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Sample records for licl-kcl eutectic salts

  1. Electrochemical behaviors of PuN and (U, Pu)N in LiCl KCl eutectic melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, O.; Kato, T.; Iwai, T.; Arai, Y.; Yamashita, T.

    2005-02-01

    Electrochemical behaviors of PuN and (U, Pu)N in the LiCl KCl eutectic melts at 773 K were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The electrochemical dissolution of PuN and (U, Pu)N began nearly at -0.90±0.05 and -0.95±0.05 V (vs. Ag+/Ag), respectively. The rest potentials of PuN and (U, Pu)N were observed at about 0.15 V more negative potential than that of UN, in the present experimental condition. The observed rest potentials of (U, Pu)N depended on the equilibrium potential of the Pu3+/PuN. In the cyclic voltammogram measured by use of (U, Pu)N as the working electrode, a steep rise of the positive current was observed at potentials more positive than -0.45 V in analogy with the cyclic voltammogram measured by use of UN as the working electrode. These indicate that UN and PuN in (U, Pu)N would be dissolved independently irrespective of forming the solid solution.

  2. Thermochemical properties of lanthanides (Ln = La, Nd) and actinides (An = U, Np, Pu, Am) in the molten LiCl KCl eutectic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masset, Patrick; Konings, Rudy J. M.; Malmbeck, Rikard; Serp, Jérôme; Glatz, Jean-Paul

    2005-09-01

    The electrochemical reduction of actinides (U, Pu, Np and Am) and lanthanides (La and Nd) chlorides was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry at different temperatures in LiCl-KCl eutectic. The diffusion coefficients of these metallic cations were estimated as well as their apparent standard potentials. These values of potentials are compared with existing data measured also by transient electrochemical techniques or e.m.f. measurements.

  3. Excess Heat in Molten Salts of (LiCl - KCl) + (LiD + LiF) at the Titanium Electrode during Electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkov, S. A.; Filatov, E. S.; Khokhlov, V. A.

    2005-12-01

    The electrochemical cell and a technique for precision calorimetric measurements has been developed. Experiments with molten salts containing lithium deuteride were carried out. Calorimetric measurements made on the titanium electrode during experiments. Measurements were made in an inert atmosphere of helium and in an atmosphere of deuterium at various density of an electrolysis current. Excess heat was obtained on the titanium electrode in a deuterium atmosphere during electrolysis. An x-ray diffraction analysis was made on the used titanium electrode. The analysis of the results obtained is discussed.

  4. Separation of plutonium from lanthanum by electrolysis in LiCl KCl onto molten bismuth electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serp, J.; Lefebvre, P.; Malmbeck, R.; Rebizant, J.; Vallet, P.; Glatz, J.-P.

    2005-04-01

    This work presents a study on the electroseparation of plutonium from lanthanum using molten bismuth electrodes in LiCl-KCl eutectic at 733 K. The reduction potentials of Pu3+ and La3+ ions were measured on a Bi thin film electrode using cyclic voltammetry (CV). A difference between the peak potentials for the formation of PuBi2 and LaBi2 of approximately 100 mV was found. Separation tests were then carried out using different current densities and salt phase compositions between a plutonium rod anode and an unstirred molten Bi cathode in order to evaluate the efficiency of an electrolytic separation process. At a current density of 12 mA/cm2/wt% (Pu3+), only Pu3+ ions are reduced into the molten Bi electrode, leaving La3+ ions in the salt melt. Similar results were found at two different Pu/La concentration ratios ([Pu]/[La] = 4 and 10). At a current density of 26 mA/cm2/wt% (Pu3+), co-reduction of Pu and La was observed as expected by the large negative potential of the Bi cathode during the separation test.

  5. Determination of uranium and rare-earth metals separation coefficients in LiCl KCl melt by electrochemical transient techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, S. A.; Hayashi, H.; Minato, K.; Gaune-Escard, M.

    2005-09-01

    The main step in the pyrometallurgical process of spent nuclear fuel recycling is a molten salt electrorefining. The knowledge of separation coefficients of actinides (U, Np, Pu and Am) and rare-earth metals (Y, La, Ce, Nd and Gd) is very important for this step. Usually the separation coefficients are evaluated from the formal standard potentials of metals in melts containing their own ions, values obtained by potentiometric method. Electrochemical experiments were carried out at 723-823 K in order to estimate separation coefficients in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt containing uranium and lanthanum trichlorides. It was shown that for the calculation of uranium and lanthanum separation coefficients it is necessary to determine the voltammetric peak potentials of U(III) and La(III), their concentration in the melt and the kinetic parameters relating to U(III) discharge such as transfer and diffusion coefficients, and standard rate constants of charge transfer.

  6. Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah

    1998-12-04

    The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. A review of the collected literature was carried out. The catalysts which have been used for gasification can be roughly classified under the following five groups: alkali metal salts; alkaline earth metal oxides and salts; mineral substances or ash in coal; transition metals and their oxides and salts; and eutectic salt mixtures. Studies involving the use of gasification catalysts have been conducted. However, most of the studies focused on the application of individual catalysts. Only two publications have reported the study of gasification of coal char in CO2 and steam catalyzed by eutectic salt mixture catalysts. By using the eutectic mixtures of salts that show good activity as individual compounds, the gasification temperature can be reduced possibly with still better activity and gasification rates due to improved dispersion of the molten catalyst on the coal particles. For similar metal/carbon atomic ratios, eutectic catalysts were found to be consistently more active than their respective single salts. But the exact roles that the eutectic salt mixtures play in these are not well understood and details of the mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of the surface property of coals and the application methods of eutectic salt mixture catalysts with coal chars on the reactivity of gasification will be studied. Based on our preliminary evaluation of the literature, a ternary

  7. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-12-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

  8. Secondary Confinement of Water Observed in Eutectic Melting of Aqueous Salt Systems in Nanopores.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Jens; Prause, Albert; Findenegg, Gerhard H

    2016-05-19

    Freezing and melting of aqueous solutions of alkali halides confined in the cylindrical nanopores of MCM-41 and SBA-15 silica was probed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). We find that the confinement-induced shift of the eutectic temperature in the pores can be significantly greater than the shift of the melting temperature of pure water. Greatest shifts of the eutectic temperature are found for salts that crystallize as oligohydrates at the eutectic point. This behavior is explained by the larger fraction of pore volume occupied by salt hydrates as compared to anhydrous salts, on the assumption that precipitated salt constitutes an additional confinement for ice/water in the pores. A model based on this secondary confinement effect gives a good representation of the experimental data. Salt-specific secondary confinement may play a role in a variety of fields, from salt-impregnated advanced adsorbents and catalysts to the thermal weathering of building materials. PMID:27124392

  9. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Atul Sheth; Chandramouli Sastry

    2001-03-31

    Most of the tasks on the project have successfully been completed and reported. A 12 month no-cost extension has been requested to complete the remaining tasks. This report summarizes the accomplishments of the first six months of the no-cost extensions period. The acetic acid extraction showed that acetic acid has more effect on the extraction of the ternary catalyst (LNK) ions than water. Based on the extraction results, the order of the recovery capability of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} using acetic acid, sulfuric acid and water extractions is sulfuric acid {ge} acetic acid > water; the order for K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is sulfuric acid > water >acetic acid; and the order for Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is acetic acid > sulfuric acid >water. A process flowsheet for the catalyst recovery process was proposed based on the results. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed most of the particles (coal) appear amorphous. Some coal particles are as large as 50-60 {micro}m, but most are smaller. One can also easily see a few crystalline particles (10-20 {micro}m) with sharp facets and corners. The electron micrographs of gasified char samples (reactor-aged) of the LNKcoal mixture showed that a dramatic change is obvious in the morphology and crystallinity of the sample and is consistent with the results obtained from the x-ray diffraction studies. XRD studies of reactor-aged samples showed a substantial increase in the sample crystallinity (due to the gasification of amorphous carbon). The eutectic salt presumably mostly converted to sulfates.

  10. Eutectic salt catalyzed environmentally benign and highly efficient Biginelli reaction.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Najmadin; Dezfuli, Sahar; Hahsemi, Mohmmad Mahmoodi

    2012-01-01

    A simple deep eutectic solvent based on tin (II) chloride was used as a dual catalyst and environmentally benign reaction medium for an efficient synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one derivatives, from aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, and urea in good-to-excellent yields and short reaction time. This simple ammonium deep eutectic solvent, easily synthesized from choline chloride and tin chloride, is relatively inexpensive and recyclable, making it applicable for industrial applications. PMID:22649326

  11. Eutectic Salt Catalyzed Environmentally Benign and Highly Efficient Biginelli Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Najmadin; Dezfuli, Sahar; Hahsemi, Mohmmad Mahmoodi

    2012-01-01

    A simple deep eutectic solvent based on tin (II) chloride was used as a dual catalyst and environmentally benign reaction medium for an efficient synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one derivatives, from aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, and urea in good-to-excellent yields and short reaction time. This simple ammonium deep eutectic solvent, easily synthesized from choline chloride and tin chloride, is relatively inexpensive and recyclable, making it applicable for industrial applications. PMID:22649326

  12. Development of high temperature transport technology for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt in pyroprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sung Ho; Lee, Hansoo; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Jeong-Guk

    2013-07-01

    The development of high-temperature transport technologies for molten salt is a prerequisite and a key issue in the industrialization of pyro-reprocessing for advanced fuel cycle scenarios. The solution of a molten salt centrifugal pump was discarded because of the high corrosion power of a high temperature molten salt, so the suction pump solution was selected. An apparatus for salt transport experiments by suction was designed and tested using LiC-KCl eutectic salt. The experimental results of lab-scale molten salt transport by suction showed a 99.5% transport rate (ratio of transported salt to total salt) under a vacuum range of 100 mtorr - 10 torr at 500 Celsius degrees. The suction system has been integrated to the PRIDE (pyroprocessing integrated inactive demonstration) facility that is a demonstrator using non-irradiated materials (natural uranium and surrogate materials). The performance of the suction pump for the transport of molten salts has been confirmed.

  13. Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Raade, Justin; Roark, Thomas; Vaughn, John; Bradshaw, Robert

    2013-07-22

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are comprised of many miles of fluid-filled pipes arranged in large grids with reflective mirrors used to capture radiation from the sun. Solar radiation heats the fluid which is used to produce steam necessary to power large electricity generation turbines. Currently, organic, oil-based fluid in the pipes has a maximum temperature threshold of 400 °C, allowing for the production of electricity at approximately 15 cents per kilowatt hour. The DOE hopes to foster the development of an advanced heat transfer fluid that can operate within higher temperature ranges. The new heat transfer fluid, when used with other advanced technologies, could significantly decrease solar electricity cost. Lower costs would make solar thermal electricity competitive with gas and coal and would offer a clean, renewable source of energy. Molten salts exhibit many desirable heat transfer qualities within the range of the project objectives. Halotechnics developed advanced heat transfer fluids (HTFs) for application in solar thermal power generation. This project focused on complex mixtures of inorganic salts that exhibited a high thermal stability, a low melting point, and other favorable characteristics. A high-throughput combinatorial research and development program was conducted in order to achieve the project objective. Over 19,000 candidate formulations were screened. The workflow developed to screen various chemical systems to discover salt formulations led to mixtures suitable for use as HTFs in both parabolic trough and heliostat CSP plants. Furthermore, salt mixtures which will not interfere with fertilizer based nitrates were discovered. In addition for use in CSP, the discovered salt mixtures can be applied to electricity storage, heat treatment of alloys and other industrial processes.

  14. Purification of used eutectic (LiCl-KCl) salt electrolyte from pyroprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yung-Zun; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Eun, Hee-Chul; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Kim, In-Tae; Park, Geun-Il

    2013-06-01

    The separation characteristics of surrogate rare-earth fission products in a eutectic (LiCl-KCl) molten salt were investigated. This system is based on the eutectic salt used for the pyroprocessing treatment of used nuclear fuel (UNF). The investigation was performed using an integrated rare-earth separation apparatus comprising a precipitation reactor, a solid detachment device, and a layer separation device. To separate rare-earth fission products, a phosphate precipitation method using both Li3PO4 and K3PO4 as a precipitant was performed. The use of an equivalent phosphate precipitant composed of 0.408 molar ratio-K3PO4 and 0.592 molar ratio-Li3PO4 can preserve the original eutectic ratio, LiCl-0.592 molar ratio (or 45.2 wt%), as well as provide a high separation efficiency of over 99.5% under conditions of 550 °C and Ar sparging when using La, Nd, Ce, and Pr chlorides. The mixture of La, Nd, Ce, and Pr phosphate had a typical monoclinic (or monazite) structure, which has been proposed as a reliable host matrix for the permanent disposal of a high-level waste form. To maximize the reusability of purified eutectic waste salt after rare-earth separation, the successive rare-earth separation process, which uses both phosphate precipitation and an oxygen sparging method, were introduced and tested with eight rare-earth (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) chlorides. In the successive rare-earth separation process, the phosphate reaction was terminated within 1 h at 550 °C, and a 4-8 h oxygen sparging time were required to obtain over a 99% separation efficiency at 700-750 °C. The mixture of rare-earth precipitates separated by the successive rare-earth separation process was found to be phosphate, oxychloride, and oxide. Through the successive rare-earth separation process, the eutectic ratio of purified salt maintained its original value, and impurity content including the residual precipitant of purified salt can be minimized.

  15. A Binary Eutectic Mixture of TNAZ and R-Salt Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandstrom, Mary; Manner, Virginia; Pemberton, Steven; Lloyd, Joseph; Tappan, Bryce

    2011-06-01

    TNAZ is a high performing explosive that is melt castable. However, the casting process can be problematic since TNAZ has a high vapor pressure exacerbated by a fairly high melting temperature. In order to mitigate the ill effects of its high vapor pressure, including a lower melting explosive was explored by making a series of mixtures of TNAZ and R-Salt. Initially, a eutectic temperature and composition was theoretically determined. Then a phase diagram was constructed from a series and mixtures by differential scanning calorimetery (DSC). The vapor pressure of the eutectic composition was determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Cylinder testing of the eutectic composition was carried out in copper tubes, 5'' long with 1/2 ``inner diameter and 1/16'' thick walls. The detonation velocity was measured using wire switches along the cylinder length and the expanding wall velocity was measured using PDV gauges. A rough evaluation of JWL equation-of-state parameters has been carried out. A more detailed evaluation is in progress.

  16. Materials corrosion in molten lithium fluoride-sodium fluoride-potassium fluoride eutectic salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Luke Christopher

    Static corrosion studies were undertaken to determine the compatibility of several candidate high temperature materials for a heat transfer loop in a molten alkali fluoride eutectic salt, LiF-NaF-KF: 46.5-11.5-42 mol % (commonly referred to as FLiNaK), as well as a molten chloride near eutectic salt, KCl-MgCl2: 68-32 mol %. Several high temperature alloys: Hastelloy-N, Hastelloy-X, Haynes-230, Inconel-617, and Incoloy-800H, Nb-1Zr, a nearly pure Ni alloy Ni-201, and a C/SiSiC ceramic were exposed to molten FLiNaK at 850°C for 500 h in sealed graphite crucibles under an argon cover gas. Corrosion occurred predominantly from dealloying of Cr from the Cr bearing alloys, an effect that was particularly pronounced at the grain boundaries. Corrosion was noted to occur from selective attack of the Si phase in the C/SiSiC ceramic. Alloy weight-loss/area due to molten fluoride salt exposure correlated with the initial Cr-content of the alloys, and was consistent with the Cr-content measured in the salts after corrosion tests. The alloys' weight-loss/area was also found to correlate to the concentration of carbon present in the nominally 20% Cr containing alloys, due to the formation of chromium carbide phases at the grain boundaries. The corrosion mechanisms for the chloride based salt were found to be similar to those observed in FLiNaK, but the chemical attack was found to be less aggressive. Sulfamate Ni electroplating and Mo plasma spraying of Fe-Ni-Cr alloy coupons was investigated to mitigate Cr dissolution. A chemical vapor deposited pyrolytic carbon and SiC coating was also investigated to protect the C/SiSiC composites. Results indicate that Ni-plating has the potential to provide protection against alloy corrosion in molten fluoride salts. Furthermore, the presence of a chromium-oxide interlayer at the interface of the Ni-plating and alloy substrate can further improve the efficacy of the Ni-plating. The pyrolytic carbon and SiC coating on the C/SiSiC composites

  17. Study on a regeneration process of LiCl-KCl eutectic based waste salt generated from the pyrochemical process

    SciTech Connect

    Eun, H.C.; Cho, Y.Z.; Choi, J.H.; Kim, J.H.; Lee, T.K.; Park, H.S.; Kim, I.T.; Park, G.I.

    2013-07-01

    A regeneration process of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt generated from the pyrochemical process of spent nuclear fuel has been studied. This regeneration process is composed of a chemical conversion process and a vacuum distillation process. Through the regeneration process, a high efficiency of renewable salt recovery can be obtained from the waste salt and rare earth nuclides in the waste salt can be separated as oxide or phosphate forms. Thus, the regeneration process can contribute greatly to a reduction of the waste volume and a creation of durable final waste forms. (authors)

  18. Determination and evaluation of the thermophysical properties of an alkali carbonate eutectic molten salt.

    PubMed

    An, Xuehui; Cheng, Jinhui; Zhang, Peng; Tang, Zhongfeng; Wang, Jianqiang

    2016-08-15

    The thermal physical properties of Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 eutectic molten salt were comprehensively investigated. It was found that the liquid salt can remain stable up to 658 °C (the onset temperature of decomposition) by thermal analysis, and so the investigations on its thermal physical parameters were undertaken from room temperature to 658 °C. The density was determined using a self-developed device, with an uncertainty of ±0.00712 g cm(-3). A cooling curve was obtained from the instrument, giving the liquidus temperature. For the first time, we report the obtainment of the thermal diffusivity using a laser flash method based on a special crucible design and establishment of a specific sample preparation method. Furthermore, the specific heat capacity was also obtained by use of DSC, and combined with thermal diffusivity and density, was used to calculate the thermal conductivity. We additionally built a rotating viscometer with high precision in order to determine the molten salt viscosity. All of these parameters play an important part in the energy storage and transfer calculation and safety evaluation for a system. PMID:27203821

  19. EXAFS study into the speciation of metal salts dissolved in ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Jennifer M; Ip, Chung-Man; Forrest, Gregory C H; Singh, Kuldip; Gurman, Stephen J; Ryder, Karl S; Abbott, Andrew P; Frisch, Gero

    2014-06-16

    The speciation of metals in solution controls their reactivity, and this is extremely pertinent in the area of metal salts dissolved in ionic liquids. In the current study, the speciation of 25 metal salts is investigated in four deep eutectic solvents (DESs) and five imidazolium-based ionic liquids using extended X-ray absorption fine structure. It is shown that in diol-based DESs M(I) ions form [MCl2](-) and [MCl3](2-) complexes, while all M(II) ions form [MCl4](2-) complexes, with the exception of Ni(II), which exhibits a very unusual coordination by glycol molecules. This was also found in the X-ray crystal structure of the compound [Ni(phen)2(eg)]Cl2·2eg (eg = ethylene glycol). In a urea-based DES, either pure chloro or chloro-oxo coordination is observed. In [C6mim][Cl] pure chloro complexation is also observed, but coordination numbers are smaller (typically 3), which can be explained by the long alkyl chain of the cation. In [C2mim][SCN] metal ions are entirely coordinated by thiocyanate, either through the N or the S atom, depending on the hardness of the metal ion according to the hard-soft acid-base principle. With weaker coordinating anions, mixed coordination between solvent and solute anions is observed. The effect of hydrate or added water on speciation is insignificant for the diol-based DESs and small in other liquids with intermediate or strong ligands. One of the main findings of this study is that, with respect to metal speciation, there is no fundamental difference between deep eutectic solvents and classic ionic liquids. PMID:24897923

  20. A novel group of quaternary ammonium salts as ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, Christopher R.

    2011-12-01

    A growing number of non-toxic and biodegradable deep eutectic solvents (DES) have been discovered in recent years. This group encompasses the solidified crystalline material 3-(2-aminopyrimidin-1-yl)propanoate (3-2AP), a primary ammonium cation that is a construct of a typical DES. Synthesis of 3-(2-aminopyrimidin-1-yl)propanoate by quarternerization of the amine in the aromatic ring creates a novel deep eutectic solvent. An additional alteration to the DES construct is observed with the formation of a zwitterion between the positively charged quartenary amine group and the negatively charged carboxylate counter ion. The molecular arrangement, or construct, of a deep eutectic solvent will determine both its structure and application in industry. This report describes the synthesis and characterization of an 80:20 urea/3-2AP eutectic mixture with a melting point of 50°C, nearly 120°C lower than the melting temperature of 3-2AP (172.5°C). A cytotoxicity profile for 3-2AP exposed to A549 bronchoaveolar carcinoma cells revealed an LD50 of 337.65 mug/ml.

  1. Absorption characteristics of anions (I-, Br-, and Te2-) into zeolite in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uozumi, Koichi; Sugihara, Kei; Kinoshita, Kensuke; Koyama, Tadafumi; Tsukada, Takeshi; Terai, Takayuki; Suzuki, Akihiro

    2014-04-01

    The behaviors of anion fission product (FP) elements to be absorbed into zeolite in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt were studied using iodine, bromine, and tellurium. First, the type-A zeolite was selected as the most suitable type of zeolite among type-A, type-X, and type-Y zeolites through experiments in which zeolites were heated together with LiCl-KCl-KI salt. As the next step, experiments in which the type-A zeolite was immersed in molten LiCl-KCl salt containing various concentrations of iodine, bromine, or tellurium were performed. The degree of absorption of the anion FP elements was evaluated using the separation factor (SF) value versus chlorine. Although the SF values for iodine and tellurium were higher than 1.0, which meant that these elements were absorbed into the type-A zeolite more intensively than chlorine in the salt, the corresponding value for bromine was approximately 1.0. The effects of coexisting cation FPs were also examined using cesium, strontium, and neodymium, and it was revealed that the SF values for iodine were less than those in the case without cation addition. On the other hand, the SF values for tellurium were not affected by the coexistence of cesium and strontium. Finally, the feasibility of the present pyroprocess flowsheet was evaluated by calculating the inventory of each anion FP in an electrorefiner based on the obtained SF values instead of temporary values for the anion FPs absorption, which were set due to lack of experimental data.

  2. Deep eutectic solvents based on N-methylacetamide and a lithium salt as suitable electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Boisset, Aurélien; Menne, Sebastian; Jacquemin, Johan; Balducci, Andrea; Anouti, Mérièm

    2013-12-14

    In this work, we present a study on the physical and electrochemical properties of three new Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) based on N-methylacetamide (MAc) and a lithium salt (LiX, with X = bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide, TFSI; hexafluorophosphate, PF6; or nitrate, NO3). Based on DSC measurements, it appears that these systems are liquid at room temperature for a lithium salt mole fraction ranging from 0.10 to 0.35. The temperature dependences of the ionic conductivity and the viscosity of these DESs are correctly described by using the Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) type fitting equation, due to the strong interactions between Li(+), X(-) and MAc in solution. Furthermore, these electrolytes possess quite large electrochemical stability windows up to 4.7-5 V on Pt, and demonstrate also a passivating behavior toward the aluminum collector at room temperature. Based on these interesting electrochemical properties, these selected DESs can be classified as potential and promising electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). For this purpose, a test cell was then constructed and tested at 25 °C, 60 °C and 80 °C by using each selected DES as an electrolyte and LiFePO4 (LFP) material as a cathode. The results show a good compatibility between each DES and LFP electrode material. A capacity of up to 160 mA h g(-1) with a good efficiency (99%) is observed in the DES based on the LiNO3 salt at 60 °C despite the presence of residual water in the electrolyte. Finally preliminary tests using a LFP/DES/LTO (lithium titanate) full cell at room temperature clearly show that LiTFSI-based DES can be successfully introduced into LIBs. Considering the beneficial properties, especially, the cost of these electrolytes, such introduction could represent an important contribution for the realization of safer and environmentally friendly LIBs. PMID:24153449

  3. Effects of temperature, concentration, and uranium chloride mixture on zirconium electrochemical studies in LiClsbnd KCl eutectic salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Robert O.; Yoon, Dalsung; Phongikaroon, Supathorn

    2016-08-01

    Experimental studies were performed to provide measurement and analysis of zirconium (Zr) electrochemistry in LiClsbnd KCl eutectic salt at different temperatures and concentrations using cyclic voltammetry (CV). An additional experimental set with uranium chloride added into the system forming UCl3sbnd ZrCl4sbnd LiClsbnd KCl was performed to explore the general behavior of these two species together. Results of CV experiments with ZrCl4 show complicated cathodic and anodic peaks, which were identified along with the Zr reactions. The CV results reveal that diffusion coefficients (D) of ZrCl4 and ZrCl2 as the function of temperature can be expressed as DZr(IV) = 0.00046exp(-3716/T) and DZr(II) = 0.027exp(-5617/T), respectively. The standard rate constants and apparent standard potentials of ZrCl4 at different temperatures were calculated. Furthermore, the results from the mixture of UCl3 and ZrCl4 indicate that high concentrations of UCl3 hide the features of the smaller concentration of ZrCl4 while Zr peaks become prominent as the concentration of ZrCl4 increases.

  4. Separation of the isomers of benzene poly(carboxylic acid)s by quaternary ammonium salt via formation of deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yucui; Li, Jian; Ren, Shuhang; Niu, Muge; Wu, Weize

    2014-11-26

    Because of similar properties and very low volatility, isomers of benzene poly(carboxylic acid)s (BPCAs) are very difficult to separate. In this work, we found that isomers of BPCAs could be separated efficiently by quaternary ammonium salts (QASs) via formation of deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Three kinds of QASs were used to separate the isomers of BPCAs, including the isomers of benzene tricarboxylic acids (trimellitic acid, trimesic acid, and hemimellitic acid) and the isomers of benzene dicarboxylic acids (phthalic acid and isophthalic acid). Among the QASs, tetraethylammonium chloride was found to have the best performance, which could completely separate BPCA isomers in methyl ethyl ketone solutions. It was found that the hydrogen bond forming between QAS and BPCA results in the selective separation of BPCA isomers. QAS in DES was regenerated effectively by the antisolvent method, and the regenerated QAS was reused four times with the same high efficiency. PMID:25351281

  5. Electrochemical Study on the Electrodeposition of U, Nd, Ce, La and Y on a Liquid Cadmium Cathode in a LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Sung Bin Park; Jong Hyeon Lee; Sung Chan Hwang; Young Ho Kang; Joon Bo Shim; Han Soo Lee; Eung Ho Kim; Seong Won Park

    2007-07-01

    Electro-depositions of U, Nd, Ce, La and Y on a liquid cadmium cathode in a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt were studied by using an electrolytic cell. For the LiCl-KCl-UCl{sub 3}- NdCl{sub 3}-CeCl{sub 3}-LaCl{sub 3}-YCl{sub 3}/Cd system, cyclic voltammograms and polarization curves were measured and the electrochemical properties of the system were discussed. From the results of the electro-depositions of U and rare earth metals on the LCC, separation factors and recovery ratios of U and REs were obtained and co-electro-depositions of U and REs were investigated. (authors)

  6. Materials corrosion in molten LiF-NaF-KF eutectic salt under different reduction-oxidation conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, R. S.; Cheng, W. J.; Anderson, M. H.; Sridharan, K.; Wang, C. J.; Allen, T. R.

    2012-07-01

    Molten fluoride salts such as FLiNaK (LiF-NaF-KF: 46.5-11.5-42 mol %) have been proposed for use as secondary reactor coolants, media for transfer of high temperature process heat from nuclear reactors to chemical plants, and for concentrated solar power thermal energy storage. In molten fluoride salts, passive oxide films are chemically unstable, and corrosion is driven largely by the thermodynamically driven dissolution of alloying elements into the molten salt environment. Two alloys, Hastelloy{sup R} N and 316L stainless steel were exposed to molten FLiNaK salt in a 316L stainless steel crucible under argon cover gas for 1000 hours at 850 deg. C. Graphite was present in some of the crucibles with the goal of studying corrosion behavior of relevant reactor material combinations. In addition, a technique to reduce alloy corrosion through modification of the reduction-oxidation state was tested by the inclusion of zirconium to the system. Corrosion of 316L stainless steel was noted to occur primarily through surface depletion of chromium, an effect that was enhanced by the presence of graphite. Hastelloy{sup R} N experienced weight gain through electrochemical plating of corrosion products derived from the 316L stainless steel crucible. In the presence of zirconium, both alloys gained weight through plating of zirconium and as a result formed intermetallic layers. (authors)

  7. Electrochemistry and the mechanisms of nucleation and growth of neodymium during electroreduction from LiCl-KCl eutectic salts on Mo substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hao; Pesic, Batric

    2015-03-01

    The electrochemical behavior of NdCl3 was studied on a Mo electrode in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salts. The electroreduction of Nd(III)/Nd(0) involved two reaction steps, as confirmed by three different electrochemical techniques. In the first reaction step, Nd(III) is converted into soluble Nd(II), which undergoes further reduction into metallic Nd(0) in the second reaction step. The standard reaction rate constants for each reaction step were determined by Nicholson method. The rate constant values were used in Matsuda-Ayabe's criteria for testing the electrochemical reversibility. Accordingly, both reaction steps were quasi-reversible redox reactions. The nucleation mechanisms of neodymium metal deposited on a Mo substrate were predicted by using Scharifker-Hill model, and tested for the first time by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies of the electrode surface. The SEM studies confirmed that for the low initial concentration of NdCl3, neodymium nucleates and grows progressively, while for higher NdCl3 concentrations, the related mechanism is instantaneous. Both are governed by the aggregative growth mechanisms based on surface mobility of formed nanoclusters.

  8. Novel binary deep eutectic electrolytes for rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on mixtures of alkyl sulfonamides and lithium perfluoroalkylsulfonimide salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiculescu, O. E.; DesMarteau, D. D.; Creager, S. E.; Haik, O.; Hirshberg, D.; Shilina, Y.; Zinigrad, E.; Levi, M. D.; Aurbach, D.; Halalay, I. C.

    2016-03-01

    Ionic liquids (IL's) were proposed for use in Li-ion batteries (LIBs), in order to mitigate some of the well-known drawbacks of LiPF6/mixed organic carbonates solutions. However, their large cations seriously decrease lithium transference numbers and block lithium insertion sites at electrode-electrolyte interfaces, leading to poor LIB rate performance. Deep eutectic electrolytes (DEEs) (which share some of the advantages of ILs but possess only one cation, Li+), were then proposed, in order to overcome the difficulties associated with ILs. We report herein on the preparation, thermal properties (melting, crystallization, and glass transition temperatures), transport properties (specific conductivity and viscosity) and thermal stability of binary DEEs based on mixtures of lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide or lithium bis(fluoro)sulfonimide salts with an alkyl sulfonamide solvent. Promise for LIB applications is demonstrated by chronoamperometry on Al current collectors, and cycling behavior of negative and positive electrodes. Residual current densities of 12 and 45 nA cm-2 were observed at 5 V vs. Li/Li+ on aluminum, 1.5 and 16 nA cm-2 at 4.5 V vs. Li/Li+, respectively for LiFSI and LiTFSI based DEEs. Capacities of 220, 130, and 175 mAh· g-1 were observed at low (C/13 or C/10) rates, respectively for petroleum coke, LiMn1/3Ni1/3Co1/3O2 (a.k.a. NMC 111) and LiAl0.05Co0.15Ni0.8O2 (a.k.a. NCA).

  9. Testing of pyrochemical centrifugal contactors

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, L.S.; Carls, E.L.; Basco, J.K.; Johnson, T.R.

    1996-08-01

    A centrifugal contactor that performs oxidation and reduction exchange reactions between molten metals and salts at 500 degrees Centigrade has been tested successfully at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The design is based on contactors for aqueous- organic systems operation near room temperature. In tests to demonstrate the performance of the pyrocontactor, cadmium and LICl- KCl eutectic salt were the immiscible solvent phases, and rare earths were the distributing solutes. The tests showed that the pyrocontactor mixed and separated the phases well, with stage efficiencies approaching 99% at rotor speeds near 2700 rpm. The contactor ran smoothly and reliably over the entire range of speeds that was tested.

  10. Deep eutectic liquid organic salt as a new solvent for liquid-phase microextraction and its application in ligandless extraction and preconcentraion of lead and cadmium in edible oils.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mehdi; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Shabani, Ali Mohammad Haji; Tamaddon, Fatemeh; Azadi, Davood

    2015-11-01

    Deep eutectic liquid organic salt was used as the solvent and a liquid phase microextraction (DES-LPME) combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed for separation, preconcentration and determination of lead and cadmium in edible oils. A 4:1 mixture of deep eutectic solvent and 2% nitric acid (200 µL) was added to an oil sample. The mixture was vortexed and transferred into a water bath at 50 °C and stirred for 5 minutes. After the extraction was completed, the phases were separated by centrifugation, and the enriched analytes in the deep eutectic solvent phase were determined by ETAAS. Under optimized extraction conditions and for an oil sample of 28 g, enhancement factors of 198 and 195 and limits of detection (defined as 3 Sb/m) of 8 and 0. 2 ng kg(-1) were achieved for lead and cadmium respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of lead and cadmium in various edible oils. PMID:26452873

  11. Study of Eutectic Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to determine the influence of convection on the microstructure of eutectics and to develop a technique for revealing the longitudinal microstructure of the MnBi-Bi eutectic. Both objectives aim at trying to explain the observed influence of space processing on the microstructure of MnBi-Bi. A computer program was developed and used to determine the concentration field in front of a growing lamellar eutectic. From this the deviation of the interfacial concentration from the eutectic composition was calculated as a function of eutectic composition, freezing rate, convection, and lamellar spacing.

  12. Temperature dependence of the elastic moduli and damping for polycrystalline LiF-22 pct CaF2 eutectic salt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfenden, A.; Lastrapes, G.; Duggan, M. B.; Raj, S. V.

    1991-01-01

    Young's and shear moduli and damping were measured for as-cast polycrystalline LiF-(22 mol pct)CaF2 eutectic specimens as a function of temperature using the piezoelectric ultrasonic composite oscillator technique. The shear modulus decreased with increasing temperature from about 40 GPa at 295 K to about 30 GPa at 1000 K, while the Young modulus decreased from about 115 GPa at 295 K to about 35 GPa at 900 K. These values are compared with those derived from the rule of mixtures using elastic moduli data for LiF and CaF2 single crystals. It is shown that, while the shear modulus data agree reasonably well with the predicted trend, there is a large discrepancy between the theoretical calculations and the Young modulus values, where this disagreement increases with increasing temperature.

  13. Investigation of concentration-dependence of thermodynamic properties of lanthanum, yttrium, scandium and terbium in eutectic LiCl-KCl molten salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yafei; Zhou, Wentao; Zhang, Jinsuo

    2016-09-01

    Thermodynamic properties of rare earth metals in LiCl-KCl molten salt electrolyte are crucial to the development of electrochemical separation for the treatment of used nuclear fuels. In the present study, activity coefficient, apparent potential, and diffusion coefficient of lanthanum, yttrium, scandium, and terbium in the molten salt (58 at% LiCl and 42 at% KCl) were calculated by the method of molecular dynamics simulation up to a concentration around 3 at% at temperatures of 723 K and 773 K. It was found that the activity coefficient and the apparent potential increase with the species concentration while diffusion coefficient shows a trend of increase followed by decrease. The calculated results were validated by available measurement data of dilution cases. This research extends the range of data to a wide component and would provide further insight to the pyroprocessing design and safeguards.

  14. Thermodynamic Assessment of Hot Corrosion Mechanisms of Superalloys Hastelloy N and Haynes 242 in Eutectic Mixture of Molten Salts KF and ZrF4

    SciTech Connect

    Michael V. Glazoff

    2012-02-01

    The KF - ZrF4 system was considered for the application as a heat exchange agent in molten salt nuclear reactors (MSRs) beginning with the work carried out at ORNL in early fifties. Based on a combination of excellent properties such as thermal conductivity, viscosity in the molten state, and other thermo-physical and rheological properties, it was selected as one of possible candidates for the nuclear reactor secondary heat exchanger loop.

  15. Eutectics as improved pharmaceutical materials: design, properties and characterization.

    PubMed

    Cherukuvada, Suryanarayan; Nangia, Ashwini

    2014-01-28

    Eutectics are a long known class of multi-component solids with important and useful applications in daily life. In comparison to other multi-component crystalline solids, such as salts, solid solutions, molecular complexes and cocrystals, eutectics are less studied in terms of molecular structure organization and bonding interactions. Classically, a eutectic is defined based on its low melting point compared to the individual components. In this article, we attempt to define eutectics not just based on thermal methods but from a structural organization view point, and discuss their microstructures and properties as organic materials vis-a-vis solid solutions and cocrystals. The X-ray crystal structure of a cocrystal is different from that of the individual components whereas the unit cell of a solid solution is similar to that of one of the components. Eutectics are closer to the latter species in that their crystalline arrangement is similar to the parent components but they are different with respect to the structural integrity. A solid solution possesses structural homogeneity throughout the structure (single phase) but a eutectic is a heterogeneous ensemble of individual components whose crystal structures are like discontinuous solid solutions (phase separated). Thus, a eutectic may be better defined as a conglomerate of solid solutions. A structural analysis of cocrystals, solid solutions and eutectics has led to an understanding that materials with strong adhesive (hetero) interactions between the unlike components will lead to cocrystals whereas those having stronger cohesive (homo/self) interactions will more often give rise to solid solutions (for similar structures of components) and eutectics (for different structures of components). We demonstrate that the same crystal engineering principles which have been profitably utilized for cocrystal design in the past decade can now be applied to make eutectics as novel composite materials, illustrated by

  16. New eutectic alloys and their heats of transformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farkas, D.; Birchenall, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Eutectic compositions and congruently melting intermetallic compounds in binary and multicomponent systems among common elements such as Al, Ca, Cu, Mg, P, Si, and Zn may be useful for high temperature heat storage. In this work, heats of fusion of new multicomponent eutectics and intermetallic phases are reported, some of which are competitive with molten salts in heat storage density at high temperatures. The method used to determine unknown eutectic compositions combined results of differential thermal analysis, metallography, and microprobe analysis. The method allows determination of eutectic compositions in no more than three steps. The heats of fusion of the alloys were measured using commercial calorimeters, a differential thermal analyzer, and a differential scanning calorimeter.

  17. Study of eutectic formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, W. R.; Eisa, G. F.; Baskaran, V.; Richardson, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    A theory was developed for the influence of convection on the microstructure of lamellar eutectics. Convection is predicted to produce a coarser microstructure, especially at low freezing rates and large volume fractions of the minority phase. Similary convection is predicted to lower the interfacial undercooling, especially at low freezing rates. Experiments using spin-up/spin-down were performed on the Mn-Bi eutectic. This stirring had a dramatic effect on the microstructure, not only making it coarser but at low freezing rates also changing the morphology of the MnBi. The coarsering persisted to moderately high freezing rates. At the lowest freezing rate, vigorous stirring caused the MnBi to be concentrated at the periphery of the ingot and absent along the center. Progress was made on developing a technique for revealing the three-dimensional microstructure of the MnBi eutectic by time-lapse videotaping while etching.

  18. Eutectic-Alloy Morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirich, R. G.; Poit, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    Deviation in controlled-rod eutectic morphology anticipated for diffusion only crystal growth characterized at low solidification velocities. Naturally induced, gravity-related convective instabilities result in nonalined irregularly dispersed fibers or platelets. Lower solidification limit for controlled growth Bi/Mn alloys is 1 centimeter/ hour.

  19. Influence of convection of eutectic morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, P. A.; Larson, D. J.; Stefanescu, D. M.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental data are given for BiMn/Bi rod eutectic and Fe3C/Fe lamellar eutectic solidified in low gravity. Eutectic spacing is summarized for various alloy systems solidified in low gravity. On-eutectic and off-eutectic models are evaluated with respect to the low-gravity solidification data. The models examined are inadequate for quantitative prediction of phase spacing for on-eutectic solidification in low gravity.

  20. Coatings for directional eutectics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rairden, J. R.; Jackson, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Coatings developed to provide oxidation protection for the directionally-solidified eutectic alloy NiTaC-B (4.4 weight percent Cr) were evaluated. Of seven Co-, Fe- and Ni-base coatings that were initially investigated, best resistance to cyclic oxidation was demonstrated by duplex coatings fabricated by depositing a layer of NiCrAl(Y) by vacuum evaporation from an electron beam source followed by deposition of an Al overlayer using the pack cementation process. It was found that addition of carbon to the coating alloy substantially eliminated the problem of fiber denudation in TaC-type eutectic alloys. Burner rig cycled NiTaC-B samples coated with Ni-20Cr-5Al-0.1C-0.1Y+Al and rupture-tested at 1100 deg C performed as well as or better than uncoated, vacuum cycled and air-tested NiTaC-13; however, a slight degradation with respect to uncoated material was noted in air-stress rupture tests at 870 deg C for both cycled and uncycled samples.

  1. Ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole and preparation

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Kien-yin; Coburn, Michael D.

    1985-01-01

    Ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole and preparation. This salt has been found to be useful as an explosive alone and in eutectic mixtures with ammonium nitrate and/or other explosive compounds. Its eutectic with ammonium nitrate has been demonstrated to behave in a similar manner to a monomolecular explosive such as TNT, and is less sensitive than the pure salt. Moreover, this eutectic mixture, which contains 87.8 mol % of ammonium nitrate, is close to the CO.sub.2 -balanced composition of 90 mol %, and has a relatively low melting point of 110.5 C. making it readily castable. The ternary eutectic system containing the ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole, ammonium nitrate and ethylenediamine dinitrate has a eutectic temperature of 89.5 C. and gives a measured detonation pressure of 24.8 GPa, which is 97.6% of the calculated value. Both the pure ethylenediamine salt and its known eutectic compounds behave in substantially ideal manner. Methods for the preparation of the salt are described.

  2. Composition formulas of binary eutectics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y. P.; Dong, D. D.; Dong, C.; Luo, L. J.; Wang, Q.; Qiang, J. B.; Wang, Y. M.

    2015-12-01

    The present paper addresses the long-standing composition puzzle of eutectic points by introducing a new structural tool for the description of short-range-order structural unit, the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. In this model, any structure is dissociated into a 1st-neighbor cluster and a few glue atoms between the clusters, expressed by a cluster formula [cluster]gluex. This model is applied here to establish the structural model for eutectic liquids, assuming that a eutectic liquid consist of two subunits issued from the relevant eutectic phases, each being expressed by the cluster formula for ideal metallic glasses, i.e., [cluster](glue atom)1 or 3. A structural unit is then composed of two clusters from the relevant eutectic phases plus 2, 4, or 6 glue atoms. Such a dual cluster formulism is well validated in all boron-containing (except those located by the extreme phase diagram ends) and in some commonly-encountered binary eutectics, within accuracies below 1 at.%. The dual cluster formulas vary extensively and are rarely identical even for eutectics of close compositions. They are generally formed with two distinctly different cluster types, with special cluster matching rules such as cuboctahedron plus capped trigonal prism and rhombidodecahedron plus octahedral antiprism.

  3. Composition formulas of binary eutectics.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y P; Dong, D D; Dong, C; Luo, L J; Wang, Q; Qiang, J B; Wang, Y M

    2015-01-01

    The present paper addresses the long-standing composition puzzle of eutectic points by introducing a new structural tool for the description of short-range-order structural unit, the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. In this model, any structure is dissociated into a 1(st)-neighbor cluster and a few glue atoms between the clusters, expressed by a cluster formula [cluster]gluex. This model is applied here to establish the structural model for eutectic liquids, assuming that a eutectic liquid consist of two subunits issued from the relevant eutectic phases, each being expressed by the cluster formula for ideal metallic glasses, i.e., [cluster](glue atom)(1 or 3). A structural unit is then composed of two clusters from the relevant eutectic phases plus 2, 4, or 6 glue atoms. Such a dual cluster formulism is well validated in all boron-containing (except those located by the extreme phase diagram ends) and in some commonly-encountered binary eutectics, within accuracies below 1 at.%. The dual cluster formulas vary extensively and are rarely identical even for eutectics of close compositions. They are generally formed with two distinctly different cluster types, with special cluster matching rules such as cuboctahedron plus capped trigonal prism and rhombidodecahedron plus octahedral antiprism. PMID:26658618

  4. Composition formulas of binary eutectics

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Y. P.; Dong, D. D.; Dong, C.; Luo, L. J.; Wang, Q.; Qiang, J. B.; Wang, Y. M.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper addresses the long-standing composition puzzle of eutectic points by introducing a new structural tool for the description of short-range-order structural unit, the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. In this model, any structure is dissociated into a 1st-neighbor cluster and a few glue atoms between the clusters, expressed by a cluster formula [cluster]gluex. This model is applied here to establish the structural model for eutectic liquids, assuming that a eutectic liquid consist of two subunits issued from the relevant eutectic phases, each being expressed by the cluster formula for ideal metallic glasses, i.e., [cluster](glue atom)1 or 3. A structural unit is then composed of two clusters from the relevant eutectic phases plus 2, 4, or 6 glue atoms. Such a dual cluster formulism is well validated in all boron-containing (except those located by the extreme phase diagram ends) and in some commonly-encountered binary eutectics, within accuracies below 1 at.%. The dual cluster formulas vary extensively and are rarely identical even for eutectics of close compositions. They are generally formed with two distinctly different cluster types, with special cluster matching rules such as cuboctahedron plus capped trigonal prism and rhombidodecahedron plus octahedral antiprism. PMID:26658618

  5. Electrochemical method of producing eutectic uranium alloy and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Horton, James A.; Hayden, H. Wayne

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method for continuous production of liquid uranium alloys through the electrolytic reduction of uranium chlorides. The apparatus includes an electrochemical cell formed from an anode shaped to form an electrolyte reservoir, a cathode comprising a metal, such as iron, capable of forming a eutectic uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and molten electrolyte in the reservoir comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride. The method of the invention produces an eutectic uranium alloy by creating an electrolyte reservoir defined by a container comprising an anode, placing an electrolyte in the reservoir, the electrolyte comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride in molten form, positioning a cathode in the reservoir where the cathode comprises a metal capable of forming an uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and applying a current between the cathode and the anode.

  6. Gravitational influence on eutectic solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, Robert S.; Glicksman, Martin E.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of gravity on eutectic solidification was investigated experimentally for Pb-Sn binary eutectic alloys. It is found that the separation of the primary crystals of the binary system from the coupled eutectic occurs over a wide range of cooling rates and gravitational fields (100-100,000 g). The separation is strongly influenced by the nucleation behavior of the particular alloy system. A mechanism for the strong phase separation is postulated on the basis of cloud convection models in atmospheric convection.

  7. Natural deep eutectic solvents: cytotoxic profile.

    PubMed

    Hayyan, Maan; Mbous, Yves Paul; Looi, Chung Yeng; Wong, Won Fen; Hayyan, Adeeb; Salleh, Zulhaziman; Mohd-Ali, Ozair

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic profiles of different ternary natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs) containing water. For this purpose, five different NADESs were prepared using choline chloride as a salt, alongside five hydrogen bond donors (HBD) namely glucose, fructose, sucrose, glycerol, and malonic acid. Water was added as a tertiary component during the eutectics preparation, except for the malonic acid-based mixture. Coincidentally, the latter was found to be more toxic than any of the water-based NADESs. A trend was observed between the cellular requirements of cancer cells, the viscosity of the NADESs, and their cytotoxicity. This study also highlights the first time application of the conductor-like screening model for real solvent (COSMO-RS) software for the analysis of the cytotoxic mechanism of NADESs. COSMO-RS simulation of the interactions between NADESs and cellular membranes' phospholipids suggested that NADESs strongly interacted with cell surfaces and that their accumulation and aggregation possibly defined their cytotoxicity. This reinforced the idea that careful selection of NADESs components is necessary, as it becomes evident that organic acids as HBD highly contribute to the increasing toxicity of these neoteric mixtures. Nevertheless, NADESs in general seem to possess relatively less acute toxicity profiles than their DESs parents. This opens the door for future large scale utilization of these mixtures. PMID:27386357

  8. Ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole and preparation

    DOEpatents

    Lee, K.; Coburn, M.D.

    1984-05-17

    The ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole has been found to be useful as an explosive alone and in eutectic mixtures with ammonium nitrate and/or other explosive compounds. Its eutectic with ammonium nitrate has been demonstrated to behave in a similar manner to a monomolecular explosive such as TNT, and is less sensitive than the pure salt. Moreover, this eutectic mixture, which contains 87.8 mol% of ammonium nitrate, is close to the CO/sub 2/-balanced composition of 90 mol%, and has a relatively low melting point of 110.5 C making it readily castable. The ternary eutectic system containing the ethylenediamine salt of 5-nitrotetrazole, ammonium nitrate and ethylenediamine dinitrate has a eutectic temperature of 89.5 C and gives a measured detonation pressure of 24.8 GPa, which is 97.6% of the calculated value. Both the pure ethylenediamine salt and its known eutectic compounds behave in substantially ideal manner. Methods for the preparation of the salt are described.

  9. Functionalization of graphene using deep eutectic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayyan, Maan; Abo-Hamad, Ali; AlSaadi, Mohammed AbdulHakim; Hashim, Mohd Ali

    2015-08-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have received attention in various applications because of their distinctive properties. In this work, DESs were used as functionalizing agents for graphene due to their potential to introduce new functional groups and cause other surface modifications. Eighteen different types of ammonium- and phosphonium-salt-based DESs were prepared and characterized by FTIR. The graphene was characterized by FTIR, STA, Raman spectroscopy, XRD, SEM, and TEM. Additional experiments were performed to study the dispersion behavior of the functionalized graphene in different solvents. The DESs exhibited both reduction and functionalization effects on DES-treated graphene. Dispersion stability was investigated and then characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and zeta potential. DES-modified graphene can be used in many applications, such as drug delivery, wastewater treatment, catalysts, composite materials, nanofluids, and biosensors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation on the use of DESs for graphene functionalization.

  10. Functionalization of graphene using deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Hayyan, Maan; Abo-Hamad, Ali; AlSaadi, Mohammed AbdulHakim; Hashim, Mohd Ali

    2015-12-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have received attention in various applications because of their distinctive properties. In this work, DESs were used as functionalizing agents for graphene due to their potential to introduce new functional groups and cause other surface modifications. Eighteen different types of ammonium- and phosphonium-salt-based DESs were prepared and characterized by FTIR. The graphene was characterized by FTIR, STA, Raman spectroscopy, XRD, SEM, and TEM. Additional experiments were performed to study the dispersion behavior of the functionalized graphene in different solvents. The DESs exhibited both reduction and functionalization effects on DES-treated graphene. Dispersion stability was investigated and then characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and zeta potential. DES-modified graphene can be used in many applications, such as drug delivery, wastewater treatment, catalysts, composite materials, nanofluids, and biosensors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation on the use of DESs for graphene functionalization. PMID:26264683

  11. Coatings for directional eutectics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rairden, J. R.; Jackson, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in the development of an environmentally stable coating for a very high strength, directionally solidified eutectic alloy designated NiTaC-13. Three duplex (two-layer) coatings survived 3,000 hours on a cyclic oxidation test (1,100 C to 90 C). These coatings were fabricated by first depositing a layer of NiCrAl(Y) by vacuum evaporation from an electron beam heated source, followed by depositing an aluminizing overlayer. The alloy after exposure with these coatings was denuded of carbide fibers at the substrate/coating interface. It was demonstrated that TaC fiber denudation can be greatly retarded by applying a carbon-bearing coating. The coating was applied by thermal spraying followed by aluminization. Specimens coated with NiCrAlCY+Al survived over 2,000 hours in the cyclic oxidation test with essentially no TaC denudation. Coating ductility was studied for coated and heat-treated bars, and stress rupture life at 871 C and 1,100 C was determined for coated and cycled bars.

  12. Directional Solidification of Eutectic Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayir, Ali

    2001-01-01

    Two major problems associated with structural ceramics are lack of damage tolerance and insufficient strength and creep resistance at very high temperatures of interest for aerospace application. This work demonstrated that the directionally solidified eutectics can have unique poly-phase microstructures and mechanical properties superior to either constituent alone. The constraining effect of unique eutectic microstructures result in higher resistance to slow crack growth and creep. Prospect of achieving superior properties through controlled solidification are presented and this technology can also be beneficial to produce new class of materials.

  13. A eutectic gold vapour laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tou, T. Y.; Cheak, K. E.; Low, K. S.

    This paper presents a eutectic gold vapour laser (EGVL) which uses the eutectic alloy of gold and silicon, Au/3.15Si, as the lasant. It was observed that, at low input power operation, the presence of the silicon vapour could increase the output of the 627.8 nm laser line by (50-60)% when compared with a gold vapour laser (GVL) which uses pure gold as the lasant. The improved laser output for the EGVL may be explained by an increased electron density, as a result of Penning ionization of silicon atoms. However, for higher input power operation, the EGVL showed a slower rate of increase in its laser output power and was overtaken by GVLs at a tube operating temperature of around 1650°C. This may be explained by a lowering of the electron temperature owing to increasing inelastic collisions between the electrons and silicon atoms which, although excited, may not produce additional electrons.

  14. Electrochemical method of producing eutectic uranium alloy and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Horton, J.A.; Hayden, H.W.

    1995-01-10

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for continuous production of liquid uranium alloys through the electrolytic reduction of uranium chlorides. The apparatus includes an electrochemical cell formed from an anode shaped to form an electrolyte reservoir, a cathode comprising a metal, such as iron, capable of forming a eutectic uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and molten electrolyte in the reservoir comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride. The method of the invention produces an eutectic uranium alloy by creating an electrolyte reservoir defined by a container comprising an anode, placing an electrolyte in the reservoir, the electrolyte comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride in molten form, positioning a cathode in the reservoir where the cathode comprises a metal capable of forming an uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and applying a current between the cathode and the anode. 2 figures.

  15. Density measurements of the lithium fluoride/lithium sulfide eutectic at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Charles L.; Gilbert, James B.

    1994-10-01

    A straightforward and reliable method to determine densities of molten salts at high temperatures was de-veloped by Janz and Lorenz several years ago.[1] This method was followed in order to determine the density of the LiF/Li2S eutectic[2] over the temperature range of 1176 to 1355 K in which the eutectic is liquid. The rel-ative lack of data for this eutectic is surprising given its potential usefulness in the study of advanced batteries'31 and electrowinning of metals from molten sulfides.[41] The method is based on the fact that a solid piece of metal of known volume suspended from a pan balance into a molten salt will weigh less than if it were sus-pended in air at the same temperature. This difference in weight measured in grams will be equal to the buoyant force of the liquid at that temperature. The density of the salt bath can then readily be determined by dividing this difference by the volume of the solid piece of metal that is immersed in the bath. The procedure can be re-peated to give density values over a range of temperatures.

  16. Eutectic Contact Inks for Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, B.

    1985-01-01

    Low-resistance electrical contacts formed on solar cells by melting powders of eutectic composition of semiconductor and dopant. Process improves cell performance without subjecting cell to processing temperatures high enough to degrade other characteristics.

  17. Eutectic bonding of sapphire to sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deluca, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    Eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide provides new bonding technique for sapphires and rubies. Technique effectively reduces possibility of contamination. Bonding material is aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide mixture that matches coefficient of thermal expansion of sapphire.

  18. Eutectic experiment development for space processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    A ground base test plan and a specimen evaluation scheme have been developed for the aluminum-copper eutectic solidification experiment to be run in the M518 multipurpose electric furnace during the Skylab mission. Besides thermal and solidification studies a detailed description is given of the quantitative metallographic technique which is appropriate for characterizing eutectic structures. This method should prove a key tool for evaluating specimen microstructure which is the most sensitive indicator of changes produced during solidification. It has been recommended that single grain pre-frozen eutectic specimens be used to simplify microstructural evaluation and to eliminate any porosity in the as-cast eutectic specimens. High purity (99.999%) materials from one supplier should be employed for all experiments. Laboratory studies indicate that porosity occurs in the MRC as-cast eutectic ingots but that this porosity can be eliminated by directional freezing. Chemical analysis shows that the MRC ingots are slightly Al rich and contain about .03% impurity. Because of the impurity content the lower cooldown rate (1.2 C/min) should be used for eutectic freezing if MRC material is used in the M518 furnace.

  19. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  20. Effect of Eutectic Concentration on Conductivity in PEO:LiX Based Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Pengfei; Ganapatibhotla, Lalitha; Maranas, Janna

    Polyethylene oxide (PEO) and lithium salt based solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) have been widely proposed as a substitution for the liquid electrolyte in Li-ion batteries. As salt concentration varies, these systems demonstrate rich phase behavior. Conductivity as a function of salt concentration has been measured for decades and various concentration dependences have been observed. A PEO:LiX mixture can have one or two conductivity maximums, while some mixtures with salt of high ionic strength will have higher conductivity as the salt concentration decrease. The factors that affect the conductivity are specific for each sample. The universal factor that affects conductivity is still not clear. In this work, we measured the conductivity of a series of PEO:LiX mixtures and statistical analysis shows conductivity is affected by the concentration difference from the eutectic concentration (Δc). The correlation with Δc is stronger than the correlation with glass transition temperature. We believe that at the eutectic concentration, during the solidification process, unique structures can form which aid conduction. Currently at Dow Chemical.

  1. Nucleation-controlled microstructures and anomalous eutectic formation in undercooled Co-Sn and Ni-Si eutectic melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingjun; Kuribayashi, Kazuhiko

    2003-12-01

    Co-20.5 at. pct Sn and Ni-21.4 at. pct Si eutectic alloys have been levitated and undercooled in an electromagnetic levitator (EML) and then solidified spontaneously at different undercoolings. The original surface and cross-sectional morphologies of these solidified samples consist of separate eutectic colonies regardless of melt undercooling, indicating that microstructures in the free solidification of the eutectic systems are nucleation controlled. Regular lamellae always grow from the periphery of an independent anomalous eutectic grain in each eutectic colony. This typical morphology shows that the basic unit should be a single eutectic colony, when discussing the solidification behavior. Special emphasis is focused on the anomalous eutectic formation after a significant difference in linear kinetic coefficients is recognized for terminal eutectic phases, in particular when a eutectic reaction contains a nonfaceted disordered solid solution and a faceted ordered intermetallic compound as the terminal eutectic phases. It is this remarkable difference in the linear kinetic coefficients that leads to a pronounced difference in kinetic undercoolings. The sluggish kinetics in the interface atomic attachment of the intermetallic compound originates the occurrence of the decoupled growth of two eutectic phases. Hence, the current eutectic models are modified to incorporate kinetic undercooling, in order to account for the competitive growth behavior of eutectic phases in a single eutectic colony. The critical condition for generating the decoupled growth of eutectic phases is proposed. Further analysis reveals that a dimensionless critical undercooling may be appropriate to show the tendency for the anomalous eutectic-forming ability when considering the difference in linear kinetic coefficients of terminal eutectic phases. This qualitative criterion, albeit crude with several approximations and assumptions, can elucidate most of the published experimental results

  2. Electrochemistry in deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Nkuku, Chiemela A; LeSuer, Robert J

    2007-11-22

    We report the cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and scanning electrochemical microscopy of ferrocene dissolved in deep eutectic solvents (DES), consisting of choline chloride (ChCl) and either trifluoroacetamide (TFA) or malonic acid as the hydrogen-bond donor. Despite the use of ultramicroelectrodes, which were required due to the modest conductivities of the DES employed, linear diffusion behavior was observed in cyclic voltammetric experiments. The high viscosity of 1:2 ChCl/TFA relative to non-aqueous electrochemical solvents leads to a low diffusion coefficient, 2.7 x 10(-8) cm2 s(-1) for ferrocene in this medium. Because of the difficulties in achieving steady-state conditions, SECM approach curves were tip velocity dependent. Under certain conditions, SECM approach curves to an insulating substrate displayed a positive-feedback response. Satisfactory simulation of this unexpected behavior was obtained by including convection terms into the mass transport equations typically used for SECM theory. The observance of positive-feedback behavior at an insulating substrate can be described in terms of a dimensionless parameter, the Peclet number, which is the ratio of the convective and diffusive timescales. Fitting insulator approach curves of ferrocene in 1:2 ChCl/TFA shows an apparent increase in the diffusion coefficient with increasing tip velocity, which can be explained by DES behaving as a shear thinning non-Newtonian fluid. PMID:17973421

  3. Growth and Morphology of Rod Eutectics

    SciTech Connect

    Jing Teng; Shan Liu; R. Trivedi

    2008-03-17

    The formation of rod eutectic microstructure is investigated systematically in a succinonitrile-camphor alloy of eutectic composition by using the directional solidification technique. A new rod eutectic configuration is observed in which the rods form with elliptical cylindrical shape. Two different orientations of the ellipse are observed that differ by a 90{sup o} rotation such that the major and the minor axes are interchanged. Critical experiments in thin samples, where a single layer of rods forms, show that the spacing and orientation of the elliptic rods are governed by the growth rate and the sample thickness. In thicker samples, multi layers of rods form with circular cross-section and the scaling law between the spacing and velocity predicted by the Jackson and Hunt model is validated. A theoretical model is developed for a two-dimensional array of elliptical rods that are arranged in a hexagonal or a square array, and the results are shown to be consistent with the experimental observations. The model of elliptic rods is also shown to reduce to that for the circular rod eutectic when the lengths of the two axes are equal, and to the lamellar eutectic model when one of the axes is much larger than the other one.

  4. Stability of eutectic interface during directional solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Han, S.H.

    1996-04-23

    Directional solidification of eutectic alloys shows different types of eutectic morphologies. These include lamellar, rod, oscillating and tilting modes. The growth of these morphologies occurs with a macroscopically planar interface. However, under certain conditions, the planar eutectic front becomes unstable and gives rise to a cellular or a dendritic structure. This instability leads to the cellular/dendritic structure of either a primary phase or a two-phase structure. The objective of this work is to develop a fundamental understanding of the instability of eutectic structure into cellular/dendritic structures of a single phase and of two-phases. Experimental studies have been carried out to examine the transition from a planar to two-phase cellular and dendritic structures in a ceramic system of Alumina-Zirconia (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2}) and in a transparent organic system of carbon tetrabromide and hexachloroethane (CBr{sub 4}-C{sub 2}Cl{sub 6}). Several aspects of eutectic interface stability have been examined.

  5. Eutectic nucleation in hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Nafisi, S. Ghomashchi, R.; Vali, H.

    2008-10-15

    The nucleation mechanism of eutectic grains in hypoeutectic Al-Si foundry alloys has been investigated by examining deep etched specimens in high-resolution field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM) and by using in-situ Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling and microscopy. Both unmodified and Sr-modified alloys were studied to characterize the nucleation mechanism of eutectic silicon flakes and fibers. It is proposed that following nucleation of eutectic Al on the primary {alpha}-Al dendrites, fine Si particles form at the solidification front upon which the eutectic Si flakes and fibers could develop. The formation of small Si particles is attributed to Si enrichment of the remaining melt due to the formation of eutectic Al (aluminum spikes) at the eutectic temperature. A hypothesis is then proposed to explain the mechanism of eutectic grains formation with main emphasis on the eutectic Si phase.

  6. Eutectic growth under acoustic levitation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, W. J.; Cao, C. D.; Lü, Y. J.; Wei, B.

    2002-12-01

    Samples of Pb-Sn eutectic alloy with a high density of 8.5×103 kg/m3 are levitated with a single-axis acoustic levitator, and containerlessly melted and then solidified in argon atmosphere. High undercoolings up to 38 K are obtained, which results in a microstructural transition of ``lamellas-broken lamellas-dendrites.'' This transition is further investigated in the light of the coupled zone for eutectic growth and the effects of ultrasound. The breaking of regular eutectic lamellas and suppression of gravity-induced macrosegregation of (Pb) and (Sn) dendrites are explained by the complicated internal flow inside the levitated drop, which is jointly induced by the shape oscillation, bulk vibration and rotation of the levitated drop. The ultrasonic field is also found to drive forced surface vibration, which subsequently excites capillary ripples and catalyzes nucleation on the sample surface.

  7. Structure of molten Ga-Te eutectic

    SciTech Connect

    Dutchak, Ya.I.; Mudryi, S.I.; Kozyrenko, V.N.

    1988-02-01

    We have made an x-ray study of the Ga-Te eutectic liquid. The phase diagram shows a series of compounds as well as immiscibility regions for two liquid phases and the eutectic. The compounds GaTe and Ga/sub 2/Te/sub 3/ melt congruently. The phase diagram is complicated, and the phase state varies substantially with the component ratio. The liquid eutectic (87 at. % Te) was examined with a high-temperature diffractometer intended particularly for liquids; Cu K..cap alpha.. radiation was used, which was monochromatized with LiF. An integral Fourier transformation was used to calculate the radial distributions for the atoms and the density; the first were used to derive the most likely shortest interatomic distances, while the second gave the mean coordination numbers.

  8. Directionally solidified eutectic alloy gamma-beta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, S. N.

    1977-01-01

    A pseudobinary eutectic alloy composition was determined by a previously developed bleed-out technique. The directionally solidified eutectic alloy with a composition of Ni-37.4Fe-10.0Cr-9.6Al (in wt%) had tensile strengths decreasing from 1,090 MPa at room temperature to 54 MPa at 1,100 C. The low density, excellent microstructural stability, and oxidation resistance of the alloy during thermal cycling suggest that it might have applicability as a gas turbine vane alloy while its relatively low high temperature strength precludes its use as a blade alloy. A zirconium addition increased the 750 C strength, and a tungsten addition was ineffective. The gamma=beta eutectic alloys appeared to obey a normal freezing relation.

  9. Eutectic growth under acoustic levitation conditions.

    PubMed

    Xie, W J; Cao, C D; Lü, Y J; Wei, B

    2002-12-01

    Samples of Pb-Sn eutectic alloy with a high density of 8.5 x 10(3) kg/m(3) are levitated with a single-axis acoustic levitator, and containerlessly melted and then solidified in argon atmosphere. High undercoolings up to 38 K are obtained, which results in a microstructural transition of "lamellas-broken lamellas-dendrites." This transition is further investigated in the light of the coupled zone for eutectic growth and the effects of ultrasound. The breaking of regular eutectic lamellas and suppression of gravity-induced macrosegregation of (Pb) and (Sn) dendrites are explained by the complicated internal flow inside the levitated drop, which is jointly induced by the shape oscillation, bulk vibration and rotation of the levitated drop. The ultrasonic field is also found to drive forced surface vibration, which subsequently excites capillary ripples and catalyzes nucleation on the sample surface. PMID:12513291

  10. Assessing the toxicity and biodegradability of deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Wen, Qing; Chen, Jing-Xin; Tang, Yu-Lin; Wang, Juan; Yang, Zhen

    2015-08-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have emerged as a new type of promising ionic solvents with a broad range of potential applications. Although their ecotoxicological profile is still poorly known, DESs are generally regarded as "green" because they are composed of ammonium salts and H-bond donors (HBDs) which are considered to be eco-friendly. In this work, cholinium-based DESs comprised of choline chloride (ChCl) and choline acetate (ChAc) as the salt and urea (U), acetamide (A), glycerol (G) and ethylene glycol (EG) as the HBD were evaluated for their toxic effects on different living organisms such as Escherichia coli (a bacterium), Allium sativum (garlic, a plant) and hydra (an invertebrate), and their biodegradabilities were assessed by means of closed bottle tests. These DESs possessed an anti-bacterial property and exhibited inhibitory effects on the test organisms adopted, depending on the composition and concentration of the DES. The mechanism for the impact of DESs and their components on different living organisms can be associated to their interactions with the cellular membranes. Not all DESs can be considered readily biodegradable. By extending the limited knowledge about the toxicity and biodegradation of this particular solvent family, this investigation on DESs provides insight into our structure-based understanding of their ecotoxicological behavior. PMID:25800513

  11. Microstructure Of MnBi/Bi Eutectic Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, William R.; Eisa, G. F.; Baskaran, B.; Richardson, Donald C.

    1988-01-01

    Collection of three reports describes studies of directional solidification of MnBi/Bi eutectic alloy. Two of the reports, "Influence of Convection on Lamellar Spacing of Eutectics" and "Influence of Convection on Eutectic Microstructure," establish theoretical foundation for remaining document. Reports seek to quantify effect of convection on concentration field of growing lamellar eutectic. Remaining report, "Study of Eutectic Formation," begins by continuing theoretical developments. New technique under development by one of the authors helps to reveal three-dimensional microstructures of alloys.

  12. Pb-free Sn-Ag-Cu ternary eutectic solder

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, I.E.; Yost, F.G.; Smith, J.F.; Miller, C.M.; Terpstra, R.L.

    1996-06-18

    A Pb-free solder includes a ternary eutectic composition consisting essentially of about 93.6 weight % Sn-about 4.7 weight % Ag-about 1.7 weight % Cu having a eutectic melting temperature of about 217 C and variants of the ternary composition wherein the relative concentrations of Sn, Ag, and Cu deviate from the ternary eutectic composition to provide a controlled melting temperature range (liquid-solid ``mushy`` zone) relative to the eutectic melting temperature (e.g. up to 15 C above the eutectic melting temperature). 5 figs.

  13. Pb-free Sn-Ag-Cu ternary eutectic solder

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E.; Yost, Frederick G.; Smith, John F.; Miller, Chad M.; Terpstra, Robert L.

    1996-06-18

    A Pb-free solder includes a ternary eutectic composition consisting essentially of about 93.6 weight % Sn-about 4.7 weight % Ag-about 1.7 weight % Cu having a eutectic melting temperature of about 217.degree. C. and variants of the ternary composition wherein the relative concentrations of Sn, Ag, and Cu deviate from the ternary eutectic composition to provide a controlled melting temperature range (liquid-solid "mushy" zone) relative to the eutectic melting temperature (e.g. up to 15.degree. C. above the eutectic melting temperature).

  14. Investigation of residual anode material after electrorefining uranium in molten chloride salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, M. A.; Williamson, M. A.; Willit, J.

    2015-12-01

    A buildup of material at uranium anodes during uranium electrorefining in molten chloride salts has been observed. Potentiodynamic testing has been conducted using a three electrode cell, with a uranium working electrode in both LiCl/KCl eutectic and LiCl each containing ∼5 mol% UCl3. The anodic current response was observed at 50° intervals between 450 °C and 650 °C in the eutectic salt. These tests revealed a buildup of material at the anode in LiCl/KCl salt, which was sampled at room temperature, and analyzed using ICP-MS, XRD and SEM techniques. Examination of the analytical data, current response curves and published phase diagrams has established that as the uranium anode dissolves, the U3+ ion concentration in the diffusion layer surrounding the electrode rises precipitously to levels, which may at low temperatures exceed the solubility limit for UCl3 or in the case of the eutectic salt for K2UCl5. The reduction in current response observed at low temperature in eutectic salt is eliminated at 650 °C, where K2UCl5 is absent due to its congruent melting and only simple concentration polarization effects are seen. In LiCl similar concentration effects are seen though significantly longer time at applied potential is required to effect a reduction in the current response as compared to the eutectic salt.

  15. Ferrier reaction in a deep eutectic solvent.

    PubMed

    Rokade, Sunil M; Bhate, Prakash M

    2015-10-13

    A mild and efficient synthesis of 2,3-unsaturated sugar derivatives has been achieved by conducting the Ferrier reaction in a deep eutectic solvent (DES). A wide range of alcohols including primary, secondary, benzylic, and sugar-derived primary alcohols can be used. Advantages include good yields, shorter reaction times and recyclability of DES. PMID:26279523

  16. Modeling of detached and unsteady eutectic solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri I.

    Detached solidification provides a new possibility to grow crystals with improved quality. However, it has not been reproducible. The first part of this dissertation is dedicated to discussion of the mechanisms and conditions that would help to bring detached solidification from a space laboratory to a terrestrial factory. The possibility of a steady-state gap during detached solidification was proved by solving the mass transport and Navier-Stokes equations. A high contact angle of the melt with the ampoule wall, appreciable gas atmosphere, and a low freezing rate are needed to obtain detachment. Stability analysis showed that mass transfer of volatile species from the melt into the gap and heat transfer stabilize detached configuration. In vertical solidification on earth, a convex freezing interface was shown to provide enhanced transport of volatile species towards the gap, and, therefore, supports detachment. The influence of convection on eutectic microstructure selection has been a question for many years. Both experiment and theory have shown that buoyancy-driven convection alone is not enough to explain the difference in microstructure of earth- and space-grown eutectics. The second part of this dissertation is devoted to a study of the influence of temperature oscillations on microstructure selection. Two different models were chosen. The first, a sharp-interface model, was able to give a solution for the excess compositional undercooling for different leading conditions of both lamellar and rod eutectics. The limitation of this model is that it's not able to set the conditions for catastrophic morphological changes. Application of the principle of minimum entropy production to stationary eutectic growth predicts a decrease in eutectic spacing due to freezing rate oscillations. The second, a phase-field model, was developed for the evolution of the microstructure. This phase-field model correctly describes unsteady eutectic solidification, as well as

  17. Corrosion of selected alloys in eutectic lithium-sodium-potassium carbonate at 900C

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, R.T.; Thomas, T.M.; Schissel, P.

    1986-01-01

    There is an ongoing interest at the US Department of Energy in using molten salts as high temperature sensible heat storage media in advanced solar thermal systems. In this report, the compatibility of selected alloys in eutectic lithium-sodium-potassium carbonate, the salt that will be used in the near-term engineering experiments, has been evaluated at 900C. Several combinations of oxidation potential and acidity in the salt were used in the experiments. It was found that the extent of corrosion was dramatically lower for experiments conducted at high oxygen potential compared to experiments at low oxygen potential. For Inconel 600, Hastelloy N, and nickel the results indicated that corrosion rates substantially below 1 mm/year/side might reasonably be expected and that a reevaluation of alloys the showed poor corrosion resistance under low oxygen potential would be advisable.

  18. SEPARATION OF METAL SALTS BY ADSORPTION

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.

    1959-01-20

    It has been found that certain metal salts, particularly the halides of iron, cobalt, nickel, and the actinide metals, arc readily absorbed on aluminum oxide, while certain other salts, particularly rare earth metal halides, are not so absorbed. Use is made of this discovery to separate uranium from the rare earths. The metal salts are first dissolved in a molten mixture of alkali metal nitrates, e.g., the eutectic mixture of lithium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and then the molten salt solution is contacted with alumina, either by slurrying or by passing the salt solution through an absorption tower. The process is particularly valuable for the separation of actinides from lanthanum-group rare earths.

  19. Estimated heats of fusion of fluoride salt mixtures suitable for thermal energy storage applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, A. K.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The heats of fusion of several fluoride salt mixtures with melting points greater than 973 K were estimated from a coupled analysis of the available thermodynamic data and phase diagrams. Simple binary eutectic systems with and without terminal solid solutions, binary eutectics with congruent melting intermediate phases, and ternary eutectic systems were considered. Several combinations of salts were identified, most notable the eutectics LiF-22CaF2 and NaF-60MgF2 which melt at 1039 and 1273 K respectively which posses relatively high heats of fusion/gm (greater than 0.7 kJ/g). Such systems would seemingly be ideal candidates for the light weight, high energy storage media required by the thermal energy storage unit in advanced solar dynamic power systems envisioned for the future space missions.

  20. Electrodeposition of microcrystalline chromium from fused salts

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, T.; Varma, R.; Brown, A.

    1987-01-01

    Chromium can be conveniently electroplated from fused chloride electrolytes. The deposition from LiCl-KCl (eutectic)-CrCl/sub 2/ melts is known to produce large crystal grains. Large grain size and other problems encountered in the electrodeposition of microcrystalline chromium from fused salt are discussed. The results indicate that combined use of forced electrolyte convection and a nucleating pulse in conjunction with a periodic reverse pulse produces fine-grained deposits.

  1. Method for the production of uranium chloride salt

    DOEpatents

    Westphal, Brian R.; Mariani, Robert D.

    2013-07-02

    A method for the production of UCl.sub.3 salt without the use of hazardous chemicals or multiple apparatuses for synthesis and purification is provided. Uranium metal is combined in a reaction vessel with a metal chloride and a eutectic salt- and heated to a first temperature under vacuum conditions to promote reaction of the uranium metal with the metal chloride for the production of a UCl.sub.3 salt. After the reaction has run substantially to completion, the furnace is heated to a second temperature under vacuum conditions. The second temperature is sufficiently high to selectively vaporize the chloride salts and distill them into a condenser region.

  2. New eutectic ionic liquids for lipase activation and enzymatic preparation of biodiesel†

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hua; Baker, Gary A.; Holmes, Shaletha

    2012-01-01

    The enzymatic preparation of biodiesel has been hampered by the lack of suitable solvents with desirable properties such as high lipase compatibility, low cost, low viscosity, high biodegradability, and ease of product separation. Recent interest in using ionic liquids (ILs) as advanced reaction media has led to fast reaction rates and high yields in the enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel. However, conventional (i.e., cation–anion paired) ILs based on imidazolium and other quaternary ammonium salts remain too expensive for wide application at industrial scales. In this study, we report on newly-synthesized eutectic ILs derived from choline acetate or choline chloride coupled with biocompatible hydrogen-bond donors, such as glycerol. These eutectic solvents have favorable properties including low viscosity, high biodegradability, and excellent compatibility with Novozym® 435, a commercial immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B. Furthermore, in a model biodiesel synthesis system, we demonstrate high reaction rates for the enzymatic transesterification of Miglyol® oil 812 with methanol, catalyzed by Novozym® 435 in choline acetate/glycerol (1 : 1.5 molar ratio). The high conversion (97%) of the triglyceride obtained within 3 h, under optimal conditions, suggests that these novel eutectic solvents warrant further exploration as potential media in the enzymatic production of biodiesel. PMID:21283901

  3. Two-stage eutectic metal brushes

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-07-14

    A two-stage eutectic metal brush assembly having a slip ring rigidly coupled to a shaft, the slip ring being electrically coupled to first voltage polarity. At least one brush is rigidly coupled to a second ring and slidingly engaged to the slip ring. Eutectic metal at least partially fills an annulus between the second ring and a stationary ring. At least one conductor is rigidly coupled to the stationary ring and electrically coupled to a second voltage polarity. Electrical continuity is maintained between the first voltage polarity and the second voltage polarity. Periodic rotational motion is present between the stationary ring and the second ring. Periodic rotational motion is also present between the brush and the slip ring.

  4. Crystallography of Alumina-YAG-Eutectic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Serene C.; Sayir, Ali; Dickerson, Robert M.; Matson, Lawrence E.

    2000-01-01

    Multiple descriptions of the alumina-YAG eutectic crystallography appear in the ceramic literature. The orientation between two phases in a eutectic system has direct impact on residual stress, morphology, microstructural stability, and high temperature mechanical properties. A study to demonstrate that the different crystallographic relationships can be correlated with different growth constraints was undertaken. Fibers produced by Laser-Heated Float Zone (LHFZ) and Edge-defined Film-fed Growth (EFG) were examined. A map of the orientation relationship between Al2O3 and Y3Al5O12 and their relationship to the fiber growth axis as a function of pull rate are presented. Regions in which a single orientation predominates are identified.

  5. An enthalpy method for modeling eutectic solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Anirban; Kiran, Apoorva; Karagadde, Shyamprasad; Dutta, Pradip

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a new micro-scale model for solidification of eutectic alloys. The model is based on the enthalpy method and simulates the growth of adjacent α and β phases from a melt of eutectic composition in a two-dimensional Eulerian framework. The evolution of the two phases is obtained from the solution of volume averaged energy and species transport equations which are formulated using the nodal enthalpy and concentration potential values. The three phases are tracked using the β-phase fraction and the liquid fraction values in all the computational nodes. Solutal convection flow field in the domain is obtained from the solution of volume-averaged momentum and continuity equations. The governing equations are solved using a coupled explicit-implicit scheme. The model is qualitatively validated with Jackson-Hunt theory. Results show expected eutectic growth pattern and proper species transfer and diffusion field ahead of the interface. Capabilities of the model such as lamella width selection, division of lamella into thinner lamellae and the presence of solutal convection are successfully demonstrated. The present model can potentially be incorporated into the existing framework of enthalpy based micro-scale dendritic solidification models thus leading to an efficient generalized microstructure evolution model.

  6. Directionally solidified eutectic gamma plus beta nickel-base superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, M. R. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A directionally solidified multivariant eutectic gamma + beta nickel-base superalloy casting having improved high temperature strength and oxidation resistance properties is provided. This comprises a two phase eutectic structure containing, on a weight percent basis, 5.0-15.0 tungsten, 8.5-14.5 aluminum, 0.0-35.0 cobalt and the balance being nickel. Embedded within the gamma phase nickel-base matrix are aligned eutectic beta phase (primarily (NiCo)Al reinforcing lamellae.

  7. Protease activation in glycerol-based deep eutectic solvents

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hua; Baker, Gary A.; Holmes, Shaletha

    2011-01-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) consisting of mixtures of a choline salt (chloride or acetate form) and glycerol are prepared as easily accessible, biodegradable, and inexpensive alternatives to conventional aprotic cation-anion paired ionic liquids. These DES systems display excellent fluidity coupled with thermal stability to nearly 200 °C. In this work, the transesterification activities of cross-linked proteases (subtilisin and α-chymotrypsin), immobilized on chitosan, were individually examined in these novel DESs. In the 1:2 molar ratio mixture of choline chloride/glycerol containing 3% (v/v) water, cross-linked subtilisin exhibited an excellent activity (2.9 μmo l min−1 g−1) in conjunction with a selectivity of 98% in the transesterification reaction of N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester with 1-propanol. These highly encouraging results advocate more extensive exploration of DESs in protease-mediated biotransformations of additional polar substrates and use of DESs in biocatalysis more generally. PMID:21909232

  8. Protease activation in glycerol-based deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hua; Baker, Gary A; Holmes, Shaletha

    2011-11-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) consisting of mixtures of a choline salt (chloride or acetate form) and glycerol are prepared as easily accessible, biodegradable, and inexpensive alternatives to conventional aprotic cation-anion paired ionic liquids. These DES systems display excellent fluidity coupled with thermal stability to nearly 200 °C. In this work, the transesterification activities of cross-linked proteases (subtilisin and α-chymotrypsin), immobilized on chitosan, were individually examined in these novel DESs. In the 1:2 molar ratio mixture of choline chloride/glycerol containing 3% (v/v) water, cross-linked subtilisin exhibited an excellent activity (2.9 μmo l min(-1) g(-1)) in conjunction with a selectivity of 98% in the transesterification reaction of N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester with 1-propanol. These highly encouraging results advocate more extensive exploration of DESs in protease-mediated biotransformations of additional polar substrates and use of DESs in biocatalysis more generally. PMID:21909232

  9. Insight into the Li2CO3-K2CO3 eutectic mixture from classical molecular dynamics: Thermodynamics, structure, and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Corradini, Dario; Coudert, François-Xavier; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe

    2016-03-14

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to study the thermodynamics, structure, and dynamics of the Li2CO3-K2CO3 (62:38 mol. %) eutectic mixture. We present a new classical non-polarizable force field for this molten salt mixture, optimized using experimental and first principles molecular dynamics simulations data as reference. This simple force field allows efficient molecular simulations of phenomena at long time scales. We use this optimized force field to describe the behavior of the eutectic mixture in the 900-1100 K temperature range, at pressures between 0 and 5 GPa. After studying the equation of state in these thermodynamic conditions, we present molecular insight into the structure and dynamics of the melt. In particular, we present an analysis of the temperature and pressure dependence of the eutectic mixture's self-diffusion coefficients, viscosity, and ionic conductivity. PMID:26979697

  10. Insight into the Li2CO3-K2CO3 eutectic mixture from classical molecular dynamics: Thermodynamics, structure, and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradini, Dario; Coudert, François-Xavier; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe

    2016-03-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to study the thermodynamics, structure, and dynamics of the Li2CO3-K2CO3 (62:38 mol. %) eutectic mixture. We present a new classical non-polarizable force field for this molten salt mixture, optimized using experimental and first principles molecular dynamics simulations data as reference. This simple force field allows efficient molecular simulations of phenomena at long time scales. We use this optimized force field to describe the behavior of the eutectic mixture in the 900-1100 K temperature range, at pressures between 0 and 5 GPa. After studying the equation of state in these thermodynamic conditions, we present molecular insight into the structure and dynamics of the melt. In particular, we present an analysis of the temperature and pressure dependence of the eutectic mixture's self-diffusion coefficients, viscosity, and ionic conductivity.

  11. Deep eutectic solvents formed between choline chloride and carboxylic acids: versatile alternatives to ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Andrew P; Boothby, David; Capper, Glen; Davies, David L; Rasheed, Raymond K

    2004-07-28

    Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES) can be formed between a variety of quaternary ammonium salts and carboxylic acids. The physical properties are significantly affected by the structure of the carboxylic acid but the phase behavior of the mixtures can be simply modeled by taking account of the mole fraction of carboxylic acid in the mixture. The physical properties such as viscosity, conductivity, and surface tension of these DES are similar to ambient temperature ionic liquids and insight into the cause of these properties is gained using hole-theory. It is shown that the conductivity and viscosity of these liquids is controlled by ion mobility and the availability of voids of suitable dimensions, and this is consistent with the fluidity of other ionic liquids and molten salts. The DES are also shown to be good solvents for metal oxides, which could have potential application for metal extraction. PMID:15264850

  12. Use of Microgravity to Control the Microstructure of Eutectics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, William R.; Regel, Liya L.; Smith, Reginald W.

    1999-01-01

    The long term goal of this project is to be able to control the microstructure of directionally solidified eutectic alloys, through an improved understanding of the influence of convection. Prior experimental results on the influence of microgravity on the microstructure of fibrous eutectics have been contradictory. Theoretical work at Clarkson University showed that buoyancy-driven convection in the vertical Bridgman configuration is not vigorous enough to alter the concentration field in the melt sufficiently to cause a measurable change in microstructure when the eutectic grows at minimum supercooling. Currently, there are four other hypotheses that might explain the observed changes in microstructure of fibrous eutectics caused by convection: (1) Disturbance of the concentration boundary layer arising from an off-eutectic melt composition and growth at the extremum; (2) Disturbance of the concentration boundary layer of a habit-modifying impurity; (3) Disturbance of the concentration boundary layer arising from an off-eutectic interfacial composition due to non-extremum growth; and (4) A fluctuating freezing rate combined with differences in the kinetics of fiber termination and fiber formation. We favor the last of these hypotheses. Thus, the primary objective of the present grant is to determine experimentally and theoretically the influence of a periodically varying freezing rate on eutectic solidification. A secondary objective is to determine the influence of convection on the microstructure of at least one other eutectic alloy that might be suitable for flight experiments.

  13. Synthesis and electronic applications of oxide-metal eutectic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Holder, J.D.; Cochran, J.K.; Hill, D.N.; Chapman, A.T.; Clark, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    A review is given of important developments in the synthesis of oxide-metal eutectic composites and the composite application in the continuing development of field emitters. Known metal oxide-metal binary and ternary eutectic systems are listed. The synthesis, electrical conductivity, thermodynamics, and applications are discussed. (FS)

  14. Thermodynamic Calculation of n-COMPONENT Eutectic Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, L.; Caillard, J.; André, P.

    This paper presents a simple numerical method to calculate the eutectic mixture composition and melting temperature. Using a Newton-Raphson method to solve the nonlinear problem, the calculation is possible for n-component eutectic. We tested this algorithm on inorganic and organic mixtures. A better correlation between experimental and numerical results has been found for organic compound.

  15. Controlled Growth of Rubrene Nanowires by Eutectic Melt Crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Jeyon; Hyon, Jinho; Park, Kyung-Sun; Cho, Boram; Baek, Jangmi; Kim, Jueun; Lee, Sang Uck; Sung, Myung Mo; Kang, Youngjong

    2016-03-01

    Organic semiconductors including rubrene, Alq3, copper phthalocyanine and pentacene are crystallized by the eutectic melt crystallization. Those organic semiconductors form good eutectic systems with the various volatile crystallizable additives such as benzoic acid, salicylic acid, naphthalene and 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene. Due to the formation of the eutectic system, organic semiconductors having originally high melting point (Tm > 300 °C) are melted and crystallized at low temperature (Te = 40.8–133 °C). The volatile crystallizable additives are easily removed by sublimation. For a model system using rubrene, single crystalline rubrene nanowires are prepared by the eutectic melt crystallization and the eutectic-melt-assisted nanoimpinting (EMAN) technique. It is demonstrated that crystal structure and the growth direction of rubrene can be controlled by using different volatile crystallizable additives. The field effect mobility of rubrene nanowires prepared using several different crystallizable additives are measured and compared.

  16. Controlled Growth of Rubrene Nanowires by Eutectic Melt Crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jeyon; Hyon, Jinho; Park, Kyung-Sun; Cho, Boram; Baek, Jangmi; Kim, Jueun; Lee, Sang Uck; Sung, Myung Mo; Kang, Youngjong

    2016-01-01

    Organic semiconductors including rubrene, Alq3, copper phthalocyanine and pentacene are crystallized by the eutectic melt crystallization. Those organic semiconductors form good eutectic systems with the various volatile crystallizable additives such as benzoic acid, salicylic acid, naphthalene and 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene. Due to the formation of the eutectic system, organic semiconductors having originally high melting point (Tm > 300 °C) are melted and crystallized at low temperature (Te = 40.8–133 °C). The volatile crystallizable additives are easily removed by sublimation. For a model system using rubrene, single crystalline rubrene nanowires are prepared by the eutectic melt crystallization and the eutectic-melt-assisted nanoimpinting (EMAN) technique. It is demonstrated that crystal structure and the growth direction of rubrene can be controlled by using different volatile crystallizable additives. The field effect mobility of rubrene nanowires prepared using several different crystallizable additives are measured and compared. PMID:26976527

  17. Controlled Growth of Rubrene Nanowires by Eutectic Melt Crystallization.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jeyon; Hyon, Jinho; Park, Kyung-Sun; Cho, Boram; Baek, Jangmi; Kim, Jueun; Lee, Sang Uck; Sung, Myung Mo; Kang, Youngjong

    2016-01-01

    Organic semiconductors including rubrene, Alq3, copper phthalocyanine and pentacene are crystallized by the eutectic melt crystallization. Those organic semiconductors form good eutectic systems with the various volatile crystallizable additives such as benzoic acid, salicylic acid, naphthalene and 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene. Due to the formation of the eutectic system, organic semiconductors having originally high melting point (Tm > 300 °C) are melted and crystallized at low temperature (Te = 40.8-133 °C). The volatile crystallizable additives are easily removed by sublimation. For a model system using rubrene, single crystalline rubrene nanowires are prepared by the eutectic melt crystallization and the eutectic-melt-assisted nanoimpinting (EMAN) technique. It is demonstrated that crystal structure and the growth direction of rubrene can be controlled by using different volatile crystallizable additives. The field effect mobility of rubrene nanowires prepared using several different crystallizable additives are measured and compared. PMID:26976527

  18. Solidification of eutectic system alloys in space (M-19)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohno, Atsumi

    1993-01-01

    It is well known that in the liquid state eutectic alloys are theoretically homogeneous under 1 g conditions. However, the homogeneous solidified structure of this alloy is not obtained because thermal convection and non-equilibrium solidification occur. The present investigators have clarified the solidification mechanisms of the eutectic system alloys under 1 g conditions by using the in situ observation method; in particular, the primary crystals of the eutectic system alloys never nucleated in the liquid, but instead did so on the mold wall, and the crystals separated from the mold wall by fluid motion caused by thermal convection. They also found that the equiaxed eutectic grains (eutectic cells) are formed on the primary crystals. In this case, the leading phase of the eutectic must agree with the phase of the primary crystals. In space, no thermal convection occurs so that primary crystals should not move from the mold wall and should not appear inside the solidified structure. Therefore no equiaxed eutectic grains will be formed under microgravity conditions. Past space experiments concerning eutectic alloys were classified into two types of experiments: one with respect to the solidification mechanisms of the eutectic alloys and the other to the unidirectional solidification of this alloy. The former type of experiment has the problem that the solidified structures between microgravity and 1 g conditions show little difference. This is why the flight samples were prepared by the ordinary cast techniques on Earth. Therefore it is impossible to ascertain whether or not the nucleation and growth of primary crystals in the melt occur and if primary crystals influence the formation of the equiaxed eutectic grains. In this experiment, hypo- and hyper-eutectic aluminum copper alloys which are near eutectic point are used. The chemical compositions of the samples are Al-32.4mass%Cu (Hypo-eutectic) and Al-33.5mass%Cu (hyper-eutectic). Long rods for the samples are

  19. High-temperature molten salt thermal energy storage systems for solar applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petri, R. J.; Claar, T. D.

    1980-01-01

    Alkali and alkaline earth carbonate latent-heat storage salts, metallic containment materials, and thermal conductivity enhancement materials were investigated to satisfy the high temperature (704 to 871 C) thermal energy storage requirements of advanced solar-thermal power generation concepts are described. Properties of the following six salts selected for compatibility studies are given: three pure carbonates, K2CO3, Li2CO3 and Na2CO3; two eutectic mixtures, BaCO3/Na2CO3 and K2CO3/NaCO3, and one off-eutectic mixture of Na2CO3/K2CO3.

  20. Investigation on drug solubility enhancement using deep eutectic solvents and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Lee, Ping I

    2016-05-30

    Deep eutectic solvent (DES) is a room temperature liquid typically formed by mixing two solid compounds, such as a quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) (e.g. choline chloride) and a hydrogen bond donor (HBD) (e.g. urea or a carboxylic acid) at their eutectic composition. Very often, a range of room temperature liquids can also be obtained near the eutectic composition. Hence, it is more convenient to introduce a more general term deep eutectic solvent derivatives (DESDs) to describe a wide range of DES-like derivatives including those derived from ternary mixtures. The melting point of the mixture is lowered because the hydrogen bonding between DESD components reduces the lattice energy of components of the eutectic system. Based on the analysis of available data for 22 such choline chloride-based DES pairs, we found that the observed melting point depression can be statistically correlated with the difference between the hydrogen bonding contribution (δh) and the polar contribution (δp) to the solubility parameter of the hydrogen bond donor (HBD) component. The correlation was validated with a new DESD based on glycolic acid and choline chloride, which form DESDs at a molar ratio between 1:1 and 1:4 with DES-like properties. As a room temperature liquid, this DESD exhibits a wide range of solubility enhancement on several weakly basic poorly water-soluble drugs. For example, the solubility of itraconazole, piroxicam, lidocaine, and posaconazole has been observed to increase by 6700, 430, 28, and 6400-fold, respectively as compared to their aqueous solubility at room temperature. Furthermore, another new ternary DESD based on choline chloride, glycolic acid, and oxalic acid at a molar ratio of 1:1.6:0.4 is shown to further increase the solubility of itraconazole to a remarkable level of 5.36mg/mL (a 53,600-fold increase!). Because the components of such DESDs can include those biodegradable ones that had previously been used in formulated human products, the potential

  1. Quantification of Primary Dendritic and Secondary Eutectic Nucleation Undercoolings in Rapidly Solidified Hypo-Eutectic Al-Cu Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogno, A.-A.; Khatibi, P. Delshad; Henein, H.; Gandin, Ch.-A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports on the quantification of primary dendritic and secondary eutectic nucleation undercoolings during rapid solidification of impulse atomized hypo-eutectic Al-Cu droplets. The procedure consists in determining the eutectic fraction of each investigated droplet from the fraction of intermetallic Al2Cu obtained by Rietveld refinement analysis of neutrons scattering data. The corresponding eutectic nucleation undercooling is then deduced from the metastable phase diagram of the alloy. The primary dendritic nucleation undercooling is subsequently determined using semi-empirical coarsening models of secondary dendrite arms. The two nucleation undercoolings are finally used as input variables to run a microsegregation model for binary alloys. The fractions of eutectic computed by the microsegregation model compare very favorably with the experimental results.

  2. Quantification of Primary Dendritic and Secondary Eutectic Nucleation Undercoolings in Rapidly Solidified Hypo-Eutectic Al-Cu Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogno, A.-A.; Khatibi, P. Delshad; Henein, H.; Gandin, Ch.-A.

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports on the quantification of primary dendritic and secondary eutectic nucleation undercoolings during rapid solidification of impulse atomized hypo-eutectic Al-Cu droplets. The procedure consists in determining the eutectic fraction of each investigated droplet from the fraction of intermetallic Al2Cu obtained by Rietveld refinement analysis of neutrons scattering data. The corresponding eutectic nucleation undercooling is then deduced from the metastable phase diagram of the alloy. The primary dendritic nucleation undercooling is subsequently determined using semi-empirical coarsening models of secondary dendrite arms. The two nucleation undercoolings are finally used as input variables to run a microsegregation model for binary alloys. The fractions of eutectic computed by the microsegregation model compare very favorably with the experimental results.

  3. Deep eutectic solvents: syntheses, properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghua; De Oliveira Vigier, Karine; Royer, Sébastien; Jérôme, François

    2012-11-01

    Within the framework of green chemistry, solvents occupy a strategic place. To be qualified as a green medium, these solvents have to meet different criteria such as availability, non-toxicity, biodegradability, recyclability, flammability, and low price among others. Up to now, the number of available green solvents are rather limited. Here we wish to discuss a new family of ionic fluids, so-called Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES), that are now rapidly emerging in the current literature. A DES is a fluid generally composed of two or three cheap and safe components that are capable of self-association, often through hydrogen bond interactions, to form a eutectic mixture with a melting point lower than that of each individual component. DESs are generally liquid at temperatures lower than 100 °C. These DESs exhibit similar physico-chemical properties to the traditionally used ionic liquids, while being much cheaper and environmentally friendlier. Owing to these remarkable advantages, DESs are now of growing interest in many fields of research. In this review, we report the major contributions of DESs in catalysis, organic synthesis, dissolution and extraction processes, electrochemistry and material chemistry. All works discussed in this review aim at demonstrating that DESs not only allow the design of eco-efficient processes but also open a straightforward access to new chemicals and materials. PMID:22806597

  4. RETRACTED: Neoteric FT-IR investigation on the functional groups of phosphonium-based deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Aissaoui, Tayeb; AlNashef, Inas M; Hayyan, Maan; Hashim, Mohd Ali

    2015-10-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are novel solvent media that are currently under investigation as an alternative to ionic liquids and conventional solvents. The physical properties of DESs as well as their mild environmental footprint and potentially critical industrial application necessitate understanding the interaction of functional groups on both the salt and hydrogen bond donor (HBD). In this study, four DESs were prepared by mixing triethylenglycol, diethylenglycol, ethylenglycol, and glycerol as HBDs with methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide as a salt at a molar ratio of 1:4. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was conducted to highlight the chemical structure and mechanism of the combination of the four DESs. New spectra illustrating the combination of the functional groups of the HBDs and salt were observed and interpreted. This study is the first to investigate the properties of neoteric phosphonium-based DESs. PMID:25985123

  5. Development of media for dynamic latent heat storage for the low-temperature range. Part 1: Thermal analyses of selected salt hydrate systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanwischer, H.; Tamme, R.

    1985-01-01

    Phase change temperatures and phase change enthalpies of seventeen salt hydrates, three double salts, and four eutectics were measured thermodynamically and the results reported herein. Good results were obtained, especially for congruently melting salt hydrates. Incongruently melting salt hydrates appear less suitable for heat storage applications. The influence of the second phase - water, acid and hydroxide - to the latent heat is described. From these results, basic values of the working temperatures and storage capabilities of various storage media compositions may be derived.

  6. A simple model for examining composition effects in eutectic nucleation

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, James R; Jiang, Feng; Liaw, Peter K

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple thermodynamic calculation for a strongly partitioning eutectic system, to examine how the critical nucleus energy changes, depending upon assumptions of the chemical diffusion. The calculations show that for strongly partitioning systems, the maximum undercooling may occur at a composition significantly different than the eutectic composition, particularly if the rate of diffusion is slow in the undercooled state. These simple calculations emphasize the role that partitioning and composition may play in determining optimal compositions in metallic glass systems, which typically occur near (but not at) deep eutectic compositions.

  7. Containerless solidification of acoustically levitated Ni-Sn eutectic alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Wei, B.

    2012-10-01

    Containerless solidification of Ni-18.7at%Sn eutectic alloy has been achieved with a single-axis acoustic levitator. The temperature, motion, and oscillation of the sample were monitored by a high speed camera. The temperature of the sample can be determined from its image brightness, although the sample moves vertically and horizontally during levitation. The experimentally observed frequency of vertical motion is in good agreement with theoretical prediction. The sample undergoes shape oscillation before solidification finishes. The solidification microstructure of this alloy consists of a mixture of anomalous eutectic plus regular lamellar eutectic. This indicates the achievement of rapid solidification under acoustic levitation condition.

  8. Deep eutectic solvents as novel extraction media for protein partitioning.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qun; Wang, Yuzhi; Huang, Yanhua; Ding, Xueqin; Chen, Jing; Xu, Kaijia

    2014-05-21

    Four kinds of green deep eutectic solvent (DES) were synthesized, including choline chloride (ChCl)-urea, tetramethylammonium chloride (TMACl)-urea, tetrapropylammonium bromide (TPMBr)-urea and ChCl-methylurea. An aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) based ChCl-urea DES was studied for the first time for the extraction of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Single factor experiments proved that the extraction efficiency of BSA was influenced by the mass of the DES, concentration of K2HPO4 solution, separation time and extraction temperature. The optimum conditions were determined through an orthogonal experiment with the four factors described above. The results showed that under the optimum conditions, the average extraction efficiency could reach up to 99.94%, 99.72%, 100.05% and 100.05% (each measured three times). The relative standard deviations (RSD) of extraction efficiencies in precision, repeatability and stability experiments were 0.5533% (n = 5), 0.8306% (n = 5) and 0.9829% (n = 5), respectively. UV-vis and FT-IR spectra confirmed that there were no chemical interactions between BSA and the DES in the extraction process, and the CD spectra proved that the conformation of BSA did not change after extraction. The conductivity, DLS and TEM were combined to investigate the microstructure of the top phase and the possible mechanism for the extraction. The results showed that hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding interactions and the salting-out effect played important roles in the transfer process, and the aggregation and surrounding phenomenon were the main driving forces for the separation. All of these results proved that ionic liquid (IL)-based ATPSs could potentially be substituted with DES-based ATPSs to offer new possibilities in the extraction of proteins. PMID:24699681

  9. Orientational Jumps in (Acetamide + Electrolyte) Deep Eutectics: Anion Dependence.

    PubMed

    Das, Suman; Biswas, Ranjit; Mukherjee, Biswaroop

    2015-08-27

    All-atom molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to investigate orientation jumps of acetamide molecules in three different ionic deep eutectics made of acetamide (CH3CONH2) and lithium salts of bromide (Br(–)), nitrate (NO3(–)) and perchlorate (ClO4(–)) at approximately 80:20 mole ratio and 303 K. Orientational jumps have been dissected into acetamide–acetamide and acetamide–ion catagories. Simulated jump characteristics register a considerable dependence on the anion identity. For example, large angle jumps are relatively less frequent in the presence of NO3(–) than in the presence of the other two anions. Distribution of jump angles for rotation of acetamide molecules hydrogen bonded (H-bonded) to anions has been found to be bimodal in the presence of Br(–) and is qualitatively different from the other two cases. Estimated energy barrier for orientation jumps of these acetamide molecules (H-bonded to anions) differ by a factor of ∼2 between NO3(–) and ClO4(–), the barrier height for the latter being lower and ∼0.5kBT. Relative radial and angular displacements during jumps describe the sequence ClO(4)– > NO3(–) > Br(–) and follow a reverse viscosity trend. Jump barrier for acetamide–acetamide pairs reflects weak dependence on anion identity and remains closer to the magnitude (∼0.7kBT) found for orientation jumps in molten acetamide. Jump time distributions exhibit a power law dependence of the type, P(tjump) ∝ A(tjump/τ)(−β), with both β and τ showing substantial anion dependence. The latter suggests the presence of dynamic heterogeneity in these systems and supports earlier conclusions from time-resolved fluorescence measurements. PMID:26131593

  10. Temperature Dependence of Behavior of Interface Between Molten Sn and LiCl-KCl Eutectic Melt Due to Rising Gas Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsui, Shungo; Nashimoto, Ryota; Takai, Hifumi; Kumagai, Takehiko; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2016-06-01

    The behavior of the interface between molten Sn and the LiCl-KCl eutectic melt system was observed directly. We found that the transient behavior of the interface exhibits considerable temperature dependence through a change in its physical properties. The "metal film" generated in the upper molten salt phase significantly influences the shape of the interface. Although the lifetime of the metal film depends on the gas flow rate, it is not affected by the buoyancy if the interfacial tension is dominant.

  11. Halide eutectic growth experiment MA-131

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, A. S.; Yue, B. K.; Lee, J. Y. M.

    1976-01-01

    Fiberlike sodium chloride/lithium fluoride eutectic mixtures have been produced on earth and in space by the directional solidification technique. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations were made on longitudinal and transverse sections of Apollo Soyuz Test Project space grown and earth grown ingots. It was found that samples grown in space have a higher percentage of fibers alined with the growth axis. The enhanced alinement of fibers is attributed to the absence of convection currents in the liquid during solidification. Optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space grown and earth grown ingots were performed with an infrared spectrometer. For a given sample thickness, the highest transmittance was obtained from ingots grown in space. For samples of different thicknesses, grown either in space or on earth, it was found that the thinner the sample, the higher the transmittance. This is in agreement with the general optical property of transparent materials.

  12. Directionally solidified iron-base eutectic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, S. N.

    1976-01-01

    Pseudobinary eutectic alloys with nominal compositions of Fe-25Ta-22Ni-10Cr and Fe-15.5Nb-14.5Ni-6.0Cr were directionally solidified at 0.5 centimeter per hour. Their microstructure consisted of the fcc, iron solid-solution, matrix phase reinforced by about 41-volume-percent, hcp, faceted Fe2Ta fibers and 41-volume-percent, hcp, Fe2Nb lamellae for the tantalum- and niobium-containing alloys, respectively. The microstructural stability under thermal cycling and the temperature dependence of tensile properties were investigated. These alloys showed low elevated-temperature strength and were not considered suitable for application in aircraft-gas-turbine blades although they may have applicability as vane materials.

  13. Hydrolase-catalyzed biotransformations in deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Gorke, Johnathan T; Srienc, Friedrich; Kazlauskas, Romas J

    2008-03-14

    Hydrolases show good catalytic activity in deep eutectic solvents, despite the presence of urea, which can denature enzymes, or alcohols, which can interfere with hydrolase-catalyzed reactions. PMID:18309428

  14. Use of Microgravity to Control the Microstructure of Eutectics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox. William R.; Regel, Liya L.

    1999-01-01

    This grant began in June of 1996. Its long term goal is to be able to control the microstructure of directionally solidified eutectic alloys, through an improved understanding of the influence of convection. The primary objective of the projects in the present grant is to test hypotheses for the reported influence of microgravity on the microstructure of eutectics. The prior experimental results on the influence of microgravity on the microstructure of eutectics have been contradictory. With lamellar eutectics, microgravity had a negligible effect on the microstructure. Microgravity experiments with fibrous eutectics sometimes showed a finer microstructure and sometimes a coarser microstructure. Most research has been done on the MnBi/Bi rod-like eutectic. Larson and Pirich obtained a two-fold finer microstructure both from microgravity and by use of a magnetic field to quench buoyancy-driven convection. Smith, on the other hand, observed no change in microgravity. Prior theoretical work at Clarkson University showed that buoyancy-driven convection in the vertical Bridgman configuration is not vigorous enough to alter the concentration field in front of a growing eutectic sufficiently to cause a measurable change in microstructure. We assumed that the bulk melt was at the eutectic composition and that freezing occurred at the extremum, i.e. with minimum total undercooling at the freezing interface. There have been four hypotheses attempting to explain the observed changes in microstructure of fibrous eutectics caused by convection: I .A fluctuating freezing rate, combined with unequal kinetics for fiber termination and branching. 2. Off-eutectic composition, either in the bulk melt due to an off-eutectic feed or at the freezing interface because of departure from the extremum condition. 3. Presence of a strong habit modifying impurity whose concentration at the freezing interface would be altered by convection. At the beginning of the present grant, we favored the

  15. Macrosegregation in undercooled Pb-Sn eutectic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Groh, H. C., III; Laxmanan, V.

    1988-01-01

    A novel technique resulting in large undercoolings in bulk samples (23g) of lead-tin eutectic alloy is described. Samples of eutectic composition were processed with undercoolings ranging from 4 to 20 K and with cooling rates varying between 0.04 to 4 K/sec. The final macrostructure of undercooled samples depends on both the initial undercooling of the melt and the cooling rate. Gravity-driven segregation is found to increase with increasing undercooling. A eutectic Pb-Sn alloy undercooled at 20 K and cooled at 4 K/sec had a composition of about Pb-72 wt pct Sn at the top and 55 pct Sn at the bottom. Macrosegregation in these undercooled lead-tin eutectic alloys is shown to be primarily due to a sink/float mechanism caused by the difference in density of the solid and liquid phases and the undercooling and nucleation behavior of the alloy.

  16. Influence of convection on rod spacing of eutectics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caram, R.; Chandrasekhar, S.; Wilcox, W. R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a three-dimensional numerical model to study the influence of convection on the rod-like microstructure of an eutectic system. This model is based on a central finite difference approach. By applying it, the average concentration near the solid/liquid interface of a growing rod-like eutectic was determined for eutectic compositions C(e) of 0.03, 0.05, and 0.10. Following Jackson and Hunt (1966), the average interfacial composition was converted to a change of undercooling at the interface and, finally, to spacing between the rods. The change in rod spacing with increasing intensity of convection was calculated assuming the eutectic grows at minimum interfacial undercooling. It was confirmed that an increase in convection should coarsen the microstructure (i.e., the rod spacing increases with increasing intensity of stirring).

  17. Dynamics of rod eutectic growth patterns in confined geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şerefoǧlu, Melis; Bottin-Rousseau, S.; Akamatsu, S.; Faivre, G.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of rod-like eutectics are examined using a directional solidification setup, which allows real-time observation of the whole solidification front in specimens of transparent eutectic alloys -here, succinonitrile-(D)camphor. In steady-state, rod eutectic growth patterns consist of triangular arrays, more or less disturbed by topological defects. In the absence of strong convection and of crystallographic anisotropy, the long-time evolution of the pattern is dominated by "imperfections" of the system, such as misalignment of the temperature gradient, and finite-size. In this study, we present experimental results on the finite-size effects on rod eutectics and show that a rod to lamella transition takes place as a result of finite-size effect only, at a given alloy concentration.

  18. Preparation of Magnesium, Cobalt and Nickel Ferrite Nanoparticles from Metal Oxides using Deep Eutectic Solvents.

    PubMed

    Söldner, Anika; Zach, Julia; Iwanow, Melanie; Gärtner, Tobias; Schlosser, Marc; Pfitzner, Arno; König, Burkhard

    2016-09-01

    Natural deep eutectic solvents (DESs) dissolve simple metal oxides and are used as a reaction medium to synthesize spinel-type ferrite nanoparticles MFe2 O4 (M=Mg, Zn, Co, Ni). The best results for phase-pure spinel ferrites are obtained with the DES consisting of choline chloride (ChCl) and maleic acid. By employing DESs, the reactions proceed at much lower temperatures than usual for the respective solid-phase reactions of the metal oxides and at the same temperatures as synthesis with comparable calcination processes using metal salts. The method therefore reduces the overall required energy for the nanoparticle synthesis. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that the thermolysis process of the eutectic melts in air occurs in one major step. The phase-pure spinel-type ferrite particles are thoroughly characterized by X-ray diffraction, diffuse-reflectance UV/Vis spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The properties of the obtained nanoparticles are shown to be comparable to those obtained by other methods, illustrating the potential of natural DESs for processing metal oxides. PMID:27514793

  19. Characterization of low-melting electrolytes for potential geothermal borehole power supplies: The LiBr-KBr-LiF eutectic

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, R.A.; Reinhardt, F.W.

    1998-05-01

    The suitability of modified thermal-battery technology for use as a potential power source for geothermal borehole applications is under investigation. As a first step, the discharge processes that take place in LiSi/LiBr-KBr-LiF/FeS{sub 2} thermal cells were studied at temperatures of 350 C and 400 C using pelletized cells with immobilized electrolyte. Incorporation of a reference electrode allowed the relative contribution of each electrode to the overall cell polarization to be determined. The results of single-cell tests are presented, along with preliminary data for cells based on a lower-melting CsBr-LiBr-KBr eutectic salt.

  20. The microstructure of MnBi/Bi eutectic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravishankar, P. S.; Wilcox, W. R.; Larson, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    Directionally solidified eutectic alloys of the system MnBi/Bi have been investigated with reference to the dependence of the fiber spacing on the growth rate and the interfacial temperature gradient. It is found that the fiber spacing varies as the inverse square root of the growth rate and does not depend on the temperature gradient in contrast to the claims that all faceted/non-faceted eutectics should show a temperature gradient influence.

  1. Lamellar coupled growth in the neopentylglycol-(D)camphor eutectic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witusiewicz, V. T.; Sturz, L.; Hecht, U.; Rex, S.

    2014-01-01

    Lamellar eutectic growth was investigated in the transparent organic alloy neopentylglycol-(D)camphor of eutectic composition (NPG-45.3 wt% DC) using bulk (3D) and thin (2D) samples. Two types of eutectic grains were observed in the polycrystalline samples, either with lamellae well aligned to the direction of solidification or inclined at an angle of 21.5±1.5°. The well aligned grains were used for determining lamellar spacing as function of growth velocity V and temperature gradient G. Based on these data the Jackson-Hunt constant was evaluated to be KJH=1.60±0.15 μm3 s-1. For low growth velocity experiments the contact angles for (DC) and (NPG) lamellae at eutectic triple junctions were also evaluated, being θ(DC)=50.9±4.1° and θ(NPG)=41.8±4.7°, respectively. Using these values, as well as phase diagram data and the Gibbs-Thomson coefficients, the chemical coefficient of diffusion of (D)camphor in the eutectic liquid at eutectic temperature 53 °C was estimated to be DL=97±15 μm2 s-1.

  2. Molten salt pyrolysis of latex. [synthetic hydrocarbon fuel production using the Guayule shrub

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, A. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Latex-rich plants such as Guayule or extracts thereof are pyrolyzed in an inert nitrogen atmosphere inorganic salt melts such as a LiCl/KCl eutectic at a temperature of about 500 C. The yield is over 60% of a highly aromatic, combustible hydrocarbon oil suitable for use as a synthetic liquid fuel.

  3. Electrolysis of plutonium nitride in LiCl-KCl eutectic melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, O.; Iwai, T.; Shiozawa, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Sakamura, Y.; Inoue, T.

    2000-01-01

    The electrolysis of plutonium nitride, PuN, was investigated in the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt with 0.54 wt% PuCl 3 at 773 K in order to understand the dissolution of PuN at the anode and the deposition of metal at the cathode from the viewpoint of the application of a pyrochemical process to nitride fuel cycle. It was found from cyclic voltammetry that the electrochemical dissolution of PuN began nearly at the theoretically evaluated potential and this reaction was irreversible. Several grams of plutonium metal were successfully recovered at the molybdenum electrode as a deposit with a current efficiency of about 90%, although some fractions of the deposited plutonium often fell from the molybdenum electrode.

  4. Applicability evaluation of Deep Eutectic Solvents-Cellulase system for lignocellulose hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Gunny, Ahmad Anas Nagoor; Arbain, Dachyar; Nashef, Enas Muen; Jamal, Parveen

    2015-04-01

    Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs) have recently emerged as a new generation of ionic liquids for lignocellulose pretreatment. However, DESs contain salt components which tend to inactivate cellulase in the subsequent saccharification process. To alleviate this problem, it is necessary to evaluate the applicability of the DESs-Cellulase system. This was accomplished in the present study by first studying the stability of cellulase in the presence of selected DESs followed by applicability evaluation based on glucose production, energy consumption and kinetic performance. Results showed that the cellulase was able to retain more than 90% of its original activity in the presence of 10% (v/v) for glycerol based DES (GLY) and ethylene glycol based DES (EG). Furthermore, both DESs system exhibited higher glucose percentage enhancement and lower energy consumption as compared to diluted alkali system. Among the two DESs studied, EG showed comparatively better kinetic performance. PMID:25661309

  5. Traveling waves, two-phase fingers, and eutectic colonies in thin-sample directional solidification of a ternary eutectic alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akamatsu, Silvère; Faivre, Gabriel

    2000-04-01

    We present an experimental investigation of the morphological transition of lamellar eutectic growth fronts called ``formation of eutectic colonies'' by the method of thin-sample directional solidification of a transparent model alloy, CBr4-C2Cl6. This morphological transition is due to the presence in the melt of traces of chemical components other than those of the base binary alloy (impurities). In this study, we use naphthalene as an impurity. The formation of eutectic colonies has generally been viewed as an impurity-driven Mullins-Sekerka instability of the envelope of the lamellar front. This traditional view neglects the strong interaction existing between the Mullins-Sekerka process and the dynamics of the lamellar pattern. This investigation brings to light several original features of the formation of eutectic colonies, in particular, the emission of long-wavelength traveling waves, and the appearance of dendritelike structures called two-phase fingers, which are connected with this interaction. We study the part played by these phenomena in the transition to eutectic colonies as a function of the impurity concentration. Recent theoretical results on the linear stability of ternary lamellar eutectic fronts [Plapp and Karma, Phys. Rev. E 60, 6865 (1999)] shed light on some aspects of the observed phenomena.

  6. Orbital Processing of Eutectic Rod-Like Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, David J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The eutectic is one of only three solidification classes that exist. The others are isostructural and peritectic-class reactions, respectively. Simplistically, in a binaryeutectic phase diagram, a single liquid phase isothermally decomposes to two solid phases in a cooperative manner. The melting point minimum at the eutectic composition, isothermal solidification temperature, near-isocompositional solidification and refined solidification microstructure lend themselves naturally to such applications as brazing and soldering; industries that eutectic alloys dominate. Interest in direct process control of microstructures has led, more recently, to in-situ eutectic directional solidification with applications in electro-magnetics and electro-optics. In these cases, controlled structural refinement and the high aspect ratio and regularity of the distributed eutectic phases is highly significant to the fabrication and application of these in-situ natural composites. The natural pattern formation and scaling of the dispersed phase on a sub-micron scale has enormous potential application, since fabricating bulk materials on this scale mechanically has proven to be particularly difficult. It is thus of obvious importance to understand the solidification of eutectic materials since they are of great commercial significance. The dominant theory that describes eutectic solidification was derived for diffusion-controlled growth of alloys where both solid eutectic phases solidify metallically, i.e. without faceting at the solidification interface. Both high volume fraction (lamellar) and low volume fraction (rod-like) regular metallic arrays are treated by this theory. Many of the useful solders and brazements, however, and most of the regular in-situ composites are characterized by solidification reactions that are faceted/non-faceted in nature, rather than doubly non-faceted (metallic). Further, diffusion-controlled growth conditions are atypical terrestrially since

  7. Are deep eutectic solvents benign or toxic?

    PubMed

    Hayyan, Maan; Hashim, Mohd Ali; Hayyan, Adeeb; Al-Saadi, Mohammed A; AlNashef, Inas M; Mirghani, Mohamed E S; Saheed, Olorunnisola Kola

    2013-02-01

    In continuation of investigation for environmentally benign protocol for new solvents termed deep eutectic solvents (DESs), it is herein reported results concerning the toxicity and cytotoxicity of choline chloride (ChCl) based DESs with four hydrogen bond donors including glycerine, ethylene glycol, triethylene glycol and urea. The toxicity was investigated using two Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and two Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The cytotoxicity effect was tested using the Artemia salina leach. It was found that there was no toxic effect for the tested DESs on all of the studied bacteria confirming their benign effects on these bacteria. Nevertheless, it was found that the cytotoxicity of DESs was much higher than their individual components (e.g. glycerine, ChCl) indicating that their toxicological behavior is different. For our best knowledge this is the first time that toxicity and cytotoxicity of DESs were studied. The toxicity and cytotoxicity of DESs varied depending on the structure of components. Careful usage of the terms non-toxicity and biodegradability must be considered. More investigation on this matter is required. PMID:23200570

  8. Influence of convection on eutectic microstructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baskaran, V.; Eisa, G. F.; Wilcox, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    When the MnBi-Bi eutectic is directionally solidified, it forms fibers of MnBi in a matrix of bismuth. When the material solidified in space at rates of 30 and 50 cm/hr, the average fiber spacing lambda was about one half of the value obtained in cases in which the same material solidified on earth. Neither an altered temperature gradient nor a fluctuating freezing rate are apparently responsible for the change in lambda, and the possibility is studied that natural convection increases lambda on earth by perturbing the compositional field in the melt ahead of the growing solid. A theoretical analysis is conducted along with some experiments. On the basis of the theoretical results for lamellar growth, it is concluded that the spacing lambda increases with increasing stirring, especially at small freezing rates. The experiments indicate that at low growth rates the cross-sectional area of the MnBi blades increases with increased stirring and with decreased growth rate.

  9. Ultrasound in lead-bismuth eutectic

    SciTech Connect

    Dierckx, M.; Van Dyck, D.

    2011-07-01

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN) is in the process of designing MYRRHA, a new multi-purpose irradiation facility to replace the ageing BR2. MYRRHA is a fast spectrum reactor cooled with lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). As liquid metal is opaque to visual light, ultrasonic measurement techniques are selected to fulfill essential tasks that, according to our assessment, will be demanded by licensing authorities, in particular: fuel assembly identification and localization of a lost fuel assembly. To that end, a considerable research effort at SCK.CEN is devoted to study ultrasonic propagation in LBE. As ultrasonic experiments in LBE are elaborate and expensive to set up, we are particularly interested in to what extent experiments in water can be extrapolated to LBE - one of the main focuses of this article. We describe and present results of a first experiment with this goal which shows that the signal to noise ratio is better in LBE and that we even see small diffuse reflections up to 40 deg. off normal. On the other hand, we do not see internal reflections in stainless steel objects in LBE which we do in water. Therefore, we conclude that experiments in water can be used to validate algorithms for LBE on the condition that they do not rely on internal reflections. We also present solutions to tackle the essential tasks: fuel assembly identification and lost object localization. The requirements for the ultrasonic equipment implementing these solutions are also discussed. (authors)

  10. Nanoscale Spatial Heterogeneity in Deep Eutectic Solvents.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Supreet; Gupta, Aditya; Kashyap, Hemant K

    2016-07-14

    In this article, we report a molecular dynamics simulation study on the X-ray and neutron scattering structures of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) and show that the DESs studied possess unique spatial heterogeneity on molecular length scales. The simulated X-ray and neutron scattering structure functions (S(q)s) of the DESs made of alkylamide + Li(+)/ClO4(-) display two peaks in the intermolecular region of the S(q)s. As a signature of nanoscale structural organization/heterogeneity, a prepeak is observed at 0.1 < q/Å(-1) < 0.4. The principal peak observed at around 1.2 < q/Å(-1) < 2 is rendered by short-distance inter- and intraspecies correlations. For the DESs studied, we demonstrate that nanoscale spatial heterogeneity is exhibited profoundly by the segregated domains of the constituent electrolyte, and the principal peak in S(q) is because of all sorts of close-contact correlations. The extent of nanoscale morphology as well as the strength of ion pairing is enhanced for the longer-tail alkylamide DES. PMID:27314310

  11. Micro/macro solidification modeling of columnar eutectic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, Ward Michael

    2000-11-01

    A general multidimensional model of alloy solidification is presented in which a velocity-dependent freezing temperature is coupled with the macroscale energy equation. The velocity dependence of the freezing temperature ( Tf˜v ) results from the microscale species diffusion for microstructures with coupled eutectic growth. At solidification rates ( ˜ 1--10 mm/s) that are representative of gravity permanent mold and die casting processes, consideration of the nonequilibrium conditions at the interface affects the prediction of the macroscale thermal field. Near-eutectic alloys freeze with a macroscopically discrete solid-liquid interface at a temperature below the equilibrium eutectic temperature. The model is illustrated with unidirectional solidification of a near-eutectic alloy in a finite domain and solved numerically with a fixed-grid Galerkin finite element method. The numerical algorithm includes inexpensive steps to compute the interface speed explicitly. By nondimensionalizing the governing equations the effect of coupled eutectic growth on heat transport is clearly identified so that the model's sensitivity to important parameters can be investigated. Additionally, the average eutectic spacing can be determined with the temperature field, rather than post-determination from a standard, uncoupled solution of the energy equation. The eutectic coupling results indicate that the predicted solid-liquid interface location lags behind the uncoupled solution; therefore, decreasing the amount of solid formed, increasing the total solidification time, and increasing the average eutectic spacing. A procedure is also illustrated for computing mechanical properties using experimental correlations and the computed interface velocity history. The effect of the eutectic undercooling is then studied in a square domain and a realistic three-dimensional production casting geometry. In order to address the multidimensional cases, a phase-field formulation is developed

  12. Following the electroreduction of uranium dioxide to uranium in LiCl-KCl eutectic in situ using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. D.; Abdulaziz, R.; Jervis, R.; Bharath, V. J.; Atwood, R. C.; Reinhard, C.; Connor, L. D.; Simons, S. J. R.; Inman, D.; Brett, D. J. L.; Shearing, P. R.

    2015-09-01

    The electrochemical reduction of uranium dioxide to metallic uranium has been investigated in lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic molten salt. Laboratory based electrochemical studies have been coupled with in situ energy dispersive X-ray diffraction, for the first time, to deduce the reduction pathway. No intermediate phases were identified using the X-ray diffraction before, during or after electroreduction to form α-uranium. This suggests that the electrochemical reduction occurs via a single, 4-electron-step, process. The rate of formation of α-uranium is seen to decrease during electrolysis and could be a result of a build-up of oxygen anions in the molten salt. Slow transport of O2- ions away from the UO2 working electrode could impede the electrochemical reduction.

  13. Application of deep eutectic solvents in the extraction and separation of target compounds from various samples.

    PubMed

    Tang, Baokun; Zhang, Heng; Row, Kyung Ho

    2015-03-01

    Deep eutectic solvents, as a new type of eco-friendly solvent, have attracted increasing attention in chemistry for the extraction and separation of target compounds from various samples. To summarize the application of deep eutectic solvents, this review highlights some of the unique properties of deep eutectic solvents and deep-eutectic-solvent-based materials, as well as their applications in extraction and separation. In this paper, the available data and references in this field are reviewed to summarize the application developments of deep eutectic solvents. Based on the development of deep eutectic solvents, the exploitation of new deep eutectic solvents and deep-eutectic-solvent-based materials are expected to diversify into extraction and separation. PMID:25581398

  14. Summary of the Workshop on Molten Salt Reactor Technologies Commemorating the 50th Anniversary of the Startup of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Betzler, Benjamin R; Mays, Gary T

    2016-01-01

    A workshop on Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) technologies commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on October 15 16, 2015. The MSRE represented a pioneering experiment that demonstrated an advanced reactor technology: the molten salt eutectic-fueled reactor. A multinational group of more than 130 individuals representing a diverse set of stakeholders gathered to discuss the historical, current, and future technical challenges and paths to deployment of MSR technology. This paper provides a summary of the key messages from this workshop.

  15. Directionally solidified eutectic gamma-gamma nickel-base superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, M. R. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A directionally solidified multivariant eutectic gamma-gamma prime nickel-base superalloy casting having improved high temperature properties was developed. The alloy is comprised of a two phase eutectic structure consisting essentially of on a weight percent base, 6.0 to 9.0 aluminum, 5.0 to 17.0 tantalum, 0-10 cobalt, 0-6 vanadium, 0-6 rhenium, 2.0-6.0 tungsten, and the balance being nickel, subject to the proviso that the sum of the atomic percentages of aluminum plus tantalum is within the range of from 19-22, and the ratio of atomic percentages of tantalum to aluminum plus tantalum is within the range of from 0.12 to 0.23. Embedded within the gamma nickel-base matrix are aligned eutectic gamma prime phase (primarily nickel-aluminum-tantalum) reinforcing fibers.

  16. Patterned eutectic bonding with Al/Ge thin films for MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavracky, Paul M.; Vu, Bao

    1995-09-01

    In this paper, we report our results using eutectic bonding with the aluminum/germanium alloy to create high quality bonds. The results of a series of experiments conducted to optimize eutectic alloy bonding for MEMS are described. Issues discussed include surface preparation, eutectic composition, bonding apparatus and bonding conditions (temperature and time).

  17. Ternary eutectic dendrites: Pattern formation and scaling properties.

    PubMed

    Rátkai, László; Szállás, Attila; Pusztai, Tamás; Mohri, Tetsuo; Gránásy, László

    2015-04-21

    Extending previous work [Pusztai et al., Phys. Rev. E 87, 032401 (2013)], we have studied the formation of eutectic dendrites in a model ternary system within the framework of the phase-field theory. We have mapped out the domain in which two-phase dendritic structures grow. With increasing pulling velocity, the following sequence of growth morphologies is observed: flat front lamellae → eutectic colonies → eutectic dendrites → dendrites with target pattern → partitionless dendrites → partitionless flat front. We confirm that the two-phase and one-phase dendrites have similar forms and display a similar scaling of the dendrite tip radius with the interface free energy. It is also found that the possible eutectic patterns include the target pattern, and single- and multiarm spirals, of which the thermal fluctuations choose. The most probable number of spiral arms increases with increasing tip radius and with decreasing kinetic anisotropy. Our numerical simulations confirm that in agreement with the assumptions of a recent analysis of two-phase dendrites [Akamatsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 105502 (2014)], the Jackson-Hunt scaling of the eutectic wavelength with pulling velocity is obeyed in the parameter domain explored, and that the natural eutectic wavelength is proportional to the tip radius of the two-phase dendrites. Finally, we find that it is very difficult/virtually impossible to form spiraling two-phase dendrites without anisotropy, an observation that seems to contradict the expectations of Akamatsu et al. Yet, it cannot be excluded that in isotropic systems, two-phase dendrites are rare events difficult to observe in simulations. PMID:25903891

  18. Ternary eutectic dendrites: Pattern formation and scaling properties

    SciTech Connect

    Rátkai, László; Szállás, Attila; Pusztai, Tamás; Mohri, Tetsuo; Gránásy, László

    2015-04-21

    Extending previous work [Pusztai et al., Phys. Rev. E 87, 032401 (2013)], we have studied the formation of eutectic dendrites in a model ternary system within the framework of the phase-field theory. We have mapped out the domain in which two-phase dendritic structures grow. With increasing pulling velocity, the following sequence of growth morphologies is observed: flat front lamellae → eutectic colonies → eutectic dendrites → dendrites with target pattern → partitionless dendrites → partitionless flat front. We confirm that the two-phase and one-phase dendrites have similar forms and display a similar scaling of the dendrite tip radius with the interface free energy. It is also found that the possible eutectic patterns include the target pattern, and single- and multiarm spirals, of which the thermal fluctuations choose. The most probable number of spiral arms increases with increasing tip radius and with decreasing kinetic anisotropy. Our numerical simulations confirm that in agreement with the assumptions of a recent analysis of two-phase dendrites [Akamatsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 105502 (2014)], the Jackson-Hunt scaling of the eutectic wavelength with pulling velocity is obeyed in the parameter domain explored, and that the natural eutectic wavelength is proportional to the tip radius of the two-phase dendrites. Finally, we find that it is very difficult/virtually impossible to form spiraling two-phase dendrites without anisotropy, an observation that seems to contradict the expectations of Akamatsu et al. Yet, it cannot be excluded that in isotropic systems, two-phase dendrites are rare events difficult to observe in simulations.

  19. Effect of Flow due to Density Change on Eutectic Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, G. B.; Coriell, S. R.; Mitchell, W. F.; Murray, B. T.; Andrews, J. B.; Arikawa, J.

    2001-11-01

    The Jackson-Hunt model of eutectic growth is extended to allow for different densities of the phases. The density differences give rise to fluid flow which is calculated from a series solution of the fluid flow equations in the Stokes flow approximation. The solute diffusion equation with flow terms is then solved numerically using an adaptive refinement and multigrid algorithm (PLTMG). The interface undercoolings and volume fractions are calculated as a function of spacing for tin-lead and iron-carbon eutectic alloys and for an aluminum-indium monotectic alloy. The numerical results are compared with various approximations based on the Jackson-Hunt analysis.

  20. Effect of flow due to density change on eutectic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coriell, S. R.; McFadden, G. B.; Mitchell, W. F.; Murray, B. T.; Andrews, J. B.; Arikawa, Y.

    2001-04-01

    The Jackson-Hunt model of eutectic growth is extended to allow for different densities of the phases. The density differences give rise to fluid flow which is calculated from a series solution of the fluid flow equations in the Stokes flow approximation. The solute diffusion equation with flow terms is then solved numerically using an adaptive refinement and multigrid algorithm. The interface undercoolings and volume fractions are calculated as a function of spacing for tin-lead and iron-carbon eutectic alloys and for an aluminum-indium monotectic alloy. The numerical results are compared with various approximations based on the Jackson-Hunt analysis.

  1. Prebiotic phosphate ester syntheses in a deep eutectic solvent.

    PubMed

    Gull, Maheen; Zhou, Manshui; Fernández, Facundo M; Pasek, Matthew A

    2014-02-01

    We report a route to synthesize a wide range of organophosphates of biological significance in a deep eutectic solvent (2:1 urea and choline chloride), utilizing various orthophosphate sources. Heating an organic alcohol in the solvent along with a soluble phosphorus source yields phosphorus esters of choline as well as that of the added organic in yields between 15 to 99 %. In addition, phosphite analogs of biological phosphates and peptides were also formed by the simple mixing of reagents and heating at 60-70 °C in the deep eutectic solvent. The presented dehydration reactions are relevant to prebiotic and green chemistry in alternative solvents. PMID:24368625

  2. Selecting Resolving Agents with Respect to Their Eutectic Compositions.

    PubMed

    Szeleczky, Zsolt; Semsey, Sándor; Bagi, Péter; Pálovics, Emese; Faigl, Ferenc; Fogassy, Elemér

    2016-03-01

    In order to develop a resolution procedure for a given racemic compound, the first and the most important step is finding the most suitable resolving agent. We studied 18 individual resolutions that were carried out with resolving agents having high eutectic composition. We found that very high enantiomeric excess values were obtained in all cases. We assume that the eutectic composition of a given resolving agent is one of the most important properties that should always be considered during the search for the most efficient resolving agent. PMID:26797938

  3. Structure Property Relationships in Imidazole-based Deep Eutectic Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terheggen, Logan; Cosby, Tyler; Sangoro, Joshua

    2015-03-01

    Deep eutectic mixtures of levulinic acid with a systematic series of imidazoles are measured by broadband dielectric spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to investigate the impact of steric interactions on charge transport and structural dynamics. An enhancement of dc conductivity is found in each of the imidazoles upon the addition of levulinic acid. However, the extent of increase is dependent upon the alkyl substitution on the imidazole ring. These results highlight the importance of molecular structure on hydrogen bonding and charge transport in deep eutectic mixtures.

  4. Lead-bismuth eutectic technology for Hyperion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Kapernick, R. J.; McClure, P. R.; Trapp, T. J.

    2013-10-01

    A small lead-bismuth eutectic-cooled reactor concept (referred to as the Hyperion reactor concept) is being studied at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Hyperion Power Generation. In this report, a critical assessment of the lead-bismuth eutectic technology for Hyperion reactor is presented based on currently available knowledge. Included are: material compatibility, oxygen control, thermal hydraulics, polonium control. The key advances in the technology and their applications to Hyperion reactor design are analyzed. Also, the near future studies in main areas of the technology are recommended for meeting the design requirements.

  5. Growth and scintillation properties of Eu doped BaCl2/LiF eutectic scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, Kei; Hishinuma, Kosuke; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Yamaji, Akihiro; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Pejchal, Jan; Yokota, Yuui; Ohashi, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2015-12-01

    Eu doped BaCl2/LiF eutectics were grown by the micro-pulling down method and their directionally solidified eutectic (DSE) system has been investigated. The grown eutectic showed main phases of cubic LiF and orthorhombic BaCl2. In these eutectics, the 399 nm emission of Eu2+ 4f5d was obtained. It shows the intrinsic decay time of about 410 ns. The light yield of the 1-mm-thick eutectic showed 7000 ph/5.5 MeV alpha-ray.

  6. Examination of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L

    2014-01-01

    The need for high efficiency power conversion and energy transport systems is increasing as world energy use continues to increase, petroleum supplies decrease, and global warming concerns become more prevalent. There are few heat transport fluids capable of operating above about 600oC that do not require operation at extremely high pressures. Liquid fluoride salts are an exception to that limitation. Fluoride salts have very high boiling points, can operate at high temperatures and low pressures and have very good heat transfer properties. They have been proposed as coolants for next generation fission reactor systems, as coolants for fusion reactor blankets, and as thermal storage media for solar power systems. In each case, these salts are used to either extract or deliver heat through heat exchange equipment, and in order to design this equipment, liquid salt heat transfer must be predicted. This paper discusses the heat transfer characteristics of liquid fluoride salts. Historically, heat transfer in fluoride salts has been assumed to be consistent with that of conventional fluids (air, water, etc.), and correlations used for predicting heat transfer performance of all fluoride salts have been the same or similar to those used for water conventional fluids an, water, etc). A review of existing liquid salt heat transfer data is presented, summarized, and evaluated on a consistent basis. Less than 10 experimental data sets have been found in the literature, with varying degrees of experimental detail and measured parameters provided. The data has been digitized and a limited database has been assembled and compared to existing heat transfer correlations. Results vary as well, with some data sets following traditional correlations; in others the comparisons are less conclusive. This is especially the case for less common salt/materials combinations, and suggests that additional heat transfer data may be needed when using specific salt eutectics in heat transfer

  7. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    SciTech Connect

    Othman, Zetty Shafiqa; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-25

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, {sup 1}H-NMR and {sup 13}C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  8. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Zetty Shafiqa; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  9. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken by mouth or used as enemas. Indigestion. Aluminum phosphate and calcium phosphate are FDA-permitted ingredients ... Phosphate salts containing sodium, potassium, aluminum, or calcium are LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth short-term, when sodium phosphate is inserted into the ...

  10. Eutectic bonds on wafer scale by thin film multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Carsten; Bouwstra, Siebe

    1996-09-01

    The use of gold based thin film multilayer systems for forming eutectic bonds on wafer scale is investigated and preliminary results will be presented. On polished 4 inch wafers different multilayer systems are developed using thin film techniques and bonded afterwards under reactive atmospheres and different bonding temperatures and forces. Pull tests are performed to extract the bonding strengths.

  11. Eutectic alloys. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, P.

    1980-01-01

    These 250 abstracts from the international literature provide summaries of the preparation, treatments, composition and structure, and properties of eutectic alloys. Techniques for directional solidification and treatments including glazing, coating, and fiber reinforcement are discussed. In addition to the mechanical and thermal properties, the superconducting, corrosion, resistance, and thermionic emission and adsorption properties are described.

  12. Devitrification studies of wollastonite-tricalcium phosphate eutectic glass.

    PubMed

    Magallanes-Perdomo, M; Pena, P; De Aza, P N; Carrodeguas, R G; Rodríguez, M A; Turrillas, X; De Aza, S; De Aza, A H

    2009-10-01

    The present paper describes and discusses the devitrification and crystallization process of wollastonite-tricalcium phosphate (W-TCP) eutectic glass. This process was studied in situ from room temperature up to 1375 degrees C, by neutron diffractometry in vacuum. The data obtained were combined and compared with those performed in ambient atmosphere by differential thermal analysis and with those of samples fired in air at selected temperatures, and then cooled down and subsequently studied by laboratory XRD and field emission scanning electron microscopy fitted with energy X-ray dispersive spectroscopy. The experimental evidence indicates that the devitrification of W-TCP eutectic glass begins at approximately 870 degrees C with the crystallization of a Ca-deficient apatite phase, followed by wollastonite-2M (CaSiO(3)) crystallization at approximately 1006 degrees C. At 1375 degrees C, the bio-glass-ceramic is composed of quasi-rounded colonies formed by a homogeneous mixture of pseudowollastonite (CaSiO(3)) and alpha-tricalcium phosphate (Ca(3)(PO(4))(2)). This microstructure corresponds to irregular eutectic structures. It was also found that it is possible to obtain from the eutectic composition of the wollastonite-tricalcium phosphate binary system a wide range of bio-glass-ceramics, with different crystalline phases present, through appropriate design of thermal treatments. PMID:19427932

  13. Microstructural evolution of eutectic Au-Sn solder joints

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Ho Geon

    2002-05-31

    Current trends toward miniaturization and the use of lead(Pb)-free solder in electronic packaging present new problems in the reliability of solder joints. This study was performed in order to understand the microstructure and microstructural evolution of small volumes of nominally eutectic Au-Sn solder joints (80Au-20Sn by weight), which gives insight into properties and reliability.

  14. Directional solidification of eutectic composites in space environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, A. S.

    1972-01-01

    The Ni-Ni3Ta eutectic and a nickel-base alloy containing 30 wt pct Ta were solidified unidirectionally in an electron beam floating zone melting apparatus. It was found that the volume fraction of the Ni3Ta phase in the Ni-Ni3Ta eutectic mixture was increased from 7.6 to 36 volume pct in agreement with the theory as predicted. Tensile properties of the randomly solidified and unidirectionally solidified Ni-Ni3Ta eutectic were determined as function of solidification rate and temperature. It was found that the ultimate tensile strength decreased as both the test temperature and solidification rate increased. An elongation of 40 pct was obtained for a nickelbase alloy containing 30 wt at room temperature. This unusually large elongation was attributed to the superplastic behavior of the alloy. The critical currents versus the external fields at 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.2 deg for the unidirectionally solidified Pb-Sn eutectic were measured. The values of critical fields at zero critical currents were obtained by extrapolation.

  15. Improving agar electrospinnability with choline-based deep eutectic solvents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One percent agar (% wt) was dissolved in the deep eutectic solvent (DES), (2-hydroxyethyl) trimethylammonium chloride/urea at a 1:2 molar ratio, and successfully electrospun into nanofibers. An existing electrospinning set-up, operated at 50 deg C, was adapted for use with an ethanol bath to collect...

  16. Spontaneous vesicle formation in a deep eutectic solvent.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Saffron J; Atkin, Rob; Warr, Gregory G

    2016-02-14

    Solvent penetration experiments and small-angle X-ray scattering reveal that phospholipids dissolved in a deep eutectic solvent (DES) spontaneously self-assemble into vesicles above the lipid chain melting temperature. This means DESs are one of the few nonaqueous solvents that mediate amphiphile self-assembly, joining a select set of H-bonding molecular solvents and ionic liquids. PMID:26701210

  17. Densities of some molten fluoride salt mixtures suitable for heat storage in space power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    1988-01-01

    Liquid densities were determined for a number of fluoride salt mixtures suitable for heat storage in space power applications, using a procedure that consisted of measuring the loss of weight of an inert bob in the melt. The density apparatus was calibrated with pure LiF and NaF at different temperatures. Density data for safe binary and ternary fluoride salt eutectics and congruently melting intermediate compounds are presented. In addition, a comparison was made between the volumetric heat storage capacity of different salt mixtures.

  18. Use of Microgravity to Control the Microstructure of Eutectics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, William R.; Regel, Liya L.; Smith, Reginald W.

    1998-01-01

    This grant began in June of 1996. Its long term goal is to be able to control the microstructure of directionally solidified eutectic alloys, through an improved understanding of the influence of convection. The primary objective of the present projects is to test hypotheses for the reported influence of microgravity on the microstructure of three fibrous eutectics (MnBi-Bi, InSb-NiSb, Al3Ni-Al). A secondary objective is to determine the influence of convection on the microstructure of other eutectic alloys. Two doctoral students and a masters student supported as a teaching assistant were recruited for this research. Techniques were developed for directional solidification of MnBi-Bi eutectics with periodic application of current pulses to produce an oscillatory freezing rate. Image analysis techniques were developed to obtain the variation in MnBi fiber spacing, which was found to be normally distributed. The mean and standard deviation of fiber spacing were obtained for several freezing conditions. Eighteen ampoules were prepared for use in the gradient freeze furnace QUELD developed at Queen's University for use in microgravity. Nine of these ampoules will be solidified soon at Queen's in a ground-based model. We hope to solidify the other nine in the QUELD that is mounted on the Canadian Microgravity Isolation Mount on MIR. Techniques are being developed for directional solidification of the Al-Si eutectic at different freezing rates, with and without application of accelerated crucible rotation to induce convection. For the first time, theoretical methods are being developed to analyze eutectic solidification with an oscillatory freezing rate. In a classical sharp-interface model, we found that an oscillatory freezing rate increases the deviation of the average interfacial composition from the eutectic, and increases the undercooling of the two phases by different amounts. This would be expected to change the volume fraction solidifying and the fiber spacing

  19. The transient phase eutectic process for ceramic-metal bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Thomas Richard

    A new method of ceramic-metal bonding using a transient gas-metal eutectic liquid is proposed, confirmed, and investigated using nickel/copper-oxygen/alumina as a model system. A low temperature gas-metal eutectic melt may be made transient (by solidification) through interaction with a more refractory metal component providing a ceramic-metal bond with good wetting, high strength, a broad process window (relative to conventional gas-metal eutectic bonds), high thermal stability, and controlled thermoelastic stress; transport of a more active species to the ceramic interface may further improve adherence. A eutectic between the low-melting component (copper) and a gas (oxygen) forms at the interface between the refractory metal (nickel) and ceramic (alumina). This interfacial liquid wets the surfaces and promotes bonding. Because the entire copper interlayer is melted, the processing window is wider than conventional gas-metal eutectic in terms of temperature, atmosphere, and time. The liquid (Cu-O) dissolves the active, refractory component (Ni) providing transport to the interface where a refractory bond phase (NiAl2O4) forms. Interactions at temperature consume the liquid phase causing isothermal solidification. Diffusional homogenization further increases the solidus temperature of the joint. Multilayer bond structures were produced using both foils and plating. Oxygen additions were investigated using pre-oxidation of each metal and/or oxidation in-situ. The best bonds resulted from foils combining nickel pre-oxidation with a eutectic atmosphere. The oxide layer slows the oxidation kinetics of the nickel which allows eutectic liquid to form providing wetting, reaction, and adherence to the ceramic. The interfacial bond structure consists of a uniform, thin (sub-micron) reaction layer of nickel-aluminate (NiAl2 O4) spinel. Adhesion is comparable to current technologies and can exceed the ceramic strength. Typical peel failure occurs at the metal

  20. The UC2-x - Carbon eutectic: A laser heating study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manara, D.; Boboridis, K.; Morel, S.; De Bruycker, F.

    2015-11-01

    The UC2-x - carbon eutectic has been studied by laser heating and fast multi-wavelength pyrometry under inert atmosphere. The study has been carried out on three compositions, two of which close to the phase boundary of the UC2-x - C miscibility gap (with C/U atomic ratios 2 and 2.1), and one, more crucial, with a large excess of carbon (C/U = 2.82). The first two compositions were synthesised by arc-melting. This synthesis method could not be applied to the last composition, which was therefore completed directly by laser irradiation. The U - C - O composition of the samples was checked by using a combustion method in an ELTRA® analyser. The eutectic temperature, established to be 2737 K ± 20 K, was used as a radiance reference together with the cubic - tetragonal (α → β) solid state transition, fixed at 2050 K ± 20 K. The normal spectral emissivity of the carbon-richer compounds increases up to 0.7, whereas the value 0.53 was established for pure hypostoichiometric uranium dicarbide at the limit of the eutectic region. This increase is analysed in the light of the demixing of excess carbon, and used for the determination of the liquidus temperature (3220 K ± 50 K for UC2.82). Due to fast solid state diffusion, also fostered by the cubic - tetragonal transition, no obvious signs of a lamellar eutectic structure could be observed after quenching to room temperature. The eutectic surface C/UC2-x composition could be qualitatively, but consistently, followed during the cooling process with the help of the recorded radiance spectra. Whereas the external liquid surface is almost entirely constituted by uranium dicarbide, it gets rapidly enriched in demixed carbon upon freezing. Demixed carbon seems to quickly migrate towards the inner bulk during further cooling. At the α → β transition, uranium dicarbide covers again the almost entire external surface.

  1. Fluoride salts as phase change materials for thermal energy storage in the temperature range 1000-1400 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    1988-01-01

    Eutectic compositions and congruently melting intermediate compounds in binary and ternary fluoride salt systems were characterized for potential use as latent heat of fusion phase change materials to store thermal energy in the temperature range 1000-1400 K. The melting points and eutectic compositions for many systems with published phase diagrams were experimentally verified and new eutectic compositions having melting points between 1000 and 1400 K were identified. Heats of fusion of several binary and ternary eutectics and congruently melting compounds were experimentally measured by differential scanning calorimetry. For a few systems in which heats of mixing in the melts have been measured, heats of fusion of the eutectics were calculated from thermodynamic considerations and good agreement was obtained between the measured and calculated values. Several combinations of salts with high heats of fusion per unit mass (greater than 0.7 kJ/g) have been identified for possible use as phase change materials in advanced solar dynamic space power applications.

  2. Three-dimensional reconstruction of anomalous eutectic in laser remelted Ni-30 wt.% Sn alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yong-Qing; Lin, Xin; Wang, Zhi-Tai; Wang, Li-Lin; Song, Meng-Hua; Yang, Hai-Ou; Huang, Wei-Dong

    2015-12-01

    Laser remelting has been performed on Ni-30 wt.% Sn hypoeutectic alloy. An anomalous eutectic formed at the bottom of the molten pool when the sample was remelted thoroughly. 3D morphologies of the α-Ni and Ni3Sn phases in the anomalous eutectic region were obtained and investigated using serial sectioning reconstruction technology. It is found that the Ni3Sn phase has a continuous interconnected network structure and the α-Ni phase is distributed as separate particles in the anomalous eutectic, which is consistent with the electron backscatter diffraction pattern examinations. The α-Ni particles in the anomalous eutectic are supersaturated with Sn element as compared with the equilibrium phase diagram. Meanwhile, small wavy lamella eutectics coexist with anomalous eutectics. The Trivedi-Magnin-Kurz model was used to estimate undercooling with lamellar spacing. The results suggest that the critical undercooling found in undercooling solidification is not a sufficient condition for anomalous eutectic formation. Besides, α-Ni particles in the anomalous eutectic do not exhibit a completely random misorientation and some neighboring α-Ni particles have the same orientation. It is shown that both the coupled and decoupled growth of the eutectic two phases can generate the α-Ni + Ni3Sn anomalous eutectic structure.

  3. Development of green betaine-based deep eutectic solvent aqueous two-phase system for the extraction of protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Wang, Yuzhi; Xu, Kaijia; Huang, Yanhua; Wen, Qian; Ding, Xueqin

    2016-05-15

    Six kinds of new type of green betaine-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been synthesized. Deep eutectic solvent aqueous two-phase systems (DES-ATPS) were established and successfully applied in the extraction of protein. Betaine-urea (Be-U) was selected as the suitable extractant. Single factor experiments were carried out to determine the optimum conditions of the extraction process, such as the salt concentration, the mass of DES, the separation time, the amount of protein, the temperature and the pH value. The extraction efficiency could achieve to 99.82% under the optimum conditions. Mixed sample and practical sample analysis were discussed. The back extraction experiment was implemented and the back extraction efficiency could reach to 32.66%. The precision experiment, repeatability experiment and stability experiment were investigated. UV-vis, FT-IR and circular dichroism (CD) spectra confirmed that the conformation of protein was not changed during the process of extraction. The mechanisms of extraction were researched by dynamic light scattering (DLS), the measurement of the conductivity and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). DES-protein aggregates and embraces phenomenon play considerable roles in the separation process. All of these results indicated that betaine-based DES-ATPS may provide a potential substitute new method for the separation of proteins. PMID:26992491

  4. Coatings for directional eutectics. [for corrosion and oxidation resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felten, E. J.; Strangman, T. E.; Ulion, N. E.

    1974-01-01

    Eleven coating systems based on MCrAlY overlay and diffusion aluminide prototypes were evaluated to determine their capability for protecting the gamma/gamma prime-delta directionally solidified eutectic alloy (Ni-20Cb-6Cr-2.5Al) in gas turbine engine applications. Furnace oxidation and hot corrosion, Mach 0.37 burner-rig, tensile ductility, stress-rupture and thermomechanical fatigue tests were used to evaluate the coated gamma/gamma prime-delta alloy. The diffusion aluminide coatings provided adequate oxidation resistance at 1144 K (1600 F) but offered very limited protection in 114 K (1600 F) hot corrosion and 1366 K (2000 F) oxidation tests. A platinum modified NiCrAlY overlay coating exhibited excellent performance in oxidation testing and had no adverse effects upon the eutectic alloy.

  5. High resolution microstructural and microchemical analysis of zirconia eutectic interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Notis, M.R.

    1993-03-17

    Resolution of microscopic analytical methods has greatly improved over the past decade, and it is now possible to examine periodic variations in structure and chemistry at a scale much finer than the spacing typical of eutectic structures (1-5 [mu]m). During the current year, studies were completed on ZrO[sub 2]-NiO and ZrO[sub 2]-MnO eutectic systems, and study was initiated on microchemical variation in two spinodal systems: Cu-Ni-Sn and SnO[sub 2]-TiO[sub 2]. Work was also initiated on metal/oxide interface microchemistry, in particular the corrosion interface resulting during oxidation of Cu-Sn alloys. 6 figs.

  6. Electromagnetic response of anisotropic eutectic metamaterials in THz range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Coronado, A.; Acosta, M. F.; Merino, R. I.; Orera, V. M.; Kenanakis, G.; Katsarakis, N.; Kafesaki, M.; Soukoulis, C. M.

    2010-10-01

    We study the electromagnetic (EM) response of anisotropic eutectic metamaterials, consisting in cylindrical polaritonic LiF rods embedded in a KCl host. The specular reflectance of the samples was measured at far infrared (3-12 THz). The sample reflection was simulated by modeling the eutectic structure and solving numerically Maxwell equations for the EM fields. The reflectance was also calculated from simple effective response functions models. A good agreement was obtained between experimental and calculated spectra. From the effective response functions calculations, we obtained a range of frequencies in which the system behaves as a homogeneous effective anisotropic media, with a hyperbolic dispersion relation, opening possibilities for negative refraction and focusing applications.

  7. Metastable Eutectic Equilibrium in Natural Environments: Recent Developments and Research Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, Fans J. M.; Nuth, Joseph A., II; Jablonska, Mariola; Karner, James M.

    2000-01-01

    Chemical ordering at metastable eutectics was recognized in non-equilibrium gas-to- solid condensation experiments to constrain 'silicate' dust formation in O-rich circumstellar environments. The predictable metastable eutectic behavior successfully predicted the observed ferromagnesiosilica, compositions of circumstellar dust, presolar and solar nebula grains in the matrix of the collected aggregate IDPs. Many of the experimentally determined metastable eutectic solids match the fundamental building blocks of common rock-forming layer silicates: this could have implications for the origin of Life. The physical conditions conducive to metastable eutectic behavior, i.e. high temperature and (ultra)fast quenching, lead to unique amorphous, typically nano- to micrometer-sized, materials. The new paradigm of metastable eutectic behavior opens the door to new and exciting research opportunities in uncovering the many implications of these unique amorphous and typically nano- to micrometer-sized, metastable eutectic materials.

  8. Metastable Eutectic Equilibrium in Natural Environments: Recent Development and Research Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.; Nuth, Joseph A., III; Jablonska, Mariola; Karner, James M.

    2000-01-01

    Chemical ordering at metastable eutectics was recognized in non-equilibrium gas-to- solid condensation experiments to constrain 'silicate' dust formation in O-rich circumstellar environments. The predictable metastable eutectic behavior successfully predicted the observed ferromagnesiosilica compositions of circumstellar dust presolar and solar nebula grains in the matrix of the collected aggregate IDPs (Interplanetary Dust Particles). Many of the experimentally determined metastable eutectic solids match the fundamental building blocks of common rock-forming layer silicates: this could have implications for the origin of Life. The physical conditions conducive to metastable eutectic behavior, i.e. high temperature and (ultra) fast quenching, lead to unique amorphous, typically nano- to micrometer-sized, materials. The new paradigm of metastable eutectic behavior opens the door to new and exciting research opportunities in uncovering the many implications of these unique amorphous, and typically nano-to micrometer-sized, metastable eutectic materials.

  9. Evaluation of ultrasonic signals from diffusion and eutectic bond interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. M.

    1980-12-01

    A research program is in progress at Rocky Flats to determine correlations between ultrasonic signal content and diffusion or eutectic bond joint condition, and to develop a computer-controlled scanning, data acquisition and analysis system which utilizes these correlations and waveform analysis techniques. The initial efforts to determine effective ultrasonic waveform parameters to characterize the strength of bond interfaces is complete. A development version of a computer-controlled, automated scanning and data acquisition system is in operation.

  10. An approximate formula for recalescence in binary eutectic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohsaka, K.; Trinh, E. H.

    1993-01-01

    In alloys, solidification takes place along various paths which may be ascertained via phase diagrams; while there would be no single formula applicable to all alloys, an approximate formula for a specific solidification path would be useful in estimating the fraction of the solid formed during recalescence. A formulation is here presented of recalescence in binary eutectic alloys. This formula is applied to Ag-Cu alloys which are of interest in containerless solidification, due to their formation of supersaturated solutions.

  11. Eutectic-Free Superalloy Made By Directional Solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Deborah Dianne

    1995-01-01

    By suitable control of thermal conditions in directional-solidification process, supperalloy structural and machine components (e.g., turbine blades) cast with microstructures enhancing resistance to fatigue. Specific version of process and thermal conditions chosen to reduce micro-segregation during solidification and to minimize or eliminate script carbide and eutectic-phase inclusions, which are brittle inclusions found to decrease resistance to fatigue.

  12. Eutectic Syntheses of Graphitic Carbon with High Pyrazinic Nitrogen Content.

    PubMed

    Fechler, Nina; Zussblatt, Niels P; Rothe, Regina; Schlögl, Robert; Willinger, Marc-Georg; Chmelka, Bradley F; Antonietti, Markus

    2016-02-10

    Mixtures of phenols/ketones and urea show eutectic behavior upon gentle heating. These mixtures possess liquid-crystalline-like phases that can be processed. The architecture of phenol/ketone acts as structure-donating motif, while urea serves as melting-point reduction agent. Condensation at elevated temperatures results in nitrogen-containing carbons with remarkably high nitrogen content of mainly pyrazinic nature. PMID:26178584

  13. Ge-Au eutectic bonding of Ge {100} single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowlton, W. B.; Itoh, K. M.; Beeman, J. W.; Emes, J. H.; Loretto, D.; Haller, E. E.

    1993-11-01

    We present preliminary results on the eutectic bonding between two {100} Ge single crystal surfaces using thin films of Au ranging from 900Å/surface to 300Å/surface and Pd (10% the thickness of Au). Following bonding, plan view optical microscopy (OM) of the cleaved interface of samples with Au thicknesses ≤ 500Å/surface show a eutectic morphology more conducive to phonon transmission through the bond interface. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) cross sectional interface studies of a 300Å/surface Au sample show <100> epitaxial growth of Ge. In sections of the bond, lattice continuity of the Ge is apparent through the interface. TEM studies also reveal <110> heteroepitaxial growth of Au with a Au-Ge lattice mismatch of less than 2%. Eutectic bonds with 200Å/surface Au have been attained with characterization pending. An optical polishing technique for Ge has been optimized to insure intimate contact between the Ge surfaces prior to bonding. Interferometry analysis of the optically polished Ge surface shows that surface height fluctuations lie within ±150Å across an interval of 1mm. Characterization of phonon transmission through the interface is discussed with respect to low temperature detection of ballistic phonons.

  14. The Al-Al3Ni Eutectic Reaction: Crystallography and Mechanism of Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yangyang; Makhlouf, Makhlouf M.

    2015-09-01

    The characteristics of the Al-Al3Ni eutectic structure are examined with emphasis on its morphology and crystallography. Based on these examinations, the mechanism of formation of this technologically important eutectic is postulated. It is found that a thin shell of α-Al forms coherently around each Al3Ni fiber. The excellent thermal stability of the Al-Al3Ni eutectic may be attributed to the presence of this coherent layer.

  15. Principles of the creation and features of the formation of eutectic coatings from a liquid phase

    SciTech Connect

    Golubets, V.M.; Pashchenko, M.I.

    1985-05-01

    For the purpose of hardening steel with eutectic coatings, the corresponding composition of powders, pastes, daubings or solid metal element is fused directly on the surface of the part, or prepared eutectic alloys are applied to the surface to be hardened. The purpose of this study was an investigation of the features of the formation on steel of thick (more than 1mm) diffusion-fused eutectic coatings from powder mixtures.

  16. Bonding of sapphire to sapphire by eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deluca, J. J. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An element comprising sapphire, ruby or blue sapphire can be bonded to another element of such material with a eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide. The bonding mixture may be applied in the form of a distilled water slurry or by electron beam vapor deposition. In one embodiment the eutectic is formed in situ by applying a layer of zirconium oxide and then heating the assembly to a temperature above the eutectic temperature and below the melting point of the material from which the elements are formed. The formation of a sapphire rubidium maser cell utilizing eutectic bonding is shown.

  17. Bonding of sapphire to sapphire by eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deluca, J. J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    Bonding of an element comprising sapphire, ruby or blue sapphire to another element of such material with a eutectic mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide is discussed. The bonding mixture may be applied in the form of a distilled water slurry or by electron beam vapor deposition. In one embodiment the eutectic is formed in situ by applying a layer of zirconium oxide and then heating the assembly to a temperature above the eutectic temperature and below the melting point of the material from which the elements are formed. The formation of a sapphire rubidium maser cell utilizing eutectic bonding is shown.

  18. High Magnetic Field-Induced Formation of Banded Microstructures in Lamellar Eutectic Alloys During Directional Solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xi; Fautrelle, Yves; Gagnoud, Annie; Ren, Zhongming; Moreau, Rene

    2016-06-01

    The influences of high magnetic field (up to 12 T) on the morphology of Pb-Sn and Al-Al2Cu lamellar eutectics during directional solidification were investigated. The experimental results indicate that, along with a decrease in eutectic spacing, the banded structure forms at lower growth speeds under high magnetic field and the band spacing decreases as the magnetic field increases. Moreover, the application of a magnetic field enriches the Cu solute in the liquid ahead of the liquid/solid interface during directional solidification of an Al-Al2Cu eutectic alloy. The effects of high magnetic field on the eutectic points of non-ferromagnetic alloys and the stress acting on the eutectic lamellae during directional solidification have been studied. Both thermodynamic evaluation and DTA measurements reveal that the high magnetic field has a negligible effect on the eutectic points of non-ferromagnetic alloys. However, the high magnetic field caused an increase of the nucleation temperature and undercooling. The numerical results indicate that a considerable stress is produced on the eutectic lamellae during directional solidification under high magnetic field. The formation of a banded structure in a lamellar eutectic during directional solidification under high magnetic field may be attributed to both the buildup of the solute in the liquid ahead of the liquid/solid interface and the stress acting on the eutectic lamellae.

  19. Micro-to-nano-scale deformation mechanisms of a bimodal ultrafine eutectic composite

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seoung Wan; Kim, Jeong Tae; Hong, Sung Hwan; Park, Hae Jin; Park, Jun-Young; Lee, Nae Sung; Seo, Yongho; Suh, Jin Yoo; Eckert, Jürgen; Kim, Do Hyang; Park, Jin Man; Kim, Ki Buem

    2014-01-01

    The outstading mechanical properties of bimodal ultrafine eutectic composites (BUECs) containing length scale hierarchy in eutectic structure were demonstrated by using AFM observation of surface topography with quantitative height measurements and were interpreted in light of the details of the deformation mechanisms by three different interface modes. It is possible to develop a novel strain accommodated eutectic structure for triggering three different interface-controlled deformation modes; (I) rotational boundary mode, (II) accumulated interface mode and (III) individual interface mode. A strain accommodated microstructure characterized by the surface topology gives a hint to design a novel ultrafine eutectic alloys with excellent mechanical properties. PMID:25265897

  20. High Magnetic Field-Induced Formation of Banded Microstructures in Lamellar Eutectic Alloys During Directional Solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xi; Fautrelle, Yves; Gagnoud, Annie; Ren, Zhongming; Moreau, Rene

    2016-08-01

    The influences of high magnetic field (up to 12 T) on the morphology of Pb-Sn and Al-Al2Cu lamellar eutectics during directional solidification were investigated. The experimental results indicate that, along with a decrease in eutectic spacing, the banded structure forms at lower growth speeds under high magnetic field and the band spacing decreases as the magnetic field increases. Moreover, the application of a magnetic field enriches the Cu solute in the liquid ahead of the liquid/solid interface during directional solidification of an Al-Al2Cu eutectic alloy. The effects of high magnetic field on the eutectic points of non-ferromagnetic alloys and the stress acting on the eutectic lamellae during directional solidification have been studied. Both thermodynamic evaluation and DTA measurements reveal that the high magnetic field has a negligible effect on the eutectic points of non-ferromagnetic alloys. However, the high magnetic field caused an increase of the nucleation temperature and undercooling. The numerical results indicate that a considerable stress is produced on the eutectic lamellae during directional solidification under high magnetic field. The formation of a banded structure in a lamellar eutectic during directional solidification under high magnetic field may be attributed to both the buildup of the solute in the liquid ahead of the liquid/solid interface and the stress acting on the eutectic lamellae.

  1. A numerical model for eutectic spacing selection in the CBr 4C 2Cl 6 eutectic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jincheng; Elliott, R.

    1995-03-01

    It is well established that the lamellar eutectic structure exhibits a limited range of spacings rather than a unique spacing during steady state growth at a constant growth velocity. The minimum observed spacing corresponds to the extremum spacing predicted by the Jackson and Hunt analysis of eutectic growth. However, the maximum observed spacing is much less than the maximum spacing predicted by their analysis. The assumption of a planar interface by Jackson and Hunt is relaxed in this paper and a numerical model is developed which uses the boundary element method and an iterative technique to obtain the solute distribution for a selfconsistent curved interface shape. The maximum selfconsistent spacing, for which a selfconsistent interface exists, is determined for several growth velocities. The maximum selfconsistent spacings calculated in this way show good agreement with the maximum spacings observed in the CBr 4C 2Cl 6 eutectic system. The interface shape for the maximum selfconsistent spacings has a limiting slope which is far from vertical and the deepest point on the selfconsistent interface at the maximum spacing does not lie in a deep pocket.

  2. Electrochemical fabrication of nanoporous copper films in choline chloride-urea deep eutectic solvent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q B; Abbott, Andrew P; Yang, C

    2015-06-14

    Nanoporous copper films were fabricated by a facile electrochemical alloying/dealloying process without the need of a template. A deep eutectic solvent made from choline chloride (ChCl) and urea was used with zinc oxide as the metal salt. Cyclic voltammetry was used to characterise the electrochemical reduction of zinc and follow Cu-Zn alloy formation on the copper substrate at elevated temperatures from 353 to 393 K. The alloy formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction spectra. 3D, open and bicontinuous nanoporous copper films were obtained by in situ electrochemically etching (dealloying) of the zinc component in the Cu-Zn surface alloys at an appropriate potential (-0.4 V vs. Ag). This dealloying process was found to be highly temperature dependent and surface diffusion controlled, which involved the self-assembly of copper atoms at the alloy/electrolyte interface. Additionally, the effects of the deposition parameters, including deposition temperature, current density as well as total charge density on resulting the microstructure were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscope. PMID:25972227

  3. Ionic liquids in biotransformations: from proof-of-concept to emerging deep-eutectic-solvents.

    PubMed

    Domínguez de María, Pablo; Maugeri, Zaira

    2011-04-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been extensively assessed in biotransformations with different purposes, for example, non-conventional (co-)solvents, performance additives, coating agents for immobilizing/stabilizing enzymes, and IL-membrane-based processes. Fuelled by their premature labelling as 'green solvents', academic research has flourished. However, in recent years environmental aspects related to ILs have been strongly addressed, stating that many ILs commonly used cannot be regarded as 'green derivatives'. Likewise, ILs costs are still a barrier for practical uses. Attempting to combine sustainability with the promising added-values of ILs, the third generation of ILs is currently under development. Likewise, deep-eutectic-solvents (DESs) appear in the horizon as an attractive and cost-effective option for using ionic solvents in biotransformations. DESs are often produced by gently warming and stirring two (bio-based and cheap) salts (e.g. choline chloride and urea). First successful uses of DES in biotransformations were reported recently. It may be expected that knowledge accumulated in (second generation) ILs and biotransformations could be turned into real applications by using these DESs, and third generation ILs, in the coming years. PMID:21112808

  4. Enhancing cellulose accessibility of corn stover by deep eutectic solvent pretreatment for butanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guo-Chao; Ding, Ji-Cai; Han, Rui-Zhi; Dong, Jin-Jun; Ni, Ye

    2016-03-01

    In this study, an effective corn stover (CS) pretreatment method was developed for biobutanol fermentation. Deep eutectic solvents (DESs), consisted of quaternary ammonium salts and hydrogen donors, display similar properties to room temperature ionic liquid. Seven DESs with different hydrogen donors were facilely synthesized. Choline chloride:formic acid (ChCl:formic acid), an acidic DES, displayed excellent performance in the pretreatment of corn stover by removal of hemicellulose and lignin as confirmed by SEM, FTIR and XRD analysis. After optimization, glucose released from pretreated CS reached 17.0 g L(-1) and yield of 99%. The CS hydrolysate was successfully utilized in butanol fermentation by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864, achieving butanol titer of 5.63 g L(-1) with a yield of 0.17 g g(-1) total sugar and productivity of 0.12 g L(-1)h(-1). This study demonstrates DES could be used as a promising and biocompatible pretreatment method for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuel. PMID:26597485

  5. Synthesis and thermo-physical properties of deep eutectic solvent-based graphene nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Fang, Y K; Osama, M; Rashmi, W; Shahbaz, K; Khalid, M; Mjalli, F S; Farid, M M

    2016-02-19

    This study introduces a new class of heat transfer fluids by dispersing functionalised graphene oxide nanoparticles (GNPs) in ammonium and phosphonium-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) without the aid of a surfactant. Different molar ratios of salts and hydrogen bond donors (HBD) were used to synthesise DESs for the preparation of different concentrations of graphene nanofluids (GNFs). The concentrations of GNPs were 0.01 wt%, 0.02 wt% and 0.05 wt %. Homogeneous and stable suspensions of nanofluids were obtained by high speed homogenisation and an ultrasonication process. The stability of the GNFs was determined through visual observation for 4 weeks followed by a centrifugal process (5000-20,000 rpm) for 30 min in addition to zeta potential studies. Dispersion of the GNPs in DES was observed using an optical microscope. The synthesised DES-based GNFs showed no particle agglomeration and formation of sediments in the nanofluids. Thermo-physical properties such as thermal conductivity and specific heat of the nanofluids were also investigated in this research. The highest thermal conductivity enhancement of 177% was observed. The findings of this research provide a new class of engineered fluid for heat transfer applications as a function of temperature, type and composition DESs as well as the GNPs concentration. PMID:26766874

  6. Synthesis and thermo-physical properties of deep eutectic solvent-based graphene nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Y. K.; Osama, M.; Rashmi, W.; Shahbaz, K.; Khalid, M.; Mjalli, F. S.; Farid, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    This study introduces a new class of heat transfer fluids by dispersing functionalised graphene oxide nanoparticles (GNPs) in ammonium and phosphonium-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) without the aid of a surfactant. Different molar ratios of salts and hydrogen bond donors (HBD) were used to synthesise DESs for the preparation of different concentrations of graphene nanofluids (GNFs). The concentrations of GNPs were 0.01 wt%, 0.02 wt% and 0.05 wt %. Homogeneous and stable suspensions of nanofluids were obtained by high speed homogenisation and an ultrasonication process. The stability of the GNFs was determined through visual observation for 4 weeks followed by a centrifugal process (5000-20 000 rpm) for 30 min in addition to zeta potential studies. Dispersion of the GNPs in DES was observed using an optical microscope. The synthesised DES-based GNFs showed no particle agglomeration and formation of sediments in the nanofluids. Thermo-physical properties such as thermal conductivity and specific heat of the nanofluids were also investigated in this research. The highest thermal conductivity enhancement of 177% was observed. The findings of this research provide a new class of engineered fluid for heat transfer applications as a function of temperature, type and composition DESs as well as the GNPs concentration.

  7. Prebiotic chemistry in eutectic solutions at the water-ice matrix.

    PubMed

    Menor-Salván, César; Marín-Yaseli, Margarita R

    2012-08-21

    A crystalline ice matrix at subzero temperatures can maintain a liquid phase where organic solutes and salts concentrate to form eutectic solutions. This concentration effect converts the confined reactant solutions in the ice matrix, sometimes making condensation and polymerisation reactions occur more favourably. These reactions occur at significantly high rates from a prebiotic chemistry standpoint, and the labile products can be protected from degradation. The experimental study of the synthesis of nitrogen heterocycles at the ice-water system showed the efficiency of this scenario and could explain the origin of nucleobases in the inner Solar System bodies, including meteorites and extra-terrestrial ices, and on the early Earth. The same conditions can also favour the condensation of monomers to form ribonucleic acid and peptides. Together with the synthesis of these monomers, the ice world (i.e., the chemical evolution in the range between the freezing point of water and the limit of stability of liquid brines, 273 to 210 K) is an under-explored experimental model in prebiotic chemistry. PMID:22660387

  8. Deep eutectic solvent-assisted synthesis of biodegradable polyesters with antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    García-Argüelles, Sara; Serrano, M Concepción; Gutiérrez, María C; Ferrer, M Luisa; Yuste, Luis; Rojo, Fernando; del Monte, Francisco

    2013-07-30

    Bacterial infection related to the implantation of medical devices represents a serious clinical complication, with dramatic consequences for many patients. In past decades, numerous attempts have been made to develop materials with antibacterial and/or antifouling properties by the incorporation of antibiotic and/or antiseptic compounds. In this context, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are acquiring increasing interest not only as efficient carriers of active principle ingredients (APIs) but also as assistant platforms for the synthesis of a wide repertoire of polymer-related materials. Herein, we have successfully prepared biodegradable poly(octanediol-co-citrate) polyesters with acquired antibacterial properties by the DES-assisted incorporation of quaternary ammonium or phosphonium salts into the polymer network. In the resulting polymers, the presence of these salts (i.e., choline chloride, tetraethylammonium bromide, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, and methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide) inhibits bacterial growth in the early postimplantation steps, as tested in cultures of Escherichia coli on solid agar plates. Later, positive polymer cytocompatibility is expected to support cell colonization, as anticipated from in vitro preliminary studies with L929 fibroblasts. Finally, the attractive elastic properties of these polyesters permit matching those of soft tissues such as skin. For all of these reasons, we envisage the utility of some of these antibacterial, biocompatible, and biodegradable polyesters as potential candidates for the preparation of antimicrobial wound dressings. These results further emphasize the enormous versatility of DES-assisted synthesis for the incorporation, in the synthesis step, of a wide palette of APIs into polymeric networks suitable for biomedical applications. PMID:23808373

  9. Enhanced electroanalysis in lithium potassium eutectic (LKE) using microfabricated square microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Damion K; Blair, Ewen O; Terry, Jonathan G; Walton, Anthony J; Mount, Andrew R

    2014-11-18

    Molten salts (MSs) are an attractive medium for chemical and electrochemical processing and as a result there is demand for MS-compatible analysis technologies. However, MSs containing redox species present a challenging environment in which to perform analytical measurements because of their corrosive nature, significant thermal convection and the high temperatures involved. This paper outlines the fabrication and characterization of microfabricated square microelectrodes (MSMs) designed for electrochemical analysis in MS systems. Their design enables precise control over electrode dimension, the minimization of stress because of differential thermal expansion through design for high temperature operation, and the minimization of corrosive attack through effective insulation. The exemplar MS system used for characterization was lithium chloride/potassium chloride eutectic (LKE), which has potential applications in pyrochemical nuclear fuel reprocessing, metal refining, molten salt batteries and electric power cells. The observed responses for a range of redox ions between 400 and 500 °C (673 and 773 K) were quantitative and typical of microelectrodes. MSMs also showed the reduced iR drop, steady-state diffusion-limited response, and reduced sensitivity to convection seen for microelectrodes under ambient conditions and expected for these electrodes in comparison to macroelectrodes. Diffusion coefficients were obtained in close agreement with literature values, more readily and at greater precision and accuracy than both macroelectrode and previous microelectrode measurements. The feasibility of extracting individual physical parameters from mixtures of redox species (as required in reprocessing) and of the prolonged measurement required for online monitoring was also demonstrated. Together, this demonstrates that MSMs provide enhanced electrode devices widely applicable to the characterization of redox species in a range of MS systems. PMID:25284431

  10. Evaluation of 2.25Cr-1Mo Alloy for Containment of LiCl/KCl Eutectic during the Pyrometallurgical Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    B.R. Westphal; S.X. Li; G.L. Fredrickson; D. Vaden; T.A. Johnson; J.C. Wass

    2011-03-01

    Recovery of uranium from the Mk-IV and Mk-V electrorefiner vessels containing a LiCl/KCl eutectic salt has been on-going for 14 and 12 years, respectively, during the pyrometallurgical processing of used nuclear fuel. Although austenitic stainless steels are typically utilized for LiCl/KCl salt systems, the presence of cadmium in the Mk-IV electrorefiner dictates an alternate material. A 2.25Cr-1Mo alloy (ASME SA-387) was chosen due to the absence of nickel in the alloy which has a considerable solubility in cadmium. Using the transition metal impurities (iron, chromium, nickel, molybdenum, and manganese) in the electrorefined uranium products, an algorithm was developed to derive values for the contribution of the transition metals from the various input sources. Weight loss and corrosion rate data for the Mk-V electrorefiner vessel were then generated based on the transition metal impurities in the uranium products. To date, the corrosion rate of the 2.25Cr-1Mo alloy in LiCl/KCl eutectic is outstanding assuming uniform (i.e. non-localized) conditions.

  11. Synthesis of cerium rich intermetallics using molten metal eutectics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Patricia Christine

    Metal eutectic fluxes are useful for exploratory synthesis of new intermetallic phases. In this work the use of cerium/transition metal eutectics such as: Ce/Co, Ce/Ni, and Ce/Fe have yielded many new synthetically and magnetically complex phases. Structural units that were previously observed in phases grown in La/Ni eutectic reactions have also been observed in new structures and analogs grown from cerium/transition metal eutectics. These structural units include a main group element coordinated by 9 rare-earth atoms (such as the Al Ce9 clusters seen in Ce31.0(2)Fe11.8(5)Al6.5(6) B13C4), trigonal planar FeC3 units (also seen in Ce31.0(2)Fe11.8(5)Al6.5(6)B 13C4), iron clusters capped by light elements (Fe4C 6 frustrated tetrahedral in Ce21Fe8M7C 14, and larger Fe clusters in Ce33Fe14B25 C34). Variants of these building blocks were observed in Ce10Co2B7C16 with square Co units and chains of B and C connected to them, Fe2C8 units observed in Ce7Fe2C9, and FeC4 observed in Ce4FeGa0.85Al0.15C4 and Ce4FeAlC4. Two new phases were grown from Ce/Fe eutectic, Ce33Fe 14B25C34 and Ce33Fe13B 18C34 which exhibits very similar structures, but significantly different magnetic behavior. Structurally these two phases are similar. Both crystallize in the Im-3m space group, but differ by the centering of the Fe clusters. Ce33Fe14B25C34 contains Fe clusters centered by B atoms and Al doped on the Fe2 site. In Ce33Fe13B18C34, the Fe cluster is a perfect cuboctahedron. Ce33Fe14B25 C34 exhibits mixed valent behavior of cerium at 75K and no magnetic moment on iron, where-as Ce33Fe13B18C 34 exhibits tetravalent cerium and its iron clusters undergo a ferromagnetic transition at 180K. Another borocarbide, Ce10Co2B7C 16 was synthesized from Ce/Co eutectic flux. This structure features squares of Co surrounded by chains of C and B and a sea of cerium atoms. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements at 1 Tesla were fit to a modified Curie-Weiss law and a moment per Ce was

  12. Cellulosic ethanol production from natural deep eutectic solvent-pretreated rice straw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) are recently developed “green solvents” consisted of bio-based ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents mainly from plant based metabolites. NADES are biodegradable, non-toxic and environment-friendly. Conventional chemically synthesized ionic liquids have be...

  13. Eutectic Morphology of Al-7Si-0.3Mg Alloys with Scandium Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandee, Phromphong; Gourlay, C. M.; Belyakov, S. A.; Ozaki, Ryota; Yasuda, Hideyuki; Limmaneevichitr, Chaowalit

    2014-09-01

    The mechanisms of Al-Si eutectic refinement due to scandium (Sc) additions have been studied in an Al-7Si-0.3Mg foundry alloy. The evolution of eutectic microstructure is studied by thermal analysis and interrupted solidification, and the distribution of Sc is studied by synchrotron micro-XRF mapping. Sc is shown to cause significant refinement of the eutectic silicon. The results show that Sc additions strongly suppress the nucleation of eutectic silicon due to the formation of ScP instead of AlP. Sc additions change the macroscopic eutectic growth mode to the propagation of a defined eutectic front from the mold walls opposite to the heat flux direction similar to past work with Na, Ca, and Y additions. It is found that Sc segregates to the eutectic aluminum and AlSi2Sc2 phases and not to eutectic silicon, suggesting that impurity-induced twinning does not operate. The results suggest that Sc refinement is mostly caused by the significantly reduced silicon nucleation frequency and the resulting increase in mean interface growth rate.

  14. Refinement of Promising Coating Compositions for Directionally Cast Eutectics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, T. E.; Felten, E. J.; Benden, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    The successful application of high creep strength, directionally solidified gamma/gamma prime-delta (Ni-19.7Cb-6Cr-2.5Al) eutectic superalloy turbine blades requires the development of suitable coatings for airfoil, root and internal blade surfaces. In order to improve coatings for the gamma/gamma prime-delta alloy, the current investigation had the goals of (1) refining promising coating compositions for directionally solidified eutectics, (2) evaluating the effects of coating/ substrate interactions on the mechanical properties of the alloy, and (3) evaluating diffusion aluminide coatings for internal surfaces. Burner rig cyclic oxidation, furnace cyclic hot corrosion, ductility, and thermal fatigue tests indicated that NiCrAlY+Pt(63 to 127 micron Ni-18Cr-12Al-0.3Y + 6 micron Pt) and NiCrAlY(63 to 127 micron Ni-18Cr-12Al-0.3Y) coatings are capable of protecting high temperature gas path surfaces of eutectic alloy airfoils. Burner rig (Mach 0.37) testing indicated that the useful coating life of the 127 micron thick coatings exceeded 1000 hours at 1366 K (2000 deg F). Isothermal fatigue and furnance hot corrosion tests indicated that 63 micron NiCrAlY, NiCrAlY + Pt and platinum modified diffusion aluminide (Pt + Al) coating systems are capable of protecting the relatively cooler surfaces of the blade root. Finally, a gas phase coating process was evaluated for diffusion aluminizing internal surfaces and cooling holes of air-cooled gamma/gamma prime-delta turbine blades.

  15. Divorced Eutectic Solidification of Mg-Al Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monas, Alexander; Shchyglo, Oleg; Kim, Se-Jong; Yim, Chang Dong; Höche, Daniel; Steinbach, Ingo

    2015-08-01

    We present simulations of the nucleation and equiaxed dendritic growth of the primary hexagonal close-packed -Mg phase followed by the nucleation of the -phase in interdendritic regions. A zoomed-in region of a melt channel under eutectic conditions is investigated and compared with experiments. The presented simulations allow prediction of the final properties of an alloy based on process parameters. The obtained results give insight into the solidification processes governing the microstructure formation of Mg-Al alloys, allowing their targeted design for different applications.

  16. Directional solidification of Pb-Sn eutectic with vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caram, Rubens; Banan, Mohsen; Wilcox, William R.

    1991-01-01

    Pb-Sn eutectic alloy was directionally solidified at 1.4 to 3.2 cm/hr with forced convection induced by axial vibration of the growth ampoule with a frequency of 10 to 40 Hz and an amplitude of 0.5 to 1.0 mm. To determine the exact growth rate, an interface demarcation technique was applied. The lamellar spacing was increased 10 to 40 percent in ingots solidified with vibration compared to those solidified without vibration. The average intensity of convection in the melt under axial vibration of the ampoule was estimated by comparing the experimental results with a theoretical model.

  17. Supercooling effects in faceted eutectic Nb-Si alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokhale, A. B.; Sarkar, G.; Abbaschian, G. J.; Haygarth, J. C.; Wojcik, C.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of melt supercooling on the microstructure of an Nb-58 at. pct Si alloy is investigated experimentally using an electromagnetic levitation apparatus. It is found that, starting with an alloy nominally of eutectic composition, nucleation of Nb5Si3 occurs in the supercooled liquid first. Upon further cooling, the remaining liquid continues to supercool until the second phase, NbSi2 is nucleated, which is commonly accompanied by rapid recalescence. The primary phase exibits a eutectoid-type decomposition. The observations are discussed with reference to the results of quantitative microstructural measurements, compositional and thermal analysis, and preliminary thermodynamic modeling of the phase diagram.

  18. Microstructure and mechanical properties of eutectic nickel alloy coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezborodov, V. P.; Saraev, Yu N.

    2016-04-01

    The paper discusses the peculiarities of a structure and a coating composition after reflow. It was established that the structure of coatings from nickel alloy is a solid solution based on nickel, the eutectic of γ-Ni+Ni3B composition and dispersed reinforcing particles. The content of alloying elements in the initial powder material determines the type of the coating structure and the formation of hypoeutectic or hypereutectic structures. The influence of formation conditions on the structure and physical-mechanical properties of the coatings is considered in this paper.

  19. Development of high temperature fasteners using directionally solidified eutectic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, F. D.

    1972-01-01

    The suitability of the eutectics for high temperature fasteners was investigated. Material properties were determined as a function of temperature, and included shear parallel and perpendicular to the growth direction and torsion parallel to it. Techniques for fabricating typical fastener shapes included grinding, creep forming, and direct casting. Both lamellar Ni3Al-Ni3Nb and fibrous (Co,Cr,Al)-(Cr,Co)7C3 alloys showed promise as candidate materials for high temperature fastener applications. A brief evaluation of the performance of the best fabricated fastener design was made.

  20. 3D Synchrotron Imaging of a Directionally Solidified Ternary Eutectic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennstedt, Anne; Helfen, Lukas; Steinmetz, Philipp; Nestler, Britta; Ratke, Lorenz

    2016-03-01

    For the first time, the microstructure of directionally solidified ternary eutectics is visualized in three dimensions, using a high-resolution technique of X-ray tomography at the ESRF. The microstructure characterization is conducted with a photon energy, allowing to clearly discriminate the three phases Ag2Al, Al2Cu, and α-Aluminum solid solution. The reconstructed images illustrate the three-dimensional arrangement of the phases. The Ag2Al lamellae perform splitting and merging as well as nucleation and disappearing events during directional solidification.

  1. Pattern Formation and Growth Kinetics in Eutectic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Jing

    2007-01-01

    Growth patterns during liquid/solid phase transformation are governed by simultaneous effects of heat and mass transfer mechanisms, creation of new interfaces, jump of the crystallization units from liquid to solid and their rearrangement in the solid matrix. To examine how the above processes influence the scale of microstructure, two eutectic systems are chosen for the study: a polymeric system polyethylene glycol-p-dibromobenzene (PEG-DBBZ) and a simple molecular system succinonitrile (SCN)-camphor. The scaling law for SCN-camphor system is found to follow the classical Jackson-Hunt model of circular rod eutectic, where the diffusion in the liquid and the interface energy are the main physics governing the two-phase pattern. In contrast, a significantly different scaling law is observed for the polymer system. The interface kinetics of PEG phase and its solute concentration dependence thus have been critically investigated for the first time by directional solidification technique. A model is then proposed that shows that the two-phase pattern in polymers is governed by the interface diffusion and the interface kinetics. In SCN-camphor system, a new branch of eutectic, elliptical shape rodl, is found in thin samples where only one layer of camphor rods is present. It is found that the orientation of the ellipse can change from the major axis in the direction of the thickness to the direction of the width as the velocity and/or the sample thickness is decreased. A theoretical model is developed that predicts the spacing and orientation of the elliptical rods in a thin sample. The single phase growth patterns of SCN-camphor system were also examined with emphasis on the three-dimensional single cell and cell/dendrite transition. For the 3D single cell in a capillary tube, the entire cell shape ahead of the eutectic front can be described by the Saffmann-Taylor finger only at extremely low growth rate. A 3D directional solidification model is developed to

  2. Charge Transport and Structural Dynamics in Deep Eutectic Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosby, Tyler; Holt, Adam; Terheggen, Logan; Griffin, Philip; Benson, Roberto; Sangoro, Joshua

    2015-03-01

    Charge transport and structural dynamics in a series of imidazole and carboxylic acid-based deep eutectic mixtures are investigated by broadband dielectric spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It is found that the extended hydrogen-bonded networks characteristic of imidazoles are broken down upon addition of carboxylic acids, resulting in an increase in dc conductivity of the mixtures. These results are discussed within the framework of recent theories of hydrogen bonding and proton transport.

  3. Creep in Directionally Solidified NiAl-Mo Eutectics

    SciTech Connect

    Dudova, Marie; Kucharova, Kveta; Bartak, Tomas; Bei, Hongbin; George, Easo P; Somsen, Ch.; Dlouhy, A.

    2011-01-01

    A directionally solidified NiAl-Mo eutectic and an NiAl intermetallic, having respective nominal compositions Ni-45.5Al-9Mo and Ni-45.2Al (at.%), were loaded in compression at 1073 and 1173 K. Formidable strengthening by regularly distributed Mo fibres (average diameter 600 nm, volume fraction 14%) was observed. The fibres can support compression stresses transferred from the plastically deforming matrix up to a critical stress of the order of 2.5 GPa, at which point they yield. Microstructural evidence is provided for the dislocation-mediated stress transfer from the NiAl to the Mo phase.

  4. Deep eutectic solvents in countercurrent and centrifugal partition chromatography.

    PubMed

    Roehrer, Simon; Bezold, Franziska; García, Eva Marra; Minceva, Mirjana

    2016-02-19

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were evaluated as solvents in centrifugal partition chromatography, a liquid-liquid chromatography separation technology. To this end, the partition coefficients of ten natural compounds of different hydrophobicity were determined in non-aqueous biphasic systems containing DES. The influence of the composition of DESs and the presence of water in the biphasic system on the partition coefficient were also examined. In addition, several process relevant physical properties of the biphasic system, such as the density and viscosity of the phases, were measured. A mixture of three to four hydrophobic compounds was successfully separated in a centrifugal partition extractor using a heptane/ethanol/DES biphasic system. PMID:26810802

  5. Localized removal of the Au-Si eutectic bonding layer for the selective release of microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradin, Henrik; Braun, Stefan; Stemme, Göran; van der Wijngaart, Wouter

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents and investigates a novel technique for the footprint and thickness-independent selective release of Au-Si eutectically bonded microstructures through the localized removal of their eutectic bond interface. The technique is based on the electrochemical removal of the gold in the eutectic layer and the selectivity is provided by patterning the eutectic layer and by proper electrical connection or isolation of the areas to be etched or removed, respectively. The gold removal results in a porous silicon layer, acting similar to standard etch holes in a subsequent sacrificial release etching. The paper presents the principle and the design requirements of the technique. First test devices were fabricated and the method successfully demonstrated. Furthermore, the paper investigates the release mechanism and the effects of different gold layouts on both the eutectic bonding and the release procedure.

  6. Ternary eutectic growth of nanostructured thermoelectric Ag-Pb-Te materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hsin-jay; Chen, Sinn-wen; Foo, Wei-jian; Jeffrey Snyder, G.

    2012-07-09

    Nanostructured Ag-Pb-Te thermoelectric materials were fabricated by unidirectionally solidifying the ternary Ag-Pb-Te eutectic and near-eutectic alloys using the Bridgeman method. Specially, the Bridgman-grown eutectic alloy exhibited a partially aligned lamellar microstructure, which consisted of Ag{sub 5}Te{sub 3} and Te phases, with additional 200-600 nm size particles of PbTe. The self-assembled interfaces altered the thermal and electronic transport properties in the bulk Ag-Pb-Te eutectic alloy. Presumably due to phonon scattering from the nanoscale microstructure, a low thermal conductivity ({kappa} = 0.3 W/mK) was achieved of the eutectic alloy, leading to a zT peak of 0.41 at 400 K.

  7. Preliminary study of the electrolysis of aluminum sulfide in molten salts

    SciTech Connect

    Minh, N.Q.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

    1983-02-01

    A preliminary laboratory-scale study of the electrolysis of aluminum sulfide in molten salts investigated the (1) solubility of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ in molten salts, (2) electrochemical behavior of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/, and (3) electrolysis of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ with the determination of current efficiency as a function of current density. The solubility measurements show that MgCl/sub 2/-NaCl-KCl eutectic electrolyte at 1023 K can dissolve up to 3.3 mol % sulfide. The molar ratio of sulfur to aluminum in the eutectic is about one, which suggests that some sulfur remains undissolved, probably in the form of MgS. The experimental data and thermodynamic calculations suggest that Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ dissolves in the eutectic to form AlS/sup +/ species in solution. Addition of AlCl/sub 3/ to the eutectic enhances the solubility of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/; the solubility increases with increasing AlCl/sub 3/ concentration. The electrode reaction mechanism for the electrolysis of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ was elucidated by using linear sweep voltammetry. The cathodic reduction of aluminum-ion-containing species to aluminum proceeds by a reversible, diffusion-controlled, three-electron reaction. The anodic reaction involves the two-electron discharge of sulfide-ion-containing species, followed by the fast dimerization of sulfur atoms to S/sub 2/. Electrolysis experiments show that Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ dissolved in molten MgCl/sub 2/-NaCl-KCl eutectic or in eutectic containing AlCl/sub 3/ can be electrolyzed to produce aluminum and sulfur. In the eutectic at 1023 K, the electrolysis can be conducted up to about 300 mA/cm/sup 2/ for the saturation solubility of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/. Although these preliminary results are promising, additional studies are needed to elucidate many critical operating parameters before the technical potential of the electrolysis can be accurately assessed. 20 figures, 18 tables.

  8. Electrolyte salts for power sources

    DOEpatents

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-11-28

    Electrolyte salts are disclosed for power sources comprising salts of phenyl polysulfonic acids and phenyl polyphosphonic acids. The preferred salts are alkali and alkaline earth metal salts, most preferably lithium salts. 2 figs.

  9. Electrochemical Synthesis of Magnesium Hexaboride by Molten Salt Technique.

    PubMed

    Angappan, S; Kalaiselvi, N; Sudha, R; Visuvasam, A

    2014-01-01

    The present work reports electrochemical synthesis of MgB6 from molten salts using the precursor consists of LiF-B2O3-MgCl2. An attempt has been made to synthesize metastable phase MgB6 crystal by electrolysis method. DTA/TGA studies were made to determine the eutectic point of the melt and it was found to be around 900°C. The electrolysis was performed at 900°C under argon atmosphere, at current density of 1.5 A/cm(2). The electrodeposited crystals were examined using XRD, SEM, and XPS. From the above studies, the electrochemical synthesis method for hypothetical MgB6 from chloro-oxy-fluoride molten salt system is provided. Mechanism for the formation of magnesium hexaboride is discussed. PMID:27350961

  10. Electrochemical Synthesis of Magnesium Hexaboride by Molten Salt Technique

    PubMed Central

    Angappan, S.; Kalaiselvi, N.; Sudha, R.; Visuvasam, A.

    2014-01-01

    The present work reports electrochemical synthesis of MgB6 from molten salts using the precursor consists of LiF–B2O3–MgCl2. An attempt has been made to synthesize metastable phase MgB6 crystal by electrolysis method. DTA/TGA studies were made to determine the eutectic point of the melt and it was found to be around 900°C. The electrolysis was performed at 900°C under argon atmosphere, at current density of 1.5 A/cm2. The electrodeposited crystals were examined using XRD, SEM, and XPS. From the above studies, the electrochemical synthesis method for hypothetical MgB6 from chloro-oxy-fluoride molten salt system is provided. Mechanism for the formation of magnesium hexaboride is discussed. PMID:27350961

  11. Eutectic Solder Bonding for Highly Manufacturable Microelectromechanical Systems Probe Card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bonghwan

    2011-06-01

    We developed eutectic solder bonding for the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) probe card. We tested various eutectic solder materials, such as Sn, AgSn, and AuSn, and investigated the bonding ability of Sn-based multi-element alloys and their resistance to chemical solutions. The Sn-based alloys were formed by sputtering, electroplating, and the use of solder paste. According to our experimental results, Sn-rich solders, such as Ag3.5Sn, Ag3.5Sn96Cu0.5, and Sn, were severely damaged by silicon wet etchant such as potassium hydroxide (KOH) and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). On the other hand Au80Sn20 was resistant to those chemicals. In order to verify the joint bondability of the solders, we used a cantilever probe beam, and bump which were made of nickel and nickel alloy. After flip-chip bonding of the cantilever beam and the bump with Au80Sn20 solder paste, we measured the contact force to verify the mechanical strength. We then re-inspected it with X-rays and found no voids in the joint.

  12. New insights into eutectic cream skin penetration enhancement.

    PubMed

    Fiala, Sarah; Roman, Marie; Inacio, Ricardo; Mashal, Sumaia; Brown, Marc B; Jones, Stuart A

    2016-02-29

    The manner in which the eutectic cream EMLA enhances the percutaneous penetration of lidocaine and prilocaine into human skin is still not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the modification of drug aggregation played a role in the way EMLA facilitates delivery. Light scattering analysis of lidocaine alone in water gave a critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of 572 μM and a mean aggregate size of 58.8 nm. The analysis of prilocaine in identical conditions gave a CAC of 1177 μM and a mean aggregate size of 105.7 ± 24.8 nm. When the two drugs were mixed at their eutectic 1:1 ratio in water the CAC reduced to 165.8 μM and the aggregate size was 43.82 nm. This lidocaine-prilocaine interaction in water was further modified upon addition of polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil, the surfactant in the EMLA aqueous phase, to produce aggregates of <20 nm. The physical characterisation data suggested that it was the EMLA cream's surfactant that modified the drug molecular interactions in the aqueous continuous phase and caused a 6 fold higher drug penetration through human epidermal tissue compared to the oil formulations tested in this study. PMID:26732522

  13. Synthesis of discrete aluminophosphate -CLO nanocrystals in a eutectic mixture.

    PubMed

    Tao, Shuo; Xu, Renshun; Li, Xiaolei; Li, Dawei; Ma, Huaijun; Wang, Donge; Xu, Yunpeng; Tian, Zhijian

    2015-08-01

    Extra-large-pore aluminophosphate -CLO (i.e., DNL-1) nanocrystals were synthesized in a eutectic mixture composed of diethylamine hydrochloride (DEAC) and ethylene glycol (EG) with 1-methylimidazole (1-MIm) as an additional amine using both conventional and microwave heating. The effects of the synthesis parameters, such as the amount of 1-MIm and the P/Al ratio, on the formation of DNL-1 nanocrystals were studied. The products were characterized using a variety of techniques. XRD, DLS, SEM and TEM results indicate that the as-synthesized DNL-1 nanocrystals have good crystallinity and narrow particle size distributions, and their average particle size was controlled in the 100-220nm range by simply adjusting the amount of 1-MIm. TG-DSC and N2 adsorption analyses reveal that the as-synthesized DNL-1 nanocrystals exhibit good thermal stability and the calcined samples possess high BET surface areas and large pore volumes. In addition, the cooperative structure-directing effects of 1-MIm and the eutectic mixture cation (DEA(+)) in the formation of DNL-1 nanocrystals were discussed. PMID:25897847

  14. Anthracene + Pyrene Solid Mixtures: Eutectic and Azeotropic Character

    PubMed Central

    Rice, James W.; Fu, Jinxia; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2010-01-01

    To better characterize the thermodynamic behavior of a binary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixture, thermochemical and vapor pressure experiments were used to examine the phase behavior of the anthracene (1) + pyrene (2) system. A solid-liquid phase diagram was mapped for the mixture. A eutectic point occurs at 404 K at x1 = 0.22. A model based on eutectic formation can be used to predict the enthalpy of fusion associated with the mixture. For mixtures that contain x1 < 0.90, the enthalpy of fusion is near that of pure pyrene. This and X-ray diffraction results indicate that mixtures of anthracene and pyrene have pyrene-like crystal structures and energetics until the composition nears that of pure anthracene. Solid-vapor equilibrium studies show that mixtures of anthracene and pyrene form solid azeotropes at x1 of 0.03 and 0.14. Additionally, mixtures at x1 = 0.99 sublime at the vapor pressure of pure anthracene, suggesting that anthracene behavior is not significantly influenced by x2 = 0.01 in the crystal structure. PMID:21116474

  15. Differential Microscopic Mobility of Components within a Deep Eutectic Solvent

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wagle, Durgesh V.; Baker, Gary A.; Mamontov, Eugene

    2015-07-13

    From macroscopic measurements of deep eutectic solvents such as glyceline (1:2 molar ratio of choline chloride to glycerol), the long-range translational diffusion of the larger cation (choline) is known to be slower compared to that of the smaller hydrogen bond donor (glycerol). However, when the diffusion dynamics are analyzed on the subnanometer length scale, we discover that the displacements associated with the localized diffusive motions are actually larger for choline. This counterintuitive diffusive behavior can be understood as follows. The localized diffusive motions confined in the transient cage of neighbor particles, which precede the cage-breaking long-range diffusion jumps, are moremore » spatially constrained for glycerol than for choline because of the stronger hydrogen bonds the former makes with chloride anions. The implications of differential localized mobility of the constituents should be especially important for applications where deep eutectic solvents are confined on the nanometer length scale and their long-range translational diffusion is strongly inhibited (e.g., within microporous media).« less

  16. Differential Microscopic Mobility of Components within a Deep Eutectic Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Wagle, Durgesh V.; Baker, Gary A.; Mamontov, Eugene

    2015-07-13

    From macroscopic measurements of deep eutectic solvents such as glyceline (1:2 molar ratio of choline chloride to glycerol), the long-range translational diffusion of the larger cation (choline) is known to be slower compared to that of the smaller hydrogen bond donor (glycerol). However, when the diffusion dynamics are analyzed on the subnanometer length scale, we discover that the displacements associated with the localized diffusive motions are actually larger for choline. This counterintuitive diffusive behavior can be understood as follows. The localized diffusive motions confined in the transient cage of neighbor particles, which precede the cage-breaking long-range diffusion jumps, are more spatially constrained for glycerol than for choline because of the stronger hydrogen bonds the former makes with chloride anions. The implications of differential localized mobility of the constituents should be especially important for applications where deep eutectic solvents are confined on the nanometer length scale and their long-range translational diffusion is strongly inhibited (e.g., within microporous media).

  17. Enhanced electrochemical detection of quercetin by Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Federico José Vicente; Espino, Magdalena; de Los Angeles Fernandez, María; Raba, Julio; Silva, María Fernanda

    2016-09-14

    New trends in analytical chemistry encourage the development of smart techniques and methods aligned with Green Chemistry. In this sense, Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents represents an excellent opportunity as a new generation of green solvents. In this work a new application for them has been proposed and demonstrated. These solvents were synthesized by combinations of inexpensive and natural components like, Glucose, Fructose, Citric acid and Lactic acid. The different natural solvents were easily prepared and added to buffer solution in different concentrations, allowing the enhancement of electrochemical detection of an important representative antioxidant like quercetin (QR) with improved signal up to 380%. QR is a ubiquitous flavonoid widespread in plants and food of plant origin. The proposed method using phosphate buffer with a eutectic mixture of Citric acid, Glucose and water in combination with carbon screen printed electrodes exhibited a good analytical performance. Detection and quantification limits were of 7.97 and 26.3 nM respectively; and repeatability with %RSDs of 1.41 and 7.49 for peak potential and intensity respectively. In addition, it has proved to be faster, greener and cheaper than other sensors and chromatographic methods available with the additional advantage of being completely portable. Furthermore, the obtained results demonstrated that the proposed method is able for the determination of QR in complex food samples. PMID:27566343

  18. A fully coupled 2D model of equiaxed eutectic solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Charbon, Ch.; LeSar, R.

    1995-12-31

    We propose a model of equiaxed eutectic solidification that couples the macroscopic level of heat diffusion with the microscopic level of nucleation and growth of the eutectic grains. The heat equation with the source term corresponding to the latent heat release due to solidification is calculated numerically by means of an implicit finite difference method. In the time stepping scheme, the evolution of solid fraction is deduced from a stochastic model of nucleation and growth which uses the local temperature (interpolated from the FDM mesh) to determine the local grain density and the local growth rate. The solid-liquid interface of each grain is tracked by using a subdivision of each grain perimeter in a large number of sectors. The state of each sector (i.e. whether it is still in contact with the liquid or already captured by an other grain) and the increase of radius of each grain during one time step allows one to compute the increase of solid fraction. As for deterministic models, the results of the model are the evolution of temperature and of solid fraction at any point of the sample. Moreover the model provides a complete picture of the microstructure, thus not limiting the microstructural information to the average grain density but allowing one to compute any stereological value of interest. We apply the model to the solidification of gray cast iron.

  19. Differential Microscopic Mobility of Components within a Deep Eutectic Solvent.

    PubMed

    Wagle, Durgesh V; Baker, Gary A; Mamontov, Eugene

    2015-08-01

    From macroscopic measurements of deep eutectic solvents such as glyceline (1:2 molar ratio of choline chloride to glycerol), the long-range translational diffusion of the larger cation (choline) is known to be slower compared to that of the smaller hydrogen bond donor (glycerol). However, when the diffusion dynamics are analyzed on the subnanometer length scale, we find that the displacements associated with the localized diffusive motions are actually larger for choline. This counterintuitive diffusive behavior can be understood as follows. The localized diffusive motions confined in the transient cage of neighbor particles, which precede the cage-breaking long-range diffusion jumps, are more spatially constrained for glycerol than for choline because of the stronger hydrogen bonds the former makes with chloride anions. The implications of such differential localized mobility of the constituents should be especially important for applications where deep eutectic solvents are confined on the nanometer length scale and their long-range translational diffusion is strongly inhibited (e.g., within microporous media). PMID:26267182

  20. An Overview of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transport Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene; Cetiner, Sacit M

    2010-09-01

    Heat transport is central to all thermal-based forms of electricity generation. The ever increasing demand for higher thermal efficiency necessitates power generation cycles transitioning to progressively higher temperatures. Similarly, the desire to provide direct thermal coupling between heat sources and higher temperature chemical processes provides the underlying incentive to move toward higher temperature heat transfer loops. As the system temperature rises, the available materials and technology choices become progressively more limited. Superficially, fluoride salts at {approx}700 C resemble water at room temperature being optically transparent and having similar heat capacity, roughly three times the viscosity, and about twice the density. Fluoride salts are a leading candidate heat-transport material at high temperatures. Fluoride salts have been extensively used in specialized industrial processes for decades, yet they have not entered widespread deployment for general heat transport purposes. This report does not provide an exhaustive screening of potential heat transfer media and other high temperature liquids such as alkali metal carbonate eutectics or chloride salts may have economic or technological advantages. A particular advantage of fluoride salts is that the technology for their use is relatively mature as they were extensively studied during the 1940s-1970s as part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's program to develop molten salt reactors (MSRs). However, the instrumentation, components, and practices for use of fluoride salts are not yet developed sufficiently for commercial implementation. This report provides an overview of the current understanding of the technologies involved in liquid salt heat transport (LSHT) along with providing references to the more detailed primary information resources. Much of the information presented here derives from the earlier MSR program. However, technology has evolved over the intervening years, and

  1. Highlights of the Salt Extraction Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasalizadeh, Aida; Seetharaman, Seshadri; Teng, Lidong; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Grinder, Olle; Izumi, Yukari; Barati, Mansoor

    2013-11-01

    This article presents the salient features of a new process for the recovery of metal values from secondary sources and waste materials such as slag and flue dusts. It is also feasible in extracting metals such as nickel and cobalt from ores that normally are difficult to enrich and process metallurgically. The salt extraction process is based on extraction of the metals from the raw materials by a molten salt bath consisting of NaCl, LiCl, and KCl corresponding to the eutectic composition with AlCl3 as the chlorinating agent. The process is operated in the temperature range 973 K (700°C) to 1173 K (900°C). The process was shown to be successful in extracting Cr and Fe from electric arc furnace (EAF) slag. Electrolytic copper could be produced from copper concentrate based on chalcopyrite in a single step. Conducting the process in oxygen-free atmosphere, sulfur could be captured in the elemental form. The method proved to be successful in extracting lead from spent cathode ray tubes. In order to prevent the loss of AlCl3 in the vapor form and also chlorine gas emission at the cathode during the electrolysis, liquid aluminum was used. The process was shown to be successful in extracting Nd and Dy from magnetic scrap. The method is a highly promising process route for the recovery of strategic metals. It also has the added advantage of being environmentally friendly.

  2. A Molten Salt Lithium-Oxygen Battery.

    PubMed

    Giordani, Vincent; Tozier, Dylan; Tan, Hongjin; Burke, Colin M; Gallant, Betar M; Uddin, Jasim; Greer, Julia R; McCloskey, Bryan D; Chase, Gregory V; Addison, Dan

    2016-03-01

    Despite the promise of extremely high theoretical capacity (2Li + O2 ↔ Li2O2, 1675 mAh per gram of oxygen), many challenges currently impede development of Li/O2 battery technology. Finding suitable electrode and electrolyte materials remains the most elusive challenge to date. A radical new approach is to replace volatile, unstable and air-intolerant organic electrolytes common to prior research in the field with alkali metal nitrate molten salt electrolytes and operate the battery above the liquidus temperature (>80 °C). Here we demonstrate an intermediate temperature Li/O2 battery using a lithium anode, a molten nitrate-based electrolyte (e.g., LiNO3-KNO3 eutectic) and a porous carbon O2 cathode with high energy efficiency (∼95%) and improved rate capability because the discharge product, lithium peroxide, is stable and moderately soluble in the molten salt electrolyte. The results, supported by essential state-of-the-art electrochemical and analytical techniques such as in situ pressure and gas analyses, scanning electron microscopy, rotating disk electrode voltammetry, demonstrate that Li2O2 electrochemically forms and decomposes upon cycling with discharge/charge overpotentials as low as 50 mV. We show that the cycle life of such batteries is limited only by carbon reactivity and by the uncontrolled precipitation of Li2O2, which eventually becomes electrically disconnected from the O2 electrode. PMID:26871485

  3. Rapidly solidified Ag-Cu eutectics: A comparative study using drop-tube and melt fluxing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Mullis, A. M.; Cochrane, R. F.

    2016-03-01

    A comparative study of rapid solidification of Ag-Cu eutectic alloy processed via melt fluxing and drop-tube techniques is presented. A computational model is used to estimate the cooling rate and undercooling of the free fall droplets as this cannot be determined directly. SEM micrographs show that both materials consist of lamellar and anomalous eutectic structures. However, below the critical undercooling the morphologies of each are different in respect of the distribution and volume of anomalous eutectic. The anomalous eutectic in flux- undercooled samples preferentially forms at cell boundaries around the lamellar eutectic in the cell body. In drop-tube processed samples it tends to distribute randomly inside the droplets and at much smaller volume fractions. That the formation of the anomalous eutectic can, at least in part, be suppressed in the drop-tube is strongly suggestive that the formation of anomalous eutectic occurs via remelting process, which is suppressed by rapid cooling during solidification.

  4. Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of the Solidification of Eutectic Al-Si Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, S.; Catalina, A. V.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The eutectic alloys have a wide spectrum of applications due to their good castability and physical and mechanical properties. The interphase spacing resulting during solidification is an important microstructural feature that significantly influences the mechanical behavior of the material. Thus, knowledge of the evolution of the interphase spacing during solidification is necessary in order to properly design the solidification process and optimize the material properties. While the growth of regular eutectics is rather well understood, the irregular eutectics such as Al-Si or Fe-graphite exhibit undercoolings and lamellar spacings much larger than those theoretically predicted. Despite of a considerable amount of experimental and theoretical work a clear understanding of the true mechanism underlying the spacing selection in irregular eutectics is yet to be achieved. A new experimental study of the solidification of the eutectic Al-Si alloy will be reported in this paper. The measured interface undercoolings and lamellar spacing will be compared to those found in the literature in order to get more general information regarding the growth mechanism of irregular eutectics. A modification of the present theory of the eutectic growth is also proposed. The results of the modified mathematical model, accounting for a non-isothermal solid/liquid interface, will be compared to the experimental measurements.

  5. X-Ray Videomicroscopy Studies of Eutectic Al-Si Solidification in Al-Si-Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathiesen, R. H.; Arnberg, L.; Li, Y.; Meier, V.; Schaffer, P. L.; Snigireva, I.; Snigirev, A.; Dahle, A. K.

    2011-01-01

    Al-Si eutectic growth has been studied in-situ for the first time using X-ray video microscopy during directional solidification (DS) in unmodified and Sr-modified Al-Si-Cu alloys. In the unmodified alloys, Si is found to grow predominantly with needle-like tip morphologies, leading a highly irregular progressing eutectic interface with subsequent nucleation and growth of Al from the Si surfaces. In the Sr-modified alloys, the eutectic reaction is strongly suppressed, occurring with low nucleation frequency at undercoolings in the range 10 K to 18 K. In order to transport Cu rejected at the eutectic front back into the melt, the modified eutectic colonies attain meso-scale interface perturbations that eventually evolve into equiaxed composite-structure cells. The eutectic front also attains short-range microscale interface perturbations consistent with the characteristics of a fibrous Si growth. Evidence was found in support of Si nucleation occurring on potent particles suspended in the melt. Yet, both with Sr-modified and unmodified alloys, Si precipitation alone was not sufficient to facilitate the eutectic reaction, which apparently required additional undercooling for Al to form at the Si-particle interfaces.

  6. Salt: a sacred substance.

    PubMed

    De Santo, N G; Bisaccia, C; De Santo, R M; De Santo, L S; Petrelli, L; Gallo, L; Cirillo, M; Capasso, G

    1997-11-01

    Salt is the last relic of the ocean where life was born. Its presence has influenced the whole gamut of history and its name is linked to hundred of geographical locations. Its importance for nutrition is supported by the discovery of Aeneolithic salt cellars. Salt cellars and pyramids of salt have been included in paintings and other works of art. In Japan where salt was and still is obtained from the sea, a salt culture has developed that can be traced in the rituals of everyday life, including meal preparation, sports, and Shinto ceremonies. PMID:9350697

  7. 3D optical metamaterials formed by holographic assembly and directed solidification of eutectics (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Paul V.

    2015-09-01

    Nanoscale integration of materials in three dimensions is critical for the realization of a number of highly functional optical metamaterials. Starting with structures enabled via eutectic solidification and holographic lithography, our team is applying unique template-based and post-synthetic materials transformations in conjunction with powerful computational design tools to develop the scientific underpinnings of, and to produce, 3D metamaterials derived from directionally solidified eutectics. Our approach involves close interactions among computational design, photonic theory, eutectic materials development, template fabrication, materials chemistry, and optical characterization.

  8. Microstructure and physical properties of bismuth-lead-tin ternary eutectic alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, M.; Moharram, B. M.; Farag, H.; El-Bediwi, A.; Abosheiasha, H. F.

    2006-07-01

    Using different experimental techniques, microstructure, electrical resistivity, attenuation coefficient, and mechanical and thermal properties of the quenched Bi-Pb-Sn ternary eutectic alloy have been investigated. From the X-ray analysis, Bi3Pb7 and Bi-Sn meta-stable phases are detected, in addition to rhombohedral bismuth and Sn body-centered tetragonal phases. This study also compared the physical properties of the Bi-Sn-Pb ternary eutectic alloys with the base binary Bi-Sn and Bi-Pb eutectic alloys.

  9. Electrodeposition of copper composites from deep eutectic solvents based on choline chloride.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Andrew P; El Ttaib, Khalid; Frisch, Gero; McKenzie, Katy J; Ryder, Karl S

    2009-06-01

    Here we describe for the first time the electrolytic deposition of copper and copper composites from a solution of the metal chloride salt in either urea-choline chloride, or ethylene glycol-choline chloride based eutectics. We show that the deposition kinetics and thermodynamics are quite unlike those in aqueous solution under comparable conditions and that the copper ion complexation is also different. The mechanism of copper nucleation is studied using chronoamperometry and it is shown that progressive nucleation leads to a bright nano-structured deposit. In contrast, instantaneous nucleation, at lower concentrations of copper ions, leads to a dull deposit. This work also pioneers the use of the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) to monitor both current efficiency and the inclusion of inert particulates into the copper coatings. This technique allows the first in situ quantification or particulate inclusion. It was found that the composition of composite material was strongly dependent on the amount of species suspended in solution. It was also shown that the majority of material was dragged onto the surface rather than settling on to it. The distribution of the composite material was found to be even throughout the coating. This technology is important because it facilitates deposition of bright copper coatings without co-ligands such as cyanide. The incorporation of micron-sized particulates into ionic liquids has resulted, in one case, in a decrease in viscosity. This observation is both unusual and surprising; we explain this here in terms of an increase in the free volume of the liquid and local solvent perturbation. PMID:19458829

  10. Solvatochromic probe behavior within choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents: effect of temperature and water.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ashish; Pandey, Siddharth

    2014-12-18

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have shown potential as promising environmentally friendly alternatives to conventional solvents. Many common and popular DESs are obtained by simply mixing a salt and a H-bond donor. Properties of such a DES depend on its constituents. Change in temperature and addition of water, a benign cosolvent, can change the physicochemical properties of DESs. The effect of changing temperature and addition of water on solvatochromic probe behavior within three DESs formed from choline chloride combined with 1,2-ethanediol, glycerol, and urea, respectively, in 1:2 mol ratios termed ethaline, glyceline, and reline is presented. Increase in temperature results in reduced H-bond donating acidity of the DESs. Dipolarity/polarizability and H-bond accepting basicity do not change with changing temperature of the DESs. The response of the fluorescence probe pyrene also indicates a decrease in the polarity of the DESs as temperature is increased. Addition of water to DES results in increased dipolarity/polarizability and a decrease in H-bond accepting basicity. Except for pyrene, solvatochromic probes exhibit responses close to those predicted from ideal-additive behavior with slight preferential solvation by DES within the aqueous mixtures. Pyrene response reveals significant preferential solvation by DES and/or the presence of solvent-solvent interactions, especially within aqueous mixtures of ethaline and glyceline, the DESs constituted of H-bond donors with hydroxyl functionalities. FTIR absorbance and Raman spectroscopic measurements of aqueous DES mixtures support the outcomes from solvatochromic probe responses. Aqueous mixtures of ethaline and glyceline possess relatively more interspecies H-bonds as compared to aqueous mixtures of reline, where interstitial accommodation of water within the reline molecular network appears to dominate. PMID:25418894

  11. Effects of ultrasound and temperature on copper electro reduction in Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES).

    PubMed

    Mandroyan, Audrey; Mourad-Mahmoud, Mahmoud; Doche, Marie-Laure; Hihn, Jean-Yves

    2014-11-01

    This paper concerns a preliminary study for a new copper recovery process from ionic solvent. The aim of this work is to study the reduction of copper in Deep Eutectic Solvent (choline chloride-ethylene glycol) and to compare the influence of temperature and the ultrasound effects on kinetic parameters. Solutions were prepared by dissolution of chloride copper salt CuCl2 (to obtain Copper in oxidation degree II) or CuCl (to obtain Copper in oxidation degree I) and by leaching metallic copper directly in DES. The spectrophotometry UV-visible analysis of the leached solution showed that the copper soluble form obtained is at oxidation degree I (Copper I). Both cyclic voltammetry and linear voltammetry were performed in the three solutions at three temperatures (25, 50 and 80°C) and under ultrasonic conditions (F=20kHz, PT=5.8W) to calculate the mass transfer diffusion coefficient kD and the standard rate coefficient k°. These parameters are used to determine that copper reduction is carried out via a mixed kinetic-diffusion control process. Temperature and ultrasound have the same effect on mass transfer for reduction of Cu(II)/Cu(I). On the other hand, temperature is more beneficial than ultrasound for mass transfer of Cu(I)/Cu. Standard rate constant improvement due to temperature increase is of the same order as that obtained with ultrasound. But, by combining higher temperature and ultrasound (F=20kHz, PT=5.6W at 50°C), reduction limiting current is increased by a factor of 10 compared to initial conditions (T=25°C, silent), because ultrasonic stirring is more efficient in lower viscosity fluid. These values can be considered as key-parameters in the design of copper recovery in global processes using ultrasound. PMID:24629581

  12. A green deep eutectic solvent-based aqueous two-phase system for protein extracting.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kaijia; Wang, Yuzhi; Huang, Yanhua; Li, Na; Wen, Qian

    2015-03-15

    As a new type of green solvent, deep eutectic solvent (DES) has been applied for the extraction of proteins with an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in this work. Four kinds of choline chloride (ChCl)-based DESs were synthesized to extract bovine serum albumin (BSA), and ChCl-glycerol was selected as the suitable extraction solvent. Single factor experiments have been done to investigate the effects of the extraction process, including the amount of DES, the concentration of salt, the mass of protein, the shaking time, the temperature and PH value. Experimental results show 98.16% of the BSA could be extracted into the DES-rich phase in a single-step extraction under the optimized conditions. A high extraction efficiency of 94.36% was achieved, while the conditions were applied to the extraction of trypsin (Try). Precision, repeatability and stability experiments were studied and the relative standard deviations (RSD) of the extraction efficiency were 0.4246% (n=3), 1.6057% (n=3) and 1.6132% (n=3), respectively. Conformation of BSA was not changed during the extraction process according to the investigation of UV-vis spectra, FT-IR spectra and CD spectra of BSA. The conductivity, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to explore the mechanism of the extraction. It turned out that the formation of DES-protein aggregates play a significant role in the separation process. All the results suggest that ChCl-based DES-ATPS are supposed to have the potential to provide new possibilities in the separation of proteins. PMID:25732422

  13. Salt tectonics on Venus

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.A.; Amsbury, D.

    1986-05-01

    The discovery of a surprisingly high deuterium/hydrogen ratio on Venus immediately led to the speculation that Venus may have once had a volume of surface water comparable to that of the terrestrial oceans. The authors propose that the evaporation of this putative ocean may have yielded residual salt deposits that formed various terrain features depicted in Venera 15 and 16 radar images. By analogy with models for the total evaporation of the terrestrial oceans, evaporite deposits on Venus should be at least tens to hundreds of meters thick. From photogeologic evidence and in-situ chemical analyses, it appears that the salt plains were later buried by lava flows. On Earth, salt diapirism leads to the formation of salt domes, anticlines, and elongated salt intrusions - features having dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 km. Due to the rapid erosion of salt by water, surface evaporite landforms are only common in dry regions such as the Zagros Mountains of Iran, where salt plugs and glaciers exist. Venus is far drier than Iran; extruded salt should be preserved, although the high surface temperature (470/sup 0/C) would probably stimulate rapid salt flow. Venus possesses a variety of circular landforms, tens to hundreds of kilometers wide, which could be either megasalt domes or salt intrusions colonizing impact craters. Additionally, arcurate bands seen in the Maxwell area of Venus could be salt intrusions formed in a region of tectonic stress. These large structures may not be salt features; nonetheless, salt features should exist on Venus.

  14. Fluoride salts and container materials for thermal energy storage applications in the temperature range 973 - 1400 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Whittenberger, J. Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Multicomponent fluoride salt mixtures were characterized for use as latent heat of fusion heat storage materials in advanced solar dynamic space power systems with operating temperatures in the range of 973 to 1400 K. The melting points and eutectic composition for many systems with published phase diagrams were verified, and several new eutectic compositions were identified. Additionally, the heats of fusion of several binary and ternary eutectics and congruently melting intermediate compounds were measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The extent of corrosion of various metals by fluoride melts was estimated from thermodynamic considerations, and equilibrium conditions inside a containment vessel were calculated as functions of the initial moisture content of the salt and free volume above the molten salt. Preliminary experimental data on the corrosion of commercial, high-temperature alloys in LiF-19.5CaF2 and NaF-27CaF2-36MgF2 melts are presented and compared to the thermodynamic predictions.

  15. Fluoride salts and container materials for thermal energy storage applications in the temperature range 973 to 1400 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Whittenberger, J. Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Multicomponent fluoride salt mixtures were characterized for use as latent heat of fusion heat storage materials in advanced solar dynamic space power systems with operating temperatures in the range of 973 to 1400 K. The melting points and eutectic composition for many systems with published phase diagrams were verified, and several new eutectic compositions were identified. Additionally, the heats of fusion of several binary and ternary eutectics and congruently melting intermediate compounds were measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The extent of corrosion of various metals by fluoride melts was estimated from thermodynamic considerations, and equilibrium conditions inside a containment vessel were calculated as functions of the initial moisture content of the salt and free volume above the molten salt. Preliminary experimental data on the corrosion of commercial, high-temperature alloys in LiF-19.5CaF2 and NaF-27CaF2-36MgF2 melts are presented and compared to the thermodynamic predictions.

  16. Electrochemistry and speciation of Au(+) in a deep eutectic solvent: growth and morphology of galvanic immersion coatings.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Andrew D; Forrest, Gregory C H; Frisch, Gero; Hartley, Jennifer M; Ryder, Karl S

    2015-11-11

    In this study we compare the electrochemical and structural properties of three gold salts AuCl, AuCN and KAu(CN)2 in a Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES) electrolyte (Ethaline 200) in order to elucidate factors affecting the galvanic deposition of gold coatings on nickel substrates. A chemically reversible diffusion limited response was observed for AuCl, whereas AuCN and KAu(CN)2 showed much more complicated, kinetically limited responses. Galvanic exchange reactions were performed on nickel substrates from DES solutions of the three gold salts; the AuCN gave a bright gold coating, the KAu(CN)2 solution give a visibly thin coating, whilst the coating from AuCl was dull, friable and poorly adhesive. This behaviour was rationalised by the differing speciation for each of these compounds, as evidenced by EXAFS methods. Analysis of EXAFS data shows that AuCl forms the chlorido-complex [AuCl2](-), AuCN forms a mixed [AuCl(CN)](-) species, whereas KAu(CN)2 maintains its [Au(CN)2](-) structure. The more labile Cl(-) enables easier reduction of Au when compared to the tightly bound cyanide species, hence leading to slower kinetics of deposition and differing electrochemical behaviour. We conclude that metal speciation in DESs is a function of the initial metal salt and that this has a strong influence on the mechanism and rate of growth, as well as on the morphology of the metal deposit obtained. In addition, these coatings are also extremely promising from a technological perspective as Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold (ENIG) finishes in the printed circuit board (PCB) industry, where the elimination of acid in gold plating formulation could potentially lead to more reliable coatings. Consequently, these results are both significant and timely. PMID:26523806

  17. Transmission laser bonding of low melting eutectic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, C.; Cromwell, K.; Hermsdorf, J.; Akin, M.; Wurz, M. C.; Kaierle, S.; Maier, H. J.; Overmeyer, L.

    2016-03-01

    Transparent polymers with low glass transition temperatures are flexible materials and can serve as an optical waveguide or as substrates for the layer structure in applications such as humidity or temperature sensors. The background of this publication is the development of a laser-based process to bond silicon chips, which serve as emitter or detector in an optical system, on a substrate, without exposing the substrate to thermo-mechanical stress. Using transmission laser bonding of low-melting eutectic alloys, the necessary energy can be coupled into the fusion zone precisely to reduce the process time. In this paper, Si-chips with 52In48Sn and 66In34Bi layers are investigated to bond on rigid substrates. Experimental results are presented, which illustrate the mechanical stability of these compounds.

  18. Eutectic bonding of contacts to silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliano, M. N.

    A process of eutectic wetting and bonding of contact preforms is described which can serve as weld points for interconnection of solar cells. The procedure obviates the need for welding too close to the shallow diffused junction of a solar cell and therefore minimizes mechanical or electrical degradation that is likely when welding directly to the cell metallization. In addition, control of welding parameters is simplified because the weld interconnection is now made to a relatively thick metal preform which is firmly attached to the solar cell. Gold clad kovar was used in this preliminary study. Bond strength was excellent and survived temperature cycling to liquid nitrogen temperature. Electrical performance degradation after alloying was erratic and varied from little or no degradation to severe shunting. The reasons for the loss in fill-factor which is frequently encountered with the present process and choice of materials are not clear at this time. Possible explanations and recommendations for future work are discussed.

  19. Oxygen concentration measurement in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic

    SciTech Connect

    Darling, T. W.; Li, N.

    2001-01-01

    Liquid lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi) eutectic (LBE) may see extensive use as a coolant fluid, and perhaps also as a spallation target, in next generation nuclear energy systems. While it is not as reactive as alkali metal liquids, it does present a long term corrosion problem with some materials, notably stainless steels. Mitigation of the corrosion problem may be achieved by producing and maintaining a protective oxide on exposed surfaces, through control of the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the LBE. We have developed an oxygen sensor based on available zirconia-based solid electrolytes used in the automotive industry, which represents a relatively inexpensive source of reproducible and reliable components. We will present the design considerations and characteristics of our sensor unit, and describe its use in the LBE test loop at Los Alamos for measurement and control of dissolved oxygen concentration.

  20. Evaporation of mercury impurity from liquid lead-bismuth eutectic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, A.; Danaci, S.; Gonzalez Prieto, B.; Van den Bosch, J.; Neuhausen, J.

    2014-05-01

    The equilibrium evaporation of mercury from dilute solutions in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) was studied in argon atmosphere. Mercury present as impurity in LBE was evaporated and detected by atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. A method which could accurately simulate the experimental data was developed. Coefficients of the Henry constant temperature correlation for mercury dissolved in LBE were determined. Experiments with samples from several different batches of LBE revealed that mercury at mole fractions between 10-6 and 10-12 and temperatures between 150 and 350 °C evaporated from liquid LBE close to ideal behavior. Evaporation of mercury from solid LBE on the other hand was unexpectedly high. These results are important for safety evaluations of LBE based spallation targets and accelerator driven systems.

  1. Double layer effects on metal nucleation in deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Andrew P; Barron, John C; Frisch, Gero; Gurman, Stephen; Ryder, Karl S; Fernando Silva, A

    2011-06-01

    The electrodeposition of zinc has been studied in two deep eutectic solvents. Unlike the metals studied to date in these liquids, zinc electrodeposition is not mass transport limited and the morphology of the deposit differs in the two liquids. This study shows that changing the concentration of solute affects the physical properties of the liquid to different extents although this is found to not effect the morphology of the metal deposited. EXAFS was used to show that the speciation of zinc was the same in both liquids. Double layer capacitance studies showed differences between the two liquids and these are proposed to be due to the adsorption of a species on the electrode which is thought to be chloride. The differences in zinc morphology is attributed to blocking of certain crystal faces leading to deposition of small platelet shaped crystals in the glycol based liquid. PMID:21519629

  2. Directional solidification of Pb-Sn eutectic with vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caram, Rubens; Banan, Mohsen; Wilcox, William R.

    1991-01-01

    Pb-Sn eutectic alloy was directionally solidified at 1.4 to 3.2 cm/h with forced convection induced by axial vibration of the growth ampoule with a frequency of 10 to 40 Hz and an amplitude of 0.5 to 1.0 mm. To determine the exact growth rate, an interface demarcation technique was applied. The lamellar spacing was increased 10 to 40 percent in ingots solidified with vibration, compared to those solidified without vibration. The number of grain boundaries was increased by vibration. The average intensity of convection in the melt under axial vibration of the ampoule was estimated by comparing the experimental results with a theoretical model.

  3. Deep eutectic solvent pretreatment and subsequent saccharification of corncob.

    PubMed

    Procentese, Alessandra; Johnson, Erin; Orr, Valerie; Garruto Campanile, Anna; Wood, Jeffery A; Marzocchella, Antonio; Rehmann, Lars

    2015-09-01

    Ionic liquid (ILs) pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass has attracted broad scientific interest, despite high costs, possible toxicity and energy intensive recycling. An alternative group of ionic solvents with similar physicochemical properties are deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Corncob residues were pretreated with three different DES systems: choline chloride and glycerol, choline chloride and imidazole, choline chloride and urea. The pretreated biomass was characterised in terms of lignin content, sugars concentration, enzymatic digestibility and crystallinity index. A reduction of lignin and hemicellulose content resulted in increased crystallinity of the pretreated biomass while the crystallinity of the cellulose fraction could be reduced, depending on DES system and operating conditions. The subsequent enzymatic saccharification was enhanced in terms of rate and extent. A total of 41 g fermentable sugars (27 g glucose and 14 g xylose) could be recovered from 100g corncob, representing 76% (86% and 63%) of the initially available carbohydrates. PMID:26005926

  4. Thermodynamic Properties of Eutectic Silumins Doped by Transition Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanibolotsky, D. S.; Stukalo, V. A.; Lisnyak, V. V.

    2004-05-01

    The thermodynamic properties of the liquid silumins (Al0.879Si0.121)1-xTrx, where Tr = Cu, Fe, Ni and Ti, have been measured, using the electromotive force method at 1040 K. It has been found that diluted solutions of Fe or Ni in eutectic silumins at Tr molar fractions of 0 < xFe ≤ 0.035 and 0 < xNi ≤ 0.027 are characterized by positive deviations from ideality for aluminium. However, the deviations become negative at increasing of the Tr concentration. However, molten silumins doped by Ti and Cu show negative deviations from Raoult's law for aluminium at the studied concentrations. Thermodynamic activity of Al in the silumins decreases in the sequence of Fe→Ni→Cu→Ti for the dopants.

  5. The electrodeposition of silver composites using deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Andrew P; El Ttaib, Khalid; Frisch, Gero; Ryder, Karl S; Weston, David

    2012-02-21

    Silver is an important metal for electronic connectors, however, it is extremely soft and wear can be a significant issue. This paper describes how improved wear resistant silver coatings can be obtained from the electrolytic deposition of silver from a solution of AgCl in an ethylene glycol/choline chloride based Deep Eutectic Solvent. An up to 10-fold decrease in the wear volume is observed by the incorporation of SiC or Al(2)O(3) particles. The work also addresses the fundamental aspect of speciation of silver chloride in solution using EXAFS to probe solution structure. The size but not the nature of the composite particles is seen to change the morphology and grain size of the silver deposit. Grain sizes are shown to be consistent with previous nucleation studies. The addition of LiF is found to significantly affect the deposit morphology and improve wear resistance. PMID:22249451

  6. Electroplated Fe films prepared from a deep eutectic solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanai, T.; Shiraishi, K.; Shimokawa, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Ohgai, T.; Nakano, M.; Suzuki, K.; Fukunaga, H.

    2014-05-01

    Electroplating of Fe films was carried out from choline chloride-ethylene glycol types of DES (Deep Eutectic Solvent). We investigated magnetic properties of the plated Fe films and evaluated the productivity for the electroplating process. Consequently, we found that surface morphology and current efficiency of the plated films were affected by the bath temperature. We obtained the Fe films with relatively smooth surface and high current efficiency in the bath temperature range from 70 to 110 °C. The deposition rate for our process depended on the current density, and we obtained high deposition rate value of approximately 120 μm/h. We also obtained high current efficiency values of approximately 90% in the wide range of plating time. These results indicate that the DES-based bath has industrial advantages for mass-producing Fe films. Therefore, we conclude that the DES-based bath is an attractive plating bath for Fe films.

  7. Traceable Co-C eutectic points for thermocouple calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Jahan, F.; Ballico, M. J.

    2013-09-11

    National Measurement Institute of Australia (NMIA) has developed a miniature crucible design suitable for measurement by both thermocouples and radiation thermometry, and has established an ensemble of five Co-C eutectic-point cells based on this design. The cells in this ensemble have been individually calibrated using both ITS-90 radiation thermometry and thermocouples calibrated on the ITS-90 by the NMIA mini-coil methodology. The assigned ITS-90 temperatures obtained using these different techniques are both repeatable and consistent, despite the use of different furnaces and measurement conditions. The results demonstrate that, if individually calibrated, such cells can be practically used as part of a national traceability scheme for thermocouple calibration, providing a useful intermediate calibration point between Cu and Pd.

  8. Self Assembled Structures by Directional Solidification of Eutectics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, Frederick W.; Sayir, Ali

    2004-01-01

    Interest in ordered porous structures has grown because of there unique properties such as photonic bandgaps, high backing packing density and high surface to volume ratio. Inspired by nature, biometric strategies using self assembled organic molecules dominate the development of hierarchical inorganic structures. Directional solidification of eutectics (DSE) also exhibit self assembly characteristics to form hierarchical metallic and inorganic structures. Crystallization of diphasic materials by DSE can produce two dimensional ordered structures consisting of rods or lamella. By selective removal of phases, DSE is capable to fabricate ordered pore arrays or ordered pin arrays. Criteria and limitations to fabricate hierarchical structures will be presented. Porous structures in silicon base alloys and ceramic systems will be reported.

  9. Alkaline extraction of polonium from liquid lead bismuth eutectic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinitz, S.; Neuhausen, J.; Schumann, D.

    2011-07-01

    The production of highly radiotoxic polonium isotopes poses serious safety concerns for the development of future nuclear systems cooled by lead bismuth eutectic (LBE). In this paper it is shown that polonium can be extracted efficiently from LBE using a mixture of alkaline metal hydroxides (NaOH + KOH) in a temperature range between 180 and 350 °C. The extraction ratio was analyzed for different temperatures, gas blankets and phase ratios. A strong dependence of the extraction performance on the redox properties of the cover gas was found. While hydrogen facilitates the removal of polonium, oxygen has a negative influence on the extraction. These findings open new possibilities to back up the safety of future LBE based nuclear facilities.

  10. Lead-bismuth eutectic as advanced reactor collant : operational experience

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, K. A.; Watts, V.; Li, N.

    2004-01-01

    Some proposed advanced reactor concepts would be cooled by lead or lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). An LBE test loop was designed and built at Los Alamos to develop the engineering and materials technology necessary to successfully implement LBE as a coolant (Fig. 1). Operational since December 2001, this test loop has been used to develop and demonstrate safe operation, oxygen concentration and metal corrosion control, instrumentation, thermal-hydraulic performance of heat exchangers and recuperators, and free convection and forced pumping. This paper discusses the technology development and lessons learned from the operation of this facility. A LBE test loop has been operational since December 2001. Using procedures, training, and engineering controls, this loop has operated without an accident. Continuous improvements in operation procedures and instrumentation over these years have resulted in a facility of high reliability, providing the groundwork for the use of LBE as a reactor coolant for temperatures up to 550 C.

  11. Eutectic superalloys by edge-defined, film-fed growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of producing directionally solidified eutectic alloy composites by edge-defined, film-fed growth (EFG) was carried out. The three eutectic alloys which were investigated were gamma + delta, gamma/gamma prime + delta, and a Co-base TaC alloy containing Cr and Ni. Investigations into the compatibility and wettability of these metals with various carbides, borides, nitrides, and oxides disclosed that compounds with the largest (negative) heats of formation were most stable but poorest wetting. Nitrides and carbides had suitable stability and low contact angles but capillary rise was observed only with carbides. Oxides would not give capillary rise but would probably fulfill the other wetting requirements of EFG. Tantalum carbide was selected for most of the experimental portion of the program based on its exhibiting spontaneous capillary rise and satisfactory slow rate of degradation in the liquid metals. Samples of all three alloys were grown by EFG with the major experimental effort restricted to gamma + delta and gamma/gamma prime + delta alloys. In the standard, uncooled EFG apparatus, the thermal gradient was inferred from the growth speed and was 150 to 200 C/cm. This value may be compared to typical gradients of less than 100 C/cm normally achieved in a standard Bridgman-type apparatus. When a stream of helium was directed against the side of the bar during growth, the gradient was found to improve to about 250 C/cm. In comparison, a theoretical gradient of 700 C/cm should be possible under ideal conditions, without the use of chills. Methods for optimizing the gradient in EFG are discussed, and should allow attainment of close to the theoretical for a particular configuration.

  12. What Are Bath Salts?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are bath salts becoming more popular? Marsha Lopez Hi, Lauren. Nope! Actually quite the opposite! This family ... and how dangerous for your body? Michelle Rankin Hi ParkerPanella - Bath salts are drugs known as synthetic ...

  13. Low-salt diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... seasonings. Pepper, garlic, herbs, and lemon are good choices. Avoid packaged spice blends. They often contain salt. Use garlic and onion powder, not garlic and onion salt. Do not eat foods with monosodium glutamate (MSG). When you go out ...

  14. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    A molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication.

  15. Utah: Salt Lake Region

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region     View Larger Image Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the ...

  16. Retrospective salt tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.P.A.

    1996-12-31

    The conceptual breakthroughs in understanding salt tectonics can be recognized by reviewing the history of salt tectonics, which divides naturally into three parts: the pioneering era, the fluid era, and the brittle era. The pioneering era (1856-1933) featured the search for a general hypothesis of salt diapirism, initially dominated by bizarre, erroneous notions of igneous activity, residual islands, in situ crystallization, osmotic pressures, and expansive crystallization. Gradually data from oil exploration constrained speculation. The effects of buoyancy versus orogeny were debated, contact relations were characterized, salt glaciers were discovered, and the concepts of downbuilding and differential loading were proposed as diapiric mechanisms. The fluid era (1933-{approximately}1989) was dominated by the view that salt tectonics resulted from Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in which a dense fluid overburden having negligible yield strength sinks into a less dense fluid salt layer, displacing it upward. Density contrasts, viscosity contrasts, and dominant wavelengths were emphasized, whereas strength and faulting of the overburden were ignored. During this era, palinspastic reconstructions were attempted; salt upwelling below thin overburdens was recognized; internal structures of mined diapirs were discovered; peripheral sinks, turtle structures, and diapir families were comprehended; flow laws for dry salt were formulated; and contractional belts on divergent margins and allochthonous salt sheets were recognized. The 1970s revealed the basic driving force of salt allochthons, intrasalt minibasins, finite strains in diapirs, the possibility of thermal convection in salt, direct measurement of salt glacial flow stimulated by rainfall, and the internal structure of convecting evaporites and salt glaciers. The 1980`s revealed salt rollers, subtle traps, flow laws for damp salt, salt canopies, and mushroom diapirs.

  17. Molten salt technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lovering, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    In this volume, the historical background, scope, problems, economics, and future applications of molten salt technologies are discussed. Topics presented include molten salts in primary production of aluminum, general principles and handling and safety of the alkali metals, first-row transition metals, group VIII metals and B-group elements, solution electrochemistry, transport phenomena, corrosion in different molten salts, cells with molten salt electrolytes and reactants, fuel cell design, hydrocracking and liquefaction, heat storage in phase change materials, and nuclear technologies.

  18. Salt weathering on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, M. C.

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 9 photographs of Mars indicate that significant erosion has occurred on that planet. Although several possible erosion mechanisms have been proposed, most terrestrial weathering mechanisms cannot function in the present Martian environment. Salt weathering, believed to be active in the Antarctic dry valleys, is especially suited to Mars, given the presence of salts and small amounts of water. Volcanic salts are probably available, and the association of salts and water is likely from both thermodynamic and geologic considerations.

  19. The influence of ternary alloying elements on the Al-Si eutectic microstructure and the Si morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darlapudi, A.; McDonald, S. D.; Terzi, S.; Prasad, A.; Felberbaum, M.; StJohn, D. H.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the ternary alloying elements Cu, Mg and Fe on the Al-Si eutectic microstructure is investigated using a commercial purity Al-10 wt%Si alloy in unmodified and Sr-modified conditions. A change in the Al-Si eutectic microstructure was associated with a change in the nucleation density of the eutectic grains caused by the addition of ternary alloying elements. When the ternary alloying element addition resulted in an increase in the eutectic nucleation frequency, a fibrous to flake-like transition was observed within the eutectic grain. When the ternary alloying element addition decreased the eutectic nucleation frequency significantly, a change in the eutectic morphology from flake-like to a mixture of flake-like and fibrous morphologies was observed. The mechanism of Al-Si eutectic modification is discussed. The growth velocity of the eutectic grain - liquid interface and the constitutional driving force available for growth are proposed as important parameters that influence the degree of eutectic modification in Al-Si alloys.

  20. Potentiometric Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Multivalent Ion Concentrations in Molten Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Peter A. Zink; Jan-Fong Jue; Brenda E. Serrano; Guy L. Fredrickson; Ben F. Cowan; Steven D. Herrmann; Shelly X. Li

    2010-07-01

    Electrorefining of spent metallic nuclear fuel in high temperature molten salt systems is a core technology in pyroprocessing, which in turn plays a critical role in the development of advanced fuel cycle technologies. In electrorefining, spent nuclear fuel is treated electrochemically in order to effect separations between uranium, noble metals, and active metals, which include the transuranics. The accumulation of active metals in a lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) eutectic molten salt electrolyte occurs at the expense of the UCl3-oxidant concentration in the electrolyte, which must be periodically replenished. Our interests lie with the accumulation of active metals in the molten salt electrolyte. The real-time monitoring of actinide concentrations in the molten salt electrolyte is highly desirable for controlling electrochemical operations and assuring materials control and accountancy. However, real-time monitoring is not possible with current methods for sampling and chemical analysis. A new solid-state electrochemical sensor is being developed for real-time monitoring of actinide ion concentrations in a molten salt electrorefiner. The ultimate function of the sensor is to monitor plutonium concentrations during electrorefining operations, but in this work gadolinium was employed as a surrogate material for plutonium. In a parametric study, polycrystalline sodium beta double-prime alumina (Na-ß?-alumina) discs and tubes were subject to vapor-phase exchange with gadolinium ions (Gd3+) using a gadolinium chloride salt (GdCl3) as a precursor to produce gadolinium beta double-prime alumina (Gd-ß?-alumina) samples. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and microstructural analysis were performed on the ion-exchanged discs to determine the relationship between ion exchange and Gd3+ ion conductivity. The ion-exchanged tubes were configured as potentiometric sensors in order to monitor real-time Gd3+ ion concentrations in mixtures of gadolinium

  1. Microstructure of directionally solidified Ti-Fe eutectic alloy with low interstitial and high mechanical strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contieri, R. J.; Lopes, E. S. N.; Taquire de La Cruz, M.; Costa, A. M.; Afonso, C. R. M.; Caram, R.

    2011-10-01

    The performance of Ti alloys can be considerably enhanced by combining Ti and other elements, causing an eutectic transformation and thereby producing composites in situ from the liquid phase. This paper reports on the processing and characterization of a directionally solidified Ti-Fe eutectic alloy. Directional solidification at different growth rates was carried out in a setup that employs a water-cooled copper crucible combined with a voltaic electric arc moving through the sample. The results obtained show that a regular fiber-like eutectic structure was produced and the interphase spacing was found to be a function of the growth rate. Mechanical properties were measured using compression, microindentation and nanoindentation tests to determine the Vickers hardness, compressive strength and elastic modulus. Directionally solidified eutectic samples presented high values of compressive strength in the range of 1844-3000 MPa and ductility between 21.6 and 25.2%.

  2. Effect of boron on the microstructure of near-eutectic Al-Si alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Yuying . E-mail: wyy532001@163.com; Liu Xiangfa; Bian Xiufang

    2007-02-15

    The effect of boron on the microstructure of a near-eutectic Al-Si alloy (ZL109) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron beam microprobe analysis (EPMA). It was found that {alpha}-Al dendrites and eutectic clusters were significantly refined by the addition of boron. Another interesting discovery is that the near-eutectic alloy exhibited hypereutectic structure characteristics when the level of boron added exceeds 0.3%, i.e., primary Si is precipitated in the eutectic microstructure. A new type of nucleation substrate for the primary Si is found, Al {sub x}Ca {sub m}B {sub n}Si. This appears to be the main reason for the precipitation of primary Si.

  3. Pre-eutectic densification in MgF/sub 2/-CaF/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, S C; De Jonghe, L C

    1982-04-01

    Increased densification rates were found as much as 200/sup 0/C below the eutectic temperature (980/sup 0/C) for MgF/sub 2/ containing small amounts of CaF/sub 2/. Constant heating rate and constant temperature sintering data, as well as microstructural developments indicated that solid state grain-boundary transport rates had been enhanced by the eutectic forming additive. The effect saturated at about 1 wt % CaF/sub 2/. The results suggest that densification of ceramic powders could be favorably affected without a substantial increase in the grain growth rate, by the addition of small amounts of eutectic forming additives, and sintering below the eutectic temperature. 6 figures.

  4. Manufacturing of MC Eutectics and Reproducibility of Pt-C Eutectic Fixed Points using a Thermogauge Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Lowe, D.; Machin, G.

    2009-02-01

    National Institute of Metrology (NIM) (China) and National Physical Laboratory (NPL) (UK) have collaborated to construct metal-carbon eutectic alloy fixed points at NPL. A modified NPL Thermogauge furnace was vertically used to construct fixed points of Pd-C, Pt-C, Ru-C, and Ir-C. Breakage of Pd-C and Ru-C cells was traced to changes in furnace temperature gradients resulting from changing from horizontal to vertical operation. Subsequently, it was found that positioning the cell being filled so that the metal melting always starts from the top and freezing from the bottom to solve this problem. The constructed Pt-C cell was then compared to a Pt-C fixed point previously constructed by NIM. The results indicate that the two cells made independently agreed to be better than 40 mK.

  5. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  6. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  7. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  8. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  9. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salt and iodized salt. 100.155 Section 100.155... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 100.155 Salt and iodized salt. (a) For the purposes of this section, the term iodized salt or iodized table salt is...

  10. Eutectic structures in friction spot welding joint of aluminum alloy to copper

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Junjun Suhuddin, Uceu F. H.; Cardillo, Maria E. B.; Santos, Jorge F. dos

    2014-05-12

    A dissimilar joint of AA5083 Al alloy and copper was produced by friction spot welding. The Al-MgCuAl{sub 2} eutectic in both coupled and divorced manners were found in the weld. At a relatively high temperature, mass transport of Cu due to plastic deformation, material flow, and atomic diffusion, combined with the alloy system of AA5083 are responsible for the ternary eutectic melting.

  11. Template-Directed Directionally Solidified 3D Mesostructured AgCl-KCl Eutectic Photonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinwoo; Aagesen, Larry K; Choi, Jun Hee; Choi, Jaewon; Kim, Ha Seong; Liu, Jinyun; Cho, Chae-Ryong; Kang, Jin Gu; Ramazani, Ali; Thornton, Katsuyo; Braun, Paul V

    2015-08-19

    3D mesostructured AgCl-KCl photonic crystals emerge from colloidal templating of eutectic solidification. Solvent removal of the KCl phase results in a mesostructured AgCl inverse opal. The 3D-template-induced confinement leads to the emergence of a complex microstructure. The 3D mesostructured eutectic photonic crystals have a large stop band ranging from the near-infrared to the visible tuned by the processing. PMID:26177830

  12. Eutectic structures in friction spot welding joint of aluminum alloy to copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Junjun; Suhuddin, Uceu F. H.; Cardillo, Maria E. B.; dos Santos, Jorge F.

    2014-05-01

    A dissimilar joint of AA5083 Al alloy and copper was produced by friction spot welding. The Al-MgCuAl2 eutectic in both coupled and divorced manners were found in the weld. At a relatively high temperature, mass transport of Cu due to plastic deformation, material flow, and atomic diffusion, combined with the alloy system of AA5083 are responsible for the ternary eutectic melting.

  13. Accelerator-driven subcritical fission in molten salt core: Closing the nuclear fuel cycle for green nuclear energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, Peter; Assadi, Saeed; Badgley, Karie; Baker, William; Comeaux, Justin; Gerity, James; Kellams, Joshua; McInturff, Al; Pogue, Nathaniel; Phongikaroon, Supathorn; Sattarov, Akhdiyor; Simpson, Michael; Sooby, Elizabeth; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    A technology for accelerator-driven subcritical fission in a molten salt core (ADSMS) is being developed as a basis for the destruction of the transuranics in used nuclear fuel. The molten salt fuel is a eutectic mixture of NaCl and the chlorides of the transuranics and fission products. The core is driven by proton beams from a strong-focusing cyclotron stack. This approach uniquely provides an intrinsically safe means to drive a core fueled only with transuranics, thereby eliminating competing breeding terms.

  14. Accelerator-driven subcritical fission in molten salt core: Closing the nuclear fuel cycle for green nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, Peter; Assadi, Saeed; Badgley, Karie; Baker, William; Comeaux, Justin; Gerity, James; Kellams, Joshua; McInturff, Al; Pogue, Nathaniel; Sattarov, Akhdiyor; Sooby, Elizabeth; Tsvetkov, Pavel; Phongikaroon, Supathorn; Simpson, Michael

    2013-04-19

    A technology for accelerator-driven subcritical fission in a molten salt core (ADSMS) is being developed as a basis for the destruction of the transuranics in used nuclear fuel. The molten salt fuel is a eutectic mixture of NaCl and the chlorides of the transuranics and fission products. The core is driven by proton beams from a strong-focusing cyclotron stack. This approach uniquely provides an intrinsically safe means to drive a core fueled only with transuranics, thereby eliminating competing breeding terms.

  15. The formation mechanism of eutectic microstructures in NiAl-Cr composites.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bin; Cogswell, Daniel A; Xu, Guanglong; Milenkovic, Srdjan; Cui, Yuwen

    2016-07-20

    NiAl-based eutectic alloys, consisting of an ordered bcc matrix (B2) and disordered bcc fibers (A2), have been a subject of intensive efforts aimed at tailoring the properties of many of the currently used nickel-based superalloys. A thermodynamic phase field model was developed on a thermodynamic foundation and fully integrated with a thermo-kinetic database of the Ni-Al-Cr ternary system to elucidate the resulting peculiar eutectic microstructure. Invoking a variation of the liquid/solid interfacial thickness with temperature, we simulated the characteristic sunflower-like eutectic microstructures in the NiAl-Cr composites, consistent with experimental observations. The mechanism that governs the formation of the peculiar eutectic morphology was envisioned from the modeled evolutions associated with six sequential steps. Our calculations show that the conditional spinodal decomposition occurring in sequence could further trim and revise the microstructure of the eutectics by generating fine-domain structures, thereby providing an additional method to explore the novel NiAl-based eutectic composites with tunable properties at elevated temperatures. PMID:27385194

  16. Spontaneous Formation of Eutectic Crystal Structures in Binary and Ternary Charged Colloids due to Depletion Attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyotama, Akiko; Okuzono, Tohru; Yamanaka, Junpei

    2016-03-01

    Crystallization of colloids has extensively been studied for past few decades as models to study phase transition in general. Recently, complex crystal structures in multi-component colloids, including alloy and eutectic structures, have attracted considerable attention. However, the fabrication of 2D area-filling colloidal eutectics has not been reported till date. Here, we report formation of eutectic structures in binary and ternary aqueous colloids due to depletion attraction. We used charged particles + linear polyelectrolyte systems, in which the interparticle interaction could be represented as a sum of the electrostatic, depletion, and van der Waals forces. The interaction was tunable at a lengthscale accessible to direct observation by optical microscopy. The eutectic structures were formed because of interplay of crystallization of constituent components and accompanying fractionation. An observed binary phase diagram, defined by a mixing ratio and inverse area fraction of the particles, was analogous to that for atomic and molecular eutectic systems. This new method also allows the adjustment of both the number and wavelengths of Bragg diffraction peaks. Furthermore, these eutectic structures could be immobilized in polymer gel to produce self-standing materials. The present findings will be useful in the design of the optical properties of colloidal crystals.

  17. Thermodynamic description and unidirectional solidification of eutectic organic alloys: I. Succinonitrile-(D)camphor system

    SciTech Connect

    Witusiewicz, V.T.; Sturz, L.; Hecht, U.; Rex, S

    2004-09-06

    The temperature and enthalpy of transformations of organic alloys from the binary system succinonitrile-(D)camphor were measured by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) within the entire composition range. The analytical description of the Gibbs energies of pure succinonitrile (SCN) and pure (D)camphor (DC) were derived utilizing the data on temperature and enthalpy of transformations, and temperature dependencies of heat capacity available in the literature. The phase diagram for the binary SCN-DC system was assessed via the CALPHAD approach using Thermo-Calc by simultaneously optimizing the thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data available in the literature and measured in the present work. A good agreement between the experimental and calculated data for the phase diagram as well as for the thermochemical properties was achieved. Experiments and calculations show that the binary system SCN-DC has an eutectic reaction with the eutectic point at 311.5 K and 13.9 mol% DC. The enthalpy of mixing derived in the optimisation proves weak attractive interaction between dissimilar molecules. Unidirectional solidification of the eutectic alloy was performed in order to verify the nature of the eutectic: we find that eutectic growth occurs with both solid phases being nonfacetted and with a rod-like eutectic structure consisting of 23 vol% (DC) and 77 vol% (SCN). Due to the optical activity of DC its distribution in the solid sample is well detectible in polarised light.

  18. The roles of Eu during the growth of eutectic Si in Al-Si alloys

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik; Wiessner, Manfred; Romaner, Lorenz; Scheiber, Daniel; Sartory, Bernhard; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the growth of eutectic Si and thereby modifying the eutectic Si from flake-like to fibrous is a key factor in improving the properties of Al-Si alloys. To date, it is generally accepted that the impurity-induced twinning (IIT) mechanism and the twin plane re-entrant edge (TPRE) mechanism as well as poisoning of the TPRE mechanism are valid under certain conditions. However, IIT, TPRE or poisoning of the TPRE mechanism cannot be used to interpret all observations. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental and theoretical investigation on the roles of Eu during the growth of eutectic Si in Al-Si alloys. Both experimental and theoretical investigations reveal three different roles: (i) the adsorption at the intersection of Si facets, inducing IIT mechanism, (ii) the adsorption at the twin plane re-entrant edge, inducing TPRE mechanism or poisoning of the TPRE mechanism, and (iii) the segregation ahead of the growing Si twins, inducing a solute entrainment within eutectic Si. This investigation not only demonstrates a direct experimental support to the well-accepted poisoning of the TPRE and IIT mechanisms, but also provides a full picture about the roles of Eu atoms during the growth of eutectic Si, including the solute entrainment within eutectic Si. PMID:26328541

  19. The roles of Eu during the growth of eutectic Si in Al-Si alloys.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik; Wiessner, Manfred; Romaner, Lorenz; Scheiber, Daniel; Sartory, Bernhard; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the growth of eutectic Si and thereby modifying the eutectic Si from flake-like to fibrous is a key factor in improving the properties of Al-Si alloys. To date, it is generally accepted that the impurity-induced twinning (IIT) mechanism and the twin plane re-entrant edge (TPRE) mechanism as well as poisoning of the TPRE mechanism are valid under certain conditions. However, IIT, TPRE or poisoning of the TPRE mechanism cannot be used to interpret all observations. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental and theoretical investigation on the roles of Eu during the growth of eutectic Si in Al-Si alloys. Both experimental and theoretical investigations reveal three different roles: (i) the adsorption at the intersection of Si facets, inducing IIT mechanism, (ii) the adsorption at the twin plane re-entrant edge, inducing TPRE mechanism or poisoning of the TPRE mechanism, and (iii) the segregation ahead of the growing Si twins, inducing a solute entrainment within eutectic Si. This investigation not only demonstrates a direct experimental support to the well-accepted poisoning of the TPRE and IIT mechanisms, but also provides a full picture about the roles of Eu atoms during the growth of eutectic Si, including the solute entrainment within eutectic Si. PMID:26328541

  20. Eutectic Bonding Utilizing Radio Frequency Induction Heating for Fabricating Vertical Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunmi; Kim, Areum; Cui, Yinhua; Chae, Su Jin; Nam, Minwoo; Kwon, Soon Hyeong; Cha, Yong Won; Pyo, Sung Gyu

    2015-11-01

    Vertical light-emitting diodes (VLEDs) have attracted considerable attention owing to their improved thermal, electrical, and optical performance compared to conventional LEDs. To fabricate VLEDs, a bonding technique is required following laser lift-off. Eutectic bonding techniques are preferred owing to their low-heat mechanism and production safety. However, the conventional resistance heating method for eutectic bonding process, the extremely longer process time becomes a problem such as cost rise, wapage. In this study, the thermal efficiency was measured according to the diameter of the coil in order to optimize the eutectic bonding of the RF induction heating method in order to solve this problem. We confirmed that successful eutectic bonding is possible with less than 30 min processing using Sn-Glass. In addition, Au (20 wt%)/Sn (80 wt%) alloy, a mainly used the eutectic bonding interlayer material for VLEDs, can also be used as an interlayer to provide void-free eutectic bonding in less than 30 min. PMID:26726547

  1. The roles of Eu during the growth of eutectic Si in Al-Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik; Wiessner, Manfred; Romaner, Lorenz; Scheiber, Daniel; Sartory, Bernhard; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Controlling the growth of eutectic Si and thereby modifying the eutectic Si from flake-like to fibrous is a key factor in improving the properties of Al-Si alloys. To date, it is generally accepted that the impurity-induced twinning (IIT) mechanism and the twin plane re-entrant edge (TPRE) mechanism as well as poisoning of the TPRE mechanism are valid under certain conditions. However, IIT, TPRE or poisoning of the TPRE mechanism cannot be used to interpret all observations. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental and theoretical investigation on the roles of Eu during the growth of eutectic Si in Al-Si alloys. Both experimental and theoretical investigations reveal three different roles: (i) the adsorption at the intersection of Si facets, inducing IIT mechanism, (ii) the adsorption at the twin plane re-entrant edge, inducing TPRE mechanism or poisoning of the TPRE mechanism, and (iii) the segregation ahead of the growing Si twins, inducing a solute entrainment within eutectic Si. This investigation not only demonstrates a direct experimental support to the well-accepted poisoning of the TPRE and IIT mechanisms, but also provides a full picture about the roles of Eu atoms during the growth of eutectic Si, including the solute entrainment within eutectic Si.

  2. Spontaneous Formation of Eutectic Crystal Structures in Binary and Ternary Charged Colloids due to Depletion Attraction.

    PubMed

    Toyotama, Akiko; Okuzono, Tohru; Yamanaka, Junpei

    2016-01-01

    Crystallization of colloids has extensively been studied for past few decades as models to study phase transition in general. Recently, complex crystal structures in multi-component colloids, including alloy and eutectic structures, have attracted considerable attention. However, the fabrication of 2D area-filling colloidal eutectics has not been reported till date. Here, we report formation of eutectic structures in binary and ternary aqueous colloids due to depletion attraction. We used charged particles + linear polyelectrolyte systems, in which the interparticle interaction could be represented as a sum of the electrostatic, depletion, and van der Waals forces. The interaction was tunable at a lengthscale accessible to direct observation by optical microscopy. The eutectic structures were formed because of interplay of crystallization of constituent components and accompanying fractionation. An observed binary phase diagram, defined by a mixing ratio and inverse area fraction of the particles, was analogous to that for atomic and molecular eutectic systems. This new method also allows the adjustment of both the number and wavelengths of Bragg diffraction peaks. Furthermore, these eutectic structures could be immobilized in polymer gel to produce self-standing materials. The present findings will be useful in the design of the optical properties of colloidal crystals. PMID:26984298

  3. Ternary eutectic growth of Ag-Cu-Sb alloy within ultrasonic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Wei; Hong, Zhenyu; Wei, Bingbo

    2007-08-01

    The liquid to solid transformation of ternary Ag42.4Cu21.6Sb36 eutectic alloy was accomplished in an ultrasonic field with a frequency of 35 kHz, and the growth mechanism of this ternary eutectic was examined. Theoretical calculations predict that the sound intensity in the liquid phase at the solidification interface increases gradually as the interface moves up from the sample bottom to its top. The growth mode of ( ɛ + θ + Sb) ternary eutectic exhibits a transition of “divorced eutectic—mixture of anomalous and regular structures—regular eutectic” along the sample axis due to the inhomogeneity of sound field distribution. In the top zone with the highest sound intensity, the cavitation effect promotes the three eutectic phases to nucleate independently, while the acoustic streaming efficiently suppresses the coupled growth of eutectic phases. In the meantime, the ultrasonic field accelerates the solute transportation at the solid-liquid interface, which reduces the solute solubility of eutectic phases.

  4. Formation mechanism of primary phases and eutectic structures within undercooled Pb-Sb-Sn ternary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weili; Dai, Fuping; Wei, Bingbo

    2007-08-01

    The solidification characteristics of three types of Pb-Sb-Sn ternary alloys with different primary phases were studied under substantial undercooling conditions. The experimental results show that primary (Pb) and SbSn phases grow in the dendritic mode, whereas primary (Sb) phase exhibits faceted growth in the form of polygonal blocks and long strips. (Pb) solid solution phase displays strong affinity with SbSn intermetallic compound so that they produce various morphologies of pseudobinary eutectics, but it can only grow in the divorced eutectic mode together with (Sb) phase. Although (Sb) solid solution phase and SbSn intermetallic compound may grow cooperatively within ternary eutectic microstructures, they seldom form pseudobinary eutectics independently. The (Pb)+(Sb)+SbSn ternary eutectic structure usually shows lamellar morphology, but appears as anomalous eutectic when its volume fraction becomes small. EDS analyses reveal that all of the three primary (Pb), (Sb) and SbSn phases exhibit conspicuous solute trapping effect during rapid solidification, which results in the remarkable extension of solute solubility.

  5. Spontaneous Formation of Eutectic Crystal Structures in Binary and Ternary Charged Colloids due to Depletion Attraction

    PubMed Central

    Toyotama, Akiko; Okuzono, Tohru; Yamanaka, Junpei

    2016-01-01

    Crystallization of colloids has extensively been studied for past few decades as models to study phase transition in general. Recently, complex crystal structures in multi-component colloids, including alloy and eutectic structures, have attracted considerable attention. However, the fabrication of 2D area-filling colloidal eutectics has not been reported till date. Here, we report formation of eutectic structures in binary and ternary aqueous colloids due to depletion attraction. We used charged particles + linear polyelectrolyte systems, in which the interparticle interaction could be represented as a sum of the electrostatic, depletion, and van der Waals forces. The interaction was tunable at a lengthscale accessible to direct observation by optical microscopy. The eutectic structures were formed because of interplay of crystallization of constituent components and accompanying fractionation. An observed binary phase diagram, defined by a mixing ratio and inverse area fraction of the particles, was analogous to that for atomic and molecular eutectic systems. This new method also allows the adjustment of both the number and wavelengths of Bragg diffraction peaks. Furthermore, these eutectic structures could be immobilized in polymer gel to produce self-standing materials. The present findings will be useful in the design of the optical properties of colloidal crystals. PMID:26984298

  6. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of NiTi-Nb eutectic joined NiTi wires

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liqiang; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Lai-Chang; Chen, Liangyu; Lu, Weijie; Zhang, Di

    2016-01-01

    NiTi wires were brazed together via eutectic reaction between NiTi and Nb powder deposited at the wire contact region. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of the NiTi-Nb eutectic microstructure were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic loading-unloading tests. Results show that R phase and B19′ martensite transformation are induced by plastic deformation. R phase transformation, which significantly contributes to superelasticity, preferentially occurs at the interfaces between NiTi and eutectic region. Round-shaped Nb-rich phase with rod-like and lamellar-type eutectics are observed in eutectic regions. These phases appear to affect the deformation behavior of the brazed NiTi-Nb region via five distinct stages in stress-strain curves: (I) R phase reorientation, (II) R phase transformation from parent phase, (III) elastic deformation of reoriented martensite accompanied by the plastic deformation of Nb-rich phase and lamellar NiTi-Nb eutectic, (IV) B19′ martensitic transformation, and (V) plastic deformation of the specimen. PMID:27049025

  7. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of NiTi-Nb eutectic joined NiTi wires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liqiang; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Lai-Chang; Chen, Liangyu; Lu, Weijie; Zhang, Di

    2016-01-01

    NiTi wires were brazed together via eutectic reaction between NiTi and Nb powder deposited at the wire contact region. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of the NiTi-Nb eutectic microstructure were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic loading-unloading tests. Results show that R phase and B19' martensite transformation are induced by plastic deformation. R phase transformation, which significantly contributes to superelasticity, preferentially occurs at the interfaces between NiTi and eutectic region. Round-shaped Nb-rich phase with rod-like and lamellar-type eutectics are observed in eutectic regions. These phases appear to affect the deformation behavior of the brazed NiTi-Nb region via five distinct stages in stress-strain curves: (I) R phase reorientation, (II) R phase transformation from parent phase, (III) elastic deformation of reoriented martensite accompanied by the plastic deformation of Nb-rich phase and lamellar NiTi-Nb eutectic, (IV) B19' martensitic transformation, and (V) plastic deformation of the specimen. PMID:27049025

  8. Directionally solidified pseudo-binary eutectics of Ni-Cr-(Hf, Zr)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Y. G.; Ashbrook, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    A pseudo-binary eutectic, in which the intermetallic Ni7Hf2 reinforces the Ni-Cr solid solution phase, was previously predicted in the Ni-Cr-Hf system by a computer analysis. The experimental determination of pseudo binary eutectic compositions and the directional solidification of the Ni-Cr-Hf, Zr, and Ni-Cr-Zr eutectic alloys are discussed. To determine unknown eutectics, chemical analyses were made of material bled from near eutectic ingots during incipient melting. Nominal compositions in weight percent of Ni-18.6Cr-24.0HF, Ni19.6Cr-12.8Zr-2.8Hf, and Ni-19.2Cr-14.8Zr formed aligned pseudo-binary eutectic structures. The melting points were about 1270 C. The reinforcing intermetallic phases were identified as noncubic (Ni,Cr)7Hf2 and (Ni,Cr)7(Hf,Zr)2, and face centered cubic (Ni,Cr)5Zr. The volume fraction of the reinforcing phases were about 0.5.

  9. Solidification of high temperature molten salts for thermal energy storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheffield, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The solidification of phase change materials for the high temperature thermal energy storage system of an advanced solar thermal power system has been examined theoretically. In light of the particular thermophysical properties of candidate phase change high temperature salts, such as the eutectic mixture of NaF - MgF2, the heat transfer characteristics of one-dimensional inward solidification for a cylindrical geometry have been studied. The Biot number for the solidified salt is shown to be the critical design parameter for constant extraction heat flux. A fin-on-fin design concept of heat transfer surface augmentation is proposed in an effort to minimize the effects of the salt's low thermal conductivity and large volume change upon fusing.

  10. Effects of Minute Addition of Ni on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Sn-Zn Eutectic Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, P.; Tiwary, C. S.; Chattopadhyay, K.

    2016-06-01

    The current work explores the effects of a small addition of Ni on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn-Zn eutectic solder alloy (Sn-14.9 at.%Zn). In two sets of experiments, Ni is either added to the eutectic alloy or Zn in the eutectic alloy is replaced by an increasing amount of Ni. The study indicates that small additions of Ni in eutectic Sn-Zn solder (˜0.017 at.%) refines the eutectic microstructure together with the appearance of the small amount of primary Zn plates. Increasing the Ni content to 0.142 at.% and beyond, then an intermetallic phase ϒ-Ni5Zn21 with dendritic morphology appears in the microstructure along with dendrites of primary Sn. The scale of eutectic microstructure shows a decreasing trend till 0.902 at.%Ni with eutectic spacing of 1.98 ± 0.32 μm for this alloy. Further addition of Ni coarsens the microstructure. The replacement of Zn with Ni in the eutectic composition follows a similar trend with a lesser refinement of the microstructure. In both the scenarios, the addition of a small amount of Ni increases the eutectic temperatures till a critical concentration is reached beyond which one can observe a decrease in the eutectic point. The trend is similar for the solid solubility of Zn in Sn while the trend is opposite for the measured eutectic composition, which decreases at the initial stages of Ni addition. Through a detailed measurement of mechanical properties, the study establishes significant improvement of the strength of Sn-Zn solder with small additions of Ni in the alloy with a maximum hardness of 26 ± 1 HV and 0.2% proof stress of 72 ± 3 MPa at room temperature for the eutectic alloy with 0.902 at.%Ni.

  11. Directional solidification of Al2-Cu-Al and Al3-Ni-Al eutectics during TEXUS rocket flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Favier, J. J.; Degoer, J.

    1984-01-01

    One lamellar eutectic sample and one fiber-like eutectic sample were solidified directionally during the TEXUS-6 rocket flight. The microstructures and the results of the thermal analysis, obtained from the temperatures recorded on the cartridge skin, are compared. No appreciable modifications of the regularity of the eutectic structures were observed by passing from 1 g to 0.0001 g in these experiments. No steady state growth conditions were achieved in these experiments.

  12. Hygroscopic salts and the potential for life on Mars.

    PubMed

    Davila, Alfonso F; Duport, Luis Gago; Melchiorri, Riccardo; Jänchen, Jochen; Valea, Sergio; de Los Rios, Asunción; Fairén, Alberto G; Möhlmann, Diedrich; McKay, Christopher P; Ascaso, Carmen; Wierzchos, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Hygroscopic salts have been detected in soils in the northern latitudes of Mars, and widespread chloride-bearing evaporitic deposits have been detected in the southern highlands. The deliquescence of hygroscopic minerals such as chloride salts could provide a local and transient source of liquid water that would be available for microorganisms on the surface. This is known to occur in the Atacama Desert, where massive halite evaporites have become a habitat for photosynthetic and heterotrophic microorganisms that take advantage of the deliquescence of the salt at certain relative humidity (RH) levels. We modeled the climate conditions (RH and temperature) in a region on Mars with chloride-bearing evaporites, and modeled the evolution of the water activity (a(w)) of the deliquescence solutions of three possible chloride salts (sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and magnesium chloride) as a function of temperature. We also studied the water absorption properties of the same salts as a function of RH. Our climate model results show that the RH in the region with chloride-bearing deposits on Mars often reaches the deliquescence points of all three salts, and the temperature reaches levels above their eutectic points seasonally, in the course of a martian year. The a(w) of the deliquescence solutions increases with decreasing temperature due mainly to the precipitation of unstable phases, which removes ions from the solution. The deliquescence of sodium chloride results in transient solutions with a(w) compatible with growth of terrestrial microorganisms down to 252 K, whereas for calcium chloride and magnesium chloride it results in solutions with a(w) below the known limits for growth at all temperatures. However, taking the limits of a(w) used to define special regions on Mars, the deliquescence of calcium chloride deposits would allow for the propagation of terrestrial microorganisms at temperatures between 265 and 253 K, and for metabolic activity (no growth) at

  13. SALT Science Conference 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, David; Schroeder, Anja

    The Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) has seen great changes in the last years following the beginning of full time science operations in 2011. The three first generation instruments, namely the SALTICAM imager, the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) and its multiple modes and finally in 2014, the new High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS), have commissioned it. The SALT community now eagerly anticipate the installation and commissioning of the near-infrared arm of RSS, likely to commence in 2016. The the third "Science with SALT" conference was held at the Stellenbosch Institute of Advanced Study from 1-5 June 2015. The goals of this conference were to: -Present and discuss recent results from SALT observations; -Anticipate scientific programs that will be carried out with new SALT instrumentation such as RSS-NIR; -Provide a scientific environment in which to foster inter-institutional and inter-facility collaborations between scientists at the different SALT partners; -Provide an opportunity for students and postdocs to become more engaged in SALT science and operations; -Encourage the scientific strategic planning that will be necessary to insure an important role for SALT in an era of large astronomical facilities in the southern hemisphere such as MeerKAT, the SKA, LSST, and ALMA; -Consider options for future instrumentation and technical development of SALT; and, -Present, discuss, and engage in the SALT Collateral Benefits program led by SAAO. Conference proceedings editors: David Buckley and Anja Schroeder

  14. The effect of porosity and gamma-gamma-prime eutectic content on the fatigue behavior of hydrogen charged PWA 1480

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, J.; Dreshfield, R. L.; Gabb, T. P.

    1991-01-01

    The study addresses the effect of systematically varying gamma-gamma-prime eutectic content and porosity level on the fatigue life of a hydrogen-charged single crystal PWA 1480 superalloy. Four microstructural variants are produced, and differences in gamma-gamma-prime eutectic morphology among the four processing variants are analyzed. Single valued tensile test data indicate that the tensile and yield strength of the PWA 1480 are degraded by hydrogen charging, with the exception of the material given a eutectic solution treatment. It is shown that the reduction of the fatigue life can be minimized by a duplex thermomechanical treatment consisting of a eutectic solution followed by hot isostatic pressing.

  15. The Effect of Temperature on Kinetics and Diffusion Coefficients of Metallocene Derivatives in Polyol-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents.

    PubMed

    Bahadori, Laleh; Chakrabarti, Mohammed Harun; Manan, Ninie Suhana Abdul; Hashim, Mohd Ali; Mjalli, Farouq Sabri; AlNashef, Inas Muen; Brandon, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the density, dynamic viscosity and ionic conductivity of several deep eutectic solvents (DESs) containing ammonium-based salts and hydrogen bond donvnors (polyol type) are investigated. The temperature-dependent electrolyte viscosity as a function of molar conductivity is correlated by means of Walden's rule. The oxidation of ferrocene (Fc/Fc+) and reduction of cobaltocenium (Cc+/Cc) at different temperatures are studied by cyclic voltammetry and potential-step chronoamperometry in DESs. For most DESs, chronoamperometric transients are demonstrated to fit an Arrhenius-type relation to give activation energies for the diffusion of redox couples at different temperatures. The temperature dependence of the measured conductivities of DES1 and DES2 are better correlated with the Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher equation. The kinetics of the Fc/Fc+ and Cc+/Cc electrochemical systems have been investigated over a temperature range from 298 to 338 K. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant is then calculated at different temperatures by means of a logarithmic analysis. The glycerol-based DES (DES5) appears suitable for further testing in electrochemical energy storage devices. PMID:26642045

  16. The Effect of Temperature on Kinetics and Diffusion Coefficients of Metallocene Derivatives in Polyol-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Laleh; Chakrabarti, Mohammed Harun; Manan, Ninie Suhana Abdul; Hashim, Mohd Ali; Mjalli, Farouq Sabri; AlNashef, Inas Muen; Brandon, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the density, dynamic viscosity and ionic conductivity of several deep eutectic solvents (DESs) containing ammonium-based salts and hydrogen bond donvnors (polyol type) are investigated. The temperature-dependent electrolyte viscosity as a function of molar conductivity is correlated by means of Walden’s rule. The oxidation of ferrocene (Fc/Fc+) and reduction of cobaltocenium (Cc+/Cc) at different temperatures are studied by cyclic voltammetry and potential-step chronoamperometry in DESs. For most DESs, chronoamperometric transients are demonstrated to fit an Arrhenius-type relation to give activation energies for the diffusion of redox couples at different temperatures. The temperature dependence of the measured conductivities of DES1 and DES2 are better correlated with the Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher equation. The kinetics of the Fc/Fc+ and Cc+/Cc electrochemical systems have been investigated over a temperature range from 298 to 338 K. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant is then calculated at different temperatures by means of a logarithmic analysis. The glycerol-based DES (DES5) appears suitable for further testing in electrochemical energy storage devices. PMID:26642045

  17. Simultaneous extraction of flavonoids from Chamaecyparis obtusa using deep eutectic solvents as additives of conventional extractions solvents.

    PubMed

    Tang, Baokun; Park, Ha Eun; Row, Kyung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Three flavones (quercetin, myricetin and amentoflavone) were extracted from Chamaecyparis obtusa leaves using deep eutectic solvents (DESs) as additives to conventional extractions solvents. Sixteen DESs were synthesized from different salts and hydrogen bond donors. In addition, C. obtusa was extracted under optimal conditions of methanol as the solvent in the heating process (60°C) for 120 min at a solid/liquid ratio of 80%. Under these optimal conditions, a good linear relationship was observed at analyte concentrations ranging from 5.0 to 200.0 μg/mL (R(2) > 0.999). The extraction recovery ranged from 96.7 to 103.3% with the inter- and intraday relative standard deviations of <4.97%. Under the optimal conditions, from C. obtusa, the quantities of quercetin, myricetin and amentoflavone extracted were 325.90, 8.66 and 50.34 µg/mL, respectively. Overall, DESs are expected to have a wide range of applications. PMID:25228687

  18. Photochemistry of triarylsulfonium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Dektar, J.L.; Hacker, N.P. )

    1990-08-01

    The photolysis of triphenylsulfonium, tris(4-methylphenyl)sulfonium, tris(4-chlorophenyl)sulfonium, several monosubstituted (4-F, 4-Cl, 4-Me, 4-MeO, 4-PhS, and 4-PhCO), and disubstituted (4,4{prime}-Me{sub 2} and 4,4{prime}-(MeO){sub 2}) triphenylsulfonium salts was examined in solution. It was found that direct irradiation of triphenylsulfonium salts produced new rearrangement products, phenylthiobiphenyls, along with diphenyl sulfide, which had been previously reported. Similarly, the triarylsulfonium salts, with the exception of the (4-(phenylthio)phenyl)diphenylsulfonium salts produced new rearrangement products, phenylthiobiphenyls, along with diphenyl sulfide, which had been previously reported. Similarly, the triarylsulfonium salts, with the exception of the (4-(phenylthio)phenyl)diphenylsulfonium salts, gave the new rearrangement products. The mechanism for direct photolysis is proposed to occur from the singlet excited states to give a predominant heterolytic cleavage along with some homolytic cleavage.

  19. Microanalysis of an oxidized cobalt oxide: Zirconia eutectic

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, J.; McKernan, S.; Carter, C.B.; Revcolevschi, A.

    1993-12-31

    The compositions of CoO, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and Ca-stabilized cubic ZrO{sub 2} in an oxidized directionally solidified CoO-ZrO{sub 2} eutectic were determined by PEELS and EDS. An oxygen gradient exists across the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} with highest levels near the ZrO{sub 2} interface. Oxygen ELNES for CoO and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} are quite different; published oxygen ELNES have been incorrectly attributed to CoO. Normalized Co-L{sub 23} white line intensity (WLI) ratios for CoO and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} are similar (0.53 {plus_minus} 0.02) but L{sub 3}/L{sub 2} WLI ratios are 3.88 and 2.58, respectively. ELCE data suggest Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} has the inverse spinel structure.

  20. Properties of Polyvinylpyrrolidone in a Deep Eutectic Solvent.

    PubMed

    Sapir, Liel; Stanley, Christopher B; Harries, Daniel

    2016-05-19

    Deep eutectic solvents (DES) are mixtures of two or more components with high melting temperatures, which form a liquid at room temperature. These DES hold great promise as green solvents for chemical processes, as they are inexpensive and environmentally friendly. Specifically, they present a unique solvating environment to polymers that is different from water. Here, we use small angle neutron scattering to study the polymer properties of the common, water-soluble, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in the prominent DES formed by a 1:2 molar mixture of choline chloride and urea. We find that the polymer adopts a slightly different structure in DES than in water, so that at higher concentrations the polymer favors a more expanded conformation compared to the same concentration in water. Yet, the osmotic pressure of PVP solutions in DES is very similar to that in water, indicating that both solvents are of comparable quality and that the DES components interact favorably with PVP. The osmotic pressure measurements within this novel class of promising solvents should be of value toward future technological applications as well as for osmotic stress experiments in nonaqueous environments. PMID:26963367

  1. Template-directed synthesis of oligonucleotides under eutectic conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stribling, R.; Miller, S. L.

    1991-01-01

    One of the most important sets of model prebiotic experiments consists of reactions that synthesize complementary oligonucleotides from preformed templates under nonenzymatic conditions. Most of these experiments are conducted at 4 degrees C using 0.01-0.1 M concentrations of activated nucleotide monomer and template (monomer equivalent). In an attempt to extend the conditions under which this type of reaction can occur, we have concentrated the reactants by freezing at -18 degrees C, which is close to the NaCl-H2O eutectic at -21 degrees C. The results from this set of experiments suggest that successful syntheses can occur with poly(C) concentrations as low at 5 x 10(-4) M and 2MeImpG concentrations at 10(-3) M. It was also anticipated that this mechanism might allow the previously unsuccessful poly(A)-directed synthesis of oligo(U)s to occur. However, no template effect was seen with the poly(A) and ImpU system. The failure of these conditions to allow template-directed synthesis of oligo(U)s supports the previously proposed idea that pyrimidines may not have been part of the earliest genetic material. Because of the low concentrations of monomer and template that would be expected from prebiotic syntheses, this lower temperature could be considered a more plausible geologic setting for template-directed synthesis than the standard reaction conditions.

  2. Improving agar electrospinnability with choline-based deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ana M M; Souza, Hiléia K S; Uknalis, Joseph; Liu, Shih-Chuan; Gonçalves, Maria P; Liu, LinShu

    2015-09-01

    Very recently our group has produced novel agar-based fibers by an electrospinning technique using water as solvent and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as co-blending polymer. Here, we tested the deep eutectic solvent (DES), (2-hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium chloride/urea prepared at 1:2 molar ratio, as an alternative solvent medium for agar electrospinning. The electrospun materials were collected with an ethanol bath adapted to a previous electrospinning set-up. One weight percent agar-in-DES showed improved viscoelasticity and hence, spinnability, when compared to 1 wt% agar-in-water and pure agar nanofibers were successfully electrospun if working above the temperature of sol-gel transition (∼80 °C). By changing the solvent medium we decreased the PVA concentration (5 wt% starting solution) and successfully produced composite fibers with high agar contents (50/50 agar/PVA). Best composite fibers were formed with the 50/50 and 30/70 agar/PVA solutions. These fibers were mechanically resistant, showed tailorable surface roughness and diverse size distributions, with most of the diameters falling in the sub-micron range. Both nano and micro forms of agar fibers (used separately or combined) may have potential for the design of new and highly functional agar-based materials. PMID:26116384

  3. A history of salt.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G

    1994-01-01

    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy. PMID:7847480

  4. Ionic liquid and deep eutectic solvent-activated CelA2 variants generated by directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Christian; Bocola, Marco; Streit, Wolfgang R; Martinez, Ronny; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2014-06-01

    Chemoenzymatic cellulose degradation is one of the key steps for the production of biomass-based fuels under mild conditions. An effective cellulose degradation process requires diverse physico-chemical dissolution of the biomass prior to enzymatic degradation. In recent years, "green" solvents, such as ionic liquids and, more recently, deep eutectic liquids, have been proposed as suitable alternatives for biomass dissolution by homogenous catalysis. In this manuscript, a directed evolution campaign of an ionic liquid tolerant β-1,4-endoglucanase (CelA2) was performed in order to increase its performance in the presence of choline chloride/glycerol (ChCl:Gly) or 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl), as a first step to identify residues which govern ionic strength resistance and obtaining insights for employing cellulases on the long run in homogenous catalysis of lignocellulose degradation. After mutant library screening, variant M4 (His288Phe, Ser300Arg) was identified, showing a dramatically reduced activity in potassium phosphate buffer and an increased activity in the presence of ChCl:Gly or [BMIM]Cl. Further characterization showed that the CelA2 variant M4 is activated in the presence of these solvents, representing a first report of an engineered enzyme with an ionic strength activity switch. Structural analysis revealed that Arg300 could be a key residue for the ionic strength activation through a salt bridge with the neighboring Asp287. Experimental and computational results suggest that the salt bridge Asp287-Arg300 generates a nearly inactive CelA2 variant and activity is regained when ChCl:Gly or [BMIM]Cl are supplemented (~5-fold increase from 0.64 to 3.37 μM 4-MU/h with the addition ChCl:Gly and ~23-fold increase from 3.84 to 89.21 μM 4-pNP/h with the addition of [BMIM]Cl). Molecular dynamic simulations further suggest that the salt bridge between Asp287 and Arg300 in variant M4 (His288Phe, Ser300Arg) modulates the observed salt

  5. Dosimetry using silver salts

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P.

    2003-06-24

    The present invention provides a method for detecting ionizing radiation. Exposure of silver salt AgX to ionizing radiation results in the partial reduction of the salt to a mixture of silver salt and silver metal. The mixture is further reduced by a reducing agent, which causes the production of acid (HX) and the oxidized form of the reducing agent (R). Detection of HX indicates that the silver salt has been exposed to ionizing radiation. The oxidized form of the reducing agent (R) may also be detected. The invention also includes dosimeters employing the above method for detecting ionizing radiation.

  6. An aluminum-germanium eutectic structure for silicon wafer bonding technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Quintana, I.; Ottaviani, G.; Tonini, R.; Felisari, L.; Garavaglia, M.; Oggioni, L.; Morin, D.

    2005-08-01

    An aluminum-germanium eutectic bonding technology has been used to uniformly bond two silicon wafers for MEMS packaging at temperatures as low as 450 °C, well below the aluminum-silicon eutectic temperature (577 °C). A device silicon wafer has been put in contact with a cap wafer where an aluminum film covered by a germanium film has been thermally evaporated. The annealing has been performed in a vacuum furnace under uniaxial pressure variable from 1.8 up to 30 kbar. The samples have been analyzed with various analytical techniques. 4He+ MeV Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) has been used to measure the thicknesses of the deposited films and to follow the aluminum-germanium intermixing, Scanning Acoustic Microscope (SAM) to control the uniformity of the bonding, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) associated with electron induced X-ray fluorescence to analyze composition, morphology and elements distribution in the film between the two bonded wafers. The temperatures for the annealing were selected above and below the Ge-Al the eutectic temperature. At temperatures below the eutectic no-bonding has been obtained for any applied pressure. Above the eutectic bonding occurs. The formation of a liquid film is mandatory to obtain a reproducible and robust bonding. The pressure is necessary to improve the contacts between the two wafers; its role in the metallurgy of the bonding needs to be explored.

  7. A quantitative study of factors influencing lamellar eutectic morphology during solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, W. F. S.

    1981-01-01

    The factors that influence the shape of the solid-liquid interface of a lamellar binary eutectic alloy are evaluated. Alloys of carbon tetrabromide and hexachloroethane which serve as a transparent analogue of lamellar metallic eutectics are used. The observed interface shapes are analyzed by computer-aided methods. The solid-liquid interfacial free energies of each of the individual phases comprising the eutectic system are measured as a function of composition using a 'grain boundary groove' technique. The solid-liquid interfacial free energy of the two phases are evaluated directly from the eutectic interface. The phase diagram for the system, the heat of fusion as a function of composition, and the density as a function of composition are measured. The shape of the eutectic interface is controlled mainly by the solid-liquid and solid-solid interfacial free energy relationships at the interface and by the temperature gradient present, rather than by interlamellar diffusion in the liquid at the interface, over the range of growth rates studied.

  8. Phase behavior of elastin-like synthetic recombinamers in deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Nardecchia, Stefania; Gutiérrez, María C; Ferrer, M Luisa; Alonso, Matilde; López, Isabel M; Rodríguez-Cabello, J Carlos; del Monte, Francisco

    2012-07-01

    Deep eutectic solvents promoted the stabilization of the collapsed state of elastin-like recombinamers - and the subsequent formation of aggregates - upon the loss of the structural water molecules involved in hydrophobic hydration. Cryo-etch scanning electron microscopy allowed the observation of these aggregates in neat deep eutectic solvents. The suppression of the lower critical solution temperature transition, observed by differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic light scattering, confirmed the presence of the elastin-like recombinamers in their collapsed state. Actually, the transition from the collapsed to the expanded state was suppressed even after moderate aqueous dilution - for water contents ranging from nil to ca. 45 wt % - and it was only recovered upon further addition of water - above 50 wt %. These features revealed the preferred stabilization of the collapsed state in not only neat deep eutectic solvents but also partially hydrated deep eutectic solvents. We consider that the capability to trigger the lower critical solution temperature transition by partial hydration of deep eutectic solvent may open interesting perspectives for nano(bio)technological applications of elastin-like recombinamers. PMID:22632070

  9. Construction and Characterization of Mini-ruthenium-Carbon Eutectic Cells for Industrial Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diril, A.; Bourson, F.; Parga, C.; Sadli, M.

    2015-12-01

    High-temperature eutectic fixed points have proved to be convenient tools for temperature scale dissemination and thermometer calibrations/checks at temperatures above 1100°C. In order to investigate the feasibility of metal-carbon eutectic cells in industrial applications as a means for assessing the traceability of non-contact thermometers, a batch of cells was constructed at LNE-Cnam, NPL, and TUBITAK UME. Compared to the usual dimensions of high-temperature fixed point cells (45 mm in length × 24 mm in diameter), a new cell design was created to fit with industrial applications. TUBITAK UME constructed and characterized five ruthenium-carbon (Ru-C) eutectic cells of dimensions 24 mm in length × 24 mm in diameter. One of these cells has been selected and characterized at CEA premises. Ru-C eutectic cells have been evaluated in terms of short-term repeatability, reproducibility, furnace effect, sharp temperature ramps, and the effect of cell location. Measurements at TÜBİTAK UME have been performed with a transfer standard pyrometer calibrated at the copper point and a BB3500pg high-temperature blackbody furnace was used for construction and measurement. For the measurements at CEA, a Land Standard—HIMERT S1 radiation thermometer and a VITI induction furnace were used. In this article results of the measurements at TÜBİTAK UME and CEA will be presented. The possible use of these mini-eutectic cells as industrial temperature standards will be discussed.

  10. Deformation and fracture of a directionally solidified NiAl-28Cr-6Mo eutectic alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, X. F.; Johnson, D. R.; Noebe, R. D.; Oliver, B. F.

    1995-01-01

    A directionally solidified alloy based on the NiAl-(Cr, Mo) eutectic was examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy to characterize the microstructure and room temperature deformation and fracture behavior. The microstructure consisted of a lamellar morphology with a group of zone axes (111) growth direction for both the NiAl and (Cr, Mo) phases. The interphase boundary between the eutectic phases was semicoherent and composed of a well-defined dislocation network. In addition, a fine array of coherent NiAl precipitates was dispersed throughout the (Cr, Mo) phase. The eutectic morphology was stable at 1300 K with only coarsening of the NiAl precipitates occurring after heat treatment for 1.8 ks (500 h). Fracture of the aligned eutectic is characterized primarily by a crack bridging/renucleation mechanism and is controlled by the strength of the semicoherent interface between the two phases. However, contributions to the toughness of the eutectic may arise from plastic deformation of the NiAl phase and the geometry associated with the fracture surface.

  11. The experimental study of the polonium-210 release from Li17-Pb83 eutectic

    SciTech Connect

    Schipakin, O.; Borisov, N.; Churkin, S.

    1994-12-31

    The polonium contamination hazard arise as a result of accidental Po-210 release from breeding blanket material - melted Li17Pb83 eutectic - in the environment. The experimental study of Po-210 release rates from eutectic were carry out in atmosphere of noble gases and air with different humidity in 1992-1993. In these experiments used method of carrier-gas flowing above melted eutectic surface. The main findings presented by RDIPE and Karpov Institute are: (1) The polonium-210 release rate strongly increase with eutectic temperature from 150 to 450{degrees}C. (2) The Po-210 release rate in the noble carrier-gas is in proportion with polonium concentration in eutectic in studied range from 10{sup {minus}7} to 10{sup {minus}4} Ci/g. (3) The Po-210 release rate in air remarkably effected by the surface oxide film also. (4) In these experiments for the first time were studied differently gaseous and aerosol polonium-210 fractions release rates. The experimental results and corresponding estimates showed needs the technological and accidental cleaning systems equipped by complex filters of gaseous and aerosols polonium-210 forms.

  12. Directional growth and characterization of Fe?Al?Nb eutectic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota, M. A.; Coelho, A. A.; Bejarano, J. M. Z.; Gama, S.; Caram, R.

    1999-03-01

    The manufacturing of components for operation at high temperatures requires the use of metallic materials which can keep satisfactory mechanical and chemical properties, even at temperatures beyond 1000°C. An interesting alternative to solve such a problem is the use of directionally solidified eutectic alloys. A potentially promising system for the manufacture of structural materials, and so far not totally studied, is the eutectic based on the Fe-Al-Nb system, which involves the (FeAl) 2Nb phase and the FeAl solid solution. Eutectic samples from this system were directionally solidified in a vertical Bridgman crystal growth unit. The objective of the experiments was to determine the influence of the growth rate on the eutectic microstructure. The ingots obtained were investigated by using optical and electron scanning microscopy. At low growth rate, the eutectic microstructure remained regular, even though it showed several types of microstructure defects. As the growth rate was increased, a transition from lamellar to fibrous morphology was observed.

  13. PU/SS EUTECTIC ASSESSMENT IN 9975 PACKAGINGS IN A STORAGE FACILITY DURING EXTENDED FIRE

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.

    2012-03-26

    In a radioactive material (RAM) packaging, the formation of eutectic at the Pu/SS (plutonium/stainless steel) interface is a serious concern and must be avoided to prevent of leakage of fissile material to the environment. The eutectic temperature for the Pu/SS is rather low (410 C) and could seriously impact the structural integrity of the containment vessel under accident conditions involving fire. The 9975 packaging is used for long term storage of Pu bearing materials in the DOE complex where the Pu comes in contact with the stainless steel containment vessel. Due to the serious consequences of the containment breach at the eutectic site, the Pu/SS interface temperature is kept well below the eutectic formation temperature of 410 C. This paper discusses the thermal models and the results for the extended fire conditions (1500 F for 86 minutes) that exist in a long term storage facility and concludes that the 9975 packaging Pu/SS interface temperature is well below the eutectic temperature.

  14. A Galinstan-Filled Capillary Probe for Thermal Conductivity Measurements and Its Application to Molten Eutectic {KNO}_3-{NaNO}_3-{NO}_2 (HTS) up to 700 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Brun, Niccolò; Markides, Christos N.

    2015-11-01

    The successful measurement of the thermal conductivity of molten salts is a challenging undertaking due to the electrically conducting and possibly also aggressive nature of the materials, as well as the elevated temperatures at which these data are required. For accurate and reproducible measurements, it is important to develop a suitable experimental apparatus and methodology. In this study, we explore a modified version of the transient hot-wire method, which employs a molten-metal-filled capillary in order to circumvent some of the issues encountered in previous studies. Specifically, by using a novel flexible U-shaped quartz-capillary, filled with a eutectic mixture of gallium, indium and tin, commercially known as Galinstan, we proceed to measure the thermal conductivity of molten eutectic {KNO}_3-{NaNO}_3-{NaNO}_2. The new probe is demonstrated as being able to measure the thermal conductivity of this molten salt, which is found to range from 0.48 {W}{\\cdot }{m}^{-1}{\\cdot }{K}^{-1} at 500 K to 0.47 {W}{\\cdot }{m}^{-1}{\\cdot }{K}^{-1} at close to 700 K, with an overall expanded uncertainty (95 % confidence) of 3.1 %. The quartz is found to retain its electrically insulating properties and no current leakage is detected in the sample over the investigated temperature range. The thermal conductivity data reported in the present study are also used to elucidate a partial disagreement found in the literature for this material.

  15. Integrated Salt Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urai, Janos L.; Kukla, Peter A.

    2015-04-01

    The growing importance of salt in the energy, subsurface storage, and chemical and food industries also increases the challenges with prediction of geometries, kinematics, stress and transport in salt. This requires an approach, which integrates a broader range of knowledge than is traditionally available in the different scientific and engineering disciplines. We aim to provide a starting point for a more integrated understanding of salt, by presenting an overview of the state of the art in a wide range of salt-related topics, from (i) the formation and metamorphism of evaporites, (ii) rheology and transport properties, (iii) salt tectonics and basin evolution, (iv) internal structure of evaporites, (v) fluid flow through salt, to (vi) salt engineering. With selected case studies we show how integration of these domains of knowledge can bring better predictions of (i) sediment architecture and reservoir distribution, (ii) internal structure of salt for optimized drilling and better cavern design, (iii) reliable long-term predictions of deformations and fluid flow in subsurface storage. A fully integrated workflow is based on geomechanical models, which include all laboratory and natural observations and links macro- and micro-scale studies. We present emerging concepts for (i) the initiation dynamics of halokinesis, (ii) the rheology and deformation of the evaporites by brittle and ductile processes, (iii) the coupling of processes in evaporites and the under- and overburden, and (iv) the impact of the layered evaporite rheology on the structural evolution.

  16. Molten salt electrolyte separator

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1996-07-09

    The patent describes a molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication. 5 figs.

  17. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  18. Progress in Studying Salt Secretion from the Salt Glands in Recretohalophytes: How Do Plants Secrete Salt?

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fang; Leng, Bingying; Wang, Baoshan

    2016-01-01

    To survive in a saline environment, halophytes have evolved many strategies to resist salt stress. The salt glands of recretohalophytes are exceptional features for directly secreting salt out of a plant. Knowledge of the pathway(s) of salt secretion in relation to the function of salt glands may help us to change the salt-tolerance of crops and to cultivate the extensive saline lands that are available. Recently, ultrastructural studies of salt glands and the mechanism of salt secretion, particularly the candidate genes involved in salt secretion, have been illustrated in detail. In this review, we summarize current researches on salt gland structure, salt secretion mechanism and candidate genes involved, and provide an overview of the salt secretion pathway and the asymmetric ion transport of the salt gland. A new model recretohalophyte is also proposed. PMID:27446195

  19. Prussian blue nanospheres synthesized in deep eutectic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Qinglin; Liu, Ruixiao; Zheng, Jianbin

    2012-10-01

    A novel route for controlled synthesis of Prussian blue nanospheres (PB NSs) with different sizes by using deep eutectic solvents (DES) as both solvent and template provider was demonstrated. The size-controlled PB NSs were obtained directly by the coordination of Fe(CN)64- ion with Fe3+ ion in the DES. The probable mechanism of formation of PB NSs was discussed based on the characterization results of UV-visible, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectronic spectrum and transfer electron microscopy. Furthermore, the electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of the synthesized PB NSs were investigated, and it has demonstrated that the PB NSs exhibited excellent catalytic activity for H2O2 reduction, and then extended this strategy to glucose sensing, by detecting H2O2 formed from the enzymatic reaction of glucose oxidase with its substrate glucose. The linear calibration range for glucose was from 0.9 μM to 0.12 mM, with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. The limit of detection was 0.3 μM and the sensitivity was 61.7 A cm-2 M-1. The present study provides a general platform for the controlled synthesis of novel nanomaterials in DES and can be extended to other optical, electronic and magnetic nanocompounds.A novel route for controlled synthesis of Prussian blue nanospheres (PB NSs) with different sizes by using deep eutectic solvents (DES) as both solvent and template provider was demonstrated. The size-controlled PB NSs were obtained directly by the coordination of Fe(CN)64- ion with Fe3+ ion in the DES. The probable mechanism of formation of PB NSs was discussed based on the characterization results of UV-visible, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectronic spectrum and transfer electron microscopy. Furthermore, the electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of the synthesized PB NSs were investigated, and it has demonstrated that the PB NSs exhibited excellent catalytic activity for H2O2 reduction, and then extended this strategy to glucose sensing, by

  20. Interphase anisotropy effects on lamellar eutectics: a numerical study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Supriyo; Choudhury, Abhik; Plapp, Mathis; Bottin-Rousseau, Sabine; Faivre, Gabriel; Akamatsu, Silvère

    2015-02-01

    In directional solidification of binary eutectics, it is often observed that two-phase lamellar growth patterns grow tilted with respect to the direction z of the imposed temperature gradient. This crystallographic effect depends on the orientation of the two crystal phases α and β with respect to z. Recently, an approximate theory was formulated that predicts the lamellar tilt angle as a function of the anisotropy of the free energy of the solid(α)-solid(β) interphase boundary. We use two different numerical methods-phase field (PF) and dynamic boundary integral (BI)-to simulate the growth of steady periodic patterns in two dimensions as a function of the angle θ(R) between z and a reference crystallographic axis for a fixed relative orientation of α and β crystals, that is, for a given anisotropy function (Wulff plot) of the interphase boundary. For Wulff plots without unstable interphase-boundary orientations, the two simulation methods are in excellent agreement with each other and confirm the general validity of the previously proposed theory. In addition, a crystallographic "locking" of the lamellae onto a facet plane is well reproduced in the simulations. When unstable orientations are present in the Wulff plot, it is expected that two distinct values of the tilt angle can appear for the same crystal orientation over a finite θ(R) range. This bistable behavior, which has been observed experimentally, is well reproduced by BI simulations but not by the PF model. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. PMID:25768518

  1. [Salt and cancer].

    PubMed

    Strnad, Marija

    2010-05-01

    Besides cardiovascular disease, a high salt intake causes other adverse health effects, i.e., gastric and some other cancers, obesity (risk factor for many cancer sites), Meniere's disease, worsening of renal disease, triggering an asthma attack, osteoporosis, exacerbation of fluid retention, renal calculi, etc. Diets containing high amounts of food preserved by salting and pickling are associated with an increased risk of cancers of the stomach, nose and throat. Because gastric cancer is still the most common cancer in some countries (especially in Japan), its prevention is one of the most important aspects of cancer control strategy. Observations among Japanese immigrants in the U.S.A. and Brazil based on the geographic differences, the trend in cancer incidence with time, and change in the incidence patterns indicate that gastric cancer is closely associated with dietary factors such as the intake of salt and salted food. The findings of many epidemiological studies suggest that high dietary salt intake is a significant risk factor for gastric cancer and this association was found to be strong in the presence of Helicobacter (H.) pylori infection with atrophic gastritis. A high-salt intake strips the lining of the stomach and may make infection with H. pylori more likely or may exacerbate the infection. Salting, pickling and smoking are traditionally popular ways of preparing food in Japan and some parts of Asia. In addition to salt intake, cigarette smoking and low consumption of fruit and vegetables increase the risk of stomach cancer. However, it is not known whether it is specifically the salt in these foods or a combination of salt and other chemicals that can cause cancer. One study identified a mutagen in nitrite-treated Japanese salted fish, and chemical structure of this mutagen suggests that it is derived from methionine and that salt and nitrite are precursors for its formation. Working under conditions of heat stress greatly increased the workers

  2. Non-monotonic systematic variation of the thermodynamic properties of lanthanide metals in liquid bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamana, Hajimu; Sheng, Jiawei; Shirai, Osamu

    2005-09-01

    In a system consisting of molten eutectic mixture of LiCl, KCl, and liquid bismuth, the excess enthalpy changes of Ce, Pr, Nd and Ho in liquid bismuth were evaluated in a temperature range from 850 K to 1100 K by electromotive force measurement. The newly determined values were compared with those previously determined for La, Gd, Tb, and Dy, and the systematic variation of these values along the lanthanide series was discussed. As a result, it was found that the excess enthalpy changes of lanthanides show non-monotonic variation as a function of 2/3 power of molar volumes, which does not agree with the linear trend of variation which is anticipated by the semi-empirical rule. Instead of the conventional definition of the excess enthalpy changes standardized to the metallic states, those standardized to the hypothetical metallic vapor states were adapted and their systematics were discussed.

  3. Effect of preliminary deformation on heat of melting of superplastic eutectic alloy Bi-43 wt % Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korshak, V. F.; Tkachenko, M. V.

    2013-11-01

    Studies have been performed on the effect of external compressive stress applied to samples of superplastic eutectic Bi-43 wt % Sn alloy during heating to a near-eutectic temperature on the specific heat of melting of the alloy. The alloy was prepared from chemically pure components by casting onto a massive copper substrate. After compression by ˜65% using a hydraulic press, the ingots were aged in air for approximately 7 months. The experiments were carried out using the method of differential thermal analysis. The samples were loaded using a specially designed device. A regular decrease in the specific heat of melting by ˜37% has been revealed while increasing the external pressure from 0 to 4.4 MPa. The experimental results are discussed using the available literature data on the heat of melting of the alloy and on the structure of the eutectic.

  4. Seasonal flows on dark martian slopes, thermal condition for liquescence of salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossacki, Konrad J.; Markiewicz, Wojciech J.

    2014-05-01

    RSLs are narrow, dark albedo features on relatively steep slopes that appear during warm seasons and fade in the cold ones. So far they have only been observed in mid-latitudes where surface temperature is too high, periodically exceeding 300 K, for the presence of shallow ground ice. We attempt to determine what conditions are needed for the liquescence of salt to occur exactly when the RSLs are observed. If the eutectic temperature is exceeded, and humidity is high enough, salts may produce liquid brines through absorption of water vapor and liquescence. We calculate regolith temperature as a function of time and depth, for different macroscopic distributions of salt, for two different microphysical models of the distribution of salt on the regolith grains. Model parameters which are varied include surface albedo, thermal inertia of the dry regolith, the depths at which salt is present, and the salt content. We find that it is possible, for liquescence of magnesium perchlorate to occur where and when RSLs have been observed, but only within a very narrow range of parameters.

  5. Structural and phonon transmission study of Ge-Au-Ge eutectically bonded interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Knowlton, W.B. |

    1995-07-01

    This thesis presents a structural analysis and phonon transparency investigation of the Ge-Au-Ge eutectic bond interface. Interface development was intended to maximize the interfacial ballistic phonon transparency to enhance the detection of the dark matter candidate WIMPs. The process which was developed provides an interface which produces minimal stress, low amounts of impurities, and insures Ge lattice continuity through the interface. For initial Au thicknesses of greater than 1,000 {angstrom} Au per substrate side, eutectic epitaxial growth resulted in a Au dendritic structure with 95% cross sectional and 90% planar Au interfacial area coverages. In sections in which Ge bridged the interface, lattice continuity across the interface was apparent. Epitaxial solidification of the eutectic interface with initial Au thicknesses < 500 A per substrate side produced Au agglomerations thereby reducing the Au planar interfacial area coverage to as little as 30%. The mechanism for Au coalescence was attributed to lateral diffusion of Ge and Au in the liquid phase during solidification. Phonon transmission studies were performed on eutectic interfaces with initial Au thicknesses of 1,000 {angstrom}, 500 {angstrom}, and 300 {angstrom} per substrate side. Phonon imaging of eutectically bonded samples with initial Au thicknesses of 300 {angstrom}/side revealed reproducible interfacial percent phonon transmissions from 60% to 70%. Line scan phonon imaging verified the results. Phonon propagation TOF spectra distinctly showed the predominant phonon propagation mode was ballistic. This was substantiated by phonon focusing effects apparent in the phonon imaging data. The degree of interface transparency to phonons and resulting phonon propagation modes correlate with the structure of the interface following eutectic solidification. Structural studies of samples with initial Au thickness of 1,000 {angstrom}/side appear to correspond with the phonon transmission study.

  6. Transformation of eutectic emulsion to nanosuspension fabricating with solvent evaporation and ultrasonication technique

    PubMed Central

    Phaechamud, Thawatchai; Tuntarawongsa, Sarun

    2016-01-01

    Eutectic solvent can solubilize high amount of some therapeutic compounds. Volatile eutectic solvent is interesting to be used as solvent in the preparation of nanosuspension with emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The mechanism of transformation from the eutectic emulsion to nanosuspension was investigated in this study. The 30% w/w ibuprofen eutectic solution was used as the internal phase, and the external phase is composed of Tween 80 as emulsifier. Ibuprofen nanosuspension was prepared by eutectic emulsion solvent evaporating method followed with ultrasonication. During evaporation process, the ibuprofen concentration in emulsion droplets was increased leading to a drug supersaturation but did not immediately recrystallize because of low glass transition temperature (Tg) of ibuprofen. The contact angle of the internal phase on ibuprofen was apparently lower than that of the external phase at all times of evaporation, indicating that the ibuprofen crystals were preferentially wetted by the internal phase than the external phase. From calculated dewetting value ibuprofen crystallization occurred in the droplet. Crystallization of the drug was initiated with external mechanical force, and the particle size of the drug was larger due to Ostwald ripening. Cavitation force from ultrasonication minimized the ibuprofen crystals to the nanoscale. Particle size and zeta potential of formulated ibuprofen nanosuspension were 330.87±51.49 nm and −31.1±1.6 mV, respectively, and exhibited a fast dissolution. Therefore, the combination of eutectic emulsion solvent evaporation method with ultrasonication was favorable for fabricating an ibuprofen nanosuspension, and the transformation mechanism was attained successfully. PMID:27366064

  7. Transformation of eutectic emulsion to nanosuspension fabricating with solvent evaporation and ultrasonication technique.

    PubMed

    Phaechamud, Thawatchai; Tuntarawongsa, Sarun

    2016-01-01

    Eutectic solvent can solubilize high amount of some therapeutic compounds. Volatile eutectic solvent is interesting to be used as solvent in the preparation of nanosuspension with emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The mechanism of transformation from the eutectic emulsion to nanosuspension was investigated in this study. The 30% w/w ibuprofen eutectic solution was used as the internal phase, and the external phase is composed of Tween 80 as emulsifier. Ibuprofen nanosuspension was prepared by eutectic emulsion solvent evaporating method followed with ultrasonication. During evaporation process, the ibuprofen concentration in emulsion droplets was increased leading to a drug supersaturation but did not immediately recrystallize because of low glass transition temperature (T g) of ibuprofen. The contact angle of the internal phase on ibuprofen was apparently lower than that of the external phase at all times of evaporation, indicating that the ibuprofen crystals were preferentially wetted by the internal phase than the external phase. From calculated dewetting value ibuprofen crystallization occurred in the droplet. Crystallization of the drug was initiated with external mechanical force, and the particle size of the drug was larger due to Ostwald ripening. Cavitation force from ultrasonication minimized the ibuprofen crystals to the nanoscale. Particle size and zeta potential of formulated ibuprofen nanosuspension were 330.87±51.49 nm and -31.1±1.6 mV, respectively, and exhibited a fast dissolution. Therefore, the combination of eutectic emulsion solvent evaporation method with ultrasonication was favorable for fabricating an ibuprofen nanosuspension, and the transformation mechanism was attained successfully. PMID:27366064

  8. Numerical study of the effect of the shape of the phase diagram on the eutectic freezing temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ode, M.; Shimono, M.; Sasajima, N.; Yamada, Y.; Bloembergen, P.

    2013-09-11

    To evaluate the reliability of metal-carbon eutectic systems as fixed points for the next generation of high-temperature standards the effect of thermodynamic properties related to the shape of eutectic phase diagram on the freezing temperature is investigated within the context of the numerical multi-phase-field model. The partition coefficient and liquidus slopes of the two solids involved in the eutectic reaction are varied deliberately and independently. The difference between the eutectic temperature and the freezing temperature is determined in dependence of the solid/liquid (s/l) interface shape and concentration. Where appropriate reference is made to the Jackson-Hunt analytical theory. It is shown that there are mainly two typical conditions to decrease the undercooling: 1) a small liquidus slope and 2) the associated difference between the eutectic composition and the liquid composition during solidification.

  9. Directionally solidified Eu doped CaF2/Li3AlF6 eutectic scintillator for neutron detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, Kei; Hishinuma, Kousuke; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Pejchal, Jan; Ohashi, Yuji; Yokota, Yuui; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2015-12-01

    Eu doped CaF2/Li3AlF6 eutectics were grown by μ-PD method. The directionally solidified eutectic with well-aligned 600 nm diameter Eu:CaF2 scintillator fibers surrounded with Li3AlF6 was prepared. The grown eutectics showed an emission peak at 422 nm ascribed to Eu2+ 4f-5d transition from Eu:CaF2 scintillation fiber. Li concentration in the Eu:CaF2-Li3AlF6 eutectic is around 0.038 mol/cm3,which is two times higher than that of LiCaAlF6 single crystal (0.016 mol/cm3). The light yield of Eu:CaF2-Li3AlF6 eutectic was around 7000 ph/neutron. The decay time was about 550 ns (89%) and 1450 ns (11%).

  10. Study of local structure in hyper-eutectic Zr-Cu-Al bulk glassy alloys by positron annihilation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, T.; Ishii, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Konno, T. J.; Iwase, A.; Hori, F.

    2016-01-01

    The Zr-Cu-Al bulk glassy (BG) alloy, which has amorphous structure, possesses various properties such as high strength and toughness with compositional dependence. In the present study, density, positron annihilation lifetime and coincidence Doppler Broadening measurement have been performed for various compositional hyper-eutectic Zr-Cu-Al BG alloys. The density of hyper-eutectic Zr-Cu-Al BG alloys increases with decreasing of Zr fraction. In contrast, positron lifetime for all compositional alloys is almost constant about 165 psec. In addition, the CDB ratio profile is almost the same for hyper-eutectic alloys. This unchanging trend of CDB ratio profile is quite different from that of hypo-eutectic BG alloys. These results reveal that different internal structure exists in hyper and hypo-eutectic BG alloys.

  11. Microstructural variations induced by gravity level during directional solidification of near-eutectic iron-carbon type alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, Doru M.; Fiske, Michael R.; Curreri, Peter A.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of gravity on the microstructure of directionally solidified near-eutectic cast irons are studied, using a Bridgman-type automatic directional solidification furnace aboard a NASA KC-135 aircraft which flies parabolic arcs and generates alternating periods of low-g (0.01 to 0.001 g, 30 seconds long) and high-g (1.8 g, 1.5 minutes long). Results show a refinement of the interlamellar spacing of the eutectic during low-g processing of metastable Fe-C eutectic alloys. Low-g processing of stable Fe-C-Si eutectic alloys (lamellar or spheroidal graphic) results in a coarsening of the eutectic grain structure. Secondary dendrite arm spacing of austenite increases in low-g and decreases in high-g. The effectiveness of low-gravity in the removal of buoyancy-driven graphite phase segregation is demonstrated.

  12. Water purification using organic salts

    DOEpatents

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  13. Ionic liquids and deep eutectic mixtures: sustainable solvents for extraction processes.

    PubMed

    Pena-Pereira, Francisco; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, ionic liquids and deep eutectic mixtures have demonstrated great potential in extraction processes relevant to several scientific and technological activities. This review focuses on the applicability of these sustainable solvents in a variety of extraction techniques, including but not limited to liquid- and solid-phase (micro) extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction. Selected applications of ionic liquids and deep eutectic mixtures on analytical method development, removal of environmental pollutants, selective isolation, and recovery of target compounds, purification of fuels, and azeotrope breaking are described and discussed. PMID:24811900

  14. The influences of convection on directional solidification of eutectic Bi/MnBi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, David J., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Eutectic alloys of Bi-Mn were directionally solidified using the Bridgman-Stockbarger technique to determine the influences of gravitationally-driven thermo-solutal convection on the Bi-MnBi rod eutectic. Experiments were conducted that varied the level of convection by varying the growth parameters and growth orientation, by microgravity damping, by applied magnetic field damping, and by imposing forced convection. Peltier interface demarcation and in situ thermocouple measurements were used to monitor interface velocity and thermal gradient and to evaluate interface planarity.

  15. Numerical study: Iron corrosion-resistance in lead-bismuth eutectic coolant by molecular dynamics method

    SciTech Connect

    Arkundato, Artoto; Su'ud, Zaki; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Widayani,; Celino, Massimo

    2012-06-06

    In this present work, we report numerical results of iron (cladding) corrosion study in interaction with lead-bismuth eutectic coolant of advanced nuclear reactors. The goal of this work is to study how the oxygen can be used to reduce the corrosion rate of cladding. The molecular dynamics method was applied to simulate corrosion process. By evaluating the diffusion coefficients, RDF functions, MSD curves of the iron and also observed the crystal structure of iron before and after oxygen injection to the coolant then we concluded that a significant and effective reduction can be achieved by issuing about 2% number of oxygen atoms to lead-bismuth eutectic coolant.

  16. Wear resistance of composite material made of eutectic steel and bronze powders

    SciTech Connect

    Mikulyak, O.V.; Shurin, A.K.

    1994-07-01

    The tribological properties of a hardened steel U8-composite pair in contact in which bronze is used as the matrix and eutectic alloy powder (steel 30 Kh13 with 15 wt.% VC of eutectic structure) is used as a filler are studied under conditions of reciprocal sliding friction without lubrication. Composite and counterbody wear is not uniform and depends on the amount of filler within the range 20-80%. A composite with 80% filler has good tribological properties and satisfactory lathe machining.

  17. Solubility and excessive thermodynamic characteristics of Pr and Nd in the Ga-Sn eutectic alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchakov, S. Yu.; Yamshchikov, L. F.; Osipenko, A. G.; Pozdeev, P. A.; Rusakov, M. A.

    2015-08-01

    The praseodymium and neodymium solubilities in the gallium-tin eutectic melt were measured for the first time in a temperature range of 423-1073 K using a high-temperature sampling technique. The data on the activity and solubility are used to calculate the activity coefficients, the excessive thermodynamic characteristics of α-praseodymium and α-neodymium in the Ga-Sn eutectic melts, and the separation factor for the Pr/Nd pair on gallium-tin electrodes in chloride melts.

  18. Electrical contact at the interface between silicon and transfer-printed gold films by eutectic joining.

    PubMed

    Keum, Hohyun; Chung, Hyun-Joong; Kim, Seok

    2013-07-10

    This paper presents the electrical and morphological properties at the interface between a metal (Au) and a semiconductor (Si) formed by a novel transfer-printing technology. This work shows that a transfer-printed thin (hundreds of nanometers) Au film forms excellent electrical contact on a Si substrate when appropriate thermal treatment is applied. The successful electrical contact is attributed to eutectic joining, which allows for the right amount of atomic level mass transport between Au and Si. The outcomes suggest that transfer-printing-based micromanufacturing can realize not only strong mechanical bonding but also high-quality electrical contact via eutectic joining. PMID:23751269

  19. Microtexture and macrotexture formation in the containerless solidification of undercooled Ni-18.7 at.% Sn eutectic melts

    SciTech Connect

    Li Mingjun . E-mail: li.mingjun@jaxa.jp; Nagashio, Kosuke; Ishikawa, Takehiko; Yoda, Shinichi; Kuribayashi, Kazuhiko

    2005-02-01

    The microscopic orientations of Ni-18.7 at.% Sn eutectics solidified from undercooled states, in particular, within an individual eutectic colony and among neighboring eutectic colonies, have been measured with respect to the eutectic Ni{sub 3}Sn and Ni phases; this was done using a scanning electron microscope equipped with the electron backscatter diffraction pattern (EBSP) mapping technique. The EBSPs and inverse pole figures indicate that the Ni{sub 3}Sn intermetallic compound is continuous and well oriented whereas the Ni solid solution is discontinuous and randomly oriented within an anomalous eutectic grain. Further examination reveals that although Ni particulates are random from an overall view, most neighboring Ni grains have small misorientations of less than 10 deg . The specific solidification sequence and the effect of released crystallization heat on subsequent crystallization are further considered, which enables the primary Ni phase to segment into individual grains whereas Ni{sub 3}Sn does not due to higher entropy of fusion. A little rotation or floating within the constrained framework of the crystallizing Ni{sub 3}Sn compound may yield small misorientation angles. The discontinuous Ni particulates and continuous Ni{sub 3}Sn network are of great significance in revealing the anomalous eutectic formation. The orientation among independent eutectic colonies is random owing to the random appearance of nuclei throughout the volume of undercooled melts. The macrotextures of pole figures (PFs) of two eutectic phases are also mapped versus melt undercooling, which can be interpreted well when considering the nucleation frequency, variation of eutectic colony size, microtexture within a single eutectic colony, and the overall microstructure evolution as a function of melt undercooling.

  20. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

  1. Soluble salts at the Phoenix Lander site, Mars: A reanalysis of the Wet Chemistry Laboratory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toner, J. D.; Catling, D. C.; Light, B.

    2014-07-01

    The Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) on the Phoenix Mars Scout Lander analyzed soils for soluble ions and found Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, and ClO4-. The salts that gave rise to these ions can be inferred using aqueous equilibrium models; however, model predictions are sensitive to the initial solution composition. This is problematic because the WCL data is noisy and many different ion compositions are possible within error bounds. To better characterize ion concentrations, we reanalyzed WCL data using improvements to original analyses, including Kalman optimal smoothing and ion-pair corrections. Our results for Rosy Red are generally consistent with previous analyses, except that Ca2+ and Cl- concentrations are lower. In contrast, ion concentrations in Sorceress 1 and Sorceress 2 are significantly different from previous analyses. Using the more robust Rosy Red WCL analysis, we applied equilibrium models to determine salt compositions within the error bounds of the reduced data. Modeling with FREZCHEM predicts that WCL solutions evolve Ca-Mg-ClO4-rich compositions at low temperatures. These unusual compositions are likely influenced by limitations in the experimental data used to parameterize FREZCHEM. As an alternative method to evaluate salt assemblages, we employed a chemical divide model based on the eutectic temperatures of salts. Our chemical divide model predicts that the most probable salts in order of mass abundance are MgSO4·11H2O (meridianiite), MgCO3·nH2O, Mg(ClO4)2·6H2O, NaClO4·2H2O, KClO4, NaCl·2H2O (hydrohalite), and CaCO3 (calcite). If ClO3- is included in the chemical divide model, then NaClO3 precipitates instead of NaClO4·2H2O and Mg(ClO3)2·6H2O precipitates in addition to Mg(ClO4)2·6H2O. These salt assemblages imply that at least 1.3 wt.% H2O is bound in the soil, noting that we cannot account for water in hydrated insoluble salts or deliquescent brines. All WCL solutions within error bounds precipitate Mg(ClO4)2·6H2O and/or Mg

  2. How polar are choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents?

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ashish; Rai, Rewa; Pal, Mahi; Pandey, Siddharth

    2014-01-28

    Developing and characterizing green solvents with low toxicity and cost is one of the most important issues in chemistry. Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs), in this regard, have shown tremendous promise. Compared to popular organic solvents, DESs possess negligible VOCs and are non-flammable. Compared to ionic liquids, which share many characteristics but are ionic compounds and not ionic mixtures, DESs are cheaper to make, much less toxic and mostly biodegradable. An estimate of the polarity associated with DESs is essential if they are to be used as green alternatives to common organic solvents in industries and academia. As no one physical parameter can satisfactorily represent solute-solvent interactions within a medium, polarity of DESs is assessed through solvatochromic optical spectroscopic responses of several UV-vis absorbance and molecular fluorescence probes. Information on the local microenvironment (i.e., the cybotactic region) that surrounds several solvatochromic probes [betaine dye, pyrene, pyrene-1-carboxaldehyde, 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS), p-toluidinyl-6-naphthalene sulfonate (TNS), 6-propionyl-2-(dimethylaminonaphthalene) (PRODAN), coumarin-153, and Nile Red] for four common and popular DESs formed from choline chloride combined with 1,2-ethanediol, glycerol, urea, and malonic acid, respectively, in 1 : 2 molar ratios termed ethaline, glyceline, reline, and maline is obtained and used to assess the effective polarity afforded by each of these DESs. The four DESs as indicated by these probe responses are found to be fairly dipolar in nature. Absorbance probe betaine dye and fluorescence probes ANS, TNS, PRODAN, coumarin-153, and Nile Red, whose solvatochromic responses are based on photoinduced charge-transfer, imply ethaline and glyceline, DESs formed using alcohol-based H-bond donors, to be relatively more dipolar in nature as compared to reline and maline. The pyrene polarity scale, which is based on polarity-induced changes in

  3. Cooking without salt

    MedlinePlus

    ... flavor and nutrition. Plant-based foods -- carrots, spinach, apples, and peaches -- are naturally salt-free. Sun-dried ... types of pepper, including black, white, green, and red. Experiment with vinegars (white and red wine, rice ...

  4. Shaking the Salt Habit

    MedlinePlus

    ... use the pepper shaker or mill. Add fresh lemon juice instead of salt to season fish and ... soups, salads, vegetables, tomatoes, potatoes Ginger: Chicken, fruits Lemon juice: Lean meats, fish, poultry, salads, vegetables Mace: ...

  5. Amine salts of nitroazoles

    DOEpatents

    Kienyin Lee; Stinecipher, M.M.

    1993-10-26

    Compositions of matter, a method of providing chemical energy by burning said compositions, and methods of making said compositions are described. These compositions are amine salts of nitroazoles. 1 figure.

  6. Electrodialysis technology for salt recovery from aluminum salt cake

    SciTech Connect

    Hryn, J. N.; Krumdick, G.; Graziano, D.; Sreenivasarao, K.

    2000-02-02

    Electrodialysis technology for recovering salt from aluminum salt cake is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Salt cake, a slag-like aluminum-industry waste stream, contains aluminum metal, salt (NaCl and KCl), and nonmetallics (primarily aluminum oxide). Salt cake can be recycled by digesting with water and filtering to recover the metal and oxide values. A major obstacle to widespread salt cake recycling is the cost of recovering salt from the process brine. Electrodialysis technology developed at Argonne appears to be a cost-effective approach to handling the salt brines, compared to evaporation or disposal. In Argonne's technology, the salt brine is concentrated until salt crystals are precipitated in the electrodialysis stack; the crystals are recovered downstream. The technology is being evaluated on the pilot scale using Eurodia's EUR 40-76-5 stack.

  7. Salt Lake City, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Salt Lake City, Utah, will host the 2002 Winter Olympic Games. The city is located on the southeastern shore of the Great Salt Lake and sits to the west of the Wasatch Mountains, which rise more than 3,500 meters (10,000 feet) above sea level. The city was first settled in 1847 by pioneers seeking relief from religious persecution. Today Salt Lake City, the capital of Utah, is home to more than 170,000 residents. This true-color image of Salt Lake City was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), flying aboard Landsat 7, on May 26, 2000. The southeastern tip of the Great Salt Lake is visible in the upper left of the image. The furrowed green and brown landscape running north-south is a portion of the Wasatch Mountains, some of which are snow-capped (white pixels). The greyish pixels in the center of the image show the developed areas of the city. A number of water reservoirs can be seen east of the mountain range. Salt Lake City International Airport is visible on the northwestern edge of the city. About 20 miles south of the airport is the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine (tan pixels), the world's largest open pit excavation. See also this MODIS image of Utah. Image courtesy NASA Landsat7 Science Team and USGS Eros Data Center

  8. Redox condition in molten salts and solute behavior: A first-principles molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Hyo On; Morgan, Dane

    2015-10-01

    Molten salts technology is of significant interest for nuclear, solar, and other energy systems. In this work, first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) was used to model the solute behavior in eutectic LiCl-KCl and FLiBe (Li2BeF4) melts at 773 K and 973 K, respectively. The thermo-kinetic properties for solute systems such as the redox potential, solute diffusion coefficients and structural information surrounding the solute were predicted from FPMD modeling and the calculated properties are generally in agreement with the experiments. In particular, we formulate an approach to model redox energetics vs. chlorine (or fluorine) potential from first-principles approaches. This study develops approaches for, and demonstrates the capabilities of, FPMD to model solute properties in molten salts.

  9. The binary eutectic of NSAIDS and two-phase liquid system for enhanced membrane permeation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xudong; Capomacchia, A C

    2005-01-01

    The eutectic properties of binary mixtures of some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with ibuprofen were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and phase equilibrium diagrams. The melting points of selected NSAIDs were significantly depressed due to binary eutectic formation with ibuprofen. Ketoprofen and ibuprofen were selected to study the effect of eutectic formation on membrane permeation using Franz diffusion cells and snake skin as the model membrane. The presence of aqueous isopropyl alcohol (IPA) was necessary to completely transform the solid drugs into an oily state at ambient temperature. As much as the 99.6% of ibuprofen and the 88.8% of ketoprofen added were found in the oily phase of the two-phase liquid system formed when aqueous IPA was added to the eutectic mixture. Due to the high drug concentration in the oily phase, and maximum thermodynamic activity, the two-phase liquid system showed enhanced membrane permeation rates of ibuprofen (37.5 microg/cm2/hr) and ketoprofen (33.4 microg/cm2/hr) compared to other reference preparations used. PMID:15776808

  10. Characterization of thermal behavior of deep eutectic solvents and their potential as drug solubilization vehicles.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Henry G; Sun, Changquan C; Neervannan, Sesha

    2009-08-13

    Deep eutectic solvent (DES) is a new class of solvents typically formed by mixing choline chloride with hydrogen bond donors such as amines, acids, and alcohols. Most DES's are non-reactive with water, biodegradable, and have acceptable toxicity profiles. Urea-choline chloride and malonic acid-choline chloride eutectic systems were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal microscopy. A potential new 2:1 urea-choline chloride cocrystal with a melting point of 25 degrees C was characterized at the eutectic composition. The formation of this cocrystal suggests that DES should not be universally explained by simple eutectic melting, and may be useful in guiding the search for new DES systems. The lack of nucleation of the malonic acid-choline chloride system prohibited the construction of a phase diagram for this system using DSC. We also investigated possible uses of DES in solubilizing poorly soluble compounds for enhanced bioavailability in early drug development such as toxicology studies. For five poorly soluble model compounds, solubility in DES is 5 to 22,000 folds more than that in water. Thus, DES can be a promising vehicle for increasing exposure of poorly soluble compounds in preclinical studies. PMID:19477257

  11. Efficient continuous synthesis of high purity deep eutectic solvents by twin screw extrusion.

    PubMed

    Crawford, D E; Wright, L A; James, S L; Abbott, A P

    2016-03-18

    Mechanochemical synthesis has been applied to the rapid synthesis of Deep Eutectic Solvents (DESs), including Reline 200 (choline chloride : urea, 1 : 2), in a continuous flow methodology by Twin Screw Extrusion (TSE). This gave products in higher purity and with Space Time Yields (STYs), four orders of magnitude greater than for batch methods. PMID:26911554

  12. A New Analytical Approach to Predict Spacing Selection in Lamellar and Rod Eutectic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catalina, Adrian V.; Sen, Subhayu; Stefanescu, Doru M.

    2003-01-01

    The Jackson and Hunt (JH) theory has been modified to relax the assumption of isothermal solid liquid interface used in their treatment. Based on the predictions of this modified theory, the traditional definitions of regular and irregular eutectics are revised. For regular eutectics, the new model identifies a range of spacing within the limits defined by the minimum undercooling of the a and beta phases. For the irregular Al-Si eutectic system, two different spacing selection mechanisms were identified: (1) for a particular growth rate, a nearly isothermal interface can be achieved at a unique minimum spacing lambda (sub t); (2) the average spacing (lambda (sub av) greater than lambda (sub t) is essentially dictated by the undercooling of the faceted phase. Based on the modified theoretical model, a semiempirical expression has been developed to account for the influence of the temperature gradient, which is dominant in the irregular Al-Si system. The behavior of the Fe-Fe3C eutectic is also discussed. The theoretical calculations have been found to be in good agreement with the published experimental measurements.

  13. A New Analytical Approach to Predict Spacing Selection in Lamellar and Rod Eutectic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catalina, Adrian V.; Sen, Subhayu; Stefanescu, D. M.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Jackson and Hunt (JH) theory has been modified to relax the assumption of isothermal solid/liquid interface(SLI) used in their treatment. Based on the predictions of this modified theory the traditional definitions of regular and irregular eutectics are revised. For regular eutectics the new model identifies a range of spacing within the limits defined by the minimum undercooling of the alpha and beta phase. For the irregular Al-Si eutectic system two different spacing selection mechanisms were identified: a) for a particular growth rate, a nearly isothermal interface can be achieved at a unique minimum spacing lambda(sub I); b) the average spacing (lambda(sub av) greater than lambda(sub I)) is essentially dictated by the undercooling of the faceted phase. Based on the modified theoretical model a semiempirical expression has been developed to account for the influence of the temperature gradient, which is dominant in the irregular Al-Si system. The behavior of the Fe-Fe3C eutectic is also discussed The theoretical calculations have been found to be in good agreement with the published experimental measurements.

  14. A novel LiCl-BaCl2:Eu2+ eutectic scintillator for thermal neutron detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuntao; Lukosi, Eric D.; Zhuravleva, Mariya; Lindsey, Adam C.; Melcher, Charles L.

    2015-10-01

    A natLiCl-BaCl2:Eu2+ eutectic scintillator was synthesized by the vertical Bridgman method aiming at the application of thermal neutron detection. The molar ratio of LiCl and BaCl2 was 75.1/24.9, which corresponds to the eutectic composition in the LiCl-BaCl2 system. The grown eutectic showed a periodic microstructure of BaCl2:Eu2+ and LiCl phases with 2-3 μm thickness. The α-particle induced radioluminescence spectrum of the scintillator showed an intense emission peak at 406 nm due to the Eu2+ 5d1→4f emission from the BaCl2:Eu2+ phase and an additional weak emission peak at 526 nm. The scintillation decay time was 412 ns. LiCl-BaCl2:Eu2+ eutectic samples exhibited non-correlated neutron detection efficiency and light yield as a function of crystal length, suggesting material non-uniformities within the boule. The relative light yield was equal to or greater than that of Nucsafe lithium glass. Gamma-ray exposures indicate that gamma/neutron threshold discrimination for higher energy gamma-rays will be limited.

  15. Use of Eutectic Fixed Points to Characterize a Spectrometer for Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, Saber G. R.; Fox, Nigel P.; Woolliams, Emma R.; Winkler, Rainer; Pegrum, Heather M.; Sun, Tong; Grattan, Ken T. V.

    2007-12-01

    A small palm-sized, reference spectrometer, mounted on a remote-controlled model helicopter is being developed and tested by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in conjunction with City University, London. The developed system will be used as a key element for field vicarious calibration of optical earth observation systems in the visible-near infrared (VNIR) region. The spectrometer is hand held, low weight, and uses a photodiode array. It has good stray light rejection and wide spectral coverage, allowing simultaneous measurements from 400 to 900 nm. The spectrometer is traceable to NPL’s primary standard cryogenic radiometer via a high-temperature metal-carbon eutectic fixed-point blackbody. Once the fixed-point temperature has been determined (using filter radiometry), the eutectic provides a high emissivity and high stability source of known spectral radiance over the emitted spectral range. All wavelength channels of the spectrometer can be calibrated simultaneously using the eutectic transition without the need for additional instrumentation. The spectrometer itself has been characterized for stray light performance and wavelength accuracy. Its long-term and transportation stability has been proven in an experiment that determined the “World’s Bluest Sky”—a process that involved 56 flights, covering 100,000 km in 72 days. This vicarious calibration methodology using a eutectic standard is presented alongside the preliminary results of an evaluation study of the spectrometer characteristics.

  16. Mechanical Properties and Fracture Behavior of Directionally Solidified NiAl-V Eutectic Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milenkovic, Srdjan; Caram, Rubens

    2015-02-01

    Directional solidification of eutectic alloys has been recognized as promising technique for producing in situ composite materials exhibiting balance of properties. Therefore, an in situ NiAl-V eutectic composite has been successfully directionally solidified using Bridgman technique. The mechanical behavior of the composite including fracture resistance, microhardness, and compressive properties at room and elevated temperatures was investigated. Damage evolution and fracture characteristics were also discussed. The obtained results indicate that the NiAl-V eutectic retains high yield strength up to 1073 K (800 °C), above which there is a rapid decrease in strength. Its yield strength is higher than that of binary NiAl and most of the NiAl-based eutectics. The exhibited fracture toughness of 28.5 MPa√m is the highest of all other NiAl-based systems investigated so far. The material exhibited brittle fracture behavior of transgranular type and all observations pointed out that the main fracture micromechanism was cleavage.

  17. Free energy change of off-eutectic binary alloys on solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohsaka, K.; Trinh, E. H.; Lin, J.-C.; Perepezko, J. H.

    1991-01-01

    A formula for the free energy difference between the undercooled liquid phase and the stable solid phase is derived for off-eutectic binary alloys in which the equilibrium solid/liquid transition takes place over a certain temperature range. The free energy change is then evaluated numerically for a Bi-25 at. pct Cd alloy modeled as a sub-subregular solution.

  18. Deep eutectic solvents as novel extraction media for phenolic compounds from model oil.

    PubMed

    Gu, Tongnian; Zhang, Mingliang; Tan, Ting; Chen, Jia; Li, Zhan; Zhang, Qinghua; Qiu, Hongdeng

    2014-10-11

    Deep eutectic solvents (DES) as a new kind of green solvent were used for the first time to excellently extract phenolic compounds from model oil. It was also proved that DES could be used to extract other polar compounds from non-polar or weakly-polar solvents by liquid-phase microextraction. PMID:25144155

  19. Oxygen-iron interaction in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic alloy.

    PubMed

    Aerts, A; Gavrilov, S; Manfredi, G; Marino, A; Rosseel, K; Lim, J

    2016-07-20

    Iron released by steel corrosion was found to be a key impurity in reactions with dissolved oxygen in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic alloys. The iron-oxygen-magnetite equilibrium was characterized, allowing the quantification of phenomena that are important for long-term operation of lead-alloy based installations such as corrosion rate control and management of precipitates. PMID:27383127

  20. Evaluation of magnesium-aluminum eutectic to improve combustion efficiency in low burning rate propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, B. G.; Sullivan, E. M.

    1973-01-01

    A previous investigation indicated that combustion efficiency of low burning-rate propellants could be improved if the aluminum fuel was replaced by aluminum particles coated with a magnesium-aluminum eutectic alloy (ALCAL). The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the possibility of improving the combustion efficiency of these propellants by admixing the eutectic with the aluminum rather than coating the aluminum. Tests of three propellants similar in every respect except for the metal fuel were conducted in test motors with 4.54 kg (10 lbm) of propellant. The first propellant used aluminum fuel; the second contained aluminum admixed with magnesium-aluminum eutectic; the third used ALCAL. The test results show the the admixed fuel gave better low burning-rate combustion efficiency than the other two. The test results also showed that the ALCAL was deficient in that much, if not all, of the coating material could be found as the fine particles in a bimodal mix of aluminum and eutectic. The combustion efficiency of low burning-rate aluminized propellants can be significantly improved by mixing a small amount of magnesium-aluminum alloy with the aluminum fuel.

  1. Experimental investigation of forced-convection heat-transfer characteristics of lead-bismuth eutectic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubarsky, Bernard

    1951-01-01

    The forced-convection heat-transfer characteristics of lead-bismuth eutectic were experimentally investigated. Experimental values of Nusselt number for lead-bismuth fell considerably below predicted values. The addition of a wetting agent did not change the heat transfer characteristics.

  2. Electrodeposition of Mg-Li-Al-La Alloys on Inert Cathode in Molten LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei; Chen, Qiong; Sun, Yi; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Milin

    2011-12-01

    Electrochemical preparation of Mg-Li-Al-La alloys on inert electrodes was investigated in LiCl-KCl melt at 853 K (580 °C). Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) and square wave voltammograms (SWVs) show that the existence of AlCl3 or AlF3 could promote La deposition on an active Al substrate, which is predeposited on inert electrodes. All electrochemical tests show that the reduction of La3+ is a one-step reduction process with three electrons exchanged. The reduction of La(III)→La(0) occurred at -2.04 V, and the underpotential deposition (UPD) of La was detected at -1.55 V ( vs Ag/AgCl). The same phenomena concerning La UPD were observed on two inert cathodes, W and Mo. In addition, Mg-Li-Al-La alloys were obtained by galvanostatic electrolysis on the W cathode from La2O3 in LiCl-KCl-MgCl2-KF melts with aluminum as the anode. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that various phases like the Al2La, Al12Mg17, and βLi phase (LiMg/Li3Mg7) existed in the Mg-Li-Al-La alloys. The distribution of Mg, Al, and La in Mg-Li-Al-La alloys from the analysis of a scan electron micrograph (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) indicated that the elements Mg, Al, and La distributed homogeneously in the alloys.

  3. Refinement of Eutectic Si in High Purity Al-5Si Alloys with Combined Ca and P Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Thomas Hartmut; Li, Jiehua; Schaffer, Paul Louis; Schumacher, Peter; Arnberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The effects of combined additions of Ca and P on the eutectic Si in a series of high purity Al-5 wt pct Si alloys have been investigated with the entrained droplet technique and complementary sets of conventional castings. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal analysis were used to investigate the eutectic droplet undercooling and the recalescence undercooling, respectively. Optical microscopy, SEM, EPMA, and TEM were employed to characterize the resultant microstructures. It was found that 250 ppm Ca addition to Al-5Si wt pct alloys with higher P contents leads to a significant increase of the eutectic droplet undercooling. For low or moderate cooling rates, the TEM results underline that Ca additions do not promote Si twinning. Thus, a higher twin density cannot be expected in Ca containing Al-Si alloys after, e.g., sand casting. Consequently, a refinement of the eutectic Si from coarse flake-like to fine plate-like structure, rather than a modification of the eutectic Si to a fibrous morphology, was achieved. This strongly indicates that the main purpose of Ca additions is to counteract the coarsening effect of the eutectic Si imposed by higher P concentrations. Significant multiple Si twinning was observed in melt-spun condition; however, this can be attributed to the higher cooling rate. After DSC heating (slow cooling), most of Si twins disappeared. Thus, the well-accepted impurity-induced twinning mechanism may be not valid in the case of Ca addition. The possible refinement mechanisms were discussed in terms of nucleation and growth of eutectic Si. We propose that the pre-eutectic Al2Si2Ca phase and preferential formation of Ca3P2 deactivate impurity particles, most likely AlP, poisoning the nucleation sites for eutectic Si.

  4. An experimental test plan for the characterization of molten salt thermochemical properties in heat transport systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pattrick Calderoni

    2010-09-01

    Molten salts are considered within the Very High Temperature Reactor program as heat transfer media because of their intrinsically favorable thermo-physical properties at temperatures starting from 300 C and extending up to 1200 C. In this context two main applications of molten salt are considered, both involving fluoride-based materials: as primary coolants for a heterogeneous fuel reactor core and as secondary heat transport medium to a helium power cycle for electricity generation or other processing plants, such as hydrogen production. The reference design concept here considered is the Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), which is a large passively safe reactor that uses solid graphite-matrix coated-particle fuel (similar to that used in gas-cooled reactors) and a molten salt primary and secondary coolant with peak temperatures between 700 and 1000 C, depending upon the application. However, the considerations included in this report apply to any high temperature system employing fluoride salts as heat transfer fluid, including intermediate heat exchangers for gas-cooled reactor concepts and homogenous molten salt concepts, and extending also to fast reactors, accelerator-driven systems and fusion energy systems. The purpose of this report is to identify the technical issues related to the thermo-physical and thermo-chemical properties of the molten salts that would require experimental characterization in order to proceed with a credible design of heat transfer systems and their subsequent safety evaluation and licensing. In particular, the report outlines an experimental R&D test plan that would have to be incorporated as part of the design and operation of an engineering scaled facility aimed at validating molten salt heat transfer components, such as Intermediate Heat Exchangers. This report builds on a previous review of thermo-physical properties and thermo-chemical characteristics of candidate molten salt coolants that was generated as part of the

  5. Natural deep eutectic solvents as new potential media for green technology.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yuntao; van Spronsen, Jaap; Witkamp, Geert-Jan; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2013-03-01

    Developing new green solvents is one of the key subjects in Green Chemistry. Ionic liquids (ILs) and deep eutectic solvents, thus, have been paid great attention to replace current harsh organic solvents and have been applied to many chemical processing such as extraction and synthesis. However, current ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents have still limitations to be applied to a real chemical industry due to toxicity against human and environment and high cost of ILs and solid state of most deep eutectic solvents at room temperature. Recently we discovered that many plant abundant primary metabolites changed their state from solid to liquid when they were mixed in proper ratio. This finding made us hypothesize that natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) play a role as alternative media to water in living organisms and tested a wide range of natural products, which resulted in discovery of over 100 NADES from nature. In order to prove deep eutectic feature the interaction between the molecules was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All the tested NADES show clear hydrogen bonding between components. As next step physical properties of NADES such as water activity, density, viscosity, polarity and thermal properties were measured as well as the effect of water on the physical properties. In the last stage the novel NADES were applied to the solubilization of wide range of biomolecules such as non-water soluble bioactive natural products, gluten, starch, and DNA. In most cases the solubility of the biomolecules evaluated in this study was greatly higher than water. Based on the results the novel NADES may be expected as potential green solvents at room temperature in diverse fields of chemistry. PMID:23427801

  6. The fabrication of all-silicon micro gas chromatography columns using gold diffusion eutectic bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radadia, A. D.; Salehi-Khojin, A.; Masel, R. I.; Shannon, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Temperature programming of gas chromatography (GC) separation columns accelerates the elution rate of chemical species through the column, increasing the speed of analysis, and hence making it a favorable technique to speedup separations in microfabricated GCs (micro-GC). Temperature-programmed separations would be preferred in an all-silicon micro-column compared to a silicon-Pyrex® micro-column given that the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of silicon is 2 orders of magnitude higher than Pyrex®. This paper demonstrates how to fabricate all-silicon micro-columns that can withstand the temperature cycling required for temperature-programmed separations. The columns were sealed using a novel bonding process where they were first bonded using a gold eutectic bond, then annealed at 1100 °C to allow gold diffusion into silicon and form what we call a gold diffusion eutectic bond. The gold diffusion eutectic-bonded micro-columns when examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) and blade insertion techniques showed bonding strength comparable to the previously reported anodic-bonded columns. Gas chromatography-based methane injections were also used as a novel way to investigate proper sealing between channels. A unique methane elution peak at various carrier gas inlet pressures demonstrated the suitability of gold diffusion eutectic-bonded channels as micro-GC columns. The application of gold diffusion eutectic-bonded all-silicon micro-columns to temperature-programmed separations (120 °C min-1) was demonstrated with the near-baseline separation of n-C6 to n-C12 alkanes in 35 s.

  7. Transient and steady state creep response of ice I and magnesium sulfate hydrate eutectic aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, C.; Cooper, R.F.; Goldsby, D.L.; Durham, W.B.; Kirby, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    Using uniaxial compression creep experiments, we characterized the transient and steady state deformation behaviors of eutectic aggregates of system ice I and MgSO4 11H2O (MS11; meridianiite), which has significance because of its likely presence on moons of the outer solar system. Synthetic samples of eutectic liquid bulk composition, which produce eutectic colonies containing 0.35-0.50 volume fraction MS11, were tested as functions of colony size and lamellar spacing, temperature (230-250 K), and confining pressure (0.1 and 50 MPa) to strains ???0.2. Up to a differential stress of 6 MPa, the ice I-MS11 aggregates display an order of magnitude higher effective viscosity and higher stress sensitivity than do aggregates of pure polycrystalline ice at the same conditions. The creep data and associated microstructural observations demonstrate, however, that the aggregates are additionally more brittle than pure ice, approaching rate-independent plasticity that includes rupture of the hydrate phase at 6-8 MPa, depending on the scale of the microstructure. Microstructures of deformed samples reveal forms of semibrittle flow in which the hydrate phase fractures while the ice phase deforms plastically. Semibrittle flow in the icy shell of a planetary body would truncate the lithospheric strength envelope and thereby decrease the depth to the brittle-ductile transition by 55% and reduce the failure limit for compressional surface features from 10 to ???6 MPa. A constitutive equation that includes eutectic colony boundary sliding and intracolony flow is used to describe the steady state rheology of the eutectic aggregates. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Simulations of the Eutectic Transformations in the Platinum-Carbon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monas, A.; Bloembergen, P.; Dong, W.; Shchyglo, O.; Steinbach, I.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present the simulation of the eutectic phase transitions in the Pt-C system, in terms of both freezing and melting, using the multi-phase-field model. The experimentally obtained heat-extraction and -injection rates associated with the induction of freezing and melting are converted into the corresponding rates for microstructure-scale simulations. In spite of the extreme differences in the volume fractions of the FCC-Pt-rich phase on the one hand and graphite (C) on the other, satisfactory results for the kinetics of solidification and melting have been obtained, involving reasonable offsets in temperature, inducing freezing and melting, with respect to the equilibrium eutectic temperature. For freezing in the simulations, the needle/rod-like morphology, as experimentally observed, was reproduced for different heat extraction rates. The seemingly anomalous peak characterizing the simulated freezing curves is ascribed to the speed up of the solidification process due to the curvature effect. Similarly, a peak is observed in the experimental freezing curves, also showing up more clearly with increasing freezing rates. Melting was simulated starting from a frozen structure produced by a freezing simulation. The simulations reproduce the experimental melting curves and, together with the simulated freezing curves, help to understand the phase transition of the Pt-C eutectic. Finally, the effect of metallic impurities was studied. As shown for Au, impurities affect the morphology of the eutectic structure, their impact increasing with the impurity content, i.e., they can act as modifiers of the structure, as earlier reported for irregular eutectics.

  9. Transient and steady state creep response of ice I and magnesium sulfate hydrate eutectic aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Christine; Cooper, Reid F.; Goldsby, David L.; Durham, William B.; Kirby, Stephen H.

    2011-04-01

    Using uniaxial compression creep experiments, we characterized the transient and steady state deformation behaviors of eutectic aggregates of system ice I and MgSO4 • 11H2O (MS11; meridianiite), which has significance because of its likely presence on moons of the outer solar system. Synthetic samples of eutectic liquid bulk composition, which produce eutectic colonies containing 0.35-0.50 volume fraction MS11, were tested as functions of colony size and lamellar spacing, temperature (230-250 K), and confining pressure (0.1 and 50 MPa) to strains ≤ 0.2. Up to a differential stress of 6 MPa, the ice I-MS11 aggregates display an order of magnitude higher effective viscosity and higher stress sensitivity than do aggregates of pure polycrystalline ice at the same conditions. The creep data and associated microstructural observations demonstrate, however, that the aggregates are additionally more brittle than pure ice, approaching rate-independent plasticity that includes rupture of the hydrate phase at 6-8 MPa, depending on the scale of the microstructure. Microstructures of deformed samples reveal forms of semibrittle flow in which the hydrate phase fractures while the ice phase deforms plastically. Semibrittle flow in the icy shell of a planetary body would truncate the lithospheric strength envelope and thereby decrease the depth to the brittle-ductile transition by 55% and reduce the failure limit for compressional surface features from 10 to ˜6 MPa. A constitutive equation that includes eutectic colony boundary sliding and intracolony flow is used to describe the steady state rheology of the eutectic aggregates.

  10. Investigation of the final stages of solidification and eutectic phase formation in Re and Ru containing nickel-base superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckl, A.; Rettig, R.; Cenanovic, S.; Göken, M.; Singer, R. F.

    2010-07-01

    The microstructure resulting from the final stages of solidification—commonly referred to as eutectic islands—has been analysed in detail for three nickel-base superalloys containing Re and Ru. Focused ion beam 3-D reconstruction and EBSD-analysis were used to clarify the origin of different eutectic structure types. One common type of parent 3-D eutectic structure was identified. The solidification process of the final solidifying liquid has been further investigated by electron probe microanalysis mappings along with DICTRA simulations. Two models for diffusion controlled phase transformations are shown to present a fair description of the solidification sequence.

  11. Molecular and ionic diffusion in aqueous - deep eutectic solvent mixtures: probing inter-molecular interactions using PFG NMR.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, Carmine; Gladden, Lynn F; Mantle, Mick D; Abbott, Andrew P; Ahmed, Essa I; Al-Murshedi, Azhar Y M; Harris, Robert C

    2015-06-21

    Pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR has been used to probe self-diffusion of molecular and ionic species in aqueous mixtures of choline chloride (ChCl) based deep eutectic solvents (DESs), in order to elucidate the effect of water on motion and inter-molecular interactions between the different species in the mixtures, namely the Ch(+) cation and hydrogen bond donor (HBD). The results reveal an interesting and complex behaviour of such mixtures at a molecular level. In general, it is observed that the hydroxyl protons ((1)H) of Ch(+) and the hydrogen bond donor have diffusion coefficients significantly different from those measured for their parent molecules when water is added. This indicates a clear and significant change in inter-molecular interactions. In aqueous Ethaline, the hydroxyl species of Ch(+) and HBD show a stronger interaction with water as water is added to the system. In the case of Glyceline, water has little effect on both hydroxyl proton diffusion of Ch(+) and HBD. In Reline, it is likely that water allows the formation of small amounts of ammonium hydroxide. The most surprising observation is from the self-diffusion of water, which is considerably higher that expected from a homogeneous liquid. This leads to the conclusion that Reline and Glyceline form mixtures that are inhomogeneous at a microscopic level despite the hydrophilicity of the salt and HBD. This work shows that PFG NMR is a powerful tool to elucidate both molecular dynamics and inter-molecular interactions in complex liquid mixtures, such as the aqueous DES mixtures. PMID:25994171

  12. Deep eutectic solvents: sustainable media for nanoscale and functional materials.

    PubMed

    Wagle, Durgesh V; Zhao, Hua; Baker, Gary A

    2014-08-19

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) represent an alternative class of ionic fluids closely resembling room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), although, strictly speaking, they are distinguished by the fact that they also contain an organic molecular component (typically, a hydrogen bond donor like a urea, amide, acid, or polyol), frequently as the predominant constituent. Practically speaking, DESs are attractive alternatives to RTILs, sharing most of their remarkable qualities (e.g., tolerance to humidity, negligible vapor pressure, thermostability, wide electrochemical potential windows, tunability) while overcoming several limitations associated with their RTIL cousins. Particularly, DESs are typically, less expensive, more synthetically accessible (typically, from bulk commodity chemicals using solvent/waste-free processes), nontoxic, and biodegradable. In this Account, we provide an overview of DESs as designer solvents to create well-defined nanomaterials including shape-controlled nanoparticles, electrodeposited films, metal-organic frameworks, colloidal assemblies, hierarchically porous carbons, and DNA/RNA architectures. These breakthroughs illustrate how DESs can fulfill multiple roles in directing chemistry at the nanoscale: acting as supramolecular template, metal/carbon source, sacrificial agent (e.g., ammonia release from urea), and/or redox agent, all in the absence of formal stabilizing ligand (here, solvent and stabilizer are one and the same). The ability to tailor the physicochemical properties of DESs is central to controlling their interfacial behavior. The preorganized "supramolecular" nature of DESs provides a soft template to guide the formation of bimodal porous carbon networks or the evolution of electrodeposits. A number of essential parameters (viscosity, polarity, surface tension, hydrogen bonding), plus coordination with solutes/surfaces, all play significant roles in modulating species reactivity and mass transport properties governing the

  13. Nickel solubility limit in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, L.; Vanneroy, F.; Diaz Rosado, J. C.; L'Hermite, D.; Tabarant, M.

    2010-05-01

    In the framework of the Accelerator-Driven System (ADS), the Pb-Bi eutectic can be used as spallation target for neutron production. The Pb-Bi flow in contact with the ADS structural steels, T 91 (Fe-9Cr martensitic steel) and 316L (Fe-17Cr-10Ni austenitic steel), can dissolve the main steel components: iron, chromium and nickel. According to literature, in low oxygen containing Pb-Bi, the dissolution rates of 316L depend, at least, on the nickel solubility limit as it dissolves preferentially in the Pb-Bi alloy. Consequently, the determination of this physico-chemical data in the temperature range of the ADS operating conditions (350-450 °C) is needed for the prediction of the corrosion rates in ADS. The nickel solubility limit in Pb-Bi is available in the literature from 400 °C to 900 °C but not for lower temperatures. However, the Ni-Bi phase diagram leads one to suppose that the nickel solubility limit law changes for lower temperatures. Consequently in this study, two experimental techniques have been implemented for the determination of the nickel solubility limit at low temperatures. The first one is performed from 400 °C to 500 °C using the Laser Induce Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The LIBS technique permits to obtain in situ measurements directly performed on liquid Pb-Bi. This characteristic is very interesting as it allows to monitor on line the concentration of the dissolved impurities in the liquid coolant. However, this technique is still under development and optimization on liquid Pb-Bi medium. The second technique is ICP-AES. This technique, commonly used to analyze alloys composition, is interesting as it permits a global analysis of a Pb-Bi sample. Moreover, the measurement made by ICP-AES is very reliable, very accurate and optimized for such analyses. However, this technique is ex situ; this is its main disadvantage. Experiments using ICP-AES were performed from 350 °C to 535 °C. The two techniques lead to the same solubility limit in

  14. Gas releases from salt

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, B.; Neal, J.; Hinkebein, T.

    1998-06-01

    The occurrence of gas in salt mines and caverns has presented some serious problems to facility operators. Salt mines have long experienced sudden, usually unexpected expulsions of gas and salt from a production face, commonly known as outbursts. Outbursts can release over one million cubic feet of methane and fractured salt, and are responsible for the lives of numerous miners and explosions. Equipment, production time, and even entire mines have been lost due to outbursts. An outburst creates a cornucopian shaped hole that can reach heights of several hundred feet. The potential occurrence of outbursts must be factored into mine design and mining methods. In caverns, the occurrence of outbursts and steady infiltration of gas into stored product can effect the quality of the product, particularly over the long-term, and in some cases renders the product unusable as is or difficult to transport. Gas has also been known to collect in the roof traps of caverns resulting in safety and operational concerns. The intent of this paper is to summarize the existing knowledge on gas releases from salt. The compiled information can provide a better understanding of the phenomena and gain insight into the causative mechanisms that, once established, can help mitigate the variety of problems associated with gas releases from salt. Outbursts, as documented in mines, are discussed first. This is followed by a discussion of the relatively slow gas infiltration into stored crude oil, as observed and modeled in the caverns of the US Strategic Petroleum Reserve. A model that predicts outburst pressure kicks in caverns is also discussed.

  15. Mechanism for salt scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  16. Identification of salt-alloy combinations for thermal energy storage applications in advanced solar dynamic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Misra, A. K.

    1987-01-01

    Thermodynamic calculations based on the available data for flouride salt systems reveal that a number of congruently melting compositions and eutectics exist which have the potential to meet the lightweight, high energy storage requirements imposed for advanced solar dynamic systems operating between about 1000 and 1400 K. Compatibility studies to determine suitable containment alloys to be used with NaF-22CaF2-13MgF2, NaF-32CaF2, and NaF-23MgF2 have been conducted at the eutectic temperature + 25 K for each system. For these three NaF-based eutectics, none of the common, commercially available high temperature alloys appear to offer adequate corrosion resistance for a long lifetime; however mild steel, pure nickel and Nb-1Zr could prove useful. These latter materials suggest the possibility that a strong, corrosion resistant, nonrefractory, elevated temperature alloy based on the Ni-Ni3Nb system could be developed.

  17. Geometrical thermodynamics analysis of the change in the Gibbs energy during the nonequilibrium solidification of eutectic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, V. D.; Sobolev, A. Yu.; Sobol', O. V.; Frolova, S. A.; Shchebetovskaya, N. V.

    2015-09-01

    Geometrical thermodynamics is used to analyze the possible dependences of the Gibbs energy on temperature and component concentration in the two-phase region during nonequilibrium solidification of eutectic alloys.

  18. Growth and microstructure evolution of the Nb{sub 2}Al-Al{sub 3}Nb eutectic in situ composite

    SciTech Connect

    Rios, C.T.; Ferrandini, P.L.; Milenkovic, S.; Caram, R. . E-mail: rcaram@fem.unicamp.br

    2005-03-15

    In situ composite materials obtained by directional growth of eutectic alloys usually show improved properties, that make them potential candidates for high temperature applications. The eutectic alloy found in the Al-Nb system is composed of the two intermetallic phases Al{sub 3}Nb (D0{sub 22}) and Nb{sub 2}Al (D8{sub b}). This paper describes the directional solidification of an Al-Nb eutectic alloy using a Bridgman type facility at growth rates varying from 1.0 to 2.9 cm/h. Longitudinal and transverse sections of grown samples were characterized regarding the solidification microstructure by using optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction. Despite both phases being intermetallic compounds, the eutectic microstructure obtained was very regular. The results obtained were discussed regarding the effect of the growth rate on the microstructure, lamellar-rod transition and variation of phase volume fraction.

  19. Automated detection and characterization of microstructural features: application to eutectic particles in single crystal Ni-based superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschopp, M. A.; Groeber, M. A.; Fahringer, R.; Simmons, J. P.; Rosenberger, A. H.; Woodward, C.

    2010-03-01

    Serial sectioning methods continue to produce an abundant amount of image data for quantifying the three-dimensional nature of material microstructures. Here, we discuss a methodology to automate detecting and characterizing eutectic particles taken from serial images of a production turbine blade made of a heat-treated single crystal Ni-based superalloy (PWA 1484). This method includes two important steps for unassisted eutectic particle characterization: automatically identifying a seed point within each particle and segmenting the particle using a region growing algorithm with an automated stop point. Once detected, the segmented eutectic particles are used to calculate microstructural statistics for characterizing and reconstructing statistically representative synthetic microstructures for single crystal Ni-based superalloys. The significance of this work is its ability to automate characterization for analysing the 3D nature of eutectic particles.

  20. Characterization and modeling of microstructural evolution of near-eutectic tin-silver-copper solder joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbrzezny, Adam R.

    Near-eutectic Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solders are currently considered as major lead-free replacement candidates for Sn-Pb eutectic alloys in microelectronics applications. In this thesis, the microstructural thermal stability including recrystallization, grain growth behavior, Pb and Au contamination effects and interaction of the SAC solder with Cu and Ni substrates were investigated. The true eutectic composition of the Sn-Ag-Cu alloy was verified to be Sn3.5Ag0.9Cu wt.%, and the eutectic melting temperature was determined to be 217.4 +/- 0.8°C. The system was classified as belonging to faceting (Cu6Sn5)-faceting (Ag3Sn)-nonfaceting (Sn matrix) ternary eutectic. The most significant consequence of Pb contamination was the formation of a quaternary eutectic phase (Sn-Ag-Cu-Pb) with a melting point at 176°C. Similarly, the presence of gold in the SAC alloy led to a development of a new quaternary phase (Sn-Ag-Cu-Au) melting at 204°C. Prolonged aging of SAC-4 wt.% Au on nickel resulted in the deposition of a new, previously unreported, intermetallic (IMC) layer, ((Au1-xCUx)6Sn 5, 15 wt.% of Au) on top of the existing (Cu1-yNi y)6Sn5 layer. The interfacial products that formed during soldering to copper were Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn. Soldering to nickel resulted in the formation of one layer, (Cu1-yNiy) 6Sn5, which was different from the expected Ni3Sn 4 layer. A small copper content in the SAC solder (0.7 wt.%) was sufficient to promote this thermodynamic shift. Intermetallic growth on Cu during solid state aging was established to be bulk diffusion controlled. The IMC layers in the SAC system grew at a slower rate than in the Sn-Pb system. It was found that the reliability of SAC solder joints on copper was considerably better than on nickel due to copper enrichment during reflow and subsequent Cu6Sn5 intermetallic precipitation. Enhanced copper and silver diffusion followed by tin recrystallization and grain growth, cavity nucleation and subsequent micro-crack linkage formed

  1. Revealing heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik S.; Liu, Xiangfa; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si can be attributed to the presence of AlP. Although P, in the form of AlP particles, is usually observed in the centre of primary Si, there is still a lack of detailed investigations on the distribution of P within primary Si and eutectic Si in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys at the atomic scale. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental investigation on the distribution of P in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. P, in the form of AlP particles, was observed in the centre of primary Si. However, no significant amount of P was detected within primary Si, eutectic Si and the Al matrix. Instead, P was observed at the interface between the Al matrix and eutectic Si, strongly indicating that P, in the form of AlP particles (or AlP ‘patch’ dependent on the P concentration), may have nucleated on the surface of the Al matrix and thereby enhanced the heterogeneous nucleation of eutectic Si. The present investigation reveals some novel insights into heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys and can be used to further develop heterogeneous nucleation mechanisms based on adsorption. PMID:27120994

  2. Design of an In Situ Cross-Linked Eutectic Tablet for Enhanced Delivery of Gastro-Sensitive Proteins and Peptides.

    PubMed

    Choonara, Bibi F; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, a eutectic platform was designed as an in situ cross-linked eutectic tablet for structural protection, enhanced intestinal permeation, and controlled release of proteins after oral administration. Physicochemical and physicomechanical analyses of the eutectic tablets were undertaken to elucidate the in situ cross-linking mechanism, thermal transitions, crystallinity, ex vivo permeation, and in vitro release of the protein. Following thermal characterization, results revealed successful eutectic formation with a melting point to 37°C. Protein release from the formulation was controlled over 24 h with a maximum fractional release of ±0.8 for all formulations. The release pattern alternated between phases of burst and slow release which was attributed to the combined effects of swelling, surface erosion, and in situ cross-linking. Mathematical modeling of the protein release kinetics corresponded best with the Higuichi model with near zero-order (R(2) ≈ 0.9787) release. The permeation-enhancing effect of menthol contained within the eutectic powder blend was investigated and results showed an enhanced protein flux (0.0576-0.0720 mg·cm(-2) h(-1)) across the intestinal tissue model compared with a control formulation. Extensive in vitro characterization highlighted the successful design of the eutectic tablets as a potential oral delivery system for proteins with structural protection, enhanced intestinal permeation, and controlled release. PMID:27262202

  3. Revealing heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik S; Liu, Xiangfa; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si can be attributed to the presence of AlP. Although P, in the form of AlP particles, is usually observed in the centre of primary Si, there is still a lack of detailed investigations on the distribution of P within primary Si and eutectic Si in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys at the atomic scale. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental investigation on the distribution of P in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. P, in the form of AlP particles, was observed in the centre of primary Si. However, no significant amount of P was detected within primary Si, eutectic Si and the Al matrix. Instead, P was observed at the interface between the Al matrix and eutectic Si, strongly indicating that P, in the form of AlP particles (or AlP 'patch' dependent on the P concentration), may have nucleated on the surface of the Al matrix and thereby enhanced the heterogeneous nucleation of eutectic Si. The present investigation reveals some novel insights into heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys and can be used to further develop heterogeneous nucleation mechanisms based on adsorption. PMID:27120994

  4. A feasibility study of a diffusion barrier between Ni-Cr-Al coatings and nickel-based eutectic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, S. G.; Zellars, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    Coating systems have been proposed for potential use on eutectic alloy components in high-temperature gas turbine engines. In a study to prevent the deterioration of such systems by diffusion, a tungsten sheet 25 microns thick was placed between eutectic alloys and an Ni-Cr-Al layer. Layered test specimens were aged at 1100 C for as long as 500 h. Without the tungsten barrier the delta phase of the eutectic deteriorated by diffusion of niobium into the Ni-Cr-Al. Insertion of the tungsten barrier stopped the diffusion of niobium from the delta phase. Chromium diffusion from the Ni-Cr-Al into the gamma/gamma-prime phase of the eutectic was greatly reduced by the barrier. However, the barrier thickness decreased with time, and tungsten diffused into both the Ni-Cr-Al and the eutectic. When the delta platelets were aligned parallel rather than perpendicular to the Ni-Cr-Al layer, diffusion into the eutectic was reduced.

  5. Electronic absorption spectra of U3+ and U4+ in molten LiCl-RbCl eutectic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, T.; Uehara, A.; Fujii, T.; Sato, N.; Yamana, H.

    2010-03-01

    In the non-aqueous reprocessing process of spent nuclear fuels by the pyro-electrochemical method, a spent fuel is dissolved into molten LiCl-KCl and NaCl-CsCl eutectics and dissolved uranium and plutonium are collected as either metal or oxide. However, the binary alkali chloride mixture with the lowest melting point is the LiCl-RbCl eutectic. In this study, electronic absorption spectra of U3+ and U4+ in molten LiCl-RbCl eutectic at various temperatures between 673 and 973 K were measured by the UV/Vis/NIR spectrophotometry. We confirmed that these spectra were similar to those in molten LiCl-KCl and NaCl-CsCl eutectics. The sensitive absorption bands of U4+ in LiCl-RbCl eutectic were found at 22000, 16500, 14900, 8600, and 4950 cm-1. The large absorption bands of U4+ over 25000 cm-1 increased with increasing melt temperature, while absorption peaks at 15500-4000 cm-1 decreased. The large absorption bands of U3+ in LiCl-RbCl eutectic were observed over 14000 cm-1. The sensitive absorption bands of U3+ at Vis/NIR region were found at 13300, 11500-11200, 9800-9400, and 8250 cm-1, and these peaks decreased with increasing temperature.

  6. A comparative study of the microstructures observed in statically cast and continuously cast Bi-In-Sn ternary eutectic alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, S.; Soda, H.; McLean, A.; Rutter, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    A ternary eutectic alloy with a composition of 57.2 pct Bi, 24.8 pct In, and 18 pct Sn was continuously cast into wire of 2 mm diameter with casting speeds of 14 and 79 mm/min using the Ohno Continuous Casting (OCC) process. The microstructures obtained were compared with those of statically cast specimens. Extensive segregation of massive Bi blocks, Bi complex structures, and tin-rich dendrites was found in specimens that were statically cast. Decomposition of {radical}Sn by a eutectoid reaction was confirmed based on microstructural evidence. Ternary eutectic alloy with a cooling rate of approximately 1 C/min formed a double binary eutectic. The double binary eutectic consisted of regions of BiIn and decomposed {radical}Sn in the form of a dendrite cell structure and regions of Bi and decomposed {radical}Sn in the form of a complex-regular cell. The Bi complex-regular cells, which are a ternary eutectic constituent, existed either along the boundaries of the BiIn-decomposed {radical}Sn dendrite cells or at the front of elongated dendrite cell structures. In the continuously cast wires, primary Sn dendrites coupled with a small Bi phase were uniformly distributed within the Bi-In alloy matrix. Neither massive Bi phase, Bi complex-regular cells, no BiIn eutectic dendrite cells were observed, resulting in a more uniform microstructure in contrast to the heavily segregated structures of the statically cast specimens.

  7. Revealing heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik S.; Liu, Xiangfa; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si can be attributed to the presence of AlP. Although P, in the form of AlP particles, is usually observed in the centre of primary Si, there is still a lack of detailed investigations on the distribution of P within primary Si and eutectic Si in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys at the atomic scale. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental investigation on the distribution of P in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. P, in the form of AlP particles, was observed in the centre of primary Si. However, no significant amount of P was detected within primary Si, eutectic Si and the Al matrix. Instead, P was observed at the interface between the Al matrix and eutectic Si, strongly indicating that P, in the form of AlP particles (or AlP ‘patch’ dependent on the P concentration), may have nucleated on the surface of the Al matrix and thereby enhanced the heterogeneous nucleation of eutectic Si. The present investigation reveals some novel insights into heterogeneous nucleation of primary Si and eutectic Si by AlP in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys and can be used to further develop heterogeneous nucleation mechanisms based on adsorption.

  8. Utah: Salt Lake City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... mountains surrounding Salt Lake City are renowned for the dry, powdery snow that results from the arid climate and location at the ... should be used with the red filter placed over your left eye. The canyons and peaks of the Uinta and Wasatch Mountains are ...

  9. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  10. Thallium (I), soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Thallium ( I ) , soluble salts ; CASRN Various Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  11. Uranium, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Uranium , soluble salts ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  12. Nickel, soluble salts

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nickel , soluble salts ; CASRN Various Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  13. Chlorite (sodium salt)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorite ( sodium salt ) ; CASRN 7758 - 19 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  14. Dalapon, sodium salt

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dalapon , sodium salt ; CASRN 75 - 99 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  15. Unitized paramagnetic salt thermometer

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, B.M.

    1982-06-01

    The details of construction and assembly of a cerous magnesium nitrate (CMN) paramagnetic thermometer are presented. The thermometer is a small unit consisting of a primary, two secondaries, the salt pill, and thermal links. The thermometer calibration changes very little on successive coolings and is reliable to 35 mK. A typical calibration curve is also presented.

  16. Salt repository design approach

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a summary discussion of the approaches that have been and will be taken in design of repository facilities for use with disposal of radioactive wastes in salt formations. Since specific sites have yet to be identified, the discussion is at a general level, supplemented with illustrative examples where appropriate. 5 references, 1 figure.

  17. Metals removal from spent salts

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Peter C.; Von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Brummond, William A.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

  18. Actinide removal from spent salts

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Peter C.; von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

  19. Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)

    MedlinePlus

    ... reduce the salt in your diet and for information, strategies, and tools you need to lead a healthier ... reduce the salt in your diet and get information, strategies, and tools you need to lead a healthier ...

  20. Formation of Silicon-Gold Eutectic Bond Using Localized Heating Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Liwei; Cheng, Yu-Ting; Najafi, Khalil

    1998-11-01

    A new bonding technique is proposed by using localized heating to supplythe bonding energy.Heating is achieved by applying a dc current through micromachined heaters made of gold which serves as both the heating and bonding material.At the interface of silicon and gold, the formation of eutectic bond takes place in about 5 minutes.Assembly of two substrates in microfabrication processescan be achieved by using this method.In this paper the following important results are obtained:1) Gold diffuses into silicon to form a strong eutectic bond by means of localized heating.2) The bonding strength reaches the fracture toughness of the bulk silicon.3) This bonding technique greatly simplifies device fabrication andassembly processes.

  1. Micelle structure in a deep eutectic solvent: a small-angle scattering study.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Fernandez, A; Edler, K J; Arnold, T; Heenan, R K; Porcar, L; Terrill, N J; Terry, A E; Jackson, A J

    2016-05-18

    In recent years many studies into green solvents have been undertaken and deep eutectic solvents (DES) have emerged as sustainable and green alternatives to conventional solvents since they may be formed from cheap non-toxic organic precursors. In this study we examine amphiphile behaviour in these novel media to test our understanding of amphiphile self-assembly within environments that have an intermediate polarity between polar and non-polar extremes. We have built on our recently published results to present a more detailed structural characterisation of micelles of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) within the eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea. Here we show that SDS adopts an unusual cylindrical aggregate morphology, unlike that seen in water and other polar solvents. A new morphology transition to shorter aggregates was found with increasing concentration. The self-assembly of SDS was also investigated in the presence of water; which promotes the formation of shorter aggregates. PMID:27157993

  2. Solidification of undercooled Ni-Sn eutectic alloy under microgravity conditions in the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piccone, T. J.; Wu, Y.; Shiohara, Y.; Flemings, M. C.; Harf, F. H.; Winsa, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia carried an Alloy Undercooling Experiment on its STS 61-C mission in January, 1986. The experiment was performed in an electromagnetic levitator. A sample of Ni-32.5 wt pct Sn eutectic was melted and solidified under microgravity conditions in the Space Shuttle. The specimen achieved only a fairly small undercooling, probably less than 30 K. The specimen was examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The surface and cross-sectional microstructures were primarily composed of normal lamellar eutectic, but showed several interesting features, including an apparent surface nucleation site, curved dendrites with nonorthogonal secondary arms, dendrite fragments with extremely fine arm spacing, submicron precipitates, and faceted crystals. The results of the space experiment are presented and compared with ground-based results obtained with the same alloy.

  3. Real-Time X-Ray Microscopy of Al-Cu Eutectic Solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, William F.; Curreri, Peter A.; Sen, Subhayu

    1998-01-01

    Recent improvements in the resolution of the X-ray Transmission Microscope (XTM) for Solidification Studies provide microstructure feature detectability down to 5 micrometers during solidification. This presentation will show the recent results from observations made in real-time of the solid-liquid interfacial morphologies of the Al-CuAI2 eutectic alloy. Lamellar dimensions and spacings, transitions of morphology caused by growth rate changes, and eutectic grain structures are open to measurements. A unique vantage point viewing the face of the interface isotherm is possible for the first time with the XTM due to its infinite depth of field. A video of the solid-liquid interfaces seen in-situ and in real-time will be shown.

  4. Phase field simulation of a directional solidification of a ternary eutectic Mo-Si-B Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi, O.; Hasemann, G.; Krüger, M.; Halle, T.

    2016-03-01

    We present a eutectic Phase-Field Model for a Mo-Si-B alloy at ternary eutectic composition (Mo-17.5Si-8B), under a constant thermal gradient. The process parameters like cooling rate and thermal gradient were obtained directly from the experimental procedure of zone melting. The equilibrium interface geometries and interface mobility were calculated using an isotropic model. The phase equilibria and the other thermodynamic parameters are obtained by linearizing the Mo-Si-B ternary phase diagram. We have investigated the effect of process parameters on the lamellar growth pattern and lamella pattern stability with respect to the Jackson-Hunt minimum undercooling spacing theory. In order to examine the generated results by the model, they were validated with experimental observed microstructures and measurements and showed to be in a good agreement with the experimental observations.

  5. Studies of directionally solidified eutectic Bi/MnBi at low growth velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirich, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    The (lambda-squared)(V) deviation for diffusion-only rod eutectic growth, where lambda is the interrod spacing and V is the growth velocity, was studied at growth velocities less than 5 cm/h in directionally solidified eutectic Bi-Mn (Bi/MnBi). At lower growth velocities, (V less than 0.5 cm/h) morphological instability occurred which resulted in nonaligned, irregularly dispersed MnBi fibers. The (lambda-squared)(V) relation was experimentally determined over a range of growth velocities between 0.1 and 50 cm/h, thermal gradients in the liquid at the liquid-solid interface that varied from 40 to 120 C/cm and solidification orientation with respect to the direction of gravity. Naturally induced, convective instabilities are suggested as a possible growth velocity limit for cooperative growth in the Bi-Mn and related alloy systems.

  6. Directional solidification of (Ti, Zr) carbide-(Ti, Zr) diboride eutectics

    SciTech Connect

    Sorrell, C.C.; Beratan, H.R.; Bradt, R.C.; Stubican, V.C.

    1984-03-01

    The ZrC-ZrB2, ZrC-TiB2, and TiC-TiB2 metal diboride-metal carbide pseudo-binary eutectic systems have been successfully solidified directionally by means of the floating zone method. The first and third of these eutectics possess a morphology consisting of columnar grains of parallel lamellae with interlamellar spacings that adhere to the lambda-squared (R) C relationship, while the second is noted to solidify in a Chinese calligraphy-like morphology of broken and deformed lamellae. This phenomenon may be related to solid solution effects, but it did not prevent the interlamellar spacings from following the aforementioned law. The calligraphic effect's values are larger than those of the other two systems, and the constant, C, is accordingly about an order of magnitude larger. All three of these cubic-hexagonal systems exhibited identical epitaxial relationships. 24 references.

  7. High temperature oxidation resistant coatings for the directionally solidified Ni-Nb-Cr-Al eutectic superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, T. E.; Ulion, N. E.; Felten, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    Protective coatings required for the Ni-Nb-Cr-Al directionally solidified eutectic superalloy were developed and evaluated on the basis of oxidation resistance, diffusional stability, thermal fatigue, and creep resistance. NiCrAlY+Pt and NiCrAlY physical vapor-deposition coating systems exhibited the best combination of properties. Burner-rig testing indicated that the useful life of a 127-micron-thick NiCrAlY+Pt coating exceeds 1000 h at 1366 K. Eutectic-alloy creep lives at 1311 K and a stress of 151.7 MN/sq m were greater for NiCrAlY+Pt-coated specimens than for uncoated specimens by a factor of two.

  8. Shaped ceramic eutectic plates grown from the melt and their properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benamara, Omar; Lebbou, Kheirreddine

    2016-09-01

    Al2O3-YAG-ZrO2 eutectic ceramic plates 10 mm in width, 2.4 mm in thickness and 100 mm in length were directionally grown by micro-pulling down technique under different growth rate (0.1-1 mm/min). The effects of the solidification rate on the crystallographic orientation and microstructure properties were analyzed in considerable detail. The microstructure spacing λ depends on the pulling rate v following the law: λ = 7 . 2 v-1/2 where λ is in μm and v in μm/s. For low growth rate (v<0.25), the ternary eutectic plates had homogeneous and regular microstructures and higher pulling rate heterogeneity in the morphology corresponding to colonies presence. The annealed plates did not undergo chemical reaction but slight grain growth was observed.

  9. Solutal convection induced macrosegregation and the dendrite to composite transition in off-eutectic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boettinger, W. J.; Biancaniello, F. S.; Coriell, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of solute gradient induced convection during vertical solidification on the macrosegregation of Pb-rich Pb-Sn off-eutectic alloys is determined experimentally as a function of composition and growth rate. In many cases macrosegregation is sufficient to prevent the plane front solidification of the alloy. The transition from dendritic to composite structure is found to occur when the composition of the solid is close enough to the eutectic composition to satisfy a stability criterion based on the ratio of the liquid temperature gradient to growth rate. A vertical or horizontal magnetic field of 0.1 T (1 kilogauss) does not reduce macrosegregation, but downward solidification (liquid below solid) virtually eliminates macrosegregation in small (3 mm) diameter samples.

  10. Formation of a crystallization courtyard in eutectic systems and crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurin, V. N.; Osipov, V. N.; Derkachenko, L. I.; Korchunov, B. N.; Popova, T. B.

    2014-03-01

    The so-called crystallization courtyard is investigated that forms in processes of mass crystallization around the Ge and Si crystals and their solid solutions (Ge+Si) during cooling of hypereutectic alloys in the Ge-Al, Si-Al, and (Ge+Si)-Al eutectic systems. For the first time, data on the composition and microhardness of this crystallization courtyard are given and its role is shown as a stopper of cracking in an Al-(Ge,Si) system during rapid cooling after the heating system is turned off. For the first time, it is suggested that a crystallization courtyard forms in all hypereutectic systems (including every system in which the amount of the taken solvent does not correspond to the eutectic point).

  11. Eutectic bonding of a Ti sputter coated, carbon aerogel wafer to a Ni foil

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A.F.; Hayes, J.P.; Kanna, R.L.

    1994-06-01

    The formation of high energy density, storage devices is achievable using composite material systems. Alternate layering of carbon aerogel wafers and Ni foils with rnicroporous separators is a prospective composite for capacitor applications. An inherent problem exists to form a physical bond between Ni and the porous carbon wafer. The bonding process must be limited to temperatures less than 1000{degrees}C, at which point the aerogel begins to degrade. The advantage of a low temperature eutectic in the Ni-Ti alloy system solves this problem. Ti, a carbide former, is readily adherent as a sputter deposited thin film onto the carbon wafer. A vacuum bonding process is then used to join the Ni foil and Ti coating through eutectic phase formation. The parameters required for successfld bonding are described along with a structural characterization of the Ni foil-carbon aerogel wafer interface.

  12. A 2D stochastic micro-macro model of equiaxed eutectic solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbon, Ch; LeSar, R.

    1997-01-01

    We propose a model of equiaxed eutectic solidification that couples macroscopic heat diffusion with a microscopic description of nucleation and growth of the eutectic grains. The heat equation is solved numerically by means of an implicit finite difference method. The evolution of solid fraction is deduced from a stochastic model of nucleation and growth which uses the local temperature (interpolated from the FDM mesh) to determine the local grain density and the local growth rate. The model predicts the evaluations of both temperature and solid fraction at any point of the sample. Moreover, a realistic appearance of the recalescence on the cooling curves, as well as a detailed picture of the microstructure, are predicted. We apply the model to the solidification of grey cast iron.

  13. In situ PM-IRRAS of a glassy carbon electrode/deep eutectic solvent interface.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Luciana; Schennach, Robert; Gollas, Bernhard

    2015-05-21

    The interface of a 1 : 2 molar choline chloride/ethylene glycol deep eutectic solvent with a glassy carbon electrode has been investigated by polarization modulation reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). Temporal spectral changes at open circuit potential show the experiments to be surface sensitive and indicate slow adsorption of electrolyte molecules on the electrode surface. In situ spectroelectrochemical PM-IRRAS measurements reveal characteristic potential-dependent changes of band intensities and wavenumber-shifts in the surface spectra. The potential dependent spectral changes are discussed in terms of adsorption, reduction, desorption and reorientation of choline cations at the interface. Analogies are drawn to the ionic layer structure proposed for the architecture of electrode/ionic liquid interfaces. The results show that in situ PM-IRRAS is generally applicable to glassy carbon electrodes and to electrode interfaces with deep eutectic solvents. PMID:25908481

  14. Feasibility study of tungsten as a diffusion barrier between nickel-chromium-aluminum and Gamma/Gamma prime - Delta eutectic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, S. G.; Zellars, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    Coating systems proposed for potential use on eutectic alloy components in high-temperature gas turbine engines were studied with emphasis on deterioration of such systems by diffusion. A 1-mil thick W sheet was placed between eutectic alloys and a NiCrAl layer. Layered test specimens were aged at 1100 C for as long as long as 500 hours. Without the W barrier, the delta phase of the eutectic deteriorated by diffusion of Nb into the NiCrAl. Insertion of the W barrier stopped the diffusion of Nb from delta. Chromium diffusion from the NiCrAl into the gamma/gamma prime phase of the eutectic was greatly reduced by the barrier. However, the barrier thickness decreased with time; and W diffused into both the NiCrAl and the eutectic. When the delta platelets were alined parallel to the NiCrAl layer, rather than perpendicular, diffusion into the eutectic was reduced.

  15. A novel green approach for the chemical modification of silica particles based on deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Gu, Tongnian; Zhang, Mingliang; Chen, Jia; Qiu, Hongdeng

    2015-06-18

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs), as a novel class of green solvents, were successfully applied as eco-friendly and sustainable reaction media for fast surface modification of spherical porous silica, resulting in stationary phases for high-performance liquid chromatography. The new reaction media were advantageous over organic solvents in many aspects, such as the high dispersibility of silica spheres and their non-volatility. PMID:25985926

  16. Diffusion welding of a directionally solidified gamma/gamma prime - delta eutectic alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. J.

    1977-01-01

    Hot-press diffusion welding parameters were developed for a directionally solidified, gamma/gamma prime-delta eutectic alloy. Based on metallography, a good diffusion weld was achieved at 1100 C under 34.5 MPa (5 ksi) pressure for 1 hour. In addition, a dissimilar metal weld between gamma/gamma prime-delta and IN-100 was successfully made at 1100 C under 20.7 MPa (3 ksi) pressure for 1 hour.

  17. Influence of freezing rate changes of MnBi-Bi eutectic microstructure. [effects of space processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, W. R.; Doddi, K.; Nair, M.; Larson, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    In an attempt to explain the influence of space processing on the microstructure of MnBi-Bi, eutectic mixtures were directionally solidified with a sudden change of translation rate. The MnBi fiber spacing was able to adapt to the changing freezing rate as predicted by heat transfer computations. Thus the microstructure adapts more rapidly than the freezing rate could be changed in the present experiments.

  18. Growth of sapphire and oxide eutectic fibers by the EFG technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurlov, V. N.; Stryukov, D. O.; Shikunova, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    Single-crystal sapphire and oxide binary (Al2O3-Y3Al5O12, Al2O3-Er3Al5O12, Al2O3- GdAlO3) and ternary (Al2O3-ZrO2(Y2O3)) eutectic fibers of 150-300 µm in diameters were grown by the edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) technique. Microstructure and some properties of fibers were investigated.

  19. Carbon: Eutectic Syntheses of Graphitic Carbon with High Pyrazinic Nitrogen Content (Adv. Mater. 6/2016).

    PubMed

    Fechler, Nina; Zussblatt, Niels P; Rothe, Regina; Schlögl, Robert; Willinger, Marc-Georg; Chmelka, Bradley F; Antonietti, Markus

    2016-02-01

    Starting from a powder mixture of ketones/urea, gentle heating results in liquefaction below the melting point of the respective components. The back-cover image shows a polarized optical microscopy image of a liquid-crystalline eutectic mixture in the supercooled liquidus, as discussed on page 1287 by N. Fechler and co-workers. This indicates the coupling of the monomers toward larger, preorganized assemblies. From this precursor system, "C2N" carbon is synthesized. PMID:26849666

  20. Electrode potentials of uranium in the LiCl-KCl-CsCl eutectic melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltsev, D. S.; Volkovich, V. A.; Vladykin, E. N.; Vasin, B. D.

    2015-08-01

    The electrode potentials of uranium in the melt of the eutectic mixture of lithium, potassium, and cesium chlorides are measured in the temperature range 573-1073 K. Formal standard potentials E U * (III)/U and the main thermodynamic characteristics of uranium trichloride in the LiCl-KCl-CsCl melt are calculated, and the electronic absorption spectra of UCl 6 3- ions are measured.

  1. Natural deep eutectic solvents as a new extraction media for phenolic metabolites in Carthamus tinctorius L.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yuntao; Witkamp, Geert-Jan; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2013-07-01

    Developing green solvents with low toxicity and cost is an important issue for the biochemical industry. Synthetic ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents have received considerable attention due to their negligible volatility at room temperature, high solubilization ability, and tunable selectivity. However, the potential toxicity of the synthetic ionic liquids and the solid state at room temperature of most deep eutectic solvents hamper their application as extraction solvents. In this study, a wide range of recently discovered natural ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents (NADES) composed of natural compounds were investigated for the extraction of phenolic compounds of diverse polarity. Safflower was selected as a case study because its aromatic pigments cover a wide range of polarities. Many advantageous features of NADES (such as their sustainability, biodegradability combined with acceptable pharmaceutical toxicity profiles, and their high solubilization power of both polar and nonpolar compounds) suggest their potential as green solvents for extraction. Experiments with different NADES and multivariate data analysis demonstrated that the extractability of both polar and less polar metabolites was greater with NADES than conventional solvents. The water content in NADES proved to have the biggest effect on the yield of phenolic compounds. Most major phenolic compounds were recovered from NADES with a yield between 75% and 97%. This study reveals the potential of NADES for applications involving the extraction of bioactive compounds from natural sources. PMID:23710664

  2. Transitions between type A flake, type D flake, and coral graphite eutectic structures in cast irons

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.S.; Verhoeven, J.D. |

    1996-09-01

    Directional solidification experiments were used to measure the transition velocities between the type A and coral eutectic structures in high-purity cast irons and between the type A and type D eutectic structures in S and Te doped cast irons. Introduction of O into the gas atmosphere was found to have little effect on the A {R_arrow} D transition velocities in S doped alloys, but it produced a strong reduction in the A {R_arrow} coral transition velocities in high-purity irons. Transmission electron microscopy revealed interesting variations in the defect structures of the graphite in the flake irons vs the type of flake (A or D) and the type of doping element. Scanning Auger microscopy demonstrated that both S and Te segregate to the iron/graphite interface. In the S doped alloys, type A flakes are generally covered with a monolayer of S with patches of O in the form of iron oxide having a thickness on the order of 2 nm. A series of experiments, including examination of fracture surfaces at the quenched solid/liquid growth front, have shown that S segregates to the iron/graphite interfaces from the liquid at the growth front, but O forms at these interfaces during the cooldown. These results are discussed in relation to current models of eutectic growth in cast irons.

  3. Physical chemistry of the organic analog of metal metal eutectic and monotectic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, U. S.; Rai, R. N.

    1998-01-01

    The phase diagram of an organic analog of a metal-metal system involving succinonitrile (SCN) and carbontetrabromide (CTB) shows the formation of a eutectic (0.996 mole fraction of SCN) and a monotectic (0.040 mole fraction of SCN) with a wide range of miscibility gap in the system. The consolute temperature is 111.5°C above the monotectic horizontal. The growth data, determined by measuring the rate of movement of solid-liquid interface in a capillary, at different undercooling (Δ T) suggest that they obey the parabolic law, v= u(Δ T) n, where v is the linear velocity of crystallization and u and n are constants depending on the nature of materials involved. Using enthalpy of fusion of the pure components, the eutectic and the monotectic, entropy of fusion, Jackson's roughness parameter, interfacial energy, size of the critical nucleus and excess thermodynamic functions were calculated. While microstructural investigations of pure components give dendritic microstructures, those of eutectic and monotectic give characteristic lamellar structures.

  4. Zero-gravity growth of NaF-NaCl eutectics in the NASA Skylab program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, A. S.; Allen, F. G.; Yu, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    Continuous and discontinuous NaF fibers, embedded in a NaCl matrix, were produced in space and on earth. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture is attributed to the absence of convection current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It is shown that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of NaF fibers along the ingot axis. A new concept is advanced to explain the phenomenon of transmittance versus far infrared wavelength of the directionally solidified NaCl-NaF eutectic in terms of the two-dimensional Bragg Scattering and the polarization effect of Rayleigh scattering. This concept can be applied to other eutectic systems as long as the index of refraction of the matrix over a range of wavelengths is known. Experimental data are in agreement with the theoretical prediction.

  5. Thermal unfolding and refolding of lysozyme in deep eutectic solvents and their aqueous dilutions.

    PubMed

    Esquembre, Rocio; Sanz, Jesus M; Wall, J Gerard; del Monte, Francisco; Mateo, C Reyes; Ferrer, M Luisa

    2013-07-21

    The stability of hen's egg white lysozyme in different choline chloride-based pseudo-concentrated and neat deep eutectic solvents (DESs) has been studied by means of intrinsic fluorescence and CD spectroscopy. Thermal unfolding experiments carried out in non-diluted urea:choline chloride and glycerol:choline chloride eutectic solvents (UCCl-DES and GCCl-DES, respectively) showed the accumulation at certain temperatures of discrete, partially folded intermediates that displayed a high content of secondary structure and a disrupted tertiary structure. Reversibility of the unfolding process was incomplete in these circumstances, with the urea-based DES showing higher protein structure destabilization upon thermal treatment. On the other hand, aqueous dilution of the eutectic mixtures allowed the recovery of a reversible, two-state denaturation process. Lysozyme activity was also affected in neat and pseudo-concentrated GCCl-DES, with an increasing recovery of activity upon aqueous dilution, and full restoration after DES removal through extensive dialysis. These results suggest that protein interactions at room temperature are reversible and depend on the DES components and on the aqueous content of the original DES dilution. PMID:23722327

  6. Lamellar Spacing Selection in Al-Si Eutectic System: a Theoretical Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catalina, Adrian V.; Sen, Subhayu; Curreri, Peter A.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that irregular eutectics such as Al-Si and Fe-C exhibit larger lamellar spacings and undercoolings compared to the predictions made by the Jackson and Hunt (JH) theory. In this paper, we reexamine the JH theory and relax some of the assumptions used in that treatment. The modified theoretical model has enhanced capabilities to predict the lamellar spacing in both regular and irregular eutectics. For the Al-Si system in particular we identified two different spacing selection mechanisms:a) for a particular growth rate, a nearly isothermal interface can be achieved at a unique minimum spacing lambda(sub I); b) the average spacing in the microstructure (lambda(sub av) greater than lambda(sub I)) is essentially dictated by the undercooling of the faceted phase. Based on the modified theoretical model a semi-empirical expression has been developed to account for the influence of the temperature gradient. Application of a Mullin and Sekerka type stability analysis for eutectics will also be presented and the results compared to the modified JH model. It will be shown that the both theoretical approaches are in good agreement with each other and also with the published experimental measurements.

  7. Influence of gravity driven convection on the directional solidification of Bi/MnBi eutectic composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirich, R. G.; Larson, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    The role of gravity on Bridgman-Stockharger directional solidification of eutectic Bi/MnBi has been studied in reduced gravity aboard NASA sounding rocket SPAR flight experiments and contrasted with normal gravity investigations. The directional solidification of eutectic Bi/MnBi results in a low volume fraction, faceted/nonfaceted aligned rod eutectic whose MnBi rod size, interrod spacing, thermal and magnetic properties are sensitive functions of solidification processing conditions. The morphology of the low-gravity samples showed striking differences compared with identically processed, normal gravity samples grown in the same apparatus. The MnBi rod diameter and interrod spacing distributions were significantly smaller, approximately 50 percent, for the low gravity samples compared with identically processed one gravity samples. Accompanying the smaller MnBi rod diameters observed in the flight samples, was an increase in permanent magnet properties which reached greater than 97 percent of the theoretical maximum. Gravitationally induced thermal instabilities in one-gravity which result in irregular interface movement and associated difficulty of the faceted MnBi phase to branch are suggested to explain the morphological differences between one and low gravity solidification.

  8. A New Analytical Approach to Predict Spacing Selection in Lamellar and Rod Eutectic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catalina, Adrian V.; Sen, Subhayu; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we reexamine the Jackson and Hunt (JH) theory and relax the assumption of isothermal solid/liquid interface(SLI) used in their treatment. A modification of the term B. in the expression of the solute concentration profile is also proposed. Based on the predictions of this modified theory the traditional definitions of regular and irregular eutectics are discussed. For regular eutectics the new model identifies a range of spacing within the limits defined by the minimum undercooling of the alpha and beta phase. For the irregular Al-Si eutectic system in particular we identified two different spacing selection mechanisnis: a) for a particular growth rate, a nearly isothermal interface can be achieved at a unique minimum spacing lambda(sub I); b) the average spacing in the microstructure (lambda(sub av) > lambda(sub I)) is essentially dictated by the undercooling of the faceted phase. Based on the modified theoretical model a semi-empirical expression has been developed to account for the influence of the temperature gradient. The theoretical calculations have been found to be in good agreement with the published experimental measurements.

  9. Resolving Issues of Content Uniformity and Low Permeability Using Eutectic Blend of Camphor and Menthol

    PubMed Central

    Gohel, M. C.; Nagori, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of present study were to arrest the problem of content uniformity without the use of harmful organic solvent and to improve ex vivo permeability of captopril, a low dose class III drug as per biological classification system. Eutectic mixture of camphor and menthol was innovatively used in the work. Captopril solution in eutectic mixture was blended with Avicel PH 102 and then the mixture was blended with mannitol in different ratios. Formulated batches were characterized for angle of repose and Carr's index. A selected batch was filled in hard gelatin capsule. Tablet dosage form was also developed. Capsules and tablets were characterized for in vitro drug release in 0.1N HCl. Additionally, the captopril tablets were analyzed for content uniformity and ex vivo drug permeation study using rat ileum in modified apparatus. The measurement of angle of repose and Carr's index revealed that the powder blend exhibited good flow property and compressibility. The captopril capsules and tablets exhibited immediate drug release in 0.1 N HCl. The captopril tablets passed content uniformity test as per IP 1996. Ex vivo permeation of captopril, formulated with eutectic mixture, was faster than control. The permeation was increased by 15% at the end of 3 h. Tablets and capsule exhibited reasonable short term stability with no considerable change in performance characteristics. PMID:20376214

  10. Directional solidification and characterization of near eutectic Sm2CO17/Co alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirich, Ronald G.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of directional solidification processing on the microstructural, compositional, and magnetic properties of near eutectic Co-Sm alloys (about 9 at. pct Sm) have been studied. Initial investigations have been performed at modest thermal gradients in the liquid, G(L) less than 60 C/cm and over a range of furnace (solidification) velocities, V = 0.8 45.4 cm/h. The primary dendrite spacing for near eutectic Sm2Co17/Co scaled with 1/sq rt V and varied from about 50 microns for V greater than or equal to 20 cm/h to hundreds of microns for V less than 10 cm/h, while the rod eutectic diameter and interrod spacing were an order of magnitude smaller. For both dendritic and cooperative growth, the associated permanent magnet properties were rather poor, e.g., remanence less than 4 kG and coercive force less than 1 kOe for the smallest dendrite and rod diameter dimensions encountered, although the magnetic hardness for the rod eutetic was larger than for the dendritic microstructure. Magnetization as a function of sample orientation indicated that the easy axis of magnetization was primarily along the direction of solidification for both ferromagnetic phases.

  11. Resolving issues of content uniformity and low permeability using eutectic blend of camphor and menthol.

    PubMed

    Gohel, M C; Nagori, S A

    2009-11-01

    The aim of present study were to arrest the problem of content uniformity without the use of harmful organic solvent and to improve ex vivo permeability of captopril, a low dose class III drug as per biological classification system. Eutectic mixture of camphor and menthol was innovatively used in the work. Captopril solution in eutectic mixture was blended with Avicel PH 102 and then the mixture was blended with mannitol in different ratios. Formulated batches were characterized for angle of repose and Carr's index. A selected batch was filled in hard gelatin capsule. Tablet dosage form was also developed. Capsules and tablets were characterized for in vitro drug release in 0.1N HCl. Additionally, the captopril tablets were analyzed for content uniformity and ex vivo drug permeation study using rat ileum in modified apparatus. The measurement of angle of repose and Carr's index revealed that the powder blend exhibited good flow property and compressibility. The captopril capsules and tablets exhibited immediate drug release in 0.1 N HCl. The captopril tablets passed content uniformity test as per IP 1996. Ex vivo permeation of captopril, formulated with eutectic mixture, was faster than control. The permeation was increased by 15% at the end of 3 h. Tablets and capsule exhibited reasonable short term stability with no considerable change in performance characteristics. PMID:20376214

  12. Spectrophotometric and electrochemical study of neptunium ions in molten NaCl-CsCl eutectic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, Akihiro; Nagai, Takayuki; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Shirai, Osamu; Yamana, Hajimu

    2013-06-01

    The chemical oxidation states of NpO2+, Np4+ and Np3+ in NaCl-CsCl eutectic were controlled by using Cl2, O2, H2 and Ar gas mixtures, the redox behavior and electronic absorption properties of their Np ions were studied. The Np4+ was prepared from NpO2Cl by bubbling Cl2 gas into the melt in the presence of carbon rod. Np3+ was quantitatively prepared by bubbling H2-Ar gas mixture. The molar absorptivities of NpO2+, Np4+ and Np3+ were determined in molten NaCl-CsCl eutectic at 923 K and hypersensitive transitions of Np4+ and Np3+ ions were assigned. Since the polarizing ability of the cations in the NaCl-CsCl eutectic is lower than that in some other melts, it has been shown that the coordination symmetry of the Np-Cl complex is higher. In the electrochemical measurement of Np4+, the cathodic current for the reduction of Np4+ was found to be controlled by the diffusion of Np4+. The temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient between 823 and 923 K was formulated to be lnD=-4304/T-6.172. The formal redox potential of the Np4+|Np3+ couple depended on the temperature, this dependence was formulated as ENp|Np∘'=-1.313+6.210×10-4T V (vs. Cl2|Cl-).

  13. Perfect cellular eutectic growth in directionally solidified NiAl-Cr(Mo) hypereutectic alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Zhao; Shen, Jun; Zhang, Jianfei; Wang, Lei; Fu, Hengzhi

    2012-09-01

    Cellular eutectic microstructures with fully lamellar morphology were observed in the directionally solidified Ni-31Al-32Cr-6Mo (at%) hypereutectic alloy at withdrawal rates of 15, 25 and 50 μm/s, but the morphologies of cellular microstructures did not change consecutively with increasing withdrawal rate. The growth interfaces were deep cellular at withdrawal rates of 15 and 50 μm/s, but it changed to be shallow cellular at rate of 25 μm/s. The reason is that the interface undercooling comes to minimum at the middle rate of 25 μm/s. If the interface undercooling decreases, the tendency of constitutional undercooling will be weaken. The small constitutional undercooling will increase the interface stability, so that the interface morphology changes from deep cellular to shallow cellular. The shallow cellular growth interface led to a perfect cellular eutectic microstructure, which was analogous to the planar eutectic microstructure. In this case, the widths of the intercellular regions were narrowest, no coarse or irregular plates existed at the cell boundaries, and the thicknesses of the lamellae were almost uniform. The properties of the alloy may be markedly improved.

  14. Innovative Poly(Ionic Liquid)s by the Polymerization of Deep Eutectic Monomers.

    PubMed

    Isik, Mehmet; Ruiperez, Fernando; Sardon, Haritz; Gonzalez, Alba; Zulfiqar, Sonia; Mecerreyes, David

    2016-07-01

    The incorporation of ionic liquid (IL) chemistry into functional polymers has extended the properties and applications of polyelectrolytes. However, ILs are expensive due to the presence of fluorinated anions or complicated synthetic steps which limit their technological viability. Here, we show a new family of poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) which are based in cheap and renewable chemicals and involves facile synthetic approaches. Thus, deep eutectic monomers (DEMs) are prepared for the first time by using quaternary ammonium compounds and various hydrogen bond donors such as citric acid, terephthalic acid or an amidoxime. The deep eutectic formation is made through a simple mixing of the ingredients. Differential scanning calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and computational studies reveal the formation of the DEMs due to the ionic interactions. The resulting DEMs are liquid which facilitates their polymerization using mild photopolymerization or polycondensation strategies. Spectroscopic characterizations reveal the successful formation of the polymers. By this way, a new family of PILs can be synthesized which can be used for different applications. As an example, the polymers show promising performance as solid CO2 sorbents. Altogether the deep eutectic monomer route can lead to non-toxic, cheap and easy-to-prepare alternatives to current PILs for different applications. PMID:26954303

  15. Salt stress or salt shock: which genes are we studying?

    PubMed

    Shavrukov, Yuri

    2013-01-01

    Depending on the method of NaCl application, whether gradual or in a single step, plants may experience either salt stress or salt shock, respectively. The first phase of salt stress is osmotic stress. However, in the event of salt shock, plants suffer osmotic shock, leading to cell plasmolysis and leakage of osmolytes, phenomena that do not occur with osmotic stress. Patterns of gene expression are different in response to salt stress and salt shock. Salt stress initiates relatively smooth changes in gene expression in response to osmotic stress and a more pronounced change in expression of significant numbers of genes related to the ionic phase of salt stress. There is a considerable time delay between changes in expression of genes related to the osmotic and ionic phases of salt stress. In contrast, osmotic shock results in strong, rapid changes in the expression of genes with osmotic function, and fewer changes in ionic-responsive genes that occur earlier. There are very few studies in which the effects of salt stress and salt shock are described in parallel experiments. However, the patterns of changes in gene expression observed in these studies are consistently as described above, despite the use of diverse plant species. It is concluded that gene expression profiles are very different depending the method of salt application. Imposition of salt stress by gradual exposure to NaCl rather than salt shock with a single application of a high concentration of NaCl is recommended for genetic and molecular studies, because this more closely reflects natural incidences of salinity. PMID:23186621

  16. A Trail of Salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graph shows the relative abundances of sulfur (in the form of sulfur tri-oxide) and chlorine at three Meridiani Planum sites: soil measured in the small crater where Opportunity landed; the rock dubbed 'McKittrick' in the outcrop lining the inner edge of the crater; and the rock nicknamed 'Guadalupe,' also in the outcrop. The 'McKittrick' data shown here were taken both before and after the rover finished grinding the rock with its rock abrasion tool to expose fresh rock underneath. The 'Guadalupe' data were taken after the rover grounded the rock. After grinding both rocks, the sulfur abundance rose to high levels, nearly five times higher than that of the soil. This very high sulfur concentration reflects the heavy presence of sulfate salts (approximately 30 percent by weight) in the rocks. Chloride and bromide salts are also indicated. Such high levels of salts strongly suggest the rocks contain evaporite deposits, which form when water evaporates or ice sublimes into the atmosphere.

  17. H, not O or pressure, causes eutectic T depression in the Fe-FeS System to 8 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buono, Antonio S.; Walker, David

    2015-04-01

    The Fe-FeS system maintains a eutectic temperature of 990 ± 10 °C to at least 8 GPa if starting materials and pressure media are rigorously dehydrated. Literature reports of pressure-induced freezing point depression of the eutectic for the Fe-FeS system are not confirmed. Modest addition of oxygen alone is confirmed to cause negligible freezing point depression at 6 GPa. Addition of H alone causes a progressive decrease in the eutectic temperature with P in the Fe-FeS-H system to below 965 °C at 6 GPa to below 950 °C at 8 GPa. It is our hypothesis that moisture contamination in unrigorously dried experiments may be an H source for freezing point depression. O released from H2O disproportionation reacts with Fe and is sequestered as ferropericlase along the sample capsules walls, leaving the H to escape the system and/or enter the Fe-FeS mixture. The observed occurrence of ferropericlase on undried MgO capsule margins is otherwise difficult to explain, because an alternate source for the oxygen in the ferropericlase layer is difficult to identify. This study questions the use of pressure-depressed Fe-S eutectic temperatures and suggests that the lower eutectic temperatures sometimes reported are achieved by moving into the ternary Fe-S-H system. These results adjust slightly the constraints on eutectic temperatures allowed for partly solidified cores on small planets. H substantially diminishes the temperature extent of the melting interval in Fe-S by reducing the melting points of the crystalline phases more than it depresses the eutectic.

  18. Combined NMR and molecular dynamics modeling study of transport properties in sulfonamide based deep eutectic lithium electrolytes: LiTFSI based binary systems.

    PubMed

    Pauric, Allen D; Halalay, Ion C; Goward, Gillian R

    2016-03-01

    The trend toward Li-ion batteries operating at increased (>4.3 V vs. Li/Li(+)) voltages requires the development of novel classes of lithium electrolytes with electrochemical stability windows exceeding those of LiPF6/carbonate electrolyte solutions. Several new classes of electrolytes have been synthesized and investigated over the past decade, in the search for LIB electrolytes with improved properties (increased hydrolytic stability, improved thermal abuse tolerance, higher oxidation voltages, etc.) compared with the present state-of-the-art LiPF6 and organic carbonates-based formulations. Among these are deep eutectic electrolytes (DEEs), which share many beneficial characteristics with ionic liquids, such as low vapor pressure and large electrochemical stability windows, with the added advantage of a significantly higher lithium transference number. The present work presents the pulsed field gradient NMR characterization of the transport properties (diffusion coefficients and cation transport numbers) of binary DEEs consisting of a sulfonamide solvent and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide salt. Insights into the structural and dynamical properties, which enable one to rationalize the observed ionic conductivity behavior were obtained from a combination of NMR data and MD simulations. The insights thus gained should assist the formulation of novel DEEs with improved properties for LIB applications. PMID:26871506

  19. Determination of the E-pO 2- stability diagram of plutonium in the molten LiCl-KCl eutectic at 450 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caravaca, Concha; Laplace, Annabelle; Vermeulen, Jackie; Lacquement, Jérôme

    2008-07-01

    Plutonium trichloride solution in the molten LiCl-KCl eutectic was prepared by carbochlorination of plutonium oxide. Kinetics of this reaction was compared in different conditions in the range of 443-550 °C. Using this molten salt solution, the redox potential of the Pu(III)/Pu couple at inert tungsten electrode was measured at 450 °C by electromotive force measurement and was found to be E‧○ = -2.76 V vs. the Cl2(g)(1 atm)/Cl- reference electrode (molar fraction scale). Reaction between plutonium trichloride and oxide ions was studied by potentiometric titration, using yttria stabilized electrodes. In our experimental conditions, the titration curves indicate the precipitation of the sesquioxide Pu2O3. The solubility product cologarithm calculated from these curves is found to be pKs(Pu2O3) = 22.8 ± 1.1 (molality scale). Using the experimentally obtained values for E‧○, activity coefficient and pKs joined to the published thermodynamic data, the stability phase diagram of the Pu-O species was then drawn.

  20. The material flow of salt

    SciTech Connect

    Kostick, D.S. )

    1993-01-01

    Salt (NaCl) is a universal mineral commodity used by virtually every person in the world. Although a very common mineral today, at one time it was considered as precious as gold in certain cultures. This study traces the material flow of salt from its origin through the postconsumer phase of usage. The final disposition of salt in the estimated 14,000 different uses, grouped into several macrocategories, is traced from the dispersive loss of salt into the environment to the ultimate disposal of salt-base products into the waste stream after consumption. The base year for this study is 1990, in which an estimated 196 million short tons of municipal solid waste was discarded by the US population. Approximately three-fourths of domestic salt consumed is released to the environment and unrecovered while about one-fourth is discharged to landfills and incinerators as products derived from salt. Cumulative historical domestic production, trade, and consumption data have been compiled to illustrate the long-term trends within the US salt industry and the cumulative contribution that highway deicing salt has had on the environment. Salt is an important component of drilling fluids in well drilling. It is used to flocculate and to increase the density of the drilling fluid in order to overcome high down-well gas pressures. Whenever drilling activities encounter salt formations, salt is added to the drilling fluid to saturate the solution and minimize the dissolution within the salt strata. Salt is also used to increase the set rate of concrete in cemented casings. This subsector includes companies engaged in oil, gas, and crude petroleum exploration and in refining and compounding lubricating oil. It includes SIC major groups 13 and 29. 13 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Dielectric Relaxations of (Acetamide + Electrolyte) Deep Eutectic Solvents in the Frequency Window, 0.2 ≤ ν/GHz ≤ 50: Anion and Cation Dependence.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Kallol; Das, Anuradha; Choudhury, Samiran; Barman, Anjan; Biswas, Ranjit

    2015-06-25

    Dielectric relaxation (DR) measurements in the frequency range 0.2 ≤ ν/GHz ≤ 50 have been carried out for neat molten acetamide and six different (acetamide + electrolyte) deep eutectic solvents (DESs) for investigating ion effects on DR dynamics in these ionic DESs. Electrolytes used are lithium salts of bromide (LiBr), nitrate (LiNO3), and perchlorate (LiClO4); sodium salts of perchlorate (NaClO4) and thiocyante (NaSCN); and potassium thiocyanate (KSCN). With these electrolytes acetamide forms DESs approximately at an 80:20 mol ratio. Simultaneous fits to the measured permittivity (ε′) and loss (ε″) spectra of these DESs at ∼293 K require a sum of four Debye (4-D) processes with relaxation times spread over picosecond to nanosecond regime. In contrast, DR spectra for neat molten acetamide (∼354 K) depict 2-D relaxation with time constants ∼50 ps and ∼5 ps. For both the neat and ionic systems, the undetected dispersion, ε∞ – n(D)2, remains to be ∼3–4. Upon comparison, measured DR dynamics reveal pronounced anion and cation effects. Estimated static dielectric constants (ε0) from fits for these DESs cover the range 12 < ε0 < 30 and are remarkably lower than that (ε0 ∼ 64) measured for molten acetamide at ∼354 K. Hydrodynamic effective rotation volumes (Veff) estimated from the slowest DR relaxation time constants vary with ion identity and are much smaller than the molecular volume of acetamide. This decrease of ε0 and Veff is attributed respectively to the pinning of acetamide molecules by ions and orientation jumps and undetected portion to the limited frequency coverage employed in these measurements PMID:26012789

  2. Novel band gap-tunable K-Na co-doped graphitic carbon nitride prepared by molten salt method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jiannan; Ma, Lin; Wang, Haoying; Zhao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Jian; Hu, Shaozheng

    2015-03-01

    Novel band gap-tunable K-Na co-doped graphitic carbon nitride was prepared by molten salt method using melamine, KCl, and NaCl as precursor. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-vis spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the prepared catalysts. The CB and VB potentials of graphitic carbon nitride could be tuned from -1.09 and +1.55 eV to -0.29 and +2.25 eV by controlling the weight ratio of eutectic salts to melamine. Besides, ions doping inhibited the crystal growth of graphitic carbon nitride, enhanced the surface area, and increased the separation rate of photogenerated electrons and holes. The visible-light-driven Rhodamine B (RhB) photodegradation and mineralization performances were significantly improved after K-Na co-doping.

  3. Microstructural development and mechanical behavior of eutectic bismuth-tin and eutectic indium-tin in response to high temperature deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, J.L.F. |

    1993-11-01

    The mechanical behavior and microstructure of eutectic Bi-Sn and In-Sn solders were studied in parallel in order to better understand high temperature deformation of these alloys. Bi-Sn solder joints were made with Cu substrates, and In-Sn joints were made with either Cu or Ni substrates. The as-cast microstructure of Bi-Sn is complex regular, with the two eutectic phases interconnected in complicated patterns. The as-cast microstructure of In-Sn depends on the substrate. In-Sn on Cu has a non-uniform microstructure caused by diffusion of Cu into the solder during sample preparation, with regions of the Sn-rich {gamma} phase imbedded in a matrix of the In-rich {beta} phase. The microstructure of In-Sn on Ni is uniform and lamellar and the two phases are strongly coupled. The solders deform non-uniformly, with deformation concentrating in a band along the length of the sample for Bi-Sn and In-Sn on Cu, though the deformation is more diffuse in In-Sn than in Bi-Sn. Deformation of In-Sn on Ni spreads throughout the width of the joint. The different deformation patterns affect the shape of the stress-strain curves. Stress-strain curves for Bi-Sn and In-Sn on Cu exhibit sharp decays in the engineering stress after reaching a peak. Most of this stress decay is removed for In-Sn on Ni. The creep behavior of In-Sn also depends on the substrate, with the creep deformation controlled by the soft P phase of the eutectic for In-Sn on Cu and controlled by the harder {gamma} phase for In-Sn on Ni. When In-Sn on Ni samples are aged, the microstructure coarsens and changes to an array of {gamma} phase regions in a matrix of the {beta} phase, and the creep behavior changes to resemble that of In-Sn on Cu. The creep behavior of Bi-Sn changes with temperature. Two independent mechanisms operate at lower temperatures, but there is still some question as to whether one or both of these, or a third mechanism, operates at higher temperatures.

  4. Dynamics of salt playa polygons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, L.; Fourrière, A.

    2014-12-01

    In natural salt playa or in evaporation pools for the salt extraction industry, one can sometimes see surprising regular structures formed by ridges of salt. These ridges connect together to form a self-organized network of polygons one to two meters in diameter, which we call salt polygons. Here we propose a mechanism based on porous media convection of salty water in soil to explain the formation and the scaling of the salt polygons. Surface evaporation causes a steady upward flow of salty water, which can cause precipitation near the surface. A vertical salt gradient then builds up in the porous soil, with heavy salt-saturated water lying over the less salty source water. This can drive convection when a threshold is reached, given by a critical Rayleigh number of about 7. We suggest that the salt polygons are the surface expression of the porous medium convection, with salt crystallizing along the positions of the convective downwellings. To study this instability directly, we developed a 2D analogue experiment using a Hele-Shaw cell filled with a porous medium saturated with a salt solution and heated from above. We perform a linear stability analysis of this system, and find that it is unstable to convection, with a most unstable wavelength that is set by a balance between salt diffusion and water evaporation. The Rayleigh number in our experiment is controlled by the particle size of our model soil, and the evaporation rate. We obtain results that scale with the observation of natural salt polygons. Using dye, we observe the convective movement of salty water and find downwelling convective plumes underneath the spots where surface salt ridges form, as shown in the attached figure.

  5. Modeling Solute Thermokinetics in LiCI-KCI Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Dane; Eapen, Jacob

    2013-10-01

    at the eutectic composition (58 mol% LiCl, 42 mol% KCl), which is used for treating spent EBR-II fuel. The same process being used for EBRII fuel is currently being studied for widespread international implementation. The methods will focus on first-principles and first- principles derived interatomic potential based simulations, primarily using molecular dynamics. Results will be validated against existing literature and parallel ongoing experimental efforts. The simulation results will be of value for interpreting experimental results, validating analytical models, and for optimizing waste separation by potentially developing new salt configurations and operating conditions.

  6. Length-scale dependent mechanical properties of Al-Cu eutectic alloy: Molecular dynamics based model and its experimental verification

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwary, C. S. Chattopadhyay, K.; Chakraborty, S.; Mahapatra, D. R.

    2014-05-28

    This paper attempts to gain an understanding of the effect of lamellar length scale on the mechanical properties of two-phase metal-intermetallic eutectic structure. We first develop a molecular dynamics model for the in-situ grown eutectic interface followed by a model of deformation of Al-Al{sub 2}Cu lamellar eutectic. Leveraging the insights obtained from the simulation on the behaviour of dislocations at different length scales of the eutectic, we present and explain the experimental results on Al-Al{sub 2}Cu eutectic with various different lamellar spacing. The physics behind the mechanism is further quantified with help of atomic level energy model for different length scale as well as different strain. An atomic level energy partitioning of the lamellae and the interface regions reveals that the energy of the lamellae core are accumulated more due to dislocations irrespective of the length-scale. Whereas the energy of the interface is accumulated more due to dislocations when the length-scale is smaller, but the trend is reversed when the length-scale is large beyond a critical size of about 80 nm.

  7. A Comparison between Growth Morphology of "Eutectic" Cells/Dendrites and Single-Phase Cells/Dendrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, S. N.; Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.

    2003-01-01

    Directionally solidified (DS) intermetallic and ceramic-based eutectic alloys with an in-situ composite microstructure containing finely distributed, long aspect ratio, fiber, or plate reinforcements are being seriously examined for several advanced aero-propulsion applications. In designing these alloys, additional solutes need to be added to the base eutectic composition in order to improve heir high-temperature strength, and provide for adequate toughness and resistance to environmental degradation. Solute addition, however, promotes instability at the planar liquid-solid interface resulting in the formation of two-phase eutectic "colonies." Because morphology of eutectic colonies is very similar to the single-phase cells and dendrites, the stability analysis of Mullins and Sekerka has been extended to describe their formation. Onset of their formation shows a good agreement with this approach; however, unlike the single-phase cells and dendrites, there is limited examination of their growth speed dependence of spacing, morphology, and spatial distribution. The purpose of this study is to compare the growth speed dependence of the morphology, spacing, and spatial distribution of eutectic cells and dendrites with that for the single-phase cells and dendrites.

  8. Metastability of Au-Ge liquid nanocatalysts: Ge vapor-liquid-solid nanowire growth far below the bulk eutectic temperature.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Hemant; Marshall, Ann F; Goldthorpe, Irene A; Chidsey, Christopher E D; McIntyre, Paul C

    2007-12-01

    The vapor-liquid-solid mechanism of nanowire (NW) growth requires the presence of a liquid at one end of the wire; however, Au-catalyzed Ge nanowire growth by chemical vapor deposition can occur at approximately 100 degrees C below the bulk Au-Ge eutectic. In this paper, we investigate deep sub-eutectic stability of liquid Au-Ge catalysts on Ge NWs quantitatively, both theoretically and experimentally. We construct a binary Au-Ge phase diagram that is valid at the nanoscale and show that equilibrium arguments, based on capillarity, are inconsistent with stabilization of Au-Ge liquid at deep sub-eutectic temperatures, similar to those used in Ge NW growth. Hot-stage electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction are used to test the predictions of nanoscale phase equilibria. In addition to Ge supersaturation of the Au-Ge liquid droplet, which has recently been invoked as an explanation for deep sub-eutectic Ge NW growth, we find evidence of a substantial kinetic barrier to Au solidification during cooling below the nanoscale Au-Ge eutectic temperature. PMID:19206662

  9. Microstructure of the Sn-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} fibrous eutectic and its modification by segregation

    SciTech Connect

    Drevet, B.; Camel, D.; Favier, J.J.

    1996-10-01

    The influence of segregation due to thermal convection on the microstructure of Sn-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} fibrous eutectic alloys is studied in a Bridgman type configuration. The eutectic microstructure is characterized by means of image analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In the absence of segregation, the eutectic is regular and its growth controlled by that of the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} fibers. The effect of interphases on eutectic spacing, through orientation relationships between fibers and matrix, is also evidenced. The influence of segregation can be summed up by the following effects. At first, in agreement with the Jackson and Hunt model, it leads to a variation of the eutectic spacing which results from a variation of the fiber volume fraction. Then, the spacing is much greater than the one obtained in the absence of segregation, due to a different tin growth plane and non-optimized fiber/matrix orientation relationships. Finally, the absence of steady state leads to a large dispersion of the spacing associated with a microstructural disorder.

  10. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  11. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-18

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

  12. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1982-02-09

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  13. Electrolyte salts for nonaqueous electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Chen, Zonghai

    2012-10-09

    Metal complex salts may be used in lithium ion batteries. Such metal complex salts not only perform as an electrolyte salt in a lithium ion batteries with high solubility and conductivity, but also can act as redox shuttles that provide overcharge protection of individual cells in a battery pack and/or as electrolyte additives to provide other mechanisms to provide overcharge protection to lithium ion batteries. The metal complex salts have at least one aromatic ring. The aromatic moiety may be reversibly oxidized/reduced at a potential slightly higher than the working potential of the positive electrode in the lithium ion battery. The metal complex salts may also be known as overcharge protection salts.

  14. Electrochromic salts, solutions, and devices

    DOEpatents

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Warner, Benjamin P.; McClesky,7,064,212 T. Mark

    2006-06-20

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  15. Salt appetite in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Hendi, Khadeja; Leshem, Micah

    2014-11-28

    The present study investigated whether salt appetite in the elderly is impaired similar to thirst because of the commonality of their physiological substrates and whether alterations in salt appetite are related to mood. Elderly (65-85 years, n 30) and middle-aged (45-58 years, n 30) men and women were compared in two test sessions. Thirst, psychophysical ratings of taste solutions, dietary Na and energy intakes, seasoning with salt and sugar, number of salty and sweet snacks consumed, preferred amounts of salt in soup and sugar in tea, and an overall measure of salt appetite and its relationship with mood, nocturia and sleep were measured. Elderly participants were found to be less thirsty and respond less to thirst. In contrast, no impairment of salt appetite was found in them, and although they had a reduced dietary Na intake, it dissipated when corrected for their reduced dietary energy intake. Diet composition and Na intake were found to be similar in middle-aged and elderly participants, despite the lesser intake in elderly participants. There were no age-related differences in the intensity of taste or hedonic profile of Na, in salting habits, in tests of salting soup, or number of salty snacks consumed. No relationship of any measure of salt appetite with mood measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, frequency of nocturia, or sleep duration was observed. The age-related impairment of the physiology of mineralofluid regulation, while compromising thirst and fluid intake, spares salt appetite, suggesting that salt appetite in humans is not regulated physiologically. Intact salt appetite in the elderly might be utilised judiciously to prevent hyponatraemia, increase thirst and improve appetite. PMID:25287294

  16. Batteries using molten salt electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Guidotti, Ronald A.

    2003-04-08

    An electrolyte system suitable for a molten salt electrolyte battery is described where the electrolyte system is a molten nitrate compound, an organic compound containing dissolved lithium salts, or a 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium salt with a melting temperature between approximately room temperature and approximately 250.degree. C. With a compatible anode and cathode, the electrolyte system is utilized in a battery as a power source suitable for oil/gas borehole applications and in heat sensors.

  17. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    DOEpatents

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Warner, Benjamin P.; McClesky, T. Mark

    2008-10-14

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  18. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    DOEpatents

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Warner, Benjamin P.; McClesky, T. Mark

    2008-11-11

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  19. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  20. Doubly ionic hydrogen bond interactions within the choline chloride-urea deep eutectic solvent.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Claire R; Matthews, Richard P; Welton, Tom; Hunt, Patricia A

    2016-07-21

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are exemplars of systems with the ability to form neutral, ionic and doubly ionic H-bonds. Herein, the pairwise interactions of the constituent components of the choline chloride-urea DES are examined. Evidence is found for a tripodal CHCl doubly ionic H-bond motif. Moreover it is found that the covalency of doubly ionic H-bonds can be greater than, or comparable with, neutral and ionic examples. In contrast to many traditional solvents, an "alphabet soup" of many different types of H-bond (OHO[double bond, length as m-dash]C, NHO[double bond, length as m-dash]C, OHCl, NHCl, OHNH, CHCl, CHO[double bond, length as m-dash]C, NHOH and NHNH) can form. These H-bonds exhibit substantial flexibility in terms of number and strength. It is anticipated that H-bonding will have a significant impact on the entropy of the system and thus could play an important role in the formation of the eutectic. The 2 : 1 urea : choline-chloride eutectic point of this DES is often associated with the formation of a [Cl(urea)2](-) complexed anion. However, urea is found to form a H-bonded urea[choline](+) complexed cation that is energetically competitive with [Cl(urea)2](-). The negative charge on [Cl(urea)2](-) is found to remain localised on the chloride, moreover, the urea[choline](+) complexed cation forms the strongest H-bond studied here. Thus, there is potential to consider a urea[choline](+)·urea[Cl](-) interaction. PMID:27328990

  1. Chemical composition and structural identification of eutectic carbide in 1 pct Mn ductile iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadabadi, M. Nili; Niyama, E.; Tanino, M.; Abe, T.; Ohide, T.

    1994-05-01

    Manganese, which may be used in ductile cast iron as a potent hardenability promoter, segregates in the intercellular region. This segregation becomes more severe as a consequence of poor inoculation, low cooling rate, or increasing of nominal Mn content in the alloy. In severely Mn-segregated regions, Mn eutectic carbide may be formed, which has a deteriorating effect on the mechanical properties of casting. In this study, a 1 Pct Mn ductile iron was used to investigate the chemical composition and crystal structure of the Mn eutectic carbide by electron microscopy (scanning and transmission), X-ray, and an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray studies show that the crystal structure of carbide is orthorhombic with lattice parameters of a = 14.825, b = 11.415, and c = 8.880 (Å). The concentrations of Mn, Si, and Cr in carbide, analyzed by scanning electron microscope-energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX) and transmission electron microscope-energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (TEM-EDX), were 5.0 to 7.0, 0.5 to 2.8 and 1.5 to 2.2 (wt Pct), respectively. The ratio of Fe plus other metal atoms to C was calculated from EPMA experiments to be 2.5-2.9. It was shown that by diminishing Mn segregation, precipitated eutectic carbide can be reduced. It is expected that this can be achieved by reducing nominal content of Mn or by increasing nodule count.

  2. Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations of Rod Eutectics and the Surface Roughening Transition in Binary Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentz, Daniel N.; Betush, William; Jackson, Kenneth A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we report on two related topics: Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of the steady state growth of rod eutectics from the melt, and a study of the surface roughness of binary alloys. We have implemented a three dimensional kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulation with diffusion by pair exchange only in the liquid phase. Entropies of fusion are first chosen to fit the surface roughness of the pure materials, and the bond energies are derived from the equilibrium phase diagram, by treating the solid and liquid as regular and ideal solutions respectively. A simple cubic lattice oriented in the {100} direction is used. Growth of the rods is initiated from columns of pure B material embedded in an A matrix, arranged in a close packed array with semi-periodic boundary conditions. The simulation cells typically have dimensions of 50 by 87 by 200 unit cells. Steady state growth is compliant with the Jackson-Hunt model. In the kMC simulations, using the spin-one Ising model, growth of each phase is faceted or nonfaceted phases depending on the entropy of fusion. There have been many studies of the surface roughening transition in single component systems, but none for binary alloy systems. The location of the surface roughening transition for the phases of a eutectic alloy determines whether the eutectic morphology will be regular or irregular. We have conducted a study of surface roughness on the spin-one Ising Model with diffusion using kMC. The surface roughness was found to scale with the melting temperature of the alloy as given by the liquidus line on the equilibrium phase diagram. The density of missing lateral bonds at the surface was used as a measure of surface roughness.

  3. Surface structure of the liquid Au[subscript 72]Ge[subscript 28] eutectic phase: X-ray reflectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Pershan, P.S.; Stoltz, S.E.; Mechler, S.; Shpyrko, O.G.; Grigoriev, A.Y.; Balagurusamy, V.S. K.; Lin, B.H.; Meron, M.

    2009-12-01

    The surface structure of the liquid phase of the Au{sub 72}Ge{sub 28} eutectic alloy has been measured using resonant and nonresonant x-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. In spite of the significant differences in the surface tension of liquid Ge and Au the Gibbs adsorption enhancement of Ge concentration at the surface is minimal. This is in striking contrast to all the other binary alloys with large differences in the respective surface tensions measured up to date. In addition there is no evidence of the anomalous strong surface layering or in-plane crystalline order that has been reported for the otherwise quite similar liquid Au{sub 82}Si{sub 18} eutectic. Instead, the surface of eutectic Au{sub 72}Ge{sub 28} is liquidlike and the layering can be explained by the distorted crystal model with only slight modifications to the first layer.

  4. Containerless processing and rapid solidification of Nb-Si alloys in the niobium-rich eutectic range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmeister, W. H.; Bayuzick, R. J.; Robinson, M. B.; Bertero, G. A.

    1991-01-01

    Containerless processing and rapid solidification techniques were used to process Nb-Si alloys in the Nb-rich eutectic range. Electromagnetically levitated drops were melted and subsequently splat-quenched from different temperatures. A variety of eutectic morphologies was obtained as a function of the degree of superheating or undercooling of the drops prior to splatting. Metallic glass was observed only in drops quenched from above the melting temperature. Microstructures of splats deeply undercooled prior to quenching were very fine and uniform. These results are discussed in terms of classic nucleation theory concepts and the expected heat evolution at different regions of the splat during the rapid quenching process. The locations of the coupled-zone boundaries for the alpha-Nb + Nb3Si eutectic are also suggested.

  5. Synthesis of chalcogenide and pnictide crystals in salt melts using a steady-state temperature gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chareev, D. A.; Volkova, O. S.; Geringer, N. V.; Koshelev, A. V.; Nekrasov, A. N.; Osadchii, V. O.; Osadchii, E. G.; Filimonova, O. N.

    2016-07-01

    Some examples of growing crystals of metals, alloys, chalcogenides, and pnictides in melts of halides of alkali metals and aluminum at a steady-state temperature gradient are described. Transport media are chosen to be salt melts of eutectic composition with the participation of LiCl, NaCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, AlCl3, AlBr3, KBr, and KI in a temperature range of 850-150°C. Some crystals have been synthesized only using a conducting contour. This technique of crystal growth is similar to the electrochemical method. In some cases, to exclude mutual influence, some elements have been isolated and forced to migrate to the crystal growth region through independent channels. As a result, crystals of desired quality have been obtained using no special equipment and with sizes sufficient for study under laboratory conditions.

  6. Internal zone growth method for producing metal oxide metal eutectic composites

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Grady W.; Holder, John D.; Pasto, Arvid E.

    1980-01-01

    An improved method for preparing a cermet comprises preparing a compact having about 85 to 95 percent theoretical density from a mixture of metal and metal oxide powders from a system containing a eutectic composition, and inductively heating the compact in a radiofrequency field to cause the formation of an internal molten zone. The metal oxide particles in the powder mixture are effectively sized relative to the metal particles to permit direct inductive heating of the compact by radiofrequency from room temperature. Surface melting is prevented by external cooling or by effectively sizing the particles in the powder mixture.

  7. The peculiarities of crystallization of low-temperature eutectic in magnesium-lead system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankus, S. V.; Khairulin, R. A.

    2010-06-01

    Density of low-temperature eutectic in magnesium-lead system (83.06 at. % Pb) has been measured by gamma-raying of the samples with narrow beam from cesium-137 isotope over the temperature range 293-1000 K of solid and liquid states. Approximation density dependences have been obtained and data of this work and other authors have been compared. Reference tables of temperature dependences of the alloy thermal properties have been compiled for the entire range of measurements and their errors estimated. It is shown that differences in the values of volumetric changes obtained during melting and crystallization are bound with the metastable β'-phase formation.

  8. Fraction eutectic measurements in slowly cooled Pb - 15 wt percent Sn alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, Anthony C.; Laxmanan, V.

    1988-01-01

    A space shuttle experiment employing the General Purpose Furnace in its isothermal mode of operation is currently manifested for flight circa 1989. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the role of gravity in a slowly, and isothermally, cooled sample of a binary Pb - 15 wt percent Sn alloy. Ground based work in support of the microgravity experiment is discussed. In particular, it is shown that fraction eutectic measurements using an image analyzer, can be used to satisfactorily describe macrosegregation occurring in these slowly cooled ingots.

  9. Frequency-Switchable Metamaterial Absorber Injecting Eutectic Gallium-Indium (EGaIn) Liquid Metal Alloy.

    PubMed

    Ling, Kenyu; Kim, Hyung Ki; Yoo, Minyeong; Lim, Sungjoon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated a new class of frequency-switchable metamaterial absorber in the X-band. Eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn), a liquid metal alloy, was injected in a microfluidic channel engraved on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) to achieve frequency switching. Numerical simulation and experimental results are presented for two cases: when the microfluidic channels are empty, and when they are filled with liquid metal. To evaluate the performance of the fabricated absorber prototype, it is tested with a rectangular waveguide. The resonant frequency was successfully switched from 10.96 GHz to 10.61 GHz after injecting liquid metal while maintaining absorptivity higher than 98%. PMID:26561815

  10. Loss of Anatomical Landmarks with Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthetic Cream for Neonatal Male Circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Plank, Rebeca M.; Kubiak, David W.; Abdullahi, Rasak Bamidele; Ndubuka, Nnamdi; Nkgau, Maggie M.; Dapaah-Siakwan, Fredrick; Powis, Kathleen M.; Lockman, Shahin

    2012-01-01

    We report two cases of newborns who developed marked local edema after application of a eutectic mixture of local anesthetic (EMLA) topical anesthetic cream for neonatal male circumcision (NMC). Although local edema and erythema are known potential side effects of EMLA cream, a common anesthetic used for NMC, the loss of landmarks precluding safe NMC has not previously been reported, and is described here. Although we cannot recommend an alternate local anesthetic for neonates with this reaction to EMLA, based on a review of the published data we think that serious systemic adverse events related to EMLA are extremely rare. PMID:23102766

  11. Phase selection during crystallization of undercooled liquid eutectic lead-tin alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fecht, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    During rapid solidification substantial amounts of undercooling are in general required for formation of metastable phases. Crystallization at varying levels of undercooling and melting of metastable phases were studied during slow cooling and heating of emulsified PB-Sn alloys. Besides the experimental demonstration of the reversibility of metastable phase equilibra, two different principal solidification paths have been identified and compared with the established metastable phase diagram and predictions from classical nucleation theory. The results suggest that the most probable solidification path is described by the 'step rule' resulting in the formation of metastable phases at low undercooling, whereas the stable eutectic phase mixture crystallizes without metastable phase formation at high undercooling.

  12. Evaluation of an advanced directionally solidified gamma/gamma'-alpha Mo eutectic alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, M. F.; Jackson, M. R.; Gigliotti, M. F. X.; Nelson, P. B.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt was made to improve on the properties of the candidate jet engine turbine blade material AG-60, a gamma/gamma prime-alpha Mo eutectic composite. Alloy 38 (AG-170) was evaluated in the greatest detail. This alloy, Ni-5.88 A1-29.74 Mo-1.65 V-1.2C Re (weight percent), represents an improvement beyond AG-60, based on mechanical testing of the transverse and/or longitudinal orientations over a range of temperatures in tension, shear, rupture, and rupture after thermal exposure. It is likely that other alloys in the study represent a similar improvement.

  13. Compatibility of AISI 316 L stainless steel with the Li 17Pbg, eutectic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coen, V.; Fenici, P.; Kolbe, H.; Orecchia, L.; Sasaki, T.

    1982-09-01

    The compatibility of AISI 316 L stainless steel with the Li 17Pb 83, eutectic has been studied in the temperature range 623-873 K for times up to 6000 h. In the corrosion layers formed there is a strong Ni depletion and Pb and Li penetration in the matrix. Tests at 623 K in Li 17Pb 83 on notched tensile specimens under a constant uniaxial tensile load, below the engineering yield stress, have evidenced that. many cracks filled with Pb and possibly Li are formed after relatively short times.

  14. Spatial profile of thermoelectric effects during Peltier pulsing in Bi and Bi/MnBi eutectic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silberstein, R. P.; Larson, D. J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The spatial profile of the thermal transients that occur during and following the current pulsing associated with Peltier Interface Demarcation during directional solidification is studied. Results for pure Bi are presented in detail and compared with corresponding results for the Bi/MnBi eutectic. Significant thermal transients occur throughout the sample that can be accounted for by the Peltier effect, the Thomson effect, and Joule heating. These effects are separated and their behavior is studied as a function of time, current density, and position with respect to the solid/liquid interface.

  15. (abstract) A Brief, Selective Review of Thermal Cycling Fatigue in Eutectic Tin-Lead Solder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winslow, J. W.; Silveira, C. de

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews selected parts of the current literature relevant to thermo-mechanical fatigue mechanisms in eutectic tin-lead solder, and suggests a general outline to account for some observed failures. The field is found to be complex. One recent experimental study finds some failure modes to be sensitive to joint geometry. Attempts to extrapolate from test environments to service environments have had only limited success. Much work remains to be done before fatigue failures in this material can be considered as under practical control.

  16. Frequency-Switchable Metamaterial Absorber Injecting Eutectic Gallium-Indium (EGaIn) Liquid Metal Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Kenyu; Kim, Hyung Ki; Yoo, Minyeong; Lim, Sungjoon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated a new class of frequency-switchable metamaterial absorber in the X-band. Eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn), a liquid metal alloy, was injected in a microfluidic channel engraved on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) to achieve frequency switching. Numerical simulation and experimental results are presented for two cases: when the microfluidic channels are empty, and when they are filled with liquid metal. To evaluate the performance of the fabricated absorber prototype, it is tested with a rectangular waveguide. The resonant frequency was successfully switched from 10.96 GHz to 10.61 GHz after injecting liquid metal while maintaining absorptivity higher than 98%. PMID:26561815

  17. A Directionally Solidified Iron-chromium-aluminum-tantalum Carbide Eutectic Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.

    1977-01-01

    A eutectic alloy, Fe-13.6CR-3.7Al+9TaC, was directionally solidified in a high gradient furnace, producing a microstructure of alined TaC fibers in an oxidation resistant alpha-iron matrix. Tensile and stress rupture properties, thermal cycling resistance, and microstructures were evaluated. The alloy displays at 1000 C an ultimate tensile strength of 58 MPa and a 100-hour rupture life at a stress of 21 MPa. Thermal cycling to 1100 C induces faceting in the TaC fibers.

  18. Microstructural changes in eutectic tin-lead alloy due to severe bending

    SciTech Connect

    SHEN,Y.-L.; ABEYTA,M.C.; FANG,HUEI ELIOT

    2000-02-29

    Severe plastic deformation in an eutectic tin-lead alloy is studied by imposing fast bending at room temperature, in an attempt to examine the microstructural response in the absence of thermally activated diffusion processes. A change in microstructure due to this purely mechanically imposed load is observed: the tin-rich matrix phase appears to be extruded out of the narrow region between neighboring layers of the lead-rich phase and alterations in the colony structure occur. A micromechanism is proposed to rationalize the experimental observations.

  19. Mechanical behavior of the directionally solidified gamma/gamma prime - delta eutectic alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkalow, R. H.; Jackson, J. J.; Gell, M.; Leverant, G. R.

    1975-01-01

    The eutectic alloy Ni-20.0%Cb-2.5%Al-6.0%Cr was tested in short-term creep and long-term exposure to service conditions to assess its suitability for high temperature turbine blade applications. Long-time exposure showed the lamellar microstructure of the alloy to be exceptionally stable. Other properties tested were notch sensitivity, isothermal and thermomechanical fatigue strength, shear strength, and transverse ductility. It was shown that this alloy is superior to the best currently available directionally solidified superalloys over the temperature/stress conditions encountered in turbine airfoils.

  20. Fabrication and Characterization of a Lead Zirconate Titanate Micro Energy Harvester Based on Eutectic Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi-Gui; Sun, Jian; Yang, Chun-Sheng; Liu, Jing-Quan; Sugiyama, Susumu; Tanaka, Katsuhiko

    2011-06-01

    A lead zirconate titanate(PZT)-Si energy harvester cantilever with PZT bulk ceramics is fabricated by eutectic bonding, polishing and dicing processes. The feasibility of this process is studied using a successful operation of the cantilever in both actuation and harvesting modes. The first prototype made from a PZT-Au-Si cantiliever is tested. The testing results show the voltage output of 632 mV at the frequency of 815 Hz when the excitation acceleration is 0.5 g. The PZT and silicon layers are bonded together to form a sandwiched structure using a gold layer as an intermediate layer.

  1. Zero-gravity growth of a sodium chloride-lithium fluoride eutectic mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, A. S.; Yeh, C. W.; Yue, B. K.

    1982-01-01

    Continuous and discontinuous lithium fluoride fibers embedded in a sodium chloride matrix were produced in space and on Earth, respectively. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture was attributed to the absence of convective current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and Earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It was found that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of lithium fluoride fibers along the growth direction.

  2. An electrochemical study of uranium behaviour in LiCl-KCl-CsCl eutectic melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltsev, D. S.; Volkovich, V. A.; Vasin, B. D.; Vladykin, E. N.

    2015-12-01

    Electrochemical behaviour of uranium was studied in the low melting ternary LiCl-KCl-CsCl eutectic at 573-1073 K employing potentiometry, cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry. Uranium electrode potentials were measured directly and U(III)/U(IV) red-ox potentials were determined from the results of cyclic voltammetry measurements. Formal standard electrode and red-ox potentials of uranium, and thermodynamic properties of uranium chlorides in the studied melt were calculated. Diffusion coefficients of U(III) and U(IV) ions were determined using cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry.

  3. The effect of low Au concentrations on the properties of eutectic Sn/Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, P.A.

    1992-05-01

    This study was of the effects moderately low Au concentrations ({le} 10 wt%) have on the mechanical properties and microstructure of an eutectic Sn/Pb alloy. Vibration (60--90 Hz swept sine wave for 30 hours) and thermal cycling (0--110C for 1450 cycles) reliability tests were performed on fine pitch leaded chip carriers using eutectic Sn/Pb solder on PCBs (printed circuit boards) with 0, 5, 10, 20, and 50{mu}in nominal Au thicknesses. Testing was also performed on double shear creep specimens consisting of arrays of regular pitch joints. There was a dramatic increase in the number of joints containing voids with increasing Au concentration, an effect more pronounced in the creep joints than in the reliability joints. These voids tended to coalesce and grow during rework simulation of the reliability joints. AuSn{sub 4} intermetallics present in toe of 4.8 wt% (50 {mu}in) Au vibration joints rotated from initial vertical perpendicular to surface of PCB metallization, solidification positions to roughly horizontal (parallel to plating surface) orientations during rework simulation and during aging of the parts. The AuSn{sub 4} intermetallics in the toe of the 4.8 wt% (50{mu}in) Au reflowed joints also rotated after vibration testing. No joint failures were observed in either vibration tested or thermally cycled specimens. Cracks formed in some of the vibration tested specimen joints under the heel of the gull-wing lead at Pb-rich phases. Thermally cycled specimens showed eutectic microstructure and intermetallic coarsening without crack formation. Creep tests showed loss of the superplasticity in eutectic Sn/Pb alloys with even the lowest Au concentration tested of 0.2 wt% Au. Intermetallic rotation was not a factor in crack propagation, but void presence was. Cracks tended to form in joints containing voids before forming in void-free joints. Crack propagation followed Sn/Sn grain boundaries and Sn/Pb phase boundaries from Pb-rich phase to Pb-rich phase.

  4. Explosive double salts and preparation

    DOEpatents

    Cady, Howard H.; Lee, Kien-yin

    1984-01-01

    Applicants have discovered a new composition of matter which is an explosive addition compound of ammonium nitrate (AN) and diethylenetriamine trinitrate (DETN) in a 50:50 molar ratio. The compound is stable over extended periods of time only at temperatures higher than 46.degree. C., decomposing to a fine-grained eutectic mixture (which is also believed to be new) of AN and DETN at temperatures lower than 46.degree. C. The compound of the invention has an x-ray density of 1.61 g/cm.sup.3, explodes to form essentially only gaseous products, has higher detonation properties (i.e., detonation velocity and pressure) than those of any mechanical mixture having the same density and composition as the compound of the invention, is a quite insensitive explosive material, can be cast at temperatures attainable by high pressure steam, and is prepared from inexpensive ingredients. Methods of preparing the compound of the invention and the fine-grained eutectic composition of the invention are given.

  5. Electrochemical separation of actinides and fission products in molten salt electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, R. L.; Grantham, L. F.; Fusselman, S. P.; Grimmett, D. L.; Roy, J. J.

    1995-09-01

    Molten salt electrochemical separation may be applied to accelerator-based conversion (ABC) and transmutation systems by dissolving the fluoride transport salt in LiCl-KCl eutectic solvent. The resulting fluoride-chloride mixture will contain small concentrations of fission product rare earths (La, Nd, Gd, Pr, Ce, Eu, Sm, and Y) and actinides (U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm). The Gibbs free energies of formation of the metal chlorides are grouped advantageously such that the actinides can be deposited on a solid cathode with the majority of the rare earths remaining in the electrolyte. Thus, the actinides are recycled for further transmutation. Rockwell and its partners have measured the thermodynamic properties of the metal chlorides of interest (rare earths and actinides) and demonstrated separation of actinides from rare earths in laboratory studies. A model is being developed to predict the performance of a commercial electrochemical cell for separations starting with PUREX compositions. This model predicts excellent separation of plutonium and other actinides from the rare earths in metal-salt systems.

  6. Temperature effect on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra of molten and solid salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Cynthia; Phongikaroon, Supathorn; Scott, Jill R.

    2014-07-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been investigated as a potential analytical tool to improve operations and safeguards for electrorefiners, such as those used in processing spent nuclear fuel. This study set out to better understand the effect of sample temperature and physical state on LIBS spectra of molten and solid salts by building calibration curves of cerium and assessing self-absorption, plasma temperature, electron density, and local thermal equilibrium (LTE). Samples were composed of a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, an internal standard of MnCl2, and varying concentrations of CeCl3 (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0 wt.% Ce) under different temperatures (773, 723, 673, 623, and 573 K). Analysis of salts in their molten form is preferred as plasma plumes from molten samples experienced less self-absorption, less variability in plasma temperature, and higher clearance of the minimum electron density required for local thermal equilibrium. These differences are attributed to plasma dynamics as a result of phase changes. Spectral reproducibility was also better in the molten state due to sample homogeneity.

  7. Temperature effect on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra of molten and solid salts

    SciTech Connect

    Cynthia Hanson; Supathorn Phongikaroon; Jill R. Scott

    2014-07-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been investigated as a potential analytical tool to improve operations and safeguards for electrorefiners, such as those used in processing spent nuclear fuel. This study set out to better understand the effect of sample temperature and physical state on LIBS spectra of molten and solid salts by building calibration curves of cerium and assessing self-absorption, plasma temperature, electron density, and local thermal equilibrium (LTE). Samples were composed of a LiCl–KCl eutectic salt, an internal standard of MnCl2, and varying concentrations of CeCl3 (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0 wt.% Ce) under different temperatures (773, 723, 673, 623, and 573 K). Analysis of salts in their molten form is preferred as plasma plumes from molten samples experienced less self-absorption, less variability in plasma temperature, and higher clearance of the minimum electron density required for local thermal equilibrium. These differences are attributed to plasma dynamics as a result of phase changes. Spectral reproducibility was also better in the molten state due to sample homogeneity.

  8. Theory Of Salt Effects On Protein Solubility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Yuba; Schmit, Jeremy

    Salt is one of the major factors that effects protein solubility. Often, at low salt concentration regime, protein solubility increases with the salt concentration(salting in) whereas at high salt concentration regime, solubility decreases with the increase in salt concentration(salting out). There are no quantitative theories to explain salting in and salting out. We have developed a model to describe the salting in and salting out. Our model accounts for the electrostatic Coulomb energy, salt entropy and non-electrostatic interaction between proteins. We analytically solve the linearized Poisson Boltzmann equation modelling the protein charge by a first order multipole expansion. In our model, protein charges are modulated by the anion binding. Consideration of only the zeroth order term in protein charge doesn't help to describe salting in phenomenon because of the repulsive interaction. To capture the salting in behaviour, it requires an attractive electrostatic interaction in low salt regime. Our work shows that at low salt concentration, dipole interaction is the cause for salting in and at high salt concentration a salt-dependent depletion interaction dominates and gives the salting out. Our theoretical result is consistent with the experimental result for Chymosin protein NIH Grant No R01GM107487.

  9. Effects of temperature and strain rate on the tensile behaviors of SIMP steel in static lead bismuth eutectic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian; Yan, Wei; Sha, Wei; Wang, Wei; Shan, Yiyin; Yang, Ke

    2016-05-01

    In order to assess the susceptibility of candidate structural materials to liquid metal embrittlement, this work investigated the tensile behaviors of ferritic-martensitic steel in static lead bismuth eutectic (LBE). The tensile tests were carried out in static lead bismuth eutectic under different temperatures and strain rates. Pronounced liquid metal embrittlement phenomenon is observed between 200 °C and 450 °C. Total elongation is reduced greatly due to the liquid metal embrittlement in LBE environment. The range of ductility trough is larger under slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) test.

  10. Nickel-plating for active metal dissolution resistance in molten fluoride salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Luke; Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark; Allen, Todd

    2011-04-01

    Ni electroplating of Incoloy-800H was investigated with the goal of mitigating Cr dissolution from this alloy into molten 46.5%LiF-11.5%NaF-42%KF eutectic salt, commonly referred to as FLiNaK. Tests were conducted in graphite crucibles at a molten salt temperature of 850 °C. The crucible material graphite accelerates the corrosion process due to the large activity difference between the graphite and the alloy. For the purposes of providing a baseline for this study, un-plated Incoloy-800H and a nearly pure Ni-alloy, Ni-201 were also tested. Results indicate that Ni-plating has the potential to significantly improve the corrosion resistance of Incoloy-800H in molten fluoride salts. Diffusion of Cr from the alloy through the Ni-plating does occur and if the Ni-plating is thin enough this Cr eventually dissolves into the molten salt. The post-corrosion test microstructure of the Ni-plating, particularly void formation was also observed to depend on the plating thickness. Diffusion anneals in a helium environment of Ni-plated Incoloy-800H and an Fe-Ni-Cr model alloy were also investigated to understand Cr diffusion through the Ni-plating. Further enhancements in the efficacy of the Ni-plating as a protective barrier against Cr dissolution from the alloy into molten fluoride salts can be achieved by thermally forming a Cr 2O 3 barrier film on the surface of the alloy prior to Ni electroplating.

  11. Lowering Salt in Your Diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... needs some salt to function. Also known as sodium chloride, salt helps maintain the body's balance of fluids. ... select foods that provide 5% or less for sodium, per serving. back to ... substitutes contain potassium chloride and can be used by individuals to replace ...

  12. CHED Events: Salt Lake City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wink, Donald J.

    2009-03-01

    The Division of Chemical Education (CHED) Committee meetings planned for the Spring 2009 ACS Meeting in Salt Lake City will be in the Marriott City Center Hotel. Check the location of other CHED events, the CHED Social Event, the Undergraduate Program, Sci-Mix, etc. because many will be in the Salt Palace Convention Center.

  13. Structure of liquid trivalent salts

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.L.; Howells, W.S.; Tosi, M.P.

    1993-04-01

    Total neutron scattering measurements have been made on three trivalent molten salts: InCl{sub 3} (605C), BiCl{sub 3}(300C) and BiI{sub 3} (420C). Results are discussed in the general context of ordering, bonding and macroscopic properties of trivalent molten salts.

  14. Structure of liquid trivalent salts

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.L. . Materials Science Div.); Howells, W.S. ); Tosi, M.P. )

    1993-04-01

    Total neutron scattering measurements have been made on three trivalent molten salts: InCl[sub 3] (605C), BiCl[sub 3](300C) and BiI[sub 3] (420C). Results are discussed in the general context of ordering, bonding and macroscopic properties of trivalent molten salts.

  15. Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-06-01

    Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selectionmore » and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.« less

  16. Plant salt-tolerance mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Deinlein, Ulrich; Stephan, Aaron B.; Horie, Tomoaki; Luo, Wei; Xu, Guohua; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-06-01

    Crop performance is severely affected by high salt concentrations in soils. To engineer more salt-tolerant plants it is crucial to unravel the key components of the plant salt-tolerance network. Here we review our understanding of the core salt-tolerance mechanisms in plants. Recent studies have shown that stress sensing and signaling components can play important roles in regulating the plant salinity stress response. We also review key Na+ transport and detoxification pathways and the impact of epigenetic chromatin modifications on salinity tolerance. In addition, we discuss the progress that has been made towards engineering salt tolerance in crops, including marker-assisted selection and gene stacking techniques. We also identify key open questions that remain to be addressed in the future.

  17. Wafer-level-scale package of MEMS device by eutectic bonding method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sihai; Ma, Hong; Chen, Mingxiang; Xiong, Tao; Liu, Sheng; Yi, Xinjian

    2003-12-01

    This paper reports the preliminary results for an on-going program in wafer-level MEMS package. In this particular paper, three closed-loop microheaters of 5μm, 7μm and 9μm width were designed. By reactive ion sputtering technique, two classes of samples were presented. The first one was first co-sputtered with nickel / chromium (Ni/Cr) alloy and then sputtered with gold(Au) metal as heating material; the second one was sputtered with Cr, tin (Sn) and Au respectively as heating material. The bonding of the former sample based on the Ni/Cr and Au heating material failed. The eutectic bonding experiment of the later sample based on the Cr, Sn and Au heating material by global heating method was completed in annealing oven at temperature of about 400 for 20 minutes. The SEM testing result showed the eutectic bonding of Au-Sn by global heating was successful. More results will be reported in future.

  18. Wafer-level scale package of MEMS device by eutectic bonding method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sihai; Ma, Hong; Chen, Mingxiang; Xiong, Tao; Liu, Sheng; Yi, Xinjian

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the preliminary results for an on-going program in wafer-level MEMS package. In this particular paper, three closed-loop microheaters of 5μm, 7μm and 9μm width were designed. By reactive ion sputtering technique, two classes of samples were presented. The first one was first co-sputtered with nickel / chromium (Ni/Cr) alloy and then sputtered with gold(Au) metal as heating material; the second one was sputtered with Cr, tin (Sn) and Au respectively as heating material. The bonding of the former sample based on the Ni/Cr and Au heating material failed. The eutectic bonding experiment of the later sample based on the Cr, Sn and Au heating material by global heating method was completed in annealing oven at temperature of about 400 deg. C. for 20 minutes. The SEM testing result showed the eutectic bonding of Au-Sn by global heating was successful. More results will be reported in future.

  19. Solidification and thermal behaviour of binary organic eutectic and monotectic; succinonitrile pyrene system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, U. S.; Pandey, Pinky

    2003-02-01

    Transparent binary alloy models are important in metallurgical and materials science, as phase transformations can be observed during solidification. This communication concerns the solidification and thermal studies of succinonitrile (SCN)-pyrene (PY) system, which is an organic analogue of a metal-nonmetal-type system. Phase diagram of the SCN-PY system, determined by the thaw-melt method shows the formation of a monotectic and a eutectic at 143.3°C and 55.3°C with 0.025 and 0.744 mole fractions of SCN, respectively. The critical solution temperature of the system lies 48.7°C above the monotectic temperature. The growth velocity ( v) data at different undercoolings obtained from the capillary method, obey the Hillig-Turnbull equation, v= u(Δ T) n. The heats of fusion of the binary as well as single materials were obtained from the DSC (Mettler DSC-4000 system) from which the entropy of fusion, enthalpy of mixing, Jackson's roughness parameter, excess thermodynamic functions, interfacial energy and radius of the critical nucleus were calculated. The optical microphotographs of the eutectic and monotectic show their characteristic features.

  20. Nucleation and Growth of Graphite in Eutectic Spheroidal Cast Iron: Modeling and Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carazo, Fernando D.; Dardati, Patricia M.; Celentano, Diego J.; Godoy, Luis A.

    2016-06-01

    A new model of graphite growth during the continuous cooling of eutectic spheroidal cast iron is presented in this paper. The model considers the nucleation and growth of graphite from pouring to room temperature. The microstructural model of solidification accounts for the eutectic as divorced and graphite growth rate as a function of carbon gradient at the liquid in contact with the graphite. In the solid state, the microstructural model takes into account three stages for graphite growth, namely (1) from the end of solidification to the upper bound of intercritical stable eutectoid, (2) during the intercritical stable eutectoid, and (3) from the lower bound of intercritical stable eutectoid to room temperature. The micro- and macrostructural models are coupled using a sequential multiscale approach. Numerical results for graphite fraction and size distribution are compared with experimental results obtained from a cylindrical cup, in which the graphite volumetric fraction and size distribution were obtained using the Schwartz-Saltykov approach. The agreements between the experimental and numerical results for the fraction of graphite and the size distribution of spheroids reveal the importance of numerical models in the prediction of the main aspects of graphite in spheroidal cast iron.