis. Here we describe lichen microbiome dynamics as the parasitic lichen D. muscorum takes over C. symphycarpa. We used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene and photobiont-specific ITS rDNA sequencing to track bacterial and algal transitions during the infection process, and employed fluorescence in situ hybridization to localize bacteria in the Cladonia and Diploschistes lichen thalli. We sampled four transitional stages, at sites in Sweden and Germany: A) Cladonia with no visible infection, B) early infection stage defined by the first visible Diploschistes thallus, C) late-stage infection with parts of the Cladonia thallus still identifiable, and D) final stage with a fully developed Diploschistes thallus, A gradual microbiome shift occurred during the transition, but fractions of Cladonia-associated bacteria were retained during the process of symbiotic reorganization. Consistent changes observed across sites included a notable decrease in the relative abundance of

  8. Covariance of lichen and vascular plant floras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    The geographic relationships among taxonomic groups are important to study to determine patterns of biodiversity and whether or not associations occur between large groups, e.g., birds and vascular plants. This study was undertaken to determine relationships between higher plants and lower plants, specifically vascular plant and lichen floras in nine national parks of the Great Lakes region. No significant relationship was found between vascular plant floras and lichen floras in this area, which spans 1200 km longitudinally, or between an additional 19 areas from North America that were less than 1000 km(2) in area. For areas larger than 1000 km(2), however, a significant positive relationship existed for 33 areas that span one to approximately 150 million km(2). The ratio of numbers of vascular plants to lichens appeared to average just over 6 across the 33 areas. In the Great Lakes parks, between 28-30% of either the vascular plant or lichen species were singletons (occurring in only one park), but the parks that contained the most singletons were not congruent: Isle Royale had the most singleton lichens, while Indiana Dunes had the most vascular plant singletons. Fewer lichen species (2%) than vascular plants (4%) occurred in all nine parks. Latitude appeared to explain some of the variation between the two groups: vascular plants decreased with increasing latitude, while lichens increased.

  9. Microbiome change by symbiotic invasion in lichens.

    PubMed

    Wedin, Mats; Maier, Stefanie; Fernandez-Brime, Samantha; Cronholm, Bodil; Westberg, Martin; Grube, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Lichens are obligate symbioses between fungi and green algae or cyanobacteria. Most lichens resynthesize their symbiotic thalli from propagules, but some develop within the structures of already existing lichen symbioses. Diploschistes muscorum starts as a parasite infecting the lichen Cladonia symphycarpa and gradually develops an independent Diploschistes lichen thallus. Here we studied how this process influences lichen-associated microbiomes and photobionts by sampling four transitional stages, at sites in Sweden and Germany, and characterizing their microbial communities using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene and photobiont-specific ITS rDNA sequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. A gradual microbiome shift occurred during the transition, but fractions of Cladonia-associated bacteria were retained during the process of symbiotic reorganization. Consistent changes observed across sites included a notable decrease in the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria with a concomitant increase in Betaproteobacteria. Armatimonadia, Spartobacteria and Acidobacteria also decreased during the infection of Cladonia by Diploschistes. The lichens differed in photobiont specificity. Cladonia symphycarpa was associated with the same algal species at all sites, but Diploschistes muscorum had a flexible strategy with different photobiont combinations at each site. This symbiotic invasion system suggests that partners can be reorganized and selected for maintaining potential roles rather than depending on particular species. PMID:26310431

  10. Innovative Approaches Using Lichen Enriched Media to Improve Isolation and Culturability of Lichen Associated Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Biosca, Elena G.; Flores, Raquel; Santander, Ricardo D.; Díez-Gil, José Luis; Barreno, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Lichens, self-supporting mutualistic associations between a fungal partner and one or more photosynthetic partners, also harbor non-photosynthetic bacteria. The diversity and contribution of these bacteria to the functioning of lichen symbiosis have recently begun to be studied, often by culture-independent techniques due to difficulties in their isolation and culture. However, culturing as yet unculturable lichenic bacteria is critical to unravel their potential functional roles in lichen symbiogenesis, to explore and exploit their biotechnological potential and for the description of new taxa. Our objective was to improve the recovery of lichen associated bacteria by developing novel isolation and culture approaches, initially using the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. We evaluated the effect of newly developed media enriched with novel lichen extracts, as well as the influence of thalli washing time and different disinfection and processing protocols of thalli. The developed methodology included: i) the use of lichen enriched media to mimic lichen nutrients, supplemented with the fungicide natamycin; ii) an extended washing of thalli to increase the recovery of ectolichenic bacteria, thus allowing the disinfection of thalli to be discarded, hence enhancing endolichenic bacteria recovery; and iii) the use of an antioxidant buffer to prevent or reduce oxidative stress during thalli disruption. The optimized methodology allowed significant increases in the number and diversity of culturable bacteria associated with P. furfuracea, and it was also successfully applied to the lichens Ramalina farinacea and Parmotrema pseudotinctorum. Furthermore, we provide, for the first time, data on the abundance of culturable ecto- and endolichenic bacteria that naturally colonize P. furfuracea, R. farinacea and P. pseudotinctorum, some of which were only able to grow on lichen enriched media. This innovative methodology is also applicable to other microorganisms inhabiting these

  11. Innovative Approaches Using Lichen Enriched Media to Improve Isolation and Culturability of Lichen Associated Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Biosca, Elena G; Flores, Raquel; Santander, Ricardo D; Díez-Gil, José Luis; Barreno, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Lichens, self-supporting mutualistic associations between a fungal partner and one or more photosynthetic partners, also harbor non-photosynthetic bacteria. The diversity and contribution of these bacteria to the functioning of lichen symbiosis have recently begun to be studied, often by culture-independent techniques due to difficulties in their isolation and culture. However, culturing as yet unculturable lichenic bacteria is critical to unravel their potential functional roles in lichen symbiogenesis, to explore and exploit their biotechnological potential and for the description of new taxa. Our objective was to improve the recovery of lichen associated bacteria by developing novel isolation and culture approaches, initially using the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. We evaluated the effect of newly developed media enriched with novel lichen extracts, as well as the influence of thalli washing time and different disinfection and processing protocols of thalli. The developed methodology included: i) the use of lichen enriched media to mimic lichen nutrients, supplemented with the fungicide natamycin; ii) an extended washing of thalli to increase the recovery of ectolichenic bacteria, thus allowing the disinfection of thalli to be discarded, hence enhancing endolichenic bacteria recovery; and iii) the use of an antioxidant buffer to prevent or reduce oxidative stress during thalli disruption. The optimized methodology allowed significant increases in the number and diversity of culturable bacteria associated with P. furfuracea, and it was also successfully applied to the lichens Ramalina farinacea and Parmotrema pseudotinctorum. Furthermore, we provide, for the first time, data on the abundance of culturable ecto- and endolichenic bacteria that naturally colonize P. furfuracea, R. farinacea and P. pseudotinctorum, some of which were only able to grow on lichen enriched media. This innovative methodology is also applicable to other microorganisms inhabiting these

  12. Optimization of Protein Extraction for Lichen Thalli

    PubMed Central

    Kondratiuk, Anna S.; Savchuk, Oleksiy M.

    2015-01-01

    Lichen-forming fungal proteins have been seldom searched due to many difficulties in their extraction. Phenols, quinones, proteases, and other components released during cell disruption have been known to be the greatest challenges related to protein extraction from lichens. To overcome these problems and maintain good electrophoretic resolution and high protein concentration, an extraction buffer containing polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, ascorbic acid, Triton X-100, polyethylene glycol, proteinase, and oxidase inhibitors in sodium phosphate buffer was developed. This extraction buffer showed high efficiency for all lichen species tested in the study. PMID:26190923

  13. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) in Infants and Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide for infants and babies ... Herpes infections are caused by both herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus ...

  14. Recent advances in understanding urethral lichen sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Mangera, Altaf; Osman, Nadir; Chapple, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus affecting the male genitalia is a poorly understood but potentially devastating condition. The natural history of the condition is beginning to be understood better with longer follow-up of patients. Recent long-term data suggest that circumcision for lichen sclerosus limited to the prepuce may not be curative as was once thought. In addition, surgical treatments should be followed up for longer periods as recurrences may occur after urethroplasty and perineal urethrostomy. PMID:26918163

  15. Metabolic Profiling of Alpine and Ecuadorian Lichens.

    PubMed

    Mittermeier, Verena K; Schmitt, Nicola; Volk, Lukas P M; Suárez, Juan Pablo; Beck, Andreas; Eisenreich, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Non-targeted ¹H-NMR methods were used to determine metabolite profiles from crude extracts of Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens collected from their natural habitats. In control experiments, the robustness of metabolite detection and quantification was estimated using replicate measurements of Stereocaulon alpinum extracts. The deviations in the overall metabolite fingerprints were low when analyzing S. alpinum collections from different locations or during different annual and seasonal periods. In contrast, metabolite profiles observed from extracts of different Alpine and Ecuadorian lichens clearly revealed genus- and species-specific profiles. The discriminating functions determining cluster formation in principle component analysis (PCA) were due to differences in the amounts of genus-specific compounds such as sticticin from the Sticta species, but also in the amounts of ubiquitous metabolites, such as sugar alcohols or trehalose. However, varying concentrations of these metabolites from the same lichen species e.g., due to different environmental conditions appeared of minor relevance for the overall cluster formation in PCA. The metabolic clusters matched phylogenetic analyses using nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of lichen mycobionts, as exemplified for the genus Sticta. It can be concluded that NMR-based non-targeted metabolic profiling is a useful tool in the chemo-taxonomy of lichens. The same approach could also facilitate the discovery of novel lichen metabolites on a rapid and systematical basis. PMID:26437395

  16. Organic and inorganic nitrogen uptake in lichens.

    PubMed

    Dahlman, Lena; Persson, Jörgen; Palmqvist, Kristin; Näsholm, Torgny

    2004-07-01

    In order to learn more about nitrogen (N) acquisition in lichens, and to see whether different lichens differ in their affinity to various N sources, N uptake was measured in 14 various lichen associations ("species"). These species represented various morphologies (fruticose or foliose), contrasting microhabitat preferences (epiphytic or terricolous), and had green algal, cyanobacterial or both forms of photobionts. N was supplied under non-limiting conditions as an amino acid mixture, ammonium, or nitrate, using 15N to quantify uptake. Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) was used to separate active and passive uptake. Thallus N, amino acids, soluble polyol concentrations, and the biont-specific markers chlorophyll a and ergosterol were quantified, aiming to test if these metabolites or markers were correlated with N uptake capacity. Ammonium uptake was significantly greater and to a higher extent passive, relative to the other two N sources. Nitrate uptake differed among lichen photobiont groups, cyanobacterial lichens having a lower uptake rate. All lichens had the capacity to assimilate amino acids, in many species at rates equal to nitrate uptake or even higher, suggesting that organic N compounds could potentially have an important role in the N nutrition of these organisms. There were no clear correlations between N uptake rates and any of the measured metabolites or markers. The relative uptake rates of ammonium, nitrate and amino acids were not related to morphology or microhabitat. PMID:15060826

  17. Algal and fungal diversity in Antarctic lichens.

    PubMed

    Park, Chae Haeng; Kim, Kyung Mo; Elvebakk, Arve; Kim, Ok-Sun; Jeong, Gajin; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2015-01-01

    The composition of lichen ecosystems except mycobiont and photobiont has not been evaluated intensively. In addition, recent studies to identify algal genotypes have raised questions about the specific relationship between mycobiont and photobiont. In the current study, we analyzed algal and fungal community structures in lichen species from King George Island, Antarctica, by pyrosequencing of eukaryotic large subunit (LSU) and algal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domains of the nuclear rRNA gene. The sequencing results of LSU and ITS regions indicated that each lichen thallus contained diverse algal species. The major algal operational taxonomic unit (OTU) defined at a 99% similarity cutoff of LSU sequences accounted for 78.7-100% of the total algal community in each sample. In several cases, the major OTUs defined by LSU sequences were represented by two closely related OTUs defined by 98% sequence similarity of ITS domain. The results of LSU sequences indicated that lichen-associated fungi belonged to the Arthoniomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Leotiomycetes, and Sordariomycetes of the Ascomycota, and Tremellomycetes and Cystobasidiomycetes of the Basidiomycota. The composition of major photobiont species and lichen-associated fungal community were mostly related to the mycobiont species. The contribution of growth forms or substrates on composition of photobiont and lichen-associated fungi was not evident. PMID:25105247

  18. Advancing Paternal Age and Simplex Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puleo, Connor Morrow; Schmeidler, James; Reichenberg, Abraham; Kolevzon, Alexander; Soorya, Latha V.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    De novo events appear more common in female and simplex autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases and may underlie greater ASD risk in older fathers' offspring. This study examined whether advancing paternal age predicts an increase in simplex (n = 90) versus multiplex ASD cases (n = 587) in 677 participants (340 families). Whether or not controlling…

  19. Lichens from Simeonof Wilderness, Shumagin Island, Southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Thomson, J.W.; Daniels, F.J.A.; Schofield, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    One hundred eighty-eight taxa of lichens are reported from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands of southwestern Alaska. Wide-ranging arctic-alpine and boreal species dominate the lichens; a coastal element is moderately represented, while amphi-Beringian species form a minor element. The lichen component of Empetrum nigrum dwarf shrub heath, the dominant vegetation type, was analyzed to identify the most frequently occurring lichens within this community.

  20. Lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from the Albanian Alps (Kosovo, Montenegro)

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Eva A.; Hafellner, Josef; Stešević, Danijela; Geci, Fehmi; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    396 taxa (381 species) of lichenized and 45 species of lichenicolous fungi from the upper montane, subalpine and alpine belts of the Albanian Alps (= Prokletije Mountain Range, Bjeshkët e Nemuna) are presented. 92 lichenized and 26 lichenicolous fungi are new to Montenegro, 165 lichenized and 24 lichenicolous fungi are new to Kosovo, and 25 lichenized fungi (23 species) are new for the Balkan Peninsula. PMID:26869727

  1. Coxeter decompositions of hyperbolic simplexes

    SciTech Connect

    Felikson, A A

    2002-12-31

    A Coxeter decomposition of a polyhedron in a hyperbolic space H{sup n} is a decomposition of it into finitely many Coxeter polyhedra such that any two tiles having a common facet are symmetric with respect to it. The classification of Coxeter decompositions is closely related to the problem of the classification of finite-index subgroups generated by reflections in discrete hyperbolic groups generated by reflections. All Coxeter decompositions of simplexes in the hyperbolic spaces H{sup n} with n>3 are described in this paper.

  2. Observations on lichens, granite rock outcrops and acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Lichen sensitivity to the synergistic effects of acid rain and toxic metals in the Atlanta, Georgia area is discussed. The disappearance of lichens on Stone Mountain after the placement of a safety galvinized fence lead to the observations of possible acid rain effects on population dynamics of the lichen community.

  3. Catalogue of the Lichenized and Lichenicolous Fungi of Montenegro

    PubMed Central

    Knežević, Branka; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Summary The catalogue is based on a comprehensive evaluation of 169 published sources. The lichen mycota as currently known from Montenegro includes 681 species (with eight subspecies, nine varieties and one form) of lichenized fungi, 12 species of lichenicolous fungi, and nine non-lichenized fungi traditionally included in lichenological literature. PMID:21423858

  4. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS FROM ECUADORIAN LICHENS.

    PubMed

    Matvieieva, N A; Pasichnyk, L A; Zhytkevych, N V; Jacinto, Pabón Garcés Galo; Pidgorskyi, V S

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic, isopropanolic, acetone, DMSO and aqueous extracts of the two lichen species from Ecuadorian highland, Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. were explored in vitro against bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by the disc-diffusion method. Also the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The strongest antimicrobial activity was found in DMSO extract of Usnea sp. compared to antibacterial activity of ciprfloxacin and cefazolin antibiotics. The inhibition zone was 28 mm, 30 mm, 31mm (DMSO extract, ciprfloxacin and cefazolin respectively) in case of B. subtilis usage as the test bacteria. MIC value for Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. DMSO extracts was 0.4 mg/ml. E. coli was resistant to all kinds of extracts. The S. aureus sensitivity to lichen DMSO extracts was comparable to sensitivity of these microorganisms to tetracycline and vancomycin. Thereby, most kinds of extracts (ethanol, isopropanol, hexane, DMSO and acetone solvents) from Ecuadorian lichens Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. with the exception of aqueous Stereocaulon sp. extracts possessed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis. DMSO lichen extracts had also antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. At the same time the extracts studied didn't demonstrate antibacterial activity against the representatives of the most common and harmful phytopathogenic bacteria tested. Further investigations of Ecuadorian lichens especially study of plants collected from extremal highland biotops can be very important in study of possibility of treatment of numerous diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:26214895

  5. [Update on Herpes Simplex Encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), which is caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), is a severe neuro-infectious disease characterized by high mortality and morbidity. We reviewed the pathomechanism, diagnosis, and treatment of HSE based on recent progress in the field. The highlighted mechanism of HSE in this review is immune-mediated tissue damage caused by host immunity. Major symptoms of HSE include psychiatric alteration, Klüver-Bucy syndrome, and amnesia, caused by frequent involvement of the limbic system. An important differential diagnosis of HSE is autoimmune limbic encephalitis, including anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis, and anti-voltage-gated K+ channel encephalitis. HSE is definitely diagnosed based on the detection of HSV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction and/or the detection of HSV-IgG antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Repeated CSF examinations are required for the accurate diagnosis of HSE. Acyclovir (ACV) plays a central role in the treatment of HSE, and its early initiation is essential for good outcome in patients with HSE. Acute administration of corticosteroids for HSE is controversial; a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of add-on corticosteroids to ACV is ongoing. PMID:26160820

  6. Urban legends series: lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Baccaglini, L; Thongprasom, K; Carrozzo, M; Bigby, M

    2013-03-01

    Oral Diseases (2012) Lichen planus (LP) is a common disorder affecting the oral cavity (OLP) and skin. Despite intensive research, LP/OLP etiology and treatment remain controversial. We investigated four controversial topics: (i) Is hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection associated with LP and involved in its pathogenesis? (ii) Should all patients with LP be screened for HCV? (iii) Should patients with OLP have all their amalgam restorations removed? (iv) Are there any new treatments for OLP? Results from extensive literature searches suggested that: (i) Robust evidence from three meta-analyses indicate that HCV is associated with LP and might be involved in OLP pathogenesis (ii) It would be prudent to screen patients with LP/OLP at significant risk with an ELISA for HCV antibodies using country-specific screening strategies (iii) There is no evidence that either OLP or oral lichenoid lesions patients would routinely benefit from having all their amalgam restorations replaced. Weak evidence from potentially very biased, small, non-randomized, unblinded studies suggests that a small fraction of patients may benefit from targeted amalgam replacement. (iv) There is weak evidence that, among new OLP treatments, topical pimecrolimus, aloe vera, and oral curcuminoids may be useful. The development of specific formulations for oral delivery of topical medications is a promising field. PMID:22788669

  7. The lichen genus parmotrema in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jayalal, Udeni; Divakar, Pradeep K; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Koh, Young Jin; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2013-03-01

    Parmotrema A. Massal. is a common lichen genus scattered throughout the Korean Peninsula; however, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study of this genus has been conducted for nearly two decades. Therefore, this study revised the taxonomy of this genus based on specimens deposited in the lichen herbarium at the Korean Lichen Research Institute and samples wereidentified using recent literature. In this revisionary study, a total of eighteen species of Parmotrema including eight new records [Parmotrema cetratum (Ach.) Hale, Parmotrema cristiferum (Taylor) Hale, Parmotrema grayanum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema defectum (Hale) Hale, Parmotrema dilatatum (Vain.) Hale, Parmotrema margaritatum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema pseudocrinitum (Abbayes) Hale, and Parmotrema subsumptum (Nyl.) Hale] are documented. Detailed descriptions of each species with their morphological, anatomical and chemical characteristics are also given and a key to the known Parmotrema species of the Korean Peninsula is presented. PMID:23610536

  8. The Lichen Genus Parmotrema in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayalal, Udeni; Divakar, Pradeep K.; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Koh, Young Jin

    2013-01-01

    Parmotrema A. Massal. is a common lichen genus scattered throughout the Korean Peninsula; however, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study of this genus has been conducted for nearly two decades. Therefore, this study revised the taxonomy of this genus based on specimens deposited in the lichen herbarium at the Korean Lichen Research Institute and samples wereidentified using recent literature. In this revisionary study, a total of eighteen species of Parmotrema including eight new records [Parmotrema cetratum (Ach.) Hale, Parmotrema cristiferum (Taylor) Hale, Parmotrema grayanum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema defectum (Hale) Hale, Parmotrema dilatatum (Vain.) Hale, Parmotrema margaritatum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema pseudocrinitum (Abbayes) Hale, and Parmotrema subsumptum (Nyl.) Hale] are documented. Detailed descriptions of each species with their morphological, anatomical and chemical characteristics are also given and a key to the known Parmotrema species of the Korean Peninsula is presented. PMID:23610536

  9. Palmar lichen planus mimicking tinea nigra.

    PubMed

    Madke, Bhushan; Doshi, Bhavana; Wankhede, Prasad; Nayak, Chitra

    2013-09-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by polygonal, violaceous papules commonly involving flexural areas of the wrists, legs, and oral and genital mucous membranes. This report describes a patient who presented with asymptomatic black colored patches on both palms simulating Tinea nigra, a superficial fungal infection. She was previously diagnosed as allergic contact dermatitis and was being treated with potent topical steroid i.e. clobetasol propionate 0.05% and white soft paraffin. Dermatoscopy of the lesion showed brownish pigmentation along ridges of the dermatoglyphics. A biopsy from the lesional skin showed findings of lichen planus. Our case highlights the potential diagnostic confusion that can occur with unusual variants of palmoplantar lichen planus and importance of histopathology in diagnosis of such unusual lesions. PMID:24082209

  10. Lichens of Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, westernmost Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.; Thomson, J.W.; Schofield, W.B.

    2000-01-01

    One hundred eighty-two taxa of lichens including two lichen parasites are reported from Izembek National Wildlife Refuge on the tip of the Alaska Peninsula. Metasphaeria tartarina is new to North America; Scoliciosporum umbrinum is new to Alaska. Wide-ranging, arctic-alpine, and boreal species dominate the lichen flora; a coastal element is moderately represented, while amphi-Beringian species form a minor element. Epigeic lichen abundance is described along a lowland to alpine mesotopographic gradient selected to represent major landscape variation in the refuge. Of six major community types identified, three had significant lichen components.

  11. Contributions to the Foliicolous Lichens Flora of South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayalal, Udeni; Oh, Soon Ok; Lücking, Robert; Joshi, Santosh; Kim, Jung A; Park, Jung-Shin

    2013-01-01

    South Korea is covered primarily by temperate vegetation; therefore, foliicolous lichens may not be expected to play an important role in its lichen flora. However, this study describes four foliicolous lichen species, Strigula concreta, S. macrocarpa, S. melanobapha, and S. subelegans, which are new to South Korea. These findings will lead to further research on foliicolous lichens and provide a better understanding of their distribution within the East Asian region. This is the first detailed report on foliicolous lichens and their distribution in South Korea. PMID:24493940

  12. Lichen conservation in heavily managed boreal forests.

    PubMed

    McMullin, Richard Troy; Thompson, Ian D; Newmaster, Steven G

    2013-10-01

    Lichens are an important component of the boreal forest, where they are long lived, tend to accumulate in older stands, and are a major food source for the threatened woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou). To be fully sustainable, silvicultural practices in the boreal forest must include the conservation of ecological integrity. Dominant forest management practices, however, have short-term negative effects on lichen diversity, particularly the application of herbicides. To better understand the long-term effects of forest management, we examined lichen regeneration in 35 mixed black spruce (Picea mariana) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest stands across northern Ontario to determine recovery following logging and postharvest silvicultural practices. Our forest stands were 25-40 years old and had undergone 3 common sivilcultural treatments that included harvested and planted; harvested, planted, and treated with N-[phosphonomethyl] glycine (glyphosate); and harvested, planted, and treated with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Forest stands with herbicide treatments had lower lichen biomass and higher beta and gamma diversity than planted stands that were not treated chemically or control stands. In northwestern Ontario, planted stands that were not treated chemically had significantly greater (p < 0.05) alpha diversity than stands treated with herbicides or control stands. Our results show that common silvicultural practices do not emulate natural disturbances caused by wildfires in the boreal forest for the lichen community. We suggest a reduction in the amount of chemical application be considered in areas where lichen biomass is likely to be high and where the recovery of woodland caribou is an objective. PMID:23869621

  13. Palmoplantar lichen planus successfully treated with acitretin.

    PubMed

    Solak, Berna; Kara, Rabia Oztas; Kosem, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Palmoplantar lichen planus (PPL) is an uncommon type of lichen planus (LP) that exclusively affects the palms and soles. We report a case of a 50-year-old man who had palmoplantar hyperkeratotic papules and plaques. The patient was diagnosed as a case of PPL by skin biopsy, and treated with acitretin. He showed a good response to acitretin within 2 months. Clinical appearance and some features of PPL may differ from classic LP. Acitretin may be a favourable treatment option for PPL. PMID:26347237

  14. Herpes Simplex (Cold Sores and Genital Herpes)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 508 Herpes Simplex (Cold Sores and Genital Herpes) WHAT IS HERPES? HSV ... virus 1 (HSV1) is the common cause of cold sores (oral herpes) around the mouth. HSV2 normally ...

  15. Longitudinal photosynthetic gradient in crust lichens' thalli.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li; Zhang, Gaoke; Lan, Shubin; Zhang, Delu; Hu, Chunxiang

    2014-05-01

    In order to evaluate the self-shading protection for inner photobionts, the photosynthetic activities of three crust lichens were detected using Microscope-Imaging-PAM. The false color images showed that longitudinal photosynthetic gradient was found in both the green algal lichen Placidium sp. and the cyanolichen Peltula sp. In longitudinal direction, all the four chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Fv/Fm, Yield, qP, and rETR gradually decreased with depth in the thalli of both of these two lichens. In Placidium sp., qN values decreased with depth, whereas an opposite trend was found in Peltula sp. However, no such photosynthetic heterogeneity was found in the thalli of Collema sp. in longitudinal direction. Microscope observation showed that photobiont cells are compactly arranged in Placidium sp. and Peltula sp. while loosely distributed in Collema sp. It was considered that the longitudinal photosynthetic heterogeneity was ascribed to the result of gradual decrease of incidence caused by the compact arrangement of photobiont cells in the thalli. The results indicate a good protection from the self-shading for the inner photobionts against high radiation in crust lichens. PMID:24477924

  16. Extremotolerance and Resistance of Lichens: Comparative Studies on Five Species Used in Astrobiological Research II. Secondary Lichen Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeßen, J.; Sánchez, F. J.; Sadowsky, A.; de la Torre, R.; Ott, S.; de Vera, J.-P.

    2013-12-01

    Lichens, which are symbioses of a fungus and one or two photoautotrophs, frequently tolerate extreme environmental conditions. This makes them valuable model systems in astrobiological research to fathom the limits and limitations of eukaryotic symbioses. Various studies demonstrated the high resistance of selected extremotolerant lichens towards extreme, non-terrestrial abiotic factors including space exposure, hypervelocity impact simulations as well as space and Martian parameter simulations. This study focusses on the diverse set of secondary lichen compounds (SLCs) that act as photo- and UVR-protective substances. Five lichen species used in present-day astrobiological research were compared: Buellia frigida, Circinaria gyrosa, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Xanthoria elegans, and Pleopsidium chlorophanum. Detailed investigation of secondary substances including photosynthetic pigments was performed for whole lichen thalli but also for axenically cultivated mycobionts and photobionts by methods of UV/VIS-spectrophotometry and two types of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Additionally, a set of chemical tests is presented to confirm the formation of melanic compounds in lichen and mycobiont samples. All investigated lichens reveal various sets of SLCs, except C. gyrosa where only melanin was putatively identified. Such studies will help to assess the contribution of SLCs on lichen extremotolerance, to understand the adaptation of lichens to prevalent abiotic stressors of the respective habitat, and to form a basis for interpreting recent and future astrobiological experiments. As most of the identified SLCs demonstrated a high capacity in absorbing UVR, they may also explain the high resistance of lichens towards non-terrestrial UVR.

  17. Lichens as bioindicators of air quality. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Stolte, K.; Doty, R.; Mangis, D.; Tonnessen, K.; Huckaby, L.S.

    1993-03-01

    The report is the result of a workshop held in Denver, Colorado on April 9-11, 1991. It summarizes the current literature and techniques for using lichens to monitor air quality. Experts in lichenology and ecology contributed information on lichen floristics, characterization of monitoring sites, lichen species and communities, identifying lichen species sensitive to pollutants, active monitoring with transplants, chemical analysis of lichens, and case studies as examples of lichen biomonitoring scenarios.

  18. Lichen metabolism identified in Early Devonian terrestrial organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahren, A. Hope; Porter, Steven; Kuglitsch, Jeffrey J.

    2003-02-01

    We used δ13C values to identify lichen metabolism in the globally distributed Early Devonian (409 386 Ma) macrofossil Spongiophyton minutissimum, which had been alternatively interpreted as a green plant of bryophyte grade or as a lichen, based on its morphology. Extant mosses and hornworts exhibited a range of δ13Ctissue values that was discrete from that of extant lichens. The δ13Ctissue values of 96 S. minutissimum specimens coincided with δ13Ctissue values of extant lichens. In contrast, S. minutissimum δ13Ctissue values showed no similarity to bryophyte carbon isotope values. The identification of large global populations of lichens during the Early Devonian may indicate that lichen-accelerated soil formation fostered the development of Paleozoic terrestrial ecosystems.

  19. 137Cs desorption from lichen using acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čučulović, A. A.; Veselinović, D.; Miljanić, S. S.

    2009-09-01

    Desoprtion of 137Cs from samples of Cetraria islandica lichen using HCl ( A) and HNO3 ( B) acid solutions with pH values from 2.00 to 3.75 was investigated. After five consecutive desorptions lasting 24 h it was shown that between 52.2% (solution B pH 3.28) and 72.2% (solution A pH 2.00) of 137Cs was desorbed from the lichen and the initial desorptions were the most successful. Lichen desorbed with the stated solutions did not undergo structural changes. The amount of absorbed water from solutions A and B, used for desorption from lichen, in relation to the starting volume (expressed in %) showed that solution concentration did not take place. Lichen act as neutralizing agents because the pH of the lichen thallus is higher than the pH value of the solution used

  20. Surface Hydrophobicity Causes SO2 Tolerance in Lichens

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René; Brinkmann, Martin; Herminghaus, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The superhydrophobicity of the thallus surface in one of the most SO2-tolerant lichen species, Lecanora conizaeoides, suggests that surface hydrophobicity could be a general feature of lichen symbioses controlling their tolerance to SO2. The study described here tests this hypothesis. Methods Water droplets of the size of a raindrop were placed on the surface of air-dry thalli in 50 lichen species of known SO2 tolerance and contact angles were measured to quantify hydrophobicity. Key Results The wettability of lichen thalli ranges from strongly hydrophobic to strongly hydrophilic. SO2 tolerance of the studied lichen species increased with increasing hydrophobicity of the thallus surface. Extraction of extracellular lichen secondary metabolites with acetone reduced, but did not abolish the hydrophobicity of lichen thalli. Conclusions Surface hydrophobicity is the main factor controlling SO2 tolerance in lichens. It presumably originally evolved as an adaptation to wet habitats preventing the depression of net photosynthesis due to supersaturation of the thallus with water. Hydrophilicity of lichen thalli is an adaptation to dry or humid, but not directly rain-exposed habitats. The crucial role of surface hydrophobicity in SO2 also explains why many markedly SO2-tolerant species are additionally tolerant to other (chemically unrelated) toxic substances including heavy metals. PMID:18077467

  1. Age, sun and substrate: triggers of bacterial communities in lichens.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Massimiliano; Steinová, Jana; Rabensteiner, Johannes; Berg, Gabriele; Grube, Martin

    2012-02-01

    Bacterial communities colonize the surfaces of lichens in a biofilm-like manner. The overall structure of the bacterial communities harboured by the lichens shows similarities, in particular the dominance of not yet cultured Alphaproteobacteria. Parameters causing variation in abundance, composition and spatial organization of the lichen-associated bacterial communities are so far poorly understood. As a first step, we used a microscopic approach to test the significance of both lichen-intrinsic and extrinsic environmental factors on the bacterial communities associated with 11 lichen samples, belonging to six species. Some of these species have thalli with a distinct age gradient. A statistically significant effect can be attributed to the age of the thallus parts, which is an intrinsic factor: growing parts of the lichens host bacterial communities that significantly differ from those of the ageing portions of the thalli. The substrate type (rock, tree, understory) and (at a lower extent) the exposition to the sun also affected the bacterial communities. Interestingly, the abundance of bacterial cells in the lichens was also influenced by the same structure-triggering factors. No effect on the composition with main bacterial groups was attributed to different lichen species, differentiated thallus parts or thallus growth type. Our results are important for the experimental designs in lichen-bacterial ecology. PMID:23757225

  2. Aloe vera as cure for lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Patil, Bharati A; Bhaskar, Hebbar Pragati; Pol, Jyoti S; Sodhi, Amandeep; Madhu, Asha V

    2013-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is a difficult condition to treat because of its chronic nature. Various treatment modalities have resulted in partial regression of symptoms but not a complete cure. Aloe vera, a product with minimal adverse effects, can be tried to treat this disorder. A 38-year-old male patient diagnosed with lichen planus of the skin and the oral mucosa was suffering from severe pain and a burning sensation intraorally and pruritus of the skin lesions. Considering the extensive involvement, an herbal alternative was considered. The patient was prescribed aloe vera juice and gel application for two months. At the nine-month follow-up, the patient was symptom-free and totally cured of the intraoral and skin lesions. PMID:24245466

  3. Response to oral acitretin in lichen amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Vasani, Resham J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the therapeutically challenging case of a patient with severe and extensive lichen amyloidosis (LA) who responded to oral acitretin and topical corticosteroids. Colloid milia and terra firma-forme dermatoses were noted post healing of the lesions of LA. There has been no recurrence of lesions post 8 months of follow-up. We recommend that acitretin should be used more often in severe and recalcitrant cases of LA. PMID:25593815

  4. THE AUTOIMMUNE CONSTELLATION IN LICHEN AMYLOIDOSIS.

    PubMed

    Andrese, Elena; Vâţă, D; Ciobanu, Delia; Stătescu, Laura; Solovăstru, Laura Gheucă

    2015-01-01

    Localized cutaneous amyloidosis is a rare disease among white people, being more common in South-Asia, China and South America. The disease is characterized by deposition of amyloid material in the papillary dermis without visceral involvement. Nevertheless, there is a growing list of immune-mediated disorders that have been linked to cutaneous amyloidosis. We present two cases of concomitant occurrence of lichen amyloidosis and autoimmune thyroiditis/atopic dermatitis in two Caucasian women. PMID:26793847

  5. Mechanisms of lichen resistance to metallic pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Sarret, C.; Manceau, A.; Eybert-Berard, L.; Cuny, D.; Haluwyn, C. van; Deruelle, S.; Hazemann, J.L.; Menthonnex, J.J. |; Soldo, Y.

    1998-11-01

    Some lichens have a unique ability to grow in heavily contaminated areas due to the development of adaptative mechanisms allowing a high tolerance to metals. Here the authors report on the chemical forms of Pb and Zn in the metal hyperaccumulator Diploschistes muscorum and of Pb in the metal tolerant lichen Xanthoria parietina. The speciation of Zn and Pb has been investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy using the advanced third-generation synchrotron radiation source of the European synchrotron radiation facility (ESRF in Grenoble). This study reveals that in both lichens cells are protected from toxicity by complexation of heavy metals, but the strategies differ: in D. muscorum, Pb and Zn are accumulated through an enhanced synthesis of oxalate, which precipitates toxic elements as insoluble salts, whereas in X. parietina, Pb is complexed to carboxylic groups of the fungal cell walls. The authors conclude that hyperaccumulation of metals results from a reactive mechanism of organic acid production, whereas metallo-tolerance is achieved by a passive complexation to existing functional groups.

  6. Can lichen species of BSC acclimate to changing environments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Laura; Colesie, Claudia; Büdel, Burkhard

    2015-04-01

    The Soil Crust INternational (SCIN) project aims to achieve improved appreciation of the importance and functioning of Biological Soil Crusts (BSC) in Europe. Four sites throughout Europe were identified for having important, yet diverse BSC communities: Gössenheim in Germany, Almeria in Spain, Öland in Sweden and Hochtor in Austria. These sites vary greatly in geographic and environmental conditions; and constitute, along with cyanobacteria, algae, bryophytes and fungi a host of green algal and cyanobacterial lichen species. Many of the lichen species occur in two-four locations, despite the climatic differences, and it has been observed that species are morphologically distinctive between sites. Lichens may be adapted to different environmental conditions by symbiosis with photobionts that are suited to the local conditions. Therefore, we may expect to find that a lichen species that can survive in diverse habitats to be less photobiont specific than species with a narrow range. In recent years it has been discovered that lichens can switch their photobiont throughout the course of their lives. Whether lichens can associate with an available photobiont and switch when a preferred photobiont becomes available is not conclusively known, or whether as habitats are affected by climate change, lichens will be able to switch to a new photobiont to survive changing conditions. A transplantation experiment of lichens between biomes was installed in each of the SCIN sites to investigate the potential of different lichen species to assimilate to a new environment. Where the same lichen species occurred in 2 or more locations samples were transplanted from their natural location to the foreign for a period of 2 years. Controls were also applied; this consisted of samples being transplanted within their own site to assess the effect of the transplantation itself. The photobionts of key species are sequenced to analyse diversity of photobiont interactions within/between the

  7. Geochemical Study of Lichens in Tatun Volcano Group, North Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuan, Ssu-Yu

    2015-04-01

    Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) is located in the northwest of Taipei, the capital of Taiwan. Although the last activity was 200000 years ago, it is critical to monitor TVG because it is nearby metropolitan area. This study is part of the monitoring program and attempts to observe the geochemical relationship between lichen and volcanic gas. Lichens have been extensively used for monitoring atmospheric quality. Lichen can live in critical environments and can accumulate metals from atmosphere due to lack of excretion mechanism. Moreover, lichen can live long and growth in a low rate; therefore, lichen geochemistry can represent an average in a long term manner. In TVG, fruticose lichen can be seldom found due to the high concentration of SO2 in the atmosphere. However, foliose lichen and crustose lichen are not rare in the study area. In this study, lichens were collected from TVG and Nan-ao Trail which is in non-volcanic area. The cations were measured by ICP-MS. The geochemical results were analyzed by principal components analysis (PCA). It shows that there is no significant difference among non-volcanic lichens and the non-volcanic lichens are located at an end-member of two distinct trends. It is believed that the non-volcanic lichens indicate a geochemical baseline in north Taiwan and two trends may represent the mixing between two different types of volcanic gases in TVG and geochemical baseline. In this study, rare earth elements (REEs) were also measured. The results of non-volcanic and TVG lichens were normalized by North America Shale and TVG andesite, respectively. Both obtain a flat REE pattern, which confirm that TVG lichens receive metals from volcanic origin and non-volcanic lichens give information of background geochemistry in north Taiwan. In addition, a middle REE enrichment and distinct Ce negative anomaly can be observed. According to the previous studies, middle REE enrichment may be achieved by the selected adsorption of middle REEs by organic

  8. Genomic identification of Anisakis simplex isolates.

    PubMed

    Siles, M; Cuéllar, C; Perteguer, M J

    1997-03-01

    RAPD technique was used to differentiate individuals of Anisakis simplex obtained from Merluccius merluccius, Phycis blennoides, Conger conger and Lepidorhombus boscii, from the North Atlantic Ocean. The amplification patterns of the host DNA controls were markedly different from those obtained for the parasitic material. No variation within the same host was detected. The amplification patterns for larvae obtained from fish of the same genus were somewhat different. The amplification patterns of A. simplex isolates from M. merluccius, P. blennoides, C. conger and L. boscii, were different. These results suggest the possible existence of two populations with a considerable high genetic variability and a different adaptation to different host species. PMID:9166445

  9. Etiology and pathogenesis of oral lichen planus: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kurago, Zoya B

    2016-07-01

    Oral lichen planus is a noninfectious, chronic inflammatory condition that involves the oral mucosal stratified squamous epithelium and the underlying lamina propria and may be accompanied by skin lesions. This overview describes the current understanding of the immunopathologic mechanisms implicated in oral lichen planus. PMID:27260276

  10. PESTALOTIOPSIS MACULANS IS A PARASYMBIONTIC FUNGUS IN NORTH AMERICAN LICHENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By culturing small thallus portions in nutrient medium, it could be shown that Pestalotiopisis maculans (Corda) Nag Raj is a dominant parasymbiontic fungus in North American lichens. P. maculans was present in all twelve lichen specimens (10 Cladina, 1 Usnea, and 1 Parmetroma) collected in the east...

  11. FT-Raman spectroscopy of lichen species from the Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, J. M.; Edwards, H. G. M.; Wynn-Williams, D. D.

    1998-06-01

    In this investigation, FT-Raman spectroscopy has been utilized to characterize pigments and chemicals produced by Antarctic lichens, which have been exposed to increasing levels of UV-B radiation and other environmental conditions. The presence of calcium oxalate in some lichen species has also been confirmed spectroscopically.

  12. Bryophytes and lichens: small but indispensable forest dwellers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutten, Martin; Woodward, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    * What is a Bryophyte? * Bryophytes are the small green plants commonly known as mosses, liverworts and hornworts. Compared to plants, they have primitive tissues for conducting food and water, and they lack a protective outer surface to maintain water balance. Most bryophytes, because they lack tissues such as roots, obtain their water through direct surface contact with their environment. During dry weather they have the capacity to withstand complete dehydration. Bryophytes that are dry may appear dead but will regain normal function when moisture is available. Instead of producing seeds, bryophytes can either reproduce sexually by means of spores, or asexually when small pieces break off and grow into new individuals. * What is a Lichen? * Lichens are dual organisms consisting of a fungus and an alga or a cyanobacterium. The fungus provides the alga with structure, protection, nutrients, and water absorbed from the atmosphere and the substrate (e.g., soil, rotten logs, tree branches). In return, the alga provides carbohydrates from photosynthesis to the fungus. Algae from some lichens grow independently of the fungus, but in lichen form, the algae can inhabit more challenging environments than when growing alone. Most lichens can reproduce asexually. They either produce specialized propagules containing both partners, or parts of the lichen simply break, allowing both the fungus and the alga to disperse together. In some lichens, the fungal partner reproduces sexually by releasing spores, but the partner alga must be present in order for a lichen to reform.

  13. Lichens promote flowering Opuntia fragilis in west-central Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Bornar, C.R.; Harrington, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Clumps of the cactus Opuntia fragilis growing in association with mats of the lichens Cladina mitis, Cladina rangiferina and a spikemoss, Selaginella rupestris, were discovered in an agricultural field in Pepin County, Wisconsin, that had been abandoned for over 50 y. The association appeared to be beneficial to the cactus, which flowered almost exclusively in the presence of lichens. Of 294 cactus clumps examined in 2001, 127 grew in the presence of lichen mats and, of these, 24 flowered, producing 91 flowers, while none of the cacti growing in the absence of lichens flowered. In 2002, 19 out of 265 cactus clumps flowered, all but one in the presence of lichens. All sizes of cacti in the presence of lichens flowered and the probability of flowering increased with cactus size. In addition, the cacti that flowered had cladodes that were on average 19% heavier than those of cacti that did not flower. The presence of lichens lowered summer soil temperatures 2a??4 C compared to soil temperatures in the absence of lichens. Cooler soil temperatures conserve soil moisture better, which may enhance flowering in these cacti.

  14. Topical Tacrolimus and Oral Dapsone Combination Regimen in Lichen Planus Pigmentosus.

    PubMed

    Verma, Prashant; Pandhi, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus is a well-recognized variant of lichen planus; however, its etiopathogenesis is still unclear. An effective and safe treatment for lichen planus pigmentosus is needed; therefore, the authors examined a series of five patients with lichen planus pigmentosus with successful response to a combination of topical tacrolimus and oral dapsone. PMID:26790504

  15. Lichens and air quality in Big Bend National Park, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Wetmore, C.M.

    1981-01-01

    This study was undertaken because of reports of decreased visibility due to haze and the possibility of increased air pollution in the park. Numerous localities where lichens had been collected 10 years ago were revisited in 1980 to look for any changes in the lichen flora. Photographs were taken from scenic vistas where photographs had been taken earlier. Permanent photographic points for lichens were established for long term monitoring. It is argued that fruticose lichens are just as useful for monitoring air quality in arid areas as in wetter areas. There has been no loss of lichen species at any locality over the past 10 years and haze conditions have not changed much. It is concluded that no significant increase in air pollution has occurred within the park over the past 10 years. 17 references, 4 figures.

  16. Cutaneous lichen planus: A systematic review of treatments.

    PubMed

    Fazel, Nasim

    2015-06-01

    Various treatment modalities are available for cutaneous lichen planus. Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Health Technology Assessment Database were searched for all the systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials related to cutaneous lichen planus. Two systematic reviews and nine relevant randomized controlled trials were identified. Acitretin, griseofulvin, hydroxychloroquine and narrow band ultraviolet B are demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of cutaneous lichen planus. Sulfasalazine is effective, but has an unfavorable safety profile. KH1060, a vitamin D analogue, is not beneficial in the management of cutaneous lichen planus. Evidence from large scale randomized trials demonstrating the safety and efficacy for many other treatment modalities used to treat cutaneous lichen planus is simply not available. PMID:24916211

  17. A single phosphorus treatment doubles growth of cyanobacterial lichen transplants.

    PubMed

    McCune, Bruce; Caldwell, Bruce A

    2009-02-01

    Lichens are reputedly slow growing and become unhealthy or die in response to supplements of the usual limiting resources, such as water and nitrogen. We found, however, that the tripartite cyanobacterial lichen Lobaria pulmonaria doubled in annual biomass growth after a single 20-minute immersion in a phosphorus solution (K2HPO4), as compared to controls receiving no supplemental phosphorus. This stimulation of cyanolichens by phosphorus has direct relevance to community and population ecology of lichens, including improving models of lichen performance in relation to air quality, improving forest management practices affecting old-growth associated cyanolichens, and understanding the distribution and abundance of cyanolichens on the landscape. Phosphorus may be as important a stimulant to cyanobacterial-rich lichen communities as it is to cyanobacteria in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:19323240

  18. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: An Uncommon Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Sunil; Bhatia, Rohan; Ahmad, Sohaib

    2016-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) encephalitis is an uncommon illness, with about 2 cases per 250,000 per year. Most are caused by HSV-1, with 10% having HSV-2 as the aetiologic factor. We present a case of Herpes simplex type1encephalitis in a 70 year old male with an uncommon presentation. The patient was a known case of endogenous depression with no medical records and on no treatment for the same, reported with acute changes in mental state for the past five days. He was talking irrelevantly, had hallucinations and was unduly aggressive and violent. He was subjected to a thorough clinical and diagnostic work-up which included cerebrospinal fluid analysis, CT head and MRI brain. MRI brain was suggestive of mild subdural effusion which hinted towards infectious cause of encephalitis. The cerebrospinal fluid viral serology panel detected herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV1) that was later confirmed by CSF Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Hence, acyclovir was initiated by intravenous route at a dosage of 10mg/kg body weight and continued for two weeks. This case holds significance in view of the fact that organic causes must be excluded in suspected cases of psychiatric illness especially in the absence of fever. Also, CSF-PCR testing plays a pivotal role in diagnosing herpes simplex encephalitis. PMID:27437286

  19. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: An Uncommon Presentation.

    PubMed

    Kaeley, Nidhi; Bansal, Sunil; Bhatia, Rohan; Ahmad, Sohaib

    2016-05-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) encephalitis is an uncommon illness, with about 2 cases per 250,000 per year. Most are caused by HSV-1, with 10% having HSV-2 as the aetiologic factor. We present a case of Herpes simplex type1encephalitis in a 70 year old male with an uncommon presentation. The patient was a known case of endogenous depression with no medical records and on no treatment for the same, reported with acute changes in mental state for the past five days. He was talking irrelevantly, had hallucinations and was unduly aggressive and violent. He was subjected to a thorough clinical and diagnostic work-up which included cerebrospinal fluid analysis, CT head and MRI brain. MRI brain was suggestive of mild subdural effusion which hinted towards infectious cause of encephalitis. The cerebrospinal fluid viral serology panel detected herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV1) that was later confirmed by CSF Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Hence, acyclovir was initiated by intravenous route at a dosage of 10mg/kg body weight and continued for two weeks. This case holds significance in view of the fact that organic causes must be excluded in suspected cases of psychiatric illness especially in the absence of fever. Also, CSF-PCR testing plays a pivotal role in diagnosing herpes simplex encephalitis. PMID:27437286

  20. Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

    2003-01-01

    Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical structures and…

  1. Recurrent lumbosacral herpes simplex virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Vassantachart, Janna M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 54-year-old white woman with episodic lumbosacral lesions that she had been treating as psoriasis. Evaluation revealed classic herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. The discussion reviews the significance and potential complications of recurrent lumbosacral HSV infection. PMID:26722168

  2. The role of fungal parasites in tri-trophic interactions involving lichens and lichen-feeding snails.

    PubMed

    Asplund, Johan; Gauslaa, Yngvar; Merinero, Sonia

    2016-09-01

    Lichens are hosts for a variety of lichenicolous fungi. By investigating two lichens with specialized parasites, we will test the hypothesis that these parasites reduce lichen fitness by increasing the palatability of their respective hosts. The palatability of Lobarina scrobiculata and Lobaria pulmonaria with or without galls of the lichenicolous fungi, Plectocarpon scrobiculatae and P. lichenum, respectively, were quantified in a feeding-preference experiment with grazing snails (Cepaea hortensis). We repeated the experiment for pairs with or without gall in which the carbon-based secondary compounds (CBSCs) had been reduced nondestructively by acetone rinsing. Lichens with galls had lower concentration of CBSCs than those without, but this contrast disappeared after acetone rinsing. In the lichen high in nitrogen (N) (the cyanolichen L. scrobiculata), the grazing was low, and the snails did not discriminate between specimens with and without Plectocarpon-galls. In L. pulmonaria low in N (green algae as main photobiont), the parasite reduced the lichen C : N ratio and the snails strongly preferred specimens with Plectocarpon-galls, regardless of whether CBSC concentration had been reduced or not. In conclusion, some lichen parasites can indirectly reduce lichen fitness by increasing its palatability and thus the grazing pressure from snails, whereas other parasites do not affect grazing preferences. PMID:27094697

  3. Dissociation and metal-binding characteristics of yellow lichen substances suggest a relationship with site preferences of lichens

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, Markus; Jürgens, Sascha-René; Willenbruch, Karen; Huneck, Siegfried; Leuschner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Many species of lichen-forming fungi contain yellow or orange extracellular pigments belonging to the dibenzofurans (usnic acid), anthraquinones (e.g. parietin) or pulvinic acid group. These pigments are all equally efficient light screens, leading us to question the potential ecological and evolutionary significance of diversity in yellow and orange lichen substances. Here the hypothesis is tested that the different pigments differ in metal-binding characteristics, which suggest that they may contribute to adaptation to sites differing in pH and metal availability. Methods UV spectroscopy was used to study the dissociation and the pH dependence of the metal-binding behaviour of seven isolated lichen substances in methanol. Metals applied were selected macro- and micro-nutrients (Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Mg2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+). Key Results All the pigments studied are strong to moderate acids with pKa1 values between 2·8 and 4·5. Metal complexation is common in the lichen substances studied. Complexation takes place under acidic conditions with usnic acid, but under alkaline conditions with parietin and most compounds of the pulvinic acid group. The pulvinic acid derivative rhizocarpic acid forms metal complexes both in the acidic and the alkaline range. Conclusions Metal complexation by lichen substances could be a prerequisite for lichen substance-mediated control of metal uptake. Assuming such an effect at pH values where the affinity of the metal for the lichen substance is intermediate would explain the strong preference of lichens with usnic or rhizocarpic acids to acidic substrata. Moreover, it would explain the preference of lichens with parietin and some lichens with compounds of the pulvinic acid group either for nutrient-rich substrata at low pH or for calcareous substrata. PMID:18977765

  4. A Process-based Model of Global Lichen Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porada, P.; Kleidon, A.

    2012-04-01

    Lichens and biotic crusts are abundant in most ecosystems of the world. They are the main autotrophic organisms in many deserts and at high altitudes and they can also be found in large amounts as epiphytes in some forests, especially in the boreal zone. They are characterised by a great variety of physiological properties, such as growth form, productivity or color. Due to the vast land surface areas covered by lichens, they may contribute significantly to the global terrestrial net carbon uptake. Furthermore, they potentially play an important role with respect to nutrient cycles in some ecosystems and they have the ability to enhance weathering at the surface on which they grow. A possible way to quantify these processes at the global scale is presented here in form of a process-based lichen model. This approach is based on the concepts used in many dynamical vegetation models and extends these methods to account for the specific properties of lichens. Hence, processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and water exchange are implemented as well as important trade-offs like photosynthetic capacity versus respiratory load and water content versus CO2 conductivity. The great physiological variability of lichens is incorporated directly into the model through ranges of possible parameter values, which are randomly sampled. In this way, many artificial lichen "species" are created and climate then acts as a filter to determine the species which are able to survive permanently. By averaging over the surviving "species", the model predicts lichen productivity as a function of climate input data such as temperature, radiation and precipitation at the global scale. Consequently, the contribution of lichens to the global carbon balance can be quantified. Moreover, global patterns of lichen biodiversity and other properties can be illustrated. The model can be extended to account for the nutrient dynamics of lichens, such as nitrogen fixation and the acquisition and

  5. Lichen recolonization following air quality improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Showman, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Air quality improvement near a coal-fired power plant led to recolonization of Parmelia caperata (L.) Ach. in a pollution-induced void area. Recolonization was first observed about four years after pollution abatement. Least-affected sites were slowest to recover. After eight years of improved air quality, the distribution of P. caperata has returned to near normal. Lichen biomonitoring is useful not only to detect the effects of poor air quality but to document air quality improvements as well. 5 references, 4 figures.

  6. Dibenzofurans and derivatives from lichens and ascomycetes.

    PubMed

    Millot, Marion; Dieu, Amandine; Tomasi, Sophie

    2016-06-01

    Covering: up to 2016.When looking for dibenzofuran in the biochemical databases, most papers and reviews deal with pollutants and polychlorinated dibenzofurans like dioxins. But dibenzofurans are also biosynthetized by a wide diversity of organisms in nature. Even if dibenzofurans from natural sources represent a small class of secondary metabolites, compared to flavonoids, xanthones or terpenoids, they are often endowed with interesting biological properties which have been recently described. This review provides an update on papers describing dibenzofurans from lichens, ascomycetes and cultured mycobionts. Other sources, such as basidiomycetes, myxomycetes or plants produce sporadically interesting dibenzofurans in terms of structures and activities. PMID:26867808

  7. Cytotoxic constituents of the lichen Diploicia canescens.

    PubMed

    Millot, Marion; Tomasi, Sophie; Studzinska, Elisabeth; Rouaud, Isabelle; Boustie, Joël

    2009-12-01

    A new diphenyl ether (1), along with 12 known compounds, was isolated from the lichen Diploicia canescens. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis, and the biosynthetic origin of this product is discussed. Secalonic acids B (7), D (8), and F (9) were isolated for the first time from D. canescens. The cytotoxic activities of 1-3, 6-8, and 10 against the B16 murine melanoma and HaCaT human keratinocyte cell lines were evaluated. PMID:19919064

  8. Antimycobacterial activity of lichen metabolites in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ingólfsdóttir, K; Chung, G A; Skúlason, V G; Gissurarson, S R; Vilhelmsdóttir, M

    1998-04-01

    Several compounds, whose structures represent the most common chemical classes of lichen metabolites, were screened for in vitro activity against Mycobacterium aurum, a non-pathogenic organism with a similar sensitivity profile to M. tuberculosis. Of the compounds tested, usnic acid from Cladonia arbuscula exhibited the highest activity with an MIC value of 32 microg/ml. Atranorin and lobaric acid, both isolated from Stereocaulon alpinum, salazinic acid from Parmelia saxatilis and protolichesterinic acid from Cetraria islandica all showed MIC values >/=125 microg/ml. PMID:9795033

  9. Understanding phenotypical character evolution in parmelioid lichenized fungi (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Divakar, Pradeep K; Kauff, Frank; Crespo, Ana; Leavitt, Steven D; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Parmelioid lichens form a species-rich group of predominantly foliose and fruticose lichenized fungi encompassing a broad range of morphological and chemical diversity. Using a multilocus approach, we reconstructed a phylogeny including 323 OTUs of parmelioid lichens and employed ancestral character reconstruction methods to understand the phenotypical evolution within this speciose group of lichen-forming fungi. Specifically, we were interested in the evolution of growth form, epicortex structure, and cortical chemistry. Since previous studies have shown that results may differ depending on the reconstruction method used, here we employed both maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood approaches to reconstruct ancestral character states. We have also implemented binary and multistate coding of characters and performed parallel analyses with both coding types to assess for potential coding-based biases. We reconstructed the ancestral states for nine well-supported major clades in the parmelioid group, two higher-level sister groups and the ancestral character state for all parmelioid lichens. We found that different methods for coding phenotypical characters and different ancestral character state reconstruction methods mostly resulted in identical reconstructions but yield conflicting inferences of ancestral states, in some cases. However, we found support for the ancestor of parmelioid lichens having been a foliose lichen with a non-pored epicortex and pseudocyphellae. Our data suggest that some traits exhibit patterns of evolution consistent with adaptive radiation. PMID:24312438

  10. Understanding Phenotypical Character Evolution in Parmelioid Lichenized Fungi (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Divakar, Pradeep K.; Kauff, Frank; Crespo, Ana; Leavitt, Steven D.; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Parmelioid lichens form a species-rich group of predominantly foliose and fruticose lichenized fungi encompassing a broad range of morphological and chemical diversity. Using a multilocus approach, we reconstructed a phylogeny including 323 OTUs of parmelioid lichens and employed ancestral character reconstruction methods to understand the phenotypical evolution within this speciose group of lichen-forming fungi. Specifically, we were interested in the evolution of growth form, epicortex structure, and cortical chemistry. Since previous studies have shown that results may differ depending on the reconstruction method used, here we employed both maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood approaches to reconstruct ancestral character states. We have also implemented binary and multistate coding of characters and performed parallel analyses with both coding types to assess for potential coding-based biases. We reconstructed the ancestral states for nine well-supported major clades in the parmelioid group, two higher-level sister groups and the ancestral character state for all parmelioid lichens. We found that different methods for coding phenotypical characters and different ancestral character state reconstruction methods mostly resulted in identical reconstructions but yield conflicting inferences of ancestral states, in some cases. However, we found support for the ancestor of parmelioid lichens having been a foliose lichen with a non-pored epicortex and pseudocyphellae. Our data suggest that some traits exhibit patterns of evolution consistent with adaptive radiation. PMID:24312438

  11. The immunostimulating role of lichen polysaccharides: a review.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Gajendra; St Clair, Larry L; O'Neill, Kim L

    2015-03-01

    The immune system has capacity to suppress the development or progression of various malignancies including cancer. Research on the immunomodulating properties of polysaccharides obtained from plants, microorganisms, marine organisms, and fungi is growing rapidly. Among the various potential sources, lichens, symbiotic systems involving a fungus and an alga and/or a cyanobacterium, show promise as a potential source of immunomodulating compounds. It is well known that lichens produce an abundance of structurally diverse polysaccharides. However, only a limited number of studies have explored the immunostimulating properties of lichen polysaccharides. Published studies have shown that some lichen polysaccharides enhance production of nitrous oxide (NO) by macrophages and also alter the production levels of various proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-12, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-α/β) by macrophages and dendritic cells. Although there are only a limited number of studies examining the role of lichen polysaccharides, all results suggest that lichen polysaccharides can induce immunomodulatory responses in macrophages and dendritic cells. Thus, a detailed evaluation of immunomodulatory capacity of lichen polysaccharides could provide a unique opportunity for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents. PMID:25339289

  12. Lichen planopilaris epidemiology: a retrospective study of 80 cases*

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Vanessa Cristina; Mulinari-Brenner, Fabiane; de Souza, Tatiane Elen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lichen planopilaris is a frequent presentation of primary cicatricial alopecia. Scalp distribution characterizes the main clinical presentations: classic lichen planopilaris, frontal fibrosing alopecia and Graham-Little Piccardi-Lassueur Syndrome (GLPLS). OBJECTIVE Description of the clinical, dermoscopic and histopathological findings of Lichen planopilaris in public and private practices. METHOD A retrospective observational study was performed by reviewing medical records of patients with lichen planopilaris. RESULTS Eighty patients were included, 73 (91,25%) were female. Prototype II was seen in 53 (66,25%) patients. Classic lichen planopilaris was seen in 62,5% of the cases. Frontal fibrosing alopecia was seen in 31% of the patients and only one patient presented Graham-Little Piccardi-Lassueur Syndrome (GLPLS). Scalp lesions were scattered throughout the scalp in 47 (58,75%) of the patients, while 24 (30%) presented mainly central scalp lesions, 29 (36,25%) presented marginal lesions and only 4 (5%) patents had vertex lesions. CONCLUSIONS Clinical presentation of Lichen planopilaris varies. To recognize the heterogeneity of the clinical appearance in lichen planopilaris is important for differential diagnosis. PMID:26560212

  13. Lichens of the U. S. national parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Over 26,100 records of lichens present in 144 U.S. national park units were assembled from various sources into a database and analyzed. Within these 144 park units 2,435 species and 375 genera are reported, representing 63% and 74% of the North American flora, respectively. The park units are located in 41 states and Washington, D.C. The average number of species in a park is 104, but the median is 60, indicating there are many parks with a small number of species and a few with high numbers. Isle Royale National Park has the most species, 611, and twelve parks have only one species reported. The number of records of lichens present ranged from one for 25 parks, to 1,623 for Isle Royale. Physcia aipolia is the most frequently observed species, being found in 65 parks. One fourth of the park units are classified cultural resource parks, while the remainder are considered natural resource parks. This study was based on 453 sources, including literature citations, park reports and collections in the University of Minnesota Herbarium. Copyright ?? 2005 by the American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc.

  14. Lichen planopilaris: update on pathogenesis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Baibergenova, Akerke; Donovan, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Lichen planopilaris (LPP) is considered to be a follicular variant of lichen planus. Clinical variants include classic LPP, frontal fibrosing alopecia, and the Graham-Little-Piccardi-Lassueur syndrome. The pathogenesis of LPP remains to be fully elucidated, but like other cicatricial alopecias involves the irreversible destruction of hair follicle stem cells and loss of a hair follicle's capacity to regenerate itself In the early stages of LPP, patients may have scalp pruritus, burning, tenderness, and increased hair shedding. A scalp biopsy shows a lymphocytic infiltrate involving the isthmus and infundibulum. Apoptotic cells present in the external root sheath and concentric fibrosis surrounds the hair follicle. Treatment is prescribed with the goal to alleviate patient symptoms and to halt the progression of hair loss. Treatment involves use of potent topical corticosteroids and/or intralesional corticosteroids. Options for systemic treatment include anti-inflammatory agents such as hydroxychloroquine, tetracyclines, pioglitazones, and immunosuppressive medications such as cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, or systemic corticosteroids. Hair transplantation may also be an option if the disease has been in clinical remission. The management of LPP can sometimes be challenging and additional research is needed to improve outcomes for patients. PMID:23930355

  15. Lichens as possible sources of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Kosanić, Marijana; Ranković, Branislav

    2011-04-01

    Acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of the lichen Cetraria islandica, Lecanora atra, Parmelia pertusa, Pseudoevernia furfuraceae and Umbilicaria cylindrica were investigated for antioxidant activity by five different methods: DPPH radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, reducing power, determination of total phenolic compounds and determination of total flavonoid content. Different antioxidant activities of the tested extracts were studied in comparison to known antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and α-tocopherol. The tested extracts had strong antioxidant activity. The DPPH radical scavenging activity ranging from 32.68-94.70%. For reducing power, measured values of absorbance varied from 0.016 to 0.109. The superoxide anion scavenging activity for different extracts was 7.31-84.51%. In addition, the high contents of total phenolic compounds (12-76.42 μg of pyrocatechol equivalent) and total flavonoids (1.37-54.77 μg of rutin equivalent) suggests that phenols and flavonoids might be the major antioxidant compounds in studied extracts. Tested lichen species were found to possess effective antioxidant activities and can be used as good natural sources of antioxidants. PMID:21454165

  16. Collection and chemical analysis of lichens for biomonitoring. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, L.L.; Ford, J.; Schwartzman, D.

    1991-01-01

    The chapter discusses the interrelated aspects of biomonitoring using chemical analysis of lichens. Many unique aspects of study objectives, study design (including design tasks, considerations, and sampling schemes), sample collection, sample preparation, and sample analysis that are required for a successful biomonitoring program using chemical analysis are emphasized. The advantages and disadvantages of common analytical methods suitable for chemical analysis of lichens are briefly discussed. Aspects of a quality assurance program and final contract reports are highlighted. In addition, some examples of studies using chemical analysis of lichens are discussed.

  17. Lichen growth responses to stress induced by automobile exhaust pollution.

    PubMed

    Lawrey, J D; Hale, M E

    1979-04-27

    Growth rates were significantly suppressed in juvenile thalli (less than 0.1 square millimeter in initial size) of the saxicolous lichen Pseudoparmelia baltimorensis from a Potomac River island with high atmospheric lead burden as compared to the case for a similar island with a lower lead burden. However, larger thalli showed no significant changes in growth response as a result of atmospheric pollution stress. Disruptions in lichen growth thus appear to affect life stages when growth is most rapid andfood reserves are low. Once a minimnum thallus size is attained, the stress tolerance of the lichen increases. PMID:17758017

  18. IR spectroscopic study of the chemical composition of epiphytic lichens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meysurova, A. F.; Khizhnyak, S. D.; Pakhomov, P. M.

    2011-11-01

    Changes in the chemical composition of lichens exposed to pollutants are investigated by means of FTIR spectroscopy. According to model experiments, alkyl nitrates, ammonium salts, amines, and sulfones develop in the lichen thallus through the action of ammonia and nitric and sulfuric acids. Spectroscopic data of modeling experiments enabled nitrogen- and sulfur-containing substances to be identified as the main air pollutants in the vicinity of a pig-breeding complex and information to be obtained on the content of the pollutants and their impact on the lichens.

  19. Simplex method in problems of light-beam phase control.

    PubMed

    Chesnokov, S S; Davletshina, I V

    1995-12-20

    The possibility of the application of the simplex method to problems of wave-front control for light beams propagating in a nonlinear medium is investigated. A numerical analysis of simplex-method effectiveness in comparison with the gradient procedure of hill climbing is carried out. The regimes of stationary and nonstationary wind refraction are considered. The simplest optimization of the simplex size and the control basis is done. PMID:21068958

  20. Herpes simplex virus colitis in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Daley, Andrew J; Craven, Paul; Holland, Andrew J A; Jones, Cheryl A; Badawi, Nadia; Isaacs, David

    2002-09-01

    Involvement of the gastrointestinal tract in neonates with congenital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is rarely described. We report a case of a newborn with disseminated HSV infection associated with profuse hematochezia and late sigmoid colon perforation. Histologic examination showed patchy areas of ulceration with multinucleated giant cells and HSV nucleic acid was detected by polymerase chain reaction in colonic tissue. No clinically apparent episodes of recurrent colitis occurred in the first year of life. PMID:12380594

  1. Are heterotrophic and silica-rich eukaryotic microbes an important part of the lichen symbiosis?

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, David M.; Creevy, Angela L.; Kalu, Chiamaka L.; Schwartzman, David W.

    2015-01-01

    We speculate that heterotrophic and/or silica-rich eukaryotic microorganisms maybe an important part of the lichen symbiosis. None of the very few studies of heterotrophic protists associated with lichens have considered the possibility that they may be of functional significance in the lichen symbiosis. Here we start to develop, currently speculative, theoretical ideas about their potential significance. For example, all the protist taxa identified in lichens we sampled in Ohio USA depend on silica for growth and construction of their cell walls, this could suggest that silica-rich lichen symbionts may be significant in the biogeochemistry of the lichen symbiosis. We also present arguments suggesting a role for protists in nitrogen cycling within lichen thalli and a potential role in controlling bacterial populations associated with lichens. In this necessarily speculative paper we highlight areas for future research and how newer technologies may be useful for understanding the full suite of organisms involved in the lichen symbiosis. PMID:26000198

  2. An Exercise Using Lichens as Indicators of Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Jeffry

    1978-01-01

    High school students learned to monitor air quality using lichens in a National Science Foundation sponsored program. In this article, monitoring procedures are discussed briefly along with means to adapt the exercise to your own area. (MA)

  3. COLLECTION AND CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF LICHENS FOR BIOMONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter discusses the interrelated aspects of biomonitoring using chemical analysis of lichens. Many unique aspects of study objectives, study design (including design tasks, considerations, and sampling schemes), sample collection, sample preparation, and sample analysis th...

  4. Antarctic Epilithic Lichens as Niches for Black Meristematic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Selbmann, Laura; Grube, Martin; Onofri, Silvano; Isola, Daniela; Zucconi, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Sixteen epilithic lichen samples (13 species), collected from seven locations in Northern and Southern Victoria Land in Antarctica, were investigated for the presence of black fungi. Thirteen fungal strains isolated were studied by both morphological and molecular methods. Nuclear ribosomal 18S gene sequences were used together with the most similar published and unpublished sequences of fungi from other sources, to reconstruct an ML tree. Most of the studied fungi could be grouped together with described or still unnamed rock-inhabiting species in lichen dominated Antarctic cryptoendolithic communities. At the edge of life, epilithic lichens withdraw inside the airspaces of rocks to find conditions still compatible with life; this study provides evidence, for the first time, that the same microbes associated to epilithic thalli also have the same fate and chose endolithic life. These results support the concept of lichens being complex symbiotic systems, which offer attractive and sheltered habitats for other microbes. PMID:24832808

  5. Water relations, thallus structure and photosynthesis in Negev Desert lichens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, R. J. Jr; Friedmann, E. I.

    1990-01-01

    The role of lichen thallus structure in water relations and photosynthesis was studied in Ramalina maciformis (Del.) Bory and Teloschistes lacunosus (Rupr.) Sav. Water-vapour adsorption and photosynthesis are dependent upon thallus integrity and are significantly lower in crushed thalli. Cultured phycobiont (Trebouxia sp.) cells are capable of photosynthesis over the same relative humidity range (> 80% RH) as are intact lichens. Thus, water-vapour adsorption by the thallus and physiological adaptation of the phycobiont contribute to the ability of these lichens to photosynthesize in an arid environment. Despite differences in their anatomical structure and water-uptake characteristics, their CO2 incorporation is similar. The two lichens use liquid water differently and they occupy different niches.

  6. Geochemistry of terricolous lichens in the White Sea catchment area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, V. P.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Starodymova, D. P.; Vasyukova, E. V.; Lisitzin, A. P.; Drovnina, S. I.; Zamber, N. S.; Makhnovich, N. M.; Savvichev, A. S.; Sonke, J.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents new data on the multielemental composition of terricolous lichens in the White Sea catchment area. The content of 51 chemical elements was determined in 31 samples using modern analytical methods. It was shown that the chemical composition of terricolous lichens varies widely and depends on many factors. The lithogenic dust plays the main role in accumulation of Ti, Cr, Co, Ga, Fe, Zr, Nb, Ga, Th, U, and REE. Long-range transport from remote pollution sources is important for Pb, Zn, Cd, Bi, Hg, and Se. The Kostomuksha ore dressing mill provides the local enrichment of the lichens in Fe, whereas the Monchegorsk copper-nickel enterprise affects large distances and additionally enriches the lichens in Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, and Cd in comparison with the background regions. The marine impact is reflected in elevated contents and enrichment factors in Na, Mg, and the Na/K ratio.

  7. Cryptic diversity and symbiont interactions in rock-posy lichens.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Kraichak, Ekaphan; Vondrak, Jan; Nelsen, Matthew P; Sohrabi, Mohammad; Perez-Ortega, Sergio; St Clair, Larry L; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2016-06-01

    Identifying factors that influence species interactions is central to research in symbiotic systems. While lichens represent iconic models of symbiosis and play important roles in understanding the biology of symbiotic interactions, patterns of interactions in lichen symbionts and mechanisms governing these relationships are not well characterized. This is due, in part to the fact that current taxonomic approaches for recognizing diversity in lichen symbionts commonly fail to accurately reflect actual species diversity. In this study, we employed DNA-based approaches to circumscribed candidate species-level lineages in rock-posy lichen symbionts (mycobiont=Rhizoplaca s. lat. species; photobiont=Trebouxia species). Our results revealed a high degree of cryptic diversity in both the myco- and photobionts in these lichens. Using the candidate species circumscribed here, we investigated the specificity of the symbionts toward their partners and inferred the relative importance of various factors influencing symbiont interactions. Distinct mycobiont species complexes, ecozones, and biomes are significantly correlated with the occurrence of photobiont OTUs, indicating that complex interactions among mycobiont lineages, ecogeography, and microhabitat determine interactions between photobionts and their mycobionts in lichen symbiosis. One-to-one specificity between mycobiont and photobiont species was not found, with the exception of R. maheui that associated with a single Trebouxia OTU that was not found with other Rhizoplaca s. lat. species. We estimated the most recent common ancestor of the core Rhizoplaca group at c. 62.5Ma, similar in age to the diverse parmelioid core group in the well-studied family Parmeliaceae. However, in contrast to Parmeliaceae, species in Rhizoplaca were found to associate with a narrow range of photobionts. Our study provides important perspectives into species diversity and interactions in iconic lichen symbiotic systems and establishes a

  8. Oral bullous lichen planus: Case report and review of management

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Archana; Prasad, Shiva; Ashok, L.; Sujatha, G. P.

    2012-01-01

    A 34-year-old female patient with the chief complaint of burning sensation in the oral cavity associated with generalized pruritis, scalp and skin lesions diagnosed as Bullous lichen planus and treated with systemic prednisolone, levamisole, benzydamine oral rinse. Patient is in follow up since 1 year and free of lesions. Here we report the case and review current modalities in the management of oral lichen planus. PMID:23293497

  9. [Vulvar lichen sclerosus in a girl with Turner syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ocampo, Dolores; González, Verónica

    2014-08-01

    Dermatological complications in Turner syndrome are infrequent but occasionally cause significant morbidity. Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous affection characterized by pruritus in the anogenital area. It is yet not clear its pathophysiology but it's linked with genetic factors and autoimmunity. This is a case report of a girl with Turner syndrome with growth hormone treatment that started with vulvar pruritus and was diagnosed as lichen sclerosus. PMID:24955917

  10. Plutonium concentrations in lichens of Rocky Flats environs

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.S.; Ibrahim, S.A.

    1995-03-01

    Xanthoparmelia spp. lichens were used to study the spatial distribution of plutonium concentrations in nonvascular plants surrounding the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons facility with respect to distance, direction, age, and washing. Plutonium concentrations in lichens were inversely related to distance from the initial contamination site with a directional component which corroborated wind-borne transport as the primary means of dispersion. Ultrasonic washing and the relative age of the lichen proved to be significant only at p = 0.21 and p = 0.96, respectively. Isotopic ratios of {sup 239,240}Pu to {sup 238}Pu were highly variable at low activities but remained consistent at 62.6 for samples with high total plutonium activity. Correlation of Xanthoparmelia spp. lichen {sup 239,240}Pu concentrations to surface soil concentrations showed a direct relationship (r = 0.767; p < 0.001). The correlation was supported by soil retention studies which revealed a lichen soil content ranging from 11 to 18% on a dry mass basis with a possible particle size selectivity in the different concentration ratios adjacent to and away from the initial contamination site. Results suggest that further study into the in situ biomonitoring of surface soil by Xanthoparmelia spp. lichens is promising. 38 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Lichens on asbestos-cement roofs: bioweathering and biocovering effects.

    PubMed

    Favero-Longo, S E; Castelli, D; Fubini, B; Piervittori, R

    2009-03-15

    Asbestos-cement roofs, the most widespread sources of airborne, toxic and carcinogenic asbestos fibres, are often colonized by lichens. Since these latter are physical and chemical weathering agents, they have been often considered as significant responsible of disaggregation processes increasing fibre dispersion. Consequently, official guidelines for the management of asbestos often suggest their removal. Weathering and/or covering effects of lichens on asbestos-cement, however, have never been deeply investigated and available procedures to evaluate asbestos-cement aging do not take the biological colonization into account. In this study we show that a 25% lichen cover modifies physical and chemical properties of asbestos-cement sheets containing chrysotile and crocidolite fibres. By innovatively coupling pull up tests and image analysis of linear structures, we show that fibre loss is significantly lower ( approximately 30%) where lichens develop and offer a physical barrier to the fibre detachment. Below the most covering lichens (Acarospora cervina, Candelariella ssp.), chrysotile and crocidolite undergo a partial incongruent dissolution, which in laboratory assays generally determined a reduction of their surface reactivity. Because of their biocovering and bioweathering effects, lichens on asbestos-cement play a role which differs from the current public opinion and the assumptions of some official regulations, acting as effective spontaneous bioattenuation agents. PMID:18692312

  12. UV-protectant metabolites from lichens and their symbiotic partners.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Khanh-Hung; Chollet-Krugler, Marylène; Gouault, Nicolas; Tomasi, Sophie

    2013-12-01

    Lichens are structurally complex symbiotic organisms that are exposed to a wide variety of external conditions (extreme temperatures, desiccation, UV radiation, etc.). These poikilohydric organisms have developed various mechanisms of photoprotection, such as light scattering, radiation screening, thermal dissipation, activation of antioxidant defense and macromolecules and membrane repair. These unique organisms produce a vast array of compounds, with more than 1000 secondary metabolites known. An important protective mechanism of lichens is the production of UV screening compounds, such as phenolic compounds (depsidones, depsides, diphenyl ethers), anthraquinones, xanthones or shikimic acid derivatives (calycin, mycosporines, scytonemin). Due to the harmful effects of the UVA wavelengths of sunlight, the search for new sunscreens remains important. We herein propose a review that focuses on the UV protectants from lichens and their symbiotic partners (lichenized fungi, green alga, cyanobacteria). In fact, lichens produce unique and/or efficient UV filters such as depsidones (lobaric acid, pannarin, etc.), depsides (atranorin, gyrophoric acid, etc.), diphenyl ethers (epiphorellic acids, buellin), bisxanthones (secalonic acids, etc.), mycosporines and MAAs, scytonemin along with classical pigments (melanin, carotenoids). We propose to classify these compounds with regard to their chemical structures and review the physicochemical properties that act as UV filters. While the most abundant lichen polyfunctionalized aromatic compounds, belonging to orsellinic derivatives, are UVB screens, these organisms produce strong UVA filters, e.g., calycin (pulvinic acid derivatives), bisxanthones (secalonic acids), scytonemin or mycosporines and MAAs with the latter ones exhibiting attractive properties as photoprotectants. PMID:24170172

  13. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activities of Five Lichen Species

    PubMed Central

    Mitrović, Tatjana; Stamenković, Slaviša; Cvetković, Vladimir; Tošić, Svetlana; Stanković, Milan; Radojević, Ivana; Stefanović, Olgica; Čomić, Ljiljana; Đačić, Dragana; Ćurčić, Milena; Marković, Snežana

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GA)/g of extract and the total flavonoid content from 20.14 to 44.43 mg of rutin equivalent (Ru)/g of extract. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging. Hypogymnia physodes with the highest phenolic content showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging effect. Further, the antimicrobial potential of the lichen extracts was determined by a microdilution method on 29 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria, 10 species of filamentous fungi and 4 yeast species. A high antimicrobial activity of all the tested extracts was observed with more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram (+) bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity among lichens was demonstrated by Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the lichen extracts was explored on the colon cancer adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) viability assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The methanol extracts of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea showed a better cytotoxic activity than the other extracts. All lichen species showed the ability to induce apoptosis of HCT-116 cells. PMID:21954369

  14. Littoral lichens as a novel source of potentially bioactive Actinobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Parrot, Delphine; Antony-Babu, Sanjay; Intertaglia, Laurent; Grube, Martin; Tomasi, Sophie; Suzuki, Marcelino T.

    2015-01-01

    Cultivable Actinobacteria are the largest source of microbially derived bioactive molecules. The high demand for novel antibiotics highlights the need for exploring novel sources of these bacteria. Microbial symbioses with sessile macro-organisms, known to contain bioactive compounds likely of bacterial origin, represent an interesting and underexplored source of Actinobacteria. We studied the diversity and potential for bioactive-metabolite production of Actinobacteria associated with two marine lichens (Lichina confinis and L. pygmaea; from intertidal and subtidal zones) and one littoral lichen (Roccella fuciformis; from supratidal zone) from the Brittany coast (France), as well as the terrestrial lichen Collema auriforme (from a riparian zone, Austria). A total of 247 bacterial strains were isolated using two selective media. Isolates were identified and clustered into 101 OTUs (98% identity) including 51 actinobacterial OTUs. The actinobacterial families observed were: Brevibacteriaceae, Cellulomonadaceae, Gordoniaceae, Micrococcaceae, Mycobacteriaceae, Nocardioidaceae, Promicromonosporaceae, Pseudonocardiaceae, Sanguibacteraceae and Streptomycetaceae. Interestingly, the diversity was most influenced by the selective media rather than lichen species or the level of lichen thallus association. The potential for bioactive-metabolite biosynthesis of the isolates was confirmed by screening genes coding for polyketide synthases types I and II. These results show that littoral lichens are a source of diverse potentially bioactive Actinobacteria. PMID:26514347

  15. Plutonium concentrations in lichens of Rocky Flats environs.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R S; Ibrahim, S A

    1995-03-01

    Xanthoparmelia spp. lichens were used to study the spatial distribution of plutonium concentrations in nonvascular plants surrounding the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons facility with respect to distance, direction, age, and washing. Plutonium concentrations in lichens were inversely related to distance from the initial contamination site with a directional component which corroborated wind-borne transport as the primary means of dispersion. Ultrasonic washing and the relative age of the lichen proved to be significant only at p = 0.21 and p = 0.96, respectively. Isotopic ratios of 239,240Pu to 238Pu were highly variable at low activities but remained consistent at 62.6 for samples with high total plutonium activity. Correlation of Xanthoparmelia spp. lichen 239,240Pu concentrations to surface soil concentrations showed a direct relationship (r = 0.767; p < 0.001). The correlation was supported by soil retention studies which revealed a lichen soil content ranging from 11 to 18% on a dry mass basis with a possible particle size selectivity in the different concentration ratios adjacent to and away from the initial contamination site. Results suggest that further study into the in situ biomonitoring of surface soil by Xanthoparmelia spp. lichens is promising. PMID:7860301

  16. Prion protein degradation by lichens of the genus Cladonia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, James P.; Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    It has recently been discovered that lichens contain a serine protease capable of degrading the pathogenic prion protein, the etiological agent of prion diseases such as sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease. Limited methods are available to degrade or inactivate prion disease agents, especially in the environment, and lichens or their serine protease could prove important for management of these diseases. Scant information is available regarding the presence or absence of the protease responsible for degrading prion protein (PrP) in lichen species and, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that PrP degradation activity in lichens is phylogenetically-based by testing 44 species of Cladonia lichens, a genus for which a significant portion of the phylogeny is well established. We categorized PrP degradation activity among the 44 species (high, moderate, low or none) and found that activity in Cladonia species did not correspond with phylogenetic position of the species. Degradation of PrP did correspond, however, with three classical taxonomic characters within the genus: species with brown apothecia, no usnic acid, and the presence of a cortex. Of the 44 species studied, 18 (41%) had either high or moderate PrP degradation activity, suggesting the protease may be frequent in this genus of lichens.

  17. Littoral lichens as a novel source of potentially bioactive Actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Parrot, Delphine; Antony-Babu, Sanjay; Intertaglia, Laurent; Grube, Martin; Tomasi, Sophie; Suzuki, Marcelino T

    2015-01-01

    Cultivable Actinobacteria are the largest source of microbially derived bioactive molecules. The high demand for novel antibiotics highlights the need for exploring novel sources of these bacteria. Microbial symbioses with sessile macro-organisms, known to contain bioactive compounds likely of bacterial origin, represent an interesting and underexplored source of Actinobacteria. We studied the diversity and potential for bioactive-metabolite production of Actinobacteria associated with two marine lichens (Lichina confinis and L. pygmaea; from intertidal and subtidal zones) and one littoral lichen (Roccella fuciformis; from supratidal zone) from the Brittany coast (France), as well as the terrestrial lichen Collema auriforme (from a riparian zone, Austria). A total of 247 bacterial strains were isolated using two selective media. Isolates were identified and clustered into 101 OTUs (98% identity) including 51 actinobacterial OTUs. The actinobacterial families observed were: Brevibacteriaceae, Cellulomonadaceae, Gordoniaceae, Micrococcaceae, Mycobacteriaceae, Nocardioidaceae, Promicromonosporaceae, Pseudonocardiaceae, Sanguibacteraceae and Streptomycetaceae. Interestingly, the diversity was most influenced by the selective media rather than lichen species or the level of lichen thallus association. The potential for bioactive-metabolite biosynthesis of the isolates was confirmed by screening genes coding for polyketide synthases types I and II. These results show that littoral lichens are a source of diverse potentially bioactive Actinobacteria. PMID:26514347

  18. Growth promoting effects of some lichen metabolites on probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gaikwad, Subhash; Verma, Neeraj; Sharma, B O; Behera, B C

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, the extract of four natural lichen species Canoparmelia eruptens, Everniastrum cirrhatum, Parmotrema austrosinense and Rimelia cetrata were studied for the source of natural antioxidant and their purified secondary metabolites were evaluated for growth promoting effects on probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus casei. The methanolic fraction of lichen species showed moderate to high antioxidant activity in the order P. austrosinense > E. cirrhatum > C. eruptens > R. cetrata. The lichen metabolites showed antioxidant activity with an IC50 values (μg/ml); lecanoric acid 79-95, salazinic 88-108, atranorin 100-116 and consalazinic acid 119-125. As far as the growth promoting effects of lichen metabolites on L. casei is concerned, lecanoric acid at 100 μg/ml conc. showed high growth stimulating activity in terms of increased dry matter of biomass (56.08 mg) of L. casei. Other lichen metabolites; salazinic acid, atranorin and consalazinic acid produced relatively less dry biomass 43.98 mg, 41.1 mg, 40.68 mg, respectively. However, standard antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and Trolox after 36 h produced 39.04-47.81 mg dry biomass. At lower pH the growth promoting activity of lichen metabolites was found stable. PMID:25328204

  19. Isolated ocular lichen planus in a child.

    PubMed

    Igras, Estera; Kennedy, Susan; MacDermott, Emma Jane; Murphy, Conor C

    2015-08-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is an autoimmune inflammatory condition of the skin and mucous membranes, of unknown aetiology, that infrequently involves the eye. Ocular LP has not been described in children. We present the case of an 8-year-old girl with severe, filamentous dry eyes and persistent conjunctival hyperemia with bilateral progressive conjunctival symblepharon. Her conjunctival biopsy showed heavy linear fibrinogen deposits along the basement membrane without IgG, IgA, IgM, or C3 deposition, consistent with LP. No skin or other mucosal lesions were present, suggesting a diagnosis of isolated conjunctival LP. Oral and topical cyclosporine combined with methotrexate and low-dose oral steroids led to sustained disease remission. To our knowledge, this is the first case of isolated ocular LP in a child. PMID:26212185

  20. Novel therapies for oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Thongprasom, Kobkan; Prapinjumrune, Chanwit; Carrozzo, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic mucocutaneous disorder commonly found in middle-aged women. Despite the progress in research and advance in knowledge on OLP, a successful management is still difficult to achieve. The main aim of OLP treatment is to control the symptoms of the affected patients. Steroids and other immunosuppressive drugs have been recommended and widely used in the treatment of OLP. Topical corticosteroids are the mainstay of OLP treatment, but strong evidence on their effectiveness is lacking. The effectiveness of alternative ways of managing OLP has been recently reported. Topical aloe vera, topical pimecrolimus and oral curcuminoids are the most promising of the new treatment modalities. Other interesting modalities are topically applied thalidomide and amlexanox. Nevertheless, the careful assessment between the risks and benefits of these drugs is crucial and larger and well-conducted trials need to confirm the above encouraging results. PMID:23668304

  1. Two Cases of Lichen Planus Pigmentosus-inversus Arising from Long-standing Lichen Planus-inversus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung Duck; Chi, Seong Geun; Ko, Hyun Chang; Lee, Seok Jong; Kim, Do Won

    2008-01-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus-inversus (LPP-inversus) is an extremely rare variant of lichen planus (LP), and only a few cases have been reported. Its course is characterized by exacerbations and remissions, and it is known to be more chronic than classical LP is. We report two cases of LPP-inversus and offer the suggestion that LPP-inversus may originate from LP of flexural areas.

  2. Study of Academic Growth Using Simplex Models. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werts, Charles E.; Linn, Robert L.

    Forming a sequence covering the various aspects of the simplex model, four articles are presented here under the following titles: "A Simplex Model for Analyzing Academic Growth", "Analyzing Ratings With Correlated Intrajudge Measurement Errors", "The Correlation of States With Gain", and "The Reliability of College Grades from Longitudinal Data".…

  3. Mixing and Simplex Search for Optimal Illumination in Machine Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, HyungTae; Cho, KyeongYong; Jin, Kyungchan; Yoon, JooSung; Cho, YoungJune

    2014-07-01

    Mixed-color illumination affects the quality of images in industrial vision system and it is important to optimize color and intensity for image acquisition. This study used simplex search to find the optimal illumination in a short amount of time. A typical color mixer synthesized various color of lights by changing the inputs of RGB power LEDs and passing the lights through an optical system. The image quality under mixed-color illumination was calculated according to the sharpness. For the purpose of optimal illumination using simplex search, a probe network was organized with N + 1probing points for N inputs. The shape of the probe network, simplex, was varied through procedures of extension, contraction, and shrinkage. The inputs of the color mixer were changed until the size of the simplex became smaller than a threshold. The simplex search was tested for commercial semiconductor patterns, and was useful for finding the optimal illumination.

  4. Photobiont diversity in lichens from metal-rich substrata based on ITS rDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Backor, Martin; Peksa, Ondrej; Skaloud, Pavel; Backorová, Miriam

    2010-05-01

    The photobiont is considered as the more sensitive partner of lichen symbiosis in metal pollution. For this reason the presence of a metal tolerant photobiont in lichens may be a key factor of ecological success of lichens growing on metal polluted substrata. The photobiont inventory was examined for terricolous lichen community growing in Cu mine-spoil heaps derived by historical mining. Sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) were phylogenetically analyzed using maximum likelihood analyses. A total of 50 ITS algal sequences were obtained from 22 selected lichen taxa collected at three Cu mine-spoil heaps and two control localities. Algae associated with Cladonia and Stereocaulon were identified as members of several Asterochloris lineages, photobionts of cetrarioid lichens clustered with Trebouxia hypogymniae ined. We did not find close relationship between heavy metal content (in localities as well as lichen thalli) and photobiont diversity. Presence of multiple algal genotypes in single lichen thallus has been confirmed. PMID:20031214

  5. Comparative analysis of the antioxidant properties of Icelandic and Hawaiian lichens.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Kehau; Wright, Patrick R; Tabandera, Nicole K; Kelman, Dovi; Backofen, Rolf; Ómarsdóttir, Sesselja; Wright, Anthony D

    2016-09-01

    Antioxidant activity of symbiotic organisms known as lichens is an intriguing field of research because of its strong contribution to their ability to withstand extremes of physical and biological stress (e.g. desiccation, temperature, UV radiation and microbial infection). We present a comparative study on the antioxidant activities of 76 Icelandic and 41 Hawaiian lichen samples assessed employing the DPPH- and FRAP-based antioxidant assays. Utilizing this unprecedented sample size, we show that while highest individual sample activity is present in the Icelandic dataset, the overall antioxidant activity is higher for lichens found in Hawaii. Furthermore, we report that lichens from the genus Peltigera that have been described as strong antioxidant producers in studies on Chinese, Russian and Turkish lichens also show high antioxidant activities in both Icelandic and Hawaiian lichen samples. Finally, we show that opportunistic sampling of lichens in both Iceland and Hawaii will yield high numbers of lichen species that exclusively include green algae as photobiont. PMID:25808912

  6. The role of capsaicin in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Katherine; Shea, Sofia M; Patterson, James W

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenic pain and pruritus are the common chief complaints at dermatology office visits. Unfortunately, they are also notoriously difficult conditions to treat. Topical capsaicin used as a single therapy or as an adjuvant offers a low-risk option for patients who do not achieve control on other therapies. This chapter presents the evidence behind topical capsaicin use in dermatologic conditions characterized by neurogenic pain or pruritus, including postherpetic neuralgia, notalgia paresthetica, brachioradial pruritus, lichen simplex chronicus, prurigo nodularis, pruritus ani, pruritus of hemodialysis, aquagenic pruritus, apocrine chromhidrosis, lipodermatosclerosis, alopecia areata, and psoriasis. It presents the most common capsaicin formulations, dosages, and durations of treatment for each condition. Additionally, the chapter addresses various adverse effects and limitations in the use of topical capsaicin in dermatology. PMID:24941674

  7. Terricolous lichens in the glacier forefield of the Matscherferner (Eastern Alps, South Tyrol, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Tutzer, Veronika; Wallner, Anja; Nascimbene, Juri; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Two sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier to investigate lichen communities on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Matscherferner. The survey yielded 34 lichen species and one lichenicolous fungus. In addition, 19 lichen species and one lichenicolous fungus were found by collecting at random, outside the two sampling sites. PMID:27042696

  8. 137Cs concentrations in lichens before and after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, W; Attarpour, N; Lettner, H; Türk, R

    1993-01-01

    137Cs activities were measured in a variety of epigeic and epiphytic lichens in Austria before and after contamination by the Chernobyl fallout. For comparison, the activity of the naturally occurring 40K was also determined in each lichen sample. The high 137Cs activities found after Chernobyl suggest that lichens are suitable and inexpensive biological detectors of the fallout pattern. PMID:8416218

  9. [Genetic susceptibility to herpes simplex encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, F

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare but severe complication of frequent and mostly benign infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV). Although rapid and sensitive diagnosis tools and active antiviral drugs are available, HSE morbidity/mortality levels remain unsatisfactory. Molecular and cellular determinants of HSE are incompletely understood. The rarity and severity of the disease have suggested an increased susceptibility of some subjects to HSV infection. Numerous experimental studies have investigated the respective role of host and viral factors in HSE. The results of these studies have illustrated the major role of the innate immune response, in particular interferons (IFNs), in limiting access of the virus into and/or virus replication in the central nervous system (CNS). In a few children with HSE, specific defects of the immune innate response have been identified, which impair the IFN-α/β and IFN-λ production of fibroblasts and/or neurons infected with HSV and render these cells more permissive to infection. The mutations affect proteins involved in the IFN pathway induced by stimulation of the TLR3 receptor. The patients' susceptibility to infection is restricted to HSV CNS invasion, underlining the major role of TLR3 in CNS protection against viral infection. The incomplete clinical penetrance of these molecular defects suggests that other factors (age, infectious dose) are involved in HSE. Whether pathogenesis of adult HSE is similar has not been investigated. PMID:23399415

  10. Herpes simplex encephalitis: adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Richard J

    2006-09-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) remains one of the most devastating infections of the central nervous system despite available antiviral therapy. Children and adolescents account for approximately one third of all cases of HSE. Clinical diagnosis is suggested in the encephalopathic, febrile patient with focal neurologic signs. However, these clinical findings are not pathognomonic because numerous other diseases in the central nervous system can mimic HSE. Neurodiagnostic evaluation can provide support for the diagnosis by the demonstration of temporal lobe edema/hemorrhage by magnetic resonance image scan and spike and slow-wave activity on electroencephalogram. In the current era, the diagnostic gold standard is the detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although PCR is an excellent test and preferable to brain biopsy, false negatives can occur early after disease onset. Acyclovir is the treatment of choice and is administered at 10 mg/kg every 8 h for 21 days. Even with early administration of therapy after the disease onset, nearly two thirds of survivors have significant residual neurologic deficits. Current investigative efforts are assessing the prognostic value of quantitative PCR detection of viral DNA at the onset of therapy as well as at the completion of therapy and the contribution of prolonged antiviral therapy to improved neurologic outcome. PMID:16675036

  11. Preliminary study of volcano monitoring using geochemical composition of lichen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KUAN, S.

    2012-12-01

    Taipei City, the capital of Taiwan, is bounded with Tatun Volcano Group (TVG), which is not active since 200 ka. However, some evidences indicate that the latest explosion of volcanic ash was dated to 5-6 ka as well as TVG is so close to metropolis. The monitoring on TVG is crucial for crisis management. For monitoring TVG, changes of geochemical signal in some volcanic gases and hot springs are currently assessed by monthly sampling. The geochemistry of volcanic gas and hot spring represents a short-term condition on sampling time and is highly controlled by temperature and precipitation on the surface. A long-term average geochemistry will be very helpful to be compared with the results of volcanic gas and hot spring. A bioindicator not only has the ability to store geochemical compositions in their tissues but also has a wide geographical distribution. It is very suitable in this kind of study and lichen is one of the best bioindicators mainly because lichens grow slowly and have a large-scale dependence upon the environment for their nutrition, In TVG, the high SO2 content in the atmosphere results in the absence of fruticose lichen. On the contrary, crustos lichen is the most common species in the study area. For the preliminary analysis, one fruticose, four foliose and four crustos lichens were collected around the major emission centers of volcanic gas. According to the results of ICP-MS analysis, the abundances of heavy metals are generally in the order of Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni, V, Co and U. Factor analysis (FA) demonstrates that most of the metals show very high loadings in the first factor. This means that the fractionation of metals among different lichen species is minor and the geochemical compositions of lichen are possibly controlled by the same source (atmosphere). The second factor of FA includes Mn, Sr and Ba, which share the same oxidation state of +2 in acidic environment. This factor can describe the variation of Mn, Sr and Ba in the

  12. Cesium-137 monitoring using lichens from W. Macedonia, N. Greece.

    PubMed

    Sawidis, Thomas; Tsigaridas, Konstantinos; Tsikritzis, Lazaros

    2010-10-01

    (137)Cs content in lichens and substrate (soil, bark) collected from W. Macedonia, Greece was measured 20 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Archive material from previous collections was also used for comparison and a diachronic estimation of the radio-contamination status. A gradual decrease was detected which depended on various factors such as the collected species, location, growth rate and substrate. Maximum accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was observed in epilithic lichens in comparison to epigeic or epiphytic ones. Furthermore, foliose or crustose lichens such as Parmelia sulcata, Xanthoria parietina, Xanthoria calcicola, Xanthoparmelia somloensis were more contaminated than filamentose at the same biotope. Among filamentose or fruticose species those with large surface area to biomass ratio e.g. Usnea sp. showed also greater accumulation capacity. Autoradiography revealed an amount of (137)Cs distributed more or less uniformly in lichen thalli. The high (137)Cs activities found in lichens 20 years after Chernobyl suggest that these primitive plants are effective, suitable and inexpensive biological detectors of the distribution and burden of fallout radionuclide fallout pattern. PMID:20709398

  13. Lichens as bioindicators of geothermal air pollution in central Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Loppi, S.

    1996-11-01

    The suitability of lichens as bioindicators of geothermal air pollution was evaluated in central Italy. Fifty-one sites were sampled in the Travale-Radicondoli geothermal field, an area of about 15 km{sup 2}. Lichens on 1-5 trees per station were sampled, using 30 x 50 cm grids on tree boles, where lichens were most dense. Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) was calculated as the sum of the frequencies of all lichen species present at the station. Using automatic mapping programs, the area was divided into four air quality zones and the lowest IAP values were found within about 500 m of geothermal power plants. No direct measurements of air pollution are available for the whole study area, however, other studies show that air pollution levels (mercury, boron) fall with distance from a geothermal source. Also no substrate parameter (height, circumference, bark pH, and buffer capacity of the trees) discriminates between IAP zones. This suggests that air pollution arising from geothermal emissions is responsible for the zonation shown, with values for species richness and IAP rising with distance from geothermal installations. It is concluded that lichens are reliable bioindicators of geothermal pollution. 64 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  14. Predominant Palmoplantar Lichen Planus: A Diagnostic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Gutte, Rameshwar; Khopkar, Uday

    2014-01-01

    Background: Palmoplantar lesions in lichen planus (LP) are uncommon. In such cases, diagnosis is usually missed. This study was conducted to document various clinical and histopathological features of palmoplantar LP. Materials And Methods: A total of 18 patients from our outpatient department with lesions of LP, either predominantly or exclusively on palms and/or soles were studied. Patients with history of drug intake in recent past and patients with classical acute widespread LP with a few lesions on palms or soles were excluded. In each patient, diagnosis was made on clinicopathological correlation. Various clinical and histopathological features were analyzed. Results: Average age of onset was 38 years. Male: female ratio was 1:0.6 and average disease duration was 11 months. Exclusive palm or sole involvement was seen in 4/18 patients. Itching was the most common symptom. Clinically the most common variant was hypertrophic. Histologically presence of parakeratosis, spongiosis, lack of melanophages, and lack of hypergranulosis in some cases was seen in addition to classical features of LP. In 3 out of 4 patients with exclusive palmoplantar involvement diagnosis of LP was missed clinically. Conclusion: Involvement of palms and soles in LP poses a diagnostic challenge due to variable presentations. Histopathology is of vital importance for correct diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25071250

  15. Alterated integrin expression in lichen planopilaris

    PubMed Central

    d'Ovidio, Roberto; Sgarra, Concetta; Conserva, Anna; Angelotti, Umberto Filippo; Erriquez, Roberta; Foti, Caterina

    2007-01-01

    Background Lichen planopilaris (LPP) is an inflammatory disease characterized by a lymphomononuclear infiltrate surrounding the isthmus and infundibulum of the hair follicle of the scalp, that evolves into atrophic/scarring alopecia. In the active phase of the disease hairs are easily plucked with anagen-like hair-roots. In this study we focused on the expression of integrins and basement membrane components of the hair follicle in active LPP lesions. Methods Scalp biopsies were taken in 10 patients with LPP and in 5 normal controls. Using monoclonal antibodies against α3β1 and α6β4 integrins we showed the expression of these integrins and of the basement membrane components of the hair follicle in active LPP lesions and in healthy scalp skin. Results In the LPP involved areas, α3β1 was distributed in a pericellular pattern, the α6 subunit was present with a basolateral distribution while the β4 subunit showed discontinuous expression at the basal pole and occasionally, basolateral staining of the hair follicle. Conclusion: An altered distribution of the integrins in active LPP lesions can explain the phenomenon of easy pulling-out of the hair with a "gelatinous" root-sheath. PMID:17288588

  16. Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and sexual abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, S A; de San Lazaro, C

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: The aetiology of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA) is unknown. A series of 42 cases of this uncommon condition is reported. The aim of this study was to identify associations of LSA and document the association with sexual abuse. METHODS: Information about the patients was obtained by retrospective case note review and some patients were contacted by telephone for further information. RESULTS: In 12 cases there was evidence of sexual abuse. The abused group were slightly older than the non-abused group but were similar in all other respects. All three patients who presented over the age of 12 years had evidence of sexual abuse. Genital trauma was recalled by the patient or found at examination in 17 cases. Evidence of autoimmunity was present in five cases. Positive microbiological isolates were obtained in 18 cases. In only 11 cases were there no associated factors. The symptoms of LSA started between the ages of 3 and 7 years in most patients. The usual symptoms were related to genital skin involvement, and symptoms related to bladder and bowel function were common (50%). CONCLUSION: In this large series of paediatric LSA, associations with trauma, autoimmunity, and infection were noted. There was a high rate of coexisting sexual abuse with LSA, possibly due to genital trauma. Images Figure 2 PMID:9014605

  17. Kernel simplex growing algorithm for hyperspectral endmember extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liaoying; Zheng, Junpeng; Li, Xiaorun; Wang, Lijiao

    2014-01-01

    In order to effectively extract endmembers for hyperspectral imagery where linear mixing model may not be appropriate due to multiple scattering effects, this paper extends the simplex growing algorithm (SGA) to its kernel version. A new simplex volume formula without dimension reduction is used in SGA to form a new simplex growing algorithm (NSGA). The original data are nonlinearly mapped into a high-dimensional space where the scatters can be ignored. To avoid determining complex nonlinear mapping, a kernel function is used to extend the NSGA to kernel NSGA (KNSGA). Experimental results of simulated and real data prove that the proposed KNSGA approach outperforms SGA and NSGA.

  18. Lichens from Antalya, Cankiri, Konya and Nevsehir Provinces (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Yazici, K; Aslan, A; Etayo, J; Giordani, P

    2008-09-15

    A contribution to the lichen flora of Turkey is performed. A total of 171 lichen taxa (including 2 subspecies and 2 varieties) and 1 lichenicolous fungus are determined from 14 localities in Antalya, Cankiri, Konya and Nevşehir provinces of Turkey. Caloplaca scrobiculata H. Magn. is new to Turkey. Besides Caloplaca scrobiculata H. Magn. and Xanthoria sorediata (Vain.) Poelt were found for the second time in Asia. Carbonea vitellinaria (Nyl.) Hertel was found to grow on Candelariella vitellina (Hoffm.) Müll. Arg. while Muellerella pymaea (Körb.) D. Hawksw. var. athallina (Müll. Arg.) Triebel (lichenicolous fungus) on Tephromela atra (Huds.) Hafellner as parasitic. All lichen taxa found in Cankiri are new to this province (92 intraspecific taxa), while 39 new to Nevşehir, 8 new to Konya and 5 new to Antalya provinces. For every each taxon, the habitat pattern and distribution data are presented. PMID:19137828

  19. Treatment of oral lichen sclerosus with 1% pimecrolimus cream.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chi Yeon; Kim, Jin Gu; Oh, Chee Won

    2010-08-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disorder predominately affecting prepubertal girls and postmenopausal women. Isolated lichen sclerosus affecting the oral mucosa is exceedingly rare, and only 13 patients with biopsy-proved isolated oral disease have been reported in the literature. We report on a 7-year-old Korean girl with a well-demarcated 1.2x1.2 cm atrophic white plaque with an erythematous border and focal telangiectasia on the left vermillion lip, extending to the labial mucosa. No other cutaneous surfaces, including genitalia, were involved. An incisional biopsy of the plaque on the lip revealed a patchy lichenoid infiltrate of lymphocytes associated with sclerosis of the papillary dermis and a thinned epidermis consistent with a diagnosis of linear orofacial lichen sclerosus. Treatment with a short course of 1% pimecrolimus cream effectively prevented the progression of this lesion. PMID:20711272

  20. Antioxidative Activity of Lichen Thamnolia vermicularis in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Heng; Ren, Meirong; Lim, Kwang-Mi; Koh, Young Jin; Wang, Li-Song

    2006-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activities of methanol extract of Thamnolia vermicularis. The antioxidant activity, reducing power, superoxide anion radical scavenging and free radical scavenging activities were studied. The antioxidant activity of the extract correlated with its concentration (0.2~2 mg/ml) in the reaction mixtures containing linoleic acid. Upto 67% of lipid peroxidation was inhibited by 2 mg/ml of the lichen extract. The extract showed strong free radical scavenging activity similar to that of BHA (positive control) in a manner of concentration dependent. The lichen extract also showed moderate effects on superoxide anoin scavenging activity and reducing power, which was not so effective as that of Quercetin and BHA used as positive controls. This study suggests that T. vermicularis lichen can be used as a novel source of natural antioxidant. PMID:24039484

  1. Evidence-based (S3) Guideline on (anogenital) Lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Kirtschig, G; Becker, K; Günthert, A; Jasaitiene, D; Cooper, S; Chi, C-C; Kreuter, A; Rall, K K; Aberer, W; Riechardt, S; Casabona, F; Powell, J; Brackenbury, F; Erdmann, R; Lazzeri, M; Barbagli, G; Wojnarowska, F

    2015-10-01

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is an inflammatory skin disease that usually involves the anogenital area. All patients with symptoms or signs suspicious of lichen sclerosus should be seen at least once initially by a physician with a special interest in the disease in order to avoid delay in diagnosis, as early treatment may cure the disease in some and reduce or prevent scarring. The diagnosis is made clinically in most cases. Biopsies should only be performed under certain circumstances. The gold standard for treatment remains potent to very potent topical steroids; however, mild and moderate disease in boys and men may be cured by circumcision. Certain triggers should be avoided. http://www.euroderm.org/images/stories/guidelines/2014/S3-Guideline-on-Lichen-sclerosus.pdf http://www.awmf.org/fachgesellschaften/mitgliedsgesellschaften/visitenkarte/fg/deutsche-gesellschaft-fuer-gynaekologie-und-geburtshilfe-dggg.html. PMID:26202852

  2. Lichens as natural sources of biotechnologically relevant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Marcelino T; Parrot, Delphine; Berg, Gabriele; Grube, Martin; Tomasi, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    The search for microorganisms from novel sources and in particular microbial symbioses represents a promising approach in biotechnology. In this context, lichens have increasingly become a subject of research in microbial biotechnology, particularly after the recognition that a diverse community of bacteria other than cyanobacteria is an additional partner to the traditionally recognized algae-fungus mutualism. Here, we review recent studies using culture-dependent as well as culture-independent approaches showing that lichens can harbor diverse bacterial families known for the production of compounds of biotechnological interest and that several microorganisms isolated from lichens, in particular Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria, can produce a number of bioactive compounds, many of them with biotechnological potential. PMID:26549239

  3. Elemental accumulation in lichen transplants in the neighborhood of thermal power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, M.C.; Reis, M.A.; Alves, L.C.

    1996-12-31

    Lichens are known to be good monitors of air pollution because they easily absorb the chemical elements from air particles. Therefore, the exposure of clean lichens to a polluted region will result in an accumulation of elements emitted by the pollution sources in the lichens. In this work, samples of the lichen Parmelia sulcata were collected from olive tree stems and in a very clean area to gauge pollution. The goal is to obtain a quantitative relation between results obtained via lichens and via airborne particles.

  4. The effects of lichen cover upon the rate of solutional weathering of limestone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIlroy de la Rosa, J. P.; Warke, P. A.; Smith, B. J.

    2014-09-01

    The contribution of lichens to the biomodification of limestone surfaces is an area of conflict within bioweathering studies, with some researchers suggesting a protective effect induced by lichen coverage and others a deteriorative effect induced by the same organisms. Data are reported demonstrating the potential role of endolithic lichen, in particular of Bagliettoa baldensis, in the active protection of Carboniferous limestone surfaces from rainfall-induced solutional weathering. During a 12-month microcatchment exposure period in the west of Northern Ireland, average dissolutional losses of calcium are greater from a lichen-free limestone surface compared with a predominantly endolithic lichen-covered surface by just under 1.25 times. During colder winter months, the lichen-free surface experiences calcium loss almost 1.5 times greater than the lichen-covered surface. Using extrapolation to upscale from the micro-catchment sample scale, for the year of sample exposure, the rate of calcium loss is 1.001 g m- 2 a- 1 from lichen-covered limestone surfaces and 1.228 g m- 2 a- 1 from lichen-free bare limestone surfaces. This research has implications for our understanding of karst environments, the contribution of lichens to karren development and the conservation of lichen-colonised dimension stone within a cultural setting.

  5. Intrinsic factors of Peltigera lichens influence the structure of the associated soil bacterial microbiota.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Diego; Clavero-León, Claudia; Carú, Margarita; Orlando, Julieta

    2016-11-01

    Definition of lichens has evolved from bi(tri)partite associations to multi-species symbioses, where bacteria would play essential roles. Besides, although soil bacterial communities are known to be affected by edaphic factors, when lichens grow upon them these could become less preponderant. We hypothesized that the structure of both the lichen microbiota and the microbiota in the soil underneath lichens is shaped by lichen intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this work, intrinsic factors corresponded to mycobiont and cyanobiont identities of Peltigera lichens, metabolite diversity and phenoloxidase activity and extrinsic factors involved the site of the forest where lichens grow. Likewise, the genetic and metabolic structure of the lichen and soil bacterial communities were analyzed by fingerprinting. Among the results, metabolite diversity was inversely related to the genetic structure of bacterial communities of lichens and soils, highlighting the far-reaching effect of these substances; while phenoloxidase activity was inversely related to the metabolic structure only of the lichen bacterial microbiota, presuming a more limited effect of the products of these enzymes. Soil bacterial microbiota was different depending on the site and, strikingly, according to the cyanobiont present in the lichen over them, which could indicate an influence of the photobiont metabolism on the availability of soil nutrients. PMID:27543320

  6. Lichen planus pemphigoides associated with pregnancy mimicking pemphigoid gestationis.

    PubMed

    Rullán, Jennifer; Diaz, Nicole C; Vazquez-Botet, Miguel

    2016-06-01

    Lichen planus pemphigoides (LPP) is a rare condition characterized by tense blisters that arise on lesions of lichen planus (LP) and on unaffected skin. We present the case of a 25-year-old pregnant woman at 12 weeks' gestation who developed an acute bullous eruption after 5 months of worsening LP. Similarities to pemphigoid gestationis (PG) included lesions around the periumbilical area and multiple urticarial erythematous papules and plaques in addition to linear C3 and IgM deposition along the basement membrane zone (BMZ) on direct immunofluorescence (DIF). PMID:27416093

  7. Detection of herbaceous-plant pararetrovirus in lichen herbarium samples.

    PubMed

    Petrzik, K; Koloniuk, I; Sarkisová, T; Číhal, L

    2016-06-01

    Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) - a plant pararetrovirus that naturally causes diseases in Brassicaceae and Solanaceae plant hosts worldwide - has been detected by PCR for the first time in herbarium samples of Usnea sp. lichens. The virus's presence in these lichens did not result in any micro- or macromorphological changes, and the herbarium records were classified as representative for the distinct species. Sequence analyses classified all the detected viruses into one lineage of CaMV isolates. We have shown here that herbarium samples could be a good source for virus study, especially where a longer time span is involved. PMID:27265470

  8. New or otherwise interesting lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from Montenegro

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Knežević, Branka; Stešević, Danijela; Vitikainen, Orvo; Dragićević, Snežana; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    A list of 256 taxa of lichens (252 species) and 2 species of lichenicolous fungi from Montenegro is presented, including 58 taxa (57 species) new to Montenegro. The list is based on specimens kept in the lichen collections of the herbaria GZU, H, Podgorica, and in the private herbarium of Klaus Kalb, and on recent field work in various parts of the country. The genera Biatoridium, Carbonea, Cercidospora, Heppia, Hyperphyscia, Hypocenomyce, Leprocaulon, Lethariella, Megalospora, Orphniospora, Psorinia and Vahliella are reported from Montenegro for the first time. PMID:22102779

  9. Lichen Persistence and Recovery in Response to Varied Volcanic Disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, P.; Wheeler, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions produce many ecological disturbances that structure vegetation. While lichens are sensitive to disturbances, little is known about their responses to volcanic disturbances, except for colonization of lava. We examined lichen community responses through time to different disturbances produced by the May 1, 2008 eruption of Volcan Chaiten in south-central Chile. Pre-eruption vegetation near the volcano was old-growth Valdivian temperate rainforest dominated by closed-canopy Nothofagus sp... In 2012, we installed thirteen 1-acre plots across volcanic disturbance zones on which a time-constrained search was done for all macrolichen species, each of which was assigned an approximate log10 categorical abundance. We also installed a 0.2 m2 quadrat on two representative trees per plot for repeat photography of lichen cover. We remeasured at least one plot per disturbance zone in 2014 and re-photographed tree quadrats in 2013 and 2014. We then analyzed species composition and abundance differences among disturbance zones. In 2012, the blast (pyroclastic density flow), scorch (standing scorched forest at the edge of the blast) and deep tephra (>10 cm) zones had the lowest lichen species richness (5-13 species), followed by reference (unimpacted) and shallow (<10 cm) tephra (17-20 species). Gravel rain (preexisting rock ejected by eruption initiation), gravel rain + pumice and flooded forests (fluvially reworked volcanic material entrained by heavy rains) were species-rich (25-42 species). In 2014, the blast and deep tephra had regained 2-3 times the number of lichen species since 2012 while the light tephra and reference were essentially unchanged. Gravel rain, gravel rain + pumice and flooded forest plots all had about the same number of species in 2014 as 2012. Lichen colonization and growth in tree quadrats varied widely, from very little colonization in the blast to prolific colonization in the gravel rain + pumice zone. Lichen's varied responses to

  10. Tracking polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lichens: It's all about the algae.

    PubMed

    Augusto, Sofia; Sierra, Jordi; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2015-12-01

    Lichens, symbioses of fungi and algae and/or cyanobacteria, have the remarkable ability to uptake and accumulate semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) from air, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but the mechanism of accumulation is still unknown. Understanding these mechanisms is critical to standardize the use of lichens as environmental bioindicators and to further integrate them in air monitoring networks. Through a series of experiments we show that gas phase PAHs easily cross lichen's surface and accumulate in the photosynthetic algal layer of lichens. Once accumulated, they remain in the algal layer and not within the fungus hyphae, or adhered to lichen's surface, as it was previously supposed to happen. Additionally, when lichens are washed, gas phase PAHs still remain in the algal layer. Our results reveal that lichens may be utilized as bioindicators of gas phase PAHs, overcoming current limitations of air monitoring. PMID:26319506

  11. Current results on biological activities of lichen secondary metabolites: a review.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Katalin; Farkas, Edit

    2010-01-01

    Lichens are symbiotic organisms of fungi and algae or cyanobacteria. Lichen-forming fungi synthesize a great variety of secondary metabolites, many of which are unique. Developments in analytical techniques and experimental methods have resulted in the identification of about 1050 lichen substances (including those found in cultures). In addition to their role in lichen chemotaxonomy and systematics, lichen secondary compounds have several possible biological roles, including photoprotection against intense radiation, as well as allelochemical, antiviral, antitumor, antibacterial, antiherbivore, and antioxidant action. These compounds are also important factors in metal homeostasis and pollution tolerance of lichen thalli. Although our knowledge of the contribution of these extracellular products to the success of the lichen symbiosis has increased significantly in the last decades, their biotic and abiotic roles have not been entirely explored. PMID:20469633

  12. Herpes simplex virus and the alimentary tract.

    PubMed

    Lavery, Eric A; Coyle, Walter J

    2008-08-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is well known as a sexually transmitted disease. However, relatively little has been published concerning the presentations and treatment of HSV infection within the gastrointestinal tract, where HSV most commonly affects the esophagus in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. HSV proctitis is not uncommon and occurs primarily in males having sex with males. In patients with normal immune systems, gastrointestinal HSV infections are generally self-limited and rarely require antiviral therapy. Treatment of infection is suggested for immunocompromised patients, though no large randomized controlled trials have been performed. This article reviews the manifestations of HSV infection within the luminal gastrointestinal tract and options for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:18627656

  13. On the existence of binary simplex codes. [using combinatorial construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, H.

    1977-01-01

    Using a simple combinatorial construction, the existence of a binary simplex code with m codewords for all m is greater than or equal to 1 is proved. The problem of the shortest possible length is left open.

  14. A Case of Steatocystoma Simplex Involving the Scalp

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Dong Nyeok; Won, Jong Hoon; Chung, Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Steatocystoma is a benign adnexal tumor originating from the pilosebaceous duct junction which can be classified into two groups (steatocystoma simplex and steatocystoma multiplex). Steatocystoma simplex, which presents as a solitary lesion, is very rare. Steatocystoma simplex occurs most commonly on the face and the case reported herein involving the scalp is extremely rare. A 49-year-old man presented for evaluation and treatment of a solitary papule on the right parietal scalp which had persisted for a period of 1 year. The histopathologic examination revealed a thin-walled cyst consisting of stratified squamous epithelium with hyaline cuticle that lacked a stratum granulosum. Based on clinical and histologic findings, we diagnosed this case as steatocystoma simplex of the scalp and report this rare case. PMID:27303199

  15. Actinoplanes lichenis sp. nov., isolated from lichen.

    PubMed

    Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Inahashi, Yuki; Kudo, Takuji; Mori, Mihoko; Shiomi, Kazuro; Takahashi, Yoko; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2016-01-01

    A novel species of the genus Actinoplanes, strain LDG1-22T, for which we propose the name Actinoplanes lichenis sp. nov., was isolated from a lichen sample collected from tree bark in Thailand. The taxonomic position of the species has been described based on a polyphasic approach. Strain LDG1-22T produced irregular sporangia on agar media. It contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The major menaquinone was MK-9(H4); the polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and phosphatidylglycerol. Whole-cell hydrolysates contained ribose, glucose, mannose and small amounts of arabinose and xylose. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 (31.2 %) and iso-C16 : 0 (14.2 %). Mycolic acids were absent. The G+C content was 73.6 %. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain LDG1-22T showed highest similarity (98.8 %) to Actinoplanes friuliensis DSM 45797T and it clustered with Actinoplanes nipponensis JCM 3264T and Actinoplanes missouriensis JCM 3121T in phylogenetic tree analysis. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and DNA-DNA relatedness, strain LDG1-22T could be distinguished from related species of the genus Actinoplanes and so represents a novel species of this genus. The type strain of Actinoplanes lichenis sp. nov. is LDG1-22T ( = JCM 30485T = TISTR 2343T = PCU 344T). PMID:26552374

  16. Are patients with lichen planus really prone to urolithiasis? Lichen planus and urolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Oguz, Ural; Takci, Zennure; Oguz, Isil Deniz; Resorlu, Berkan; Balta, Ilknur; Unsal, Ali

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose to investigate whether patients with lichen planus (LP) are really prone to urolithiasis or not. Patients and Methods We performed a prospective analysis of 40 patients diagnosed with lichen planus (LP) (group I), and 40 volunteers did not have LP before (group II). Participants were all checked for urolithiasis by radiological investigations. Blood samples were analyzed for biochemistry parameters including calcium and uric acid. 24-h urine samples were analyzed to investigate oxalate, citrate calcium, uric acid, magnesium, sodium and creatinine. Results Men/women ratio and mean age were similar between group I and II (p>0.05). A presence or history of urolithiasis was detected in 8 (20%) and 2 (%5) patients in group I and II, respectively (p<0.05). Hypocitraturia was the most common anomaly with 35% (n:14) in group I. The rate of hypocitraturia in group II was 12.5% (n:5) and the difference was statistically significantly different (p=0.036). In group I, hyperuricosuria and hyperoxaluria followed with rates of 27.5% (n:11) and 25% (n:10), respectively. The rate of hyperuricosuria and hyperoxaluria were both 5% (n:2) in group II and the differences were significant (p<0.05). Hyperuricemia was another important finding in the patients with LP. It was detected in 13 (32.5%) patients in group I and in 1 (2.5%) participant in group II (p=0.001). Conclusion According to our results, metabolic disorders of urolithiasis were highly detected in the patients with LP. However, similar to the etiology of LP, the exact reasons for these metabolic abnormalities in LP remain a mystery. PMID:27286123

  17. Characterisation of potential novel allergens in the fish parasite Anisakis simplex

    PubMed Central

    Fæste, Christiane Kruse; Jonscher, Karen R.; Dooper, Maaike M.W.B.; Egge-Jacobsen, Wolfgang; Moen, Anders; Daschner, Alvaro; Egaas, Eliann; Christians, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    The parasitic nematode Anisakis simplex occurs in fish stocks in temperate seas. A. simplex contamination of fish products is unsavoury and a health concern considering human infection with live larvae (anisakiasis) and allergic reactions to anisakid proteins in seafood. Protein extracts of A. simplex produce complex band patterns in gel electrophoresis and IgE-immunostaining. In the present study potential allergens have been characterised using sera from A. simplex-sensitised patients and proteome data obtained by mass spectrometry. A. simplex proteins were homologous to allergens in other nematodes, insects, and shellfish indicating cross-reactivity. Characteristic marker peptides for relevant A. simplex proteins were described. PMID:27110489

  18. Education: Lichens in US Introductory Botany Textbooks, 1936-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Emanuel D.

    1988-01-01

    This article reviews the treatment of lichens in 93 different introductory North American botany textbooks. Topics considered are questions of relationship, independent survival, reproduction, definition, and scientific name. The author reports that treatment is uneven and often includes incomplete or erroneous information which may persist…

  19. Diversity in a Hidden Community: Tardiagrades in Lichens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shofner, Marcia; Vodopich, Darrell

    1993-01-01

    Describes an interesting field experiment examining the distribution and diversity of a single community using lichens and the animals living in them. Combining field experience and laboratory work reveals not only the biology of some unusual organisms, but also community ecology and diversity. (PR)

  20. Urban pollution seen in lichens' hue. [Flavoparmelia caperata

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-08

    This brief article describes the use of lichens as sensitive indicators of urban air pollution. Flavoparmelia caperata absorbs pollutants and turns from its normal pale green color to yellow as it begins to die. The process varies in duration depending on pollution concentration and season.

  1. Lichen Sclerosus Atrophicus [LSA] in the Areolae: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Padmavathy, L.; Lakshmana Rao, L.; Dhana Lakshmi, M.; Sylvester, N.; Ethirajan, N.

    2012-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of an unknown aetiology most commonly affecting the anogenital area. However, extragenital involvement also occurs uncommonly. A case of extra-genital LS involving the areolae of both breasts, in a 15-year-old boy, is reported for its rarity. PMID:23259089

  2. Lichen Secondary Metabolite, Physciosporin, Inhibits Lung Cancer Cell Motility

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Park, So-Yeon; Nguyen, Thanh Thi; Yu, Young Hyun; Nguyen, Tru Van; Sun, Eun Gene; Udeni, Jayalal; Jeong, Min-Hye; Pereira, Iris; Moon, Cheol; Ha, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Kyung Keun; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kim, Hangun

    2015-01-01

    Lichens produce various unique chemicals that can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. To screen for novel lichen secondary metabolites showing inhibitory activity against lung cancer cell motility, we tested acetone extracts of 13 lichen samples collected in Chile. Physciosporin, isolated from Pseudocyphellaria coriacea (Hook f. & Taylor) D.J. Galloway & P. James, was identified as an effective compound and showed significant inhibitory activity in migration and invasion assays against human lung cancer cells. Physciosporin treatment reduced both protein and mRNA levels of N-cadherin with concomitant decreases in the levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers such as snail and twist. Physciosporin also suppressed KITENIN (KAI1 C-terminal interacting tetraspanin)-mediated AP-1 activity in both the absence and presence of epidermal growth factor stimulation. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of the metastasis suppressor gene, KAI1, was increased while that of the metastasis enhancer gene, KITENIN, was dramatically decreased by physciosporin. Particularly, the activity of 3’-untranslated region of KITENIN was decreased by physciosporin. Moreover, Cdc42 and Rac1 activities were decreased by physciosporin. These results demonstrated that the lichen secondary metabolite, physciosporin, inhibits lung cancer cell motility through novel mechanisms of action. PMID:26371759

  3. Lichen Secondary Metabolite, Physciosporin, Inhibits Lung Cancer Cell Motility.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Park, So-Yeon; Nguyen, Thanh Thi; Yu, Young Hyun; Nguyen, Tru Van; Sun, Eun Gene; Udeni, Jayalal; Jeong, Min-Hye; Pereira, Iris; Moon, Cheol; Ha, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Kyung Keun; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kim, Hangun

    2015-01-01

    Lichens produce various unique chemicals that can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. To screen for novel lichen secondary metabolites showing inhibitory activity against lung cancer cell motility, we tested acetone extracts of 13 lichen samples collected in Chile. Physciosporin, isolated from Pseudocyphellaria coriacea (Hook f. & Taylor) D.J. Galloway & P. James, was identified as an effective compound and showed significant inhibitory activity in migration and invasion assays against human lung cancer cells. Physciosporin treatment reduced both protein and mRNA levels of N-cadherin with concomitant decreases in the levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers such as snail and twist. Physciosporin also suppressed KITENIN (KAI1 C-terminal interacting tetraspanin)-mediated AP-1 activity in both the absence and presence of epidermal growth factor stimulation. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of the metastasis suppressor gene, KAI1, was increased while that of the metastasis enhancer gene, KITENIN, was dramatically decreased by physciosporin. Particularly, the activity of 3'-untranslated region of KITENIN was decreased by physciosporin. Moreover, Cdc42 and Rac1 activities were decreased by physciosporin. These results demonstrated that the lichen secondary metabolite, physciosporin, inhibits lung cancer cell motility through novel mechanisms of action. PMID:26371759

  4. Lichen biodeterioration under different microclimates: an FT Raman spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, H. G. M.; Russell, N. C.; Seaward, M. R. D.; Slarke, D.

    1995-11-01

    The FT Raman spectra of lichen-substratum encrustations of Diploicia canescens on a limestone church tower are reported. The presence of calcium oxalate dihydrate in the encrustations was identified from the ν(CO) stretching fundamentals at 1474, 908 and 506 cm -1 of the oxalate ion. Quantitative measurements were made of the relative amounts of lichen cellulose, characterised by ν(CH) stretching at 2934 cm -1, pigmentation, characterised by ν(CC) stretching at 1526 cm -1, and calcium oxalate dihydrate along radial transects of surfaces of lichen thalli and encrustations. It was found that the biodeterioration of the limestone substratum did not involve the incorporation of particles of the substratum into the central zone of the thallus, unlike other high-oxalate producing lichen species. A preliminary investigation has been made of the relationship between microclimate, in terms of air and wall temperatures and humidity, and the biodeteriorative capability of thalli exemplified by calcium oxalate dihydrate production: it would appear that warmer and drier sites are more conducive to calcium oxalate dihydrate production by D. canescens under these circumstances.

  5. Epilithic lichens in the Beacon sandstone formation, Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, M. E.; Friedmann, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    The epilithic lichen flora on the Beacon sandstone formation in Victoria Land consists of seven species: Acarospora gwynnii Dodge & Rudolph, Buellia grisea Dodge & Baker, B. pallida Dodge & Baker, Carbonea capsulata (Dodge & Baker) Hale comb. nov., Lecanora fuscobrunnea Dodge & Baker, Lecidea cancriformis Dodge & Baker, and L. siplei Dodge & Baker. The typification of the species is given along with descriptions and distribution in Antarctica.

  6. The micromorphological approach to rock-lichen interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terribile, F.; Vingiani, S.; Adamo, P.

    2012-04-01

    Biological factors associated with lichen growth play a major role in the weathering of minerals on bare rocks. Research on this topic over the last decades has demonstrated that a variety of interactions exist between these organisms and substrates and that further progresses in the study of the rock-lichen relationships rely on modern instrumental and analytical techniques application. In this investigation a micromorphological methodology has been produced in order to study the weathering phenomena resulting from the growth of six crustose (Lecidea fuscoatra, Lecanora sulfurea, Rinodina beccariana, Lepraria sp., Rhizocarpon geographicum and Diploscistes actinostomus) and three foliose (Xanthoria calcicola, Xanthoria ectaneoides and Parmelia conspersa) lichen species growing on volcanic and metamorphic rocks. Lecidea fuscoatra was collected on phonolitic tefrite from Mt. Etna (Sicily), Parmelia conspersa on tefritic leucitite from Mt. Vesuvius (Campania), Lepraria sp. and Rhizocarpon geographicum on granite from Alghero (Sardinia), Xanthoria ectaneoides on massive serpentinite from Impruneta (Toscana), Lecanora sulfurea, Rinodina beccariana and Diploscistes actinostomus on metal-bearing schist from Argentiera (Sardinia). The methodology implies a multi-resolution analysis of rock-lichen undisturbed samples ranging from direct (OM) to electron microscopic (SEM/EDS) observations. Different litologies covered by lichens were sampled in the field in selected locations (1st level of resolution). Samples were analysed by both direct observation and stereomicroscopy in order to spot the most relevant zones for further study (2nd level of resolution). Such parts were impregnated with polyester resin to obtain a series of thin sections (30 micrometer thick). The thin sections were analysed by optical microscopy using point counting procedures (3rd level of resolution). Bulk and undisturbed microsamples, separated from the most representative weathering sites by

  7. [The deposition of tritium in form of HTO from atmosphere moisture to Hypogymnia physodes lichens during chamber experiments].

    PubMed

    Golubeva, V N; Golubev, A V; Kosheleva, T A; Kuznetsova, V F; Mavrin, S V

    2008-01-01

    The results of the deposition of tritium oxide (HTO) from atmosphere to Hypogymnia physodes lichens during chamber experiments are presented. For lichens the content of tissue water tritium (TWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT) were measuremed. Were shown that lichens mainly absorb HTO from atmosphere during first 24 hours. The ratio TWT/HTO of chamber and the velocity of TWT to OBT conversion in lichens were determined. Was noted that the TWT to OBT conversion velocity for lichens is ten times greater than that for deposition of HTO by vascular plant leafs. There was supposed that TWT to OCT conversion in lichens is occurred through alga as well as fungus component of lichens. The intensive deposition HTO from chamber atmosphere by lichens and high velocity of HTO to OBT conversion show the availability to use lichens for determination of atmosphere pollution by HTO. PMID:19004335

  8. Topical treatment of oral lichen planus with anthocyanins

    PubMed Central

    Di Fabio, Amanda; Salomón, Susana; Lanfranchi, Héctor

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress is involved in oral lichen planus (OLP) pathogenesis; meanwhile anthocyanins are natural antioxidants present in grapes skin. Objectives: The aim of this research was to verify the utility of anthocyanins, extracted from grapes skin, for the local treatment of oral lichen planus and to compare it with clobetasol propionate- neomycin -nystatin cream (CP-NN). Study Design: Prospective, non-randomized study, with control group. Fifty-two patients with OLP were included. We divided patients into two categories: erosive oral lichen planus (EOLP) and non erosive oral lichen planus (NEOLP). 38 had EOLP (17 cases and 21 controls) and 14 presented NEOLP types (9 cases and 5 controls).Cases received local treatment with anthocyanins from grapes and controls, were treated with CP-NN. The clinical evolution of patients was followed up during six months. Results: The patients had a therapeutic response with anthocyanins. This was better than CP-NN treatment for patients with EOLP, in improving the involvement score of the oral mucosa and in the morphometric study of the affected areas. In EOLP there were no statistically significant differences in: therapeutic response time, the evolution of pain, or the relapse rate between the two groups. With respect to the treatment of NEOLP there was improved pain relief in the group treated with anthocyanins. This was not observed with CP-NN. The resting analized variables showed no significant difference with both treatments. Conclusions: OLP has a favorable response to local treatment with anthocyanins from grapes. We found an equal to or better response than with CP-NN treatment. Many of our patients have systemic diseases, which may contraindicate the use of steroids. With regard to this particular group, the use of this natural antioxidant present in the diet is considered advantageous. Key words:Anthocyanins, antioxidants, chemoprevention, morphometry, oral lichen, oxidative stress. PMID:24880442

  9. Lichen symbiosis: nature's high yielding machines for induced hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Kastanaki, Elizabeth; Pirintsos, Stergios; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939) and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont's and photobiont's consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration) establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont's hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein) to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state) constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications. PMID:25826211

  10. Lichen Symbiosis: Nature's High Yielding Machines for Induced Hydrogen Production

    PubMed Central

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Kastanaki, Elizabeth; Pirintsos, Stergios; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939) and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont’s and photobiont’s consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration) establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont’s hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein) to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state) constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications. PMID:25826211

  11. Mycosis inhibits cannibalism by Melanoplus sanguinipes, M. differentialis, Schistocerca americana, and Anabrus simplex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cannibalism is common among the Acrididae and the Mormon cricket, Anabrus simplex, a tettigonid. These behaviors have been proposed as mechanisms for the horizontal transmission of Microsporida and entomopathogenic fungi. After anecdotal observations that Melanoplus sanguinipes and A. simplex did ...

  12. Experimental investigation of herpes simplex virus latency.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, E K; Bloom, D C

    1997-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of herpes simplex virus infection generally involve a mild and localized primary infection followed by asymptomatic (latent) infection interrupted sporadically by periods of recrudescence (reactivation) where virus replication and associated cytopathologic findings are manifest at the site of initial infection. During the latent phase of infection, viral genomes, but not infectious virus itself, can be detected in sensory and autonomic neurons. The process of latent infection and reactivation has been subject to continuing investigation in animal models and, more recently, in cultured cells. The initiation and maintenance of latent infection in neurons are apparently passive phenomena in that no virus gene products need be expressed or are required. Despite this, a single latency-associated transcript (LAT) encoded by DNA encompassing about 6% of the viral genome is expressed during latent infection in a minority of neurons containing viral DNA. This transcript is spliced, and the intron derived from this splicing is stably maintained in the nucleus of neurons expressing it. Reactivation, which can be induced by stress and assayed in several animal models, is facilitated by the expression of LAT. Although the mechanism of action of LAT-mediated facilitation of reactivation is not clear, all available evidence argues against its involving the expression of a protein. Rather, the most consistent models of action involve LAT expression playing a cis-acting role in a very early stage of the reactivation process. PMID:9227860

  13. Vaccines for herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Koelle, David M

    2006-02-01

    Infections with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) can have serious medical consequences. Although antiviral medications can suppress symptomatic disease, asymptomatic shedding and transmission, they neither cure nor alter the natural history of HSV infections. Manipulation of the immune response is one potential method to decrease disease burden. Current research on prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination approaches is discussed in this review, with a focus on compounds that have entered clinical trials or that display novel compositions or proposed mechanisms of action. One such vaccine is an alum and monophosphoryl lipid A-adjuvanted subunit glycoprotein D2 vaccine that has demonstrated activity in the prevention of HSV-2 infection and disease in HSV-uninfected women in a phase III clinical trial. Further confirmatory clinical trials of this vaccine are currently underway. Other vaccine formats also in development include attenuated live or replication-incompetent HSV-2 strains and technologies that target virus-specific CD8 T-cell responses. PMID:16499283

  14. Herpes simplex virus duodenitis accompanying Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Hoo; Um, Wook Hyun; Jeon, Seong Ran; Kim, Hyun Gun; Lee, Tae Hee; Kim, Wan Jung; Kim, Jin-Oh; Jin, So Young

    2013-11-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a recognized cause of gastrointestinal infection in immunodeficient patients. Although a few cases of HSV gastritis and colitis in immunocompromised patients have been reported, there are no reports of HSV duodenitis in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). A 74-year-old female was admitted with general weakness and refractory epigastric pain. She had been diagnosed with CD three years ago. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed diffuse edematous and whitish mucosa with multiple erosions in the duodenum. Considering the possibility of viral co-infection, cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunohistochemical staining, PCR, and cultures of duodenal biopsies were performed, all of which were negative with the exception of the isolation of HSV in culture. After administration of intravenous acyclovir for 1 week, follow-up EGD showed almost complete resolution of the lesions and the patient's symptoms improved. In CD patients with refractory gastro-intestinal symptoms, HSV, as well as CMV, should be considered as a possible cause of infection, so that the diagnosis of viral infection is not delayed and the appropriate antiviral treatment can be initiated. PMID:24262595

  15. Antiviral agents for herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Vere Hodge, R Anthony; Field, Hugh J

    2013-01-01

    This review starts with a brief description of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), the clinical diseases they cause, and the continuing clinical need for antiviral chemotherapy. A historical overview describes the progress from the early, rather toxic antivirals to acyclovir (ACV) which led the way for its prodrug, valacyclovir, to penciclovir and its prodrug, famciclovir (FCV). These compounds have been the mainstay of HSV therapy for two decades and have established a remarkable safety record. This review focuses on these compounds, the preclinical studies which reveal potentially important differences, the clinical trials, and the clinical experience through two decades. Some possible areas for further investigation are suggested. The focus shifts to new approaches and novel compounds, in particular, the combination of ACV with hydrocortisone, known as ME609 or zovirax duo, an HSV helicase-primase inhibitor, pritelivir (AIC316), and CMX001, the cidofovir prodrug for treating resistant HSV infection in immunocompromised patients. Letermovir has established that the human cytomegalovirus terminase enzyme is a valid target and that similar compounds could be sought for HSV. We discuss the difficulties facing the progression of new compounds. In our concluding remarks, we summarize the present situation including a discussion on the reclassification of FCV from prescription-only to pharmacist-controlled for herpes labialis in New Zealand in 2010; should this be repeated more widely? We conclude that HSV research is emerging from a quiescent phase. PMID:23885997

  16. Uncoating the Herpes Simplex Virus Genome

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, William W.; Brown, Jay C.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Initiation of infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) involves a step in which the parental virus capsid docks at a nuclear pore and injects its DNA into the nucleus. Once “uncoated” in this way, the virus DNA can be transcribed and replicated. In an effort to clarify the mechanism of DNA injection, we examined DNA release as it occurs in purified capsids incubated in vitro. DNA ejection was observed following two different treatments, trypsin digestion of capsids in solution, and heating of capsids after attachment to a solid surface. In both cases, electron microscopic analysis revealed that DNA was ejected as a single double helix with ejection occurring at one vertex presumed to be the portal. In the case of trypsin-treated capsids, DNA release was found to correlate with cleavage of a small proportion of the portal protein, UL6, suggesting UL6 cleavage may be involved in making the capsid permissive for DNA ejection. In capsids bound to a solid surface, DNA ejection was observed only when capsids were warmed above 4°C. The proportion of capsids releasing their DNA increased as a function of incubation temperature with nearly all capsids ejecting their DNA when incubation was at 37°C. The results demonstrate heterogeneity among HSV-1 capsids with respect to their sensitivity to heat-induced DNA ejection. Such heterogeneity may indicate a similar heterogeneity in the ease with which capsids are able to deliver DNA to the infected cell nucleus. PMID:17540405

  17. A Drosophila Model of Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex.

    PubMed

    Bohnekamp, Jens; Cryderman, Diane E; Paululat, Achim; Baccam, Gabriel C; Wallrath, Lori L; Magin, Thomas M

    2015-08-01

    The blistering skin disorder epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) results from dominant mutations in keratin 5 (K5) or keratin 14 (K14) genes, encoding the intermediate filament (IF) network of basal epidermal keratinocytes. The mechanisms governing keratin network formation and collapse due to EBS mutations remain incompletely understood. Drosophila lacks cytoplasmic IFs, providing a 'null' environment to examine the formation of keratin networks and determine mechanisms by which mutant keratins cause pathology. Here, we report that ubiquitous co-expression of transgenes encoding wild-type human K14 and K5 resulted in the formation of extensive keratin networks in Drosophila epithelial and non-epithelial tissues, causing no overt phenotype. Similar to mammalian cells, treatment of transgenic fly tissues with phosphatase inhibitors caused keratin network collapse, validating Drosophila as a genetic model system to investigate keratin dynamics. Co-expression of K5 and a K14(R125C) mutant that causes the most severe form of EBS resulted in widespread formation of EBS-like cytoplasmic keratin aggregates in epithelial and non-epithelial fly tissues. Expression of K14(R125C)/K5 caused semi-lethality; adult survivors developed wing blisters and were flightless due to a lack of intercellular adhesion during wing heart development. This Drosophila model of EBS is valuable for the identification of pathways altered by mutant keratins and for the development of EBS therapies. PMID:25830653

  18. 16-year trends in elements of lichens at Theodore Roosevelt National Park, ND

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    An epiphytic lichen and a soil lichen in two very closely related genera (Parmelia sulcata and Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa, respectively) were sampled 16 years apart at Theodore Roosevelt National Park in North Dakota and measured for their elemental content. Mercury and cadmium decreased approximately 30% over the time period in both species. Sulfur decreased 8% in the epiphytic species, but increased 20% in the soil lichen. Factor analysis revealed that soil elements were higher in the soil lichen, indicating there was some soil contamination in that species. A relationship between iron and titanium was found only in the soil lichen. Sulfur and mercury were highly enriched in both species relative to the soil, which suggests that the atmosphere is a contributing source of these elements. New baseline values were calculated, 22 elements for both species, although it is not recommended that the soil lichen be sampled in the future.

  19. Neoplastic transformation of oral lichen: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Abbate, G; Foscolo, AM; Gallotti, M; Lancella, A; Mingo, F

    2006-01-01

    Summary Aim of the present investigation was to analyse the possible malignant transformation of oral lichen planus to carcinoma, especially in the atrophic erosive forms and those displaying plaques involving the top of the tongue. A review has been made of the literature, from 1986 to the present day. This search outlines the relationship between oral lichen planus, hepatitis C virus infection, Epstein-Barr virus infection and the importance of periodic follow-up in all patients with oral lichen planus. The case is described of malignant transformation of oral lichen planus to oral cancer in a female presenting asymptomatic hepatitis C virus infection. The clinical history confirms the most important aspects of the relationship between oral lichen planus and oral cancer. Oral lichen planus should be considered as a precancerous lesion, particularly in patients presenting hepatitis C virus infection, requiring follow-up, at close intervals, starting from 3 months after diagnosis. PMID:18383758

  20. Epiphytic lichens as indicators of environmental quality around a municipal solid waste landfill (C Italy).

    PubMed

    Paoli, Luca; Grassi, Alice; Vannini, Andrea; Maslaňáková, Ivana; Bil'ová, Ivana; Bačkor, Martin; Corsini, Adelmo; Loppi, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    Epiphytic lichens have been used as indicators of environmental quality around a municipal solid waste landfill in C Italy. An integrated approach, using the diversity of epiphytic lichens, as well as element bioaccumulation and physiological parameters in the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale was applied along a transect from the facility. The results highlighted the biological effects of air pollution around the landfill. The Index of Lichen Diversity (ILD) increased and the content of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn) decreased with distance from the landfill. Clear stress signals were observed in lichens growing in front of the facility, i.e. discoloration, necrosis, membrane lipid peroxidation, lower ergosterol content, higher dehydrogenase activity. Decreased photosynthetic efficiency, altered chlorophyll integrity and production of secondary metabolites were also found. The results suggested that lichens can be profitably used as bioindicators of environmental quality around landfills. PMID:25987289

  1. Lichen recovery following heavy grazing by reindeer delayed by climate warming.

    PubMed

    Klein, David R; Shulski, Martha

    2009-02-01

    Introduced reindeer, Rangifer tarandus, overexploited lichen-rich plant communities on St. Matthew Island in the Bering Sea. A die-off of the reindeer followed, exacerbated by extreme weather in 1964, resulting in extirpation of the reindeer. A similar pattern of removal of lichens as major components of plant communities has occurred following introductions of reindeer to other islands at high latitudes. By 1985, two decades following die-off of the reindeer, total lichen biomass was only 6% of that in similar plant communities on adjacent Hall Island, not reached by the reindeer. By 2005, 41 y after the reindeer die-off, lichen regrowth on St. Matthew was only 12% of lichen biomass in the Hall Island communities. A warmer, drier climate and decreased fog in recent decades contributed to deterioration of conditions favoring lichen growth on St. Matthew Island. PMID:19260341

  2. Epiphytic lichens as indicators of air pollution in Tomsk Oblast (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolshunova, T. S.; Rikhvanov, L. P.; Mezhibor, A. M.

    2014-08-01

    This research presents the data on concentrations of 28 chemical elements in the ash of lichens growing in Tomsk Oblast where different industrial enterprises are located. In the sites of oil and gas exploration complex the lichens contain higher concentrations of Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Ba, and Au in comparison with the background values. In the zone of Tomsk- Seversk industrial agglomeration the lichens accumulate Ca, Sr, Sb, Th, U, and lanthanides.

  3. Lichens as bioindicators of aerial fallout of heavy metals in Zaria, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Kapu, M.M. Ahmadu Bello Univ., Zaria ); Ipaye, M.M.; Ega, R.A.I.; Balarabe, M.L. ); Akanya, H.O. ); Schaeffer, D.J. )

    1991-09-01

    Lichens and other epiphytic cryptogams possess efficient ion-exchange mechanisms which enable many species to accumulate airborne metals and which probably contribute to their tolerating metals at concentrations high enough to cause death to other plant species. A direct relationship between the distribution pattern of lichens and the trace metal content of the surrounding air has been demonstrated. The present study used lichens to assess the aerial fallout of heavy metals from traffic in Zaria, northern Nigeria.

  4. Lichen-moss interactions within biological soil crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruckteschler, Nina; Williams, Laura; Büdel, Burkhard; Weber, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) create well-known hotspots of microbial activity, being important components of hot and cold arid terrestrial regions. They colonize the uppermost millimeters of the soil, being composed of fungi, (cyano-) bacteria, algae, lichens, bryophytes and archaea in varying proportions. Biocrusts protect the (semi-) arid landscape from wind and water erosion, and also increase water holding capacity and nutrient content. Depending on location and developmental stage, composition and species abundance vary within biocrusts. As species live in close contact, they are expected to influence each other, but only a few interactions between different organisms have so far been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the lichen Fulgensia fulgens whilst growing on the moss Trichostomum crispulum. While 77% of Fulgensia fulgens thalli were found growing associated with mosses in a German biocrust, up to 95% of Fulgensia bracteata thalli were moss-associated in a Swedish biocrust. In 49% (Germany) and in 78% (Sweden) of cases, thalli were observed on the moss T. crispulum and less frequently on four and three different moss species. Beneath F. fulgens and F. bracteata thalli, the mosses were dead and in close vicinity to the lichens the mosses appeared frail, bringing us to the assumption that the lichens may release substances harming the moss. We prepared a water extract from the lichen F. fulgens and used this to water the moss thalli (n = 6) on a daily basis over a time-span of three weeks. In a control setup, artificial rainwater was applied to the moss thalli (n = 6). Once a week, maximum CO2 gas exchange rates of the thalli were measured under constant conditions and at the end of the experiment the chlorophyll content of the moss samples was determined. In the course of the experiment net photosynthesis (NP) of the treatment samples decreased concurrently with an increase in dark respiration (DR). The control samples

  5. Oral lichen planus: the clinical, historical, and therapeutic features of 100 cases.

    PubMed

    Vincent, S D; Fotos, P G; Baker, K A; Williams, T P

    1990-08-01

    Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory epidermal and mucosal disease, the cause of which is poorly understood. We reviewed the clinical and historic features of 100 patients referred to our clinic for diagnosis and management of lichen planus. The age, gender, chief complaint, duration of the chief complaint, medical history, medications, and clinical findings were recorded. Past therapeutic modalities were reviewed. Of therapeutic significance, 25 patients with oral lichen planus had a secondary oral candidiasis. Management of symptomatic lichen planus with topical and systemic steroid is discussed. The pharmacology of topical and systemic steroid usage and the rationale for treatment are discussed. PMID:2290644

  6. Lichen physiological traits and growth forms affect communities of associated invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Bokhorst, Stef; Asplund, Johan; Kardol, Paul; Wardle, David A

    2015-09-01

    While there has been much interest in the relationships between traits of primary producers and composition of associated invertebrate consumer communities, our knowledge is largely based on studies from vascular plants, while other types of functionally important producers, such as lichens, have rarely been considered. To address how physiological traits of lichens drive community composition of invertebrates, we collected thalli from 27 lichen species from southern Norway and quantified the communities of associated springtails, mites, and nematodes. For each lichen species, we measured key physiological thallus traits and determined whether invertebrate communities were correlated with these traits. We also explored whether invertebrate communities differed among lichen groups, categorized according to nitrogen-fixing ability, growth form, and substratum. Lichen traits explained up to 39% of the variation in abundances of major invertebrate groups. For many invertebrate groups, abundance was positively correlated with lichen N and P concentrations, N:P ratio, and the percentage of water content on saturation (WC), but had few relationships with concentrations of carbon-based secondary compounds. Diversity and taxonomic richness of invertebrate groups were sometimes also correlated with lichen N and N:P ratios. Nitrogen-fixing lichens showed higher abundance and diversity of some invertebrate groups than did non-N-fixing lichens. However, this emerged in part because most N-fixing lichens have a foliose growth form that benefits invertebrates, through, improving the microclimate, independently of N concentration. Furthermore, invertebrate communities associated with terricolous lichens were determined more by their close proximity to the soil invertebrate pool than by lichen traits. Overall, our results reveal that differences between lichen species have a large impact on the invertebrate communities that live among the thalli. Different invertebrate groups show

  7. Lichens and mosses on shrub-steppe soils in Southeastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Steven O.; Ryan, Bruce D.; Downs, Janelle L. ); Cadwell, Larry L. ); Soll, Jonathan A.; Hawke, Mary Ann; Ponzetti, Jeanne

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the lichens and mosses found on soils of the shrub-steppe at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Thirteen sites primarily at low elevation were intensively sampled. Twenty nine lichens and six moss species were identified. Three lichens were considered undescribed species. Based on comparison with other studies and herbarium records, we conclude the soil lichen flora of the Hanford Site is substantially different than that of the Great Basin or of the shrub-steppe in Idaho.

  8. Nutrient scavenging activity and antagonistic factors of non-photobiont lichen-associated bacteria: a review.

    PubMed

    Sigurbjörnsdóttir, M Auður; Andrésson, Ólafur S; Vilhelmsson, Oddur

    2016-04-01

    Lichens are defined as the specific symbiotic structure comprising a fungus and a green alga and/or cyanobacterium. Up until recently, non-photobiont endothallic bacteria, while known to be present in large numbers, have generally been dismissed as functionally irrelevant cohabitants of the lichen thallus, or even environmental contaminants. Recent analyses of lichen metagenomes and innovative co-culture experiments have uncovered a functionally complex community that appears to contribute to a healthy lichen thallus in several ways. Lichen-associated bacteriomes are typically dominated by several lineages of Proteobacteria, some of which may be specific for lichen species. Recent work has implicated members of these lineages in several important ecophysiological roles. These include nutrient scavenging, including mobilization of iron and phosphate, nitrogen fixation, cellulase, xylanase and amylase activities, and oxidation of recalcitrant compounds, e.g. aromatics and aliphatics. Production of volatile organic compounds, conferring antibacterial and antifungal activity, has also been demonstrated for several lichen-associated isolates. In the present paper we review the nature of non-phototrophic endolichenic bacteria associated with lichens, and give insight into the current state of knowledge on their importance the lichen symbiotic association. PMID:26931608

  9. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Developing in a Cutaneous Lichen Planus Lesion: A Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Saptarshi; Kotne, Sivasankar; Ananda Rao, P. B.; Turlapati, S. P. V.; Kumar Soren, Dillip

    2014-01-01

    Lichen planus is a benign disorder characterized by an itchy, noninfectious skin rash. Though lichen planus is a common papulosquamous disorder affecting about 1-2% of the population, neoplastic transformation of cutaneous lichen planus lesions occurs very rarely and should be borne in mind while treating nonhealing longstanding lesions of lichen planus. Studies suggest an estimated 0.3–3% risk of malignancy in patients with oral lichen planus, however, cutaneous lichen planus does not carry an increased risk of malignant degeneration. We present a case of a 36-year-old male with a 10-year-long history of hypertrophic lichen planus who presented with a nonhealing ulcer in the left popliteal fossa. The patient underwent wide local excision with superficial skin grafting. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed verrucous squamous cell carcinoma complicating lichen planus. In view of underlying structure involvement, adjuvant radiation therapy was given. This case is being reported to emphasize the infrequent possibility of development of malignancy in cutaneous lichen planus, especially if it presents as a longstanding, nonhealing, itchy lesion with patchy areas of depigmentation in the lower limbs. PMID:24839562

  10. Patterns of lichen diversity in Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eversman, S.; Wetmore, C.M.; Glew, K.; Bennett, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    We here report 359 species in 103 genera from Yellowstone National Park. We found 71.3% of the total number of species in Picea engelmannii forests and 57.4% of the total number in Pseudotsuga menziesii stands. This compares to 42.3% of the species in Pinus contorta and 37.0% of the species in Pinus contorta/Pinus albicaulis stands. The presence of old Pseudotsuga menziesii and mature Picea engelmannii indicates that the forests have not burned for at least 300 yr, contributing to higher lichen diversity. The drier lodgepole pine and whitebark pine forests burn more frequently than every 300 yr and have fewer microhabitats for lichen growth. Species with thalli large enough to identify are beginning to recolonize substrates burned in the 1988 fires. Bryoria fremontii and Letharia vulpina exhibit levels of mercury and sulfur higher than those in other specimens in the region.

  11. Airborne elements, cell membranes, and chlorophyll in transplanted lichens

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, J.; Cohen, Y.; Kloog, N.

    1998-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to test the concentration of airborne mineral elements in the lichen Ramalina lacera (with.) J.R. Laund. in comparison with its physiological status. Thalli of Ramalina lacera were collected in a remote unpolluted site and transplanted in a polluted region for 10 mo. An analysis of 20 elements in addition to an analysis of the status of cell membranes and the integrity of chlorophyll was performed after this period of transplantation. The lichen manifested a great potential for the accumulation of Pb, V, Ni, Zn, and Cu. Potassium and P were found to leach out. High concentrations of Ni, Mg, and B coincided with damage caused to cell membranes. The integrity of chlorophyll correlated with the concentration of K and correlated inversely with the concentration of Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and B.

  12. Notes on the Lichen Genus Hypotrachyna (Parmeliaceae) from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jayala, Udenil; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Park, Jung-Shin; Koh, Young Jin

    2013-01-01

    Hypotrachyna (Vainio) Hale is a somewhat rare lichen genus found on the Korean Peninsula. Since it was first recorded more than two decades ago, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study of the genus has been conducted. Thus, the present study was conducted to carry out a detailed taxonomic and revisionary study of Hypotrachyna in South Korea. This study was based on specimens deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI). Detailed taxonomic studies and a literature review confirmed the presence of seven species of Hypotrachyna from South Korea, including one new record, Hypotrachyna nodakensis (Asahina) Hale. Descriptions of each species with their morphological, anatomical and chemical characters together with a key to all known Hypotrachyna species are presented. PMID:23610534

  13. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2b associated with lichen nitidus.

    PubMed

    Altaykan, Asli; Ersoy-Evans, Sibel; Emre, Serap; Orhan, Diclehan; Güçer, Safak; Erkin, Gül

    2007-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2B syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited endocrine disorder with rare skin manifestations. We report the case of a 19-year-old Turkish girl who presented with skin-colored flat papules scattered all over the trunk and extremities. Additionally, she had marfanoid habitus, thick lips, and multiple flesh-colored papules over the inner eyelids and oral mucosa. Histopathological examination of one of the trunk lesions was consistent with lichen nitidus. Her past medical history was significant for medullary thyroid carcinoma. Genetic testing showed a point mutation in exon 16 at codon 918 (M918T) in the RET proto-oncogene. Based on all these findings, MEN type 2B was diagnosed. To the best of our knowledge we report the first case of MEN type 2B associated with lichen nitidus. PMID:17540634

  14. Herpes simplex virus virion host shutoff function.

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, A D; Kruper, J A; Frenkel, N

    1988-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) virions contain one or more functions which mediate the shutoff of host protein synthesis and the degradation of host mRNA. HSV type 1 (HSV-1) mutants deficient in the virion shutoff of host protein synthesis (vhs mutants) were isolated and were found to be defective in their ability to degrade host mRNA. Furthermore, it was found that viral mRNAs in cells infected with the vhs 1 mutant have a significantly longer functional half-life than viral mRNAs in wild-type virus-infected cells. In the present study we have mapped the vhs1 mutation affecting the virion shutoff of host protein synthesis to a 265-base-pair NruI-XmaIII fragment spanning map coordinates 0.604 to 0.606 of the HSV-1 genome. The mutation(s) affecting the functional half-lives of host mRNA as well as the alpha (immediate-early), beta (early), and gamma (late) viral mRNAs were also mapped within this 265-base-pair fragment. Thus, the shutoff of host protein synthesis is most likely mediated by the same function which decreases the half-life of viral mRNA. The shorter half-life of infected-cell mRNAs may allow a more rapid modulation of viral gene expression in response to changes in the transcription of viral genes. Interestingly, the vhs1 mutation of HSV-1 maps within a region which overlaps the Bg/II-N sequences of HSV-2 DNA shown previously to transform cells in culture. The possible relationship between the transformation and host shutoff functions are discussed. Images PMID:2828686

  15. Retargeting Strategies for Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; Petrovic, Biljana; Leoni, Valerio; Gianni, Tatiana; Avitabile, Elisa; Casiraghi, Costanza; Gatta, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Most of the oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) exhibit a high safety profile achieved through attenuation. They carry defects in virulence proteins that antagonize host cell response to the virus, including innate response, apoptosis, authophagy, and depend on tumor cell proliferation. They grow robustly in cancer cells, provided that these are deficient in host cell responses, which is often the case. To overcome the attenuation limits, a strategy is to render the virus highly cancer-specific, e.g., by retargeting their tropism to cancer-specific receptors, and detargeting from natural receptors. The target we selected is HER-2, overexpressed in breast, ovarian and other cancers. Entry of wt-HSV requires the essential glycoproteins gD, gH/gL and gB. Here, we reviewed that oncolytic HSV retargeting was achieved through modifications in gD: the addition of a single-chain antibody (scFv) to HER-2 coupled with appropriate deletions to remove part of the natural receptors’ binding sites. Recently, we showed that also gH/gL can be a retargeting tool. The insertion of an scFv to HER-2 at the gH N-terminus, coupled with deletions in gD, led to a recombinant capable to use HER-2 as the sole receptor. The retargeted oncolytic HSVs can be administered systemically by means of carrier cells-forcedly-infected mesenchymal stem cells. Altogether, the retargeted oncolytic HSVs are highly cancer-specific and their replication is not dependent on intrinsic defects of the tumor cells. They might be further modified to express immunomodulatory molecules. PMID:26927159

  16. Drawstring lichen planus: A unique case of Koebnerization

    PubMed Central

    Kumara, Lakshmanan; Rangaraj, Murugaiyan; Karthikeyan, Kaliaperumal

    2016-01-01

    Drawstring dermatitis is a type of frictional dermatitis that can result from a traditional tightly worn garments such as sari or salwaar-kameez. We report a 54-year-old female patient presented with lichen planus of the drawstring site that was confirmed histopathologically. This case is rare and demonstrates how sociocultural practices can influence the presentation of common dermatoses such as LP. PMID:27294060

  17. Drawstring lichen planus: A unique case of Koebnerization.

    PubMed

    Kumara, Lakshmanan; Rangaraj, Murugaiyan; Karthikeyan, Kaliaperumal

    2016-01-01

    Drawstring dermatitis is a type of frictional dermatitis that can result from a traditional tightly worn garments such as sari or salwaar-kameez. We report a 54-year-old female patient presented with lichen planus of the drawstring site that was confirmed histopathologically. This case is rare and demonstrates how sociocultural practices can influence the presentation of common dermatoses such as LP. PMID:27294060

  18. Respiration-induced weathering patterns of two endolithically growing lichens.

    PubMed

    Weber, Bettina; Scherr, Claudia; Bicker, Fritz; Friedl, Thomas; Büdel, Burkhard

    2011-01-01

    The two endolithic lichen species Hymenelia prevostii and Hymenelia coerulea were investigated with regard to their thallus morphology and their effects on the surrounding substrate. The physiological processes responsible for the observed alterations of the rock were identified. Whereas the thallus surface of H. coerulea was level, H. prevostii formed small depressions that were deepest in the thallus center. In a cross-section, both species revealed an algal zone consisting of algal cavities parallel to the substrate surface and a fungal zone below. However, H. prevostii revealed significantly larger cavities with more than twice the cell number and a denser pattern of cavities than H. coerulea, resulting in a biomass per surface area being more than twice as large. Below H. prevostii the layer of macroscopically visibly altered rock material was about twice as deep and within this layer, the depletion of calcium and manganese was considerably higher. In simultaneous measurements of the oxygen uptake/oxygen release and pH shift, the isolated algal strains of both lichens revealed respiration-induced acidification of the medium in the dark. At higher light intensities, H. coerulea and to a lesser extent also H. prevostii alkalized the medium which may lessen the acidification effect somewhat under natural conditions. In a long-term growth experiment, the isolated algal strains of both lichens revealed acidification of the medium to a similar extent. Neither acidic lichen substances nor oxalic acid was identified. The significant differences between the weathering patterns of both species are based on the same respiration-induced acidification mechanism, with H. prevostii having a greater effect due to its higher biomass per area. PMID:20735487

  19. A preliminary transcriptomic analysis of lichen Dirinaria sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhani, A. R. Siti; Munir, A. M. Abdul; Wahid, S. Mohd; Diba, A. B. Farah

    2013-11-01

    Lichen is a slow-growing symbiotic organism that consists of a fungus and a photobiont, comprising either an algae or a cyanobacterium living together in a single composite body, known as a thallus. Lichens have a remarkable ability to survive in extreme environmental conditions on earth that makes them a great biological indicator of air quality. The primary goal of this study is to discover the genes that may unravel the mechanism behind the tolerance of this lichen towards air pollution. Lichen samples of Dirinaria sp. were collected from two sites - Jerantut (J) as having a relatively good air quality and Klang (K), an area of bad air quality. Total RNA extraction was carried out, followed by sample preparation prior to transcriptomic sequencing. Altogether 21.7 million and 30.5 million high quality sequence reads from samples J and K, respectively were de novo assembled into 106884 and 88116 transcripts. The assembled sequences were annotated by BLASTX comparison against a non-redundant protein sequence database with 59403 sequences (67.4%) of sample K and 68972 sequences (64.5%) of sample J had a match in the database with a cut-off value of 1e-06. A total of 42175 sequences (47.8%) of sample K and 25648 sequences (24%) of sample J had a Gene Ontology term match. The sequences were assigned to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) pathways, resulting in 129 KEGG pathways generated from sample K, whilst 123 KEGG pathways were produced from sample J.

  20. Environmental variables controlling the uptake of carbonyl sulfide by lichens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, U.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2000-11-01

    The uptake of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) by the lichen species Ramalina menziesii, representative for the open oak woodland in central California, was studied under laboratory conditions. By use of a dynamic cuvette system, the controlling parameters for the COS uptake were investigated under climate chamber conditions. The thallus water content, essential for the overall physiology of lichens, was found to be of basic importance for the trace gas exchange. A water content of 30% was the approximate minimum for COS uptake, with increasing activity up to a water content of 200%. Additionally, actual atmospheric mixing ratios have a significant influence on the exchange. The COS uptake was found to be a linear function of the ambient COS mixing ratio resulting in a compensation point as low as 37 ppt. A temperature optimum of 25°C was indicative of a physiological basis of the COS uptake. The inhibition of the COS consumption in the presence of a specific inhibitor for the enzyme carbonic anhydrase proved this enzyme to be of key relevance for the uptake. All these variables controlling the COS deposition were integrated into an uptake algorithm to model the exchange behavior of this lichen. The applicability of the model to field data is demonstrated. Uptake rates on a dry weight basis normalized to optimized conditions (25°C; 450 ppt COS) reached 0.17±0.09 pmol g-1 s-1 (i.e. 4.2±2.2 pmol m-2 s-1 thallus surface area, respectively). The contribution of lichens to the global COS sink strength is assigned to be about 0.3 Tg a-1, representing not a major but a significant sink.

  1. Geothermal chemical elements in lichens of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Geothermal features (e.g. geysers, fumaroles, vents, and springs) emit gaseous mercury, sulfur and heavy metals and therefore, are natural sources of these elements in the atmosphere. Field studies of heavy metals in lichens in Italy have detected elevated concentrations near geothermal power plants, and have determined that the origin of mercury is from soil degassing, not soil particles. We studied this phenomenon in a geothermal area without power plants to determine the natural levels of mercury and other elements. Two common and abundant species of epiphytic Lichens, Bryoria fremontii and Letharia vulpina, were collected at six localities in Yellowstone National Park, USA in 1998 and analyzed for 22 chemical elements. Thirteen elements differed significantly between species. Some elements were significantly higher in the southern part of the park, while others were higher in the north. Levels of most elements were comparable with those in other national parks and wilderness areas in the region, except Hg, which was unusually high. The most likely sources of this element are the geothermal features, which are known emitters of Hg. Multivariate analyses revealed strong positive associations of Hg with S, and negative associations with soil elements, providing strong evidence that the Hg in the lichens is the result of soil degassing of elemental Hg rather than particulate Hg directly from soils. Average Hg levels in the lichens were 140 p.p.b. in Bryoria and 110 p.p.b. in Letharia, but maxima were 291 and 243 p.p.b., respectively. In spite of this, both species were healthy and abundant throughout the park.

  2. Simplex-stochastic collocation method with improved scalability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edeling, W. N.; Dwight, R. P.; Cinnella, P.

    2016-04-01

    The Simplex-Stochastic Collocation (SSC) method is a robust tool used to propagate uncertain input distributions through a computer code. However, it becomes prohibitively expensive for problems with dimensions higher than 5. The main purpose of this paper is to identify bottlenecks, and to improve upon this bad scalability. In order to do so, we propose an alternative interpolation stencil technique based upon the Set-Covering problem, and we integrate the SSC method in the High-Dimensional Model-Reduction framework. In addition, we address the issue of ill-conditioned sample matrices, and we present an analytical map to facilitate uniformly-distributed simplex sampling.

  3. SIMPLEX: simulator and postprocessor for free-electron laser experiments

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    SIMPLEX is a computer program developed for simulating the amplification process of free-electron lasers (FELs). It numerically solves the so-called FEL equations describing the evolution of the radiation field and growth of microbunching while the electron beam travels along the undulator. In order to reduce the numerical cost, the FEL equations have been reduced to more convenient forms for numerical implementation by applying reasonable approximations. SIMPLEX is equipped with a postprocessor to facilitate the retrieval of desired information from the simulation results, which is crucial for practical applications such as designing the beamline and analyzing the experimental results. PMID:26289287

  4. A constrained optimization algorithm based on the simplex search method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Vivek Kumar; Dasgupta, Bhaskar

    2012-05-01

    In this article, a robust method is presented for handling constraints with the Nelder and Mead simplex search method, which is a direct search algorithm for multidimensional unconstrained optimization. The proposed method is free from the limitations of previous attempts that demand the initial simplex to be feasible or a projection of infeasible points to the nonlinear constraint boundaries. The method is tested on several benchmark problems and the results are compared with various evolutionary algorithms available in the literature. The proposed method is found to be competitive with respect to the existing algorithms in terms of effectiveness and efficiency.

  5. SIMPLEX: simulator and postprocessor for free-electron laser experiments.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    SIMPLEX is a computer program developed for simulating the amplification process of free-electron lasers (FELs). It numerically solves the so-called FEL equations describing the evolution of the radiation field and growth of microbunching while the electron beam travels along the undulator. In order to reduce the numerical cost, the FEL equations have been reduced to more convenient forms for numerical implementation by applying reasonable approximations. SIMPLEX is equipped with a postprocessor to facilitate the retrieval of desired information from the simulation results, which is crucial for practical applications such as designing the beamline and analyzing the experimental results. PMID:26289287

  6. Non-destructive analysis of pigments and other organic compounds in lichens using Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy: a study of Antarctic epilithic lichens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, H. G. M.; Newton, E. M.; Wynn-Williams, D. D.; Lewis-Smith, R. I.

    2003-08-01

    Lichens in Antarctic habitats are subjected to environmental extremes, including UVB radiation, desiccation and low temperatures, as well as to rapid fluctuations in these. Lichens synthesise a variety of chemical compounds in response to their environmental conditions which contribute towards their colour, and which act as protectants against physiological stresses. The fluorescence generated by the lichens at 532 nm can be used in epifluorescence microscopy to identify their presence on substrata but this can severely affect the Raman spectra using visible excitation. The advantage of the near infrared excitation used in FT-Raman spectroscopy in minimising fluorescence emission facilitates the molecular characterisation of lichen encrustations without having to remove the thallus from its substrate or remove or otherwise damage any part of the thallus. Spectroscopic biomarkers are proposed which allow the lichens to be characterised by the identification of characteristic lichen substances; the use of these biomarkers for the preliminary taxonomic identification of Antarctic lichens is examined and some potential pitfalls are described.

  7. Raman spectroscopy of hot desert, high altitude epilithic lichens.

    PubMed

    Villar, Susana E Jorge; Edwards, Howell G M; Seaward, Mark R D

    2005-05-01

    Twenty-three highly-coloured lichen specimens belonging to the genera Candelariella, Aspicilia and Xanthoria from high altitude sites in the Atacama Desert, Chile, 2300-4500 metres, have been analysed non-destructively by Raman spectroscopy. The vibrational band assignments in the spectra of the specimens, which were still attached to their limestone or sandstone substrata, were accomplished by comparison with the chemical compositions obtained from wet chemical extraction methods. Carotenoids and chlorophyll were found in all specimens as major components and the characteristic spectral signatures of calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite) and dihydrate (weddellite) could be identified; chemical signatures were found for these materials even in lichen thalli growing on the non-calcareous substrata, indicating probably that the calcium was provided here from wind- or rain-borne sources. The Raman spectral biomarkers for a variety of protective biomolecules and accessory pigments such as usnic acid, calycin, pulvinic acid dilactone and rhizocarpic acid have been identified in the lichens, in broad agreement with the chemical extraction profiles. The present study indicates that some form of non-destructive taxonomic identification based on Raman spectroscopy was also possible. PMID:15852144

  8. (Lichens as a bioindicator in the forest ecosystem)

    SciTech Connect

    Sigal, L.L.

    1989-09-06

    Prior to a field trip of Estonia, an introductory meeting was held at the Tallinn Botanical Garden. Overviews of existing forest air pollution research in the eastern United States and Estonia were presented by American and Soviet scientists. Subsequently, potential forest monitoring sites were visited at (1) the Kurtna Landscape Sanctuary and the Pikasilla Forest near Kohtla-Jaerve, (2) the Tipu-Kopu Forest near Viljandi, and (3) a site on the western part of the island of Saaremaa. The next part of the trip was to Georgia where we met with the Director and staff of the Institute of Mountain Forestry in Tbilisi. The goals of the exchange program were explained, and the local forest management practices were discussed. A field trip was taken to the spruce-fir forests of Borzhomi. The final part of the trip was to the Central Republic of Botanical Gardens at Kiev where a preliminary experiment on the uptake of organic gases by lichens was done, a manuscript on a retrospective study of element content in lichens from the Great Smoky Mountains National Park was completed, and a seminar was given on the effects of air pollutants on forest vegetation. The seminar included an overview of air pollution facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), field study methods for determining the effects of air pollutants on lichens, and a description of techniques used to determine the effects of air pollutants on the intracellular constituents of loblolly pine protoplasts.

  9. Estimating impacts of lichens and bryophytes on global biogeochemical cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porada, Philipp; Weber, Bettina; Elbert, Wolfgang; Pöschl, Ulrich; Kleidon, Axel

    2014-02-01

    Lichens and bryophytes may significantly affect global biogeochemical cycles by fixation of nitrogen and biotic enhancement of surface weathering rates. Most of the studies suggesting these effects, however, are either conceptual or rely on upscaling of regional estimates to obtain global numbers. Here we use a different method, based on estimates of net carbon uptake, to quantify the impacts of lichens and bryophytes on biogeochemical cycles at the global scale. We focus on three processes, namely, nitrogen fixation, phosphorus uptake, and chemical weathering. Our estimates have the form of potential rates, which means that we quantify the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus needed by the organisms to build up biomass, also accounting for resorption and leaching of nutrients. Subsequently, we use potential phosphorus uptake on bare ground to estimate chemical weathering by the organisms, assuming that they release weathering agents to obtain phosphorus. The predicted requirement for nitrogen ranges from 3.5 to 34 Tgyr-1 and for phosphorus it ranges from 0.46 to 4.6 Tgyr-1. Estimates of chemical weathering are between 0.058 and 1.1 km3 yr-1 of rock. These values seem to have a realistic order of magnitude, and they support the notion that lichens and bryophytes have the potential to play an important role for biogeochemical cycles.

  10. Lichen biodeterioration of ecclesiastical monuments in northern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villar, Susana E. Jorge; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Seaward, Mark R. D.

    2004-04-01

    Seven highly-coloured lichen species belonging to the genera Caloplaca, Candelariella, Aspicilia and Xanthoria from ecclesiastical buildings in northern Spain have been analysed non-destructively by FT-Raman spectroscopy. The vibrational band assignments in the spectra of the specimens, which were still attached to their limestone or sandstone substrata, were accomplished with the assistance of the chemical compositions obtained from wet chemical extraction methods. β-Carotene was found in all specimens as the major pigment, and the characteristic spectral signatures of calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite) and dihydrate (weddelite) could be identified; chemical signatures were found for these materials even in lichen thalli growing the non-calcareous substrata, indicating, probably, that the calcium was provided here from wind-or-rain-borne sources. The Raman spectral biomarkers found in the lichens broadly agreed with the chemical extraction profiles as expected, but the present study indicates that some form of non-destructive taxonomic identification based on Raman spectroscopy was possible.

  11. Photodynamic Therapy in Treatment of Oral Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Mostafa, Diana; Tarakji, Bassel

    2015-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a relatively common chronic immunologic mucocutaneous disorder. Although there are many presenting treatments, some of them proved its failure. Recently, the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been expanding due to its numerous advantages, as it is safe, convenient, and non-invasive and has toxic effect towards selective tissues. This article provides comprehensive review on OLP, its etiology, clinical features and recent non-pharmacological treatments. We also describe the topical PDT and its mechanisms. Our purpose was to evaluate the efficacy of PDT in treatment of OLP through collecting the data of the related clinical studies. We searched in PubMed website for the clinical studies that were reported from 2000 to 2014 using specific keywords: “photodynamic therapy” and “treatment of oral lichen planus”. Inclusion criteria were English publications only were concerned. In the selected studies of photodynamic treatment, adult patients (more than 20 years) were conducted and the OLP lesions were clinically and histologically confirmed. Exclusion criteria were classical and pharmacological treatments of OLP were excluded and also the using of PDT on skin lesions of lichen planus. We established five clinical studies in this review where all of them reported improvement and effectiveness of PDT in treatment of OLP lesions. The main outcome of comparing the related clinical studies is that the photodynamic is considered as a safe, effective and promising treatment modality for OLP. PMID:25883701

  12. Lichen-rock interaction in volcanic environments: evidences of soil-precursor formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vingiani, S.; Adamo, P.; Terribile, F.

    2012-04-01

    The weathering action of the lichens Lecidea fuscoatra (L.) Ach. and Stereocaulon vesuvianum Pers. on basaltic rock collected on the slopes of Mt. Etna (Sicily) at 1550 m a.s.l. has been studied using optical (OM) and electron (SEM) microscopy equipped with microanalytical device (EDS). Biological factors associated with lichen growth play a major role in the weathering of minerals on bare rocks and contribute to the preliminary phases of soil formation. The present work investigates the biogeophysical and biogeochemical weathering associated to the growth of epilithic lichens on lava flows from Mt. Etna (Sicily) and Mt. Vesuvius (Campania). The chosen lichen species were the crustose Lecidea fuscoatra (L.) Ach., the foliose Xanthoparmelia conspersa and the fructicose Stereocaulon vesuvianum Pers. An integrated approach based on the study of both disturbed and undisturbed samples of lichenized rock was applied in order to appreciate the complexity of the rock-lichen interface environment in terms of micromorphological, mineralogical and chemical properties. XRD and XRF analyses coupled to microscopical (OM), submicroscopical (SEM) and microanalitical (EDS) observations were the used techniques. In both study environments, the chemical, mineralogical and micromorphological properties of the uncoherent materials found at the lichen-rock interface suggest they consist of rock fragments eroded from the surroundings and accumulated in cavities and fissures of the rough lava flows. According to the thallus morphology, the lichens colonizing the lava preserve the interface materials from further aeolic and water erosion, provide these materials of organic matter and moisture, entrap allochtonous quartz and clay minerals. The calcium oxalate production by L. fuscoatra and X. conspersa, the Al enrichment around S. vesuvianum hyphae and the occurrence of Fe-oxide phases at the rock-lichen interface are evidences of lichens interaction with the underlying sediments. Indeed

  13. Lead Isotopes and Temporal Records of Atmospheric Aerosol and Pollutants in Lichens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getty, S. R.; Nash, T.; Asmerom, Y.

    2001-05-01

    Lichens are useful receptors of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and pollutants due to their retention of body parts (unlike plants), slow growth rates, fairly uniform morphologies, lack of a vascular system, and sessile character over decades to centuries. Lichen biomonitoring has been used widely to map patterns of aerosol deposition, yet few studies have tested whether lichens can preserve a temporal record of airborne PM and pollutants. We show with U-Pb data that epilithic lichens (rock as host) can retain in their porous structure an integrated, decadal-scale history of changing aerosol inputs to desert ecosystems. Three lichens resided along an 80-km transect from a copper smelter (Douglas, AZ) closed in early 1987, to the ENE into adjacent New Mexico. For the radially growing lichen (Xanthoparmelia sp.), U-Pb data were obtained along cm-scale transects in the growth direction on a single thallus. Profiles from lichen rim to interior show increasing [Pb] and [U], or net accumulation with thallus age. Total lead contents are highest near the smelter. In contrast, each lead isotope profile (206Pb/207Pb) is flat during smelter operation, showing low ratios near the smelter (1.152) and high ratios (1.175) 80 km away. This suggests comparable mixtures of crust and smelter lead per locality over decades. Since smelter closure, lichens 80 km from the smelter show a sharp upturn in lead ratio in the recently grown lichen rim, indicating that smelter lead is either dispersed by aeolian recycling, or suppressed in desert soils. The amplitude and position of the isotope signal suggests a soil recovery "half-life" of about 13 yrs, a radial growth rate of 0.57+/-0.1 mm/yr, and a total lichen age of 105+/-18 yrs. Lichens near the smelter have no upturn in isotope ratio, indicating continued aeolian recylcing of lead from soils about 11 yrs after closure. Results at a far-removed desert site (c. New Mexico) also argue that isotope profiles reflect aerosol deposition

  14. Richness of lichen species, especially of threatened ones, is promoted by management methods furthering stand continuity.

    PubMed

    Boch, Steffen; Prati, Daniel; Hessenmöller, Dominik; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Fischer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Lichens are a key component of forest biodiversity. However, a comprehensive study analyzing lichen species richness in relation to several management types, extending over different regions and forest stages and including information on site conditions is missing for temperate European forests. In three German regions (Schwäbische Alb, Hainich-Dün, Schorfheide-Chorin), the so-called Biodiversity Exploratories, we studied lichen species richness in 631 forest plots of 400 m(2) comprising different management types (unmanaged, selection cutting, deciduous and coniferous age-class forests resulting from clear cutting or shelterwood logging), various stand ages, and site conditions, typical for large parts of temperate Europe. We analyzed how lichen species richness responds to management and habitat variables (standing biomass, cover of deadwood, cover of rocks). We found strong regional differences with highest lichen species richness in the Schwäbische Alb, probably driven by regional differences in former air pollution, and in precipitation and habitat variables. Overall, unmanaged forests harbored 22% more threatened lichen species than managed age-class forests. In general, total, corticolous, and threatened lichen species richness did not differ among management types of deciduous forests. However, in the Schwäbische-Alb region, deciduous forests had 61% more lichen species than coniferous forests and they had 279% more threatened and 76% more corticolous lichen species. Old deciduous age classes were richer in corticolous lichen species than young ones, while old coniferous age-classes were poorer than young ones. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of stand continuity for conservation. To increase total and threatened lichen species richness we suggest (1) conserving unmanaged forests, (2) promoting silvicultural methods assuring stand continuity, (3) conserving old trees in managed forests, (4) promoting stands of native deciduous tree species

  15. On monitoring anthropogenic airborne uranium concentrations and (235)U/(238)U isotopic ratio by Lichen - bio-indicator technique.

    PubMed

    Golubev, A V; Golubeva, V N; Krylov, N G; Kuznetsova, V F; Mavrin, S V; Aleinikov, A Yu; Hoppes, W G; Surano, K A

    2005-01-01

    Lichens are widely used to assess the atmospheric pollution by heavy metals and radionuclides. However, few studies are available in publications on using lichens to qualitatively assess the atmospheric pollution levels. The paper presents research results applying epiphytic lichens as bio-monitors of quantitative atmospheric contamination with uranium. The observations were conducted during 2.5 years in the natural environment. Two experimental sites were used: one in the vicinity of a uranium contamination source, the other one - at a sufficient distance away to represent the background conditions. Air and lichens were sampled at both sites monthly. Epiphytic lichens Hypogimnia physodes were used as bio-indicators. Lichen samples were taken from various trees at about 1.5m from the ground. Air was sampled with filters at sampling stations. The uranium content in lichen and air samples as well as isotopic mass ratios (235)U/(238)U were measured by mass-spectrometer technique after uranium pre-extraction. Measured content of uranium were 1.45 mgkg(-1) in lichen at 2.09 E-04 microgm(-3) in air and 0.106 mgkg(-1) in lichen at 1.13 E-05 microgm(-3) in air. The relationship of the uranium content in atmosphere and that in lichens was determined, C(AIR)=exp(1.1 x C(LICHEN)-12). The possibility of separate identification of natural and man-made uranium in lichens was demonstrated in principle. PMID:16083999

  16. Genome Sequence of Sphingomonas sp. Strain PAMC 26621, an Arctic-Lichen-Associated Bacterium Isolated from a Cetraria sp.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyoungseok; Shin, Seung Chul; Lee, Jungeun; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Bum-Keun; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Eun Hye

    2012-01-01

    The lichen-associated bacterial strain Sphingomonas sp. PAMC 26621 was isolated from an Arctic lichen Cetraria sp. on Svalbard Islands. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which could provide novel insights into the molecular principles of lichen-microbe interactions. PMID:22582384

  17. Replication-Competent Controlled Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, David C.; Feller, Joyce; McAnany, Peterjon; Vilaboa, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present the development and characterization of a replication-competent controlled herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Replication-essential ICP4 and ICP8 genes of HSV-1 wild-type strain 17syn+ were brought under the control of a dually responsive gene switch. The gene switch comprises (i) a transactivator that is activated by a narrow class of antiprogestins, including mifepristone and ulipristal, and whose expression is mediated by a promoter cassette that comprises an HSP70B promoter and a transactivator-responsive promoter and (ii) transactivator-responsive promoters that drive the ICP4 and ICP8 genes. Single-step growth experiments in different cell lines demonstrated that replication of the recombinant virus, HSV-GS3, is strictly dependent on an activating treatment consisting of administration of a supraphysiological heat dose in the presence of an antiprogestin. The replication-competent controlled virus replicates with an efficiency approaching that of the wild-type virus from which it was derived. Essentially no replication occurs in the absence of activating treatment or if HSV-GS3-infected cells are exposed only to heat or antiprogestin. These findings were corroborated by measurements of amounts of viral DNA and transcripts of the regulated ICP4 gene and the glycoprotein C (gC) late gene, which was not regulated. Similar findings were made in experiments with a mouse footpad infection model. IMPORTANCE The alphaherpesviruses have long been considered vectors for recombinant vaccines and oncolytic therapies. The traditional approach uses vector backbones containing attenuating mutations that restrict replication to ensure safety. The shortcoming of this approach is that the attenuating mutations tend to limit both the immune presentation and oncolytic properties of these vectors. HSV-GS3 represents a novel type of vector that, when activated, replicates with the efficiency of a nonattenuated virus and whose safety is derived from deliberate

  18. [The lysate and recombinant antigens in ELISA-test-systems for diagnostic of herpes simplex].

    PubMed

    Ganova, L A; Kovtoniuk, G V; Korshun, L N; Kiseleva, E K; Tereshchenko, M I; Vudmaska, M I; Moĭsa, L N; Shevchuk, V A; Spivak, N Ia

    2014-08-01

    The lysate and recombinant antigens of various production included informula of ELISA-test-systems were analyzed. The ELISA-test-systems are used for detection of IgG to Herpes simplex virus type I and II. For testing the panel of serums PTH 201 (BBI Inc.) were used. The samples of this panel contain antibodies to Herpes simplex virus type I and II in mixed titers. The 69 serums of donors were used too (17 samples had IgG to Herpes simplex virus type I, 23 samples to Herpes simplex virus type II and 29 samples had no antibodies to Herpes simplex virus). The diagnostic capacity of mixture of recombinant antigens gG1 Herpes simplex virus type I and gG2 Herpes simplex virus type II (The research-and-production complex "DiaprofMed") was comparable with mixture of lysate antigen Herpes simplex virus type I and II (Membrane) EIE Antigen ("Virion Ltd."). In the test-systems for differentiation of IgG to Herpes simplex virus type I the recombinant antigen gG1 Herpes simplex virus type I proved to be comparable with commercial analogue Herpes simplex virus-1 gG1M ("Viral Therapeutics Inc."'). At the same time, capacity to detect IgG to Herpes simplex virus type II in recombinant protein gG2 Herpes simplex virus type II is significantly higher than in its analogue Herpes simplex virus-2 gG2c ("Viral Therapeutics Inc."). PMID:25552056

  19. Atmospheric deposition of organic micropollutants in Norway studied by means of moss and lichen analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Carlberg, G.E.; Ofstad, E.B.; Drangsholt, H.; Steinnes, E.

    1983-01-01

    Moss and lichen samples from eleven remote sites from all parts of Norway were analyzed for persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons. The highest and lowest concentration levels were found in the most southwesterly and northerly locations, respectively. Moss and lichen samples from one site were also analyzed for other organic micropollutants. They were found to contain alkanes, mostly of biogenic origin, PAH and phthalates.

  20. ECOPHYSIOLOGY AND POTENTIAL MODES OF ACTION FOR SELECTED LICHEN SECONDARY METABOLITES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lichens, a symbiosis between a fungal and algal partner, produce secondary compounds that are unique to the symbiosis. Due to the high energy investment in these compounds, which can comprise up to 25% of the dry thallus weight, they must have an important role in lichen ecology. Our group is beginn...

  1. Ecological implication of variation in the secondary metabolites in Parmelioid lichens with respect to altitude.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Vertika; Patel, D K; Bajpai, Rajesh; Semwal, Manoj; Upreti, D K

    2016-01-01

    Lichens are known to synthesize a variety of secondary metabolites having multifunctional activity in response to external environmental condition. Two common lichen extrolites, atranorin and salazinic acid, are known to afford antioxidant as well as photoprotectant nature depending on the abiotic/biotic stress. The present investigation aims to study the influence of altitudinal gradient on the quantitative profile of atranorin and salazinic acid in three lichen species, Bulbothrix setschwanensis (Zahlbr.) Hale, Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr.) Hale and Parmotrema reticulatum (Taylor) Choisy, Parmeliaceae using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique. Samples were collected from high-altitude area, usually considered as non-polluted sites of Garhwal Himalaya. Characterization and quantification of the lichen substances in samples were carried out comparing with the standards of atranorin and salazinic acid. Results indicated significant variation in the chemical content with the rising altitude. All the three lichen species showed higher quantities of chemical substances with the altitudinal rise, while among the three lichen species, E. cirrhatum showed the highest quantity of total lichen compounds. The higher abundance and frequency of E. cirrhatum with increasing altitude as compared to B. setschwanensis and P. reticulatum may be attributed due to the presence of higher quantity of photoprotecting/antioxidant chemicals especially salazinic acid. Thus, the present study shows the prominent role of secondary metabolite in wider ecological distribution of Parmelioid lichens at higher altitudes. PMID:26370809

  2. Photoprotection in the lichen Parmelia sulcata: the origins of desiccation-induced fluorescence quenching.

    PubMed

    Veerman, John; Vasil'ev, Sergej; Paton, Gavin D; Ramanauskas, Justin; Bruce, Doug

    2007-11-01

    Lichens, a symbiotic relationship between a fungus (mycobiont) and a photosynthetic green algae or cyanobacteria (photobiont), belong to an elite group of survivalist organisms termed resurrection species. When lichens are desiccated, they are photosynthetically inactive, but upon rehydration they can perform photosynthesis within seconds. Desiccation is correlated with both a loss of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence and a decrease in overall fluorescence yield. The fluorescence quenching likely reflects photoprotection mechanisms that may be based on desiccation-induced changes in lichen structure that limit light exposure to the photobiont (sunshade effect) and/or active quenching of excitation energy absorbed by the photosynthetic apparatus. To separate and quantify these possible mechanisms, we have investigated the origins of fluorescence quenching in desiccated lichens with steady-state, low temperature, and time-resolved chlorophyll fluorescence spectroscopy. We found the most dramatic target of quenching to be photosystem II (PSII), which produces negligible levels of fluorescence in desiccated lichens. We show that fluorescence decay in desiccated lichens was dominated by a short lifetime, long-wavelength component energetically coupled to PSII. Remaining fluorescence was primarily from PSI and although diminished in amplitude, PSI decay kinetics were unaffected by desiccation. The long-wavelength-quenching species was responsible for most (about 80%) of the fluorescence quenching observed in desiccated lichens; the rest of the quenching was attributed to the sunshade effect induced by structural changes in the lichen thallus. PMID:17827268

  3. Photoprotection in the Lichen Parmelia sulcata: The Origins of Desiccation-Induced Fluorescence Quenching1

    PubMed Central

    Veerman, John; Vasil'ev, Sergej; Paton, Gavin D.; Ramanauskas, Justin; Bruce, Doug

    2007-01-01

    Lichens, a symbiotic relationship between a fungus (mycobiont) and a photosynthetic green algae or cyanobacteria (photobiont), belong to an elite group of survivalist organisms termed resurrection species. When lichens are desiccated, they are photosynthetically inactive, but upon rehydration they can perform photosynthesis within seconds. Desiccation is correlated with both a loss of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence and a decrease in overall fluorescence yield. The fluorescence quenching likely reflects photoprotection mechanisms that may be based on desiccation-induced changes in lichen structure that limit light exposure to the photobiont (sunshade effect) and/or active quenching of excitation energy absorbed by the photosynthetic apparatus. To separate and quantify these possible mechanisms, we have investigated the origins of fluorescence quenching in desiccated lichens with steady-state, low temperature, and time-resolved chlorophyll fluorescence spectroscopy. We found the most dramatic target of quenching to be photosystem II (PSII), which produces negligible levels of fluorescence in desiccated lichens. We show that fluorescence decay in desiccated lichens was dominated by a short lifetime, long-wavelength component energetically coupled to PSII. Remaining fluorescence was primarily from PSI and although diminished in amplitude, PSI decay kinetics were unaffected by desiccation. The long-wavelength-quenching species was responsible for most (about 80%) of the fluorescence quenching observed in desiccated lichens; the rest of the quenching was attributed to the sunshade effect induced by structural changes in the lichen thallus. PMID:17827268

  4. Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Rötkees (Eastern Alps, South Tyrol, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Nascimbene, Juri; Tutzer, Veronika; Wallner, Anja; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Summary The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Rötkees yielded 31 lichen taxa (29 species and 2 varieties) and one lichenicolous fungus. Micarea incrassata Hedl. (Lecanorales) is new to Italy. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition. PMID:26869737

  5. Catalogue of the Lichenized and Lichenicolous Fungi of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Summary The catalogue is based on a comprehensive evaluation of 152 published sources. It includes 624 species (with 4 subspecies and 13 varieties) of lichenized and 17 species of lichenicolous Ascomycota, as well as 9 non-lichenized Ascomycota traditionally included in lichenological literature. PMID:22121302

  6. Cyanobacterial gardens: the liverwort Frullania asagrayana acts as a reservoir of lichen photobionts.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Carolina; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Cyanobacteria are important mediators of unrelated lichen species, which form epiphytic communities that share the same cyanobiont. No study to date, however, has considered the role of cyanobacteria as mediator between lichens and bryophytes. In the present study, DNA barcoding (16S rDNA, rbcLX) was used to identify filamentous cyanobacteria living in close association with members of an epiphytic liverwort-lichen community on balsam fir in Newfoundland. This study is the first to confirm the presence of Rhizonema strains in boreal forests where they are associated with the liverwort Frullania asagrayana and several lichen species. The majority of cyanobacterial haplotypes can associate with the liverwort, however, some lichen species appear to be more selective for single or closely related haplotypes. Some Rhizonema strains were found exclusively in association with boreal lichens, while others seem to be globally distributed and involved in different lichen symbioses of unrelated fungal lineages and of varying ecological traits. Complex biological interactions in a cyanobacteria-mediated guild are proposed here, which explains composition and dynamics in bryophyte and lichen-dominated epiphytic communities. PMID:26929112

  7. Lichen-Associated Fungal Community in Hypogymnia hypotrypa (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) Affected by Geographic Distribution and Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanyan; Zheng, Yong; Wang, Xinyu; Wei, Xinli; Wei, Jiangchun

    2016-01-01

    Lichen-associated fungal species have already been investigated in almost all the main growth forms of lichens, however, whether or not they are homogeneous and constant within each lichen species are still inconclusive. Moreover, the related ecological factors to affect and structure the fungal composition have been poorly studied. In order to answer these questions, we took Hypogymnia hypotrypa as a model to study the relationship between the lichen-associated fungal composition and two ecological factors, i.e., site and altitude, using the method of IlluminaMiSeq sequencing. Four different sites and two levels of altitude were included in this study, and the effects of site and altitude on fungal community composition were assessed at three levels, i.e., operational taxonomic unit (OTU), class and phylum. The results showed that a total of 50 OTUs were identified and distributed in 4 phyla, 13 classes, and 20 orders. The lichen-associated fungal composition within H. hypotrypa were significantly affected by both site and altitude at OTU and class levels, while at the phylum level, it was only affected by altitude. While the lichen associated fungal communities were reported to be similar with endophytic fungi of the moss, our results indicated the opposite results in some degree. But whether there exist specific OTUs within this lichen species corresponding to different sites and altitudes is still open. More lichen species and ecological factors would be taken into the integrated analyses to address these knowledge gaps in the near future. PMID:27547204

  8. Lichen-Associated Fungal Community in Hypogymnia hypotrypa (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) Affected by Geographic Distribution and Altitude.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanyan; Zheng, Yong; Wang, Xinyu; Wei, Xinli; Wei, Jiangchun

    2016-01-01

    Lichen-associated fungal species have already been investigated in almost all the main growth forms of lichens, however, whether or not they are homogeneous and constant within each lichen species are still inconclusive. Moreover, the related ecological factors to affect and structure the fungal composition have been poorly studied. In order to answer these questions, we took Hypogymnia hypotrypa as a model to study the relationship between the lichen-associated fungal composition and two ecological factors, i.e., site and altitude, using the method of IlluminaMiSeq sequencing. Four different sites and two levels of altitude were included in this study, and the effects of site and altitude on fungal community composition were assessed at three levels, i.e., operational taxonomic unit (OTU), class and phylum. The results showed that a total of 50 OTUs were identified and distributed in 4 phyla, 13 classes, and 20 orders. The lichen-associated fungal composition within H. hypotrypa were significantly affected by both site and altitude at OTU and class levels, while at the phylum level, it was only affected by altitude. While the lichen associated fungal communities were reported to be similar with endophytic fungi of the moss, our results indicated the opposite results in some degree. But whether there exist specific OTUs within this lichen species corresponding to different sites and altitudes is still open. More lichen species and ecological factors would be taken into the integrated analyses to address these knowledge gaps in the near future. PMID:27547204

  9. Terricolous Lichens in the Glacier Forefield of the Gaisbergferner (Eastern Alps, Tyrol, Austria)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter O.; Wallner, Anja; Tutzer, Veronika; Nascimbene, Juri; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Summary The investigation of lichens on soil, plant debris and terricolous mosses in the glacier forefield of the Gaisbergferner yielded 41 lichen taxa (39 species and 2 varieties) and one lichenicolous fungus. Three sampling sites were established at increasing distance from the glacier, in order to compare species diversity, abundance and composition. PMID:26869736

  10. The Longitudinal Guttman Simplex: Applications to Health Behavior Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Linda M.; Dent, Clyde W.

    Because health behavior is often concerned with dynamic constructs, a longitudinal approach to measurement is needed. The Longitudinal Guttman Simplex (LGS) is a measurement model developed especially for dynamic constructs exhibiting cumulative, unitary development measured longitudinally. Data from the Television Smoking Prevention Project, a…

  11. Larvicidal constituents of Zingiber officinale (ginger) against Anisakis simplex.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Chen, Chung-Yi; Lee, June-Der; Lu, Chin-Mei; Chung, Li-Yu; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the anthelmintic activity of [10]-shogaol, [6]-shogaol, [10]-gingerol and [6]-gingerol, compounds isolated from the roots of Zingiber officinale L., Zingiberaceae (ginger), against Anisakis simplex. The above compounds kill or reduce spontaneous movement in A. simplex larvae. The maximum lethal efficacy of [10]-shogaol and [10]-gingerol was approximately 80% and 100%, respectively. We further examined the time course of compound-induced loss of mobility in A. simplex. The results showed that various concentrations of [10]-shogaol, [6]-shogaol, [10]-gingerol and [6]-gingerol have maximum effects on loss of spontaneous movement from 24 to 72 h. In addition, the time course of mortality and the percentage of loss of spontaneous movements were ascertained to determine the minimum effective doses of [10]-gingerol and [10]-shogaol. [10]-Gingerol exhibited a larger maximum larvicidal effect and greater loss of spontaneous movement than [10]-shogaol and albendazole. In addition, these constituents of Zingiber officinale showed effects against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and peroxyl radicals. These constituents of Zingiber officinale are responsible for its larvicidal activity against A. simplex. PMID:20533167

  12. Intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection presenting with hypopigmented lesions.

    PubMed

    Low, Lynette C M; Carton, James; Walker, Marjorie; Tudor-Williams, Gareth; Hardman, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a sexually transmitted infection that can be transmitted from mother to child in utero, perinatally, or postnatally. Cutaneous infection with HSV commonly presents as vesicles affecting the skin, eyes, or mouth. In our case, we report a well child with cutaneous hypopigmented patches at birth that preceded typical blistering. PMID:22010816

  13. Argument Structure of Tsou: Simplex and Complex Predicates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Gujing

    2010-01-01

    This thesis investigates the argument structure of Tsou, a Formosan language within the Austronesian family. The investigation studies both simplex and complex predicates as well as describes the valency groupings and alignment patterns emerging from various clausal configurations. Assuming the stance that language description should respect…

  14. Recurrent Lymphocytic Meningitis Positive for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Seppänen, Mikko; Kautiainen, Hannu; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Lappalainen, Maija; Valtonen, Ville; Färkkilä, Markus; Kalso, Eija

    2009-01-01

    We found the prevalence of recurrent lymphocytic meningitis associated with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was 2.2/100,000 population in Finland during 1996–2006, higher than previous estimates. PCR was most sensitive in detecting HSV-2 DNA from cerebrospinal fluid if the sample was taken 2–5 days after symptom onset. PMID:19624935

  15. Recurrent lymphocytic meningitis positive for herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    Kallio-Laine, Katariina; Seppänen, Mikko; Kautiainen, Hannu; Lokki, Marja Liisa; Lappalainen, Maija; Valtonen, Ville; Färkkilä, Markus; Kalso, Eija

    2009-07-01

    We found the prevalence of recurrent lymphocytic meningitis associated with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was 2.2/100,000 population in Finland during 1996-2006, higher than previous estimates. PCR was most sensitive in detecting HSV-2 DNA from cerebrospinal fluid if the sample was taken 2-5 days after symptom onset. PMID:19624935

  16. Numerical analysis of EPR spectra. 7. The simplex algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckwith, Athelstan L. J.; Brumby, Steven

    The Simplex algorithm is well suited to the least-squares analysis of highly complex EPR spectra. The application of the algorithm to the analysis of the spectra of benzo[ a]pyrenyl-6-oxy, chloro(methoxycarbonyl)methyl, and cyano(methoxy)methyl free radicals is described.

  17. The N-Simplex and Its Generalizations towards Fractals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosi-Ulbl, Irena; Pagon, Dusan

    2002-01-01

    Nature is full of different crystals and many of them have shapes of regular geometric objects. Those in which the fractal structure of a geometric object can be recognized are especially unusual. In this paper a generalization of one of these shapes is described: a formation, based on an n-dimensional simplex. The construction of an n-dimensional…

  18. A Streamlined Artificial Variable Free Version of Simplex Method

    PubMed Central

    Inayatullah, Syed; Touheed, Nasir; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a streamlined form of simplex method which provides some great benefits over traditional simplex method. For instance, it does not need any kind of artificial variables or artificial constraints; it could start with any feasible or infeasible basis of an LP. This method follows the same pivoting sequence as of simplex phase 1 without showing any explicit description of artificial variables which also makes it space efficient. Later in this paper, a dual version of the new method has also been presented which provides a way to easily implement the phase 1 of traditional dual simplex method. For a problem having an initial basis which is both primal and dual infeasible, our methods provide full freedom to the user, that whether to start with primal artificial free version or dual artificial free version without making any reformulation to the LP structure. Last but not the least, it provides a teaching aid for the teachers who want to teach feasibility achievement as a separate topic before teaching optimality achievement. PMID:25767883

  19. Nonlinear and Quasi-Simplex Patterns in Latent Growth Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianconcini, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    In the SEM literature, simplex and latent growth models have always been considered competing approaches for the analysis of longitudinal data, even if they are strongly connected and both of specific importance. General dynamic models, which simultaneously estimate autoregressive structures and latent curves, have been recently proposed in the…

  20. Predicting a Longitudinal Guttman Simplex of Adolescent Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuigan, Kimberly A.; And Others

    The longitudinal Guttman simplex (LGS), a method of modeling stage sequences or levels over time, allows for individual differences in sequence progression or development. The LGS is particularly appropriate in modeling tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use stages with adolescent subjects where relationships among drugs and degree of involvement may…

  1. Human Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Confiscated Gorilla

    PubMed Central

    Oxford, Kristie L.; Gardner-Roberts, David; Kinani, Jean-Felix; Spelman, Lucy; Barry, Peter A.; Cranfield, Michael R.; Lowenstine, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, we detected human herpes simplex virus type 1, which caused stomatitis, in a juvenile confiscated eastern lowland gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) that had a high degree of direct contact with human caretakers. Our findings confirm that pathogens can transfer between nonhuman primate hosts and humans. PMID:25341185

  2. The Law of Cosines for an "n"-Dimensional Simplex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Yiren

    2008-01-01

    Using the divergence theorem technique of L. Eifler and N.H. Rhee, "The n-dimensional Pythagorean Theorem via the Divergence Theorem" (to appear: Amer. Math. Monthly), we extend the law of cosines for a triangle in a plane to an "n"-dimensional simplex in an "n"-dimensional space.

  3. Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Antibodies in Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodu, Brad; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of 125 sophomore preclinical dental students found that these young professionals, because of having a low prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibodies, are at risk for acquiring a primary HSV infection when treating HSV positive patients and should take precautions to avoid virus transmission. (MSE)

  4. Human herpes simplex virus type 1 in confiscated gorilla.

    PubMed

    Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Oxford, Kristie L; Gardner-Roberts, David; Kinani, Jean-Felix; Spelman, Lucy; Barry, Peter A; Cranfield, Michael R; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2014-11-01

    In 2007, we detected human herpes simplex virus type 1, which caused stomatitis, in a juvenile confiscated eastern lowland gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) that had a high degree of direct contact with human caretakers. Our findings confirm that pathogens can transfer between nonhuman primate hosts and humans. PMID:25341185

  5. SIMPLEX OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIELEMENT ULTRASONIC EXTRACTION OF ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Simplex search was used to locate an optimum for an ultrasonic extraction of trace elements from atmospheric particulates collected on glass fiber high-volume sampler filters. The optimized procedure produced quantitative results for 13 elements with precisions of 10% or less, ...

  6. The "Other" Venereal Diseases: Herpes Simplex, Trichomoniasis and Candidiasis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNab, Warren L.

    1979-01-01

    Although the term venereal disease has been synonymous with gonorrhea and syphilis, the Center for Disease Control now states that the number of new cases of herpes simplex, trichomoniasis, and candidiasis is rapidly approaching the number of cases of syphilis and gonorrhea. (MM)

  7. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  12. The role of lichen on peatland development in the Hudson Bay Lowlands, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Lorna; Moore, Tim; Roulet, Nigel

    2015-04-01

    Lichen (Cladina stellaris) can be a dominant vegetation cover on bogs within the extensive peatland landscape of the Hudson Bay Lowlands (HBL), northern Ontario, Canada. The unique characteristics of lichens (growth structure and function as a symbiotic organism), their ability to form thick, dense mats across the HBL bogs, and their increased tolerance of extreme environmental conditions, points to their importance as a distinct plant functional type. However, the role of lichen within the peatland ecosystem is poorly understood, particularly ecosystem interactions (vegetation associations) and peatland development (including microtopography) and the resulting carbon sink. Many studies consider the role of different plant functional types on peatland CO2 and CH4 exchange (e.g. Bubier et al., 2003; Strack et al., 2006), and this understanding is included in peatland growth and climate change models. As far as we are aware lichens are currently omitted from these models. We suggest that lichens represent a distinct plant functional type with CO2 exchange characteristics (NEE and respiration) that are quite different to vascular plants and mosses. In this study we measured lichen CO2 exchange in both natural and modified moisture conditions at field sites in the HBL over two field seasons. Our results indicate that lichen productivity is strongly influenced by abiotic factors that affect lichen moisture content, with very dry lichen exhibiting little or no photosynthetic capacity. We suggest that the low productivity of lichen mats results in lower rates of peat accumulation compared to Sphagnum-dominated peatland areas, and that this has consequences for the development of peatland microtopography (hummocks and hollows) and feedback mechanisms. To better understand the role of lichen mats on peat accumulation and to test possible feedback mechanisms we developed a model, the parameters of which are supported by data from field sites in the HBL. This dependence of

  13. Use of lichen biomass to monitor dissolved metals in natural waters

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, J.N.; Ramelow, G.J. )

    1990-02-01

    The use of lichens for monitoring airborne metals is based on their immobility and a tendency to accumulate metals to a high degree by the trapping of atmospheric particles and by adsorptive ion exchange processes in which dissolved metals in rainwater are picked up by cellular membranes. The powerful metal-accumulating ability of lichens has been demonstrated in the laboratory. This strong metal accumulating ability of lichen biomass from aqueous solutions would seem to make lichen material an ideal biomonitor of dissolved metals in natural waters. To test this the present study was initiated to monitor dissolved zinc, copper, lead, nickel, cadmium, iron, manganese, chromium, and mercury in an industrially-impacted bayou in southwestern Louisiana. The results obtained with lichen biomonitors will be compared with other studies of the same metals in periphyton and sediments from this waterway.

  14. Lichens as monitors of aerial heavy metal pollutants in and around Kampala

    SciTech Connect

    Nyangababo, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    The use of ion exchange resins and biological materials has aroused much interest in the search for inexpensive devices for monitoring pollution. Recent investigators have shown that plants themselves may be used as indicators of aerial fallout of heavy metals. Other workers have pursued the concept of using biological materials still further, by using mosses as indicators of aerial metal depositions. Lichens possess remarkable ion-exchange properties similar to many ion-exchange resins and are therefore suitable for the collection and retention of airborne metals. Lichens have been shown to be good indicators of pollution level; a close correlation is usually found between the distribution pattern of lichen species and the trace metal content of the surrounding air. This study was undertaken to determine the degree of contamination of the Kampala, Uganda environment by heavy metals from industries and motor traffic by using lichens as and indicator device. One type of lichen species (Calyrneferes usambaricum) was used as the test plant.

  15. Identification of the Sfp-Type PPTase EppA from the Lichenized Fungus Evernia prunastri

    PubMed Central

    Schimming, Olivia; Schmitt, Imke; Bode, Helge B.

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, natural products from lichens have gained more interest for pharmaceutical application due to the broad range of their biological activity. However, isolation of the compounds of interest directly from the lichen is neither feasible nor sustainable due to slow growth of many lichens. In order to develop a pipeline for heterologous expression of lichen biosynthesis gene clusters and thus the sustainable production of their bioactive compounds we have identified and characterized the phosphopantheteinyl transferase (PPTase) EppA from the lichen Evernia prunastri. The Sfp-type PPTase EppA was functionally characterized through heterologous expression in E. coli using the production of the blue pigment indigoidine as readout and by complementation of a lys5 deletion in S. cerevisiae. PMID:26784935

  16. Ecological half-life of 137Cs in lichens in an alpine region.

    PubMed

    Machart, Peter; Hofmann, Werner; Türk, Roman; Steger, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    About 17 years after the Chernobyl accident, lichen samples were collected in an alpine region in Austria (Bad Gastein), which was heavily contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout. Measured 137Cs activity concentrations in selected lichens (Cetraria islandica, Cetraria cucullata, and Cladonia arbuscula) ranged from 100 to 1100 Bq kg(-1) dry weight, depending on lichen species and sampling site. Ecological half-lives for 137Cs in different lichen samples, obtained by comparison with earlier measurements of the same lichen species at the same site, ranged from 2 to 6 years, with average values between 3 and 4 years. Comparison with earlier studies indicated that ecological half-lives hardly changed during the last 10 years, suggesting that ecological clearance mechanisms (e.g. washout or soil transfer) did not vary substantially at the selected sampling area. PMID:17602805

  17. Usnic acid and triacylglycerides production by the cultured lichen mycobiont of Ramalina celastri.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Alejandra T; Adler, Mónica T; Maier, Marta S

    2014-02-01

    A strain of the lichen mycobiont of Ramalina celastri, isolated from ascospores, was cultured axenically on two solid media containing high amounts of the carbon source: sucrose in MY10 and mannitol in BMRM. Usnic acid, the major cortical lichen metabolite, was produced by the colonies grown on MY10, with a very high yield (7.9%) in comparison with that in the lichen thallus. Mycelia grown on BMRM did not produce the lichen secondary metabolite and rendered triacylglycerides (8.5%) instead. Analysis by GC-MS of the fatty acid methyl esters revealed the presence of oleic, palmitic and stearic acids as the main triacylglyceride constituents. The present results highlight the impact of the culture conditions on the lichen mycobiont secondary metabolism and confirm that MY10 is a useful medium to obtain usnic acid from mycobionts in the laboratory. PMID:24689292

  18. Lichen communities along a pollution gradient 40 years after decommissioning of a Cu-Ni smelter.

    PubMed

    Schram, Lyndsay J; Wagner, Christopher; McMullin, Richard Troy; Anand, Madhur

    2015-06-01

    Pollution control initiatives in Greater Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, resulted in the decommissioning of the Coniston Smelter in 1972. The last assessment of the effects from the smelter on the surrounding lichen biota was in 1990, which showed an overall improvement in richness following these initiatives, but still few species were present close to the smelter. We examined five sites along this gradient to determine if this pattern is still present on the landscape. Sixty-four macrolichen species in 15 genera were found. Lichen richness and Shannon diversity increased at all sites, but the increase was no longer linear with distance from the smelter. There was no significant difference between lichen richness and diversity at sites at increasing distances from the smelter. We show that past air pollution from the Coniston Smelter is no longer restricting lichen growth and development in the Greater Sudbury area as it was historically. Lichen populations are, therefore, now shaped by other environmental variables. PMID:25598157

  19. Identification of the Sfp-Type PPTase EppA from the Lichenized Fungus Evernia prunastri.

    PubMed

    Schimming, Olivia; Schmitt, Imke; Bode, Helge B

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, natural products from lichens have gained more interest for pharmaceutical application due to the broad range of their biological activity. However, isolation of the compounds of interest directly from the lichen is neither feasible nor sustainable due to slow growth of many lichens. In order to develop a pipeline for heterologous expression of lichen biosynthesis gene clusters and thus the sustainable production of their bioactive compounds we have identified and characterized the phosphopantheteinyl transferase (PPTase) EppA from the lichen Evernia prunastri. The Sfp-type PPTase EppA was functionally characterized through heterologous expression in E. coli using the production of the blue pigment indigoidine as readout and by complementation of a lys5 deletion in S. cerevisiae. PMID:26784935

  20. An Fourier transform-Raman spectroscopic study of gypsum neoformation by lichens growing on granitic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, B.; Seaward, M. R. D.; Edwards, H. G. M.; Rivas, T.; Silva, B.

    1998-12-01

    Samples of various lichen species considered as representative of the lichen flora colonizing granitic monuments in Galicia (NW Spain) were examined by Fourier transform (FT)-Raman spectroscopy in order to investigate the implications of gypsum neoformation. FT-Raman spectroscopy has been demonstrated to be a very useful technique for the nondestructive analysis of lichen encrustations, showing the presence of gypsum in samples where this mineral had not been detected by other analytical methods. The capacity of lichens to participate in the chemical disturbance of granite through gypsum neoformation was demonstrated since gypsum occurs even in the case of samples where mortars are not present. This fact implies the ability of lichens to catalyse the neoformation of this mineral from granite in environments with a low SO 42- concentration.

  1. Complex patterns of speciation in cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichens - an integrative approach to discovering and delimiting fungal species in the lichen-forming rhizoplaca melanophthalma speciescomplex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A growing body of evidence indicates that morphology-based species circumspection of lichenized ascomycetes greatly misrepresents the number of existing species. Recently it has been demonstrated that population-level processes operating within diverging populations can facilitate the identification...

  2. Evolutionary Origins of Human Herpes Simplex Viruses 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    Wertheim, Joel O.; Smith, Martin D.; Smith, Davey M.; Scheffler, Konrad; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.

    2014-01-01

    Herpesviruses have been infecting and codiverging with their vertebrate hosts for hundreds of millions of years. The primate simplex viruses exemplify this pattern of virus–host codivergence, at a minimum, as far back as the most recent common ancestor of New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and apes. Humans are the only primate species known to be infected with two distinct herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Human herpes simplex viruses are ubiquitous, with over two-thirds of the human population infected by at least one virus. Here, we investigated whether the additional human simplex virus is the result of ancient viral lineage duplication or cross-species transmission. We found that standard phylogenetic models of nucleotide substitution are inadequate for distinguishing among these competing hypotheses; the extent of synonymous substitutions causes a substantial underestimation of the lengths of some of the branches in the phylogeny, consistent with observations in other viruses (e.g., avian influenza, Ebola, and coronaviruses). To more accurately estimate ancient viral divergence times, we applied a branch-site random effects likelihood model of molecular evolution that allows the strength of natural selection to vary across both the viral phylogeny and the gene alignment. This selection-informed model favored a scenario in which HSV-1 is the result of ancient codivergence and HSV-2 arose from a cross-species transmission event from the ancestor of modern chimpanzees to an extinct Homo precursor of modern humans, around 1.6 Ma. These results provide a new framework for understanding human herpes simplex virus evolution and demonstrate the importance of using selection-informed models of sequence evolution when investigating viral origin hypotheses. PMID:24916030

  3. Lichens as biomonitors of air quality around a diamond mine, northwest territories, Canada.

    PubMed

    Naeth, M A; Wilkinson, S R

    2008-01-01

    Lichens are known to be bioaccumulators of atmospheric pollutants and are abundant in the Canadian arctic. Mining in this region may negatively impact the tundra communities and these impacts may be detected by increased accumulation of heavy metals, greenhouse gas constituents, and organic compounds in lichen tissue. The effect of sampling direction and distance from a diamond mine on bioaccumulation in three lichen species, Flavocetraria nivalis, Flavocetraria cucullata, and Cladina arbuscula, was investigated. Eight sample sites were located immediately adjacent to a diamond mine, one in each cardinal and ordinal direction, and six sample sites each were located 30 and 60 km from the mine (cardinal, NE, and SE). Thirty-three major and trace elements, sulfate (SO(4)), nitrate (NO(3)), ammonium (NH(4)), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and phthalates were analyzed in lichen tissue and soil. A significant interaction occurred between distance and direction from the mine. Highest concentrations of Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Ti, and V in lichen were at the mine site regardless of direction. Highest concentrations for all other elements were at the mine in at least two directions. Although present in lichen tissue, there was no significant difference among sites for Hg, Mn, S, and three phthalates. PAHs were below detection limits in lichen tissue. The effect of direction was dependent on element and species, although concentrations of most elements were greatest east or southeast of the mine site. At distance from the mine, direction had less of an effect on concentrations. Elevated concentrations in tissue did not negatively impact lichen or plant cover or lichen richness. This research strongly suggests selection of sample sites and species can impact results and interpretation of data from air quality monitoring programs that use lichens as biomonitors. PMID:18689728

  4. Fire, grazing history, lichen abundance, and winter distribution of caribou in Alaska's taiga

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, W.B.; Dale, B.W.; Adams, L.G.; McElwain, D.E.; Joly, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    In the early 1990s the Nelchina Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) Herd (NCH) began a dramatic shift to its current winter range, migrating at least an additional 100 km beyond its historic range. We evaluated the impacts of fire and grazing history on lichen abundance and subsequent use and distribution by the NCH. Historic (prior to 1990) and current (2002) winter ranges of the NCH had similar vascular vegetation, lichen cover (P = 0.491), and fire histories (P = 0.535), but the former range had significantly less forage lichen biomass as a result of grazing by caribou. Biomass of forage lichens was twice as great overall (P = 0.031) and 4 times greater in caribou selected sites on the current range than in the historic range, greatly increasing availability to caribou. Caribou on the current range selected for stands with >20% lichen cover (P < 0.001), greater than 1,250 kg/ha (P < 0.001) forage lichen biomass and stands older than 80 yr postfire (P < 0.001). After fires, forage lichen cover and biomass seldom recovered sufficiently to attract caribou grazing until after ???60 yr, and, as a group, primary forage lichen species did not reach maximum abundance until 180 yr postfire. Recovery following overgrazing can occur much more quickly because lichen cover, albeit mostly fragments, and organic substrates remain present. Our results provide benchmarks for wildlife managers assessing condition of caribou winter range and predicting effects of fires on lichen abundance and caribou distribution. Of our measurements of cover and biomass by species, densities and heights of trees, elevation, slope and aspect, only percentage cover by Cladonia amaurocraea, Cladina rangiferina, Flavocetraria cuculata, and lowbush cranberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) were necessary for predicting caribou use of winter range. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  5. The Use of Lichens as Indicators of Ambient Air Quality in Southern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulumello, Patricia M.

    The inverse relationship between arboreal lichen species richness and sulphur dioxide in ambient air has been thoroughly documented in the literature. Previous work in southern Ontario has shown that lichen bioindication can identify areas of potential concern regarding air quality. The EMAN suite of lichens was applied in the City of Sarnia by surveying 458 Sugar Maple trees, in order to test the applicability of lichen bioindication under conditions of high mean SO2 levels and high species richness values. The results of the survey were explored using Geographic Information Systems. A spatial relationship between lichen community variables, the Bluewater Bridge and the highway was identified. Lichen species richness, lichen percent cover and Index of Atmospheric Purity values were higher along the bridge and highway. No strong gradients were found between other known pollution sources and no lichen deserts were identified. The most common community grouping consisted of Physcia millegrana Degel, Candelaria concolor (Dicks) B. Stein, Physcia aipolia (Ehrh ex Humb.) Furnrohr; all of which are known nitrophytes. The relationship between substrate pH and lichen species richness was examined. Sites with a known source of anthropogenic chemical contamination were found to have a correlation of r2=o.8 between lichen species richness and pH. The inverse was found for sites with no known source of contamination with a correlation of r2=-0.72. The findings suggest that species richness may be influenced by altering substrate pH which promotes the growth of nitrophytic species capable of tolerating high SO2 levels.

  6. Non-destructive lichen biomass estimation in northwestern Alaska: a comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Abbey; Neitlich, Peter; Smith, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial lichen biomass is an important indicator of forage availability for caribou in northern regions, and can indicate vegetation shifts due to climate change, air pollution or changes in vascular plant community structure. Techniques for estimating lichen biomass have traditionally required destructive harvesting that is painstaking and impractical, so we developed models to estimate biomass from relatively simple cover and height measurements. We measured cover and height of forage lichens (including single-taxon and multi-taxa "community" samples, n = 144) at 73 sites on the Seward Peninsula of northwestern Alaska, and harvested lichen biomass from the same plots. We assessed biomass-to-volume relationships using zero-intercept regressions, and compared differences among two non-destructive cover estimation methods (ocular vs. point count), among four landcover types in two ecoregions, and among single-taxon vs. multi-taxa samples. Additionally, we explored the feasibility of using lichen height (instead of volume) as a predictor of stand-level biomass. Although lichen taxa exhibited unique biomass and bulk density responses that varied significantly by growth form, we found that single-taxon sampling consistently under-estimated true biomass and was constrained by the need for taxonomic experts. We also found that the point count method provided little to no improvement over ocular methods, despite increased effort. Estimated biomass of lichen-dominated communities (mean lichen cover: 84.9±1.4%) using multi-taxa, ocular methods differed only nominally among landcover types within ecoregions (range: 822 to 1418 g m-2). Height alone was a poor predictor of lichen biomass and should always be weighted by cover abundance. We conclude that the multi-taxa (whole-community) approach, when paired with ocular estimates, is the most reasonable and practical method for estimating lichen biomass at landscape scales in northwest Alaska. PMID:25079228

  7. Non-Destructive Lichen Biomass Estimation in Northwestern Alaska: A Comparison of Methods

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Abbey; Neitlich, Peter; Smith, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial lichen biomass is an important indicator of forage availability for caribou in northern regions, and can indicate vegetation shifts due to climate change, air pollution or changes in vascular plant community structure. Techniques for estimating lichen biomass have traditionally required destructive harvesting that is painstaking and impractical, so we developed models to estimate biomass from relatively simple cover and height measurements. We measured cover and height of forage lichens (including single-taxon and multi-taxa “community” samples, n = 144) at 73 sites on the Seward Peninsula of northwestern Alaska, and harvested lichen biomass from the same plots. We assessed biomass-to-volume relationships using zero-intercept regressions, and compared differences among two non-destructive cover estimation methods (ocular vs. point count), among four landcover types in two ecoregions, and among single-taxon vs. multi-taxa samples. Additionally, we explored the feasibility of using lichen height (instead of volume) as a predictor of stand-level biomass. Although lichen taxa exhibited unique biomass and bulk density responses that varied significantly by growth form, we found that single-taxon sampling consistently under-estimated true biomass and was constrained by the need for taxonomic experts. We also found that the point count method provided little to no improvement over ocular methods, despite increased effort. Estimated biomass of lichen-dominated communities (mean lichen cover: 84.9±1.4%) using multi-taxa, ocular methods differed only nominally among landcover types within ecoregions (range: 822 to 1418 g m−2). Height alone was a poor predictor of lichen biomass and should always be weighted by cover abundance. We conclude that the multi-taxa (whole-community) approach, when paired with ocular estimates, is the most reasonable and practical method for estimating lichen biomass at landscape scales in northwest Alaska. PMID:25079228

  8. Identification of a Robust Lichen Index for the Deconvolution of Lichen and Rock Mixtures Using Pattern Search Algorithm (case Study: Greenland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, S.; Karami, M.; Fensholt, R.

    2016-06-01

    Lichens are the dominant autotrophs of polar and subpolar ecosystems commonly encrust the rock outcrops. Spectral mixing of lichens and bare rock can shift diagnostic spectral features of materials of interest thus leading to misinterpretation and false positives if mapping is done based on perfect spectral matching methodologies. Therefore, the ability to distinguish the lichen coverage from rock and decomposing a mixed pixel into a collection of pure reflectance spectra, can improve the applicability of hyperspectral methods for mineral exploration. The objective of this study is to propose a robust lichen index that can be used to estimate lichen coverage, regardless of the mineral composition of the underlying rocks. The performance of three index structures of ratio, normalized ratio and subtraction have been investigated using synthetic linear mixtures of pure rock and lichen spectra with prescribed mixing ratios. Laboratory spectroscopic data are obtained from lichen covered samples collected from Karrat, Liverpool Land, and Sisimiut regions in Greenland. The spectra are then resampled to Hyperspectral Mapper (HyMAP) resolution, in order to further investigate the functionality of the indices for the airborne platform. In both resolutions, a Pattern Search (PS) algorithm is used to identify the optimal band wavelengths and bandwidths for the lichen index. The results of our band optimization procedure revealed that the ratio between R894-1246 and R1110 explains most of the variability in the hyperspectral data at the original laboratory resolution (R2=0.769). However, the normalized index incorporating R1106-1121 and R904-1251 yields the best results for the HyMAP resolution (R2=0.765).

  9. Biopharmaceutical Potential of Two Ramalina Lichens and their Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Ristic, Svetlana; Rankovic, Branislav; Kosanić, Marijana; Stamenkovic, Slavisa; Stanojković, Tatjana; Sovrlić, Miroslav; Manojlović, Nedeljko

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the phytochemical analysis of the acetone extracts of the Ramalina fraxinea and Ramalina fastigiata lichens and the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antitumour activities of these species and their constituents. The phytochemical analysis of two Ramalina species was evaluated using HPLC-UV test. The depsides (evernic acid, obtusatic acid, sekikaic acid and atranorin), depsidones (protocetraric acid) and dibenzofurane (usnic acid) were identified from these lichens. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH assay, reducing power assay and by measuring the amounts of total phenolics in extracts. Antimicrobial activity was tested towards five bacterial and 10 fungal species, using broth microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. Cytotoxic activity was tested using MTT method on the human epithelial carcinoma (Hela), human lung carcinoma (A549) and human colon carcinoma (LS174) cells. As a result of the study, tested samples showed strong free radical scavenging activity with I50 values within the range of 285.45-423.51 μg/mL. Absorbance for reducing power was found to be from 0.0043 to 0.1747. The total amount of phenol concentrations in extracts of Ramalina fraxinea and Ramalina fastigiata was 32.63 and 33.49 μg PE/mg, respectively. Methyl evernate showed the strongest antimicrobial properties with the least measured MIC value being 0.125 mg/mL. In addition, all samples exhibited strong anticancer activities against tested cells (I50 values were between 24.63 and 161.37 μg/mL). These results indicate that lichen appears to be a possible natural biopharmaceutical. PMID:27033512

  10. Lichens as indicators of the atmosphere state in the oil exploration district of Tomsk Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolshunova, Tatiana; Ivan, Podkozlin

    2013-04-01

    Lichens are widespread in the vegetative cover of West Siberia, particularly in the north. They play an important role in the migration and transformation of chemical pollutants. Lichens lack waxy cuticles and are largely dependent on the atmosphere for their water and nutrient uptake. Lichens are not only studied and used as indicators, but also as accumulators, e.g. for trace and heavy metals. In fact, lichens are known for their ability to accumulate airborne substances to concentrations far greater those in the atmosphere, and the element contents of lichen thalli proved to be directly correlated with environmental levels. Monitoring of the atmosphere pollution using lichens is more efficient than that using snow cover. Because of the long lichen life it is possible to obtain persistent mean characteristics of the ecosystems state. Epiphytic lichens, growing on tree stems are more appropriate to use than that which grow on soil. Epiphytic lichens are more sensitive to changes of the chemical composition of the atmosphere. Pollutants penetrate in the lichen thalli from the atmosphere together with precipitations and dust. Moreover the precipitations are saturated with pollutants when going through crowns of trees and trickling down the steams and branches. Lichen studies are especially important in territories subjected to excessive human activity. Because a great part of Tomsk region (West Siberia, Russia) is the territory of the oil-field exploration, there the atmosphere monitoring is a necessary part of the whole environmental monitoring. The aim of this investigation is the estimation of the influence of oil exploration industry in Tomsk region on the atmosphere by means of the study of epiphytic lichens. Lichen samples were collected in August and September 2010-2011. Sampling net included seven areas distributed inside the oil-exploration districts of Tomsk region. In total 27 samples were collected. In these samples 53 chemical elements were detected by

  11. Cryptoendolithic lichen and cyanobacterial communities of the Ross Desert, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, E. I.; Hua, M.; Ocampo-Friedmann, R.

    1988-01-01

    Cryptoendolithic microbial communities in the Ross Desert (McMurdo Dry Valleys) are characterized on the basis of photosynthetic microorganisms and fungi. Two eukaryotic communities (the lichen-dominated and Hemichloris communities) and three cyanobacterial communities (the red Gloeocapsa, Hormathonema-Gloeocapsa, and Chroococcidiopsis communities) are described. Eleven coccoid, one pleurocapsoid, and five filamentous cyanobacteria occurring in these communities are characterized and illustrated. The moisture grade of the rock substrate seems to affect pH, formation of primary iron stain, and the distribution of microbial communities.

  12. Lichen secondary metabolites as DNA-interacting agents.

    PubMed

    Plsíkova, J; Stepankova, J; Kasparkova, J; Brabec, V; Backor, M; Kozurkova, M

    2014-03-01

    A series of lichen secondary metabolites (parietin, atranorin, usnic and gyrophoric acid) and their interactions with calf thymus DNA were investigated using molecular biophysics and biochemical methods. The binding constants K were estimated to range from 4.3×10(5) to 2.4×10(7)M(-1) and the percentage of hypochromism was found to be 16-34% (from spectral titration). The results of spectral measurement indicate that the compounds act as effective DNA-interacting agents. Electrophoretic separation studies prove that from all the metabolites tested in this study, only gyrophoric acid exhibited an inhibitory effect on Topo I (25μM). PMID:24269500

  13. Childhood Oral Lichen Planus: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    George, Sageena; Anandaraj, S; Issac, Jyoti Sumi; Harris, Anoop; Reshmi, J

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic mucocutaneous disease widely recognized in adults, but uncommon in children. The purpose of this paper is to report two cases of LP in children. The diagnosis was made based on clinical and histopathological findings. The treatment consisted of antifungal and multivitamin therapy. Regression of lesions was observed. The patients are still under follow-up. Although LP is uncommon in children, it is necessary to have adequate knowledge about this condition for proper diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26877733

  14. Minor Pyranonaphthoquinones from the Apothecia of the Lichen Ophioparma ventosa.

    PubMed

    Le Pogam, Pierre; Le Lamer, Anne-Cécile; Siva, Bandi; Legouin, Béatrice; Bondon, Arnaud; Graton, Jérôme; Jacquemin, Denis; Rouaud, Isabelle; Ferron, Solenn; Obermayer, Walter; Babu, K Suresh; Boustie, Joël

    2016-04-22

    Four new quinonoid naphthopyranones, ophioparmin (1), 4-methoxyhaemoventosins (2a and 2b), and 4-hydroxyhaemoventosin (3), together with anhydrofusarubin lactone (4) and haemoventosin (5) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ophioparma ventosa, a crustose lichen. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses, and the absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were elucidated through experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism analyses. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 exhibited moderate to strong antioxidant activities. The main pigment haemoventosin exhibited significant cytotoxicity toward a panel of nine cell lines. PMID:26934105

  15. Betel quid-induced oral lichen planus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Stoopler, Eric T; Parisi, Ernesta; Sollecito, Thomas P

    2003-04-01

    The social use of betel nut is relatively common in certain geographic areas, especially India and Southeast Asia. The term betel nut does not truly describe the product that is chewed; rather, the term quid is more accurate because it refers to a substance or mixture of substances, including the areca nut, that are chewed and remain in contact with the mucosa. Betel quid is a type of quid that contains betel leaf. Chewer's mucosa and oral submucous fibrosis are clinical entities that have been associated with betel quid use. We report a case of oral lichen planus induced by betel quid use in a 79-year-old Cambodian woman. PMID:12729096

  16. Extragenital lichen sclerosus et atrophicus along the lines of Blaschko

    PubMed Central

    Diwan, Nilofar G.; Nair, Pragya A.

    2015-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA) is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology. Extragenital involvement is uncommon and commonly affects the neck, shoulders, and upper portion of the trunk. It is predominant in women with a male-to-female ratio of 1:6 and occurs at any age. Linear pattern along the lines of Blaschko are seen. There is no cure for LSA. Topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors, such as tacrolimus, pimecrolimus, PUVA antimalarial agents, and topical retinoids have been tried with varying results. A case of a 33-year-old man with LSA over right lower limb along the lines of Blasckho is reported here. PMID:26500867

  17. Extragenital lichen sclerosus et atrophicus along the lines of Blaschko.

    PubMed

    Diwan, Nilofar G; Nair, Pragya A

    2015-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA) is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology. Extragenital involvement is uncommon and commonly affects the neck, shoulders, and upper portion of the trunk. It is predominant in women with a male-to-female ratio of 1:6 and occurs at any age. Linear pattern along the lines of Blaschko are seen. There is no cure for LSA. Topical corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors, such as tacrolimus, pimecrolimus, PUVA antimalarial agents, and topical retinoids have been tried with varying results. A case of a 33-year-old man with LSA over right lower limb along the lines of Blasckho is reported here. PMID:26500867

  18. Altitudinal patterns of Stereocaulon (Lichenized Ascomycota) in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Man-Rong

    2010-03-01

    Based on herbarium collections, the altitudinal distribution patterns of six species of the lichen genus Stereocaulon in China were analyzed. Species are elevation-dependent: normal distributions and corresponding empirical formulae were detected for the genus and S. japonicum and S. paschale, the species distributed in low elevation areas, and log-normal distributions detected for S. sorediiferum and S. tomentosum, the species in medium elevation areas, while S. pomiferum and S. myriocarpum, the species in high elevation areas, appear to be irregularly distributed according to altitude. Such formulae should prove valuable for biological conservation practices.

  19. Discrimination of lichen genera and species using element concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of organic chemistry in the classification of lichens is well established, but inorganic chemistry has been largely overlooked. Six lichen species were studied over a period of 23 years that were growing in 11 protected areas of the northern Great Lakes ecoregion, which were not greatly influenced by anthropogenic particulates or gaseous air pollutants. The elemental data from these studies were aggregated in order to test the hypothesis that differences among species in tissue element concentrations were large enough to discriminate between taxa faithfully. Concentrations of 16 chemical elements that were found in tissue samples from Cladonia rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Flavopunctelia flaventior, Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia sulcata, and Punctelia rudecta were analyzed statistically using multivariate discriminant functions and CART analyses, as well as t-tests. Genera and species were clearly separated in element space, and elemental discriminant functions were able to classify 91-100 of the samples correctly into species. At the broadest level, a Zn concentration of 51 ppm in tissues of four of the lichen species effectively discriminated foliose from fruticose species. Similarly, a S concentration of 680 ppm discriminated C. rangiferina and E. mesomorpha, and a Ca concentration of 10 436 ppm discriminated H. physodes from P. sulcata. For the three parmelioid species, a Ca concentration >32 837 ppm discriminated Punctelia rudecta from the other two species, while a Zn concentration of 56 ppm discriminated Parmelia sulcata from F. flaventior. Foliose species also had higher concentrations than did fruticose species of all elements except Na. Elemental signatures for each of the six species were developed using standardized means. Twenty-four mechanisms explaining the differences among species are summarized. Finally, the relationships of four species based on element concentrations, using additive-trees clustering of a Euclidean

  20. First evidence for seasonal fluctuations in lichen- and bark-colonising fungal communities.

    PubMed

    Beck, Andreas; Peršoh, Derek; Rambold, Gerhard

    2014-03-01

    Endophytic fungal communities in leaves of deciduous trees usually undergo pronounced seasonal changes. We hypothesised that such compositional shifts are predominantly caused by annuality of the leaves and therefore less pronounced in fungi colonising the perennial substrates bark and corticolous lichens. To test this hypothesis, thalli of the foliose lichen-forming fungal species Xanthoria parietina and Physconia distorta, along with the adjacent bark, were sampled during spring and autumn at two sides of a single tree in southern Germany. Analysis of clone libraries by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) revealed 588 singleton and 221 non-singleton RFLP-types of non-lichenised fungi. The communities differed significantly between host lichen species. Season and exposure had only a significant impact when the two factors were combined in the analysis. Accordingly, bark- and/or the lichen-associated fungal communities change throughout the year's course, a finding that rejects the initial hypothesis. This survey revealed valuable information for future broad-based studies, by indicating that a relatively high diversity of non-lichenised fungi is associated with corticolous lichen thalli and the adjacent bark. Furthermore, the structure of non-lichenised fungal assemblages associated with corticolous lichen communities obviously depends at least on the following factors: 'lichen species', 'exposure', and 'season'. PMID:24037543

  1. Exploring functional contexts of symbiotic sustain within lichen-associated bacteria by comparative omics

    PubMed Central

    Grube, Martin; Cernava, Tomislav; Soh, Jung; Fuchs, Stephan; Aschenbrenner, Ines; Lassek, Christian; Wegner, Uwe; Becher, Dörte; Riedel, Katharina; Sensen, Christoph W; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Symbioses represent a frequent and successful lifestyle on earth and lichens are one of their classic examples. Recently, bacterial communities were identified as stable, specific and structurally integrated partners of the lichen symbiosis, but their role has remained largely elusive in comparison to the well-known functions of the fungal and algal partners. We have explored the metabolic potentials of the microbiome using the lung lichen Lobaria pulmonaria as the model. Metagenomic and proteomic data were comparatively assessed and visualized by Voronoi treemaps. The study was complemented with molecular, microscopic and physiological assays. We have found that more than 800 bacterial species have the ability to contribute multiple aspects to the symbiotic system, including essential functions such as (i) nutrient supply, especially nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur, (ii) resistance against biotic stress factors (that is, pathogen defense), (iii) resistance against abiotic factors, (iv) support of photosynthesis by provision of vitamin B12, (v) fungal and algal growth support by provision of hormones, (vi) detoxification of metabolites, and (vii) degradation of older parts of the lichen thallus. Our findings showed the potential of lichen-associated bacteria to interact with the fungal as well as algal partner to support health, growth and fitness of their hosts. We developed a model of the symbiosis depicting the functional multi-player network of the participants, and argue that the strategy of functional diversification in lichens supports the longevity and persistence of lichens under extreme and changing ecological conditions. PMID:25072413

  2. The phenolic compounds in Cladonia lichens are not antimicrobial in soils.

    PubMed

    Stark, Sari; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit; Neumann, Antje B

    2007-05-01

    According to classic text books on lichen biology, the phenolic secondary chemicals in lichens have antibiotic effects on soil microorganisms and mycorrhizal fungi in ecosystems. However, the experimental evidence for this under natural conditions is still relatively scarce. We examined some of the assumptions behind the concept of antimicrobial effects of lichen secondary substances: (1) the secondary substances of Cladonia stellaris, usnic and perlatolic acids, are leached out from the lichens by rainwater; (2) these substances inhibit the microbial activity of soil, and; (3) since they are extremely resistant to microbial decomposition, the soil underneath a continuous lichen mat is enriched in usnic and perlatolic acids. Our results did not support any of these assumptions. The evidence for the antimicrobial activity of lichen secondary substances seems to be weak in comparison to other suggested functions such as light filtering and herbivore protection. We suggest that it is time to re-evaluate the evidence for the antimicrobial ecological role of lichen secondary substances in natural systems. PMID:17294219

  3. Relationship between carbohydrate movement and the symbiosis in lichens with green algae.

    PubMed

    Hill, D J; Ahmadjian, V

    1972-09-01

    When isolated in pure culture, four genera of lichen algae were able to produce the polyol which is known to move from the alga to the fungus in lichens with these algae. This conclusion corrects earlier suggestions that the mobile polyol is only formed by the alga in the lichen thallus. Stichococcus produced sorbitol and it is therefore suggested that, in lichens with this alga, sorbitol moves between the symbionts. Hyalococcus and Stichococcus had a similar pattern of incorporation of H(14)CO 3 (-) in the light, suggesting a close relationship between these algae which are only separated now on morphological grounds.The pattern of incorporation of H(14)CO 3 (-) in the light into Cladonia cristatella and its alga (Trebouxia erici) in culture indicates that in the cultured algae more (14)C was incorporated into ethanol insoluble substances and lipids and less into ribitol than in the lichen. The pattern in a joint culture of the alga and the fungus of C. cristatella was approximately intermediate between that of the lichen and the alga. However, only a small amount of (14)C fixed by the alga reached the fungus in the joint culture, and it is therefore suggested that the presence of the fungus without morphological differentiation into a lichen thallus is not sufficient to promote the alga to release carbohydrate. PMID:24481561

  4. Novel bacteria associated with Arctic seashore lichens have potential roles in nutrient scavenging.

    PubMed

    Sigurbjörnsdóttir, Margrét Auður; Heiðmarsson, Starri; Jónsdóttir, Anna Rut; Vilhelmsson, Oddur

    2014-05-01

    While generally described as a bipartite mutualistic association between fungi and algae or cyanobacteria, lichens also host diverse and heretofore little explored communities of nonphototrophic endolichenic bacteria. The composition and possible roles of these bacterial communities in the lichen symbiotic association constitute an emerging field of research. Saxicolous (rock-dwelling) seashore lichens present an unusual environment, characterized by rapid fluctuations in temperature, salinity, exposure to solar radiation, etc. The present study focuses on the bacterial biota associated with 4 species of crustose, halophilic, saxicolous seashore lichens found in northern Iceland. A denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis based characterization of the composition of the lichen-associated microbiotas indicated that they are markedly lichen-species-specific and clearly distinguishable from the environmental microbiota represented by control sampling. A collection of bacterial strains was investigated and partially identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. The strains were found to belong to 7 classes: Alphaproteobacteria, Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria, Cytophagia, Sphingobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. Several isolates display only a modest level of similarity to their nearest relatives found in GenBank, suggesting that they comprise previously undescribed taxa. Selected strains were tested for inorganic phosphate solubilization and biodegradation of several biopolymers, such as barley β-glucan, xylan, chitosan, and lignin. The results support a nutrient-scavenging role of the associate microbiota in the seashore lichen symbiotic association. PMID:24802938

  5. Delta(18)O characteristics of lichens and their effects on evaporative processes of the subjacent soil.

    PubMed

    Hartard, Britta; Máguas, C; Lakatos, M

    2008-03-01

    The study presents first data on the delta(18)O performance of poikilohydrous lichen ground cover, and its potential impact on the isotopic composition of water fluxes arising from subjacent soil layers. As a model organism, the globally distributed lichen Cladina arbuscula was studied under laboratory conditions as well as in the field. During a desiccation experiment, delta(18)O of the lichen's thallus water and of its respired CO(2) became enriched by approximately 7 per thousand and followed a similar enrichment pattern to that expected from homoiohydrous, vascular plants. However, the observed degree of enrichment was lower in comparison to vascular plants due to (i) the lichen's inherent lower evaporative resistances; and (ii) a stronger effect of the more depleted surrounding water vapour. In lichens growing in their natural habitat, this specific pattern may show substantial variations depending on prevailing microclimatic conditions. Within a field study, thallus water delta(18)O of lichens principally proved to become more depleted when close to equilibration with the surroundings. It thereby strongly depended on the absorption of surrounding water vapour. Moreover, the results indicate that lichen mats substantially reduce evaporation rates arising from subjacent soil layers, and may alter the isotopic signal of vapour diffusing away from these layers into more depleted values. PMID:18320432

  6. Exploring functional contexts of symbiotic sustain within lichen-associated bacteria by comparative omics.

    PubMed

    Grube, Martin; Cernava, Tomislav; Soh, Jung; Fuchs, Stephan; Aschenbrenner, Ines; Lassek, Christian; Wegner, Uwe; Becher, Dörte; Riedel, Katharina; Sensen, Christoph W; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-02-01

    Symbioses represent a frequent and successful lifestyle on earth and lichens are one of their classic examples. Recently, bacterial communities were identified as stable, specific and structurally integrated partners of the lichen symbiosis, but their role has remained largely elusive in comparison to the well-known functions of the fungal and algal partners. We have explored the metabolic potentials of the microbiome using the lung lichen Lobaria pulmonaria as the model. Metagenomic and proteomic data were comparatively assessed and visualized by Voronoi treemaps. The study was complemented with molecular, microscopic and physiological assays. We have found that more than 800 bacterial species have the ability to contribute multiple aspects to the symbiotic system, including essential functions such as (i) nutrient supply, especially nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur, (ii) resistance against biotic stress factors (that is, pathogen defense), (iii) resistance against abiotic factors, (iv) support of photosynthesis by provision of vitamin B12, (v) fungal and algal growth support by provision of hormones, (vi) detoxification of metabolites, and (vii) degradation of older parts of the lichen thallus. Our findings showed the potential of lichen-associated bacteria to interact with the fungal as well as algal partner to support health, growth and fitness of their hosts. We developed a model of the symbiosis depicting the functional multi-player network of the participants, and argue that the strategy of functional diversification in lichens supports the longevity and persistence of lichens under extreme and changing ecological conditions. PMID:25072413

  7. Analysis of Rocky Mountain lichens using PIXE: Characteristics of iron and titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, B. M.; Mangelson, N. F.; St. Clair, L. L.; Anderson, K. T.; Rees, L. B.

    1997-02-01

    Lichens have been shown to be effective biomonitors of air quality. They are currently being used to characterize background element levels and to identify air pollution effects on federally administered lands in the Rocky Mountain region of the western United States. PIXE analysis for twenty elements has been performed on over two hundred lichen specimens collected from various national forests, national monuments, and national parks in the region. This paper reports on patterns of iron and titanium accumulation in lichen tissues. Data show a strong relationship between concentrations of iron and titanium. The Fe/Ti ratios agree well with values reported in similar lichen studies; however, our values for both iron and titanium concentrations are ten times greater than other reports. A distribution function for the log of iron concentrations is distinctly bimodal. The lower concentration mode contains fruticose lichens from bark substrates and the higher concentration mode contains foliose lichens from rock substrates. High iron concentrations in fruticose lichens along the Wasatch Front suggest air pollution impact from a local steel plant.

  8. A phylogenetic analysis of the boreal lichen Mycoblastus sanguinarius (Mycoblastaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) reveals cryptic clades correlated with fatty acid profiles

    PubMed Central

    Spribille, Toby; Klug, Barbara; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Lichens are a prominent feature of northern conifer forests and a large number of species are thought to be circumboreal. Whether or not circumboreal lichen species really constitute monophyletic groups has seldom been tested. We investigated molecular phylogenetic patterns in the mycobiont of Mycoblastus sanguinarius, a well known epiphytic lichen species of the boreal forest, based on material collected from across the high latitude northern hemisphere. A three-locus dataset of internal transcribed spacer rDNA, translation elongation factor 1-α and replication licensing factor Mcm7 DNA sequences revealed that material treated until now as belonging to M. sanguinarius does indeed form a monophyletic group within the genus and is distinct from a strongly supported Mycoblastus affinis. The M. sanguinarius complex appears closely related to the rare Mycoblastus glabrescens, which is currently known only from the Pacific Northwest and was rediscovered during the present study. However, within M. sanguinarius s.lat. in the northern hemisphere, two deeply divergent and morphologically coherent species can be recovered, one of which matches the southern hemisphere species Mycoblastus sanguinarioides and turns out to be widespread in North America and Asia, and one of which corresponds to M. sanguinarius s.str. Both M. sanguinarius and M. sanguinarioides exhibit additional low-level genetic differentiation into geographically structured clades, the most prominent of which are distributed in East Asia/eastern North America and western North America/Europe, respectively. Individuals from these lowest-level clades are morphologically indistinguishable but chemical analyses by thin layer chromatography revealed that each clade possesses its own fatty acid profile, suggesting that chemical differentiation precedes morphological differentiation and may be a precursor to speciation. PMID:21443957

  9. Influence of a range of extreme environmental factors on tripartite lichen Peltigera aphthosa thallus viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irina, Insarova; Dyakov, Max; Ptushenko, Vasiliy; Shtaer, Oksana

    Lichens are symbiotic organisms consisting of at least two genetic different partners: a heterotrophic fungus (mycobiont) and a phototrophic alga or cyanobacterium (photobiont). Lichens are ubiquitous at global scale. These symbiotic organisms represent the dominant type of “vegetation” at 8 - 10% of land (Larson, 1987). Abiotic stress’ resistance is notable for lichens among all eukaryotes. Lichens are often called “extremophiles” for their ability to acclimate the most severe environmental conditions. These features allow regarding lichens as a group of organisms which is potentially able to keep viability under open space conditions and to survive within Mars-like atmosphere types. The research presented was carried out in the network of spacecraft Bion-1 experiments involving the investigation of physiological and ultrastructural changes in biological objects survivable under open space conditions. Similar researches were already conducted on bipartite lichen species. The most attention was paid to the influence of UV and other space radiation types on lichen viability in those works. Thus we have taken tripartite lichen Peltigera aphthosa as a main research object and temperature fluctuations from extremely high to extremely low values in accordance to solar and umbral orbit sides - for the main extreme environmental factors. These factors were the less studied in previous works. During the research the influence of incubation under anaerobic conditions, multi-time effects of high and low temperatures and their interchange on respiratory metabolism, photosynthetic apparatus condition and the ultrastructure of P. aphthosa thalli was assessed. The data obtained demonstrate that activity either mycobiont or photobiont in tripartite lichen Peltigera aphthosa keep near unchanged under influence of all stress factors explored on dry thalli.

  10. Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.J.; Bennett, J.P.; Biro, S.M.; Duque-Velasquez, J.C.; Rodriguez, C.M.; Bessen, R.A.; Rocke, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrP(TSE)), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrP(TSE) inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrP(TSE). Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrP(TSE)-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrP(TSE) and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted.

  11. Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.J.; Bennett, J.P.; Biro, S.M.; Duque-Velasquez, J. C.; Rodriguez, C.M.; Bessen, R.A.; Rocke, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrPTSE), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrPTSE inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrPTSE. Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrPTSE-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrPTSE and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted.

  12. Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.J.; Bennett, J.P.; Biro, S.M.; Duque-Velasquez, J. C.; Rodriguez, C.M.; Bessen, R.A.; Rocke, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrPTSE), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrPTSE inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrPTSE. Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrPTSE-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrPTSE and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted.

  13. The Relationship between Anger Expression and Its Indices and Oral Lichen Planus.

    PubMed

    Mehdipour, Masoumeh; Taghavi Zenouz, Ali; Farnam, Alireza; Attaran, Rana; Farhang, Sara; Safarnavadeh, Maryam; Gholizadeh, Narges; Azari-Marhabi, Saranaz

    2016-05-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common inflammatory disease with unknown etiology. Depression, stress and anxiety are psychological factors that their influence on the expression of lichen planus by affecting the immune system's function has been confirmed. There is a probable relationship between anger and OLP expression. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the association of "anger" and OLP. In this descriptive study 95 subjects were included in 3 groups. A: patients with oral lichen planus, B: positive control, C: negative control. Anger and its indices were assessed by the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2) questionnaire, and pain was measured via the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The collected data were analyzed statistically using SPSS 18 software. The lichen planus and positive control groups bore higher total anger index (AX index) values compared with the negative control. Comparing anger expression-in (AXI) among the lichen planus and negative control groups revealed higher grades in lichen planus group. Evaluating the pain severity index (VAS) data and anger indices in lichen planus group, Spearman's Rank Correlation Test revealed a significant correlation between TAngR (reactional anger traits) and pain severity. The findings of this study indicated that there was a significant correlation between anger control and suppression of lichen planus development. On the other hand, the patients with more severe pain mostly expressed their anger physically. Based on the findings, we can make the claim that anger suppression and its control-in (gathering tension) may play a role in the development of lichen planus as a known psychosomatic disorders. PMID:27231675

  14. Introduce lichen Lepraria incana as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Dalvand, Amin; Jahangiri, Ahmad; Iranmanesh, Jalil

    2016-08-01

    Lichens have been used as biomonitors of airborne radionuclides released in conjunction with nuclear bomb testing as well as nuclear power plant accidents. The potential of lichens for monitoringof radionuclides has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide monitoring by lichens, in Iran. Thus, as a first step, we have conducted a comparison of (137)Csactivity concentration capacity of three epiphytic lichen species including Lepraria incana, Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea from Ramsar Northern Iran. In this work, accumulation capacity of (137)Cs was determined in 36 lichen samples using a gamma spectrometer equipped with a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The results showed that highest accumulation capacity of (137)Cs in the lichen species was found in Lepraria incana and Xanthoria parietina, 30.2, 9.8 Bq/kg respectively, and lowest average accumulation capacity were found in Ramalina farinacea 2.7 Bq/kg (dry weight). This study showed that activity concentration (137)Cs is in crustose > foliose > fruticose lichens in the same biotope. Thus, crustose lichens are capable to accumulate higher (137)Cs than foliose and fruticose species because of different factors such as special morphological characteristics in these species and large surface/volume ratio or longer biological half-life of (137)Cs in lichen Lepraria incana. Therefore, Lepraria incana due to high concentration capability of (137)Cs (approximately 3 and 11 time higher than Xanthoria parietina and Ramalina farinacea, respectively), is introduced as biomonitor of Cesium-137 from Ramsar, North of Iran. PMID:27132251

  15. The Relationship between Anger Expression and Its Indices and Oral Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Mehdipour, Masoumeh; Taghavi Zenouz, Ali; Farnam, Alireza; Attaran, Rana; Farhang, Sara; Safarnavadeh, Maryam; Gholizadeh, Narges

    2016-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common inflammatory disease with unknown etiology. Depression, stress and anxiety are psychological factors that their influence on the expression of lichen planus by affecting the immune system's function has been confirmed. There is a probable relationship between anger and OLP expression. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the association of "anger" and OLP. In this descriptive study 95 subjects were included in 3 groups. A: patients with oral lichen planus, B: positive control, C: negative control. Anger and its indices were assessed by the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2) questionnaire, and pain was measured via the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The collected data were analyzed statistically using SPSS 18 software. The lichen planus and positive control groups bore higher total anger index (AX index) values compared with the negative control. Comparing anger expression-in (AXI) among the lichen planus and negative control groups revealed higher grades in lichen planus group. Evaluating the pain severity index (VAS) data and anger indices in lichen planus group, Spearman's Rank Correlation Test revealed a significant correlation between TAngR (reactional anger traits) and pain severity. The findings of this study indicated that there was a significant correlation between anger control and suppression of lichen planus development. On the other hand, the patients with more severe pain mostly expressed their anger physically. Based on the findings, we can make the claim that anger suppression and its control-in (gathering tension) may play a role in the development of lichen planus as a known psychosomatic disorders. PMID:27231675

  16. Photobiont selectivity leads to ecological tolerance and evolutionary divergence in a polymorphic complex of lichenized fungi

    PubMed Central

    Muggia, Lucia; Pérez-Ortega, Sergio; Kopun, Theodora; Zellnig, Günther; Grube, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The integrity and evolution of lichen symbioses depend on a fine-tuned combination of algal and fungal genotypes. Geographically widespread species complexes of lichenized fungi can occur in habitats with slightly varying ecological conditions, and it remains unclear how this variation correlates with symbiont selectivity patterns in lichens. In an attempt to address this question, >300 samples were taken of the globally distributed and ecologically variable lichen-forming species complex Tephromela atra, together with closely allied species, in order to study genetic diversity and the selectivity patterns of their photobionts. Methods Lichen thalli of T. atra and of closely related species T. grumosa, T. nashii and T. atrocaesia were collected from six continents, across 24 countries and 62 localities representing a wide range of habitats. Analyses of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships were carried out both for photobionts amplified directly from the lichen thalli and from those isolated in axenic cultures. Morphological and anatomical traits were studied with light and transmission electron microscopy in the isolated algal strains. Key Results Tephromela fungal species were found to associate with 12 lineages of Trebouxia. Five new clades demonstrate the still-unrecognized genetic diversity of lichen algae. Culturable, undescribed lineages were also characterized by phenotypic traits. Strong selectivity of the mycobionts for the photobionts was observed in six monophyletic Tephromela clades. Seven Trebouxia lineages were detected in the poorly resolved lineage T. atra sensu lato, where co-occurrence of multiple photobiont lineages in single thalli was repeatedly observed. Conclusions Low selectivity apparently allows widespread lichen-forming fungi to establish successful symbioses with locally adapted photobionts in a broader range of habitats. This flexibility might correlate with both lower phylogenetic resolution and

  17. Degradation of the Disease-Associated Prion Protein by a Serine Protease from Lichens

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Bennett, James P.; Biro, Steven M.; Duque-Velasquez, Juan Camilo; Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Bessen, Richard A.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2011-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrPTSE), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrPTSE inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrPTSE. Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrPTSE-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrPTSE and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted. PMID:21589935

  18. Oral Manifestations and Dental Management of Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex.

    PubMed

    Scheidt, Lisa; Sanabe, Mariane Emi; Diniz, Michele Baffi

    2015-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of hereditary chronic disorders, characterized by fragility of the skin and mucous membranes in response to minor mechanical trauma. The objective of this study was to report the case of a young girl diagnosed with epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS), transmitted by an autosomal dominant gene. Cutaneous findings included blisters and dystrophy following minimal friction. Recurrent blisters and vesicle formation on the hard palate were the main oral findings. In conclusion, publications concerning the oral and clinical manifestations of EBS are important for providing knowledge and an early multidisciplinary approach that prevents blister formation and improves these patients' quality of life, with the dentist playing an important role in oral health management. How to cite this article: Scheidt L, Sanabe ME, Diniz MB. Oral Manifestations and Dental Management of Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):239-241. PMID:26604545

  19. Herpes simplex encephalitis in a domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Grest, P; Albicker, P; Hoelzle, L; Wild, P; Pospischil, A

    2002-05-01

    An adult domestic rabbit showing neurological signs was subjected to euthanasia. At necropsy, macroscopical lesions were absent. Histopathologically, extensive lesions were seen, particularly in the cerebral cortex. Non-suppurative meningitis was present and there was lymphocytic and plasmacytic perivascular cuffing in the neuropil. The cerebral cortex showed extensive segmental neuronal and glial necrosis. Within the necrotic areas, large amphophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were present in neurons and glial cells. Immunohistochemically, neurons and glial cells in the affected areas were labelled by polyclonal antibodies against both herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. The agent was classified as HSV-1 by polymerase chain reaction analysis. This is only the second reported natural case of herpes simplex infection in a rabbit. PMID:12056779

  20. Oral Manifestations and Dental Management of Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex

    PubMed Central

    Scheidt, Lisa; Sanabe, Mariane Emi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of hereditary chronic disorders, characterized by fragility of the skin and mucous membranes in response to minor mechanical trauma. The objective of this study was to report the case of a young girl diagnosed with epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS), transmitted by an autosomal dominant gene. Cutaneous findings included blisters and dystrophy following minimal friction. Recurrent blisters and vesicle formation on the hard palate were the main oral findings. In conclusion, publications concerning the oral and clinical manifestations of EBS are important for providing knowledge and an early multidisciplinary approach that prevents blister formation and improves these patients’ quality of life, with the dentist playing an important role in oral health management. How to cite this article: Scheidt L, Sanabe ME, Diniz MB. Oral Manifestations and Dental Management of Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):239-241. PMID:26604545

  1. Lichens of the U.S. National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Over 26,100 records of lichens present in 144 U.S. national park units were assembled from various sources into a database and analyzed. Within these 144 park units 2,435 species and 375 genera are reported, representing 63% and 74% of the North American flora, respectively. The park units are located in 41 states and Washington, D.C. The average number of species in a park is 104, but the median is 60, indicating there are many parks with a small number of species and a few with high numbers. Isle Royale National Park has the most species, 611, and twelve parks have only one species reported. The number of records of lichens present ranged from one for 25 parks, to 1,623 for Isle Royale. Physcia aipolia is the most frequently observed species, being found in 65 parks. One fourth of the park units are classified cultural resource parks, while the remainder are considered natural resource parks. This study was based on 453 sources, including literature citations, park reports and collections in the University of Minnesota Herbarium.

  2. Evaluation of Plasma Isoprostane in Patients with Oral Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Amirchaghmaghi, Maryam; Hashemy, Seyed Isaac; Alirezaei, Banafsheh; Jahed Keyhani, Fereshteh; Kargozar, Sanaz; Vasigh, Samaneh; Gharaei, Shideh; Pakfetrat, Atessa

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problems Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease. Free radicals and reactive oxygen species play important roles in pathogenesis of oral lichen planus (OLP). Isoprostanes show oxidative stress and are formed by free-radical mediated lipid peroxidation of arachidonic acid and cell membrane phospholipids. Purpose This study was conducted to evaluate the plasma level of 8-isoprostane in patients suffering from erosive and non-erosive forms of OLP. Materials and Method In this case-control study, 31 patients with OLP and 30 control subjects were enrolled. Plasma samples were obtained and the level of 8-isoprostane was measured with Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in both groups. The data were analyzed by using two-sample t-test, chi-square and ANOVA tests. Results The results showed significant increase in the plasma level of 8-isoprostane in OLP group compared with the control group. The results of independent t-test revealed no significant correlation between the plasma level of isoprostane and sex, smoking, or previous treatment. Conclusion Based on the findings of this study, oxidative stress was increased in patients with OLP, reflected by higher concentrations of 8-isoprostane in plasma. PMID:26966704

  3. Studies of SO/sub 2/ impact on lichens

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    On the basis of sensitivity, cost, portability and time, the membrane permeability test was determined to be the most effective method for assessing SO/sub 2/ impact on lichens. After 4 hours exposure to 2 ppm SO/sub 2/ the only method which was significantly more sensitive than the others was potassium efflux. However, following exposure for 8 and 12 hours all four methods differed significantly with potassium efflux being most sensitive, followed by total conductivity, photosynthesis and respiration. The amount of change detected by each method was not influenced by species. The effects of 1 and 2 ppm gaseous SO/sub 2/ at 4, 8 and 12 hours of exposure on photosynthesis and carbohydrate transfer in the lichens Parmelia chlorochroa and Collema polycarpon were examined. Photosynthesis in both species was initially stimulated following exposure to SO/sub 2/ but prolonged exposure resulted in depression of photosynthesis. Carbohydrate transfer decreased in both species but increased significantly after 12 hours exposure in C. polycarpon.

  4. Endogenous Auxin and Ethylene in the Lichen Ramalina duriaei1

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Ephraim; Sagee, Oded; Cohen, Jerry D.; Garty, Jacob

    1986-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels and ethylene evolution rates were measured in a fruticose lichen Ramalina duriaei collected from carob trees growing in northeast Israel. IAA levels were estimated by gas liquid chromatography with electron capture detection of the pentafluorobenzyl ester and also by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay following methylation. The identity of the isolated IAA was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of both the methyl and the pentafluorobenzyl ester. IAA levels in lichens 1 year after transplanting to an air-polluted urban site were found to be lower than in the control thalli left at a nonpolluted, rural site. The material from the latter contained about 2.5 micrograms per gram fresh weight free IAA and 0.5 microgram per gram fresh weight conjugated IAA, while the urban material contained 0.3 microgram per gram each of free and conjugated IAA. Ethylene production rate was 1.0 nanoliter per gram fresh weight per hour in the material from the rural site and 1.5 nanoliters per gram fresh weight per hour in material from the urban site. PMID:16665145

  5. Evaluation of Hepatitis B Vaccination among Lichen Planus Patients.

    PubMed

    Balighi, K; Daneshpazhooh, M; Nasimi, M; Loloee, S; Asadi, A; Azizpour, A

    2016-07-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is an idiopathic chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease. Many reports in the literature have described hepatitis B vaccine as a predisposing factor for LP. This study was performed to determine the rate of previous vaccination against hepatitis B in LP patients. This was a cross sectional study on LP patients. Diagnosis of LP was confirmed by histological examination. Data were gathered by dermatology residents based on a checklist designed to guide their interview. Blood samples were tested for HBsAB titer, HBsAg, HCV Ab and liver function tests. One hundred & twenty four (124) patients entered the study. Females were 2.72 times more affected. The mean age of patients was 45.63 years (age range; 18-88). Forty-four (35.5%) patients had been vaccinated against hepatitis B. Lichen planus during the first six months of vaccination occurred in only one patient. Our findings bring into question the causative role of HBV vaccine in LP incidence in our population. PMID:27612905

  6. Oral lichen planus – retrospective study of 563 Croatian patients

    PubMed Central

    Budimir, Vice; Richter, Ivica; Andabak-Rogulj, Ana; Vučićević-Boras, Vanja

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of oral lichen planus (OLP) in a group of Croatian patients seen between 2006 and 2012. Study Design: A group of 563 patients with a diagnosis of OLP was retrospectively reviewed in our clinic. Data regarding age, gender, medical history, drugs, smoking, alcohol, chief complaint, clinical type, localization, histology, treatment and malignant transformation were registered. Results: Of the 563 patients, 414 were females and 149 were males. The average age at the diagnosis was 58 (range 11-94). The most common site was buccal mucosa (82.4%). Most of our patients did not smoke (72.5%) or consume alcohol (69.6%). Patients reported oral soreness (43.3%), mucosal roughness (7%), xerostomia (3%), gingival bleeding (2%) and altered taste (0.5%) as the chief complaint, while almost half of them were asymptomatic (44.2%). The most common types of OLP were reticular (64.8%) and erosive (22.9%). Plaque-like (5.7%) atrophic/erythemtous (4.3%) and bullous (2.3%) type were also observed. Malignant transformation rate of 0.7% was recorded. Conclusions: OLP mostly affects non-smoking middle-aged women. Buccal mucosa is the most commonly affected site. In almost half of the cases patients are asymptomatic. In spite of the small risk for malignant transformation all patients should be regularly monitored. Key words:Oral lichen planus, malignant transformation, epidemiology, retrospective study. PMID:24608217

  7. Lichens and Mosses Used as Biomonitors in Environmental Magnetic Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanova, D.; Petrov, P.; Hoffmann, V.; Jordanova, N.; Tsacheva, T.

    2009-05-01

    Plants are widely used in classical biomonitoring studies, due to the ability of different vegetation species to accumulate dust and toxic elements in their tissues or to bound them to surface structures. The aim of the present investigation is to study magnetic signature of foliose and fruticose lichens and mosses, gathered from several polluted and clean sites in Bulgaria and to evaluate their suitability as enviromagnetic indicators. Plant material was sampled from rocks and tree branches. Various species demonstrate different preferences in grain size distribution of accumulated dust particles. Measurements of magnetic susceptibility, acquisition of isothermal remanence, anhysteretic remanence and hysteresis loops reveal that lichens preferentially accumulate coarser anthropogenic grains as compared to the magnetic fraction in clean localities. This suggests that conclusions related to grain size distribution of industrial emissions should be carefully considered in respect to bioindicator used in each particular study. The main ferromagnetic phase in accumulated dust from various vegetation species is magnetite-like with possible Al-, Si- and Mn-substitutions, related to the specific chemistry of source emissions. This phase has varying grain size distribution, deduced by dP parameter from fitted Gausian functions to IRM-acquisition curves and shows inverse relationship to the remanent coercivity of the soft IRM component. It is probably related to sorting effect with distance and the presence of single/multiple pollution sources.

  8. Atrial Electromechanical Coupling in Patients with Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Yaman, Mehmet; Beton, Osman; Asarcıklı, Lale Dinç; Aksakal, Aytekin; Dogdu, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives A chronic inflammatory disease, lichen planus may cause disturbance of atrial electromechanical coupling and increase the risk of atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study was to evaluate atrial electromechanical delay with both electrocardiography (ECG) and echocardiography in patients with lichen planus (LP). Subjects and Methods Seventy-two LP patients (43 males [59.7%], mean age: 44.0±16.7 years) were enrolled in this cross-sectional case-control study. The control group was selected in a 1:1 ratio from 70 patients in an age and sex matched manner. P wave dispersion was measured by ECG to show atrial electromechanical delay. All of the patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography for measuring inter- and intra-atrial electromechanical delays. Results The baseline characteristics of the patients and the control group were similar except for the presence of LP. P-wave dispersion measured by ECG was significantly higher in patients with LP (p<0.001). Patients with LP had significantly prolonged intra- and interatrial electromechanical delays when compared to the control group (p<0.001). In addition, all of these variables were significantly correlated with high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels. Conclusion Atrial electromechanical coupling, which is significantly correlated with increased hsCRP levels, is impaired in patients with LP. PMID:27482262

  9. Fungal specificity and selectivity for algae play a major role in determining lichen partnerships across diverse ecogeographic regions in the lichen-forming family Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Kraichak, Ekaphan; Nelsen, Matthew P; Altermann, Susanne; Divakar, Pradeep K; Alors, David; Esslinger, Theodore L; Crespo, Ana; Lumbsch, Thorsten

    2015-07-01

    Microbial symbionts are instrumental to the ecological and long-term evolutionary success of their hosts, and the central role of symbiotic interactions is increasingly recognized across the vast majority of life. Lichens provide an iconic group for investigating patterns in species interactions; however, relationships among lichen symbionts are often masked by uncertain species boundaries or an inability to reliably identify symbionts. The species-rich lichen-forming fungal family Parmeliaceae provides a diverse group for assessing patterns of interactions of algal symbionts, and our study addresses patterns of lichen symbiont interactions at the largest geographic and taxonomic scales attempted to date. We analysed a total of 2356 algal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences collected from lichens representing ten mycobiont genera in Parmeliaceae, two genera in Lecanoraceae and 26 cultured Trebouxia strains. Algal ITS sequences were grouped into operational taxonomic units (OTUs); we attempted to validate the evolutionary independence of a subset of the inferred OTUs using chloroplast and mitochondrial loci. We explored the patterns of symbiont interactions in these lichens based on ecogeographic distributions and mycobiont taxonomy. We found high levels of undescribed diversity in Trebouxia, broad distributions across distinct ecoregions for many photobiont OTUs and varying levels of mycobiont selectivity and specificity towards the photobiont. Based on these results, we conclude that fungal specificity and selectivity for algal partners play a major role in determining lichen partnerships, potentially superseding ecology, at least at the ecogeographic scale investigated here. To facilitate effective communication and consistency across future studies, we propose a provisional naming system for Trebouxia photobionts and provide representative sequences for each OTU circumscribed in this study. PMID:26073165

  10. Burning mouth syndrome due to herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Maria A; Choe, Alexander; Traktinskiy, Igor; Gilden, Don

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterised by chronic orofacial burning pain. No dental or medical cause has been found. We present a case of burning mouth syndrome of 6 months duration in a healthy 65-year-old woman, which was associated with high copy numbers of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA in the saliva. Her pain resolved completely after antiviral treatment with a corresponding absence of salivary HSV-1 DNA 4 weeks and 6 months later. PMID:25833911

  11. The Broader Autism Phenotype in Simplex and Multiplex Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdts, Jennifer A.; Bernier, Raphael; Dawson, Geraldine; Estes, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Mothers, fathers, and siblings from 87 multiplex (M-mothers, M-fathers, and M-siblings) and 41 simplex (S-mothers, S-fathers, and S-siblings) Autism spectrum disorder families were assessed using the Broader Phenotype Autism Symptom Scale. S-mothers, S-fathers, and S-siblings showed more social interest and were more expressive in their use of…

  12. [Distribution of Mycotoxins and Usnic Acid in the Thalli of Epigenous Lichens].

    PubMed

    Kononenko, G P; Burkin, A A

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of mycotoxins anc unic acid in the thallus of epigenous fruticose lichens Alectoria ochroleuca; several species of the genera Cladonia, Cotraria, and Flavocetraria; foliose lichens Nephroma arcticum; and six species of the genus Peltigera were studied by mnzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mycotoxin content was lower in the top or apical parts of the thalli than in the basal parts and in dead areas. Differences in the distribution of usnic acid were insignificant in the majority of species, but in Cladonia stellaris and N. arcticum lichens the content of this metabolite in the upper and pc ripheral areas was higher than in the basal parts. PMID:26349231

  13. Expression of varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus in normal human trigeminal ganglia

    SciTech Connect

    Vafai, A.; Wellish, M.; Devlin, M.; Gilden, D.H. ); Murray, R.S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, Denver, CO )

    1988-04-01

    Lysates of radiolabeled explants from four human trigeminal ganglia were immunoprecipitated with antibodies to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and to herpes simplex virus. Both herpes simplex virus- and VZV-specific proteins were detected in lysates of all four ganglia. Absence of reactivity in ganglion explants with monoclonal antibodies suggested that herpes simplex virus and VZV were not reactivated during the culture period. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated the presence of RNA transcripts from the VZV immediate early gene 63. This approach to the detection of herpes simplex virus and VZV expression in human ganglia should facilitate analysis of viral RNA and proteins in human sensory ganglia.

  14. MOTIVATION INTERNALIZATION AND SIMPLEX STRUCTURE IN SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY.

    PubMed

    Ünlü, Ali; Dettweiler, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Self-determination theory, as proposed by Deci and Ryan, postulated different types of motivation regulation. As to the introjected and identified regulation of extrinsic motivation, their internalizations were described as "somewhat external" and "somewhat internal" and remained undetermined in the theory. This paper introduces a constrained regression analysis that allows these vaguely expressed motivations to be estimated in an "optimal" manner, in any given empirical context. The approach was even generalized and applied for simplex structure analysis in self-determination theory. The technique was exemplified with an empirical study comparing science teaching in a classical school class versus an expeditionary outdoor program. Based on a sample of 84 German pupils (43 girls, 41 boys, 10 to 12 years old), data were collected using the German version of the Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire. The science-teaching format was seen to not influence the pupils' internalization of identified regulation. The internalization of introjected regulation differed and shifted more toward the external pole in the outdoor teaching format. The quantification approach supported the simplex structure of self-determination theory, whereas correlations may disconfirm the simplex structure. PMID:26595290

  15. MONSS: A multi-objective nonlinear simplex search approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapotecas-Martínez, Saúl; Coello Coello, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a novel methodology for dealing with continuous box-constrained multi-objective optimization problems (MOPs). The proposed algorithm adopts a nonlinear simplex search scheme in order to obtain multiple elements of the Pareto optimal set. The search is directed by a well-distributed set of weight vectors, each of which defines a scalarization problem that is solved by deforming a simplex according to the movements described by Nelder and Mead's method. Considering an MOP with n decision variables, the simplex is constructed using n+1 solutions which minimize different scalarization problems defined by n+1 neighbor weight vectors. All solutions found in the search are used to update a set of solutions considered to be the minima for each separate problem. In this way, the proposed algorithm collectively obtains multiple trade-offs among the different conflicting objectives, while maintaining a proper representation of the Pareto optimal front. In this article, it is shown that a well-designed strategy using just mathematical programming techniques can be competitive with respect to the state-of-the-art multi-objective evolutionary algorithms against which it was compared.

  16. Reactivation of herpes simplex virus-1 following epilepsy surgery☆

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Sérgio Monteiro; Crippa, Ana; Cruz, Cristina; de Paola, Luciano; de Souza, Luciana Paula; Noronha, Lucia; Torres, Luis Fernando Bleggi; Koneski, Julio A.S.; Pessa, Luis Felipe Cavalli; Nogueira, Meri Bordignon; Raboni, Sonia Mara; Silvado, Carlos Eduardo; Vidal, Luine Rosele

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The present study reports a case of encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), following surgical manipulation of the site of a primary infection. Methods Herpes simplex virus-1 infection was confirmed by CSF PCR and DNA sequencing. Results The patient was an 11-year-old girl who required temporal lobe surgery for epilepsy. She had meningoencephalitis due to HSV at the age of 20 months, and she was treated with acyclovir. Three years later, the patient developed uncontrolled seizures that became more frequent and changed in character at 11 years of age. On the 12th postoperative day, she developed fever and seizures, and she was diagnosed with HSV-1 by positive CSF PCR. She was treated with acyclovir (30 mg/kg/day for 21 days). In this report, we describe the patient and review the relevant literature. Conclusion The authors stress the potential risk of reactivation of HSV encephalitis after intracranial surgery. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis must be considered in neurosurgical patients who develop postoperative seizures and fever. PMID:26543809

  17. Herpes simplex virus latency in isolated human neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Wigdahl, B; Smith, C A; Traglia, H M; Rapp, F

    1984-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus is most probably maintained in the ganglion neurons of the peripheral nervous system of humans in a latent form that can reactivate to produce recurrent disease. As an approximation of this cell-virus interaction, we have constructed a herpes simplex virus latency in vitro model system using human fetus sensory neurons as the host cell. Human fetus neurons were characterized as neuronal in origin by the detection of the neuropeptide substance P and the neuron-specific plasma membrane A2B5 antigen. Virus latency was established by blocking complete expression of the virus genome by treatment of infected human neurons with a combination of human leukocyte interferon and (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine for 7 days. After removal of inhibitors, virus latency was maintained for at least 9 days. This in vitro model will provide a system to analyze, in a primary human neuron, the state of the herpes simplex virus genome during establishment and maintenance of experimental latency. Images PMID:6091142

  18. Analysis of Cortical Shape in Children with Simplex Autism

    PubMed Central

    Dierker, Donna L.; Feczko, Eric; Pruett, John R.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Constantino, John N.; Harwell, John W.; Coalson, Timothy S.; Van Essen, David C.

    2015-01-01

    We used surface-based morphometry to test for differences in cortical shape between children with simplex autism (n = 34, mean age 11.4 years) and typical children (n = 32, mean age 11.3 years). This entailed testing for group differences in sulcal depth and in 3D coordinates after registering cortical midthickness surfaces to an atlas target using 2 independent registration methods. We identified bilateral differences in sulcal depth in restricted portions of the anterior-insula and frontal-operculum (aI/fO) and in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ). The aI/fO depth differences are associated with and likely to be caused by a shape difference in the inferior frontal gyrus in children with simplex autism. Comparisons of average midthickness surfaces of children with simplex autism and those of typical children suggest that the significant sulcal depth differences represent local peaks in a larger pattern of regional differences that are below statistical significance when using coordinate-based analysis methods. Cortical regions that are statistically significant before correction for multiple measures are peaks of more extended, albeit subtle regional differences that may guide hypothesis generation for studies using other imaging modalities. PMID:24165833

  19. How-To-Do-It: Environmental Pollution Effects Demonstrated by Metal Adsorption in Lichens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, James E.

    1988-01-01

    Presents an experiment to demonstrate the degree to which environmental cations are taken up by susceptible lichen organisms in the field. Discusses the preparation of materials, procedures and typical results for this short laboratory exercise. (CW)

  20. NPLichen: a database of lichens in the U.S. national parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Wetmore, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    NPLichen, a database of lichens in the U. S. National Parks (Wetmore and Bennett, 1992), has been extensively revised and expanded, and is now available for public use at www.ies.wisc.edu/nplichen. As of this writing, the database contains 25,995 records of lichens in 144 national park units. The number of records of lichens not in the North American lichen checklist (Esslinger 1997) is 161, for a total of 26,156. These records include multiple occurrences of a species in some parks because more than one reference has reported presence of species. Consequently, the number of species in parks records (including new to North America) without these duplicate references is 14,986. Our table of misidentified taxa contains 307 records.

  1. [Oral medicine 9. Lichen planus and lichenoid lesions of the oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    van der Meij, E H; Schepman, K P; de Visscher, J G A M

    2013-09-01

    The general dentist is sometimes confronted with white lesions of the oral mucosa. Oral lichen planus is the most common oral white lesion. The diagnosis can usually be made on the basis of the clinical aspect, but is sometimes made more difficult by certain abnormalities in the oral mucosa which clinically resemble oral lichen planus or by abnormalities which cannot be distinguished from oral lichen planus but have a different origin. Those lesions are classified as oral lichenoid lesions. Malignant deterioration has been described in allforms of oral lichen planus lesions and oral lichenoid lesions. There is no known method to predict or prevent malignant transformation. Nor are there any studies examining the efficacy of frequent follow-up visits. It seems sensible, in keeping with the tendency in recent literature, to schedule annual check-ups for patients to be on the safe side. These follow-up visits may reasonably be performed in a general dental practice. PMID:24159754

  2. Responses of the Lichen Photobiont Trebouxia erici to Desiccation and Rehydration (II) Proteomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lichen desiccation tolerance is associated with cellular protection mechanisms directed against the oxidative stress produced during dehydration and/or rehydration, however, these mechanisms are not well understood. In other poikilohydric organisms, changes in the synthesis of proteins have bee...

  3. Letter: Generalized lichen nitidus successfully treated with pimecrolimus 1 percent cream.

    PubMed

    Farshi, Susan; Mansouri, Parvin

    2011-01-01

    An eight-year-old child presented with generalized popular eruptions of two years duration. The diagnosis was lichen nitidus with pathologic confirmation. The lesions were successfully reduced and flattened by pimecrolimus 1 percent cream for 8 weeks. PMID:21810396

  4. Mycophenolate mofetil in erosive genital lichen planus: a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Deen, Kristyn; McMeniman, Erin

    2015-03-01

    Erosive genital lichen planus is a disabling, inflammatory mucocutaneous condition that can cause significant patient morbidity and loss of function. Treatment initially involves topical corticosteroids but some patients can have severe treatment-resistant courses requiring systemic immunosuppression. With potentially unfavorable adverse effect profiles and subsequent intolerance of these agents by patients, erosive lichen planus can ultimately be a challenging condition to treat effectively. We present a case of a 66-year-old woman with treatment-resistant erosive genital lichen planus who was successfully managed with mycophenolate mofetil. Although there is only weak evidence for this agent in this condition, its role in dermatology is growing due to its efficacy and advantageous adverse effect profile and should therefore be considered in patients with treatment-resistant erosive genital lichen planus. PMID:25583369

  5. Calcium oxalate in lichen biodeterioration studied using FT-Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, H. G. M.; Russell, N. C.; Seaward, M. R. D.

    1997-01-01

    The biodeterioration of diverse natural and man-made substrata by Caloplaca aurantia, Lecanora muralis and Acarospora oxytoma has been studied using FT-Raman spectroscopy with 1064 nm laser excitation. Each of the three lichen species produce relatively large amounts of calcium oxalate in encrustations at the thallus—substratum interface during the biodeterioration process; the Raman spectroscopic technique is capable of identifying non-destructively the monohydrate, with ν(CO) stretching bands at 1463 and 1496 cm -1 and the dihydrate, with a ν(CO) stretching band at about 1475 cm(su-1). In this work, the presence of calcium oxalate monohydrate and dihydrate in the lichen encrustations is identified for these high-oxalate producing biodeteriorative lichen systems. The results indicate that the lichens adopt different methods for the production and removal of the hydrated calcium oxalates in the encrustations.

  6. Copper localization, elemental content, and thallus colour in the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora sierrae from California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purvis, O.W.; Bennett, J.P.; Spratt, J.

    2011-01-01

    An unusual dark blue-green lichen, Lecanora sierrae, was discovered over 30 years ago by Czehura near copper mines in the Lights Creek District, Plumas County, Northern California. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Czehura found that dark green lichen samples from Warren Canyon contained 4% Cu in ash and suggested that its colour was due to copper accumulation in the cortex. The present study addressed the hypothesis that the green colour in similar material we sampled from Warren Canyon in 2008, is caused by copper localization in the thallus. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis of specimens of L. sierrae confirmed that copper localization took place in the cortex. Elemental analyses of L. sierrae and three other species from the same localities showed high enrichments of copper and selenium, suggesting that copper selenates or selenites might occur in these lichens and be responsible for the unusual colour. Copyright ?? 2011 British Lichen Society.

  7. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Lichen Umbilicaria cylindrica (L.) Delise (Umbilicariaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Manojlovic, Nedeljko T.; Vasiljevic, Perica J.; Maskovic, Pavle Z.; Juskovic, Marina; Bogdanovic-Dusanovic, Gordana

    2012-01-01

    The phytochemical analysis of methanol and chloroform extracts of Umbilicaria cylindrica was determined by HPLC-UV method. The predominant phenolic compound in both extracts was depsidone, salazinic acid (1). Besides salazinic acid, the tested extracts of U. cylindrica contain norstictic acid (2), methyl-β-orcinol carboxylate (3), ethyl haematommate (4), atranorin (5), and usnic acid (6), in different amounts and relations. The lichen extracts showed comparable and strong antioxidant activity, exhibited higher DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavengings, chelating activity, and inhibitory activity towards lipid peroxidation. The lichen extracts demonstrated important antimicrobial activity against eight strains with MIC values from 15.62 to 62.50 μg/mL. This is the first report of the detail chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the lichen Umbilicaria cylindrica, and the results suggest that this lichen can be used as a new source of the natural antioxidants and the substances with antimicrobial features. PMID:21915186

  8. Discrimination of lichen genera and species using element concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, James P.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of organic chemistry in the classification of lichens is well established, but inorganic chemistry has been largely overlooked. Six lichen species were studied over a period of 23 years that were growing in 11 protected areas of the northern Great Lakes ecoregion, which were not greatly influenced by anthropogenic particulates or gaseous air pollutants. The elemental data from these studies were aggregated in order to test the hypothesis that differences among species in tissue element concentrations were large enough to discriminate between taxa faithfully. Concentrations of 16 chemical elements that were found in tissue samples from Cladonia rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Flavopunctelia flaventior, Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia sulcata, and Punctelia rudecta were analyzed statistically using multivariate discriminant functions and CART analyses, as well as t-tests. Genera and species were clearly separated in element space, and elemental discriminant functions were able to classify 91-100 of the samples correctly into species. At the broadest level, a Zn concentration of 51 ppm in tissues of four of the lichen species effectively discriminated foliose from fruticose species. Similarly, a S concentration of 680 ppm discriminated C. rangiferina and E. mesomorpha, and a Ca concentration of 10 436 ppm discriminated H. physodes from P. sulcata. For the three parmelioid species, a Ca concentration >32 837 ppm discriminated Punctelia rudecta from the other two species, while a Zn concentration of 56 ppm discriminated Parmelia sulcata from F. flaventior. Foliose species also had higher concentrations than did fruticose species of all elements except Na. Elemental signatures for each of the six species were developed using standardized means. Twenty-four mechanisms explaining the differences among species are summarized. Finally, the relationships of four species based on element concentrations, using additive-trees clustering of a Euclidean

  9. Life at the limits: peculiar features of lichen symbiosis related to extreme environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vera, J.-P.; Horneck, G.; Rettberg, P.; Ott, S.

    A lichen is a symbiotic association formed by a mycobiont (fungi), a photobiont (algae) and/or a cyanobacteria. The special symbiotic contact and interaction between the bionts in a lichen is a prerequisite for maintainance of viability for each of them during influences by harsh environmental factors. In nature parameters like UV radiation, low or high temperatures and dryness may have a destructive impact on all life functions of an organism. But with lichens the evolution has created a peculiar symbiosis which enables a wide variety of lichen species to colonize habitats where their separate bionts would not be able to survive. The results of our investigations are demonstrating these aspects (de Vera et al. 2003, 2004).We have already investigated the viability of the entire lichen thallus, the embedded spores in lichen apothecia (fruiting bodies) as well as the isolated spores and isolated photobionts after exposure to most extreme conditions caused by simulated space parameters as extreme UV radiation and vacuum. The results presented here focuse on the survival capacity of the isolated photobionts from the two lichen species Xanthoria elegans and Fulgensia bracteata which are not protected by the fungal structure of the lichen thallus. They are based on examinations using a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM), analysed by modern methods of the Image Tool Program and by culture experiments. In contrast to photobionts embedded in the entire lichen thallus the isolated photobionts are much more sensitve to the extreme conditions of UV radiation and vaccum: while 50 % of the bionts in an entire lichen thallus are able to cope with simulated extreme space conditions (UV-radiation: λ quad ≥ 160nm and vacuum: p = 10-5 Pa) during an exposure time of 2 weeks, the viability of the isolated photobiont cells was already decreasing after 2 hours of exposure. All photobiont cells were inactivated after longer exposure times of about 8 hours. Further more analysis

  10. Salivary Total Antioxidant Capacity and Lipid Peroxidation in Patients with Erosive Oral Lichen Planus

    PubMed Central

    Shirzad, Atena; Pouramir, Mahdi; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Jenabian, Niloofar; Bijani, Ali; Motallebnejad, Mina

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Oral lichen planus is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa with malignant potential, pathogenesis of which is not still well known. Free radicals and reactive oxygen species can play an important role in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus. The aim of this study was to investigate salivary oxidative stress and antioxidant systems in patients with oral lichen planus. Materials and methods.In this case-control study, 30 patients with oral lichen planus (case group) and 30 age-and gender-matched healthy subjects (control group), referring to Dental School of Babol University of Medical Sciences, were selected using simple sampling method. Unstimulated saliva of the two groups was collected. Salivary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipid peroxidation products were investigated and compared, using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) methods, respectively. Data were analyzed using Student' t-test. Results. The mean and standard deviation of salivary TAC in patients with oral lichen planus (297.23 ± 149.72 μM) was significantly lower than that in the controls (791.43 ± 183.95 μM; P & 0.0001), and mean and standard deviation of salivary malondialdehyde (MDA) (0.49 ± 0.30 μM) was remarkably higher in oral lichen planus patients compared to the control group (0.15 ± 0.11 μM) (P & 0.0001). TAC was also reduced in both groups in line with an increase in the level of MDA (P & 0.0001, r = -0.48). Conclusion. The results of this study suggested that an increase in oxidative stress and an imbalance in antioxidant defense system in the saliva of oral lichen planus patients may be involved in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus. PMID:25024837

  11. Genital Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus in Monozygotic Twin Women: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Doulaveri, Georgeta; Armira, Kalliopi; Kouris, Anargyros; Karypidis, Dimitrios; Potouridou, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus is a skin disease of multifactorial etiology which appears in patients with genetic or hormonal predisposition and autoimmune disease. Genetic predisposition is suggested by familial reports of the disease which involve twins, siblings, and mother-daughter/son series. This is a report of the occurrence of lichen sclerosus et atrophicus in monozygotic twin women, suggesting that inheritance is of relevance in the etiology of this disease. PMID:24348381

  12. Response of the nitrogen-fixing lichen Lobaria pulmonaria to phosphorus, molybdenum, and vanadium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marks, Jade A; Pett-Ridge, Julie; Perakis, Steven S.; Allen, Jessica L; McCune, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing lichens (cyanolichens) are an important source of nitrogen (N) in Pacific Northwest forests, but limitation of lichen growth by elements essential for N fixation is poorly understood. To investigate how nutrient limitation may affect cyanolichen growth rates, we fertilized a tripartite cyanobacterial lichen (Lobaria pulmonaria) and a green algal non-nitrogen fixing lichen (Usnea longissima) with the micronutrients molybdenum (Mo) and vanadium (V), both known cofactors for enzymes involved in N fixation, and the macronutrient phosphorus (P). We then grew treated lichens in the field for one year in western Oregon, USA. Lichen growth was very rapid for both species and did not differ across treatments, despite a previous demonstration of P-limitation in L. pulmonaria at a nearby location. To reconcile these disparate findings, we analyzed P, Mo, and V concentrations, natural abundance δ15N isotopes, %N and change in thallus N in Lobaria pulmonaria from both growth experiments. Nitrogen levels in deposition and in lichens could not explain the large difference in growth or P limitation observed between the two studies. Instead, we provide evidence that local differences in P availability may have caused site-specific responses of Lobaria to P fertilization. In the previous experiment, Lobaria had low background levels of P, and treatment with P more than doubled growth. In contrast, Lobaria from the current experiment had much higher background P concentrations, similar to P-treated lichens in the previous experiment, consistent with the idea that ambient variation in P availability influences the degree of P limitation in cyanolichens. We conclude that insufficient P, Mo, and V did not limit the growth of either cyanolichens or chlorolichens at the site of the current experiment. Our findings point to the need to understand landscape-scale variation in P availability to cyanolichens, and its effect on spatial patterns of cyanolichen nutrient

  13. Experimental climate warming decreases photosynthetic efficiency of lichens in an arid South African ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Maphangwa, Khumbudzo Walter; Musil, Charles F; Raitt, Lincoln; Zedda, Luciana

    2012-05-01

    Elevated temperatures and diminished precipitation amounts accompanying climate warming in arid ecosystems are expected to have adverse effects on the photosynthesis of lichen species sensitive to elevated temperature and/or water limitation. This premise was tested by artificially elevating temperatures (increase 2.1-3.8°C) and reducing the amounts of fog and dew precipitation (decrease 30.1-31.9%), in an approximation of future climate warming scenarios, using transparent hexagonal open-top warming chambers placed around natural populations of four lichen species (Xanthoparmelia austroafricana, X. hyporhytida , Xanthoparmelia. sp., Xanthomaculina hottentotta) at a dry inland site and two lichen species (Teloschistes capensis and Ramalina sp.) at a humid coastal site in the arid South African Succulent Karoo Biome. Effective photosynthetic quantum yields ([Formula: see text]) were measured hourly throughout the day at monthly intervals in pre-hydrated lichens present in the open-top warming chambers and in controls which comprised demarcated plots of equivalent open-top warming chamber dimensions constructed from 5-cm-diameter mesh steel fencing. The cumulative effects of the elevated temperatures and diminished precipitation amounts in the open-top warming chambers resulted in significant decreases in lichen [Formula: see text]. The decreases were more pronounced in lichens from the dry inland site (decline 34.1-46.1%) than in those from the humid coastal site (decline 11.3-13.7%), most frequent and prominent in lichens at both sites during the dry summer season, and generally of greatest magnitude at or after the solar noon in all seasons. Based on these results, we conclude that climate warming interacting with reduced precipitation will negatively affect carbon balances in endemic lichens by increasing desiccation damage and reducing photosynthetic activity time, leading to increased incidences of mortality. PMID:22057927

  14. Distribution of corticolous noncrustose lichens on trunks of Rocky Mountain junipers in Boulder County, Colorado.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peard, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Nineteen species of noncrustose lichens were found on Juniperus scopulorum bark; 3 species had relatively high cover and frequency values and were characterized as typical lichens of Rocky Mountain junipers: Xanthoria fallax, Phaeophyscia hirsuta and Physcia caesia. Total cover per tree was low (4%) and most species preferred the N and E sides of trunk bases. These distributional trends may reflect gradients of exposure to wind, insolation, and rate of bark exfoliation. -Author Juniperus scopulorum Phaeophyscia hirsuta Physcia caesia Xanthoria fallax.

  15. Arboreal lichen in uncut and partially cut subalpine fir stands in woodland caribou habitat, northern Idaho and southeastern British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rominger, Eric M.; Allen-Johnson, Lydia; Oldemeyer, John L.

    1994-01-01

    To better understand the effects of partial cutting on arboreal lichen production within woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) habitat, lichen was hand picked from 1228 branches on 307 subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) trees in Idaho (ID), and in British Columbia (BC). Lichen biomass from partially cut stands was compared with biomass on trees from adjacent uncut stands at each site. Arboreal lichen biomass did not differ significantly between uncut and partially cut stands. Total number of branches per tree did not differ significantly between uncut and partially cut stands. Live branches had more lichen than dead branches. Species composition of arboreal lichen changed in partially cut stands compared with adjacent uncut stands. The ratio of live to dead branches was substantially different within the BC partial cut.

  16. A new species of Phyllopsora (Lecanorales, lichen-forming Ascomycota) from Dominican amber, with remarks on the fossil history of lichens.

    PubMed

    Rikkinen, Jouko; Poinar, George O

    2008-01-01

    Phyllopsora dominicanus sp. nov. (Bacidiaceae, Lecanorales, lichen-forming Ascomycota) is described and illustrated from Dominican amber. The diagnostic features of the lichen include a minute subfolious thallus of lacinulate, ascending squamules, a well-developed upper cortex, and a net-like pseudocortex on the lower surface. The algal symbionts are unicellular green algae, forming a distinct layer immediately below the upper cortex. The fossil demonstrates that distinguishing features of Phyllopsora have remained unchanged for tens of millions of years. The fossil also provides the first detailed views of mycobiont-photobiont contacts in Tertiary green algal lichens. The mycobiont hyphae formed apical and intercalary appressoria by pressing closely against the photobiont cells. This indicates that a conserved maintenance of structure is also seen in the fine details of the fungal-algal interface. PMID:18319239

  17. Concurrent Presentation of Erythrodermic Lichen Planus and Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Coincidence or Malignant Transformation?

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Neema M; Bhat, Ramesh; Rao, Shwetha B

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is a common papulosquamous disorder affecting about 1-2% of the population, neoplastic transformation of cutaneous lichen planus lesions occurs very rarely. A 40 year old female patient presented with a 1 year history of developing multiple, itchy, pigmented lesions over both lower legs which gradually spread to involve the whole body. A few tense bullae were seen on the extremities. An erythematous fleshy lesion was seen on the upper aspect of the left buttock. Skin biopsy from a plaque on the right forearm showed features suggestive of lichen planus. Skin biopsy of a bullae showed a sub epidermal bulla filled with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate. Direct immunofluorescence revealed no immunoreactants along the basement membrane zone. A diagnosis of erythrodermic lichen planus with bullous lichen planus was made. Biopsy of fleshy lesion of left buttock revealed a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Erythrodermic lichen planus with bullous lesions and secondary squamous cell carcinoma; these occurences in a single patient is extremely rare and has not been previously reported to the best of our knowledge. PMID:26538691

  18. Lichen acids as uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation of mouse-liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Abo-Khatwa, A N; al-Robai, A A; al-Jawhari, D A

    1996-01-01

    Three lichen acids-namely, (+)usnic acid, vulpinic acid, and atranorin-were isolated from three lichen species (Usnea articulata, Letharia vulpina, and Parmelia tinctorum, respectively). The effects of these lichen products on mice-liver mitochondrial oxidative functions in various respiratory states and on oxidative phosphorylation were studied polarographically in vitro. The lichen acids exhibited characteristics of the 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a classical uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, they released respiratory control and oligomycin inhibited respiration, hindered ATP synthesis, and enhanced Mg(+2)-ATPase activity. (+)Usnic acid at a concentration of 0.75 microM inhibited ADP/O ratio by 50%, caused maximal stimulation of both state-4 respiration (100%) and ATPase activity (300%). Atranorin was the only lichen acid with no significant effect on ATPase. The uncoupling effect was dose-dependent in all cases. The minimal concentrations required to cause complete uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation were as follows: (+)usnic acid (1 microM), vulpinic acid, atranorin (5 microM) and DNP (50 microM). It was postulated that the three lichen acids induce uncoupling by acting on the inner mitochondrial membrane through their lipophilic properties and protonophoric activities. PMID:8726330

  19. The Lichens experiment at Foton M-2 mission: Survival capacity in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Torre, R.; Horneck, G.; Garcia-Sancho, L.

    Lichens are one of the most resistant organisms at Earth They live at very extreme environments in deserts Atacama desert high mountains Himalaya Antarctica Dry Valleys etc This is possible due to the symbiotic relationship between both constituents the algae and the fungui and to their poikilohidric nature characteristic that allows them to survive latent when environmental conditions are very extreme i e when UV radiation is very high temperatures are extreme and dryness exists If humidity returns and temperature tendencies turn near the optimum around 10 C dormant lichens starts to photosynthetice We have selected two epilithic lichen species for the LICHENS experiment which was included at the ESA Biopan-facility located at the outer shell of the satellite Foton M-2 launched into low Earth orbit the 31th of Mai 2005 from Baikonur Russia On of this species was Rhizocarpon geographicum a bipolar epilithic lichen which grows at high mountain regions e g Sierra de Gredos Central Spain with continental climate has been systematically studied in the natural environment Plataforma de Gredos at 2000 m altitude as well as under simulated space conditions at the space simulation facilities of the DLR The sensitivity of the photosynthetic system PSII to the different environmental conditions dryness including vacuum treatment high temperature fluctuations high UV intensity was fluorometrically measured with a MINI PAM Walz Germany The lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum was

  20. The development of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia in oral lichen planus. A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Llorente-Pendás, Santiago; González-Garcia, Manuel; García-Martín, José-Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Was to describe 14 cases of a proliferative verrucous leukoplakia as a clinical evolution of oral lichen planus. Material and Methods The clinical and histopathological characteristics of 14 cases of OLP that progress towards a plaque-like and verrucous form were indicated, with monitoring over a period of six to 24.3 years. Results The female/male ratio was 11/3, (78.6 and 21.4%). The mean age when the first biopsy was undertaken was 56.4 years old. None of the patients smoked during the study. As bilateral reticular was clinically diagnostic criterion, the second most frequent clinical form was the plaque form (n=10; 71.4%), followed by the atrophic (n=6; 42.8%), and erosive forms (n=4; 28.5%). Clinically it spread towards attached gingival mucosa and the hard palate. In the histopathologic study, there were a predominance of hyperkeratosis and verrucous epithelial hyperplasia. Three of the cases progressed to a squamous cell carcinoma, and one patient developed two verrucous carcinoma. Conclusions Further research is needed to demonstrate if proliferative multifocal oral lichen planus and proliferative multifocal oral leukoplakia are the same disorder but have different behaviour of malignancy for reasons of origin. Key words:Oral lichen planus, proliferative verrucous oral leukoplakia, malignant oral lichen planus, multifocal verrucous oral lichen planus, proliferative verrucous oral lichen planus. PMID:27031060

  1. Air quality monitoring system using lichens as bioindicators in Central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Estrabou, Cecilia; Filippini, Edith; Soria, Juan Pablo; Schelotto, Gabriel; Rodriguez, Juan Manuel

    2011-11-01

    Air quality studies with bioindicators have not been well developed in South America. In the city of Córdoba, there are not permanent air pollutant measurements by equipment. In order to develop an air quality biomonitoring system using lichens, we applied a systematic sampling in the city of Córdoba, Argentina. A total of 341 plots were sampled in the area of the city which is a square of 24 × 24 km. In each sample plot we selected three phorophytes and estimated the frequency and cover of lichen species growing at 1.5 m on trunks. We also calculated the Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) using lichen frequencies. Maps with number of lichen species, cover values, and IAP were performed. The lichen community was described with nine species where Physcia undulata and Physcia endochryscea were the most frequent. Moreover, these two species were dominant in the community with the highest cover index. The central area of the city is considered a lichen desert with poor air quality. The southeast and northwest areas of the city showed the highest IAP values and number of species. In general, the city shows fair air quality and few areas with good and very good air quality. PMID:21336488

  2. Microbial cargo: do bacteria on symbiotic propagules reinforce the microbiome of lichens?

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, Ines Aline; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Berg, Gabriele; Grube, Martin

    2014-12-01

    According to recent research, bacteria contribute as recurrent associates to the lichen symbiosis. Yet, the variation of the microbiomes within species and across geographically separated populations remained largely elusive. As a quite common dispersal mode, lichens evolved vertical transmission of both fungal and algal partners in specifically designed mitotic propagules. Bacteria, if co-transmitted with these symbiotic propagules, could contribute to a geographical structure of lichen-associated microbiomes. The lung lichen was sampled from three localities in eastern Austria to analyse their associated bacterial communities by bar-coded pyrosequencing, network analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization. For the first time, bacteria were documented to colonize symbiotic propagules of lichens developed for short-distance transmission of the symbionts. The propagules share the overall bacterial community structure with the thalli at class level, except for filamentous Cyanobacteria (Nostocophycideae), and with Alphaproteobacteria as predominant group. All three sampling sites share a core fraction of the microbiome. Bacterial communities of lichen thalli from the same sampling site showed higher similarity than those of distant populations. This variation and the potential co-dispersal of a microbiome fraction with structures of the host organism contribute new aspects to the 'everything is everywhere' hypothesis. PMID:25331462

  3. Algal carbohydrates affect polyketide synthesis of the lichen-forming fungus Cladonia rangiferina.

    PubMed

    Elshobary, Mostafa E; Osman, Mohamed E; Abo-Shady, Atef M; Komatsu, Emy; Perreault, Hélène; Sorensen, John; Piercey-Normore, Michele D

    2016-01-01

    Lichen secondary metabolites (polyketides) are produced by the fungal partner, but the role of algal carbohydrates in polyketide biosynthesis is not clear. This study examined whether the type and concentration of algal carbohydrate explained differences in polyketide production and gene transcription by a lichen fungus (Cladonia rangiferina). The carbohydrates identified from a free-living cyanobacterium (Spirulina platensis; glucose), a lichen-forming alga (Diplosphaera chodatii; sorbitol) and the lichen alga that associates with C. rangiferina (Asterochloris sp.; ribitol) were used in each of 1%, 5% and 10% concentrations to enrich malt yeast extract media for culturing the mycobiont. Polyketides were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and polyketide synthase (PKS) gene transcription was measured by quantitative PCR of the ketosynthase domain of four PKS genes. The lower concentrations of carbohydrates induced the PKS gene expression where ribitol up-regulated CrPKS1 and CrPKS16 gene transcription and sorbitol up-regulated CrPKS3 and CrPKS7 gene transcription. The HPLC results revealed that lower concentrations of carbon sources increased polyketide production for three carbohydrates. One polyketide from the natural lichen thallus (fumarprotocetraric acid) also was produced by the fungal culture in ribitol supplemented media only. This study provides a better understanding of the role of the type and concentration of the carbon source in fungal polyketide biosynthesis in the lichen Cladonia rangiferina. PMID:27091386

  4. Molecular markers in oral lichen planus: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sagari, Shitalkumar; Sanadhya, Sudhanshu; Doddamani, Mallikarjun; Rajput, Rajan

    2016-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory mucosal disease that is usually detected in 0.5-2.2% of the human population. Among these, only 0.5-2.9% of the lesions progress to carcinoma. However, there are no prognostic markers available presently to recognize the increased risk in malignant transformation of the lesions. Selected markers for cell proliferation, adhesion, apoptosis and lymphocytic infiltration were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in addition to static cytometry for DNA content. The concept linking OLP and oral squamous cell carcinoma states that chronic inflammation results in crucial DNA damage, which further progresses to development of carcinoma. Even though in the past decade, enormous information has been accumulated on malignant potential of OLP, its transformation still remains unclear. Hence, the purpose of this article was to review cellular and molecular markers to understand the pathogenesis of OLP and its progression toward malignancy. PMID:27194873

  5. Oral lichen planus to oral lichenoid lesions: Evolution or revolution

    PubMed Central

    Dudhia, Bhavin B; Dudhia, Sonal B; Patel, Purv S; Jani, Yesha V

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis between different diseases may be impaired by clinical and histopathologic similarities, as observed in the oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesion (OLL). Inspite of similar clinicopathological features; etiology, diagnosis and prognosis differ which mandates separation of OLL from OLP. Hence, it is essential for the oral physician and oral pathologist to be familiarized with the individual variations among clinicopathological features of OLP and OLL as well as to obtain a thorough history and perform a complete mucocutaneous examination in addition to specific diagnostic testing. The difficulties faced to establish the diagnosis between these two pathologies are widely investigated in the literature with a lack of definite conclusion. This review is an attempt to throw some light on these clinicopathologic entities with the aim to resolve the diagnostic dilemma. PMID:26980966

  6. Molecular markers in oral lichen planus: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Sagari, Shitalkumar; Sanadhya, Sudhanshu; Doddamani, Mallikarjun; Rajput, Rajan

    2016-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory mucosal disease that is usually detected in 0.5–2.2% of the human population. Among these, only 0.5–2.9% of the lesions progress to carcinoma. However, there are no prognostic markers available presently to recognize the increased risk in malignant transformation of the lesions. Selected markers for cell proliferation, adhesion, apoptosis and lymphocytic infiltration were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in addition to static cytometry for DNA content. The concept linking OLP and oral squamous cell carcinoma states that chronic inflammation results in crucial DNA damage, which further progresses to development of carcinoma. Even though in the past decade, enormous information has been accumulated on malignant potential of OLP, its transformation still remains unclear. Hence, the purpose of this article was to review cellular and molecular markers to understand the pathogenesis of OLP and its progression toward malignancy. PMID:27194873

  7. A Rare Colocalization of Lichen Planus and Vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Veitch, David; Kravvas, Georgios; Hughes, Sian; Bunker, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We report an unusual manifestation of vitiligo colocalizing with lichen planus (LP). A 76-year-old Greek male presented with a history of a red, scaly, itchy, asymmetrical patch located at the umbilicus within a well-demarcated depigmented macule of vitiligo. Histology showed features of a lichenoid interface dermatitis, favouring a diagnosis of LP. Colocalization of LP and vitiligo has rarely been reported in the literature. After reviewing the literature, we believe that at present there is insufficient evidence to resolve the uncertainties in the aetiology of this colocalization. It seems to us that the association between LP and vitiligo is more than coincidental, but none of the theories discussed in this paper can sufficiently account for it. Rather, the association is likely to be multifactorial in its pathogenesis. PMID:26688760

  8. Depsides: Lichen Metabolites Active against Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Thi Huyen; Le Lamer, Anne-Cécile; Lalli, Claudia; Boustie, Joël; Samson, Michel

    2015-01-01

    A thorough phytochemical study of Stereocaulon evolutum was conducted, for the isolation of structurally related atranorin derivatives. Indeed, pilot experiments suggested that atranorin (1), the main metabolite of this lichen, would interfere with the lifecycle of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Eight compounds, including one reported for the first time (2), were isolated and characterized. Two analogs (5, 6) were also synthesized, to enlarge the panel of atranorin-related structures. Most of these compounds were active against HCV, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of about 10 to 70 µM, with depsides more potent than monoaromatic phenols. The most effective inhibitors (1, 5 and 6) were then added at different steps of the HCV lifecycle. Interestingly, atranorin (1), bearing an aldehyde function at C-3, inhibited only viral entry, whereas the synthetic compounds 5 and 6, bearing a hydroxymethyl and a methyl function, respectively, at C-3 interfered with viral replication. PMID:25793970

  9. Antimony toxicity in the lichen Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr.

    PubMed

    Paoli, L; Fiorini, E; Munzi, S; Sorbo, S; Basile, A; Loppi, S

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we tested if treating the lichen Xanthoria parietina with Sb-containing solutions causes Sb bioaccumulation as well as physiological and ultrastructural changes. Total and intracellular antimony content in Sb-treated samples increased progressively with increasing concentration in the treatment solutions. Incubation of X. parietina thalli with Sb at concentrations as low as 0.1mM caused a decrease in sample viability, measured as intensity of respiratory activity, and damage to cell membranes, expressed in terms of membrane lipid peroxidation, as well as ultrastructural changes such as plasmolysis, impairment of the thylakoid system of the alga and cytoplasmic lipid droplets. The photosynthetic system hardly responded, at least under the tested experimental conditions. PMID:24001672

  10. Trace element patterns in lichens following uranium mine closures

    SciTech Connect

    Fahselt, D.; Wu, T.W.; Mott, B.

    1995-09-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine trace elements in Cladina mitis (Sandst). Hale & Culb. along transects extending from uranium mines at Elliot Lake and Agnew Lake in central Ontario, Canada. Levels of 11 elements were reported and the presence of uranium (U) was confirmed, although U concentrations were much less than in Cladina rangiferina 10 years earlier. Among the elements identified in lichen thalli was Th, which occurred in higher concentrations than U. All trace elements, including the two radionuclides, were found in deteriorating thallus parts as well as living podetia, and five of these seem to have originated as airborne particulates from minesites. In spite of mine closures, levels of Th and U remained higher near sources of ore dust and there was little relationship between radionuclide concentrations in thallus and substrate. 24 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Male genital lichen sclerosus in recipients of bone marrow transplants.

    PubMed

    Thomas, L J; Shim, T N; Borysiewicz, C; Dinneen, M; Fawcett, H; Roy, A; Francis, N; Bunker, C B

    2016-07-01

    We describe two patients who received haematopoietic stem cell marrow transplantation, and developed male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc), one of whom also had squamous carcinoma in situ (Bowen disease). MGLSc has previously been associated with graft-versus-host disease. Various aetiological factors for LSc have been proposed, including a role for chronic occluded epithelial exposure to urine. A number of factors imply that the risk of malignant transformation in this bone marrow transplant group is likely to be higher than the overall figure of 2-9% cited for MGLSc. It is vital, therefore, that clinicians involved in the care of those with haematological malignancies are adequately prepared to examine the genitals of their patients, and to recognize and refer any suspect penile lesions. PMID:26936088

  12. JPLEX: Java Simplex Implementation with Branch-and-Bound Search for Automated Test Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Ryoungsun; Kim, Jiseon; Dodd, Barbara G.; Chung, Hyewon

    2011-01-01

    JPLEX, short for Java simPLEX, is an automated test assembly (ATA) program. It is a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) solver written in Java. It reads in a configuration file, solves the minimization problem, and produces an output file for postprocessing. It implements the simplex algorithm to create a fully relaxed solution and…

  13. [Role of herpes simplex virus in the development of exudative erythema multiforme].

    PubMed

    Samgin, M A; Ivanov, O L; Kuzheleva, S A; Biriukov, A V; L'vov, N D

    1990-03-01

    The paper presents analysis of current knowledge on etiology and immunopathogenesis of multiform exudative erythema (MEE). Among a variety of pathogenetic actions of herpes simplex on immune system are those relevant to MEE onset. These variants are dealt with in detail. The view on MEE as resultant from herpes simplex infection promises appearance of new prospective modes of etiotropic therapy. PMID:2370760

  14. The Dynamics of HCF-1 Modulation of Herpes Simplex Virus Chromatin during Initiation of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Jodi L.; Kristie, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Successful infection of herpes simplex virus is dependent upon chromatin modulation by the cellular coactivator host cell factor-1 (HCF-1). This review focuses on the multiple chromatin modulation components associated with HCF-1 and the chromatin-related dynamics mediated by this coactivator that lead to the initiation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) immediate early gene expression. PMID:23698399

  15. Characterization of the diversity of mycosporine-like amino acids in lichens from high altitude region of Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Vertika; Kumari, Rupender; Patel, Davendra K; Upreti, Dalip K

    2016-01-01

    Lichens are tolerant to a number of environmental variables including high-intensity solar radiations, which is mainly due to the presence of chemical substances in the thallus. Especially, cyanobacterial lichens synthesize a unique class of chemical substances known as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) the primary characteristic of which is strong ultraviolet (UV) absorption between 300 and 360 nm. In view of its UV-protecting potential, the applicability of mass spectral fragmentation using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric analysis for the characterization of MAAs in lichen samples was explored. MAA compounds were characterized in four cyanobacteria-containing lichen species belonging to genus Peltigera, Stereocaulon and Lobaria. Among them, Peltigera and Lobaria are true cyanobacteria containing lichens (cyanolichens) while Stereocaulon is a tripartite lichen, as it contains both green algae (in the thallus) and cyanobacteria (in the cephalodia), collected from higher altitudes of Himalaya (Tungnath-Chopta in Garhwal Himalaya, 3432 m) from an exposed locality experiencing high light intensity. Mass spectral data of distinctive fragmentation pattern revealed that all the four species have good diversity of MAA compounds, especially Lobaria retigera was found to be enriched with highest diversity of oxo and imino MAAs. Overall, different numbers of oxo and imino MAA compounds were detected in the remaining lichen species. Good diversity of imino MAAs has ecological significance which is required to be investigated further. Moreover, the impressive diversity characterized in each lichen species suggests that lichens should be thoroughly studied for their MAAs contents. PMID:26286672

  16. Simplex GPS and InSAR Inversion Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnellan, Andrea; Parker, Jay W.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.; Pierce, Marlon E.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the shape of the Earth's surface can be routinely measured with precisions better than centimeters. Processes below the surface often drive these changes and as a result, investigators require models with inversion methods to characterize the sources. Simplex inverts any combination of GPS (global positioning system), UAVSAR (uninhabited aerial vehicle synthetic aperture radar), and InSAR (interferometric synthetic aperture radar) data simultaneously for elastic response from fault and fluid motions. It can be used to solve for multiple faults and parameters, all of which can be specified or allowed to vary. The software can be used to study long-term tectonic motions and the faults responsible for those motions, or can be used to invert for co-seismic slip from earthquakes. Solutions involving estimation of fault motion and changes in fluid reservoirs such as magma or water are possible. Any arbitrary number of faults or parameters can be considered. Simplex specifically solves for any of location, geometry, fault slip, and expansion/contraction of a single or multiple faults. It inverts GPS and InSAR data for elastic dislocations in a half-space. Slip parameters include strike slip, dip slip, and tensile dislocations. It includes a map interface for both setting up the models and viewing the results. Results, including faults, and observed, computed, and residual displacements, are output in text format, a map interface, and can be exported to KML. The software interfaces with the QuakeTables database allowing a user to select existing fault parameters or data. Simplex can be accessed through the QuakeSim portal graphical user interface or run from a UNIX command line.

  17. Identification of autoclave-resistant Anisakis simplex allergens.

    PubMed

    Carballeda-Sangiao, Noelia; Olivares, Fabiola; Rodriguez-Mahillo, Ana I; Careche, Mercedes; Tejada, Margarita; Moneo, Ignacio; González-Muñoz, Miguel

    2014-04-01

    Anisakis simplex is a fish parasite able to induce allergic reactions in humans infected when eating raw or undercooked fish parasitized with viable third-stage larvae. Some authors claim that exposure to nonviable Anisakis material can result in allergic symptoms in previously sensitized patients, indicating that parasite allergens are resistant to the thermal treatments of usual cooking procedures. Furthermore, some patients report symptoms after eating canned fish. The aim of this work was the analysis of parasite allergen stability in heating to 121 °C in an autoclave to simulate the thermal process applied to canned fish. Third-stage larvae were subjected to autoclaving for 20, 40, and 80 min, and parasite crude extracts were analyzed by electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and a flow-cytometric basophil activation test. Allergens resistant to autoclaving were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by ion trap mass spectrometry. Protein analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that autoclaving considerably reduced the number and intensity of identifiable protein bands in a time-dependent manner. Several allergens were detected by immunoblotting with a pool of A. simplex allergic patients' sera after autoclaving. Allergens of 9 and 14 kDa resistant to autoclaving were identified as Ani s 4 and Ani s 1 allergens, respectively. Functional analysis showed that allergens retain their capacity to activate basophils even after autoclaving for 80 min. In conclusion, some relevant A. simplex allergens retain their capacity to bind immunoglobulin E and activate basophils after being subjected to autoclaving, which is a method equivalent to that used in industrial canning processes. PMID:24680072

  18. Multi-element Composition of Terricolous Lichens in the Northwest European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, V. P.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Vasyukova, E. V.; Savvichev, A. S.; Zamber, N. S.

    2008-12-01

    Lichens (fungi living with an alga or cyanobacterium) absorb substances, including trace elements through dry and wet deposition, often to very high concentrations, and have been widely used as biomonitors. We studied multi-element composition of terricolous lichens (mostly of genera Cladonia and Cetraria) collected in 2004-2006 in Kola Peninsula, Karelia and Arkhangelsk Region of NW Russia. 31 samples were analyzed. The unwashed lichen samples were air dried and homogenised to a fine powder in an agate crusher, in order to exclude any contamination of trace metals. Samples were treated in a four-step chemical digestion procedure (full dissolution via acid attack). Major element concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and trace element concentrations by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, Agilent 7500). An enrichment factor (EF) was calculated for each element (X) relative to the composition of earth's crust: EF = ((X/Al) in lichen) / ((X/Al) in the earth's crust). Al was used as a crustal indicator. In most samples contents of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, rare earth elements (REEs), Th, U are at the background level and their EFs are less than 10. These low EF values indicated that, relative to average values for crustal rocks, there was no enrichment of these elements in the lichen concerned. For some elements (Se, Cd, Zn, Sb, Pb, As, Ni, Cu) consistently higher EF values were obtained. These higher values were interpreted in terms of sources of both anthropogenic and natural sources other than crustal rock and (or) soil. For instance, these elements could be derived by long-range atmospheric transport. Highest concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb in lichens and EF by these elements were registered in Lovozersky Tundry (Kola Peninsula) and in Paanayarvi area (NW Karelia). Lichens here are polluted by Monchegorsk and Nickel Cu-Ni smelters. In the vicinity of Kostomukshsky Ore-dressing Mill lichens

  19. Linearized dynamics from the 4-simplex Regge action

    SciTech Connect

    Dittrich, Bianca; Freidel, Laurent; Speziale, Simone

    2007-11-15

    We study the relation between the Hessian matrix of the Riemannian Regge action on a 4-simplex and linearized quantum gravity. We give an explicit formula for the Hessian as a function of the geometry, and show that it has a single zero mode. We then use a 3D lattice model to show that (i) the zero mode is a remnant of the continuum diffeomorphism invariance, and (ii) we recover the complete free graviton propagator in the continuum limit. The results help clarify the structure of the boundary state needed in the recent calculations of the graviton propagator in loop quantum gravity, and, in particular, its role in fixing the gauge.

  20. Herpes Simplex Virus Oncolytic Therapy for Pediatric Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Gregory K; Pressey, Joseph G; Reddy, Alyssa T; Markert, James M; Gillespie, G Yancey

    2009-01-01

    Despite improving survival rates for children with cancer, a subset of patients exist with disease resistant to traditional therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. These patients require newer, targeted treatments used alone or in combination with more traditional approaches. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of these newer therapies that offer promise for several difficult to treat pediatric malignancies. The potential benefit of HSV therapy in pediatric solid tumors including brain tumors, neuroblastomas, and sarcomas is reviewed along with the many challenges that need to be addressed prior to moving oncolytic HSV therapy from the laboratory to the beside in the pediatric population. PMID:19367259

  1. Herpes simplex virus hepatitis 4 years after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bissig, Karl-Dimiter; Zimmermann, Arthur; Bernasch, Dirke; Furrer, Hansjakob; Dufour, Jean-FranCois

    2003-01-01

    If not promptly recognized and treated, herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis is associated with a high mortality. A patient transplanted for primary sclerosing cholangitis required, 4 years later, a colectomy for a steroid-resistant flare of ulcerative colitis. He subsequently developed fever, with genital and oral ulcerations. He was hospitalized for diabetic decompensation with massive elevation of serum aminotransferases. Examination revealed vesicles on the hands. Liver biopsy showed Cowdry type B inclusions. Therapy with acyclovir was immediately initiated and the patient recovered. This case illustrates the diagnostic importance of mucocutaneous lesions in the assessment of complications after liver transplantation. PMID:14614611

  2. Human herpes simplex virus: life cycle and development of inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kukhanova, M K; Korovina, A N; Kochetkov, S N

    2014-12-01

    WHO reports that 90% of human population is infected by different types of herpesviruses, which develop latency or cause oral and genital herpes, conjunctivitis, eczema herpeticum, and other diseases. Herpesvirus almost always accompanies HIV-infection and complicates AIDS treatment. Herpes simplex virus type 1 is one of the most wide spread viruses from the Herpesviridae family. HSV virion, genome structure, replication mechanisms, antiherpes drug development strategies, including design of prodrugs, and mutations causing ACV-resistance in clinical HSV isolates are discussed in this review. PMID:25749169

  3. Stimulation of human lymphocytes by Herpes simplex virus antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Starr, S E; Karatela, S A; Shore, S L; Duffey, A; Nahmias, A J

    1975-01-01

    Lymphocytes from individuals with laboratory evidence of prior infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 or type 2 demonstrated transformation (av antigens. Higher stimulation indexes were obtained when lymphocytes were incubated with the homologous as compared with the heterologous antigen. Higher mean lymphocyte stimulation indexes were also demonstrated in seropositive as compared with seronegative individuals. Lymphocytes from children with HSV-1 stomatitis usually became responsive to HSV-1 antigen within 2 to 6 weeks after the onset of illness. Lymphocytes from infants with neonatal HSV-2 infection were stimulated by HSV-2 antigen. PMID:163788

  4. Atmospheric deposition studies of heavy metals in Arctic by comparative analysis of lichens and cryoconite.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shiv Mohan; Sharma, Jagdev; Gawas-Sakhalkar, Puja; Upadhyay, Ajay K; Naik, Simantini; Pedneker, Shailesh M; Ravindra, Rasik

    2013-02-01

    Lichens and cryoconite (rounded or granular, brownish-black debris occurring in holes on the glacier surface) from Ny-Ålesund were used for understanding the elemental deposition pattern in the area. Lichen samples collected from low-lying coastal region and cryoconite samples from high altitudinal glacier area were processed and analysed for elements such as aluminium (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), cesium (Cs), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results showed that heavy metals, Al and Fe, are present in high concentration in the cryoconite samples. Al was also present in high amounts in seven of the eight lichen samples studied. The general scheme of elements in the decreasing order of their concentrations for most of the cryoconite samples was Al > Fe > Mn > Zn > V > Pb > Cr > Ni > Cu > Co > As > Cs > Cd while that for the lichen samples was Al > Fe > Zn > Mn > Pb > Cu > Cs > Cr > Ni > V > Co > As > Cd. Similarity in trends in the two sample types confirms that the environment indeed contains these elements in that order of concentration which overtime got accumulated in the samples. Overall comparison showed most elements to be present in high concentrations in the cryoconite samples as compared to the lichen samples. Within the lichens, elemental accumulation data suggests that the low-lying site (L-2) from where Cladonia mediterranea sample was collected was the most polluted accumulating a number of elements at high concentrations. The probable reasons for such deposition patterns in the region could be natural (crustal contribution and sea salt spray) and anthropogenic (local and long-distance transmission of dust particles). In the future, this data can form a baseline for monitoring quantum of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in lichens and cryoconite of Svalbard, Arctic. PMID:22623166

  5. In vitro receptivity of carbonate rocks to endolithic lichen-forming aposymbionts.

    PubMed

    Favero-Longo, Sergio E; Borghi, Alessandro; Tretiach, Mauro; Piervittori, Rosanna

    2009-10-01

    Sterile cultured isolates of lichen-forming aposymbionts have not yet been used to investigate lichen-rock interactions under controlled conditions. In this study mycobionts and photobiont of the endolithic lichens Bagliettoa baldensis and Bagliettoa marmorea were isolated and inoculated with coupons of one limestone and four marbles commonly employed in the Cultural Heritage framework. After one year of incubation, microscopic observations of polished cross-sections were performed to verify if the typical colonization patterns observed in the field may be reproduced in vitro and to evaluate the receptivity of the five lithotypes to endolithic lichens. The mycobionts of the two species developed both on the surface of and within all the lithotypes, showing different penetration pathways which depend on mineralogical and structural features and highlight different receptivity. By contrast, algae inoculated with the coupons did not penetrate them. Observations suggest that the hyphal penetration along intrinsic discontinuities of rocks is a relatively fast phenomenon when these organisms are generally considered as slow-growing. Samples from limestone outcrops and abandoned marble quarries, colonized by the same species or other representatives of Verrucariaceae, showed penetration pathways intriguingly similar to those reproduced in vitro and highlighted that lichen-driven erosion processes only increase the availability of hyphal passageways after a long-term colonization. These results show that in vitro incubation of sterile cultured lichen-forming ascomycetes with rock coupons is a practicable experimental system to investigate the lichen-rock interactions under controlled conditions and, together with analysis in situ, may support decisions on conservative treatments of historical and cultural significant stone substrata. PMID:19683572

  6. Complex patterns of speciation in cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichens--discovering and delimiting cryptic fungal species in the lichen-forming Rhizoplaca melanophthalma species-complex (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Fankhauser, Johnathon D; Leavitt, Dean H; Porter, Lyndon D; Johnson, Leigh A; St Clair, Larry L

    2011-06-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that in some cases morphology-based species circumscription of lichenized fungi misrepresents the number of existing species. The cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichen (Rhizoplaca melanophthalma) species-complex includes a number of morphologically distinct species that are both geographically and ecologically widespread, providing a model system to evaluate speciation in lichen-forming ascomycetes. In this study, we assembled multiple lines of evidence from nuclear DNA sequence data, morphology, and biochemistry for species delimitation in the R. melanophthalma species-complex. We identify a total of ten candidate species in this study, four of which were previously recognized as distinct taxa and six previously unrecognized lineages found within what has been thus far considered a single species. Candidate species are supported using inferences from multiple empirical operational criteria. Multiple instances of sympatry support the view that these lineages merit recognition as distinct taxa. Generally, we found little corroboration between morphological and chemical characters, and previously unidentified lineages were morphologically polymorphic. However, secondary metabolite data supported one cryptic saxicolous lineage, characterized by orsellinic-derived gyrophoric and lecanoric acids, which we consider to be taxonomically significant. Our study of the R. melanophthalma species-complex indicates that the genus Rhizoplaca, as presently circumscribed, is more diverse in western North American than originally perceived, and we present our analyses as a working example of species delimitation in morphologically cryptic and recently diverged lichenized fungi. PMID:21443956

  7. MASS LOSS AND NITROGEN DYNAMICS DURING THE DECOMPOSITION OF A N-LABELED N2-FIXING EPOPHYTIC LICHEN, LOBARIA OREGANA (TUCK.) MULL. ARG.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We studied mass loss and nitrogen dynamics during fall and spring initiated decomposition of an N2-fixing epiphytic lichen, Lobaria oregana (Tuck.) Mull. Arg. using 15N. We developed a method of labeling lichens with 15N that involved spraying lichen material with a nutrient sol...

  8. Genotype variation in bark texture drives lichen community assembly across multiple environments.

    PubMed

    Lamit, L J; Lau, M K; Naesborg, R Reese; Wojtowicz, T; Whitham, T G; Gehring, C A

    2015-04-01

    A major goal of community genetics is to understand the influence of genetic variation within a species on ecological communities. Although well-documented for some organisms, additional research is necessary to understand the relative and interactive effects of genotype and environment on biodiversity, identify mechanisms through which tree genotype influences communities, and connect this emerging field with existing themes in ecology. We employ an underutilized but ecologically significant group of organisms, epiphytic bark lichens, to understand the relative importance of Populus angustifolia (narrowleaf cottonwood) genotype and environment on associated organisms within the context of community assembly and host ontogeny. Several key findings emerged. (1) In a single common garden, tree genotype explained 18-33% and 51% of the variation in lichen community variables and rough bark cover, respectively. (2) Across replicated common gardens, tree genotype affected lichen species richness, total lichen cover, lichen species composition, and rough bark cover, whereas environment only influenced composition and there were no genotype by environment interactions. (3) Rough bark cover was positively correlated with total lichen cover and richness, and was associated with a shift in species composition; these patterns occurred with variation in rough bark cover among tree genotypes of the same age in common gardens and with increasing rough bark cover along a -40 year tree age gradient in a natural riparian stand. (4) In a common garden, 20-year-old parent trees with smooth bark had poorly developed lichen communities, similar to their 10-year-old ramets (root suckers) growing in close proximity, while parent trees with high rough bark cover had more developed communities than their ramets. These findings indicate that epiphytic lichens are influenced by host genotype, an effect that is robust across divergent environments. Furthermore, the response to tree genotype is

  9. Carbon Isotope Abundances in Lichen Deposits Might Reflect Past Moisture Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russ, J.; Beazley, M. J.; Rickman, R. D.; Ingram, D. K.; Boutton, T. W.

    2002-12-01

    The stable carbon isotope composition of lichens is governed primarily by moisture conditions. Lichens lack water transport systems that are characteristic of higher plants; therefore, maximum productivity occurs during periods when an equilibrium has been established between the water content of the organism and the environment. The amount of water required to initiate and maintain photosynthesis influences the carbon isotope content due to fractionation caused by diffusion of carbon dioxide through the water filled membranes, as well as morphological changes in the lichen thallus. Thus, lichens growing in relatively wet conditions have a lower carbon 13 content than those growing in drier conditions. We suggest that the carbon isotope composition of stable lichen byproducts, such as calcium oxalate that is common on rock surfaces, can be used to predict past fluctuations in moisture conditions. We are exploring this hypothesis via studies of living, oxalate producing lichens, and calcium oxalate deposits from on rock surfaces in the Lower Pecos River region. The results of these studies demonstrate that (1) lichens growing on limestone do not incorporate carbon from carbonate substrates; thus ambient carbon dioxide is the dominant, if not sole source of metabolized carbon; and (2) calcium oxalate produced by lichens is consistently enriched in carbon 13 by 6.5 permil compared to the lichen tissues. We also present here a plot of oxalate carbon 14 ages versus the stable carbon isotope ratios from analyses of 19 calcium oxalate rock coating samples from the Lower Pecos region. This graph shows a general increase in the oxalate carbon 13 content through the middle Holocene that peaks about 3000 years ago, followed by a rapid decrease in the abundance of the heavier isotope. We suggest that the increased carbon 13 content corresponds to a decrease in the amount of moisture transported to the region during this period, a trend that rapidly reversed about 3000 years

  10. Se Concentrations in Epiphytic Lichens From the Boreal Forest of Forthern Québec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, L.; Lhomme, J.; Carignan, J.

    2004-05-01

    The knowledge of Se concentration in environmental samples is important because this element may be both toxic and nutrient for live organisms. This study aims to characterise the Se concentration in lichen samples in order to document the variability of atmospheric fallout. Lichens are of particular interest because their epiphytic character makes them totally dependant of atmospheric nutrients, so that their chemical composition reflects that of atmospheric matter. Lichens hanging on tree branches were sampled in various location of the boreal forest of northern Québec. We developed a separation and pre-concentration technique for Se analysis of low mineral matrix samples by GFAAS. After mineralisation and addition of a Se-free mineral charge to the sample, total Se is reduced to Se IV and fixed onto a thiol cotton. The latter is dissolved and directly analysed by GFAAS. A limit of determination of 0.02 ppm in the solid sample and a precision (relative standard deviation) varying from 3 to 15% was found through the course of this study. Our results are very similar to the certified values of the reference materials analysed, suggesting a good accuracy of the method for organic materials. Some lichen samples were also analysed by INAA and the agreement between results obtained by both techniques is not always perfect. There is, however, no systematic bias between the methods. Some samples agree within analytical uncertainty (about 5%), whereas others differ by more than 20%. The most probable reason why such discrepancies are observed is because these lichen samples were not crushed and homogenised before analysis. Indeed, some duplicate samples analysed by INAA yielded results that differed by more than 20%, while other agreed within 2%. Considering these facts, the overall agreement between GFAAS and INAA is pretty much satisfactory. The Se concentrations measured in lichens vary from 1.2 to 0.3 ppm and decrease from the coast of Hudson Bay towards inland at

  11. Short-term monitoring of aridland lichen cover and biomass using photography and fatty acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowker, M.A.; Johnson, N.C.; Belnap, J.; Koch, G.W.

    2008-01-01

    Biological soil crust (BSC) communities (composed of lichens, bryophytes, and cyanobacteria) may be more dynamic on short-time scales than previously thought, requiring new and informative short-term monitoring techniques. We used repeat digital photography and image analysis, which revealed a change in area of a dominant BSC lichen, Collema tenax. The data generated correlated well with gross photosynthesis (r=0.57) and carotenoid content (r=0.53), two variables that would be expected to be positively related to lichen area. We also extracted fatty acids from lichen samples and identified useful phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) indicators for the Collema mycobiont (20:1, 15:0, 23:0), and the Collema photobiont (18:3??3). The 18:3??3 correlated well with chlorophyll a (r=0.66), a more traditional proxy for cyanobacterial biomass. We also compared total PLFA as a proxy for total Collema biomass with our photographically generated areal change data, and found them to be moderately correlated (r=0.44). Areal change proved to be responsive on short-time scales, while fatty acid techniques were information-rich, providing data on biomass of lichens, and both photo- and mycobionts separately, in addition to the physiological status of the mycobiont. Both techniques should be refined and tested in field situations. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Lichens as indicators of elevated levels of environmental lead in Utah Valley, Utah. [Rhizoplaca melanophthalma

    SciTech Connect

    St. Clair, L.L.; Rushforth, S.R.; Newberry, C.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Utah Valley, Utah is a high elevation mountain valley with a moderate population and a large aged integrated steel mill. Fine particulate pollution (PM{sub 10}) levels in the valley are among the highest din the US, particularly during winter inversion periods. Utah Valley also has high levels of carbon monoxide. The local bureau of air quality monitored ambient air lead in Utah Valley for several years through the 1980s. Values as high as 1.35 g/m{sup 3} were noted from this monitoring. Such levels are 90% of the federal ambient air standard of 1.5 g/m{sup 3}. Lichens have long been recognized as bioindicators for heavy metals. Reports of high concentrations of lead in lichen thalli were common prior to the development and use of unleaded fuels. Since that time, lead concentrations in lichen thalli have generally decreased. Recent studies indicate lichen lead levels from clean air areas in the western US range from 10 to 25 ppm. Studies of the umbilicate saxicolous lichen Rhizoplaca melanophthalma in Utah Valley indicate lead levels between 188 and 200 ppm. Excess lead in Utah Valley likely originates from the steel mill and from the high number of vehicles still using leaded fuels.

  13. Spores of lichen-forming fungi in the mycoaerosol and their relationships with climate factors.

    PubMed

    Favero-Longo, S E; Sandrone, S; Matteucci, E; Appolonia, L; Piervittori, R

    2014-01-01

    Fungal particulates are a dominant component of the bioaerosol, but aerobiological studies traditionally focused on a limited set of fungi having relevance as allergens or plant pathogens. This study first analyzes the occurrence of lichen meiospores in the mycoaerosol, quantitatively evaluating in the atmosphere of an alpine environment the occurrence of polar diblastic spores, unequivocally attributable to the lichen family Teloschistaceae. The analysis of air-samples collected one week per month for one year with a Hirst-type sampler displayed a low percentage occurrence of polar-diblastic spores (<0.1%) with respect to the whole mycoaerosol, dominated by Cladosporium. Spearman's correlation tests on aerobiological and climatic data highlighted a strong relationship between the detection of Teloschistaceae spores and rainfall events, excluding seasonal patterns or daily rhythms of dispersion. The fact that all the air-sampled spores were attributable to the species of Teloschistaceae occurring in the site, together with laboratory observations of predominant short range dispersal patterns for polar diblastic and other lichen spores, indicated that sexual reproduction is mostly involved in the local expansion of colonization, dispersal from a long distance appearing a less probable phenomenon. These findings indicated that responses of lichen communities to climate factors, usually related to physiological processes, also depend on their influence on meiospore dispersal dynamics. Spatial limitations in dispersal, however, have to be taken into account in evaluating lichen distributional shifts as indicators of environmental changes. PMID:23892020

  14. Childhood onset vulvar lichen sclerosus does not resolve at puberty: a prospective case series.

    PubMed

    Smith, Saxon D; Fischer, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    When vulvar lichen sclerosus occurs in prepubertal children it is widely believed that it is likely to remit at puberty. However when it occurs in adult women it is accepted that remission is unlikely and that in addition untreated or inadequately treated disease may be complicated by significant disturbance of vulvar architecture and less commonly squamous cell carcinoma. Our database reveals 18 girls who developed lichen sclerosus prior to puberty who are now adolescents or young adults. Twelve have remained under surveillance and the other six patients have been lost to follow-up. We report a prospective series of these 12 patients. Three patients have achieved complete remission sustained for three or more years, all prior to menarche. Nine patients, or 75% of the cohort, who still had active lichen sclerosus at puberty continue to require maintenance therapy after menarche. Of the 12, six have had significant disturbance of vulvar architecture. The concept that prepubertal lichen sclerosus resolves at puberty would appear not to be true in the majority of patients. Even when diagnosed early and treated effectively, childhood onset lichen sclerosus may be complicated by distortion of vulvar architecture. PMID:20199450

  15. Ecophysiology and genetic structure of polar versus temperate populations of the lichen Cetraria aculeata.

    PubMed

    Domaschke, S; Vivas, M; Sancho, L G; Printzen, C

    2013-11-01

    We studied polar and temperate samples of the lichen Cetraria aculeata to investigate whether genetical differences between photobionts are correlated with physiological properties of the lichen holobiont. Net photosynthesis and dark respiration (DR) at different temperatures (from 0 to 30 °C) and photon flux densities (from 0 to 1,200 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) were studied for four populations of Cetraria aculeata. Samples were collected from maritime Antarctica, Svalbard, Germany and Spain, representing different climatic situations. Sequencing of the photobiont showed that the investigated samples fall in the polar and temperate clade described in Fernández-Mendoza et al. (Mol Ecol 20:1208-1232, 2011). Lichens with photobionts from these clades differ in their temperature optimum for photosynthesis, maximal net photosynthesis, maximal DR and chlorophyll content. Maximal net photosynthesis was much lower in Antarctica and Svalbard than in Germany and Spain. The difference was smaller when rates were expressed by chlorophyll content. The same is true for the temperature optima of polar (11 °C) and temperate (15 and 17 °C) lichens. Our results indicate that lichen mycobionts may adapt or acclimate to local environmental conditions either by selecting algae from regional pools or by regulating algal cell numbers (chlorophyll content) within the thallus. PMID:23649754

  16. Analyzing the antagonistic potential of the lichen microbiome against pathogens by bridging metagenomic with culture studies

    PubMed Central

    Cernava, Tomislav; Müller, Henry; Aschenbrenner, Ines A.; Grube, Martin; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Naturally occurring antagonists toward pathogens play an important role to avoid pathogen outbreaks in ecosystems, and they can be applied as biocontrol agents for crops. Lichens present long-living symbiotic systems continuously exposed to pathogens. To analyze the antagonistic potential in lichens, we studied the bacterial community active against model bacteria and fungi by an integrative approach combining isolate screening, omics techniques, and high resolution mass spectrometry. The highly diverse microbiome of the lung lichen [Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm.] included an abundant antagonistic community dominated by Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Burkholderia. While antagonists represent 24.5% of the isolates, they were identified with only 7% in the metagenome; which means that they were overrepresented in the culturable fraction. Isolates of the dominant antagonistic genus Stenotrophomonas produced spermidine as main bioactive component. Moreover, spermidine-related genes, especially for the transport, were identified in the metagenome. The majority of hits identified belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, while Stenotrophomonas-specific spermidine synthases were not present in the dataset. Evidence for plant growth promoting effects was found for lichen-associated strains of Stenotrophomonas. Linking of metagenomic and culture data was possible but showed partly contradictory results, which required a comparative assessment. However, we have shown that lichens are important reservoirs for antagonistic bacteria, which open broad possibilities for biotechnological applications. PMID:26157431

  17. Lichen Specific Thallus Mass and Secondary Compounds Change across a Retrogressive Fire-Driven Chronosequence

    PubMed Central

    Asplund, Johan; Sandling, Aron; Wardle, David A.

    2012-01-01

    In the long-term absence of major disturbances ecosystems enter a state of retrogression, which involves declining soil fertility and consequently a reduction in decomposition rates. Recent studies have looked at how plant traits such as specific leaf mass and amounts of secondary compounds respond to declining soil fertility during retrogression, but there are no comparable studies for lichen traits despite increasing recognition of the role that lichens can play in ecosystem processes. We studied a group of 30 forested islands in northern Sweden differing greatly in fire history, and collectively representing a retrogressive chronosequence, spanning 5000 years. We used this system to explore how specific thallus mass (STM) and carbon based secondary compounds (CBSCs) change in three common epiphytic lichen species (Hypogymnia phsyodes, Melanohalea olivacea and Parmelia sulcata) as soil fertility declines during this retrogression. We found that STMs of lichens increased sharply during retrogression, and for all species soil N to P ratio (which increased during retrogression) was a strong predictor of STM. When expressed per unit area, medullary CBSCs in all species and cortical CBSCs in P. sulcata increased during retrogression. Meanwhile, when expressed per unit mass, only cortical CBSCs in H. physodes responded to retrogression, and in the opposite direction. Given that lichen functional traits are likely to be important in driving ecological processes that drive nutrient and carbon cycling in the way that plant functional traits are, the changes that they undergo during retrogression could potentially be significant for the functioning of the ecosystem. PMID:23145078

  18. Analyzing the antagonistic potential of the lichen microbiome against pathogens by bridging metagenomic with culture studies.

    PubMed

    Cernava, Tomislav; Müller, Henry; Aschenbrenner, Ines A; Grube, Martin; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Naturally occurring antagonists toward pathogens play an important role to avoid pathogen outbreaks in ecosystems, and they can be applied as biocontrol agents for crops. Lichens present long-living symbiotic systems continuously exposed to pathogens. To analyze the antagonistic potential in lichens, we studied the bacterial community active against model bacteria and fungi by an integrative approach combining isolate screening, omics techniques, and high resolution mass spectrometry. The highly diverse microbiome of the lung lichen [Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm.] included an abundant antagonistic community dominated by Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Burkholderia. While antagonists represent 24.5% of the isolates, they were identified with only 7% in the metagenome; which means that they were overrepresented in the culturable fraction. Isolates of the dominant antagonistic genus Stenotrophomonas produced spermidine as main bioactive component. Moreover, spermidine-related genes, especially for the transport, were identified in the metagenome. The majority of hits identified belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, while Stenotrophomonas-specific spermidine synthases were not present in the dataset. Evidence for plant growth promoting effects was found for lichen-associated strains of Stenotrophomonas. Linking of metagenomic and culture data was possible but showed partly contradictory results, which required a comparative assessment. However, we have shown that lichens are important reservoirs for antagonistic bacteria, which open broad possibilities for biotechnological applications. PMID:26157431

  19. Different Heavy Metal Accumulation Strategies of Epilithic Lichens Colonising Artificial Post-Smelting Wastes.

    PubMed

    Rola, Kaja; Osyczka, Piotr; Kafel, Alina

    2016-02-01

    Lichens appear to be essential and effective colonisers of bare substrates including the extremely contaminated wastes of slag dumps. This study examines the metal accumulation capacity of epilithic lichens growing directly on the surface of artificial slag sinters. Four species representing different growth forms, i.e., crustose Candelariella aurella, Lecanora muralis, and Lecidea fuscoatra and fruticose Stereocaulon nanodes, were selected to evaluate the relationships between zinc, lead, cadmium, and nickel contents in their thalli and host substrates. Bioaccumulation factors of examined crustose lichens showed their propensity to hyperaccumulate heavy metals. Contrarily, concentrations of metals in fruticose thalli of S. nanodes were, as a rule, lower than in the corresponding substrates. This indicates that the growth form of thalli and degree of thallus adhesion to the substrate has a significant impact on metal concentrations in lichens colonising post-smelting wastes. Nonlinear regression models described by power functions show that at greater levels of Pb concentration in the substrate, the ability of C. aurella, L. muralis and L. fuscoatra to accumulate the metal experiences a relative decrease, whereas hyperbolic function describes a similar trend in relation to Ni content in S. nanodes. This phenomenon may be an important attribute of lichens that facilitates their colonisation of the surface of slag wastes. PMID:26155778

  20. Role of Depression, Anxiety and Stress in Patients with Oral Lichen Planus: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kalkur, Chaithra; Sattur, Atul Prahlad; Guttal, Kruthika Satyabodh

    2015-01-01

    Context: Lichen planus is a psychosomatic disease. Higher frequency of psychiatric symptoms, poor quality of life, higher level of anxiety and neuroendocrine and immune dysregulations, all these factors, will enhance the exacerbation of the disease. Aims: The present study was to assess depression, anxiety and stress levels in patients with oral lichen planus. Materials and Methods: The psychometric evaluation using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS)-42 questionnaire was carried out, by the same investigator on all members of group 1 (Oral Lichen Planus) and group 2 (Control). DASS-42 questionnaire consists of 42 symptoms divided into three subscales of 14 items: Depression scale, anxiety scale, and stress scale. Statistical Analysis Used: The Student t test was used to determine statistical difference for both the groups and to evaluate for significant relationships among variables. Results: Psychological assessment using DASS-42 reveals lichen planus patients showed higher frequency of psychiatric co morbidities like depression, anxiety and stress compared to control group. Conclusions: This study has provided evidence that the DASS-42 questionnaire is internally consistent and valid measures of depression, anxiety, and stress. Psychiatric evaluation can be considered for patients with oral lichen planus with routine treatment protocols are recommended. DASS-42 Questionnaire can also be used to determine the level of anxiety, stress and depression in diseases of the oral mucosa like recurrent apthous stomatitis, burning mouth syndrome and TMD disorders. PMID:26538689

  1. Physiological changes of the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum as result of carbon nanotubes exposition.

    PubMed

    Viana, Camila de O; Vaz, Raissa P; Cano, Abraham; Santos, Adelina P; Cançado, Luiz G; Ladeira, Luiz O; Junior, Ary Corrêa

    2015-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) is one of the more abundant nanomaterial produced in the world. Therefore, it is desirable to access its effects in all environment compartments, in order to mitigate environmental distress. This study aims to verify the potential use of lichens - classical atmospheric pollution indicators - as biomonitors of carbon nanotubes aerosols. To examine cause-effect relationships, preserving environmental microclimatic parameters, the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum (Nyl.) Hale was transplanted to open top chambers where aerosols of CNT were daily added. Physiological parameters such as cell viability, photosynthetic efficiency, cell permeability as well as nanoparticle internalization were assessed. Carbon nanotubes exposure led to reduction on the cell viability of P. tinctorum. The treatment with 100µg/mL of MWCNT-COOH resulted in intracellular ion leakage, probably due to changes in membrane permeability. No alterations on photosynthetic efficiency were detected. Carbon nanotubes entrapment and internalization into the lichen thallus were observed. Short term exposition of CNT produced measurable physiological changes in P. tinctorum lichen. This suggests the possibility of use of lichens as models to assess the environmental impact (air related) of engineered nanomaterials. PMID:26057077

  2. Effects of Lichenic Extracts (Hypogymnia physodes, Ramalina polymorpha and Usnea florida) on Human Blood Cells: Cytogenetic and Biochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Türkez, Hasan; Aydın, Elanur; Aslan, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Several lichen species have been used for medicinal purposes throughout the ages, and they were reported to be effective in the treatment of different disorders including tuberculosis, hemorrhoids, ulcer, dysentery and cancer. It is revealed that they may be easily accessible sources of natural drugs that could be used as a possible food supplement or in pharmaceutical industry after their safety evaluations. However, so far, the nature and/or biological roles of plenty of lichenes have not been elucidated exactly. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic and oxidative effects of water extracts of three different lichen species; Hypogymnia physodes, Ramalina polymorpha and Usnea florida in cultured human blood cells (n = 5) for the first time. All lichen species were collected from the Erzurum and Artvin provinces (in Turkey) during August 2010. The lichen extracts were added into culture tubes at various concentrations (0 to 2000 mg/L). Chromosome aberrations (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests were used for genotoxic influences estimation. In addition, biochemical parameters (total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidative stress (TOS)) were examined to determine oxidative effects. In our in-vitro test systems, it was observed that all tested lichen extracts had no mutagenic effects on human lymphocytes. Furthermore, these extracts exhibited antioxidant properties due to the type of lichen species added to the cultures. In conclusion, these lichens can be a new resource of therapeutics as recognized in this study with their non-mutagenic and antioxidant features. PMID:24250516

  3. The multi-element content of the lichen Parmelia sulcata, soil, and oak bark in relation to acidification and climate.

    PubMed

    Purvis, O W; Dubbin, W; Chimonides, P D J; Jones, G C; Read, H

    2008-02-15

    Understanding how biodiversity is influenced by changing atmospheric conditions is important for conservation, public policy and environmental health. In a recent study, an impact on two of the most abundant lichens in Europe (Parmelia sulcata and Hypogymnia physodes) was recorded at Burnham Beeches lying 40 km west of London (UK) during unusual atmospheric conditions whilst other species remained unaffected. Bark and soil chemistry also influence lichen vitality and community composition. Correlations between element concentrations and element ratios in different samples help understand element cycling. To study this further, the multi-element content of the lichen P. sulcata and bark sampled in 2000 from 16 oak (Quercus robur) trees at Burnham Beeches was compared with the same elements determined in 24 surface soils sampled in 2005 from beneath the same trees. Soil pH ranged from 4.1 to 6.7. Highly significant correlations (p<0.001) for Mn/Ca ratios in lichen versus bark, soil versus bark and soil versus lichen samples confirmed cycling via the soil-tree-lichen system. Similar Mn/Ca ratios were reported in coniferous forests where high Mn concentrations were shown to limit epiphytic lichen abundance. Soil acidification influences element bioavailability and bark chemistry in Burnham Beeches with implications for lichen diversity and health. Recovery was recorded in P. sulcata, including regeneration within monitoring quadrats. Biological systems are well known to be influenced by pollution episodes. PMID:18045659

  4. Photoautotrophic symbiont and geography are major factors affecting highly structured and diverse bacterial communities in the lichen microbiome

    SciTech Connect

    Hodkinson, Brendan P; Gottel, Neil R; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Lutzoni, Francois

    2011-01-01

    Although common knowledge dictates that the lichen thallus is formed solely by a fungus (mycobiont) that develops a symbiotic relationship with an alga and/or cyanobacterium (photobiont), the non-photoautotrophic bacteria found in lichen microbiomes are increasingly regarded as integral components of lichen thalli. For this study, comparative analyses were conducted on lichen-associated bacterial communities to test for effects of photobiont-types (i.e. green algal vs. cyanobacterial), mycobiont-types and large-scale spatial distances (from tropical to arctic latitudes). Amplicons of the 16S (SSU) rRNA gene were examined using both Sanger sequencing of cloned fragments and barcoded pyrosequencing. Rhizobiales is typically the most abundant and taxonomically diverse order in lichen microbiomes; however, overall bacterial diversity in lichens is shown to be much higher than previously reported. Members of Acidobacteriaceae, Acetobacteraceae, Brucellaceae and sequence group LAR1 are the most commonly found groups across the phylogenetically and geographically broad array of lichens examined here. Major bacterial community trends are significantly correlated with differences in large-scale geography, photobiont-type and mycobiont-type. The lichen as a microcosm represents a structured, unique microbial habitat with greater ecological complexity and bacterial diversity than previously appreciated and can serve as a model system for studying larger ecological and evolutionary principles.

  5. Herpes simplex virus colitis complicating ulcerative colitis: A case report and brief review on superinfections.

    PubMed

    Schunter, Marco Oliver; Walles, Thorsten; Fritz, Peter; Meyding-Lamadé, Uta; Thon, Klaus-Peter; Fellermann, Klaus; Stange, Eduard Friedrich; Lamadé, Wolfram

    2007-09-01

    In patients with inflammatory bowel disease herpes simplex virus infection has been described as a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Here we present the case of a 35-year old woman with an exacerbation of ulcerative colitis caused by herlpes simplex virus infection (HSV-2). The diagnosis was confirmed histologically following subtotal colectomy. After intravenous treatment with aciclovir for 2 weeks postoperative hematochezia stopped. Herpes simplex virus colitis is a rare but potentially fatal complication of immunosuppressive treatment in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Prompt diagnosis and efficient antiviral therapy are mandatory to improve prognosis. PMID:21172183

  6. Clinical and biological differences between recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections

    SciTech Connect

    Straus, S.E. )

    1989-12-01

    The major features that distinguish recurrent herpes simplex virus infections from zoster are illustrated in this article by two case histories. The clinical and epidemiologic features that characterize recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections are reviewed. It is noted that herpesvirus infections are more common and severe in patients with cellular immune deficiency. Each virus evokes both humoral and cellular immune response in the course of primary infection. DNA hybridization studies with RNA probes labelled with sulfur-35 indicate that herpes simplex viruses persist within neurons, and that varicella-zoster virus is found in the satellite cells that encircle the neurons.

  7. Isolation of a protein kinase induced by herpes simplex virus type 1

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, W.T.; Stobbs, D.G.

    1981-04-01

    Researchers have isolated a new cyclic AMP-independent protein kinase activity induced in HeLa cells by infection with herpes simplex virus type 1. Induction of the enzyme does not occur in cells treated with cycloheximide at the time of infection, or in cells infected with UV-inactivated herpes simplex virus type 1. The amount of enzyme induced in infected cells is dependent upon the multiplicity of infection. An enzyme with identical properties to the appearing in infected HeLa cells is also induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 in BHK cells.

  8. On the decline of ground lichen forests in the Swedish boreal landscape: Implications for reindeer husbandry and sustainable forest management.

    PubMed

    Sandström, Per; Cory, Neil; Svensson, Johan; Hedenås, Henrik; Jougda, Leif; Borchert, Nanna

    2016-05-01

    Lichens are a bottleneck resource for circumpolar populations of reindeer, and as such, for reindeer husbandry as an indigenous Sami land-use tradition in northern Sweden. This study uses ground lichen data and forest information collected within the Swedish National Forest Inventory since 1953, on the scale of northern Sweden. We found a 71 % decline in the area of lichen-abundant forests over the last 60 years. A decline was observed in all regions and age classes and especially coincided with a decrease of >60 year old, open pine forests, which was the primary explanatory factor in our model. The effects of reindeer numbers were inconclusive in explaining the decrease in lichen-abundant forest. The role that forestry has played in causing this decline can be debated, but forestry can have a significant role in reversing the trend and improving ground lichen conditions. PMID:26754169

  9. Abundance and distribution of lichens found in the reclaimed areas of the nickel and copper mining region of Sudbury, Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Wainio, S.; Beckett, P.J.

    1998-12-31

    The Sudbury Land Reclamation Program has been operating since 1978 and has treated about 25% of the heavily stressed land near the base mining and smelting complexes. Over 3 million trees have been planted into 4000 ha of land treated with limestone, fertilizer and a grass-legume mixture. In the subsequent years over 25 species of lichen has invaded the ground in the developing open woodland ecosystem. The most numerous lichens are members of the Cladonia (Pixie Cup) group but Reindeer lichens (Cladina spp) also occur. The pattern of invasion has similarities to that observed in other disturbed ecosystems (cutting or burning in forests, or abandoned farmland). Lichens on reclaimed land show above normal amounts of nickel and copper but contain lesser amounts than lichens growing in adjacent unreclaimed areas.

  10. Lichen aureus: clinicopathological features in a Chinese series.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yue-Ping; Fang, Kai; Ma, Dong-Lai

    2016-06-01

    Lichen aureus (LA) is a rare variant of pigmented purpuric dermatosis. There are few Chinese cases of LA documented in the literature in English. We aimed to investigate the clinical and histopathological characteristics of LA in a series of Chinese patients. This was a retrospective monocentric study conducted in the Department of Dermatology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital. A total of 25 patients were included in the study; 15 male and 10 female patients. Unilateral distribution of the lesions was found in 88.0% of the patients, while bilateral distribution was found in 12.0%. A segmental distribution was observed in 12 patients. The most commonly involved areas were the upper extremities (n = 10; 40.0%) and lower extremities (n = 10; 40.0%). Fifteen cases (60%) presented with an inflammatory reaction pattern of a band-like lymphocytic infiltrate. Periadnexal inflammation and perineural inflammation were found in 12 patients and five patients, respectively. A segmental pattern of distribution of the lesion is very common in LA. Both upper limbs and lower limbs may be equally affected. Band-like lymphocytic infiltrate is the most common inflammatory reaction pattern. Periadnexal inflammation and perineural inflammation are relatively common in LA. PMID:27101633

  11. Bioimpedance Detection of Oral Lichen Planus Used as Preneoplastic Model

    PubMed Central

    Tatullo, Marco; Marrelli, Massimo; Amantea, Massimiliano; Paduano, Francesco; Santacroce, Luigi; Gentile, Stefano; Scacco, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Bioimpedance is a measure of the electrical properties of biological tissues. In the last two decades bioimpedance has been successfully introduced in clinical diagnosis of cancer. It has been demonstrated that tumoral tissues often show lower bioimpedance values than healthy tissues. The aim of this work is to assess the bioimpedentiometric differences between healthy and Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) affected oral mucosa, taking attention to the erosive form which may represent a potential pre-cancerous condition. Methods: 52 patients affected by OLP were recruited for bioimpedance examination of oral mucosa. Four electrical properties, resistance (R), reactance (Xc), phase angle (θ) and impedance (Z) of the tongue and of the intraoral mucosa, were measured. Results: We observed a significant increase of Z and a significant decrease of θ values in correspondence of OLP lesions compared to healthy oral mucosa, and a marked decrease of Z values in correspondence of erosive OLP lesions. Conclusions: These results provide evidence of the usefulness of bioimpedance assay for the characterization of healthy and clinically OLP affected mucosa. Bioimpedance is a valid aid in the early detection and clinical monitoring of the suspicious lesions which could lead to a potentially malignant evolution. The present research article is a valuable addition to the scientific literature of cancer prevention, and our findings can be considered extremely encouraging as they represent the initial step for a more wide clinical study for better define the different cut-off values in the different precancerous conditions occurring in the oral mucosa. PMID:26366210

  12. ORAL LICHEN PLANUS AND ORAL LICHENOID REACTION--AN UPDATE.

    PubMed

    Rotim, Zeljko; Bolanca, Zeljana; Rogulj, Ana Andabak; Andabak, Matej; Boras, Vanja Vucićević; Vrdoljak, Danko Velimir

    2015-12-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid reaction (OLR) are clinically and histopathologically similar diseases. Whereas OLP is a consequence of T cell mediated autoinflammatory process to a still unknown antigen, OLR might be caused by drugs, dental restorative materials and dental plaque. Pubmed was searched and 24 publications published over the last three years regarding etiology, diagnosis and malignant alteration were included in this study. Patients with OLR who have amalgam fillings near lesions should have them replaced, i.e. when possible they should be referred to patch test, as well as when drug-induced OLR are suspected. OLR lesions induced by drugs should disappear when the offending drug has been discontinued. Histology finding in OLR consists of more eosinophils, plasma cells and granulocytes in comparison to OLP lesions. Furthermore, OLP lesions showed more p53, bcl-2 and COX-2 positivity when compared to OLR. OLP is characterized by infiltration, atrophic epithelium, rete pegs and Max Joseph spaces, while deep infiltration into connective tissue and hyperkeratosis were the criteria for making the diagnosis of OLR. The number of degranulated mastocytes in the reticular layer, as well as the number of capillaries was higher in OLR in comparison to OLP. It seems that OLR are more prone to malignant alteration in comparison to OLP. PMID:27017728

  13. Clinical profile of 108 cases of oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Mankapure, Pritam K; Humbe, Jayanti G; Mandale, Mandakini S; Bhavthankar, Jyoti D

    2016-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a T cell-mediated chronic inflammatory disease with a varied clinical presentation. The present clinical study was carried out to clarify the demographic and clinical profile of 108 patients with OLP. The patients were identified based on the diagnostic criteria proposed by van der Meij et al. (2003) modified from the WHO (1978) clinical and histopathologic definition of OLP. Information such as age, gender, clinical presentation and type of OLP, site of involvement, symptoms, extraoral involvement, history of systemic disease, familial occurrence and risk factors like chewing and smoking tobacco, chewing betel quid, alcohol consumption were obtained. Mean age of OLP patients was 45.4 years, and among the identified patients, 70.4% were females. The most frequent clinical type was the reticular form (80.6%). The OLP lesions were symptomatic in 77.8% of the patients. The buccal mucosa was the most affected site (87.9%) and multiple oral lesions were observed in 41.7% of the patients. Among the OLP patients, 36.1% and 4.7% reported chewing tobacco and smoking tobacco, respectively. Histopathologically, epithelial dysplasia was seen in two cases. The chronic nature of OLP warrants patient education, psychological support and long-term follow up. (J Oral Sci 58, 43-47, 2016). PMID:27021539

  14. Penile lichen sclerosus: An urologist's nightmare! - A single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jitendra Pratap; Priyadarshi, Vinod; Goel, Hemant Kumar; Vijay, Mukesh Kumar; Pal, Dilip Kumar; Chakraborty, Sudip; Kundu, Anup Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Penile lichen sclerosus (LS) is a nagging condition and its progression result in devastating urinary and sexual problems and reduction in the quality-of-life. This study has been carried out to present our experience about this disease with simultaneous review of the available literature. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study has been done at a tertiary care center of eastern India. The data of 306 patients affected with LS were analyzed for clinical presentation, physical examination, investigations, and treatment offered. Results: Presenting symptoms were non-specific. The prepuce was most commonly involved location followed by glans and meatus. Urethral involvement was not isolated as the primary site. Circumcision was done in 237 patients, while 63 patients underwent meatotomy. Thirty-six of 39 cases of LS induced stricture were treated with buccal mucosal graft (BMG) either in one stage or in two stages. Conclusion: LS varies from being a highly aggressive disease of the penis and anterior urethra to a burnt out condition affecting just the meatus and surrounding glans. Early diagnosis and treatment are required to prevent its complication and associated morbidity. Management depends on the anatomical location of lesion, extent of involvement, rapidity of progression and its severity. Use of BMG in LS induced urethral stricture has shown encouraging results. PMID:26229314

  15. [Current diagnosis and treatment of male genital lichen sclerosus].

    PubMed

    Lü, Jun; Huang, Xiao-Dong

    2014-07-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronically relapsing disease characterized by a long course, gradual aggravation, and a tendency towards malignancy. Once called balanitis xerotica obliterans, MGLSc has a distinct predilection for the prepuce and glans, involving the urethra when aggravating, forming scarring tissues, and causing urethral stricture, which may seriously affect the patients'quality of life with such symptoms as urinary stream narrowing, dysuria, and painful penile erection. The etiology and pathogenesis of MGLSc have not yet been adequately explained though it is generally thought to be associated with autoimmune mechanism, genetic factors, infections, local trauma, and chronic urinary irritation. MGLSc can be fairly easily diagnosed according to its clinical manifestations and histopathological results, but can be hardly cured. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are the most important approaches, which may relieve its symptoms, check its progression, and prevent its long-term sequelae. Ultrapotent topical corticosteroids are the choice for the treatment of MGLSc. For those who fail to respond to expectant medication or have dysuria due to urethral stricture and painful erection, rational surgery may be resorted to, with importance attached to long-term follow-up. This article presents an update of the diagnosis and treatment of MGLSc and MGLSc-induced urethral stricture. PMID:25095613

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of lichen sclerosus: an update.

    PubMed

    Fistarol, Susanna K; Itin, Peter H

    2013-02-01

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic, inflammatory, mucocutaneous disorder of genital and extragenital skin. LS is a debilitating disease, causing itch, pain, dysuria and restriction of micturition, dyspareunia, and significant sexual dysfunction in women and men. Many findings obtained in recent years point more and more towards an autoimmune-induced disease in genetically predisposed patients and further away from an important impact of hormonal factors. Preceding infections may play a provocative part. The role for Borrelia is still controversial. Trauma and an occlusive moist environment may act as precipitating factors. Potent and ultrapotent topical corticosteroids still head the therapeutic armamentarium. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are discussed as alternatives in the treatment of LS in patients who have failed therapy with ultrapotent corticosteroids, or who have a contraindication for the use of corticosteroids. Topical and systemic retinoids may be useful in selected cases. Phototherapy for extragenital LS and photodynamic therapy for genital LS may be therapeutic options in rare cases refractory to the already mentioned treatment. Surgery is restricted to scarring processes leading to functional impairment. In men, circumcision is effective in the majority of cases, but recurrences are well described. Anogenital LS is associated with an increased risk for squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva or penis. This review updates the epidemiology, clinical presentation, histopathology, pathogenesis, and management of LS of the female and male genitals and extragenital LS in adults and children. PMID:23329078

  17. A Case of Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus Accompanying Bullous Morphea

    PubMed Central

    Yasar, Sirin; Serdar, Zehra Asiran; Gunes, Pembegul

    2011-01-01

    Bullous morphea is a rare form of morphea characterized with bullae on or around atrophic morphea plaques. Whereas lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA) is a disease the etiology of which is not fully known, and which is characterized with sclerosis. Coexistence of morphea and LSA has been identified in some cases. Some authors believe that these two diseases are different manifestations which are on the same spectrum. The 70-year-old patient stated herein, presented to us for 6 months with annular, atrophic plaques, ivory color in the middle, surrounded by living erythema, on the front and back of the trunk. Occasionally bulla formation on the plaques on the trunk lateral was identified. Fibrotic and atrophic plaques of ligneous hardness were present on the front side of tibia of both legs. In the histopathologic examination, the lesions were found concordant with bullous morphea and LSA. With colchicine 1.5 mg/day, pentoxifylline 1,200 mg/day, topical calcipotriol ointment and clobetasol propionate cream, the erythema in the patient's lesions faded and softening in the fibrotic plaques was observed. Concomitance of bullous morphea and LSA is a rarely seen, interesting coexistence which suggests a common, as yet unknown, underlying pathogenesis. PMID:22346277

  18. Lichen planopilaris following hair transplantation and face-lift surgery.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Y Z; Tosti, A; Chaudhry, I H; Lyne, L; Farjo, B; Farjo, N; Cadore de Farias, D; Griffiths, C E M; Paus, R; Harries, M J

    2012-03-01

    Cosmetic surgical procedures, including hair transplantation and face-lift surgery, are becoming increasingly popular. However, there is very little information regarding the associated development of dermatological conditions following these procedures. Lichen planopilaris (LPP) is an uncommon inflammatory hair disorder of unknown aetiology that results in permanent alopecia and replacement of hair follicles with scar-like fibrous tissue. Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA), a variant of LPP, involves the frontal hairline and shares similar histological findings with those of LPP. We report 10 patients who developed LPP/FFA following cosmetic scalp surgery. Seven patients developed LPP following hair transplantation, and three patients developed FFA following face-lift surgery. In all cases there was no previous history of LPP or FFA. There is currently a lack of evidence to link the procedures of hair transplantation and cosmetic face-lift surgery to LPP and FFA, respectively. This is the first case series to describe this connection and to postulate the possible pathological processes underlying the clinical observation. Explanations include Koebner phenomenon induced by surgical trauma, an autoimmune process targeting an (as yet, unknown) hair follicle antigen liberated during surgery or perhaps a postsurgery proinflammatory milieu inducing hair follicle immune privilege collapse and follicular damage in susceptible individuals. PMID:21985326

  19. Gene expression profiling in male genital lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Emma; Barton, Geraint; Buisson, Sandrine; Francis, Nick; Gotch, Frances; Game, Laurence; Haddad, Munther; Dinneen, Michael; Bunker, Chris

    2011-10-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) has a bimodal distribution in boys and men. It is associated with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The pathogenesis of MGLSc is unknown. HPV and autoimmune mechanisms have been mooted. Anti extracellular matrix protein (ECM)1 antibodies have been identified in women with GLSc. The gene expression pattern of LSc is unknown. Using DNA microarrays we studied differences in gene expression in healthy and diseased prepuces obtained at circumcision in adult males with MGLSc (n = 4), paediatric LSc (n = 2) and normal healthy paediatric foreskin (n = 4). In adult samples 51 genes with significantly increased expression and 87 genes with significantly reduced expression were identified; paediatric samples revealed 190 genes with significantly increased expression and 148 genes with significantly reduced expression. Concordance of expression profiles between adult and paediatric samples indicates the same disease process. Functional analysis revealed increased expression in the adult and child MGSLc samples in the immune response/cellular defence gene ontology (GO) category and reduced expression in other categories including genes related to squamous cancer. No specific HPV, autoimmune or squamous carcinogenesis-associated gene expression patterns were found. ECM1 and CABLES1 expression were significantly reduced in paediatric and adult samples respectively. PMID:21718371

  20. Vulvar lichen sclerosus: A new regenerative approach through fat grafting.

    PubMed

    Boero, Veronica; Brambilla, Massimiliano; Sipio, Elisa; Liverani, Carlo A; Di Martino, Mirella; Agnoli, Benedetta; Libutti, Giada; Cribiù, F M; Del Gobbo, Alessandro; Ragni, Enrico; Bolis, Giorgio

    2015-12-01

    OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of fat grafting in the treatment of severe vulvar lichen sclerosus (LS). Our primary outcome was to assess the improvement of mucocutaneous trophism, the resolution/reduction of symptoms, and the histological features of the vulvar skin after treatment. The secondary outcome was to evaluate the improvement in life quality, and in resumption and quality of sexual life. METHODS. Between 2011 and 2014, 36 patients were offered fat grafting to treat LS. Inclusion criteria were age between 25 and 80 years, histopathologic diagnosis of LS, good health, failure of previous first line treatments. RESULTS. 34 out of 36 patients (94%) showed a better vulvar trophismof the skin and mucosae; 27 (75%) had an improvement in caliber and elasticity of the vaginal introitus; clitoris burying degree was reduced in 18 patients (50%), 30 (83%) reported an increased volume of labia major a and minor a, 34 (94%) had a complete disappearance of scratching lesions, and 28 (78%) showed a remission of white lesions. Eventually 34 patients (95%) stopped using topical corticosteroids routinely. The improvement in life quality was significant for both DLQI (p b 0001) and FSFI (p b 0001). CONCLUSIONS. Fat grafting may have a role as a support and completion treatment in selected cases of women with vulvar LS who do not respond to first line therapy or in severe cases where the anatomical impairment does not allow a regular sexual function and a good quality of life. PMID:26499935

  1. Herpes simplex virus 2 meningitis: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Stephanie; Mateen, Farrah J; Aksamit, Allen J

    2013-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 is a leading cause of viral meningitis and the most commonly recognized infectious cause of benign, recurrent meningitis. We report a retrospective, observational cohort study of patients with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) meningitis, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The terms "herpes simplex," "meningitis," or "encephalitis" were searched in the medical records system of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota (1995-2008). Patients were included if they had a clinical diagnosis of meningitis and HSV-2 detected by PCR in the CSF. There were 28 patients with 33 episodes identified (83 % female; mean age at presentation of meningitis 36 years, range 17-53; mean time to HSV2 detection from symptom onset 3 days, range 0-6; history of genital herpes 23 %). No patient took oral antiviral treatment at the time of presentation. Episodes were most likely to include headache (100 %), photophobia (47 %), self-reported fever (45 %), meningismus (44 %), and nausea and/or vomiting (29 %). CSF at the time of meningitis was notable for elevated protein (mean 156 g/dL, range 60-258) and white cell count (mean 504 cells/μL, range 86-1,860) with normal glucose (mean 54 mg/dL, range 32-80). Mollaret cells were never detected. Neuroimaging was most often normal (83 %) when performed, although some cases showed nonspecific (14 %) or meningeal changes (3 %). There was no consistent relationship to genital herpes. The duration of treatment with intravenous acyclovir ranged from 3 to 14 days for the first meningitic episode (daily dose range from 500 to 1,000 mg and total dose range from 500 mg q8h for 3 days to 800 mg q8h for 14 days). For subsequent episodes, the duration of treatment of intravenous acyclovir ranged from less than 1 to 14 days (total dose range from 1,390 mg for 1 day to 900 mg q8h for 10 days). The dose of valacyclovir ranged from 500 mg once daily to 500 mg four times daily. The median duration

  2. Effects of Management on Lichen Species Richness, Ecological Traits and Community Structure in the Rodnei Mountains National Park (Romania)

    PubMed Central

    Ardelean, Ioana Violeta; Keller, Christine; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Lichens are valuable bio-indicators for evaluating the consequences of human activities that are increasingly changing the earth’s ecosystems. Since a major objective of national parks is the preservation of biodiversity, our aim is to analyse how natural resource management, the availability of lichen substrates and environmental parameters influence lichen diversity in Rodnei Mountains National Park situated in the Eastern Carpathians. Three main types of managed vegetation were investigated: the transhumance systems in alpine meadows, timber exploitation in mixed and pure spruce forests, and the corresponding conserved sites. The data were sampled following a replicated design. For the analysis, we considered not only all lichen species, but also species groups from different substrates such as soil, trees and deadwood. The lichen diversity was described according to species richness, red-list status and substrate-specialist species richness. The variation in species composition was related to the environmental variables. Habitat management was found to negatively influence species richness and alter the lichen community composition, particularly for threatened and substrate-specialist species. It reduced the mean level of threatened species richness by 59%, when all lichen species were considered, and by 81%, when only epiphytic lichens were considered. Management-induced disturbance significantly decreased lichen species richness in forest landscapes with long stand continuity. The diversity patterns of the lichens indicate a loss of species richness and change in species composition in areas where natural resources are still exploited inside the borders of the national park. It is thus imperative for protected areas, in particular old-growth forests and alpine meadows, to receive more protection than they have received in the past to ensure populations of the characteristic species remain viable in the future. PMID:26717517

  3. Quantifying the effect of lichen and bryophyte cover on permafrost soil within a global land surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porada, Philipp; Ekici, Altug; Beer, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation near the surface, such as bryophytes and lichens, has an insulating effect on the soil at high latitudes and it can therefore protect permafrost conditions. Warming due to climate change, however, may change the average surface coverage of bryophytes and lichens. This can result in permafrost thawing associated with a release of soil carbon to the atmosphere, which may lead to a positive feedback on atmospheric CO2. Thus, it is important to predict how the bryophyte and lichen cover at high latitudes will react to environmental change. However, current global land surface models so far contain mostly empirical approaches to represent bryophytes and lichens, which makes it impractical to predict their future state and function. For this reason, we integrate a process-based model of bryophyte and lichen growth into the global land surface model JSBACH. We explicitly represent dynamic thermal properties of the bryophyte and lichen cover and their relation to climate. Subsequently, we compare simulations with and without bryophyte and lichen cover to quantify the insulating effect. We estimate an annual average cooling effect of the bryophyte and lichen cover of 2.7 K on topsoil temperature for the northern high latitudes under current climate. Locally, the cooling may reach up to 5.7 K. Moreover, we show that neglecting dynamic properties of the bryophyte and lichen cover by using a simple, empirical scheme only results in an average cooling of around 0.5 K. This suggests that bryophytes and lichens have a significant impact on soil temperature in high-latitude ecosystems and also that a process-based description of their thermal properties is necessary for a realistic representation of the cooling effect.

  4. Effects of Management on Lichen Species Richness, Ecological Traits and Community Structure in the Rodnei Mountains National Park (Romania).

    PubMed

    Ardelean, Ioana Violeta; Keller, Christine; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Lichens are valuable bio-indicators for evaluating the consequences of human activities that are increasingly changing the earth's ecosystems. Since a major objective of national parks is the preservation of biodiversity, our aim is to analyse how natural resource management, the availability of lichen substrates and environmental parameters influence lichen diversity in Rodnei Mountains National Park situated in the Eastern Carpathians. Three main types of managed vegetation were investigated: the transhumance systems in alpine meadows, timber exploitation in mixed and pure spruce forests, and the corresponding conserved sites. The data were sampled following a replicated design. For the analysis, we considered not only all lichen species, but also species groups from different substrates such as soil, trees and deadwood. The lichen diversity was described according to species richness, red-list status and substrate-specialist species richness. The variation in species composition was related to the environmental variables. Habitat management was found to negatively influence species richness and alter the lichen community composition, particularly for threatened and substrate-specialist species. It reduced the mean level of threatened species richness by 59%, when all lichen species were considered, and by 81%, when only epiphytic lichens were considered. Management-induced disturbance significantly decreased lichen species richness in forest landscapes with long stand continuity. The diversity patterns of the lichens indicate a loss of species richness and change in species composition in areas where natural resources are still exploited inside the borders of the national park. It is thus imperative for protected areas, in particular old-growth forests and alpine meadows, to receive more protection than they have received in the past to ensure populations of the characteristic species remain viable in the future. PMID:26717517

  5. Ocean to continent transfer of atmospheric Se as revealed by epiphytic lichens.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hanjie; Carignan, Jean

    2009-10-01

    There is still a long-term debate concerning the relative contributions of naturally emitted and anthropogenic Se at the regional and local scales. Here, Se and heavy metal concentrations are reported for epiphytic lichens collected in coastal and inland areas from the USA, Canada and France for assessing atmospheric Se source. Correlations found between Se and Cl in lichens confirmed the major marine biogenic source for atmospheric Se. Continental samples do not show systematic relationships between Se and other metal (Pb, Cu, In ...) contents, even for lichens collected in the vicinity of smelters or close to urban areas. Our results suggest that, although anthropogenic Se may be present, the marine biogenic Se source is a major contributor to atmospheric Se for our sampling locations. The contribution of naturally emitted atmospheric Se may be significant in urban and industrial areas and should be taken into account for further studies. PMID:19467747

  6. The contribution of environmental biomonitoring with lichens to assess human exposure to dioxins.

    PubMed

    Augusto, Sofia; Pereira, Maria João; Soares, Amílcar; Branquinho, Cristina

    2007-05-01

    The contribution of environmental biomonitoring with lichens to assess human exposure to dioxins was the main purpose of this work. For that, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) were measured in 66 lichen sampling points. The obtained information significantly improved the basic knowledge on the environmental exposure to dioxins through distinction between effective control areas from areas with moderate atmospheric deposition. It allowed the integration of PCDD/F atmospheric deposition for much longer periods, allowing to relate low levels with long-term chronic effects on health. Thus, the production of high-resolution data on environmental exposure essential to perform reliable environmental health studies was possible. It was argued that PCDD/F in lichens may be used as spatial estimators of the potential risk of inhalation by the population present in the area. An example of the application of this data to select control and exposed areas for environmental health studies was presented. PMID:17321205

  7. Direct measurement of the combined effects of lichen, rainfall, and temperature on silicate weathering

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, P.V.; Dorn, R.I.; Brazel, A.J.; Clark, J.; Moore, R.B.; Glidewell, T.

    1999-10-01

    A key uncertainty in models of the global carbonate-silicate cycle and long-term climate is the way that silicates weather under different climatologic conditions, and in the presence or absence of organic activity. Digital imaging of basalts in Hawaii resolves the coupling between temperature, rainfall, and weathering in the presence and absence of lichens. Activation energies for abiotic dissolution of plagioclase (23.1 {+-} 2.5 kcal/mol) and olivine (21.3 {+-} 2.7 kcal/mol) are similar to those measured in the laboratory, and are roughly double those measured from samples taken underneath lichen. Abiotic weathering rates appear to be proportional to rainfall. Dissolution of plagioclase and olivine underneath lichen is far more sensitive to rainfall.

  8. Lichen communities on conifers in Southern California mountains: an ecological survey relative to oxidant air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Sigal, L.L.; Nash, T.H. III

    1983-01-01

    In comparison with collections from the early 1900's when oxidant air pollution was essentially absent, 50% fewer lichen species were found on conifers during 3 yr (1976-1979) of collecting and sampling in the mountains of Southern California. Among the five mountain ranges studied, the San Bernardino Mountains, the region with the highest oxidant levels, had lower lichen frequency and cover values. Within the San Bernardino study sites, lichen cover was inversely related to estimated oxidant doses. Furthermore, at sites with high oxidant levels, marked morphological deterioration of the common species Hypogymnia enteromorpha was documented. Transplants of this species from the relatively unpolluted Cuyamaca Rancho State Park into the San Bernardino Mountains exhibited similar deterioration after a year's exposure. 4 figures, 9 tables.

  9. Lichen communities on conifers in Southern California mountains: an ecological survey relative to oxidant air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Sigal, L.L.; Nash T.H. III

    1983-01-01

    In comparison with collections from the early 1900's when oxidant air pollution was essentially absent, 50% fewer lichen species were found on conifers during 3 yr (1976-1979) of collecting and sampling in the mountains of Southern California. Among the five mountain ranges studied, the San Bernardino Mountains, the region with the highest oxidant levels, had lower lichen frequency and cover values. Within the San Bernardino study sites, lichen cover was inversely related to estimated oxidant doses. Furthermore, at sites with high oxidant levels, marked morphological deterioration of the common species Hypogymnia enteromorpha was documented. Transplants of this species from the relatively unpolluted Cuyamaca Rancho State Park in the San Bernardino Mountains exhibited similar deterioration after a year's exposure.

  10. Effects of Intravenous Ketamine Infusions in a Neuropathic Pain Patient with Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Ashraf F.; Armstrong, Josh S.; Smith, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    A patient reported to the Florida Spine Institute (Clearwater, Fla., USA) with severe lichen sclerosus of the anogenital region and legs. The patient's pain presentation was neuropathic with hypersensitivity, allodynia, swelling, and weakness. The patient had failed multiple pain management modalities including opioid therapy, anticonvulsants, and antidepressants. The patient completed a standard intravenous ketamine infusion regimen developed at the Florida Spine Institute and reported complete abolishment of her pain syndrome. For the first time, we report that ketamine infusions also dramatically improved a patient's lichen sclerosus. That ketamine is known to have immunomodulatory properties, and given the clinical observations described in this case report, suggests that ketamine should be explored as a possible new therapeutic option for managing lichen sclerosus, especially in cases that are refractory to conventional therapies. PMID:27462225

  11. Spatial distribution of perylenequinones in lichens and extended quinones in quincyte using confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mathey, A; Lukins, P B

    2001-02-01

    The application of confocal fluorescence microscopy and microspectrofluorimetry to the characterization of the distribution of organic compounds in bulk lichens and mineral structures is demonstrated. Perylenequinones and extended quinones were chosen as both model compounds and as the naturally occurring fluorophores. These molecules occur, respectively, in corticolous microlichens and in a pink-colored mineral called quincyte. The structures of quincyte and of the lichens Cryptothelium rhodotitton and Graphis hematites are described, and the possibilities of energy dissipation and photoprotection mechanisms in these lichens are discussed. This study also illustrates how, for a wide range of specimens, naturally occurring quinone fluorophores in the specimen can be exploited directly to yield chemical and structural information without using fluorescent labelling. These intrinsic quinonoid compounds have molecular fluorescence yields and laser damage thresholds comparable or superior to common microscopy dyes, and can therefore be used to obtain high-contrast 3D fluorescence imaging without the complications introduced by dye labelling. PMID:10936454

  12. Epiphytic lichen diversity on dead and dying conifers under different levels of atmospheric pollution.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus

    2005-05-01

    Based on literature data, epiphytic lichen abundance was comparably studied in montane woodlands on healthy versus dead or dying conifers of Europe and North America in areas with different levels of atmospheric pollution. Study sites comprised Picea abies forests in the Harz Mountains and in the northern Alps, Germany, Picea rubens-Abies balsamea forests on Whiteface Mountain, Adirondacks, New York, U.S.A. and Picea engelmannii-Abies lasiocarpa forests in the Salish Mountains, Montana, U.S.A. Detrended correspondence analysis showed that epiphytic lichen vegetation differed more between healthy and dead or dying trees at high- versus low-polluted sites. This is attributed to greater differences in chemical habitat conditions between trees of different vitality in highly polluted areas. Based on these results, a hypothetical model of relative importance of site factors for small-scale variation of epiphytic lichen abundance versus atmospheric pollutant load is discussed. PMID:15701398

  13. Photoprotective capacities of lichen metabolites: a joint theoretical and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Millot, Marion; Di Meo, Florent; Tomasi, Sophie; Boustie, Joël; Trouillas, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    The adaptative capacity of lichens to UV radiation could be expressed by the production of photo-absorbing secondary metabolites in thalli. A preliminary screening performed on twelve lichen species by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) revealed five major compounds absorbing in the UVA (315-400nm) or UVB (280-315nm) ranges in Diploicia canescens. After phytochemical investigation of this lichen, twelve metabolites have been isolated and characterized. Those obtained in sufficient quantities were evaluated for their photoprotective capacities and compared to three referent sunscreens. Experimental spectra were compared to theoretical spectra as obtained at the TD-DFT level of theory. Different DFT functionals were tested to accurately reproduce the UV/Vis spectra of five depsidones, one diphenylether and two bisxanthones. Results indicate that absorption wavelengths and molecular extinction coefficients (oscillator strengths) obtained for the bisxanthones were similar to those of the UVA referent sunscreen. PMID:22516892

  14. Direct measurement of the combined effects of lichen, rainfall, and temperature onsilicate weathering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, P.V.; Dorn, R.I.; Brazel, A.J.; Clark, J.; Moore, R.B.; Glidewell, T.

    1999-01-01

    A key uncertainty in models of the global carbonate-silicate cycle and long-term climate is the way that silicates weather under different climatologic conditions, and in the presence or absence of organic activity. Digital imaging of basalts in Hawaii resolves the coupling between temperature, rainfall, and weathering in the presence and absence of lichens. Activation energies for abiotic dissolution of plagioclase (23.1 ?? 2.5 kcal/mol) and olivine (21.3 ?? 2.7 kcal/mol) are similar to those measured in the laboratory, and are roughly double those measured from samples taken underneath lichen. Abiotic weathering rates appear to be proportional to rainfall. Dissolution of plagioclase and olivine underneath lichen is far more sensitive to rainfall.

  15. Effects of Intravenous Ketamine Infusions in a Neuropathic Pain Patient with Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Ashraf F; Armstrong, Josh S; Smith, Adam J

    2016-01-01

    A patient reported to the Florida Spine Institute (Clearwater, Fla., USA) with severe lichen sclerosus of the anogenital region and legs. The patient's pain presentation was neuropathic with hypersensitivity, allodynia, swelling, and weakness. The patient had failed multiple pain management modalities including opioid therapy, anticonvulsants, and antidepressants. The patient completed a standard intravenous ketamine infusion regimen developed at the Florida Spine Institute and reported complete abolishment of her pain syndrome. For the first time, we report that ketamine infusions also dramatically improved a patient's lichen sclerosus. That ketamine is known to have immunomodulatory properties, and given the clinical observations described in this case report, suggests that ketamine should be explored as a possible new therapeutic option for managing lichen sclerosus, especially in cases that are refractory to conventional therapies. PMID:27462225

  16. [Lichen planus, a T-lymphocyte mediated reaction involving the skin and mucous membranes].

    PubMed

    van den Akker, T W

    2001-10-01

    Lichen planus concerns a benign skin disorder without involvement of other organ systems. Its course is generally limited to less than a year. Classic lichen planus is characterized by pruritic, violaceous, plane papules which occur most commonly on the inside of the wrists, the lower back, the lower legs and the perimalleolar region of adults aged between 30-60 years. Frequently, oral and genital mucous membrane lesions are involved. Erosive mucosal lesions are particularly painful and long-lasting. Many clinical variants have been described ranging from lichenoid drug eruptions to associations with graft-versus-host disease. The cause of lichen planus is unknown. An immunopathological pathogenesis with T-lymphocytes directed against basal keratinocytes or the basal membrane zone is assumed. Multiple therapeutic options exist: local and systemic corticosteroids, psoralens with ultraviolet A light (PUVA), retinoids, cyclosporin. PMID:11675973

  17. [Metabolites of Toxigenic Fungi in Lichens of the Genera Nephroma, Peltigera, Umbilicaria, and Xanthoria].

    PubMed

    Burkin, A A; Kononenko, G P

    2015-01-01

    The component composition of mycotoxin complexes is characterized in foliose lichens of the genera Nephroma, Peltigera, Umbilicaria, and Xanthoria. The interspecies differences in the genus Peltigera are expressed by the number of metabolites detected, from seven in P. aphthosa to three in P. canina, P. didactyla, P. praetextata, and P. rufescens. In Nephroma arcticum eight mycotoxins occurred regularly, with mycophenolic acid in especially high quantities in comparison with other lichens. In Umbilicaria, of six permanent components the content of alternariole is the highest, and in Xanthoria the content of emodine is the highest. Variation of the quantitative content of mycotoxins in general and of species of lichens is discussed, as is expansion of the background spectrum of these metabolites in collections from different territories. PMID:26852476

  18. A lichen protected by a super-hydrophobic and breathable structure.

    PubMed

    Shirtcliffe, Neil J; Brian Pyatt, F; Newton, Michael I; McHale, Glen

    2006-11-01

    A species of lichen, Lecanora conizaeoides, is shown to be super-hydrophobic. It uses a combination of hydrophobic compounds and multi-layered roughness to shed water effectively. This is combined with gas channels to produce a biological analogue of a waterproof, breathable garment. The particular lichen grows mostly during wet seasons and is unusually resistant to acid rain [Hauck, M., 2003. The Bryologist 106(2), 257-269; Honegger, R., 1998. Lichenologist 30(3),193-212]. The waterproof, breathable surface allows this lichen to photosynthesise when other species are covered with a layer of water. In addition, rainwater runs off the surface of the organism, reducing its intake of water from above and probably contributing to its resistance to acid rain. PMID:16434121

  19. [Lichens on branches of Siberian fir (Abies sibirica Ledeb) as indicators of atmospheric pollution in forests].

    PubMed

    Otniukova, T N; Sekretenko, O P

    2008-01-01

    The abundance distribution of different ecological groups of lichens depending on bark pH has been studied on 1- to 24-year shoots of Siberian fir in the mountains of southern Siberia. Along with acidophytic lichens commonly found on the Siberian fir (Usnea sp., Bryoria sp., etc.), its young shoots are also colonized by nitrophytic species (Physcia tenella, Melanelia exasperatula, etc.), which is evidence for the increasing pH of shoot bark. The proportion of thalli of nitrophytic lichen species shows a significant positive correlation with the pH of the upper (dusted) bark layer and is greater in the Eastern Sayan (at bark pH averaging 5.4) than in the Western Sayan (pH 4.7). The trends revealed in this study may be used for indication of pollution and ecological monitoring of forest ecosystems. PMID:18771033

  20. Copper localization, elemental content, and thallus colour in the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora sierra from California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purvis, O.W.; Bennett, J.P.; Spratt, J.

    2011-01-01

    An unusual dark blue-green lichen, Lecanora sierrae, was discovered over 30 years ago by Czehura near copper mines in the Lights Creek District, Plumas County, Northern California. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Czehura found that dark green lichen samples from Warren Canyon contained 4% Cu in ash and suggested that its colour was due to copper accumulation in the cortex. The present study addressed the hypothesis that the green colour in similar material we sampled from Warren Canyon in 2008, is caused by copper localization in the thallus. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis of specimens of L. sierrae confirmed that copper localization took place in the cortex. Elemental analyses of L. sierrae and three other species from the same localities showed high enrichments of copper and selenium, suggesting that copper selenates or selenites might occur in these lichens and be responsible for the unusual colour.

  1. The importance of old deciduous trees and wooden fences for lichen diversity – an example from the Teichalm area (Eastern Alps)

    PubMed Central

    Bilovitz, Peter Othmar

    2016-01-01

    BILOVITZ, P. O. 2014. The importance of old deciduous trees and wooden fences for lichen diversity – an example from the Teichalm area (Eastern Alps). – Herzogia 27: 199 –204. The investigation of the epiphytic lichen diversity on four neighbouring old, isolated deciduous trees and a wooden fence in the Teichalm area yielded 74 lichen taxa and 4 lichenicolous fungi. Anaptychia ciliaris, Cyphelium notarisii, Ramalina fastigiata and R. fraxinea are remarkable records. The usually sterile lichen Thelomma ocellatum was rich in fertile thalli. The known lichen diversity of the Teichalm-Sommeralm region increases from 87 to 122 taxa.

  2. Comparative Cryptogam Ecology: A Review of Bryophyte and Lichen Traits that Drive Biogeochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Cornelissen, Johannes H. C.; Lang, Simone I.; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A.; During, Heinjo J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent decades have seen a major surge in the study of interspecific variation in functional traits in comparative plant ecology, as a tool to understanding and predicting ecosystem functions and their responses to environmental change. However, this research has been biased almost exclusively towards vascular plants. Very little is known about the role and applicability of functional traits of non-vascular cryptogams, particularly bryophytes and lichens, with respect to biogeochemical cycling. Yet these organisms are paramount determinants of biogeochemistry in several biomes, particularly cold biomes and tropical rainforests, where they: (1) contribute substantially to above-ground biomass (lichens, bryophytes); (2) host nitrogen-fixing bacteria, providing major soil N input (lichens, bryophytes); (3) control soil chemistry and nutrition through the accumulation of recalcitrant polyphenols (bryophytes) and through their control over soil and vegetation hydrology and temperatures; (4) both promote erosion (rock weathering by lichens) and prevent it (biological crusts in deserts); (5) provide a staple food to mammals such as reindeer (lichens) and arthropodes, with important feedbacks to soils and biota; and (6) both facilitate and compete with vascular plants. Approach Here we review current knowledge about interspecific variation in cryptogam traits with respect to biogeochemical cycling and discuss to what extent traits and measuring protocols needed for bryophytes and lichens correspond with those applied to vascular plants. We also propose and discuss several new or recently introduced traits that may help us understand and predict the control of cryptogams over several aspects of the biogeochemistry of ecosystems. Conclusions Whilst many methodological challenges lie ahead, comparative cryptogam ecology has the potential to meet some of the important challenges of understanding and predicting the biogeochemical and climate consequences of large

  3. Identification of Lichen Metabolism in an Early Devonian Terrestrial Fossil using Carbon Stable Isotope Signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, S.; Jahren, H.

    2002-05-01

    The fossil organismSpongiophyton minutissimum is commonly found in early terrestrial assemblages (Devonian age, 430-340 Ma). Suites of morphological descriptions of this fossil have been published, starting in 1954, and have led to two competing hypotheses: 1.) that this early colonizer of land was a primitive bryophyte, and therefore a precursor to modern plant organisms, and 2.) thatS. minutissimum was a lichen: a close association between an alga and a fungus. Because the ultimate mechanisms for carbon supply to the carboxylating enzyme in bryophytes and lichens differ fundamentally, we expect these two types of organisms to exhibit separate ranges of δ 13Ctissue value. In bryophytes, gaseous carbon dioxide diffuses through perforations in cuticle (resulting in δ 13Catmosphere - δ 13Cbryophyte = ~20 ‰ ). Within the lichen, carbon is supplied to the carboxylating enzyme of the photobiont as carbon dioxide dissolved in fungal cell fluids (resulting in δ 13Catmosphere - δ 13Clichen = ~15 ‰ ). By comparing the δ 13Ctissue value ofS. minutissimum (mean = -23 ‰ ;n = 75) with δ 13Ctissue values in twenty-five lichens, representative of the four different phylogenetic clades (mean = -23 ‰ ;n = 25) and thirty different genera of bryophytes including mosses, liverworts, and hornworts (mean = -28 ‰ ;n = 30), we conclude thatS. minutissimum was cycling carbon via processes that much more closely resembled those of lichens, and not bryophytes. We discuss the general strategies associated with lichen biology, such as the ability to withstand dessication during reproduction, and how they may have contributed to the successful colonization of terrestrial environments.

  4. Comparative study of the suitability of three lichen species to trace-element air monitoring.

    PubMed

    Cercasov, V; Pantelică, A; Sălăgean, M; Caniglia, G; Scarlat, A

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the suitability of three lichen species (Cetraria islandica, Evernia prunastri, and Ramalina farinacea) as transplants to trace-element air biomonitoring, they were exposed on substratum-free supports, from July 1996 until July 1997, in three European countries with different climates (Germany, Italy, Romania), at six sites with different types of air pollutants (two in each country). After 2, 4, 6, and 12 months of exposure, some portions of thallus were collected, prepared, and measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at the Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Bucharest and by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (EDXRFA) at the University of Hohenheim in Stuttgart. Fifteen environmentally relevant elements: As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, V, and Zn were determined. The analytical results were compared statistically. To study the distribution of the trace-elements between the lichens and the lichen throughfall water inside a virtual column, the throughfall water was collected under the lichen transplants during 6 and 12 months. The dried residues were analysed by INAA at Bucharest. The accumulating capacity for all investigated species is evident. For a comparative evaluation, the initial element contents, the "accumulation factors" relative to the bulk deposition, the interspecies "calibration factors", and the "retention efficiencies", defined as ratios of the lichen enrichment to the sum of this enrichment and the content in the lichen throughfall water, were considered. These criteria attest the best suitability for Evernia prunastri, followed by Ramalina farinacea and Cetraria islandica. PMID:12125725

  5. Survival of lichens and bacteria exposed to outer space conditions - Results of the Lithopanspermia experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, Rosa; Sancho, Leopoldo G.; Horneck, Gerda; Ríos, Asunción de los; Wierzchos, Jacek; Olsson-Francis, Karen; Cockell, Charles S.; Rettberg, Petra; Berger, Thomas; de Vera, Jean-Pierre P.; Ott, Sieglinde; Frías, Jesus Martinez; Melendi, Pablo Gonzalez; Lucas, Maria Mercedes; Reina, Manuel; Pintado, Ana; Demets, René

    2010-08-01

    In the space experiments Lithopanspermia, experimental support was provided to the likelihood of the lithopanspermia concept that considers a viable transport of microorganisms between the terrestrial planets by means of meteorites. The rock colonising lichens Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans, the vagrant lichen Aspicilia fruticulosa, and endolithic and endoevaporitic communities of cyanobacteria and bacteria with their natural rock substrate were exposed to space for 10 days onboard the Biopan facility of the European Space Agency (ESA). Biopan was closed during launch and re-entry. In addition, in the Stone facility, one sample of R. geographicum on its natural granitic substrate was attached at the outer surface of the re-entry capsule close to the stagnation point, only protected by a thin cover of glass textolite. Post-flight analysis, which included determination of the photosynthetic activity, LIVE/DEAD staining, and germination capacity of the ascospores, demonstrated that all three lichen were quite resistant to outer space conditions, which include the full spectrum of solar extraterrestrial electromagnetic radiation or selected wavelength ranges. This high resistance of the lichens to space appears to be due to their symbiotic nature and protection by their upper pigmented layer, the cortex. In contrast, the rock- or halite-inhabiting bacteria were severely damaged by the same exposure. After atmospheric re-entry, the granite of the Stone sample was transformed into a glassy, nearly homogenous material, with several friction striae. None of the lichen cells survived this re-entry process. The data suggest that lichens are suitable candidates for testing the concept of lithopanspermia, because they are extremely resistant to the harsh environment of outer space. The more critical event is the atmospheric re-entry after being captured by a planet. Experiments simulating the re-entry process of a microbe-carrying meteoroid did not show any

  6. Rhizobiales as functional and endosymbiontic members in the lichen symbiosis of Lobaria pulmonaria L.

    PubMed

    Erlacher, Armin; Cernava, Tomislav; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Soh, Jung; Sensen, Christoph W; Grube, Martin; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Rhizobiales (Alphaproteobacteria) are well-known beneficial partners in plant-microbe interactions. Less is known about the occurrence and function of Rhizobiales in the lichen symbiosis, although it has previously been shown that Alphaproteobacteria are the dominating group in growing lichen thalli. We have analyzed the taxonomic structure and assigned functions to Rhizobiales within a metagenomic dataset of the lung lichen Lobaria pulmonaria L. One third (32.2%) of the overall bacteria belong to the Rhizobiales, in particular to the families Methylobacteriaceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae, and Rhizobiaceae. About 20% of our metagenomic assignments could not be placed in any of the Rhizobiales lineages, which indicates a yet undescribed bacterial diversity. SEED-based functional analysis focused on Rhizobiales and revealed functions supporting the symbiosis, including auxin and vitamin production, nitrogen fixation and stress protection. We also have used a specifically developed probe to localize Rhizobiales by confocal laser scanning microscopy after fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-CLSM). Bacteria preferentially colonized fungal surfaces, but there is clear evidence that members of the Rhizobiales are able to intrude at varying depths into the interhyphal gelatinous matrix of the upper lichen cortical layer and that at least occasionally some bacteria also are capable to colonize the interior of the fungal hyphae. Interestingly, the gradual development of an endosymbiotic bacterial life was found for lichen- as well as for fungal- and plant-associated bacteria. The new tools to study Rhizobiales, FISH microscopy and comparative metagenomics, suggest a similar beneficial role for lichens than for plants and will help to better understand the Rhizobiales-host interaction and their biotechnological potential. PMID:25713563

  7. Chromatin assembly on herpes simplex virus genomes during lytic infection

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xu; Triezenberg, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    The human herpes simplex viruses HSV-1 and HSV-2 infect a significant portion of the human population. Both viruses can undergo lytic infection in epithelial cells and establish lifelong latency in neuronal cells. The large HSV-1 DNA genomes have long been considered to be devoid of histones both inside the virion particle and inside the cell during lytic infection, but to be packaged in repressive chromatin during latency. However, recent reports indicate that many histone and non-histone chromosomal proteins can associate with viral DNA during lytic infection and may influence important events during the HSV-1 lytic cycle. In this article, we summarize recent developments in this field and their implications. PMID:19682614

  8. Encephalitis herpes simplex: aural rehabilitation following bilateral deafness.

    PubMed

    Montano, J J; Melley, C C; Karam, D B

    1983-10-01

    Aural rehabilitation is a critical and often neglected aspect of a hearing-impaired patient's total rehabilitation. This case description illustrates the need for implementation of aural rehabilitation services. A 59-year-old woman exhibited bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss following the onset of encephalitis herpes simplex. Auditory amplification attempts were unsuccessful. Aural rehabilitation was initiated immediately, and she was seen for lipreading and vibrotactile stimulation training. Goals progressed from identification of single words within a category to phonemic recognition. Vibrotactile stimulation was used to facilitate environmental awareness. Therapy goals reflected the patient's increased motivation to communicate within her environment. This patient's communicative status is viewed on a continuum: from success in individual treatment goals, extending to successful communication within the structure of the entire rehabilitation setting, and finally to functional communication within her home environment. PMID:6625883

  9. Autophagy Stimulation Abrogates Herpes simplex Virus-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yakoub, Abraam M.; Shukla, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is a double-stranded DNA virus that causes life-long infections. HSV-1 infections may lead to herpetic stromal keratitis that may advance to corneal blindness. HSV-1 infections can also cause fatal conditions, such as herpes encephalitis, or neonatal disease. A major virulence mechanism of HSV-1 is the control of autophagy, an innate immune defense strategy that could otherwise degrade viral particles. Here, to investigate a new mechanism for antiviral therapy, we tested the effect of various autophagy inducers (physiological and pharmacological) on infection. Autophagy stimulation was confirmed to significantly suppress HSV-1 infection in various cell types, without affecting cell viability. This study establishes the importance of autophagy for regulating HSV-1 infection, and provides a proof-of-principle evidence for a novel antiviral mechanism. PMID:25856282

  10. Herpes simplex virus 1 induces de novo phospholipid synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, Esther; Oliveira, Anna Paula de; Tobler, Kurt; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; Sonda, Sabrina; Kaech, Andres; Lucas, Miriam S.; Ackermann, Mathias; Wild, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 capsids bud at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes acquiring an envelope composed of phospholipids. Hence, we measured incorporation of phospholipid precursors into these membranes, and quantified changes in size of cellular compartments by morphometric analysis. Incorporation of [{sup 3}H]-choline into both nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes was significantly enhanced upon infection. [{sup 3}H]-choline was also part of isolated virions even grown in the presence of brefeldin A. Nuclei expanded early in infection. The Golgi complex and vacuoles increased substantially whereas the endoplasmic reticulum enlarged only temporarily. The data suggest that HSV-1 stimulates phospholipid synthesis, and that de novo synthesized phospholipids are inserted into nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes to i) maintain membrane integrity in the course of nuclear and cellular expansion, ii) to supply membrane constituents for envelopment of capsids by budding at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes, and iii) to provide membranes for formation of transport vacuoles.

  11. Proposal of Evolutionary Simplex Method for Global Optimization Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Yoshiaki

    To make an agile decision in a rational manner, role of optimization engineering has been notified increasingly under diversified customer demand. With this point of view, in this paper, we have proposed a new evolutionary method serving as an optimization technique in the paradigm of optimization engineering. The developed method has prospects to solve globally various complicated problem appearing in real world applications. It is evolved from the conventional method known as Nelder and Mead’s Simplex method by virtue of idea borrowed from recent meta-heuristic method such as PSO. Mentioning an algorithm to handle linear inequality constraints effectively, we have validated effectiveness of the proposed method through comparison with other methods using several benchmark problems.

  12. A note concerning multivariate total positivity on the simplex

    SciTech Connect

    Rayens, W.S.

    1996-12-31

    Although compositional data arise frequently in many different disciplines, relatively little is known about families of parametric densities that reside on a simplex, which is the natural sample space for such data. An exception to this is a recent paper by Gupta and Richards wherein the Liouville family is defined and discussed. They sought to characterize dependence properties within this new family using, among other ideas, multivariate total positivity. Further investigation reveals that their results are not very useful. In fact, it is shown that there does not exist a Liouville density, as defined by Gupta and Richards, that is also multivariate totally positive of order 2. Fatal flaws associated with an obvious alternative to their definition are discussed.

  13. Fine scale association mapping of disease loci using simplex families.

    PubMed

    Morris, A P; Whittaker, J C

    2000-05-01

    We present a new method for the fine scale mapping of disease loci based on samples of simplex families, each containing an affected child. The method is based on a generalisation of a single locus allele transmission model to multiple marker loci. The model is developed under the assumption of a single ancestral mutation and allows for the calculation of posterior probabilities that each allele at a particular marker was present on the founder chromosome. We illustrate the method using simulated family data for cystic fibrosis and Huntingtons disease, for which the locations of mutations in the disease genes are now known. For both diseases, our new method provides good estimates of the location of the mutations. PMID:11246474

  14. Fulminant hepatitis following primary herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Al Midani, A; Pinney, J; Field, N; Atkinson, C; Haque, T; Harber, M

    2011-01-01

    Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is a rare but well-recognized complication of primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in immunocompromised patients. Here, we report two cases of acute hepatitis and FHF secondary to primary HSV type 1 infection following renal transplantation in the absence of any mucocutaneous manifestation. High levels of HSV type-1 DNA were detected in the blood. Both patients were seronegative for HSV 1 and HSV 2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) before transplantation, whereas the donor of patient 1 was HSV 1 IgG-positive but had no viremia and the donor of patient 2 was HSV-seronegative. Patient 1 recovered with acyclovir and immunoglobulin whereas patient 2 did not respond and succumbed to death. HSV-seronegative patients are potentially at risk of developing severe primary HSV disease following transplantation, particularly in the absence of routine anti-viral prophylaxis. HSV infection should always be excluded in transplant patients with hepatic dysfunction. PMID:21196623

  15. Immunological Aspects of Acute and Recurrent Herpes Simplex Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Hus, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) belongs to the major causes of visual morbidity worldwide and available methods of treatment remain unsatisfactory. Primary infection occurs usually early in life and is often asymptomatic. Chronic visual impairment and visual loss are caused by corneal scaring, thinning, and vascularization connected with recurrent HSV infections. The pathogenesis of herpetic keratitis is complex and is still not fully understood. According to the current knowledge, corneal scarring and vascularization are the result of chronic inflammatory reaction against HSV antigens. In this review we discuss the role of innate and adaptive immunities in acute and recurrent HSV ocular infection and present the potential future targets for novel therapeutical options based on immune interventions. PMID:25276842

  16. Lytic Promoters Express Protein during Herpes Simplex Virus Latency

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Tiffany A.; Tscharke, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has provided the prototype for viral latency with previously well-defined acute or lytic and latent phases. More recently, the deep quiescence of HSV latency has been questioned with evidence that lytic genes can be transcribed in this state. However, to date the only evidence that these transcripts might be translated has come from immunological studies that show activated T cells persist in the nervous system during latency. Here we use a highly sensitive Cre-marking model to show that lytic and latent phases are less clearly defined in two significant ways. First, around half of the HSV spread leading to latently infected sites occurred beyond the initial acute infection and second, we show direct evidence that lytic promoters can drive protein expression during latency. PMID:27348812

  17. Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Esophagitis in a Young Immunocompetent Adult

    PubMed Central

    Kadayakkara, Deepak K.; Candelaria, Angela; Kwak, Ye Eun; Loeser, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex esophagitis (HSE) is commonly identified in immunosuppressed patients. It is rare among immunocompetent patients and almost all of the reported cases are due to HSV-1 infection. HSV-2 esophagitis is extremely rare. We report the case of a young immunocompetent male who presented with dysphagia, odynophagia, and epigastric pain. Endoscopy showed multitudes of white nummular lesions in the distal esophagus initially suspected to be candida esophagitis. However, classic histopathological findings of multinucleated giant cells with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions and positive HSV-2 IgM confirmed the diagnosis of HSV-2 esophagitis. The patient rapidly responded to acyclovir treatment. Although HSV-2 is predominantly associated with genital herpes, it can cause infections in other parts of the body previously attributed to only HSV-1 infection. PMID:27195158

  18. New strategies against drug resistance to herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu-Chen; Feng, Hui; Lin, Yu-Chun; Guo, Xiu-Rong

    2016-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV), a member of the Herpesviridae family, is a significant human pathogen that results in mucocutaneous lesions in the oral cavity or genital infections. Acyclovir (ACV) and related nucleoside analogues can successfully treat HSV infections, but the emergence of drug resistance to ACV has created a barrier for the treatment of HSV infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. There is an urgent need to explore new and effective tactics to circumvent drug resistance to HSV. This review summarises the current strategies in the development of new targets (the DNA helicase/primase (H/P) complex), new types of molecules (nature products) and new antiviral mechanisms (lethal mutagenesis of Janus-type nucleosides) to fight the drug resistance of HSV. PMID:27025259

  19. New strategies against drug resistance to herpes simplex virus

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu-Chen; Feng, Hui; Lin, Yu-Chun; Guo, Xiu-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV), a member of the Herpesviridae family, is a significant human pathogen that results in mucocutaneous lesions in the oral cavity or genital infections. Acyclovir (ACV) and related nucleoside analogues can successfully treat HSV infections, but the emergence of drug resistance to ACV has created a barrier for the treatment of HSV infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. There is an urgent need to explore new and effective tactics to circumvent drug resistance to HSV. This review summarises the current strategies in the development of new targets (the DNA helicase/primase (H/P) complex), new types of molecules (nature products) and new antiviral mechanisms (lethal mutagenesis of Janus-type nucleosides) to fight the drug resistance of HSV. PMID:27025259

  20. Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Esophagitis in a Young Immunocompetent Adult.

    PubMed

    Kadayakkara, Deepak K; Candelaria, Angela; Kwak, Ye Eun; Loeser, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex esophagitis (HSE) is commonly identified in immunosuppressed patients. It is rare among immunocompetent patients and almost all of the reported cases are due to HSV-1 infection. HSV-2 esophagitis is extremely rare. We report the case of a young immunocompetent male who presented with dysphagia, odynophagia, and epigastric pain. Endoscopy showed multitudes of white nummular lesions in the distal esophagus initially suspected to be candida esophagitis. However, classic histopathological findings of multinucleated giant cells with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions and positive HSV-2 IgM confirmed the diagnosis of HSV-2 esophagitis. The patient rapidly responded to acyclovir treatment. Although HSV-2 is predominantly associated with genital herpes, it can cause infections in other parts of the body previously attributed to only HSV-1 infection. PMID:27195158

  1. Analysis of test data on the simplex strapdown navigation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results of a study of test data taken on the simplex strapdown navigation system were presented. That system consisted of the following components: strapdown platform, altimeter, digital computer, tape recorder, typewriter, and power source. The objective of these tests was to isolate error sources which may cause degradation of the system's accuracy and to recommend appropriate changes to the system test procedures or computer software. The following recommendations were made: (1) addition of a gyro compassing alignment program into the navigation program, (2) addition of line drivers at the signal processor end of the transmission line, (3) need for extensive laboratory testing to determine sensor misalignments, biases, and scale factors, (4) need to stabilize the power source to prevent transients during power transfer, (5) need to isolate and eliminate the source of the large noise inputs.

  2. Fatal Neonatal Herpes Simplex Infection Likely from Unrecognized Breast Lesions.

    PubMed

    Field, Scott S

    2016-02-01

    Type 1 herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) is very prevalent yet in rare circumstances can lead to fatal neonatal disease. Genital acquisition of type 2 HSV is the usual mode for neonatal herpes, but HSV-1 transmission by genital or extragenital means may result in greater mortality rates. A very rare scenario is presented in which the mode of transmission was likely through breast lesions. The lesions were seen by nurses as well as the lactation consultant and obstetrician in the hospital after delivery of the affected baby but not recognized as possibly being caused by herpes. The baby died 9 days after birth with hepatic failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Peripartum health care workers need to be aware of potential nongenital (including from the breast[s]) neonatal herpes acquisition, which can be lethal. PMID:26185119

  3. Advance in herpes simplex viruses for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shanglong; Dai, Meihua; You, Lei; Zhao, Yupei

    2013-04-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy is an attractive approach that uses live viruses to selectively kill cancer cells. Oncolytic viruses can be genetically engineered to induce cell lyses through virus replication and cytotoxic protein expression. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has become one of the most widely clinically used oncolytic agent. Various types of HSV have been studied in basic or clinical research. Combining oncolytic virotherapy with chemotherapy or radiotherapy generally produces synergic action with unclear molecular mechanisms. Arming HSV with therapeutic transgenes is a promising strategy and can be used to complement conventional therapies. As an efficient gene delivery system, HSV has been successfully used to deliver various immunomodulatory molecules. Arming HSV with therapeutic genes merits further investigation for potential clinical application. PMID:23564184

  4. Reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus infection by ultraviolet light: a human model

    SciTech Connect

    Perna, J.J.; Mannix, M.L.; Rooney, J.F.; Notkins, A.L.; Straus, S.E.

    1987-09-01

    Infection with herpes simplex virus often results in a latent infection of local sensory ganglia and a disease characterized by periodic viral reactivation and mucocutaneous lesions. The factors that trigger reactivation in humans are still poorly defined. In our study, five patients with documented histories of recurrent herpes simplex virus infection on the buttocks or sacrum were exposed to three times their minimal erythema dose of ultraviolet light. Site-specific cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection occurred at 4.4 +/- 0.4 days after exposure to ultraviolet light in 8 of 13 attempts at reactivation. We conclude that ultraviolet light can reactivate herpes simplex virus under experimentally defined conditions. This model in humans should prove useful in evaluating the pathophysiology and prevention of viral reactivation.

  5. Disseminated herpes simplex infection during pregnancy, rare but important to recognise

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Nawar Younis; Uriel, Alison; Mammen, Catherine; Bonington, Alec

    2014-01-01

    Disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection during pregnancy is a rare, but potentially fatal condition. We present a case where prompt treatment with intravenous acyclovir resulted in a successful outcome for both mother and baby. PMID:25320695

  6. Detection of herpes simplex virus-specific DNA sequences in latently infected mice and in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Efstathiou, S; Minson, A C; Field, H J; Anderson, J R; Wildy, P

    1986-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus-specific DNA sequences have been detected by Southern hybridization analysis in both central and peripheral nervous system tissues of latently infected mice. We have detected virus-specific sequences corresponding to the junction fragment but not the genomic termini, an observation first made by Rock and Fraser (Nature [London] 302:523-525, 1983). This "endless" herpes simplex virus DNA is both qualitatively and quantitatively stable in mouse neural tissue analyzed over a 4-month period. In addition, examination of DNA extracted from human trigeminal ganglia has shown herpes simplex virus DNA to be present in an "endless" form similar to that found in the mouse model system. Further restriction enzyme analysis of latently infected mouse brainstem and human trigeminal DNA has shown that this "endless" herpes simplex virus DNA is present in all four isomeric configurations. Images PMID:3003377

  7. Bionomics of Orasema simplex (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae) a parasitoid of Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological characteristics of the parasitoid Orasema simplex Heraty (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae), a potential candidate for the biological control of fire ants in the United States were investigated. Female survivorship, fertility and oviposition preferences were studied in the laboratory. Naturally ...

  8. PARAMETERS DISTINGUISHING HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 2-TRANSFORMED TUMORIGENIC AND NONTUMORIGENIC RAT CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A newly developed experimental model system was used to determine in vitro transformation-specific parameters which correlate with tumorigenicity. The data suggested that clonal herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed syngeneic rat embryo cells with intermediate, transformed rat ...

  9. Transmission Disequilibrium of Small CNVs in Simplex Autism

    PubMed Central

    Krumm, Niklas; O’Roak, Brian J.; Karakoc, Emre; Mohajeri, Kiana; Nelson, Ben; Vives, Laura; Jacquemont, Sebastien; Munson, Jeff; Bernier, Raphe; Eichler, Evan E.

    2013-01-01

    We searched for disruptive, genic rare copy-number variants (CNVs) among 411 families affected by sporadic autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from the Simons Simplex Collection by using available exome sequence data and CoNIFER (Copy Number Inference from Exome Reads). Compared to high-density SNP microarrays, our approach yielded ∼2× more smaller genic rare CNVs. We found that affected probands inherited more CNVs than did their siblings (453 versus 394, p = 0.004; odds ratio [OR] = 1.19) and that the probands’ CNVs affected more genes (921 versus 726, p = 0.02; OR = 1.30). These smaller CNVs (median size 18 kb) were transmitted preferentially from the mother (136 maternal versus 100 paternal, p = 0.02), although this bias occurred irrespective of affected status. The excess burden of inherited CNVs among probands was driven primarily by sibling pairs with discordant social-behavior phenotypes (p < 0.0002, measured by Social Responsiveness Scale [SRS] score), which contrasts with families where the phenotypes were more closely matched or less extreme (p > 0.5). Finally, we found enrichment of brain-expressed genes unique to probands, especially in the SRS-discordant group (p = 0.0035). In a combined model, our inherited CNVs, de novo CNVs, and de novo single-nucleotide variants all independently contributed to the risk of autism (p < 0.05). Taken together, these results suggest that small transmitted rare CNVs play a role in the etiology of simplex autism. Importantly, the small size of these variants aids in the identification of specific genes as additional risk factors associated with ASD. PMID:24035194

  10. Transmission disequilibrium of small CNVs in simplex autism.

    PubMed

    Krumm, Niklas; O'Roak, Brian J; Karakoc, Emre; Mohajeri, Kiana; Nelson, Ben; Vives, Laura; Jacquemont, Sebastien; Munson, Jeff; Bernier, Raphe; Eichler, Evan E

    2013-10-01

    We searched for disruptive, genic rare copy-number variants (CNVs) among 411 families affected by sporadic autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from the Simons Simplex Collection by using available exome sequence data and CoNIFER (Copy Number Inference from Exome Reads). Compared to high-density SNP microarrays, our approach yielded ∼2× more smaller genic rare CNVs. We found that affected probands inherited more CNVs than did their siblings (453 versus 394, p = 0.004; odds ratio [OR] = 1.19) and that the probands' CNVs affected more genes (921 versus 726, p = 0.02; OR = 1.30). These smaller CNVs (median size 18 kb) were transmitted preferentially from the mother (136 maternal versus 100 paternal, p = 0.02), although this bias occurred irrespective of affected status. The excess burden of inherited CNVs among probands was driven primarily by sibling pairs with discordant social-behavior phenotypes (p < 0.0002, measured by Social Responsiveness Scale [SRS] score), which contrasts with families where the phenotypes were more closely matched or less extreme (p > 0.5). Finally, we found enrichment of brain-expressed genes unique to probands, especially in the SRS-discordant group (p = 0.0035). In a combined model, our inherited CNVs, de novo CNVs, and de novo single-nucleotide variants all independently contributed to the risk of autism (p < 0.05). Taken together, these results suggest that small transmitted rare CNVs play a role in the etiology of simplex autism. Importantly, the small size of these variants aids in the identification of specific genes as additional risk factors associated with ASD. PMID:24035194

  11. Effects of herpes simplex virus on mRNA stability.

    PubMed Central

    Strom, T; Frenkel, N

    1987-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus virions contain one or more functions which mediate shutoff of host protein synthesis, disaggregation of host polyribosomes, and degradation of host mRNA. We studied aspects of the host shutoff mechanism by using herpes simplex virus type 1 mutants deficient in virion-induced shutoff of host protein synthesis (G. S. Read and N. Frenkel, J. Virol. 46:498-512, 1983). Shutoff of host protein synthesis by the wild-type virus was associated with degradation of host mRNAs, including beta-actin, alpha-tubulin, and heat shock protein 70. In contrast, the virion host shutoff (vhs) mutants were deficient to various degrees in their ability to induce host mRNA degradation; the extent of mRNA degradation correlated well with the extent of inhibition of host protein synthesis. This finding suggests that inhibition of host protein synthesis and degradation of host mRNA were mediated by the same virion-associated function. Virion-induced degradation of host mRNA was not prevented by inhibitors of ribosome translocation, nor could it be augmented, for mutant vhs-1, by drugs which disaggregate polyribosomes. This suggests that mRNA in polyribosomes, as well as nonpolyribosomal mRNA, is susceptible to virion-induced degradation. Finally, the half-life of viral transcripts was also prolonged in cells infected with the vhs-1 mutant virus, suggesting that the vhs function indiscriminately decreased the half-lives of both host and viral mRNAs. The vhs function may thus play a dual role in virus infection. (i) It inhibits host gene expression, and (ii) it enables rapid transitions in the expression of viral genes which are sequentially transcribed as infection progresses. Images PMID:3035220

  12. Von Willebrand Factor Gene Variants Associate with Herpes simplex Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Abdelmagid, Nada; Bereczky-Veress, Biborka; Atanur, Santosh; Musilová, Alena; Zídek, Václav; Saba, Laura; Warnecke, Andreas; Khademi, Mohsen; Studahl, Marie; Aurelius, Elisabeth; Hjalmarsson, Anders; Garcia-Diaz, Ana; Denis, Cécile V; Bergström, Tomas; Sköldenberg, Birgit; Kockum, Ingrid; Aitman, Timothy; Hübner, Norbert; Olsson, Tomas; Pravenec, Michal; Diez, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare complication of Herpes simplex virus type-1 infection. It results in severe parenchymal damage in the brain. Although viral latency in neurons is very common in the population, it remains unclear why certain individuals develop HSE. Here we explore potential host genetic variants predisposing to HSE. In order to investigate this we used a rat HSE model comparing the HSE susceptible SHR (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats) with the asymptomatic infection of BN (Brown Norway). Notably, both strains have HSV-1 spread to the CNS at four days after infection. A genome wide linkage analysis of 29 infected HXB/BXH RILs (recombinant inbred lines-generated from the prior two strains), displayed variable susceptibility to HSE enabling the definition of a significant QTL (quantitative trait locus) named Hse6 towards the end of chromosome 4 (160.89-174Mb) containing the Vwf (von Willebrand factor) gene. This was the only gene in the QTL with both cis-regulation in the brain and included several non-synonymous SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism). Intriguingly, in human chromosome 12 several SNPs within the intronic region between exon 43 and 44 of the VWF gene were associated with human HSE pathogenesis. In particular, rs917859 is nominally associated with an odds ratio of 1.5 (95% CI 1.11-2.02; p-value = 0.008) after genotyping in 115 HSE cases and 428 controls. Although there are possibly several genetic and environmental factors involved in development of HSE, our study identifies variants of the VWF gene as candidates for susceptibility in experimental and human HSE. PMID:27224245

  13. Gasification of Simplex briquets: briquet production. Vol. 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    A 7-ton/hr briquetting plant was installed at International Briquetting in Baltimore, Maryland, and used to produce 360 tons of Simplex briquets from Pittsburgh No. 8 seam, Champion No. 1 mine caking coal and shredded, air-classified Baltimore County refuse. The production of these briquets was funded by the Department of Energy, through the US Bureau of Mines, and a consortium comprised of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority and the Empire State Electric Energy Research Company. This report describes the briquetting plant and discusses the problems that were encountered in producing the briquets. The following modifications are recommended for future Simplex briquetting plants: drying equipment should be installed on the RDF feed system to ensure that the RDF moisture is below 18%; the crushed coal must be dried to less than 4% moisture to ensure its free flow in the bins; magnets should be installed above the coal and RDF feed conveyors to remove any tramp metal; a 3/4-inch screen should be installed over the coal feed bin to remove any oversize rocks or lump coal; the RDF handling system and turbulizer discharge to the press should all be enclosed for dust control (the enclosures should be vented to a baghouse); only heavy duty apron conveyors should be used where belt conveyors are needed; briquetts should be cured if they are going to be stored in containers where they might sweat; and a screen with 1 1/4-inch openings should be used to remove the fines from 2 1/4-inch briquets (this screen should be sufficiently large to prevent briquets from crowding together on the screen).

  14. Von Willebrand Factor Gene Variants Associate with Herpes simplex Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Atanur, Santosh; Musilová, Alena; Zídek, Václav; Saba, Laura; Warnecke, Andreas; Khademi, Mohsen; Studahl, Marie; Aurelius, Elisabeth; Hjalmarsson, Anders; Garcia-Diaz, Ana; Denis, Cécile V.; Bergström, Tomas; Sköldenberg, Birgit; Kockum, Ingrid; Aitman, Timothy; Hübner, Norbert; Olsson, Tomas; Pravenec, Michal; Diez, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare complication of Herpes simplex virus type-1 infection. It results in severe parenchymal damage in the brain. Although viral latency in neurons is very common in the population, it remains unclear why certain individuals develop HSE. Here we explore potential host genetic variants predisposing to HSE. In order to investigate this we used a rat HSE model comparing the HSE susceptible SHR (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats) with the asymptomatic infection of BN (Brown Norway). Notably, both strains have HSV-1 spread to the CNS at four days after infection. A genome wide linkage analysis of 29 infected HXB/BXH RILs (recombinant inbred lines—generated from the prior two strains), displayed variable susceptibility to HSE enabling the definition of a significant QTL (quantitative trait locus) named Hse6 towards the end of chromosome 4 (160.89–174Mb) containing the Vwf (von Willebrand factor) gene. This was the only gene in the QTL with both cis-regulation in the brain and included several non-synonymous SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism). Intriguingly, in human chromosome 12 several SNPs within the intronic region between exon 43 and 44 of the VWF gene were associated with human HSE pathogenesis. In particular, rs917859 is nominally associated with an odds ratio of 1.5 (95% CI 1.11–2.02; p-value = 0.008) after genotyping in 115 HSE cases and 428 controls. Although there are possibly several genetic and environmental factors involved in development of HSE, our study identifies variants of the VWF gene as candidates for susceptibility in experimental and human HSE. PMID:27224245

  15. Measurements of plutonium, 237Np, and 137Cs in the BCR 482 lichen reference material

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lavelle, Kevin B.; Miller, Jeffrey L.; Hanson, Susan K.; Connick, William B.; Spitz, Henry B.; Glover, Samuel E.; Oldham, Warren J.

    2015-10-01

    Select anthropogenic radionuclides were measured in lichen reference material, BCR 482. This material was originally collected in Axalp, Switzerland in 1991 and is composed of the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. Samples from three separate bottles of BCR 482 were analyzed for uranium, neptunium, and plutonium isotopes by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and analyzed for cesium-137 by gamma-ray spectrometry. The isotopic composition of the radionuclides measured in BCR 482 suggests contributions from both global fallout resulting from historical nuclear weapons testing and more volatile materials released following the Chernobyl accident.

  16. Extragenital bullous lichen sclerosus in a pediatric patient: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Shiver, Mallory; Papasakelariou, Catherine; Brown, Jameel Ahmad; Wirges, Marla; Kincannon, Jay

    2014-01-01

    A 14-year-old girl presented with a 1-year history of a pruritic, bullous lesion on her posterior neck. A biopsy revealed bullous lichen sclerosus. Although unusual, this bullous variant of lichen sclerosus is well recognized in the adult literature, but extragenital bullous and hemorrhagic lesions are rare in children. A review of this case and the literature describes the clinical features, pathophysiology, and treatment options for this extragenital bullous variant in an effort to raise awareness of this rare clinical presentation. PMID:23171125

  17. Lichens and weathering: importance for soil formation, nutrient cycling and adaptation to environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purvis, O. W.; Convey, P.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Peat, H. J.; Najorka, J.

    2012-04-01

    Lichens comprise ca. 6% of the Earth's terrestrial vegetation, and are dominant in certain polar ecosystems, being primary colonists of rocks where they play a major role in the biogeochemical cycling of elements and contribute to soil formation. We present an historical overview of studies in the Antarctic, leading to recent collection opportunities on Signy Island providing new material to investigate how biodiversity has responded to regional and rapid environmental change. Mountainous, with an ice cap, glaciers, rugged topography, and a complex geology and pedology, Signy Island includes a wide range of terrestrial habitats. A small, inconspicuous lichen, Acarospora cf. badiofusca, was discovered colonizing iron-stained quartz mica schists on the lower slope of Manhaul Rocks, a recently exposed nunatak on the McLeod Glacier, Signy Island, maritime Antarctic. Thallus colour ranged from rust to paler orange and green. Many lichens are colourful, mostly due to the presence of secondary metabolites which are of fungal origin. In some cases colour may reflect chemical coordination reactions involving lichen biomass components and dissolved cations which can lead to metal complex and mineral formation. By far the greatest research effort into characterizing elements and minerals associated with lichens concerns those occurring beneath them, research driven partly from a desire to understand weathering processes. This study, for the first time in the maritime Antarctic, addressed the hypothesis that colour reflects element localization, and examined substance localization within lichen tissues and considered responses to stress. Methods utilised include macrophotography, X-Ray Diffraction with a position sensitive detector (PSD), Scanning Electron Microscopy in back-scattered and ED modes and electron probe microanalysis for the elements Fe, C and Si and by using a third generation variable pressure secondary detector employed as a panchromatic cathodoluminescence

  18. Distribution of neptunium and plutonium in New Mexico lichen samples (Usnea arizonica) contaminated by atmospheric fallout

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Oldham, Jr., Warren J.; Hanson, Susan K.; Lavelle, Kevin B.; Miller, Jeffrey L.

    2015-08-30

    In this study, the concentrations of 237Np, 239Pu and 240Pu were determined in lichen samples (Usnea arizonica) that were collected from ten locations in New Mexico between 2011 and 2013 using isotope dilution inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS). The observed isotopic ratios for 237Np/239Pu and 240Pu/239Pu indicate trace contamination from global and regional fallout (e.g. Trinity test and atmospheric testing at the Nevada Test Site). The fact that actinide contamination is detected in recent lichen collections suggests continuous re-suspension of fallout radionuclides even 50 years after ratification of the Limited Test Ban Treaty.

  19. Comparative use of lichens, mosses and tree bark to evaluate nitrogen deposition in Germany.

    PubMed

    Boltersdorf, Stefanie H; Pesch, Roland; Werner, Willy

    2014-06-01

    To compare three biomonitoring techniques for assessing nitrogen (N) pollution in Germany, 326 lichen, 153 moss and 187 bark samples were collected from 16 sites of the national N deposition monitoring network. The analysed ranges of N content of all investigated biomonitors (0.32%-4.69%) and the detected δ(15)N values (-15.2‰-1.5‰), made it possible to reveal species specific spatial patterns of N concentrations in biota to indicate atmospheric N deposition in Germany. The comparison with measured and modelled N deposition data shows that particularly lichens are able to reflect the local N deposition originating from agriculture. PMID:24631972

  20. Medical Management of Oral Lichen Planus: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chokshi, Krunal; Desai, Sachin; Malu, Rahul; Chokshi, Achala

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory, T-cell-mediated autoimmune oral mucosal disease with unclear aetiology. The clinical management of OLP poses considerable difficulties to the oral physician. Aim The aim was to assess the efficacy of any form of intervention used to medically manage OLP. Materials and Methods We searched and analysed the following databases (from January 1990 to December 2014):- Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE. All Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) for the medical management of OLP which compared active treatment with placebo or between active treatments were considered in this systematic review. Participants of any age, gender or race having symptomatic OLP (including mixed forms), unconnected to any identifiable cause (e.g. lichenoid drug reactions) and confirmed by histopathology have been included. Interventions of all types, including topical treatments or systemic drugs of variable dosage, duration & frequency of delivery have been considered. All the trials identified were appraised by five review authors and the data for all the trials were synthesised using specifically designed data extraction form. Binary data has been presented as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and continuous data as mean differences (MD) with 95% CIs. Results A total of 35 RCTs were included in this systematic review on medical management of OLP. No strong evidence suggesting superiority of any specific intervention in reducing pain and clinical signs of OLP were shown by the RCTs included here. Conclusion Future RCTs on a larger scale, adopting standardized outcome assessing parameters should be considered. PMID:27042598