Science.gov

Sample records for liec tm strdt

  1. OncoLogicTM

    EPA Science Inventory

    OncoLogicTM - A Computer System to Evaluate the Carcinogenic Potential of Chemicals
    OncoLogicTM is a software program that evaluates the likelihood that a chemical may cause cancer. OncoLogicTM has been peer reviewed and is being rele...

  2. CLOMP_TM

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-06-01

    The CLOMP_TM benchmark was developed to measure the overheads of various mechanisms used to guarantee the generation of correct results in threaded code even when multiple threads might be accessing and/or updating the same memory location at the same time. This includes widely supported mechanisms like OpenMP Atomic and Open MP Critical as well as new mechanisms like Transactional Memory (TM) and Speculative Execution (SE) of threads. The CLOMP_TM benchmark is highly configurable to allowmore » a variety of problem sizes, atomic update region sizes, and potential race condition opportunities to be studied. A wide variety of checks are done on the results to verify the expected answer was actuallyl generated. Thus CLOMP_TM can be used both to measure the overhead for various mechanisms and to check the correctness of their implementation.« less

  3. CLOMP_TM

    SciTech Connect

    Gyllenhaal, J.

    2012-06-01

    The CLOMP_TM benchmark was developed to measure the overheads of various mechanisms used to guarantee the generation of correct results in threaded code even when multiple threads might be accessing and/or updating the same memory location at the same time. This includes widely supported mechanisms like OpenMP Atomic and Open MP Critical as well as new mechanisms like Transactional Memory (TM) and Speculative Execution (SE) of threads. The CLOMP_TM benchmark is highly configurable to allow a variety of problem sizes, atomic update region sizes, and potential race condition opportunities to be studied. A wide variety of checks are done on the results to verify the expected answer was actuallyl generated. Thus CLOMP_TM can be used both to measure the overhead for various mechanisms and to check the correctness of their implementation.

  4. GEOMAG[TM] Paradoxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defrancesco, Silvia; Logiurato, Fabrizio; Karwasz, Grzegorz

    2007-01-01

    As often happens, a lot of physics can come out of a toy. What we found interesting is the observation of the magnetic field produced by different configurations built with GEOMAG[TM]. This toy provides small magnetic bars and steel spheres to play with. Amusing 3-D structures can be built; nevertheless, this possibility is not so obvious. Indeed,…

  5. 75 FR 5071 - Lock + TM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock + \\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XXXI, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit... January 22, 2010. On January 8, 2010, Lock + \\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XXXI, LLC (Lock + Hydro) filed...

  6. 75 FR 5068 - Lock + TM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock + \\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIII, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit... January 22, 2010. On January 8, 2010, Lock + \\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XXXIII, LLC (Lock + Hydro) filed...

  7. The tmRNA website

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hudson, Corey M.; Williams, Kelly P.

    2014-11-05

    We report that the transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) and its partner protein SmpB act together in resolving problems arising when translating bacterial ribosomes reach the end of mRNA with no stop codon. Their genes have been found in nearly all bacterial genomes and in some organelles. The tmRNA Website serves tmRNA sequences, alignments and feature annotations, and has recently moved to http: //bioinformatics.sandia.gov/tmrna/. New features include software used to find the sequences, an update raising the number of unique tmRNA sequences from 492 to 1716, and a database of SmpB sequences which are served along with the tmRNA sequence from themore » same organism.« less

  8. The tmRNA website

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, Corey M.; Williams, Kelly P.

    2014-11-05

    We report that the transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) and its partner protein SmpB act together in resolving problems arising when translating bacterial ribosomes reach the end of mRNA with no stop codon. Their genes have been found in nearly all bacterial genomes and in some organelles. The tmRNA Website serves tmRNA sequences, alignments and feature annotations, and has recently moved to http: //bioinformatics.sandia.gov/tmrna/. New features include software used to find the sequences, an update raising the number of unique tmRNA sequences from 492 to 1716, and a database of SmpB sequences which are served along with the tmRNA sequence from the same organism.

  9. Listening and Legos[TM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    This simple exercise, performed in teams, gives students practice in listening to instructions, particularly when there are restrictions for the communication. The teams compete in a limited amount of time to build a Lego[TM] structure based on the instructions of one team member. Which team listens the best and is most successful?

  10. 75 FR 78234 - Lock+TM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ...; Project No. 13786-000] Lock+ TM Hydro Friends Fund XXXIV; FFP Missouri 5, LLC; Solia 2 Hydroelectric, LLC... proposed Emsworth Lock and Dam Projects: Lock+ TM Hydro Friends Fund XXXIV's proposed project (Project...

  11. 75 FR 2129 - Lock+TM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ TM Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit... January 6, 2010. On November 13, 2009, Lock+ TM Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC filed an application, pursuant...,018 megawatt-hours. Applicant Contact: Wayne F. Krouse, Lock+ TM Hydro Friends Fund XXX, LLC,...

  12. 76 FR 48840 - Lock+TM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+\\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV Riverbank Hydro No. 4, LLC; Notice of..., and Competing Applications On April 1, 2011, Lock+\\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV (Hydro Friends) and...: Mr. Wayne F. Krouse, Managing Partner, Lock+\\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XXXV, 5090 Richmond Avenue...

  13. 75 FR 78236 - Lock+TM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+\\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XLVII, FFP Missouri 16, LLC, et al.; Notice of... Intervene December 8, 2010. Lock+\\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XLVII........ Project No. 13743-000. FFP Missouri.... Descriptions of the proposed Opekiska Lock and Dam Projects: Lock+\\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XLVII's...

  14. 75 FR 78234 - Lock+TM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ TM Hydro Friends Fund XXXVIII, FFP Missouri 12, LLC, et al.; Notice of... Intervene December 8, 2010. Lock+TM Hydro Friends Fund XXXVIII........ Project No. 13744-000 FFP Missouri 12... No. 13780-000 On May 18, 2010, Lock+ TM Hydro Friends Fund XXXVIII, FFP Missouri 12, LLC, Allegheny...

  15. Modified LaRC(TM)-IA Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, Terry L.; Chang, Alice C.; Hou, Tan H.; Working, Dennis C.

    1994-01-01

    Modified versions of thermoplastic polyimide LaRC(TM)-IA incorporate various amounts of additional, rigid moieties into backbones of LaRC(TM)-IA molecules. Modified versions more resistant to solvents and exhibit higher glass-transition temperatures, yet retain melt-flow processability of unmodified LaRC(TM)-IA.

  16. Applications of TM polarized illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Bruce; Zhou, Jianming; Xie, Peng

    2008-03-01

    The use of transverse electric (TE) polarization has dominated illumination schemes as selective polarization is used for high-NA patterning. The benefits of TE polarization are clear - the interference of diffracted beams remains absolute at oblique angles. Transverse magnetic (TM) polarization is usually considered less desirable as imaging modulation from interference at large angle falls off rapidly as the 1/cosθ. Significant potential remains, however, for the use of TM polarization at large angles when its reflection component is utilized. By controlling the resist/substrate interface reflectivity, high modulation for TM polarization can be maintained for angles up to 90° in the resist. This can potentially impact the design of illumination away from most recent TE-only schemes for oblique imaging angles (high NA). We demonstrate several cases of TM illumination combined with tuned substrate reflectivity for 0.93NA, 1.20NA, and 1.35NA and compare results to TE and unpolarized cases. The goal is to achieve a flat response through polarization at large imaging angles. An additional application of TM illumination is its potential use for double patterning. As double patterning and double exposure approaches are sought in order to meet the needs of 32nm device generations and beyond, materials and process engineering challenges become prohibitive. We have devised a method for frequency doubling in a single exposure using an unconventional means of polarization selection and by making use of the reflective component produced at the photoresist/substrate interface. In doing so, patterns can be deposited into a photoresist film with double density. As an example, using a projection system numerical aperture of 1.20, with water as an immersion fluid, and a conventional polyacrylate 193nm photoresist, pattern resolution at 20nm half-pitch are obtainable (which is 0.125lambda/NA). The process to transfer this geometry into a hardmask layer uses conventional materials

  17. 77 FR 71590 - Lock+TM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+ TM Hydro Friends Fund XI, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit... October 1, 2012, Lock+ TM Hydro Friends Fund XI, LLC filed an application for a preliminary...

  18. 75 FR 78233 - Lock+TM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lock+\\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XXXVII; FFP Missouri 6, LLC; Solia 1.... Descriptions of the proposed Emsworth Back Channel Dam Projects: Lock+ TM Hydro Friends Fund XXXVII's...

  19. A Review of "Integrity[TM]"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2008-01-01

    Integrity[TM], an online application for testing both the statistical integrity of the test and the academic integrity of the examinees, was evaluated for this review. Program features and the program output are described. An overview of the statistics in Integrity[TM] is provided, and the application is illustrated with a small simulation study.…

  20. 78 FR 72922 - TSA Pre✓TM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ...The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) announces the establishment of a fee for applicants of the TSA Pre[check]TM Application Program. Members of the public may apply to this TSA program by voluntarily providing biometric and biographic information and paying a fee. TSA will use these fees from applicants to fund selected activities of the TSA Pre[check]TM......

  1. The GEMnet (TM) global data communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Byung K.; Chitty, Richard; Walters, Dave; Howard, Regan

    1995-01-01

    The GEMnet(TM) (Global Electronics Message network) will provide global digital data communications anywhere in the world at any time for minimum cost. GEMnet(TM) is an end-to-end Non-Voice Non-Geostationary Mobile Satellite (NVNG) (sometimes dubbed 'Little LEO') System which consists of a constellation of 38 low Earth orbiting small satellites and a ground segment. The GEMnet(TM) ground segment will consist of subscriber user terminals, gateway stations, a Network Operational Center(NOC), and a backbone network interconnecting the NOC and gateways. This paper will describe the GEMnet(TM) system concept including ground and space segments, system heritage, data communication services, and protocols.

  2. Kondo effect of trivalent Tm in Y 0.9Tm 0.1S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haen, P.; Lapierre, F.; Mignot, J. M.; Flouquet, J.; Holtzberg, F.; Penney, T.

    1983-02-01

    The existence of a Kondo effect in a trivalent alloy Y 0.9Tm 0.1 S is shown by the Curie-Weiss behavior of the susceptibility and by a ln T decrease of Δϱ = ϱ alloy - ϱ YS above ˜ 12 K comparable with that observed in TmS. Comparisons are made with the Kondo dilute alloys of the intermediate valent system (Y,Tm)Se.

  3. LaRC(TM)-IA Copolyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, Terry L.; Chang, Alice C.

    1995-01-01

    Copolyimides modified versions of LaRC(TM)-IA thermoplastic polyimide formulated by incorporating moieties of 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) and, alternatively, isophthaloyldiphthalic anhydride (IDPA) into LaRC(TM)-IA polymer backbones. Exhibit higher glass-transition temperatures and retain greater fractions of lower-temperature shear moduli at higher temperatures. Copolyimides spun into fibers or used as adhesives, molding powders, or matrix resins in many applications, especially in fabrication of strong, lightweight structural components of aircraft.

  4. Ultrasonic measurements on TmS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Y.; Sakon, T.; Matsumura, T.; Nemoto, Y.; Hazama, H.; Goto, T.; Suzuki, T.; Motokawa, M.

    2001-05-01

    The elastic properties on TmS have been investigated for the first time by means of ultrasonic mesurement. The remarkable softening of the longitudinal ( C11- C12)/2 mode was observed, while the transverse C44 mode increases monotonously with decreasing temperature. The bulk modulus CB also shows the anomaly. These behaviors are discussed from the views of the quadrupolar interactions and the unstable 4f state of Tm ion.

  5. Conductivity and magnetic properties of TmSe and TmS: Comparison to the dilute cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtzberg, F.; Flouquet, J.; Haen, P.; Lapierre, F.; Lassailly, Y.; Vettier, C.

    1985-04-01

    Magnetization, neutron diffraction, and resistivity measurements performed on the compounds TmSe and TmS are compared to those on the dilute alloys (Tm,Y)Se and (Tm,Y)S. In the paramagnetic regime, major differences exist between a regular array of Tm ions (TmSe and TmS) and the dilute systems. Localization (TmSe) or magnetic correlations (TmS) appear clearly in the conductivity behavior or in the dependence of the static susceptibility. A low content of Y atoms in TmSe has a drastic effect on the conductivity and on the magnetic order. We will discuss the connection between the degeneracy of the ground state with the opening of a gap.

  6. Concurrent Validity of LibQUAL+[TM] Scores: What Do LibQUAL+[TM] Scores Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce; Cook, Colleen; Kyrillidou, Martha

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the validity of LibQUAL+[TM] scores, and specifically how total and subscale LibQUAL+[TM] scores are associated with self-reported, library-related satisfaction and outcomes scores. Participants included 88,664 students and faculty who completed the American English (n[AE] = 69,494) or the British English (n[BE] =…

  7. QCD For Intel(R) Xeon Phi(tm) and Xeon(tm) processors

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, Balint

    2014-09-11

    This library provides a library containing highly optimized Wilson-Dslash, Wilson Clover operator and Krylov subspace solvers for Lattice QCD simulations. The library is targeted at Intel(R) Xeon Phi(tm), and Intel(R) Xeon(tm) processors.

  8. Modeling Cr-to-Tm and Cr-to-Tm-to-Ho energy transfer in YAG crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swetits, John J.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic analysis of energy transfer processes in crystals of YAG doped with varying concentrations of Cr and Tm is described. Both spectral measurements and measurements of the temporal response to pulsed excitation are used to give independent determinations of the microscopic interaction parameter for Cr to Tm transfer. The different factors in influencing the temperature dependence of the Cr to Tm transfer are discussed. The dependence of the Tm cross-relaxation rate on Tm concentration is determined.

  9. Linearly polarized single TM mode terahertz waveguide.

    PubMed

    Li, Haisu; Ren, Guobin; Atakaramians, Shaghik; Kuhlmey, Boris T; Jian, Shuisheng

    2016-09-01

    We design a hollow-core terahertz (THz) waveguide guiding a single linearly polarized mode. This is achieved using a hybrid cladding, where we introduce a ring of subwavelength structures, including metal wires and air-holes. The wire-based cladding is extremely anisotropic, reflecting only transverse magnetic (TM) modes. The polarization of TM modes is further manipulated by replacing some wires with air-holes. Numerical simulations confirm the guidance of only an x-polarized TM2 mode over 0.36-0.46 THz in a wavelength-scale core (diameter of 1 mm). The propagation losses are of the order 0.25  dB/cm, with low bend losses <0.3  dB/cm at 0.4 THz for a bend radius of 5 cm. PMID:27607958

  10. Landsat TM and ETM+ Thermal Band Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsi, Julia A.; Hook, Simon J.; Palluconi, Frank D.; Schott, John R.; Raqueno, Nina G.

    2006-01-01

    Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) has been imaging the Earth since March 1984 and Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) was added to the series of Landsat instruments in April 1999. The stability and calibration of the ETM+ has been monitored extensively since launch. Though not monitored for many years, TM now has a similar system in place to monitor stability and calibration. University teams have been evaluating the on-board calibration of the instruments through ground-based measurements since 1999. This paper considers the calibration efforts for the thermal band, Band 6, of both the Landsat-5 and Landsat-7 instruments.

  11. Doors to Discovery [TM]. WWC Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Doors to Discovery[TM], an early childhood curriculum, focuses on the development of children's vocabulary and expressive and receptive language through a learning process called "shared literacy," where adults and children work together to develop literacy-related skills. Literacy activities, organized into thematic units, encourage children's…

  12. The Neuroscience of PowerPoint[TM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Jared Cooney

    2014-01-01

    Many concepts have been published relevant to improving the design of PowerPoint[TM] (PP) presentations for didactic purposes, including the redundancy, modality, and signaling principles of multimedia learning. In this article, we review the recent neuroimaging findings that have emerged elucidating the neural structures involved in many of these…

  13. TE and TM pass integrated optic polarizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madaan, Divya; Kaur, Davinder; Sharma, V. K.; Kapoor, A.

    2016-05-01

    A four layer integrated optical waveguide is studied, in which a high index buffer is used along with the metal cladding. The structure can act both as TE and TM pass polarizer. We have designed it for λ=1.55 µm which corresponds to telecommunication wavelength. TiO2 is used as a buffer layer with Au as metal cladding. When metal clad optical waveguides with a high index buffer layer are used there is periodic coupling between lossless modes of waveguide and the lossy modes supported by high index buffer layer with metal clad. We present theoretical results of the effect of buffer thickness on the mode index and the losses. The TM Pass polarizer with TE and TM losses, 1029.19dB/cm and 59.67dB/cm respectively are obtained. Also, TE Pass polarizer with TM and TE losses 1444.74dB/cm and 238.51dB/cm respectively are obtained.

  14. Associations with Minspeak[TM] Icons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Merwe, Elmarie; Alant, Erna

    2004-01-01

    Although the Minspeak[TM] approach is used on communication devices worldwide, little research has been conducted on its applicability within specific cultural contexts. The impact that users' familiarity of symbols and associations can have on learnability necessitates more systematic research. This study was an investigation into the…

  15. Defying Gravity Using Jenga[TM] Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Yin-Soo; Yap, Kueh-Chin

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes how Jenga[TM] blocks can be used to demonstrate the physics of an overhanging tower that appears to defy gravity. We also propose ideas for how this demonstration can be adapted for the A-level physics curriculum. (Contains 8 figures and 1 table.)

  16. Temperature dependence of LRE-HRE-TM thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zuoyi; Cheng, Xiaomin; Lin, Gengqi; Li, Zhen; Huang, Zhixin; Jin, Fang; Wang, Xianran; Yang, Xiaofei

    2003-04-01

    Temperature dependence of the properties of RE-TM thin films is very important for MO recording. In this paper, we studied the temperature dependence of the magnetic and magneto-optical properties of the amorphous LRE-HRE-TM single layer thin films and LRE-HRE-TM/HRE-TM couple-bilayered thin films. For LRE-HRE-TM single layer thin films, the temperature dependence of the magnetization was investigated by using the mean field theory. The experimental and theoretical results matched very well. With the LRE substitution in HRE-TM thin film, the compensation temperature Tcomp decreased and the curie temperature Tc remained unchanged. Kerr rotation angle became larger and the saturation magnetization Ms at room temperature increased. For LRE-HRE-TM/HRE-TM couple-bilayered thin films, comparisons of the temperature dependences of the coercivities and Kerr rotation angles were made between isolated sublayers and couple-bilayered thin film.

  17. Investigation of loss processes of Tm and Tm,Ho in YAG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armagan, G.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Bair, C. H.; Inge, A. T.; Hess, R. V.

    1991-01-01

    The loss of excitation from various manifolds of Tm and Tm,Ho in YAG as a function of temperature and concentration is studied. Two probable loss mechanisms - a Tm up-conversion and a Ho up-conversion - are identified. A 785-nm CW diode laser with 400-nW peak power was focused to a small spot on the sample. The emission from the sample observed at 90 deg was monitored through a monochromator with slits open to 3 mm. Intensity of emission was measured by varying the power of the excitation source using a set of neutral density filters. Power is reported as the percentage of the peak power, and the intensity curves were normalized below 20 percent of transmission. The fact that there is emission above the pump energy indicates an up-conversion from excited manifolds. Nonlinear changes in the intensity of the emission from the Tm 3F4 manifold with the pump power reveals a loss of excitation from this manifold. The linear dependence of the 5I7 manifold emission with pump power at low Tm and high Ho concentrations and the gain of energy in the 5I6 manifold of Ho indicate that the 5I7 manifold loss is due to the coupling of Tm and Ho ions.

  18. 75 FR 61479 - Western Passage OCGenTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Western Passage OCGen\\TM\\ Power Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit... Western Passage OCGen\\TM\\ Power Project, located in Western Passage, in the vicinity of the City of... consist of: (1) 2 OCGen\\TM\\ hydrokinetic tidal devices each consisting of four 150-kilowatt...

  19. Pioneers--The "Engineering byDesign[TM]" Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Barry N.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the standards-based instruction model, Engineering byDesign[TM] (EbD), and a network of teachers called the Engineering byDesign[TM] Network. Engineering byDesign[TM] is the only standards-based national model for Grades K-12 that delivers technological literacy which was developed by the International Technology Education…

  20. Radiative lifetime measurements of some Tm I and Tm II levels by time-resolved laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yanshan; Wang, Xinghao; Yu, Qi; Li, Yongfan; Gao, Yang; Dai, Zhenwen

    2016-04-01

    Radiative lifetimes of 88 levels of Tm I in the energy range 22 791.176-48 547.98 cm-1 and 29 levels of Tm II in the range 27 294.79-65 612.85 cm-1 were measured by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in laser-ablation plasma. The lifetime values obtained are in the range from 15.4 to 7900 ns for Tm I and from 36.5 to 1000 ns for Tm II. To the best of our knowledge, 77 lifetimes of Tm I and 22 lifetimes of Tm II are reported for the first time. Good agreements between the present results and the previous experimental values were achieved for both Tm I and Tm II.

  1. Reliability and Validity of the Zephyr[TM] BioHarness[TM] to Measure Respiratory Responses to Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hailstone, Jono; Kilding, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    The Zephyr[TM] BioHarness[TM] (Zephyr Technology, Auckland, New Zealand) is a wireless physiological monitoring system that has the ability to measure respiratory rate unobtrusively. However, the ability of the BioHarness[TM] to accurately and reproducibly determine respiratory rate across a range of intensities is currently unknown. The aim of…

  2. Evaluating LANDSAT-4 MSS and TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strome, W. M.; Cihlar, J.; Goodenough, D. G.; Guertin, F. E. (Principal Investigator); Murphy, J. M.; Grieve, G.; Simard, R.; Horler, D.; Ahern, F. J.

    1984-01-01

    Interband line pixel misregistrations were determined for the four MSS bands of the Mistassini, Ontario scene and multitemporal registration of LANDSAT-4 products were tested for two different geocoded scenes. Line and pixel misregistrations are tabulated as determined by the manual ground control points and the digital band to band correlation techniques. A method was developed for determining the spectral information content of TM images for forestry applications.

  3. Absolute calibration accuracy of L4 TM and L5 TM sensor image pairs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Micijevic, E.

    2006-01-01

    The Landsat suite of satellites has collected the longest continuous archive of multispectral data of any land-observing space program. From the Landsat program's inception in 1972 to the present, the Earth science user community has benefited from a historical record of remotely sensed data. However, little attention has been paid to ensuring that the data are calibrated and comparable from mission to mission, Launched in 1982 and 1984 respectively, the Landsat 4 (L4) and Landsat 5 (L5) Thematic Mappers (TM) are the backbone of an extensive archive of moderate resolution Earth imagery. To evaluate the "current" absolute accuracy of these two sensors, image pairs from the L5 TM and L4 TM sensors were compared. The approach involves comparing image statistics derived from large common areas observed eight days apart by the two sensors. The average percent differences in reflectance estimates obtained from the L4 TM agree with those from the L5 TM to within 15 percent. Additional work to characterize the absolute differences between the two sensors over the entire mission is in progress.

  4. Laser brackets debonding: Tm:YAP and ClarityTM SL self-ligating appliance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostálová, Tatjana; Jelínková, Helena; Šulc, Jan; Koranda, Petr; Němec, Michal; Jelínek, Michal; Fibrich, Martin; Michalik, Pavel; Miyagi, Mitsunobu

    2010-02-01

    The study demonstrates the possibility of using Tm:YAP laser radiation for the removing ceramic brackets. The amount of enamel loss and residual resin on teeth has been evaluated. A diode-pumped Tm:YAP microchip laser generating at wavelength 1.9 μm was used for the debonding process. The transmission and absorption measurement of the basic elements - bracket, adhesive resin, and enamel was analyzed to explain the source of the heat and bracket debonding. Quantitative measurements are made for visualizing enamel surface before and after a self-ligating bonding technique. Temperature rise observation during the debonding procedure - from 0.5 to 2 W power - has improved the accuracy of assessment. The results were evaluated by CCD camera and scanning electron microscope. From the measurements it is possible to conclude that continuously running small diode pumped Tm:YAP microchip laser having output power 1W can remove the ceramic bracket without enamel iatrogenic damage.

  5. TE/TM Simulations of Interferometric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houshmand, Bijan

    2000-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) measurements at X-, C-, L-, and P-band are used to derive ground topography at meter level resolution. Interpretation of the derived topography requires attention due to the complex interaction of the radar signal with ground cover. The presence of penetrable surfaces such as vegetation, and tree canopies poses a challenge since the depth of penetration depends on a number of parameters such as the operating radar frequency, polarization, incident angle, as well as terrain structure. The dependence of the reconstructed topography on polarization may lead to the characterization of the ground cover. Simulation of interferometric measurements is useful for interpretation of the derived topography (B. Houshmand, Proceedings of URSI, 314, 1997). In this talk , time domain simulations for interferometric measurement for TE- and TM- polarization are presented. Time domain simulation includes the effects of the surface material property as well geometry comparable the radar signal wavelength (B. Houshmand, Proceedings of the URSI, 25, 1998). The IFSAR simulation is carried out in two steps. First, the forward scattering data is generated based on full wave analysis. Next, the electromagnetic information is inverted to generate surface topography. This inversion is based on the well known IFSAR processing technique which is composed of signal compression, and formation of an interferogram. The full wave forward scattering data is generated by the scattered-field formulation of the FDTD algorithm. The simulation is carried out by exciting the computational domain by a radar signal. The scattered field is then computed and translated to the receiving interferometric antennas using the time-domain Huygen's principle. The inversion process starts by compressing the time-domain data. The range compressed data from both receivers are then coregistered to form an interferogram. The resulting interferogram is then related to the

  6. Laser spectroscopy of /sup 170/Tm

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, P.; Bounds, J.A.

    1988-12-01

    The magnetic moment, quadrupole moment, and isotope shift of the radioactive isotope /sup 170/Tm have been measured by the atomic-beam resonance-fluorescence technique. Hyperfine structures of the 563-, 568-, 590-, and 597-nm transitions were observed with a resolution of 12 MHz. The magnetic moment is found to be /mu//sup (170)/ = +0.2458(17) /mu//sub N/; the spectroscopic quadrupole moment, Q/sub s//sup (170)/ = 0.72(5) b. The isotope shifts /delta/3at/sup 169,170/ for the above lines are -469(2), -471(6), +462(6), and -461(8) MHz, respectively.

  7. Optical Properties of Tm(3+) Ions in Alkali Germanate Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Brian M.; Barnes, Norman P.; Reichle, Donald J.; Jiang, Shibin

    2006-01-01

    Tm-doped alkali germanate glass is investigated for use as a laser material. Spectroscopic investigations of bulk Tm-doped germanate glass are reported for the absorption, emission and luminescence decay. Tm:germanate shows promise as a fiber laser when pumped with 0.792 m diodes because of low phonon energies. Spectroscopic analysis indicates low nonradiative quenching and pulsed laser performance studies confirm this prediction by showing a quantum efficiency of 1.69.

  8. Graphing Calculators, the CBL2[TM] and TI-Interactive[TM] in High School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Bill

    This collection of activities is designed to show how TI-Interactive[TM] and Calculator-based Laboratories (CBL) can be used to explore topics in high school science. The activities address such topics as specific heat, Boyle's Law, Newton's Law of Cooling, and Antarctic Ozone Levels. Teaching notes and calculator instructions are included as are…

  9. Mechanism of tantalum adhesion on SiLK{sup TM}

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Yue; Yang Shuowang; Chen Xiantong; Lu Dong; Feng Yuanping; Wu Ping

    2005-09-19

    Tantalum adhesion on SiLK{sup TM} was investigated using first-principles method based on density functional theory. Phenylene groups were found to play a major role and the adjacent semi-benzene rings also contribute significantly to Ta adhesion on SiLK{sup TM}. In addition, the degradation effects of H{sub 2}/He reactive plasma clean on Ta adhesion on SiLK{sup TM} was investigated. Based on our findings, argon plasma treatment was suggested and implemented after reactive plasma cleaning process, which resulted in integration of SiLK{sup TM} with Cu up to seven metal layers.

  10. TM dependence of the magneto-optic signal in GdTb-TM thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Hairston, D.K.; Kryder, M.H.

    1988-04-15

    The magneto-optic polar Kerr rotation for various GdTb-TM thin films was measured at room temperature as a function of TM composition and was found to correlate with the Slater--Pauling curve. In spite of the fact that the temperature dependence of magnetization is a complicating factor, the data clearly establish the above-mentioned correlation. The TM compositions ranged from Mn through Fe and Co to Ni. The Fe-based films had Curie temperatures covering a range from 100 to 300 /sup 0/C in contrast to the Co-based films whose Curie temperatures were clearly much greater than 300 /sup 0/C. Neither the Mn- nor the Ni-based films exhibited desirable magneto-optic activity when fabricated under the same conditions as the Fe- and/or Co-based films. When the Fe constituent of the GdTbFe films was gradually substituted with Mn or Co the room-temperature magneto-optic signal was found to decrease and increase, respectively. In a similar manner, when the Co constituent of GdTbCo films was gradually substituted with Fe or Ni the room-temperature magneto-optic effect was found to increase and decrease, respectively. However, when the Co constituent of GdTbCo films was gradually substituted with Mn the room-temperature magneto-optic effect also decreased, clearly establishing the correlation to the Slater--Pauling curve. These results are further evidence that the magneto-optic effect of traditional RE-TM thin films is dominated by the TM composition and explain the fact that the magneto-optic signal is largest in GdTbFeCo thin films. New data supporting the correlation between magneto-optic effect and perpendicular anisotropy was also obtained.

  11. Triaxial Superdeformed Bands in ^163Tm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattabiraman, N. S.; Ghugre, S. S.; Garg, Umesh; Li, T.; Nayak, B. K.; Zhu, S.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Janssens, R. V. F.

    2002-10-01

    Following the recent discovery of triaxial superdeformation bands in the Z = 71, 72 nuclei [1,2], we have investigated the Z = 69 nucleus ^163 Tm using the reaction ^130 Te( ^37 Cl, 4n) ^163 Tm with a beam energy of 170 MeV. Gamma-ray spectroscopy was performed using the Gammasphere array at LBNL. The data were sorted into a hypercube. The preliminary results have indicated two bands with δ E _γ 60 keV above the previously known 5286 keV, 49/2^- state. These bands appear to talk to one another. It may be recalled that evidence for wobbling motion has recently been reported in the isobaric nucleus ^163 Lu The detailed experimental results and comparisons with the neighboring nuclei will be presented. [1] H. Amro et al, Phys. Lett. B 506, 39(2001). [2] G. Schonwasser eet al., Eur. Phys. J. A13, 291(2002). [3] D. R. Jensen et al, Nucl. Phys. A 703, 3 (2002).

  12. Three Long Lived Excited States of Tm^-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Malley, Steven M.; Beck, Donald R.

    2004-05-01

    Recent measurements(V. T. Davis and J. S. Thompson, Phys. Rev. A 65), 010501 (2001). have yielded 2 Tm^- states with lifetimes >50 μs [2] with estimated electron affinities of ˜1 eV. Theory does not support a 4f attachment to the ground state(D. Datta and D. R. Beck, Phys. Rev. A 47), 5198 (1993)., and at most only a weak (<100 meV) 6p attachment(J. A. Chevary and S. H. Vosko, J. Phys. B 27), 657 (1994).. Our more accurate calculations for 4f, 5d, and 6p attachment to the ground state find no evidence of any bound state associated with these attachments. We then turned to attachment to ``low lying'' Tm I excited states. Candidates must have lifetimes >50 μs, unusually long for simpler species except for He^-, Be^-, and Ba^- (T. Andersen et al., J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 28), 1511 (1999).. Using a relativistic configuration interaction in the continuum methodology (Z. Cai, D. R. Beck, and W. F. Perger, Phys. Rev. A 43), 4660 (1991)., we have found 3 states, 4f^125d6s^26p (J=8,9,10), with lifetimes of 10 μs, 5 ms, and 3 ms, respectively. These are bound to their natural thresholds by 254, 258, and 173 meV and may represent what is being observed [2].

  13. 78 FR 28258 - mPower\\TM\\ Design-Specific Review Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... COMMISSION mPower\\TM\\ Design-Specific Review Standard AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Design-Specific Review Standard (DSRS) for the mPower\\TM\\ Design; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear... the mPower\\TM\\ design (mPower\\TM\\ DSRS). The purpose of the mPower\\TM\\ DSRS is to more fully...

  14. 78 FR 52804 - mPower\\TM\\ Design-Specific Review Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... COMMISSION mPower\\TM\\ Design-Specific Review Standard AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Design-Specific Review Standard (DSRS) for the mPower\\TM\\ Design; re-opening of comment period. SUMMARY: On May 14... for the mPower\\TM\\ design (mPower\\TM\\ DSRS). The purpose of the mPower\\TM\\ DSRS is to more...

  15. Comparative 3-D Modeling of tmRNA

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Jody; Zwieb, Christian; Müller, Florian; Wower, Iwona; Wower, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    Background Trans-translation releases stalled ribosomes from truncated mRNAs and tags defective proteins for proteolytic degradation using transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA). This small stable RNA represents a hybrid of tRNA- and mRNA-like domains connected by a variable number of pseudoknots. Comparative sequence analysis of tmRNAs found in bacteria, plastids, and mitochondria provides considerable insights into their secondary structures. Progress toward understanding the molecular mechanism of template switching, which constitutes an essential step in trans-translation, is hampered by our limited knowledge about the three-dimensional folding of tmRNA. Results To facilitate experimental testing of the molecular intricacies of trans-translation, which often require appropriately modified tmRNA derivatives, we developed a procedure for building three-dimensional models of tmRNA. Using comparative sequence analysis, phylogenetically-supported 2-D structures were obtained to serve as input for the program ERNA-3D. Motifs containing loops and turns were extracted from the known structures of other RNAs and used to improve the tmRNA models. Biologically feasible 3-D models for the entire tmRNA molecule could be obtained. The models were characterized by a functionally significant close proximity between the tRNA-like domain and the resume codon. Potential conformational changes which might lead to a more open structure of tmRNA upon binding to the ribosome are discussed. The method, described in detail for the tmRNAs of Escherichia coli, Bacillus anthracis, and Caulobacter crescentus, is applicable to every tmRNA. Conclusion Improved molecular models of biological significance were obtained. These models will guide in the design of experiments and provide a better understanding of trans-translation. The comparative procedure described here for tmRNA is easily adopted for the modeling the members of other RNA families. PMID:15958166

  16. 75 FR 61480 - Cobscook Bay OCGenTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Cobscook Bay OCGen\\TM\\ Power; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application... OCGen\\TM\\ Power Project, located in the Cobscook Bay, near the City of Eastport, Washington County... without the owners' express permission. The proposed project would consist of: (1) 5 TidGen...

  17. Accelerated Math[TM]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Accelerated Math"[TM], published by Renaissance Learning, is a software tool used to customize assignments and monitor progress in math for students in grades 1-12. The "Accelerated Math"[TM] software creates individualized assignments aligned with state standards and national guidelines, scores student work, and generates reports on student…

  18. SpellRead[TM]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "SpellRead"[TM], formerly known as "SpellRead Phonological Auditory Training"[R], is a small-group literacy program for struggling readers in grades 2-12. "SpellRead"[TM] integrates the auditory and visual aspects of the reading process and emphasizes specific skill mastery through systematic and explicit instruction. Students are taught to…

  19. Disability Awareness Night[TM]: 2006 Honorees, Sponsors, Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the 2006 honorees, sponsors, and teams for the Disability Awareness Night[TM]. Disability Awareness Night[TM] is a unique and powerful community outreach program. Its vision is to continue to raise awareness outside of the community of individuals with disabilities to continue the goal that this program will open doors to…

  20. Social Stories[TM] for Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynhout, Georgina; Carter, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A review of the empirical research literature on Social Stories[TM] is presented, including a descriptive review and single-subject meta-analysis of appropriate studies. Examination of data suggests the effects of Social Stories[TM] are highly variable. Interpretations of extant studies are frequently confounded by inadequate participant…

  1. Social Stories[TM]: A Possible Theoretical Rationale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynhout, Georgina; Carter, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Social Stories[TM] are an intervention widely used with individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This paper discusses a possible theoretical rationale that might account for the purported efficacy of Social Stories[TM]. Attributes of individuals with ASD in relation to Social Story intervention including difficulties with theory of mind…

  2. Full Immersive Virtual Environment Cave[TM] in Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limniou, M.; Roberts, D.; Papadopoulos, N.

    2008-01-01

    By comparing two-dimensional (2D) chemical animations designed for computer's desktop with three-dimensional (3D) chemical animations designed for the full immersive virtual reality environment CAVE[TM] we studied how virtual reality environments could raise student's interest and motivation for learning. By using the 3ds max[TM], we can visualize…

  3. Utilising eduroam[TM] Architecture in Building Wireless Community Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huhtanen, Karri; Vatiainen, Heikki; Keski-Kasari, Sami; Harju, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: eduroam[TM] has already been proved to be a scalable, secure and feasible way for universities and research institutions to connect their wireless networks into a WLAN roaming community, but the advantages of eduroam[TM] have not yet been fully discovered in the wireless community networks aimed at regular consumers. This aim of this…

  4. Doors to Discovery[TM]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Doors to Discovery"[TM] is an early childhood curriculum that uses thematic units to engage young children and support them as they build an understanding of their world. "Doors to Discovery"[TM] literacy activities are used to encourage children's development in a number of areas identified by research as the foundation for early literacy…

  5. Relative radiometric calibration of LANDSAT TM reflective bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    A common scientific methodology and terminology is outlined for characterizing the radiometry of both TM sensors. The magnitude of the most significant sources of radiometric variability are discussed and methods are recommended for achieving the exceptional potential inherent in the radiometric precision and accuracy of the TM sensors.

  6. Inside Linden Lab: Second Life [TM] for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Tom

    2008-01-01

    A new culture called Second Life [TM] has emerged that promises innovative strategies for everything from social interactions to business. Some educators believe it may hold new and unique opportunities for teaching and learning. Second Life [TM] (SL) is the creation of Linden Labs, a San Francisco-based corporation defined by its creators as "an…

  7. Accelerated Reader[TM]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Accelerated Reader"[TM] is a guided reading intervention used to supplement regular reading instruction in K-12 classrooms. Its aim is to improve students' reading skills through reading practice and quizzes on the books students read. The "Accelerated Reader"[TM] program calls for students to select and read a book and then take a computerized…

  8. Accelerated Math[TM]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "Accelerated Math"[TM], published by Renaissance Learning, is a software tool used to customize assignments and monitor progress in mathematics for students in grades 1-12. "Accelerated Math"[TM] creates individualized assignments that align with state standards and national guidelines, scores student work, and generates formative feedback through…

  9. Concentration effect of Tm3+ on cathodoluminescence properties of SiO2:Tm3+ and SiO2:Ho3+,Tm3+ systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhlamini, M. S.; Mhlongo, G. H.; Swart, H. C.; Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.; Hillie, K. T.

    2012-05-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) properties of SiO2 powders activated with thulium (Tm3+) and holmium (Ho3+) ions prepared by a sol-gel process were investigated. Different molar concentrations of Tm3+ co-doped with Ho3+ were studied. The 460 nm peak was monitored and the influence of the beam energy and concentration of Tm3+ ions on the emission properties of this peak was also monitored. The peculiar behavior whereby the 460 nm emission peak decreases and the increase in the 705 and 865 nm peaks with the increase in the concentration of Tm3+ ions is reported. The relationship between the accelerating beam voltage and the CL intensity of the blue emission peak (460 nm peak) is established. Morphology, particle size and optical properties were characterized with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV/VIS Lambda 750 S spectrometer and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) equipped with Ocean Optics S2000, respectively.

  10. Cross-Section Measurement of the 169Tm(n,3n)167Tm Reaction and Constraining the Branching Ratio of 167Tm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champine, Brian; Gooden, Matthew; Thomas, Keenan; Krishichayan, F.; Norman, Eric; Scielzo, Nick; Tonchev, Anton; Tornow, Werner

    2015-10-01

    The cross section of the 169Tm(n,3n)167Tm reaction has been measured from 17.5 to 21.5 MeV using activation technique. This energy region was chosen to resolve the two different trends of the previous (n,3n) cross section measurements on 169Tm. In addition, the branching ratio of the 207.8 keV γ-ray line stemming from electron capture of 167Tm was measured to be 0.419(16). The result of these measurements provide more accurate diagnostic estimation of the so called reaction-in-flight neutrons produced via the internal confinement fusion plasma in deuterium-tritium capsules at the National Ignition Facility.

  11. Optical properties of Tm 3+ ions in lithium borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasankar, C. K.; Renuka ^Devi, A.

    1996-09-01

    Optical properties of Tm 3+ ions are investigated in the following lithium borate (LBO) glasses: Li 2CO 3 + H 3BO 3 and MCO 3 + Li 2CO 3 + H 3BO 3 (M = Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba). The assigned energy level data of Tm 3+ (4f 12) in these borate glasses as well as the data that are available for some other systems in the literature are analysed in terms of a parametrized Hamiltonian model that includes 14 free-ion parameters. The absorption linestrengths are measured for Tm 3+:LBO glasses. Using these data, intensity parameters (Ω λ, λ = 2, 4, 6), radiative transition probabilities, radiative lifetimes, fluorescence branching ratios and integrated absorption cross-sections for fluorescent levels of Tm 3+:LBO glasses are calculated by applying Judd-Ofelt theory. The effect of glass network formers and glass modifiers on the optical properties of Tm 3+:glasses are discussed.

  12. Triaxial strongly deformed bands in {sup 160,161}Tm

    SciTech Connect

    Teal, C.; Lagergren, K.; Aguilar, A.; Riley, M. A.; Hartley, D. J.; Simpson, J.; Joss, D. T.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Zhu, S.; Garg, U.; Kondev, F. G.; Wang, X.; Ragnarsson, I.

    2008-07-15

    High-spin states in {sup 160,161}Tm were populated using the {sup 128}Te({sup 37}Cl, 5n and 4n) reactions at a beam energy of 170 MeV. Emitted {gamma} rays were detected in the Gammasphere spectrometer. Two rotational bands with high moments of inertia were discovered, one assigned to {sup 160}Tm, while the other tentatively assigned to {sup 161}Tm. These sequences display features similar to bands observed in neighboring Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu nuclei which have been discussed in terms of triaxial strongly deformed structures. Cranked Nilsson Strutinsky calculations have been performed that predict well-deformed triaxial shapes at high spin in {sup 160,161}Tm.

  13. Interfacial effects in Fe/4d TM multilayers (abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Tomaz, M.A.; Antel, W.J., Jr.; Harp, G.R.; OBrien, W.L.

    1997-04-01

    We have studied Fe/TM multilayers (TM=Mo, Nb, Ru, Rh, Pd) using x-ray magnetic circular dischroism, magneto-optical Kerr effect, and x-ray diffraction. A diverse set of magnetic behaviors emerges from the analysis. We focus on the behavior which can be attributed to the existence of a physical interface between different chemical species. In particular, we have measured an enhanced Fe moment in some cases (TM=Ru, Mo, Rh, Pd) yet not in others (TM=Nb). These results will be discussed, including the relative orbital and spin moments and the effects of alloying at the interface. The measured induced moments in the TM layer will be presented as well where applicable. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Registratiom of TM data to digital elevation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Several problems arise when attempting to register LANDSAT thematic mapper data to U.S. B Geological Survey digital elevation models (DEMs). The TM data are currently available only in a rotated variant of the Space Oblique Mercator (SOM) map projection. Geometric transforms are thus; required to access TM data in the geodetic coordinates used by the DEMs. Due to positional errors in the TM data, these transforms require some sort of external control. The spatial resolution of TM data exceeds that of the most commonly DEM data. Oversampling DEM data to TM resolution introduces systematic noise. Common terrain processing algorithms (e.g., close computation) compound this problem by acting as high-pass filters.

  15. Comparison of classification schemes for MSS and TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuta, P. E.; Bartolucci, L. A.; Lozano-Garcia, D. F.; Valdes, J. A.; Valenzuela, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    The launch of the Landsat-4 satellite in July 1982 provided the first full coverage from space of the 0.4-12 micron spectrum of the earth scene. In addition to the green, red, and near IR bands of the MSS, the TM provides a band in the blue, two in the middle IR, and one thermal IR. The paper describes spectral class analysis of coincident MSS and TM data to evaluate the contribution of the additional TM bands. In addition, various classifiers are available which were applied to the TM data. In the spectral class analysis, twice the number of separable classes was found in the TM data compared to the MSS data.

  16. Self-association of Transmembrane Domain 2 (TM2), but Not TM1, in Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1A

    PubMed Central

    Jenei, Zsuzsanna A.; Borthwick, Karen; Zammit, Victor A.; Dixon, Ann M.

    2009-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) controls the rate of entry of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix for β-oxidation and has been reported to exist as an oligomer. We have investigated the in vivo oligomerization of full-length rat CPT1A (rCPT1A) along with those of the N-terminal truncation/deletion mutants Δ(1–82), Δ(1–18), and Δ(19–30) expressed in yeast mitochondria. The data indicate that in liver mitochondria in vivo CPT1A exists as a hexamer but that during preparation and storage of mitochondria the order of oligomerization is rapidly reduced to the trimer, such that a mixture of hexamer and trimer is observed in isolated mitochondria in vitro. Mutants bearing deletions of different segments of the N terminus (including the more N-terminal of the two transmembrane domains) have the same pattern of oligomerization when expressed in yeast mitochondria. The self-association of the individual rCPT1A transmembrane (TM) domains (TM1, TM2) was also studied using the TOXCAT assay (which measures TM self-association in the Escherichia coli inner membrane). There was minimal self-association of the sequence corresponding to TM1 but significant self-association of TM2 in TOXCAT. Chemical cross-linking and analytical ultracentrifugation of a TM2-derived synthetic peptide showed oligomerization with a similar trimer/hexamer equilibrium to that observed for native rCPT1A in isolated mitochondria. Therefore, there was a correlation between the oligomerization behavior of TM2 peptide and that of the full-length protein. In silico molecular modeling of rCPT1A TM2 highlighted the favorable orientation of GXXXG and GXXXA motifs in the formation of the TM2 hexamer. PMID:19136561

  17. Intracellular distribution of TM4SF1 and internalization of TM4SF1-antibody complex in vascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sciuto, Tracey E.; Merley, Anne; Lin, Chi-Iou; Richardson, Douglas; Liu, Yu; Li, Dan; Dvorak, Ann M.; Dvorak, Harold F.; Jaminet, Shou-Ching S.

    2015-09-25

    Transmembrane-4 L-six family member-1 (TM4SF1) is a small plasma membrane-associated glycoprotein that is highly and selectively expressed on the plasma membranes of tumor cells, cultured endothelial cells, and, in vivo, on tumor-associated endothelium. Immunofluorescence microscopy also demonstrated TM4SF1 in cytoplasm and, tentatively, within nuclei. With monoclonal antibody 8G4, and the finer resolution afforded by immuno-nanogold transmission electron microscopy, we now demonstrate TM4SF1 in uncoated cytoplasmic vesicles, nuclear pores and nucleoplasm. Because of its prominent surface location on tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelium, TM4SF1 has potential as a dual therapeutic target using an antibody drug conjugate (ADC) approach. For ADC to be successful, antibodies reacting with cell surface antigens must be internalized for delivery of associated toxins to intracellular targets. We now report that 8G4 is efficiently taken up into cultured endothelial cells by uncoated vesicles in a dynamin-dependent, clathrin-independent manner. It is then transported along microtubules through the cytoplasm and passes through nuclear pores into the nucleus. These findings validate TM4SF1 as an attractive candidate for cancer therapy with antibody-bound toxins that have the capacity to react with either cytoplasmic or nuclear targets in tumor cells or tumor-associated vascular endothelium. - Highlights: • Anti-TM4SF1 antibody 8G4 was efficiently taken up by cultured endothelial cells. • TM4SF1–8G4 internalization is dynamin-dependent but clathrin-independent. • TM4SF1–8G4 complexes internalize along microtubules to reach the perinuclear region. • Internalized TM4SF1–8G4 complexes pass through nuclear pores into the nucleus. • TM4SF1 is an attractive candidate for ADC cancer therapy.

  18. Upconversion processes in Yb-sensitized Tm:ZBLAN

    SciTech Connect

    Carrig, T.J.; Cockroft, N.J.

    1996-10-01

    A spectroscopic study of 22 rare-earth-ion doped ZBLAN (fluorozirconate) glass was done to study feasibility of sensitizing Tm:ZBLAN with Yb to facilitate development of an efficient, conveniently pumped blue upconversion fiber laser. it was found that, under single-color pumping, 480 nm emission from Tm{sup 3+} was strongest when Yb,Tm:ZBLAN is excited at 975 nm; the strongest blue blue emission was obtained from a glass sample with 2.0 wt% Yb + 0.3 wt% Tm. Also, for weak 975 nm pump intensities, strength of blue upconversion emission can be greatly enhanced by simultaneously pumping at 785 nm. This increased upconversion efficiency is due to reduced number of energy transfer steps needed to populate the Tm{sup 3+} {sup 1}G{sub 4} energy level. Measurements of fluorescence lifetimes vs dopant concentration were also made for Yb{sup 3+}, Tm{sup 3+}, and Pr{sup 3+} transitions in ZBLAN in order to better characterize concentration quenching effects. Energy transfer between Tm{sup 3+} and Pr{sup 3+} in ZBLAN is also described.

  19. Ends of the line for tmRNA-SmpB

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hudson, Corey M.; Lau, Britney Y.; Williams, Kelly P.

    2014-08-13

    Genes for the RNA tmRNA and protein SmpB, partners in the trans-translation process that rescues stalled ribosomes, have previously been found in all bacteria and some organelles. We validate recent identification of tmRNA homologs in oomycete mitochondria by finding partner genes from oomycete nuclei that target SmpB to the mitochondrion. Exhaustive search now identifies a small number of complete, often highly derived, bacterial genomes that appear to lack a functional copy of one or the other partner gene (but not both). Three groups with reduced genomes have lost the central loop of SmpB, which is thought to improve alanylation andmore » EF-Tu activation: Carsonella, Hodgkinia and the hemplasmas (hemotropic Mycoplasma). Carsonella has also lost the SmpB C-terminal tail, thought to stimulate the decoding center of the ribosome. Carsonella moreover exhibits gene overlap such that tmRNA maturation should produce a non-stop smpB mRNA, and one isolate exhibits complete degradation of the tmRNA gene yet its smpB shows no evidence for relaxed selective constraint. After loss of the SmpB central loop in the hemoplasmas, a subclade apparently lost tmRNA. At least some of the tmRNA/SmpB-deficient strains appear to further lack the ArfA and ArfB backup systems for ribosome rescue. The most frequent neighbors of smpB are the tmRNA gene, a ratA/rnfH unit, and the gene for RNaseR, a known physical and functional partner of tmRNA-SmpB. The tmRNA Website has moved and been updated, adding an SmpB sequence database (http://bioinformatics.sandia.gov/tmrna).« less

  20. Ends of the line for tmRNA-SmpB

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, Corey M.; Lau, Britney Y.; Williams, Kelly P.

    2014-08-13

    Genes for the RNA tmRNA and protein SmpB, partners in the trans-translation process that rescues stalled ribosomes, have previously been found in all bacteria and some organelles. We validate recent identification of tmRNA homologs in oomycete mitochondria by finding partner genes from oomycete nuclei that target SmpB to the mitochondrion. Exhaustive search now identifies a small number of complete, often highly derived, bacterial genomes that appear to lack a functional copy of one or the other partner gene (but not both). Three groups with reduced genomes have lost the central loop of SmpB, which is thought to improve alanylation and EF-Tu activation: Carsonella, Hodgkinia and the hemplasmas (hemotropic Mycoplasma). Carsonella has also lost the SmpB C-terminal tail, thought to stimulate the decoding center of the ribosome. Carsonella moreover exhibits gene overlap such that tmRNA maturation should produce a non-stop smpB mRNA, and one isolate exhibits complete degradation of the tmRNA gene yet its smpB shows no evidence for relaxed selective constraint. After loss of the SmpB central loop in the hemoplasmas, a subclade apparently lost tmRNA. At least some of the tmRNA/SmpB-deficient strains appear to further lack the ArfA and ArfB backup systems for ribosome rescue. The most frequent neighbors of smpB are the tmRNA gene, a ratA/rnfH unit, and the gene for RNaseR, a known physical and functional partner of tmRNA-SmpB. The tmRNA Website has moved and been updated, adding an SmpB sequence database (http://bioinformatics.sandia.gov/tmrna).

  1. Quasi four-level Tm:LuAG laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jani, Mahendra G. (Inventor); Barnes, Norman P. (Inventor); Hutcheson, Ralph L. (Inventor); Rodriguez, Waldo J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A quasi four-level solid-state laser is provided. A laser crystal is disposed in a laser cavity. The laser crystal has a LuAG-based host material doped to a final concentration between about 2% and about 7% thulium (Tm) ions. For the more heavily doped final concentrations, the LuAG-based host material is a LuAG seed crystal doped with a small concentration of Tm ions. Laser diode arrays are disposed transversely to the laser crystal for energizing the Tm ions.

  2. Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in Tm{sup 3+}:YAG

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A. L.; Lauro, R.; Louchet, A.; Chaneliere, T.; Le Goueet, J. L.

    2008-10-01

    We report on the experimental demonstration of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in a Tm{sup 3+}:YAG crystal. Tm{sup 3+}:YAG is a promising material for use in quantum information processing applications, but as yet there are few experimental investigations of coherent Raman processes in this material. We investigate the effect of inhomogeneous broadening and Rabi frequency on the transfer efficiency and the width of the two-photon spectrum. Simulations of the complete Tm{sup 3+}:YAG system are presented along with the corresponding experimental results.

  3. Tm:germanate Fiber Laser: Tuning And Q-switching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Walsh, Brian M.; Reichle, Donald J.; DeYoung, R. J.; Jiang, Shibin

    2007-01-01

    A Tm:germanate fiber laser produced >0.25 mJ/pulse in a 45 ns pulse. It is capable of producing multiple Q-switched pulses from a single p ump pulse. With the addition of a diffraction grating, Tm:germanate f iber lasers produced a wide, but length dependent, tuning range. By s electing the fiber length, the tuning range extends from 1.88 to 2.04 ?m. These traits make Tm:germanate lasers suitable for remote sensin g of water vapor.

  4. Review of Tm and Ho Materials; Spectroscopy and Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Brian M.

    2008-01-01

    A review of Tm and Ho materials is presented, covering some fundamental aspects on the spectroscopy and laser dynamics in both single and co-doped systems. Following an introduction to 2- m lasers, applications and historical development, the physics of quasi-four level lasers, energy transfer and modeling are discussed in some detail. Recent developments in using Tm lasers to pump Ho lasers are discussed, and seen to offer some advantages over conventional Tm:Ho lasers. This article is not intended as a complete review, but as a primer for introducing concepts and a resource for further study.

  5. ASTROCULTURE (TM) root metabolism and cytochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Porterfield, D M; Barta, D J; Ming, D W; Morrow, R C; Musgrave, M E

    2000-01-01

    Physiology of the root system is dependent upon oxygen availability and tissue respiration. During hypoxia nutrient and water acquisition may be inhibited, thus affecting the overall biochemical and physiological status of the plant. For the Astroculture (TM) plant growth hardware, the availability of oxygen in the root zone was measured by examining the changes in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity within the root tissue. ADH activity is a sensitive biochemical indicator of hypoxic conditions in plants and was measured in both spaceflight and control roots. In addition to the biochemical enzyme assays, localization of ADH in the root tissue was examined cytochemically. The results of these analyses showed that ADH activity increased significantly as a result of spaceflight exposure. Enzyme activity increased 248% to 304% in dwarf wheat when compared with the ground controls and Brassica showed increases between 334% and 579% when compared with day zero controls. Cytochemical staining revealed no differences in ADH tissue localization in any of the dwarf wheat treatments. These results show the importance of considering root system oxygenation in designing and building nutrient delivery hardware for spaceflight plant cultivation and confirm previous reports of an ADH response associated with spaceflight exposure. PMID:11543169

  6. ASTROCULTURE (TM) root metabolism and cytochemical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porterfield, D. M.; Barta, D. J.; Ming, D. W.; Morrow, R. C.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    Physiology of the root system is dependent upon oxygen availability and tissue respiration. During hypoxia nutrient and water acquisition may be inhibited, thus affecting the overall biochemical and physiological status of the plant. For the Astroculture (TM) plant growth hardware, the availability of oxygen in the root zone was measured by examining the changes in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity within the root tissue. ADH activity is a sensitive biochemical indicator of hypoxic conditions in plants and was measured in both spaceflight and control roots. In addition to the biochemical enzyme assays, localization of ADH in the root tissue was examined cytochemically. The results of these analyses showed that ADH activity increased significantly as a result of spaceflight exposure. Enzyme activity increased 248% to 304% in dwarf wheat when compared with the ground controls and Brassica showed increases between 334% and 579% when compared with day zero controls. Cytochemical staining revealed no differences in ADH tissue localization in any of the dwarf wheat treatments. These results show the importance of considering root system oxygenation in designing and building nutrient delivery hardware for spaceflight plant cultivation and confirm previous reports of an ADH response associated with spaceflight exposure.

  7. Crystal polymorphism in TmPd3S4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, J.; Yada, R.; Ichihara, M.; Ishikawa, M.

    Cubic TmPd3S4 is in the series of rare-earth (R) palladium bronzes, RPd3S4, which is an attractive platform for multipolar interaction systems. We previously reported that, in RPd3S4, only TmPd3S4 shows a Jahn-Teller-like phase transition at approximately 200 K, accompanying a structure modulation. Our present electron diffraction study, however, has revealed that the expected modulation does not occur. We reexamined the crystal growth conditions and found crystal polymorphism with the cubic and monoclinic structures. The phase transition at approximately 200 K can be interpreted as a phase separation into the cubic and monoclinic phases. Single-phase monoclinic TmPd3S4 was successfully obtained at room temperature. The monoclinic TmPd3S4 is metallic and shows no magnetic phase transition down to 0.6 K.

  8. Successive phase transitions in the orthovanadate TmVO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Tapati; Ivanov, Sergey A.; Bazuev, G. V.; Nordblad, Per; Mathieu, Roland

    2015-09-01

    Synthesis and crystal structure, magnetization and heat capacity measurements of phase pure polycrystalline TmVO3 are reported. TmVO3 was stabilized in the orthorhombic structure by thermal treatment of the precursor TmVO4 in a reducing atmosphere. Magnetization and heat capacity measurements reveal the presence of several successive structural and magnetic phase transitions in this compound. At T = 108 K, the sample undergoes a transition from a paramagnetic state to an antiferromagnetic state, followed by a second transition at 78 K which is related to spin and orbital reorientation. The heat capacity measurements reveal the presence of a third transition in the paramagnetic state (at T = 175 K), which corresponds to a structural phase transition and orbital ordering. At low temperatures (~15 K) and weak fields, there is an anomaly in the magnetization, which may be associated with antiferromagnetic short range ordering of the Tm3+ ions.

  9. High-spin states in odd-odd 168Tm

    SciTech Connect

    Cardona, M. A.; Hojman, D.; Davidson, J.; Davidson, M.; Kreiner, A. J.; Bazzacco, D.; Lenzi, S. M.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Blasi, N.; Debray, M. E.; Levinton, G.; Marti, G.; De Poli, M.; Napoli, D. R.; Lo Bianco, G.

    2007-02-12

    High-spin states in 168Tm were investigated by means of {gamma}-ray spectroscopy techniques using the GASP multidetector array. Rotational bands have been established and identified in terms of their configurations.

  10. DigitalGlobe(TM) Incorporated Corporate and System Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomassie, Brett

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a system update of Quickbird, the world's highest resolution commercial imaging satellite, operated by DigitalGlobe (TM) Incorporated. A satellite comparison of Quickbird, WorldView-60, and WorldView-110 is also presented.

  11. Resonant tandem pumping of Tm-doped fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creeden, Daniel; Johnson, Benjamin R.; Rines, Glen A.; Setzler, Scott D.

    2014-06-01

    We have demonstrated efficient lasing of a Tm-doped fiber when pumped with another Tm-doped fiber. In these experiments, we use a 1908 nm Tm-doped fiber laser as a pump source for another Tm-doped fiber laser, operating at a slightly longer wavelength (~2000 nm). Pumping in the 1900 nm region allows for very high optical efficiencies, low heat generation, and significant power scaling potential due to the use of fiber laser pumping. The trade-off is that the ground-state pump absorption at 1908 nm is ~37 times lower than at 795nm. However, the absorption cross-section is still sufficiently high enough to achieve effective pump absorption without exceedingly long fiber lengths. This may also be advantageous for distributing the thermal load in higher power applications.

  12. Flashlamp-pumped Ho:Tm:Cr:LuAG laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jani, Mahendra G. (Inventor); Barnes, Norman P. (Inventor); Murray, Keith E. (Inventor); Kokta, Milan R. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A room temperature solid-state laser is provided. A laser crystal is disposed in a laser cavity. The laser crystal has a LuAG host material doped with a concentration of about 0.35% Ho ions, about 5.57% Tm ions and at least about 1.01% Cr ions. A broadband energizing source such as a flashlamp is disposed transversely to the laser crystal to energize the Ho ions, Tm ions and Cr ions.

  13. Quiet Spike (TM) Build-Up Ground Vibration Testing Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Natalie D.; Herrera, Claudia; Truax, Roger; Pak, Chan-gi; Freund, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Flight tests of Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation s Quiet Spike(TM) hardware were recently completed on the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center F-15B airplane. NASA Dryden uses a modified F-15B airplane as a testbed aircraft to cost-effectively fly flight research experiments that are typically mounted underneath the F-15B airplane, along the fuselage centerline. For the Quiet Spike(TM) experiment, however, instead of a centerline mounting, a relatively long forward-pointing boom was attached to the radar bulkhead of the F-15B airplane. The Quiet Spike(TM) experiment is a stepping-stone to airframe structural morphing technologies designed to mitigate the sonic-boom strength of business jets over land. The Quiet Spike(TM) boom is a concept in which an aircraft's noseboom would be extended prior to supersonic acceleration. This morphing effectively lengthens the aircraft, thus reducing the peak sonic-boom amplitude, but is also expected to partition the otherwise strong bow shock into a series of reduced-strength, noncoalescing shocklets. Prior to flying the Quiet Spike(TM) experiment on the F-15B airplane several ground vibration tests were required to understand the Quiet Spike(TM) modal characteristics and coupling effects with the F-15B airplane. However, due to the flight hardware availability and compressed schedule requirements, a "traditional" ground vibration test of the mated F-15B Quiet Spike(TM) ready-for-flight configuration did not leave sufficient time available for the finite element model update and flutter analyses before flight testing. Therefore, a "nontraditional" ground vibration testing approach was taken. This paper provides an overview of each phase of the "nontraditional" ground vibration testing completed for the Quiet Spike(TM) project which includes the test setup details, instrumentation layout, and modal results obtained in support of the structural dynamic modeling and flutter analyses.

  14. Spectroscopic and lasing properties of Ho:Tm:LuAG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Filer, Elizabeth D.; Naranjo, Felipe L.; Rodriguez, Waldo J.; Kokta, Milan R.

    1993-01-01

    Ho:Tm:LuAG has been grown, examined spectroscopically, and lased at 2.1 microns. Ho:Tm:LuAG was selected for this experimental investigation when quantum-mechanical modeling predicted that it would be a good laser material for Ho laser operation on one of the 5I7 to 5I8 transitions. Lasing was achieved at 2.100 microns, one of the three wavelengths predicted to be most probable for laser action.

  15. NPOESS' Key to Low Data Latency: SafetyNet(TM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koster, P. B.; Swearengen, J.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    A key feature of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) is the Northrop Grumman Space Technology patent-pending data collection architecture known as 'SafetyNetTM'. The centerpiece of SafetyNetTM is the system of fifteen globally-distributed ground receptors developed by Raytheon Company. These receptors or antennae will collect up to five times as much environmental data approxi-mately four times faster than current polar-orbiting weather satellites. Once collected, these data will be forwarded near-instantaneously to U.S. weather centrals via global fiber optic network for processing and production of data records for use in environmental prediction models. Key system design factors -- The NPOESS SafetyNetTM architecture provides: Frequent downlinks and maximizes contact duration (>100% margin) at low cost; Downlink bandwidth margin that allows all Stored Mission Data to be down linked to two separate receptors; and Minimal latency impacts from loss of multiple ground receptors. Other notable characteristics of SafetyNetTM: Simple, receive-only, Ka Band receptor design provides autonomous operations; Fifteen locations in ten countries; full-motion to track polar satellites; Reliable and timely collection, delivery and processing of quality data; 75% of NPOESS data products delivered to the US's weather centrals within 15 minutes; the rest in under 30 minutes. Presentation will show: A graphic of SafetyNetTM within the NPOESS program architecture; A depiction of the NPOESS data download scheme; A map of the worldwide SafetyNetTM receptor locations; A graph of the percent of NPOESS Environmental Data Records (EDRs) versus time from observation to delivery; A example chart of the NPOESS data downlink patterns to SafetyNetTM receptors; Example photos of SafetyNetTM receptor antennae and radomes.

  16. SafetyNet(TM) -- NPOESS's Low Data Latency Key

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swearengen, J.; Koster, P. B.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    A key feature of the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) is the Northrop Grumman Space Technology patent-pending data collection architecture known as 'SafetyNetTM'. The centerpiece of SafetyNetTM is the system of fifteen globally-distributed ground receptors developed by Raytheon Company. These receptors or antennae will collect up to five times as much environmental data approximately four times faster than current polar-orbiting weather satellites. Once collected, these data will be forwarded near-instantaneously to U.S. weather centrals via global fiber optic network for processing and production of data records for use in environmental prediction models. Key system design factors: The NPOESS SafetyNetTM architecture provides: Frequent downlinks and maximizes contact duration (>100% margin) at low cost; Downlink bandwidth margin that allows all Stored Mission Data to be down linked to two separate receptors; and Minimal latency impacts from loss of multiple ground receptors. Other notable characteristics of SafetyNetTM: Simple, receive-only, Ka Band receptor design provides autonomous operations; Fifteen locations in ten countries; full-motion to track polar satellites; Reliable and timely collection, delivery and processing of quality data; 75% of NPOESS data products delivered to the US's weather centrals within 15 minutes; the rest in under 30 minutes. Presentation will show: A graphic of SafetyNetTM within the NPOESS program architecture; A depiction of the NPOESS data download scheme; A map of the worldwide SafetyNetTM receptor locations; A graph of the percent of NPOESS Environmental Data Records (EDRs) versus time from observation to delivery; A example chart of the NPOESS data downlink patterns to SafetyNetTM receptors; Example photos of SafetyNetTM receptor antennae and radomes.

  17. Strain effect on magnetocrystalline anisotropy of 5 d TM/Fe and TM/Fe/MgO(001) (TM =Ta, Ir, Pt, Au): A first principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taivansaikhan, Purev; Odkhuu, Dorj; Rhim, Sung-Hyon; Hong, Soon Cheol

    2015-03-01

    Strain effect on magnetization and magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) of TM/Fe(001) [TM =Ta, Ir, Pt and Au] with and without MgO(001) substrate has been investigated using first-principles calculations. It is found that perpendicular MCA of Pt/Fe(001) changes to in-plane MCA in the presence of MgO substrate, where lattice is extended by 3.8% with respect to that without MgO. For Ta/Fe(001) and Au/Fe(001), PMCA is significantly enhanced by the MgO substrate, whereas MCA of Ir/Fe(001) remains in-plane. Furthermore, thickness dependence of MCA on both the TM and Fe layers will be also discussed. Supported by Basic Research Program (2010-0008842) and Research Centers Program (2009-0093818) through National Research Foundation of Korea.

  18. Measurement of the 169Tm (n ,3 n ) 167Tm cross section and the associated branching ratios in the decay of 167Tm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champine, B.; Gooden, M. E.; Krishichayan, Norman, E. B.; Scielzo, N. D.; Stoyer, M. A.; Thomas, K. J.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Wang, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    The cross section for the 169Tm(n ,3 n ) 167Tm reaction was measured from 17 to 22 MeV using quasimonoenergetic neutrons produced by the 2H(d ,n ) 3He reaction. This energy range was studied to resolve the discrepancy between previous (n ,3 n ) cross-section measurements. In addition, the absolute γ -ray branching ratios following the electron-capture decay of 167Tm were measured. These results provide more reliable nuclear data for an important diagnostic that is used at the National Ignition Facility to estimate the yield of reaction-in-flight neutrons produced via the inertial-confinement-fusion plasma in deuterium-tritium capsules.

  19. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry on nanostructured semiconductor substrates: DIOS(TM) and QuickMass(TM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, K. P.

    2010-02-01

    In the era of systems biology, new analytical platforms are under demand. Desorption/ionization on silicon mass spectrometry (DIOS-MS) is a promising high throughput laser mass spectrometry approach that has attracted a lot of attention, and has been commercialized. Another substrate material manufactured by physical method has also been made commercially available under the trade name of QuickMass(TM). These two commercial substrates, DIOS(TM) and QuickMass(TM), were investigated independently from the manufacturers and were characterized by a number of advanced surface techniques. This work determined (1) the correlation between the substrate physicochemical properties and their LDI activity, (2) the feasibility of metabolic profiling from complex biological matrices and (3) the laser desorption/ionization mechanism. The DIOS(TM) substrate was characterized with a thick nano-sized porous layer, a high surface concentration of fluorocarbon and silicon oxides and super-hydrophobicity. In contrast, the QuickMass(TM) substrate consisted of a non-porous germanium thin-film. The relatively high ionization efficiency obtained from the DIOS(TM) substrate was contributed to the fluorosilane manufacturing processes and its porous morphology. Despite the QuickMass(TM) substrate being less effective, it was noted that the use of germanium affords a self-cleaning mechanism and suppresses background interference of mass spectra. The suitability of DIOS(TM) substrates for metabolic profiling of complex biological matrices was demonstrated. DIOS mass spectra of human blood plasma, human urine and animal liver tissue extracts were produced. Suitable extraction methods were found to be important, but relatively simplified approaches were sufficient. Further investigations of the DIOS desorption/ionization mechanism were carried out. The previously proposed sub-surface state reaction could be a molten-solid interfacial state reaction of the substrate and this had a significant

  20. Deposition of luminescent NaCl:Tm2+ thin films with a Tm concentration gradient using RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, M.; Kesteloo, W.; van der Kolk, E.

    2015-08-01

    Luminescent thin films were deposited using magnetron sputtering of a NaCl single crystal and Tm-metal. By using a combinatorial approach, a single film with a thickness ranging from 3.1 μm to 6.9 μm and a Tm to Na ratio varying from 0.05 to 0.26 was obtained. XRD shows the formation of the simple cubic NaCl structure and SEM images display a mix of 0.50-0.75 μm and 2-3 μm cubic and needle-like structures when the substrate is not rotating during deposition. NIR transmission spectra reveal narrow absorption lines at 1134 nm and 1218 nm caused by 4f-4f absorption of divalent and trivalent Tm, respectively. Photoluminescence excitation and UV-VIS transmission spectra show broad bands between 275 nm and 700 nm, caused by the Tm2+ 4f13 → 4f125d1 transitions. Excitation into these bands results in 2F5/2 → 2F7/2 line emission by Tm2+ at 1134 nm. The broad absorption range covering the entire UV and VIS part of the solar spectrum and the absence of self-absorption of the sharp emission line makes NaCl:Tm2+ a promising material for luminescent solar concentrators as thin films on glass provided light scattering can be minimised.

  1. Glacier Mapping With Landsat Tm: Improvements and Accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, F.; Huggel, C.; Kaeaeb, A.; Maisch, M.

    The new Swiss Glacier Inventory for the year 2000 (SGI 2000) is presently derived from Landsat TM data. Glacier areas were obtained by segmentation of a ratio image from TM band 4 and 5. This method has proven to be very simple and highly accurate - an essential requirement for world-wide application within the project GLIMS (Global Land Ice Measurements from Space). Mis-classification using TM4 / TM 5 results for lakes, forests and areas with vegetation in cloud shadows. Digital image processing techniques are used to classify these regions separately and eliminate them from the glacier map. Automatic mapping of debris-covered glacier ice is difficult due to the spectral similarity with the surrounding terrain. For the SGI 2000, an attempt has been made to obtain the debris-covered area on glaciers by a combination of pixel- based image classification, digital terrain modelling, an object-oriented procedure and change detection analysis. First results of these improvements are presented. The accuracy of the TM derived glacier outlines is assessed by a comparison with manually derived outlines of higher resolution data sets (pan bands from SPOT, IRS- 1C and Ikonos). The overlay of outlines show very good correspondence (within the georeferencing accuracy) and the comparison of glacier areas reveals differences smaller than 5% for debris-free ice. Since acquisition of IRS-1C and Ikonos imagery is one year before and after the TM scene, respectively, small differences are also a result of glacier retreat. The automatically mapped debris-covered glacier areas are compared to the areas assigned manually on the TM image by visual interpretation. For most glaciers only a few pixels have to be corrected, for some others larger modi- fications are required.

  2. Efficient Q-switched Tm:YAG ceramic slab laser.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuaiyi; Wang, Mingjian; Xu, Lin; Wang, Yan; Tang, Yulong; Cheng, Xiaojin; Chen, Weibiao; Xu, Jianqiu; Jiang, Benxue; Pan, Yubai

    2011-01-17

    Characteristics of Tm:YAG ceramic for high efficient 2-μm lasers are analyzed. Efficient diode end-pumped continuous-wave and Q-switched Tm:YAG ceramic lasers are demonstrated. At the absorbed pump power of 53.2W, the maximum continuous wave (cw) output power of 17.2 W around 2016 nm was obtained with the output transmission of 5%. The optical conversion efficiency is 32.3%, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 36.5%. For Q-switched operation, the shortest width of 69 ns was achieved with the pulse repetition frequency of 500 Hz and single pulse energy of 20.4 mJ, which indicates excellent energy storage capability of the Tm:YAG ceramic. PMID:21263612

  3. Analysis of forest disturbance using TM and AVHRR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanner, Michael A.; Hlavka, Christine A.; Pierce, Lars L.

    1989-01-01

    A methodology that will be used to determine the proportions of undisturbed, successional vegetation and recently disturbed land cover within coniferous forests using remotely sensed data from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) is presented. The method uses thematic mapper (TM) data to determine the proportions of the three stages of forest disturbance and regrowth for each AVHRR pixel in the sample areas, and is then applied to interpret all AVHRR imagery. Preliminary results indicate that there are predictable relationships between TM spectral response and the disturbance classes. Analysis of ellipse plots from a TM classification of the disturbed forested landscape indicates that the forest classes are separable in the red (0.63-0.69 micron) and near-infrared (0.76-0.90 micron) bands, providing evidence that the proportion of disturbance classes may be determined from AVHRR data.

  4. TM digital image products for applications. [computer compatible tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Gunther, F. J.; Abrams, R. B.; Ball, D.

    1984-01-01

    The image characteristics of digital data generated by LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) are discussed. Digital data from the TM resides in tape files at various stages of image processing. Within each image data file, the image lines are blocked by a factor of either 5 for a computer compatible tape CCT-BT, or 4 for a CCT-AT and CCT-PT; in each format, the image file has a different format. Nominal geometric corrections which provide proper geodetic relationships between different parts of the image are available only for the CCT-PT. It is concluded that detector 3 of band 5 on the TM does not respond; this channel of data needs replacement. The empty bin phenomenon in CCT-AT images results from integer truncations of mixed-mode arithmetric operations.

  5. Hydrological planning studies using Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervin, J. C.; Mulligan, P. J.; Lu, Y. C.; Marcell, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    NASA, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, is evaluating the capabilities of Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for environmental and hydrological applications. Attention is given to the results of studies conducted at the Clinton River Basin in Michigan and the eastern shore of the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland. In the former, the evaluation conducted was for the band combinations: (1) 2, 3, and 4; (2) 3, 4, and 5; (3) 3, 4, 5, and 6; and (4) all seven bands. In the latter case, Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and TM data were classified for combinations (1), (3) and (4). Wetland classification accuracy for the 7-band TM data in this study was found to be 9 percent higher than with MSS data, allowing more reliable and accurate monitoring.

  6. 75 FR 62767 - Grant of Interim Extension of the Term of U.S. Patent No. 4,919,140; AndaraTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ...,140; Andara TM OFS TM System AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office. ACTION: Notice of... the medical device Andara TM OFS TM System and a method of using the Andara TM OFS TM System. The application indicates that a Humanitarian Device Exemption, HDE 070002, for the medical device Andara TM...

  7. Intracellular distribution of TM4SF1 and internalization of TM4SF1-antibody complex in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sciuto, Tracey E; Merley, Anne; Lin, Chi-Iou; Richardson, Douglas; Liu, Yu; Li, Dan; Dvorak, Ann M; Dvorak, Harold F; Jaminet, Shou-Ching S

    2015-09-25

    Transmembrane-4 L-six family member-1 (TM4SF1) is a small plasma membrane-associated glycoprotein that is highly and selectively expressed on the plasma membranes of tumor cells, cultured endothelial cells, and, in vivo, on tumor-associated endothelium. Immunofluorescence microscopy also demonstrated TM4SF1 in cytoplasm and, tentatively, within nuclei. With monoclonal antibody 8G4, and the finer resolution afforded by immuno-nanogold transmission electron microscopy, we now demonstrate TM4SF1 in uncoated cytoplasmic vesicles, nuclear pores and nucleoplasm. Because of its prominent surface location on tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelium, TM4SF1 has potential as a dual therapeutic target using an antibody drug conjugate (ADC) approach. For ADC to be successful, antibodies reacting with cell surface antigens must be internalized for delivery of associated toxins to intracellular targets. We now report that 8G4 is efficiently taken up into cultured endothelial cells by uncoated vesicles in a dynamin-dependent, clathrin-independent manner. It is then transported along microtubules through the cytoplasm and passes through nuclear pores into the nucleus. These findings validate TM4SF1 as an attractive candidate for cancer therapy with antibody-bound toxins that have the capacity to react with either cytoplasmic or nuclear targets in tumor cells or tumor-associated vascular endothelium. PMID:26241677

  8. Draining of the SUNPAK/sup TM/ evacuated tubular collector

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Y.K.

    1980-05-01

    A program has been completed which demonstrates the capability of draining the present liquid series flow SUNPAK/sup TM/ evacuated tubular collector. The benefits which are derived include the avoidance of potential problems associated with liquid boil-out during system failure and the avoidance of collector freeze up. Additional benefits derived from a fully drained collector are the avoidance of significant heat losses during overnight periods, safe access to the collector for maintenance at any time and ability to dissipate excess heat through dry stagnation of the collector during shut down periods. A simple modification to the series flow SUNPAK/sup TM/ collector module arrangement was developed and demonstrated through the full scale testing of a two bank-six module arrangement. The necessary changes can be implemented at a minimum expenditure of time and cost. The extensive field service experience which has been accumulated with the liquid series flow SUNPAK/sup TM/ collector is directly applicable to the drainable configuration. The program included the investigation of an alternate approach to the series flow SUNPAK/sup TM/ solution. The intra module parallel flow concept was demonstrated through the proof of concept phase of effort. The solution investigated incorporated a batch flow rather than a continuous flow mode of the cooling fluid. The solution required an extensive design modification of the existing SUNPAK/sup TM/ collector manifold. During the redesign effort, other desired mechanical features of the manifold were incorporated to improve the physical characteristics, to improve safety and reliability and to reduce the potential cost of future SUNPAK/sup TM/ collector arrays.

  9. Enhanced rock discrimination using Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blodget, H. W.; Andre, C. G.; Marcell, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    The application of TM data to rock discrimination is discussed. Sixteen specific terrains derived from geologic maps are examined on TM images of the Arabian shield obtained on Apr. 14, 1984; visual enhancement procedures are applied to the images. The rock types observed in the test site are described; the major sedimentary formations in the test area are laterite and sandstone. The data reveal that the layered rocks in the outcrop consist of a variety of metamorphosed volcanics, metamorphosed sediments, and amphibolite, and the intrusive complex is composed of several classes of mafic and acidic rocks.

  10. TM digital image products for applications. [computer compatible tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Gunther, F. J.; Abrams, R. B.; Ball, D.

    1984-01-01

    Computer compatible tapes (CCTs) of LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) digital image products are compared and reviewed. The following tape formats are discussed: (1) raw band-sequential data (CCT-BT); (2) calibrated data (CCT-AT); and (3) geometrically resampled data (CCT-PT). Each format represents different steps in the process of producing fully corrected TM data. The CCT-BT images are uncorrected radiometrically or geometrically, CCT-AT data are radiometrically calibrated, and CCT-PT images are both radiometrically and geometrically corrected.

  11. Preliminary study of Kelso Dunes using AVIRIS, TM, and AIRSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Pung; Blumberg, Dan G.; Greeley, Ronald

    1995-01-01

    Remote sensing of sand dunes helps in the understanding of aeolian process and provides important information about the regional geologic history, environmental change, and desertification. Remotely sensed data combined with field studies are valuable in studying dune morphology, regional aeolian dynamics, and aeolian depositional history. In particular, active and inactive sands of the Kelso Dunes have been studied using landsat TM and AIRSAR. In this report, we describe the use of AVIRIS data to study the Kelso dunes and to compare the AVIRIS information with that from TM and AIRSAR.

  12. 152 W average power Tm-doped fiber CPA system.

    PubMed

    Stutzki, Fabian; Gaida, Christian; Gebhardt, Martin; Jansen, Florian; Wienke, Andreas; Zeitner, Uwe; Fuchs, Frank; Jauregui, Cesar; Wandt, Dieter; Kracht, Dietmar; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2014-08-15

    A high-power thulium (Tm)-doped fiber chirped-pulse amplification system emitting a record compressed average output power of 152 W and 4 MW peak power is demonstrated. This result is enabled by utilizing Tm-doped photonic crystal fibers with mode-field diameters of 35 μm, which mitigate detrimental nonlinearities, exhibit slope efficiencies of more than 50%, and allow for reaching a pump-power-limited average output power of 241 W. The high-compression efficiency has been achieved by using multilayer dielectric gratings with diffraction efficiencies higher than 98%. PMID:25121845

  13. DIME Participants Working on a Legos(TM) Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Members from all four teams were mixed into pairs to work on a Lego (TM) Challenge device to operate in the portable drop tower demonstrator (background). These two team members are about to try out their LEGO (TM) creation. This was part of the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  14. Spectroscopic characterization of dynamical processes for Tm,Ho:YAG lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armagan, G.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Edwards, W. C.; Inge, A. T.; Dibartolo, B.

    1991-01-01

    The energy transfer processes in Tm,Ho:YAG lasers were investigated in spectral studies and measurements of the temporal response to pulsed excitation. These processes include the population of the 3H4 pump band of Tm, cross-relaxation in Tm, the transfer of energy from Tm to Ho, and various loss mechanisms. It was found that the Tm cross-relaxation is due to a dipole-dipole interaction between Tm ions and that the rate of this process is a function of temperature and ion concentration.

  15. Kinematics at the intersection of the Garlock and Death Valley fault zones, California: Integration of TM data and field studies. LANDSAT TM investigation proposal TM-019

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, Michael; Verosub, Ken

    1987-01-01

    Processing and interpretation of Thematic Mapper (TM) data, extensive field work, and processing of SPOT data were continued. Results of these analyses led to the testing and rejecting of several of the geologic/tectonic hypotheses concerning the continuation of the Garlock Fault Zone (GFZ). It was determined that the Death Valley Fault Zone (DVFZ) is the major through-going feature, extending at least 60 km SW of the Avawatz Mountains. Two 5 km wide fault zones were identified and characterized in the Soda and Bristol Mountains, forming a continuous zone of NW trending faulting. Geophysical measurements indicate a buried connection between the Avawatz and the Soda Mountains Fault Zone. Future work will involve continued field work and mapping at key locations, further analyses of TM data, and conclusion of the project.

  16. Differential contribution of TM6 and TM12 to the pore of CFTR identified by three sulfonylurea-based blockers.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guiying; Song, Binlin; Turki, Hussein W; McCarty, Nael A

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies suggested that four transmembrane domains 5, 6, 11, 12 make the greatest contribution to forming the pore of the CFTR chloride channel. We used excised, inside-out patches from oocytes expressing CFTR with alanine-scanning mutagenesis in amino acids in TM6 and TM12 to probe CFTR pore structure with four blockers: glibenclamide (Glyb), glipizide (Glip), tolbutamide (Tolb), and Meglitinide. Glyb and Glip blocked wildtype (WT)-CFTR in a voltage-, time-, and concentration-dependent manner. At V (M) = -120 mV with symmetrical 150 mM Cl(-) solution, fractional block of WT-CFTR by 50 μM Glyb and 200 μM Glip was 0.64 ± 0.03 (n = 7) and 0.48 ± 0.02 (n = 7), respectively. The major effects on block by Glyb and Glip were found with mutations at F337, S341, I344, M348, and V350 of TM6. Under similar conditions, fractional block of WT-CFTR by 300 μM Tolb was 0.40 ± 0.04. Unlike Glyb, Glip, and Meglitinide, block by Tolb lacked time-dependence (n = 7). We then tested the effects of alanine mutations in TM12 on block by Glyb and Glip; the major effects were found at N1138, T1142, V1147, N1148, S1149, S1150, I1151, and D1152. From these experiments, we infer that amino acids F337, S341, I344, M348, and V350 of TM6 face the pore when the channel is in the open state, while the amino acids of TM12 make less important contributions to pore function. These data also suggest that the region between F337 and S341 forms the narrow part of the CFTR pore. PMID:22160394

  17. Transition intensities and excited state relaxation dynamics of Tm3+ in Tm:PbF2 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J. G.; Hang, Y.; He, X. H.; Zhang, L. H.; Zhao, C. C.; Ma, E.; Gong, J.; Zhang, P. G.

    2012-03-01

    High-quality Tm doped β-PbF2 crystal is grown by the Bridgman method in a nonvacuum atmosphere. Optical absorption spectra were acquired and analysed in the framework of the Judd-Ofelt theory. Values of radiative transition rates and luminescence branching ratios calculated using phenomenological intensity parameters Ωλ were compared to corresponding experimental values derived from measurement of luminescence spectra and decay curves. The emission cross-sections of the 3 F 4 → 3 H 6 transitions of the Tm3+ ions at 1.86 μm wavelengths were estimated by the use of the Fuchtbauer-Ladengurg method.

  18. TM4L: Creating and Browsing Educational Topic Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicheva, Darina; Dichev, Christo

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we describe TM4L, an environment for building, maintaining and using standards-based, ontology-aware e-learning repositories. It is based on the idea that concept-driven access to learning material implemented as a topic map can bridge the gap between a learner and targeted knowledge. One of the driving goals of this work is to…

  19. Thortveitite-type Tm2Si2O7

    PubMed Central

    Kahlenberg, Volker; Aichholzer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Single crystals of dithulium disilicate, Tm2Si2O7, were obtained in flux synthesis experiments in the system SiO2–Tm2O3–LiF at ambient pressure. The compound belongs to the group of sorosilicates, i.e. it is based on [Si2O7]-units and crystallizes in the thortveitite (Sc2Si2O7) structure type. The Tm3+ cation (site symmetry .2.) occupies a distorted octa­hedral site, with Tm—O bond lengths in the range 2.217 (4)–2.289 (4) Å. Each of the octa­hedra shares three of its edges with adjacent [TmO6] groups, resulting in the formation of layers parallel to (001). The individual [SiO4] tetra­hedra are more regular, i.e. the differences between the bond lengths between Si and the bridging and non-bridging O atoms are not very pronounced. The layers containing the octa­hedra and the sheets containing the [Si2O7] groups (point group symmetry 2/m) form an alternating sequence. Linkage is provided by sharing common oxygen vertices. PMID:25161507

  20. "Headsprout Early Reading" [TM]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Headsprout Early Reading"[TM] is an Internet-based supplemental early literacy curriculum consisting of forty 20-minute animated episodes that are designed to teach phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. The program adapts to a child's responses, providing additional instruction and review if a child does not choose…

  1. An Excel[TM] Model of a Radioactive Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, D. G. H.

    2009-01-01

    A computer model of the decay of a radioactive series, written in Visual Basic in Excel[TM], is presented. The model is based on the random selection of cells in an array. The results compare well with the theoretical equations. The model is a useful tool in teaching this aspect of radioactivity. (Contains 4 figures.)

  2. Conductively Cooled Ho:Tm:LuLiF Laser Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo; Petros, M.; Petzar, Paul; Lee, Hyung; Singh, U.

    2008-01-01

    A conductively-cooled Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser head can amplify 80mJ/340ns probe pulses into 400mJ when the pump pulse energy is close to amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) threshold, 5.6J. For a small signal, the double-pass amplification exceeds 25.

  3. Single-frequency lasing of monolithic Ho,Tm:YLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Grady J.; Deyst, John P.; Storm, Mark E.

    1993-01-01

    Single-frequency lasing in monolithic crystals of holmium-thulium-doped YLF (Ho,Tm:YLF) is reported. A maximum single-frequency output power of 6 mW at a wavelength of 2.05 microns is demonstrated. Frequency tuning is also described.

  4. Non-explosive actuation for the ORBCOMM (TM) satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Anthony; Courtney, Craig; Moran, Tom

    1995-01-01

    Spool-based non-explosive actuator (NEA) devices are used for three important holddown and release functions during the establishment of the ORBCOMM (TM) constellation. Non-explosive separation nuts are used to restrain and release the 26 individual satellites into low earth orbit. Cable release mechanisms based on the same technology are used to release the solar arrays and antenna boom.

  5. Magnetization reversal in TmCrO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshii, Kenji

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► We observed two magnetization reversals in TmCrO{sub 3}. ► The reversal at 28 K is attributed to antiparallel coupling between Cr{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}. ► The other reversal originates from spin reorientation. ► Magnetocaloric effect is observed at the spin reorientation temperature. ► Characteristic magnetization switching is demonstrated. -- Abstract: The perovskite chromite TmCrO{sub 3} shows magnetization reversal at two temperatures. The reversal at ∼28 K is attributed to the antiparallel coupling between Tm{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 3+} moments, while that at the lower temperature (∼6–7 K) is rooted in a rotation of the magnetic moments. Magnetocaloric measurements offer a relatively large entropy change (∼4–5 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1}) at the lower temperature. The reversal at ∼28 K is accompanied by a sign change of an exchange-bias-like field. The absence of the training effect suggests that this behavior is rooted in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy. The existence of the two magnetization reversals offers the characteristic switching of magnetization. For example, the magnetization is flipped without changing the direction of the applied magnetic field.

  6. Words Their Way[TM]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Words Their Way"[TM] is an approach to phonics, vocabulary, and spelling instruction for students in kindergarten through high school. The program can be implemented as a core or supplemental curriculum and aims to provide a practical way to study words with students. The purpose of word study (which involves examining, manipulating, comparing,…

  7. Tilted axis rotation in odd-odd {sup 164}Tm

    SciTech Connect

    Reviol, W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Wang, X.Z.; Zhang, J.Y.

    1996-12-31

    Ten band structures are observed in {sup 164}Tm, among them sets of parallel and anti-parallel couplings of the proton and neutron spins. The Tilted Axis Cranking scheme is applied for the first time to an odd-odd nucleus in a prominent region of nuclear deformation.

  8. Landsat-D TM application to porphyry copper exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, M.; Brown, D.; Sadowski, R.; Lepley, L.

    1982-01-01

    For a number of years Landsat data have been used to locate areas of iron oxide occurrences which might be associated with hydrothermal alteration zones. However, the usefulness of the Landsat data was restricted because of certain limitations of the spectral information provided by Landsat. A new generation multispectral scanner will, therefore, be carried by the fourth Landsat, which is to be launched in July, 1982. This instrument, called the Thematic Mapper (TM), will have seven channels and provide data with 30 m spatial resolution. Two of the spectral channels (1.6 micron and 2.2 micron) should allow detection of hydrous minerals. Possible applications of Landsat-D TM data for copper exploration were studied on the basis of a comparison of Landsat data with simulated TM data acquired using an aircraft scanner instrument. Three porphyr copper deposits in Arizona were selected for the study. It is concluded that the new Landsat-D TM scanner will provide Exploration geologists with a new improved tool for surveying mineral resources on a global basis.

  9. Information Retention from PowerPoint[TM] and Traditional Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savoy, April; Proctor, Robert W.; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2009-01-01

    The benefit of PowerPoint[TM] is continuously debated, but both supporters and detractors have insufficient empirical evidence. Its use in university lectures has influenced investigations of PowerPoint's effects on student performance (e.g., overall quiz/exam scores) in comparison to lectures based on overhead projectors, traditional lectures…

  10. Montessori(TM) Math by Colors [CD Rom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    Montessori(TM) Learning Software programs are purportedly built upon the core concept of the Montessori philosophy, that a major path to intellectual development is through a child's hands and senses. Math by Colors, recommended for ages 4 to 8, encourages hands-on discovery by allowing the child to choose the right color from the assembled paint…

  11. VERB [TM] Summer Scorecard: Increasing Tween Girls' Vigorous Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfonso, Moya L.; Thompson, Zachary; McDermott, Robert J.; Colquitt, Gavin; Jones, Jeffery A.; Bryant, Carol A.; Courtney, Anita H.; Davis, Jenna L.; Zhu, Yiliang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We assessed changes in the frequency of self-reported physical activity (PA) among tween girls exposed and not exposed to the VERB [TM] Summer Scorecard (VSS) intervention in Lexington, Kentucky, during 2004, 2006, and 2007. Methods: Girls who reported 0-1 day per week of PA were classi?ed as having "little or no" PA. Girls who reported…

  12. Supporting Moral Development: The Virtues Project[TM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moor, Gerrit

    2011-01-01

    The Virtues Project[TM] was founded in Canada in 1991 by Linda Kavelin Popov, Dan Popov, and John Kavelin who were concerned about the level of violence among families and youth. In studying sacred traditions and cultures around the world, they identified a set of common virtues. These were used to develop a pedagogical model that has applications…

  13. CPR[TM]: Adopting an Out-of-Discipline Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Kay E.

    2008-01-01

    Calibrated Peer Review[TM] (CPR) is a web-based instructional tool that encourages "writing gain for students" without adding "grading pain for the instructor!" The use of CPR provides students frequent opportunities to hone both writing as well as peer review skills in a guided environment. And once an assignment is authored, instructors have…

  14. Doors to Discovery[TM]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Doors to Discovery"]TM] is a preschool literacy curriculum that uses eight thematic units of activities to help children build fundamental early literacy skills in oral language, phonological awareness, concepts of print, alphabet knowledge, writing, and comprehension. The eight thematic units cover topics such as nature, friendship, communities,…

  15. Teaching Engineering Design through Lego[R] Mindstorms[TM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringwood, J. V.; Monaghan, K.; Maloco, J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines a particular methodology of teaching engineering design to undergraduate engineering students, which relies on Lego[R] Mindstorms[TM]. A number of important issues are addressed, including the timing of the design module within the programme, prior knowledge required and assessment components. The module, which has been running…

  16. Read, Write & Type![TM]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report is an evaluation of the "Read, Write & Type!"[TM] Learning System, a software program with supporting materials designed to teach beginning reading skills by emphasizing writing as a way to learn to read. The program was developed for six- to nine-year-old students who are just beginning to read and for students who are struggling…

  17. Herman Method[TM]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Herman Method"[TM] teaches reading in small groups of up to three students. The curriculum provides instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and reading comprehension, while also teaching spelling and writing. It contains 20 modules of instruction through a fifth grade level. Each module includes a reading, spelling,…

  18. Minehound TM trials in Cambodia, Bosnia, and Angola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, David J.; Curtis, Paul

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes the trials of the MINEHOUND TM dual sensor, land mine detector carried out in Cambodia, Bosnia and Angola. MINEHOUND TM has been developed for use in humanitarian demining as a means of improving the efficiency of clearance operations. The trials were sponsored by the UK Department for International Development (DFID). ERA Technology Ltd conducted the trials, which were monitored by staff drawn from the countries participating in the International Test and Evaluation Programme (ITEP) for humanitarian de-mining. Experienced deminers from the Mines Advisory Group (MAG) and Norwegian Peoples Aid (NPA) used the pre-production units in live minefields. The objectives of the trial were: 1. To record information on the performance of MINEHOUND TM when used in a live minefield. 2. To determine the reduction in False Alarm Rate (FAR) that could be achieved using a dual sensor mine detector. The trials were conducted in three mine-affected countries for a period of eight weeks per country; the programme of trials ran from July 2005 to December 2005, with an additional smaller trial in late February 2006. The results of the trials showed that MINEHOUND TM achieved 100% detection of the mines encountered and an improvement in FAR of better than 5:1 compared with a basic metal detector. The trials enabled optimisation of the production design and clearly demonstrated that new technology can be brought to humanitarian clearance operations in a safe and controlled manner. As a result of the highly successful trials, Vallon and ERA will produce the MINEHOUND TM (Type number VMR1) starting in Q3 of 2006.

  19. Sealing ability of grar MTA AngelusTM, CPM TM and MBPc used as apical plugs.

    PubMed

    Orosco, Fernando Accorsi; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; Bernadineli, Norberti; Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes de

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the sealing ability of apical plugs fabricated with gray MTA Angelus sealer, CPM TM sealer and MBPc sealer. The root canals of 98 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with #5 to #1 Gates Glidden drills according to the crown-down technique until the #1 drill could pass through the apical foramen. The specimens were then prepared with K-files, starting with an ISO 50 until an ISO 90 could be visualized 1 mm beyond the apex. After root canal preparation, the external surface of each root was rendered impermeable and roots were assigned to 3 experimental groups (n = 30), which received a 5-mm thick apical plug of gray MTA Angelus, CPM and MBPc, and two control groups (n=4). The remaining portion of the canal in the experimental groups was filled by the lateral condensation technique. The teeth of each group, properly identified, were fixed on utility wax by their crowns and were placed in plastic flasks, leaving the apex free and facing upward. The flasks were filled with 0.2% Rhodamine B solution, pH 7.0, so as to completely cover the root apex of all teeth. The sealing ability was analyzed by measuring 0.2% Rhodamine B leakage after all groups had been maintained in this solution for 48 hours. Data were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn test with a=5%. The results showed that, among the tested materials used for fabrication of apical plugs, MBPc sealer had the least amount of leakage with statistically significant difference (p<0.05). PMID:19089289

  20. 76 FR 38618 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; StormReadyTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; StormReady\\TM\\, TsunamiReady\\TM\\ and StormReady/TsunamiReady\\TM\\ Application Forms AGENCY: National...

  1. The Military Child Education Coalition[TM]: Supporting Military Families during Deployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surles, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    The Military Child Education Coalition (MCEC[TM]) has recently released a new support for military families facing deployment, with the addition of another kit to its "Growing, Learning, and Understanding: Making Meaning through Early Literacy"[TM] (GLU[TM]) initiative. The GLU initiative focuses on developing early literacy skills in children…

  2. Type II integral membrane protein, TM of J paramyxovirus promotes cell-to-cell fusion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhuo; Hung, Cher; Paterson, Reay G.; Michel, Frank; Fuentes, Sandra; Place, Ryan; Lin, Yuan; Hogan, Robert J.; Lamb, Robert A.; He, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Paramyxoviruses include many important animal and human pathogens. Most paramyxoviruses have two integral membrane proteins: fusion protein (F) and attachment proteins hemagglutinin, hemagglutinin–neuraminidase, or glycoprotein (G), which are critical for viral entry into cells. J paramyxovirus (JPV) encodes four integral membrane proteins: F, G, SH, and transmembrane (TM). The function of TM is not known. In this work, we have generated a viable JPV lacking TM (JPV∆TM). JPV∆TM formed opaque plaques compared with JPV. Quantitative syncytia assays showed that JPV∆TM was defective in promoting cell-to-cell fusion (i.e., syncytia formation) compared with JPV. Furthermore, cells separately expressing F, G, TM, or F plus G did not form syncytia whereas cells expressing F plus TM formed some syncytia. However, syncytia formation was much greater with coexpression of F, G, and TM. Biochemical analysis indicates that F, G, and TM interact with each other. A small hydrophobic region in the TM ectodomain from amino acid residues 118 to 132, the hydrophobic loop (HL), was important for syncytial promotion, suggesting that the TM HL region plays a critical role in cell-to-cell fusion. PMID:26392524

  3. Linear theory of the electron cyclotron maser based on TM circular waveguide mode

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao Chongqing; Luo Jirun

    2006-07-15

    A linear theory of the electron cyclotron maser, which is applicable to any TM circular waveguide mode, is developed by using Laplace transforms. This theory can be used to analyze the linear behaviors of both the TM mode gyrotron traveling wave tube (gyro-TWT) and the TM mode gyrotron backward wave oscillator (gyro-BWO). Numerical results show that, although the TM mode is less effective than the TE mode for the gyro-TWT interaction, the TM mode may be as effective as the TE mode for the gyro-BWO interaction, even in the case of weak relativistic electron energy.

  4. Investigations of LRE-HRE-TM thin films for hybrid recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zuoyi; Cheng, Xiaomin; Jin, Fang; Li, Zhen; Lin, Gengqi; Yang, Xiaofei

    2005-09-01

    Light rare earth-heavy rare earth-transition metal (LRE-HRE-TM) thin films are a kind of important recording media. A lot of researches have been carried out on the LRE-HRE-TM thin films to improve its properties for data storage application and fruitful results have been achieved. This report gives a glance on the evolution of the research on LRE-HRE-TM recording media. At the same time, combined with the hybrid recording technology, some experimental results obtained on LRE-HRE-TM recording media are discussed, which suggest the promising prospect of the LRE-HRE-TM media in hybrid recording application.

  5. ALDUO(TM) Algae Cultivation Technology for Delivering Sustainable Omega-3s, Feed, and Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xuemei

    2012-09-24

    * ALDUO(TM) Algae Production Technology Cellana?s Proprietary, Photosynthetic, & Proven * ALDUO(TM) Enables Economic Algae Production Unencumbered by Contamination by Balancing Higher-Cost PBRs with Lower-Cost Open Ponds * ALDUO(TM) Advantages * ALDUO(TM) Today o Large collection of strains for high value co-products o Powerful Mid-scale Screening & Optimization System o Solution to a Conflicting Interest o Split Pond Yield Enhancement o Heterotrophy & mixotrophy as a "finishing step" o CO2 Mitigation-flue Gas Operation o Worldwide Feed Trials with Livestock & Aquatic Species * ALDUO(TM) Technology Summarized

  6. Spectroscopic, luminescent and laser properties of nanostructured CaF2:Tm materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyapin, A. A.; Fedorov, P. P.; Garibin, E. A.; Malov, A. V.; Osiko, V. V.; Ryabochkina, P. A.; Ushakov, S. N.

    2013-08-01

    The laser quality transparent СаF2:Tm fluoride ceramics has been prepared by hot forming. Comparative study of absorption and emission spectra of СаF2:Tm (4 mol.% TmF3) ceramic and single crystal samples demonstrated that these materials possess almost identical spectroscopic properties. Laser oscillations of СаF2:Tm ceramics were obtained at 1898 nm under diode pumping, with the slope efficiency of 5.5%. Also, the continuous-wave (CW) laser have been obtained for СаF2:Tm single crystal at 1890 nm pumped by a diode laser was demonstrated.

  7. Proton Radioactivity Measurements at HRIBF: Ho, Lu, and Tm Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Akovali, Y.; Batchelder, J.C.; Bingham, C.R.; Davinson, T.; Ginter, T.N.; Gross, C.J.; Grzywacz, R.; Hamilton, J.H.; Janas, Z.; Karny, M.; Kim, S.H.; MacDonald, B.D.; Mas, J.F.; McConnell, J.W.; Piechaczek, A.; Ressler, J.J.; Rykaczewski, K.; Slinger, R.C.; Szerypo, J.; Toth, K.S.; Weintraub, W.; Woods, P.J.; Yu, C.-H.; Zganjar, E.F.

    1998-11-13

    Two new isotopes, {sup 145}Tm and {sup 140}Ho and three isomers in previously known isotopes, {sup 141m}Ho, {sup 150m}Lu and {sup 151m}Lu have been discovered and studied via their decay by proton emission. These proton emitters were produced at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) by heavy-ion fusion-evaporation reactions, separated in A/Q with a recoil mass spectrometer (RMS), and detected in a double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD). The decay energy and half-life was measured for each new emitter. An analysis in terms of a spherical shell model is applied to the Tm and Lu nuclei, but Ho is considerably deformed and requires a collective model interpretation.

  8. Landsat-4 thematic mapper (TM) for cold environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gervin, J. C.; Salomonson, V. V.; Mckim, H. L.

    1983-01-01

    Landsat-4 was launched into a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit on July 16, 1982. It is the largest and most complex of NASA's earth resources satellites. Landsat-4's instrument payload includes two remote sensors. The Multispectral Scanner Subsystem (MSS) is an electro-optical scanning radiometer with four spectral bands in the visible and near infrared, which was also carried aboard Landsats 1, 2, and 3. The second sensor, the Thematic Mapper (TM), represents a more advanced remote sensing instrument than the MSS. It uses a scanning mirror assembly to collect data from a 15.4 deg angle on both forward and reverse scans. It is pointed out that the improved spatial, spectral, and radiometric characteristics of TM have significant implications for satellite remote sensing in cold environments. The expected improvements are discussed, giving attention to snow, ice, water, soil, and land cover.

  9. The properties of RE-TM magneto-optical films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Z. Y.; Miao, X. S.; Zhu, P.; Hu, Y. S.; Wan, D. F.; Dai, D. W.; Chen, S. B.; Lin, G. Q.

    1992-09-01

    In this paper, the magnetic, magneto-optical and galvonomagnetic properties, and their temperature dependence for LRE-TM SmCo, SmCoDy and HRE-TM TbFeCo magneto-optical films as high density recording media prepared by rf magnetron sputtering or evaporation are reported. By adding Dy to SmCo thin film, the SmCoDy thin film is more suitable for magneto-optical recording, its domain size being below 0.63 μm. The Kerr enhancement and corrosion protective effects of AIN and AlSiN for optimum design of the multi-layer structure of magneto-optical disk are described. The instruments of measuring the magneto-optical Kerr effect and magneto-optical recording domain characteristics of thin films are reviewed.

  10. 102 W monolithic single frequency Tm-doped fiber MOPA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiong; Zhou, Pu; Wang, Xiaolin; Xiao, Hu; Si, Lei

    2013-12-30

    We demonstrate a high power all-fiber single frequency Tm-doped fiber amplifier. The maximum output power reached 102 W and the central wavelength was 1.97 μm. The single frequency laser signal from a seed laser was amplified based on a monolithic master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration. The slope efficiency was about 50% against the absorbed pump power. Neither parasitic lasing nor nonlinear effect was observed in the monolithic fiber amplifier. The SBS threshold of the single frequency Tm-doped fiber amplifier was analyzed and estimated. The output power is not limited by the SBS threshold and could be further improved by increasing the pump power. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of average power exceeding 100 W from monolithic all-fiber laser near 2 μm wavelength. PMID:24514831

  11. BOREAS RSS-8 Snow Maps Derived from Landsat TM Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy; Chang, Alfred T. C.; Foster, James L.; Chien, Janeet Y. L.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Remote Sensing Science (RSS)-8 team utilized Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images to perform mapping of snow extent over the Southern Study Area (SSA). This data set consists of two Landsat TM images that were used to determine the snow-covered pixels over the BOREAS SSA on 18 Jan 1993 and on 06 Feb 1994. The data are stored in binary image format files. The RSS-08 snow map data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  12. [Calculation of spectroscopic properties of Tm:YVO4 crystals].

    PubMed

    Song, Feng; Guo, Hong-cang; Zhang, Wan-lin; Zhang, Chao-bo; Shang, Mei-ru; Zhang, Guang-yin

    2002-02-01

    Sigma and pi polarized absorption spectra of Tm:YVO4 crystal have been measured at room temperature. Considering the difference of the sigma and pi polarized absorption spectra and the changing of the refractive index with different wavelengths, we calculate the intensity parameters of Tm3+ in crystal YVO4 which are omega 2 = 1.9416 x 10(-20) (cm2), omega 4 = 0.1568 x 10(-20) (cm2), omega 6 = 0.3963 x 10(-20) (cm2) by Judd-Ofelt theory. The spectra characteristic parameters, such as radiative transition rates, luminescence branching ratio, total radiative lifetime and integral cross-section are also calculated. The results show that the spontaneous rate of the transition 1D2-->3F4 is much higher than that of the transition 1D2 to other levels. PMID:12940012

  13. ZnS:Tm grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition with Cl codoping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Akira; Katayama, Masayuki; Mizutani, Atsushi; Ito, Nobuei; Hattori, Tadashi

    1997-01-01

    ZnS:Tm and ZnS:Tm,Cl thin films were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), using diethylzinc, H2S, Tm(thd)3 (thd=2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedione), and HCl. The ZnS:Tm did not contain oxygen which might be introduced through the thd-radical. It thus has only codopant-free Tm3+ luminescent centers probably associated with native defects. The electroluminescence (EL) spectrum of the ZnS:Tm,Cl showed three satellite emission lines in addition to the original emission of the ZnS:Tm, indicating the existence of Tm-Cl complex centers. In contrast, the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of the ZnS:Tm,Cl under host excitation showed no discernible satellite emission lines. Hence, though the Tm ions in the Tm-Cl complex centers are expected to be charge compensated by Cl or a certain Cl-induced defect, they are rather inactive in the PL excitation while active in the EL excitation. The same properties were observed for the MOCVD-grown ZnS:Sm and ZnS:Sm,Cl [A. Kato, M. Katayama, A. Mizutani, N. Ito, and T. Hattori, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 4616 (1995)], and therefore they probably occur for other rare-earth luminescent centers with Cl codopant.

  14. High resolution imaging with TM01 laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehez, Harold; Piché, Michel; De Koninck, Yves

    2009-06-01

    Using the vectorial diffraction theory established by Richards and Wolf, we demonstrate that the resolution of a two-photon microscope can be improved with a radially polarized TM01 laser beam and an interface between dielectrics, instead of the linearly polarized Gaussian beam already used in laser scanning microscopy. To verify the theoretical results, we developed a mode converter producing radially polarized beams and we have integrated it in a commercial two-photon microscope.

  15. Cleaning Spectralon(TM) To Maintain Reflectance Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiegman, Albert; Bruegge, Carl; Plett, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Hydrocarbon impurities removed and stability of Spectralon(TM) towards ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet radiation greatly enhanced by baking material at 90 degrees C for 24 h in vacuum of 10 to negative 5th power torr. After vacuum bake, material handled with white cotton, lint-free gloves in clean environment (preferably cleanroom). As material has tendency to reabsorb volatile organic compounds, stored and transported only in clean, air-tight (preferably glass or oil-free metal) containers.

  16. Mass balance investigation of alpine glaciers through LANDSAT TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayr, Klaus J.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data of the Pasterze Glacier and the Kleines Fleisskees in the Austrian Alps was undertaken and compared with meteorological data of nearby weather stations. Alpine or valley glaciers can be used to study regional and worldwide climate changes. Alpine glaciers respond relatively fast to a warming or cooling trend in temperature through an advance or a retreat of the terminus. In addition, the mass balance of the glacier is being affected. Last year two TM scenes of the Pasterze Glacier of Aug. 1984 and Aug. 1986 were used to study the difference in reflectance. This year, in addition to the scenes from last year, one MSS scene of Aug. 1976 and a TM scene from 1988 were examined for both the Pasterze Glacier and the Kleines Fleisskees. During the overpass of the LANDSAT on 6 Aug. 1988 ground truthing on the Pasterze Glacier was undertaken. The results indicate that there was considerable more reflectance in 1976 and 1984 than in 1986 and 1988. The climatological data of the weather stations Sonnblick and Rudolfshuette were examined and compared with the results found through the LANDSAT data. There were relations between the meteorological and LANDSAT data: the average temperature over the last 100 years showed an increase of .4 C, the snowfall was declining during the same time period but the overall precipitation did not reveal any significant change over the same period. With the use of an interactive image analysis computer, the LANDSAT scenes were studied. The terminus of the Pasterze Glacier retreated 348 m and the terminus of the Kleines Fleisskees 121 m since 1965. This approach using LANDSAT MSS and TM digital data in conjunction with meteorological data can be effectively used to monitor regional and worldwide climate changes.

  17. Augmenting Forest Stand Parameters using Landsat TM Spectral Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuveni, Y.; Dahan, E.; Anker, Y.; Sprintsin, M.

    2015-12-01

    Forest stand parameters, such as diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height (H), or volume per hectare (V), are imperative for forest resources assessment. Traditional inventory of forest stand parameters, usually based on fieldwork, is often difficult, time-consuming, and expensive, to conduct in large areas. Therefore, estimating forest stand parameters in large areas using traditional inventory approach augmented by satellites data has a significant implication for sustainable forest management and natural resources efficiency. However, obtaining suitable satellite image data for such purpose is a challenging task mainly because of insignificant knowledge between the forest stand parameters and satellite spectral response relationships. Here, we present the use of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral responses data for augmenting forest stand parameter obtained from fieldwork at the Lahav Forest, in the Israeli Northern Negev. A new algorithm was developed in order to use all eight TM band when calculating the linear combination which correlates the most to each one of the forest stand parameters. Each linear combination is obtained first for local area inside the entire studied grid and is then fitted using a simple linear polynomial curve to the known forest stand parameter. Once the relationship between the two is characterized by a linear polynomial equation, the TM linear combination local area data is translated to the same equivalent area of the chosen forest stand parameter. At last, we interpolate the entire TM grid using a higher order polynomial fit applied to all the augmented local area combined together to attain full coverage of the desired forest stand parameter.

  18. Chromitite Prospecting Using Landsat TM and Aster Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiranvand Pour, A.; Hashim, M.; Pournamdari, M.

    2015-10-01

    Studying the ophiolite complexes using multispectral remote sensing satellite data are interesting because of high diversity of minerals and the source of podiform chromitites. This research developed an approach to discriminate lithological units and detecting host rock of chromitite bodies within ophiolitic complexes using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data. Three main ophiolite complexes located in south of Iran have been selected for the study. Spectral transform techniques, including minimum noise fraction (MNF) and specialized band ratio were employed to detect different rock units and the identification of high-potential areas of chromite ore deposits within ophiolitic complexes. A specialized band ratio (4/1, 4/5, 4/7) of ASTER, MNF components and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) on ASTER and Landsat TM data were used to distinguish ophiolitic rock units. Results show that the specialized band ratio was able to identify different rock units and serpentinized dunite as host rock of chromitites within ophiolitic complexes, appropriately. MNF components of ASTER and Landsat TM data were suitable to distinguish ophiolitic rock complexes at a regional scale. The integration of SAM and Feature Level Fusion (FLF) used in this investigation discriminated the ophiolitic rock units and prepared detailed geological map for the study area. Accordingly, high potential areas (serpentinite dunite) were identified in the study area for chromite exploration targets.The approach used in this research offers the image processing techniques as a robust, reliable, fast and cost-effective method for detecting serpentinized dunite as host rock of chromitite bodies within vast ophiolite complexes using ASTER and Landsat TM satellite data.

  19. Secondary Forest Age and Tropical Forest Biomass Estimation Using TM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, R. F.; Kimes, D. S.; Salas, W. A.; Routhier, M.

    1999-01-01

    The age of secondary forests in the Amazon will become more critical with respect to the estimation of biomass and carbon budgets as tropical forest conversion continues. Multitemporal Thematic Mapper data were used to develop land cover histories for a 33,000 Square kM area near Ariquemes, Rondonia over a 7 year period from 1989-1995. The age of the secondary forest, a surrogate for the amount of biomass (or carbon) stored above-ground, was found to be unimportant in terms of biomass budget error rates in a forested TM scene which had undergone a 20% conversion to nonforest/agricultural cover types. In such a situation, the 80% of the scene still covered by primary forest accounted for over 98% of the scene biomass. The difference between secondary forest biomass estimates developed with and without age information were inconsequential relative to the estimate of biomass for the entire scene. However, in futuristic scenarios where all of the primary forest has been converted to agriculture and secondary forest (55% and 42% respectively), the ability to age secondary forest becomes critical. Depending on biomass accumulation rate assumptions, scene biomass budget errors on the order of -10% to +30% are likely if the age of the secondary forests are not taken into account. Single-date TM imagery cannot be used to accurately age secondary forests into single-year classes. A neural network utilizing TM band 2 and three TM spectral-texture measures (bands 3 and 5) predicted secondary forest age over a range of 0-7 years with an RMSE of 1.59 years and an R(Squared) (sub actual vs predicted) = 0.37. A proposal is made, based on a literature review, to use satellite imagery to identify general secondary forest age groups which, within group, exhibit relatively constant biomass accumulation rates.

  20. Performance evaluation and geologic utility of LANDSAT 4 TM and MSS scanners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paley, H. N.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments using artificial targets (polyethylene sheets) to help calibrate and evaluate atmospheric effects as well as the radiometric precision and spatial characteristics of the NS-001 and TM sensor systems were attempted and show the technical feasibility of using plastic targets for such studies, although weather precluded successful TM data acquisition. Tapes for six LANDSAT 4 TM scenes were acquired and data processing began. Computer enhanced TM simulator and LANDSAT 4 TM data were compared for a porphyry copper deposit in Southern Arizona. Preliminary analyses performed on two TM scenes acquired in the CCT-PT format, show the TM data appear to contain a marked increase in geologically useful information; however, a number of instrumental processing artifacts may well limit the ability of the geologist to fully extract this information.

  1. Power scaling of end-pumped c-cut Tm:YAP lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, P. B.; Yao, B. Q.; Ju, Y. L.; Wang, Y. Z.

    2013-12-01

    The temperature distributions of a Tm:YAP rod and a Tm:YAP slab were compared theoretically and experimentally. The measured thermal focal length was much longer for a thinner Tm:YAP slab than a Tm:YAP rod and a thicker Tm:YAP slab, indicating weaker thermal effects of a thinner Tm:YAP slab, which was in agreement with the theoretical analysis. Based on thermal effect analysis, laser performance of a c-cut Tm:YAP rod and slab in the dual-end-pumped configuration was compared. Higher slope efficiency and output power were obtained in the slab geometry than in the rod geometry, and the thinner the slab, the better the laser performance.

  2. Actively Cooled SLMS(TM) Technology for HEL Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacoby, Marc T.; Goodman, William A.; Reily, Jack C.; Kegley, Jeffrey R.; Haight, Harlan J.; Tucker, John; Wright, Ernest R.; Hogue, William D.

    2005-01-01

    Mr. Jacoby is the Chief Scientist for Schafer's Lightweight Optical Systems business area with twenty four years experience in laser and optical systems for space and military applications. He and colleague Dr. Goodman conceived and developed Silicon Lightweight Mirrors (SLMS(TM)) technologies for space applications from the extreme UV to FAR IR wavelengths. Schafer has demonstrated two different methods for actively cooling our Silicon Lightweight Mirrors (SLMS(TM)) technology. Direct internal cooling was accomplished by flowing liquid nitrogen through the continuous open cell core of the SLMS(TM) mirror. Indirect external cooling was accomplished by flowing liquid nitrogen through a CTE matched Cesic square-tube manifold that was bonded to the back of the mirror in the center. Testing was done in the small 4-foot thermal/vacuum chamber located at the NASA/MSFC X-Ray Calibration Facility. Seven thermal diodes were located over the front side of the 5 inch diameter mirror and one was placed on the outlet side of the Cesic manifold. Results indicate that the mirror reaches steady state at 82K in less than four minutes for both cooling methods. The maximum temperature difference of the eight diodes was less than 200 mK when the mirror was internally cooled and covered with MLI to insulate it from the large 300 K aluminum plate that was used to mount it.

  3. Magnetism, structures and stabilities of cluster assembled TM@Si nanotubes (TM = Cr, Mn and Fe): a density functional study.

    PubMed

    Dhaka, Kapil; Bandyopadhyay, Debashis

    2016-08-01

    The present study reports transition metal (TM = Cr, Mn and Fe) doped silicon nanotubes with tunable band structures and magnetic properties by careful selection of cluster assemblies as building blocks using the first-principles density functional theory. We found that the transition metal doping and in addition, the hydrogen termination process can stabilize the pure silicon nanoclusters or cluster assemblies and then it could be extended as magnetic nanotubes with finite magnetic moments. Study of the band structures and density of states (DOS) of different empty and TM doped nanotubes (Type 1 to Type 4) show that these nanotubes are useful as metals, semiconductors, semi-metals and half-metals. These designer magnetic materials could be useful in spintronics and magnetic devices of nanoscale order. PMID:27430742

  4. 75 FR 41517 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Over The RiverTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Proposed Over The River TM Art Project, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION... (EIS) for the Proposed Over The River TM Art Project (Over The River TM Draft EIS) and by this notice... BLM must receive written comments on the Over The River TM Draft EIS on or before August 30, 2010....

  5. TM4SF5 suppression disturbs integrin α5-related signalling and muscle development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon-Ju; Kim, Hyun Ho; Kim, Jeong-Gyun; Kim, Hye-Jin; Kang, Minkyung; Lee, Mi-Sook; Ryu, Jihye; Song, Haeng Eun; Nam, Seo Hee; Lee, Doohyung; Kim, Kyu-Won; Lee, Jung Weon

    2014-08-15

    TM4SF5 (transmembrane 4 L six family member 5) is involved in EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) for liver fibrosis and cancer metastasis; however, the function(s) of TM4SF5 during embryogenesis remains unknown. In the present study the effects of TM4SF5 on embryogenesis of zebrafish were investigated. tm4sf5 mRNA was expressed in the posterior somites during somitogenesis and in whole myotome 1 dpf (day post-fertilization). tm4sf5 suppression impaired development of the trunk with aberrant morphology of muscle fibres and altered expression of integrin α5. The arrangement and adhesion of muscle cells were abnormally disorganized in tm4sf5 morphants with reduced muscle fibre masses, where integrin α5-related signalling molecules, including fibronectin, FAK (focal adhesion kinase), vinculin and actin were aberrantly localized, compared with those in control fish. Aberrant muscle developments in tm4sf5 morphants were recovered by additional tm4sf5 or integrin α5 mRNA injection. Such a role for TM4SF5 was observed in the differentiation of C2C12 mouse myoblast cells to multinuclear muscle cells. Taken together, the results show that TM4SF5 controls muscle differentiation via co-operation with integrin α5-related signalling. PMID:24897542

  6. Structural, EPR and optical properties of Zn0.75TM0.25O (TM = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) aerogel nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayari, Amor; El Mir, Lassaad; Jürgen von Bardeleben, Hans

    2014-07-01

    ZnO nanopowders with different 3d transition metal (TM) doping (TM = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) were synthesized by a new protocol based on slow hydrolyse of zinc acetate dissolved in methanol and supercritical drying in ethyl alcohol. The prepared Zn1-xTMxO (x = 0.25) nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), optical absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). The results demonstrated that the TM dopant significantly affects the structural and magnetic properties of the samples. From the XRD spectra, the lattice parameters, average crystallite size and microstrain values were obtained. All ZnTMO nanoparticles show an expansion of the lattice parameters compared those of the bulk samples. Unit cell volume was minimized with Fe doping and increased as the atomic number of the dopant moved away from Fe. The XRD pattern indicates the formation of hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnO for all the TM dopants. Electron microscopy characterization showed that the size of the Zn1-xTMxO particles is about 25 nm did not change significantly for the different dopants. Optical absorption measurements show that band gap energies of the TM-doped ZnO nanoparticles are around 3.2 eV. The Urbach energy of the ZnTMO nanopowders varies with the TM dopant. From magnetic measurements we observed the presence of room temperature ferromagnetic order in our TM-doped ZnO samples. EPR spectra confirm that TM ions were mainly incorporated as TM2+, occupying the Zn2+ sites in the wurtzite structure of ZnO. Room temperature ferromagnetic order was observed only in Ni- and Co-doped ZnO samples, whereas Mn- and Fe-doped powders showed only antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic interactions, respectively. The correlation between the structural and magnetic properties as a function of the TM dopant is discussed.

  7. Commercialization of Medium Voltage HTS Triax TM Cable Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, David

    2012-12-31

    The original project scope that was established in 2007 aimed to install a 1,700 meter (1.1 mile) medium voltage HTS Triax{TM} cable system into the utility grid in New Orleans, LA. In 2010, however, the utility partner withdrew from the project, so the 1,700 meter cable installation was cancelled and the scope of work was reduced. The work then concentrated on the specific barriers to commercialization of HTS cable technology. The modified scope included long-length HTS cable design and testing, high voltage factory test development, optimized cooling system development, and HTS cable life-cycle analysis. In 2012, Southwire again analyzed the market for HTS cables and deemed the near term market acceptance to be low. The scope of work was further reduced to the completion of tasks already started and to testing of the existing HTS cable system in Columbus, OH. The work completed under the project included: • Long-length cable modeling and analysis • HTS wire evaluation and testing • Cable testing for AC losses • Optimized cooling system design • Life cycle testing of the HTS cable in Columbus, OH • Project management. The 200 meter long HTS Triax{TM} cable in Columbus, OH was incorporated into the project under the initial scope changes as a test bed for life cycle testing as well as the site for an optimized HTS cable cooling system. The Columbus cable utilizes the HTS TriaxTM design, so it provided an economical tool for these of the project tasks.

  8. Automated Tow Placed LaRC(TM)-PETI-5 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, T. H.; Belvin, H. L.; Johnston, N. J.

    2001-01-01

    LaRC(TM)-PETI-5 is a PhenylEthynyl-Terminated Imide resin developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) during the 1990s. It offers a combination of attractive composite and adhesive properties. IM7/LaRC(TM)-PETI-5 composites exhibit thermal and thermo-oxidative stability typical of polyimides, superior chemical resistance and processability, excellent mechanical properties, toughness and damage tolerance. It was selected for study in the High Speed Research program aimed at developing technologies for a future supersonic aircraft, the High Speed Civil Transport, with a projected life span of 60 000 h at a cruise speed up to Mach 2.4. Robust autoclave processing cycles for LaRC(TM)-PETI-5 composites have been thoroughly designed and demonstrated, which involved hand lay-up of solvent-ladened 'wet' prepregs. However, this type of processing is not only costly but also environmentally unfriendly. Volatile management and shrinkage could become serious problems in the fabrication of large complex airframe structural subcomponents. Robotic tow placement technology utilizing 'dry' material forms represents a new fabrication process which overcomes these deficiencies. This work evaluates and compares mechanical properties of composites fabricated by heated head automated tow placement (dry process) with those obtained by hand lay-up/autoclave fabrication (wet process). Thermal and rheological properties of the robotically as-placed uncured composites were measured. A post-cure cycle was designed due to the requirement of the PETI-5 resin for a 370 C/1 h hold to reach full cure, conditions which cannot be duplicated during heated head robotic placement. Mechanical properties such as 0 degree flexural strength and modulus, open hole tensile and compressive strength and moduli, reduced section compression dogbone compressive strength, and modified zippora-medium small (MZ-MS) tensile and compressive properties were obtained on the post-cured panels. These properties

  9. Fermi Surface and Magnetic Structure of TmGa3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biasini, M.; Kontrym-Sznajd, G.; Monge, M. A.; Gemmi, M.; Czopnik, A.; Jura, A.

    2001-05-01

    We carry out measurements of the two-dimensional angular correlation of the positron annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) to reconstruct the complex multisheet Fermi surface (FS) of the cubic rare-earth (RE) compound TmGa3. We discover a correlation between the antiferromagnetic structures and the nesting of the FS along the [110] directions. Moreover, we propose methods to estimate the density of states at the Fermi energy ( EF) and the electronic contribution to the specific heat [we obtain N\\(EF\\) = 13.6 states/Ryd cell and γ = 2.4 mJ/mole K2].

  10. Ho:YLF Laser Pumped by TM:Fiber Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Kohei; Ishii, Shoken; Itabe, Toshikazu; Asai, Kazuhiro; Sato, Atsushi

    2016-06-01

    A 2-micron Ho:YLF laser end-pumped by 1.94-micron Tm:fiber laser is described. A ring resonator of 3m length is adopted for the oscillator. The laser is a master oscillator and an amplifier system. It is operated at high repetition rate of 200-5000 Hz in room temperature. The laser outputs were about 9W in CW and more than 6W in Q-switched operation. This laser was developed to be used for wind and CO2 measurements.

  11. KIWIN(TM): From prototype to product for use.

    PubMed

    Drake, Maurice; Wilson, Shona; Warren, David; Elfrink, Vicky; Hay, Eleanor

    2006-01-01

    2005 has seen the birth of the product KIWIN(TM)--an educational technology for nursing students in New Zealand involving web-based technology supported by Pocket PCs in the field. Nursing students use the technology to collect clinically relevant data at the point-of-care and transmit to a secure central server for storage using cradle synchronisation, WiFi or cellular wireless modalities. Later retrieval via the Internet enables collation of details, refinement of work, and construction with print-off of care reports to meet academic requirements. This demonstration will showcase the development to the international community. Critique and review will be welcomed. PMID:17102517

  12. Er/Tm:fiber laser system for coherent Raman microscopy.

    PubMed

    Coluccelli, Nicola; Kumar, Vikas; Cassinerio, Marco; Galzerano, Gianluca; Marangoni, Marco; Cerullo, Giulio

    2014-06-01

    We present a novel architecture for a fiber-based hybrid laser system for coherent Raman microscopy, combining an amplified Er:fiber femtosecond oscillator with a Tm:fiber amplifier boosting the power of the 2-μm portion of a supercontinuum up to 300 mW. This is enough to obtain, by means of nonlinear spectral compression, sub-20-cm(-1) wide pump and Stokes pulses with 2500-3300  cm(-1) frequency detuning and average power at the 100-mW level. Application of this system to stimulated Raman scattering microscopy is discussed. PMID:24875984

  13. Pressure effects on the resistivity of TmS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapierre, F.; Haen, P.; Coqblin, B.; Ribault, M.; Holtzberg, F.

    1981-08-01

    Quasi hydrostatic pressure measurements of the resistivity of a single crystal of TmS are reported. The resistivity σ is reduced by pressure P over the full range studied (up to 28 kbar and down to liquid He). It goes through a maximum near 10K and decreases logarithmically for higher temperatures. Both this behavior and the reduction of the InT slope by P can be explained in a model of resonant scattering as previously done for Ce compounds. The Néel temperature T N, marked by a small anomaly in σ, increases with P in accordance with previous susceptibility results.

  14. The Astroculture (tm)-1 experiment on the USML-1 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, Theodore; Bula, R. J.; Morrow, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    Permanent human presence in space will require a life support system that minimizes athe need for resupply of consumables from Earth resources. Plants that convert radiant energy to chemical energy via photosynthesis are a key component of a bioregenerative life support system. Providing the proper root environment for plants in reduced gravity is an essential aspect of the development of facilities for growing plants in a space environment. The ASTROCULTURE(TM)-1 experiment, included in the USML-1 mission, successfully demonstrated the ability of the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics porous tube water delivery system to control water movement through a rooting matrix in a microgravity environment.

  15. Using spatial logic in classification of Landsat TM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merchant, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    A strategy for spatial/spectral classification of Landsat TM data is presented. The strategy is founded upon 'spatial logic', a logic that seeks to emulate important aspects of visual image interpretation. The carefully structured classification process begins with spectral stratification of the data into water, vegetated and non-vegetated pixels. A region growing algorithm is then used to define 'fields' of similar land cover composition. Fields are characterized by cover composition, size and neighborhood characteristics. A supervised iterative contextual classification algorithm is developed to assign final land use/land cover labels. Maps are generalized using a spatial post-processing technique. Positive, though preliminary, results are presented.

  16. DIME Students Show Off their Lego(TM) Challenge Creation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Two students show the Lego (TM) Challenge device they designed and built to operate in the portable drop tower demonstrator as part of the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  17. Role of Bandwidth in Computation of NDVI From Landsat TM and NOAA AVHRR Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R. K.; Vijayan, D.; Prasad, T. S.; Tirumaladevi, N. Ch.

    The observations for wheat, onion, potato and chickpea over the Crop Growth Cycle (CGC) in 3 nm bandwidth were converted to AVHRR and TM bands in visible/red and near-IR spectral regions. Correlation between TM and AVHRR NDVI were very high for all these crops. The additional 0.725-0.76 μm bandwidth in AVHRR as compared to TM was causing reduction in NDVI values for AVHRR when crop NDVI value was more than 0.46

  18. Discrimination of lithologic units using geobotanical and LANDSAT TM spectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birnie, R. W.; Defeo, N. J.

    1986-01-01

    Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral data were correlated with lithologic units, geobotanical forest associations, and geomorphic site parameters in the Ridge and Valley Province of Pennsylvania. Both the TM and forest association data can be divided into four groups based on their lithology (sandstone or shale) and geomorphic aspect (north or south facing). In this clastic sedimentary terrane, geobotanical associations are useful indicators of lithology and these different geobotanical associations are detectable in LANDSAT TM data.

  19. Ribosomal protein S1 induces a conformational change of tmRNA; more than one protein S1 per molecule of tmRNA.

    PubMed

    Bordeau, Valérie; Felden, Brice

    2002-08-01

    tmRNA (10Sa RNA, ssrA) acts to rescue stalled bacterial ribosomes while encoding a peptide tag added trans-translationally to the nascent peptide, targeting it for proteolysis. Ribosomal protein S1 is required for tmRNA binding to isolated and poly U-programmed ribosomes. Mobility assays on native gels indicate that the binding curves of both recombinant and purified proteins S1 from E. coli is biphasic with apparent binding constants of approximately 90 and approximately 300 nM, respectively, suggesting that more than one protein interacts with tmRNA. Structural probing of native tmRNA in the presence and absence of the purified protein suggest that when S1 binds, tmRNA undergoes a significant conformational change. In the presence of the protein, nucleotides from tmRNA with enhanced (H2, H3, PK1, PK2, PK4, in and around the first triplet to be translated), or decreased (H5 and PK2), reactivity towards a probe specific for RNA single-strands are scattered throughout the molecule, with the exception of the tRNA-like domain that may be dispensable for the interaction. Converging experimental evidence suggests that ribosomal protein S1 binds to pseudoknot PK2. Previous structural studies of tmRNA in solution have revealed several discrepancies between the probing data and the phylogeny, and most of these are reconciled when analyzing tmRNA structure in complex with the protein(s). Ribosomal protein(s) S1 is proposed to set tmRNA in the mRNA mode, relieving strains that may develop when translating a looped mRNA. PMID:12457560

  20. First-principles study of one-dimensional sandwich wires [(P)5TM]∞ (TM = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yandong; Dai, Ying; Li, Xinru; Li, Zhujie; Huang, Baibiao

    2013-10-01

    Since the discovery of ferrocene, many one-dimensional metallic sandwich molecular wires have been identified. However, most of the known systems are assembled from organic molecules. Suffering from many drawbacks has, however, hampered their widespread applications. With the goal of breaking this logjam, we provide a blueprint for the designing of a variety of novel sandwich molecular wires ([(P)5TM]∞, TM = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Co) assembled from ferrocene-like inorganic molecules (P)5TM, offering evidence of the existence of inorganic molecular wires in this class. We present first-principles calculations to investigate systematically the electronic and magnetic properties of such novel inorganic sandwich molecular wires. Compared with the organic molecular wires, all the inorganic [(P)5TM]∞ wires are of large magnetic moment. Among them, we find that [(P)5V]∞, [(P)5Cr]∞ and [(P)5Mn]∞ display ferromagnetic character, while for [(P)5Ti]∞, [(P)5Fe]∞ and [(P)5Co]∞, the magnetic coupling is antiferromagnetic. More remarkably, the TM atoms distributed in these wires show regular docking and lead to structures with ordered spin signals, which is a long-term dream of spintronics. We propose that the difference in magnetic coupling for the studied systems is related to the competition between two exchange interactions of TM atoms. Specifically, we propound that the general mechanism for the formation of stable 1D [(P)5TM]∞ involves the transfer of one electron from the TM atom to the P5 ligand forming ({P})_{5}^{-} and TM+ alternating structure.

  1. Spectroscopic and laser characterization of Yb,Tm:KLu(WO4)2 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiko, P. A.; Serres, J. M.; Mateos, X.; Demesh, M. P.; Yasukevich, A. S.; Yumashev, K. V.; Petrov, V.; Griebner, U.; Aguiló, M.; Díaz, F.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a comprehensive spectroscopic and laser characterization of monoclinic Yb,Tm:KLu(WO4)2 crystals. Stimulated-emission cross-section spectra corresponding to the 3F4 → 3H6 transition of Tm3+ ions are determined. The radiative lifetime of the 3F4 state of Tm3+ ions is 0.82 ms. The maximum Yb3+ → Tm3+ energy transfer efficiency is 83.9% for 5 at.% Yb - 8 at.% Tm doping. The fractional heat loading for Yb,Tm:KLu(WO4)2 is 0.45 ± 0.05. Using a hemispherical cavity and 5 at.% Yb - 6 at.% Tm doped crystal, a maximum CW power of 227 mW is achieved at 1.983-2.011 μm with a maximum slope efficiency η = 14%. In the microchip laser set-up, the highest slope efficiency is 20% for a 5 at.% Yb- 8 at.% Tm doped crystal with a maximum output power of 201 mW at 1.99-2.007 μm. Operation of Yb,Tm:KLu(WO4)2 as a vibronic laser emitting at 2.081-2.093 μm is also demonstrated.

  2. [Effects of trimebutine maleate (TM-906) on the gastrointestinal motility in anesthetized dogs].

    PubMed

    Nosaka, K; Takenaga, H; Magaribuchi, T; Tamaki, H

    1984-10-01

    Effects of trimebutine maleate (TM-906) on the spontaneous motility of the gastrointestinal tracts were investigated in anesthetized dogs by means of force transducers. TM-906, administrated intravenously or intraduodenally, produced an inhibition followed by a potentiation of the spontaneous motility in the stomach, and caused a potentiation of the spontaneous motility in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon. These effects of TM-906 were observed also in the vagotomized dogs as in the intact dogs. From these results, it is suggested that TM-906 modulates the spontaneous motility of the gastrointestinal tracts primarily through the peripheral mechanism. PMID:6533390

  3. Media Controller For Receiving Data From A TAXI(TM) Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, David R.; Mcmahon, Rebecca Stempski

    1995-01-01

    TAXI(TM) media controller (TMC) is interface circuit that supports operation of test equipment in diagnosis of telemetry system in which data communicated via TAXI(TM) links. TMC designed specifically for use with TAXI(TM) test adapter for monitoring and testing telemetry data signals generated by payloads and other subsystems of Space Station Freedom. Overall, TMC characterized as providing interface between output part of a TAXI(TM) receiving chip and input port of memory system in test adapter. TMC detects some abnormalities in received data stream and resynchronizes stream to locally generated clock signal.

  4. Functional movement ScreenTM--normative values in healthy distance runners.

    PubMed

    Agresta, C; Slobodinsky, M; Tucker, C

    2014-12-01

    Recreational runners have an estimated overuse injury incidence rate of up to 79% and 90% for marathoners. A pre-participation screening tool that can identify risk for injury may help reduce overuse injury in runners. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS(TM)) is a reliable clinical tool used with athletes to help predict injury. To date, the FMS(TM) has not been used with endurance athletes. The purpose of this article is to establish normative FMS(TM) values for distance runners. 45 healthy runners performed the FMS(TM). Descriptive statistics were calculated; independent t-tests were performed to examine the effect of gender, experience and injury on scores. A Chi-square test was used to evaluate whether significant differences in scores exist for any component of the FMS(TM). The mean FMS(TM) score was 13.13±1.8. No significant differences in FMS(TM) scores were found between novice and experienced runners (p=0.71) or runners with a history of injury and those without (p=0.20). While male and female runners did not differ significantly in their total FMS(TM) score (p=0.65), significant differences were found in the deep squat (p<0.05), trunk stability push-up (p<0.001) and active straight leg raise components (p=0.002). This study provides normative values for FMS(TM) scores when testing uninjured distance runners. PMID:25144432

  5. TM7SF1 (GPR137B): a novel lysosome integral membrane protein.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jialin; Xia, Libin; Lu, Meiqing; Zhang, Binhua; Chen, Yueping; Xu, Rang; Wang, Lizhuo

    2012-09-01

    In the previous proteomic study of human placenta, transmembrane 7 superfamily member 1 (TM7SF1) was found enriched in lysosome compartments. TM7SF1 encodes a 399-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 45 kDa. Bioinformatic analysis of its amino acid sequence showed that it is a multipass transmembrane protein containing a potential dileucine-based lysosomal targeting signal and four putative N-glycosylation sites. By percoll-gradient centrifugation and further subfraction ways, the lysosomal solute and membrane compartments were isolated respectively. Immunoblotting analysis indicated that TM7SF1 was co-fractioned with lysosome associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2), which was only detected in lysosomal membrane compartments whereas not detected in the solute compartments. Using specific anti-TM7SF1 antibody and double-immunofluorescence with lysosome membrane protein LAMP1 and Lyso-Tracker Red, the colocalisations of endogenous TM7SF1 with lysosome and late endosome markers were demonstrated. All of this indicated that TM7SF1 is an integral lysosome membrane protein. Rat ortholog of TM7SF1 was found to be strongly expressed in heart, liver, kidney and brain while not or low detected in other tissues. In summary, TM7SF1 was a lysosomal integral membrane protein that shows tissue-specific expression. As a G-protein-coupled receptor in lysosome membrane, TM7SF1 was predicted function as signal transduction across lysosome membrane. PMID:22729905

  6. Trapping processes in CaS:Eu{sup 2+},Tm{sup 3+}

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Dongdong; Jia, Weiyi; Evans, D. R.; Dennis, W. M.; Liu, Huimin; Zhu, Jing; Yen, W. M.

    2000-09-15

    CaS:Eu{sup 2+},Tm{sup 3+} is a persistent red phosphor. Thermoluminescence was measured under different excitation and thermal treatment conditions. The results reveal that the charge defects, created by substituting Tm{sup 3+} for Ca{sup 2+}, serve as hole traps for the afterglow at room temperature. Tm{sup 3+} plays the role of deep electron trapping centers, capturing electrons either through the conduction band or directly from the excited Eu{sup 2+} ions. These two processes, in which two different sites of Tm{sup 3+} are involved, correspond to two traps with different depths. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  7. TM4SF1 Promotes Proliferation, Invasion, and Metastasis in Human Liver Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Kun; Fan, Xue-Gong; Qiu, Fu

    2016-01-01

    Transmembrane 4 superfamily member 1 (TM4SF1) is a member of tetraspanin family, which mediates signal transduction events regulating cell development, activation, growth and motility. Our previous studies showed that TM4SF1 is highly expressed in liver cancer. HepG2 cells were transfected with TM4SFl siRNA and TM4SF1-expressing plasmids and their biological functions were analyzed in vitro and in vivo. HepG2 cells overexpressing TM4SF1 showed reduced apoptosis and increased cell migration in vitro and enhanced tumor growth and metastasis in vivo, whereas siRNA-mediated silencing of TM4SF1 had the opposite effect. TM4SF1 exerts its effect by regulating a few apoptosis- and migration-related genes including caspase-3, caspase-9, MMP-2, MMP-9 and VEGF. These results indicate that TM4SF1 is associated with liver tumor growth and progression, suggesting that TM4SF1 may be a potential target for treatment of liver cancer in future. PMID:27153056

  8. Affinity of 167Tm-citrate for tumor and liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Ando, A; Ando, I; Sakamoto, K; Hiraki, T; Hisada, K; Takeshita, M

    1983-01-01

    Strong affinity of 167Tm-citrate for tumor tissue was reconfirmed by using Ehrlich tumor. Excellent tumor imaging was obtained with 167Tm-citrate because of its strong tumor affinity and because of the suitable physical characteristics of 167Tm. A large number of 167Tm had accumulated in the connective tissue which contained inflammatory tissue, quite large amounts were found in areas containing viable and necrotic tumor tissue, and small amounts were present in viable tumor tissue. 167Tm was not seen in necrotic tumor tissue. It was concluded that lysosomes did not play a major role in the tumor concentration of 167Tm, but played an important role in the liver concentration of this nuclide. In the case of hepatoma AH109A, it was presumed that lysosomes played a considerably important role in the tumor concentration of 167Tm, hepatoma AH109A possessing some residual features of the liver. 167Tm was bound to acid mucopolysaccharides and transposed by the acid mucopolysaccharides in the tumor tissues and liver. The acid mucopolysaccharides to which 167Tm were bound in tumor and liver, were heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate (or keratosulfate) and heparin (or keratosulfate). PMID:6228426

  9. Seasonal LAI in slash pine estimated with Landsat TM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Paul J.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Gholz, Henry L.

    1992-01-01

    The leaf area index (LAI, total area of leaves per unit area of ground) of most forest canopies varies throughout the year, yet for logistical reasons it is difficult to estimate anything more detailed than a seasonal maximum LAI. To determine if remotely sensed data can be used to estimate LAI seasonally, field measurements of LAI were compared to normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values derived using Lnandsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data, for 16 fertilized and control slash pine plots on 3 dates. Linear relationships existed between NDVI and LAI with R (sup 2) values of 0.35, 0.75, and 0.86 for February 1988, September 1988, and March, 1989, respectively. This is the first reported study in which NDVI is related to forest LAI recorded during the month of sensor overpass. Predictive relationships based on data from eight of the plots were used to estimate the LAI of the other eight plots with a root-mean-square error of 0.74 LAI, which is 15.6 percent of the mean LAI. This demonstrates the potential use of Landsat TM data for studying seasonal dynamics in forest canopies.

  10. F-200(TM): The new solution for fire protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Alfred J.; Walter, Gerald J.

    1995-01-01

    For more than two decades, halon 1301 has been protecting personnel and valuable aircraft and aerospace equipment from the hazards of fire. Only halon 1301 offered the advantages of being clean, odorless, colorless, electrically non-conductive and safe for occupied areas. However, concerns about the depletion of stratospheric ozone and the resulting Montreal Protocol mandated the production phase-out of halon 1301 on December 31, 1993. Prior to this phase-out, Great Lakes Chemical Corporation, the world's leading manufacturer of halon, directed substantial research efforts toward the rapid development of a safe, clean, and effective halon replacement. Some of the criteria for the development of a clean agent included: that it be an effective fire extinguisher; that it be safe for personnel; that it be safe for the environment; that it be safe for valuable assets; that it be cost effective; and that it be able to withstand the rigors of independent approvals. As the result of this research, Great Lakes developed FM-200(TM) is 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 3-hepta-fluoropropane. This paper discusses the physical properties of FM-200(TM) and its efficiency as an extinguishant.

  11. Seasonal LAI in slash pine estimated with LANDSAT TM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Paul J.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Gholz, Henry L.

    1990-01-01

    The leaf area index (LAI, total area of leaves per unit area of ground) of most forest canopies varies throughout the year, yet for logistical reasons it is difficult to estimate anything more detailed than a seasonal maximum LAI. To determine if remotely sensed data can be used to estimate LAI seasonally, field measurements of LAI were compared to normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values derived using LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data, for 16 fertilized and control slash pine plots on 3 dates. Linear relationships existed between NDVI and LAI with R(sup 2) values of 0.35, 0.75, and 0.86 for February 1988, September 1988, and March, 1989, respectively. This is the first reported study in which NDVI is related to forest LAI recorded during the month of sensor overpass. Predictive relationships based on data from eight of the plots were used to estimate the LAI of the other eight plots with a root-mean-square error of 0.74 LAI, which is 15.6 percent of the mean LAI. This demonstrates the potential use of LANDSAT TM data for studying seasonal dynamics in forest canopies.

  12. Ceramic bracket debonding with Tm:fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirkan, İrem; Sarp, Ayşe Sena Kabaş; Gülsoy, Murat

    2016-06-01

    Lasers have the potential for reducing the required debonding force and can prevent the mechanical damage given to the enamel surface as a result of conventional debonding procedure. However, excessive thermal effects limit the use of lasers for debonding purposes. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal parameters of 1940-nm Tm:fiber laser for debonding ceramic brackets. Pulling force and intrapulpal temperature measurements were done during laser irradiation simultaneously. A laser beam was delivered in two different modes: scanning the fiber tip on the bracket surface with a Z shape movement or direct application of the fiber tip at one point in the center of the bracket. Results showed that debonding force could be decreased significantly compared to the control samples, in which brackets were debonded by only mechanical force. Intrapulpal temperature was kept equal or under the 5.5°C threshold value of probable thermal damage to pulp. Scanning was found to have no extra contribution to the process. It was concluded that using 1940-nm Tm:fiber laser would facilitate the debonding of ceramic brackets and can be proposed as a promising debonding tool with all the advantageous aspects of fiber lasers.

  13. Modeling a Hypothetical {sup 170}Tm Source for Brachytherapy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Enger, Shirin A.; D'Amours, Michel; Beaulieu, Luc

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To perform absorbed dose calculations based on Monte Carlo simulations for a hypothetical {sup 170}Tm source and to investigate the influence of encapsulating material on the energy spectrum of the emitted electrons and photons. Methods: GEANT4 Monte Carlo code version 9.2 patch 2 was used to simulate the decay process of {sup 170}Tm and to calculate the absorbed dose distribution using the GEANT4 Penelope physics models. A hypothetical {sup 170}Tm source based on the Flexisource brachytherapy design with the active core set as a pure thulium cylinder (length 3.5 mm and diameter 0.6 mm) and different cylindrical source encapsulations (length 5 mm and thickness 0.125 mm) constructed of titanium, stainless-steel, gold, or platinum were simulated. The radial dose function for the line source approximation was calculated following the TG-43U1 formalism for the stainless-steel encapsulation. Results: For the titanium and stainless-steel encapsulation, 94% of the total bremsstrahlung is produced inside the core, 4.8 and 5.5% in titanium and stainless-steel capsules, respectively, and less than 1% in water. For the gold capsule, 85% is produced inside the core, 14.2% inside the gold capsule, and a negligible amount (<1%) in water. Platinum encapsulation resulted in bremsstrahlung effects similar to those with the gold encapsulation. The range of the beta particles decreases by 1.1 mm with the stainless-steel encapsulation compared to the bare source but the tissue will still receive dose from the beta particles several millimeters from the source capsule. The gold and platinum capsules not only absorb most of the electrons but also attenuate low energy photons. The mean energy of the photons escaping the core and the stainless-steel capsule is 113 keV while for the gold and platinum the mean energy is 160 keV and 165 keV, respectively. Conclusions: A {sup 170}Tm source is primarily a bremsstrahlung source, with the majority of bremsstrahlung photons being

  14. Effects of Aerospace Contaminants on EPIKOTE(TM) 862 / EPIKURE(TM)-W Filament Winding Resin System: An Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffet, Mitchell Lee

    This thesis presents the findings of extensive experiments to determine the effects of various common aerospace chemicals on EPIKOTE(TM) 862 (resin) and EPIKURE(TM) W (curing agent), a resin system utilized in filament wound carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CRP) structures. Test specimens of the neat resin system were fabricated and exposed for up to 6 months at room temperature to 11 fluids representing typical aerospace chemicals found on the flight line, and to 74°C tap water. Post exposure the samples were tested in torsion using a rheometer, which performed strain sweeps and frequency sweeps on all the samples. In addition, a subset of the samples received a temperatures sweep. The rheology test parameters represented the nominal stress levels CRP structures would expect to see in operation. In addition to the rheological tests, dimensional and mass measurements were made of the samples both pre and post exposure to study the physical changes due to the chemical interactions. Based on the results, a common detergent, MEK on structures manufactured with the 862W resin system should be prevented or severely limited. It had a significant impact on the performance of the resin system within 3 months, with no visible indications of the degradation. The resins system had good chemical resistance to all the other chemicals used in this study including hot water.

  15. Thermoelectric Properties of Pseudogap Ti10Ru19B8 and Ti9TM2Ru18B8 (TM: Cr-Cu) Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagiwa, Y.; Yoshida, T.; Yanagihara, D.; Kimura, K.

    2015-06-01

    The thermoelectric properties of ternary Ti10Ru19B8 and quaternary Ti9TM2Ru18B8 (TM: Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) compounds were investigated in the temperature range from 373 K to 973 K. They form pseudogaps in the electronic densities of states near the Fermi level, E F, which is suitable for thermoelectric materials. We synthesized crack-free pellet samples using arc-melting followed by spark plasma sintering. A maximum dimensionless figure of merit zT max was 0.09 at 973 K for Ti10Ru19B8 whereas a large power factor of 1.4 mW/m K2 was obtained at that temperature. The phonon thermal conductivity decreased through TM substitutions; however, the power factor also decreased due to an additional electronic density of states originated from TM d-states around E F; that is, excitations of both holes and electrons.

  16. Results of a Telephone Survey of Television Station Managers Concerning the NASA SCI Files(TM) and NASA CONNECT(TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Perry, Jeannine

    2004-01-01

    A telephone survey of television station managers concerning 2 instructional television programs, the NASA SCI Files(TM) and NASA CONNECT(TM), offered by the NASA Langley Center for Distance Learning (CDL) was conducted. Using a 4-point scale, with 4 being very satisfied, survey participants reported that they were either very satisfied (77.1 percent) or satisfied (19.9 percent) with the overall (educational and technical) quality of the NASA SCI Files(TM). Using a 4-point scale, with 4 being very satisfied, survey participants reported that they were either very satisfied (77.9 percent) or satisfied (19.1 percent) with the overall (educational and technical) quality of NASA CONNECT(TM) .

  17. Blue and white light emission in Tm3+ and Tm3+/Dy3+ doped zinc phosphate glasses upon UV light excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza-Rocha, A. N.; Speghini, A.; Lozada-Morales, R.; Caldiño, U.

    2016-08-01

    A spectroscopic study based on photoluminescence spectra and decay time profiles in Tm3+ and Tm3+/Dy3+ doped Zn(PO3)2 glasses is reported. The Tm3+ doped Zn(PO3)2 glass, upon 357 nm excitation, exhibits blue emission with CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, x = 0.157 and y = 0.030, and color purity of about 96%. Under excitations at 348, 352 and 363 nm, which match with the emissions of AlGaN and GaN based LEDs, the Tm3+/Dy3+ co-doped Zn(PO3)2 glass displays natural white, bluish white and cool white overall emissions, with correlated color temperature values of 4523, 10700 and 7788 K, respectively, depending strongly on the excitation wavelength. The shortening of the Dy3+ emission decay time in presence of Tm3+ suggests that Dy3+→Tm3+ non-radiative energy transfer occurs. By using the Inokuti-Hirayama model, it is inferred that an electric quadrupole-quadrupole interaction might be the dominant mechanism involved in the energy transfer. The efficiency and probability of this energy transfer are 0.12 and 126.70 s-1, respectively.

  18. Tm-doped TiO2 and Tm2Ti2O7 pyrochlore nanoparticles: enhancing the photocatalytic activity of rutile with a pyrochlore phase

    PubMed Central

    De los Santos, Desiré M; Aguilar, Teresa; Sánchez-Coronilla, Antonio; Fernández-Lorenzo, Concha; Alcántara, Rodrigo; Piñero, Jose Carlos; Blanco, Ginesa; Martín-Calleja, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tm-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using a water-controlled hydrolysis reaction. Analysis was performed in order to determine the influence of the dopant concentration and annealing temperature on the phase, crystallinity, and electronic and optical properties of the resulting material. Various characterization techniques were utilized such as X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV–vis spectroscopy. For the samples annealed at 773 and 973 K, anatase phase TiO2 was obtained, predominantly internally doped with Tm3+. ICP–AES showed that a doping concentration of up to 5.8 atom % was obtained without reducing the crystallinity of the samples. The presence of Tm3+ was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV–vis spectroscopy: the incorporation of Tm3+ was confirmed by the generation of new absorption bands that could be assigned to Tm3+ transitions. Furthermore, when the samples were annealed at 1173 K, a pyrochlore phase (Tm2Ti2O7) mixed with TiO2 was obtained with a predominant rutile phase. The photodegradation of methylene blue showed that this pyrochlore phase enhanced the photocatalytic activity of the rutile phase. PMID:25821701

  19. 77 FR 69548 - Price for the 2012 Limited Edition Silver Proof SetTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Price for the 2012 Limited Edition Silver Proof Set TM AGENCY: United States Mint... for the 2012 Limited Edition Silver Proof Set TM . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: B.B....

  20. 78 FR 57149 - Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency, Lock+TM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency, Lock+ TM Hydro Friends Fund III... Agency (Western Minnesota) and Lock+ TM Hydro Friends Fund III, LLC (Hydro Friends) filed...

  1. iPad[TM]: Enhancing Learning & Communication for Students with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Brian; Besko-Maughan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The iPad[TM] is a revolutionary technology for use in our 21st century classrooms. It is profoundly changing both the manner in which teachers present instructional content, as well as the way students process and learn new information. The multi-sensory design of the iPad[TM] makes it an ideal tool for teaching students with special needs. This…

  2. THE RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF WHEAT PROTEIN ISOLATE PROLITE TM 200 SUSPENSIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Linear and non-linear rheological properties of wheat protein isolate PROLITE TM 200 suspensions were investigated as a function of concentration and pH. Linear dynamic viscoelastic properties for PROLITE TM 200 were strongly dependent on concentration and pH. The higher the concentration, the str...

  3. [Effects of trimebutine maleate (TM-906) on the spontaneous contraction of the isolated guinea pig stomach].

    PubMed

    Takenaga, H; Magaribuchi, T; Tamaki, H

    1982-08-01

    Effects of trimebutine maleate (TM-906) on the spontaneous contraction were investigated in the isolated circular smooth muscle of the antrum region of the guinea pig stomach. TM-906 dose-dependently reduced the amplitude of the regular spontaneous contraction without any marked change in its frequency and basal tension. This effect of TM-906 was also observed in the presence of phentolamine, propranolol, atropine, and tetrodotoxin. However, the inhibitory effect of TM-906 was overcome by increasing the extracellular concentration of CaCl2. On the other hand, in preparations which exhibited irregular spontaneous contraction, TM-906 regularized it, and spontaneous contraction with regular frequency and amplitude was elicited. In addition, this regularizing effect of TM-906 was also observed in the presence of atropine and tetrodotoxin. It was concluded that TM-906 has dual effects on the spontaneous contraction, reducing the amplitude of regular contraction and regularizing the irregular contraction. These effects of TM-906 may be attributed to the direct action on the smooth muscle. PMID:7173739

  4. Effects of trimebutine maleate (TM-906) on the smooth muscles of isolated guinea pig gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Takenaga, H; Magaribuchi, T; Tamaki, H

    1984-08-01

    Effects of trimebutine maleate (TM-906) on the smooth muscles of isolated guinea pig gallbladder were investigated. TM-906 inhibited the contractile responses to cholinergic nerve stimulation (5 Hz) and to acetylcholine (3 X 10(-8) g/ml) to the same extent, both of which produced much the same amplitude of contraction. TM-906 noncompetitively antagonized the contractile response to methacholine, and it caused a parallel shift of dose-response curves for the contractile response to CaCl2 to higher concentrations. Moreover, TM-906 inhibited the contractile response to 50 mM KCl in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, TM-906 itself evoked a slight contractile response in a dose-dependent manner. The contractile response induced by TM-906 was prevented by exposure to Ca++-free solution, but not by tetrodotoxin or atropine. From these results, it was suggested that TM-906 inhibited the contractile responses to cholinergic nerve stimulation, acetylcholine, methacholine and 50 mM KCl by reducing the influx of calcium ion across the cell membrane, while it was assumed that TM-906 itself evoked a slight contractile response by increasing in some way the concentration of the intracellular free calcium ion available for the contractile systems. PMID:6503039

  5. Preliminary Study of Information Extraction of LANDSAT TM Data for a Suburban/regional Test Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    A substantial amount of spectral information is available from TM (as compared to MSS) data for a 14.25 square km area between Beltsville and Laurel, Maryland. Large buildings and street patterns were resolved in the TM imagery. While there was added information content in TM data for discriminating surburban/regional land cover, characteristics of MSS can improve land cover discrimination over TM when conventional classification procedures are used on digital data. The improved qualitization of TM is likely valuable in situations where there are spectral similarities between classes. The spatial resolution in TM decreased land cover discrimination as a result of increased within class variability. For many general digital evaluations, inclusion of four bands representing the four spectral regions can provide much useful land cover discrimination. Inclusion of TM 6 indicates an improvement in spectral class discrimination. Of primary spectral importance is the discrimination between water, vegetative surfaces, and impervious surfaces due to differences in thermal properties. Results from the principle component transformed data clearly indicates additional information content in TM over MSS.

  6. Using "Moodle[TM]" (Open Source Software) with Grades 3-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menges, Beth

    2009-01-01

    "Moodle[TM]," an acronym for Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment, is an open source software package that teachers can use to produce Internet-based courses and Web sites. "Open source" basically means that it is copyrighted, but it can be used at no cost as long as the user agrees to provide the source to others. "Moodle[TM]" can…

  7. Does LibQUAL+[TM] Account for Student Loyalty to a University College Library?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgesen, Oyvind; Nesset, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to find out whether LibQUAL+[TM]can account for student loyalty to the library of an institution of higher education. LibQUAL+[TM] is a marketing tool that is used to measure perceived service quality of libraries, and the present analysis aims at validating this service quality instrument within a more…

  8. Upconversion properties of Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+ codoped fluorophosphate glasses.

    PubMed

    Liao, Meisong; Hu, Lili; Fang, Yongzheng; Zhang, Junjie; Sun, Hongtao; Xu, Shiqing; Zhang, Liyan

    2007-11-01

    Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+ codoped fluorophosphate glasses emitting blue, green and red upconversion luminescence at 970 nm laser diode excitation were studied. It was shown that Tm3+ behaves as the sensitizer to Er3+ for the green upconversion luminescence through the energy transfer process: Tm3+:3H4+Er3+:4I 15/2-->Er3+:4I 9/2+Tm3+:3H6, and for the red upconversion luminescence through the energy transfer process: Tm3+:3F4+Er3+:4I 11/2-->Tm3+:3H6+Er3+:4F 9/2. Moreover, Er3+ acts as quenching center for the blue upconversion luminescence of Tm3+. The sensitization of Tm3+ to Er3+ depends on the concentration of Yb3+. The intensity of blue, green and red emissions can be changed by adjusting the concentrations of the three kinds of rare earth ions. This research may provide useful information for the development of high color and spatial resolution devices and white light simulation. PMID:17329153

  9. Comparison of spectroscopic properties of Tm and Ho in YAG and YLF crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armagan, G.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Inge, A. T.; Di Bartolo, B.

    1991-01-01

    The paper compares the cross-relaxation, energy transfer and loss processes in Tm- and Ho-doped YAG and YLF as a function of temperature, Tm concentration, and excitation power. Significant differences in the behavior of Tm and Tm,Ho in YAG and YLF crystals were found. The cross-relaxation rates of Tm(6 pct) are faster in YLF (about 5 microsec) than YAG (about 10 microsec). The energy transfer rates between Tm and Ho are faster in YLF than YAG. The time it takes for the maximum intensity of 1.7-micron emission to drop 10 percent is 25 microsec for YLF:Tm(6 pct),Ho(0.6 pct) and 65 microsec YAG:Tm(6 pct),Ho(0.5 pct). The losses occurring with increasing pump power for 2.1-micron emission of the above samples are 30 percent less in YLF than YAG. These qualitative differences point to YLF as a valuable 2-micron laser host material.

  10. The SCERTS[TM] Model: A Comprehensive Educational Approach for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prizant, Barry M.; Wetherby, Amy M.; Rubin, Emily; Laurent, Amy C.; Rydell, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    A groundbreaking synthesis of developmental, relationship-based, and skill-based approaches, The SCERTS[TM] Model provides a framework for improving communication and social-emotional abilities in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their families. Developed by internationally recognized experts, SCERTS[TM] supports developmental…

  11. School Security Solutions: Bringing Corporate Safety to Schools and Colleges with EasyLobbyTM Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendzick, Richard E.; Downs, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes software for electronic visitor management (EVM) called EasyLobbyTM, currently in use in thousands of federal and corporate installations throughout the world and its application for school and campus environments. Explains EasyLobbyTM's use to replace visitor logs, capture and store visitor data electronically, and provide badges that…

  12. Seroepidemiology of TmPV1 infection in captive and wild Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dona, Maria Gabriella; Rehtanz, Manuela; Adimey, Nicole M.; Bossart, Gregory D.; Jenson, Alfred B.; Bonde, Robert K.; Ghim, Shin-je

    2011-01-01

    In 1997, cutaneous papillomatosis caused by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris [Tm]) papillomavirus 1 (TmPV1) was detected in seven captive manatees at the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, Florida, USA, and, subsequently, in two wild manatees from the adjacent Homosassa River. Since then, papillomatosis has been reported in captive manatees housed in other locations, but not in wild animals. To determine TmPV1 antibody prevalence in captive and wild manatees sampled at various locations throughout Florida coastal regions, virus-like particles, composed of the L1 capsid protein of TmPV1, were generated with a baculovirus expression system and used to measure anti-TmPV1 antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serologic analysis of 156 manatees revealed a TmPV1 antibody prevalence of 26.3%, with no significant difference between captive (n=39) and wild (n=117) manatees (28.2% and 25.6%, respectively). No antibody-positive wild animal showed PV-induced cutaneous lesions, whereas papillomatosis was observed in 72.7% of antibody-positive captive manatees. Our data indicate that Florida manatees living in the wild are naturally infected by TmPV1 but rarely show TmPV1-induced papillomatosis. Hence, it appears that the wild population would not be harmed in a case of contact with captive animals without visible lesions and productive infections, which could be thus released into the wild.

  13. Seroepidemiology of TmPV1 infection in captive and wild Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    PubMed

    Donà, Maria Gabriella; Rehtanz, Manuela; Adimey, Nicole M; Bossart, Gregory D; Jenson, Alfred B; Bonde, Robert K; Ghim, Shin-je

    2011-07-01

    In 1997, cutaneous papillomatosis caused by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris [Tm]) papillomavirus 1 (TmPV1) was detected in seven captive manatees at the Homosassa Springs Wildlife State Park, Florida, USA, and, subsequently, in two wild manatees from the adjacent Homosassa River. Since then, papillomatosis has been reported in captive manatees housed in other locations, but not in wild animals. To determine TmPV1 antibody prevalence in captive and wild manatees sampled at various locations throughout Florida coastal regions, virus-like particles, composed of the L1 capsid protein of TmPV1, were generated with a baculovirus expression system and used to measure anti-TmPV1 antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serologic analysis of 156 manatees revealed a TmPV1 antibody prevalence of 26.3%, with no significant difference between captive (n=39) and wild (n=117) manatees (28.2% and 25.6%, respectively). No antibody-positive wild animal showed PV-induced cutaneous lesions, whereas papillomatosis was observed in 72.7% of antibody-positive captive manatees. Our data indicate that Florida manatees living in the wild are naturally infected by TmPV1 but rarely show TmPV1-induced papillomatosis. Hence, it appears that the wild population would not be harmed in a case of contact with captive animals without visible lesions and productive infections, which could be thus released into the wild. PMID:21719832

  14. O*NET[TM] Career Exploration Tools. Version 3.0.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Developed by the U.S. Department of Labor's Occupational Information Network (O*NET) team, the O*NET[TM] Career Exploration Tools (Version 3.0) consist of three main parts: (1) the Interest Profiler; (2) the Work Importance Locator; and (3) the O*NET[TM] Occupations Combined List. The Interest Profiler is a self-assessment career exploration tool…

  15. Genotypic effects of the Texel Muscling QTL (TM-QTL) on meat quality in purebred Texel lambs.

    PubMed

    Lambe, N R; Richardson, R I; Macfarlane, J M; Nevison, I; Haresign, W; Matika, O; Bünger, L

    2011-10-01

    Texel Muscling QTL (TM-QTL) increases loin muscling in lambs inheriting it from their sire only. This study investigated TM-QTL effects on meat quality in 209 Texel lambs that were CT-scanned then slaughtered at 20weeks (carcasses aged for ~1week). Loin meat quality traits included: CT-measured muscle density (predicting intramuscular fat); mechanical tenderness using Volodkevich-type jaws or MIRINZ tenderometer; intramuscular fat; sensory eating quality (sub-sample of 40 lambs). Volodkevich tenderness was also measured in the leg (Vastis lateralis). TM-QTL genotypes were determined, giving 40 non-carriers (+/+), 70 heterozygotes-53 inheriting TM-QTL from the sire (TM/+) and 17 from the dam (+/TM), 34 homozygote TM-QTL lambs (TM/TM) and 65 uncertain. Multiple regression identified no genotype effects on meat quality. For MIRINZ-measured loin tenderness only, contrasts revealed a significant additive effect of TM-QTL (1.27kgF difference between homozygotes). However, the taste panel identified no significant differences between +/+ and TM/TM lambs. Results show little evidence of TM-QTL affecting meat quality. PMID:21592676

  16. Solar-pumped Er,Tm,Ho:YAG laser

    SciTech Connect

    Benmair, R.M.J.; Kagan, J.; Kalisky, Y.; Noter, Y.; Oron, M.; Shimony, Y.; Yogev, A. )

    1990-01-01

    Direct solar illumination was used to pump a 5-mm-diameter 62-mm exposed-length rod of Er,Tm,Ho:YAG to achieve a quasi-cw lasing of the Ho ion at an average power of 12 W. The solar radiation was chopped at a 20% duty cycle to avoid overloading of the cooling system. The peak power output was more than 65 W during the chopper's open times. The slope efficiency is 3.8%, and the threshold input energy is approximately 100 W. The laser was operated for long times (up to hours) while maintaining its performance. This is, to our knowledge, the first directly solar-pumped laser operating at 77 K.

  17. Landsat-5 TM reflective-band absolute radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Helder, D.L.; Markham, B.L.; Dewald, J.D.; Kaita, E.; Thome, K.J.; Micijevic, E.; Ruggles, T.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provides the longest running continuous dataset of moderate spatial resolution remote sensing imagery, dating back to its launch in March 1984. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for this imagery used the instrument's response to the Internal Calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset of each detector. Due to observed degradations in the IC, a new procedure was implemented for U.S.-processed data in May 2003. This new calibration procedure is based on a lifetime radiometric calibration model for the instrument's reflective bands (1-5 and 7) and is derived, in part, from the IC response without the related degradation effects and is tied to the cross calibration with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus. Reflective-band absolute radiometric accuracy of the instrument tends to be on the order of 7% to 10%, based on a variety of calibration methods.

  18. Adiabatic passage with spin locking in Tm3+:YAG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Winter, M. F.; Tongning, R. C.; Lauro, R.; Louchet-Chauvet, A.; Chanelière, T.; Le Gouët, J.-L.

    2012-08-01

    In low-concentration Tm3+:YAG, we observe efficient adiabatic rapid passage (ARP) of thulium nuclear spin over flipping times much longer than T2. Efficient ARP with long flipping time has been observed in monoatomic solids for decades and has been analyzed in terms of spin temperature and of the thermodynamic equilibrium of a coupled spin ensemble. In low-concentration impurity-doped crystals the spin temperature concept may be questioned. A single spin model should be preferred since the impurity ions are weakly coupled together but interact with the numerous off-resonant matrix ions that originate the spin-spin relaxation. The experiment takes place in the context of quantum information investigation, involving impurity-doped crystals, spin hyperpolarization by optical pumping, and optical detection of the spin evolution.

  19. De novo gene synthesis design using TmPrime software.

    PubMed

    Li, Mo-Huang; Bode, Marcus; Huang, Mo Chao; Cheong, Wai Chye; Lim, Li Shi

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents TmPrime, a computer program to design oligonucleotide for both ligase chain reaction (LCR)- and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based de novo gene synthesis. The program divides a long input DNA sequence based on user-specified melting temperatures and assembly conditions, and dynamically optimizes the length of oligonucleotides to achieve homologous melting temperatures. The output reports the melting temperatures, oligonucleotide sequences, and potential formation of secondary structures in a PDF file, which will be sent to the user via e-mail. The program also provides functions on sequence pooling to separate long genes into smaller pieces for multipool assembly and codon optimization for expression based on the highest organism-specific codon frequency. This software has been successfully used in the design and synthesis of various genes with total length >20 kbp. This program is freely available at http://prime.ibn.a-star.edu.sg. PMID:22328437

  20. Characterization of radiometric calibration of LANDSAT-4 TM reflective bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L.; Abrams, R. B.; Ball, D. L.; Leung, K. C.

    1984-01-01

    Prelaunch and postlaunch internal calibrator, image, and background data is to characterize the radiometric performance of the LANDSAT-4 TM and to recommend improved procedures for radiometric calibration. All but two channels (band 2, channel 4; band 5, channel 3) behave normally. Gain changes relative to a postlaunch reference for channels within a band vary within 0.5 percent as a group. Instrument gain for channels in the cold focal plane oscillates. Noise in background and image data ranges from 0.5 to 1.7 counts. Average differences in forward and reverse image data indicate a need for separate calibration processing of forward and reverse scans. Precision is improved by increasing the pulse integration width from 31 to 41 minor frames, depending on the band.

  1. Computerized instrumented residential audit (CIRA/sup TM/)

    SciTech Connect

    Sonderegger, R C; Garnier, J Y; Dixon, J D

    1982-03-01

    The introduction of microcomputers and the development of user-friendly programs make the task of computer energy consumption in buildings manageable. One such program developed is the Computerized, Instrumented, Residential Audit (CIRA/sup TM/). CIRA is a collection of programs related to building energy analysis and designed for a wide variety of microcomputers. It couples the state-of-the-art in interactive features with the latest developments in simplified computer models of building energy analysis. Features that distinguish CIRA from other computer programs are friendliness, helpfulness, multiple choice, dynamic defaults, and goof-proofing. The computer accepts entries on such house components as walls, windows, doors; roof and subfloor; active and passive solar features; heating and cooling system; information on how the house is oriented and shielded; occupant behavior related to energy use; and prices for the various fuels used. Guides to CIRA inputs and outputs are given. (MCW)

  2. Leanergy(TM): how lean manufacturing can improve energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Riche, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency has become a competitive issue for industrial companies. The evolution of energy prices and regulation will make this issue even more important in the future. For several years, the energy-intensive chemical industry has been implementing corrective actions. Helped by the absorption of base load energy consumption by larger production volumes, specific energy consumption (KWh per production unit) has been significantly reduced in recent years. However, most plants have reached the end of their first action plan based on improving the utilities performance. The Leanergy(TM) method developed by the consultancy company Okavango-energy, is a structured approach based on lean manufacturing which widens the scope of saving sources to process and operations. Starting from the analysis of actual production requirements, Okavango is able to adjust consumption to minimum requirements and so remove any energy consumption that does not contribute to the added value creation. PMID:24388133

  3. Volume Bragg grating stabilized spectrally narrow Tm fiber laser.

    PubMed

    McComb, Timothy; Sudesh, Vikas; Richardson, Martin

    2008-04-15

    A Tm-doped large mode area (LMA) silica fiber laser has been locked to a stable wavelength of 2,053.9 nm using a volume Bragg grating (VBG). The measured spectral width of the laser output was <300 pm, limited by the spectrometer resolution. Although this laser had modest output (approximately 5W) and slope efficiency (41%), this new approach to spectrally limiting the output of LMA fiber lasers is inherently extendable to kilowatt powers, opening up several applications including high-power pulsed fiber lasers and spectral beam combining. Performance characteristics of the laser compared to one using a dielectric mirror as a high reflector are described, and the results imply low VBG losses. PMID:18414564

  4. Classification of forest growth stage using Landsat TM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Gerard, Patrick D.; Evans, David L.

    2005-09-01

    This study examined the utility of polytomous logistic regression in pixel classification of remotely sensed images by the growth stage of forests. For a population of grouped continuous categories, the assumption of normal distribution of independent variables, which is often required in multivariate classification methods, may not be appropriate. Two types of polytomous logistic regression procedures, multinomial and cumulative logistic regression, were used to classify Landsat TM data by growth stage (regeneration-immature, intermediate, and mature) of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forest in the east central Mississippi. Multinomial logistic regression is typically used for analysis of unordered categorical data. Cumulative logistic regression is one of the most commonly used methods of ordinal logistic regression which is generally preferred to analyze ordered categorical data, although, it imposes restrictions on the data. Three hundred sample points were located randomly throughout the study site and vectors of pixel values of four bands of Landsat TM data were used to predict growth stage at each sample location. The results were compared to that of parametric and nonparametric discriminant analysis, k-nearest neighbor method. Non-normal distribution of independent variables indicated a violation of the assumptions for parametric discriminant analysis. Classification with cumulative logistic regression using four bands was performed first. However, the assumption of the model was not met. So, the classification was also performed using only band 4 which appeared to meet the assumption. The error rate of cumulative logistic regression was 39.12% with all the bands and 37.70% with band 4 alone. Although error rate with cumulative logistic regression with band 4 alone resulted in the lowest error rate, the improvement over other methods was marginal. The error rate of k-nearest neighbor method varied from 38.68 to 48.06% depending on choice of the value of k.

  5. BOREAS TE-18, 30-m, Radiometrically Rectified Landsat TM Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-18 team used a radiometric rectification process to produce standardized DN values for a series of Landsat TM images of the BOREAS SSA and NSA in order to compare images that were collected under different atmospheric conditions. The images for each study area were referenced to an image that had very clear atmospheric qualities. The reference image for the SSA was collected on 02-Sep-1994, while the reference image for the NSA was collected on 21-Jun-1995. the 23 rectified images cover the period of 07-Jul-1985 to 18 Sep-1994 in the SSA and from 22-Jun-1984 to 09-Jun-1994 in the NSA. Each of the reference scenes had coincident atmospheric optical thickness measurements made by RSS-11. The radiometric rectification process is described in more detail by Hall et al. (199 1). The original Landsat TM data were received from CCRS for use in the BOREAS project. The data are stored in binary image-format files. Due to the nature of the radiometric rectification process and copyright issues, these full-resolution images may not be publicly distributed. However, a spatially degraded 60-m resolution version of the images is available on the BOREAS CD-ROM series. See Sections 15 and 16 for information about how to possibly acquire the full resolution data. Information about the full-resolution images is provided in an inventory listing on the CD-ROMs. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  6. The Space House TM : Space Technologies in Architectural Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gampe, F.; Raitt, D.

    2002-01-01

    The word "space" has always been associated with and had a profound impact upon architectural design. Until relatively recently, however, the term has been used in a different sense to that understood by the aerospace community - for them, space was less abstract, more concrete and used in the context of space flight and space exploration, rather than, say, an empty area or space requiring to be filled by furniture. However, the two senses of the word space have now converged to some extent. Interior designers and architects have been involved in designing the interior of Skylab, the structure of the International Space Station, and futuristic space hotels. Today, architects are designing, and builders are building, houses, offices and other structures which incorporate a plethora of new technologies, materials and production processes in an effort not only to introduce innovative and adventurous ideas but also in an attempt to address environmental and social issues. Foremost among these new technologies and materials being considered today are those that have been developed for and by the space industry. This paper examines some of these space technologies, such as energy efficient solar cells, durable plastics, air and water filtration techniques, which have been adapted to both provide power while reducing energy consumption, conserve resources and so on. Several of these technologies have now been employed by the European Space Agency to develop a Space House TM - the first of its kind, which will be deployed not so much on planets like Mars, but rather here on Earth. The Space House TM, which exhibits many innovative features such as high strength light-weight carbon composites, active noise-damped, (glass and plastic) windows, low-cost solar arrays and latent heat storage, air and water purification systems will be described.

  7. BOREAS TE-18, 60-m, Radiometrically Rectified Landsat TM Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-18 team used a radiometric rectification process to produce standardized DN values for a series of Landsat TM images of the BOREAS SSA and NSA in order to compare images that were collected under different atmospheric conditions. The images for each study area were referenced to an image that had very clear atmospheric qualities. The reference image for the SSA was collected on 02-Sep-1994, while the reference image for the NSA was collected on 2 1 Jun-1995. The 23 rectified images cover the period of 07-Jul-1985 to 18-Sep-1994 in the SSA and 22-Jun-1984 to 09-Jun-1994 in the NSA. Each of the reference scenes had coincident atmospheric optical thickness measurements made by RSS-11. The radiometric rectification process is described in more detail by Hall et al. (1991). The original Landsat TM data were received from CCRS for use in the BOREAS project. Due to the nature of the radiometric rectification process and copyright issues, the full-resolution (30-m) images may not be publicly distributed. However, this spatially degraded 60-m resolution version of the images may be openly distributed and is available on the BOREAS CD-ROM series. After the radiometric rectification processing, the original data were degraded to a 60-m pixel size from the original 30-m pixel size by averaging the data over a 2- by 2-pixel window. The data are stored in binary image-format files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  8. Electrochemical Preparation of Al-Li-Er-Tm Alloys by Co-reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yi; Zhang, Milin; Han, Wei; Li, Mei; Ye, Ke; Yang, Yusheng; Yan, Yongde; Zhang, Meng

    2013-12-01

    The electrochemical behavior of Al, Li, Er, and Tm was investigated on tungsten electrodes in LiCl-KCl-AlF3-ErCl3-TmCl3 melts. The results indicated that the co-reduction of Al, Li, Er, and Tm occurs at current densities more negative than -0.469 A cm-2 or applied potentials more negative than -2.31 V. The strengthen phases of Al3Er and Al3Tm were prepared by galvanostatic electrolysis and characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. ICP-AES analyses showed that the content of lithium, erbium, and thulium in Al-Li-Er-Tm alloys could be controlled by adjusting AlF3 concentration and electrochemical parameters.

  9. Upconversion energy transfer in Yb3+/Tm3+ doped tellurite glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żmojda, J.; Dorosz, D.; Kochanowicz, M.; Dorosz, J.

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents energy transfer in tellurite glass from the system TeO2 - GeO2 - PbO - PbF2- BaO - Nb2O5 - LaF3 doped with Yb3+/Tm3+ ions. Under the excitation of 976 nm laser a strong blue emission (477 nm) corresponding to the transition 1G4 --> 3H6 in thulium ions was observed. Analysing the influence of the content of Tm3+ ions on the level of luminescence obtained by the mechanism of upconversion it was established that the most effective energy transfer between Yb 3+--> Tm3+ ions took place in the matrix doped in the following proportion: 1 Yb3+:0.1 Tm3+ (%mol). Based on the non-resonant process of energy transfer between Yb3+ and Tm3+ ions the mechanism of upconversion was discussed.

  10. Integration of Landsat TM and SPOT HRG Images for Vegetation Change Detection in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Dengsheng; Batistella, Mateus; Moran, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    Traditional change detection approaches have been proven to be difficult in detecting vegetation changes in the moist tropical regions with multitemporal images. This paper explores the integration of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and SPOT High Resolution Geometric (HRG) instrument data for vegetation change detection in the Brazilian Amazon. A principal component analysis was used to integrate TM and HRG panchromatic data. Vegetation change/non-change was detected with the image differencing approach based on the TM and HRG fused image and the corresponding TM image. A rule-based approach was used to classify the TM and HRG multispectral images into thematic maps with three coarse land-cover classes: forest, non-forest vegetation, and non-vegetation lands. A hybrid approach combining image differencing and post-classification comparison was used to detect vegetation change trajectories. This research indicates promising vegetation change techniques, especially for vegetation gain and loss, even if very limited reference data are available. PMID:19789721

  11. Recoil Decay Tagging Study Of Transitional Proton Emitters 145,146,147Tm

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, A.P.; Woods, P.J.; Davinson, T.; Liu, Z.; Davids, C.N.; Seweryniak, D.; Carpenter, M.P.; Hammond, N.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Mukherjee, G.; Sinha, S.; Blank, B.; Freeman, S.J.; Hoteling, N.; Shergur, J.; Walters, W.B.; Scholey, C.; Sonzogni, A.A.; Woehr, A.

    2005-04-05

    Gamma rays from the transitional proton emitting nuclei 145,146,147Tm have been observed using the recoil-decay tagging technique. The ground state band of 147Tm was confirmed and extended and the unfavoured signature sequence was observed. A ground state rotational band with properties of a decoupled h11/2 band was observed in 145Tm. In addition coincidences between the proton fine structure line and the 2+{yields}0+ {gamma}-ray transition in 144Er were detected at the focal plane of the FMA. This is the first time that coincidences between proton radioactive decays and {gamma} rays have been seen. The particle decay of 146Tm has been measured with improved statistics and a rotational band similar to 147Tm has been observed.

  12. Sugar-induced endocytosis of plant 7TM-RGS proteins

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Nguyen; Urano, Daisuke; Srba, Miroslav; Fischer, Lukas; Jones, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Plant cells use sugars mainly as a source or store of energy and carbon skeletons for anabolic reactions and for osmotic regulation. The perception of sugars and their responses are rather complex including the heterotrimeric G protein pathway and a seven-transmembrane RGS molecule. Previously, we found that endocytosis of the 7TM-RGS leads to sustained activation of the G protein pathway in the genetic model Arabidopsis. Here we show that other plants possess similar endocytosis systems of the 7TM-RGS proteins. A phosphorylation site essential for the endocytosis is well conserved in land plant 7TM-RGS proteins. In addition, conifer and tobacco 7TM-RGS proteins are internalized in response to sugar. These results indicate a universal mechanism to activate G signaling by endocytosis in plant cells that have 7TM-RGS proteins. PMID:23154506

  13. Comparison of in-band pumped Tm:fiber and Ho:fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sincore, Alex; Shah, Lawrence; Smirnov, Vadim; Richardson, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Thulium and holmium have become the rare earth dopants of choice for generating 2 micron laser light in silica fiber. The majority of Tm:fiber lasers are pumped with high power diodes at 790nm and rely upon cross-relaxation processes to achieve optical-to-optical efficiencies of 55-65%. Tm:fiber lasers can also be pumped at <1900nm by another Tm:fiber laser to minimize quantum defect, reaching efficiencies >90%. Ho:fiber lasers are similarly pumped by Tm:fiber lasers at 1900-1950nm, with <70% typical efficiency. In this work, Tm:fiber and Ho:fiber lasers are in-band pumped using the same experimental setup to directly compare their performance as 2 micron sources.

  14. 78 FR 26116 - Pricing for the 2013 America the Beautiful Quarter Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated CoinsTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... Coins TM AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United... Uncirculated Coins TM . The coins will be offered for sale at a price of $179.95. FOR FURTHER...

  15. 78 FR 70558 - Review of Proposed Changes with ICD-10-CM/PCS; Conversion of Quality IndicatorsTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ...; Conversion of Quality Indicators TM (QIs) AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS... (AHRQ) seeks comments on the proposed conversion of the AHRQ Quality Indicators TM to...

  16. 75 FR 5071 - Mississippi L&D 21, LLC, Mississippi River No. 21 Hydropower Company Lock + TM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... + \\TM\\ Hydro Friends Fund XXXII, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Applications Accepted for Filing and... proposed Mississippi River No. 21 Hydropower Project No. 13637. On January 8, 2010, Lock + TM Hydro...

  17. 77 FR 31069 - Pricing for the 2012 America the Beautiful Quarters Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated CoinsTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Coins TM AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United... Uncirculated Coins TM . The coins will be offered for sale at a price of $204.95. FOR FURTHER...

  18. Brain temperature by Biosensor Imaging of Redundant Deviation in Shifts (BIRDS): Comparison between TmDOTP5− and TmDOTMA−

    PubMed Central

    Coman, Daniel; Trubel, Hubert K.; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2009-01-01

    Chemical shifts of complexes between paramagnetic lanthanide ions and macrocyclic chelates are sensitive to physiological variations (of temperature and/or pH). Here we demonstrate utility of a complex between thulium ion (Tm3+) and the macrocyclic chelate 1,4,7,10-tetramethyl 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclodoecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetate (or DOTMA4−) for absolute temperature mapping in rat brain. Feasibility of TmDOTMA− is compared with that of another Tm3+-containing biosensor which is based on the macrocyclic chelate 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetrakis(methylene phosphonate) (or DOTP8−). In general, the in vitro and in vivo results suggest that Biosensor Imaging of Redundant Deviation in Shifts (BIRDS) which originate from these agents (but exclude water) can provide temperature maps with good accuracy. While TmDOTP5− emanates three major distinct proton resonances which are differentially sensitive to temperature and pH, TmDOTMA− has a dominant pH-insensitive proton resonance from a −CH3 group to allow higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) temperature assessment. Temperature (and pH) sensitivities of these resonances are practically identical at low (4.0T) and high (11.7T) magnetic fields and at nominal repetition times only marginal SNR loss is expected at the lower field. Since these resonances have extremely short relaxation times, high-speed chemical shift imaging (CSI) is needed to detect them. Repeated in vivo CSI scans with BIRDS demonstrate excellent measurement stability. Overall, results with TmDOTP5− and TmDOTMA− suggest that BIRDS can be reliably applied, either at low or high magnetic fields, for functional studies in rodents. PMID:19957287

  19. 76 FR 69281 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Over The River TM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Over The River \\TM... construction, display, and removal of the proposed Over The River \\TM\\ Art Project (OTR). The ROD is effective... Jeanne-Claude, proposes to install a work of art, titled Over The River \\TM\\, on Federal, state...

  20. 76 FR 21802 - Notice Announcing the Price of the 2010 America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated CoinsTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Uncirculated CoinsTM ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2010 America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins TM . In accordance with 31 U.S.C. 5112(u) & 9701(b), the United States Mint 2010 America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins TM...

  1. 76 FR 15047 - Pricing for 2010 United States Mint America the Beautiful Quarters Silver Proof SetTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... United States Mint Pricing for 2010 United States Mint America the Beautiful Quarters Silver Proof Set\\TM\\, etc. ACTION: Pricing for 2010 United States Mint America the Beautiful Quarters Silver Proof Set TM ; 2010 United States Mint Silver Proof Set TM ; 2011 United States Mint America the Beautiful...

  2. 78 FR 44140 - Intent To Request Approval From OMB of One New Public Collection of Information: TSA PreTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... Collection of Information: TSA Pre TM Trusted Traveler Program AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration... Pre TM Trusted Traveler Program. DATES: Send your comments by September 23, 2013. ADDRESSES: Comments... Administration (TSA) is implementing the TSA Pre TM Trusted Traveler Program pursuant to its authority...

  3. Effects of trimebutine maleate (TM-906) on the spontaneous contraction of isolated guinea pig colon.

    PubMed

    Takenaga, H; Magaribuchi, T; Tamaki, H

    1984-02-01

    Effects of trimebutine maleate (TM-906) on the spontaneous contraction of isolated guinea pig colon were investigated. TM-906 in the concentrations of 10(-6) g/ml and 10(-5) g/ml increased the tone without affecting the amplitude of the spontaneous contraction in the preparations with low tone, whereas it decreased the tone and the amplitude of the spontaneous contraction in the preparations with high tone. At the higher concentration (10(-4) g/ml). TM-906 decreased the tone and finally abolished the spontaneous contraction in any preparation. The increase in tone induced by TM-906 was prevented by diltiazem and exposure to Ca++-free solution, but not by tetrodotoxin, atropine, phentolamine or propranolol, and depended on the extracellular concentration of CaCl2. On the other hand, the decrease in tone and amplitude of the spontaneous contraction produced by TM-906 were not prevented by tetrodotoxin, phentolamine or propranolol. TM-906 further increased the tone increased by 10 mM KCl, while it decreased the tone increased by 30 mM KCl. From results described above, it is suggested that TM-906 possesses both a relaxing effect and an excitatory effect which seem to be due to its direct action on the smooth muscle. PMID:6748369

  4. Possible undercompensation effect in the Kondo insulator (Yb,Tm)B12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, P. A.; Nemkovski, K. S.; Mignot, J.-M.; Clementyev, E. S.; Ivanov, A. S.; Rols, S.; Bewley, R. I.; Filipov, V. B.; Shitsevalova, N. Yu.

    2014-03-01

    The effects of Tm substitution on the dynamical magnetic response of Yb1-xTmxB12 (x=0, 0.08, 0.15, and 0.75) and Lu0.92Tm0.08B12 compounds have been studied using time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering. Major changes were observed in the spectral structure and temperature evolution of the Yb contribution to the inelastic response for a rather low content of magnetic Tm ions. A sizable influence of the RB12 host (YbB12, as compared to LuB12 or pure TmB12) on the crystal-field splitting of the Tm3+ ion is also reported. The results point to a specific effect of impurities carrying a magnetic moment (Tm, as compared to Lu or Zr) in a Kondo insulator, which is thought to reflect the "undercompensation" of Yb magnetic moments, originally Kondo screened in pure YbB12. A parallel is made with the strong effect of Tm substitution on the temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient in Yb1-xTmxB12, which was reported previously.

  5. Preliminary Comparisons of the Information Content and Utility of TM Versus MSS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, B. L.

    1984-01-01

    Comparisons were made between subscenes from the first TM scene acquired of the Washington, D.C. area and a MSS scene acquired approximately one year earlier. Three types of analyses were conducted to compare TM and MSS data: a water body analysis, a principal components analysis and a spectral clustering analysis. The water body analysis compared the capability of the TM to the MSS for detecting small uniform targets. Of the 59 ponds located on aerial photographs 34 (58%) were detected by the TM with six commission errors (15%) and 13 (22%) were detected by the MSS with three commission errors (19%). The smallest water body detected by the TM was 16 meters; the smallest detected by the MSS was 40 meters. For the principal components analysis, means and covariance matrices were calculated for each subscene, and principal components images generated and characterized. In the spectral clustering comparison each scene was independently clustered and the clusters were assigned to informational classes. The preliminary comparison indicated that TM data provides enhancements over MSS in terms of (1) small target detection and (2) data dimensionality (even with 4-band data). The extra dimension, partially resultant from TM band 1, appears useful for built-up/non-built-up area separation.

  6. Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) data

    SciTech Connect

    Price, K.P. . Dept. of Geography)

    1993-09-01

    Multispectral measurements collected by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were correlated with field measurements, direct soil loss estimates, and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) estimates to determine the sensitivity of TM data to varying degrees of soil erosion in pinyon-juniper woodland in central Utah. TM data were also evaluated as a predictor of the USLE Crop Management C factor for pinyon-juniper woodlands. Correlation analysis showed that TM Band 4 (near infrared) accounted for 78% of the variability in percent trees (r=[minus] 0.88). In multiple regression, percent trees, total soil loss, and percent total nonliving cover together accounted for nearly 70% of the variability in TM Bands 2, 3, 4, and 5. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion factors than any combination of field factors. TM data were more sensitive to vegetation variations than the USLE C factor. USLE estimates showed low annual rates of erosion which varied little among the study sites. A number of hypotheses have been advanced to explain the apparent accelerated rate of pinyon-juniper spread in the western United States. These include removal of natural plant competition by livestock overgrazing, reduction of wildfires, climatic change, and reinvasion of sites cleared of trees by 19th century settlers.

  7. Using Landsat TM data to model corn and soybean yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candanedo Guevara, Martin Edmundo

    2001-07-01

    Early research in agriculture used remotely sensed data mostly for the identification of spectral signatures, where crop type/area classification would depend on data acquired from hand-held or truck-mounted instruments. Through time different approaches were taken for crop type/area classification, such as a systematic sampling of inventory ground data that were used later for training and testing using image processing techniques. Later, technology such as the global positioning system (GPS) and geographic information systems (GIS) were used for application to precision agriculture. These new tools provided a better meaning to understand and analyze the complex variability of the crop-soil-atmosphere system to estimate crop yields. The present research used data collected in the Management System Evaluation Area (MSEA) in 1998 and two Landsat thematic Mapper images (July and August) to analyze the crop variability. Ground truth parameters, such as chlorophyll, leaf area index (LAI), and electricity conductivity, were collected throughout the growing season. In addition, vegetation indexes (VI) such as the Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), simple vegetation index (SVI), soil adjusted ratio vegetation index (SARVI), were computed for the two images. Both ground truth data and VI's were statistically analyzed with yield measurements taken with an on-the-go yield monitor to estimate a best fit yield model for use with soybeans and corn. The correlation analysis within a Landsat pixel reported SVI52 (r = 0.62), SVI53 (r = 0.56), and SVI54 (r = 0.53) as the most significant relationships. The results from the ground truth data vs. on-the-go yields reported total clay (%) (r = 0.90), leaf area (r = 0.76), and tissue plant analysis (r = 0.73) A stepwise regression analysis was performed using the Landsat TM images and the VI's selected. A series of linear models were evaluated taking into account the Landsat TM and yield while varying the scale (1 pixel to

  8. Multiphoton near-infrared quantum cutting luminescence phenomena of Tm3+ ion in (Y1-xTm(x))3Al5O12 powder phosphor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaobo; Salamo, Gregory J; Yang, Guojian; Li, Yongliang; Ding, Xianlin; Gao, Yan; Liu, Quanlin; Guo, Jinghua

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, the multiphoton near-infrared downconversion quantum cutting luminescence phenomena of Tm3+ ion in (Y(1-x)Tm(x))(3)Al(5)O(12) powder phosphor, which is currently a hot research topic throughout the world, is reported. The x-ray diffraction spectra, the visible to near-infrared excitation and emission spectra, and fluorescence lifetimes are measured. It is found that Tm:YAG powder phosphor has intense two-photon quantum cutting luminescence, and, for the first time, it is found that Tm:YAG powder phosphor has strong four-photon near-infrared quantum cutting luminescence of 1788 nm (3)F4 → (3)H6 fluorescence of Tm(3+) ion. It is also found that the theoretical up-limit of four-photon near-infrared quantum cutting efficiency is about 282.12%, which results from both the {(1)D2 → (3)F2, (3)H6 → (3)H4} and {(3)H4 → (3)F4, (3)H6 → (3)F4} cross-energy transfers. PMID:24104578

  9. Transferable force-constant modeling of vibrational thermodynamic properties in fcc-based Al-TM ( TM=Ti , Zr, Hf) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jefferson Z.; Ghosh, G.; van de Walle, A.; Asta, M.

    2007-03-01

    The vibrational thermodynamic properties of ordered and disordered fcc-based alloys in three aluminum transition-metal (TM) systems, Al-TM ( TM=Ti , Zr, and Hf), are computed by first principles methods employing supercell calculations and the transferable-force-constant (TFC) approach. In order to obtain accurate values for the high-temperature limit of the vibrational mixing entropies in these systems, it is necessary to parametrize the dependence of the force constants on both the equilibrium bond length and the TM concentration in the TFC method. Provided this concentration dependence is accounted for, the TFC approach is shown to lead to predictions for the vibrational mixing entropy accurate to within approximately 20%. The utility of the TFC method is demonstrated by its application to the calculation of vibrational entropies of mixing for approximately 30 structures in each of the three Al-TM systems, facilitating the construction of well converged vibrational-entropy cluster expansions. The calculations yield large and negative values for the vibrational mixing entropies of both ordered and disordered alloys, with an overall magnitude of up to 1.0kB /atom, and ordering entropies (i.e., the difference between the vibrational entropy of ordered and disordered phases at the same composition) in the range of 0.2-0.3kB /atom for concentrated alloys. Calculated results are shown to be in good agreement with experimental data available for the Al-Ti system.

  10. Luminescence of Li2B4O7:Tm in glassy and polycrystalline states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinyov, Boris V.; Grin', Leonid V.; Dolzhenkova, Elena F.; Dubovik, Mikhail F.; Korshikova, Tatyana I.; Teplitskaya, Tatyana S.; Tolmachyov, Aleksander V.

    1998-09-01

    Investigated is the influence of doping with thulium on the character of solidification and luminescent properties of lithium tetraborate (LBO). It is found that the increase of thulium content favors crystallization of the melt preventing its vitrification. The character of the luminescence spectra of LBO:0.4%Tm3+ glass and LBO:0.5%Tm3+ polycrystal testified that in both cases the emission of Tm3+ ions in the low-symmetry surroundings of the matrix ions takes place under the influence of static electric fields.

  11. Wheat yield estimation at the farm level using TM Landsat and agrometeorological data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudorff, B. F. T.; Batista, G. T.

    1991-01-01

    A model for estimating wheat yields on the farm level was developed, that integrates the Landsat TM data and agrometeorological information. Results obtained for a test site in southern Brasil for years of 1986 and 1987 show that the vegetation index derived from Landsat TM could account for the 60 to 40 percent wheat-yield variability observed between the two crop years. Compared to results using either the Landsat TM vegetation index or the agrometeorological data alone, the joint use of both types of data in a single model yielded a significant improvement.

  12. Yb3+ sensitized Tm3+ upconversion in tellurite lead oxide glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Deepak Kumar; Rai, Vineet Kumar; Dwivedi, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Triply ionized thulium/thulium - ytterbium doped/codoped TeO2-Pb3O4 (TPO) glasses have been fabricated by classical quenching method. The upconversion emission spectra in the Tm3+/Tm3+-Yb3+ doped/codoped glasses upon excitation with a diode laser lasing at ˜980 nm has been studied. Effect of the addition of the Yb3+ on the upconversion emission intensity in the visible and near infrared regions of the Tm3+ doped in TPO glass has been studied and the processes involved explored.

  13. Evaluation of the radiometric quality of the TM data using clustering and multispectral distance measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartolucci, L. A.; Dean, M. E.; Anuta, P. E.

    1983-01-01

    Radiometrically and geometrically corrected TM data from three different geographic locations were examined. Histograms were inspected for each band to determine the dynamic range of the data, the shape of the distributions, and to verify whether empty bins were introduced by the radiometric correction process. The effect of geometric correction on the radiometry of the resampled pixels was determined. The information content between TM and MSS data sets were compared and the TM data were used to map the thermal effluent discharge into a river ecosystem from a nuclear thermal power plant, and application only possible previously only possible through the acquisition of thermal infrared scanner data from aircraft altitudes.

  14. Intense red upconversion luminescence from Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped transparent glass ceramic.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Zhiguo; Cao, Wenwu

    2012-01-15

    Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped transparent glass ceramic containing β-PbF2 nanocrystals was successfully prepared. After thermal treatment, emissions from the state of Tm3+ excited by 980 nm laser were greatly quenched by cross relaxation and the 700 nm luminescence from Tm3+:3F2,3→3H6 transition was strongly enhanced. A nearly monochromatic red luminescence band was observed. Based on the luminescence decay curves and Judd-Ofelt analysis, the strengthened cross relaxation played an important role in such phenomenon. PMID:22854468

  15. TmDOTA -: A Sensitive Probe for MR Thermometry in Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Chun S.; Mahmood, Ashfaq; Sherry, A. Dean

    2001-07-01

    The lanthanide complex, thulium 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclodo- decane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (TmDOTA-), has been investigated as an agent for MR thermometry in vivo. The chemical shifts of the TmDOTA- protons were highly sensitive to temperature at a clinically relevant field strength, yet insensitive to pH and the presence of Ca2+. Given the excellent stability of lanthanide-DOTA complexes and high thermal sensitivity, TmDOTA- is expected to be a good candidate for MR thermometry in vivo.

  16. Yb3+ sensitized Tm3+ upconversion in tellurite lead oxide glass.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Deepak Kumar; Rai, Vineet Kumar; Dwivedi, Y

    2012-04-01

    Triply ionized thulium/thulium--ytterbium doped/codoped TeO2-Pb3O4 (TPO) glasses have been fabricated by classical quenching method. The upconversion emission spectra in the Tm3+/Tm3+-Yb3+ doped/codoped glasses upon excitation with a diode laser lasing at ∼980 nm has been studied. Effect of the addition of the Yb3+ on the upconversion emission intensity in the visible and near infrared regions of the Tm3+ doped in TPO glass has been studied and the processes involved explored. PMID:22265952

  17. Optimal repetition rates of excitation pulses in a Tm-vapour laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, V. A.; Gerasimov, V. V.; Pavlinskii, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    The optimal excitation pulse repetition rates (PRRs) for a gas-discharge Tm-vapour laser with indirect population of upper laser levels are determined. It is shown that, under the same excitation conditions, the optimal PRRs increase with a decrease in the energy defect between the upper laser acceptor level and the nearest resonant donor level. The reasons for the limitation of the optimal PRRs in Tm-vapour laser are discussed. It is shown that the maximum average power of Tm-vapour laser radiation may exceed several times the Cu-vapour laser power under the same excitation conditions and in identical gas-discharge tubes.

  18. Blue Upconversion Luminescence in Tm3+/Yb3+-Codoped Lead Chloride Tellurite Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shi-Qing; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Wang, Guo-Nian; Dai, Shi-Xun; Hu, Li-Li; Jiang, Zhong-Hong

    2004-05-01

    The upconversion properties of Tm3+/Yb3+-codoped lead chloride tellurite glass under 980 nm excitation were investigated. The intense blue (476 nm) emission and weak red (649 nm) emission corresponding to the 1G4rightarrow3H6 and 1G4rightarrow3H4 transitions of Tm3+ ions, respectively, were simultaneously observed at room temperature. The dependence of upconversion intensities on excitation power and the possible upconversion mechanisms are evaluated. The intense blue upconversion luminescence of Tm3+/Yb3+-codoped lead chloride tellurite glass can be used as potential host material for the development of blue upconversion optical devices.

  19. A demonstration of stereophotogrammetry with combined SIR-B and Landsat TM images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, Arthur L.; Fielding, Eric J.; Fu, Xiu-Yen

    1988-01-01

    Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images can be viewed stereoscopically if the illumination geometries are compatible. To create the stereoscopic effect points must be coregistered. Simplified stereophotogrammetric equations permit the height of an object above a reference plane to be crudely calculated from the target offset toward the SIR-B radar antenna with reference to its position on a TM image. Precision is limited by pixel resolution and target correlation. Future spaceborne imaging radar missions will offer the potential for topographic mapping in many areas where TM coverage is available.

  20. High-power LD end-pumped Tm:YAG ceramic slab laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuan; Huang, Haitao; Shen, Deyuan; Fan, Xuliang; Yao, Weichao; Zhu, Heyuan; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Dingyuan

    2015-03-01

    A high-power Tm:YAG ceramic slab laser is reported. Deliberate thermal management was made to dissipate the heat effectively and release the stress in ceramics. The influence of pump wavelength on laser performance was investigated. A maximum of 52 W output power was achieved, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 27.8 % with respect to the incident pump power. As to our knowledge, this is the highest 2-μm laser output power reported in Tm:YAG ceramic lasers. This result proves that Tm:YAG laser ceramic is a promising candidate for 2-μm high-power laser applications.

  1. Resonantly pumped Tm-doped fiber laser with >90% slope efficiency.

    PubMed

    Creeden, Daniel; Johnson, Benjamin R; Setzler, Scott D; Chicklis, Evan P

    2014-02-01

    We have demonstrated what we believe is the highest slope efficiency reported for a Tm-doped fiber laser operating in the 2-micron spectral region. Using a 1908 nm Tm-doped fiber laser as an in-band pump source, we generated 1.43 W of output power at 2005 nm with 81.25% optical efficiency and 90.2% slope efficiency, with respect to launched pump power. This resonant-pumping approach allowed us to examine the bleaching effects in Tm-doped fiber under resonant pumping. We also analytically show that this pumping method can scale to high power levels while maintaining high efficiency. PMID:24487842

  2. Thermomechanical properties of Cr:Tm:Ho:Y sub 3 Al sub 5 O sub 12

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, J.E.

    1990-05-15

    The thermomechanical properties of Cr:Ho:Tm:Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} have been measured and compared to similar measurements on Nd:Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}. We find that, in general, the properties are similar, with the single exception being thermal diffusivity. Nd:YAG has substantially higher thermal diffusivity than Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG. Consequently, the intrinsic thermal stress resistance figure of merit which governs a materials resistance to fracture in the presence of a steady thermal gradient is lower in Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG than in Nd:YAG. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  3. A copper 3.9 GHz TM110 cavity for emittance exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Koeth, T.W.; Fliller, R.P., III; Bellantoni, L.; Edwards, D.A.; Edwards, H.T.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    An experiment is being developed at the FNAL Photoinjector Lab to demonstrate the exchange of longitudinal emittance with a transverse horizontal emittance. The longitudinal electric field of a TM{sub 110} cavity vanishes on axis and increases linearly with transverse displacement. This 'shearing' electric field is pivotal to the exchange. The design of this TM{sub 110} cavity is a variant of the Fermilab 3.9 GHz superconducting deflecting mode cavity; however, the cavity was constructed of OFHC copper. The authors report on the construction, field flatness, polarization and high power testing of a TM{sub 110} cavity.

  4. Human hTM. cap alpha. gene: Expression in muscle and nonmuscle tissue

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, A.R.; Gooding, C.

    1988-01-01

    The authors isolated a cDNA clone from a human skeletal muscle library which contains the complete protein-coding sequence of a skeletal muscle ..cap alpha..-tropomyosin. This cDNA sequence defines a fourth human tropomyosin gene, the hTM..cap alpha.. gene, which is distinct from the hTM/sub nm/ gene encoding a closely related isoform of skeletal muscle ..cap alpha..-tropomyosin. In cultured human fibroblasts, the hTM..cap alpha.. gene encodes both skeletal-muscle- and smooth-muscle-type ..cap alpha..-tropomyosins by using an alternative mRNA-splicing mechanism.

  5. Synergistic use of MOMS-01 and Landsat TM data. [Modular Optoelectronic Multispectral Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothery, David A.; Francis, Peter W.

    1987-01-01

    Imagery covering the Socompa volcano and debris avalanche deposit in northern Chile was acquired by MOMS-01 when the sun was low in the western sky. Illumination from the west shows many important topographic features to advantage. These are inconspicuous or indistinguishable on Landsat TM images acquired at higher solar elevation. The effective spatial resolution of MOMS-01 is similar to that of the TM and its capacity for spectral discrimination is less. A technique has been developed to combine the multispectral information offered by TM with the topographic detail visible on MOMS-01 imagery recorded at a time of low solar elevation.

  6. Upconversion studies in Gd2O3:Tm3+/Yb3+ phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. K.; Kumar, K.; Rai, S. B.; Rai, D. K.

    2013-06-01

    The Tm3+/Yb3+ doped Gd2O3 phosphor is prepared through combustion technique and its visible upconversion emission studies are made on 980 nm near infrared excitation. The upconversion studied showed good upconversion emission in blue region (477nm) but the highest emission intensity was observed at 802 nm wavelength. The Tm3+ ion concentration dependence of upconversion emission intensity studies are also done and optimum concentration of Tm3+ ion is found 0.2mol% for blue upconversion. The power dependence studies are also made to know the process of upconversion emission.

  7. TM4SF1 Promotes Gemcitabine Resistance of Pancreatic Cancer In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Vijaya; Arumugam, Thiruvengadam; Deng, Defeng; Li, Zhaoshen; Xu, Leiming; Logsdon, Craig D.

    2015-01-01

    Background TM4SF1 is overexpressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and affects the development of this cancer. Also, multidrug resistance (MDR) is generally associated with tumor chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer. However, the correlation between TM4SF1 and MDR remains unknown. This research aims to investigate the effect of TM4SF1 on gemcitabine resistance in PDAC and explore the possible molecular mechanism between TM4SF1 and MDR. Methods The expression of TM4SF1 was evaluated in pancreatic cancer cell lines and human pancreatic duct epithelial (HPDE) cell lines by quantitative RT-PCR. TM4SF1 siRNA transfection was carried out using Hiperfect transfection reagent to knock down TM4SF1. The transcripts were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR, RT-PCR and western blotting for further study. The cell proliferation and apoptosis were obtained to investigate the sensitivity to gemcitabine of pancreatic cancer cells after silencing TM4SF1 in vitro. We demonstrated that cell signaling of TM4SF1 mediated chemoresistance in cancer cells by assessing the expression of multidrug resistance (MDR) genes using quantitative RT-PCR. In vivo, we used orthotopic pancreatic tumor models to investigate the effect of proliferation after silencing TM4SF1 by a lentivirus-mediated shRNA in MIA PaCa-2 cell lines. Results The mRNA expression of TM4SF1 was higher in seven pancreatic cancer cell lines than in HPDE cell lines. In three gemcitabine-sensitive cell lines (L3.6pl, BxPC-3, SU86.86), the expression of TM4SF1 was lower than that in four gemcitabine-resistant cell lines (MIA PaCa-2, PANC-1, Hs766T, AsPC-1). We evaluated that TM4SF1 was a putative target for gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer cells. Using AsPC-1, MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1, we investigated that TM4SF1 silencing affected cell proliferation and increased the percentages of cell apoptosis mediated by treatment with gemcitabine compared with cells which were treated with negative control. This resistance was

  8. Remodeling census population with spatial information from Landsat TM imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yuan, Y.; Smith, R.M.; Limp, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    In geographic information systems (GIS) studies there has been some difficulty integrating socioeconomic and physiogeographic data. One important type of socioeconomic data, census data, offers a wide range of socioeconomic information, but is aggregated within arbitrary enumeration districts (EDs). Values reflect either raw counts or, when standardized, the mean densities in the EDs. On the other hand, remote sensing imagery, an important type of physiogeographic data, provides large quantities of information with more spatial details than census data. Based on the dasymetric mapping principle, this study applies multivariable regression to examine the correlation between population counts from census and land cover types. The land cover map is classified from LandSat TM imagery. The correlation is high. Census population counts are remodeled to a GIS raster layer based on the discovered correlations coupled with scaling techniques, which offset influences from other than land cover types. The GIS raster layer depicts the population distribution with much more spatial detail than census data offer. The resulting GIS raster layer is ready to be analyzed or integrated with other GIS data. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Endovenous laser ablation with TM-fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somunyudan, Meral Filiz; Topaloglu, Nermin; Ergenoglu, Mehmet Umit; Gulsoy, Murat

    2011-03-01

    Endovenous Laser Ablation (EVLA) has become a popular minimally invasive alternative to stripping in the treatment of saphenous vein reflux. Several wavelengths have been proposed; of which 810, 940 and 980- nm are the most commonly used. However, the most appropriate wavelength is still the subject of debate. Thermal shrinkage of collagenous tissue during EVLA plays a significant role in the early and late results of the treatment. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of 980 and 1940-nm laser wavelengths in the treatment of varicose veins. In this study, 980 and 1940-nm lasers at different power settings (8/10W for 980-nm, 2/3W for 1940-nm) were used to irradiate stripped human veins. The most prominent contraction and narrowing in outer and inner diameter were observed with the 1940-nm at 2W, following 980-nm at 8W, 1940-nm at 3W and finally 980-nm at 10W. The minimum carbonization was observed with the 1940-nm at 2W. As a conclusion, 1940-nm Tm-fiber laser which has a significant effect in the management of varicose veins due to more selective energy absorption in water and consequently in the vein is a promising method in the management of varicose veins.

  10. Use of TMS/TM data for mapping of forest decline damage in the northeastern United States. [Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) Thematic Mapper (TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, B. N.; Vogelmann, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    Remote sensing systems were used to monitor forest decline damage suspected of being due to air pollution. Field activities and aircraft overflights were centered on montane spruce/fir forest sites. Using aircraft data acquired with the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) and LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) during the growing season, extensive areas of forest decline damage were accurately mapped. Seven levels of decline damage are discrininated and mapped and the levels of discriminated damage agree well (rsq-0.94) with visual assessment conducted on the ground. New areas of high damage were discovered. A band ratio (TM5/TM4) is most useful in discriminating and quantifying the various levels of forest decline damage.

  11. Theoretical and Experimental Study on Thermoelectric Properties of Ba8TM x Ga y Ge46-x-y (TM = Zn, Cu, Ag) Type I Clathrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leszczynski, Juliusz; Kolezynski, Andrzej; Juraszek, Jarosław; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    In the type I clathrates Ba8TM x Ga y Ge46-x-y (TM = group 10 to 12 elements) where some of the Ge framework atoms are substituted by Zn, Cu or Ag, the transition-metal elements prefer to occupy the 6c site. Preliminary band-structure calculations showed that this substitution implies modification of the electronic bands in the vicinity of the energy gap. By appropriate tailoring of the band structure, improved thermoelectric properties can be obtained. More detailed full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method calculations within density functional theory (DFT) were performed using the WIEN2k package for compositions where the transition element TM fully occupies the 6c site. Additional analysis of the properties of the electron density topology within Bader's atoms-in-molecules approach was carried out to study the chemical bonding in intermetallic clathrates. To verify the theoretical predictions, polycrystalline samples of the type I clathrates Ba8TM x Ga y Ge46-x-y (TM = Zn, Cu, Ag) modified by transition-metal element substitution for Ge were obtained. The samples were characterized using powder x-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity were measured in the temperature range from 320 K to 720 K. Several models were used to fit the experimental results for the electronic transport properties and to estimate the energy gap. Vacancies at the Ge site were considered responsible for deviations from the desired properties, and appropriate defect equations correlating the vacancies and TM concentration are presented. Finally, the results of DFT calculations are compared with the experiments, showing good agreement with theoretically predicted cell parameters and general observations of the transport properties.

  12. Consistency of L4 TM absolute calibration with respect to the L5 TM sensor based on near-simultaneous image acquisition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Helder, D.L.; Malla, R.; Micijevic, E.; Mettler, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The Landsat archive provides more than 35 years of uninterrupted multispectral remotely sensed data of Earth observations. Since 1972, Landsat missions have carried different types of sensors, from the Return Beam Vidicon (RBV) camera to the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). However, the Thematic Mapper (TM) sensors on Landsat 4 (L4) and Landsat 5 (L5), launched in 1982 and 1984 respectively, are the backbone of an extensive archive. Effective April 2, 2007, the radiometric calibration of L5 TM data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) was updated to use an improved lifetime gain model, based on the instrument's detector response to pseudo-invariant desert site data and cross-calibration with the L7 ETM+. However, no modifications were ever made to the radiometric calibration procedure of the Landsat 4 (L4) TM data. The L4 TM radiometric calibration procedure has continued to use the Internal Calibrator (IC) based calibration algorithms and the post calibration dynamic ranges, as previously defined. To evaluate the "current" absolute accuracy of these two sensors, image pairs from the L5 TM and L4 TM sensors were compared. The number of coincident image pairs in the USGS EROS archive is limited, so the scene selection for the cross-calibration studies proved to be a challenge. Additionally, because of the lack of near-simultaneous images available over well-characterized and traditionally used calibration sites, alternate sites that have high reflectance, large dynamic range, high spatial uniformity, high sun elevation, and minimal cloud cover were investigated. The alternate sites were identified in Yuma, Iraq, Egypt, Libya, and Algeria. The cross-calibration approach involved comparing image statistics derived from large common areas observed eight days apart by the two sensors. This paper summarizes the average percent differences in reflectance estimates obtained between the

  13. Optical transitions of Tm3+ in oxyfluoride glasses and compositional and thermal effect on upconversion luminescence of Tm3+/Yb3+-codoped oxyfluoride glasses.

    PubMed

    Feng, Li; Wu, Yinsu; Liu, Zhuo; Guo, Tao

    2014-01-24

    Optical properties of Tm(3+)-doped SiO2-BaF2-ZnF2 glasses have been investigated on the basis of the Judd-Ofelt theory. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, radiative transition probabilities, fluorescence branching ratios and radiative lifetimes have been calculated for different glass compositions. Upconversion emissions were observed in Tm(3+)/Yb(3+)-codoped SiO2-BaF2-ZnF2 glasses under 980 nm excitation. The effects of composition, concentration of the doping ions, temperature, and excitation pump power on the upconversion emissions were also systematically studied. PMID:24051289

  14. LANDSAT-4 Science Characterization Early Results. Volume 3, Part 2: Thematic Mapper (TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. L. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The calibration of the LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper is discussed as well as the atmospheric, radiometric, and geometric accuracy and correction of data obtained with this sensor. Methods are given for assessing TM band to band registration.

  15. Search for solar axions produced by Primakoff conversion using resonant absorption by 169Tm nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derbin, A. V.; Bakhlanov, S. V.; Egorov, A. I.; Mitropol'Sky, I. A.; Muratova, V. N.; Semenov, D. A.; Unzhakov, E. V.

    2009-07-01

    The search for resonant absorption of the Primakoff solar axions by 169Tm nuclei have been performed. Such an absorption should lead to the excitation of low-lying nuclear energy level: A+Tm169→Tm∗169→Tm169+γ (8.41 keV). The Si(Li) detector and 169Tm target placed inside the low-background setup were used for that purpose. As a result, a new restriction on the axion-photon coupling and axion mass was obtained: g(GeV)ṡm(eV)⩽1.36×10 (90% c.l.). In model of hadronic axion this restriction corresponds to the upper limit on axion mass —m⩽191 eV for 90% c.l.

  16. Injection-seeded operation of a Q-switched Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Sammy W.; Hale, Charley P.; Magee, James R.

    1991-01-01

    Single-frequency Tm,Ho:YAG lasers operating near 2 microns are attractive sources for several applications including eye-safe laser radar (lidar) and pumping of AgGaSe2 parametric oscillators for efficient generation of longer wavelengths. As part of a program to develop a coherent lidar system using Tm,Ho:YAG lasers, a diode laser-pumped tunable CW single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) Cr:Tm:Ho:YAG laser and a flashlamp-pumped single-transverse-mode Q-switched Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG laser were developed. The CW laser was used to injection-seed the flashlamp-pumped laser, resulting in SLM Q-switched output. Operational characteristics of the CW and Q-switched lasers and injection-seeding results are reported.

  17. Tm:germanate Fiber Laser for Planetary Water Vapor Atmospheric Profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; De Young, Russell

    2009-01-01

    The atmospheric profiling of water vapor is necessary for finding life on Mars and weather on Earth. The design and performance of a water vapor lidar based on a Tm:germanate fiber laser is presented.

  18. Structural, spectral-luminescent, and lasing properties of nanostructured Tm : CaF{sub 2} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryabochkina, P A; Lyapin, A A; Osiko, Vyacheslav V; Fedorov, Pavel P; Ushakov, S N; Kruglova, M V; Sakharov, N V; Garibin, E A; Gusev, P E; Krutov, M A

    2012-09-30

    The structure and the spectral-luminescent properties of CaF{sub 2} - TmF{sub 3} fluoride ceramics and single crystals are studied. AFM investigations revealed a layered nanostructure of grains, which was not observed in reference samples of single crystals. It is found that the spectral-luminescent properties of CaF{sub 2} - TmF{sub 3} ceramics and single crystals are similar. Lasing at the {sup 3}F{sub 4} {yields} {sup 3}H{sub 6} transition of Tm{sup 3+} ions in CaF{sub 2} - TmF{sub 3} ceramics (wavelength 1898 nm) under diode pimping is obtained for the first time. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  19. Origin of modulated phases and magnetic hysteresis in TmB4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierschem, Keola; Sunku, Sai Swaroop; Kong, Tai; Ito, Toshimitsu; Canfield, Paul C.; Panagopoulos, Christos; Sengupta, Pinaki

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the low-temperature magnetic phases in TmB4 , a metallic quantum magnet on the geometrically frustrated Shastry-Sutherland lattice, using coordinated experimental and theoretical studies. Our results provide an explanation for the appearance of the intriguing fractional plateau in TmB4 and accompanying magnetic hysteresis. Together with observation of the bump in the half plateau, our results support the picture that the magnetization plateau structure in TmB4 is strongly influenced by the zero-field modulated phases. We present a phenomenological model to explain the appearance of the modulated phases and a microscopic Hamiltonian that captures the complete magnetic behavior of TmB4 .

  20. Origin of modulated phases and magnetic hysteresis in TmB4

    SciTech Connect

    Wierschem, Keola; Sunku, Sai Swaroop; Kong, Tai; Ito, Toshimitsu; Canfield, Paul C.; Panagopoulos, Christos; Sengupta, Pinaki

    2015-12-23

    In this study, we investigate the low-temperature magnetic phases in TmB4, a metallic quantum magnet on the geometrically frustrated Shastry-Sutherland lattice, using coordinated experimental and theoretical studies. Our results provide an explanation for the appearance of the intriguing fractional plateau in TmB4 and accompanying magnetic hysteresis. Together with observation of the bump in the half plateau, our results support the picture that the magnetization plateau structure in TmB4 is strongly influenced by the zero-field modulated phases. We present a phenomenological model to explain the appearance of the modulated phases and a microscopic Hamiltonian that captures the complete magnetic behavior of TmB4.

  1. Near-infrared luminescence of Nd3+ and Tm3+ ions doped ZnO nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongsheng; Luo, Wenqin; Li, Renfu; Zhu, Haomiao; Chen, Xueyuan

    2009-06-01

    Intense near-infrared luminescence of Nd(3+) and Tm(3+) ions in the region of 860-1550 nm were achieved in 10-15 nm wurtzite ZnO nanocrystals fabricated by a facile sol-gel process. The optical properties of Nd(3+) and Tm(3+) ions were investigated by using the steady-state and time-resolved laser spectroscopy. Due to the well-ordered crystal-field surroundings experienced by Nd(3+) and Tm(3+) ions, sharp and well resolved emission lines of Nd(3+) and Tm(3+) ions were identified at 4-300 K. Time-resolved luminescence and decay behaviors of the (4)F(3/2)-->(4)I(11/2) transition of Nd(3+) ions reveal the existence of multiple Nd(3+) sites in ZnO nanocrystals. PMID:19506624

  2. Tm,Ho:YLF laser end-pumped by a semiconductor diode laser array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An Ho:YLF crystal including Tm as sensitizers for the activator Ho, is optically pumped with a semiconductor diode laser array to generate 2.1 micron radiation with a pump power to output power of efficiency as high as 68 percent. The prior-art dual sensitizer system of Er and Tm requires cooling, such as by LN2, but by using Tm alone and decreasing the concentrations of Tm and Ho, and decreasing the length of the laser rod to about 1 cm, it has been demonstrated that laser operation can be obtained from a temperature of 77 K with an efficiency as high as 68 percent up to ambient room temperature with an efficiency at that temperature as high as 9 percent.

  3. LANDSAT-D MSS/TM tuned orbital jitter analysis model LDS900

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollak, T. E.

    1981-01-01

    The final LANDSAT-D orbital dynamic math model (LSD900), comprised of all test validated substructures, was used to evaluate the jitter response of the MSS/TM experiments. A dynamic forced response analysis was performed at both the MSS and TM locations on all structural modes considered (thru 200 Hz). The analysis determined the roll angular response of the MSS/TM experiments to improve excitation generated by component operation. Cross axis and cross experiment responses were also calculated. The excitations were analytically represented by seven and nine term Fourier series approximations, for the MSS and TM experiment respectively, which enabled linear harmonic solution techniques to be applied to response calculations. Single worst case jitter was estimated by variations of the eigenvalue spectrum of model LSD 900. The probability of any worst case mode occurrence was investigated.

  4. BOREAS Level-3p Landsat TM Imagery: Geocoded and Scaled At-sensor Radiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickeson, Jaime; Knapp, David; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Cihlar, Josef

    2000-01-01

    For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the level-3p Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data were used to supplement the level-3s Landsat TM products. Along with the other remotely sensed images, the Landsat TM images were collected in order to provide spatially extensive information over the primary study areas. This information includes radiant energy, detailed land cover, and biophysical parameter maps such as Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) and Leaf Area Index (LAI). Although very similar to the level-3s Landsat TM products, the level-3p images were processed with ground control information, which improved the accuracy of the geographic coordinates provided. Geographically, the level-3p images cover the BOREAS Northern Study Area (NSA) and Southern Study Area (SSA). Temporally, the four images cover the period of 20-Aug-1988 to 07-Jun-1994. Except for the 07-Jun-1994 image, which contains seven bands, the other three contain only three bands.

  5. Origin of modulated phases and magnetic hysteresis in TmB4

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wierschem, Keola; Sunku, Sai Swaroop; Kong, Tai; Ito, Toshimitsu; Canfield, Paul C.; Panagopoulos, Christos; Sengupta, Pinaki

    2015-12-23

    In this study, we investigate the low-temperature magnetic phases in TmB4, a metallic quantum magnet on the geometrically frustrated Shastry-Sutherland lattice, using coordinated experimental and theoretical studies. Our results provide an explanation for the appearance of the intriguing fractional plateau in TmB4 and accompanying magnetic hysteresis. Together with observation of the bump in the half plateau, our results support the picture that the magnetization plateau structure in TmB4 is strongly influenced by the zero-field modulated phases. We present a phenomenological model to explain the appearance of the modulated phases and a microscopic Hamiltonian that captures the complete magnetic behavior ofmore » TmB4.« less

  6. Structural basis for the recognition-evasion arms race between Tomato mosaic virus and the resistance gene Tm-1.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Kazuhiro; Kezuka, Yuichiro; Kobayashi, Chihoko; Kato, Masahiko; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Nonaka, Takamasa; Ishikawa, Masayuki; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Katoh, Etsuko

    2014-08-19

    The tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) resistance gene Tm-1 encodes a protein that shows no sequence homology to functionally characterized proteins. Tm-1 binds ToMV replication proteins and thereby inhibits replication complex formation. ToMV mutants that overcome this resistance have amino acid substitutions in the helicase domain of the replication proteins (ToMV-Hel). A small region of Tm-1 in the genome of the wild tomato Solanum habrochaites has been under positive selection during its antagonistic coevolution with ToMV. Here we report crystal structures for the N-terminal inhibitory domains of Tm-1 and a natural Tm-1 variant with an I91-to-T substitution that has a greater ability to inhibit ToMV RNA replication and their complexes with ToMV-Hel. Each complex contains a Tm-1 dimer and two ToMV-Hel monomers with the interfaces between Tm-1 and ToMV-Hel bridged by ATP. Residues in ToMV-Hel and Tm-1 involved in antagonistic coevolution are found at the interface. The structural differences between ToMV-Hel in its free form and in complex with Tm-1 suggest that Tm-1 affects nucleoside triphosphatase activity of ToMV-Hel, and this effect was confirmed experimentally. Molecular dynamics simulations of complexes formed by Tm-1 with ToMV-Hel variants showed how the amino acid changes in ToMV-Hel impair the interaction with Tm-1 to overcome the resistance. With these findings, together with the biochemical properties of the interactions between ToMV-Hel and Tm-1 variants and effects of the mutations in the polymorphic residues of Tm-1, an atomic view of a step-by-step coevolutionary arms race between a plant resistance protein and a viral protein emerges. PMID:25092327

  7. Upconversion properties and dynamics study in Tm3+ and Yb3+ codoped CaSc2O4 oxide material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Jiahua; Hao, Zhendong; Zhang, Xia; Zhao, Jihong; Luo, Yongshi

    2013-06-01

    The upconversion properties of Tm3+ and Yb3+ codoped CaSc2O4 phosphor excited at 980 nm are reported. The blue emission of Tm3+:1G4 → 3H6, red emission of Tm3+:1G4 → 3F4, near-infrared emissions of Tm3+:3H4 → 3H6 (800 nm) and 3F4 → 3H6 (1600 nm) are observed when excited Yb3+:2F5/2 level. The spectral properties of Yb3+:2F5/2 and Tm3+:3F4, 3H4, 1G4 levels are described in detail as a function of Yb3+ and Tm3+ concentrations. By the trends of intensity ratios of Tm3+:3F4 to Yb3+:2F5/2 and Tm3+:1G4 to 3H4 with the doped concentrations, upconversion dynamics is analyzed in Tm3+ and Yb3+ codoped CaSc2O4 material. The concentration dependent lifetimes of Yb3+:2F5/2 and Tm3+:1G4, 3H4 levels measured prove the existence of the efficient Yb3+ → Tm3+ energy transfer and followed Tm3+ → Yb3+ back-energy transfer processes, respectively. The energy transfer efficiency is up to 70% before concentration quenching occurrence. The back-energy transfer process is evidenced by the presence of the Yb3+:2F5/2 → 2F7/2 in the emission spectrum excited Tm3+:1G4 level at 466 nm. The detailed spectroscopic study conduces to understand the upconversion dynamics process in Tm3+ and Yb3+ codoped excellent CaSc2O4 oxide material.

  8. The ecological controls on the prevalence of candidate division TM7 in polar regions

    PubMed Central

    Winsley, Tristrom J.; Snape, Ian; McKinlay, John; Stark, Jonny; van Dorst, Josie M.; Ji, Mukan; Ferrari, Belinda C.; Siciliano, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    The candidate division TM7 is ubiquitous and yet uncultured phylum of the Bacteria that encompasses a commonly environmental associated clade, TM7-1, and a “host-associated” clade, TM7-3. However, as members of the TM7 phylum have not been cultured, little is known about what differs between these two clades. We hypothesized that these clades would have different environmental niches. To test this, we used a large-scale global soil dataset, encompassing 223 soil samples, their environmental parameters and associated bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence data. We correlated chemical, physical and biological parameters of each soil with the relative abundance of the two major classes of the phylum to deduce factors that influence the groups' seemingly ubiquitous nature. The two classes of the phylum (TM7-1 and TM7-3) were indeed distinct from each other in their habitat requirements. A key determinant of each class' prevalence appears to be the pH of the soil. The class TM7-1 displays a facultative anaerobic nature with correlations to more acidic soils with total iron, silicon, titanium and copper indicating a potential for siderophore production. However, the TM7-3 class shows a more classical oligotrophic, heterotroph nature with a preference for more alkaline soils, and a probable pathogenic role with correlations to extractable iron, sodium and phosphate. In addition, the TM7-3 was abundant in diesel contaminated soils highlighting a resilient nature along with a possible carbon source. In addition to this both classes had unique co-occurrence relationships with other bacterial phyla. In particular, both groups had opposing correlations to the Gemmatimonadetes phylum, with the TM7-3 class seemingly being outcompeted by this phylum to result in a negative correlation. These ecological controls allow the characteristics of a TM7 phylum preferred niche to be defined and give insight into possible avenues for cultivation of this previously uncultured group. PMID

  9. TM4SF1: a new vascular therapeutic target in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chi-Iou; Merley, Anne; Sciuto, Tracey E.; Li, Dan; Dvorak, Ann M.; Melero-Martin, Juan M.; Dvorak, Harold F.; Jaminet, Shou-Ching S.

    2014-01-01

    Transmembrane-4 L-six family member-1 (TM4SF1) is a small plasma membrane glycoprotein that regulates cell motility and proliferation. TM4SF1 is an attractive cancer target because of its high expression in both tumor cells and on the vascular endothelial cells lining tumor blood vessels. We generated mouse monoclonal antibodies against human TM4SF1 in order to evaluate their therapeutic potential; 13 of the antibodies we generated reacted with extracellular loop-2 (EL2), TM4SF1’s larger extracellular, lumen-facing domain. However, none of these antibodies reacted with mouse TM4SF1, likely because the EL2 of mouse TM4SF1 differs significantly from that of its human counterpart. Therefore, to test our antibodies in vivo, we employed an established model of engineered human vessels in which human endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFC) and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are incorporated into Matrigel plugs that are implanted subcutaneously in immunodeficient nude mice. We modified the original protocol by (i) pre-culturing human ECFC on laminin, fibronectin, and collagen coated plates; and (ii) increasing the ECFC/MSC ratio. These modifications significantly increased the human vascular network in Matrigel implants. Two injections of one of our anti-TM4SF1 EL2 monoclonal antibodies, 8G4, effectively eliminated the human vascular component present in these plugs; they also abrogated human PC3 prostate cancer cells that were incorporated into the ECFC/MSC Matrigel mix. Together these studies provide a mouse model for assessing tumor xenografts that are supplied by a human vascular network and demonstrate that anti-TM4SF1 antibodies such as 8G4 hold promise for cancer therapy. PMID:24986520

  10. Cluster K Mycobacteriophages: Insights into the Evolutionary Origins of Mycobacteriophage TM4

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Welkin H.; Ferreira, Christina M.; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Benjamin, Robert C.; Davis, Ariangela J.; DeJong, Randall J.; Elgin, Sarah C. R.; Guilfoile, Forrest R.; Forsyth, Mark H.; Harris, Alexander D.; Harvey, Samuel E.; Hughes, Lee E.; Hynes, Peter M.; Jackson, Arrykka S.; Jalal, Marilyn D.; MacMurray, Elizabeth A.; Manley, Coreen M.; McDonough, Molly J.; Mosier, Jordan L.; Osterbann, Larissa J.; Rabinowitz, Hannah S.; Rhyan, Corwin N.; Russell, Daniel A.; Saha, Margaret S.; Shaffer, Christopher D.; Simon, Stephanie E.; Sims, Erika F.; Tovar, Isabel G.; Weisser, Emilie G.; Wertz, John T.; Weston-Hafer, Kathleen A.; Williamson, Kurt E.; Zhang, Bo; Cresawn, Steven G.; Jain, Paras; Piuri, Mariana; Jacobs, William R.; Hendrix, Roger W.; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2011-01-01

    Five newly isolated mycobacteriophages –Angelica, CrimD, Adephagia, Anaya, and Pixie – have similar genomic architectures to mycobacteriophage TM4, a previously characterized phage that is widely used in mycobacterial genetics. The nucleotide sequence similarities warrant grouping these into Cluster K, with subdivision into three subclusters: K1, K2, and K3. Although the overall genome architectures of these phages are similar, TM4 appears to have lost at least two segments of its genome, a central region containing the integration apparatus, and a segment at the right end. This suggests that TM4 is a recent derivative of a temperate parent, resolving a long-standing conundrum about its biology, in that it was reportedly recovered from a lysogenic strain of Mycobacterium avium, but it is not capable of forming lysogens in any mycobacterial host. Like TM4, all of the Cluster K phages infect both fast- and slow-growing mycobacteria, and all of them – with the exception of TM4 – form stable lysogens in both Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis; immunity assays show that all five of these phages share the same immune specificity. TM4 infects these lysogens suggesting that it was either derived from a heteroimmune temperate parent or that it has acquired a virulent phenotype. We have also characterized a widely-used conditionally replicating derivative of TM4 and identified mutations conferring the temperature-sensitive phenotype. All of the Cluster K phages contain a series of well conserved 13 bp repeats associated with the translation initiation sites of a subset of the genes; approximately one half of these contain an additional sequence feature composed of imperfectly conserved 17 bp inverted repeats separated by a variable spacer. The K1 phages integrate into the host tmRNA and the Cluster K phages represent potential new tools for the genetics of M. tuberculosis and related species. PMID:22053209

  11. Improving classification of crop residues using digital land ownership data and Landsat TM imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhuang, Xin; Engel, Bernard A.; Baumgardner, Marion F.; Swain, Philip H.

    1991-01-01

    Plant residue on the surface of cultivated soils in Miami County, Indiana is analyzed in terms of quantity and type with Landsat TM data to generate information for a conservation program for agricultural soil. The Landsat data are enhanced with land-ownership data in a geographic information system to facilitate classification with maximum-likelihood, minimum-distance, and neural-network classifiers. The most effective classifications resulted from the use of the neural network on the enhanced TM data.

  12. Cluster K mycobacteriophages: insights into the evolutionary origins of mycobacteriophage TM4.

    PubMed

    Pope, Welkin H; Ferreira, Christina M; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Benjamin, Robert C; Davis, Ariangela J; DeJong, Randall J; Elgin, Sarah C R; Guilfoile, Forrest R; Forsyth, Mark H; Harris, Alexander D; Harvey, Samuel E; Hughes, Lee E; Hynes, Peter M; Jackson, Arrykka S; Jalal, Marilyn D; MacMurray, Elizabeth A; Manley, Coreen M; McDonough, Molly J; Mosier, Jordan L; Osterbann, Larissa J; Rabinowitz, Hannah S; Rhyan, Corwin N; Russell, Daniel A; Saha, Margaret S; Shaffer, Christopher D; Simon, Stephanie E; Sims, Erika F; Tovar, Isabel G; Weisser, Emilie G; Wertz, John T; Weston-Hafer, Kathleen A; Williamson, Kurt E; Zhang, Bo; Cresawn, Steven G; Jain, Paras; Piuri, Mariana; Jacobs, William R; Hendrix, Roger W; Hatfull, Graham F

    2011-01-01

    Five newly isolated mycobacteriophages--Angelica, CrimD, Adephagia, Anaya, and Pixie--have similar genomic architectures to mycobacteriophage TM4, a previously characterized phage that is widely used in mycobacterial genetics. The nucleotide sequence similarities warrant grouping these into Cluster K, with subdivision into three subclusters: K1, K2, and K3. Although the overall genome architectures of these phages are similar, TM4 appears to have lost at least two segments of its genome, a central region containing the integration apparatus, and a segment at the right end. This suggests that TM4 is a recent derivative of a temperate parent, resolving a long-standing conundrum about its biology, in that it was reportedly recovered from a lysogenic strain of Mycobacterium avium, but it is not capable of forming lysogens in any mycobacterial host. Like TM4, all of the Cluster K phages infect both fast- and slow-growing mycobacteria, and all of them--with the exception of TM4--form stable lysogens in both Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis; immunity assays show that all five of these phages share the same immune specificity. TM4 infects these lysogens suggesting that it was either derived from a heteroimmune temperate parent or that it has acquired a virulent phenotype. We have also characterized a widely-used conditionally replicating derivative of TM4 and identified mutations conferring the temperature-sensitive phenotype. All of the Cluster K phages contain a series of well conserved 13 bp repeats associated with the translation initiation sites of a subset of the genes; approximately one half of these contain an additional sequence feature composed of imperfectly conserved 17 bp inverted repeats separated by a variable spacer. The K1 phages integrate into the host tmRNA and the Cluster K phages represent potential new tools for the genetics of M. tuberculosis and related species. PMID:22053209

  13. TM9 family proteins control surface targeting of glycine-rich transmembrane domains.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Jackie; Le Coadic, Marion; Vernay, Alexandre; Dias, Marco; Gopaldass, Navin; Ouertatani-Sakouhi, Hajer; Cosson, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    TM9 family proteins (also named Phg1 proteins) have been previously shown to control cell adhesion by determining the cell surface localization of adhesion proteins such as the Dictyostelium SibA protein. Here, we show that the glycine-rich transmembrane domain (TMD) of SibA is sufficient to confer Phg1A-dependent surface targeting to a reporter protein. Accordingly, in Dictyostelium phg1A-knockout (KO) cells, proteins with glycine-rich TMDs were less efficiently transported out of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and to the cell surface. Phg1A, as well as its human ortholog TM9SF4 specifically associated with glycine-rich TMDs. In human cells, genetic inactivation of TM9SF4 resulted in an increased retention of glycine-rich TMDs in the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas TM9SF4 overexpression enhanced their surface localization. The bulk of the TM9SF4 protein was localized in the Golgi complex and a proximity-ligation assay suggested that it might interact with glycine-rich TMDs. Taken together, these results suggest that one of the main roles of TM9 proteins is to serve as intramembrane cargo receptors controlling exocytosis and surface localization of a subset of membrane proteins. PMID:25999474

  14. TM9 family proteins control surface targeting of glycine-rich transmembrane domains

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Jackie; Le Coadic, Marion; Vernay, Alexandre; Dias, Marco; Gopaldass, Navin; Ouertatani-Sakouhi, Hajer; Cosson, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT TM9 family proteins (also named Phg1 proteins) have been previously shown to control cell adhesion by determining the cell surface localization of adhesion proteins such as the Dictyostelium SibA protein. Here, we show that the glycine-rich transmembrane domain (TMD) of SibA is sufficient to confer Phg1A-dependent surface targeting to a reporter protein. Accordingly, in Dictyostelium phg1A-knockout (KO) cells, proteins with glycine-rich TMDs were less efficiently transported out of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and to the cell surface. Phg1A, as well as its human ortholog TM9SF4 specifically associated with glycine-rich TMDs. In human cells, genetic inactivation of TM9SF4 resulted in an increased retention of glycine-rich TMDs in the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas TM9SF4 overexpression enhanced their surface localization. The bulk of the TM9SF4 protein was localized in the Golgi complex and a proximity-ligation assay suggested that it might interact with glycine-rich TMDs. Taken together, these results suggest that one of the main roles of TM9 proteins is to serve as intramembrane cargo receptors controlling exocytosis and surface localization of a subset of membrane proteins. PMID:25999474

  15. Transplantation of iPSC-derived TM cells rescues glaucoma phenotypes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Gramlich, Oliver W; Laboissonniere, Lauren; Jain, Ankur; Sheffield, Val C; Trimarchi, Jeffrey M; Tucker, Budd A; Kuehn, Markus H

    2016-06-21

    Glaucoma is a common cause of vision loss or blindness and reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) has been proven beneficial in a large fraction of glaucoma patients. The IOP is maintained by the trabecular meshwork (TM) and the elevation of IOP in open-angle glaucoma is associated with dysfunction and loss of the postmitotic cells residing within this tissue. To determine if IOP control can be maintained by replacing lost TM cells, we transplanted TM-like cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells into the anterior chamber of a transgenic mouse model of glaucoma. Transplantation led to significantly reduced IOP and improved aqueous humor outflow facility, which was sustained for at least 9 wk. The ability to maintain normal IOP engendered survival of retinal ganglion cells, whose loss is ultimately the cause for reduced vision in glaucoma. In vivo and in vitro analyses demonstrated higher TM cellularity in treated mice compared with littermate controls and indicated that this increase is primarily because of a proliferative response of endogenous TM cells. Thus, our study provides in vivo demonstration that regeneration of the glaucomatous TM is possible and points toward novel approaches in the treatment of this disease. PMID:27274060

  16. Infrared luminescence of Tm{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} codoped lanthanum aluminum germanate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Qiang; Zhang Guang; Chen Guorong; Qiu Jianrong; Chen Danping

    2010-01-15

    Tm{sup 3+} doped and Tm{sup 3+}/Yb{sup 3+} codoped lanthanum aluminum germanate (LAG) glasses are prepared by melt-quenching method and characterized optically. Based on the measurement of absorption spectrum, Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters ({Omega}{sub 2},{Omega}{sub 4},{Omega}{sub 6}) are calculated. The radiation emission rates, branching ratios, and lifetimes of Tm{sup 3+} are calculated to evaluate the spectroscopic properties of Tm{sup 3+} in LAG glass. The infrared emission properties of the samples are investigated and the results show that the 1.8 {mu}m emission can be greatly enhanced by adding proper amount of Yb{sup 3+} under the excitation of 980 nm. The energy transfer processes of Yb{sup 3+}-Yb{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+}-Tm{sup 3+} are analyzed, and the results show that Yb{sup 3+} ions can transfer their energy to Tm{sup 3+} ions with high efficiency and large energy transfer coefficient.

  17. Can Non-Kramers Tm(III) Mononuclear Molecules be Single-Molecule Magnets (SMMs)?

    PubMed

    Meng, Yin-Shan; Qiao, Yu-Sen; Zhang, Yi-Quan; Jiang, Shang-Da; Meng, Zhao-Sha; Wang, Bing-Wu; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Gao, Song

    2016-03-24

    In recent years, plentiful lanthanide-based (Tb(III) , Dy(III) , and Er(III) ) single-molecule magnets (SMMs) were studied, while examples of other lanthanides, for example, Tm(III) are still unknown. Herein, for the first time, we show that by rationally manipulating the coordination sphere, two thulium compounds, 1[(Tp)Tm(COT)] and 2[(Tp*)Tm(COT)] (Tp=hydrotris(1-pyrazolyl)borate; COT=cyclooctatetraenide; Tp*=hydrotris(3,5-dimethyl-1-pyrazolyl)borate), can adopt the structure of non-Kramers SMMs and exhibit their behaviors. Dynamic magnetic studies indicated that both compounds showed slow magnetic relaxation under dc field and a relatively high effective energy barrier (111 K for 1, 46 K for 2). Magnetic diluted 1 a[(Tp)Tm0.05 Y0.95 (COT)] and 2 a[(Tp*)Tm0.05 Y0.95 (COT)] even exhibited magnetic relaxation under zero dc field. Relativistic ab initio calculations combined with single-crystal angular-resolved magnetometry measurements revealed the strong easy axis anisotropy and nearly degenerated ground doublet states. The comparison of 1 and 2 highlights the importance of local symmetry for obtaining Tm SMMs. PMID:26777067

  18. Sensitivity of Landsat MSS and TM to land cover change in the Golden Horseshoe, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzGibbon, Jamie; Chen, Dongmei

    2008-10-01

    An ideal situation for conducting change detection is to use multi-temporal images acquired from the same sensor. However, many conditions (such as the discontinuity of sensors, weather conditions) would bring an end to the ideal temporal change detection. Imagery availability issues will force change detection studies in the future to increasingly incorporate multiple sensors. This study conducted change detection between Landsat TM (TM) and Landsat MSS (MSS) images from July 30, 1995 to June 2, 2003. The study area was centered on the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) in south-central Ontario, Canada. Post-classification change detection was used to determine the type of change between the images. Results demonstrated that despite the different spatial resolution of the MSS and TM data, the change detection using both MSS and TM was similar in results to that of TM alone. A change detection where MSS is resampled to 30 meters was most effective in capturing the amount and type of change in the TM change study.

  19. Hypervariability within the Rifin, Stevor and Pfmc-2TM superfamilies in Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Lavazec, Catherine; Sanyal, Sohini; Templeton, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    The human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, possesses a broad repertoire of proteins that are proposed to be trafficked to the erythrocyte cytoplasm or surface, based upon the presence within these proteins of a Pexel/VTS erythrocyte-trafficking motif. This catalog includes large families of predicted 2 transmembrane (2TM) proteins, including the Rifin, Stevor and Pfmc-2TM superfamilies, of which each possesses a region of extensive sequence diversity across paralogs and between isolates that is confined to a proposed surface-exposed loop on the infected erythrocyte. Here we express epitope-tagged versions of the 2TM proteins in transgenic NF54 parasites and present evidence that the Stevor and Pfmc-2TM families are exported to the erythrocyte membrane, thus supporting the hypothesis that host immune pressure drives antigenic diversity within the loop. An examination of multiple P.falciparum isolates demonstrates that the hypervariable loop within Stevor and Pfmc-2TM proteins possesses sequence diversity across isolate boundaries. The Pfmc-2TM genes are encoded within large amplified loci that share profound nucleotide identity, which in turn highlight the divergences observed within the hypervariable loop. The majority of Pexel/VTS proteins are organized together within sub-telomeric genome neighborhoods, and a mechanism must therefore exist to differentially generate sequence diversity within select genes, as well as within highly defined regions within these genes. PMID:17148488

  20. On Fire regime modelling using satellite TM time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oddi, F.; . Ghermandi, L.; Lanorte, A.; Lasaponara, R.

    2009-04-01

    Wildfires can cause an environment deterioration modifying vegetation dynamics because they have the capacity of changing vegetation diversity and physiognomy. In semiarid regions, like the northwestern Patagonia, fire disturbance is also important because it could impact on the potential productivity of the ecosystem. There is reduction plant biomass and with that reducing the animal carrying capacity and/or the forest site quality with negative economics implications. Therefore knowledge of the fires regime in a region is of great importance to understand and predict the responses of vegetation and its possible effect on the regional economy. Studies of this type at a landscape level can be addressed using GIS tools. Satellite imagery allows detect burned areas and through a temporary analysis can be determined to fire regime and detecting changes at landscape scale. The study area of work is located on the east of the city of Bariloche including the San Ramon Ranch (22,000 ha) and its environs in the ecotone formed by the sub Antarctic forest and the patagonian steppe. We worked with multiespectral Landsat TM images and Landsat ETM + 30m spatial resolution obtained at different times. For the spatial analysis we used the software Erdas Imagine 9.0 and ArcView 3.3. A discrimination of vegetation types has made and was determined areas affected by fires in different years. We determined the level of change on vegetation induced by fire. In the future the use of high spatial resolution images combined with higher spectral resolution will allows distinguish burned areas with greater precision on study area. Also the use of digital terrain models derived from satellite imagery associated with climatic variables will allows model the relationship between them and the dynamics of vegetation.

  1. Therapeutic effect of a TM4SF5-specific monoclonal antibody against colon cancer in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dongbum; Park, Byoung Kwon; Park, Jeong-A; Choi, Kyung-Chan; Kim, Doo-Sik; Kwon, Hyung-Joo; Lee, Younghee

    2014-01-01

    Transmembrane 4 superfamily member 5 protein (TM4SF5) is presumed to serve as a molecular target to prevent or treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and colon cancer in a mouse model. Previously, we reported the efficacy of anti-cancer peptide vaccine targeting TM4SF5. In addition, we reported an anti-proliferative effect of anti-TM4SF5 monoclonal antibody in HCC. Here, we investigated expression of TM4SF5 in 45 primary colon cancer tissues. Almost all of the colon cancer tissues expressed TM4SF5 based on immunohistochemistry using anti-TM4SF5 monoclonal antibody. The treatment of human colon cancer cells with anti-TM4SF5 antibody reduced growth of TM4SF5 expressing cells and enhanced expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin. Using mouse colon cancer models, we then evaluated the in vivo anti-cancer effect of anti-TM4SF5 antibody. Injection of the antibody significantly reduced growth of tumors priorly established by subcutaneous injection of human colon cancer cells HT-29 in a xenograft setting. We obtained similar results with mouse colon cancer cell line CT-26 in an allograft setting. Therefore, we suggest that the TM4SF5-specific monoclonal antibody has a therapeutic effect against colon cancer. PMID:25268742

  2. Cultivation of a human-associated TM7 phylotype reveals a reduced genome and epibiotic parasitic lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    He, Xuesong; McLean, Jeffrey S.; Edlund, Anna; Yooseph, Shibu; Hall, Adam P.; Liu, Su-Yang; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Esquenazi, Eduardo; Hunter, Ryan C.; Cheng, Genhong; Nelson, Karen E.; Lux, Renate; Shi, Wenyuan

    2015-01-01

    The candidate phylum TM7 is globally distributed and often associated with human inflammatory mucosal diseases. Despite its prevalence, the TM7 phylum remains recalcitrant to cultivation, making it one of the most enigmatic phyla known. In this study, we cultivated a TM7 phylotype (TM7x) from the human oral cavity. This extremely small coccus (200–300 nm) has a distinctive lifestyle not previously observed in human-associated microbes. It is an obligate epibiont of an Actinomyces odontolyticus strain (XH001) yet also has a parasitic phase, thereby killing its host. This first completed genome (705 kb) for a human-associated TM7 phylotype revealed a complete lack of amino acid biosynthetic capacity. Comparative genomics analyses with uncultivated environmental TM7 assemblies show remarkable conserved gene synteny and only minimal gene loss/gain that may have occurred as TM7x adapted to conditions within the human host. Transcriptomic and metabolomic profiles provided the first indications, to our knowledge, that there is signaling interaction between TM7x and XH001. Furthermore, the induction of TNF-α production in macrophages by XH001 was repressed in the presence of TM7x, suggesting its potential immune suppression ability. Overall, our data provide intriguing insights into the uncultivability, pathogenicity, and unique lifestyle of this previously uncharacterized oral TM7 phylotype. PMID:25535390

  3. Opioid-induced redistribution of 6TM and 7TM μ opioid receptors: A hypothesized mechanistic facilitator model of opioid-induced hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Jin, Xiaoju; Liu, Yusheng; Xu, Shiqin; Lei, Liming; Shen, Xiaofeng; Guo, Xirong; Xia, Xiaoqiong; Wang, Fuzhou

    2016-08-01

    Opioids are still the most popular form of pain treatment, but many unavoidable side effects make opioids a big challenge in effective pain management. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), a paradoxical phenomenon, portrays an increased sensitivity to harmful stimuli caused by opioid exposure. Changes in the neural modulation are considered a major contributor to the development of OIH. Activation of opioid receptors (ORs) and corresponding downstream molecules are the vital composition of functional performance of opioids. Increasing interests were proposed of the interaction between ORs and other neural transmitter systems such as glutamatergic, GABAergic and adrenergic ones to the genesis of OIH. G protein coupled μ-opioid receptor (MOR) was studied comprehensively on its role in the development of OIH. In addition to the relationship between MOR and other neurotransmitter receptors, a new intracellular MOR that has six transmembrane (6TM) domains was identified, and found to perform a pro-nociceptive task in contrast to the counterpart 7TM isoform. A mechanistic model of OIH in which both 6TM and 7TM MORs undergoing membrane redistribution upon opioid exposure is proposed which eventually facilitates the neurons more sensitive to nociceptive stimulation than that of the preceding opioid exposure. PMID:27116700

  4. Coevolution and hierarchical interactions of Tomato mosaic virus and the resistance gene Tm-1.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Kazuhiro; Mawatari, Natsuki; Miyashita, Shuhei; Kishino, Hirohisa; Meshi, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    During antagonistic coevolution between viruses and their hosts, viruses have a major advantage by evolving more rapidly. Nevertheless, viruses and their hosts coexist and have coevolved, although the processes remain largely unknown. We previously identified Tm-1 that confers resistance to Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), and revealed that it encodes a protein that binds ToMV replication proteins and inhibits RNA replication. Tm-1 was introgressed from a wild tomato species Solanum habrochaites into the cultivated tomato species Solanum lycopersicum. In this study, we analyzed Tm-1 alleles in S. habrochaites. Although most part of this gene was under purifying selection, a cluster of nonsynonymous substitutions in a small region important for inhibitory activity was identified, suggesting that the region is under positive selection. We then examined the resistance of S. habrochaites plants to ToMV. Approximately 60% of 149 individuals from 24 accessions were resistant to ToMV, while the others accumulated detectable levels of coat protein after inoculation. Unexpectedly, many S. habrochaites plants were observed in which even multiplication of the Tm-1-resistance-breaking ToMV mutant LT1 was inhibited. An amino acid change in the positively selected region of the Tm-1 protein was responsible for the inhibition of LT1 multiplication. This amino acid change allowed Tm-1 to bind LT1 replication proteins without losing the ability to bind replication proteins of wild-type ToMV. The antiviral spectra and biochemical properties suggest that Tm-1 has evolved by changing the strengths of its inhibitory activity rather than diversifying the recognition spectra. In the LT1-resistant S. habrochaites plants inoculated with LT1, mutant viruses emerged whose multiplication was not inhibited by the Tm-1 allele that confers resistance to LT1. However, the resistance-breaking mutants were less competitive than the parental strains in the absence of Tm-1. Based on these results, we

  5. Coevolution and Hierarchical Interactions of Tomato mosaic virus and the Resistance Gene Tm-1

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Kazuhiro; Mawatari, Natsuki; Miyashita, Shuhei; Kishino, Hirohisa; Meshi, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    During antagonistic coevolution between viruses and their hosts, viruses have a major advantage by evolving more rapidly. Nevertheless, viruses and their hosts coexist and have coevolved, although the processes remain largely unknown. We previously identified Tm-1 that confers resistance to Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), and revealed that it encodes a protein that binds ToMV replication proteins and inhibits RNA replication. Tm-1 was introgressed from a wild tomato species Solanum habrochaites into the cultivated tomato species Solanum lycopersicum. In this study, we analyzed Tm-1 alleles in S. habrochaites. Although most part of this gene was under purifying selection, a cluster of nonsynonymous substitutions in a small region important for inhibitory activity was identified, suggesting that the region is under positive selection. We then examined the resistance of S. habrochaites plants to ToMV. Approximately 60% of 149 individuals from 24 accessions were resistant to ToMV, while the others accumulated detectable levels of coat protein after inoculation. Unexpectedly, many S. habrochaites plants were observed in which even multiplication of the Tm-1-resistance-breaking ToMV mutant LT1 was inhibited. An amino acid change in the positively selected region of the Tm-1 protein was responsible for the inhibition of LT1 multiplication. This amino acid change allowed Tm-1 to bind LT1 replication proteins without losing the ability to bind replication proteins of wild-type ToMV. The antiviral spectra and biochemical properties suggest that Tm-1 has evolved by changing the strengths of its inhibitory activity rather than diversifying the recognition spectra. In the LT1-resistant S. habrochaites plants inoculated with LT1, mutant viruses emerged whose multiplication was not inhibited by the Tm-1 allele that confers resistance to LT1. However, the resistance-breaking mutants were less competitive than the parental strains in the absence of Tm-1. Based on these results, we

  6. The complex of tmRNA-SmpB and EF-G on translocating ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Ramrath, David J F; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Rother, Kristian; Wittek, Daniela; Pech, Markus; Mielke, Thorsten; Loerke, Justus; Scheerer, Patrick; Ivanov, Pavel; Teraoka, Yoshika; Shpanchenko, Olga; Nierhaus, Knud H; Spahn, Christian M T

    2012-05-24

    Bacterial ribosomes stalled at the 3' end of malfunctioning messenger RNAs can be rescued by transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA)-mediated trans-translation. The SmpB protein forms a complex with the tmRNA, and the transfer-RNA-like domain (TLD) of the tmRNA then enters the A site of the ribosome. Subsequently, the TLD-SmpB module is translocated to the P site, a process that is facilitated by the elongation factor EF-G, and translation is switched to the mRNA-like domain (MLD) of the tmRNA. Accurate loading of the MLD into the mRNA path is an unusual initiation mechanism. Despite various snapshots of different ribosome-tmRNA complexes at low to intermediate resolution, it is unclear how the large, highly structured tmRNA is translocated and how the MLD is loaded. Here we present a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of a fusidic-acid-stalled ribosomal 70S-tmRNA-SmpB-EF-G complex (carrying both of the large ligands, that is, EF-G and tmRNA) at 8.3 Å resolution. This post-translocational intermediate (TI(POST)) presents the TLD-SmpB module in an intrasubunit ap/P hybrid site and a tRNA(fMet) in an intrasubunit pe/E hybrid site. Conformational changes in the ribosome and tmRNA occur in the intersubunit space and on the solvent side. The key underlying event is a unique extra-large swivel movement of the 30S head, which is crucial for both tmRNA-SmpB translocation and MLD loading, thereby coupling translocation to MLD loading. This mechanism exemplifies the versatile, dynamic nature of the ribosome, and it shows that the conformational modes of the ribosome that normally drive canonical translation can also be used in a modified form to facilitate more complex tasks in specialized non-canonical pathways. PMID:22622583

  7. Stability of one- and two-layers [TM(Benzene)m]±1, m ≤ 3; TM = Fe, Co, and Ni, complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Raúl; Castro, Miguel

    2016-12-01

    The structural and energetic properties for neutral and charged complexes of transition metal atoms and benzene molecules, TM(C6H6)m ≤ 3, TM = Fe, Co, Ni, were studied using density functional theory. Including dispersion corrections all-electron calculations were done with the BPW91-D2 and M11L functionals. Basis sets of 6-311++G(2d,2p) and Def2TZVP quality were employed. Binding energies, D0, ionization energies, IE, and electron affinities, EA, were determined for the located ground states. Structural and electronic parameters accounting for the stability of TM(C6H6)m were also addressed. Metal-carbon (η2-η6) coordination occur in the neutral and positively charged TM(C6H6)1,2 species. But in the Cosbnd C6H6 and Nisbnd C6H6 ions the metal atom seats on two hydrogen atoms, η2H, of the benzene ring, with the peculiarity that the ground state geometries are planar. In the neutral and charged TM(C6H6)3, TM = Fe, Co and Ni species a benzene molecule lies in the external region and by means of CH-π and π-π stacking interactions it is bonded to the ligands lying in the first coordination layer. Although weak, some external molecules present direct interactions with the metal atom. The D0 for the molecules in the outer region is much smaller than the one for the ligands in the first layer. Therefore, solvent behavior is exhibited by the studied neutral and charged [TM(C6H6)3]±1 complexes. Experiment and theory agree that: D0(Fe+(C6H6)2) > D0(Co+(C6H6)2) > D0(Ni+C6H6)2) and D0(NiC6H6) > D0(CoC6H6). Reasonable accuracy was found for the D0 of each complex; other tendencies are not fully reproduced at these levels of theory. The small D0's of CoC6H6 and NiC6H6 and those of the anions, complicate their determination. In general, the EA increases from m = 1 to 2 and from 2 to 3. The IE decreases from m = 1 to 3, being due to delocalization trough the Cδ-sbnd Hδ+⋯π network of bonds.

  8. Comparison of tunable lasers based on diode pumped Tm-doped crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šulc, Jan; Jelínková, Helena; Koranda, Petr; Černý, Pavel; Jabczyński, Jan K.; Żendzian, Waldemar; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Urata, Yoshiharu; Higuchi, Mikio

    2008-12-01

    We report on continuously tunable operation of a diode pumped lasers based on Tm-doped materials, emitting in the 1.8 - 2.μ1 m spectral band. In our study we compare results obtained with three various single crystals doped by Tm3+ ions: Yttrium Aluminum perovskite YAP (YAlO3), Gadolinium orthovanadate GdVO4, and Yttrium Lithium Fluoride YLF (YLiF4). Following samples were available: the 3mm long a-cut crystal rod of Tm:YAP with 4% at. Tm/Y (diameter 3 mm); the 8mm long b-cut crystal rod of Tm:YLF with 3.5% at. Tm/Y (diameter 3 mm); the 2.7mm long a-cut crystal block of Tm:GdVO4 with 2% at. Tm/Gd (crystal face 5×3 mm). For active medium pumping, the laser diode radiation was used. Because the tested samples differs significantly in absorption spectra, two fibre-coupled (core diameter 400 µm) temperature-tuned laser diodes were used: first operating at wavelength 793nm was used for Tm:YAP and Tm:YLF; the second operating at wavelength 802nm was used for Tm:GdVO4. In both cases, the continuous power up to 20W was available for pumping. The diode radiation was focused into the active crystal by two achromatic doublet lenses with the focal length f = 75 mm. The measured radius of pumping beam focus inside the crystal was 260 µm. The longitudinally diode pumped crystals were tested in linear, 80mm long, hemispherical laser cavity. The curved (radius 150mm) output coupler reflectivity was ~ 97 % in range from 1.8 up to 2.1 μm. The pumping flat mirror had maximal reflectivity in this range and it had high transmission around 0.8 μm. A 1.5mm thick birefringent plate made from quartz (Lyot filter) inserted under a Brewster's angle was used as a tuning element. This plate was placed inside the resonator between the crystal and the output coupler. Using Tm:YAP crystal, the maximal output power of 2.8W in this set-up was obtained. The laser could be tuned from 1865nm up to 2036nm with a maximum at 1985 nm. Laser based on Tm:YLF crystal was tunable from 1835nm up to

  9. Closure of the Cytoplasmic Gate Formed by TM5 and TM11 during Transport in the Oxalate/Formate Exchanger from Oxalobacter formigenes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    OxlT, the oxalate/formate exchanger of Oxalobacter formigenes, is a member of the major facilitator superfamily of transporters. In the present work, substrate (oxalate) was found to enhance the reactivity of the cysteine mutant S336C on the cytoplasmic end of helix 11 to methanethiosulfonate ethyl carboxylate. In addition, S336C is found to spontaneously cross-link to S143C in TM5 in either native or reconstituted membranes under conditions that support transport. Continuous wave EPR measurements are consistent with this result and indicate that positions 143 and 336 are in close proximity in the presence of substrate. These two residues are localized within helix interacting GxxxG-like motifs (G140LASG144 and S336DIFG340) at the cytoplasmic poles of TM5 and TM11. Pulse EPR measurements were used to determine distances and distance distributions across the cytoplasmic or periplasmic ends of OxlT and were compared with the predictions of an inside-open homology model. The data indicate that a significant population of transporter is in an outside-open configuration in the presence of substrate; however, each end of the transporter exhibits significant conformational heterogeneity, where both inside-open and outside-open configurations are present. These data indicate that TM5 and TM11, which form part of the transport pathway, transiently close during transport and that there is a conformational equilibrium between inside-open and outside-open states of OxlT in the presence of substrate. PMID:25409483

  10. Use of the Aromascan(TM) Instrument for Nonsubjective Evaluation of Rodent Spaceflight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scribner, K. A.; Steele, M. K.; Hinds, W. E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the verification and utilization of the AromaScan(TM) (Hollis, NH) instrument for the ground-based evaluation of odor containment by various spaceflight habitats developed at NASA's Ames Research Center (ARC). The AromaScan(TM) instrument is an electronic odor detection system consisting of 32 polymer sensors that respond differentially to 10 different chemical groups present in an air sample. The AromaScan(TM) system also includes neural network software for constructing a database of known odors, against which an unknown odor can be compared. At present, the standard method for characterizing rodent odor containment during the development and testing of spaceflight hardware is the use of a human odor assessment panel. However, this can be a very time consuming and costly process, and the results are inherently subjective. The AromaScan(TM) system should produce more consistent and objective results, as well as a cost savings in the long term. To test and verify the AromaScan(TM) instrument, daily air samples will be collected from the exhaust port of rodent habitats, during experiment development tests, then injected into the instrument and used to create a database of recognizable odors. Human sniff tests will be performed in conjunction with the AromaScan(TM) analysis, and the results will be correlated. We will then teach the neural network to differentiate between an acceptable and an unacceptable odor profile, as defined by the human sniff test, and to be able to accurately identify an odor that would not pass a sniff panel. The results of our efforts will be to verify that the AromaScan(TM) system is a valuable alternative to human sniff panel assessments for the early iterative process of designing and testing rodent waste filters for spaceflight. Acceptance by a human panel will remain one of the final criteria for successful rodent habitat development.

  11. Crystal growth and characterization of Tm doped mixed rare-earth aluminum perovskite

    SciTech Connect

    Totsuka, Daisuke; Yanagida, Takayuki; Sugiyama, Makoto; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yokota, Yuui; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (Lu{sub x}Gd{sub y}Y{sub 0.99-x-y}Tm{sub 0.01})AP single crystals were grown by the {mu}-PD method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The grown crystals were single phase with perovskite structure (Pbnm). Significant segregation of Lu and Gd was detected in the growth direction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some absorption bands due to Tm{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+} and color centers were exhibited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radioluminescence spectra showed several emission peaks ascribed to Tm{sup 3+} and Gd{sup 3+}. -- Abstract: In this work, we present results of structural characterization and optical properties including radio luminescence of (Lu{sub x}Gd{sub y}Y{sub 0.99-x-y}Tm{sub 0.01})AP single crystal scintillators for (x, y) = (0.30, 0.19), (0, 0.19) and (0, 0) grown by the micro-pulling-down ({mu}-PD) method. The grown crystals were single phase materials with perovskite structure (Pbnm) as confirmed by XRD and had a good crystallinity. The distribution of the crystal constituents in growth direction was evaluated, and significant segregation of Lu and Gd was detected in (Lu{sub 0.30}Gd{sub 0.19}Y{sub 0.50}Tm{sub 0.01})AP sample. The crystals demonstrated 70% transmittance in visible wavelength range and some absorption bands due to Tm{sup 3+}, Gd{sup 3+} and color centers were exhibited in 190-900 nm. The radioluminescence measurement under X-ray irradiation demonstrated several emission peaks ascribed to 4f-4f transitions of Tm{sup 3+} and Gd{sup 3+}. The ratio of emission intensity in longer wavelength range was increased when Y was replaced by Lu or Gd.

  12. Electronic structure and magneto-optical Kerr effect of Tm monochalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Antonov, V. N.; Harmon, B. N.; Yaresko, A. N.

    2001-05-15

    The optical and magneto-optical (MO) spectra of Tm monochalcogenides are investigated theoretically from first principles, using the fully relativistic Dirac linear combination of muffin-tin orbitals band structure method. The electronic structure is obtained with the local-spin-density approximation (LSDA), as well as with the so-called LSDA+U approach. In contrast to LSDA, where the stable solution in TmTe is a metal, the LSDA+U gave an insulating ground state. LSDA+U theory predicts the thulium ion in TmTe to be in an integer divalent state. It also shows a gradual decreasing of the energy gap with reducing of the lattice constant. LSDA+U theoretical calculations produce a similar energy band structure in TmS and TmSe, with twelve 4f bands fully occupied and hybridized with chalcogenide p states. The 14th f hole level was found to be completely unoccupied and well above the Fermi level and a hole 13th f level is partly occupied and pinned at the Fermi level. The occupation number of the 13th f level is equal to 0.12 and 0.27 in TmS and TmSe, respectively (valence 2.88+ and 2.73+). Such an energy band structure of thulium monochalcogenides describes well their measured bremsstrahlung isochromat spectroscopy (BIS), and x-ray and ultraviolet photoemission spectra as well as the optical and MO spectra. The origin of the Kerr rotation realized in the compounds is examined.

  13. Tm7sf2 may participate in the healing of burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Lei, Na; Wang, Peng; Meng, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    The transmembrane 7 superfamily member 2 (Tm7sf2) gene been reported to be involved in the reduced cholesterol levels of patients with large burn areas. To investigate the importance of Tm7sf2 in the burn wound healing process, a total of 10 Sprague‑Dawley rats underwent electrical burns. Blood serum was collected for the culture of HaCaT human keratinocyte cells. Tm7sf2 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were prepared and transfected into the normal‑ and burn serum‑cultured HaCaT cells. Monocyte‑endothelial cellular adhesion ability and cell proliferation, as determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and the levels of autophagy proteins Beclin1 and LC3‑II, which were detected by western blot assay and real time‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and it was identified that Tm7sf2 siRNAs were successfully transfected. Cell proliferation was reduced and monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion increased in the burn serum group compared with the normal serum group (P<0.05). Additionally, the expression levels of Beclin1 and LC3‑II were increased, and the addition of siTm7sf2 had a similar effect as the burn serum. Thus, Tm7sf2 may take part in the burn wound healing process by interacting with LC3‑II and Beclin1, and targeting Tm7sf2 may have therapeutic benefits. PMID:27220550

  14. tmChem: a high performance approach for chemical named entity recognition and normalization

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chemical compounds and drugs are an important class of entities in biomedical research with great potential in a wide range of applications, including clinical medicine. Locating chemical named entities in the literature is a useful step in chemical text mining pipelines for identifying the chemical mentions, their properties, and their relationships as discussed in the literature. We introduce the tmChem system, a chemical named entity recognizer created by combining two independent machine learning models in an ensemble. We use the corpus released as part of the recent CHEMDNER task to develop and evaluate tmChem, achieving a micro-averaged f-measure of 0.8739 on the CEM subtask (mention-level evaluation) and 0.8745 f-measure on the CDI subtask (abstract-level evaluation). We also report a high-recall combination (0.9212 for CEM and 0.9224 for CDI). tmChem achieved the highest f-measure reported in the CHEMDNER task for the CEM subtask, and the high recall variant achieved the highest recall on both the CEM and CDI tasks. We report that tmChem is a state-of-the-art tool for chemical named entity recognition and that performance for chemical named entity recognition has now tied (or exceeded) the performance previously reported for genes and diseases. Future research should focus on tighter integration between the named entity recognition and normalization steps for improved performance. The source code and a trained model for both models of tmChem is available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/Demo/tmChem. The results of running tmChem (Model 2) on PubMed are available in PubTator: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Lu/Demo/PubTator PMID:25810774

  15. Bushen Zhuangjin decoction inhibits TM-induced chondrocyte apoptosis mediated by endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    LIN, PINGDONG; WENG, XIAPING; LIU, FAYUAN; MA, YUHUAN; CHEN, HOUHUANG; SHAO, XIANG; ZHENG, WENWEI; LIU, XIANXIANG; YE, HONGZHI; LI, XIHAI

    2015-01-01

    Chondrocyte apoptosis triggered by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Bushen Zhuangjin decoction (BZD) has been widely used in the treatment of OA. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the inhibitory effects of BZD on chondrocyte apoptosis remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of BZD on ER stress-induced chondrocyte apoptosis using a chondrocyte in vitro model of OA. Chondrocytes obtained from the articular cartilage of the knee joints of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were detected by immunohistochemical staining for type II collagen. The ER stress-mediated apoptosis of tunicamycin (TM)-stimulated chondrocytes was detected using 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA). We found that 4-PBA inhibited TM-induced chondrocyte apoptosis, which confirmed the successful induction of chondrocyte apoptosis. BZD enhanced the viability of the TM-stimulated chondrocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as shown by MTT assay. The apoptotic rate and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) of the TM-stimulated chondrocytes treated with BZD was markedly decreased compared with those of chondrocytes not treated with BZD, as shown by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, Annexin V-FITC binding assay and JC-1 assay. To further elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the inhibitory effects of BZD on TM-induced chondrocyte apoptosis mediated by ER stress, the mRNA and protein expression levels of binding immunoglobulin protein (Bip), X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1), activating transcription factor 4 (Atf4), C/EBP-homologous protein (Chop), caspase-9, caspase-3, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis. In the TM-stimulated chondrocytes treated with BZD, the mRNA and protein expression levels of Bip, Atf4, Chop, caspase-9, caspase-3

  16. TM-25659-Induced Activation of FGF21 Level Decreases Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in Skeletal Muscle via GCN2 Pathways.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jong Gab; Yi, Sang-A; Choi, Sung-E; Kang, Yup; Kim, Tae Ho; Jeon, Ja Young; Bae, Myung Ae; Ahn, Jin Hee; Jeong, Hana; Hwang, Eun Sook; Lee, Kwan-Woo

    2015-12-01

    The TAZ activator 2-butyl-5-methyl-6-(pyridine-3-yl)-3-[2'-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)-biphenyl-4-ylmethyl]-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine] (TM-25659) inhibits adipocyte differentiation by interacting with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. TM-25659 was previously shown to decrease weight gain in a high fat (HF) diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. However, the fundamental mechanisms underlying the effects of TM-25659 remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of TM-25659 on skeletal muscle functions in C2 myotubes and C57BL/6J mice. We studied the molecular mechanisms underlying the contribution of TM-25659 to palmitate (PA)-induced insulin resistance in C2 myotubes. TM-25659 improved PA-induced insulin resistance and inflammation in C2 myotubes. In addition, TM-25659 increased FGF21 mRNA expression, protein levels, and FGF21 secretion in C2 myotubes via activation of GCN2 pathways (GCN2-phosphoeIF2α-ATF4 and FGF21). This beneficial effect of TM-25659 was diminished by FGF21 siRNA. C57BL/6J mice were fed a HF diet for 30 weeks. The HF-diet group was randomly divided into two groups for the next 14 days: the HF-diet and HF-diet + TM-25659 groups. The HF diet + TM-25659-treated mice showed improvements in their fasting blood glucose levels, insulin sensitivity, insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation, and inflammation, but neither body weight nor food intake was affected. The HF diet + TM-25659-treated mice also exhibited increased expression of both FGF21 mRNA and protein. These data indicate that TM-25659 may be beneficial for treating insulin resistance by inducing FGF21 in models of PA-induced insulin resistance and HF diet-induced insulin resistance. PMID:26537193

  17. TM-25659-Induced Activation of FGF21 Level Decreases Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in Skeletal Muscle via GCN2 Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jong Gab; Yi, Sang-A; Choi, Sung-E; Kang, Yup; Kim, Tae Ho; Jeon, Ja Young; Bae, Myung Ae; Ahn, Jin Hee; Jeong, Hana; Hwang, Eun Sook; Lee, Kwan-Woo

    2015-01-01

    The TAZ activator 2-butyl-5-methyl-6-(pyridine-3-yl)-3-[2′-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)-biphenyl-4-ylmethyl]-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine] (TM-25659) inhibits adipocyte differentiation by interacting with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. TM-25659 was previously shown to decrease weight gain in a high fat (HF) diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. However, the fundamental mechanisms underlying the effects of TM-25659 remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of TM-25659 on skeletal muscle functions in C2 myotubes and C57BL/6J mice. We studied the molecular mechanisms underlying the contribution of TM-25659 to palmitate (PA)-induced insulin resistance in C2 myotubes. TM-25659 improved PA-induced insulin resistance and inflammation in C2 myotubes. In addition, TM-25659 increased FGF21 mRNA expression, protein levels, and FGF21 secretion in C2 myotubes via activation of GCN2 pathways (GCN2-phosphoeIF2α-ATF4 and FGF21). This beneficial effect of TM-25659 was diminished by FGF21 siRNA. C57BL/6J mice were fed a HF diet for 30 weeks. The HF-diet group was randomly divided into two groups for the next 14 days: the HF-diet and HF-diet + TM-25659 groups. The HF diet + TM-25659-treated mice showed improvements in their fasting blood glucose levels, insulin sensitivity, insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation, and inflammation, but neither body weight nor food intake was affected. The HF diet + TM-25659-treated mice also exhibited increased expression of both FGF21 mRNA and protein. These data indicate that TM-25659 may be beneficial for treating insulin resistance by inducing FGF21 in models of PA-induced insulin resistance and HF diet-induced insulin resistance. PMID:26537193

  18. Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Kevin P.

    1993-01-01

    Multispectral measurements collected by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were correlated with field measurements, direct soil loss estimates, and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) estimates to determine the sensitivity of TM data to varying degrees of soil erosion in pinyon-juniper woodland in central Utah. TM data were also evaluated as a predictor of the USLE Crop Management C factor for pinyon-juniper woodlands. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion factors than any combination of field factors. TM data were more sensitive to vegetation variations than the USLE C factor. USLE estimates showed low annual rates of erosion which varied little among the study sites. Direct measurements of rate of soil loss using the SEDIMENT (Soil Erosion DIrect measureMENT) technique, indicated high and varying rates of soil loss among the sites since tree establishment. Erosion estimates from the USLE and SEDIMENT methods suggest that erosion rates have been severe in the past, but because significant amounts of soil have already been eroded, and the surface is now armored by rock debris, present erosion rates are lower. Indicators of accelerated erosion were still present on all sites, however, suggesting that the USLE underestimated erosion within the study area.

  19. LANDSAT TM image data quality analysis for energy-related applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wukelic, G. E.; Foote, H. P.; Petrie, G. M.; Barnard, J. C.; Eliason, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    This project represents a no-cost agreement between National Aeronautic Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA GSFC) and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). PNL is a Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory operted by Battelle Memorial Institute at its Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Richland, Washington. The objective of this investigation is to evaluate LANDSAT's thematic mapper (TM) data quality and utility characteristics from an energy research and technological perspective. Of main interest is the extent to which repetitive TM data might support DOE efforts relating to siting, developing, and monitoring energy-related facilities, and to basic geoscientific research. The investigation utilizes existing staff and facility capabilities, and ongoing programmatic activities at PNL and other DOE national laboratories to cooperatively assess the potential usefulness of the improved experimental TM data. The investigation involves: (1) both LANDSAT 4 and 5 TM data, (2) qualitative and quantitative use consideration, and 3) NASA P (corrected) and A (uncorrected) CCT analysis for a variety of sites of DOE interest. Initial results were presented at the LANDSAT Investigator's Workshops and at specialized LANDSAT TM sessions at various conferences.

  20. DAG-TM Concept Element 11 CNS Performance Assessment: ADS-B Performance in the TRACON

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghavan, Rajesh S.

    2004-01-01

    Distributed Air/Ground (DAG) Traffic Management (TM) is an integrated operational concept in which flight deck crews, air traffic service providers and aeronautical operational control personnel use distributed decision-making to enable user preferences and increase system capacity, while meeting air traffic management (ATM) safety requirements. It is a possible operational mode under the Free Flight concept outlined by the RTCA Task Force 3. The goal of DAG-TM is to enhance user flexibility/efficiency and increase system capacity, without adversely affecting system safety or restricting user accessibility to the National Airspace System (NAS). DAG-TM will be accomplished with a human-centered operational paradigm enabled by procedural and technological innovations. These innovations include automation aids, information sharing and Communication, Navigation, and Surveillance (CNS) / ATM technologies. The DAG-TM concept is intended to eliminate static restrictions to the maximum extent possible. In this paradigm, users may plan and operate according to their preferences - as the rule rather than the exception - with deviations occurring only as necessary. The DAG-TM concept elements aim to mitigate the extent and impact of dynamic NAS constraints, while maximizing the flexibility of airspace operations

  1. [Mid-infrared emission and multiphonon relaxation in Tm3+-doped Ge-Ga-Se glasses].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Dai, Shi-Xun; Le, Fang-Da; Peng, Bo; Xu, Tie-Feng; Nie, Qiu-Hua; Zhang, Xiang-Hua

    2010-06-01

    A series of chalcogenide glasses based on the composition Ge30 Ga5 Se65 (at. %) doped with the different Tm3+ ions were synthesized by melt-quenching technique. The refractive indexes, Raman spectra, absorption spectra, near-and mid-infrared fluorescence, and lifetimes of glass samples under 800 nm laser excitation were measured. The intensity parameters omega(i) (i = 2, 4, 6), transition probabilities, branching ratios and radiative lifetimes have been predicted for Tm3+ ions in samples by using the Judd-Ofelt theory. The near-infrared emission spectra at 1.23, 1.48 and 1.8 microm were observed and their quantum efficiencies were evaluated respectively in glass doped with 1 Wt% Tm(3+)-ions under 800 nm excitation. The mid-infrared fluorescence spectra were investigated with the different Tm3+ ion concentration under 800 nm excitation. The multiphonon relaxation rate of Tm3+ : 3 H5 --> 3F4 by the measured and calculated lifetimes, and the relative parameters of W(0) and a in Ge30 Ga5 Se65 glass were evaluated. Results show that the multiphonon relaxation rates were significantly lower than other glasses due to the lower maximum phonon energy, so the selenide glasses are promising as host materials for doping by rare earth ions and for preparation of mid-infrared optical elements. PMID:20707130

  2. Evaluation of Petrifilms(TM) as a diagnostic test to detect bovine mastitis organisms in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gitau, George K; Bundi, Royford M; Vanleeuwen, John; Mulei, Charles M

    2013-03-01

    The study purpose was to validate Petrifilms(TM) (3M Microbiology, 2005) against standard culture methods in the diagnosis of bovine mastitis organisms in Kenya. On 128 smallholder dairy cattle farms in Kenya, between June 21, 2010 and August 31, 2010, milk samples from 269 cows that were positive on California Mastitis Test (CMT) were cultured using standard laboratory culture methods and Petrifilms(TM) (Aerobic Count and Coliform Count -3M Microbiology, 2005), and results were compared. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacterium isolated (73 % of samples). Clinical mastitis was found in only three cows, and there were only two Gram-negative isolates, making it impossible to examine the agreement between the two tests for Gram-negative- or clinical mastitis samples. The observed agreement between the standard culture and Petrifilm(TM) (3M Microbiology, 2005) results for Gram-positive isolates was 85 %, and there was fair agreement beyond that expected due to chance alone, with a kappa (κ) of 0.38. Using culture results as a gold standard, the Petrifilms(TM) had a sensitivity of 90 % for Gram-positive samples and specificity of 51 %. With 87 % of CMT-positive samples resulting in Gram-positive pathogens cultured, there was a positive predictive value of 93 % and a negative predictive value of 43 %. Petrifilms(TM) should be considered for culture of mastitis organisms in developing countries, especially when Gram-positive bacteria are expected. PMID:23108587

  3. RadBallTM Technology Testing and MCNP Modeling of the Tungsten Collimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farfán, Eduardo B.; Foley, Trevor Q.; Rusty Coleman, J.; Jannik, G. Timothy; Holmes, Christopher J.; Oldham, Mark; Adamovics, John; Stanley, Steven J.

    2010-11-01

    The UK's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) has developed a remote, non-electrical, radiation-mapping device known as RadBallTM, which can locate and quantify radioactive hazards within contaminated areas of the nuclear industry. RadBallTM consists of a colander-like outer shell that houses a radiation-sensitive polymer sphere. The outer shell works to collimate radiation sources and those areas of the polymer sphere that are exposed react, becoming increasingly more opaque, in proportion to the absorbed dose. The polymer sphere is imaged in an optical-CT scanner, which produces a high resolution 3D map of optical attenuation coefficients. Subsequent analysis of the optical attenuation matrix provides information on the spatial distribution of sources in a given area forming a 3D characterization of the area of interest. RadBallTM has no power requirements and can be positioned in tight or hard-to reach locations. The RadBallTM technology has been deployed in a number of technology trials in nuclear waste reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the UK and facilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This study focuses on the RadBallTM testing and modeling accomplished at SRNL.

  4. New synthesis route and magnetic structure of Tm2Mn2O7 pyrochlore.

    PubMed

    Pomjakushina, Ekaterina; Pomjakushin, Vladimir; Rolfs, Katharina; Karpinski, Janusz; Conder, Kazimierz

    2015-09-21

    In this work, we present a new chemical route to synthesize Tm2Mn2O7 pyrochlore, which a compound that is thermodynamically unstable at ambient pressure. Differently from the reported in the past high-pressure synthesis of the same compound applying oxides as starting materials, we have obtained a pure Tm2Mn2O7 phase by a converting TmMnO3 at 1100 °C and an oxygen pressure of 1300 bar. The studies of Tm2Mn2O7 performed by a high-resolution neutron powder diffraction have shown that a pure pyrochlore cubic phase Tm2Mn2O7 (space group Fd3¯m) have been obtained. Upon cooling below 25 K, there is a transition to a ferromagnetically (FM) ordered phase observed with an additional antiferromagnetic (AFM) canting, suggesting a lowering of the initial cubic crystal symmetry. The magnetic transition is accompanied by a small but very visible magnetostriction effect. Using symmetry analysis, we have found a solution for the AFM structure in the maximal Shubnikov subgroup I41/am'd'. PMID:26332012

  5. Comparative Genomics of Candidate Phylum TM6 Suggests That Parasitism Is Widespread and Ancestral in This Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, Yun Kit; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Parks, Donovan H.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Candidate phylum TM6 is a major bacterial lineage recognized through culture-independent rRNA surveys to be low abundance members in a wide range of habitats; however, they are poorly characterized due to a lack of pure culture representatives. Two recent genomic studies of TM6 bacteria revealed small genomes and limited gene repertoire, consistent with known or inferred dependence on eukaryotic hosts for their metabolic needs. Here, we obtained additional near-complete genomes of TM6 populations from agricultural soil and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor metagenomes which, together with the two publicly available TM6 genomes, represent seven distinct family level lineages in the TM6 phylum. Genome-based phylogenetic analysis confirms that TM6 is an independent phylum level lineage in the bacterial domain, possibly affiliated with the Patescibacteria superphylum. All seven genomes are small (1.0–1.5 Mb) and lack complete biosynthetic pathways for various essential cellular building blocks including amino acids, lipids, and nucleotides. These and other features identified in the TM6 genomes such as a degenerated cell envelope, ATP/ADP translocases for parasitizing host ATP pools, and protein motifs to facilitate eukaryotic host interactions indicate that parasitism is widespread in this phylum. Phylogenetic analysis of ATP/ADP translocase genes suggests that the ancestral TM6 lineage was also parasitic. We propose the name Dependentiae (phyl. nov.) to reflect dependence of TM6 bacteria on host organisms. PMID:26615204

  6. Comparative Genomics of Candidate Phylum TM6 Suggests That Parasitism Is Widespread and Ancestral in This Lineage.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, Yun Kit; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Parks, Donovan H; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Candidate phylum TM6 is a major bacterial lineage recognized through culture-independent rRNA surveys to be low abundance members in a wide range of habitats; however, they are poorly characterized due to a lack of pure culture representatives. Two recent genomic studies of TM6 bacteria revealed small genomes and limited gene repertoire, consistent with known or inferred dependence on eukaryotic hosts for their metabolic needs. Here, we obtained additional near-complete genomes of TM6 populations from agricultural soil and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor metagenomes which, together with the two publicly available TM6 genomes, represent seven distinct family level lineages in the TM6 phylum. Genome-based phylogenetic analysis confirms that TM6 is an independent phylum level lineage in the bacterial domain, possibly affiliated with the Patescibacteria superphylum. All seven genomes are small (1.0-1.5 Mb) and lack complete biosynthetic pathways for various essential cellular building blocks including amino acids, lipids, and nucleotides. These and other features identified in the TM6 genomes such as a degenerated cell envelope, ATP/ADP translocases for parasitizing host ATP pools, and protein motifs to facilitate eukaryotic host interactions indicate that parasitism is widespread in this phylum. Phylogenetic analysis of ATP/ADP translocase genes suggests that the ancestral TM6 lineage was also parasitic. We propose the name Dependentiae (phyl. nov.) to reflect dependence of TM6 bacteria on host organisms. PMID:26615204

  7. A first principles study of structural, electronic mechanical and magnetic properties of rare earth nitride:TmN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugan, A.; Rajeswarapalanichamy, R.; Santhosh, M.; Manikandan, M.

    2016-05-01

    The structural, electronic and mechanical properties of rare earth nitride TmN is investigated by the first principles calculations based on density functional theory using the Vienna ab-initio simulation package. At ambient pressure TmN is stable in the ferromagnetic state with NaCl structure. The calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the available results. The electronic structure reveals that TmN is metallic at normal pressure. Ferromagnetic to non magnetic phase transition is predicted in TmN at high pressure.

  8. Distinct tmRNA sequence elements facilitate RNase R engagement on rescued ribosomes for selective nonstop mRNA decay

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraman, Krithika; Zafar, Hina; Karzai, A. Wali

    2014-01-01

    trans-Translation, orchestrated by SmpB and tmRNA, is the principal eubacterial pathway for resolving stalled translation complexes. RNase R, the leading nonstop mRNA surveillance factor, is recruited to stalled ribosomes in a trans-translation dependent process. To elucidate the contributions of SmpB and tmRNA to RNase R recruitment, we evaluated Escherichia coli–Francisella tularensis chimeric variants of tmRNA and SmpB. This evaluation showed that while the hybrid tmRNA supported nascent polypeptide tagging and ribosome rescue, it suffered defects in facilitating RNase R recruitment to stalled ribosomes. To gain further insights, we used established tmRNA and SmpB variants that impact distinct stages of the trans-translation process. Analysis of select tmRNA variants revealed that the sequence composition and positioning of the ultimate and penultimate codons of the tmRNA ORF play a crucial role in recruiting RNase R to rescued ribosomes. Evaluation of defined SmpB C-terminal tail variants highlighted the importance of establishing the tmRNA reading frame, and provided valuable clues into the timing of RNase R recruitment to rescued ribosomes. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that productive RNase R-ribosomes engagement requires active trans-translation, and suggest that RNase R captures the emerging nonstop mRNA at an early stage after establishment of the tmRNA ORF as the surrogate mRNA template. PMID:25200086

  9. Cubic to tetragonal phase transition of Tm3+ doped nanocrystals in oxyfluoride glass ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiming; Zhao, Lijuan; Fu, Yuting; Shi, Yahui; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yu, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Tm3+ ions doped β-PbF2 nanocrystals in oxyfluoride glass ceramics with different doping concentrations and thermal temperatures are prepared by a traditional melt-quenching and thermal treatment method to investigate the structure and the phase transition of Tm3+ doped nanocrystals. The structures are characterized by X-ray diffraction Rietveld analysis and confirmed with numerical simulation. The phase transitions are proved further by the emission spectra. Both of the doping concentration and thermal temperature can induce an Oh to D4h site symmetry distortion and a cubic to tetragonal phase transition. The luminescence of Tm3+ doped nanocrystals at 800 nm was modulated by the phase transition of the surrounding crystal field.

  10. Fabrication and optical studies of transparent Tm, Ho:YAG ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorowicz, Agata; Nakielska, Magdalena; Wajler, Anna; Węglarz, Helena; Jach, Katarzyna; Olszyna, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work has been to obtain transparent Tm, Ho:YAG ceramics (thulium doping range: 2-6 at.%, holmium doping range: 0.1-1.0 at.%) by reaction sintering using commercial powders. It has been proved that the particle size, purity and degree of agglomeration of the powders used are crucial from the point of view of the optical quality of ceramics. The spectroscopic measurements of Tm, Ho:YAG ceramics with different concentration of active ions (including transmission and emission spectra measurements) have been presented and discussed. As has been found, both concentration of holmium and thulium separately as well as the balance between them are of great importance. Energy transfer between Tm and Ho ions has been demonstrated.

  11. Superbroadband near-infrared emission in Tm-Bi codoped sodium-germanium-gallate glasses.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bo; Lin, Hai; Chen, Baojie; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun

    2011-03-28

    Superbroadband emission from 1.0 to 1.7 μm wavelength was observed in thulium-bismuth (Tm-Bi) codoped sodium-germanium-gallate (NGG) glasses under 793 nm excitation. Efficient energy transfer process from Bi to Tm ions, with value as high as 67.7%, was achieved which is beneficial in achieving flat broadband lineshape. The large stimulated emission cross-section and measured lifetime confirm the potentials of Tm-Bi codopants as luminescence sources for superbroadband near-infrared (NIR) optical amplifiers and tunable lasers. Planar optical waveguides were fabricated successfully in the codoped NGG glasses using K(+)-Na(+) ion-exchange process. PMID:21451680

  12. Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Kevin P.; Ridd, Merrill K.

    1991-01-01

    The sensitivity of Landsat TM data for detecting soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands, and the potential of the spectral data for assigning the universal soil loss equation (USLE) crop managemnent (C) factor to varying cover types within the woodlands are assessed. Results show greatly accelerated rates of soil erosion on pinyon-juniper sites. Percent cover by pinyon-juniper, total soil-loss, and total nonliving ground cover accounted for nearly 70 percent of the variability in TM channels 2, 3, 4, and 5. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion than the biotic and abiotic field variables. Satellite data were more sensitive to vegetation variation than the USLE C factor, and USLE was found to be a poor predictor of soil loss on pinyon-juniper sites. A new string-to-ground soil erosion prediction technique is introduced.

  13. Mode instability thresholds for Tm-doped fiber amplifiers pumped at 790 nm.

    PubMed

    Smith, Arlee V; Smith, Jesse J

    2016-01-25

    We use a detailed numerical model of stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering to compute mode instability thresholds in Tm(3+)-doped fiber amplifiers. The fiber amplifies 2040 nm light using a 790 nm pump. The cross-relaxation process is strong, permitting power efficiencies of 60%. The predicted instability thresholds are compared with those in similar Yb(3+)-doped fiber amplifiers with 976 nm pump and 1060 nm signal, and are found to be higher, even though the heat load is much higher in Tm-doped amplifiers. The higher threshold in the Tm-doped fiber is attributed to its longer signal wavelength, and to stronger gain saturation, due in part to cross-relaxation heating. PMID:26832480

  14. A First Evaluation of LANDSAT TM Data to Monitor Suspended Sediments in Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiebe, F. R.; Ritchie, J. C.; Boatwright, G. O.

    1984-01-01

    A comparison was made between ground data collected from Lake Chicot, Arkansas, and Thematic Mapper (TM) data collected on September 23, 1982. A preliminary analysis of limited data indicate tht Thematic Mapper data may be useful in monitoring suspended sediment and chlorophyll in a lake with high suspended sediment loads. Total suspended loads ranged from 168 to 508 mg/l. TM Band 3 appears to be most useful with Bands 1, 2 and 4 also containing useful information relative to suspended sediments. Considering water data only, Bands 1, 2 and 3 appear to provide similar information. Bands 3 and 4 are also significantly related. Bands 5 and 7 appear to have independent information content relative to the presence or absence of water. Insufficient range of water temperature ground truth data made an evaluation of TM Band 6 difficult.

  15. Ab initio study of pressure induced structural and electronic properties in TmPo

    SciTech Connect

    Makode, Chandrabhan Pataiya, Jagdish; Sanyal, Sankar P.; Panwar, Y. S.; Aynyas, Mahendra

    2015-06-24

    We report an ab initio calculation of pressure induced structural phase transition and electronic properties of Thulium Polonide (TmPo).The total energy as a function of volume is obtained by means of self-consistent tight binding linear muffin-tin-orbital (TB-LMTO) method within the local density approximation (LDA). It is found that TmPo is stable in NaCl-type (B{sub 1}-phase) structure to CsCl-type (B{sub 2}-phase) structure of this compound in the pressure range of 7.0 GPa. We also calculate the lattice parameter (a{sub 0}), bulk modulus (B{sub 0}), band structure and density of states. From energy diagram it is observed that TmPo exhibit metallic behavior. The calculated values of equilibrium lattice parameter and bulk modulus are in general good agreement.

  16. High-power gain-switched Tm(3+)-doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yulong; Xu, Lin; Yang, Yi; Xu, Jianqiu

    2010-10-25

    Gain-switched by a 1.914-µm Tm:YLF crystal laser, a two-stage Tm(3+) fiber laser has been achieved 100-W level ~2-µm pulsed laser output with a slope efficiency of ~52%. With the 6-m length of Tm fiber, the laser wavelength was centered at 2020 nm with a bandwidth of ~25 nm. Based on an acousto-optic switch, the pulse repetition rate can be modulated from 500 Hz to 50 kHz, and the laser pulse width can be tuned between 75 ns and ~1 µs. The maximum pulse energy was over 10 mJ, and the maximum pulse peak power was 138 kW. By using the fiber-coiling-induced mode-filtering effect, laser beam quality of M2 = 1.01 was obtained. Further scaling the pulse energy and average power from such kind of gain-switched fiber lasers was also discussed. PMID:21164635

  17. Upconversion emission properties of CeO2: Tm3+, Yb3+ inverse opal photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Gong; Wu, Hangjun; Yang, Zhengwen; Liao, Jiayan; Lai, Shenfeng; Qiu, Jianbei; Song, Zhiguo

    2014-10-01

    The ordered and disordered templates were assembled by vertical deposition of polystyrene microspheres. The CeO2: Tm3+, Yb3+ precursor solution was used to infiltrate into the voids of the ordered and disordered templates, respectively. Then the ordered and disordered templates were calcined at 950°C in an air furnace, and the CeO2: Tm3+, Yb3+ inverse opals were obtained. The upconversion emissions from CeO2: Tm3+, Yb3+ inverse opals were suppressed due to the photon trapping caused by Bragg reflection of lattice planes when the upconversion emission band was in the range of the photonic band gaps in the inverse opals.

  18. PREPARATION OF ZnO:Tm, Gd AND ITS FLUORESCENCE PROPERTIES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Limin; Li, You; Li, Qin; Shan, Lianwei; Han, Zhidong; Zhang, Xianyou

    2012-10-01

    ZnO:Tm, Gd materials with high quality blue light emissions were successfully prepared using the chemical co-precipitation method. The surface morphology, composition, crystal structure and fluorescence properties were investigated using the thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and photoluminescence (PL). The results showed that the lowest sintering temperature was 580°C; the optimal sintering temperature was 900°C; ZnO:Tm3+, Gd3+ had two emission peaks: 1D2→3H4 and 1G4→3H6; the optimal heat preservation time was 3 h; the proportion of matrix and doping elements was 100:2; and the optimal proportion of Tm and Gd was 3:2.

  19. Regional Geolgical Mapping in Tropical Environments Using Landsat TM and Srtm Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiranvand Pour, A.; Hashim, M.

    2015-10-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data were used to produce geological maps in tropical environments. Lineament, lithology and landform maps were produced for all states in peninsular Malaysia in this study. Kedah, Perak and Terengganu states have been selected as case studies to demonstrate the results of the data and techniques used. Directional filtering technique was applied to Landsat TM bands 4, 5 and 3 for lineament mapping. The lithology map was produced using Landsat TM bands combination consist of bands 4, 3 and 2. Digital elevation model and landform map were produced using SRTM data in 3 Dimension (3D) and 2 Dimension (2D) perspective views, respectively. The produced geological maps and the remote sensing data and methods applied in this study are mostly appropriate for hazard risk mapping applications and mineral exploration projects in the peninsular Malaysia and tropical environments.

  20. Improvement of KinectTM Sensor Capabilities by Fusion with Laser Sensing Data Using Octree

    PubMed Central

    Chávez, Alfredo; Karstoft, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    To enhance sensor capabilities, sensor data readings from different modalities must be fused. The main contribution of this paper is to present a sensor data fusion approach that can reduce KinectTM sensor limitations. This approach involves combining laser with KinectTM sensors. Sensor data is modelled in a 3D environment based on octrees using a probabilistic occupancy estimation. The Bayesian method, which takes into account the uncertainty inherent in the sensor measurements, is used to fuse the sensor information and update the 3D octree map. The sensor fusion yields a significant increase of the field of view of the KinectTM sensor that can be used for robot tasks. PMID:22666006

  1. Effects of chloride introduction on up-conversion luminescence in Tm3+ -doped tellurite glasses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shiqing; Yang, Zhongmin; Wang, Guonian; Zhang, Junjie; Dai, Shixun; Hu, Lili; Jiang, Zhonghong

    2004-11-01

    Blue up-conversion luminescence properties in Tm3+ -doped lead chloride tellurite glasses have been studied under 980 nm excitation. The intense blue and relatively weak red emissions centered at 476 and 649 nm corresponding to the transitions 1G4 --> 3H6 and 1G4 --> 3H4 of Tm3+, respectively, are simultaneously observed at room temperature. The effect of PbCl2 on up-conversion intensity is observed and discussed, and possible up-conversion mechanisms are evaluated. The intense blue up-conversion luminescence of Tm3+ -doped lead chloride tellurite glasses may be a potentially useful material for developing up-conversion optical devices. PMID:15477139

  2. Effects of chloride introduction on up-conversion luminescence in Tm 3+-doped tellurite glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shiqing; Yang, Zhongmin; Wang, Guonian; Zhang, Junjie; Dai, Shixun; Hu, Lili; Jiang, Zhonghong

    2004-11-01

    Blue up-conversion luminescence properties in Tm 3+-doped lead chloride tellurite glasses have been studied under 980 nm excitation. The intense blue and relatively weak red emissions centered at 476 and 649 nm corresponding to the transitions 1G4→ 3H6 and 1G4→ 3H4 of Tm 3+, respectively, are simultaneously observed at room temperature. The effect of PbCl 2 on up-conversion intensity is observed and discussed, and possible up-conversion mechanisms are evaluated. The intense blue up-conversion luminescence of Tm 3+-doped lead chloride tellurite glasses may be a potentially useful material for developing up-conversion optical devices.

  3. Microstructure-property relationships in Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg Weldalite (tm) alloys, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langan, T. J.; Pickens, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of the ultrahigh strength Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg alloy, Weldalite (tm) 049, were studied. Specifically, the microstructural features along with tensile strength, weldability, Young's modulus and fracture toughness were studied for Weldalite (tm) 049 type alloys with Li contents ranging from 1.3 to 1.9 wt. pct. The tensile properties of Weldalite 049 and Weldalite 049 reinforced with TiB2 particles fabricated using the XD (tm) process were also evaluated at cryogenic, room, and elevated temperatures. In addition, an experimental alloy, similar in composition to Weldalite 049 but without the Ag+Mg, was fabricated. The microstructure of this alloy was compared with that of Weldalite 049 in the T6 condition to assess the effect of Ag+Mg on nucleation of strengthening phases in the absence of cold work.

  4. Thermo-optical effects in Tm-doped large mode area photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molardi, Carlo; Coscelli, Enrico; Cucinotta, Annamaria; Selleri, Stefano

    2014-03-01

    Designs of Tm-doped photonic crystal fibers for laser operation must take in account the strong thermo-optical effects due to the Tm quantum defect and the consequent corruption of the single mode guiding properties. A new fiber design with a ˜ 80 μm core diameter, based on the cladding mirror symmetry reduction is proposed and analyzed using a full-vector FEM-based modal solver. The thermal effects are investigated using a computationally efficient model. A large pitch fiber with similar core diameter, which represents the actual state-of-art of Tm-doped laser technology, has been investigated in order to have a basis of comparison. Optimizing some key parameters of the new symmetry free fiber, the possibility to achieve a wide band single mode operation under an heavy heat load of over 300 W/m is demonstrated. In particular a very high modal discrimination value larger than 0.5 is obtained.

  5. Characterization of LANDSAT-4 TM and MSS Image Quality for Interpretation of Agricultural and Forest Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degloria, S. D.; Colwell, R. N.

    1984-01-01

    Systematic analysis of both image and numeric data shows that the overall spectral, spatial, and radiometric quality of the TM data are excellent. Spectral variations in fallow fields are due to the vaiability in soil moisture and surface roughness resulting from the various stages of field preparation for small grains production. Spectrally, the addition of the first TM short wave infrared band (Band 5) significantly enhanced ability to discriminate different crop types. Bands 1, 5, and 6 contain saturated pixels due to high albedo effects, low moisture conditions, and high radiant temperatures of granite and dry, bare soil on south facing slopes, respectively. Spatially, the two fold decrease in interpixel distance and four fold decrease in area per pixel between the TM and MSS allow for improved discrimination of small fields, boundary conditions, road and stream networks in rough terrain, and small forest clearings resulting from various forest management practices.

  6. Information content of data from the LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS). [Arkansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Software was constructed to reformat data to band interlevel format and analysis software was developed in an effort to quantify the increased information content (statistical variability within a data set) of thematic mapper data as compared to that from the LANDSAT 4 multispectral band scanner. Computer runs were carried out for several subareas from a data set acquired simultaneously by TM and MSS over a test area in northeast Arkansas, one of the most agriculturally diverse sea areas in the country. The 6 visible-near IR channels of the TM provide more information than the 4 channels of the MSS. A rough estimate of 20 bits per pixel for TM, and 10 bits per pixel for the MSS was computed for these subareas. These numbers are to be revised downward when allowance is made for noise in the data.

  7. LD-cladding-pumped 50 pm linewidth Tm 3+ -doped silica fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Yunjun, Zhang; Baoquan, Yao; Youlun, Ju; Hui, Zhou; Yuezhu, Wang

    2008-05-26

    We report on a Tm(3+)-doped fiber laser source operating at 1936.4 nm with a very narrow linewidth (50 pm) laser output. Up to 2.4 W cw laser power was obtained from an 82 cm long Tm(3+)-doped multimode-core fiber cladding pumped by a 792 nm laser diode (LD). The fiber laser cavity included a high-reflective dichroic and a low-reflective FBG output coupler. The multimode fiber Bragg grating (FBG) transmission spectrum and output laser spectrum were measured. By adjusting the distance between the dichroic and the Tm(3+)-doped fiber end, the multipeak laser spectrum changed to a single-peak laser spectrum. PMID:18545481

  8. DIGITAL PROCESSING TECHNIQUES FOR IMAGE MAPPING WITH LANDSAT TM AND SPOT SIMULATOR DATA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chavez, Pat S., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    To overcome certain problems associated with the visual selection of Landsat TM bands for image mapping, the author used a quantitative technique that ranks the 20 possible three-band combinations based upon their information content. Standard deviations and correlation coefficients can be used to compute a value called the Optimum Index Factor (OIF) for each of the 20 possible combinations. SPOT simulator images were digitally processed and compared with Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) images covering a semi-arid region in northern Arizona and a highly vegetated urban area near Washington, D. C. Statistical comparisons indicate the more radiometric or color information exists in certain TM three-band combinations than in the three SPOT bands.

  9. Low field induced giant magnetocaloric effect in TmGa compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Zhao-Jun; Shen, Jun; Yan, Li-Qin; Tang, Cheng-Chun; Lin, Jing; Wu, Jian-Feng; Sun, Ji-Rong; Wang, Li-Chen; Zheng, Xin-Qi; Shen, Bao-Gen

    2013-07-01

    The magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect in TmGa compound are investigated. TmGa exhibits two successive magnetic transitions: ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic at TFA = 12 K and antiferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition at TN = 15 K. Under field changes of 1 and 2 T, giant reversible values of magnetic entropy change (12.9 and 20.6 J/kg K) and large values of refrigerant capacity (69 and 149 J/kg) are observed, respectively. Additionally, the maximal values of adiabatic temperature change are 3.2 and 5 K for field changes of 1 and 2 T, respectively. The TmGa compound with excellent magnetocaloric effect is expected to have effective applications in low temperature magnetic refrigeration.

  10. BOREAS RSS-15 SIR-C and Landsat TM Biomass and Landcover Maps of the NSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Ranson, K. Jon

    2000-01-01

    As part of BOREAS, the RSS-15 team conducted an investigation using SIR-C, X-SAR, and Landsat TM data for estimating total above-ground dry biomass for the SSA and NSA modeling grids and component biomass for the SSA. Relationships of backscatter to total biomass and total biomass to foliage, branch, and bole biomass were used to estimate biomass density across the landscape. The procedure involved image classification with SAR and Landsat TM data and development of simple mapping techniques using combinations of SAR channels. For the SSA, the SIR-C data used were acquired on 06-Oct-1994, and the Landsat TM data used were acquired on 02-Sep-1995. The maps of the NSA were developed from SIR-C data acquired on 13-Apr-1994. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  11. CW single transverse mode all-fiber Tm3+-doped silica fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, E. Z.; Li, W. H.; You, L.

    2012-04-01

    The CW 25.6 W output power with a slope efficiency of 30.6% respected to the pump power from a CW single transverse mode all-fiber Tm3+-doped Silica Fiber Laser is reported. The all-fiber laser is made up by progressively splicing the pigtail fiber, matched FBG fiber and Tm fiber. The reflective FBG and Tm3+-doped fiber end Fresnel reflection build up the laser resonance cavity. Due to the multi-mode FBG as the reflective mirror, the output laser spectrum is multi-peaks at high output power, but the spectrum width is less than 2 nm at 1.94 μm. We estimate the beam quality to be M 2 = 2.39, clearly indicating nearly diffraction-limited beam propagation.

  12. Spectroscopic investigation of Cr to Tm energy transfer in yttrium aluminum garnet crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armagan, G.; Di Bartolo, B.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1989-01-01

    A series of experiments has been conducted in order to examine the nature of the energy transfer process between the Cr(3+) and Tm(3+) ions in YAG. Data are obtained on various samples doped with Cr(3+) and/or Tm(3+). These data include absorption, luminescence, excitation spectra and time-resolved response to pulsed excitation. The measurements were carried out over a range of temperatures from 78 to 350 K. The rate of nonradiative energy transfer from Cr(3+) to Tm(3+) depends on temperature, and in the region from 200 to 350 K, this dependence is due primarily to the thermal variation in the radiative decay probability of the Cr ion.

  13. Electronic and magnetic properties of a new diluted magnetic semiconductor Li(Zn,TM)As (TM:V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, H. L.; Lin, L.; Zhang, Z. H.; He, M.; Song, B.

    2016-07-01

    First-principles calculations were performed to study electronic structures and magnetic properties of transition metal (TM) doped LiZnAs system. V, Mn, Fe and Co doped LiZnAs preferred anti-ferromagnetic states while no magnetisms were found for Cr and Ni-doped LiZnAs system. In contrast, V/Li, Cr/Li, Mn/Li, Fe/Li and Co/Li codoped LiZnAs preferred ferromagnetic couplings between the TM atoms other than the anti-ferromagnetic states. Thus off-stoichiometry of Li is very essential for the preparation of ferromagnetic LiZnAs materials. For Ni/Li-codoped LiZnAs, anti-ferromagnetic is more stable, which is resulted from the through-bond spin polarization mechanism.

  14. Culture-independent detection of 'TM7' bacteria in a streptomycin-resistant acidophilic nitrifying process

    SciTech Connect

    Kurogi, T.; Linh, N. T. T.; Kuroki, T.; Yamada, T.; Hiraishi, A.

    2014-02-20

    Nitrification in biological wastewater treatment processes has been believed for long time to take place under neutral conditions and is inhibited under acidic conditions. However, we previously constructed acidophilic nitrifying sequencing-batch reactors (ANSBRs) being capable of nitrification at < pH 4 and harboring bacteria of the candidate phylum 'TM7' as the major constituents of the microbial community. In light of the fact that the 16S rRNA of TM7 bacteria has a highly atypical base substitution possibly responsible for resistance to streptomycin at the ribosome level, this study was undertaken to construct streptomycin-resistant acidophilic nitrifying (SRAN) reactors and to demonstrate whether TM7 bacteria are abundant in these reactors. The SRAN reactors were constructed by seeding with nitrifying sludge from an ANSBR and cultivating with ammonium-containing mineral medium (pH 4.0), to which streptomycin at a concentration of 10, 30 and 50 mg L{sup −1} was added. In all reactors, the pH varied between 2.7 and 4.0, and ammonium was completely converted to nitrate in every batch cycle. PCR-aided denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting 16S rRNA genes revealed that some major clones assigned to TM7 bacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were constantly present during the overall period of operation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with specific oligonucleotide probes also showed that TM7 bacteria predominated in all SRAN reactors, accounting for 58% of the total bacterial population on average. Although the biological significance of the TM7 bacteria in the SRAN reactors are unknown, our results suggest that these bacteria are possibly streptomycin-resistant and play some important roles in the acidophilic nitrifying process.

  15. Optical performance of Ho:YLF Q-switched Tm:YAG laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yi-An; Kuo, Yen-Kuang

    2002-09-01

    The absorption cross-section of the Ho:YLF crystal is close to the emission cross-section of the Tm:YAG laser. According to the passive Q-switching theory, a giant laser pulse cannot be generated from the Ho:YLF Q-switched Tm:YAG laser system unless an internal focusing lens is utilized. In a previous work we experimentally demonstrated that passive Q-switching of the 2017-nm, flashlamp pumped Tm,Cr:YAG laser with a Ho:YLF saturable absorber could be obtained with an internal focusing lens. In this paper, we theoretically investigate the optical performance of the Ho:YLF Q-switched Tm:YAG laser system by solving the coupled rate equations. The simulation results indicate that the results obtained numerically are in good agreement with that obtained experimentally. Moreover, we study the passive Q-switching performance of the Ho:YLF Q-switched Tm:YAG laser system as functions of the reflectivity of the output coupler, the initial population of the saturable absorber ground state, the laser pumping rate, and the loss inside the laser resonator. On the other hand, assuming that a polarizer is utilized inside the laser cavity, we explore the passive Q-switching performance of the Ho:YLF Q-switched Tm:YAG laser system when the polarization of the laser light is along different direction between the two saturable absorber principal axes. Effect of the relative position between the saturable absorber and the output coupler is also investigated.

  16. Culture-independent detection of "TM7" bacteria in a streptomycin-resistant acidophilic nitrifying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurogi, T.; Linh, N. T. T.; Kuroki, T.; Yamada, T.; Hiraishi, A.

    2014-02-01

    Nitrification in biological wastewater treatment processes has been believed for long time to take place under neutral conditions and is inhibited under acidic conditions. However, we previously constructed acidophilic nitrifying sequencing-batch reactors (ANSBRs) being capable of nitrification at < pH 4 and harboring bacteria of the candidate phylum "TM7" as the major constituents of the microbial community. In light of the fact that the 16S rRNA of TM7 bacteria has a highly atypical base substitution possibly responsible for resistance to streptomycin at the ribosome level, this study was undertaken to construct streptomycin-resistant acidophilic nitrifying (SRAN) reactors and to demonstrate whether TM7 bacteria are abundant in these reactors. The SRAN reactors were constructed by seeding with nitrifying sludge from an ANSBR and cultivating with ammonium-containing mineral medium (pH 4.0), to which streptomycin at a concentration of 10, 30 and 50 mg L-1 was added. In all reactors, the pH varied between 2.7 and 4.0, and ammonium was completely converted to nitrate in every batch cycle. PCR-aided denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting 16S rRNA genes revealed that some major clones assigned to TM7 bacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were constantly present during the overall period of operation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with specific oligonucleotide probes also showed that TM7 bacteria predominated in all SRAN reactors, accounting for 58% of the total bacterial population on average. Although the biological significance of the TM7 bacteria in the SRAN reactors are unknown, our results suggest that these bacteria are possibly streptomycin-resistant and play some important roles in the acidophilic nitrifying process.

  17. Information theoretic comparisons of original and transformed data from Landsat MSS and TM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.

    1985-01-01

    The dispersion and concentration of signal values in transformed data from the Landsat-4 MSS and TM instruments are analyzed using a communications theory approach. The definition of entropy of Shannon was used to quantify information, and the concept of mutual information was employed to develop a measure of information contained in several subsets of variables. Several comparisons of information content are made on the basis of the information content measure, including: system design capacities; data volume occupied by agricultural data; and the information content of original bands and Tasseled Cap variables. A method for analyzing noise effects in MSS and TM data is proposed.

  18. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the 2002-2003 NASA SCIence Files(TM) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Lambert, Matthew A.; Williams, Amy C.

    2004-01-01

    NASA SCIence Files (tm) is a research-, inquiry-, and standards-based, integrated mathematics, science, and technology series of 60-minute instructional distance learning (television and web-based) programs for students in grades 3-5. Respondents who evaluated the programs in the 2002-2003 NASA SCIence Files (tm) series reported that (1) they used the programs in the series; (2) the goals and objectives for the series were met; (3) the programs were aligned with the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; (4) the program content was developmentally appropriate for grade level; and (5) the programs in the series enhanced and enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology.

  19. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the 2000-2001 NASA CONNECT(TM) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Frank, Kari Lou; Lambert, Matthew A.

    2002-01-01

    This report contains the results of the evaluation conducted for the 2000-2001 NASA CONNECT(TM) program conducted in March 2001. The analysis is based on the results collected from 154 surveys collected from educators registered for the program. Respondents indicated that the objectives for each program were met; the programs were aligned with the national (mathematics, science, and technology) standards; the programs were developmentally (grade level) appropriate; and the programs in the 2000-2001 NASA CONNECT(TM) series enhanced/enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology.

  20. 1.21 W passively mode-locked Tm:LuAG laser.

    PubMed

    Feng, T; Yang, K; Zhao, J; Zhao, S; Qiao, W; Li, T; Dekorsy, T; He, J; Zheng, L; Wang, Q; Xu, X; Su, L; Xu, J

    2015-05-01

    A watt-level output passively mode-locked Tm:LuAG bulk laser with an InGaAs semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) is demonstrated for the first time. A maximum average output power of 1.21 W at 2022.9 nm has been achieved with a pulse duration of 38 ps and a repetition rate of 129.2 MHz. The results indicate the potential of Tm:LuAG crystals as candidate for realizing high power ultrafast lasers at 2 μm. PMID:25969273

  1. Atmospheric correction of LANDSAT TM thermal band using surface energy balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidal, Alain; Devaux-Ros, Claire; Moran, M. Susan

    1994-01-01

    Thermal infrared data of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) are hardly used, probably due to the difficulties met when trying to correct them for atmospheric effects. A method for correcting these data was designed, based on surface energy balance estimation of known wet and dry targets included in the TM image to be corrected. This method, only using the image itself and local meteorological data was tested and validated on various surfaces: agricultural, forest and rangeland. The root mean square error on corrected temperatures is on the order of 1C.

  2. Effects of triaxial deformation and pairing correlation on the proton emitter {sup 145}Tm

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, J. M.; Sun, B.; Woods, P. J.; Meng, J.

    2008-02-15

    The ground-state properties of the recent reported proton emitter {sup 145}Tm have been studied within the axially or triaxially deformed relativistic mean field (RMF) approaches, in which the pairing correlation is taken into account by the BCS-method with a constant pairing gap. It is found that triaxiality and pairing correlations play important roles in reproducing the experimental one proton separation energy. The single-particle level, the proton emission orbit, the deformation parameters {beta}=0.22 and {gamma}=28.98 deg. and the corresponding spectroscopic factor for {sup 145}Tm in the triaxial RMF calculation are given as well.

  3. Optically stimulated optical effects in the ZnO:Tm nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloufy, A.; Ebothé, J.; Dumelié, N.; Chaki, I.; Abd-Lefdil, M.; AlZayed, N. S.; El-Naggar, A. M.; Albassam, A. A.; Kityk, I. V.

    2015-09-01

    We have performed the studies of photoinduced second harmonic generation in the ZnO nanorods doped by Thulium with different content (0.1; 0.2;0.5% of Tm). The illumination was performed with the Er:glass laser emitting at 1540 nm wavelength of the 10 ns laser and the output second harmonic generation (SHG) was studied. The AFM data analysis was performed. The role of the rare earth Tm ions on the morphology and the optically stimulated SHG is discussed. The SHG yield was found to be strongly dependent on Thulium content and Root Mean Square roughness of the studied layers.

  4. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the 2001-2002 NASA CONNECT(tm) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Frank, Kari Lou; Lambert, Matthew A.; Williams, Amy C.

    2002-01-01

    NASA CONNECT(tm) is a research and standards-based, integrated mathematics, science, and technology series of 30-minute instructional distance learning (television and web-based) programs for students in grades 6-8. Respondents who evaluated the programs in the 2001-2002 NASA CONNECT(tm) series reported that (1) they used the programs in the series; (2) the goals and objectives for the series were met; (3) the programs were aligned with the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; (4) the program content was developmentally appropriate for grade level; and (5) the programs in the series enhanced and enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology.

  5. LANDSAT-4 TM image data quality analysis for energy-related applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wukelic, G. E.; Foote, H. P.

    1983-01-01

    LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data performance and utility characteristics from an energy research and technology perspective is evaluated. The program focuses on evaluating applicational implications of using such data, in combination with other digital data, for current and future energy research and technology activities. Prime interest is in using TM data for siting, developing and operating federal energy facilities. Secondary interests involve the use of such data for resource exploration, environmental monitoring and basic scientific initiatives such as in support of the Continental Scientific Drilling Program.

  6. Continuous-Wave, Diode-Pumped, Tunable Tm,Ho:YLF Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguckin, Brendan T.; Menzies, Robert T.

    1994-01-01

    Unique features include high efficiency and tunability at wavelengths near 2.067 micrometers. Continuous-wave, diode-pumped Tm,Ho:YLF laser tuned by tilting Fabry-Perot etalon and/or adjusting temperature of Tm,Ho:YLF crystal. Proposed for use in remote sensing of winds and in remote sensing of CO2 and H2O, of which many strong absorption lines over-lap laser tuning range. Range extended by tuning to wave-length between CO2 and H2O absorption peaks.

  7. Hysteretic magnetoresistance and unconventional anomalous Hall effect in the frustrated magnet TmB4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunku, Sai Swaroop; Kong, Tai; Ito, Toshimitsu; Canfield, Paul C.; Shastry, B. Sriram; Sengupta, Pinaki; Panagopoulos, Christos

    2016-05-01

    We study TmB4, a frustrated magnet on the Archimedean Shastry-Sutherland lattice, through magnetization and transport experiments. The lack of anisotropy in resistivity shows that TmB4 is an electronically three-dimensional system. The magnetoresistance (MR) is hysteretic at low temperature even though a corresponding hysteresis in magnetization is absent. The Hall resistivity shows unconventional anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and is linear above saturation despite a large MR. We propose that complex structures at magnetic domain walls may be responsible for the hysteretic MR and may also lead to the AHE.

  8. Hysteretic magnetoresistance and unconventional anomalous Hall effect in the frustrated magnet TmB4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunku, Sai Swaroop; Kong, Tai; Ito, Toshimitsu; Canfield, Paul C.; Shastry, B. Sriram; Sengupta, Pinaki; Panagopoulos, Christos

    We study TmB4, a frustrated magnet on the Archimedean Shastry-Sutherland lattice, through magnetization and transport experiments. The lack of anisotropy in resistivity shows that TmB4 is an electronically three-dimensional system. The magnetoresistance (MR) is hysteretic at low-temperature even though a corresponding hysteresis in magnetization is absent. The Hall resistivity shows unconventional anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and is linear above saturation despite a large MR. We suggest that both hysteretic MR and AHE arise from the formation of complex non-coplanar structures at magnetic domain walls. Current address: Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University.

  9. Development of a (170)Tm source for mercury monitoring studies in humans using XRF.

    PubMed

    Timmaraju, K Phanisree; Fajurally, Bibi Najah; Armstrong, Andrea F; Chettle, David R

    2016-04-01

    The goals of the present study were to develop a (170)Tm radioisotope and generate a K XRF spectrum of mercury. Thulium foil and thulium oxide powder were both tested for impurities and the latter was found to be a better prospect for further studies. The (170)Tm radioisotope was developed from thulium oxide powder following the method of disolution and absorption. A suitable source holder and collimator were also designed based on Monte Carlo simulations. Using the radioisotope thus developed, a mercury XRF spectrum was successfully generated. PMID:26773819

  10. Hysteretic magnetoresistance and unconventional anomalous Hall effect in the frustrated magnet TmB4

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sunku, Sai Swaroop; Kong, Tai; Ito, Toshimitsu; Canfield, Paul C.; Shastry, B. Sriram; Sengupta, Pinaki; Panagopoulos, Christos

    2016-05-11

    We study TmB4, a frustrated magnet on the Archimedean Shastry-Sutherland lattice, through magnetization and transport experiments. The lack of anisotropy in resistivity shows that TmB4 is an electronically three-dimensional system. The magnetoresistance (MR) is hysteretic at low temperature even though a corresponding hysteresis in magnetization is absent. The Hall resistivity shows unconventional anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and is linear above saturation despite a large MR. In conclusion, we propose that complex structures at magnetic domain walls may be responsible for the hysteretic MR and may also lead to the AHE.

  11. High-power spectral beam combining of linearly polarized Tm:fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Shah, Lawrence; Sims, R Andrew; Kadwani, Pankaj; Willis, Christina C C; Bradford, Joshua B; Sincore, Alex; Richardson, Martin

    2015-02-01

    To date, high-power scaling of Tm:fiber lasers has been accomplished by maximizing the power from a single fiber aperture. In this work, we investigate power scaling by spectral beam combination of three linearly polarized Tm:fiber MOPA lasers using dielectric mirrors with a steep transition from highly reflective to highly transmissive that enable a minimum wavelength separation of 6 nm between individual laser channels within the wavelength range from 2030 to 2050 nm. Maximum output power is 253 W with M(2)<2, ultimately limited by thermal lensing in the beam combining elements. PMID:25967785

  12. BOREAS RSS-7 Landsat TM LAI IMages of the SSA and NSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Chen, Jing; Cihlar, Josef

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Remote Sensing Science (BOREAS RSS-7) team used Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images processed at CCRS to produce images of Leaf Area Index (LAI) for the BOREAS study areas. Two images acquired on 06-Jun and 09-Aug-1991 were used for the SSA, and one image acquired on 09-Jun-1994 was used for the NSA. The LAI images are based on ground measurements and Landsat TM Reduced Simple Ratio (RSR) images. The data are stored in binary image-format files.

  13. Analysis of Eocene depositional environments - Preliminary TM and TIMS results, Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stucky, Richard K.; Krishtalka, Leonard; Redline, Andrew D.; Lang, Harold R.

    1987-01-01

    Both Landsat TM and aircraft Thermal IR Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data have been used to map the lithofacies of the Wind River Basin's Eocene physical and biological environments. Preliminary analyses of these data have furnished maps of a fault contact boundary and a complex network of fluvial ribbon channel sandstones. The synoptic view thereby emerging for Eocene fluvial facies clarifies the relationships of ribbon channel sandstones to fossil-bearing overbank/floodplain facies and certain peleosols. The utility of TM and TIMS data is thereby demonstrated.

  14. Crystal field analysis of Dy and Tm implanted silicon for photonic and quantum technologies.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Mark A; Lourenço, Manon A; Carey, J David; Murdin, Ben; Homewood, Kevin P

    2014-12-01

    We report the lattice site and symmetry of optically active Dy3+ and Tm3+ implanted Si. Local symmetry was determined by fitting crystal field parameters (CFPs), corresponding to various common symmetries, to the ground state splitting determined by photoluminescence measurements. These CFP values were then used to calculate the splitting of every J manifold. We find that both Dy and Tm ions are in a Si substitution site with local tetragonal symmetry. Knowledge of rare-earth ion symmetry is important in maximising the number of optically active centres and for quantum technology applications where local symmetry can be used to control decoherence. PMID:25606863

  15. Monitoring marine ecological changes on the east coast of Bahrain with Landsat TM

    SciTech Connect

    Zainal, A.J.M.; Dalby, D.H.; Robinson, I.S. Michigan Environmental Research Inst., Ann Arbor )

    1993-03-01

    An evaluation is made of the potential of Landsat TM imagery for detecting and quantifying the changes occurring in the marine habitat of a reef complex on the east coast of Bahrain. The study gives attention to TM images acquired during 1985-1992 under various tidal conditions; principal component and false color composites of the temporal images were applied to these to identify changed areas. Then, postclassification comparisons were employed together with digital elevation data to quantify the magnitude of habitat change. 11 refs.

  16. Magnetic properties of the Tm2Fe17-xMnx single-crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchin, A. G.; Platonov, S. P.; Terent'ev, P. B.; Iwasieczko, W.; Volegov, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    Magnetization curves of the Tm2Fe17-xMnx (x=0, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 1.5) single crystals have been studied. The low-temperature easy-axis type magnetic anisotropy enhances, the critical field of the first-order magnetization process (FOMP) increases, and the value of magnetization anisotropy decreases in the Tm2Fe17-xMnx compounds with the increase in Mn content. The FOMP disappears in the compositions with x=1, 1.5. Compositional and temperature dependences of the magnetic anisotropy constants were calculated via analyzing the magnetization curves.

  17. The Speaking Section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] (SSTiBT): Test-Takers' Reported Strategic Behaviors. TOEFL iBT[TM] Research Report. RR-09-30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Merrill; Huang, Li-Shih; Barkaoui, Khaled; Brooks, Lindsay; Lapkin, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This study responds to the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) research agenda concerning the need to understand the processes and knowledge that test-takers utilize. Specifically, it investigates the strategic behaviors test-takers reported using when taking the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] (SSTiBT). It also investigates…

  18. How Do Raters from India Perform in Scoring the TOEFL iBT[TM] Speaking Section and What Kind of Training Helps? TOEFL iBT[TM] Research Report. RR-09-31

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xi, Xiaoming; Mollaun, Pam

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the scoring of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based Test (TOEFL iBT[TM]) Speaking section by bilingual or multilingual speakers of English and 1 or more Indian languages. We explored the extent to which raters from India, after being trained and certified, were able to score the Speaking section for…

  19. Solvated Electron Technology{sup TM}. Non-Thermal Alternative to Waste Incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Foutz, W.L.; Rogers, J.E.; Mather, J.D.

    2008-07-01

    Solvated Electron Technology (SET{sup TM}) is a patented non-thermal alternative to incineration for treating Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and other mixed waste by destroying organic hazardous components. SET{sup TM} is a treatment process that destroys the hazardous components in mixed waste by chemical reduction. The residual material meets land disposal restriction (LDR) and TSCA requirements for disposal. In application, contaminated materials are placed into a treatment cell and mixed with the solvated electron solution. In the case of PCBs or other halogenated contaminants, chemical reactions strip the halogen ions from the chain or aromatic ring producing sodium chloride and high molecular weight hydrocarbons. At the end of the reaction, ammonia within the treatment cell is removed and recycled. The reaction products (such as sodium salts) produced in the process remain with the matrix. The SET{sup TM} process is 99.999% effective in destroying: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); trichloroethane (TCA) and trichloroethene (TCE); dioxins; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX); pesticides; fungicides; herbicides; chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); hydro-chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), explosives and chemical-warfare agents; and has successfully destroyed many of the wastes listed in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 261. In September 2007, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Research and Development permit for SET for chemical destruction of 'pure' Pyranol, which is 60% PCBs. These tests were completed in November 2007. SET{sup TM} is recognized by EPA as a non-thermal process equivalent to incineration and three SET{sup TM} systems have been permitted by EPA as commercial mobile PCB destruction units. This paper describes in detail the results of select bench-, pilot-, and commercial-scale treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes for EPA, Department of Energy (DOE), and the Department of Defense(DoD), and the

  20. Using Video Social Stories[TM] to Increase Task Engagement for Middle School Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cihak, David F.; Kildare, Laura K.; Smith, Catherine C.; McMahon, Don D.; Quinn-Brown, Luella

    2012-01-01

    Four middle school students with autism spectrum disorders participated in a brief functional analysis and a video Social Stories[TM] intervention to remediate attention-seeking and task-avoidance behaviors. Results indicated that matching video Social Stories[TM] to specific functions of behaviors increased task-engagement behaviors in the…

  1. Growth and spectroscopic properties of the 2.9 μm Tm,Ho:LuYAG laser crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huili; Sun, Dunlu; Luo, Jianqiao; Fang, Zhongqing; Zhao, Xuyao; Cheng, Maojie; Zhang, Qingli; Yin, Shaotang

    2015-09-01

    Lu2.4Y0.6Al5O12 (LuYAG) crystals with three different doping concentrations of Tm3+ and Ho3+ were grown successfully by the Czochralski method. The crystals exhibit broad absorption band at 783 nm and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) are about 11 nm. Excited by 783 nm laser diode (LD), strong fluorescence peaks are observed near 2.9 μm, suggesting that the Tm3+ ions can act as the sensitizer for Ho3+ ions. The stimulated emission cross-sections at 2.911 μm are calculated to be 5.49 × 10-18 cm2, 3.11 × 10-18 cm2, and 4.04 × 10-18 cm2, respectively. Compared with the Tm,Ho:LuAG, and Tm,Ho:YAG crystals, the Tm,Ho:LuYAG crystal with 3 at.% Tm3+ and 1 at.% Ho3+ has a relatively longer lifetime 0.138 ms for the upper level 5I6 and a shorter lifetime 7.25 ms for the lower level 5I7, which is advantageous to the population inversion. These results indicate that the Tm,Ho:LuYAG crystal with 3 at.% Tm3+ and 1 at.% Ho3+ is a new potential candidate for realizing the 2.911 μm laser output.

  2. Scaling Users' Perceptions of Library Service Quality Using Item Response Theory: A LibQUAL+ [TM] Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Youhua; Thompson, Bruce; Cook, C. Colleen

    2005-01-01

    LibQUAL+[TM] data to date have not been subjected to the modern measurement theory called polytomous item response theory (IRT). The data interpreted here were collected from 42,090 participants who completed the "American English" version of the 22 core LibQUAL+[TM] items, and 12,552 participants from Australia and Europe who completed the…

  3. Characteristics of "Tween" Participants and Non-Participants in the VERB[TM] Summer Scorecard Physical Activity Promotion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickelson, Jen; Alfonso, Moya L.; McDermott, Robert J.; Bumpus, Elizabeth C.; Bryant, Carol A.; Baldwin, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Creating community-based opportunities for youth to be physically active is challenging for many municipalities. A Lexington, Kentucky community coalition designed and piloted a physical activity program, "VERB[TM] summer scorecard (VSS)", leveraging the brand equity of the national VERB[TM]--It's What You Do! campaign. Key elements of VSS…

  4. Optical characterization of YAl3(BO3)4:Dy3+-Tm3+ phosphors under near UV excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokeswara Reddy, G. V.; Rama Moorthy, L.; Packiyaraj, P.; Jamalaiah, B. C.

    2013-10-01

    Dy3+ and Tm3+ co-doped YAl3(BO3)4 (YAB) phosphors were prepared by solid-state reaction method at 1200 °C/3 h. The average crystallite size was determined as 52.09 nm from the X-ray diffraction measurements. Upon 352 and 359 nm near ultra violet excitation, the YAB:Dy3+-Tm3+ phosphors exhibit Dy3+:4F9/2 → 6HJ (J = 15/2, 13/2, 11/2) and Tm3+:1D2 → 3F4 transitions with different luminescence intensity. The photoluminescence emission and decay measurements revealed the energy transfer from Dy3+ to Tm3+ ions under 359 nm excitation only. The energy transfer between Dy3+ and Tm3+ takes place in Dy3+-Tm3+ clusters through exchange interaction mechanism. The Commission International de I'Eclairage chromaticity coordinates of YAB:Tm3+ phosphor (λex = 359 nm) were found very close to the European Broadcasting Union and National Television Standard Committee illuminants. The emission color of the studied phosphors could be tuned from blue-to-white as a function of excitation wavelength. The YAB:Dy3+-Tm3+ phosphors can be used as potential candidates in display technology.

  5. TM6, a Novel Nuclear Matrix Attachment Region, Enhances Its Flanking Gene Expression through Influencing Their Chromatin Structure

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Lusha; Xu, Rui; Lu, Longtao; Zhang, Jiedao; Yang, Guodong; Huang, Jinguang; Wu, Changai; Zheng, Chengchao

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear matrix attachment regions (MARs) regulate the higher-order organization of chromatin and affect the expression of their flanking genes. In this study, a tobacco MAR, TM6, was isolated and demonstrated to remarkably increase the expression of four different promoters that drive gusA gene and adjacent nptII gene. In turn, this expression enhanced the transformation frequency of transgenic tobacco. Deletion analysis of topoisomerase II-binding site, AT-rich element, and MAR recognition signature (MRS) showed that MRS has the highest contribution (61.7%) to the TM6 sequence-mediated transcription activation. Micrococcal nuclease (MNase) accessibility assay showed that 35S and NOS promoter regions with TM6 are more sensitive than those without TM6. The analysis also revealed that TM6 reduces promoter DNA methylation which can affect the gusA expression. In addition, two tobacco chromatin-associated proteins, NtMBP1 and NtHMGB, isolated using a yeast one-hybrid system, specifically bound to the TM6II-1 region (761 bp to 870 bp) and to the MRS element in the TM6II-2 (934 bp to 1,021 bp) region, respectively. We thus suggested that TM6 mediated its chromatin opening and chromatin accessibility of its flanking promoters with consequent enhancement of transcription. PMID:23852133

  6. Identification of an amino acid residue required for differential recognition of a viral movement protein by the Tomato mosaic virus resistance gene Tm-2(2).

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michie; Yamamoto-Katou, Ayako; Katou, Shinpei; Hirai, Katsuyuki; Meshi, Tetsuo; Ohashi, Yuko; Mitsuhara, Ichiro

    2011-07-01

    The Tm-2 gene of tomato and its allelic gene, Tm-2(2), confer resistance to Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) and encode a member of the coiled-coil/nucleotide binding-ARC/leucine-rich repeat (LRR) protein class of plant resistance (R) genes. Despite exhibiting only four amino acid differences between the products of Tm-2 and Tm-2(2), Tm-2(2) confers resistance to ToMV mutant B7, whereas Tm-2 is broken by ToMV-B7. An Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system was used to study the mechanism of differential recognition of the movement proteins (MPs), an avirulence factor for ToMV resistance, of ToMV-B7 by Tm-2 and Tm-2(2). Although resistance induced by Tm-2 and Tm-2(2) is not usually accompanied by hypersensitive response (HR), Tm-2 and Tm-2(2) induced HR-like cell death by co-expression with MP of a wild-type ToMV, a strain that causes resistance for these R genes, and Tm-2(2) but not Tm-2 induced cell death with B7-MP in this system. Site-directed amino acid mutagenesis revealed that Tyr-767 in the LRR of Tm-2(2) is required for the specific recognition of the B7-MP. These results suggest that the Tyr residue in LRR contributes to the recognition of B7-MP, and that Tm-2 and Tm-2(2) are involved in HR cell death. PMID:21310506

  7. Preparation and structural characterization of the Ih and the D5h isomers of the endohedral fullerenes Tm3N@C80: icosahedral C80 cage encapsulation of a trimetallic nitride magnetic cluster with three uncoupled Tm3+ ions.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Tianming; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Beavers, Christine M; Balch, Alan L; Wang, Guangbin; Yee, Gordon T; Shu, Chunying; Xu, Liaosa; Elliott, Bevan; Echegoyen, Luis; Duchamp, James C; Dorn, Harry C

    2008-06-16

    We report an efficient method for the preparation and purification of the Ih and the D5h isomers of Tm3N@C80. Following preparation in a Kratschmer-Huffman electric-arc generator, the Tm3N@C80 isomers were obtained by a chemical separation process followed by a one-stage isomer selective chromatographic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation (pyrenyl, 5PYE column). The HPLC chromatographic retention behavior on a pentabromobenzyl (5PBB) column suggests a charge transfer of approximately 6 electrons; [M3N] 6+@C80(6-) and the chromatographic retention mechanisms of the Ih and the D5h isomers of Tm3N@C80 on both 5PBB and 5PYE columns are discussed. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction data demonstrate that the Tm3N cluster has a planar structure but represents a tight fit for trapping the Tm3N cluster inside the I h - and the D 5h -C 80 cages. Specifically, the Tm atoms punch out the cage carbon atoms adjacent to them. The "punched out" effect can be demonstrated by cage radii and pyramidal angles at cage carbon atoms near the Tm atoms. The magnetic susceptibility (chiT) for Tm3N@ Ih -C80 was found to exhibit Curie-Weiss behavior with C = 23.4 emu.K/mol, which is consistent with the calculated value for three uncoupled Tm3+ ions by considering the spin and orbital contributions with no quenching of the orbital angular momentum ( L = 5, S = 1, and J = 6; Ccalcd = 23.3 emu.K/mol). The electrochemical measurements demonstrate that both the Ih and the D5h isomers of Tm3N@C80 have a large electrochemical gap. PMID:18447327

  8. Ligand field splittings in core level transitions for transition metal (TM) oxides: Tanabe-Sugano diagrams and (TM) dangling bonds in vacated O-atom defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucovsky, Gerry; Wu, Kun; Pappas, Brian; Whitten, Jerry

    2013-04-01

    Defect states in the forbidden band-gap below the conduction band edge are active as electron traps in nano-grain high-) transition metal (TM) oxides with thickness >0.3 nm, e.g., ZrO2 and HfO2. These oxides have received considerable attention as gate-dielectrics in complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices, and more recently are emerging as candidates for charge storage and memory devices. To provide a theoretical basis for device functionality, ab-initio many-electron theory is combined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to study O K edge and TM core level transitions. These studies identify ligand field splittings (ΔLF) for defect state features,. When compared with those obtained from O-atom and TM-atom core spectroscopic transitions, this provides direct information about defect state sun-nm bonding arrangements. comparisons are made for (i) elemental TiO2 and Ti2O3 with different formal ionic charges, Ti4+ and Ti3+ and for (ii) Magneli Phase alloys, TinO2n-1, n is an integer 9>=n>3, and (TiO2)x(HfO2)1-x alloys. The alloys display multi-valent behavior from (i) different ionic-charge states, (ii} local bond-strain, and (iii) metallic hopping transport. The intrinsic bonding defects in TM oxides are identified as pairs of singly occupied dangling bonds. For 6-fold coordinated Ti-oxides defect excited states in 2nd derivative O K pre-edge spectra are essentially the same as single Ti-atom d2 transitions in Tanabe-Sugano (T-S) diagrams. O-vacated site defects in 8-fold coordinated ZrO2 and HfO2 are described by d8 T-S diagrams. T-S defect state ordering and splittings are functions of the coordination and symmetry of vacated site bordering TM atoms. ΔLF values from the analysis of T-S diagrams indicate medium range order (MRO) extending to 3rd and 4th nearest-neighbor (NN) TM-atoms. Values are different for 6-fold Ti, and 8-fold ZrO2 and HfO2, and scale inversely with differences in respective formal ionic radii. O-vacated site bonding

  9. Highly efficient passively Q-switched Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser with kilowatt peak power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yanqiu; Yao, Baoquan; Liu, Wei; Cui, Zheng; Duan, Xiaoming; Ju, Youlun; Yu, Hong

    2016-04-01

    We present the experimental results on the laser characteristics of diode-pumped passively Q-switched Tm,Ho:GdVO4 and Tm,Ho:YVO4 lasers with a Cr2+:ZnS saturable absorber emitting in the 2-μm range. The Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser exhibits better performance than the Tm,Ho:YVO4 laser. The minimum pulse duration of 32.7 ns is obtained with the pulse energy of 0.30 mJ, corresponding to the peak power of 9.1 kW. The slope efficiencies of continuous wave and passively Q-switched Tm,Ho:GdVO4 lasers are 49.9% and 36.5%, corresponding to the Q-switching efficiency of 70.2%.

  10. Low-phonon PbF2:Tm3+-doped crystal for 1.9 µm lasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peixiong; Wan, Youbao; Yin, Jigang; Zhang, Lianhan; Liu, Youchen; Hong, Jiaqi; Ning, Kaijie; Chen, Zhi; Wang, Xianyong; Shi, Chunjun; Hang, Yin

    2014-11-01

    Tm-doped PbF2 crystal is successfully grown in a home-made Bridgman furnace. The laser properties of Tm3+ in PbF2 crystal at around 1900 nm are then evaluated based on the absorption and emission cross-section. Laser operation in Tm:PbF2 single crystal at 1900 nm with laser-diode pumping is demonstrated for the first time. With a 2 mol. % Tm3+ -doped sample, a maximum output power of 1.17 W is realized at a wavelength of 1900 nm for 6.8 W of absorbed pump power with a slope efficiency of 26%. We propose that the Tm:PbF2 crystal may be a promising new material for 1900 nm high peak power laser applications.

  11. Highly Efficient Tm-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Ceramic Laser Based on the Novel Fiber-Bulk Hybrid Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Shen, Deyuan; Huang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoqi; Tang, Dingyuan; Fan, Dianyuan

    2013-09-01

    A polycrystalline ceramic Tm3+-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Tm:Y3Al5O12, Tm:YAG) laser based on the novel fiber-bulk hybrid configuration is demonstrated using a high-power and tunable Er,Yb co-doped fiber laser as the pump source. Lasing characteristics of a 4.0 at. % Tm:YAG ceramic are investigated at different pump wavelengths from 1617 to 1625 nm. With an output coupler of 10% transmission, a maximum output power of 3.9 W is obtained at 2013.2 nm under an 8.8 W incident pump power at the Tm:YAG absorption peak of 1620.4 nm, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 50.1% with respect to the incident pump power.

  12. Essentials of MMPI-A[TM] Assessment. Essentials of Psychological Assessment Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Robert P.; Krishnamurthy, Radhika

    This book is designed to provide fundamental information concerning the procedures necessary to administer, score, interpret, and report findings from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent[TM] (MMPI-A), the most widely used objective personality assessment instrument for adolescents. The chapters are: (1) "Overview"; (2) "How…

  13. 76 FR 65563 - Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated CoinsTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins TM AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint...

  14. Behavior Breakthroughs[TM]: Future Teachers Reflect on a Focused Game Designed to Teach ABA Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowdermilk, John; Martinez, Deborah; Pecina, Julie; Beccera, Lisa; Lowdermilk, Carey

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the use of a focused educational game. The game, "Behavior Breakthroughs"[TM], was created to teach people that work with children with autism, appropriate behavior management techniques. A group of undergraduate, teacher education students played the game and provided feedback on their experiences.

  15. Social Stories[TM]: Does the Research Evidence Support the Popularity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styles, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The use of Social Stories[TM] appears to be popular among educational psychologists (EPs) and other children's services professionals as an intervention for enhancing the social functioning of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). This article explores and evaluates the research evidence upon which this apparent popularity is based.…

  16. 77 FR 840 - Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated CoinsTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins TM AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint...

  17. Construction of pTM series plasmids for gene expression in Brucella species.

    PubMed

    Tian, Mingxing; Qu, Jing; Bao, Yanqing; Gao, Jianpeng; Liu, Jiameng; Wang, Shaohui; Sun, Yingjie; Ding, Chan; Yu, Shengqing

    2016-04-01

    Brucellosis, the most common widespread zoonotic disease, is caused by Brucella spp., which are facultative, intracellular, Gram-negative bacteria. With the development of molecular biology techniques, more and more virulence-associated factors have been identified in Brucella spp. A suitable plasmid system is an important tool to study virulence genes in Brucella. In this study, we constructed three constitutive replication plasmids (pTM1-Cm, pTM2-Amp, and pTM3-Km) using the replication origin (rep) region derived from the pBBR1-MCS vector. Also, a DNA fragment containing multiple cloning sites (MCSs) and a terminator sequence derived from the pCold vector were produced for complementation of the deleted genes. Besides pGH-6×His, a plasmid containing the groE promoter of Brucella spp. was constructed to express exogenous proteins in Brucella with high efficiency. Furthermore, we constructed the inducible expression plasmid pZT-6×His, containing the tetracycline-inducible promoter pzt1, which can induce expression by the addition of tetracycline in the Brucella culture medium. The constructed pTM series plasmids will play an important role in the functional investigation of Brucella spp. PMID:26851674

  18. Design data brochure for the Owens-Illinois Sunpak (TM) air-cooled solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information necessary to evaluate the design and installation of the Owens-Illinois Sunpak TM Air-Cooled Solar Collector is presented. Information includes collector features, fluid flow, thermal performance, installation and system tips. The collector utilizes a highly selective wavelength coating in combination with vacuum insulation, which virtually eliminates conduction and convention losses.

  19. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Kids Living Fit[TM] Program: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speroni, Karen Gabel; Earley, Cynthia; Atherton, Martin

    2007-01-01

    After-school programs can be implemented by school nurses to facilitate healthy lifestyle choices in children with the goal of decreasing obesity. Kids Living Fit[TM] (KLF), an after-school program designed by community hospital nurses, was implemented in elementary schools and focused on best lifestyle choices regarding foods consumed and…

  20. High Energy Double-Pulsed Ho:Tm:YLF Laser Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Braud, Alain; Petros, Mulugeta; Singh, Upendra N.

    2002-01-01

    A high energy double-pulsed Ho:Tm:YLF 2-micrometer laser amplifier has been demonstrated. 600 mJ per pulse pair under Q-switch operation is achieved with the gain of 4.4. This solid-state laser source can be used as lidar transmitter for multiple lidar applications such as coherent wind and carbon dioxide measurements.

  1. DuoliteTM GT-73 Resin Testing in Support of the Salt Disposition Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    1998-12-07

    This study evaluated DuoliteTM GT-73 performance for removing mercury ions from several high level waste streams under consideration by the Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team as a technical risk. Experiments conducted over an eight week period address the technical uncertainties for GT-73 performance

  2. Luminescence properties of Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped lead alumina bismuth borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goud, K. Krishna Murthy; Reddy, M. Chandra Shekhar; Rao, B. Appa

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports on the spectroscopic properties of Yb3+ and Tm3+ codoped lead alumina bismuth borate glasses. Optical absorption spectra of these Samples were recorded at room temperature in the wavelength range 350-2000 nm. The absorption spectra exhibited the bands at 658 nm (3H6→3F2), 686 nm (3H6→3F3), 792 nm (3H6→3H4), 1211 nm (3H6→3H5) and 1663 nm (3H6→3F4) due to Tm3+ ions. The band at 977 nm (2F7/2→2F5/2) is due to Yb3+ ions. Optical band gap (Eopt) and Urbach energy (ΔE) values were calculated from the spectra. It was observed that the value of optical band gap decreases with increase in the concentration of Tm3+ ions. The upconversion luminescence spectra were measured under excitation of 980 nm laser diode, and the intense blue (470 nm) and green (656 nm) emission were simultaneously observed at room temperature. A proposed upconversion mechanism involving energy transfer from Yb3+ to Tm3+ has been presented.

  3. The Academic English Language Needs of Industrial Design Students in UiTM Kedah, Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adzmi, Nor Aslah; Bidin, Samsiah; Ibrahim, Syazliyati; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the academic English language lacks and needs of Industrial Design students in Universiti Teknologi MARA Kedah (UiTM). It highlights the lacks and needs for English for Academic Purposes in helping the students to succeed in the program through the usage of English language. The research tools used were in…

  4. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Social Stories[TM] Using Three Single Subject Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynhout, Georgina; Carter, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Social Stories[TM] are a popular intervention used with individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other disabilities. Most of the research conducted to date has involved small "n" designs. Previous meta-analyses of this research have involved relatively small numbers of studies and issues such as selection bias and failure to evaluate…

  5. Social Stories[TM] Improve the On-Task Behavior of Children with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Naomi; Goldstein, Howard

    2009-01-01

    On-task behaviors are examined for three elementary-aged children who had impaired language and challenging behaviors that compromised their classroom participation and inclusion. A multiple-baseline design across participants was used. Each participant showed improvements in on-task behavior following Social Story[TM] intervention. Participants…

  6. A Social Stories[TM] Intervention Package with Students with Autism in Inclusive Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Jeffrey M.; O'Reilly, Mark F.

    2008-01-01

    A Social Stories[TM] intervention package was used to teach 2 students with autism to read Social Stories, answer comprehension questions, and engage in role plays. Appropriate social behaviors increased and inappropriate behaviors decreased for both participants, and the effects were maintained for up to 10 months. This intervention package…

  7. Increasing Appropriate Social Interactions of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Social Stories[TM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scattone, Dorothy; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Wilczynski, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    To date there are more than one dozen studies that validate the use of Social Stories[TM] as an effective behavioral intervention. Many of these studies focused on decreasing inappropriate behaviors (e.g., aggression, screaming, and grabbing toys), and most combined Social Stories with another intervention. The present study used a multiple…

  8. An Analysis of Social Stories[TM] Research Using an Evidence-Based Practice Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Michael R.; Menendez, Anthony L.; Wheeler, John J.; Carter, Stacy L.; Chitiyo, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    The number of Social Stories[TM] studies and reviews has increased in recent years, yet concerns regarding quality and effect sizes continue to be expressed. With the emphasis on evidence-based practices (EBPs) for the education and treatment of people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), this issue becomes of paramount importance as…

  9. Social Story[TM] Interventions for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokina, Anastasia; Kern, Lee

    2010-01-01

    A meta-analysis of single-subject research was conducted, examining the use of Social Stories[TM] and the role of a comprehensive set of moderator variables (intervention and participant characteristics) on intervention outcomes. While Social Stories had low to questionable overall effectiveness, they were more effective when addressing…

  10. An Evaluation of the Components of a Social Stories[TM] Intervention Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iskander, Jeannette M.; Rosales, Rocio

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of Social Stories[TM], and Social Stories paired with a differential reinforcement procedure on disruptive behaviors of two elementary school children diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We implemented a…

  11. Learning from the Market: Integrating "The Stock Market Game" (tm) across the Curriculum. EconomicsAmerica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Economic Education, New York, NY.

    This book is designed to help teachers connect "The Stock Market Game" (tm) and the school curriculum. Three key economic themes developed in the lessons include: (1) stock buyers engage in economizing behavior; (2) market economies encourage the production of wealth; and (3) market activity takes place in the context of a legal environment in…

  12. Thermal composition of DyF-, HoF-, and TmF-based gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaledin, Leonid A.; Holbrook, Robert T.; Kunc, Joseph A.

    1998-04-01

    The partition functions are calculated for gases consisting of Ln and F atoms, Ln+ ions, LnF and F2 molecules, and LnF+ molecular ions (Ln≡Dy, Ho, Tm) and are subsequently used in determining the local thermal equilibrium compositions of such gases.

  13. Pilot Testing "Okay with Asthma"[TM]: An Online Asthma Intervention for School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tami H.; Hauenstein, Emily J.

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is the leading cause of missed school days despite advancements in asthma treatment. This may be, in part, due to a lack of understanding about asthma. "Okay With Asthma"[TM], an online story with psychosocial management strategies for school-age children, was pilot tested to measure its effect on asthma knowledge and attitude. The online…

  14. High power 2 {mu}m diode-pumped Tm:YAG laser

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R.J.; Sutton, S.B.; Honea, E.C.; Skidmore, J.A.; Emanuel, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Using a scaleable diode end-pumping technology developed at LLNL, we have demonstrated a compact Tm:YAG laser capable of generating more than 50 W of cw 2 {mu}m laser output power. The design and operational characteristics of this laser, which was built originally for use in assessing laser surgical techniques, are discussed.

  15. High power 2 {micro}m wing-pumped Tm{sup 3+}:YAG laser

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R.J.; Sutton, S.B.; Honea, E.C.; Skidmore, J.A.; Emanuel, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Using a scalable diode end-pumping technology developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory the authors have demonstrated a compact Tm{sup 3+}:YAG laser capable of generating greater than 50 W of cw 2 {micro}m laser output power. The design and operational characteristics of this laser will be discussed.

  16. Efficient Operation of Conductively Cooled Ho:Tm:LuLiF Laser Oscillator/Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Bai, Yingxin; Trieu, Bo; Petros, M.; Petzar, Paul; Lee, Hyung; Singh, U.

    2008-01-01

    A conductively-cooled Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser oscillator generates 1.6J normal mode pulses at 10Hz with optical to optical efficiency of 20%. When the laser head module is used as the amplifier, the double-pass small-signal amplification excesses 25.

  17. Development of LaRC (TM): IA thermoplastic polyimide coated aerospace wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keating, Jack

    1995-01-01

    NASA Langley has invented LaRC(exp TM) IA and IAX which are thermoplastic polyimides with good melting, thermal and chemical resistance properties. It was the objective of this contract to prepare and extrude LaRC (exp TM) polyimide onto aircraft wire and evaluate the polymers performance in this critical application. Based on rheology and chemical resistance studies at Imitec, LaRC (exp TM) IAX melts readily in an extruder, facilitating the manufacture of thin wall coatings. The polyimide does not corode the extruder, develop gel particles nor advance in viscosity. The insulated wire was tested according to MiL-W-22759E test specifications. The resulting wire coated with LaRC (exp TM) IAX displayed exceptional properties: surface resistance, non blocking, non burning, hot fluid resistance, impulse dielectric, insulation resistance, low temperature flexibility, thermal aging, wire weight, dimensions, negligible high temperature shrinkage and stripability. The light weight and other properties merit its application in satellites, missiles and aircraft applications. The extruded IAX results in a polyimide aircraft insulation without seams, outstanding moisture resistance, continuous lengths and abrasion resistance.

  18. Using EPAS[TM] to Evaluate School-Based Intervention Programs: GEAR UP. Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2007

    2007-01-01

    This brief examines how the ACT's EPAS[TM] (Educational Planning and Assessment System) can be used to evaluate school-based intervention programs. Specific evaluation considered is that of the federal government's Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP), an initiative designed to increase the college awareness…

  19. Water quality assessment with simultaneous Landsat-5 TM data at Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Braga, C.Z.F.; Setzer, A.W. ); Lacerda, L.D. de )

    1993-06-01

    This study aims at determining relationships between water quality parameters and digital data from the Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM). The study area was the Guanabara Bay, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Water samples were collected on two dates, coincident with Landsat passages, and when different tide conditions were present at the Bay. TM Bands 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6, band ratios 1 / 3 and 2 / 3, and principal component analysis of TM Bands 1-4 were compared with in situ measurements and laboratory analysis of water samples. Some water quality parameters were very well correlated with the digital remotely sensed data, especially during high tide: for instance, iron and manganese concentrations in total suspended solids; salinity and Secchi depth; temperature and Secchi depth; temperature and total suspended solids; total suspended solids and Bands 4 and 6; Secchi depth and Bands 4 and 6; temperature and Band 6. Lower correlation coefficients, although also significant, were found for the low tide condition. No correlation was found with chlorophyll-a concentrations. TM data were shown to be adequate to analyze temperature, Secchi depth, total suspended solids, and iron and manganese contents in the total suspended solids for the polluted estuary area studied.

  20. Giant low field magnetocaloric effect and field-induced metamagnetic transition in TmZn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lingwei; Yuan, Ye; Zhang, Yikun; Namiki, Takahiro; Nishimura, Katsuhiko; Pöttgen, Rainer; Zhou, Shengqiang

    2015-09-01

    The magnetic properties and the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in TmZn have been studied by magnetization and heat capacity measurements. The TmZn compound exhibits a ferromagnetic state below a Curie temperature of TC = 8.4 K and processes a field-induced metamagnetic phase transition around and above TC. A giant reversible MCE was observed in TmZn. For a field change of 0-5 T, the maximum values of magnetic entropy change (-ΔSMmax) and adiabatic temperature change (ΔTadmax) are 26.9 J/kg K and 8.6 K, the corresponding values of relative cooling power and refrigerant capacity are 269 and 214 J/kg, respectively. Particularly, the values of -ΔSMmax reach 11.8 and 19.6 J/kg K for a low field change of 0-1 and 0-2 T, respectively. The present results indicate that TmZn could be a promising candidate for low temperature and low field magnetic refrigeration.

  1. Tm:YLF Pumped Ho:YAG and Ho:LuAG Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Reichle, Donald J.; Walsh, Brian M.; Axenson, Theresa J.

    2004-01-01

    Room temperature Ho:YAG and Ho:LuAG lasers pumped by a Tm:YLF laser demonstrated a 3.4 mJ threshold and 0.41 slope efficiency, incident optical to laser output energy. Results for numerous rod lengths, Ho concentrations, and output mirror reflectivities are presented.

  2. Near-infrared Downconversion in LuPO4: Tm3+, Yb3+ Phosphors.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Wang, Yongjie; Shen, Jun; Chang, Wenxuan; Jin, Tianting; Wei, Xiantao; Tian, Ya

    2016-04-01

    Tm3+ and Yb3+ codoped LuPO4 phosphors were synthesized by the reverse-strike co-precipitation method. The obtained LuPO4:Tm3+,Yb3+ phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectra, photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and decay lifetime to understand the observed near-infrared downconversion (DC) phenomena. The XRD results show that all the prepared phosphors can be readily indexed to the pure tetragonal phase of LuPO4 and exhibit good crystallinity. The experimental results showed that the strong visible emission around 649 nm from Tm3+(1G4 --> 3F4) and near-infrared (NIR) emission around 1003 nm from Yb3+(2F5/2 --> 2F7/2) of LuPO4:Tm3+,Yb3+ phosphors were observed under 468 nm excitation, respectively. The Yb3+ concentration dependence of luminescent properties and lifetimes of both the visible and NIR emissions have also been investigated. The quenching concentration of Yb3+ ions approaches 30 mol%. The DC mechanism is also discussed in detail. PMID:27451658

  3. REACTION PATHWAY OF THE DIKETONITRILE DEGRADATE OF ISOXAFLUTOLE (BALANCE(TM)) WITH HYPOCHLORITE IN WATER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isoxaflutole (IXF; Balance(TM)) belongs to the new class of isoxazole herbicides. Isoxaflutole has a very short half-life in soil and rapidly degrades to a stable and phytotoxic degradate, diketonitrile (DKN). DKN was previously discovered to rapidly react with hypochlorite (OCl-) in tap water, yie...

  4. Effects of magnetic anisotropy and exchange in Tm{sub 2}Fe{sub 17}

    SciTech Connect

    Pirogov, A. N. Bogdanov, S. G.; Rosenfeld, E. V.; Park, J.-G.; Choi, Y. N.; Lee, Seongsu; Prokes, K.; Golosova, N. O.; Sashin, I. L.; Kudrevatykh, N. V.; Skryabin, Yu. N.; Vokhmyanin, A. P.

    2012-11-15

    Neutron diffraction experiments have been carried out to study the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of two (2b and 2d) Tm sublattices and four (4f, 6g, 12j, and 12k) Fe sublattices in ferrimagnetic compound Tm{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} (space group P6{sub 3}/mmc). We have determined the temperature dependence of the magnitude and orientation of magnetization for each of the thulium and iron sublattices in the range (10-300) K. A spontaneous rotation (at about 90 K) of the Tm and Fe sublattice magnetizations from the c-axis to the basal plane is accompanied by a drastic change in the magnetization magnitude, signifying a large magnetization anisotropy. Both Tm sublattices exhibit an easy-axis type of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The Fe sublattices manifest both the uniaxial and planar anisotropy types. The sublattice formed by Fe atoms at the 4f position reveals the largest planar anisotropy constant. The Fe atoms at the 12j position show a uniaxial anisotropy. We find that the inelastic neutron scattering spectra measured below and above the spin-reorientation transition are remarkably different.

  5. Investigation of TM Band-to-band Registration Using the JSC Registration Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, S. S.; Amis, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    When the Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery was first received and displayed in the fall of 1982, its radiometric lucidity and geometric fidelity was judged far superior to the multispectral scanner (MSS) imagery. The MSS data from the LANDSAT series of satellites have served well as the mainstay of satellite imagery for the remote sensing community up to now. Therefore, there is great anticipation as to the utility of this new IM imagery to advance the field of remote sensing. The thematic mapper (TM) band to band registration accuracy evaluation was discussed. In particular, the band to band registration accuracies of the TM data in the subpixel region were evaluated using the Johnson Space Center (JSC) registration processor which is ideally suited for this task. The JSC registration processor was also used to register one acquisition to another acquisition of multitemporal TM data acquired over the same ground track. The approach and the rationale behind the task, the description of the data set, the evaluation results, and the preliminary conclusions are discussed.

  6. Half-metallic ferromagnetism in TM-doped MgH2 hydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakhal, M.; Bhihi, M.; Naji, S.; Mounkachi, O.; Benyoussef, A.; Loulidi, M.; El Kenz, A.

    2015-06-01

    We show that, in addition to its thermodynamic properties that make it a good candidate for hydrogen storage, the MgH2 hydride exhibits interesting magnetic properties when doped with some transition metals (TM). Using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method (KKR) combined with the coherent potential approximation in the framework of first-principle calculations, we study the half-metallic ferromagnetic properties of the MgH2 doped with TM: Co, V, Cr, Ti; Mg0.95TM0.05H2. The ferromagnetic state energy is computed and compared with the disordered local moment state energy. We show, from the electronic structure, that doping MgH2 with TM elements can convert the material to a half-metallic with a high wide impurity band and high magnetic moment. We have found that the corresponding Curie temperature is bigger than the room temperature, which is considered as a relevant parameter for spintronic applications. Moreover, the mechanism of the hybridization and the interaction between the magnetic ions are also investigated showing that the double exchange is the underlying mechanism responsible for the magnetism of such materials.

  7. Using National Instruments LabVIEW[TM] Education Edition in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butlin, Chris A.

    2011-01-01

    With the development of LabVIEW[TM] Education Edition schools can now provide experience of using this widely used software. Here, a few of the many applications that students aged around 11 years and over could develop are outlined in the resulting front panel screen displays and block diagrams showing the associated graphical programmes, plus a…

  8. Learning Designer[TM]: A Theory-Based SCORM-Compliant Content Development Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Myunghee; Lim, Doo H.; Kim, Minkyung

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a recently developed e-learning design and development tool called Learning Designer[TM] (version 1.0). Learning Designer assists learning designers and developers to build e-learning courses with Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) compliant learning objects using decision-making aids and recommended templates…

  9. Wide-bandwidth Tm-based amplifier for laser acceleration driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copeland, Drew A.; Vetrovec, John; Litt, Amardeep S.

    2016-03-01

    We report on an investigation of novel 2 μm thulium (Tm)-based laser accelerator driver (LAD) offering efficient generation of high-energy pulses with high-peak power at high pulse repetition rate (PRF), high efficiency, and with near-diffraction-limited beam quality (BQ). Laser acceleration of electrons by ultrashortpulse laser-generated plasmas offers accelerators of much reduced size and cost compared to conventional accelerators of the same energy, thus replacing the traditional mammoth-size and costly accelerator research facilities with room-size systems1. A LAD operating at 2 μm wavelength offers ponderomotive forces four times that of 1 μm wavelength and six times that of a traditional 0.8 μm wavelength LAD. In addition, the Tm bandwidth of nearly 400 nm offers > 15% tunability and generation of ultrashort pulses down to <30 fs. The "2-for- 1" pump quantum efficiency of the Tm ion enables > 20% wall-plug efficiency. This work presents a preliminary analysis of Tm-based LAD configurations.

  10. Guidelines for Graphing Data with Microsoft[R] PowerPoint[TM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Erin E.; Reichow, Brian; Wolery, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Graphs are vital components for analyzing data in the experimental analysis of behavior using single subject research methods. This paper extends the previous literature on the construction of single subject graphs by providing instructions for using Microsoft[R] Power Point[TM] and Microsoft[R] PowerPoint for Mac[R], and describes improved…

  11. Targeted delivery of antitumoral therapy to glioma and other malignancies with synthetic chlorotoxin (TM-601).

    PubMed

    Mamelak, Adam N; Jacoby, Douglas B

    2007-03-01

    Targeted therapies for cancer is a rapidly advancing field, but the identification of tumor-specific ligands has proven difficult. Chlorotoxin (CTX) is a small, 36 amino acid neurotoxin isolated from the venom of the Giant Yellow Israeli scorpion Leiurus Quinquestriatus. Interestingly, the peptide has been found to preferentially bind to a variety of human malignancies, but shows little or no binding to normal human tissues. A synthetic version of this peptide (TM-601) has been manufactured and covalently linked to iodine 131 (131I-TM-601) as a means of targeting radiation to tumor cells. Preclinical studies and Phase I clinical trials have been completed in patients with recurrent glioma, a type of malignant brain tumor. These studies demonstrated that intracavitary dosing of 131I-TM-601 appears safe, minimally toxic, and binds malignant glioma with high affinity and for long durations. A Phase II trial of this agent using higher doses of radioactivity and repeated local administrations is underway. In addition, enrolment has begun in a Phase I trial evaluating whether systemically delivered 131I-TM-601 can be used to image metastatic solid tumors and primary gliomas. Due to its small size, selective tumor binding properties, minimal toxicity and relative ease of manipulation, CTX represents a potentially important targeting agent for many cancers. PMID:17335414

  12. Measurement of natural radiative lifetime of excited levels of Tm atom

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Chengfei; Jiang Zhankui; Zhou Dafan; Liang Xiuqing

    1988-10-01

    The natural radiative lifetime of some low-lying excited levels in Tm atoms have been determined from measurements of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence in atomic beam. The levels were selectively populated by the light from a pulsed tunable dye laser pumped by an excimer laser or a Nd:YAG laser.

  13. An Integrated Marine Propulsion System Utilising TRIGA{sup TM} Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Manach, G.; Monnez, J-P.; Freeman, M.J.; Newell, A.; Brushwood, J.M.; Thompson, A.; Collins, C.; Scholes, N.; Hamilton, P.J.; Beeley, P.A.

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the reactor physics, shielding, thermal hydraulics, reactor dynamics and safety studies conducted to develop a proposed Integrated Marine Propulsion System (IMPS) utilising TRIGA{sup TM} type uranium zirconium hydride fuel. The study has demonstrated that the IMPS plant is feasible and meets the design safety principles and safety criteria imposed on the study. (authors)

  14. Highly Efficient Operation of Tm:fiber Laser Pumped Ho:YLF Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, Yingxin; Petros, M.; Yu, Jirong; Petzar, Paul; Trieu, Bo; Chen, Sam; Lee, Hyung; Singh, U.

    2006-01-01

    A 19 W, TEM(sub 00) mode, Ho:YLF laser pumped by continuous wave Tm:fiber laser has been demonstrated at the room temperature. The slope efficiency and optical-to-optical efficiency are 65% and 55%, respectively.

  15. Resonantly pumped amplification in a Tm-doped large mode-area photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sincore, Alex; Shah, Lawrence; Wysmolek, Mateusz; Ryan, Robert; Abdulfattah, Ali; Richardson, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Ultra-large mode area thulium-doped photonic crystal fibers (Tm:PCF) have enabled the highest peak powers in 2 micron fiber laser systems to date. However, Tm:PCFs are limited by slope efficiencies of <50% when pumped with 790 nm laser diodes. A well-known alternative is pumping at 1550 nm with erbium/ytterbium-doped fiber (Er/Yb:fiber) lasers for efficiencies approaching ~70%. However, these 1550 nm pump lasers are also relatively inefficient themselves. A recently demonstrated and more attractive approach to enable slope efficiencies over 90% in thuliumdoped step-index fibers is resonant pumping (or in-band pumping). This utilizes a high power thulium fiber laser operating at a shorter wavelength as the pump. In this manuscript, we describe an initial demonstration of resonant pumping in Tm:PCF. While the extracted power was still in the exponential regime due to pump power limitations, slope efficiencies in excess of ~64 have been observed, and there is still room for improvement. These initial results show promise for applying resonant pumping in Tm:PCF to improve efficiencies and facilitate high power scaling in ultralarge mode area systems.

  16. Too Good for Drugs[TM]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Too Good for Drugs"[TM] is designed to promote life skills, character values, resistance skills to negative peer influence, and resistance to the use of illegal drugs, alcohol, and tobacco. The program, which targets elementary and middle school students, is based on classroom discussions and structured activities that center on interactive…

  17. Using Web 2.0 Technologies to Meet Quality Matters[TM] (QM) Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollacia, Lissa; McCallister, Terrie

    2009-01-01

    Quality Matters[TM] (QM) is a set of standards to measure the quality of instruction and design in online or hybrid courses. Adopted by a growing number of institutions nationwide, QM is based on best practices and instructional design research. To meet or exceed QM standards requires that resources and learning activities in an online course…

  18. ENVIROBOND (TM) PROCESS ROCKY MOUNTAIN REMEDIATION SERVICES (EPA/540/MR-99/502)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Rocky Mountain Remediation Services Environbond (TM) process was evaluated under the USEPA's SITE program for the ability of the process to reduce leachable lead in contaminated soils. The Envirobond process was either sprayed onto or directly injected into the contaminated s...

  19. Efficient emission at 1908 nm in a diode-pumped Tm:YLF laser

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharov, N G; Antipov, Oleg L; Savikin, A P; Sharkov, V V; Eremeikin, O N; Frolov, Yu N; Mishchenko, G M; Velikanov, S D

    2009-05-31

    Emission parameters at 1908 nm in a longitudinally-diode-pumped Tm:YLF laser are studied. The laser parameters are optimised to obtain the maximal power of high-quality cw radiation. The output power of {approx}27 W is obtained at the slope efficiency of {approx}50% and total optical pump conversion efficiency of {approx}41%. (lasers and amplifiers)

  20. Strong magnetic coupling in the hexagonal R5Pb3 compounds (R=Gd-Tm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcinkova, Andrea; de la Cruz, Clarina; Yip, Joshua; Zhao, Liang L.; Wang, Jiakui K.; Svanidze, E.; Morosan, E.

    2015-06-01

    We have synthesized the R5Pb3 (R=Gd-Tm) compounds in polycrystalline form and performed neutron scattering and magnetization measurements. For all R5Pb3 reported here the Weiss temperatures θW are several times smaller than the ordering temperatures TORD, while the latter are remarkably high (TORD up to 275 K for R=Gd) compared to other known R-M binaries (M=Si, Ge, Sn and Sb). The magnetic order changes from ferromagnetic (FM) in R=Gd, Tb to antiferromagnetic (AFM) in R=Dy-Tm. Below TORD, the magnetization measurements together with neutron powder diffraction show complex magnetic behaviors and reveal the existence of up to three additional phase transitions, believed to be a result of large anisotropic exchange and/or crystal electric field effects, induced high anisotropy. The R5Pb3 magnetic unit cells for R=Tb-Tm can be described with incommensurate magnetic wave vectors with spin modulation either along the c axis in R=Tb, Er and Tm, or within the ab plane in R=Dy and Ho.

  1. Bacteria of the Candidate Phylum TM7 are Prevalent in Acidophilic Nitrifying Sequencing-Batch Reactors

    PubMed Central

    Hanada, Akiko; Kurogi, Takashi; Giang, Nguyen Minh; Yamada, Takeshi; Kamimoto, Yuki; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Hiraishi, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory-scale acidophilic nitrifying sequencing-batch reactors (ANSBRs) were constructed by seeding with sewage-activated sludge and cultivating with ammonium-containing acidic mineral medium (pH 4.0) with or without a trace amount of yeast extract. In every batch cycle, the pH varied between 2.7 and 4.0, and ammonium was completely converted to nitrate. Attempts to detect nitrifying functional genes in the fully acclimated ANSBRs by PCR with previously designed primers mostly gave negative results. 16S rRNA gene-targeted PCR and a subsequent denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that a marked change occurred in the bacterial community during the overall period of operation, in which members of the candidate phylum TM7 and the class Gammaproteobacteria became predominant at the fully acclimated stage. This result was fully supported by a 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, as the major phylogenetic groups of clones detected (>5% of the total) were TM7 (33%), Gammaproteobacteria (37%), Actinobacteria (10%), and Alphaproteobacteria (8%). Fluorescence in situ hybridization with specific probes also demonstrated the prevalence of TM7 bacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. These results suggest that previously unknown nitrifying microorganisms may play a major role in ANSBRs; however, the ecophysiological significance of the TM7 bacteria predominating in this process remains unclear. PMID:25241805

  2. Spatiotemporal variability of winter wheat condition based on TM data and geostatistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Suxia; Mao, Renzhao; Zheng, Li

    2005-09-01

    According to the ground resolution characteristic of Thematic Mapper (TM) image, we correspondingly measured the relative chlorophyll contents in four key developmental stages of winter wheat in the Lower plain of the Hai River Basin, North China, and explored their correlation with the reflected spectral values that can be obtained from TM image. Considering not only NDVI but also the relative content of the chlorophyll, 31 RS variables were selected and the relationship between the variables and the relative content of chlorophyll was established. Regression models were built for quantitatively predicting winter wheat growing condition from TM images. Also the spatiotemporal variability of the winter wheat growth status at heading and booting stages were analyzed by geostatictics approach. The correlated spatial variability of the relative content of chlorophyll existed in the case study area, and the range of correlative distance was from 145.4 to 320.0m. The spatially structured variances were between 75% and 21% of the total variances, and the empirical semivariograms in the four stages could be simulated in spherical models. The result showed that it is feasible to use TM data for real-time and highly accurate monitoring of crop growth status and nutrient management of farmland ecosystems.

  3. HTML::GMap-A High Level Perl Wrapper Around the Google Maps(TM) API

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have developed HTML::GMap, a generic, high-level Perl wrapper, to easily build web-based geographic map displays on top of the Google MapsTM Mapping Service. Using HTML::GMap, we built custom display tools to present the molecular diversity data generated by the National Science Foundation-suppor...

  4. Accommodation of tmRNA-SmpB into stalled ribosomes: a cryo-EM study.

    PubMed

    Weis, Felix; Bron, Patrick; Rolland, Jean-Paul; Thomas, Daniel; Felden, Brice; Gillet, Reynald

    2010-02-01

    In eubacteria, translation of defective messenger RNAs (mRNAs) produces truncated polypeptides that stall on the ribosome. A quality control mechanism referred to as trans-translation is performed by transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA), a specialized RNA acting as both a tRNA and an mRNA, associated with small protein B (SmpB). So far, a clear view of the structural movements of both the protein and RNA necessary to perform accommodation is still lacking. By using a construct containing the tRNA-like domain as well as the extended helix H2 of tmRNA, we present a cryo-electron microscopy study of the process of accommodation. The structure suggests how tmRNA and SmpB move into the ribosome decoding site after the release of EF-Tu.GDP. While two SmpB molecules are bound per ribosome in a preaccommodated state, our results show that during accommodation the SmpB protein interacting with the small subunit decoding site stays in place while the one interacting with the large subunit moves away. Relative to canonical translation, an additional movement is observed due to the rotation of H2. This suggests that the larger movement required to resume translation on a tmRNA internal open reading frame starts during accommodation. PMID:20038631

  5. Apprenticeship Carolina[TM]: Building a 21st Century Workforce through Statewide Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieritz, Ann Marie

    2009-01-01

    Apprenticeship Carolina[TM] is a new division of the South Carolina Technical College System that has increased employer use of registered apprenticeship by 123% since July 2007. The initiative's success spans multiple industry clusters and is built through statewide collaborations that include public-private, state-local, and state-federal…

  6. The Impact of MOVE IT Math(TM) and Traditional Textbook Instruction on Math Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Angela Stephens

    2010-01-01

    One recommendation of government, education, and business leaders is an increased emphasis on math and science instruction in public schools. The purpose of this quantitative study using a posttest, quasi-experimental design was to determine if the Math Opportunities, Valuable Experiences, and Innovative Teaching (MOVE IT Math(TM)) program…

  7. Waterford Early Reading Level One[TM]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Waterford Early Reading Level One"[TM] is an emergent literacy curriculum that uses computer-based technology to prepare children for reading. It begins with a tutorial to familiarize the child with the computer and mouse and a reading placement evaluation to assess and determine whether a child should work on "Level One" objectives: capital…

  8. Treating Traumatized Children after Hurricane Katrina: Project Fleur-de Lis[TM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Judith A.; Jaycox, Lisa H.; Walker, Douglas W.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Langley, Audra K.; DuClos, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Project Fleur-de-lis[TM] (PFDL) was established to provide a tiered approach to triage and treat children experiencing trauma symptoms after Hurricane Katrina. PFDL provides school screening in schools in New Orleans and three tiers of evidence-based treatment (EBT) to disaster-exposed children utilizing a public health approach to meet the…

  9. Effects of Gold Nanorods on Imprinted Genes Expression in TM-4 Sertoli Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Beilei; Gu, Hao; Xu, Bo; Tang, Qiuqin; Wu, Wei; Ji, Xiaoli; Xia, Yankai; Hu, Lingqing; Chen, Daozhen; Wang, Xinru

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) are among the most commonly used nanomaterials. However, thus far, little is known about their harmful effects on male reproduction. Studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that GNRs could decrease glycine synthesis, membrane permeability, mitochondrial membrane potential and disrupt blood-testis barrier factors in TM-4 Sertoli cells. Imprinted genes play important roles in male reproduction and have been identified as susceptible loci to environmental insults by chemicals because they are functionally haploid. In this original study, we investigated the extent to which imprinted genes become deregulated in TM-4 Sertoli cells when treated with low dose of GNRs. The expression levels of 44 imprinted genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR in TM-4 Sertoli cells after a low dose of (10 nM) GNRs treatment for 24 h. We found significantly diminished expression of Kcnq1, Ntm, Peg10, Slc22a2, Pwcr1, Gtl2, Nap1l5, Peg3 and Slc22a2, while Plagl1 was significantly overexpressed. Additionally, four (Kcnq1, Slc22a18, Pwcr1 and Peg3) of 10 abnormally expressed imprinted genes were found to be located on chromosome 7. However, no significant difference of imprinted miRNA genes was observed between the GNRs treated group and controls. Our study suggested that aberrant expression of imprinted genes might be an underlying mechanism for the GNRs-induced reproductive toxicity in TM-4 Sertoli cells. PMID:26938548

  10. Setting Standards on the Core and Advanced iSkills[TM] Assessments. Research Memorandum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Richard J.; Katz, Irvin R.

    2008-01-01

    This report documents a standard-setting study to determine recommended minimum scores (cut scores) needed on the Core and Advanced iSkills[TM] assessments for examinees to be considered at a foundational level of ICT literacy skill. Two foundational levels--one for each iSkills assessment--had been specified previously by the National ICT…

  11. TM4SF1: a tetraspanin-like protein necessary for nanopodia formation and endothelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Zukauskas, Andrew; Merley, Anne; Li, Dan; Ang, Lay-Hong; Sciuto, Tracey E; Salman, Samantha; Dvorak, Ann M; Dvorak, Harold F; Jaminet, Shou-Ching Shih

    2011-09-01

    Transmembrane-4-L-six-family-1 (TM4SF1) is a tetraspanin-like membrane protein that is highly and selectively expressed by cultured endothelial cells (EC) and, in vivo, by EC lining angiogenic tumor blood vessels. TM4SF1 is necessary for the formation of unusually long (up to a 50 μm), thin (~100-300 nm wide), F-actin-poor EC cell projections that we term 'nanopodia'. Immunostaining of nanopodia at both the light and electron microsopic levels localized TM4SF1 in a regularly spaced, banded pattern, forming TM4FS1-enriched domains. Live cell imaging of GFP-transduced HUVEC demonstrated that EC project nanopodia as they migrate and interact with neighboring cells. When TM4SF1 mRNA levels in EC were increased from the normal ~90 mRNA copies/cell to ~400 copies/cell through adenoviral transduction, EC projected more and longer nanopodia from the entire cell circumference but were unable to polarize or migrate effectively. When fibroblasts, which normally express TM4SF1 at ~5 copies/cell, were transduced to express TM4SF1 at EC-like levels, they formed typical TM4SF1-banded nanopodia, and broadened, EC-like lamellipodia. Mass-spectrometry demonstrated that TM4SF1 interacted with myosin-10 and β-actin, proteins involved in filopodia formation and cell migration. In summary, TM4SF1, like genuine tetraspanins, serves as a molecular organizer that interacts with membrane and cytoskeleton-associated proteins and uniquely initiates the formation of nanopodia and facilitates cell polarization and migration. PMID:21626280

  12. TM4SF1: A tetraspanin-like protein necessary for nanopodia formation and endothelial cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Zukauskas, Andrew; Merley, Anne; Li, Dan; Ang, Lay-Hong; Sciuto, Tracey E.; Salman, Samantha; Dvorak, Ann M.; Dvorak, Harold F.; Jaminet, Shou-Ching S.

    2012-01-01

    Transmembrane-4-L-six-family-1 (TM4SF1) is a tetraspanin-like membrane protein that is highly and selectively expressed by cultured endothelial cells (EC) and, in vivo, by EC lining angiogenic tumor blood vessels. TM4SF1 is necessary for the formation of unusually long (up to a 50 µm), thin (~ 100–300 nm wide), F-actin-poor EC cell projections that we term ‘nanopodia’. Immunostaining of nanopodia at both the light and electron microsopic levels localized TM4SF1 in a regularly spaced, banded pattern, forming TM4FS1-enriched domains (TMED). Live cell imaging of GFP-transduced HUVEC demonstrated that EC project nanopodia as they migrate and interact with neighboring cells. When TM4SF1 mRNA levels in EC were increased from the normal ~90 mRNA copies/cell to ~400 copies/cell through adenoviral transduction, EC projected more and longer nanopodia from the entire cell circumference but were unable to polarize or migrate effectively. When fibroblasts, which normally express TM4SF1 at ~5 copies/cell, were transduced to express TM4SF1 at EC-like levels, they formed typical TM4SF1-banded nanopodia, and broadened, EC-like lamellipodia. Mass-spectrophotometry demonstrated that TM4SF1 interacted with myosin-10 and β-actin, proteins involved in filopodia formation and cell migration. In summary, TM4SF1, like genuine tetraspanins, serves as a molecular organizer that interacts with membrane and cytoskeleton-associated proteins and uniquely initiates the formation of nanopodia and facilitates cell polarization and migration. PMID:21626280

  13. Structures and magnetic properties of Tm1- y Y y Mn1- x Co x O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Kumagai, Akira; Amakai, Yusuke; Momono, Naoki; Murayama, Shigeyuki; Takano, Hideaki

    2013-08-01

    The structure and magnetic properties of Tm1- y Y y Mn1- x Co x O3 with 0 ≦ x ≦ 0.5 and 0 ≦ y ≦ 0.3 were investigated by X-ray diffraction, specific heat and magnetization measurements. Thulium manganite TmMnO3 prepared by solid-state synthesis at ambient pressure is hexagonal and antiferromagnetic with a Nèel temperature T N of 86 K. The substitution of Y for Tm in TmMnO3 does not greatly affect the fundamental hexagonal structure. The magnetization and specific heat measurement results for Tm1- y Y y MnO3 can be qualitatively explained in terms of the dilution effect of Tm by Y. On the other hand, the structure of TmMn1- x Co x O3 changes gradually from hexagonal to orthorhombic with the substitution of Co for Mn; hexagonal and orthorhombic phases coexist in samples for x ≦ 0.3 whereas TmMn0.6Co0.4O3 is almost a single orthorhombic phase. The magnetization of TmMn0.6Co0.4O3 in a field of 250 Oe increases rapidly at about 60K with decreasing temperature. The difference between zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) magnetizations increases remarkably at about 60 K. Moreover, the temperature dependences of the ZFC and the FC magnetizations exhibit peaks at about 40 and 30K, respectively. Thus, TmMn1- x Co x O3 exhibits complex magnetic properties.

  14. Novel Anti-TM4SF1 Antibody-Drug Conjugates with Activity against Tumor Cells and Tumor Vasculature.

    PubMed

    Visintin, Alberto; Knowlton, Kelly; Tyminski, Edyta; Lin, Chi-Iou; Zheng, Xiang; Marquette, Kimberly; Jain, Sadhana; Tchistiakova, Lioudmila; Li, Dan; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Maderna, Andreas; Cao, Xianjun; Dunn, Robert; Snyder, William B; Abraham, Anson K; Leal, Mauricio; Shetty, Shoba; Barry, Anthony; Zawel, Leigh; Coyle, Anthony J; Dvorak, Harold F; Jaminet, Shou-Ching

    2015-08-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) represent a promising therapeutic modality for managing cancer. Here, we report a novel humanized ADC that targets the tetraspanin-like protein TM4SF1. TM4SF1 is highly expressed on the plasma membranes of many human cancer cells and also on the endothelial cells lining tumor blood vessels. TM4SF1 is internalized upon interaction with antibodies. We hypothesized that an ADC against TM4SF1 would inhibit cancer growth directly by killing cancer cells and indirectly by attacking the tumor vasculature. We generated a humanized anti-human TM4SF1 monoclonal antibody, v1.10, and armed it with an auristatin cytotoxic agent LP2 (chemical name mc-3377). v1.10-LP2 selectively killed cultured human tumor cell lines and human endothelial cells that express TM4SF1. Acting as a single agent, v1.10-LP2 induced complete regression of several TM4SF1-expressing tumor xenografts in nude mice, including non-small cell lung cancer and pancreas, prostate, and colon cancers. As v1.10 did not react with mouse TM4SF1, it could not target the mouse tumor vasculature. Therefore, we generated a surrogate anti-mouse TM4SF1 antibody, 2A7A, and conjugated it to LP2. At 3 mpk, 2A7A-LP2 regressed several tumor xenografts without noticeable toxicity. Combination therapy with v1.10-LP2 and 2A7A-LP2 together was more effective than either ADC alone. These data provide proof-of-concept that TM4SF1-targeting ADCs have potential as anticancer agents with dual action against tumor cells and the tumor vasculature. Such agents could offer exceptional therapeutic value and warrant further investigation. Mol Cancer Ther; 14(8); 1868-76. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26089370

  15. Analysis of the Petunia TM6 MADS box gene reveals functional divergence within the DEF/AP3 lineage.

    PubMed

    Rijpkema, Anneke S; Royaert, Stefan; Zethof, Jan; van der Weerden, Gerard; Gerats, Tom; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2006-08-01

    Antirrhinum majus DEFICIENS (DEF) and Arabidopsis thaliana APETALA3 (AP3) MADS box proteins are required to specify petal and stamen identity. Sampling of DEF/AP3 homologs revealed two types of DEF/AP3 proteins, euAP3 and TOMATO MADS BOX GENE6 (TM6), within core eudicots, and we show functional divergence in Petunia hybrida euAP3 and TM6 proteins. Petunia DEF (also known as GREEN PETALS [GP]) is expressed mainly in whorls 2 and 3, and its expression pattern remains unchanged in a blind (bl) mutant background, in which the cadastral C-repression function in the perianth is impaired. Petunia TM6 functions as a B-class organ identity protein only in the determination of stamen identity. Atypically, Petunia TM6 is regulated like a C-class rather than a B-class gene, is expressed mainly in whorls 3 and 4, and is repressed by BL in the perianth, thereby preventing involvement in petal development. A promoter comparison between DEF and TM6 indicates an important change in regulatory elements during or after the duplication that resulted in euAP3- and TM6-type genes. Surprisingly, although TM6 normally is not involved in petal development, 35S-driven TM6 expression can restore petal development in a def (gp) mutant background. Finally, we isolated both euAP3 and TM6 genes from seven solanaceous species, suggesting that a dual euAP3/TM6 B-function system might be the rule in the Solanaceae. PMID:16844905

  16. Reliability of the Woodway CurveTM Non-Motorized Treadmill for Assessing Anaerobic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Adam M.; Wells, Adam J.; Hoffman, Jay R.; Stout, Jeffrey R.; Fragala, Maren S.; Mangine, Gerald T.; McCormack, William P.; Townsend, Jeremy R.; Jajtner, Adam R.; Emerson, Nadia S.; Robinson IV, Edward H.

    2013-01-01

    A curved treadmill offers a practical method of assessing anaerobic power by enabling unrestricted running motion and greater sport specificity. The purpose of this research was to determine reliability of a curved treadmill (cTM) sprint test and to compare performance measures to the traditional Wingate anaerobic power test (WAnT) performed on a cycle ergometer. Thirty-two recreationally active men and women (22.4 ± 2.8 yrs; 1.73 ± 0.08 m; 74. 2 ± 13.2 kg) performed four familiarization trials on cTM, followed by two randomly assigned experimental trials consisting of one 30-second maximum effort on either cTM or WAnT. Each trial was separated by at least 48 hours. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), interclass correlations (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal differences (MD) were used to determine reliability of familiarization trials on cTM, and Pearson product moment correlations were calculated to compare cTM and WAnT. ANOVA results showed significant differences (p < 0.05) during the four familiarization trials. Post hoc analysis showed significant differences (p < 0. 05) between the first two trials. Familiarization trials 3 and 4 showed a high reliability for each performance variable (distance: ICC2,1 = 0.969, %SEM = 2.645, p = 0.157; mean velocity: ICC2,1 = 0. 969, %SEM = 2.622, p = 0.173; peak velocity: ICC2,1 = 0.966, %SEM = 3.142, p = 0.033; mean power: ICC2,1 = 0.940, %SEM = 4.140, p = 0.093; and peak power: ICC2,1 = 0.887, %SEM = 11.244, p = 0.669). Participants elicited an average peak power of 1050.4 ± 338.5 Watts on cTM and 1031.4 ± 349.8 Watts on WAnT. Pearson product moment coefficients indicated high correlations between peak power, mean power, and peak velocity (r = 0.75, p < 0.001; r = 0.84, p < 0.001; and r = 0.76, p < 0. 001, respectively) derived from cTM and WAnT. In conclusion, results suggest that after two familiarization trials, cTM is a reliable sprint test for recreationally active men and women

  17. Energy transfer and energy level decay processes in Tm{sup 3+}-doped tellurite glass

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, Laercio; Lousteau, Joris; Milanese, Daniel; Scarpignato, Gerardo C.; Jackson, Stuart D.

    2012-03-15

    The primary excited state decay and energy transfer processes in singly Tm{sup 3+}-doped TeO{sub 2}:ZnO:Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}:GeO{sub 2} (TZBG) glass relating to the {sup 3}F{sub 4}{yields}{sup 3}H{sub 6}{approx}1.85 {mu}m laser transition have been investigated in detail using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Selective laser excitation of the {sup 3}H{sub 4} manifold at 794 nm, the {sup 3}H{sub 5} manifold at 1220 nm, and {sup 3}F{sub 4} manifold at 1760 nm has established that the {sup 3}H{sub 5} manifold is entirely quenched by multiphonon relaxation in tellurite glass. The luminescence from the {sup 3}H{sub 4} manifold with an emission peak at 1465 nm suffers strong suppression due to cross relaxation that populates the {sup 3}F{sub 4} level with a near quadratic dependence on the Tm{sup 3+} concentration. The {sup 3}F{sub 4} lifetime becomes longer as the Tm{sup 3+} concentration increases due to energy migration and decreases to 2.92 ms when [Tm{sup 3+}] = 4 mol. % as a result of quasi-resonant energy transfer to free OH{sup -} radicals present in the glass at concentrations between 1 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and 2 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. Judd-Ofelt theory in conjunction with absorption measurements were used to obtain the radiative lifetimes and branching ratios of the energy levels located below 25 000 cm{sup -1}. The spectroscopic parameters, the cross relaxation and Tm{sup 3+}({sup 3}F{sub 4}) {yields} OH{sup -} energy transfer rates were used in a numerical model for laser transitions emitting at 2335 nm and 1865 nm.

  18. Mapping and assessing seagrass bed changes in Central Florida's west coast using multitemporal Landsat TM imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Ruiliang; Bell, Susan; Meyer, Cynthia

    2014-08-01

    Some seagrass meadows in coastal shallow waters have displayed large scale changes in seagrass spatial extent and hurricanes and/or tropical storms have been suggested as factors responsible for reduction in coverage. Taking advantage of the incidence of three tropical storms passing near a study site along the central west Florida coast within a two-month period in 2004, we evaluated whether satellite remote sensing techniques (Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery) are useful for assessing dynamics of seagrass (=submerged aquatic vegetation: SAV) cover/abundance in response to these multiple disturbances. We also examined whether an image preprocessing procedure, which included water column correction, applied to the Landsat TM images could further improve the classification and mapping of detailed SAV coverage. We compared a historical set of Landsat TM images, acquired in Fall 2003 and Fall and late Summer 2005, which were processed to classify %SAV cover into five classes using a maximum likelihood classifier. Importantly, our experimental results demonstrated that the application of the image preprocessing procedures led to an overall accuracy 2-14% improvement in SAV classification due to water column correction compared to that currently reported in the literature when similar Landsat TM data are utilized. Based upon the classification results mapped from the TM images and as well as a similar classification of SAV interpreted from aerial photographs collected before and after the passage of these same storms, SAV coverage over the study areas was found to increase about 6% (integrating SAV losses and gains) by 2005/2006 in comparison to cover levels present prior to the repeated storm activity. We conclude that heavy rains during 2004 along with physical disturbance from gale force winds from the tropical storms/hurricanes did not produce any SAV bed loss at the study site that was sustained for more than one year after multiple storm passage.

  19. Mapping the total phosphorus concentration of biosolid amended surface soils using LANDSAT TM data.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, B B Maruthi; Vincent, Robert K; Witter, Jason D; Spongberg, Alison L

    2009-04-01

    Conventional methods for soil sampling and analysis for soil variability in chemical characteristics are too time-consuming and expensive for multi-seasonal monitoring over large-scale areas. Hence, the objectives of this study are: 1) to determine changes in chemical concentrations of soils that are amended with treated sewage sludge; and 2) to determine if LANDSAT TM data can be used to map surface chemical characteristics of such amended soils. For this study, we selected two fields in NW Ohio, designated as F34 and F11, that had been applied with 34 and 11 ton acre(-1) of biosolids, respectively. Soil samples from a total of 70 sampling locations across the two fields were collected one day prior to LANDSAT 5 overpass and were analyzed for several elemental concentrations. The accumulation of Ba, Cd, Cu, S and P were found to be significantly higher in the surface soils of field F34, compared to field F11. Regression equations were established to search for algorithms that could map these five elemental concentrations in the surface soils using six, dark-object-subtracted (DOS) LANDSAT TM bands and the 15 non-reciprocal spectral ratios derived from these six bands for the May 20, 2005, LANDSAT 5 TM image. Phosphorus (P) had the highest R(2) adjusted value (67.9%) among all five elements considered, and the resulting algorithm employed only spectral ratios. This model was successfully tested for robustness by applying it to another LANDSAT TM image obtained on June 5, 2005. Our results enabled us to conclude that LANDSAT TM imagery of bare-soil fields can be used to quantify and map the spatial variation of total phosphorous concentration in surface soils. This research has significant implications for identification and mapping of areas with high P, which is important for implementing and monitoring the best phosphorous management practices across the region. PMID:19215969

  20. On the efficiency of Tm-doped 2μm lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dalfsen, K.; Aravazhi, S.; Grivas, C.; García-Blanco, S. M.; Pollnau, M.

    2015-02-01

    A potassium double tungstate layer with the composition KY0.40Gd0.29Lu0.23Tm0.08(WO4)2 was grown onto a pure KY(WO4)2 substrate by liquid-phase epitaxy, microstructured by standard lithography and Ar-ion etching, and overgrown by a pure KY(WO4)2 layer. The end-facets were polished. Laser experiments were performed on these buried, ridge-type channel waveguides in a resonator with one butt-coupled mirror and Fresnel reflection from the other end-facet, resulting in a high output-coupling degree of 89%, compared to intrinsic round-trip losses of only 2%. By pumping with a Ti:Sapphire laser at 794 nm, 1.6 W of output power at 1.84 μm with a maximum slope efficiency of ~80% was obtained. To the best of our knowledge, this result represents the most efficient 2-μm channel waveguide laser to date. We determined the optimum Tm3+ concentration in double tungstate channel waveguides to be at least 8at.% for efficient lasing. The theoretical limit of the slope efficiency depends on the Stokes efficiency which here is 43.2%, the outcoupling efficiency which here is 99%, and the pump quantum efficiency. The pump quantum efficiency of a 2-μm Tm3+ laser pumped around 800 nm hinges on the efficiency of its cross-relaxation process. By fitting the macroscopic cross-relaxation parameter which linearly depends on the Tm3+ concentration to concentration-dependent luminescence- decay data, calculating the overall decay rate of the pump level, and deriving the concentration-dependent pump quantum efficiency, we obtain a theoretical limit for the slope efficiency of 83% for the chosen Tm3+ concentration. The experimental slope efficiency of ~80% closely approaches this limit.

  1. A procedure for radiometric recalibration of Landsat 5 TM reflective-band data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Haque, M.O.; Micijevic, E.; Barsi, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    From the Landsat program's inception in 1972 to the present, the Earth science user community has been benefiting from a historical record of remotely sensed data. The multispectral data from the Landsat 5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provide the backbone for this extensive archive. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for the L5 TM imagery used the detectors' response to the internal calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset for each detector. The IC system degraded with time, causing radiometric calibration errors up to 20%. In May 2003, the L5 TM data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science Center through the National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS) were updated to use a lifetime lookup-table (LUT) gain model to radiometrically calibrate TM data instead of using scene-specific IC gains. Further modification of the gain model was performed in 2007. The L5 TM data processed using IC prior to the calibration update do not benefit from the recent calibration revisions. A procedure has been developed to give users the ability to recalibrate their existing level-1 products. The best recalibration results are obtained if the work-order report that was included in the original standard data product delivery is available. However, if users do not have the original work-order report, the IC trends can be used for recalibration. The IC trends were generated using the radiometric gain trends recorded in the NLAPS database. This paper provides the details of the recalibration procedure for the following: 1) data processed using IC where users have the work-order file; 2) data processed using IC where users do not have the work-order file; 3) data processed using prelaunch calibration parameters; and 4) data processed using the previous version of the LUT (e.g., LUT03) that was released before April 2, 2007.

  2. Study of encapsulated {sup 170}Tm sources for their potential use in brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ballester, Facundo; Granero, Domingo; Perez-Calatayud, Jose; Venselaar, Jack L. M.; Rivard, Mark J.

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: High dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy is currently performed with {sup 192}Ir sources, and {sup 60}Co has returned recently into clinical use as a source for this kind of cancer treatment. Both radionuclides have mean photon energies high enough to require specific shielded treatment rooms. In recent years, {sup 169}Yb has been explored as an alternative for HDR-brachytherapy implants. Although it has mean photon energy lower than {sup 192}Ir, it still requires extensive shielding to deliver treatment. An alternative radionuclide for brachytherapy is {sup 170}Tm (Z=69) because it has three physical properties adequate for clinical practice: (a) 128.6 day half-life, (b) high specific activity, and (c) mean photon energy of 66.39 keV. The main drawback of this radionuclide is the low photon yield (six photons per 100 electrons emitted). The purpose of this work is to study the dosimetric characteristics of this radionuclide for potential use in HDR-brachytherapy. Methods: The authors have assumed a theoretical {sup 170}Tm cylindrical source encapsulated with stainless steel and typical dimensions taken from the currently available HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources. The dose-rate distribution was calculated for this source using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo (MC) code considering both photon and electron {sup 170}Tm spectra. The AAPM TG-43 U1 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters were derived. To study general properties of {sup 170}Tm encapsulated sources, spherical sources encapsulated with stainless steel and platinum were also studied. Moreover, the influence of small variations in the active core and capsule dimensions on the dosimetric characteristics was assessed. Treatment times required for a {sup 170}Tm source were compared to those for {sup 192}Ir and {sup 169}Yb for the same contained activity. Results: Due to the energetic beta spectrum and the large electron yield, the bremsstrahlung contribution to the dose was of the same order of magnitude as from the

  3. Rhodococcus sp. strain TM1 plays a synergistic role in the degradation of piperidine by Mycobacterium sp. strain THO100.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hak; Kang, Un-Beom; Konishi, Kyoko; Lee, Cheolju

    2006-09-01

    Mycobacterium sp. strain THO100 and Rhodococcus sp. strain TM1 were isolated from a morpholine-containing enrichment culture of activated sewage sludge. Strain THO100, but not strain TM1, was able to degrade alicyclic amines such as morpholine, piperidine, and pyrrolidine. The mixed strains THO100 and TM1 showed a better growth on piperidine as the substrate than the pure strain THO100 because strain TM1 was able to reduce the level of glutaraldehyde (GA) produced during piperidine degradation. GA was toxic to strain THO100 (IC(50) = 28.3 microM) but less toxic to strain TM1 (IC(50) = 215 microM). Strain THO100 possessed constitutive semialdehyde dehydrogenases, namely Sad1 and Sad2, whose activities toward succinic semialdehyde (SSA) were strongly inhibited by GA. The two isozymes were identified as catalase-peroxidase (KatG = Sad1) and semialdehyde dehydrogenase (Sad2) based on mass spectrometric analyses of tryptic peptides and database searches of the partial DNA sequences of their genes. In contrast, strain TM1 containing another constitutive enzyme Gad1 could oxidize both SSA and GA. This study suggested that strain TM1 possessing Gad1 played a synergistic role in reducing the toxic and inhibitory effects of GA produced in the degradation of piperidine by strain THO100. PMID:16832627

  4. Effects of trimebutine maleate (TM-906) on electrical and mechanical activities of smooth muscles of the guinea-pig stomach.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, K; Kimoto, Y

    1984-07-01

    The effects of trimebutine maleate (TM-906) on electrical and mechanical activities of smooth muscles of the guinea-pig stomach were investigated using a microelectrode and isometric tension recording methods. TM-906 (2 X 10(-5) M) depolarized the membrane of smooth muscles in the antrum to about 10 mV. From the current-voltage relationship and changes in membrane potentials in various [K]0, the TM-906-induced depolarization is considered to be mainly due to a decrease in the K-conductance. TM-906 increased the amplitude of the first spike potential and regularized the rhythm of slow waves. These excitatory effects are presumably due to the K-channel-blocking action during the repolarizing phase of the spikes and to the depolarization. TM-906 reduced the amplitudes of mechanical activities and slow waves. These inhibitory effects are presumably due to the inhibition of Ca-release from storage sites and to the block of Ca-influx. The biphasic effects are possibly due to the local anesthetic properties. TM-906 modified neither the membrane potential nor the membrane conductance of circular muscles in the fundus. This may mean that the circular muscles in the fundus lack the K-channel sensitive to TM-906. PMID:6482091

  5. Fiber-optic thermometry using thermal radiation from Tm end doped SiO{sub 2} fiber sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, Kentaro; Katsumata, Toru; Komuro, Shuji; Aizawa, Hiroaki

    2014-04-15

    Fiber-optic thermometry based on temperature dependence of thermal radiation from Tm{sup 3+} ions was studied using Tm end doped SiO{sub 2} fiber sensor. Visible light radiation peaks due to f-f transition of Tm{sup 3+} ion were clearly observed at λ = 690 and 790 nm from Tm end doped SiO{sub 2} fibers sensor at the temperature above 600 °C. Thermal radiation peaks are assigned with f-f transition of Tm{sup 3+} ion, {sup 1}D{sub 2}-{sup 3}H{sub 6}, and {sup 1}G{sub 4}-{sup 3}H{sub 6}. Peak intensity of thermal radiation from Tm{sup 3+} ion increases with temperature. Intensity ratio of thermal radiation peaks at λ = 690 nm against that at λ = 790 nm, I{sub 790/690}, is suitable for the temperature measurement above 750 °C. Two-dimensional temperature distribution in a flame is successfully evaluated by Tm end doped SiO{sub 2} fiber sensor.

  6. Highly Tm(3+) doped germanate glass and its single mode fiber for 2.0 μm laser.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xin; Tang, Guowu; Yang, Qi; Chen, Xiaodong; Qian, Qi; Zhang, Qinyuan; Yang, Zhongmin

    2016-01-01

    Highly Tm(3+) doped optical fibers are urgently desirable for 2.0 μm compact single-frequency fiber laser and high-repetition-rate mode-locked fiber laser. Here, we systematically investigated the optical parameters, energy transfer processes and thermal properties of Tm(3+) doped barium gallo-germanate (BGG) glasses. Highly Tm(3+) doped BGG glass single mode (SM) fibers were fabricated by the rod-in-tube technique. The Tm(3+) doping concentration reaches 7.6 × 10(20) ions/cm(3), being the reported highest level in Tm(3+) doped BGG SM fibers. Using ultra short (1.6 cm) as-drawn highly Tm(3+) doped BGG SM fiber, a single-frequency fiber laser at 1.95 μm has been demonstrated with a maximum output power of 35 mW when in-band pumped by a home-made 1568 nm fiber laser. Additionally, a multilongitudinal-mode fiber laser at 1.95 μm has also been achieved in a 10 cm long as-drawn active fiber, yielding a maximum laser output power of 165 mW and a slope efficiency of 17%. The results confirm that the as-drawn highly Tm(3+) doped BGG SM fibers are promising in applications that require high gain and high power from a short piece of active optical fiber. PMID:26828920

  7. Highly Tm3+ doped germanate glass and its single mode fiber for 2.0 μm laser

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xin; Tang, Guowu; Yang, Qi; Chen, Xiaodong; Qian, Qi; Zhang, Qinyuan; Yang, Zhongmin

    2016-01-01

    Highly Tm3+ doped optical fibers are urgently desirable for 2.0 μm compact single-frequency fiber laser and high-repetition-rate mode-locked fiber laser. Here, we systematically investigated the optical parameters, energy transfer processes and thermal properties of Tm3+ doped barium gallo-germanate (BGG) glasses. Highly Tm3+ doped BGG glass single mode (SM) fibers were fabricated by the rod-in-tube technique. The Tm3+ doping concentration reaches 7.6 × 1020 ions/cm3, being the reported highest level in Tm3+ doped BGG SM fibers. Using ultra short (1.6 cm) as-drawn highly Tm3+ doped BGG SM fiber, a single-frequency fiber laser at 1.95 μm has been demonstrated with a maximum output power of 35 mW when in-band pumped by a home-made 1568 nm fiber laser. Additionally, a multilongitudinal-mode fiber laser at 1.95 μm has also been achieved in a 10 cm long as-drawn active fiber, yielding a maximum laser output power of 165 mW and a slope efficiency of 17%. The results confirm that the as-drawn highly Tm3+ doped BGG SM fibers are promising in applications that require high gain and high power from a short piece of active optical fiber. PMID:26828920

  8. Highly Tm3+ doped germanate glass and its single mode fiber for 2.0 μm laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xin; Tang, Guowu; Yang, Qi; Chen, Xiaodong; Qian, Qi; Zhang, Qinyuan; Yang, Zhongmin

    2016-02-01

    Highly Tm3+ doped optical fibers are urgently desirable for 2.0 μm compact single-frequency fiber laser and high-repetition-rate mode-locked fiber laser. Here, we systematically investigated the optical parameters, energy transfer processes and thermal properties of Tm3+ doped barium gallo-germanate (BGG) glasses. Highly Tm3+ doped BGG glass single mode (SM) fibers were fabricated by the rod-in-tube technique. The Tm3+ doping concentration reaches 7.6 × 1020 ions/cm3, being the reported highest level in Tm3+ doped BGG SM fibers. Using ultra short (1.6 cm) as-drawn highly Tm3+ doped BGG SM fiber, a single-frequency fiber laser at 1.95 μm has been demonstrated with a maximum output power of 35 mW when in-band pumped by a home-made 1568 nm fiber laser. Additionally, a multilongitudinal-mode fiber laser at 1.95 μm has also been achieved in a 10 cm long as-drawn active fiber, yielding a maximum laser output power of 165 mW and a slope efficiency of 17%. The results confirm that the as-drawn highly Tm3+ doped BGG SM fibers are promising in applications that require high gain and high power from a short piece of active optical fiber.

  9. Intratumoral estrogen sulfotransferase induction contributes to the anti-breast cancer effects of the dithiocarbamate derivative TM208

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xi-wei; Chen, Guang-ping; Song, Yan; Hua, Ming; Wang, Li-jie; Li, Liang; Yuan, Yin; Wang, Si-yuan; Zhou, Tian-yan; Lu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Sulfotransferase-catalyzed sulfation is the most important pathway for inactivating estrogens. Thus, activation of estrogen sulfotransferase (EST) may be an alternative approach for the treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer. In this study we investigated the involvement of EST in anti-breast cancer effects of the dithiocarbamate derivative TM208 in vitro and in vivo. Methods: The viability of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells was determined using a SBB assay. Nude mice bearing MCF-7 cells were orally administered TM208 (50 and 150 mg·kg−1·d−1) for 18 days. The xenograft tumors and uteri were collected. The mRNA expression of EST was examined with real-time PCR. EST protein was detected with Western blot, ELISA or immunohistochemical staining assays. A radioactive assay was used to measure the EST activity. Uterotropic bioassay was used to examine the uterine estrogen responses. Results: Treatment with TM208 (10, 15 and 20 μmol/L) concentration-dependently increased EST expression in MCF-7 cells in vitro. Co-treatment with triclosan, an inhibitor of sulfonation, abolished TM208-induced cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. TM208 exhibited an apparent anti-estrogenic property: it exerted more potent cytotoxicity in E2-treated MCF-7 cells. In the nude mice bearing MCF-7 cells, TM208 administration time-dependently increased the expression and activity of EST, and blocked the gradual increase of E2 concentration in the xenograft tumors. Furthermore, TM208 administration blocked the estrogens-stimulated uterine enlargement. Tamoxifen, a positive control drug, produced similar effects on the expression and activity of EST in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: The induction of EST and reduction of estrogen concentration contribute to the anti-breast cancer action of TM208 and tamoxifen. TM208 may be developed as anticancer drug for the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. PMID:25937633

  10. The satellite and chemical transport model tandem: constraining TM5 with AURA observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraeten, Willem W.; Neu, Jessica L.; Williams, Jason E.; Bowman, Kevin W.; Worden, John R.; (K. F.) Boersma, Folkert

    2015-04-01

    Satellite-based studies focusing on tropospheric ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have the potential to close the gap left by previous studies on air quality. After all, satellites can provide large-scale robust observational evidence that both O3 precursor concentrations and tropospheric O3 levels are rapidly changing over source receptor areas. Chemical transport models (CTM) significantly contribute to our understanding on transport patterns, production and destruction of tropospheric air constituents, but the infrequently update of emission inventories and the slow implementation of updates on chemical reactions and reaction rates slow down the widespread use. Satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 have the potential to improve and update anthropogenic NOx emissions in a near-continuous way and may provide information on the life time of NOx, impacting the production and destruction of many air constituents including O3. Here we show the increased ability of the CTM TM5 to reproduce the 2005-2010 observed strong and rapid rise in free tropospheric ozone of 0.8% per year over China from TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer, onboard AURA), once OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument, onboard AURA) NO2 measurements were implemented in TM5 to update NOx emissions. What is more, MLS observations (Microwave Limb Sounder, onboard AURA) on stratospheric ozone demonstrate its potential to constrain the stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) in TM5 which is mainly driven by ECMWF meteorological fields. The use of MLS observations of stratospheric O3 improved the TM5 modelled trends in tropospheric O3 significantly. Thanks to the TM5 input updates from satellite observations, the impact of Asian O3 and its precursors on the western United States could be quantified showing a large import from China to the West. Here we also show that deriving NOx life times from OMI NO2 observations to evaluate new rate constants of the reaction NO2 + OH => HNO3 in TM5 is a

  11. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): Ld-Clad-Pumped All-Fiber Tm3+-Doped Silica Fiber Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yun-Jun; Song, Shi-Fei; Tian, Yi; Wang, Yue-Zhu

    2009-08-01

    The CW 39.4 W all-fiber LD-clad-pumped Tm3+-doped fiber laser output is reported with a slope efficiency of 34% in respect to the pump power. The all-fiber laser is made up by progressively splicing the pigtail fiber, matched FBG fiber and Tm-doped fiber. The reflective FBG and Tm-doped fiber end fresnel reflection build up the laser resonance cavity. Due to the multi-mode FBG as the reflective mirror, the output laser spectrum is multi-peaks at high power output, whereas the total spectrum width is less than 2nm at nearly 1.94 μm.

  12. Tm-based fiber-laser system with more than 200  MW peak power.

    PubMed

    Stutzki, Fabian; Gaida, Christian; Gebhardt, Martin; Jansen, Florian; Jauregui, Cesar; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Tm-based fiber-laser systems are an attractive concept for the development of high-performance laser sources in the spectral region around 2 μm wavelength. Here we present a system delivering a pulse-peak power higher than 200 MW in combination with 24 W average power and 120 μJ pulse energy. Key components enabling this performance level are a Tm-doped large-pitch fiber with a mode-field diameter of 65 μm, highly efficient dielectric gratings, and a Tm-based fiber oscillator operating in the stretched-pulse regime. PMID:25531595

  13. Development of flashlamp-pumped Q-switched Ho:Tm:Cr:YAG lasers for mid-infrared LIDAR application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Young S.; Kim, Kyong H.; Whitney, Donald A.; Hess, Robert V.; Barnes, Norman P.; Bair, Clayton H.; Brockman, Philip

    1989-01-01

    A flashlamp-pumped 2.1 micron Ho:Tm:Cr:YAG laser was studied for both normal mode and Q-switched operations under a wide variety of experimental conditions in order to optimize performance. Laser output energy, slope efficiency, threshold and pulselength were determined as a function of operating temperature, output mirror reflectivity, input electrical energy and Q-switch opening time. The measured normal-mode laser thresholds of a Ho(3+) (0.45 atomic percent):Tm(3+) (2.5 atomic percent):Cr(3+) (0.8 atomic percent):YAG crystal ranged form 26 to 50 J between 120 and 200 K with slope efficiencies up to 0.36 percent with a 60 percent reflective output mirror. Under Q-switched operation the slope efficiency was 90 percent of the normal-mode result. Development of solid state lasers with Ho(3+), Tm(3+) and/or Er(3+) doped crystals has been pursued by NASA for eye-dafe mid-infrared LIDAR (light detection and ranging) application. As a part of the project, the authors have been working on evaluating Ho(3+):Tm(3+):Cr(3+):YAG crystals for normal-mode and Q-switched 2.1 micron laser operations in order to determine an optimum Tm(3+) concentration under flashlamp pumping conditions. Lasing properties of the Ho(3+) in the mid-infrared region have been studied by many research groups since the early 1960's. However, the technology of those lasers is still premature for lidar application. In order to overcome the inefficiency related to narrow absorption bands of the Ho(3+), Tm(3+) and Er(3+), the erbium has been replaced by chromium. The improvement in flashlamp-pumped Ho(3+) laser efficiency has been demonstrated recently by several research groups by utilizing the broad absorption spectrum of Cr(3+) which covers the flashlamp's emission spectrum. Efficient energy transfer to the Tm(3+) and then the Ho(3+) occurs subsequently. It is known that high Tm(3+) concentration and low Ho(3+) concentration are preferred to achieve a quantum efficiency approaching two and to avoid

  14. Understanding the progression of atherosclerosis through gene profiling and co-expression network analysis in Apob(tm2Sgy)Ldlr(tm1Her) double knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Vrushali; Sharma, Ankit; Mukhopadhyay, Rupak; Thota, Lakshmi Narasimha Rao; Ghatge, Madankumar; Vangala, Rajani Kanth; Kakkar, Vijay V; Mundkur, Lakshmi

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study was to gain molecular insights into the progression of atherosclerosis in Apob(tm2Sgy)Ldlr(tm1Her) mice, using transcriptome profiles. Weighted gene co network analysis (WGCNA) and time course analysis using limma were used to study disease progression from 0 to 20weeks. Five co-expression modules were identified by WGCNA using the expression values of 2153 genes. Genes associated with autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation and lipid metabolism were differentially expressed at early stages of atherosclerosis. Time course analysis highlighted activation of inflammatory gene signaling at 4weeks, cell proliferation and calcification at 8weeks, amyloid like structures and oxidative stress at 14weeks and enhanced production of inflammatory cytokines at 20weeks. Our results suggest that maximum gene perturbations occur during early atherosclerosis which could be the danger signals associated with subclinical disease. Understanding these genes and associated pathways can help in improvement of diagnostic and therapeutic targets for atherosclerosis. PMID:27133569

  15. Platinum-TM (TM = Fe, Co) alloy nanoparticles dispersed nitrogen doped (reduced graphene oxide-multiwalled carbon nanotube) hybrid structure cathode electrocatalysts for high performance PEMFC applications.

    PubMed

    Vinayan, B P; Ramaprabhu, S

    2013-06-01

    The efforts to push proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) for commercial applications are being undertaken globally. In PEMFC, the sluggish kinetics of oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) at the cathode can be improved by the alloying of platinum with 3d-transition metals (TM = Fe, Co, etc.) and with nitrogen doping, and in the present work we have combined both of these aspects. We describe a facile method for the synthesis of a nitrogen doped (reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)) hybrid structure (N-(G-MWNTs)) by the uniform coating of a nitrogen containing polymer over the surface of the hybrid structure (positively surface charged rGO-negatively surface charged MWNTs) followed by the pyrolysis of these (rGO-MWNTs) hybrid structure-polymer composites. The N-(G-MWNTs) hybrid structure is used as a catalyst support for the dispersion of platinum (Pt), platinum-iron (Pt3Fe) and platinum-cobalt (Pt3Co) alloy nanoparticles. The PEMFC performances of Pt-TM alloy nanoparticle dispersed N-(G-MWNTs) hybrid structure electrocatalysts are 5.0 times higher than that of commercial Pt-C electrocatalysts along with very good stability under acidic environment conditions. This work demonstrates a considerable improvement in performance compared to existing cathode electrocatalysts being used in PEMFC and can be extended to the synthesis of metal, metal oxides or metal alloy nanoparticle decorated nitrogen doped carbon nanostructures for various electrochemical energy applications. PMID:23644681

  16. Monovalent indium in a sulfur-rich coordination environment: synthesis, structure and reactivity of tris(2-mercapto-1-tert-butylimidazolyl)hydroborato indium, [TmBut]In.

    PubMed

    Yurkerwich, Kevin; Buccella, Daniela; Melnick, Jonathan G; Parkin, Gerard

    2008-07-28

    [Tm(Bu(t))]In, the first structurally-characterized monovalent indium compound that features a sulfur-rich coordination environment, has been synthesized via treatment of InCl with [Tm(Bu(t))]K; in contrast to the thallium counterpart, the lone pair of [Tm(Bu(t))]In is a site of reactivity, thereby allowing formation of [Tm(Bu(t))]In-->B(C(6)F(5))(3) and [Tm(Bu(t))]In(kappa(2)-S(4)) upon treatment with B(C(6)F(5))(3) and S(8), respectively. PMID:18622452

  17. Luminescence of Er/Yb and Tm/Yb doped FAp nanoparticles and ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorjeva, L.; Smits, K.; Millers, D.; Jankoviča, Dz

    2015-03-01

    The nanoparticles of hydroxiapatite and fluorapatite doped with Er/Yb and Tm/Yb were synthesized and characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM and TEM methods. The results of up-conversion luminescence studies were presented for the samples as prepared, annealed at 500°C and at 900-1000 °C. At annealing above 800°C the ceramic state was formed. It is shown that fluorapatite host is more appropriate than hydroxiapatite host for rare ions luminescence and up-conversion processes. The post preparing annealing of nanarticles significantly enhanced the luminescence intensity. The Tm/Yb doped fluorapatite shows intense up-conversion luminescence in 790-800 nm spectral region and is potentially useful for biomedical applications.

  18. SonoPanel(TM) 1-3 Piezocomposite Panels for Active Surface Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentilman, R.; Bowen, L.; Fiore, D.; Pham, H.; Serwatka, W.

    1996-01-01

    Materials Systems Inc. has developed a cost-effective technology for producing 1-3 piezoelectric ceramic/polymer composites for use in active surface control. MSI's 103 piezocomposite SonoPanel(TM) transducers consist of an array of piezoelectric ceramic rods arranged in a compliant polymer matrix. The standard SonoPanel(TM) composite consists of 15 volume percent PZT-5H rods 1.1 mm diameter x 6.3 mm long in a matrix of soft polyurethane. Stiff face plates are then bonded to the 1-3 composite sheet for stress amplification when used as a sensor and to enhance the surface response uniformity when used as an actuator. Many variations on this composite design have been produced for specific application requirements.

  19. Galaxy7TM: flexible GPCR-ligand docking by structure refinement.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyu Rie; Seok, Chaok

    2016-07-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play important physiological roles related to signal transduction and form a major group of drug targets. Prediction of GPCR-ligand complex structures has therefore important implications to drug discovery. With previously available servers, it was only possible to first predict GPCR structures by homology modeling and then perform ligand docking on the model structures. However, model structures generated without explicit consideration of specific ligands of interest can be inaccurate because GPCR structures can be affected by ligand binding. The Galaxy7TM server, freely accessible at http://galaxy.seoklab.org/7TM, improves an input GPCR structure by simultaneous ligand docking and flexible structure refinement using GALAXY methods. The server shows better performance in both ligand docking and GPCR structure refinement than commonly used programs AutoDock Vina and Rosetta MPrelax, respectively. PMID:27131365

  20. Comparative study of continuous wave Tm3+-doped silica and fluoride fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, M.; Jackson, S. D.

    2008-01-01

    We compare Tm3+-doped silica and fluoride fiber lasers in continuous wave operation using the same experimental setup. For incident pump powers of up to 50 W, the fluoride fiber is shown to have higher output power and efficiency compared to silica and reaches a maximum output power of 20 W at 1.94 μm. A slope efficiency of 49% (41%) and a maximum optical-to-optical efficiency of 45% (35%) at an incident pump power of 25 W (37 W) were determined for the fluoride (silica) fibers, respectively. These optical-to-optical efficiencies are the highest reported for directly diode-pumped Tm3+-based fiber lasers. We establish that in free-running mode, fiber lasers using fluoride glass are temporally more stable than fiber lasers using a silica host.

  1. Revised Landsat-5 TM Radiometrie Calibration Procedures and Postcalibration Dynamic Ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.

    2003-01-01

    Effective May 5, 2003, Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Data Center (EDC) will be radiometrically calibrated using a new procedure and revised calibration parameters. This change will improve absolute calibration accuracy, consistency over time, and consistency with Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data. Users will need to use new parameters to convert the calibrated data products to radiance. The new procedure for the reflective bands (1-5,7) is based on a lifetime radiometric calibration curve for the instrument derived from the instrument's internal calibrator, cross-calibration with the ETM+, and vicarious measurements. The thermal band will continue to be calibrated using the internal calibrator. Further updates to improve the relative detector-to-detector calibration and thermal band calibration are being investigated, as is the calibration of the Landsat-4 (L4) TM.

  2. Generalised CP and trimaximal TM1 lepton mixing in S4 family symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cai-Chang; Ding, Gui-Jun

    2014-04-01

    We construct two flavor models based on S4 family symmetry and generalised CP symmetry. In both models, the S4 family symmetry is broken down to the Z2SU subgroup in the neutrino sector, as a consequence, the trimaximal TM1 lepton mixing is produced. Depending on the free parameters in the flavon potential, the Dirac CP is predicted to be either conserved or maximally broken, and the Majorana CP phases are trivial. The two models differ in the neutrino sector. The flavon fields are involved in the Dirac mass terms at leading order in the first model, and the neutrino mass matrix contains three real parameters such that the absolute neutrino masses are fixed. Nevertheless, the flavon fields enter into the Majorana mass terms at leading order in the second model. The leading order lepton mixing is of the tri-bimaximal form which is broken down to TM1 by the next to leading order contributions.

  3. Galaxy7TM: flexible GPCR–ligand docking by structure refinement

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gyu Rie; Seok, Chaok

    2016-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play important physiological roles related to signal transduction and form a major group of drug targets. Prediction of GPCR–ligand complex structures has therefore important implications to drug discovery. With previously available servers, it was only possible to first predict GPCR structures by homology modeling and then perform ligand docking on the model structures. However, model structures generated without explicit consideration of specific ligands of interest can be inaccurate because GPCR structures can be affected by ligand binding. The Galaxy7TM server, freely accessible at http://galaxy.seoklab.org/7TM, improves an input GPCR structure by simultaneous ligand docking and flexible structure refinement using GALAXY methods. The server shows better performance in both ligand docking and GPCR structure refinement than commonly used programs AutoDock Vina and Rosetta MPrelax, respectively. PMID:27131365

  4. Theoretical and experimental investigations of injection-locked signal extraction of Tm:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chunting; Chen, Fei; Dai, Tongyu; Ju, Youlun

    2015-11-01

    Injection-seeded is an effective method to obtain high-power pulsed laser with pure spectrum, which is useful to be the laser source of a coherent Doppler LIDAR or a differential absorption LIDAR. In order to achieve the useful injection-locked signal, mode matching between master laser and slave laser is necessary. In this paper, various factors influencing on the extraction of injection-locked signal are analyzed theoretically. Then, experiments on an injection-seeded Tm:YAG laser are carried on, and injection-locked signal is extracted successfully. Moreover, an injection-seeded Tm:YAG laser is achieved, with pulsed single-frequency at 2013 nm, output energy of 3.16 mJ, and pulse width of 238.7 ns, at a repetition rate of 100 Hz.

  5. Structure of three-quasiparticle isomers in {sup 169}Ho and {sup 171}Tm

    SciTech Connect

    Dracoulis, G. D.; Lane, G. J.; Hughes, R. O.; Kondev, F. G.; Chiara, C. J.; Watanabe, H.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; McCutchan, E. A.; Stefanescu, I.; Chowdhury, P.

    2010-09-15

    A three-quasiparticle isomer with {tau}=170(8) {mu}s and K{sup {pi}=} (19/2{sup +}) has been identified in the neutron-rich isotope {sup 169}Ho. The isomer decays with K-forbidden transitions to members of a band associated with the 7/2{sup -}[523] proton configuration, whose structure is characterized through analysis of the in-band {gamma}-ray branching ratios. In the isotone {sup 171}Tm, the rotational band based on the known 19/2{sup +}, three-quasiparticle isomer has also been observed. Alternative one-proton two-neutron configurations for the isomer in {sup 169}Ho are discussed in terms of multiquasiparticle calculations and through a comparison with the structures observed in {sup 171}Tm.

  6. Tm3+ doped Ga-As-S chalcogenide glasses and fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galstyan, A.; Messaddeq, S. H.; Fortin, V.; Skripachev, I.; Vallée, R.; Galstian, T.; Messaddeq, Y.

    2015-09-01

    Tm3+ doped Ga-As-S chalcogenide glass samples were produced using As2S3 pure glass as starting materials. Their photoluminescence properties were characterized and strong emission bands were observed at 1.2 μm (1H5 → 3H6), 1.4 μm (3H4 → 3F4) and 1.8 μm (3F4 → 3H6) under excitation wavelengths of 698 nm and 800 nm. The thulium and gallium concentrations were optimized to achieve the highest photoluminescence efficiency. From the optimal composition, a Tm3+ doped Ga-As-S fiber was drawn and its optical properties were studied.

  7. Study of electrical and thermoelecrical properties of sulfides Tm x Mn1- x S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aplesnin, S. S.; Romanova, O. B.; Galyas, A. I.; Sokolov, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    Variable-valence Tm x Mn1- x S (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.15) compounds have been synthesized and their structural, electrical, and thermoelectrical properties have been studied in the temperature range of 80-1100 K. The regions of existence of solid solutions of sulfides Tm x Mn1- x S with the NaCl-type fcc lattice have been determined. It has been found that, as thulium ions are substituted for manganese cations, the electrical resistivity increases, and the lattice parameter increases more sharply than that corresponding to the Vegard's law. The study of the temperature dependences of the thermopower coefficient has revealed that the current carrier sign is retained to 500 K for all the substitution concentrations, and the charge carrier type changes from the hole type to the electron type with variations in the temperature. The experimental data have been explained in terms of the exciton model.

  8. Deep ultraviolet photoluminescence of Tm-doped AlGaN alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Nepal, N.; Zavada, J. M.; Lee, D. S.; Steckl, A. J.; Sedhain, A.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2009-03-16

    The ultraviolet (UV) photoluminescence (PL) properties of Tm-doped Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N (0.39{<=}x{<=}1) alloys grown by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy were probed using above-bandgap excitation from a laser source at 197 nm. The PL spectra show dominant UV emissions at 298 and 358 nm only for samples with x=1 and 0.81. Temperature dependence of the PL intensities of these emission lines reveals exciton binding energies of 150 and 57 meV, respectively. The quenching of these UV emissions appears related to the thermal activation of the excitons bound to rare-earth structured isovalent (RESI) charge traps, which transfer excitonic energy to Tm{sup 3+} ions resulting in the UV emissions. A model of the RESI trap levels in AlGaN alloys is presented.

  9. Intra-annual NDVI validation of the Landsat 5 TM radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Groeneveld, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    Multispectral data from the Landsat 5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provide the backbone of the extensive archive of moderate-resolution Earth imagery. Even after more than 24 years of service, the L5 TM is still operational. Given the longevity of the satellite, the detectors have aged and the sensor's radiometric characteristics have changed since launch. The calibration procedures and parameters in the National Land Archive Production System (NLAPS) have also changed with time. Revised radiometric calibrations in 2003 and 2007 have improved the radiometric accuracy of recently processed data. This letter uses the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as a metric to evaluate the radiometric calibration. The calibration change has improved absolute calibration accuracy, consistency over time, and consistency with Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic radiometry and will provide the basis for continued long-term studies of the Earth's land surfaces.

  10. Pump bleaching of Tm-doped fiber with 793 nm pump source.

    PubMed

    Xing, Ying-bin; Huang, Hong-qi; Zhao, Nan; Liao, Lei; Li, Jin-yan; Dai, Neng-li

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, the strong recovery of the optical-optical slope efficiency of gamma-ray-irradiated Tm-doped fiber under 793 nm laser diode (LD) pumping. The fiber optical-optical slope efficiency, the fiber cladding absorption spectra, and the fluorescence spectra of the Tm-doped fiber before and after 500 Gy gamma-ray irradiation have been measured for comparison. It is found that the fiber optical-optical slope efficiency had significant degradation from 56.3% to 26.7% after irradiation and recovered to 40.8% after 15 h pump bleaching. Based on comparative analysis of fiber cladding absorption spectra among pristine fiber, irradiation, and bleaching, the reasons for the strong recovery have also been discussed. PMID:25723406

  11. Active radiation hardening of Tm-doped silica fiber based on pump bleaching.

    PubMed

    Xing, Ying-bin; Zhao, Nan; Liao, Lei; Wang, Yi-bo; Li, Hai-qing; Peng, Jing-gang; Yang, Lv-yun; Dai, Neng-li; Li, Jin-yan

    2015-09-21

    Tm-doped fiber laser or amplifier can be applied in varied adverse environments. In this work, we demonstrate the pump bleaching of Tm-doped silica fiber with 793nm pump source under gamma-ray irradiation in the range 50Gy-675Gy. The recovery time, the fiber slope efficiency and the fiber cladding absorption spectra after irradiation and bleaching have been measured. It is found that the recovery time and radiation induce absorption are positively associated with doses, however, the fiber slope efficiency of irradiated TDF and bleached TDF are both negatively correlated with doses. Based on the simulation of the fiber core temperature, the probable mechanism of pump bleaching is also discussed. PMID:26406629

  12. TE and TM beam decomposition of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves.

    PubMed

    Melamed, Timor

    2011-03-01

    The present contribution is concerned with applying beam-type expansion to planar aperture time-harmonic electromagnetic field distribution in which the propagating elements, the electromagnetic beam-type wave objects, are decomposed into transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) field constituents. This procedure is essential for applying Maxwell's boundary conditions for solving different scattering problems. The propagating field is described as a discrete superposition of tilted and shifted TE and TM electromagnetic beams over the frame-based spatial-directional expansion lattice. These vector wave objects are evaluated either by applying differential operators to scalar beam propagators, or by using plane-wave spectral representations. Explicit asymptotic expressions for scalar, as well as for electromagnetic, Gaussian beam propagators are presented as well. PMID:21383822

  13. EMPHASIS(TM)/Nevada Unstructured FEM Implementation Version 2.1.1.

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, C. David; Pointon, Timothy D.; Cartwright, Keith

    2014-08-01

    EMPHASIS TM /NEVADA is the SIERRA/NEVADA toolkit implementation of portions of the EMP HASIS TM code suite. The purpose of the toolkit i m- plementation is to facilitate coupling to other physics drivers such as radi a- tion transport as well as to better manage code design, implementation, co m- plexity, and important verification and validation processes. This document describes the theory and implementation of the unstructured finite - element method solver , associated algorithms, and selected verification and valid a- tion . Acknowledgement The author would like to recognize all of the ALEGRA team members for their gracious and willing support through this initial Nevada toolkit - implementation process. Although much of the knowledge needed was gleaned from document a- tion and code context, they were always willing to consult personally on some of the less obvious issues and enhancements necessary.

  14. Production and characterization of biodegradable nanofibers via Forcespinning(TM) technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEachin, Zachary T.

    Among the myriad of methods for polymer nanofiber production, there are only a few methods that can produce submicron range fibers in bulk from melt or solution samples. The Forcespinning(TM) method allows a substantial increase in sample yield; this greatly reduces the time needed to produce bulk quantities of fibers which may be critical in many fields of research and industry, in particularly in fields relating to biopolymers. The aim of the first study was to utilize this method to form non-woven mats of polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers and to quantitatively analyze the production and characterization of the produced fibers. The morphology and degree of crystallinity were characterized by SEM, DSC, and XRD. Additionally, as a second project, microcrystalline cellulose fibers were successfully regenerated from the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate using the Forcespinning(TM) method. Similarly, the cellulose fibers were subjected to various characterization techniques such as SEM, XRD, TGA, and FITR.

  15. Thermal analysis of double-end-pumped Tm:YLF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Bai; Zhulong, Huang; Jingliang, Liu; Xinyu, Chen; Chunting, Wu; Guangyong, Jin

    2015-07-01

    Based on the steady heat conduction equation, LD double-end-pumped anisotropic Tm:YLF crystal temperature field analytical expression and thermal focal length are obtained by the integral-transform method. The influence of pump conditions and crystal parameters on the distribution of temperature and thermal focal length are quantitatively analyzed. The simulation results showed that increasing the pump power, decreasing waist radius, increasing doping concentration or decreasing crystal length, the temperature rise of crystal and nonuniformity of the thermal distortion are intensified, the corresponding thermal effects enhance, the thermal focal length gets shorter. The anisotropic of the physical and optical parameter of Tm:YLF crystal leads to the anisotropic of thermal effect. When the product of crystal length and doping concentration is a constant value, the thermal focal length keeps a basic consistent.

  16. High efficiency Tm:YAG slab laser with hundred-watts-level output power.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pian; Jin, Lin; Liu, Xuan; Huang, Haitao; Shen, Deyuan

    2016-04-01

    We report on a hundred-watts-level high power Tm:YAG slab laser system operating at room temperature. The laser has a threshold pump power of 46.7 W, benefiting from the good mode matching of an end-pumping scheme and the excellent heat-dissipation capability of our cooling system. At 350 W of incident pump power, 100 W of output power at ∼2015  nm has been generated, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 33.6% with respect to the incident pump power and an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 28.6%. As far as we know, this is the highest optical-to-optical conversion efficiency so far achieved in a high power Tm:YAG laser system operating at a hundred-watts level. PMID:27139649

  17. Preparation and investigation of thermoluminescence properties of CaSO4:Tm,Cu.

    PubMed

    Kása, I; Chobola, R; Mell, P; Szakács, S; Kerekes, A

    2007-01-01

    A new sort of thermoluminescent phosphor has been developed with the purpose of enlarging the range of linear dose-response. The thermoluminescence properties of CaSO(4):Tm,Cu, prepared according to our method, were studied in the dose range of 0.5 Gy-125.0 kGy. The results of the present work show that the CaSO(4):Tm,Cu is an excellent new dosimetric material due to its relatively simple glow curve, as a consequence of its simple trap system. Several applications are possible in dosimetry due to its wide range of linearity (2 x 10(-6) to 2 x 10(3) Gy), from environmental and space dosimetry to accidental and high-dose irradiation, e.g. gamma irradiation facilities, electron accelerators, nuclear power plants, radiotherapy, medical physics, and so on. PMID:16905762

  18. [A study on the concentration quenching of Tm3+ upconversion luminescence].

    PubMed

    Chen, B; Wang, H; Huang, S

    2001-06-01

    In this work, we have a designation and preparation of MFT glasses for upconversion, the glasses consisted of TeO2 and fluoride: PbF2, AlF3, BaF2, NaF and the impurity Tm2O3. In this glass system the oxide improve forming ability, the fluorides improve the microscopic environment around RE ions in glasses. In this glass host the content of Tm2O3 achieves to 4% mol and crystallization no occurred. A detail study on the concentration quenching of upconversion luminescence for 1G4-->3H6 and 1D2-->3H4 transitions was completed. The experimental results directed that the quenching concentration was 0.6 mol.% and higher 3 times than in other glasses materials. The cross relaxation and mechanism of concentration quenching were discussed. PMID:12947647

  19. Investigation of energy transfer mechanisms between Bi(2+) and Tm(3+) by time-resolved spectrum.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Sharafudeen, Kaniyarakkal; Dong, Guoping; Ma, Zhijun; Qiu, Jianrong

    2013-11-01

    Here, we report for the first time the optical properties of Bi(2+) and Tm(3+) co-doped germanate glasses and elucidate the potential of this material as substrates to improve the performance of CdTe solar cell. A strong emission peak at 800nm is observed under the excitation of 450-700nm in this material. The energy transfer processes from the transitions of Bi(2+) [(2)P3/2(1)→(2)P1/2]: Tm(3+) [(3)H6→(3)H4] are investigated by time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy. A cover glass exhibiting an ultra-broadband response spectrum covering the entire solar visible wavelength region is suggested to enhance the conversion efficiency of CdTe solar cells significantly. PMID:23850790

  20. Valence and magnetic ordering in the mixed valent compound TmSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derr, J.; Flouquet, J.; Salce, B.; Knebel, G.

    2006-05-01

    A new AC microcalorimetry set-up, which facilitates scanning the pressure ( P) at low temperatures ( T) permits the precise determination of the ( P, T) phase diagram of the intermediate valence compound TmSe in a wide pressure range (0-14 GPa). In the low-pressure area, the occurrence of a phase transition at 3 GPa is confirmed. Contrary to previous measurements which indicated a possible new transition at 6 GPa, our results show a continuous behaviour with a Néel temperature increasing linearly with P. Above 10 GPa, the splitting of the magnetic anomaly might indicate a new phase transition. The same kind of experiment was performed for TmS, and after a P shift of 7 GPa, a scaling can be realized between the two compounds.