Science.gov

Sample records for life science characteristics

  1. Life sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Day, L.

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

  2. Life sciences.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Gregory K

    2002-12-01

    Space life sciences research activities are reviewed for the year. Highlights of animal studies were the first long-term flight of an animal enclosure module and an avian development facility on STS-108. Plant research efforts focused on a biomass production system for eventual use on the International Space Station (ISS), the PESTO experiment on ISS, and screening of several salad crop varieties for potential use in space. Health-related studies included the Martian Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE) on the Mars Odyssey mission, presentation of results from NASA's Biomolecular Physics and Chemistry Program, and research related to human liver cell function in space through an agreement with StelSys. In industry and academia, a memorandum of understanding was signed between NASA and the biotechnology industry to enhance communication between NASA and the industry, expand commercial biotechnology space research and development, and expand formal and informal education of industry and the public regarding biotechnology and space research. NASA selected Purdue University to lead an NSCORT for advanced life support research to develop technologies to enable long-duration planetary mission and sustain human space colonies. PMID:12506925

  3. Educational Challenges of Molecular Life Science: Characteristics and Implications for Education and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tibell, Lena A. E.; Rundgren, Carl-Johan

    2010-01-01

    Molecular life science is one of the fastest-growing fields of scientific and technical innovation, and biotechnology has profound effects on many aspects of daily life--often with deep, ethical dimensions. At the same time, the content is inherently complex, highly abstract, and deeply rooted in diverse disciplines ranging from "pure sciences,"…

  4. Life sciences report 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Highlighted here are the major research efforts of the NASA Life Sciences Division during the past year. Topics covered include remote health care delivery in space, space biomedical research, gravitational biology, biospherics (studying planet Earth), the NASA Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), exobiology, flight programs, international cooperation, and education programs.

  5. Life sciences recruitment objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, J. Richard

    1992-01-01

    The goals of the Life Sciences Division of the Office of Space Sciences and Application are to ensure the health, well being and productivity of humans in space and to acquire fundamental scientific knowledge in space life sciences. With these goals in mind Space Station Freedom represents substantial opportunities and significant challenges to the Life Sciences Division. For the first time it will be possible to replicate experimental data from a variety of simultaneously exposed species with appropriate controls and real-time analytical capabilities over extended periods of time. At the same time, a system for monitoring and ameliorating the physiological adaptations that occur in humans subjected to extended space flight must be evolved to provide the continuing operational support to the SSF crew. To meet its goals, and take advantage of the opportunities and overcome the challenges presented by Space Station Freedom, the Life Sciences Division is developing a suite of discipline-focused sequence. The research phase of the Life Sciences Space Station Freedom Program will commence with the utilization flights following the deployment of the U.S. laboratory module and achievement of Man Tended Capability. Investigators that want the Life Sciences Division to sponsor their experiment on SSF can do so in one of three ways: submitting a proposal in response to a NASA Research Announcement (NRA), submitting a proposal in response to an Announcement of Opportunity (AO), or submitting an unsolicited proposal. The scientific merit of all proposals will be evaluated by peer review panels. Proposals will also be evaluated based on relevance to NASA's missions and on the results of an Engineering and Cost Analyses. The Life Sciences Division expects that the majority of its funding opportunities will be announced through NRA's. It is anticipated that the first NRA will be released approximately three years before first element launch (currently scheduled for late 1995

  6. Life sciences and environmental sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The DOE laboratories play a unique role in bringing multidisciplinary talents -- in biology, physics, chemistry, computer sciences, and engineering -- to bear on major problems in the life and environmental sciences. Specifically, the laboratories utilize these talents to fulfill OHER's mission of exploring and mitigating the health and environmental effects of energy use, and of developing health and medical applications of nuclear energy-related phenomena. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) support of this mission is evident across the spectrum of OHER-sponsored research, especially in the broad areas of genomics, structural biology, basic cell and molecular biology, carcinogenesis, energy and environment, applications to biotechnology, and molecular, nuclear and radiation medicine. These research areas are briefly described.

  7. Life sciences and environmental sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The DOE laboratories play a unique role in bringing multidisciplinary talents -- in biology, physics, chemistry, computer sciences, and engineering -- to bear on major problems in the life and environmental sciences. Specifically, the laboratories utilize these talents to fulfill OHER`s mission of exploring and mitigating the health and environmental effects of energy use, and of developing health and medical applications of nuclear energy-related phenomena. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) support of this mission is evident across the spectrum of OHER-sponsored research, especially in the broad areas of genomics, structural biology, basic cell and molecular biology, carcinogenesis, energy and environment, applications to biotechnology, and molecular, nuclear and radiation medicine. These research areas are briefly described.

  8. Spacelab Life Sciences-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Jahns, Gary; Meylor, John; Hawes, Nikki; Fast, Tom N.; Zarow, Greg

    1995-01-01

    This report provides an historical overview of the Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) mission along with the resultant biomaintenance data and investigators' findings. Only the nonhuman elements, developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) researchers, are addressed herein. The STS-40 flight of SLS-1, in June 1991, was the first spacelab flown after 'return to orbit', it was also the first spacelab mission specifically designated as a Life Sciences Spacelab. The experiments performed provided baseline data for both hardware and rodents used in succeeding missions.

  9. Investigations Into Life Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Dean Samuel

    This laboratory manual, containing 44 exercises, is intended to be used as part of an audio-tutorial approach to laboratory work in a life-science course for student nurses. Exercises include basic techniques of miscroscopy, microbiology, electrophysiology, routine biochemical analyses of blood and urine, and microscopic examination of prepared…

  10. Life Sciences MIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittman, R. A.; Marks, V.

    1983-01-01

    Management Information System, MIS, provides Life Sciences Projects Division at Johnson Space Center with automated system for project managment. MIS utilizes Tektronix 4027 color graphics display terminal and form-fillout capability. User interface with MIS data base is through series of forms.

  11. Life sciences accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    From its inception, the main charter of Life Sciences has been to define biomedical requirements for the design and development of spacecraft systems and to participate in NASA's scientific exploration of the universe. The role of the Life Sciences Division is to: (1) assure the health, well being and productivity of all individuals who fly in space; (2) study the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the universe; and (3) to utilize the space environment as a tool for research in biology and medicine. The activities, programs, and accomplishments to date in the efforts to achieve these goals are detailed and the future challenges that face the division as it moves forward from the shuttle era to a permanent manned presence in space space station's are examined.

  12. Life Sciences Accomplishments 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnell, Mary Lou (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Life and Biomedical Sciences and Applications Division (LBSAD) serves the Nation's life sciences community by managing all aspects of U.S. space-related life sciences research and technology development. The activities of the Division are integral components of the Nation's overall biological sciences and biomedical research efforts. However, NASA's life sciences activities are unique, in that space flight affords the opportunity to study and characterize basic biological mechanisms in ways not possible on Earth. By utilizing access to space as a research tool, NASA advances fundamental knowledge of the way in which weightlessness, radiation, and other aspects of the space-flight environment interact with biological processes. This knowledge is applied to procedures and technologies that enable humans to live and work in and explore space and contributes to the health and well-being of people on Earth. The activities of the Division are guided by the following three goals: Goal 1) Use microgravity and other unique aspects of the space environment to enhance our understanding of fundamental biological processes. Goal 2) Develop the scientific and technological foundations for supporting exploration by enabling productive human presence in space for extended periods. Goal 3) Apply our unique mission personnel, facilities, and technology to improve education, the quality of life on Earth, and U.S. competitiveness. The Division pursues these goals with integrated ground and flight programs involving the participation of NASA field centers, industry, and universities, as well as interactions with other national agencies and NASA's international partners. The published work of Division-sponsored researchers is a record of completed research in pursuit of these goals. During 1993, the LBSAD instituted significant changes in its experiment solicitation and peer review processes. For the first time, a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) was released requesting

  13. Space shuttle and life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    During the 1980's, some 200 Spacelab missions will be flown on space shuttle in earth-orbit. Within these 200 missions, it is planned that at least 20 will be dedicated to life sciences research, projects which are yet to be outlined by the life sciences community. Objectives of the Life Sciences Shuttle/Spacelab Payloads Program are presented. Also discussed are major space life sciences programs including space medicine and physiology, clinical medicine, life support technology, and a variety of space biology topics. The shuttle, spacelab, and other life sciences payload carriers are described. Concepts for carry-on experiment packages, mini-labs, shared and dedicated spacelabs, as well as common operational research equipment (CORE) are reviewed. Current NASA planning and development includes Spacelab Mission Simulations, an Announcement of Planning Opportunity for Life Sciences, and a forthcoming Announcement of Opportunity for Flight Experiments which will together assist in forging a Life Science Program in space.

  14. Science for Real Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerman, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    State and national standards identify what students should know and be able to do, including what it means to "do" science, the historical significance of science achievement and its ethical underpinnings, and science from the human perspective. Middle level science programs that address the full range of science standards and connect learning to…

  15. WOWBugs: New Life for Life Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Robert W.; And Others

    This book of life science activities introduces a new experimental animal--the WOWBug, "Melittobia digitata"--that is commonly found in nature but has never before been used in the precollege classroom. It includes 20 activities and experiments for grades 5-12, that cover topics from basic orientation to ecological interactions, from physical…

  16. Life Science. A Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spann, Margaret; Cowan, Connie

    The life science curriculum is designed to promote the development of healthy living habits. Emphasis is placed on problems of major concern in the daily life of students and on significant problems in modern society. The curriculum is designed for students enrolled in the coordinated vocational education and training for disadvantaged and…

  17. Life sciences and Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Rummel, John D.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Teeter, Ron

    1990-01-01

    The major life science considerations for Mars exploration missions are discussed. Radiation protection and countermeasures for zero gravity are discussed. Considerations of crew psychological health considerations and life support systems are addressed. Scientific opportunities presented by manned Mars missions are examined.

  18. NASA Space Life Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Judith

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the requirements that NASA has for the medical service of a crew returning to earth after long duration space flight. The scenarios predicate a water landing. Two scenarios are reviewed that outline the ship-board medical operations team and the ship board science reseach team. A schedule for the each crew upon landing is posited for each of scenarios. The requirement for a heliport on board the ship is reviewed and is on the requirement for a helicopter to return the Astronauts to the Baseline Data Collection Facility (BDCF). The ideal is to integrate the medical and science requirements, to minimize the risks and Inconveniences to the returning astronauts. The medical support that is required for all astronauts returning from long duration space flight (30 days or more) is reviewed. The personnel required to support the team is outlined. The recommendations for medical operations and science research for crew support are stated.

  19. Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, M.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy; Thomas, D.; Shackelford, K.

    2008-01-01

    In the early days of spaceflight, space life sciences data were been collected and stored in numerous databases, formats, media-types and geographical locations. While serving the needs of individual research teams, these data were largely unknown/unavailable to the scientific community at large. As a result, the Space Act of 1958 and the Science Data Management Policy mandated that research data collected by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration be made available to the science community at large. The Biomedical Informatics and Health Care Systems Branch of the Space Life Sciences Directorate at JSC and the Data Archive Project at ARC, with funding from the Human Research Program through the Exploration Medical Capability Element, are fulfilling these requirements through the systematic population of the Life Sciences Data Archive. This program constitutes a formal system for the acquisition, archival and distribution of data for Life Sciences-sponsored experiments and investigations. The general goal of the archive is to acquire, preserve, and distribute these data using a variety of media which are accessible and responsive to inquiries from the science communities.

  20. Space life sciences strategic plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.

    1992-05-01

    Over the last three decades the Life Sciences Program has significantly contributed to NASA's manned and unmanned exploration of space, while acquiring new knowledge in the fields of space biology and medicine. The national and international events which have led to the development and revision of NASA strategy will significantly affect the future of life sciences programs both in scope and pace. This document serves as the basis for synthesizing the options to be pursued during the next decade, based on the decisions, evolution, and guiding principles of the National Space Policy. The strategies detailed in this document are fully supportive of the Life Sciences Advisory Subcommittee's 'A Rationale for the Life Sciences,' and the recent Aerospace Medicine Advisory Committee report entitled 'Strategic Considerations for Support of Humans in Space and Moon/Mars Exploration Missions.' Information contained within this document is intended for internal NASA planning and is subject to policy decisions and direction, and to budgets allocated to NASA's Life Sciences Program.

  1. Space life sciences strategic plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last three decades the Life Sciences Program has significantly contributed to NASA's manned and unmanned exploration of space, while acquiring new knowledge in the fields of space biology and medicine. The national and international events which have led to the development and revision of NASA strategy will significantly affect the future of life sciences programs both in scope and pace. This document serves as the basis for synthesizing the options to be pursued during the next decade, based on the decisions, evolution, and guiding principles of the National Space Policy. The strategies detailed in this document are fully supportive of the Life Sciences Advisory Subcommittee's 'A Rationale for the Life Sciences,' and the recent Aerospace Medicine Advisory Committee report entitled 'Strategic Considerations for Support of Humans in Space and Moon/Mars Exploration Missions.' Information contained within this document is intended for internal NASA planning and is subject to policy decisions and direction, and to budgets allocated to NASA's Life Sciences Program.

  2. Investigations in Life Science, Junior High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Robert L.

    Developed for teachers of junior high school science classes, this unit presents ten investigations on plant growth, animal life, pond life, and general science interests. These investigations are designed to accompany any popular life science textbooks, may be used to supplement a year-long course in life science, are intended as a springboard…

  3. Spacelab Life Sciences 1 results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seddon, Rhea

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from the experiments conducted by the first Shuttle/Spacelab mission dedicated entirely to the life sciences, the Spacelab Life Sciences 1, launched on June 5, 1991. The experiments carried out during the 9-day flight included investigations of changes in the human cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal/endocrine, blood, and vestibular systems that were brought about by microgravity. Results were also obtained from the preflight and postflight complementary experiments performed on rats, which assessed the suitability of rodents as animal models for humans. Most results verified, or expanded on, the accepted theories of adaptation to zero gravity.

  4. Space life sciences: A status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The scientific research and supporting technology development conducted in the Space Life Sciences Program is described. Accomplishments of the past year are highlighted. Plans for future activities are outlined. Some specific areas of study include the following: Crew health and safety; What happens to humans in space; Gravity, life, and space; Sustenance in space; Life and planet Earth; Life in the Universe; Promoting good science and good will; Building a future for the space life sciences; and Benefits of space life sciences research.

  5. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, C. S. (Editor); Donnelly, K. L. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Research in exobiology, life sciences technology, space biology, and space medicine and physiology, primarily using data gathered on the Salyut 6 orbital space station, is reported. Methods for predicting, diagnosing, and preventing the effects of weightlessness are discussed. Psychological factors are discussed. The effects of space flight on plants and animals are reported. Bioinstrumentation advances are noted.

  6. Life Sciences in NASA's Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.

    1999-01-01

    The topics of agency and enterprise goals, OLMSA organization, life sciences relationship to NASA/HEDS strategic plans, budget allocated by the HEDS strategic plan goals, 1998 successes, exploration and the International Space Station, congressional budgets, OLMSA grants, biomedical research and countermeasures, medical care, biologically inspired technologies, and publication, education and outreach are all presented in viewgraph form.

  7. Venture Kapital und Life Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Sebastian; Beermann, Christian

    Um sich weiter im internationalen Wettbewerb behaupten zu können, müssen deutsche Unternehmen heute in Schlüsseltechnologien wie die Medizintechnik und die Biotechnologie, zusammenfassend unter dem Begriff der Life Sciences bekannt, investieren. Eine führende Wettbewerbsposition erfordert immer die konsequente Weiterentwicklung von Produkten und Lösungen, um Innovationspotenziale in medizinische Verfahren umzusetzen. Die damit unmittelbar verbundenen hohen Ausgaben für Forschung und Entwicklung stellen ein bedeutendes Problem junger Life Science Unternehmen dar. Vor allem die, verglichen mit nicht-medizinischen Branchen, längeren Forschungs- und Entwicklungszyklen in der Frühphase eines Life Science Unternehmens und die längere Dauer bis zur Profitabilität erhöhen das Risiko der Finanzinvestoren. Die Zeitdauer, um ein medizinisches Produkt bis zur Marktreife zu entwickeln und letztlich auf dem Markt anzubieten, kann aufgrund der notwendigen intensiven Forschung nur unscharf geplant werden und erhöht die Unsicherheit über den Zeitpunkt der ersten Einnahmen. Damit verschärfen sich gerade im Life Science Bereich allgemeine Problematiken von Gründungs- und Wachstumsfinanzierungen wie starke Informationsasymmetrien zwischen Gründer und potentiellen Kapitalgebern. Oftmals ist die Entwicklung einer innovativen Technologie abhängig von einzelnen Personen, von deren Wissen und Engagement die Umsetzung und der Erfolg eines gesamten Produktkonzeptes abhängen.

  8. USSR space life sciences digest

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.S.; Donnelly, K.L.

    1980-01-01

    Research in exobiology, life sciences technology, space biology, and space medicine and physiology, primarily using data gathered on the Salyut 6 orbital space station, is reported. Methods for predicting, diagnosing, and preventing the effects of weightlessness are discussed. Psychological factors are discussed. The effects of space flight on plants and animals are reported. Bioinstrumentation advances are noted.

  9. Spacelab Life Sciences 1 - Dedicated life sciences mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Womack, W. D.

    1990-01-01

    The Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS-1) mission is discussed, and an overview of the SLS-1 Spacelab configuration is shown. Twenty interdisciplinary experiments, planned for this mission, are intended to explore the early stages of human and animal physiological adaptation to space flight conditions. Biomedical and gravitational biology experiments include cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary deconditioning, altered vestibular functions, altered metabolic functions (including altered fluid-electrolyte regulation), muscle atrophy, bone demineralization, decreased red blood cell mass, and altered immunologic responses.

  10. Technologists and Technicians in the Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Melissa

    1978-01-01

    A variety of technical occupations that involve biological or life science education are discussed. These technical occupations are divided into agricultural, biological, marine science, and medical areas. (MDR)

  11. Spacelab life sciences 1 - Reprints of background life sciences publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Ronald (Editor); Leonard, Joel (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Results from investigations conducted in preparation for the first Spacelab life-sciences mission are summarized in selected previously published papers. Topics discussed are the role of calcium in osteoporosis, orthostaic hypotension, cardiovascular adjustments to gravitational stress, cell biology, exposure to stressful environments, heart-lung interactions in aerospace medicine, effects of weightlessness on human fluid and electrolyte physiology, macular bioaccelerometers on earth and in space, and metabolism of nonessential N-15-labeled amino acids and the measurement of human whole-body protein synthesis rates.

  12. A Consideratlon of Life Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Keiko

    This paper is a record of Special Lecture at the awarding ceremony of the 22nd “Niwa Prize”. Lecturer describes the mechanism in biology, taking a biology as an information system. For instance, when we make a protain by genes, every substance like hormones and nezymes, which were made by genes, has information. The system of biology moves by the fact that an gene dose not move itself, but substances with information go around in the body. From the viewpoint of life sciences, lecturer proposes the necessity to reconsider information as a linkage of heart and substance.

  13. Life Sciences Division Spaceflight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Ames Research Center (ARC) is responsible for the development, integration, and operation of non-human life sciences payloads in support of NASA's Gravitational Biology and Ecology (GB&E) program. To help stimulate discussion and interest in the development and application of novel technologies for incorporation within non-human life sciences experiment systems, three hardware system models will be displayed with associated graphics/text explanations. First, an Animal Enclosure Model (AEM) will be shown to communicate the nature and types of constraints physiological researchers must deal with during manned space flight experiments using rodent specimens. Second, a model of the Modular Cultivation System (MCS) under development by ESA will be presented to highlight technologies that may benefit cell-based research, including advanced imaging technologies. Finally, subsystems of the Cell Culture Unit (CCU) in development by ARC will also be shown. A discussion will be provided on candidate technology requirements in the areas of specimen environmental control, biotelemetry, telescience and telerobotics, and in situ analytical techniques and imaging. In addition, an overview of the Center for Gravitational Biology Research facilities will be provided.

  14. Life sciences on the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.

    Despite of the fact that the lunar environment lacks essential prerequisites for supporting life, lunar missions offer new and promising opportunities to the life sciences community. Among the disciplines of interest are exobiology, radiation biology, ecology and human physiology. In exobiology, the Moon offers an ideal platform for studies related to the understanding of the principles, leading to the origin, evolution and distribution of life. These include the analysis of lunar samples and meteorites in relatively pristine conditions, radioastronomical search for other planetary systems or Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI), and studies on the role of radiation in evolutionary processes and on the environmental limits for life. For radiation biology, the Moon provides an unique laboratory with built-in sources for optical as well as ionising radiation to investigate the biological importance of the various components of cosmic and solar radiation. Before establishing a lunar base, precursor missions will provide a characterisation of the radiation field, determination of depth dose distributions in different absorbers, the installation of a solar flare alert system, and a qualification of the biological efficiency of the mixed radiation environment. One of the most challenging projects falls into the domain of ecology with the establishment for the first time of an artificial ecosystem on a celestial body beyond the Earth. From this venture, a better understanding of the dynamics regulating our terrestrial biosphere is expected. It will also serve as a precursor of bioregenerative life support systems for a lunar base. The establishment of a lunar base with eventually long-term human presence will raise various problems in the fields of human physiology and health care, psychology and sociology. Protection guidelines for living in this hostile environment have to be established.

  15. Spacelab Life Sciences 1, development towards successive life sciences flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, B. P.; Jahns, G.; Hogan, R.

    1992-01-01

    A general review is presented of flight data and related hardware developments for Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS) 1 with an eye toward applying this knowledge to projected flight planning. Specific attention is given to the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF), the General Purpose Work Station (GPWS), the Small Mass Measuring Instrument (SMMI), and the Animal Enclosure Module (AEM). Preflight and in-flight testing methods are detailed including biocompatibility tests, parametric engineering sensitivity analyses, measurements of environmental parameters, and studies of operational interfaces. Particulate containment is demonstrated for some of the equipment, and successful use of the GPWS, RAHF, AEM, and SMMI are reported. The in-flight data are useful for developing more advanced hardware such as the AEM for SLS flight 2 and the modified RAHF for SLS flight 3.

  16. Space Station life sciences guidelines for nonhuman experiment accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, R.; Hilchey, J.

    1985-01-01

    Life scientists will utilize one of four habitable modules which constitute the initial Space Station configuration. This module will be initially employed for studies related to nonhuman and human life sciences. At a later date, a new module, devoted entirely to nonhuman life sciences will be launched. This report presents a description of the characteristics of a Space Station laboratory facility from the standpoint of nonhuman research requirements. Attention is given to the science rationale for experiments which support applied medical research and basic gravitational biology, mission profiles and typical equipment and subsystem descriptions, issues associated with the accommodation of nonhuman life sciences on the Space Station, and conceptual designs for the initial operational capability configuration and later Space Station life-sciences research facilities.

  17. The Next Generation Science Standards and the Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2013-01-01

    Using the life sciences, this article first reviews essential features of the "NRC Framework for K-12 Science Education" that provided a foundation for the new standards. Second, the article describes the important features of life science standards for elementary, middle, and high school levels. Special attention is paid to the teaching…

  18. Life sciences flight experiments microcomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartram, Peter N.

    1987-01-01

    A promising microcomputer configuration for the Spacelab Life Sciences Lab. Equipment inventory consists of multiple processors. One processor's use is reserved, with additional processors dedicated to real time input and output operations. A simple form of such a configuration, with a processor board for analog to digital conversion and another processor board for digital to analog conversion, was studied. The system used digital parallel data lines between the boards, operating independently of the system bus. Good performance of individual components was demonstrated: the analog to digital converter was at over 10,000 samples per second. The combination of the data transfer between boards with the input or output functions on each board slowed performance, with a maximum throughput of 2800 to 2900 analog samples per second. Any of several techniques, such as use of the system bus for data transfer or the addition of direct memory access hardware to the processor boards, should give significantly improved performance.

  19. Life Sciences Program Tasks and Bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This document includes information on all peer reviewed projects funded by the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, Life Sciences Division during fiscal year 1995. Additionally, this inaugural edition of the Task Book includes information for FY 1994 programs. This document will be published annually and made available to scientists in the space life sciences field both as a hard copy and as an interactive Internet web page

  20. Space life sciences: Programs and projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NASA space life science activities are outlined. Brief, general descriptions are given of research in the areas of biomedical research, space biology, closed loop life support systems, exobiology, and biospherics.

  1. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran (Editor); Donaldson, P. Lynn (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Garshnek, Victoria (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Abstracts of research in the areas of biological rhythms, body fluids, botany, endrocrinology, enzymology, exobiology, genetics, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, and numerous other topics related to space and life sciences are given.

  2. Prospective life-science payloads.

    PubMed

    Lindop, P J

    1975-01-01

    A viable spacelab programme is based on the thesis that biomedical specialists require a quantifiable, and possibly mechanistic, understanding of the significant changes observed in crew, in and after manned space flights. Only then can prophylaxis or atraumatic reversal be achieved (with potentially an added use to ameliorate qualitatively similar disease aspects on Earth). This approach could justify national funding to promote lead-up ground-based research as well as research and development for special equipment, of which the "spin-off" into clinical practice could well precede its first use in Spacelab. The requirement for "applied expediency" arises from the watershed met early in the evolution of a life-sciences programme. Initially, the facility of space flight provoked numerous valid experiments designed to test for, or quantitate, gravity-dependent mechanisms and their interaction with other agents, radiation, vibration, or absence of triggers for rhythmic patterns. In parallel, measurable parameters of man's function in space were being monitored, primarily to promote survival by remedial action when available. Monitoring data were then developed to find a critical mechanism feasible to testing. Often the rationale for such tests and experiments was that "man was there" and could, moreover, attend to several biological experiments in space! The watershed appeared when man in a Spacelab was shown as a hazard to the instrumentation, cleanliness, accuracy, thermal control, weight limits, etc. essential to the other disciplines. Other than the life sciences only the technological requirements of materials processing required a manned spacelab! So, life scientists have needed to rethink their payloads, and their constrictions, to plan for compatible load sharing. A composite of proposed biomedical projects related to apparently unanswered etiology of observed changes in returning astronauts will be used to illustrate the evolution of and possible answers to

  3. Life Science for Visually Impaired Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Larry; De Lucchi, Linda

    1979-01-01

    Describes life science activities for blind or visually impaired students including aquarium studies, plant germination, classroom animals, and outdoor activities designed with a multisensory approach. (MA)

  4. JSC Human Life Sciences Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This section of the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) publication includes articles entitled: (1) E029 - Magnetic Resonance Imaging after Exposure to Microgravity; (2) E030 - Extended Studies of Pulmonary Function in Weightlessness; (3) E074 - Direct Measurement of the Initial Bone Response to Spaceflight in Humans; (4) E401 - The Effects of Microgravity on Skeletal Muscle Contractile Properties; (5) E407 - Effects of Microgravity on the Biochemical and Bioenergetic Characteristics of Human Skeletal Muscle; (6) E410 - Torso Rotation Experiment; (7) E920 - Effect of Weightlessness on Human Single Muscle Fiber Function; (8) E948 - Human Sleep, Circadian Rhythms and Performance in Space; (9) E963 - Microgravity Effects on Standardized Cognitive Performance Measures; and (10) E971 - Measurement of Energy Expenditures During Spaceflight Using the Doubly Labeled Water Method

  5. Life sciences utilization of Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Lawrence P.

    1992-01-01

    Space Station Freedom will provide the United States' first permanently manned laboratory in space. It will allow, for the first time, long term systematic life sciences investigations in microgravity. This presentation provides a top-level overview of the planned utilization of Space Station Freedom by NASA's Life Sciences Division. The historical drivers for conducting life sciences research on a permanently manned laboratory in space as well as the advantages that a space station platform provides for life sciences research are discussed. This background information leads into a description of NASA's strategy for having a fully operational International Life Sciences Research Facility by the year 2000. Achieving this capability requires the development of the five discipline focused 'common core' facilities. Once developed, these facilities will be brought to the space station during the Man-Tended Capability phase, checked out and brought into operation. Their delivery must be integrated with the Space Station Freedom manifest. At the beginning of Permanent Manned Capability, the infrastructure is expected to be completed and the Life Sciences Division's SSF Program will become fully operational. A brief facility description, anticipated launch date and a focused objective is provided for each of the life sciences facilities, including the Biomedical Monitoring and Countermeasures (BMAC) Facility, Gravitational Biology Facility (GBF), Gas Grain Simulation Facility (GGSF), Centrifuge Facility (CF), and Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Test Facility. In addition, hardware developed by other NASA organizations and the SSF International Partners for an International Life Sciences Research Facility is also discussed.

  6. Career Exploration in the Life Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    The purpose of the teacher's guide is to acquaint junior high school students with occupations in the life sciences. By identifying life science and exploring the areas of biology (ecology and zoology) and medicine, students may become aware of the functions of the people involved in these areas and the value of their work. The material in the…

  7. Life Science, Grade 7. Curricular Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York County School District 3, Rock Hill, SC.

    This curricular guide focuses on life science and is designed for use with seventh grade students. Life science was chosen as the course of study based on the rationale that, as pupils enter junior high school, they are in early adolescence and find it difficult to understand themselves so that the study of living things with a thorough…

  8. John Greenleaf's life of science.

    PubMed

    Watenpaugh, Donald E

    2012-12-01

    This article summarizes the life and career of John E. Greenleaf, PhD. It complements an interview of Dr. Greenleaf sponsored by the American Physiological Society Living History Project found on the American Physiological Society website. Dr. Greenleaf is a "thought leader" and internationally renowned physiologist, with extensive contributions in human systems-level environmental physiology. He avoided self-aggrandizement and believed that deeds rather than words define one's legacy. Viewed another way, however, Greenleaf's words define his deeds: 48% of his 185 articles are first author works, which is an unusually high proportion for a scientist of his stature. He found that writing a thorough and thoughtful discussion section often led to novel ideas that drove future research. Beyond Greenleaf's words are the many students, postdocs, and collaborators lucky enough to have worked with him and thus learn and carry on his ways of science. His core principles included the following: avoid research "fads," embrace diversity, be the first subject in your own research, adhere to rules of fiscal responsibility, and respect administrative forces-but never back down from them when you know you are right. Greenleaf's integrity ensured he was usually right. He thrived on the axiom of many successful scientists: avoid falling in love with hypotheses, so that when unexpected findings appear, they arouse curiosity instead of fear. Dr. Greenleaf's legacy will include the John and Carol Greenleaf Award for prolific environmental and exercise-related publication in the Journal of Applied Physiology. PMID:23209002

  9. Life Cycle. K-6 Science Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blueford, J. R.; And Others

    Life Cycle is one of the units of a K-6 unified science curriculum program. The unit consists of four organizing sub-themes: (1) past life (focusing on dinosaurs and fossil formation, types, and importance); (2) animal life (examining groups of invertebrates and vertebrates, cells, reproduction, and classification systems); (3) plant life…

  10. USSR report: life sciences. Biomedical and behavioral sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    Studies in life sciences, biomedical sciences, and behavioral sciences are reported. The following fields of interest were studied: agricultural biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, environment effects, medical demography, medicine, microbiology, physiology, radiation biology, and human factors engineering. For individual titles, see N82-33989 through N82-33994.

  11. Science gateways for semantic-web-based life science applications.

    PubMed

    Ardizzone, Valeria; Bruno, Riccardo; Calanducci, Antonio; Carrubba, Carla; Fargetta, Marco; Ingrà, Elisa; Inserra, Giuseppina; La Rocca, Giuseppe; Monforte, Salvatore; Pistagna, Fabrizio; Ricceri, Rita; Rotondo, Riccardo; Scardaci, Diego; Barbera, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the architecture of a framework for building Science Gateways supporting official standards both for user authentication and authorization and for middleware-independent job and data management. Two use cases of the customization of the Science Gateway framework for Semantic-Web-based life science applications are also described. PMID:22942003

  12. The Early Years: "Life" Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Talking about death as part of a life cycle is often ignored or spoken about in hushed tones in early childhood. Books with "life cycle" in the title often do not include the death of the living organism in the information about the cycle. The concept of a complete life cycle does not appear in "A Framework for K-12 Science…

  13. Life sciences flight experiments program - Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, W. E.; Dant, C. C.

    1981-01-01

    The considered LSFE program focuses on Spacelab life sciences missions planned for the 1984-1985 time frame. Life Sciences Spacelab payloads, launched at approximately 18-months intervals, will enable scientists to test hypotheses from such disciplines as vestibular physiology, developmental biology, biochemistry, cell biology, plant physiology, and a variety of other life sciences. An overview is presented of the LSFE program that will take advantage of the unique opportunities for biological experimentation possible on Spacelab. Program structure, schedules, and status are considered along with questions of program selection, and the science investigator working groups. A description is presented of the life sciences laboratory equipment program, taking into account the general purpose work station, the research animal holding facility, and the plant growth unit.

  14. Space Life Sciences Research and Education Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coats, Alfred C.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1969, the Universities Space Research Association (USRA), a private, nonprofit corporation, has worked closely with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to advance space science and technology and to promote education in those areas. USRA's Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) has been NASA's life sciences research partner for the past 18 years. For the last six years, our Cooperative Agreement NCC9-41 for the 'Space Life Sciences Research and Education Program' has stimulated and assisted life sciences research and education at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) - both at the Center and in collaboration with outside academic institutions. To accomplish our objectives, the DSLS has facilitated extramural research, developed and managed educational programs, recruited and employed visiting and staff scientists, and managed scientific meetings.

  15. Life sciences: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Life Sciences Research at LBL has both a long history and a new visibility. The physics technologies pioneered in the days of Ernest O. Lawrence found almost immediate application in the medical research conducted by Ernest's brother, John Lawrence. And the tradition of nuclear medicine continues today, largely uninterrupted for more than 50 years. Until recently, though, life sciences research has been a secondary force at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). Today, a true multi-program laboratory has emerged, in which the life sciences participate as a full partner. The LBL Human Genome Center is a contribution to the growing international effort to map the human genome. Its achievements represent LBL divisions, including Engineering, Materials and Chemical Sciences, and Information and Computing Sciences, along with Cell and Molecular Biology and Chemical Biodynamics. The Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center will comprise not only beamlines and experimental end stations, but also supporting laboratories and office space for scientists from across the US. This effort reflects a confluence of scientific disciplines --- this time represented by individuals from the life sciences divisions and by engineers and physicists associated with the Advanced Light Source project. And finally, this report itself, the first summarizing the efforts of all four life sciences divisions, suggests a new spirit of cooperation. 30 figs.

  16. Experimental control requirements for life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, W. E.; Sharp, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    The Life Sciences dedicated Spacelab will enable scientists to test hypotheses in various disciplines. Building upon experience gained in mission simulations, orbital flight test experiments, and the first three Spacelab missions, NASA will be able to progressively develop the engineering and management capabilities necessary for the first Life Sciences Spacelab. Development of experiments for these missions will require implementation of life-support systems not previously flown in space. Plant growth chambers, animal holding facilities, aquatic specimen life-support systems, and centrifuge-mounted specimen holding units are examples of systems currently being designed and fabricated for flight.

  17. More Life-Science Experiments For Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, P. D., Jr.; Dalton, B.; Hogan, R.; Leon, H.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes experiments done as part of Spacelab Life Sciences 2 mission (SLS-2). Research planned on cardiovascular, vestibular, metabolic, and thermal responses of animals in weightlessness. Expected to shed light on effects of prolonged weightlessness on humans.

  18. Physical and Life Sciences 2008 Science & Technology Highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Correll, D L; Hazi, A U

    2009-05-06

    This document highlights the outstanding research and development activities in the Physical and Life Sciences Directorate that made news in 2008. It also summarizes the awards and recognition received by members of the Directorate in 2008.

  19. LIFE AND EARTH SCIENCE, JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MAHLER, FRED

    CURRICULUM GUIDES FOR GRADE 7 "LIFE SCIENCE" AND GRADE 8 "EARTH SCIENCE" WERE DEVELOPED BY 24 AREA TEACHERS AND THREE SAM HOUSTON STATE COLLEGE PROFESSORS. THE PROJECT WAS SUPPORTED BY THE TEXAS SMALL SCHOOL ASSOCIATION, THE LOCAL SCHOOLS, AND FUNDS FROM THE TITLE III PROGRAM. THE TEACHER GUIDES WERE PREPARED TO IMPROVE THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL…

  20. Life Science Curriculum Guide. Bulletin 1614.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Academic Programs.

    This curriculum guide, developed to establish statewide curriculum standards for the Louisiana Competency-based Education Program, contains the minimum competencies and process skills that should be included in a life science course. It consists of: (1) a rationale for an effective science program; (2) a list and description of four major goals of…

  1. Life and Environment. Elementary Science Activity Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Frank F.

    This book, a volume of the High/Scope Elementary Curriculum science books series, is designed to bring the essential features of plant and animal environments into focus. It contains activities that enable students to gain insights into the life histories of animals and plants, their habitats, and their place in the broader picture of life on…

  2. Life sciences flight experiments program, life sciences project division, procurement quality provisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, G.

    1980-01-01

    Methods are defined for implementing quality assurance policy and requirements for life sciences laboratory equipment, experimental hardware, integration and test support equipment, and integrated payloads.

  3. Planning for life sciences research in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallory, K. M., Jr.; Deutsch, S.

    1976-01-01

    Invitations to participate in planning the NASA Life Sciences Program in Space were mailed to members of the Life Sciences community at large during April 1975. The invitation is related to current planning for Life Sciences research in space during the 1980's, taking into account a use of the Space Shuttle, Spacelab, and the unmanned Biological Experiments Scientific Satellite (BESS). A response form to be completed and returned to NASA by the scientists included questions requesting suggestions on topics-for-research, laboratory equipment, and test specimens. A description of the invitation results is presented, taking into account general response, respondent specialties, laboratory equipment, test specimens, and research objectives. Attention is also given to an Announcement of Opportunities (AO) for the Space Transportation System. The AO was issued by the Office of Space Science in March 1976.

  4. Life Sciences Centrifuge Facility assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Robert H.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of the status of the Centrifuge Facility being developed by ARC for flight on the International Space Station Alpha. The assessment includes technical status, schedules, budgets, project management, performance of facility relative to science requirements, and identifies risks and issues that need to be considered in future development activities.

  5. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    This is the thirteenth issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 39 papers recently published in Russian-language periodicals and bound collections, two papers delivered at an international life sciences symposium, and three new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. Also included is a review of a recent Soviet-French symposium on Space Cytology. Current Soviet Life Sciences titles available in English are cited. The materials included in this issue have been identified as relevant to 31 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology. These areas are: adaptation, biological rhythms, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, cosmonaut training, cytology, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, gastrointestinal systems, genetics, habitability and environment effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, perception, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, space biology, and space medicine.

  6. Science Education in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Zahira

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the observational study was to investigate whether spaces in Second Life (SL) displaying interactive scientific exhibits can become potential avenues to promote inquiry in teaching scientific concepts. 42 SL spaces (islands) were selected using inclusion/exclusion criteria out of 155 spaces that were found using three different…

  7. Life standard, science and astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Tsvetan B.

    The bibliometrc data published by Sanches & Benn (2004) are analized. The proportionality in log-log coordinates between the population and annual gross domestic product (GDP) with coefficient equal to unit is used for selection of "developed" countries and for further reveal of dependances through them. The proportionality coefficients between the GDP and the citation of all-science or only of the 1000 astronomy top-articles in 1991-98 occur 0.75 and 0.93, respectivelly. The fact that coefficients are less then 1 gives evidence that when the wealth of the community grows up the citation (i.e. the quality) of the articles increases with a less speed. Correlations between the "cost" of 1% citation as part of the GDP or as a part of the GDP per person for all-science and for the 1000 astronomy top-articles only are found. They show that the scientific papers are relatively more "cheap" for the big scientific communities (USA, EU), but in the same time the most cited astronomical articles are relatively more "expensive", up to 2 times. Generally, the astronomy seems to be more interesting, but also more expensive than the science on average.

  8. Life Sciences Data Archive Scientific Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckey, Jay C., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The Life Sciences Data Archive will provide scientists, managers and the general public with access to biomedical data collected before, during and after spaceflight. These data are often irreplaceable and represent a major resource from the space program. For these data to be useful, however, they must be presented with enough supporting information, description and detail so that an interested scientist can understand how, when and why the data were collected. The goal of this contract was to provide a scientific consultant to the archival effort at the NASA-Johnson Space Center. This consultant (Jay C. Buckey, Jr., M.D.) is a scientist, who was a co-investigator on both the Spacelab Life Sciences-1 and Spacelab Life Sciences-2 flights. In addition he was an alternate payload specialist for the Spacelab Life Sciences-2 flight. In this role he trained on all the experiments on the flight and so was familiar with the protocols, hardware and goals of all the experiments on the flight. Many of these experiments were flown on both SLS-1 and SLS-2. This background was useful for the archive, since the first mission to be archived was Spacelab Life Sciences-1. Dr. Buckey worked directly with the archive effort to ensure that the parameters, scientific descriptions, protocols and data sets were accurate and useful.

  9. Aerospace-Related Life Science Concepts for Use in Life Science Classes Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mary H.; Rademacher, Jean

    The purpose of this guide is to provide the teacher of secondary school life science classes with resource materials for activities to familiarize students with recent discoveries in bioastronautics. Each section introduces a life science concept and a related aerospace concept, gives background information, suggested activities, and an annotated…

  10. Life sciences flight experiments program mission science requirements document. The first life sciences dedicated Spacelab mission, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Mission Science Requirements Document (MSRD) for the First Dedicated Life Sciences Mission (LS-1) represents the culmination of thousands of hours of experiment selection, and science requirement definition activities. NASA life sciences has never before attempted to integrate, both scientifically and operationally, a single mission dedicated to life sciences research, and the complexity of the planning required for such an endeavor should be apparent. This set of requirements completes the first phase of a continual process which will attempt to optimize (within available programmatic and mission resources) the science accomplished on this mission.

  11. Space Station and the life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. J.; Leonard, J. I.; Cramer, D. B.; Bishop, W. P.

    1983-01-01

    Previous fundamental research in space life sciences is examined, and consideration is devoted to studies relevant to Space Station activities. Microgravity causes weight loss, hemoconcentration, and orthostatic intolerance when astronauts returns to earth. Losses in bone density, bone calcium, and muscle nitrogen have also been observed, together with cardiovascular deconditioning, fluid-electrolyte metabolism alteration, and space sickness. Experiments have been performed with plants, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, tissue cultures, invertebrate species, and with nonhuman vertebrates, showing little effect on simple cell functions. The Spacelab first flight will feature seven life science experiments and the second flight, two. Further studies will be performed on later flights. Continued life science studies to optimize human performance in space are necessary for the efficient operation of a Space Station and the assembly of large space structures, particularly in interaction with automated machinery.

  12. The first dedicated life sciences Spacelab mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, T. W.; Rummel, J. A.; Griffiths, L. D.; White, R. J.; Leonard, J. I.

    1984-01-01

    JIt is pointed out that the Shuttle-borne Spacelab provides the capability to fly large numbers of life sciences experiments, to retrieve and rescue experimental equipment, and to undertake multiple-flight studies. A NASA Life Sciences Flight Experiments Program has been organized with the aim to take full advantages of this capability. A description is provided of the scientific aspects of the most ambitious Spacelab mission currently being conducted in connection with this program, taking into account the First Dedicated Life Sciences Spacelab Mission. The payload of this mission will contain the equipment for 24 separate investigations. It is planned to perform the mission on two separate seven-day Spacelab flights, the first of which is currently scheduled for early 1986. Some of the mission objectives are related to the study of human and animal responses which occur promptly upon achieving weightlessness.

  13. Four educational programs in Space Life Sciences.

    PubMed

    Luttges, M W; Stodieck, L S; Klaus, D M

    1994-01-01

    Four different educational programs impacting Space Life Sciences are described: the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program, the NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) Program, the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) Program, and the NASA Graduate Research Fellow Program. Each program makes somewhat different demands on the students engaged in them. Each program, at the University of Colorado, involves Space Life Sciences training. While the Graduate Student Research Fellow and NSCORT Programs are discipline oriented, the Advanced Design and CCDS Programs are focused on design, technologies and applications. Clearly, the "training paradigms" differ for these educational endeavors. But, these paradigms can be made to mutually facilitate enthusiasm and motivation. Discipline-oriented academic programs, ideally, must be flexible enough to accommodate the emergent cross-disciplinary needs of Space Life Sciences students. Models for such flexibility and resultant student performance levels are discussed based upon actual academic and professional records. PMID:11537954

  14. Accommodating life sciences on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, Roger D.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center Biological Research Project (BRP) is responsible for identifying and accommodating high priority life science activities, utilizing nonhuman specimens, on the Space Station and is charged to bridge the gap between the science community and the Space Station Program. This paper discusses the approaches taken by the BRP in accomodating these research objectives to constraints imposed by the Space Station System, while maintaining a user-friendly environment. Consideration is given to the particular research disciplines which are given priority, the science objectives in each of these disciplines, the functions and activities required by these objectives, the research equipment, and the equipment suits. Life sciences programs planned by the Space Station participating partners (USA, Europe, Japan, and Canada) are compared.

  15. Space life sciences strategic plan, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Over the last three decades the life sciences program has significantly contributed to NASA's manned and unmanned exploration of space, while acquiring new knowledge in the fields of space biology and medicine. The national and international events which have led to the development and revision of NASA strategy will significantly affect the future of life sciences programs both in scope and pace. This document serves as the basis for synthesizing the option to be pursued during the next decade, based on the decisions, evolution, and guiding principles of the National Space Policy.

  16. Visual monitoring of autonomous life sciences experimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blank, G. E.; Martin, W. N.

    1987-01-01

    The design and implementation of a computerized visual monitoring system to aid in the monitoring and control of life sciences experiments on board a space station was investigated. A likely multiprocessor design was chosen, a plausible life science experiment with which to work was defined, the theoretical issues involved in the programming of a visual monitoring system for the experiment was considered on the multiprocessor, a system for monitoring the experiment was designed, and simulations of such a system was implemented on a network of Apollo workstations.

  17. Life Sciences Division annual report, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Marrone, B.L.; Cram, L.S.

    1989-04-01

    This report summarizes the research and development activities of Los Alamos National Laboratory's Life Sciences Division for the calendar year 1988. Technical reports related to the current status of projects are presented in sufficient detail to permit the informed reader to assess their scope and significance. Summaries useful to the casual reader desiring general information have been prepared by the Group Leaders and appear in each group overview. Investigators on the staff of the Life Sciences Division will be pleased to provide further information.

  18. Neutron activation analysis in the life sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frontasyeva, M. V.

    2011-03-01

    Development of methods for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and their applications in the life sciences are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on epithermal activation with reactor neutrons (ENAA), and the advantages of this technique in analysis of environmental objects are shown. The results of applied INAA studies in the field of the life sciences carried out at the world's leading nuclear centers are reported. Experience in employing a radioanalytical complex at the IBR-2 reactor (Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna) for such studies is summarized.

  19. Space station freedom life sciences activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1994-01-01

    Life sciences activities being planned for Space Station Freedom (SSF) as of Fall 1992 are discussed. Planning for these activities is ongoing. Therefore, this description should be viewed as indicative of the prevailing ideas at one particular time in the SSF development cycle. The proposed contributions of the Canadian Space Agency (CSN) the European Space Agency (ESA), Japan, and the United States are all discussed in detail. In each case, the life sciences goals, and the way in which each partner proposes to achieve their goals, are reviewed.

  20. Life sciences space biology project planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primeaux, G.; Newkirk, K.; Miller, L.; Lewis, G.; Michaud, R.

    1988-01-01

    The Life Sciences Space Biology (LSSB) research will explore the effect of microgravity on humans, including the physiological, clinical, and sociological implications of space flight and the readaptations upon return to earth. Physiological anomalies from past U.S. space flights will be used in planning the LSSB project.The planning effort integrates science and engineering. Other goals of the LSSB project include the provision of macroscopic view of the earth's biosphere, and the development of spinoff technology for application on earth.

  1. "Physics and Life" for Europe's Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-04-01

    interest in science and current scientific research. The goals of "Physics On Stage 3" [EWST Logo] "Physics on Stage 3" also aims to facilitate the exchange of good practice and innovative ideas among Europe's science teachers and to provide a forum for a broad debate among educators, administrators and policy-makers about the key problems in science education today. Moreover, it will make available the considerable, combined expertise of the EIROforum organisations to the European scientific teaching community, in order to promote the introduction of "fresh" science into the curricula and thus to convey a more realistic image of modern science to the pupils. "Physics on Stage 3" is concerned with basic science and also with the cross-over between different science disciplines - a trend becoming more and more important in today's science, which is not normally reflected in school curricula. A key element of the programme is to give teachers an up-to-date "insiders'" view of what is happening in science and to tell them about new, highly-diverse and interesting career opportunities for their pupils. Theme of the activities The theme of "Physics on Stage" this year is "Physics and Life" , reflecting the decision to broaden the Physics on Stage activities to encompass all the natural sciences. Including other sciences will augment the already successful concept, introducing a mixture of cross-over projects that highlight the multidisciplinary aspects of modern science. Among the many subjects to be presented are radiation, physics and the environment, astrobiology (the search for life beyond earth), complex systems, self-organising systems, sports science, the medical applications of physics, mathematics and epidemiology, etc. The main elements National activities "Physics on Stage 3" has already started and National Steering Committees in 22 countries, composed of eminent science teachers, scientists, administrators and others involved in se

  2. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, Issue 26

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Lydia Razran (Editor); Frey, Mary Ann (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Garshnek, Victoria (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    This is the twenty-sixth issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 35 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of 8 Soviet books. In addition, the proceedings of an Intercosmos conference on space biology and medicine are summarized.

  3. 75 Easy Life Science Demonstrations. Teacher Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kardos, Thomas

    This book is a collection of life science classroom demonstrations. Explanations that review key concepts are included. Topics are: stimulus and response; gravitropism; phototropism; living organisms; carbon dioxide; gases emitted by plants; greenhouse effect; stomata; transpiration; leaf skeletons; seed growth; water evaporation in plants; carbon…

  4. Science, Technology and the Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Alexander

    In view of the changing relationship between science, technology, and the quality of life, future efforts need to be devoted to the use of new knowledge for social objectives rather than for economics and defense. The mass of problems facing society today, which to some extent are direct side effects of technological growth, appear to have three…

  5. Web Projects for Life Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Michael; Mahon, Michael; Thomas, Lucy

    2004-01-01

    Eleven years experience with the running of web-based projects for final year undergraduate students of the Faculty of Life Sciences at Manchester University, along with an example of one project, is described. Application of the scientific method was emphasised to students. Technical support workshops were provided for them. Project performance…

  6. Skylab experiments. Volume 4: Life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The life sciences experiments conducted during Skylab missions are discussed. The general categories of the experiments are as follows: (1) mineral and hormonal balance, (2) hematology and immunology, (3) cardiovascular status, (4) energy expenditure, (5) neurophysiology, and (7) biology. Each experiment within the general category is further identified with respect to the scientific objectives, equipment used, performance, and data to be obtained.

  7. Science and Life: A Mainstreamed Secondary Science Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wielert, Jan S.; Johnston, Laneh M.

    1984-01-01

    A science and life program developed for mainstreamed secondary students is based on commercially available modules on such topics as pregnancy and fetal development, automobile safety, and heart disease. The program features cooperative group activities, peer tutoring, and ongoing evaluation. (CL)

  8. Time in Physics and Life Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volovich, Igor. V.

    2009-02-01

    Some mathematical aspects of the concept of time in physics and life science are discussed. A theoretical model of time machine is a spacetime region with closed timelike curves. Possible production of mini time machines at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is considered. It is argued that if the scale of quantum gravity is of the order of few TeVs, proton-proton collisions at the LHC could lead to the formation of traversable wormhole which is a model for the time machine. The wormhole production cross section at the LHC is of the same order as the cross section for the black hole production. We make also some comments on the role of time in life science. It is proposed to describe cells and other life phenomena by using framework of quantum field theory.

  9. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran; Teeter, Ronald; Radtke, Mike; Rowe, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    This is the fourteenth issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 32 papers recently published in Russian language periodicals and bound collections and of three new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. Also included is a review of a recent Soviet conference on Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine. Current Soviet life sciences titles available in English are cited. The materials included in this issue have been identified as relevant to the following areas of aerospace medicine and space biology: adaptation, biological rhythms, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, gastrointestinal systems, habitability and environment effects, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, perception, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, and space biology and medicine.

  10. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, L. R. (Editor); Radtke, M. (Editor); Garshnek, V. (Editor); Rowe, J. E. (Editor); Teeter, R. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    This is the third issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. Abstracts are included for 46 Soviet periodical articles in 20 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology and published in Russian during the second third of 1985. Selected articles are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. In addition, translated introductions and tables of contents for seven Russian books on six topics related to NASA's life science concerns are presented. Areas covered are adaptation, biospherics, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, endocrinology, exobiology, gravitational biology, habitability and environmental effects, health and medical treatment, immunology, life support systems, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system; neurophysiology, nutrition, perception, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, and space physiology. Two book reviews translated from the Russian are included and lists of additional relevant titles available in English with pertinent ordering information are given.

  11. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran (Editor); Radtke, Mike (Editor); Radtke, Mike (Editor); Radtke, Mike (Editor); Radtke, Mike (Editor); Radtke, Mike (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    This is the eleventh issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 54 papers recently published in Russian language periodicals and bound collections and of four new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated. Additional features include the translation of a paper presented in Russian to the United Nations, a review of a book on space ecology, and report of a conference on evaluating human functional capacities and predicting health. Current Soviet Life Sciences titles available in English are cited. The materials included in this issue have been identified as relevant to 30 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology. These areas are: adaptation, aviation physiology, biological rhythms, biospherics, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, cosmonaut training, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, gastrointestinal systems, group dynamics, genetics, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, perception, personnel selection, psychology, and radiobiology.

  12. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, L. R. (Editor); Radtke, M. (Editor); Garshnek, V. (Editor); Rowe, J. E. (Editor); Teeter, R. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The second issue of the bimonthly digest of USSR Space Life Sciences is presented. Abstracts are included for 39 Soviet periodical articles in 16 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology and published in Russian during the first half of 1985. Selected articles are illustrated with figures from the original. Translated introductions and tables of contents for 14 Russian books on 11 topics related to NASA's life science concerns are presented. Areas covered are: adaptation, biospheric, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, cybernetics and biomedical data processing, gastrointestinal system, group dynamics, habitability and environmental effects, health and medical treatment, hematology, immunology, life support systems, metabolism, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, psychology, radiobiology, and space biology. Two book reviews translated from Russian are included and lists of additional relevant titles available either in English or in Russian only are appended.

  13. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, L. R.; Radtke, M.; Rowe, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The first issue of the bimonthly digest of USSR Space Life Sciences is presented. Abstracts are included for 49 Soviet periodical articles in 19 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology, published in Russian during the first quarter of 1985. Translated introductions and table of contents for nine Russian books on topics related to NASA's life science concerns are presented. Areas covered include: botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, cybernetics and biomedical data processing, endocrinology, gastrointestinal system, genetics, group dynamics, habitability and environmental effects, health and medicine, hematology, immunology, life support systems, man machine systems, metabolism, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, perception, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive system, and space biology. This issue concentrates on aerospace medicine and space biology.

  14. Improving science literacy and education through space life sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeish, Marlene Y.; Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Denton, Jon J.; Jessup, George; Clipper, Milton C.

    2001-08-01

    The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) encourages open involvement by scientists and the public at large in the Institute's activities. Through its Education and Public Outreach Program, the Institute is supporting national efforts to improve Kindergarten through grade twelve (K-12) and undergraduate education and to communicate knowledge generated by space life science research to lay audiences. Three academic institutions—Baylor College of Medicine, Morehouse School of Medicine and Texas A&M University—are designing, producing, field-testing, and disseminating a comprehensive array of programs and products to achieve this goal. The objectives of the NSBRI Education and Public Outreach program are to: promote systemic change in elementary and secondary science education; attract undergraduate students—especially those from underrepresented groups—to careers in space life sciences, engineering and technology-based fields; increase scientific literacy; and to develop public and private sector partnerships that enhance and expand NSBRI efforts to reach students and families.

  15. NASA's Space Life Sciences Training Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, G.; Lewis, L.; Atchison, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) is an intensive, six-week training program held every summer since 1985 at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A major goal of the SLSTP is to develop a cadre of qualified scientists and engineers to support future space life sciences and engineering challenges. Hand-picked, undergraduate college students participate in lectures, laboratory sessions, facility tours, and special projects: including work on actual Space Shuttle flight experiments and baseline data collection. At NASA Headquarters (HQ), the SLSTP is jointly sponsored by the Life Sciences Division and the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs: it has been very successful in attracting minority students and women to the fields of space science and engineering. In honor of the International Space Year (ISY), 17 international students participated in this summer's program. An SLSTP Symposium was held in Washington D. C., just prior to the World Space Congress. The Symposium attracted over 150 SLSTP graduates for a day of scientific discussions and briefings concerning educational and employment opportunities within NASA and the aerospace community. Future plans for the SLSTP include expansion to the Johnson Space Center in 1995.

  16. Computational thinking in life science education.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Amir; Chor, Benny

    2014-11-01

    We join the increasing call to take computational education of life science students a step further, beyond teaching mere programming and employing existing software tools. We describe a new course, focusing on enriching the curriculum of life science students with abstract, algorithmic, and logical thinking, and exposing them to the computational "culture." The design, structure, and content of our course are influenced by recent efforts in this area, collaborations with life scientists, and our own instructional experience. Specifically, we suggest that an effective course of this nature should: (1) devote time to explicitly reflect upon computational thinking processes, resisting the temptation to drift to purely practical instruction, (2) focus on discrete notions, rather than on continuous ones, and (3) have basic programming as a prerequisite, so students need not be preoccupied with elementary programming issues. We strongly recommend that the mere use of existing bioinformatics tools and packages should not replace hands-on programming. Yet, we suggest that programming will mostly serve as a means to practice computational thinking processes. This paper deals with the challenges and considerations of such computational education for life science students. It also describes a concrete implementation of the course and encourages its use by others. PMID:25411839

  17. Computational Thinking in Life Science Education

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Amir; Chor, Benny

    2014-01-01

    We join the increasing call to take computational education of life science students a step further, beyond teaching mere programming and employing existing software tools. We describe a new course, focusing on enriching the curriculum of life science students with abstract, algorithmic, and logical thinking, and exposing them to the computational “culture.” The design, structure, and content of our course are influenced by recent efforts in this area, collaborations with life scientists, and our own instructional experience. Specifically, we suggest that an effective course of this nature should: (1) devote time to explicitly reflect upon computational thinking processes, resisting the temptation to drift to purely practical instruction, (2) focus on discrete notions, rather than on continuous ones, and (3) have basic programming as a prerequisite, so students need not be preoccupied with elementary programming issues. We strongly recommend that the mere use of existing bioinformatics tools and packages should not replace hands-on programming. Yet, we suggest that programming will mostly serve as a means to practice computational thinking processes. This paper deals with the challenges and considerations of such computational education for life science students. It also describes a concrete implementation of the course and encourages its use by others. PMID:25411839

  18. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Garshnek, Victoria (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    This is the thirty first issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 55 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of 5 Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 18 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas include: adaptation, biological rhythms, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, endocrinology, enzymology, genetics, group dynamics, habitability and environmental effects, hematology, life support systems, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, psychology, radiobiology, and space biology and medicine.

  19. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 30

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This is the thirtieth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 47 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of three Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 20 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas include: adaptation, biospheric research, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, endocrinology, equipment and instrumentation, gastrointestinal system, group dynamics, habitability and environmental effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, psychology, radiobiology, and space biology and medicine.

  20. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 28

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    This is the twenty-eighth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 60 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of 3 Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 20 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas include: adaptation, aviation medicine, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive system, and space medicine.

  1. Biosecurity policies at international life science journals.

    PubMed

    van Aken, Jan; Hunger, Iris

    2009-03-01

    The prospect of bioterrorism has raised concerns about the potential abuse of scientific information for malign purposes and the pressure on scientific publishers to prevent the publication of "recipes" for weapons of mass destruction. Here we present the results of a survey of 28 major life science journals--20 English-language international journals and 3 Chinese and 5 Russian journals--with regard to their biosecurity policies and procedures. The survey addressed the extent to which life science journals have implemented biosecurity procedures in recent years, how authors and reviewers are advised about these procedures and the underlying concerns, and what the practical experiences have been. Few of the English-language publishers and none of the Russian and Chinese publishers surveyed implement formal biosecurity policies or inform their authors and reviewers about potentially sensitive issues in this area. PMID:19379105

  2. Data issues in the life sciences

    PubMed Central

    Thessen, Anne E.; Patterson, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We review technical and sociological issues facing the Life Sciences as they transform into more data-centric disciplines - the “Big New Biology”. Three major challenges are: 1) lack of comprehensive standards; 2) lack of incentives for individual scientists to share data; 3) lack of appropriate infrastructure and support. Technological advances with standards, bandwidth, distributed computing, exemplar successes, and a strong presence in the emerging world of Linked Open Data are sufficient to conclude that technical issues will be overcome in the foreseeable future. While motivated to have a shared open infrastructure and data pool, and pressured by funding agencies in move in this direction, the sociological issues determine progress. Major sociological issues include our lack of understanding of the heterogeneous data cultures within Life Sciences, and the impediments to progress include a lack of incentives to build appropriate infrastructures into projects and institutions or to encourage scientists to make data openly available. PMID:22207805

  3. Ames Research Center life sciences payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, P. X.; Tremor, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    In response to a recognized need for an in-flight animal housing facility to support Spacelab life sciences investigators, a rack and system compatible Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) has been developed. A series of ground tests is planned to insure its satisfactory performance under certain simulated conditions of flight exposure and use. However, even under the best conditions of simulation, confidence gained in ground testing will not approach that resulting from actual spaceflight operation. The Spacelab Mission 3 provides an opportunity to perform an inflight Verification Test (VT) of the RAHF. Lessons learned from the RAHF-VT and baseline performance data will be invaluable in preparation for subsequent dedicated life sciences missions.

  4. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, L. R. (Editor); Radtke, M. (Editor); Garshnek, V. (Editor); Teeter, R. (Editor); Rowe, J. E. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The fourth issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Science Digest includes abstracts for 42 Soviet periodical articles in 20 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology and published in Russian during the last third of 1985. Selected articles are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. In addition, translated introductions and tables of contents for 17 Russian books on 12 topics related to NASA's life science concerns are presented. Areas covered are: adaptation, biological rhythms, biospherics, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, cytology, developmental biology, endocrinology, exobiology, habitability and environmental effects, health and medical treatment, hematology, histology, human performance, immunology, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, perception, personnel selection, psychology, and radiobiology. Two book reviews translated from the Russian are included and lists of additional relevant titles available in English with pertinent ordering information are given.

  5. Life sciences laboratory breadboard simulations for shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taketa, S. T.; Simmonds, R. C.; Callahan, P. X.

    1975-01-01

    Breadboard simulations of life sciences laboratory concepts for conducting bioresearch in space were undertaken as part of the concept verification testing program. Breadboard simulations were conducted to test concepts of and scope problems associated with bioresearch support equipment and facility requirements and their operational integration for conducting manned research in earth orbital missions. It emphasized requirements, functions, and procedures for candidate research on crew members (simulated) and subhuman primates and on typical radioisotope studies in rats, a rooster, and plants.

  6. "Physics and Life" for Europe's Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-04-01

    interest in science and current scientific research. The goals of "Physics On Stage 3" [EWST Logo] "Physics on Stage 3" also aims to facilitate the exchange of good practice and innovative ideas among Europe's science teachers and to provide a forum for a broad debate among educators, administrators and policy-makers about the key problems in science education today. Moreover, it will make available the considerable, combined expertise of the EIROforum organisations to the European scientific teaching community, in order to promote the introduction of "fresh" science into the curricula and thus to convey a more realistic image of modern science to the pupils. "Physics on Stage 3" is concerned with basic science and also with the cross-over between different science disciplines - a trend becoming more and more important in today's science, which is not normally reflected in school curricula. A key element of the programme is to give teachers an up-to-date "insiders'" view of what is happening in science and to tell them about new, highly-diverse and interesting career opportunities for their pupils. Theme of the activities The theme of "Physics on Stage" this year is "Physics and Life" , reflecting the decision to broaden the Physics on Stage activities to encompass all the natural sciences. Including other sciences will augment the already successful concept, introducing a mixture of cross-over projects that highlight the multidisciplinary aspects of modern science. Among the many subjects to be presented are radiation, physics and the environment, astrobiology (the search for life beyond earth), complex systems, self-organising systems, sports science, the medical applications of physics, mathematics and epidemiology, etc. The main elements National activities "Physics on Stage 3" has already started and National Steering Committees in 22 countries, composed of eminent science teachers, scientists, administrators and others involved in setting school curricula, are now

  7. Life sciences issues affecting space exploration.

    PubMed

    White, R J; Leonard, J I; Leveton, L; Gaiser, K; Teeter, R

    1990-12-01

    The U.S. space program is undertaking a serious examination of new initiatives in human space exploration involving permanent colonies on the Moon and an outpost on Mars. Life scientists have major responsibilities to the crew, to assure their health, productivity, and safety throughout the mission and the postflight rehabilitation period; to the mission, to provide a productive working environment; and to the scientific community, to advance knowledge and understanding of human adaptation to the space environment. Critical areas essential to the support of human exploration include protection from the radiation hazards of the space environment, reduced gravity countermeasures, artificial gravity, medical care, life support systems, and behavior, performance, and human factors in an extraterrestrial environment. Developing solutions to these concerns is at the heart of the NASA Life Sciences ground-based and flight research programs. Facilities analogous to planetary outposts are being considered in Antarctica and other remote settings. Closed ecological life support systems will be tested on Earth and Space Station. For short-duration simulations and tests, the Space Shuttle and Spacelab will be used. Space Station Freedom will provide the essential scientific and technological research in areas that require long exposures to reduced gravity conditions. In preparation for Mars missions, research on the Moon will be vital. As the challenges of sustaining humans on space are resolved, advances in fundamental science, medicine and technology will follow. PMID:11541483

  8. Improving science literacy and education through space life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeish, M. Y.; Moreno, N. P.; Tharp, B. Z.; Denton, J. J.; Jessup, G.; Clipper, M. C.

    2001-01-01

    The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) encourages open involvement by scientists and the public at large in the Institute's activities. Through its Education and Public Outreach Program, the Institute is supporting national efforts to improve Kindergarten through grade twelve (K-12) and undergraduate education and to communicate knowledge generated by space life science research to lay audiences. Three academic institution Baylor College of Medicine, Morehouse School of Medicine and Texas A&M University are designing, producing, field-testing, and disseminating a comprehensive array of programs and products to achieve this goal. The objectives of the NSBRI Education and Public Outreach program are to: promote systemic change in elementary and secondary science education; attract undergraduate students--especially those from underrepresented groups--to careers in space life sciences, engineering and technology-based fields; increase scientific literacy; and to develop public and private sector partnerships that enhance and expand NSBRI efforts to reach students and families. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Life Sciences Program Tasks and Bibliography for FY 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, John C. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This document includes information on all peer reviewed projects funded by the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, Life Sciences Division during fiscal year 1997. This document will be published annually and made available to scientists in the space life sciences field both as a hard copy and as an interactive internet web page.

  10. Life Sciences Program Tasks and Bibliography for FY 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, John C. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    This document includes information on all peer reviewed projects funded by the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, Life Sciences Division during fiscal year 1996. This document will be published annually and made available to scientists in the space life sciences field both as a hard copy and as an interactive Internet web page.

  11. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran; Radtke, Mike; Teeter, Ronald; Rowe, Joseph E.

    1987-01-01

    This is the ninth issue of NASA's USSR Space Lifes Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 46 papers recently published in Russian language periodicals and bound collections and of a new Soviet monograph. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. Additional features include reviews of a Russian book on biological rhythms and a description of the papers presented at a conference on space biology and medicine. A special feature describes two paradigms frequently cited in Soviet space life sciences literature. Information about English translations of Soviet materials available to readers is provided. The abstracts included in this issue have been identified as relevant to 28 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology. These areas are: adaptation, biological rhythms, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, gastrointestinal system, genetics, habitability and environment effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, morphology and cytology, musculoskeletal system, nutrition, neurophysiology, operational medicine, perception, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, and space biology and medicine.

  12. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 25

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Garshnek, Victoria (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    This is the twenty-fifth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 42 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of 3 Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 26 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas include: adaptation, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, exobiology, gravitational biology, habitability and environmental effects, human performance, immunology, life support systems, man-machine systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive system, and space biology and medicine.

  13. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 29

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This is the twenty-ninth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It is a double issue covering two issues of the Soviet Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine Journal. Issue 29 contains abstracts of 60 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of three Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. A review of a book on environmental hygiene and a list of papers presented at a Soviet conference on space biology and medicine are also included. The materials in this issue were identified as relevant to 28 areas of space biology and medicine. The areas are: adaptation, aviation medicine, biological rhythms, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, digestive system, endocrinology, equipment and instrumentation, genetics, habitability and environment effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive system, space biology and medicine, and the economics of space flight.

  14. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran (Editor); Donaldson, P. Lynn (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Garshnek, Victoria (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This is the 19th issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 47 papers published in Russian language periodicals or presented at conferences and of 5 new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. Reports on two conferences, one on adaptation to high altitudes, and one on space and ecology are presented. A book review of a recent work on high altitude physiology is also included. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 33 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas are: adaptation, biological rhythms, biospherics, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, cytology, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, biology, group dynamics, habitability and environmental effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, man-machine systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, perception, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, and space biology and medicine.

  15. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Garshnek, Victoria (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This is the 15th issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 59 papers published in Russian language periodicals or presented at conferences and of two new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. An additional feature is a review of a conference devoted to the physiology of extreme states. The abstracts included in this issue have been identified as relevant to 29 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas are adaptation, biological rhythms, biospherics, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, exobiology, genetics, habitability and environment effects, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, perception. personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive biology, and space biology and medicine.

  16. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran; Donaldson, P. Lynn; Garshnek, Victoria; Rowe, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    This is the twenty-first issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 37 papers published in Russian language periodicals or books or presented at conferences and of a Soviet monograph on animal ontogeny in weightlessness. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. A book review of a work on adaptation to stress is also included. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 25 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas are: adaptation, biological rhythms, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, cytology, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, exobiology, gravitational biology, habitability and environmental effects, hematology, human performance, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, operational medicine, perception, psychology, and reproductive system.

  17. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, Issue 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran; Radtke, Mike; Teeter, Ronald; Garshnek, Victoria; Rowe, Joseph E.

    1987-01-01

    The USSR Space Life Sciences Digest contains abstracts of 37 papers recently published in Russian language periodicals and bound collections and of five new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. Additional features include the translation of a book chapter concerning use of biological rhythms as a basis for cosmonaut selection, excerpts from the diary of a participant in a long-term isolation experiment, and a picture and description of the Mir space station. The abstracts included in this issue were identified as relevant to 25 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology. These areas are adaptation, biological rhythms, biospherics, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, group dynamics, habitability and environmental effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, morphology and cytology, musculosketal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, personnel selection, psychology, and radiobiology.

  18. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, Issue 18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran (Editor); Donaldson, P. Lynn (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Garshnek, Victoria (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This is the 18th issue of NASA's USSR Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 50 papers published in Russian language periodicals or presented at conferences and of 8 new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. A review of a recent Aviation Medicine Handbook is also included. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 37 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas are: adaptation, aviation medicine, biological rhythms, biospherics, body fluids, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, cytology, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, exobiology, gastrointestinal system, genetics, gravitational biology, group dynamics, habitability and environmental effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, man-machine systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, perception, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive biology, space biology and medicine, and space industrialization.

  19. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, L. R. (Editor); Teeter, R. (Editor); Teeter, R. (Editor); Teeter, R. (Editor); Teeter, R. (Editor); Teeter, R. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    This is the seventh issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 29 papers recently published in Russian language periodicals and bound collections and of 8 new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. Additional features include two interviews with the Soviet Union's cosmonaut physicians and others knowledgable of the Soviet space program. The topics discussed at a Soviet conference on problems in space psychology are summarized. Information about English translations of Soviet materials available to readers is provided. The topics covered in this issue have been identified as relevant to 29 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology. These areas are adaptation, biospherics, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, exobiology, genetics, habitability and environment effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, morphology and cytology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, perception, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, and space medicine.

  20. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, L. R. (Editor); Radtke, M. (Editor); Teeter, R. (Editor); Rowe, J. E. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    This is the sixth issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 54 papers recently published in Russian language periodicals and bound collections and of 10 new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. Additional features include a table of Soviet EVAs and information about English translations of Soviet materials available to readers. The topics covered in this issue have been identified as relevant to 26 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology. These areas are adaptation, biospherics, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, exobiology, genetics, habitability and environment effects, health and medical treatment, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism., microbiology, morphology and cytology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, perception, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive biology, and space medicine.

  1. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Siegel, Bette (Editor); Donaldson, P. Lynn (Editor); Leveton, Lauren B. (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This is the sixteenth issue of NASA's USSR Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 57 papers published in Russian language periodicals or presented at conferences and of 2 new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. An additional feature is the review of a book concerned with metabolic response to the stress of space flight. The abstracts included in this issue are relevant to 33 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas are: adaptation, biological rhythms, bionics, biospherics, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, exobiology, gastrointestinal system, genetics, gravitational biology, habitability and environmental effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, man-machine systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, perception, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive biology, and space biology.

  2. Advanced Biotelemetry Systems for Space Life Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W.; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Sensors 2000! Program at NASA-Ames Research Center is developing an Advanced Biotelemetry System (ABTS) for Space Life Sciences applications. This modular suite of instrumentation is planned to be used in operational spaceflight missions, ground-based research and development experiments, and collaborative, technology transfer and commercialization activities. The measured signals will be transmitted via radio-frequency (RF), electromagnetic or optical carriers and direct-connected leads to a remote ABTS receiver and data acquisition system for data display, storage, and transmission to Earth. Intermediate monitoring and display systems may be hand held or portable, and will allow for personalized acquisition and control of medical and physiological data.

  3. Mapping method in life sciences and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molski, Marcin

    2013-10-01

    A mapping procedure applied to conversion of arbitrary differentiable mathematical functions into power ones is characterized. It can be employed to obtain the power law fractal function with parameter dependent exponent identified with fractal dimension of the system under consideration. In this way one may investigate the fractal dynamics of different phenomena in the life sciences and beyond. The generalized fractal function can be used to describe biological processes including: neurogenesis, tumour progression, psychophysical and cognitive learning processes, which can be incorporated into the area of possible applications.

  4. Telemetric Sensors for the Space Life Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W.; Somps, Chris J.; Madou, Marc; Jeutter, Dean C.; Singh, Avtar; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Telemetric sensors for monitoring physiological changes in animal models in space are being developed by NASA's Sensors 2000! program. The sensors measure a variety of physiological measurands, including temperature, biopotentials, pressure, flow, acceleration, and chemical levels, and transmit these signals from the animals to a remote receiver via a wireless link. Thus physiologic information can be obtained continuously and automatically without animal handling, tethers, or percutaneous leads. We report here on NASA's development and testing of advanced wireless sensor systems for space life sciences research.

  5. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 32

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Lydia Razran (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This is the thirty-second issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 34 journal or conference papers published in Russian and of 4 Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 18 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas include: adaptation, aviation medicine, biological rhythms, biospherics, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, exobiology, habitability and environmental effects, human performance, hematology, mathematical models, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, operational medicine, and reproductive system.

  6. Spacelab life sciences 2 post mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckey, Jay C.

    1994-01-01

    Jay C. Buckey, M.D., Assistant Professor of Medicine at The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas served as an alternate payload specialist astronaut for the Spacelab Life Sciences 2 Space Shuttle Mission from January 1992 through December 1993. This report summarizes his opinions on the mission and offers suggestions in the areas of selection, training, simulations, baseline data collection and mission operations. The report recognizes the contributions of the commander, payload commander and mission management team to the success of the mission. Dr. Buckey's main accomplishments during the mission are listed.

  7. The life sciences mass spectrometry research unit.

    PubMed

    Hopfgartner, Gérard; Varesio, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    The Life Sciences Mass Spectrometry (LSMS) research unit focuses on the development of novel analytical workflows based on innovative mass spectrometric and software tools for the analysis of low molecular weight compounds, peptides and proteins in complex biological matrices. The present article summarizes some of the recent work of the unit: i) the application of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) for mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) of drug of abuse in hair, ii) the use of high resolution mass spectrometry for simultaneous qualitative/quantitative analysis in drug metabolism and metabolomics, and iii) the absolute quantitation of proteins by mass spectrometry using the selected reaction monitoring mode. PMID:22867547

  8. Life Sciences Laboratories for the Shuttle/Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte, L. O.; Kelly, H. B.; Secord, T. C.

    1976-01-01

    Space Shuttle and Spacelab missions will provide scientists with their first opportunity to participate directly in research in space for all scientific disciplines, particularly the Life Sciences. Preparations are already underway to ensure the success of these missions. The paper summarizes the results of the 1975 NASA-funded Life Sciences Laboratories definition study which defined several long-range life sciences research options and the laboratory designs necessary to accomplish high-priority life sciences research. The implications and impacts of Spacelab design and development on the life sciences missions are discussed. An approach is presented based upon the development of a general-purposs laboratory capability and an inventory of common operational research equipment for conducting life sciences research. Several life sciences laboratories and their capabilities are described to demonstrate the systems potentially available to the experimenter for conducting biological and medical research.

  9. Life Sciences Space Station planning document: A reference payload for the Life Sciences Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station, projected for construction in the early 1990s, will be an orbiting, low-gravity, permanently manned facility providing unprecedented opportunities for scientific research. Facilities for Life Sciences research will include a pressurized research laboratory, attached payloads, and platforms which will allow investigators to perform experiments in the crucial areas of Space Medicine, Space Biology, Exobiology, Biospherics and Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). These studies are designed to determine the consequences of long-term exposure to space conditions, with particular emphasis on assuring the permanent presence of humans in space. The applied and basic research to be performed, using humans, animals, and plants, will increase our understanding of the effects of the space environment on basic life processes. Facilities being planned for remote observations from platforms and attached payloads of biologically important elements and compounds in space and on other planets (Exobiology) will permit exploration of the relationship between the evolution of life and the universe. Space-based, global scale observations of terrestrial biology (Biospherics) will provide data critical for understanding and ultimately managing changes in the Earth's ecosystem. The life sciences community is encouraged to participate in the research potential the Space Station facilities will make possible. This document provides the range and scope of typical life sciences experiments which could be performed within a pressurized laboratory module on Space Station.

  10. Spacelab Life Science-1 Mission Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The laboratory module in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia was photographed during the Spacelab Life Science-1 (SLS-1) mission. SLS-1 was the first Spacelab mission dedicated solely to life sciences. The main purpose of the SLS-1 mission was to study the mechanisms, magnitudes, and time courses of certain physiological changes that occur during space flight, to investigate the consequences of the body's adaptation to microgravity and readjustment to Earth's gravity, and to bring the benefits back home to Earth. The mission was designed to explore the responses of the heart, lungs, blood vessels, kidneys, and hormone-secreting glands to microgravity and related body fluid shifts; examine the causes of space motion sickness; and study changes in the muscles, bones and cells. The five body systems being studied were: The Cardiovascular/Cardiopulmonary System (heart, lungs, and blood vessels), the Renal/Endocrine System (kidney and hormone-secreting organs), the Immune System (white blood cells), the Musculoskeletal System (muscles and bones), and the Neurovestibular System (brain and nerves, eyes, and irner ear). The SLS-1 was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia (STS-40) on June 5, 1995.

  11. Spacelab Life Science-1 Mission Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Spacelab Life Science -1 (SLS-1) was the first Spacelab mission dedicated solely to life sciences. The main purpose of the SLS-1 mission was to study the mechanisms, magnitudes, and time courses of certain physiological changes that occur during space flight, to investigate the consequences of the body's adaptation to microgravity and readjustment to Earth's gravity, and bring the benefits back home to Earth. The mission was designed to explore the responses of the heart, lungs, blood vessels, kidneys, and hormone-secreting glands to microgravity and related body fluid shifts; examine the causes of space motion sickness; and study changes in the muscles, bones, and cells. This photograph shows astronaut Rhea Seddon conducting an inflight study of the Cardiovascular Deconditioning experiment by breathing into the cardiovascular rebreathing unit. This experiment focused on the deconditioning of the heart and lungs and changes in cardiopulmonary function that occur upon return to Earth. By using noninvasive techniques of prolonged expiration and rebreathing, investigators can determine the amount of blood pumped out of the heart (cardiac output), the ease with which blood flows through all the vessels (total peripheral resistance), oxygen used and carbon dioxide released by the body, and lung function and volume changes. SLS-1 was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia (STS-40) on June 5, 1995.

  12. Spacelab J: Microgravity and life sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spacelab J is a joint venture between NASA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). Using a Spacelab pressurized long module, 43 experiments will be performed in the areas of microgravity and life sciences. These experiments benefit from the microgravity environment available on an orbiting Shuttle. Removed from the effects of gravity, scientists will seek to observe processes and phenomena impossible to study on Earth, to develop new and more uniform mixtures, to study the effects of microgravity and the space environment on living organisms, and to explore the suitability of microgravity for certain types of research. Mission planning and an overview of the experiments to be performed are presented. Orbital research appears to hold many advantages for microgravity science investigations, which on this mission include electronic materials, metals and alloys, glasses and ceramics, fluid dynamics and transport phenomena, and biotechnology. Gravity-induced effects are eliminated in microgravity. This allows the investigations on Spacelab J to help scientists develop a better understanding of how these gravity-induced phenomena affect both processing and products on Earth and to observe subtle phenomena that are masked in gravity. The data and samples from these investigations will not only allow scientists to better understand the materials but also will lead to improvements in the methods used in future experiments. Life sciences research will collect data on human adaptation to the microgravity environment, investigate ways of assisting astronauts to readapt to normal gravity, explore the effects of microgravity and radiation on living organisms, and gather data on the fertilization and development of organisms in the absence of gravity. This research will improve crew comfort and safety on future missions while helping scientists to further understand the human body.

  13. Spacelab J: Microgravity and life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Spacelab J is a joint venture between NASA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). Using a Spacelab pressurized long module, 43 experiments will be performed in the areas of microgravity and life sciences. These experiments benefit from the microgravity environment available on an orbiting Shuttle. Removed from the effects of gravity, scientists will seek to observe processes and phenomena impossible to study on Earth, to develop new and more uniform mixtures, to study the effects of microgravity and the space environment on living organisms, and to explore the suitability of microgravity for certain types of research. Mission planning and an overview of the experiments to be performed are presented. Orbital research appears to hold many advantages for microgravity science investigations, which on this mission include electronic materials, metals and alloys, glasses and ceramics, fluid dynamics and transport phenomena, and biotechnology. Gravity-induced effects are eliminated in microgravity. This allows the investigations on Spacelab J to help scientists develop a better understanding of how these gravity-induced phenomena affect both processing and products on Earth and to observe subtle phenomena that are masked in gravity. The data and samples from these investigations will not only allow scientists to better understand the materials but also will lead to improvements in the methods used in future experiments. Life sciences research will collect data on human adaptation to the microgravity environment, investigate ways of assisting astronauts to readapt to normal gravity, explore the effects of microgravity and radiation on living organisms, and gather data on the fertilization and development of organisms in the absence of gravity. This research will improve crew comfort and safety on future missions while helping scientists to further understand the human body.

  14. James Clerk Maxwell: Life and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, Philip L.

    2016-07-01

    Maxwell's life and science are presented with an account of the progression of Maxwell's research on electromagnetic theory. This is appropriate for the International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies, 2015. Maxwell's own confidence in his 1865 electromagnetic theory of light is examined, along with some of the difficulties he faced and the difficulties faced by some of his followers. Maxwell's interest in radiation pressure and electromagnetic stress is addressed, as well as subsequent developments. Some of Maxwell's other contributions to physics are discussed with an emphasis on the kinetic and molecular theory of gases. Maxwell's theistic perspective on science is illustrated, accompanied by examples of perspectives on Maxwell and his science provided by his peers and accounts of his interactions with those peers. Appendices examine the peer review of Maxwell's 1865 electromagnetic theory paper and the naming of the Maxwell Garnett effective media approximation and provide various supplemental perspectives. From Maxwell's publications and correspondence there is evidence he had a high regard for Michael Faraday. Examples of Maxwell's contributions to electromagnetic terminology are noted.

  15. Science at the supermarket: multiplication, personalization and consumption of science in everyday life.

    PubMed

    Tateo, Luca

    2014-06-01

    Which is the kind science's psychological guidance upon everyday life? I will try to discuss some issues about the role that techno-scientific knowledge plays in sense-making and decision making about practical questions of life. This relation of both love and hate, antagonism and connivance is inscribable in a wider debate between a trend of science to intervene in fields that are traditionally prerogative of political, religious or ethical choices, and, on the other side, the position of those who aim at stemming "technocracy" and governing these processes. I argue that multiplication, personalization and consumption are the characteristics of the relationship between science, technology and society in the age of "multiculturalism" and "multi-scientism". This makes more difficult but intriguing the study and understanding of the processes through which scientific knowledge is socialized. Science topics, like biotech, climate change, etc. are today an unavoidable reference frame. It is not possible to not know them and to attach them to the most disparate questions. Like in the case of Moscovici's "Freud for all seasons", the fact itself that the members of a group or a society believe in science as a reference point for others, roots its social representation and the belief that it can solve everyday life problems. PMID:24578069

  16. Fall 1978 Directory - Assembly of Life Sciences, National Research Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    This directory of the Assembly of Life Sciences (ALS), National Research Council, reflects the status of all committees, their membership, Corresponding Societies, and ALS staff as of October, 1978. Organization charts illustrate the relationship between the Assembly of Life Sciences and the general structure of the National Academy of Sciences,…

  17. Space Station accommodation engineering for Life Sciences Research Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilchey, J.; Gustan, E.; Rudiger, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    Exploratory studies conducted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and several contractors in connection with defining the design requirements, parameters, and tradeoffs of the Life Sciences Research Facilities for nonhuman test subjects aboard the Space Station are reviewed. The major system discriminators which determine the size of the accommodation system are identified, along with a number of mission options. Moreover, characteristics of several vivarium concepts are summarized, focusing on the cost, size, variable-g capability, and the number of specimens accommodated. Finally, the objectives of the phase B studies of the Space Station Laboratory, which are planned for FY85, are described.

  18. Scope and Sequence. Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, Earth and Space Sciences. A Summer Curriculum Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortland-Madison Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Cortland, NY.

    Presented is a booklet containing scope and sequence charts for kindergarten and grades 1 to 6 science units. Overviews and lists of major concepts for units in the life, physical, and earth/space sciences are provided in tables for each grade level. Also presented are seven complete units, one for each grade level. Following a table of contents,…

  19. Artificial life and living systems: Insight into artificial life and its implications in life science research

    PubMed Central

    Guruprasad, Sarvothaman; Sekar, Kanagaraj

    2006-01-01

    Advanced technology has made it possible to build machines and systems like robots, which are capable of making intelligent decisions. Robots capable of self-replication and perform human functions are also available. The current challenge is to design evolutionary systems with high complexity comparable to that of biological networks. This is proposed to be achieved by ALife (Artificial Life). Here, we describe the promises provided by ALife for life sciences. PMID:17597875

  20. Spacelab Life Sciences 1 - The stepping stone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, B. P.; Leon, H.; Hogan, R.; Clarke, B.; Tollinger, D.

    1988-01-01

    The Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS-1) mission scheduled for launch in March 1990 will study the effects of microgravity on physiological parameters of humans and animals. The data obtained will guide equipment design, performance of activities involving the use of animals, and prediction of human physiological responses during long-term microgravity exposure. The experiments planned for the SLS-1 mission include a particulate-containment demonstration test, integrated rodent experiments, jellyfish experiments, and validation of the small-mass measuring instrument. The design and operation of the Research Animal Holding Facility, General-Purpose Work Station, General-Purpose Transfer Unit, and Animal Enclosure Module are discussed and illustrated with drawings and diagrams.

  1. Nanosystem Characterization Tools in the Life Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Challa S. S. R.

    2006-01-01

    This first dedicated, all-encompassing text characterizes nanomaterials intended for biological or physiological environments and biomedical applications, in particular for medicine, healthcare, pharmaceuticals and human wellness. It finally fills the gap for a concise overview of a wide range of different characterization techniques and how to best employ them in the context of nanoscale life science research. It thus serves as a single source of information gathering up the knowledge otherwise spread over many journal articles, and provides an overall picture to members of all the disciplines involved. This handy volume covers all important probing techniques, including nuclear and electron spin resonance, light scattering, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, magnetic resonance, tomography, x-ray techniques, and microbalance measurement of antibody binding. Biochemists, biologists, chemists, materials scientists, and materials engineers as well as all others working in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries or at related research institutions will here a book of great value and importance.

  2. Life Sciences Implications of Lunar Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Norcross, Jason R.; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document preliminary, predicted, life sciences implications of expected operational concepts for lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). Algorithms developed through simulation and testing in lunar analog environments were used to predict crew metabolic rates and ground reaction forces experienced during lunar EVA. Subsequently, the total metabolic energy consumption, the daily bone load stimulus, total oxygen needed, and other variables were calculated and provided to Human Research Program and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate stakeholders. To provide context to the modeling, the report includes an overview of some scenarios that have been considered. Concise descriptions of the analog testing and development of the algorithms are also provided. This document may be updated to remain current with evolving lunar or other planetary surface operations, assumptions and concepts, and to provide additional data and analyses collected during the ongoing analog research program.

  3. USSR space life sciences digest, issue 27

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Garshnek, Victoria (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    This is the twenty-fifth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 30 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of 2 Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 18 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas include: adaptation, aviation medicine, biological rhythms, biospherics, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, endocrinology, enzymology, exobiology, habitability and environmental effects, hematology, immunology, metabolism, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, radiobiology, and space medicine. A Soviet book review of a British handbook of aviation medicine and a description of the work of the division on aviation and space medicine of the Moscow Physiological Society are also included.

  4. Ames life science telescience testbed evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.; Johnson, Vicki; Vogelsong, Kristofer H.; Froloff, Walt

    1989-01-01

    Eight surrogate spaceflight mission specialists participated in a real-time evaluation of remote coaching using the Ames Life Science Telescience Testbed facility. This facility consisted of three remotely located nodes: (1) a prototype Space Station glovebox; (2) a ground control station; and (3) a principal investigator's (PI) work area. The major objective of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of telescience techniques and hardware to support three realistic remote coaching science procedures: plant seed germinator charging, plant sample acquisition and preservation, and remote plant observation with ground coaching. Each scenario was performed by a subject acting as flight mission specialist, interacting with a payload operations manager and a principal investigator expert. All three groups were physically isolated from each other yet linked by duplex audio and color video communication channels and networked computer workstations. Workload ratings were made by the flight and ground crewpersons immediately after completing their assigned tasks. Time to complete each scientific procedural step was recorded automatically. Two expert observers also made performance ratings and various error assessments. The results are presented and discussed.

  5. Organism support for life sciences spacelab experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, G. L.; Heppner, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the U.S. life sciences laboratory concepts envisioned for the Shuttle/Spacelab era. The basic development approach is to provide a general laboratory facility supplemented by specific experiment hardware as required. The laboratory concepts range from small carry-on laboratories to fully dedicated laboratories in the Spacelab pressurized module. The laboratories will encompass a broad spectrum of research in biology and biomedicine requiring a variety of research organisms. The environmental control and life support of these organisms is a very important aspect of the success of the space research missions. Engineering prototype organism habitats have been designed and fabricated to be compatible with the Spacelab environment and the experiment requirements. These first-generation habitat designs and their subsystems have supported plants, cells/tissues, invertebrates, and small vertebrates in limited evaluation tests. Special handling and transport equipment required for the ground movement of the experiment organisms at the launch/landing site have been built and tested using these initial habitat prototypes.

  6. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, L. R. (Editor); Teeter, R. (Editor); Teeter, R. (Editor); Teeter, R. (Editor); Teeter, R. (Editor); Teeter, R. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    This is the eighth issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 48 papers recently published in Russian language periodicals and bound collections and of 10 new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables. Additional features include reviews of two Russian books on radiobiology and a description of the latest meeting of an international working group on remote sensing of the Earth. Information about English translations of Soviet materials available to readers is provided. The topics covered in this issue have been identified as relevant to 33 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology. These areas are: adaptation, biological rhythms, biospherics, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, cosmonaut training, cytology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, exobiology, gastrointestinal system, genetics, group dynamics, habitability and environment effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, man-machine systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, personnel selection, psychology, reproductive biology, and space biology and medicine.

  7. Life Science Standards and Curriculum Development for 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speece, Susan P.; Andersen, Hans O.

    1996-01-01

    Proposes a design for a life science curriculum following the National Research Council National Science Education Standards. The overarching theme is that science as inquiry should be recognized as a basic and controlling principle in the ultimate organization and experiences in students' science education. Six-week units include Matter, Energy,…

  8. Life sciences - On the critical path for missions of exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Connors, Mary M.; Gaiser, Karen

    1988-01-01

    Life sciences are important and critical to the safety and success of manned and long-duration space missions. The life science issues covered include gravitational physiology, space radiation, medical care delivery, environmental maintenance, bioregenerative systems, crew and human factors within and outside the spacecraft. The history of the role of life sciences in the space program is traced from the Apollo era, through the Skylab era to the Space Shuttle era. The life science issues of the space station program and manned missions to the moon and Mars are covered.

  9. Perceptions of models in life science research and implications for science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitt, Austin Manning, II

    Models are important tools used by research scientists to explore the development, design, and communication of their ideas. Since models are vital to scientists, science educators believe that children should learn science by building and testing their own models. If students can construct and use models like scientists then they can gain a more authentic science experience. The purpose of this research study is to determine how life scientists define, create, and use models in their research, and to develop a schema for the models that can be used in K--12 classes. Interviews were conducted with 24 life science researchers from 3 Midwestern universities and 1 Southern university. During the interviews the scientists were asked four open-ended questions on the characteristics and uses of scientific models. Analysis of the interview data revealed that life scientists agree about some of the attributes of models but other attributes were limited to a specific group of researchers. Using the scientists' responses to the questions two schemas for the characteristics and the uses of models were generated. First, a "schema" for the attributes of biological models was created in order to explain the concepts included within models. A total of 8 attributes of models were identified and used to create a schema for creating physical models. Second, a schema for the uses of models during experiments was generated in order to explain how models are used during scientific inquiries. Based on the life scientists' comments, two distinct approaches to modeling during inquiry were discovered. Some of the biologist's stated that models are formulated at the end of experiments and are used to generate new research questions that will be tested in the future. Other life scientists were more model-driven and stated the model is created before the experiment and is then tested empirically. My findings indicate that there is general agreement on the core attributes of models but there

  10. NASDA life science experiment facilities for ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanigaki, F.; Masuda, D.; Yano, S.; Fujimoto, N.; Kamigaichi, S.

    National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has been developing various experiment facilities to conduct space biology researches in KIBO (JEM). The Cell Biology Experiment Facility (CBEF) and the Clean Bench (CB) are installed into JEM Life Science Rack. The Biological Experiment Units (BEU) are operated in the CBEF and the CB for many kinds of experiments on cells, tissues, plants, microorganisms, or small animals. It is possible for all researchers to use these facilities under the system of the International Announcement of Opportunity. The CBEF is a CO2 incubator to provide a controlled environment (temperature, humidity, and CO2 concentration), in which a rotating table is equipped to make variable gravity (0-2g) for reference experiments. The containers called "Canisters" can be used to install the BEU in the CBEF. The CBEF supplies power, command, sensor, and video interfaces for the BEU through the utility connectors of Canisters. The BEU is a multiuser system consisting of chambers and control segments. It is operated by pre-set programs and by commands from the ground. NASDA is currently developing three types of the BEU: the Plant Experiment Unit (PEU) for plant life cycle observations and the Cell Experiment Unit (CEU1&2) for cell culture experiments. The PEU has an automated watering system with a water sensor, an LED matrix as a light source, and a CCD camera to observe the plant growth. The CEUs have culture chambers and an automated cultural medium exchange system. Engineering models of the PEU and CEU1 have been accomplished. The preliminary design of CEU2 is in progress. The design of the BEU will be modified to meet science requirements of each experiment. The CB provides a closed aseptic work-space (Operation Chamber) with gloves for experiment operations. Samples and the BEU can be manually handled in the CB. The CB has an air lock (Disinfection Chamber) to prevent contamination, and HEPA filters to make class-100-equivalent clean air

  11. Natural products in modern life science

    PubMed Central

    Göransson, Ulf; Alsmark, Cecilia; Wedén, Christina; Backlund, Anders

    2010-01-01

    questions in Nature can be of value to increase the attraction for young students in modern life science. PMID:20700376

  12. Natural products in modern life science.

    PubMed

    Bohlin, Lars; Göransson, Ulf; Alsmark, Cecilia; Wedén, Christina; Backlund, Anders

    2010-06-01

    questions in Nature can be of value to increase the attraction for young students in modern life science. PMID:20700376

  13. The presentation of science in everyday life: the science show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watermeyer, Richard

    2013-09-01

    This paper constitutes a case-study of the `science show' model of public engagement employed by a company of science communicators focused on the popularization of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subject disciplines with learner constituencies. It examines the potential of the science show to foster the interest and imagination of young learners in STEM; challenge popular pre/misconceptions of science and scientists; reveal the broadness, plurality and everyday relevance of science; and induce a more fluent and equitable science nexus between expert and non-expert or learner groups. Discussion focuses on conversations with members of a UK and university based science communication outfit who comment on the potential of the science show as a model of non-formal science education and science engagement and the necessary conditions for its success.

  14. Life Science Payloads Planning Study Integration Facility Survey: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, G. W.; Brown, N. E.

    1976-01-01

    Analyses of proposed life science shuttle era payload operations are discussed. A summary of results from a survey conducted to: (1) examine facility and equipment resources needed for life science payload integration, checkout, test and mission support activities; (2) identify presently available resources; and (3) determine methods by which operational era status may be implemented based on currently available resources, is presented.

  15. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, volume 2, no. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, L. D.

    1981-01-01

    An overview of the developments and direction of the USSR Space Life Sciences Program is given. Highlights of launches, program development, and mission planning are given. Results of ground-based research and space flight studies are summarized. Topics covered include: space medicine and physiology; space biology; and life sciences and technology.

  16. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, volume 2, no.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, L. D.

    1981-01-01

    An overview of the developments and direction of the USSR Space Life Sciences Program is given. Highlights of launches, program development, and mission planning are given. Results of ground-based research and space flight studies are summarized. Topics covered include: space medicine and physiology; space biology; and life sciences technology.

  17. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, volume 1, no. 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, P. M.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the developments and direction of the USSR Space Life Sciences Program is given. Highlights of launches, program development, and mission planning are given. Results of ground-based research and space flight studies are summarized. Topics covered include: space medicine and physiology; space biology; and life sciences technology.

  18. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, volume 1, no. 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the developments and direction of the USSR Space Life Sciences Program is given. Highlights of launches, program development, and mission planning are given. Results of ground-based research and space flight studies are summarized. Topics covered include: space medicine and physiology; space biology, and life sciences and technology.

  19. Life science payloads planning study integration facility survey results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, G. W.; Brown, N. E.; Nelson, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    The integration facility survey effort described is structured to examine the facility resources needed to conduct life science payload (LSP) integration checkout activities at NASA-JSC. The LSP integration facility operations and functions are defined along with the LSP requirements for facility design. A description of available JSC life science facilities is presented and a comparison of accommodations versus requirements is reported.

  20. The life sciences Global Image Database (GID)

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Couto, Eduardo; Hayes, Brian; Danckaert, Anne

    2001-01-01

    Although a vast amount of life sciences data is generated in the form of images, most scientists still store images on extremely diverse and often incompatible storage media, without any type of metadata structure, and thus with no standard facility with which to conduct searches or analyses. Here we present a solution to unlock the value of scientific images. The Global Image Database (GID) is a web-based (http://www.g wer.ch/qv/gid/gid.htm) structured central repository for scientific annotated images. The GID was designed to manage images from a wide spectrum of imaging domains ranging from microscopy to automated screening. The annotations in the GID define the source experiment of the images by describing who the authors of the experiment are, when the images were created, the biological origin of the experimental sample and how the sample was processed for visualization. A collection of experimental imaging protocols provides details of the sample preparation, and labeling, or visualization procedures. In addition, the entries in the GID reference these imaging protocols with the probe sequences or antibody names used in labeling experiments. The GID annotations are searchable by field or globally. The query results are first shown as image thumbnail previews, enabling quick browsing prior to original-sized annotated image retrieval. The development of the GID continues, aiming at facilitating the management and exchange of image data in the scientific community, and at creating new query tools for mining image data. PMID:11125130

  1. Sensor Systems for Space Life Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somps, Chris J.; Hines, John W.; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Sensors 2000! (S2K!) is a NASA Ames Research Center engineering initiative designed to provide biosensor and bio-instrumentation systems technology expertise to NASA's life sciences spaceflight programs. S2K! covers the full spectrum of sensor technology applications, ranging from spaceflight hardware design and fabrication to advanced technology development, transfer and commercialization. S2K! is currently developing sensor systems for space biomedical applications on BION (a Russian biosatellite focused on Rhesus Monkey physiology) and NEUROLAB (a Space Shuttle flight devoted to neuroscience). It's Advanced Technology Development-Biosensors (ATD-B) project focuses efforts in five principle areas: biotelemetry Systems, chemical and biological sensors, physiological sensors, advanced instrumentation architectures, and data and information management. Technologies already developed and tested included, application-specific sensors, preamplifier hybrids, modular programmable signal conditioners, power conditioning and distribution systems, and a fully implantable dual channel biotelemeter. Systems currently under development include a portable receiver system compatible with an off-the-shelf analog biotelemeter, a 4 channel digital biotelemetry system which monitors pH, a multichannel, g-processor based PCM biotelemetry system, and hand-held personal monitoring systems. S2K! technology easily lends itself to telescience and telemedicine applications as a front-end measurement and data acquisition device, suitable for obtaining and configuring physiological information, and processing that information under control from a remote location.

  2. The Presentation of Science in Everyday Life: The Science Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watermeyer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper constitutes a case-study of the "science show" model of public engagement employed by a company of science communicators focused on the popularization of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subject disciplines with learner constituencies. It examines the potential of the science show to foster the interest…

  3. Spacelab 1 and the Life Sciences Flight Experiments Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, W. H.; Clark, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    The Life Sciences Flight Experiments Program (LSFEP) was established by NASA in 1978 to plan and direct efforts necessary to conduct a continuing program of in-flight life science investigations throughout the Space Shuttle era. The Spacelab 1 (SL-1) mission, conducted from November 28 to December 8, 1983, was to verify Spacelab performance through a variety of scientific experiments including life science. A description is given of the seven NASA life sciences experiments, which consisted of four human experiments, a fungus experiment, a plant experiment, and radiation experiments. Ten life sciences experiments from the European Space Agency were also flown. The experiments include studies of the circadian rhythms in Neurospora crassa, the nutation of Helianthus annus, the vestibular function during weightlessness, the influence of space flight on erythrokinetics in man, and the adaptation of vestibulo-spinal reflex mechanisms during space flight.

  4. The Dutch Techcentre for Life Sciences: Enabling data-intensive life science research in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Eijssen, Lars; Evelo, Chris; Kok, Ruben; Mons, Barend; Hooft, Rob

    2016-01-01

    We describe the Data programme of the Dutch Techcentre for Life Sciences (DTL, www.dtls.nl). DTL is a new national organisation in scientific research that facilitates life scientists with technologies and technological expertise in an era where new projects often are data-intensive, multi-disciplinary, and multi-site. It is run as a lean not-for-profit organisation with research organisations (both academic and industrial) as paying members. The small staff of the organisation undertakes a variety of tasks that are necessary to perform or support modern academic research, but that are not easily undertaken in a purely academic setting. DTL Data takes care of such tasks related to data stewardship, facilitating exchange of knowledge and expertise, and brokering access to e-infrastructure. DTL also represents the Netherlands in ELIXIR, the European infrastructure for life science data. The organisation is still being fine-tuned and this will continue over time, as it is crucial for this kind of organisation to adapt to a constantly changing environment. However, already being underway for several years, our experiences can benefit researchers in other fields or other countries setting up similar initiatives. PMID:26913186

  5. Animals. Life Science in Action. Teacher's Manual and Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roderman, Winifred Ho; Booth, Gerald

    The Science in Action series is designed to teach practical science concepts to special-needs students. It is intended to develop students' problem-solving skills by teaching them to observe, record, analyze, conclude, and predict. This document contains a student workbook which deals with basic principles of life science. Six separate units…

  6. Green Plants. Life Science in Action. Teacher's Manual and Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedland, Mary

    The Science in Action series is designed to teach practical science concepts to special-needs students. It is intended to develop students' problem-solving skills by teaching them to observe, record, analyze, conclude, and predict. This document contains a student workbook which deals with basic principles of life science. Six separate units…

  7. Semantic Web technologies for the big data in life sciences.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongyan; Yamaguchi, Atsuko

    2014-08-01

    The life sciences field is entering an era of big data with the breakthroughs of science and technology. More and more big data-related projects and activities are being performed in the world. Life sciences data generated by new technologies are continuing to grow in not only size but also variety and complexity, with great speed. To ensure that big data has a major influence in the life sciences, comprehensive data analysis across multiple data sources and even across disciplines is indispensable. The increasing volume of data and the heterogeneous, complex varieties of data are two principal issues mainly discussed in life science informatics. The ever-evolving next-generation Web, characterized as the Semantic Web, is an extension of the current Web, aiming to provide information for not only humans but also computers to semantically process large-scale data. The paper presents a survey of big data in life sciences, big data related projects and Semantic Web technologies. The paper introduces the main Semantic Web technologies and their current situation, and provides a detailed analysis of how Semantic Web technologies address the heterogeneous variety of life sciences big data. The paper helps to understand the role of Semantic Web technologies in the big data era and how they provide a promising solution for the big data in life sciences. PMID:25224624

  8. Fixed-time life tests based on fuzzy life characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanagawa, Akihiro; Ohta, Hiroshi

    1992-06-01

    This paper deals with a reliability demonstration test with type-I censoring and presents a formulation based on fuzzy-set theory. Acceptable and rejectable MTBFs are represented in terms of a fuzzy concept, and Bayes' theorem plays an important role in the formulation. The proposed life test is useful when it is difficult to specify acceptable and rejectable MTBFs strictly.

  9. The "Next Generation Science Standards" and the Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2013-01-01

    Publication of the "Next Generation Science Standards" will be just short of two decades since publication of the "National Science Education Standards" (NRC 1996). In that time, biology and science education communities have advanced, and the new standards will reflect that progress (NRC 1999, 2007, 2009; Kress and Barrett…

  10. Japan's patent issues relating to life science therapeutic inventions.

    PubMed

    Tessensohn, John A

    2014-09-01

    Japan has made 'innovation in science and technology' as one of its central pillars to ensure high growth in its next stage of economic development and its life sciences market which hosts regenerative medicine was proclaimed to be 'the best market in the world right now.' Although life science therapeutic inventions are patentable subject matter under Japanese patent law, there are nuanced obviousness and enablement challenges under Japanese patent law that can be surmounted in view of some encouraging Japanese court developments in fostering a pro-patent applicant environment in the life sciences therapeutic patent field. Nevertheless, great care must be taken when drafting and prosecuting such patent applications in the world's second most important life sciences therapeutic market. PMID:25089628

  11. NASA Johnson Space Center Life Sciences Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Hasan; Cardenas, Jeffery

    1994-01-01

    The Life Sciences Project Division (LSPD) at JSC, which manages human life sciences flight experiments for the NASA Life Sciences Division, augmented its Life Sciences Data System (LSDS) in support of the Spacelab Life Sciences-2 (SLS-2) mission, October 1993. The LSDS is a portable ground system supporting Shuttle, Spacelab, and Mir based life sciences experiments. The LSDS supports acquisition, processing, display, and storage of real-time experiment telemetry in a workstation environment. The system may acquire digital or analog data, storing the data in experiment packet format. Data packets from any acquisition source are archived and meta-parameters are derived through the application of mathematical and logical operators. Parameters may be displayed in text and/or graphical form, or output to analog devices. Experiment data packets may be retransmitted through the network interface and database applications may be developed to support virtually any data packet format. The user interface provides menu- and icon-driven program control and the LSDS system can be integrated with other workstations to perform a variety of functions. The generic capabilities, adaptability, and ease of use make the LSDS a cost-effective solution to many experiment data processing requirements. The same system is used for experiment systems functional and integration tests, flight crew training sessions and mission simulations. In addition, the system has provided the infrastructure for the development of the JSC Life Sciences Data Archive System scheduled for completion in December 1994.

  12. Future prospects for space life sciences from a NASA perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Ronald J.; Lujan, Barbara F.

    1989-01-01

    Plans for future NASA research programs in the life sciences are reviewed. Consideration is given to international cooperation in space life science research, the NASA approach to funding life science research, and research opportunities using the Space Shuttle, the Space Station, and Biological Satellites. Several specific programs are described, including the Centrifuge Project to provide a controlled acceleration environment for microgravity studies, the Rhesus Project to conduct biomedical research using rhesus monkeys, and the LifeSat international biosatellite project. Also, the Space Biology Initiative to design and develop life sciences laboratory facilities for the Space Shuttle and the Space Station and the Extended Duration Crew Operations program to study crew adaptation needs are discussed.

  13. Teaching Advanced Life Sciences in an Animal Context: Agricultural Science Teacher Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balschweid, Mark; Huerta, Alexandria

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine agricultural science teacher comfort with a new high school Advanced Life Science: Animal course and determine their perceptions of student impact. The advanced science course is eligible for college credit. The teachers revealed they felt confident of their science background in preparation…

  14. Kant on anatomy and the status of the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Olson, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    This paper contributes to recent interest in Kant's engagement with the life sciences by focusing on one corner of those sciences that has received comparatively little attention: physical and comparative anatomy. By attending to remarks spread across Kant's writings, we gain some insight into Kant's understanding of the disciplinary limitations but also the methodological sophistication of the study of anatomy and physiology. Insofar as Kant highlights anatomy as a paradigmatic science guided by the principle of teleology in the Critique of the Power of Judgment, a more careful study of Kant's discussions of anatomy promises to illuminate some of the obscurities of that text and of his understanding of the life sciences more generally. In the end, it is argued, Kant's ambivalence with regard to anatomy gives way to a pessimistic conclusion about the possibility that anatomy, natural history, and, by extension, the life sciences more generally might one day become true natural sciences. PMID:27474188

  15. Evaluation of Life Sciences and Social Sciences Course Books in Term of Societal Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aykac, Necdet

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate primary school Life Sciences (1st, 2nd, and 3rd grades) and Social Sciences (4th, 5th, and 6th grades) course books in terms of gender discrimination. This study is a descriptive study aiming to evaluate the primary school Life Sciences (1st, 2nd, 3rd grades) and Social Sciences (4th, 5th, and 6th grades) course books…

  16. NASA Now: Life Science: Portable Life Support System

    NASA Video Gallery

    Spacesuit engineer Antja Chambers discusses the Portable Life Support System, a backpack the astronauts wear during spacewalks. It provides oxygen for the astronauts, protects them from the harsh c...

  17. NASA Now: Life Science: Human Life Support on the ISS

    NASA Video Gallery

    The environmental and thermal operating systems, or ETHOS, monitors the life support system and the cooling system on the International Space Station. Find out from ETHOS operator Tess Caswell abou...

  18. The Centrifuge Facility Life Sciences Glovebox configuration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Sidney C.; Goulart, Carla V.

    1992-01-01

    Crew operations associated with nonhuman life sciences research on Space Station Freedom will be conducted in the Life Sciences Glovebox, whose enclosed work volume must accommodate numerous life science procedures. Two candidate Glovebox work volume concepts have been developed: one in which two operators work side-by-side, and another that conforms to the reach envelope of a single operator. Six test volunteers tested the concepts according to preestablished operational criteria. The wrap-around, single-operator concept has been judged the superior system.

  19. Basic transformer-life characteristics. Volume 1: Overload characteristics and life-test evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, G. H.

    1982-06-01

    The results of experimental studies related to transformer survivability are described. It deals with the behavior of typical power transformer insulation systems during short-time exposure to elevated temperatures, and it provides some insight into failure mechanisms associated with gas bubble evolution within the insulation structure. Another important phase of the program involved the development and exploratory evaluation of a functional test program which may be used for determining the life expectancy characteristics of power transformers. Still another investigation resulted in the development and evaluation of an overload test procedure for power transformers. A feasibility study on a new type of thermal sensor for possible use as a winding hot spot sensor yielded promising results. The data presented is expected to be of help in developing improved transformer operating practices and in permitting an assessment of failure risks associated with particular service conditions.

  20. Real-Life Maths and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Tanya

    2012-01-01

    As a primary teacher in a large junior school the author would spend many Sunday afternoons planning exciting science lessons only to find they did not include sufficient mathematical knowledge and skills. At the time, the Numeracy Strategy was spreading through classrooms like wildfire. Meanwhile, science lessons were progressing under the…

  1. Life sciences building, north rear, also showing north hall to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Life sciences building, north rear, also showing north hall to the right, and the library in the center distance. - San Bernardino Valley College, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  2. Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques for Environmental and Life Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frontasyeva, Marina

    2010-01-01

    The role of nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) in Environmental and Life Sciences is discussed. Examples of radioanalytical investigations at the IBR-2 pulsed fast reactor in Dubna illustrate the environmental, biomedical, geochemical and industrial applications of instrumental neutron activation analysis.

  3. Earth benefits from NASA research and technology. Life sciences applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This document provides a representative sampling of examples of Earth benefits in life-sciences-related applications, primarily in the area of medicine and health care, but also in agricultural productivity, environmental monitoring and safety, and the environment. This brochure is not intended as an exhaustive listing, but as an overview to acquaint the reader with the breadth of areas in which the space life sciences have, in one way or another, contributed a unique perspective to the solution of problems on Earth. Most of the examples cited were derived directly from space life sciences research and technology. Some examples resulted from other space technologies, but have found important life sciences applications on Earth. And, finally, we have included several areas in which Earth benefits are anticipated from biomedical and biological research conducted in support of future human exploration missions.

  4. The International Space Life Sciences Strategic Planning Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Ronald J.; Rabin, Robert; Lujan, Barbara F.

    1993-01-01

    Throughout the 1980s, ESA and the space agencies of Canada, Germany, France, Japan, and the U.S. have pursued cooperative projects bilaterally and multilaterally to prepare for, and to respond to, opportunities in space life sciences research previously unapproachable in scale and sophistication. To cope effectively with likely future space research opportunities, broad, multilateral, coordinated strategic planning is required. Thus, life scientists from these agencies have allied to form the International Space Life Sciences Strategic Planning Working Group. This Group is formally organized under a charter that specifies the purpose of the Working Group as the development of an international strategic plan for the space life sciences, with periodic revisions as needed to keep the plan current. The plan will be policy-, not operations-oriented. The Working Group also may establish specific implementation teams to coordinate multilateral science policy in specific areas; such teams have been established for space station utilization, and for sharing of flight equipment.

  5. Opportunities and challenges for the life sciences community.

    PubMed

    Kolker, Eugene; Stewart, Elizabeth; Ozdemir, Vural

    2012-03-01

    Twenty-first century life sciences have transformed into data-enabled (also called data-intensive, data-driven, or big data) sciences. They principally depend on data-, computation-, and instrumentation-intensive approaches to seek comprehensive understanding of complex biological processes and systems (e.g., ecosystems, complex diseases, environmental, and health challenges). Federal agencies including the National Science Foundation (NSF) have played and continue to play an exceptional leadership role by innovatively addressing the challenges of data-enabled life sciences. Yet even more is required not only to keep up with the current developments, but also to pro-actively enable future research needs. Straightforward access to data, computing, and analysis resources will enable true democratization of research competitions; thus investigators will compete based on the merits and broader impact of their ideas and approaches rather than on the scale of their institutional resources. This is the Final Report for Data-Intensive Science Workshops DISW1 and DISW2. The first NSF-funded Data Intensive Science Workshop (DISW1, Seattle, WA, September 19-20, 2010) overviewed the status of the data-enabled life sciences and identified their challenges and opportunities. This served as a baseline for the second NSF-funded DIS workshop (DISW2, Washington, DC, May 16-17, 2011). Based on the findings of DISW2 the following overarching recommendation to the NSF was proposed: establish a community alliance to be the voice and framework of the data-enabled life sciences. After this Final Report was finished, Data-Enabled Life Sciences Alliance (DELSA, www.delsall.org ) was formed to become a Digital Commons for the life sciences community. PMID:22401659

  6. Opportunities and Challenges for the Life Sciences Community

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Elizabeth; Ozdemir, Vural

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Twenty-first century life sciences have transformed into data-enabled (also called data-intensive, data-driven, or big data) sciences. They principally depend on data-, computation-, and instrumentation-intensive approaches to seek comprehensive understanding of complex biological processes and systems (e.g., ecosystems, complex diseases, environmental, and health challenges). Federal agencies including the National Science Foundation (NSF) have played and continue to play an exceptional leadership role by innovatively addressing the challenges of data-enabled life sciences. Yet even more is required not only to keep up with the current developments, but also to pro-actively enable future research needs. Straightforward access to data, computing, and analysis resources will enable true democratization of research competitions; thus investigators will compete based on the merits and broader impact of their ideas and approaches rather than on the scale of their institutional resources. This is the Final Report for Data-Intensive Science Workshops DISW1 and DISW2. The first NSF-funded Data Intensive Science Workshop (DISW1, Seattle, WA, September 19–20, 2010) overviewed the status of the data-enabled life sciences and identified their challenges and opportunities. This served as a baseline for the second NSF-funded DIS workshop (DISW2, Washington, DC, May 16–17, 2011). Based on the findings of DISW2 the following overarching recommendation to the NSF was proposed: establish a community alliance to be the voice and framework of the data-enabled life sciences. After this Final Report was finished, Data-Enabled Life Sciences Alliance (DELSA, www.delsall.org) was formed to become a Digital Commons for the life sciences community. PMID:22401659

  7. An Identification of Life Science Concepts in Selected Secondary School Science Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, John A.

    1982-01-01

    The primary concern was the extent to which life science concepts occurred in selected secondary-school life science textbooks. Ecology concepts were the most widely and evenly distributed in junior high textbooks, and physiology terms were the most frequently occurring for senior high books. (MP)

  8. Organisms, Grade One. Teacher's Guide. Life Science for Guam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Jeffrey E.

    This guide is a result of two years' piloting and revising the Science Curriculum Improvement Study (SCIS) program for the students of Guam. The life science portions of SCIS were chosen and adapted for the ecology of the area. Program flexibility is stressed and outdoor activities are encouraged. Used in grade one, the topic of organisms is…

  9. Bioinformatics: Current Practice and Future Challenges for Life Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Catherine; Kendall, Gary

    2005-01-01

    It is widely predicted that the application of high-throughput technologies to the quantification and identification of biological molecules will cause a paradigm shift in the life sciences. However, if the biosciences are to evolve from a predominantly descriptive discipline to an information science, practitioners will require enhanced skills in…

  10. Energy--Structure--Life, A Learning System for Understanding Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bixby, Louis W.; And Others

    Material for the first year of Energy/Structure/Life, a two-year high school program in integrated science, is contained in this learning guide. The program, a sequence of physics, chemistry, and biology, presents the physical science phase during the first year with these 13 chapters: (1) distance/time/velocity; (2) velocity/change/acceleration;…

  11. Moral Principles and the Life Sciences: Choices about Moral Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David; Brett, William

    2005-01-01

    Today, more than at any other time in human history, biologists are or should be concerned about the morality of biological research and newly developed technologies. Two questions confront any scientist or science student concerned about morality and the life sciences. Is there some theoretical framework that might be used to assist in deciding…

  12. Thinking Connections: Concept Maps for Life Science. Book B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burggraf, Frederick

    The concept maps contained in this book (for grades 7-12) span 35 topics in life science. Topics were chosen using the National Science Education Standards as a guide. The practice exercise in concept mapping is included to give students an idea of what the tasks ahead will be in content rich maps. Two levels of concept maps are included for each…

  13. Life and Microgravity Sciences Spacelab Mission: Human Research Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B. (Editor); Walker, Karen R. (Editor); Hargens, Alan (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The Life Sciences, Microgravity Science and Spacelab Mission contains a number of human experiments directed toward identifying the functional, metabolic and neurological characteristics of muscle weakness and atrophy during space flight. To ensure the successful completion of the flight experiments, a ground-based pilot study, designed to mimic the flight protocols as closely as possible, was carried out in the head-down tilt bed rest model. This report records the rationales, procedures, preliminary results and estimated value of the pilot study, the first of its kind, for 12 of the 13 planned experiments in human research. The bed rest study was conducted in the Human Research Facility at Ames Research Center from July 11 - August 28, 1995. Eight healthy male volunteers performed the experiments before, during and after 17 days bed rest. The immediate purposes of this simulation were to integrate the experiments, provide data in a large enough sample for publication of results, enable investigators to review individual experiments in the framework of a multi-disciplinary study and relay the experience of the pilot study to the mission specialists prior to launch.

  14. 7th Grade Life Science Units Modified for ESOL Students--Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernache, Carolyn; Jones, Jacqueline

    A set of supplemental materials for teaching grade 7 life sciences to beginning and intermediate students of English as a second language (ESL) includes an introductory section on teaching the ESL student and six instructional units. The introductory section discusses the special classroom needs and characteristics of the ESL student and provides…

  15. Life and Biomedical Sciences and Applications Advisory Subcommittee Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The proceedings of the August 1995 meeting of the Life and Biomedical Sciences and Applications Advisory Subcommittee (LBSAAS) are summarized. The following topics were addressed by the Subcommittee members: the activities and status of the LBSA Division; program activities of the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications (OLMSA); the medical Countermeasures Program; and the Fettman Report on animal research activities at ARC. Also presented were a history and overview of the activities of the Space Station Utilization Advisory Committee and the Advanced Life Support Program (ALSP). The meeting agenda and a list of the Subcommittee members and meeting attendees are included as appendices.

  16. Information Handling in the Life Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steere, William C., Ed.

    Special problems in the handling of biological information arise from the diversity of biological subject matter and the complexity of biological approaches towards phenomena of the living world. This state-of-the-art report on communications of information in the biological sciences provides information on: (1) users of biological information,…

  17. Hearing Female Voices in Life Science Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Julie

    1990-01-01

    The author makes a case for keeping sensitivity and intuitive approaches in the science classroom. The importance of emotional connections with other organisms, considered a critical part of enriched, effective scientific thinking, is emphasized. Female and male learning styles are described. (KR)

  18. Life Science Literacy of an Undergraduate Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Stephanie R.; Ortlieb, Evan; Metoyer, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Science content knowledge is a concern for educators in the United States because performance has stagnated for the past decade. Investigators designed this study to determine the current levels of scientific literacy among undergraduate students in a freshman-level biology course (a core requirement for majors and nonmajors), identify factors…

  19. Creating Aliens: The Ultimate Life Sciences Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltramo, Dan

    2001-01-01

    Describes a seven-week project completed by the author's eighth-grade science students (as they studied "the chemistry of living things") in which they designed an alien and its world using the scientific concepts that they learned in class. Compares class presentations using PowerPoint software to presentations using posterboard. (SR)

  20. Life sciences manned payloads for Shuttle/Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Drake, G. L.; May, C. B.

    1975-01-01

    This paper summarizes the highlights of the NASA/MSFC Life Sciences Payload Definition and Integration studies. Four closely related studies describing research requirements, engineering analysis, and design concepts for a family of life sciences laboratories are reviewed. The study approach was based upon a broad laboratory capability to do research in medicine, biology, life support and protective systems, and man-systems integration. This laboratory design concept provides the flexibility desired for the changing requirements of a long-term space program. Designs of the resulting conceptual laboratories that satisfy the research goals are presented. The on-going NASA program activity to support future life sciences involvement in the Spacelab is outlined.

  1. Prehistoric Life, Science (Experimental): 5311.15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenks, Lois

    Presented is a survey course of the biological and geological history of the earth which includes: (1) theories of the formation of the earth, (2) theories of the formation of life, (3) geological eras (calendar), (4) fossil formation and fossil fuels, and (5) modern-day research. This course is intended for junior high level and no previous…

  2. The Relation of Selected Student Characteristics to Understanding of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boes, Robert Joseph

    Some of the purposes of this study were: (1) to determine whether the "Meaning of Science" course can make a significant contribution to college students' understanding of science, (2) to determine whether the course can promote a positive change in attitude toward science, and (3) to identify academic and non-academic characteristics related to…

  3. Life science teachers' decision making on sex education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Puneet Singh

    The desires of young people and especially young bodies are constructed at the intersections of policies that set the parameters of sex education policies, the embodied experiences of students in classrooms, and the way bodies are discussed in the complex language of science. Moreover, more research points to the lack of scientifically and medically accurate information about sex education. Through this research, I hope to extend the discussion about sex education to life science classrooms, where youth can discuss how sex occurs according to scientific concepts and processes. However, science classrooms are caught in a double bind: They maintain positivist methods of teaching science while paying little attention to the nature of science or the nature and function of science that offer explanations of scientific phenomena. In this study, I describe how science teachers made decisions about what to include or not include about sexuality in a life science classroom and the discursive frameworks that shaped these decisions. I also analyzed the ways that these relationships functioned to produce certain truths, or discourses. The current trends in research concerning SSI are pointing to understanding how controversial issues are framed according to personal philosophies, identities, and teaching approaches. If we can understand science teachers' inner aspects as they relate to sexuality education, we can also understand the deep-seeded motivations behind how these specific issues are being taught. In science classrooms where a discussion of the body is part of the curriculum, specific discourses of the body and sex/sexuality are excluded. In this study, I describe how science teachers made decisions about what to include or not include about sexuality in a life science classroom and the discursive practices that shaped these decisions.

  4. A code of ethics for the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nancy L

    2007-03-01

    The activities of the life sciences are essential to provide solutions for the future, for both individuals and society. Society has demanded growing accountability from the scientific community as implications of life science research rise in influence and there are concerns about the credibility, integrity and motives of science. While the scientific community has responded to concerns about its integrity in part by initiating training in research integrity and the responsible conduct of research, this approach is minimal. The scientific community justifies itself by appealing to the ethos of science, claiming academic freedom, self-direction, and self-regulation, but no comprehensive codification of this foundational ethos has been forthcoming. A review of the professional norms of science and a prototype code of ethics for the life sciences provide a framework to spur discussions within the scientific community to define scientific professionalism. A formalization of implicit principles can provide guidance for recognizing divergence from the norms, place these norms within a context that would enhance education of trainees, and provide a framework for discussing externally and internally applied pressures that are influencing the practice of science. The prototype code articulates the goal for life sciences research and the responsibilities associated with the freedom of exploration, the principles for the practice of science, and the virtues of the scientists themselves. The time is ripe for scientific communities to reinvigorate professionalism and define the basis of their social contract. Codifying the basis of the social contract between science and society will sustain public trust in the scientific enterprise. PMID:17703607

  5. Measuring the returns to NASA life sciences research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzfeld, Henry R.

    1998-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has invested in R&D in the life sciences for forty years. The thrust of this investment has been directed toward the support of human beings in space flight and in space activities. There are many documented examples of beneficial services and products now used in everyday life and medical practice that can be traced to origins in the R&D of the space program. However, a framework for quantitatively documenting, characterizing, and analyzing these public benefits has eluded researchers. This paper will present the results of a pilot project that includes the development of a methodology for assessing the economic benefits from NASA life sciences R&D and for realistically evaluating the financial leverage that private companies which are either involved in NASA R&D or which have ``bootstrapped'' NASA R&D into commercial products have realized. The results will show that the NASA life sciences investments are more engineering oriented, and more typically show results in the fields of instrumentation and medical devices. This is substantially different in nature from the focus of the National Institutes of Health, which is organized around the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. The appropriate measures of benefits for engineering-oriented products are economic parameters that focus on capital equipment. NIH benefits are more typically measured by human labor parameters, including the much more difficult to quantify measures of the quality and delivery of medical services. Although there is tremendous overlap in the goals and outputs of NASA life sciences and NIH investments, and NASA R&D is also very concerned with human beings and the quality of life, NIH is the overwhelming large source of life sciences R&D funds in the US. NASA has a special niche in life sciences R&D that supports the NASA mission as well as overall research issues in the life sciences. This paper evaluates the economic benefits of NASA's life

  6. Future opportunities and trends for e-infrastructures and life sciences: going beyond the grid to enable life science data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Afonso M. S.; Psomopoulos, Fotis E.; Blanchet, Christophe; Bonvin, Alexandre M. J. J.; Corpas, Manuel; Franc, Alain; Jimenez, Rafael C.; de Lucas, Jesus M.; Nyrönen, Tommi; Sipos, Gergely; Suhr, Stephanie B.

    2015-01-01

    With the increasingly rapid growth of data in life sciences we are witnessing a major transition in the way research is conducted, from hypothesis-driven studies to data-driven simulations of whole systems. Such approaches necessitate the use of large-scale computational resources and e-infrastructures, such as the European Grid Infrastructure (EGI). EGI, one of key the enablers of the digital European Research Area, is a federation of resource providers set up to deliver sustainable, integrated and secure computing services to European researchers and their international partners. Here we aim to provide the state of the art of Grid/Cloud computing in EU research as viewed from within the field of life sciences, focusing on key infrastructures and projects within the life sciences community. Rather than focusing purely on the technical aspects underlying the currently provided solutions, we outline the design aspects and key characteristics that can be identified across major research approaches. Overall, we aim to provide significant insights into the road ahead by establishing ever-strengthening connections between EGI as a whole and the life sciences community. PMID:26157454

  7. STS-40 Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS-1): The first dedicated spacelab life sciences mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Successful exploration of space depends on the health and well-being of people who travel and work there. For this reason, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has dedicated several Space Shuttle missions to examine how living and working in space affects the human body. Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS-1) is the first of these missions. The main purpose of the SLS-1 mission is to study the mechanisms, magnitudes, and time courses of certain physiological changes that occur during space flight and to investigate the consequences of the body's adaptation to microgravity and readjustment to gravity upon return to Earth. How does space flight influence the heart and circulatory system, metabolic processes, the muscles and bones, and the cells? If responses to weightlessness are undesirable, how can they be prevented or controlled? Will the human body maintain its physical and chemical equilibrium during months aboard a space station and years-long missions to Mars? When crews return to Earth, what can they expect to experience as their bodies readjust to Earth's gravity? With the SLS-1 experiments, NASA is addressing some of these questions. Various aspects of the SLS-1 are discussed.

  8. Bringing Climate Change into the Life Science Classroom: Essentials, Impacts on Life, and Addressing Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Amy J.; Stark, Louisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is at the forefront of our cultural conversation about science, influencing everything from presidential debates to Leonardo DiCaprio's 2016 Oscar acceptance speech. The topic is becoming increasingly socially and scientifically relevant but is no closer to being resolved. Most high school students take a life science course but…

  9. Personal/Professional Characteristics and Teachers' Attitudes about Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, Willis J.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a study that assessed junior high school science teachers' attitudes about differing teaching behaviors and analyzed these responses for their relationship to certain personal characteristics. Concludes that teacher attitudes are more closely related to educational characteristics than to job-related or personal characteristics. (FL)

  10. Priority of discovery in the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Vale, Ronald D; Hyman, Anthony A

    2016-01-01

    The job of a scientist is to make a discovery and then communicate this new knowledge to others. For a scientist to be successful, he or she needs to be able to claim credit or priority for discoveries throughout their career. However, despite being fundamental to the reward system of science, the principles for establishing the "priority of discovery" are rarely discussed. Here we break down priority into two steps: disclosure, in which the discovery is released to the world-wide community; and validation, in which other scientists assess the accuracy, quality and importance of the work. Currently, in biology, disclosure and an initial validation are combined in a journal publication. Here, we discuss the advantages of separating these steps into disclosure via a preprint, and validation via a combination of peer review at a journal and additional evaluation by the wider scientific community. PMID:27310529

  11. Priority of discovery in the life sciences

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Ronald D; Hyman, Anthony A

    2016-01-01

    The job of a scientist is to make a discovery and then communicate this new knowledge to others. For a scientist to be successful, he or she needs to be able to claim credit or priority for discoveries throughout their career. However, despite being fundamental to the reward system of science, the principles for establishing the "priority of discovery" are rarely discussed. Here we break down priority into two steps: disclosure, in which the discovery is released to the world-wide community; and validation, in which other scientists assess the accuracy, quality and importance of the work. Currently, in biology, disclosure and an initial validation are combined in a journal publication. Here, we discuss the advantages of separating these steps into disclosure via a preprint, and validation via a combination of peer review at a journal and additional evaluation by the wider scientific community. PMID:27310529

  12. Bringing Science to Life for Students, Teachers and the Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, K.

    2012-04-01

    Bringing Science to Life for Students, Teachers and the Community Prior to 2008, 5th grade students at two schools of the New Haven Unified School District consistently scored in the bottom 20% of the California State Standards Test for science. Teachers in the upper grades reported not spending enough time teaching science, which is attributed to lack of time, resources or knowledge of science. A proposal was written to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Bay Watershed Education Grant program and funding was received for Bringing Science to Life for Students, Teachers and the Community to address these concerns and instill a sense of stewardship in our students. This program engages and energizes students in learning science and the protection of the SF Bay Watershed, provides staff development for teachers, and educates the community about conservation of our local watershed. The project includes a preparation phase, outdoor phase, an analysis and reporting phase, and teacher training and consists of two complete units: 1) The San Francisco Bay Watershed Unit and 2) the Marine Environment Unit. At the end of year 5, our teachers were teaching more science, the community was engaged in conservation of the San Francisco Bay Watershed and most importantly, student scores increased on the California Science Test at one site by over 121% and another site by 152%.

  13. Telescience testbedding for life science missions on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, D.; Mian, A.; Bosley, J.

    1988-01-01

    'Telescience', defined as the ability of distributed system users to perform remote operations associated with NASA Space Station life science operations, has been explored by a developmental testbed project allowing rapid prototyping to evaluate the functional requirements of telescience implementation in three areas: (1) research planning and design, (2) remote operation of facilities, and (3) remote access to data bases for analysis. Attention is given to the role of expert systems in telescience, its use in realistic simulation of Space Shuttle payload remote monitoring, and remote interaction with life science data bases.

  14. Life Sciences in the Ticino: Two Scientists - Two Stories.

    PubMed

    Fürst, Susanne Lauber

    2014-12-01

    Luca Varani, PhD, a group leader in Structural Biology at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Bellinzona, and Marco Brini, founder and CEO of EnvEve SA, in the Tecnopolo in Manno, describe their life sciences background, their careers and why they percieve their ideal situation being a basic scientist who wants to remain in science, or being an entrepreneur respectively. PMID:26508605

  15. Analysis of debris from Spacelab Space Life Sciences-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, S. V.; Rodgers, E. B.; Huff, T. L.

    1992-07-01

    Airborne microbiological and particulate contamination generated aboard Spacelab modules is a potential safety hazard. In order to shed light on the characteristics of these contaminants, microbial and chemical/particulate analyses were performed on debris vacuumed from cabin and avionics air filters in the Space Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) module of the Space Transportation System 40 (STS-40) mission 1 month after landing. The debris was sorted into categories (e.g., metal, nonmetal, hair/fur, synthetic fibers, food particles, insect fragments, etc.). Elemental analysis of particles was done by energy dispersive analysis of x rays (metals) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (nonmetals). Scanning electron micrographs were done of most particles. Microbiological samples were grown on R2A culture medium and identified. Clothing fibers dominated the debris by volume. Other particles, all attributed to the crew, resulted from abrasions and impacts during missions operations (e.g., paint chips, plastic, electronic scraps and clothing fibers). All bacterial species identified are commonly found in the atmosphere or on the human body. Bacillus sp. was the most frequently seen bacterium. One of the bacterial species, Enterobacter agglomerans, could cause illness in crew members with depressed immune systems.

  16. Analysis of debris from Spacelab Space Life Sciences-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, S. V.; Rodgers, E. B.; Huff, T. L.

    1992-01-01

    Airborne microbiological and particulate contamination generated aboard Spacelab modules is a potential safety hazard. In order to shed light on the characteristics of these contaminants, microbial and chemical/particulate analyses were performed on debris vacuumed from cabin and avionics air filters in the Space Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) module of the Space Transportation System 40 (STS-40) mission 1 month after landing. The debris was sorted into categories (e.g., metal, nonmetal, hair/fur, synthetic fibers, food particles, insect fragments, etc.). Elemental analysis of particles was done by energy dispersive analysis of x rays (metals) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (nonmetals). Scanning electron micrographs were done of most particles. Microbiological samples were grown on R2A culture medium and identified. Clothing fibers dominated the debris by volume. Other particles, all attributed to the crew, resulted from abrasions and impacts during missions operations (e.g., paint chips, plastic, electronic scraps and clothing fibers). All bacterial species identified are commonly found in the atmosphere or on the human body. Bacillus sp. was the most frequently seen bacterium. One of the bacterial species, Enterobacter agglomerans, could cause illness in crew members with depressed immune systems.

  17. Life in the Atacama: Science autonomy for improving data quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Trey; Thompson, David R.; Wettergreen, David S.; Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Warren-Rhodes, Kimberley A.; Weinstein, Shmuel J.

    2007-12-01

    ``Science autonomy'' refers to exploration robotics technologies involving onboard science analysis of collected data. These techniques enable a rover to make adaptive decisions about which measurements to collect and transmit. Science autonomy can compensate for limited communications bandwidth by ensuring that planetary scientists receive those images and spectra that best meet mission goals. Here, we present the results of autonomous science experiments performed in the Atacama Desert of Chile during the Life in the Atacama (LITA) rover field campaign. We aim to provide an overview of autonomous science principles and examine their integration into the LITA operations strategy. We present experiments in four specific autonomous science domains: (1) autonomously responding to evidence of life with more detailed measurements; (2) rock detection for site profiling and selective data return; (3) tactical replanning to efficiently map the distribution of life; (4) detecting novel images and geologic unit boundaries in image sequences. In each of these domains we demonstrate improvements in the quality of returned data through autonomous analysis of imagery.

  18. Exploring the living universe: A strategy for space life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The status and goals of NASA's life sciences programs are examined. Ways and mean for attaining these goals are suggested. The report emphasizes that a stronger life sciences program is imperative if the U.S. space policy is to construct a permanently manned space station and achieve its stated goal of expanding the human presence beyond earth orbit into the solar system. The same considerations apply in regard to the other major goal of life sciences: to study the biological processes and life in the universe. A principal recommendation of the report is for NASA to expand its program of ground- and space-based research contributing to resolving questions about physiological deconditioning, radiation exposure, potential psychological difficulties, and life support requirements that may limit stay times for personnel on the Space Station and complicate missions of more extended duration. Other key recommendations call for strengthening programs of biological systems research in: controlled ecological life support systems for humans in space, earth systems central to understanding the effects on the earth's environment of both natural and human activities, and exobiology.

  19. Gerson Goldhaber: A Life in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlish, Ursula

    2011-06-01

    I draw on my interviews in 2005-2007 with Gerson Goldhaber (1924-2010), his wife Judith, and his colleagues at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. I discuss his childhood, early education, marriage to his first wife Sulamith (1923-1965), and his further education at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem (1942-1947) and his doctoral research at University of Wisconsin at Madison (1947-1950). He then was appointed to an instructorship in physics at Columbia University (1950-1953) before accepting a position in the physics department at the University of California at Berkeley and the Radiation Laboratory (later the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, today the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory), where he remained for the rest of his life. He made fundamental contributions to physics, including to the discovery of the antiproton in 1955, the GGLP effect in 1960, the psi particle in 1974, and charmed mesons in 1977, and to cosmology, including the discovery of the accelerating universe and dark energy in 1998. Beginning in the late 1960s, he also took up art, and he and his second wife Judith, whom he married in 1969, later collaborated in illustrating and writing two popular books. Goldhaber died in Berkeley, California, on July 19, 2010, at the age of 86.

  20. Space life sciences perspectives for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Laurence R.

    It is now generally acknowledged that the life science discipline will be the primary beneficiary of Space Station Freedom. The unique facility will permit advances in understanding the consequences of long duration exposure to weightlessness and evaluation of the effectiveness of countermeasures. It will also provide an unprecedented opportunity for basic gravitational biology, on plants and animals as well as human subjects. The major advantages of SSF are the long duration exposure and the availability of sufficient crew to serve as subjects and operators. In order to fully benefit from the SSF, life sciences will need both sufficient crew time and communication abilities. Unlike many physical science experiments, the life science investigations are largely exploratory, and frequently bring unexpected results and opportunities for study of newly discovered phenomena. They are typically crew-time intensive, and require a high degree of specialized training to be able to react in real time to various unexpected problems or potentially exciting findings. Because of the long duration tours and the large number of experiments, it will be more difficult than with Spacelab to maintain astronaut proficiency on all experiments. This places more of a burden on adequate communication and data links to the ground, and suggests the use of AI expert system technology to assist in astronaut management of the experiment. Typical life science experiments, including those flown on Spacelab Life Sciences 1, will be described from the point of view of the demands on the astronaut. A new expert system, 'PI in a Box,' will be introduced for SLS-2, and its applicability to other SSF experiments discussed. (This paper consists on an abstract and ten viewgraphs.)

  1. Space life sciences perspectives for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Laurence R.

    1992-01-01

    It is now generally acknowledged that the life science discipline will be the primary beneficiary of Space Station Freedom. The unique facility will permit advances in understanding the consequences of long duration exposure to weightlessness and evaluation of the effectiveness of countermeasures. It will also provide an unprecedented opportunity for basic gravitational biology, on plants and animals as well as human subjects. The major advantages of SSF are the long duration exposure and the availability of sufficient crew to serve as subjects and operators. In order to fully benefit from the SSF, life sciences will need both sufficient crew time and communication abilities. Unlike many physical science experiments, the life science investigations are largely exploratory, and frequently bring unexpected results and opportunities for study of newly discovered phenomena. They are typically crew-time intensive, and require a high degree of specialized training to be able to react in real time to various unexpected problems or potentially exciting findings. Because of the long duration tours and the large number of experiments, it will be more difficult than with Spacelab to maintain astronaut proficiency on all experiments. This places more of a burden on adequate communication and data links to the ground, and suggests the use of AI expert system technology to assist in astronaut management of the experiment. Typical life science experiments, including those flown on Spacelab Life Sciences 1, will be described from the point of view of the demands on the astronaut. A new expert system, 'PI in a Box,' will be introduced for SLS-2, and its applicability to other SSF experiments discussed. (This paper consists on an abstract and ten viewgraphs.)

  2. Teacher Characteristics and Pedagogy in Political Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartlaub, Stephen G.; Lancaster, Frank A.

    2008-01-01

    The college classroom is both an intimate and an alien environment. Most professors have an intimate knowledge of what they do in their own classrooms while possessing very little knowledge of what other professors, even at their own institution, do in their classrooms. Each year, faculty in political science departments construct their courses…

  3. Planetary characteristics constraining the advent and the evolution of life.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksanfomaliti, L. V.

    1995-10-01

    Very narrow limits of many physical characteristics of a terrestrial planet - primarily its mass and range of temperatures - are necessary for the advent and the evolution of an amino-nucleic-acid form of life and its transition into multicellular organisms. Only a favorable combination of many parameters can provide the conditions required for the advent of lifeforms and their evolution into conscious beings.

  4. Improving Reuse in Software Development for the Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannotti, Nicholas V.

    2013-01-01

    The last several years have seen unprecedented advancements in the application of technology to the life sciences, particularly in the area of data generation. Novel scientific insights are now often driven primarily by software development supporting new multidisciplinary and increasingly multifaceted data analysis. However, despite the…

  5. Collaborating in Life Science Research Groups: The Question of Authorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how life science postdocs' perceptions of contemporary academic career rationales influence how they relate to collaboration within research groups. One consequential dimension of these perceptions is the high value assigned to publications. For career progress, postdocs consider producing publications and…

  6. Introductory Life Science Mathematics and Quantitative Neuroscience Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffus, Dwight; Olifer, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    We describe two sets of courses designed to enhance the mathematical, statistical, and computational training of life science undergraduates at Emory College. The first course is an introductory sequence in differential and integral calculus, modeling with differential equations, probability, and inferential statistics. The second is an…

  7. Assessment of a Bioinformatics across Life Science Curricula Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, David R.; Miskowski, Jennifer A.; Grunwald, Sandra K.; Abler, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    At the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, we have undertaken a program to integrate the study of bioinformatics across the undergraduate life science curricula. Our efforts have included incorporating bioinformatics exercises into courses in the biology, microbiology, and chemistry departments, as well as coordinating the efforts of faculty within…

  8. Life Science Learning Center, Los Angeles Valley College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Edward

    A description is provided of Los Angeles Valley College's Life Science Learning Center (LSLC), which provides: (1) a resource center addressed to the individualized learning needs of students served by the Biology Department; (2) a learning environment enabling students to proceed in self-paced, activity-centered, concept-oriented experiences in…

  9. Computers in Life Science Education. Volume 5, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Computers in Life Science Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Designed to serve as a means of communication among life science educators who anticipate or are currently using microcomputers as an educational tool, this volume of newsletters provides background information and practical suggestions on computer use. Over 80 articles are included. Topic areas include: (1) using a personal computer in a plant…

  10. A Few Steps toward a Science of Mental Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dehaene, Stanislas

    2007-01-01

    Under what conditions can a true "science of mental life" arise from psychological investigations? Can psychology formulate scientific laws of a general nature, comparable in soundness to the laws of physics? I argue that the search for such laws must return to the forefront of psychological and developmental research, an enterprise that requires…

  11. 77 FR 35353 - Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to Australia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... various opportunities, and (4) to educate the participants about trade policy and regulatory matters... International Trade Administration Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to Australia AGENCY: International Trade... Commerce, International Trade Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (CS) is organizing...

  12. 76 FR 17621 - Biotech Life Science Trade Mission to China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    .... Since these trade policy issues are frequent topics of high-level bilateral discussions between the U.S... International Trade Administration Biotech Life Science Trade Mission to China AGENCY: International Trade... Commerce, International Trade Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (CS) is organizing...

  13. Introduction to Life Science (Introduccion a la Ciencia Biologica).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhard, Diana; And Others

    These materials were developed to meet an expressed need for bilingual materials for a secondary school Life Science Course. Eight units were prepared. These include the following topics: (1) Introduction to the Scientific Method; (2) The Microscope; (3) The Cell; (4) Single-celled Protists, Plants, and Animals; (5) Multicellular Living Things;…

  14. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, volume 2, no. 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, C. S.; Donnelly, K.

    1981-01-01

    Soviet scientists are making significant contributions to the field of space medicine and biology through their active manned space program, frequent biosatellites, and extensive ground-based research. An overview of the developments and direction of the USSR Space Life Sciences Program is provided.

  15. TÜV - Zertifizierungen in der Life Science Branche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaff, Peter; Gerbl-Rieger, Susanne; Kloth, Sabine; Schübel, Christian; Daxenberger, Andreas; Engler, Claus

    Life Sciences [1] (Lebenswissenschaften) sind ein globales Innovationsfeld mit Anwendungen der Bio- und Medizinwissenschaften, der Pharma-, Chemie-, Kosmetik- und Lebensmittelindustrie. Diese Branche zeichnet sich durch eine stark interdisziplinäre Ausrichtung aus, mit Anwendung wissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisse und Einsatz von Ausgangsstoffen aus der modernen Biologie, Chemie und Humanmedizin sowie gezielter marktwirtschaftlich orientierter Arbeit.

  16. North side, facing the courtyard. Life Science Building is to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North side, facing the courtyard. Life Science Building is to the left, out of view, and the library is to the right. Also out of view. - San Bernardino Valley College, Classics Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  17. Courtyard between the library, at left, and the life sciences ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Courtyard between the library, at left, and the life sciences building, at right. The north end of the administration building is just out of view to the right. - San Bernardino Valley College, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  18. Biology and Life Science Classroom Teaching Environment in Southern Alberta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guay, Julian

    This study provides information about the biology and life science classroom teaching environments in Southern Alberta. Responses (N=53) to questionnaires sent to junior and senior high school teachers in rural and urban settings revealed information regarding school facilities, texts and reference materials, field trips, outdoor education…

  19. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, volume 2, no. 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, C. S.

    1981-01-01

    Soviet scientists are making significant contributions to the field of space medicine and biology through their active manned space program, frequent biosatellites, and extensive ground-based research. An overview of the developments and direction of the USSR Space Life Sciences Program is provided.

  20. Sustainable Infrastructures for Life Science Communication: Workshop Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Elizabeth Stallman; Yeung, Laurence; Sawyer, Keegan

    2014-01-01

    Advances in the life sciences--from the human genome to biotechnology to personalized medicine and sustainable communities--have profound implications for the well-being of society and the natural world. Improved public understanding of such scientific advances has the potential to benefit both individuals and society through enhanced quality of…

  1. A Life-Science Action Course for Junior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henley ,Wes W.

    1972-01-01

    Several suggestions are provided for making life-science programs effective in junior high schools. Teacher's job can be made lighter if advanced planning and execution are done wisely. Problems ranging from shortage of space to final grading are discussed. Workable solutions are suggested for each situation. (PS)

  2. The Moon as a 'real-time' life sciences laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garshnek, V.

    1994-06-01

    A lunar life sciences laboratory would be an ideal learning center to develop science capabilities to extend humans to Mars. It could be initiated without a large amount of preparatory human research due to previous lunar experience, short flight time (3 days), and the ability to gather 'real time' life sciences data. Human studies can go beyond previous zero-g research providing information on lunar 1/6 gravity effects (an early data point in determining whether long-term fractional gravity can assist in maintaining health and performance) and insight into whether a Mars transfer vehicle should be designed for artificial-g (and, if so, whether fractional-g might be adequate). Insights into human behavior/performance can also be gained. A lunar biological laboratory could provide a means of conducting long-duration experiments on the biological effects of radiation and fractional gravity (in animals and plants).

  3. Bioinformatics and the Politics of Innovation in the Life Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yinhua; Datta, Saheli; Salter, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    The governments of China, India, and the United Kingdom are unanimous in their belief that bioinformatics should supply the link between basic life sciences research and its translation into health benefits for the population and the economy. Yet at the same time, as ambitious states vying for position in the future global bioeconomy they differ considerably in the strategies adopted in pursuit of this goal. At the heart of these differences lies the interaction between epistemic change within the scientific community itself and the apparatus of the state. Drawing on desk-based research and thirty-two interviews with scientists and policy makers in the three countries, this article analyzes the politics that shape this interaction. From this analysis emerges an understanding of the variable capacities of different kinds of states and political systems to work with science in harnessing the potential of new epistemic territories in global life sciences innovation. PMID:27546935

  4. Memories for life: a review of the science and technology

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Kieron; Morris, Richard; Shadbolt, Nigel; Hitch, Graham J; Hall, Wendy; Beagrie, Neil

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses scientific, social and technological aspects of memory. Recent developments in our understanding of memory processes and mechanisms, and their digital implementation, have placed the encoding, storage, management and retrieval of information at the forefront of several fields of research. At the same time, the divisions between the biological, physical and the digital worlds seem to be dissolving. Hence, opportunities for interdisciplinary research into memory are being created, between the life sciences, social sciences and physical sciences. Such research may benefit from immediate application into information management technology as a testbed. The paper describes one initiative, memories for life, as a potential common problem space for the various interested disciplines. PMID:16849265

  5. Research on Life Science and Life Support Engineering Problems of Manned Deep Space Exploration Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Bin; Guo, Linli; Zhang, Zhixian

    2016-07-01

    Space life science and life support engineering are prominent problems in manned deep space exploration mission. Some typical problems are discussed in this paper, including long-term life support problem, physiological effect and defense of varying extraterrestrial environment. The causes of these problems are developed for these problems. To solve these problems, research on space life science and space medical-engineering should be conducted. In the aspect of space life science, the study of space gravity biology should focus on character of physiological effect in long term zero gravity, co-regulation of physiological systems, impact on stem cells in space, etc. The study of space radiation biology should focus on target effect and non-target effect of radiation, carcinogenicity of radiation, spread of radiation damage in life system, etc. The study of basic biology of space life support system should focus on theoretical basis and simulating mode of constructing the life support system, filtration and combination of species, regulation and optimization method of life support system, etc. In the aspect of space medical-engineering, the study of bio-regenerative life support technology should focus on plants cultivation technology, animal-protein production technology, waste treatment technology, etc. The study of varying gravity defense technology should focus on biological and medical measures to defend varying gravity effect, generation and evaluation of artificial gravity, etc. The study of extraterrestrial environment defense technology should focus on risk evaluation of radiation, monitoring and defending of radiation, compound prevention and removal technology of dust, etc. At last, a case of manned lunar base is analyzed, in which the effective schemes of life support system, defense of varying gravity, defense of extraterrestrial environment are advanced respectively. The points in this paper can be used as references for intensive study on key

  6. Life sciences research on the space station: An introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Space Station will provide an orbiting, low gravity, permanently manned facility for scientific research, starting in the 1990s. The facilities for life sciences research are being designed to allow scientific investigators to perform research in Space Medicine and Space Biology, to study the consequences of long-term exposure to space conditions, and to allow for the permanent presence of humans in space. This research, using humans, animals, and plants, will provide an understanding of the effects of the space environment on the basic processes of life. In addition, facilities are being planned for remote observations to study biologically important elements and compounds in space and on other planets (exobiology), and Earth observations to study global ecology. The life sciences community is encouraged to plan for participation in scientific research that will be made possible by the Space Station research facility.

  7. Extraterrestrial life in light of recent planetary science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Since at least the time of the Greeks, we have wondered whether the universe cares about us. Is the universe friendly to life, with fecund planets scattered through the heavens? Or is it indifferent, with our green globe a fluke among barren rocks? Modern scientists articulate this puzzle in the form of the anthropic principle, and try to quantify it with the Drake equation. Both seek to link the science we find in our corner of the universe to truly cosmological claims about life and the laws of nature. Until very recently, these questions have been accessible only to speculation. But the amazing progress in planetary science of the last two decades has finally given us an opportunity to begin to test these ideas. This paper will examine how our recent studies of planets within and beyond our solar system may help us grapple with the riddles of the anthropic principle and how life fits into a universe of natural laws.

  8. Exploring the living universe: A strategy for space life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The knowledge obtained by space life sciences will play a pivotal role as humankind reaches out to explore the solar system. Information is needed concerning the existence of life beyond the Earth, the potential interactions between planets and living organisms, and the possibilities for humans to inhabit space safely and productively. Programs in the involved disciplines are an integral part of NASA's current and future missions. To realize their objectives, the development and operation of diverse ground and flight facilities and clost coordination with numerous scientific and governmental organizations in the U.S. and abroad are required. The status and goals of the life sciences programs are examined. Ways and means for attaining these goals are suggested.

  9. Enhancing Interdisciplinary, Mathematics, and Physical Science in an Undergraduate Life Science Program through Physical Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    BIO2010 advocates enhancing the interdisciplinary, mathematics, and physical science components of the undergraduate biology curriculum. The Department of Chemistry and Life Science at West Point responded by developing a required physical chemistry course tailored to the interests of life science majors. To overcome student resistance to physical chemistry, students were enabled as long-term stakeholders who would shape the syllabus by selecting life science topics of interest to them. The initial 2 yr of assessment indicates that students have a positive view of the course, feel they have succeeded in achieving course outcome goals, and that the course is relevant to their professional future. Instructor assessment of student outcome goal achievement via performance on exams and labs is comparable to that of students in traditional physical chemistry courses. Perhaps more noteworthy, both student and instructor assessment indicate positive trends from year 1 to year 2, presumably due to the student stakeholder effect. PMID:19255133

  10. An on-orbit viewpoint of life sciences research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtenberg, Byron K.

    1992-01-01

    As a Payload Specialist and a life science researcher, I want to present several issues that impact life science research in space. During early space station operations, life science and other experiments will be conducted in a time-critical manner and there will be the added duties of both space shuttle and space station systems operation (and the concomittent training overhead). Life sciences research is different from other science research done in space because the crew is involved both as an operator and as a subject. There is a need for pre- and post-flight data collection as well as in flight data collection. It is imperative that the life science researcher incorporate the crew members into their team early enough in the training cycle to fully explain the science and to make the crew aware of the importance and sensitivities of the experiment. During the pre-flight phase, the crew is incredibly busy with a myriad of duties. Therefore, it is difficult to get 'pristine' subjects for the baseline data collection. There are also circadian shifts, travel, and late nights to confound the data. During this time it is imperative that the researcher develop, along with the crew, a realistic estimate of crew-time required for their experiment. In flight issues that affect the researcher are the additional activities of the crew, the stresses inherent in space flight, and the difficulty of getting early in-flight data. During SSF activities, the first day or two will be taken up with rendezvous and docking. Other issues are the small number of subjects on any given flight, the importance of complete and concise procedures, and the vagaries of on-board data collection. Post flight, the crew is tired and experiences a 'relaxation.' This along with circadian shifts and rapid re-adaptation to 1-g make immediate post-flight data collection difficult. Finally, the blending of operational medicine and research can result in either competition for resources (crew time, etc

  11. Is Vacation Apprenticeship of Undergraduate Life Science Students a Model for Human Capacity Development in the Life Sciences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Colleen Thelma

    2010-01-01

    A life sciences undergraduate apprenticeship initiative was run during the vacations at a South African university. In particular, the initiative aimed to increase the number of students from disadvantaged backgrounds. Annually 12-18 undergraduate biology students were apprenticed to various institutions during the January and July vacations from…

  12. Technology transfer in the life sciences. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning technology transfer in the life sciences. Topics include technology transfer in biogas energy production, biotechnology, pollution control, aquaculture, agriculture, oceanography, and forestry. Technology transfer to developing countries and to small businesses, as well as university-industry partnerships, is described. (Contains a minimum of 71 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Bioinformatics: Current practice and future challenges for life science education.

    PubMed

    Hack, Catherine; Kendall, Gary

    2005-03-01

    It is widely predicted that the application of high-throughput technologies to the quantification and identification of biological molecules will cause a paradigm shift in the life sciences. However, if the biosciences are to evolve from a predominantly descriptive discipline to an information science, practitioners will require enhanced skills in mathematics, computing, and statistical analysis. Universities have responded to the widely perceived skills gap primarily by developing masters programs in bioinformatics, resulting in a rapid expansion in the provision of postgraduate bioinformatics education. There is, however, a clear need to improve the quantitative and analytical skills of life science undergraduates. This article reviews the response of academia in the United Kingdom and proposes the learning outcomes that graduates should achieve to cope with the new biology. While the analysis discussed here uses the development of bioinformatics education in the United Kingdom as an illustrative example, it is hoped that the issues raised will resonate with all those involved in curriculum development in the life sciences. PMID:21638550

  14. International Space Station Research and Facilities for Life Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Ruttley, Tara M.

    2009-01-01

    Assembly of the International Space Station is nearing completion in fall of 2010. Although assembly has been the primary objective of its first 11 years of operation, early science returns from the ISS have been growing at a steady pace. Laboratory facilities outfitting has increased dramatically 2008-2009 with the European Space Agency s Columbus and Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency s Kibo scientific laboratories joining NASA s Destiny laboratory in orbit. In May 2009, the ISS Program met a major milestone with an increase in crew size from 3 to 6 crewmembers, thus greatly increasing the time available to perform on-orbit research. NASA will launch its remaining research facilities to occupy all 3 laboratories in fall 2009 and winter 2010. To date, early utilization of the US Operating Segment of the ISS has fielded nearly 200 experiments for hundreds of ground-based investigators supporting international and US partner research. With a specific focus on life sciences research, this paper will summarize the science accomplishments from early research aboard the ISS- both applied human research for exploration, and research on the effects of microgravity on life. We will also look ahead to the full capabilities for life sciences research when assembly of ISS is complete in 2010.

  15. Bringing Science to Life for Students, Teachers and the Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Kimberly

    2010-05-01

    Prior to 2008, 5th grade students at two schools of the New Haven Unified School District consistently scored in the bottom 20% of the California State Standards Test for science. Teachers in the upper grades reported not spending enough time teaching science, which is attributed to lack of time, resources or knowledge of science. A proposal was written to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Bay Watershed Education Grant program and funding was received for Bringing Science to Life for Students, Teachers and the Community to address these concerns and instill a sense of stewardship in our students. This program engages and energizes students in learning science and the protection of the SF Bay Watershed, provides staff development for teachers, and educates the community about conservation of our local watershed. The project includes a preparation phase, outdoor phase, an analysis and reporting phase, and teacher training and consists of two complete units: 1) The San Francisco Bay Watershed Unit and 2) the Marine Environment Unit. At the end of the three-year program, teachers were teaching more science, the community was engaged in conservation of the San Francisco Bay Watershed and most importantly, student scores increased on the California Science Test at one site by over 70% and another site by 120%.

  16. Operational considerations for the Space Station Life Science Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Daryl N.; Bosley, John J.; Vogelsong, Kristofer; Schnepp, Tery A.; Phillips, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Laboratory (USL) module on Space Station will house a biological research facility for multidisciplinary research using living plant and animal specimens. Environmentally closed chambers isolate the specimen habitats, but specimens must be removed from these chambers during research procedures as well as while the chambers are being cleaned. An enclosed, sealed Life Science Glovebox (LSG) is the only locale in the USL where specimens can be accessed by crew members. This paper discusses the key science, engineering and operational considerations and constraints involving the LSG, such as bioisolation, accessibility, and functional versatility.

  17. Vision and change in introductory physics for the life sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochrie, S. G. J.

    2016-07-01

    Since 2010, our physics department has offered a re-imagined calculus-based introductory physics sequence for the life sciences. These courses include a selection of biologically and medically relevant topics that we believe are more meaningful to undergraduate premedical and biological science students than those found in a traditional course. In this paper, we highlight new aspects of the first-semester course, and present a comparison of student evaluations of this course versus a more traditional one. We also present the effect on student perception of the relevance of physics to biology and medicine after having taken this course.

  18. Marcello Malpighi and the difficult birth of modern life sciences.

    PubMed

    Piccolino, M

    1999-01-01

    All his life, Marcello Malpighi (1628-1694), the founder of modern microscopic anatomy, was unwillingly involved in difficult debates within a reactionary medical milieu that questioned the significance of modern science and its utility to medicine. Malpighi's responses to his detractors, included in posthumous works first published in 1697 by the Royal Society, offer an important insight into a critical phase of scientific progress in the 17th century and help to reveal the prevailing conception of science. In some ways, Malpighi's views predate important ideas in modern biology. PMID:10643137

  19. Small Science: Infants and Toddlers Experiencing Science in Everyday Family Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikder, Shukla; Fleer, Marilyn

    2015-06-01

    Vygotsky (1987) stated that the restructured form of everyday concepts learned at home and in the community interact with scientific concepts introduced in formal school settings, leading to a higher level of scientific thinking for school-aged children. But, what does this mean for the scientific learning of infants and toddlers? What kinds of science learning are afforded at home during this early period of life? The study reported in this paper sought to investigate the scientific development of infants-toddlers (10 to 36 months) growing up in Bangladeshi families living in Australia and Singapore. Four families were studied over 2 years. Digital video observations were made of everyday family life and analysed using Vygotsky's theoretical framework of everyday concepts and scientific concepts (51 h of digital observations). While there are many possibilities for developing scientific concepts in infants-toddlers' everyday life, our study found four categories of what we have called small science: multiple possibilities for science; discrete science; embedded science and counter intuitive science. The findings of this study contribute to the almost non-existent literature into infants and toddlers' scientific development and advance new understandings of early childhood science education.

  20. Small Science: Infants and Toddlers Experiencing Science in Everyday Family Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikder, Shukla; Fleer, Marilyn

    2014-09-01

    Vygotsky (1987) stated that the restructured form of everyday concepts learned at home and in the community interact with scientific concepts introduced in formal school settings, leading to a higher level of scientific thinking for school-aged children. But, what does this mean for the scientific learning of infants and toddlers? What kinds of science learning are afforded at home during this early period of life? The study reported in this paper sought to investigate the scientific development of infants-toddlers (10 to 36 months) growing up in Bangladeshi families living in Australia and Singapore. Four families were studied over 2 years. Digital video observations were made of everyday family life and analysed using Vygotsky's theoretical framework of everyday concepts and scientific concepts (51 h of digital observations). While there are many possibilities for developing scientific concepts in infants-toddlers' everyday life, our study found four categories of what we have called small science: multiple possibilities for science; discrete science; embedded science and counter intuitive science. The findings of this study contribute to the almost non-existent literature into infants and toddlers' scientific development and advance new understandings of early childhood science education.

  1. Accelerated life testing effects on CMOS microcircuit characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The 250 C, 200C and 125C accelerated tests are described. The wear-out distributions from the 250 and 200 C tests were used to estimate the activation energy between the two test temperatures. The duration of the 125 C test was not sufficient to bring the test devices into the wear-out region. It was estimated that, for the most complex of the three devices types, the activation energy between 200 C and 125 C should be at least as high as that between 250 C and 200 C. The practicality of the use of high temperature for the accelerated life tests from the point of view of durability of equipment is assessed. Guidlines for the development of accelerated life-test conditions are proposed. The use of the silicon nitride overcoat to improve the high temperature accelerated life-test characteristics of CMOS microcircuits is described.

  2. A Practical Guide to Photoacoustic Tomography in the Life Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lihong V.; Yao, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    The life sciences can benefit greatly from imaging technologies that connect microscopic discoveries with macroscopic observations. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT), a highly sensitive modality for imaging rich optical absorption contrast over a wide range of spatial scales at high speed, is uniquely positioned for this need. In PAT, endogenous contrast reveals tissue’s anatomical, functional, metabolic, and histologic properties, and exogenous contrast provides molecular and cellular specificity. The spatial scale of PAT covers organelles, cells, tissues, organs, and small-animal organisms. Consequently, PAT is complementary to other imaging modalities in contrast mechanism, penetration, spatial resolution, and temporal resolution. We review the fundamentals of PAT and provide practical guidelines to the broad life science community for matching PAT systems with research needs. We also summarize the most promising biomedical applications of PAT, discuss related challenges, and envision its potential to lead to further breakthroughs. PMID:27467726

  3. SLS-1: The first dedicated life sciences shuttle flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Robert W.

    1992-05-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences 1 was the first space laboratory dedicated to life science research. It was launched into orbit in early June 1991 aboard the space shuttle Columbia. The data from this flight have greatly expanded our knowledge of the effects of microgravity on human physiology as data were collected in-flight, not just pre and post. Principal goals of the mission were the measurement of rapid and semichronic (8 days) changes in the cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary systems during the flight and then to measure the rate of readaptation following return to Earth. Results from the four teams involved in that research will be presented in this panel. In addition to the cardiovascular-cardiopulmonary research, extensive metabolic studies encompassed fluid, electrolyte and energy balance, renal function, hematology and musculoskeletal changes. Finally, the crew participated in several neurovestibular studies. Overall, the mission was an outstanding success and has provided much new information on the lability of human responses to the space environment.

  4. The NASA Space Life Sciences Training Program - Preparing the way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biro, Ronald; Munsey, Bill; Long, Irene

    1990-01-01

    Attention is given to the goals and methods adopted in the NASA Space Life Sciences Training Program (SLSTP) for preparing scientists and engineers for space-related life-sciences research and operations. The SLSTP is based on six weeks of projects and lectures which give an overview of payload processing and experiment flow in the space environment. The topics addressed in the course of the program include descriptions of space vehicles, support hardware, equipment, and research directions. Specific lecture topics include the gravity responses of plants, mission integration of a flight experiment, and the cardiovascular deconditioning. The SLSTP is shown to be an important part of the process of recruiting and training qualified scientists and engineers to support space activities.

  5. Life Sciences Division and Center for Human Genome Studies 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Cram, L.S.; Stafford, C.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the research and development activities of the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Life Sciences Division and the biological aspects of the Center for Human Genome Studies for the calendar year 1994. The technical portion of the report is divided into two parts, (1) selected research highlights and (2) research projects and accomplishments. The research highlights provide a more detailed description of a select set of projects. A technical description of all projects is presented in sufficient detail so that the informed reader will be able to assess the scope and significance of each project. Summaries useful to the casual reader desiring general information have been prepared by the group leaders and appear in each group overview. Investigators on the staff of the Life Sciences Division will be pleased to provide further information.

  6. MIT-KSC space life sciences telescience testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A Telescience Life Sciences Testbed is being developed. The first phase of this effort consisted of defining the experiments to be performed, investigating the various possible means of communication between KSC and MIT, and developing software and hardware support. The experiments chosen were two vestibular sled experiments: a study of ocular torsion produced by Y axis linear acceleration, based on the Spacelab D-1 072 Vestibular Experiment performed pre- and post-flight at KSC; and an optokinetic nystagmus (OKN)/linear acceleration interaction experiment. These two experiments were meant to simulate actual experiments that might be performed on the Space Station and to be representative of space life sciences experiments in general in their use of crew time and communications resources.

  7. Kierkegaard and psychology as the science of the "multifarious life".

    PubMed

    Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the actuality of some considerations around psychology made by the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855). According to him psychology is about the "multifarious" life, which is a term that pinpoints the challenges psychology still have when it comes to including changes and genetic perspectives on its understanding of actual living. Yet Kierkegaard discusses psychology in relationship to metaphysics, which is an almost forgotten perspective. His understanding opens up for narrowing the definition of psychology down to the science of subjectivity, which at the same time elevates psychology to being the only science that focuses on the actual human life. Yet Kierkegaard's most important contribution to psychology is to maintain a radical distinction between subjectivity and objectivity, and in this respect the psychology of today is challenged. PMID:23604954

  8. SLS-1: The first dedicated life sciences shuttle flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences 1 was the first space laboratory dedicated to life science research. It was launched into orbit in early June 1991 aboard the space shuttle Columbia. The data from this flight have greatly expanded our knowledge of the effects of microgravity on human physiology as data were collected in-flight, not just pre and post. Principal goals of the mission were the measurement of rapid and semichronic (8 days) changes in the cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary systems during the flight and then to measure the rate of readaptation following return to Earth. Results from the four teams involved in that research will be presented in this panel. In addition to the cardiovascular-cardiopulmonary research, extensive metabolic studies encompassed fluid, electrolyte and energy balance, renal function, hematology and musculoskeletal changes. Finally, the crew participated in several neurovestibular studies. Overall, the mission was an outstanding success and has provided much new information on the lability of human responses to the space environment.

  9. Venture Capital Investment in the Life Sciences in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Hosang, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Innovation is one of the main driving factors for continuous and healthy economic growth and welfare. Switzerland as a resource-poor country is particularly dependent on innovation, and the life sciences, which comprise biotechnologies, (bio)pharmaceuticals, medical technologies and diagnostics, are one of the key areas of innovative strength of Switzerland. Venture capital financing and venture capitalists (frequently called 'VCs') and investors in public equities have played and still play a pivotal role in financing the Swiss biotechnology industry. In the following some general features of venture capital investment in life sciences as well as some opportunities and challenges which venture capital investors in Switzerland are facing are highlighted. In addition certain means to counteract these challenges including the 'Zukunftsfonds Schweiz' are discussed. PMID:26508600

  10. Introductory Life Science Mathematics and Quantitative Neuroscience Courses

    PubMed Central

    Olifer, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    We describe two sets of courses designed to enhance the mathematical, statistical, and computational training of life science undergraduates at Emory College. The first course is an introductory sequence in differential and integral calculus, modeling with differential equations, probability, and inferential statistics. The second is an upper-division course in computational neuroscience. We provide a description of each course, detailed syllabi, examples of content, and a brief discussion of the main issues encountered in developing and offering the courses. PMID:20810971

  11. The next phase of life-sciences spaceflight research

    PubMed Central

    Etheridge, Timothy; Nemoto, Kanako; Hashizume, Toko; Mori, Chihiro; Sugimoto, Tomoko; Suzuki, Hiromi; Fukui, Keiji; Yamazaki, Takashi; Higashibata, Akira; Higashitani, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Recently we demonstrated that the effectiveness of RNAi interference (RNAi) for inhibiting gene expression is maintained during spaceflight in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans and argued for the biomedical importance of this finding. We also successfully utilized green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged proteins to monitor changes in GPF localization during flight. Here we discuss potential applications of RNAi and GFP in spaceflight studies and the ramifications of these experiments for the future of space life-sciences research. PMID:22446523

  12. Life Sciences Research and Development Opportunities During Suborbital Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2010-01-01

    Suborbital space platforms provide a unique opportunity for Space Life Sciences in the next few years. The opportunities include: physiological characterization of the first few minutes of space flight; evaluation of a wide-variety of medical conditions during periods of hyper and hypo-gravity through physiological monitoring; and evaluation of new biomedical and environmental health technologies under hyper and hypo-gravity conditions

  13. Spacelab Life Sciences-2 ARC payload - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, P. D., Jr.; Dalton, B.; Hogan, R.; Leon, H.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of microgravity on the anatomy and physiology of rodent and primate systems will be investigated on the Spacelab Life Sciences 2 (SLS-2) mission. Here, the payload being developed at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) is described and illustrated with drawings. The ARC payload will build upon the success of previous missions. Experiments includes asssessment of rodent cardiovascular and vestibular system responses, primate thermoregulation and metabolic responses.

  14. Digest of Russian Space Life Sciences, issue 33

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This is the thirty-third issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 55 papers published in Russian journals. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to the following areas of space biology and medicine: biological rhythms, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, endocrinology, equipment and instrumentation, gastrointestinal system, genetics, hematology, human performance, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, psychology, radiobiology, and reproductive system.

  15. Is Vacation Apprenticeship of Undergraduate Life Science Students a Model for Human Capacity Development in the Life Sciences?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thelma Downs, Colleen

    2010-03-01

    A life sciences undergraduate apprenticeship initiative was run during the vacations at a South African university. In particular, the initiative aimed to increase the number of students from disadvantaged backgrounds. Annually 12-18 undergraduate biology students were apprenticed to various institutions during the January and July vacations from 2005 to 2007. This was to develop their skills and interests in the biological sciences, particularly in biocontrol and entomology. Results suggest that this "grassroots" approach increased the number of Black and female students in the life sciences. In particular, it developed their knowledge of the discipline of science and of how it progresses. For most students it enthused and motivated them in the pursuit of their studies and in considering postgraduate research. Students benefited socially from the interactions with researchers and staff, and learnt the protocols of research institutions. Economically most students benefited as they had financial loans for their studies, and the additional monies assisted them in meeting some of the payments. It is proposed that this undergraduate apprenticeship be used as a model for human capacity development at an undergraduate level that can be adopted in the other sciences and universities. This provides an alternative to the current South African National Research Foundation model, a top-down approach, that is aimed at recruiting Black and female students at the postgraduate level.

  16. NASA space life sciences research and education support program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Terri K.

    1995-01-01

    USRA's Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) was established in 1983 as the Division of Space Biomedicine to facilitate participation of the university community in biomedical research programs at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The DSLS is currently housed in the Center for Advanced Space Studies (CASS), sharing quarters with the Division of Educational Programs and the Lunar and Planetary Institute. The DSLS provides visiting scientists for the Johnson Space Center; organizes conferences, workshops, meetings, and seminars; and, through subcontracts with outside institutions, supports NASA-related research at more than 25 such entities. The DSLS has considerable experience providing visiting scientists, experts, and consultants to work in concert with NASA Life Sciences researchers to define research missions and goals and to perform a wide variety of research administration and program management tasks. The basic objectives of this contract have been to stimulate, encourage, and assist research and education in the NASA life sciences. Scientists and experts from a number of academic and research institutions in this country and abroad have been recruited to support NASA's need to find a solution to human physiological problems associated with living and working in space and on extraterrestrial bodies in the solar system.

  17. Crafting a science life: Learning from twentieth century women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Michele Ann

    This study examined how women in the field of science craft a science life. Within a historical and cultural framework, the study analyzed the autobiographies, biographies, and other written works of five noted women scientists who lived during the time period of 1878 through 1992. The women scientists chosen for the study were Lise Meitner, Florence Seibert, Barbara McClintock, Rita Levi-Montalcini, and Rosalind Franklin. Together they represented the three major science disciplines of biology, chemistry and physics. I attempted to make sense of my own science life using the stories of the women scientists as a framework. Situating my experiences within the context of the lives of the women scientists allowed me to use a phenomenological approach to discern commonalities within their lives and my own. The results indicated that the women scientists and myself encountered multiple obstacles in terms of access and equity. However, it was also indicated that all of the women in the study developed a variety of techniques, including resistance and accommodation, in order to navigate these obstacles while still being able to pursue their chosen career path. These women did, however, make great sacrifices that cost them personally, emotionally, financially, and even in terms of their career advancement. Their success was closely tied to their ability to forge their own path, to create their own way of living, and to accept themselves as nonconformists.

  18. Multimedia: Bringing the Sciences to Life--Experiences with Multimedia in the Life Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavender, Jane F.; Rutter, Steve M.

    "Straight" lecturing as the only method for information delivery was at one time an efficient means of college teaching. Increased enrollment in the biological sciences, the diversity of preparedness of the students, and the variety of learning preferences of the students require new ways of disseminating information and assessing classroom…

  19. "Walk along Life Science Bldg>(Chemistry & I Bldg. in view)." ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "Walk along Life Science Bldg>(Chemistry & I Bldg. in view)." 1960. Photo no. 548. Partial oblique view of the south front, Life Science Building, looking to the northeast. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. Learning Life Sciences: Design and Development of a Virtual Molecular Biology Learning Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumbach, Joerg; Schmitt, Stefanie; Reimann, Peter; Starkloff, Philipp

    2006-01-01

    The life sciences, in particular molecular genetics, have become a pivotal area of research and innovation, and at the same time are amongst the most controversially discussed in today's society. Despite this discussion, the demand for life science expertise increases rapidly, creating a growing need for life science education in particular and…

  1. Life In Space: An Introduction To Space Life Sciences And The International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Kevin

    2001-11-01

    The impact of the space environment upon living organisms is profound. Its effects range from alterations in sub-cellular processes to changes in the structure and function of whole organ systems. As the number of astronaut and cosmonaut crews flown in space has grown, so to has our understanding of the effects of the space environment upon biological systems. There are many parallels between the physiology of space flight and terrestrial disease processes, and the response of astronaut crews themselves to long-duration space deployment is therefore of central interest. In the next 15 years the International Space Station (ISS) will serve as a permanently manned dedicated life and physical sciences platform for the further investigation of these phenomena. The European Space Agency's Columbus module will hold the bulk of the ISS life science capability and, in combination with NASA's Human Research Facility (HRF) will accommodate the rack mounted experimental apparatus. The programme of experimentation will include efforts in fundamental biology, human physiology, behavioural science and space biomedical research. In the four decades since Yuri Gagarin first orbited the Earth, space life science has emerged as a field of study in its own right. The ISS takes us into the next era of human space exploration, and it is hoped that its programme of research will yield new insights, novel therapeutic interventions, and improved biotechnology for terrestrial application.

  2. Inspiring the Next Generation in Space Life Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Competitive summer internships in space life sciences at NASA are awarded to college students every summer. Each student is aligned with a NASA mentor and project that match his or her skills and interests, working on individual projects in ongoing research activities. The interns consist of undergraduate, graduate, and medical students in various majors and disciplines from across the United States. To augment their internship experience, students participate in the Space Life Sciences Summer Institute (SLSSI). The purpose of the Institute is to offer a unique learning environment that focuses on the current biomedical issues associated with human spaceflight; providing an introduction of the paradigms, problems, and technologies of modern spaceflight cast within the framework of life sciences. The Institute faculty includes NASA scientists, physicians, flight controllers, engineers, managers, and astronauts; and fosters a multi-disciplinary science approach to learning with a particular emphasis on stimulating experimental creativity and innovation within an operational environment. This program brings together scientists and students to discuss cutting-edge solutions to problems in space physiology, environmental health, and medicine; and provides a familiarization of the various aspects of space physiology and environments. In addition to the lecture series, behind-the-scenes tours are offered that include the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory, Mission Control Center, space vehicle training mockups, and a hands-on demonstration of the Space Shuttle Advanced Crew Escape Suit. While the SLSSI is managed and operated at the Johnson Space Center in Texas, student interns from the other NASA centers (Glenn and Ames Research Centers, in Ohio and California) also participate through webcast distance learning capabilities.

  3. Life Works: Explore Health and Medical Science Careers | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... at science.education.nih.gov/LifeWorks Darryl Lowery Photo courtesy of NIH Office of Science Education Darryl ... a refresher course and another test.” Vivian Morales Photo courtesy of NIH Office of Science Education Vivian ...

  4. Authorized Course of Instruction for the Quinmester Program. Science: Cell Biology, Introduction to Life Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This instructional package contains two biological units developed for the Dade County Florida Quinmester Program. "Introduction to Life Sciences" develops student understandings of cell structure and function, and compares different levels of cellular organization. "Cell Biology" investigates the origin of modern cellular theories and…

  5. Promoting Prospective Elementary Teachers' Learning to Use Formative Assessment for Life Science Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabel, Jaime L.; Forbes, Cory T.; Zangori, Laura

    2015-01-01

    To support elementary students' learning of core, standards-based life science concepts highlighted in the "Next Generation Science Standards," prospective elementary teachers should develop an understanding of life science concepts and learn to apply their content knowledge in instructional practice to craft elementary science learning…

  6. An examination of perceived characteristics of career scientists and Delaware science students who do and do not participate in the Science Olympiad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hounsell, Thomas Sidney

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics possessed by career scientists and by middle and high school students who were considered good in science, as identified by their Science Olympiad coaches, judges, science teachers, and other students. The participants in this study included students who participated in the Science Olympiad and honors science students who had not participated in the Science Olympiad. The students in this study attended secondary schools within the State of Delaware. The adult participants were teachers, Science Olympiad coaches, and judges also from the State of Delaware. The participating scientists were either employed by a Delaware Hospital or by a company involved in medical research located in New Jersey. The framework for this study was developed around a descriptive research design utilizing four question surveys and interviews. For example, participants were asked to list the characteristics that they considered most evident among successful science students. They also listed the characteristics that Science Olympiad competitors demonstrated more frequently than the general student population. In this study the specific characteristics indicated by all groups surveyed were intelligence, task orientation, and problem-solving skills. Self-motivation was also strongly noted by all groups in their interviews. The data gathered suggested satisfaction from numerous rewards associated with participation in the Science Olympiad. Specifically mentioned rewards were medals, new knowledge, self-confidence, real life experience, problem-solving experience, a chance to do hands-on science, and completing tasks with a team. The primary recommendations for further research were: to investigate the possible influence of participation in the Science Olympiad on science as a career choice; a repeat of this study involving a larger and more diverse national group; and a study that further examines the characteristics of "good

  7. Life Science Start-up Activities at the Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS).

    PubMed

    Huber, Gerda

    2014-12-01

    The universities of applied sciences (UAS) provide several values for the society and economy of a country. Besides education of high level professionals, transfer of knowledge from research to applications in industry or as new start-up companies is an important task. This is done in different ways in the various disciplines. In Life Sciences, a key industry branch in Switzerland, innovation is a competitive success factor and research findings from UAS/Life Sciences contribute to the valorization of new technologies to products, services and to business performance. In order to foster awareness for the innovation need of industry, UAS install processes and support for transfer of research and technology results to marketable applications. Furthermore they may facilitate contacts of researchers and students with entrepreneurs in order to animate start-up founding as a true alternative to being employed. Access to coaching and entrepreneurial training completes the essential basis. PMID:26508606

  8. Engineering and simulation of life sciences Spacelab experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. S.; Bush, W. H. Jr; Rummel, J. A.; Alexander, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    The third in a series of Spacelab Mission Development tests was conducted at the Johnson (correction of Johnston) Space Center as a part of the development of Life Sciences experiments for the Space Shuttle era. The latest test was a joint effort of the Ames Research and Johnson Space Centers and utilized animals and men for study. The basic objective of this test was to evaluate the operational concepts planned for the Space Shuttle life science payloads program. A three-man crew (Mission Specialist and two Payload Specialists) conducted 26 experiments and 12 operational tests, which were selected for this 7-day mission simulation. The crew lived on board a simulated Orbiter/Spacelab mockup 24 hr a day. The Orbiter section contained the mid deck crew quarters area, complete with sleeping, galley and waste management provisions. The Spacelab was identical in geometry to the European Space Agency Spacelab design, complete with removable rack sections and stowage provisions. Communications between the crewmen and support personnel were configured and controlled as currently planned for operational shuttle flights. For this test a Science Operations Remote Center was manned at the Ames Research Center and was managed by simulated Mission Control and Payload Operation Control Centers at the Johnson Space Center. This paper presents the test objectives, description of the facilities and test program, and the results of this test.

  9. Performance characteristics of brush seals for limited-life engines

    SciTech Connect

    Chupp, R.E. ); Dowler, C.A. )

    1993-04-01

    Brush seals are potential replacements for air-to-air labyrinth seals in gas turbine engines. An investigation has been conducted to determine the performance characteristics of brush seals for application in limited-life gas turbine engines. An elevated temperature, rotating test rig was designed and built to test labyrinth and brush seals in simulated subsonic and supersonic engine conditions. Results from initial tests for subsonic applications demonstrated that brush seals exhibit appreciably lower leakage compared to labyrinth seals, and thus offer significant engine performance improvements. Performance results have been obtained showing the effect of various brush seal parameters, including: initial interference, backplate gap, and multiple brush seals in series.

  10. Teachers' Characteristics and Science Teachers' Classroom Behaviour: Evidence from Science Classroom Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajaja, Patrick O.; Eravwoke, Urhievwejire Ochuko

    2013-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to find out if there is any influence of teachers' characteristics on science teacher's classroom behaviours and determine the kind of relationship between teachers' characteristics and classroom behaviours. To guide this study, five research questions and hypotheses were raised, stated, answered, and tested at…

  11. Ground based simulation of life sciences Spacelab experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. A.; Alexander, W. C.; Bush, W. H.; Johnston, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    The third in a series of Spacelab Mission Development tests was a joint effort of the Ames Research and Johnson Space Centers to evaluate planned operational concepts of the Space Shuttle life sciences program. A three-man crew conducted 26 experiments and 12 operational tests, utilizing both human and animal subjects. The crew lived aboard an Orbiter/Spacelab mockup for the seven-day simulation. The Spacelab was identical in geometry to the European Space Agency design, complete with removable rack sections and stowage provisions. Communications were controlled as currently planned for operational Shuttle flights. A Science Operations Remote Center at the Ames Research Center was managed by simulated Mission Control and Payload Operation Control Centers at the Johnson Space Center. This paper presents the test objectives, describes the facilities and test program, and outlines the results of this test.

  12. Increasing student learning through space life sciences education.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Nancy P; Roberts, J Kyle; Tharp, Barbara Z; Denk, James P; Cutler, Paula H; Thomson, William A

    2005-01-01

    Scientists and educators at Baylor College of Medicine are using space life sciences research areas as themes for middle school science and health instructional materials. This paper discusses study findings of the most recent unit, Food and Fitness, which teaches concepts related to energy and nutrition through guided inquiry. Results of a field test involving more than 750 students are reported. Use of the teaching materials resulted in significant knowledge gains by students as measured on a pre/post assessment administered by teachers. In addition, an analysis of the time spent by each teacher on each activity suggested that it is preferable to conduct all of the activities in the unit with students rather than allocating the same total amount of time on just a subset of the activities. PMID:15834997

  13. Space Station Centrifuge: A Requirement for Life Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Arthur H.; Fuller, Charles A.; Johnson, Catherine C.; Winget, Charles M.

    1992-01-01

    A centrifuge with the largest diameter that can be accommodated on Space Station Freedom is required to conduct life science research in the microgravity environment of space. (This was one of the findings of a group of life scientists convened at the University of California, Davis, by Ames Research Center.) The centrifuge will be used as a research tool to understand how gravity affects biological processes; to provide an on-orbit one-g control; and to assess the efficacy of using artificial gravity to counteract the deleterious biological effect of space flight. The rationale for the recommendation and examples of using ground-based centrifugation for animal and plant acceleration studies are presented. Included are four appendixes and an extensive bibliography of hypergravity studies.

  14. Philosophical Approaches towards Sciences of Life in Early Cybernetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagnini, Leone

    2008-07-01

    The article focuses on the different conceptual and philosophical approaches towards the sciences of life operating in the backstage of Early Cybernetics. After a short reconstruction of the main steps characterizing the origins of Cybernetics, from 1940 until 1948, the paper examines the complementary conceptual views between Norbert Wiener and John von Neumann, as a "fuzzy thinking" versus a "logical thinking", and the marked difference between the "methodological individualism" shared by both of them versus the "methodological collectivism" of most of the numerous scientists of life and society attending the Macy Conferences on Cybernetics. The main thesis sustained here is that these different approaches, quite invisible to the participants, were different, maybe even opposite, but they could provoke clashes, as well as cooperate in a synergic way.

  15. Spacelab Life Sciences-1 electrical diagnostic expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, C. Y.; Morris, W. S.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) Electrical Diagnostic (SLED) expert system is a continuous, real time knowledge-based system to monitor and diagnose electrical system problems in the Spacelab. After fault isolation, the SLED system provides corrective procedures and advice to the ground-based console operator. The SLED system updates its knowledge about the status of Spacelab every 3 seconds. The system supports multiprocessing of malfunctions and allows multiple failures to be handled simultaneously. Information which is readily available via a mouse click includes: general information about the system and each component, the electrical schematics, the recovery procedures of each malfunction, and an explanation of the diagnosis.

  16. TOPICAL REVIEW: Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy in life sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willem Borst, Jan; Visser, Antonie J. W. G.

    2010-10-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) and fluorescence anisotropy imaging microscopy (FAIM) are versatile tools for the investigation of the molecular environment of fluorophores in living cells. Owing to nanometre-scale interactions via Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), FLIM and FAIM are powerful microscopy methods for the detection of conformational changes and protein-protein interactions reflecting the biochemical status of live cells. This review provides an overview of recent advances in photonics techniques, quantitative data analysis methods and applications in the life sciences.

  17. Spacelab Life Sciences-1 electrical diagnostics expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Cheng Y.; Morris, William S.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) Electrical Diagnostic (SLED) expert system is a continuous real time knowledge-based system to monitor and diagnose electrical system problems in the Spacelab. After fault isolation, the SLED system provides corrective procedures and advice to the ground-based console operator. The SLED system updates its knowledge about the status of Spacelab every 3 seconds. The system supports multiprocessing of malfunctions and allows multiple failures to be handled simultaneously. Information which is readily available via a mouse click includes: general information about the system and each component, the electrical schematics, the recovery procedures of each malfunction, and an explanation of the diagnosis.

  18. Life sciences research in space: The requirement for animal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. A.; Philips, R. W.; Ballard, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Use of animals in NASA space programs is reviewed. Animals are needed because life science experimentation frequently requires long-term controlled exposure to environments, statistical validation, invasive instrumentation or biological tissue sampling, tissue destruction, exposure to dangerous or unknown agents, or sacrifice of the subject. The availability and use of human subjects inflight is complicated by the multiple needs and demands upon crew time. Because only living organisms can sense, integrate and respond to the environment around them, the sole use of tissue culture and computer models is insufficient for understanding the influence of the space environment on intact organisms. Equipment for spaceborne experiments with animals is described.

  19. Patenting the life sciences at the European Patent Office.

    PubMed

    Gates, Christina

    2014-12-01

    The European patent system is very much like those of the United States and other major countries. Patent applications can be filed as a first filing, as a priority application, or as a national phase of a Patent Cooperation Treaty application. The applications are searched, rigorously examined, and ultimately granted, with the time periods varying somewhat depending on the application type. The object of this article is to highlight some of the differences between the U.S. and European systems, particularly as they relate to life sciences. PMID:25342060

  20. Engineering and simulation of life science Spacelab experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, B.; Rummel, J.; Johnston, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    Approaches to the planning and realization of Spacelab life sciences experiments, which may involve as many as 16 Space Shuttle missions and 100 tests, are discussed. In particular, a Spacelab simulation program, designed to evaluate problems associated with the use of live animal specimens, the constraints imposed by zero gravity on equipment operation, training of investigators and data management, is described. The simulated facility approximates the hardware and support systems of a current European Space Agency Spacelab model. Preparations necessary for the experimental program, such as crew activity plans, payload documentation and inflight experimental procedures are developed; health problems of the crew, including human/animal microbial contamination, are also assessed.

  1. Life Sciences and the web: a new era for collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Sagotsky, Jonathan A; Zhang, Le; Wang, Zhihui; Martin, Sean; Deisboeck, Thomas S

    2008-01-01

    The World Wide Web has revolutionized how researchers from various disciplines collaborate over long distances. This is nowhere more important than in the Life Sciences, where interdisciplinary approaches are becoming increasingly powerful as a driver of both integration and discovery. Data access, data quality, identity, and provenance are all critical ingredients to facilitate and accelerate these collaborative enterprises and it is here where Semantic Web technologies promise to have a profound impact. This paper reviews the need for, and explores advantages of as well as challenges with these novel Internet information tools as illustrated with examples from the biomedical community. PMID:18594519

  2. The NASA Life Sciences experiment program for Shuttle/Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, D.

    1978-01-01

    The Life Sciences experiment program for the Shuttle/Spacelab has basically two scientific objectives. The first objective is related to an understanding and interpretation of the medical data from Skylab. The second objective is concerned with a utilization of the space environment, notably the very low g field, as an experimental variable in a broad range of fundamental studies. The program considered will use the pressurized module, almost exclusively, and will aim toward the greatest investigator participation in flight that is possible. Facilities must be provided to support such requirements as tissue biopses, blood, urine and tissue collections, and microbial and plant manipulations.

  3. Life sciences get important new data from Spacelab mission. III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuiling, Roelof L.; Young, Steven

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of the effects of weightlessness on the human body is reported that was conducted on a flight of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Experiments are described regarding zero-gravity effects on the human perception of balance, the growth of lymphocytes, and general life-sciences examinations of body mass, body fluid, pulmonary parameters, and echocardiograph imaging. Specific attention is given to the day-to-day operations of the mission, and particular emphasis is given to the study of rodents and jellyfish reacting to microgravity.

  4. Life sciences on-line: A study in hypermedia application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christman, Linda A.; Hoang, Nam V.; Proctor, David R.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective was to determine the feasibility of using a computer-based interactive information recall module for the Life Sciences Project Division (LSPD) at NASA, Johnson Space Center. LSPD personnel prepare payload experiments to test and monitor physiological functions in zero gravity. Training refreshers and other types of online help are needed to support personnel in their tasks during mission testing and in flight. Results of a survey of other hypermedia and multimedia developers and lessons learned by the developer of the LSPD prototype module are presented. Related issues and future applications are also discussed and further hypermedia development within the LSPD is recommended.

  5. Life sciences biomedical research planning for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primeaux, Gary R.; Michaud, Roger; Miller, Ladonna; Searcy, Jim; Dickey, Bernistine

    1987-01-01

    The Biomedical Research Project (BmRP), a major component of the NASA Life Sciences Space Station Program, incorporates a laboratory for the study of the effects of microgravity on the human body, and the development of techniques capable of modifying or counteracting these effects. Attention is presently given to a representative scenario of BmRP investigations and associated engineering analyses, together with an account of the evolutionary process by which the scenarios and the Space Station design requirements they entail are identified. Attention is given to a tether-implemented 'variable gravity centrifuge'.

  6. Conceptual planning for Space Station life sciences human research project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primeaux, Gary R.; Miller, Ladonna J.; Michaud, Roger B.

    1986-01-01

    The Life Sciences Research Facility dedicated laboratory is currently undergoing system definition within the NASA Space Station program. Attention is presently given to the Humam Research Project portion of the Facility, in view of representative experimentation requirement scenarios and with the intention of accommodating the Facility within the Initial Operational Capability configuration of the Space Station. Such basic engineering questions as orbital and ground logistics operations and hardware maintenance/servicing requirements are addressed. Biospherics, calcium homeostasis, endocrinology, exercise physiology, hematology, immunology, muscle physiology, neurosciences, radiation effects, and reproduction and development, are among the fields of inquiry encompassed by the Facility.

  7. Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohtar, R. H.; Whittaker, A.; Amar, N.; Burgess, W.

    2009-12-01

    Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program Nadia Amar, Wiella Burgess, Rabi H. Mohtar, and Dale Whitaker Purdue University Correspondence: mohtar@purdue.edu FEELS, the Food, Environment, Engineering and Life Sciences Program is a grant of the National Science Foundation for the College of Agriculture at Purdue University. FEELS’ mission is to recruit, retain, and prepare high-achieving students with financial difficulties to pursue STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) careers. FEELS achieves its goals offering a scholarship of up to 10,000 per student each year, academic, research and industrial mentors, seminars, study tables, social and cultural activities, study abroad and community service projects. In year one, nine low-income, first generation and/or ethnic minority students joined the FEELS program. All 9 FEELS fellows were retained in Purdue’s College of Agriculture (100%) with 7 of 9 (77.7%) continuing to pursue STEM majors. FEELS fellows achieved an average GPA in their first year of 3.05, compared to the average GPA of 2.54 for low-income non- FEELS students in the College of Agriculture. A new cohort of 10 students joined the program in August 2009. FEELS fellows received total scholarships of nearly 50,000 for the 2008-2009 academic year. These scholarships were combined with a holistic program that included the following key elements: FEELS Freshman Seminars I and II, 2 study tables per week, integration activities and frequent meetings with FEELS academic mentors and directors. Formative assessments of all FEELS activities were used to enhance the first year curriculum for the second cohort. Cohort 1 will continue into their second year where the focus will be on undergraduate research. More on FEELS programs and activities: www.purdue.edu/feels.

  8. Fullness of Life as Minimal Unit: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Learning across the Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Van Eijck, Michiel

    2010-01-01

    Challenged by a National Science Foundation-funded conference, 2020 Vision: The Next Generation of STEM Learning Research, in which participants were asked to recognize science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning as lifelong, life-wide, and life-deep, we draw upon 20 years of research across the lifespan to propose a new way…

  9. Accelerated life testing effects on CMOS microcircuit characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This report covers the time period from May 1976 to December 1979 and encompasses the three phases of accelerated testing: Phase 1, the 250 C testing; Phase 2, the 200 C testing; and Phase 3, the 125 C testing. The duration of the test in Phase 1 and Phase 2 was sufficient to take the devices into the wear out region. The wear out distributions were used to estimate the activation energy between the 250 C and the 200 C test temperatures. The duration of the 125 C test, 20,000 hours, was not sufficient to bring the test devices into the wear out region; consequently the third data point at 125 C for determining the consistency of activation energy could not be obtained. It was estimated that, for the most complex of the three device types, the activation energy between 200 C and 125 C should be at least as high as that between 250 C and 200 C. The practicality of the use of high temperature for the accelerated life tests from the point of view of durability of equipment was assessed. Guidelines for the development of accelerated life test conditions were proposed. The use of the silicon nitride overcoat to improve the high temperature accelerated life test characteristics of CMOS microcircuits was explored in Phase 4 of this study and is attached as an appendix to this report.

  10. 46 CFR 160.001-2 - General characteristics of life preservers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General characteristics of life preservers. 160.001-2..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, General § 160.001-2 General characteristics of life preservers. (a) A life preserver must be of such...

  11. 46 CFR 160.001-2 - General characteristics of life preservers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General characteristics of life preservers. 160.001-2..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, General § 160.001-2 General characteristics of life preservers. (a) A life preserver must be of such...

  12. 46 CFR 160.001-2 - General characteristics of life preservers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General characteristics of life preservers. 160.001-2..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, General § 160.001-2 General characteristics of life preservers. (a) A life preserver must be of such...

  13. 46 CFR 160.001-2 - General characteristics of life preservers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General characteristics of life preservers. 160.001-2..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, General § 160.001-2 General characteristics of life preservers. (a) A life preserver must be of such...

  14. 46 CFR 160.001-2 - General characteristics of life preservers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General characteristics of life preservers. 160.001-2..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Preservers, General § 160.001-2 General characteristics of life preservers. (a) A life preserver must be of such...

  15. Factors in life science textbooks that may deter girls' interest in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Ellen F.; Rosser, Sue V.

    In order to examine factors that may deter girls' interest in science, five seventh-grade life science textbooks were analyzed for sexism in language, images, and curricular content, and for features of activities that have been found to be useful for motivating girls. Although overt sexism was not apparent, subtle forms of sexism in the selection of language, images, and curricular content were found. Activities had some features useful to girls, but other features were seldom included. Teachers may wish to use differences that were found among texts as one basis for text selection.

  16. The Bioperl toolkit: Perl modules for the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Stajich, Jason E; Block, David; Boulez, Kris; Brenner, Steven E; Chervitz, Stephen A; Dagdigian, Chris; Fuellen, Georg; Gilbert, James G R; Korf, Ian; Lapp, Hilmar; Lehväslaiho, Heikki; Matsalla, Chad; Mungall, Chris J; Osborne, Brian I; Pocock, Matthew R; Schattner, Peter; Senger, Martin; Stein, Lincoln D; Stupka, Elia; Wilkinson, Mark D; Birney, Ewan

    2002-10-01

    The Bioperl project is an international open-source collaboration of biologists, bioinformaticians, and computer scientists that has evolved over the past 7 yr into the most comprehensive library of Perl modules available for managing and manipulating life-science information. Bioperl provides an easy-to-use, stable, and consistent programming interface for bioinformatics application programmers. The Bioperl modules have been successfully and repeatedly used to reduce otherwise complex tasks to only a few lines of code. The Bioperl object model has been proven to be flexible enough to support enterprise-level applications such as EnsEMBL, while maintaining an easy learning curve for novice Perl programmers. Bioperl is capable of executing analyses and processing results from programs such as BLAST, ClustalW, or the EMBOSS suite. Interoperation with modules written in Python and Java is supported through the evolving BioCORBA bridge. Bioperl provides access to data stores such as GenBank and SwissProt via a flexible series of sequence input/output modules, and to the emerging common sequence data storage format of the Open Bioinformatics Database Access project. This study describes the overall architecture of the toolkit, the problem domains that it addresses, and gives specific examples of how the toolkit can be used to solve common life-sciences problems. We conclude with a discussion of how the open-source nature of the project has contributed to the development effort. PMID:12368254

  17. Design concepts for the Centrifuge Facility Life Sciences Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Sidney C.; Horkachuck, Michael J.; Mckeown, Kellie A.

    1989-01-01

    The Life Sciences Glovebox will provide the bioisolated environment to support on-orbit operations involving non-human live specimens and samples for human life sceinces experiments. It will be part of the Centrifuge Facility, in which animal and plant specimens are housed in bioisolated Habitat modules and transported to the Glovebox as part of the experiment protocols supported by the crew. At the Glovebox, up to two crew members and two habitat modules must be accommodated to provide flexibility and support optimal operations. This paper will present several innovative design concepts that attempt to satisfy the basic Glovebox requirements. These concepts were evaluated for ergonomics and ease of operations using computer modeling and full-scale mockups. The more promising ideas were presented to scientists and astronauts for their evaluation. Their comments, and the results from other evaluations are presented. Based on the evaluations, the authors recommend designs and features that will help optimize crew performance and facilitate science accommodations, and specify problem areas that require further study.

  18. Unique life sciences research facilities at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulenburg, G. M.; Vasques, M.; Caldwell, W. F.; Tucker, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Life Science Division at NASA's Ames Research Center has a suite of specialized facilities that enable scientists to study the effects of gravity on living systems. This paper describes some of these facilities and their use in research. Seven centrifuges, each with its own unique abilities, allow testing of a variety of parameters on test subjects ranging from single cells through hardware to humans. The Vestibular Research Facility allows the study of both centrifugation and linear acceleration on animals and humans. The Biocomputation Center uses computers for 3D reconstruction of physiological systems, and interactive research tools for virtual reality modeling. Psycophysiological, cardiovascular, exercise physiology, and biomechanical studies are conducted in the 12 bed Human Research Facility and samples are analyzed in the certified Central Clinical Laboratory and other laboratories at Ames. Human bedrest, water immersion and lower body negative pressure equipment are also available to study physiological changes associated with weightlessness. These and other weightlessness models are used in specialized laboratories for the study of basic physiological mechanisms, metabolism and cell biology. Visual-motor performance, perception, and adaptation are studied using ground-based models as well as short term weightlessness experiments (parabolic flights). The unique combination of Life Science research facilities, laboratories, and equipment at Ames Research Center are described in detail in relation to their research contributions.

  19. Life Science Research In Space: The Spacelab Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, R. M.; Cramer, D. B.; Reid, D. H.

    1982-02-01

    This manuscript summarizes the events leading to the first Spacelab mission dedicated exclusively to life sciences experimentation. This mission is currently planned for a Space Shuttle flight in the 1984-1985 time frame. Following publication of a NASA Announce ment of Opportunity in 1978, approximately 400 proposals were received from researchers in universities, government laboratories, and industrial firms both in the U. S. and abroad. In 1979, 87 candidate experiments were selected for definition studies to identify the detailed resources which would need to be accommodated by the Spacelab. These proposals addressed problems encountered in man's previous space flight experience, such as space motion sickness, cardiovascular deconditioning, muscle wasting, calcium loss and a reduction in red cell mass. Additionally, experiments were selected in areas of bioengineering, behavior and performance, Plant physiology, and cell biology. Animal species (rodents and small primates) to be investigated will be housed in a specially-developed animal holding facility which will provide all life support requirements for the animals. Human subjects will consist of a Mission Specialist Astronaut and up to four Payload Specialists. Plant species will be housed in Plant Growth Units. A general purpose work station and biological containment facility will provide the working area for much of the in-space experimentation. A comprehensive array of flight qualified laboratory equipment will be made available by NASA to Principal Investigators for in-flight use by the Payload Specialists. This equipment includes microscopes, biotelemetry systems, cameras, centrifuges, refrigerators, and similar equipment. All of this equipment has been designed for use in weightlessness. The process to develop a primary payload of about 20 experiments is now underway for Spacelab mission number four, the first dedicated life sciences flight. Under the overall guidance of NASA Headquarters

  20. The International Space Station human life sciences experiment implementation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, L. J.; Haven, C. P.; McCollum, S. G.; Lee, A. M.; Kamman, M. R.; Baumann, D. K.; Anderson, M. E.; Buderer, M. C.

    2001-01-01

    The selection, definition, and development phases of a Life Sciences flight research experiment has been consistent throughout the past decade. The implementation process, however, has changed significantly within the past two years. This change is driven primarily by the shift from highly integrated, dedicated research missions on platforms with well defined processes to self contained experiments with stand alone operations on platforms which are being concurrently designed. For experiments manifested on the International Space Station (ISS) and/or on short duration missions, the more modular, streamlined, and independent the individual experiment is, the more likely it is to be successfully implemented before the ISS assembly is completed. During the assembly phase of the ISS, science operations are lower in priority than the construction of the station. After the station has been completed, it is expected that more resources will be available to perform research. The complexity of implementing investigations increases with the logistics needed to perform the experiment. Examples of logistics issues include- hardware unique to the experiment; large up and down mass and volume needs; access to crew and hardware during the ascent or descent phases; maintenance of hardware and supplies with a limited shelf life,- baseline data collection schedules with lengthy sessions or sessions close to the launch or landing; onboard stowage availability, particularly cold stowage; and extensive training where highly proficient skills must be maintained. As the ISS processes become better defined, experiment implementation will meet new challenges due to distributed management, on-orbit resource sharing, and adjustments to crew availability pre- and post-increment. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Visions of the Future: Chemistry and Life Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, J. Michael T.

    2001-07-01

    What does the future of science hold? Who is making the discoveries that will help shape this future? What areas of research show the greatest promise? Find definitive and insightful answers to such questions as these in the three volumes of Visions of the Future: Astronomy and Earth Science, Chemistry and Life Science, and Physics and Electronics. Representing a careful selection of authoritative articles published in a special issue of Philosophical Transactions--the world's longest-running scientific journal--the chapters explore such themes as: -- The Big Bang -- Humankind's exploration of the solar system -- The deep interior of the Earth -- Global warming and climate change -- Atoms and molecules in motion -- New materials and processes -- Nature's secrets of biological growth and form -- Understanding the human body and mind -- Quantum physics and its relationship to relativity theory and human consciousness -- Exotic quantum computing and data storage -- Telecommunications and the Internet Written by leading young scientists, the timely contributions convey the excitement and enthusiasm that they have for their research and a preview of future research directions. J.M.T. Thompson is Professor of Nonlinear Dynamics and Director of the Center for Nonlinear Dynamics at University College London. Professor Thompson has published widely on instabilities, bifurcations, catastrophe theory and chaos. He was a Senior SERC Fellow, served on the IMA Council, and, in 1985, was awarded the Ewing Medal of the Institution of Civil Engineers. Currently, he is Editor of the Royal Society's Philosophical Transactions (Series A) which is the world's longest running scientific journal.

  2. Incorporating Genomics and Bioinformatics across the Life Sciences Curriculum

    SciTech Connect

    Ditty, Jayna L.; Kvaal, Christopher A.; Goodner, Brad; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; Bailey, Cheryl; Britton, Robert A.; Gordon, Stuart G.; Heinhorst, Sabine; Reed, Kelynne; Xu, Zhaohui; Sanders-Lorenz, Erin R.; Axen, Seth; Kim, Edwin; Johns, Mitrick; Scott, Kathleen; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

    2011-08-01

    Undergraduate life sciences education needs an overhaul, as clearly described in the National Research Council of the National Academies publication BIO 2010: Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists. Among BIO 2010's top recommendations is the need to involve students in working with real data and tools that reflect the nature of life sciences research in the 21st century. Education research studies support the importance of utilizing primary literature, designing and implementing experiments, and analyzing results in the context of a bona fide scientific question in cultivating the analytical skills necessary to become a scientist. Incorporating these basic scientific methodologies in undergraduate education leads to increased undergraduate and post-graduate retention in the sciences. Toward this end, many undergraduate teaching organizations offer training and suggestions for faculty to update and improve their teaching approaches to help students learn as scientists, through design and discovery (e.g., Council of Undergraduate Research [www.cur.org] and Project Kaleidoscope [www.pkal.org]). With the advent of genome sequencing and bioinformatics, many scientists now formulate biological questions and interpret research results in the context of genomic information. Just as the use of bioinformatic tools and databases changed the way scientists investigate problems, it must change how scientists teach to create new opportunities for students to gain experiences reflecting the influence of genomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics on modern life sciences research. Educators have responded by incorporating bioinformatics into diverse life science curricula. While these published exercises in, and guidelines for, bioinformatics curricula are helpful and inspirational, faculty new to the area of bioinformatics inevitably need training in the theoretical underpinnings of the algorithms. Moreover, effectively integrating bioinformatics into

  3. Toward an Ecosystem for Innovation in a Newly Industrialized Economy: Singapore and the Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Poh-Kam

    2006-01-01

    In the late 1990s the Singapore government embarked on a set of far-reaching strategies intended to develop the city-state into one of the major life science R&D and industrial clusters in Asia. Besides efforts to attract leading overseas life science companies to establish operations in Singapore, the government has developed new life science…

  4. Challenges and Opportunities for Education about Dual Use Issues in the Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Challenges and Opportunities for Education About Dual Use Issues in the Life Sciences workshop was held to engage the life sciences community on the particular security issues related to research with dual use potential. More than 60 participants from almost 30 countries took part and included practicing life scientists, bioethics and…

  5. CURRICULUM GUIDES IN BIOLOGY--LIFE SCIENCE, BIOLOGY--GENERAL, AND BIOLOGY--ADVANCED PLACEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WESNER, GORDON E.; AND OTHERS

    "BIOLOGY--LIFE SCIENCE" IS GEARED TO STUDENTS OF AVERAGE ABILITY, "BIOLOGY--GENERAL" IS OFFERED FOR THOSE WHO HAVE COMPLETED "BIOLOGY--GENERAL" IN GRADES 10 OR 11 AND WHO WISH TO PURSUE COLLEGE LEVEL STUDY WHILE IN GRADE 12. THE NONTECHNICAL "BIOLOGY--LIFE SCIENCE" HAS OUTLINED UNITS IN ORGANIZING FOOD, ORGAN SYSTEMS, HEALTH, CONTINUANCE OF LIFE,…

  6. Case study of science teaching in an elementary school: Characteristics of an exemplary science teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Huey-Lien

    Improving the quality of science teaching is one of the greatest concerns in recent science education reform efforts. Many science educators suggest that case studies of exemplary science teachers may provide guidance for these reform efforts. For this reason, the characteristics of exemplary science teaching practices have been identified in recent years. However, the literature lacks research exploring exemplary teacher beliefs about the nature of science and science pedagogy, the relationships between their beliefs and practices, or how outstanding teachers overcome difficulties in order to facilitate their students' science learning. In this study, Sam-Yu, an identified exemplary science teacher who teaches in an elementary school in Pintung, Taiwan, was the subject. An interpretative research design (Erickson, 1986) based on principles of naturalistic inquiry (Lincoln & Guba, 1985) was used. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were employed in this case study. The qualitative method involved conducting interviews with the teacher and students, observing classroom activities and analyzing the structure of the learning materials. The quantitative methods involved using the Learning Climate Inventory (LCI) (Lin, 1997) instrument to assess the learning environment of the exemplary science classroom. This study found that Sam-Yu had a blend of views on the nature of science and a varied knowledge about science pedagogy. Personal preferences, past experiences, and the national science curriculum all played important roles in the development and refinement of Sam-Yu's beliefs about science and pedagogy. Regarding his teaching practices, Sam-Yu provided the best learning experiences, as evidenced in both classroom observations and the survey results, for his students by using a variety of strategies. In addition, his classroom behaviors were highly associated with his beliefs about science and pedagogy. However, due to school-based and socio-cultural constraints

  7. Biographical Sources in the Sciences--Life, Earth and Physical Sciences (1989-2006). LC Science Tracer Bullet. TB 06-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitag, Ruth, Comp.; Bradley, Michelle Cadoree, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This guide offers a systematic approach to the wide variety of published biographical information on men and women of science in the life, earth and physical sciences, primarily from 1989 to 2006, and complements Library of Congress Science Tracer Bullet "TB88-3" ("Biographical Sources in the Sciences," compiled 1988 [ED306074]) and "TB06-7"…

  8. Environmental control and life support systems analysis for a Space Station life sciences animal experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    So, Kenneth T.; Hall, John B., Jr.; Thompson, Clifford D.

    1987-01-01

    NASA's Langley and Goddard facilities have evaluated the effects of animal science experiments on the Space Station's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) by means of computer-aided analysis, assuming an animal colony consisting of 96 rodents and eight squirrel monkeys. Thirteen ECLSS options were established for the reclamation of metabolic oxygen and waste water. Minimum cost and weight impacts on the ECLSS are found to accrue to the system's operation in off-nominal mode, using electrochemical CO2 removal and a static feed electrolyzer for O2 generation.

  9. Enabling human exploration of space - A life sciences overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaiser, Karen K.; Sulzman, Frank M.

    1989-01-01

    In the transition from the short-duration missions of the Space Shuttle era to long-duration exploration missions, the health and safety of crewmembers must be ensured. The body undergoes many complex physiological changes as a result of its adaptation to a microgravity environment and U.S. and Soviet experiences have shown that time is required for readaptation to gravity. The consequences of these changes for the extended exploration missions envisioned for the future are unknown. A Mars mission may require crewmembers to spend many months in microgravity, and then work effectively in a one-third gravity environment. Other problems may arise when returning crewmembers must readapt to earth's gravity. Life Sciences activities are being planned to systematically address the physiological issues involved with long-term manned exploration missions, through ground-based studies and flight investigations on the Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. The areas of focus are artificial gravity, radiation, health care, and space human factors.

  10. Spacelab mission 4 - The first dedicated life sciences mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, T. W.; Reid, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Plans for the first Spacelab-4 mission dedicated entirely to the life sciences, are reviewed. The thrust of the scientific mission scheduled for late 1985 will be to study the acute effects of weightlessness on living systems, particularly humans. The payload of the Spacelab compartment will contain 24 experiments of which approximately half will involve humans. Among the major areas of interest are cardiovascular and pulmonary function, vestibular function, renal and endocrine physiology, hematology, nitrogen balance, immunological function, the gravitational biology of plants, inflight fertilization of frogs' eggs and the effects of zero gravity on monkeys and rats. In selecting the array of experiments an effort was made to combine investigations with complementary scientific objectives to develop animal models of human biological problems.

  11. Schema driven assignment and implementation of life science identifiers (LSIDs).

    PubMed

    Bafna, Sapna; Humphries, Julian; Miranker, Daniel P

    2008-10-01

    Life science identifier (LSID) is a global unique identifier standard intended to help rationalize the unique archival requirements of biological data. We describe LSID implementation architecture such that data managed by a relational database management system may be integrated with the LSID protocol as an add-on layer. The approach requires a database administrator (DBA) to specify an export schema detailing the content and structure of the archived data, and a mapping of the existing database to that schema. This specification can be expressed using SQL view syntax. In effect, we define a SQL-like language for implementing LSIDs. We describe the mapping of the view definition to an implementation as a set of databases triggers and a fixed runtime library. Thus a compiler for a domain-specific language could be written that would reduce the implementation of LSIDs to the task of writing SQL view-like definitions. PMID:18599379

  12. Life science research in space - The Spacelab era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, R. M.; Cramer, D. B.; Reid, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    The events leading up to Spacelab mission 4, which is to be dedicated exclusively to life sciences experimentation in 1984-85, are described. Out of 400 experiment proposals initially received and assessed, 87 candidates were chosen for definition studies to identify the resources which would be required. These proposals addressed such problems encountered in previous space flights as space motion sickness, cardiovascular deconditioning and muscle wasting, calcium loss, and red cell mass reduction. Additional experiments were selected from bioengineering, plant physiology, and cell biology. Human subjects will consist of a Mission Specialist Astronaut and up to four Payload Specialists. Equipment to be used in experimentation includes biotelemetry systems, microscopes, cameras, centrifuges and refrigerators, all of which have been designed for use in weightless conditions. The 87 candidate experiments will be further reduced to about 20.

  13. At the dawn of a new revolution in life sciences

    PubMed Central

    Baluška, František; Witzany, Guenther

    2013-01-01

    In a recently published article Sydney Brenner argued that the most relevant scientific revolution in biology at his time was the breakthrough of the role of “information” in biology. The fundamental concept that integrates this new biological “information” with matter and energy is the universal Turing machine and von Neumann’s self-reproducing machines. In this article we demonstrate that in contrast to Turing/von Neumann machines living cells can really reproduce themselves. Additionally current knowledge on the roles of non-coding RNAs indicates a radical violation of the central dogma of molecular biology and opens the way to a new revolution in life sciences. PMID:23710294

  14. Development of life sciences equipment for microgravity and hypergravity simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulenburg, G. M.; Evans, J.; Vasques, M.; Gundo, D. P.; Griffith, J. B.; Harper, J.; Skundberg, T.

    1994-01-01

    The mission of the Life Science Division at the NASA Ames Research Center is to investigate the effects of gravity on living systems in the spectrum from cells to humans. The range of these investigations is from microgravity, as experienced in space, to Earth's gravity, and hypergravity. Exposure to microgravity causes many physiological changes in humans and other mammals including a headward shift of body fluids, atrophy of muscles - especially the large muscles of the legs - and changes in bone and mineral metabolism. The high cost and limited opportunity for research experiments in space create a need to perform ground based simulation experiments on Earth. Models that simulate microgravity are used to help identify and quantify these changes, to investigate the mechanisms causing these changes and, in some cases, to develop countermeasures.

  15. The International Space Station human life sciences experiment implementation process.

    PubMed

    Miller, L J; Haven, C P; McCollum, S G; Lee, A M; Kamman, M R; Baumann, D K; Anderson, M E; Buderer, M C

    2001-01-01

    The selection, definition, and development phases of a Life Sciences flight research experiment has been consistent throughout the past decade. The implementation process, however, has changed significantly within the past two years. This change is driven primarily by the shift from highly integrated, dedicated research missions on platforms with well defined processes to self contained experiments with stand alone operations on platforms which are being concurrently designed. For experiments manifested on the International Space Station (ISS) and/or on short duration missions, the more modular, streamlined, and independent the individual experiment is, the more likely it is to be successfully implemented before the ISS assembly is completed. During the assembly phase of the ISS, science operations are lower in priority than the construction of the station. After the station has been completed, it is expected that more resources will be available to perform research. The complexity of implementing investigations increases with the logistics needed to perform the experiment. Examples of logistics issues include- hardware unique to the experiment; large up and down mass and volume needs; access to crew and hardware during the ascent or descent phases; maintenance of hardware and supplies with a limited shelf life,- baseline data collection schedules with lengthy sessions or sessions close to the launch or landing; onboard stowage availability, particularly cold stowage; and extensive training where highly proficient skills must be maintained. As the ISS processes become better defined, experiment implementation will meet new challenges due to distributed management, on-orbit resource sharing, and adjustments to crew availability pre- and post-increment. PMID:11669134

  16. The uses of radiotracers in the life sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruth, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Radionuclides have been used to follow physical, chemical and biological processes almost from the time of their discovery. Probably the application with the biggest impact has been in the medical field where radionuclides have been incorporated into biologically active molecules and used to diagnose a wide variety of diseases and to treat many disorders. Other uses in the life sciences, in general, are related to using a radioactive isotope as marker for an existing species such as nitrogen-13 in plant studies or copper-67 to track copper catalysts in phytoplankton. This review describes in general terms these uses as well as providing the reader with the background related to the physical properties of radioactive decay, the concepts associated with the production of radionuclides using reactors or accelerators and the fundamentals of imaging radioactivity. The advances in imaging technology in recent years has had a profound impact on the use of radionuclides in positron emission tomography and the coupling of other imaging modalities to provide very precise insights into human disease. The variety of uses for radiotracers in science is almost boundless dependent only upon ones imagination.

  17. Elite male faculty in the life sciences employ fewer women.

    PubMed

    Sheltzer, Jason M; Smith, Joan C

    2014-07-15

    Women make up over one-half of all doctoral recipients in biology-related fields but are vastly underrepresented at the faculty level in the life sciences. To explore the current causes of women's underrepresentation in biology, we collected publicly accessible data from university directories and faculty websites about the composition of biology laboratories at leading academic institutions in the United States. We found that male faculty members tended to employ fewer female graduate students and postdoctoral researchers (postdocs) than female faculty members did. Furthermore, elite male faculty--those whose research was funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, who had been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, or who had won a major career award--trained significantly fewer women than other male faculty members. In contrast, elite female faculty did not exhibit a gender bias in employment patterns. New assistant professors at the institutions that we surveyed were largely comprised of postdoctoral researchers from these prominent laboratories, and correspondingly, the laboratories that produced assistant professors had an overabundance of male postdocs. Thus, one cause of the leaky pipeline in biomedical research may be the exclusion of women, or their self-selected absence, from certain high-achieving laboratories. PMID:24982167

  18. Definition of Life Sciences laboratories for shuttle/Spacelab. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Research requirements and the laboratories needed to support a Life Sciences research program during the shuttle/Spacelab era were investigated. A common operational research equipment inventory was developed to support a comprehensive but flexible Life Sciences program. Candidate laboratories and operational schedules were defined and evaluated in terms of accomodation with the Spacelab and overall program planning. Results provide a firm foundation for the initiation of a life science program for the shuttle era.

  19. [Extension of life: the apotheosis of the molecular biomedical sciences?].

    PubMed

    Vijg, J

    1990-10-01

    Evolutionary biologists have shown that many of the adverse effects associated with the ageing process are the (by)products of certain genes: the manifestation of the negative effects of these genes only late in life has effectively constrained their elimination from the germ line by natural selection. In addition, during evolution genes have evolved that govern mechanisms for the protection of the body against exogenous and endogenous insults. These two types of genes, in interaction both with themselves and with the environment specify the maximum life span of a species. New scientific developments, especially in molecular biology, allow the careful analysis of the genetic information and its manipulation. On the basis of these developments more insight will be obtained in the causes of ageing and it will be possible to design new therapies for many of the adverse effects associated with ageing. In the long term it may be possible to remove the basic causes of ageing by genetic manipulation. The mission of the biomedical sciences may then be considered as completed. PMID:2251720

  20. Investment and Return in International Space Life Sciences Research Cooperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPhee, Jancy C.; White, Ronald J.

    2007-01-01

    Today, a worldwide community of life scientists interested in space research is attempting to improve the understanding of general biological processes, aid the development of procedures to reduce the biomedically-related risks of space flight, and/or directly support the health care of people who fly in space. Unfortunately, limited resource and subject availability and the technical challenges of performing space experiments have all hampered the full growth and development of space life sciences research. For many years, international cooperation in this field has been considered an attractive approach towards overcoming some of these difficulties, since pooling resources and sharing results would enhance the knowledge of all cooperating partners. International cooperative activities, however, require an investment by each partner and, just as in many other endeavors, the research gain can be directly related to the investment made. In this paper, the authors will discuss three possible levels of cooperation: sharing of data from independent investigations, harmonious integration of pre-designed independent investigations, and de novo design of an integrated suite of investigations using a joint investigator team. The degree of investment and potential return for each level of cooperation will be described.

  1. [The role of ideas in knowledge and life sciences].

    PubMed

    Viniegra-Velázquez, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper about the role of ideas within knowledge, the importance of identifying theoretical problems beyond empirical ones (scientific facts) are emphasized. Theoretical problems arise when we reflect upon what underlies scientific discourse: a) Paradigms that rule logical thought and way of understanding. b) Inveterate beliefs and convictions. c) Universally accepted theories considered the objective reality. The paradigm proposed by E. Morin of disjunction, reduction, simplification and exclusion (DRSE) is discussed, as well as its effects in the splitting of humanistic culture from science and the predominance of analytical tradition in exclusion of the synthetic one in scientific research. The premises of neopositivism that rule scientific work are criticized and alternatives that recognize the importance of explicative ideas are proposed. By arguing that intellectual possibilities depend on ideas, it is highlighted the approaching quality of every theory and its potential contributions: comprehension, explication, understanding and description. The DRSE paradigm underlines mechanism which is the prevailing approach to understand living beings in both health and illness (the optimized machine and the broken down one), and the mechanist causality (MC) used to identify causes of disease and its natural history. The attributes of MC are described, demonstrating its limitations to understand human life and its vicissitudes. Alternative theories to understand both health and disease such as: cultural history of disease, the environment interiorization and anticipation theory and the contextual causality, are introduced and discussed briefly. The text concludes with the importance of recognizing theoretical problems along the way of knowledge about life, health and disease. PMID:24960329

  2. Evaluation of an international doctoral educational program in space life sciences: The Helmholtz Space Life Sciences Research School (SpaceLife) in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellweg, C. E.; Spitta, L. F.; Kopp, K.; Schmitz, C.; Reitz, G.; Gerzer, R.

    2016-01-01

    Training young researchers in the field of space life sciences is essential to vitalize the future of spaceflight. In 2009, the DLR Institute of Aerospace Medicine established the Helmholtz Space Life Sciences Research School (SpaceLife) in cooperation with several universities, starting with 22 doctoral candidates. SpaceLife offered an intensive three-year training program for early-stage researchers from different fields (biology, biomedicine, biomedical engineering, physics, sports, nutrition, plant and space sciences). The candidates passed a multistep selection procedure with a written application, a self-presentation to a selection committee, and an interview with the prospective supervisors. The selected candidates from Germany as well as from abroad attended a curriculum taught in English. An overview of space life sciences was given in a workshop with introductory lectures on space radiation biology and dosimetry, space physiology, gravitational biology and astrobiology. The yearly Doctoral Students' Workshops were also interdisciplinary. During the first Doctoral Students' Workshop, every candidate presented his/her research topic including hypothesis and methods to be applied. The progress report was due after ∼1.5 years and a final report after ∼3 years. The candidates specialized in their subfield in advanced lectures, Journal Clubs, practical trainings, lab exchanges and elective courses. The students attended at least one transferable skills course per year, starting with a Research Skills Development course in the first year, a presentation and writing skills course in the second year, and a career and leadership course in the third year. The whole program encompassed 303 h and was complemented by active conference participation. In this paper, the six years' experience with this program is summarized in order to guide other institutions in establishment of structured Ph.D. programs in this field. The curriculum including elective courses is

  3. Ames Life Science Data Archive: Translational Rodent Research at Ames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Alan E.; French, Alison J.; Ngaotheppitak, Ratana; Leung, Dorothy M.; Vargas, Roxana S.; Maese, Chris; Stewart, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The Life Science Data Archive (LSDA) office at Ames is responsible for collecting, curating, distributing and maintaining information pertaining to animal and plant experiments conducted in low earth orbit aboard various space vehicles from 1965 to present. The LSDA will soon be archiving data and tissues samples collected on the next generation of commercial vehicles; e.g., SpaceX & Cygnus Commercial Cargo Craft. To date over 375 rodent flight experiments with translational application have been archived by the Ames LSDA office. This knowledge base of fundamental research can be used to understand mechanisms that affect higher organisms in microgravity and help define additional research whose results could lead the way to closing gaps identified by the Human Research Program (HRP). This poster will highlight Ames contribution to the existing knowledge base and how the LSDA can be a resource to help answer the questions surrounding human health in long duration space exploration. In addition, it will illustrate how this body of knowledge was utilized to further our understanding of how space flight affects the human system and the ability to develop countermeasures that negate the deleterious effects of space flight. The Ames Life Sciences Data Archive (ALSDA) includes current descriptions of over 700 experiments conducted aboard the Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), NASA/MIR, Bion/Cosmos, Gemini, Biosatellites, Apollo, Skylab, Russian Foton, and ground bed rest studies. Research areas cover Behavior and Performance, Bone and Calcium Physiology, Cardiovascular Physiology, Cell and Molecular Biology, Chronobiology, Developmental Biology, Endocrinology, Environmental Monitoring, Gastrointestinal Physiology, Hematology, Immunology, Life Support System, Metabolism and Nutrition, Microbiology, Muscle Physiology, Neurophysiology, Pharmacology, Plant Biology, Pulmonary Physiology, Radiation Biology, Renal, Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology, and Toxicology. These

  4. New challenges for Life Sciences flight project management.

    PubMed

    Huntoon, C L

    1999-01-01

    Scientists have conducted studies involving human spaceflight crews for over three decades. These studies have progressed from simple observations before and after each flight to sophisticated experiments during flights of several weeks up to several months. The findings from these experiments are available in the scientific literature. Management of these flight experiments has grown into a system fashioned from the Apollo Program style, focusing on budgeting, scheduling and allocation of human and material resources. While these areas remain important to the future, the International Space Station (ISS) requires that the Life Sciences spaceflight experiments expand the existing project management methodology. The use of telescience with state-the-art information technology and the multi-national crews and investigators challenges the former management processes. Actually conducting experiments on board the ISS will be an enormous undertaking and International Agreements and Working Groups will be essential in giving guidance to the flight project management Teams forged in this matrix environment must be competent to make decisions and qualified to work with the array of engineers, scientists, and the spaceflight crews. In order to undertake this complex task, data systems not previously used for these purposes must be adapted so that the investigators and the project management personnel can all share in important information as soon as it is available. The utilization of telescience and distributed experiment operations will allow the investigator to remain involved in their experiment as well as to understand the numerous issues faced by other elements of the program The complexity in formation and management of project teams will be a new kind of challenge for international science programs. Meeting that challenge is essential to assure success of the International Space Station as a laboratory in space. PMID:11542522

  5. New challenges for Life Sciences flight project management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntoon, C. L.

    1999-01-01

    Scientists have conducted studies involving human spaceflight crews for over three decades. These studies have progressed from simple observations before and after each flight to sophisticated experiments during flights of several weeks up to several months. The findings from these experiments are available in the scientific literature. Management of these flight experiments has grown into a system fashioned from the Apollo Program style, focusing on budgeting, scheduling and allocation of human and material resources. While these areas remain important to the future, the International Space Station (ISS) requires that the Life Sciences spaceflight experiments expand the existing project management methodology. The use of telescience with state-the-art information technology and the multi-national crews and investigators challenges the former management processes. Actually conducting experiments on board the ISS will be an enormous undertaking and International Agreements and Working Groups will be essential in giving guidance to the flight project management Teams forged in this matrix environment must be competent to make decisions and qualified to work with the array of engineers, scientists, and the spaceflight crews. In order to undertake this complex task, data systems not previously used for these purposes must be adapted so that the investigators and the project management personnel can all share in important information as soon as it is available. The utilization of telescience and distributed experiment operations will allow the investigator to remain involved in their experiment as well as to understand the numerous issues faced by other elements of the program The complexity in formation and management of project teams will be a new kind of challenge for international science programs. Meeting that challenge is essential to assure success of the International Space Station as a laboratory in space.

  6. Life in conflict: Characteristics of Depression in Kashmir

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Syed; Khan, A.W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Mental, physical and social health, are vital strands of life that are closely interwoven and deeply interdependent. Mental disorders affect people of all countries and societies, individuals at all ages, women and men, the rich and the poor, from urban and rural environments. Depression is more likely following particular classes of experience – those involving conflict, disruption, losses and experiences of humiliation or entrapment. Many people living amidst the rages of conflict suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder. Objective: To determine the characteristics of depression in the population in Kashmir where a low-intensity-conflict has been going on for the last seventeen years. Methods: The non-combatant civilian population was surveyed. The Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale was used to measure symptoms of depression in community populations. Results: Due to continuing conflict in Kashmir during the last 18 years there has been a phenomenal increase in psychiatric morbidity. The results reveal that the prevalence of depression is 55.72%. The prevalence is highest (66.67%) in the 15 to 25 years age group, followed by 65.33% in the 26 to 35 years age group. The difference in the prevalence of depression among males and females is significant. Depression is much higher in rural areas (84.73%) as compared to urban areas (15.26%). In rural areas the prevalence of depression among females is higher (93.10 %) as compared to males (6.8%). Conclusion: Mental health is an integral part of overall health and quality of life. Effective evidence-based programs and policies are available to promote mental health, enhance resilience, reduce risk factors, increase protective factors, and prevent mental and behavioural disorders. Innovative community-based health programmes which are culturally and gender appropriate and reaches out to all segments of the population need to be developed. Substantial and sustainable improvements can

  7. Discourse in science communities: Issues of language, authority, and gender in a life sciences laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conefrey, Theresa Catherine

    Government-sponsored and private research initiatives continue to document the underrepresentation of women in the sciences. Despite policy initiatives, women's attrition rates each stage of their scientific careers remain higher than those of their male colleagues. In order to improve retention rates more information is needed about why many drop out or do not succeed as well as they could. While broad sociological studies and statistical surveys offer a valuable overview of institutional practices, in-depth qualitative analyses are needed to complement these large-scale studies. This present study goes behind statistical generalizations about the situation of women in science to explore the actual experience of scientific socialization and professionalization. Beginning with one reason often cited by women who have dropped out of science: "a bad lab experience," I explore through detailed observation in a naturalistic setting what this phrase might actually mean. Using ethnographic and discourse analytic methods, I present a detailed analysis of the discourse patterns in a life sciences laboratory group at a large research university. I show how language accomplishes the work of indexing and constituting social constraints, of maintaining or undermining the hierarchical power dynamics of the laboratory, of shaping members' presentation of self, and of modeling social and professional skills required to "do science." Despite the widespread conviction among scientists that "the mind has no sex," my study details how gender marks many routine interactions in the lab, including an emphasis on competition, a reinforcement of sex-role stereotypes, and a conversational style that is in several respects more compatible with men's than women's forms of talk.

  8. A Strategy for Reorientation of Post-Graduate Courses in Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayaraman, J.

    1975-01-01

    The Binational Conference on Life Sciences in Bangalore in 1971 made recommendations for reorganization of teaching and research in life sciences (e.g. integration of botany and zoology departments). The author notes administrative reasons why changes have not been implemented and outlines notes administrative reasons why changes have not been…

  9. Computer Literacy for Life Sciences: Helping the Digital-Era Biology Undergraduates Face Today's Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolinski, Tomasz G.

    2010-01-01

    Computer literacy plays a critical role in today's life sciences research. Without the ability to use computers to efficiently manipulate and analyze large amounts of data resulting from biological experiments and simulations, many of the pressing questions in the life sciences could not be answered. Today's undergraduates, despite the ubiquity of…

  10. Changing Lives: The Baltimore City Community College Life Sciences Partnership with the University of Maryland, Baltimore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Vanessa G.; Harris-Bondima, Michelle; Norris, Kathleen Kennedy; Williams, Carolane

    2010-01-01

    Baltimore City Community College (BCCC) leveraged heightened student interest and enrollment in the sciences and allied health with Maryland's world-leading biotechnology industry to build a community college life sciences learning and research center right on the University of Maryland, Baltimore's downtown BioPark campus. The BCCC Life Sciences…

  11. Introducing Molecular Life Science Students to Model Building Using Computer Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, Tinri; Kettenis, Dik; Sessink, Olivier; Hartog, Rob; Bisseling, Ton; Janssen, Fred

    2006-01-01

    Computer simulations can facilitate the building of models of natural phenomena in research, such as in the molecular life sciences. In order to introduce molecular life science students to the use of computer simulations for model building, a digital case was developed in which students build a model of a pattern formation process in…

  12. Understanding a Pakistani Science Teacher's Practice through a Life History Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halai, Nelofer

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the single case life history study was to understand a female science teacher's conceptions of the nature of science as explicit in her practice. While this paper highlights these understandings, an additional purpose is to give a detailed account of the process of creating a life history account through more than 13 in-depth…

  13. Translating complex science into life-course health promoting strategies.

    PubMed

    Buttriss, Judith L

    2011-02-01

    These days, we are bombarded with nutrition information from diverse sources and of varying quality. There has been a dramatic increase in communication channels, including more television channels with airtime to fill, and the emergence of the Internet and 'new media' such as social networking sites. Part of this culture is to deliver ever changing and novel angles. The background 'noise' that this creates can make delivery of evidence-based advice about healthy eating that generally carries less novelty value, a huge challenge. This paper illustrates ways in which complex scientific information can be translated into meaningful health promoting strategies that can be applied across the life course. The examples used are nutrition in the context of healthy ageing, communicating the concept of energy density in the context of satiety, healthy hydration, health effects of probiotics and resources for use by teachers in the classroom. This selection of examples demonstrates the processes adopted at the British Nutrition Foundation to identify the evidence base for a particular topic and then to communicate this information to various target audiences. The British Nutrition Foundation's approach typically starts with preparation of a detailed review of the evidence, often with the involvement of external expertise, followed by peer review. For much of this work conventional science communication routes are used, but use is also made of the Internet and various forms of new media. PMID:21208499

  14. The first dedicated life sciences mission - Spacelab 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, D. R.; Reid, D. H.; Klein, H. P.

    Spacelab is a large versatile laboratory carried in the bay of the Shuttle Orbiter. The first Spacelab mission dedicated entirely to Life Sciences is known as Spacelab 4. It is scheduled for launch in late 1985 and will remain aloft for seven days. This payload consists of 25 tentatively selected investigations combined into a comprehensive integrated exploration of the effects of acute weightlessness on living systems. An emphasis is placed on studying physiological changes that have been previously observed in manned space flight. This payload has complementary designs in the human and animal investigations in order to validate animal models of human physiology in weightlessness. The experimental subjects include humans, squirrel monkeys, laboratory rats, several species of plants, and frog eggs. The primary scientific objectives include study of the acute cephalic fluid shift, cardiovascular adaptation to weightlessness, including postflight reductions in orthostatic tolerance and exercise capacity, and changes in vestibular function, including space motion sickness, associated with weightlessness. Secondary scientific objectives include the study of red cell mass reduction, negative nitrogen balance, altered calcium metabolism, suppressed in vitro lymphocyte reactivity, gravitropism and photropism in plants, and fertilization and early development in frog eggs. The rationale behind this payload, the selection process, and details of the individual investigations are presented in this paper.

  15. The first dedicated life sciences mission - Spacelab 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, D. R.; Reid, D. H.; Klein, H. P.

    1983-01-01

    The details of the payload and the experiments in Spacelab 4, the first Spacelab mission dedicated entirely to the life sciences, are discussed. The payload of Spacelab 4, carried in the bay of the Shuttle Orbiter, consists of 25 tentatively selected investigations combined into a comprehensive integrated exploration of the effects of acute weightlessness on living systems. The payload contains complementary designs in the human and animal investigations in order to validate animal models of human physiology in weightlessness. Animals used as experimental subjects will include squirrel monkeys, laboratory rats, several species of plants, and frog eggs. The main scientific objectives of the investigations include the study of the acute cephalic fluid shift, cardiovascular adaptation to weightlessness, including postflight reductions in orthostatic tolerance and exercise capacity, and changes in vestibular function, including space motion sickness, associated with weightlessness. Other scientific objective include the study of red cell mass reduction, negative nitrogen balance, altered calcium metabolism, suppressed in vitro lymphocyte reactivity, gravitropism and photropism in plants, and fertilization and early development in frog eggs.

  16. Considerations for Life Science experimentation on the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souza, K. A.; Davies, P.; Rossberg Walker, K.

    1992-01-01

    The conduct of Life Science experiments aboard the Shuttle Spacelab presents unaccustomed challenges to scientists. Not only is one confronted with the challenge of conducting an experiment in the unique microgravity environment of a orbiting spacecraft, but there are also the challenges of conducing experiments remotely, using equipment, techniques, chemicals, and materials that may differ from those standardly used in ones own laboratory. Then there is the question of "controls." How does one study the effects of altered gravitational fields on biological systems and control for other variables like vibration, acceleration, noise, temperature, humidity, and the logistics of specimen transport? Typically, the scientist new to space research has neither considered all of these potential problems nor has the data at hand with which to tackle the problems. This paper will explore some of these issues and provide pertinent data from recent Space Shuttle flights that will assist the new as well as the experienced scientist in dealing with the challenges of conducting research under spaceflight conditions.

  17. STS-42 Preflight Background Briefing Life Sciences (MSFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A panel of scientists give an overview of the experiments that are to take place on-board the STS-42 Discovery mission. Ronald J. White, International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) Program Scientist, gives a general description of why going into space with IML is so important. Robert Snyder, IML Mission Scientist, describes other aspects of the microgravity environment. Millard Reschke, Principal Investigator (PI) Microgravity Vestibular Investigation (MVI), explains what MVI is and the effects of space on the vestibular system. David Heathcote, PI for the Gravitational Plant Physiology Facility (GPPF), describes the GPPF's on-board experiment involving the effects of light and gravity on plants. Claude Brillouet, Program Scientist of the Biorack Facility, gives an overview of the Biorack equipment and experiment. Alan Mortimer, Chief Life Sciences for the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), describes the on-board experiments for the long- and short-term effects of microgravity on humans and biotechnology (cell separation techniques). The men then answer questions from the press and NASA centers.

  18. Life sciences passive GN2 freezer thermal performance test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belshaw, G. W.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal performance tests that were conducted on the life sciences passive GN2 freezer project are summarized as well as the improvements to the freezers to improve the thermal performance of the containers. Procedures were developed, based upon these tests, to initially charge the freezers with LN2 and verify that the freezer performance is adequate for the mission duration. Improvements were made to the corvac sample tube to limit the amount of breakage due to thermal expansion of the liquid during freezing. A method of verifying the freezer vacuum insulative integrity was defined as well as a procedure for refurbishment of the internal vacuum level. Freezer modifications were made to ease the reevacuation of the containers. The orientation of the freezer in a 1-G environment, after being charged, had to remain in a vertical position. The LN2 boiloff rate increased significantly in a horizontal position. This resulted in a stowage definition in the spacecraft prior to launch. Functional testing, using the SL-1 mission timeline showed that the freezer will maintain samples in the frozen state for the duration of the mission.

  19. Considerations for Life Science experimentation on the Space Shuttle.

    PubMed

    Souza, K A; Davies, P; Rossberg Walker, K

    1992-10-01

    The conduct of Life Science experiments aboard the Shuttle Spacelab presents unaccustomed challenges to scientists. Not only is one confronted with the challenge of conducting an experiment in the unique microgravity environment of a orbiting spacecraft, but there are also the challenges of conducing experiments remotely, using equipment, techniques, chemicals, and materials that may differ from those standardly used in ones own laboratory. Then there is the question of "controls." How does one study the effects of altered gravitational fields on biological systems and control for other variables like vibration, acceleration, noise, temperature, humidity, and the logistics of specimen transport? Typically, the scientist new to space research has neither considered all of these potential problems nor has the data at hand with which to tackle the problems. This paper will explore some of these issues and provide pertinent data from recent Space Shuttle flights that will assist the new as well as the experienced scientist in dealing with the challenges of conducting research under spaceflight conditions. PMID:11537654

  20. Trade secrets in life science and pharmaceutical companies.

    PubMed

    Nealey, Tara; Daignault, Ronald M; Cai, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Trade secret protection arises under state common law and state statutes. In general, a trade secret is information that is not generally known to the public and is maintained as a secret, and it provides a competitive advantage or economic benefit to the trade secret holder. Trade secrets can be worth tens or hundreds of millions of dollars, and damage awards in trade secret litigation have been high; often, there is a lot at stake. Obtaining a trade secret through "improper means" is misappropriation. If the alleged trade secret, however, was developed independently, known publicly, or not maintained as a secret, then those defenses may successfully overcome a claim for trade secret misappropriation. With today's interconnectedness in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical fields, more collaborations, joint ventures, and outsourcing arrangements among firms, and increased mobility of employees' careers, life science companies need to not only understand how to protect their trade secrets, but also know how to defend against a claim for trade secret theft. PMID:25414378

  1. Advanced Biotelemetry Systems for Space Life Sciences: PH Telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W.; Somps, Chris; Ricks, Robert; Kim, Lynn; Connolly, John P. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The SENSORS 2000! (S2K!) program at NASA's Ames Research Center is currently developing a biotelemetry system for monitoring pH and temperature in unrestrained subjects. This activity is part of a broader scope effort to provide an Advanced Biotelemetry System (ABTS) for use in future space life sciences research. Many anticipated research endeavors will require biomedical and biochemical sensors and related instrumentation to make continuous inflight measurements in a variable-gravity environment. Since crew time is limited, automated data acquisition, data processing, data storage, and subject health monitoring are required. An automated biochemical and physiological data acquisition system based on non invasive or implantable biotelemetry technology will meet these requirements. The ABTS will ultimately acquire a variety of physiological measurands including temperature, biopotentials (e.g. ECG, EEG, EMG, EOG), blood pressure, flow and dimensions, as well as chemical and biological parameters including pH. Development activities are planned in evolutionary, leveraged steps. Near-term activities include 1) development of a dual channel pH/temperature telemetry system, and 2) development of a low bandwidth, 4-channel telemetry system, that measures temperature, heart rate, pressure, and pH. This abstract describes the pH/temperature telemeter.

  2. Analogical reflection as a source for the science of life: Kant and the possibility of the biological sciences.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Dalia

    2016-08-01

    In contrast to the previously widespread view that Kant's work was largely in dialogue with the physical sciences, recent scholarship has highlighted Kant's interest in and contributions to the life sciences. Scholars are now investigating the extent to which Kant appealed to and incorporated insights from the life sciences and considering the ways he may have contributed to a new conception of living beings. The scholarship remains, however, divided in its interest: historians of science are concerned with the content of Kant's claims, and the ways in which they may or may not have contributed to the emerging science of life, while historians of philosophy focus on the systematic justifications for Kant's claims, e.g., the methodological and theoretical underpinnings of Kant's statement that living beings are mechanically inexplicable. My aim in this paper is to bring together these two strands of scholarship into dialogue by showing how Kant's methodological concerns (specifically, his notion of reflective judgment) contributed to his conception of living beings and to the ontological concern with life as a distinctive object of study. I argue that although Kant's explicit statement was that biology could not be a science, his implicit and more fundamental claim was that the study of living beings necessitates a distinctive mode of thought, a mode that is essentially analogical. I consider the implications of this view, and argue that it is by developing a new methodology for grasping organized beings that Kant makes his most important contribution to the new science of life. PMID:27474186

  3. Assessing the Life Science Knowledge of Students and Teachers Represented by the K-8 National Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Philip M.; Coyle, Harold; Cook Smith, Nancy; Miller, Jaimie; Mintzes, Joel; Tanner, Kimberly; Murray, John

    2013-01-01

    We report on the development of an item test bank and associated instruments based on the National Research Council (NRC) K-8 life sciences content standards. Utilizing hundreds of studies in the science education research literature on student misconceptions, we constructed 476 unique multiple-choice items that measure the degree to which test…

  4. Motivation in High School Science Students: A Comparison of Gender Differences in Life, Physical, and Earth Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britner, Shari L.

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine self-efficacy and other motivation variables among high school science students (n = 502); to determine the degree to which each of the four hypothesized sources of self-efficacy makes an independent contribution to students' science self-efficacy beliefs; to examine possible differences between life,…

  5. Influence of an Intensive, Field-Based Life Science Course on Preservice Teachers' Self-Efficacy for Environmental Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trauth-Nare, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Personal and professional experiences influence teachers' perceptions of their ability to implement environmental science curricula and to positively impact students' learning. The purpose of this study was twofold: to determine what influence, if any, an intensive field-based life science course and service learning had on preservice teachers'…

  6. Reference earth orbital research and applications investigations (blue book). Volume 8: Life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The functional program element for the life sciences facilities to operate aboard manned space stations is presented. The life sciences investigations will consist of the following subjects: (1) medical research, (2) vertebrate research, (3) plant research, (4) cells and tissue research, (5) invertebrate research, (6) life support and protection, and (7) man-system integration. The equipment required to provide the desired functional capability for the research facilities is defined. The goals and objectives of each research facility are described.

  7. APPENDIX AND BIBLIOGRAPHY TO BE USED WITH LIFE AND EARTH SCIENCE GUIDES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MAHLER, FRED

    CONTAINED IN THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE FOR LIFE AND EARTH SCIENCES ARE BIBLIOGRAPHIES, DEMONSTRATIONS, AND EXPERIMENTS. BOOKS ARE LISTED FOR JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE WHICH COVER A WIDE RANGE OF SUBJECTS, INCLUDING NATURE STUDY, BIOLOGY, CHEMISTRY, AND PHYSICS AS WELL AS MORE HIGHLY SPECIALIZED FIELDS OF THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES. TEXTBOOKS LISTED INCLUDE…

  8. Report, 1979-1980: Assembly of Life Sciences, National Research Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Life Sciences.

    This annual report of the Assembly of Life Sciences (ALS) covers the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1979, and ending June 30, 1980. The report has four major sections: (1) Special Programs of the Executive Office; (2) Division of Biological Sciences; (3) Division of Medical Sciences; and (4) Board on Toxicology and Environmental Health Hazards.…

  9. 1978-1979 Report: Assembly of Life Sciences, National Research Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    This annual report of the Assembly of Life Sciences (ALS) covers the fiscal year from July 1, 1978 to June 30, 1979. The report has four major sections: (1) Special Programs of the Executive Office; (2) Division of Biological Sciences; (3) Division of Medical Sciences; and (4) Board on Toxicology and Environmental Health Hazards. The activities…

  10. Ethical Issues and the Life Sciences. Test Edition. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, George H.

    This is one of several study guides on contemporary problems produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science with support of the National Science Foundation. This study guide on Ethical Issues and the Life Sciences includes the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) The Search for an Ethic; (3) Biomedical Issues including…

  11. Life sciences flight hardware development for the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, V. D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bowman, R. N.; Donovan, F. M.; Elland, C.; Fahlen, T. F.; Girten, B.; Kirven-Brooks, M.; Lagel, K.; Meeker, G. B.; Santos, O.

    During the construction phase of the International Space Station (ISS), early flight opportunities have been identified (including designated Utilization Flights, UF) on which early science experiments may be performed. The focus of NASA's and other agencies' biological studies on the early flight opportunities is cell and molecular biology; with UF-1 scheduled to fly in fall 2001, followed by flights 8A and UF-3. Specific hardware is being developed to verify design concepts, e.g., the Avian Development Facility for incubation of small eggs and the Biomass Production System for plant cultivation. Other hardware concepts will utilize those early research opportunities onboard the ISS, e.g., an Incubator for sample cultivation, the European Modular Cultivation System for research with small plant systems, an Insect Habitat for support of insect species. Following the first Utilization Flights, additional equipment will be transported to the ISS to expand research opportunities and capabilities, e.g., a Cell Culture Unit, the Advanced Animal Habitat for rodents, an Aquatic Facility to support small fish and aquatic specimens, a Plant Research Unit for plant cultivation, and a specialized Egg Incubator for developmental biology studies. Host systems (Figure 1A, B), e.g., a 2.5 m Centrifuge Rotor (g-levels from 0.01-g to 2-g) for direct comparisons between μg and selectable g levels, the Life Sciences Glove☐ for contained manipulations, and Habitat Holding Racks (Figure 1B) will provide electrical power, communication links, and cooling to the habitats. Habitats will provide food, water, light, air and waste management as well as humidity and temperature control for a variety of research organisms. Operators on Earth and the crew on the ISS will be able to send commands to the laboratory equipment to monitor and control the environmental and experimental parameters inside specific habitats. Common laboratory equipment such as microscopes, cryo freezers, radiation

  12. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 4: Life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of the Life Sciences working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The objectives of the Life Sciences investigations are: (1) to continue the research directed at understanding the origin of life and the search for extraterrestrial evidence of life, (2) biomedical research to understand mechanisms and provide criteria for support of manned flight, (3) technology development for life support, protective systems, and work aids for providing environmental control, and (4) to study basic biological functions at all levels or organization influenced by gravity, radiation, and circadian rhythms. Examples of candidate experimental schedules and the experimental package functional requirements are included.

  13. Longitudinal effects of college type and selectivity on degrees conferred upon undergraduate females in physical science, life science, math and computer science, and social science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Stacy Mckimm

    There has been much research to suggest that a single-sex college experience for female undergraduate students can increase self-confidence and leadership ability during the college years and beyond. The results of previous studies also suggest that these students achieve in the workforce and enter graduate school at higher rates than their female peers graduating from coeducational institutions. However, some researchers have questioned these findings, suggesting that it is the selectivity level of the colleges rather than the comprised gender of the students that causes these differences. The purpose of this study was to justify the continuation of single-sex educational opportunities for females at the post-secondary level by examining the effects that college selectivity, college type, and time have on the rate of undergraduate females pursuing majors in non-traditional fields. The study examined the percentage of physical science, life science, math and computer science, and social science degrees conferred upon females graduating from women's colleges from 1985-2001, as compared to those at comparable coeducational colleges. Sampling for this study consisted of 42 liberal arts women's (n = 21) and coeducational (n = 21) colleges. Variables included the type of college, the selectivity level of the college, and the effect of time on the percentage of female graduates. Doubly multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance testing revealed significant main effects for college selectivity on social science graduates, and time on both life science and math and computer science graduates. Significant interaction was also found between the college type and time on social science graduates, as well as the college type, selectivity level, and time on math and computer science graduates. Implications of the results and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  14. Silkworm expression system as a platform technology in life science.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tatsuya; Kajikawa, Mizuho; Maenaka, Katsumi; Park, Enoch Y

    2010-01-01

    Many recombinant proteins have been successfully produced in silkworm larvae or pupae and used for academic and industrial purposes. Several recombinant proteins produced by silkworms have already been commercialized. However, construction of a recombinant baculovirus containing a gene of interest requires tedious and troublesome steps and takes a long time (3-6 months). The recent development of a bacmid, Escherichia coli and Bombyx mori shuttle vector, has eliminated the conventional tedious procedures required to identify and isolate recombinant viruses. Several technical improvements, including a cysteine protease or chitinase deletion bacmid and chaperone-assisted expression and coexpression, have led to significantly increased protein yields and reduced costs for large-scale production. Terminal N-acetyl glucosamine and galactose residues were found in the N-glycan structures produced by silkworms, which are different from those generated by insect cells. Genomic elucidation of silkworm has opened a new chapter in utilization of silkworm. Transgenic silkworm technology provides a stable production of recombinant protein. Baculovirus surface display expression is one of the low-cost approaches toward silkworm larvae-derived recombinant subunit vaccines. The expression of pharmaceutically relevant proteins, including cell/viral surface proteins, membrane proteins, and guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) coupled receptors, using silkworm larvae or cocoons has become very attractive. Silkworm biotechnology is an innovative and easy approach to achieve high protein expression levels and is a very promising platform technology in the field of life science. Like the "Silkroad," we expect that the "Bioroad" from Asia to Europe will be established by the silkworm expression system. PMID:19830419

  15. Characteristic Trends of Ultrastable Oscillators for Radio Science Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmar, S. W.

    1997-01-01

    Telecommunication systems of spacecraft on deep-space missions also function as instruments for radio science experiments. Several missions augmented the radio communication system with an ultrastable oscillator (USO) in order to provide a highly stable reference signal for one-way downlink. Since the first quartz USO was flown on Voyager, the technology has advanced significantly, affording future missions higher sensitivity in reconstructing the temperature-pressure profiles of the atmospheres under study as well as the ability to study other physical phenomena of interest to radio science. The ultrastable class of oscillators has been flown on Voyagers I and II, the Galileo Orbiter, the Galileo Probe, Mars Observer, and Mars Global Surveyor. These have been quartz crystal resonators. The Cassini spacecraft will carry another quartz USO and two rubidium USOs for the Huygens Probe in support of the Doppler Wind Experiment. There are plans to fly USOs on several other future missions. This article surveys the trends in stability and spectral purity performance; design characteristics, including size and mass; and the history of these clocks in space.

  16. Predictors of Exceptional Longevity: Effects of Early-Life Childhood Conditions, Midlife Environment and Parental Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of strong predictors of mortality and longevity is very important for actuarial science and practice. Earlier studies found that parental characteristics as well as early-life conditions and midlife environment play a significant role in survival to advanced ages. However, little is known about the simultaneous effects of these three factors on longevity. This ongoing study attempts to fill this gap by comparing centenarians born in the United States in 1890–91 with peers born in the same years who died at age 65. The records for centenarians and controls were taken from computerized family histories, which were then linked to 1900 and 1930 U.S. censuses. As a result of this linkage procedure, 765 records of confirmed centenarians and 783 records of controls were obtained. Analysis with multivariate logistic regression found that parental longevity and some midlife characteristics proved to be significant predictors of longevity while the role of childhood conditions was less important. More centenarians were born in the second half of the year compared to controls, suggesting early origins of longevity. We found the existence of both general and gender-specific predictors of human longevity. General predictors common for men and women are paternal and maternal longevity. Gender-specific predictors of male longevity are the farmer occupation at age 40, Northeastern region of birth in the United States and birth in the second half of year. A gender-specific predictor of female longevity is surprisingly the availability of radio in the household according to the 1930 U.S. census. Given the importance of familial longevity as an independent predictor of survival to advanced ages, we conducted a comparative study of biological and nonbiological relatives of centenarians using a larger sample of 1,945 validated U.S. centenarians born in 1880–95. We found that male gender of centenarian has significant positive effect on survival of adult male relatives

  17. Scientists Popularizing Science: Characteristics and Impact of TED Talk Presenters

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Thelwall, Mike; Larivière, Vincent; Tsou, Andrew; Mongeon, Philippe; Macaluso, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    The TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design) conference and associated website of recorded conference presentations (TED Talks) is a highly successful disseminator of science-related videos, claiming over a billion online views. Although hundreds of scientists have presented at TED, little information is available regarding the presenters, their academic credentials, and the impact of TED Talks on the general population. This article uses bibliometric and webometric techniques to gather data on the characteristics of TED presenters and videos and analyze the relationship between these characteristics and the subsequent impact of the videos. The results show that the presenters were predominately male and non-academics. Male-authored videos were more popular and more liked when viewed on YouTube. Videos by academic presenters were more commented on than videos by others and were more liked on YouTube, although there was little difference in how frequently they were viewed. The majority of academic presenters were senior faculty, males, from United States-based institutions, were visible online, and were cited more frequently than average for their field. However, giving a TED presentation appeared to have no impact on the number of citations subsequently received by an academic, suggesting that although TED popularizes research, it may not promote the work of scientists within the academic community. PMID:23638069

  18. Medicine and science in the life of Luigi Galvani (1737-1798).

    PubMed

    Bresadola, M

    1998-07-15

    Together with its companion paper, dealing with the contribution of Luigi Galvani to the history of electrophysiology, this article provides a biographical sketch of the scientist of Bologna in the occasion of the bicentenary of his death. Studies on Galvani have focused mainly on his "discovery" of animal electricity, and on the controversy with Alessandro Volta. Much less is known about Galvani's life and activity as a teacher, physician, and researcher in the fields of comparative anatomy, physiology, and chemistry of life. Yet, a balanced assessment of the significance and the role of Galvani's research in the history of science will be possible only after a historical reconstruction of his entire activity. This should take into account aspects of Galvani's life that have been little studied up to now: Galvani's scientific background, the scientific context in which his interest for muscular physiology arose, the interplay between his activity as a researcher and as a physician, the origin and characteristics of his experimental approach to biological studies, and the development of his experimental research in the crucial period culminating in his electrophysiological explanation of muscular motion. The present article aims at offering a contribution in this direction. PMID:9739000

  19. Origins of life science teachers' beliefs underlying curriculum reform in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawley, Frank E.; Salyer, Barbara A.

    This study explores the beliefs about reform of life science teachers in central Texas who were retained to teach Coordinated Thematic Science I. In particular, we were interested in identifying the beliefs that serve as the foundation for the grade 7 life science teachers' intentions to introduce physical science activities in the life science classes they teach. To accomplish this purpose, we selected four teachers, using purposeful sampling procedures. We also adapted an empirical model for investigating rational decisionmaking, the Theory of Planned Behavior, for use in an interview format. Two additional data sources were used to triangulate our findings set out in seven assertions developed from the 52 pages of transcribed interviews. Our results call attention to the need for all three levels of education - state, district, and school - to cooperate in implementing science curriculum reform in Texas.

  20. Alien To Me? Science in Search for Life Beyond Earth and Perceptions of Alien Life in Popular Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capova, K. A.

    2013-09-01

    The paper will introduce an original piece of research that is devoted to the socio-cultural aspects of scientifi c search for life in outer space and it draws from doctoral research in anthropology of science. In this piece of research the extraterrestrial life hypothesis is conceptualized as a significant part of the general world-view, constantly shaped by the work and discoveries of science. The paper presents data from qualitative ethnographic fieldwork conducted in the UK as well as uses quantitative data from public from the USA, UK and other countries.

  1. NASA - selected life science experiments for the first NASA/ESA Spacelab flight 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    Spacelab 1 will carry 17 NASA-sponsored research projects. Seven of these investigations will concern the life sciences. Because of NASA's interest in space motion sickness, two vestibular studies will be conducted. Two other experiments will be concerned with the effects of spaceflight on the hematologic system. The fifth life science study will involve nutations in plant organs. The sixth investigation will examine the effects of the Spacelab environment on circadian rhythms in microorganisms. Finally, cosmic radiation inside the Spacelab will be mapped. These seven life science experiments represent both basic and applied areas of research.

  2. System analysis study of space platform and station accommodations for life sciences research facilities. Volume 2: Study results. Appendix D: Life sciences research facility requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, Lowell F.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this requirements document is to develop the foundation for concept development for the Life Sciences Research Facility (LSRF) on the Space Station. These requirements are developed from the perspective of a Space Station laboratory module outfitter. Science and mission requirements including those related to specimens are set forth. System requirements, including those for support, are detailed. Functional and design requirements are covered in the areas of structures, mechanisms, electrical power, thermal systems, data management system, life support, and habitability. Finally, interface requirements for the Command Module and Logistics Module are described.

  3. Effect of nursing home characteristics on residents' quality of life: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongjuan; Kane, Robert L; Shamliyan, Tatyana A

    2013-01-01

    The association between nursing home (NH) characteristics and residents' quality of life (QOL) has not been systematically reviewed. This study synthesizes published evidence about the association between NH ownership, affiliation, location, chain membership, percentage of private rooms, facility size, and staffing with residents' QOL. We searched Medline, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Scirus for primary studies published between 1960 and March 31, 2012. We critically appraised risk of bias according to study design, QOL measurements, and adjustment for residents' characteristics. We analyzed the statistical and clinical significance, direction and magnitude of the association. From 1117 citations retrieved, we found one longitudinal quasi-experimental and 10 cross-sectional eligible studies. Variability in the NH characteristics reported and QOL measurements precluded meta-analysis. Studies with low and medium risk of bias (ROB) suggested that nonprofit NHs resulted in better QOL for residents. The low ROB study indicated that in certain QOL domains, rural facilities and facilities with a higher percentage of private rooms were associated with better self-reported resident QOL. All low and medium ROB studies found that RN, LVN/LPN and total nursing staff had no significant relationship with QOL. One longitudinal quasi-experimental study indicated that the Green House with individualized care had better QOL than conventional NHs. The available evidence does not permit strong conclusions about the association between NH characteristics and residents' QOL. The evidence does, however, raise questions about whether NH structure alone can improve residents' QOL and how residents' QOL should be measured and improved. PMID:23623273

  4. Critters: K-6 Life Science Activities. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Maureen Murphy; And Others

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9. Field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS indicates that this integration produces the following beneficial results: (1) mathematics becomes more meaningful, hence more useful; (2) science is…

  5. Stopping to Squell the "Rhosus": Bringing Science Vocabulary to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    A research study conducted in an urban district middle school setting applies cognitive science principles to science vocabulary. Within the context of a personal story told by the lead investigator, the results of the study are shared and suggest that more active, engaging strategies with complex core curriculum may improve retention and…

  6. Sustainable Equity: Avoiding the Pendulum Effect in the Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Tatiana C. Tatum; Rosenthal, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand and resolve the disproportionate number of women in the sciences it is necessary to look at historical educational trends. Through the ages there is evidence of a "pendulum effect" where there have been major shifts focusing science education either on male or females. To be able to realistically establish sustainable equity…

  7. Nuffield Secondary Science, Theme 2, Continuity of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigglesworth, George

    Nuffield Secondary Science is a set of tested materials from which teachers can prepare courses for students in grades 9-11 (approximately) who do not intend to major in science. The materials are designed for British secondary schools but are adaptable to other countries. The Teachers' Guide to the entire set of Themes is described in SE 015 440…

  8. Accelerated life testing effects on CMOS microcircuit characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Accelerated life tests were performed on CMOS microcircuits to predict their long term reliability. The consistency of the CMOS microcircuit activation energy between the range of 125 C to 200 C and the range 200 C to 250 C was determined. Results indicate CMOS complexity and the amount of moisture detected inside the devices after testing influences time to failure of tested CMOS devices.

  9. From darwin to the census of marine life: marine biology as big science.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Niki

    2013-01-01

    With the development of the Human Genome Project, a heated debate emerged on biology becoming 'big science'. However, biology already has a long tradition of collaboration, as natural historians were part of the first collective scientific efforts: exploring the variety of life on earth. Such mappings of life still continue today, and if field biology is gradually becoming an important subject of studies into big science, research into life in the world's oceans is not taken into account yet. This paper therefore explores marine biology as big science, presenting the historical development of marine research towards the international 'Census of Marine Life' (CoML) making an inventory of life in the world's oceans. Discussing various aspects of collaboration--including size, internationalisation, research practice, technological developments, application, and public communication--I will ask if CoML still resembles traditional collaborations to collect life. While showing both continuity and change, I will argue that marine biology is a form of natural history: a specific way of working together in biology that has transformed substantially in interaction with recent developments in the life sciences and society. As a result, the paper does not only give an overview of transformations towards large scale research in marine biology, but also shines a new light on big biology, suggesting new ways to deepen the understanding of collaboration in the life sciences by distinguishing between different 'collective ways of knowing'. PMID:23342119

  10. Teach Life Science Concepts--with Picture Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that young children need help translating scientific theory into experiences that involve their senses. Provides age-appropriate, literature-based activities for exploring concepts and vocabulary in the areas of plant life cycles, animal life cycles, ocean ecology, and human growth development. Suggests specific works of children's…

  11. Gravitational biology and space life sciences: current status and implications for the Indian space programme.

    PubMed

    Dayanandan, P

    2011-12-01

    This paper is an introduction to gravitational and space life sciences and a summary of key achievements in the field. Current global research is focused on understanding the effects of gravity/microgravity onmicrobes, cells, plants, animals and humans. It is now established that many plants and animals can progress through several generations in microgravity. Astrobiology is emerging as an exciting field promoting research in biospherics and fabrication of controlled environmental life support systems. India is one of the 14-nation International Space Exploration Coordination Group (2007) that hopes that someday humans may live and work on other planets within the Solar System. The vision statement of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) includes planetary exploration and human spaceflight. While a leader in several fields of space science, India is yet to initiate serious research in gravitational and life sciences. Suggestions are made here for establishing a full-fledged Indian space life sciences programme. PMID:22116289

  12. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article announces the 2007 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology: Irving I. Gottesman. A brief biography, highlighting areas of special focus in Gottesman's work, is provided.

  13. Semantic Web Applications and Tools for the Life Sciences: SWAT4LS 2010

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    As Semantic Web technologies mature and new releases of key elements, such as SPARQL 1.1 and OWL 2.0, become available, the Life Sciences continue to push the boundaries of these technologies with ever more sophisticated tools and applications. Unsurprisingly, therefore, interest in the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for the Life Sciences) activities have remained high, as was evident during the third international SWAT4LS workshop held in Berlin in December 2010. Contributors to this workshop were invited to submit extended versions of their papers, the best of which are now made available in the special supplement of BMC Bioinformatics. The papers reflect the wide range of work in this area, covering the storage and querying of Life Sciences data in RDF triple stores, tools for the development of biomedical ontologies and the semantics-based integration of Life Sciences as well as clinicial data. PMID:22373274

  14. Defining a Mechanism of Educational Interface Between NASA Life Sciences the Nation's Students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberland, D.; Dreschel, T.; Coulter, G.

    1995-01-01

    Harnessing our greatest national resource, as represented by the nation's students, will require a thoughtful, well developed and administered program that includes precise, executable strategies and valid evaluation tools. Responding to a national education outreach priority, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Life and Biomedical Sciences and Applications Division has initiated a process or organizing and implementing various strategies through a steering committee that includes representatives from Headquarters and three field centers with major Life Sciences programs. The mandate of the Life Sciences Education Outreach Steering Committee is to develop ways of communicating space life science issues to America's students through the nation's teachers by curriculum enhancement and direct participation in the education process with an emphasis in the primary and secondary schools. Metrics are also developed for each individually defined process so that the mechanis can be continuously refined and improved.

  15. Semantic Web applications and tools for the life sciences: SWAT4LS 2010.

    PubMed

    Burger, Albert; Paschke, Adrian; Romano, Paolo; Marshall, M Scott; Splendiani, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    As Semantic Web technologies mature and new releases of key elements, such as SPARQL 1.1 and OWL 2.0, become available, the Life Sciences continue to push the boundaries of these technologies with ever more sophisticated tools and applications. Unsurprisingly, therefore, interest in the SWAT4LS (Semantic Web Applications and Tools for the Life Sciences) activities have remained high, as was evident during the third international SWAT4LS workshop held in Berlin in December 2010. Contributors to this workshop were invited to submit extended versions of their papers, the best of which are now made available in the special supplement of BMC Bioinformatics. The papers reflect the wide range of work in this area, covering the storage and querying of Life Sciences data in RDF triple stores, tools for the development of biomedical ontologies and the semantics-based integration of Life Sciences as well as clinicial data. PMID:22373274

  16. Investigation the Quality of Life and its Relation with Clinical and Demographic Characteristics in Women with Breast Cancer Under Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Musarezaie, Amir; Ghasemi, Tahere Momeni Ghale; Esfahani, Homayoon Naji

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study was performed to examine quality of life's dimensions and its relationship with some clinical and demographic characteristics on women with breast cancer under chemotherapy referred to the oncology hospital, Isfahan University of medical sciences, Iran. Methods: This Cross sectional study was conducted among 330 breast cancer patients with simple sampling methodology. Data collection instrument included a questionnaire contains 2 parts (clinical and demographic characteristics information and version 2.0 of the SF-36 questionnaire (the international version). The data were analyzed with 99% confidence by carried out using SPSS18 with using descriptive and analytic statistics. Results: The majority of subjects’ quality of life was moderate (53.93%). there was a statistically significant relationship between quality of life among breast cancer patients with chemotherapy sessions (P < 0.05, df =4, χ2 = 16.37). One way Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) suggested the absence of any significant relationship between quality of life with marital status (f = 0.21; P = 0.92) and employment status (f = 0.26; P = 0.77). Also, Spearman test showed the absence of any significant relationship between quality of life with age (P = 0.60), and the elapsed duration from diagnosis (P = 0.68), however Spearman test showed significant relationship between quality of life and education status (P = 0.002, r = -0.84). Conclusion: With regard to results of this study, there was a direct correlation between the number of chemotherapy sessions and patients quality of life. The attitude of the population toward chemotherapy is usually inhibiting and negative, so patients, students and nurses should be trained about chemotherapy efficacy to improve their attitude about chemotherapy, which in turn would lead to improvement of the patients’ quality of life. PMID:23272284

  17. The LIFE Cognition Study: design and baseline characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Sink, Kaycee M; Espeland, Mark A; Rushing, Julia; Castro, Cynthia M; Church, Timothy S; Cohen, Ronald; Gill, Thomas M; Henkin, Leora; Jennings, Janine M; Kerwin, Diana R; Manini, Todd M; Myers, Valerie; Pahor, Marco; Reid, Kieran F; Woolard, Nancy; Rapp, Stephen R; Williamson, Jeff D

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies have shown beneficial relationships between exercise and cognitive function. Some clinical trials have also demonstrated improvements in cognitive function in response to moderate–high intensity aerobic exercise; however, these have been limited by relatively small sample sizes and short durations. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study is the largest and longest randomized controlled clinical trial of physical activity with cognitive outcomes, in older sedentary adults at increased risk for incident mobility disability. One LIFE Study objective is to evaluate the effects of a structured physical activity program on changes in cognitive function and incident all-cause mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Here, we present the design and baseline cognitive data. At baseline, participants completed the modified Mini Mental Status Examination, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Digit Symbol Coding, Modified Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure, and a computerized battery, selected to be sensitive to changes in speed of processing and executive functioning. During follow up, participants completed the same battery, along with the Category Fluency for Animals, Boston Naming, and Trail Making tests. The description of the mild cognitive impairment/dementia adjudication process is presented here. Participants with worse baseline Short Physical Performance Battery scores (prespecified at ≤7) had significantly lower median cognitive test scores compared with those having scores of 8 or 9 with modified Mini Mental Status Examination score of 91 versus (vs) 93, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test delayed recall score of 7.4 vs 7.9, and Digit Symbol Coding score of 45 vs 48, respectively (all P<0.001). The LIFE Study will contribute important information on the effects of a structured physical activity program on cognitive outcomes in sedentary older adults at particular risk for mobility impairment. In addition to its importance in the

  18. Accelerated life testing effects on CMOS microcircuit characteristics, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maximow, B.

    1976-01-01

    An accelerated life test of sufficient duration to generate a minimum of 50% cumulative failures in lots of CMOS devices was conducted to provide a basis for determining the consistency of activation energy at 250 C. An investigation was made to determine whether any thresholds were exceeded during the high temperature testing, which could trigger failure mechanisms unique to that temperature. The usefulness of the 250 C temperature test as a predictor of long term reliability was evaluated.

  19. The LIFE Cognition Study: design and baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sink, Kaycee M; Espeland, Mark A; Rushing, Julia; Castro, Cynthia M; Church, Timothy S; Cohen, Ronald; Gill, Thomas M; Henkin, Leora; Jennings, Janine M; Kerwin, Diana R; Manini, Todd M; Myers, Valerie; Pahor, Marco; Reid, Kieran F; Woolard, Nancy; Rapp, Stephen R; Williamson, Jeff D

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies have shown beneficial relationships between exercise and cognitive function. Some clinical trials have also demonstrated improvements in cognitive function in response to moderate-high intensity aerobic exercise; however, these have been limited by relatively small sample sizes and short durations. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study is the largest and longest randomized controlled clinical trial of physical activity with cognitive outcomes, in older sedentary adults at increased risk for incident mobility disability. One LIFE Study objective is to evaluate the effects of a structured physical activity program on changes in cognitive function and incident all-cause mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Here, we present the design and baseline cognitive data. At baseline, participants completed the modified Mini Mental Status Examination, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Digit Symbol Coding, Modified Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, and a computerized battery, selected to be sensitive to changes in speed of processing and executive functioning. During follow up, participants completed the same battery, along with the Category Fluency for Animals, Boston Naming, and Trail Making tests. The description of the mild cognitive impairment/dementia adjudication process is presented here. Participants with worse baseline Short Physical Performance Battery scores (prespecified at ≤ 7) had significantly lower median cognitive test scores compared with those having scores of 8 or 9 with modified Mini Mental Status Examination score of 91 versus (vs) 93, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test delayed recall score of 7.4 vs 7.9, and Digit Symbol Coding score of 45 vs 48, respectively (all P<0.001). The LIFE Study will contribute important information on the effects of a structured physical activity program on cognitive outcomes in sedentary older adults at particular risk for mobility impairment. In addition to its importance in the

  20. NASA-Ames Life Sciences Flight Experiments program - 1980 status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, W. E.; Dant, C. C.; Macleod, G.; Williams, B. A.

    1980-01-01

    The paper deals with the ESA's Spacelab LSFE (Life Sciences Flight Experiments) program which, once operational, will provide new and unique opportunities to conduct research into the effects of spaceflight and weightlessness on living organisms under conditions approximating ground-based laboratories. Spacelab missions, launched at 18-month intervals, will enable scientists to test hypotheses from such disciplines as vestibular physiology, developmental biology, biochemistry, cell biology, plant physiology, and similar life sciences.

  1. Life sciences payload definition and integration study, task C and D. Volume 1: Management summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of a study to define the required payloads for conducting life science experiments in space are presented. The primary objectives of the study are: (1) identify research functions to be performed aboard life sciences spacecraft laboratories and necessary equipment, (2) develop conceptual designs of potential payloads, (3) integrate selected laboratory designs with space shuttle configurations, and (4) establish cost analysis of preliminary program planning.

  2. A Rationale and Outline for an Undergraduate Course on the Philosophy and History of Science for Life Science Students

    PubMed Central

    Hockberger, Philip E.; Miller, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    There are compelling reasons for teaching a philosophy of science course to undergraduate life science students. The main reason is to help them understand that modern science is not based upon a single, consistent philosophical system; nor is it based upon common sense, or a method, set of rules or formulas that can be used to make unerring predictions. Rather, science is a dynamic process that is constantly being modified and refined to reflect and encompass an ever-expanding set of hypotheses, observations, and theories. To illustrate these points, we developed a course that examined the history and philosophical underpinnings of modern science, and we discussed famous experiments that challenged the prevailing norm and led to Kuhnian revolutions in scientific thought. Building upon this knowledge, students investigated how different philosophical systems address controversial social issues in the biological sciences. They examined the teaching of intelligent design and creationism in public schools, the implications of legalized abortion and physician-assisted suicide, the potential impact of DNA fingerprinting on human rights and racism, the promise and pitfalls of stem cell research, and the neurobiological basis of consciousness and its relevance to mental health therapies and the animal rights movement. We believe undergraduate life science students should be exposed to these issues and have an opportunity to develop informed opinions about them before they graduate from college. Exploration of such topics will help them become better prepared for the inevitable public debates that they will face as science educators, researchers, and leaders of society. PMID:21289866

  3. A Rationale and Outline for an Undergraduate Course on the Philosophy and History of Science for Life Science Students.

    PubMed

    Hockberger, Philip E; Miller, Richard J

    2005-09-01

    There are compelling reasons for teaching a philosophy of science course to undergraduate life science students. The main reason is to help them understand that modern science is not based upon a single, consistent philosophical system; nor is it based upon common sense, or a method, set of rules or formulas that can be used to make unerring predictions. Rather, science is a dynamic process that is constantly being modified and refined to reflect and encompass an ever-expanding set of hypotheses, observations, and theories. To illustrate these points, we developed a course that examined the history and philosophical underpinnings of modern science, and we discussed famous experiments that challenged the prevailing norm and led to Kuhnian revolutions in scientific thought. Building upon this knowledge, students investigated how different philosophical systems address controversial social issues in the biological sciences. They examined the teaching of intelligent design and creationism in public schools, the implications of legalized abortion and physician-assisted suicide, the potential impact of DNA fingerprinting on human rights and racism, the promise and pitfalls of stem cell research, and the neurobiological basis of consciousness and its relevance to mental health therapies and the animal rights movement. We believe undergraduate life science students should be exposed to these issues and have an opportunity to develop informed opinions about them before they graduate from college. Exploration of such topics will help them become better prepared for the inevitable public debates that they will face as science educators, researchers, and leaders of society. PMID:21289866

  4. The web of life: Natural science information on the Internet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clement, Gail

    2000-01-01

    As society has come to equate economic prosperity with the health of our living resources, national science policy has called for the development of a comprehensive digital knowledge base to support informed decision making and wise resource management. The Internet and World Wide Web demonstrate the earliest stages of this evolving virtual library of the natural world, offering an increasing array of high-quality, innovative resources and services in the natural science arena. This article discusses the leading providers of natural science information on the Internet and highlights some of the exemplary resources they are delivering online. The discussion concludes with a brief discussion of the role of the librarian in developing the Web of natural science knowledge online and provides a short Webliography of starting points for further exploration of this subject area. PDF

  5. Animal Life Cycles. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. The stages of life that animals pass through--birth, growth, maturation, reproduction, and death--make up the life cycle. Students learn…

  6. Why, from a Life Sciences Perspective, This Mission to Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Christopher P.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Mars may have had water and life early in its history and this make it a key target for robotic and human exploration. Extensive human exploration of Mars will of necessity depend on life support systems that rely on agricultural plants. If current concept for recreating, a biosphere on Mars are implemented this would involve widespread use of plants, particularly species from Arctic and alpine environments.

  7. Gentlemanly men of science: Sir Francis Galton and the professionalization of the British life-sciences.

    PubMed

    Waller, J C

    2001-01-01

    Because Francis Galton (1822-1911) was a well-connected gentleman scientist with substantial private means, the importance of the role he played in the professionalization of the Victorian life-sciences has been considered anomalous. In contrast to the X-clubbers, he did not seem to have any personal need for the reforms his Darwinist colleagues were advocating. Nor for making common cause with individuals haling from social strata clearly inferior to his own. However, in ths paper I argue that Galton quite realistically discerned in the reforming endeavors of the 1860s, and beyond, the potential for considerably enhancing his own reputation and standing within both the scientific community and the broader Victorian culture. In addition, his professionalizing aspirations, and those of his reformist allies, were fully concordant with the interests, ambitions and perceived opportunities of his elite social group during the Victorian period. Professionalization appealed to gentlemen of Galton's status and financial security as much as it did to the likes of Thomas Huxley and John Tyndall, primarily because it promised to confer on the whole scientific enterprise an unprecedented level of social prestige. PMID:14513851

  8. Spacelab 1 - Scientific objectives, life sciences, space plasma physics, astronomy and solar physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    A general overview of the accomplishments of the Spacelab 1 complement to the Shuttle mission of Nov. 28, 1983, is presented. Consideration is given to scientific results in the fields of life sciences, materials sciences, atmospheric physics, and earth observations. A table is given which lists the scientific objectives and the percentage of objectives accomplished in each field.

  9. Life Skill Development Related to Participation in 4-H Animal Science Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Carol Knowlton

    1996-01-01

    Alumni of 4-H animal science programs in New Jersey were surveyed (n=52). Participation had a positive influence on life skill development, especially "accepting responsibility." Experience with shows and judging was beneficial to public speaking/job interview skills. Although many were not in animal science careers, they enjoyed related hobbies.…

  10. Career-Life Balance for Women of Color: Experiences in Science and Engineering Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachchaf, Rachel; Ko, Lily; Hodari, Apriel; Ong, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The National Science Foundation recently recognized that career-life balance in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) may present some unique challenges for women of color compared with their White and/or male counterparts, thus negatively impacting retention and advancement for a minority demographic that has long been…

  11. Los Alamos Life Sciences Division's biomedical and environmental research programs. Progress report, January-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, L.M.; Stafford, C.G.; Bolen, S.K.

    1981-09-01

    Highlights of research progress accomplished in the Life Sciences Division during the year ending December 1980 are summarized. Reports from the following groups are included: Toxicology, Biophysics, Genetics; Environmental Pathology, Organic Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences. Individual abstracts have been prepared for 46 items for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (RJC)

  12. Demonstrating Inquiry-Based Teaching Competencies in the Life Sciences--Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This set of botany demonstrations is a continuation of the inquiry-based lecture activities that provide realistic connections to the history and nature of science and employ technology in data collection. The demonstrations also provide examples of inquiry-based teaching practices in the life sciences. (Contains 5 figures.) [For Part 1, see…

  13. NARRATIVE: A short history of my life in science A short history of my life in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manson, Joseph R.

    2010-08-01

    I was certainly surprised, and felt extremely honored, when Salvador Miret-Artés suggested that he would like to organize this festschrift. Before that day I never anticipated that such an honor would come to me. I would like to thank Salvador for the large amount of time and work he has expended in organizing this special issue, the Editors of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter for making it possible, and also the contributing authors for their efforts. My family home was outside of Petersburg, Virginia in Dinwiddie County in an area that was, during my youth, largely occupied by small farms. This is a region rich in American history and our earliest ancestors on both sides of the family settled in this area, beginning in the decade after the first Virginia settlement in Jamestown. My father was an engineer and my mother was a former school teacher, and their parents were small business owners. From earliest memories I recall being interested in finding out how things worked and especially learning about the wonders of nature. These interests were fostered by my parents who encouraged such investigations during long walks, visits to friends and relatives, and trips to museums. However, my earliest memory of wanting to become a scientist is associated with a Christmas gift of a chemistry set when I was about ten years old. I was absolutely fascinated by the amazing results that could be achieved with simple chemical reactions and realized then that I wanted to do something in life that would be associated with science. The gift of that small chemistry set developed over the next few years into a serious interest in chemistry, and throughout my junior high-school years I spent nearly all the money I earned doing odd jobs for neighbors on small laboratory equipment and chemical supplies, eventually taking over our old abandoned chicken house and turning it into a small chemistry lab. I remember being somewhat frustrated at the limits, mainly financial, that kept

  14. Accelerated life testing and temperature dependence of device characteristics in GaAs CHFET devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallegos, M.; Leon, R.; Vu, D. T.; Okuno, J.; Johnson, A. S.

    2002-01-01

    Accelerated life testing of GaAs complementary heterojunction field effect transistors (CHFET) was carried out. Temperature dependence of single and synchronous rectifier CHFET device characteristics were also obtained.

  15. Learning, Unlearning and Relearning--Knowledge Life Cycles in Library and Information Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedford, Denise A. D.

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge life cycle is applied to two core capabilities of library and information science (LIS) education--teaching, and research and development. The knowledge claim validation, invalidation and integration steps of the knowledge life cycle are translated to learning, unlearning and relearning processes. Mixed methods are used to determine…

  16. Life Science. Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ., Las Vegas. Coll. of Education.

    This document is one of ten curriculum guides developed by the Nevada Competency-Based Adult High School Diploma (CBAHSD) Project. This curriculum guide on life science is divided into twelve topics. The topics included are Life Process, Cells, Levels of Organization, Organ Systems, Food and Oxygen-Photosynthesis, Cycles, Energy, Resources, Cell…

  17. Non-Stop Lab Week: A Real Laboratory Experience for Life Sciences Postgraduate Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freitas, Maria João; Silva, Joana Vieira; Korrodi-Gregório, Luís; Fardilha, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    At the Portuguese universities, practical classes of life sciences are usually professor-centered 2-hour classes. This approach results in students underprepared for a real work environment in a research/clinical laboratory. To provide students with a real-life laboratory environment, the Non-Stop Lab Week (NSLW) was created in the Molecular…

  18. Are Multimedia Resources Effective in Life Science Education? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfe, Vivien E.; Gray, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Multimedia learning is widely used in life science education where the use of pictures and text can bring complex structures and processes to life. However the impact on academic performance and deeper understanding is not well documented. We therefore carried out a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of multimedia resources in…

  19. A "Second Life" for Gross Anatomy: Applications for Multiuser Virtual Environments in Teaching the Anatomical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, April; Hazzard, Matthew; Challman, Sandra D.; Morgenstein, Aaron M.; Brueckner, Jennifer K.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the emerging role of educational multiuser virtual environments, specifically Second Life[TM], in anatomical sciences education. Virtual worlds promote inquiry-based learning and conceptual understanding, potentially making them applicable for teaching and learning gross anatomy. A short introduction to Second Life as an…

  20. Computers in Life Science Education. Volumes 1 through 4, 1984-1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modell, Harold, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Designed to serve as a means of communication among life science educators who anticipate or are currently using microcomputers as an educational tool, these four volumes of newsletters provide background information and practical suggestions on computer use in over 80 articles. Topic areas include: (1) teaching physiology and other life sciences…

  1. Life and Reliability Characteristics of TurboBrayton Coolers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breedlove, Jeff J.; Zagarola, Mark; Nellis, Greg; Dolan, Frank; Swift, Walt; Gibbon, Judith; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Wear and internal contaminants are two of the primary factors that influence reliable, long-life operation of turbo-Brayton cryocoolers. This paper describes tests that have been conducted and methods that have been developed for turbo-Brayton components and systems to assure reliable operation. The turbomachines used in these coolers employ self-acting gas bearings to support the miniature high-speed shafts, thus providing vibration-free operation. Because the bearings are self-acting, rubbing contact occurs during initial start-up and shutdown of the machines. Bearings and shafts are designed to endure multiple stop/start cycles without producing particles or surface features that would impair the proper operation of the machines. Test results are presented for a variety of turbomachines used in these systems. The tests document extended operating life and start/stop cycling behavior for machines over a range of time and temperature scales. Contaminants such as moisture and other residual gas impurities can be a source of degraded operation if they freeze out in sufficient quantities to block flow passages or if they mechanically affect the operation of the machines. A post-fabrication bakeout procedure has been successfully used to reduce residual internal contamination to acceptable levels in a closed cycle system. The process was developed during space qualification tests on the NICMOS cryocooler. Moisture levels were sampled over a six-month time interval confirming the effectiveness of the technique. A description of the bakeout procedure is presented.

  2. Do Causal Attributions Mediate the Relationship between Personality Characteristics and Life Satisfaction in Adolescence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Ben T.; Huebner, E. Scott

    2005-01-01

    This study examined relationships among personality traits, causal attributions, and global life satisfaction in a sample of 212 high school students. A chief aim of this research was to explore whether causal attributions mediate the relationship between personality characteristics and global life satisfaction as hypothesized by DeNeve and Cooper…

  3. NARRATIVE: A short history of my life in science A short history of my life in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manson, Joseph R.

    2010-08-01

    I was certainly surprised, and felt extremely honored, when Salvador Miret-Artés suggested that he would like to organize this festschrift. Before that day I never anticipated that such an honor would come to me. I would like to thank Salvador for the large amount of time and work he has expended in organizing this special issue, the Editors of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter for making it possible, and also the contributing authors for their efforts. My family home was outside of Petersburg, Virginia in Dinwiddie County in an area that was, during my youth, largely occupied by small farms. This is a region rich in American history and our earliest ancestors on both sides of the family settled in this area, beginning in the decade after the first Virginia settlement in Jamestown. My father was an engineer and my mother was a former school teacher, and their parents were small business owners. From earliest memories I recall being interested in finding out how things worked and especially learning about the wonders of nature. These interests were fostered by my parents who encouraged such investigations during long walks, visits to friends and relatives, and trips to museums. However, my earliest memory of wanting to become a scientist is associated with a Christmas gift of a chemistry set when I was about ten years old. I was absolutely fascinated by the amazing results that could be achieved with simple chemical reactions and realized then that I wanted to do something in life that would be associated with science. The gift of that small chemistry set developed over the next few years into a serious interest in chemistry, and throughout my junior high-school years I spent nearly all the money I earned doing odd jobs for neighbors on small laboratory equipment and chemical supplies, eventually taking over our old abandoned chicken house and turning it into a small chemistry lab. I remember being somewhat frustrated at the limits, mainly financial, that kept

  4. Relationships among Learner Characteristics and Preservice Elementary Teachers' Views of Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Donnelly, Lisa A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of learner characteristics and preservice teachers' views of nature of science (NOS) prior to formal instruction. Learner characteristics investigated included metacognitive awareness, self-efficacy, attitudes toward science teaching, Perry's intellectual and ethical developmental levels,…

  5. Characteristics of Abductive Inquiry in Earth Science: An Undergraduate Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Phil Seok

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this case study was to describe characteristic features of abductive inquiry learning activities in the domain of earth science. Participants were undergraduate junior and senior students who were enrolled in an earth science education course offered for preservice secondary science teachers at a university in Korea. The undergraduate…

  6. Life sciences payload definition and integration study. Volume 1: Management summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The objectives of a study program to determine the life sciences payloads required for conducting biomedical experiments during space missions are presented. The objectives are defined as: (1) to identify the research functions which must be performed aboard life sciences spacecraft laboratories and the equipment needed to support these functions and (2) to develop layouts and preliminary conceptual designs of several potential baseline payloads for the accomplishment of life research in space. Payload configurations and subsystems are described and illustrated. Tables of data are included to identify the material requirements for the space missions.

  7. Munazza's story: Understanding science teaching and conceptions of the nature of science in Pakistan through a life history study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halai, Nelofer

    In this study I have described and tried to comprehend how a female science teacher understands her practice. Additionally, I have developed some understanding of her understanding of the nature of science. While teaching science, a teacher projects messages about the nature of science that can be captured by observations and interviews. Furthermore, the manner is which a teacher conceptualizes science for teaching, at least in part, depends on personal life experiences. Hence, I have used the life history method to understand Munazza's practice. Munazza is a young female science teacher working in a private, co-educational school for children from middle income families in Karachi, Pakistan. Her stories are central to the study, and I have represented them using a number of narrative devices. I have woven in my own stories too, to illustrate my perspective as a researcher. The data includes 13 life history interviews and many informal conversations with Munazza, observations of science teaching in classes seven and eight, and interviews with other science teachers and administrative staff of the school. Munazza's personal biography and experiences of school and undergraduate courses has influenced the way she teaches. It has also influenced the way she does not teach. She was not inspired by her science teachers, so she has tried not to teach the way she was taught science. Contextual factors, her conception of preparation for teaching as preparation for subject content and the tension that she faces in balancing care and control in her classroom are some factors that influence her teaching. Munazza believes that science is a stable, superior and value-free way of knowing. In trying to understand the natural world, observations come first, which give reliable information about the world leading inductively to a "theory". Hence, she relies a great deal on demonstrations in the class where students "see" for themselves and abstract the scientific concept from the

  8. Ninth Graders' Learning Interests, Life Experiences and Attitudes Towards Science & Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shu-Nu; Yeung, Yau-Yuen; Cheng, May Hung

    2009-10-01

    Students' learning interests and attitudes toward science have both been studied for decades. However, the connection between them with students' life experiences about science and technology has not been addressed much. The purpose of this study is to investigate students' learning interests and life experiences about science and technology, and also their attitudes toward technology. A total of 942 urban ninth graders in Taiwan were invited to participate in this study. A Likert scale questionnaire, which was developed from an international project, ROSE, was adapted to collect students' ideas. The results indicated that boys showed higher learning interests in sustainability issues and scientific topics than girls. However, girls recalled more life experiences about science and technology in life than boys. The data also presented high values of Pearson correlation about learning interests and life experiences related to science and technology, and in the perspective on attitudes towards technology. Ways to promote girls' learning interests about science and technology and the implications of teaching and research are discussed as well.

  9. Optics for Biophysics: An Interdisciplinary course in Optics for Physicists and Life Science Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Optics is an applied sub-field of physics that life science researchers utilize daily. Indeed, one cannot open a biological science research journal without seeing five beautiful images of cells. To bridge the gap and educate more life science students in the field of physics, I have developed a new course called ``Optics for Biophysics,'' an interdisciplinary course engaging students from physics, chemistry, life science, and engineering. The course is a team-based learning or studio physics approach combined with a semester-long project. Mini-lectures of 20 minutes are given before students do hands-on group work to understand the concepts. In the project, the students design and build a modern transmitted light microscope. The final aspect of the project is to build a unique module onto the microscope to address a specific biological question.

  10. Interactive Processing and Visualization of Image Data forBiomedical and Life Science Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Staadt, Oliver G.; Natarjan, Vijay; Weber, Gunther H.; Wiley,David F.; Hamann, Bernd

    2007-02-01

    Background: Applications in biomedical science and life science produce large data sets using increasingly powerful imaging devices and computer simulations. It is becoming increasingly difficult for scientists to explore and analyze these data using traditional tools. Interactive data processing and visualization tools can support scientists to overcome these limitations. Results: We show that new data processing tools and visualization systems can be used successfully in biomedical and life science applications. We present an adaptive high-resolution display system suitable for biomedical image data, algorithms for analyzing and visualization protein surfaces and retinal optical coherence tomography data, and visualization tools for 3D gene expression data. Conclusion: We demonstrated that interactive processing and visualization methods and systems can support scientists in a variety of biomedical and life science application areas concerned with massive data analysis.

  11. Medical operations and life sciences activities on space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C. (Editor); Mason, J. A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Space station health maintenance facilities, habitability, personnel, and research in the medical sciences and in biology are discussed. It is assumed that the space station structure will consist of several modules, each being consistent with Orbiter payload bay limits in size, weight, and center of gravity.

  12. Impact of an Ethics Programme in a Life Sciences Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkeburn, Henriikka; Downie, J. Roger; Matthew, Bob

    2002-01-01

    Choices in science--allocation of research funds, selection of research topics, interaction with research subjects (animals, environment, other humans), etc.--often, if not always, include some ethical considerations. Future scientists need skills to deal with and discuss ethical problems, and for that reason we have developed and evaluated one…

  13. Centre of the Cell: Science Comes to Life

    PubMed Central

    Balkwill, Frances; Chambers, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Centre of the Cell is a unique biomedical science education centre, a widening participation and outreach project in London’s East End. This article describes Centre of the Cell’s first five years of operation, the evolution of the project in response to audience demand, and the impact of siting a major public engagement project within a research laboratory. PMID:26340279

  14. Seven Risks Emerging from Life Patents and Corporate Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekberg, Merryn

    2005-01-01

    This article examines some of the controversial issues emerging from the privatization of biomedical research and commercialization of biotechnology. The aim is to identify the dominant social, political, and ethical risks associated with the recent shift from academic to corporate science and from the increasing emphasis on investing in research…

  15. Life Science Teachers' Decision Making on Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Puneet Singh

    2013-01-01

    The desires of young people and especially young bodies are constructed at the intersections of policies that set the parameters of sex education policies, the embodied experiences of students in classrooms, and the way bodies are discussed in the complex language of science. Moreover, more research points to the lack of scientifically and…

  16. Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Japanese Life Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Andrea; Kobayashi, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates vocabulary learning strategy (VLS) preferences of lower and higher proficiency Japanese university science students studying English as a foreign language. The study was conducted over a 9-week period as the participants received supplemental explicit VLS instruction on six strategies. The 38 participants (14 males and 24…

  17. The Science of Survival: Desert Island Life Explored

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaniotis, Peter; Delaney, Jane

    2010-01-01

    It has long been understood that children's interest in science generally declines during the transition from primary to secondary school. The English government's "Every Child Matters" agenda states that pupils should "make a positive contribution" and "achieve economic wellbeing", and so there is a need to develop a workforce that is well…

  18. Students As Environmental Consultants Simulating Life Science Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Megan; Zydney, Janet Mannheimer

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project in which eighth graders at East Side Middle School in New York City used an interactive multimedia program called "Pollution Solution" in a science unit on environmental pollution. Students assumed the role of environmental consultants working at fictional corporations which were being investigated for violation…

  19. Life in the Universe: Foundation for exciting multidisciplinary science activities for middle and elementary school classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milne, D.; O'Sullivan, K.

    1994-01-01

    Young students find extra-terrestrial life one of the most intriguing of all topics. A project funded by the National Science Foundation and NASA, and administered by the SETI Institute, is underway to devise science lessons for grades 3-9 that draw upon this fascination. The lessons are designed by teachers and persons with long experience at curriculum design, tested in classrooms, revised and retested. Six guides, each containing some 6-10 science lessons, will be finished by summer, 1994.The theme Life in the Universe lends itself naturally to integrated treatment of facts and concepts from many scientific disciplines. The lessons for two completed guides span the origin of planet systems, evolution of complex life, chemical makeup of life, astronomy, spectroscopy, continental drift, mathematics and SETI (Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence). All lessons are hands-on, interesting, and successful.

  20. Life in the universe: Foundation for exciting multidisciplinary science activities for middle and elementary school classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, D.; O'Sullivan, K.

    1994-08-01

    Young students find extra-terrestrial life one of the most intriguing of all topics. A project funded by the National Science Foundation and NASA, and administered by the SETI Institute, is underway to devise science lessons for grades 3-9 that draw upon this fascination. The lessons are designed by teachers and persons with long experience at curriculum design, tested in classrooms, revised and retested. Six guides, each containing some 6-10 science lessons, will be finished by summer, 1994. The theme Life in the Universe lends itself naturally to integrated treatment of facts and concepts from many scientific disciplines. The lessons for two completed guides span the origin of planet systems, evolution of complex life, chemical makeup of life, astronomy, spectroscopy, continental drift, mathematics and SETI (Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence). All lessons are hands-on, interesting, and successful.

  1. Operational plans for life science payloads - From experiment selection through postflight reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccollum, G. W.; Nelson, W. G.; Wells, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    Key features of operational plans developed in a study of the Space Shuttle era life science payloads program are presented. The data describes the overall acquisition, staging, and integration of payload elements, as well as program implementation methods and mission support requirements. Five configurations were selected as representative payloads: (a) carry-on laboratories - medical emphasis experiments, (b) mini-laboratories - medical/biology experiments, (c) seven-day dedicated laboratories - medical/biology experiments, (d) 30-day dedicated laboratories - Regenerative Life Support Evaluation (RLSE) with selected life science experiments, and (e) Biomedical Experiments Scientific Satellite (BESS) - extended duration primate (Type I) and small vertebrate (Type II) missions. The recommended operational methods described in the paper are compared to the fundamental data which has been developed in the life science Spacelab Mission Simulation (SMS) test series. Areas assessed include crew training, experiment development and integration, testing, data-dissemination, organization interfaces, and principal investigator working relationships.

  2. Life in the universe: foundation for exciting multidisciplinary science activities for middle and elementary school classes.

    PubMed

    Milne, D; O'Sullivan, K

    1994-01-01

    Young students find extra-terrestrial life one of the most intriguing of all topics. A project funded by the National Science Foundation and NASA, and administered by the SETI Institute, is underway to devise science lessons for grades 3-9 that draw upon this fascination. The lessons are designed by teachers and persons with long experience at curriculum design, tested in classrooms, revised and retested. Six guides, each containing some 6-10 science lessons, will be finished by summer, 1994. The theme Life in the Universe lends itself naturally to integrated treatment of facts and concepts from many scientific disciplines. The lessons for two completed guides span the origin of planet systems, evolution of complex life, chemical makeup of life, astronomy, spectroscopy, continental drift, mathematics and SETI (Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence). All lessons are hands-on, interesting, and successful. PMID:11537956

  3. Promoting Prospective Elementary Teachers' Learning to Use Formative Assessment for Life Science Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabel, Jaime L.; Forbes, Cory T.; Zangori, Laura

    2015-06-01

    To support elementary students' learning of core, standards-based life science concepts highlighted in the Next Generation Science Standards, prospective elementary teachers should develop an understanding of life science concepts and learn to apply their content knowledge in instructional practice to craft elementary science learning environments grounded in students' thinking. To do so, teachers must learn to use high-leverage instructional practices, such as formative assessment, to engage students in scientific practices and connect instruction to students' ideas. However, teachers may not understand formative assessment or possess sufficient science content knowledge to effectively engage in related instructional practices. To address these needs, we developed and conducted research within an innovative course for preservice elementary teachers built upon two pillars—life science concepts and formative assessment. An embedded mixed methods study was used to evaluate the effect of the intervention on preservice teachers' (n = 49) content knowledge and ability to engage in formative assessment practices for science. Findings showed that increased life content knowledge over the semester helped preservice teachers engage more productively in anticipating and evaluating students' ideas, but not in identifying effective instructional strategies to respond to those ideas.

  4. From Darwin to the Census of Marine Life: Marine Biology as Big Science

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Niki

    2013-01-01

    With the development of the Human Genome Project, a heated debate emerged on biology becoming ‘big science’. However, biology already has a long tradition of collaboration, as natural historians were part of the first collective scientific efforts: exploring the variety of life on earth. Such mappings of life still continue today, and if field biology is gradually becoming an important subject of studies into big science, research into life in the world's oceans is not taken into account yet. This paper therefore explores marine biology as big science, presenting the historical development of marine research towards the international ‘Census of Marine Life’ (CoML) making an inventory of life in the world's oceans. Discussing various aspects of collaboration – including size, internationalisation, research practice, technological developments, application, and public communication – I will ask if CoML still resembles traditional collaborations to collect life. While showing both continuity and change, I will argue that marine biology is a form of natural history: a specific way of working together in biology that has transformed substantially in interaction with recent developments in the life sciences and society. As a result, the paper does not only give an overview of transformations towards large scale research in marine biology, but also shines a new light on big biology, suggesting new ways to deepen the understanding of collaboration in the life sciences by distinguishing between different ‘collective ways of knowing’. PMID:23342119

  5. An unexpected life in optical science: a personal history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2010-02-01

    "The race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise nor yet riches to men of understanding, nor yet favor to men of skill; but time and chance happeneth to them all." This in a nutshell describes the life and scientific career of Craig Bohren.

  6. Genome Island: A Virtual Science Environment in Second Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Mary Anne

    2009-01-01

    Mary Anne CLark describes the organization and uses of Genome Island, a virtual laboratory complex constructed in Second Life. Genome Island was created for teaching genetics to university undergraduates but also provides a public space where anyone interested in genetics can spend a few minutes, or a few hours, interacting with genetic…

  7. Incorporating exposure science into life-cycle assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is used to estimate the potential for environmental damage that may be caused by a product or process, ideally before the product or process begins. LCA includes all of the steps from extracting natural resources through manufacturing through product u...

  8. Public Understanding of Science: Using Technology To Enhance School Science in Everyday Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cajas, Fernando

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the use of school science in students' everyday lives. Argues that the goal of connecting school science to students' everyday lives moves the discussion of public understanding of science to public understanding of technology. Examines the implications and limitations of this movement. Contains 40 references. (Author/WRM)

  9. Hormonal characteristics of the human menstrual cycle throughout reproductive life.

    PubMed

    Sherman, B M; Korenman, S G

    1975-04-01

    The changes in serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FHS), estradiol, and progesterone that occur both early and late in reproductive life were characterized and compared with findings in young, normal women and in patients with certain menstrual disorders. A total of 50 complete menstrual cycles in 37 were examined. Five distinct patterns of hormonal regulation were found, three of which are reported here: (a) A long follicular phase and delayed follicular maturation in young women with long, unpredictable intermenstrual intervals from menarche; (b) a short follicular phase with increasing age and in short cycles in perimenopausal women; and (c) true anovulatory vaginal bleeding in long cycles in perimenopausal women. The short cycles before and during the menopausal transition were found to have lower E2 levels and high FSH concentrations throughout, while LH remained in the normal range. During long cycles in perimenopausal women, concentrations of LH and FSH were in the menopausal range. However, follicular maturation was observed months after high levels of gonadotropins were attained. These studies permit the characterization of the menstrual history of the normal woman in terms of the hormonal changes that occur and provide a basis for the definition of several disorders of follicular maturation. PMID:1120778

  10. A new chapter in doctoral candidate training: The Helmholtz Space Life Sciences Research School (SpaceLife)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellweg, C. E.; Gerzer, R.; Reitz, G.

    2011-05-01

    In the field of space life sciences, the demand of an interdisciplinary and specific training of young researchers is high due to the complex interaction of medical, biological, physical, technical and other questions. The Helmholtz Space Life Sciences Research School (SpaceLife) offers an excellent interdisciplinary training for doctoral students from different fields (biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, physics, psychology, nutrition or sports sciences and related fields) and any country. SpaceLife is coordinated by the Institute of Aerospace Medicine at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Cologne. The German Universities in Kiel, Bonn, Aachen, Regensburg, Magdeburg and Berlin, and the German Sports University (DSHS) in Cologne are members of SpaceLife. The Universities of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Frankfurt, Hohenheim, and the Beihang University in Beijing are associated partners. In each generation, up to 25 students can participate in the three-year program. Students learn to develop integrated concepts to solve health issues in human spaceflight and in related disease patterns on Earth, and to further explore the requirements for life in extreme environments, enabling a better understanding of the ecosystem Earth and the search for life on other planets in unmanned and manned missions. The doctoral candidates are coached by two specialist supervisors from DLR and the partner university, and a mentor. All students attend lectures in different subfields of space life sciences to attain an overview of the field: radiation and gravitational biology, astrobiology and space physiology, including psychological aspects of short and long term space missions. Seminars, advanced lectures, laboratory courses and stays at labs at the partner institutions or abroad are offered as elective course and will provide in-depth knowledge of the chosen subfield or allow to appropriate innovative methods. In Journal Clubs of the participating working groups, doctoral students learn

  11. Selected Characteristics of Persons in Physical Science: 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palumbo, Thomas J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Statistical information, based on the 1978 survey in a series of biennial surveys known as the National Sample of Scientists and Engineers, sponsored by the National Science Foundation and conducted by the Bureau of the Census is presented. Individuals in the field of physical sciences are profiled, including chemists, physicists and astronomers,…

  12. Non-Traditional Characteristics of a Successful Science Fair Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumrall, William; Schillinger, Don

    2004-01-01

    Science fairs offer students the opportunity to develop skills in inquiry, writing research proposals, working with peers, verifying results, and sharing experimental findings. However, the science fair itself does not necessarily translate into a student's attainment of such skills. Project quality and a student's successful achievement of good…

  13. Life-history traits and landscape characteristics predict macro-moth responses to forest fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Slade, Eleanor M; Merckx, Thomas; Riutta, Terhi; Bebber, Daniel P; Redhead, David; Riordan, Philip; Macdonald, David W

    2013-07-01

    How best to manage forest patches, mitigate the consequences of forest fragmentation, and enable landscape permeability are key questions facing conservation scientists and managers. Many temperate forests have become increasingly fragmented, resulting in reduced interior forest habitat, increased edge habitats, and reduced connectivity. Using a citizen science landscape-scale mark-release-recapture study on 87 macro-moth species, we investigated how both life-history traits and landscape characteristics predicted macro-moth responses to forest fragmentation. Wingspan, wing shape, adult feeding, and larval feeding guild predicted macro-moth mobility, although the predictive power of wingspan and wing shape depended on the species' affinity to the forest. Solitary trees and small fragments functioned as "stepping stones," especially when their landscape connectivity was increased, by being positioned within hedgerows or within a favorable matrix. Mobile forest specialists were most affected by forest fragmentation: despite their high intrinsic dispersal capability, these species were confined mostly to the largest of the forest patches due to their strong affinity for the forest habitat, and were also heavily dependent on forest connectivity in order to cross the agricultural matrix. Forest fragments need to be larger than five hectares and to have interior forest more than 100 m from the edge in order to sustain populations of forest specialists. Our study provides new insights into the movement patterns of a functionally important insect group, with implications for the landscape-scale management of forest patches within agricultural landscapes. PMID:23951712

  14. Real Life Science with Dandelions and Project BudBurst.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Katherine A

    2016-03-01

    Project BudBurst is a national citizen-science project that tracks bloom times and other phenological data for plants across the country. Data from Project BudBurst are being used to measure the effects of climate change. Students can participate in this project by watching any of the plants on the list, including the common dandelion, which makes the program easy and accessible to everyone. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education. PMID:27047605

  15. Real Life Science with Dandelions and Project BudBurst

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Project BudBurst is a national citizen-science project that tracks bloom times and other phenological data for plants across the country. Data from Project BudBurst are being used to measure the effects of climate change. Students can participate in this project by watching any of the plants on the list, including the common dandelion, which makes the program easy and accessible to everyone. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:27047605

  16. Can Middle-School Science Textbooks Help Students Learn Important Ideas? Findings from Project 2061's Curriculum Evaluation Study: Life Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Luli; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2004-01-01

    The transfer of matter and energy from one organism to another and between organisms and their physical setting is a fundamental concept in life science. Not surprisingly, this concept is common to the "Benchmarks for Science Literacy" (American Association for the Advancement of Science, [1993]), the "National Science Education Standards"…

  17. Early-Life Characteristics, Psychiatric History, and Cognition Trajectories in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Although considerable attention has been paid to the relationship between later-life depression and cognitive function, the relationship between a history of psychiatric problems and cognitive function is not very well documented. Few studies of relationships between childhood health, childhood disadvantage, and cognitive…

  18. Characteristic Sizes of Life in the Oceans, from Bacteria to Whales.

    PubMed

    Andersen, K H; Berge, T; Gonçalves, R J; Hartvig, M; Heuschele, J; Hylander, S; Jacobsen, N S; Lindemann, C; Martens, E A; Neuheimer, A B; Olsson, K; Palacz, A; Prowe, A E F; Sainmont, J; Traving, S J; Visser, A W; Wadhwa, N; Kiørboe, T

    2016-01-01

    The size of an individual organism is a key trait to characterize its physiology and feeding ecology. Size-based scaling laws may have a limited size range of validity or undergo a transition from one scaling exponent to another at some characteristic size. We collate and review data on size-based scaling laws for resource acquisition, mobility, sensory range, and progeny size for all pelagic marine life, from bacteria to whales. Further, we review and develop simple theoretical arguments for observed scaling laws and the characteristic sizes of a change or breakdown of power laws. We divide life in the ocean into seven major realms based on trophic strategy, physiology, and life history strategy. Such a categorization represents a move away from a taxonomically oriented description toward a trait-based description of life in the oceans. Finally, we discuss life forms that transgress the simple size-based rules and identify unanswered questions. PMID:26163011

  19. Characteristic Sizes of Life in the Oceans, from Bacteria to Whales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, K. H.; Berge, T.; Gonçalves, R. J.; Hartvig, M.; Heuschele, J.; Hylander, S.; Jacobsen, N. S.; Lindemann, C.; Martens, E. A.; Neuheimer, A. B.; Olsson, K.; Palacz, A.; Prowe, A. E. F.; Sainmont, J.; Traving, S. J.; Visser, A. W.; Wadhwa, N.; Kiørboe, T.

    2016-01-01

    The size of an individual organism is a key trait to characterize its physiology and feeding ecology. Size-based scaling laws may have a limited size range of validity or undergo a transition from one scaling exponent to another at some characteristic size. We collate and review data on size-based scaling laws for resource acquisition, mobility, sensory range, and progeny size for all pelagic marine life, from bacteria to whales. Further, we review and develop simple theoretical arguments for observed scaling laws and the characteristic sizes of a change or breakdown of power laws. We divide life in the ocean into seven major realms based on trophic strategy, physiology, and life history strategy. Such a categorization represents a move away from a taxonomically oriented description toward a trait-based description of life in the oceans. Finally, we discuss life forms that transgress the simple size-based rules and identify unanswered questions.

  20. Development of a Textbook and Learning Operations in Life Science for Elementary Education Majors at North Carolina Central University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Joseph Samuel, Jr.

    This project was based upon the need to develop a science curriculum program specifically designed for elementary education students. A program of classroom and field operations in life sciences, designed to provide minimum preparation for a prospective teacher on a self-contained classroom was developed. It portrayed life science as a "doing"…

  1. The Life Sciences program at the NASA Ames Research Center - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos-Danellis, Joan; Sharp, Joseph C.

    1989-01-01

    The research projects planned for the Life Sciences program have a goal of answering basic questions concerning the nature of life itself and its evolution in the universe from basic elements, as well as the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. The program also includes studies of the evolution and development of life on the planet earth, and the global changes occurring today that affect life on the earth. The paper describes the simulation models developed to study the effects of space, the flight projects of the program, and the biomedical program, which currently focuses on the physiological changes in the human body that are associated with space flights and the interactions among these changes.

  2. Social systems and life-history characteristics of mongooses.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Tilman C; Kappeler, Peter M

    2014-02-01

    The diversity of extant carnivores provides valuable opportunities for comparative research to illuminate general patterns of mammalian social evolution. Recent field studies on mongooses (Herpestidae), in particular, have generated detailed behavioural and demographic data allowing tests of assumptions and predictions of theories of social evolution. The first studies of the social systems of their closest relatives, the Malagasy Eupleridae, also have been initiated. The literature on mongooses was last reviewed over 25 years ago. In this review, we summarise the current state of knowledge on the social organisation, mating systems and social structure (especially competition and cooperation) of the two mongoose families. Our second aim is to evaluate the contributions of these studies to a better understanding of mammalian social evolution in general. Based on published reports or anecdotal information, we can classify 16 of the 34 species of Herpestidae as solitary and nine as group-living; there are insufficient data available for the remainder. There is a strong phylogenetic signal of sociality with permanent complex groups being limited to the genera Crossarchus, Helogale, Liberiictis, Mungos, and Suricata. Our review also indicates that studies of solitary and social mongooses have been conducted within different theoretical frameworks: whereas solitary species and transitions to gregariousness have been mainly investigated in relation to ecological determinants, the study of social patterns of highly social mongooses has instead been based on reproductive skew theory. In some group-living species, group size and composition were found to determine reproductive competition and cooperative breeding through group augmentation. Infanticide risk and inbreeding avoidance connect social organisation and social structure with reproductive tactics and life histories, but their specific impact on mongoose sociality is still difficult to evaluate. However, the level

  3. A Dialogue of Life: Integrating Service Learning in a Community-Immersion Model of Preservice Science-Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handa, Vicente; Tippins, Deborah; Thomson, Norman; Bilbao, Purita; Morano, Lourdes; Hallar, Brittan; Miller, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    Dubbed a "dialogue of life," community immersion in preservice science-teacher education aims at providing a true-to-life and empowering opportunity for prospective science teachers (both elementary and secondary) to become active participants in community life through field and service-learning experiences. It consists of a three-unit course with…

  4. Learning developmental biology has priority in the life sciences curriculum in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lim, Tit-Meng

    2003-01-01

    Singapore has embraced the life sciences as an important discipline to be emphasized in schools and universities. This is part of the nation's strategic move towards a knowledge-based economy, with the life sciences poised as a new engine for economic growth. In the life sciences, the area of developmental biology is of prime interest, since it is not just intriguing for students to know how a single cell can give rise to a complex, coordinated, functional life that is multicellular and multifaceted, but more importantly, there is much in developmental biology that can have biomedical implications. At different levels in the Singapore educational system, students are exposed to various aspects of developmental biology. The author has given many guest lectures to secondary (ages 12-16) and high school (ages 17-18) students to enthuse them about topics such as embryo cloning and stem cell biology. At the university level, some selected topics in developmental biology are part of a broader course which caters for students not majoring in the life sciences, so that they will learn to comprehend how development takes place and the significance of the knowledge and impacts of the technologies derived in the field. For students majoring in the life sciences, the subject is taught progressively in years two and three, so that students will gain specialist knowledge in developmental biology. As they learn, students are exposed to concepts, principles and mechanisms that underlie development. Different model organisms are studied to demonstrate the rapid advances in this field and to show the interconnectivity of developmental themes among living things. The course inevitably touches on life and death matters, and the social and ethical implications of recent technologies which enable scientists to manipulate life are discussed accordingly, either in class, in a discussion forum, or through essay writing. PMID:12705658

  5. Life Sciences Investigations for ESA's First Lunar Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J. D.; Angerer, O.; Durante, M.; Linnarson, D.; Pike, W. T.

    2010-12-01

    Preparing for future human exploration of the Moon and beyond is an interdisciplinary exercise, requiring new technologies and the pooling of knowledge and expertise from many scientific areas. The European Space Agency is working to develop a Lunar Lander, as a precursor to future human exploration activities. The mission will demonstrate new technologies and perform important preparatory investigations. In the biological sciences the two major areas requiring investigation in advance of human exploration are radiation and its effects on human physiology and the potential toxicity of lunar dust. This paper summarises the issues associated with these areas and the investigations planned for the Lunar Lander to address them.

  6. Amphibians. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. Students find out about the world of amphibians as they examine their physical characteristics, environments, and life cycles, as well as…

  7. Astrobiology in culture: the search for extraterrestrial life as "science".

    PubMed

    Billings, Linda

    2012-10-01

    This analysis examines the social construction of authority, credibility, and legitimacy for exobiology/astrobiology and, in comparison, the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), considering English-language conceptions of these endeavors in scientific culture and popular culture primarily in the United States. The questions that define astrobiology as a scientific endeavor are multidisciplinary in nature, and this endeavor is broadly appealing to public audiences as well as to the scientific community. Thus, it is useful to examine astrobiology in culture-in scientific culture, official culture, and popular culture. A researcher may explore science in culture, science as culture, by analyzing its rhetoric, the primary means that people use to construct their social realities-their cultural environment, as it were. This analysis follows this path, considering scientific and public interest in astrobiology and SETI and focusing on scientific and official constructions of the two endeavors. This analysis will also consider whether and how scientific and public conceptions of astrobiology and SETI, which are related but at the same time separate endeavors, converge or diverge and whether and how these convergences or divergences affect the scientific authority, credibility, and legitimacy of these endeavors. PMID:23078644

  8. Breathing life into fisheries stock assessments with citizen science.

    PubMed

    Fairclough, D V; Brown, J I; Carlish, B J; Crisafulli, B M; Keay, I S

    2014-01-01

    Citizen science offers a potentially cost-effective way for researchers to obtain large data sets over large spatial scales. However, it is not used widely to support biological data collection for fisheries stock assessments. Overfishing of demersal fishes along 1,000 km of the west Australian coast led to restrictive management to recover stocks. This diminished opportunities for scientists to cost-effectively monitor stock recovery via fishery-dependent sampling, particularly of the recreational fishing sector. As fishery-independent methods would be too expensive and logistically-challenging to implement, a citizen science program, Send us your skeletons (SUYS), was developed. SUYS asks recreational fishers to voluntarily donate fish skeletons of important species from their catch to allow biological data extraction by scientists to produce age structures and conduct stock assessment analyses. During SUYS, recreational fisher involvement, sample sizes and spatial and temporal coverage of samples have dramatically increased, while the collection cost per skeleton has declined substantially. SUYS is ensuring sampling objectives for stock assessments are achieved via fishery-dependent collection and reliable and timely scientific advice can be provided to managers. The program is also encouraging public ownership through involvement in the monitoring process, which can lead to greater acceptance of management decisions. PMID:25431103

  9. Searching for Life with Rovers: Exploration Methods & Science Results from the 2004 Field Campaign of the "Life in the Atacama" Project and Applications to Future Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrol, N. A.a; Wettergreen, D. S.; Whittaker, R.; Grin, E. A.; Moersch, J.; Diaz, G. Chong; Cockell, C.; Coppin, P.; Dohm, J. M.; Fisher, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Life In The Atacama (LITA) project develops and field tests a long-range, solarpowered, automated rover platform (Zo ) and a science payload assembled to search for microbial life in the Atacama desert. Life is barely detectable over most of the driest desert on Earth. Its unique geological, climatic, and biological evolution have created a unique training site for designing and testing exploration strategies and life detection methods for the robotic search for life on Mars.

  10. The Story Behind the Science: Bringing Science and Scientists to Life in Post-Secondary Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clough, Michael P.

    2011-07-01

    With funding from the United States National Science Foundation, 30 historical short stories designed to teach science content and draw students' attention to the nature of science (NOS) have been created for post-secondary introductory astronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, and physics courses. The project rationale, story development and structure, and freely available stories at the project website are presented.

  11. The Story behind the Science: Bringing Science and Scientists to Life in Post-Secondary Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clough, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    With funding from the United States National Science Foundation, 30 historical short stories designed to teach science content and draw students' attention to the nature of science (NOS) have been created for post-secondary introductory astronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, and physics courses. The project rationale, story development and…

  12. Life at the Common Denominator: Mechanistic and Quantitative Biology for the Earth and Space Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.

    2010-01-01

    The remarkable challenges and possibilities of the coming few decades will compel the biogeochemical and astrobiological sciences to characterize the interactions between biology and its environment in a fundamental, mechanistic, and quantitative fashion. The clear need for integrative and scalable biology-environment models is exemplified in the Earth sciences by the challenge of effectively addressing anthropogenic global change, and in the space sciences by the challenge of mounting a well-constrained yet sufficiently adaptive and inclusive search for life beyond Earth. Our understanding of the life-planet interaction is still, however, largely empirical. A variety of approaches seek to move from empirical to mechanistic descriptions. One approach focuses on the relationship between biology and energy, which is at once universal (all life requires energy), unique (life manages energy flow in a fashion not seen in abiotic systems), and amenable to characterization and quantification in thermodynamic terms. Simultaneously, a focus on energy flow addresses a critical point of interface between life and its geological, chemical, and physical environment. Characterizing and quantifying this relationship for life on Earth will support the development of integrative and predictive models for biology-environment dynamics. Understanding this relationship at its most fundamental level holds potential for developing concepts of habitability and biosignatures that can optimize astrobiological exploration strategies and are extensible to all life.

  13. Environmental parameters of shuttle support for life sciences experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The environments provided by the Orbiter vehicle and by the Spacelab will differ substantially from the environment provided by prior spacecraft. The specific design limits for each environmental parameter and expected operating characteristics are presented for both the Orbiter and the Spacelab. The environments are compared with those of earlier spacecraft and with the normal earth laboratory. Differences between the spacecraft environments and the normal laboratory environment and the impact of these differences on experiments and equipment design are discussed.

  14. Chance, choice and opportunity: Life history study of two exemplary female elementary science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitt, Kathleen Milligan

    The purpose of this two-year study was to investigate why two female elementary teachers became exemplary science teachers, despite conditions which do not promote such achievement. Each teachers' progress was examined using life history methodology. The study's theoretical grounding included females' academic and attitudinal success in science education. Purposeful sampling of peers, administrators, and college professors produced two research participants. Both teachers participated in interviews, observations, and member checks lasting over one year. Data were analyzed inductively, resulting in two life histories. Comparing the life stories using confluence theory (Feldman, 1986) indicated four major categories for consideration: risk-taking; life-long learning; gender equity; and mentors. Risk-taking is necessary for female elementary teachers because of their often poor educational background. Few female role models support efforts for achievement. Life-long learning, including extensive reading and graduate-level classes, supports female teachers' personal and professional growth. Exposure to new ideas and teacher practices encourages curricular change and refinement in science education. Gender inequity and the male-packaging of science is an issue to be resolved by female elementary teachers. Mentors can provide interaction and feedback to refine science instructional practices. Professors, peers, and mentor teachers support instructional and content knowledge efforts. Recommendations for science education in classroom practices, preservice teacher education and continuing professional development include female-friendly approaches to science instruction. Decreased competitive practices through cooperative learning and gender inclusive language encourages female participation and achievement in classrooms. Hands-on, inquiry-based instruction and verbalization encourages female students' achievement in science education. Preservice teachers must receive

  15. Towards virtual knowledge broker services for semantic integration of life science literature and data sources.

    PubMed

    Harrow, Ian; Filsell, Wendy; Woollard, Peter; Dix, Ian; Braxenthaler, Michael; Gedye, Richard; Hoole, David; Kidd, Richard; Wilson, Jabe; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2013-05-01

    Research in the life sciences requires ready access to primary data, derived information and relevant knowledge from a multitude of sources. Integration and interoperability of such resources are crucial for sharing content across research domains relevant to the life sciences. In this article we present a perspective review of data integration with emphasis on a semantics driven approach to data integration that pushes content into a shared infrastructure, reduces data redundancy and clarifies any inconsistencies. This enables much improved access to life science data from numerous primary sources. The Semantic Enrichment of the Scientific Literature (SESL) pilot project demonstrates feasibility for using already available open semantic web standards and technologies to integrate public and proprietary data resources, which span structured and unstructured content. This has been accomplished through a precompetitive consortium, which provides a cost effective approach for numerous stakeholders to work together to solve common problems. PMID:23247259

  16. Using and Distributing Spaceflight Data: The Johnson Space Center Life Sciences Data Archive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardenas, J. A.; Buckey, J. C.; Turner, J. N.; White, T. S.; Havelka,J. A.

    1995-01-01

    Life sciences data collected before, during and after spaceflight are valuable and often irreplaceable. The Johnson Space Center Life is hard to find, and much of the data (e.g. Sciences Data Archive has been designed to provide researchers, engineers, managers and educators interactive access to information about and data from human spaceflight experiments. The archive system consists of a Data Acquisition System, Database Management System, CD-ROM Mastering System and Catalog Information System (CIS). The catalog information system is the heart of the archive. The CIS provides detailed experiment descriptions (both written and as QuickTime movies), hardware descriptions, hardware images, documents, and data. An initial evaluation of the archive at a scientific meeting showed that 88% of those who evaluated the catalog want to use the system when completed. The majority of the evaluators found the archive flexible, satisfying and easy to use. We conclude that the data archive effectively provides key life sciences data to interested users.

  17. The biological universe. The twentieth century extraterrestrial life debate and the limits of science.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, S. J.

    Throughout the twentieth century, from the furor over Percival Lowell's claim of canals on Mars to the sophisticated Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, otherworldly life has often intrigued and occasionally consumed science and the public. Does 'biological law' reign throughout the universe? Are there other histories, religions, and philosophies outside of those on Earth? Do extraterrestrial minds ponder the mysteries of the universe? The attempts to answer these often asked questions form one of the most interesting chapters in the history of science and culture, and this is the first book to provide a rich and colorful history of those attempts during the twentieth century. Covering a broad range of topics, including the search for life in the solar system, the origins of life, UFOs, and aliens in science fiction, the author shows how the concept of extraterrestrial intelligence is a world view of its own, a 'biophysical cosmology' that seeks confirmation no less than physical views of the universe.

  18. The biological universe: the twentieth-century extraterrestrial life debate and the limits of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    Throughout the twentieth century, from the furor over Percival Lowell's claim of canals on Mars to the sophisticated Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, otherworldly life has often intrigued and occasionally consumed science and the public. Does `biological law' reign throughout the universe? Are there other histories, religions, and philosophies outside of those on Earth? Do extraterrestrial minds ponder the mysteries of the universe? The attempts toanswer these often asked questions form one of the most interesting chapters in the history of science and culture, and The Biological Universe is the first book to provide a rich and colorful history of those attempts during the twentieth century. Covering a broad range of topics, including the search for life in the solar system, the origins of life, UFOs, and aliens in science fiction, Steven J. Dick shows how the concept of extraterrestrial intelligence is a world view of its own, a `biophysical cosmology' that seeks confirmation no less than physical views of the universe.

  19. Secure Grid Services for Cooperative Work in Medicine and Life Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisbecker, Anette; Falkner, Jürgen

    MediGRID provides a grid infrastructure to solve challenging problems in medical and life sciences by enhancing the productivity and by enabling locationindependent, interdisciplinary collaboration. The usage of grid technology has enabled the development of new application and services for research in medical and life sciences. In order to enlarge the range of services and to get a broader range of users sustainable business models are needed. In Services@MediGRID methods for monitoring, accounting, and billing which fulfilled the high security demands within medicine and life sciences will be developed. Also different requirements of academic and industrial grid customers are considered in order to establish the sustainable business models for grid computing.

  20. Nanoparticles: synthesis and applications in life science and environmental technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luong Nguyen, Hoang; Nguyen, Hoang Nam; Hai Nguyen, Hoang; Quynh Luu, Manh; Hieu Nguyen, Minh

    2015-03-01

    This work focuses on the synthesis, functionalization, and application of gold and silver nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles Fe3O4, combination of 4-ATP-coated silver nanoparticles and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The synthesis methods such as chemical reduction, seeding, coprecipitation,and inverse microemulsion will be outlined. Silica- and amino-coated nanoparticles are suitable for several applications in biomedicine and the environment. The applications of the prepared nanoparticles for early detection of breast cancer cells, basal cell carcinoma, antibacterial test, arsenic removal from water, Herpes DNA separation, CD4+ cell separation and isolation of DNA of Hepatitis virus type B (HBV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are discussed. Finally, some promising perspectives will be pointed out. Invited talk at the 7th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology IWAMSN2014, 2-6 November, 2014, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  1. Characteristics Identified for Success by Restorative Dental Science Department Chairpersons.

    PubMed

    Wee, Alvin G; Weiss, Robert O; Wichman, Christopher S; Sukotjo, Cortino; Brundo, Gerald C

    2016-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the characteristics that current chairpersons in restorative dentistry, general dentistry, prosthodontics, and operative dentistry departments in U.S. dental schools feel are most relevant in contributing to their success. The secondary aim was to determine these individuals' rankings of the importance of a listed set of characteristics for them to be successful in their position. All 82 current chairs of the specified departments were invited to respond to an electronic survey. The survey first asked respondents to list the five most essential characteristics to serve as chair of a department and to rank those characteristics based on importance. Participants were next given a list of ten characteristics in the categories of management and leadership and, without being aware of the category of each individual item, asked to rank them in terms of importance for their success. A total of 39 chairpersons completed the survey (47.6% response rate; 83.3% male and 16.2% female). In section one, the respondents reported that leadership, vision, work ethic, integrity, communication, and organization were the most essential characteristics for their success. In section two, the respondents ranked the leadership characteristics as statistically more important than the management characteristics (p<0.0001) for being successful in their positions. PMID:26933102

  2. On the use of Space Station Freedom in support of the SEI - Life science research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leath, K.; Volosin, J.; Cookson, S.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) for life sciences research is evaluated from the standpoint of requirements for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). SEI life sciences research encompasses: (1) biological growth and development in space; (2) life support and environmental health; (3) physiological/psychological factors of extended space travel; and (4) space environmental factors. The platforms required to support useful study in these areas are listed and include ground-based facilities, permanently manned spacecraft, and the Space Shuttle. The SSF is shown to be particularly applicable to the areas of research because its facilities can permit the study of gravitational biology, life-support systems, and crew health. The SSF can serve as an experimental vehicle to derive the required knowledge needed to establish a commitment to manned Mars missions and colonization plans.

  3. Life science payloads planning study. [for space shuttle orbiters and spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, W. G.; Wells, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    Preferred approaches and procedures were defined for integrating the space shuttle life sciences payload from experiment solicitation through final data dissemination at mission completion. The payloads operations plan was refined and expended to include current information. The NASA-JSC facility accommodations were assessed, and modifications recommended to improve payload processing capability. Standard format worksheets were developed to permit rapid location of experiment requirements and a Spacelab mission handbook was developed to assist potential life sciences investigators at academic, industrial, health research, and NASA centers. Practical, cost effective methods were determined for accommodating various categories of live specimens during all mission phases.

  4. Compatibility of the Space Station Freedom life sciences research centrifuge with microgravity requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasha, Martin D.

    1990-01-01

    NASA is developing a Life Sciences Centrifuge Facility for Space Station Freedom. In includes a 2.5-meter artificial gravity Bioresearch Centrifuge (BC), which is perhaps the most critical single element in the life sciences space research program. It rotates continuously at precise selectable rates, and utilizes advanced reliable technologies to reduce vibrations. Three disturbance types are analyzed using a current Space Station Freedom dynamic model in the 0.0 to 5.0 Hz range: sinusoidal, random, and transient. Results show that with proper selection of proven design techniques, BC vibrations are compatible with requirements.

  5. Life Sciences Research Facility automation requirements and concepts for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Daryl N.

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the methods and preliminary results of a study on prospects for the automation of the NASA Space Station's Life Sciences Research Facility. In order to remain within current Space Station resource allocations, approximately 85 percent of planned life science experiment tasks must be automated; these tasks encompass specimen care and feeding, cage and instrument cleaning, data acquisition and control, sample analysis, waste management, instrument calibration, materials inventory and management, and janitorial work. Task automation will free crews for specimen manipulation, tissue sampling, data interpretation and communication with ground controllers, and experiment management.

  6. Resources and approaches for teaching physics to pre-health and life science majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widenhorn, Ralf

    2014-03-01

    As science is advancing, the skill set for a physician or medical researcher today and in the future is very different than it has been in the past. As an example, the American Association of Medical Colleges revised the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) to reflect this dynamic environment. Because of these changes, the needs of students entering into these professions are often not met by a traditional physics course. Developing curriculum for an introductory physics course that helps to prepare life science and pre-health students can be challenging for many physics instructors who lack a strong foundation in biology or medicine. This presentation will address various approaches that physics instructors without a background in life sciences can use to successfully teach an introductory physics course for life science and pre-heath students. For these courses, an online resource may be a useful tool. Online resources already exist today, but their utility relies on active engagement and sharing of teaching material by physics instructors possessing a background in both physics and the life sciences. This talk will address ways for the biomedical physics community to contribute to this effort.

  7. Intersections of life histories and science identities: the stories of three preservice elementary teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2016-03-01

    Grounded within Connelly and Clandinin's conceptualization of teachers' professional identity in terms of 'stories to live by' and through a life-history lens, this multiple case study aimed to respond to the following questions: (a) How do three preservice elementary teachers view themselves as future science teachers? (b) How have the participants' life histories shaped their science identity trajectories? In order to characterize the participants' formation of science identities over time, various data regarding their life histories in relation to science were collected: science biographies, self-portraits, interviews, reflective journals, lesson plans, and classroom observations. The analysis of the data illustrated how the three participants' identities have been in formation from the early years of their lives and how various events, experiences, and interactions had shaped their identities through time and across contexts. These findings are discussed alongside implications for theory, specifically, identity and life-history intersections, for teacher preparation, and for research related to explorations of beginning elementary teachers' identity trajectories.

  8. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APA) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2008 recipient of the American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology is Alice H. Eagly. A citation, biography, and selected bibliography for Alice H. Eagly are provided in this article. PMID:18665670

  9. Confronting social disparities in child health: a critical appraisal of life-course science and research.

    PubMed

    Wise, Paul H

    2009-11-01

    The utility of the life-course framework to address disparities in child health is based on its ability to integrate the science of child development with the requirements of effective and just public policy. I argue that the life-course framework is best assessed in a historical context and through 4 essential observations. First, early genetic and environmental interactions are complex and influence outcomes in different settings in very different ways. Second, these early-life interactions are themselves subject to considerable later influences and, therefore, may not be highly predictive of later outcomes. Third, the etiologic nature or timing of early-life interactions does not, per se, determine if their life-course effects are amenable to later interventions. Fourth, a highly deterministic view of early-life interactions is not supported by the science and can generate counterproductive approaches to research and policy development. Finally, an alternative approach is proposed on the basis of a "human-capacity" model of the life course that connects the search for underlying basic mechanisms with a policy-based examination of the comparative effectiveness of influences at different developmental stages. This approach suggests an expanded research and policy agenda that might be more capable of generating urgently needed strategies for reducing disparities in child health. Such an approach could ultimately define more comprehensively the power and limits of life-course effects in shaping the social distribution of health outcomes in the real world. PMID:19861471

  10. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. Index to issues 21-25

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography provides an index to issues 21 through 25 of the USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. There are two sections. The first section lists bibliographic citations of abstracts in these issues, grouped by topic area categories. The second section provides a key word index for the same abstracts. The topic categories include exobiology, space medicine and psychology, human performance and man-machine systems, various life/body systems, human behavior and adaptation, biospherics, and others.

  11. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. Index to issues 26-29

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Lydia Razran (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This bibliography provides an index to issues 26 through 29 of the USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. There are two sections. The first section lists bibliographic citations of abstracts in these issues, grouped by topic area categories. The second section provides a key word index for the same abstracts. The topic categories include exobiology, space medicine and psychology, human performance and man-machine systems, various life/body systems, human behavior and adaptation, biospherics, and others.

  12. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. Index to issues 15-20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography provides an index to issues 15 through 20 of the USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. There are two sections. The first section lists bibliographic citations of abstracts in these issues, grouped by topic area categories. The second section provides a key word index for the same abstracts. The topic categories include exobiology, space medicine and psychology, human performance and man-machine systems, various life/body systems, human behavior and adaptation, biospherics, and others.

  13. Broadening Participation in the Life Sciences with Social–Psychological Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Tibbetts, Yoi; Harackiewicz, Judith M.; Priniski, Stacy J.; Canning, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have recently documented the positive effects of social–psychological interventions on the performance and retention of underrepresented students in the life sciences. We review two types of social–psychological interventions that address either students’ well-being in college science courses or students’ engagement in science content. Interventions that have proven effective in RCTs in science courses (namely, utility-value [UV] and values-affirmation [VA] interventions) emphasize different types of student values—students’ perceptions of the value of curricular content and students’ personal values that shape their educational experiences. Both types of value can be leveraged to promote positive academic outcomes for underrepresented students. For example, recent work shows that brief writing interventions embedded in the curriculum can increase students’ perceptions of UV (the perceived importance or usefulness of a task for future goals) and dramatically improve the performance of first-generation (FG) underrepresented minority students in college biology. Other work has emphasized students’ personal values in brief essays written early in the semester. This VA intervention has been shown to close achievement gaps for women in physics classes and for FG students in college biology. By reviewing recent research, considering which interventions are most effective for different groups, and examining the causal mechanisms driving these positive effects, we hope to inform life sciences educators about the potential of social–psychological interventions for broadening participation in the life sciences. PMID:27543632

  14. Broadening Participation in the Life Sciences with Social-Psychological Interventions.

    PubMed

    Tibbetts, Yoi; Harackiewicz, Judith M; Priniski, Stacy J; Canning, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have recently documented the positive effects of social-psychological interventions on the performance and retention of underrepresented students in the life sciences. We review two types of social-psychological interventions that address either students' well-being in college science courses or students' engagement in science content. Interventions that have proven effective in RCTs in science courses (namely, utility-value [UV] and values-affirmation [VA] interventions) emphasize different types of student values-students' perceptions of the value of curricular content and students' personal values that shape their educational experiences. Both types of value can be leveraged to promote positive academic outcomes for underrepresented students. For example, recent work shows that brief writing interventions embedded in the curriculum can increase students' perceptions of UV (the perceived importance or usefulness of a task for future goals) and dramatically improve the performance of first-generation (FG) underrepresented minority students in college biology. Other work has emphasized students' personal values in brief essays written early in the semester. This VA intervention has been shown to close achievement gaps for women in physics classes and for FG students in college biology. By reviewing recent research, considering which interventions are most effective for different groups, and examining the causal mechanisms driving these positive effects, we hope to inform life sciences educators about the potential of social-psychological interventions for broadening participation in the life sciences. PMID:27543632

  15. Elementary teachers' use of content knowledge to evaluate students' thinking in the life sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabel, Jaime L.; Forbes, Cory T.; Flynn, Leslie

    2016-05-01

    Science learning environments should provide opportunities for students to make sense of and enhance their understanding of disciplinary concepts. Teachers can support students' sense-making by engaging and responding to their ideas through high-leverage instructional practices such as formative assessment (FA). However, past research has shown that teachers may not understand FA, how to implement it, or have sufficient content knowledge to use it effectively. Few studies have investigated how teachers gather information to evaluate students' ideas or how content knowledge factors into those decisions, particularly within the life science discipline. We designed a study embedded in a multi-year professional development program that supported elementary teachers' development of disciplinary knowledge and FA practices within science instruction. Study findings illustrate how elementary teachers' life science content knowledge influences their evaluation of students' ideas. Teachers with higher levels of life science content knowledge more effectively evaluated students' ideas than teachers with lower levels of content knowledge. Teachers with higher content exam scores discussed both content and student understanding to a greater extent, and their analyses of students' ideas were more scientifically accurate compared to teachers with lower scores. These findings contribute to theory and practice around science teacher education, professional development, and curriculum development.

  16. Safety Characteristics of LBE Cooled Long-Life Small Reactor, 'LSPR'

    SciTech Connect

    Hiroshi Sekimoto; Shinichi Makino

    2002-07-01

    Lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) shows a good performance on neutron economy, and LBE cooled fast reactor can be designed as an excellent long-life small reactor. LBE is good not only for neutron economy but for chemical inertness and high boiling point, which may realize a much safer reactor than conventional sodium-cooled reactor. We have designed such a long-life small reactor and name it LSPR. This paper presents safety characteristics of LSPR. (authors)

  17. Searching for Life with Rovers: Exploration Methods & Science Results from the 2004 Field Campaign of the "Life in the Atacama" Project and Applications to Future Mars Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Wettergreen, D. S.; Whittaker, R.; Grin, E. A.; Moersch, J. E.; Chong-Diaz, G.; Cockell, C. S.; Coppin, P.; Dohm, J. M.; Fisher, G.; Hock, A. N.; Marinangeli, L.; Minkley, N.; Ori, G. G.; Piatek, J. L.; Waggoner, A.; Warren-Rhodes, K.; Weinstein, S.; Wyatt, M.; Apostolopoulos, D.; Smith, T.; Wagner, M.; Stubbs, K.; Thomas, G.; Glasgow, J.

    2005-03-01

    LITA develops and field tests a long-range automated rover and a science payload to search for microbial life in the Atacama. The Atacama's evolution provides a unique training ground for designing and testing exploration strategies and life detection methods for the search for life on Mars.

  18. Animal Needs. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Life in Action. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. All animals need food, water, and shelter to grow, reproduce, and survive. Students learn about the needs of animals and how, over time, if…

  19. Topics in Complexity: From Physical to Life Science Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charry, Pedro David Manrique

    Complexity seeks to unwrap the mechanisms responsible for collective phenomena across the physical, biological, chemical, economic and social sciences. This thesis investigates real-world complex dynamical systems ranging from the quantum/natural domain to the social domain. The following novel understandings are developed concerning these systems' out-of-equilibrium and nonlinear behavior. Standard quantum techniques show divergent outcomes when a quantum system comprising more than one subunit is far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Abnormal photon inter-arrival times help fulfill the metabolic needs of a terrestrial photosynthetic bacterium. Spatial correlations within incident light can act as a driving mechanism for an organism's adaptation toward more ordered structures. The group dynamics of non-identical objects, whose assembly rules depend on mutual heterogeneity, yield rich transition dynamics between isolation and cohesion, with the cohesion regime reproducing a particular universal pattern commonly found in many real-world systems. Analyses of covert networks reveal collective gender superiority in the connectivity that provides benefits for system robustness and survival. Nodal migration in a network generates complex contagion profiles that lie beyond traditional approaches and yet resemble many modern-day outbreaks.

  20. Characteristics of Science Teachers Who Incorporate Web-Based Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dori, Yehudit J.; Tal, Revital T.; Peled, Yehuda

    2002-08-01

    This study concerns the characterisation and classification of the way junior high school science teachers incorporate Web-based learning environment and materials into their teaching. About 60 science teachers from nine junior high schools in the northern part of Israel took part in an extended professional development (PD) program. The study, which applied the qualitative interpretative methodology, involved multiple sources of data, including field notes of observations in the PD meetings and class observations, interviews with teachers and principals, and teachers artifacts. Based on their professional growth and beliefs about implementation of Web-based teaching, four basic types of science teachers were identified: the initiator and pathfinder, the follower and conformist, the avoider, and the antagonist. Provided with long-term support, these teachers elevated their specific Web-related qualifications. In particular, they improved the development of Web-based, learner-directed material. The level of success in assimilating Web-based learning in science classes was influenced by the quality and cohesion of the school's teacher team and their principal's care and involvement.