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Sample records for lifelong calorie restriction

  1. Structural modulation of gut microbiota in life-long calorie-restricted mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chenhong; Li, Shoufeng; Yang, Liu; Huang, Ping; Li, Wenjun; Wang, Shengyue; Zhao, Guoping; Zhang, Menghui; Pang, Xiaoyan; Yan, Zhen; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Calorie restriction has been regarded as the only experimental regimen that can effectively lengthen lifespan in various animal models, but the actual mechanism remains controversial. The gut microbiota has been shown to have a pivotal role in host health, and its structure is mostly shaped by diet. Here we show that life-long calorie restriction on both high-fat or low-fat diet, but not voluntary exercise, significantly changes the overall structure of the gut microbiota of C57BL/6 J mice. Calorie restriction enriches phylotypes positively correlated with lifespan, for example, the genus Lactobacillus on low-fat diet, and reduces phylotypes negatively correlated with lifespan. These calorie restriction-induced changes in the gut microbiota are concomitant with significantly reduced serum levels of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, suggesting that animals under calorie restriction can establish a structurally balanced architecture of gut microbiota that may exert a health benefit to the host via reduction of antigen load from the gut. PMID:23860099

  2. Newer antidiabetic drugs and calorie restriction mimicry.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Jacob, Jubbin Jagan; Gupta, Yashdeep

    2016-01-01

    De-acceleration of aging and delayed development of age-related morbidity accompanies the restriction of calories (without malnutrition) in laboratory mice, nematodes, yeast, fish, and dogs. Recent results from long-term longitudinal studies conducted on primates have suggested longevity benefits of a 30% restriction of calories in rhesus monkeys as well. Among calorie restricted rhesus monkeys one of the mechanisms for the improvement in lifespan was the reduction in the development of glucose intolerance and cardiovascular disease. Although there are no comparable human studies, it is likely that metabolic and longevity benefits will accompany a reduction in calories in humans as well. However, considering the difficulties in getting healthy adults to limit food intake science has focused on understanding the biochemical processes that accompany calorie restriction (CR) to formulate drugs that would mimic the effects of CR without the need to actually restrict calories. Drugs in this emerging therapeutic field are called CR mimetics. Some of the currently used anti-diabetic agents may have some CR mimetic like effects. This review focuses on the CR mimetic properties of the currently available anti-diabetic agents. PMID:26904485

  3. Newer antidiabetic drugs and calorie restriction mimicry

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Jacob, Jubbin Jagan; Gupta, Yashdeep

    2016-01-01

    De-acceleration of aging and delayed development of age-related morbidity accompanies the restriction of calories (without malnutrition) in laboratory mice, nematodes, yeast, fish, and dogs. Recent results from long-term longitudinal studies conducted on primates have suggested longevity benefits of a 30% restriction of calories in rhesus monkeys as well. Among calorie restricted rhesus monkeys one of the mechanisms for the improvement in lifespan was the reduction in the development of glucose intolerance and cardiovascular disease. Although there are no comparable human studies, it is likely that metabolic and longevity benefits will accompany a reduction in calories in humans as well. However, considering the difficulties in getting healthy adults to limit food intake science has focused on understanding the biochemical processes that accompany calorie restriction (CR) to formulate drugs that would mimic the effects of CR without the need to actually restrict calories. Drugs in this emerging therapeutic field are called CR mimetics. Some of the currently used anti-diabetic agents may have some CR mimetic like effects. This review focuses on the CR mimetic properties of the currently available anti-diabetic agents. PMID:26904485

  4. Counting calories in Drosophila diet restriction.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyung-Jin; Flatt, Thomas; Kulaots, Indrek; Tatar, Marc

    2007-03-01

    The extension of life span by diet restriction in Drosophila has been argued to occur without limiting calories. Here we directly measure the calories assimilated by flies when maintained on full- and restricted-diets. We find that caloric intake is reduced on all diets that extend life span. Flies on low-yeast diet are long-lived and consume about half the calories of flies on high-yeast diets, regardless of the energetic content of the diet itself. Since caloric intake correlates with yeast concentration and thus with the intake of every metabolite in this dietary component, it is premature to conclude for Drosophila that calories do not explain extension of life span. PMID:17125951

  5. Can restricting calories help you to live longer?

    PubMed

    Brown, James E

    2014-03-13

    Excess calorie consumption is associated with metabolic disorders and increased incidence of morbidity. Restricting calorie content, either by daily calorie restriction or intermittent fasting periods, has multiple benefits including weight loss and improved body composition. Previous research has shown that restricting calories in this way can increase longevity and slow the ageing process in laboratory animals, although only sparse data exist in human populations. This review critically evaluates the benefits of these dietary interventions on age-related decline and longevity. PMID:24879775

  6. Calorie restriction and the exercise of chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Vaquero, Alejandro; Reinberg, Danny

    2009-01-01

    Since the earliest stages of evolution, organisms have faced the challenge of sensing and adapting to environmental changes for their survival under compromising conditions such as food depletion or stress. Implicit in these responses are mechanisms developed during evolution that include the targeting of chromatin to allow or prevent expression of fundamental genes and to protect genome integrity. Among the different approaches to study these mechanisms, the analysis of the response to a moderate reduction of energy intake, also known as calorie restriction (CR), has become one of the best sources of information regarding the factors and pathways involved in metabolic adaptation from lower to higher eukaryotes. Furthermore, responses to CR are involved in life span regulation—conserved from yeast to mammals—and therefore have garnered major research interest. Herein we review current knowledge of responses to CR at the molecular level and their functional link to chromatin. PMID:19608767

  7. NRF2, cancer and calorie restriction

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Montalvo, A; Villalba, JM; Navas, P; de Cabo, R

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor NF-E2-related factor (NRF2) is a key regulator of several enzymatic pathways, including cytoprotective enzymes in highly metabolic organs. In this review, we summarize the ongoing research related to NRF2 activity in cancer development, focusing on in vivo studies using NRF2 knockout (KO) mice, which have helped in defining the crucial role of NRF2 in chemoprevention. The lower cancer protection observed in NRF2 KO mice under calorie restriction (CR) suggests that most of the beneficial effects of CR on the carcinogenesis process are likely mediated by NRF2. We propose that future interventions in cancer treatment would be carried out through the activation of NRF2 in somatic cells, which will lead to a delay or prevention of the onset of some forms of human cancers, and subsequently an extension of health- and lifespan. PMID:21057541

  8. Calorie Restriction and Aging in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Kemnitz, Joseph W.

    2012-01-01

    In the 75 years since the seminal observation of Clive McCay that restriction of calorie intake extends the lifespan of rats, a great deal has been learned about the effects of calorie restriction (CR; reduced intake of a nutritious diet) on aging in various short-lived animal models. Studies have demonstrated many beneficial effects of CR on health, the rate of aging, and longevity. Two prospective investigations of the effects of CR on long-lived nonhuman primate (NHP) species began nearly 25 years ago and are still under way. This review presents the design, methods, and main findings of these and other important contributing studies, which have generally revealed beneficial effects of CR on physiological function and the retardation of disease consistent with studies in other species. Specifically, prolonged CR appears to extend the lifespan of rhesus monkeys, which exhibited lower body fat; slower rate of muscle loss with age; lower incidence of neoplasia, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and endometriosis; improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance; and no apparent adverse effect on bone health, as well as a reduction in total energy expenditure. In addition, there are no reports of deleterious effects of CR on reproductive endpoints, and brain morphology is preserved by CR. Adrenal and thyroid hormone profiles are inconsistently affected. More research is needed to delineate the mechanisms of the desirable outcomes of CR and to develop interventions that can produce similar beneficial outcomes for humans. This research offers tremendous potential for producing novel insights into aging and risk of disease. PMID:21411859

  9. Calorie restriction as an intervention in ageing.

    PubMed

    López-Lluch, Guillermo; Navas, Plácido

    2016-04-15

    Ageing causes loss of function in tissues and organs, is accompanied by a chronic inflammatory process and affects life- and healthspan. Calorie restriction (CR) is a non-genetic intervention that prevents age-associated diseases and extends longevity in most of the animal models studied so far. CR produces a pleiotropic effect and improves multiple metabolic pathways, generating benefits to the whole organism. Among the effects of CR, modulation of mitochondrial activity and a decrease in oxidative damage are two of the hallmarks. Oxidative damage is reduced by the induction of endogenous antioxidant systems and modulation of the peroxidability index in cell membranes. Mitochondrial activity changes are regulated by inhibition of IGF-1 and Target of Rapamycin (TOR)-dependent activities and activation of AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) and the sirtuin family of proteins. The activity of PGC-1α and FoxO is regulated by these systems and is involved in mitochondria biogenesis, oxidative metabolism activity and mitochondrial turnover. The use of mimetics and the regulation of common factors have demonstrated that these molecular pathways are essential to explain the effect of CR in the organism. Finally, the anti-inflammatory effect of CR is an interesting emerging factor to be taken into consideration. In the present revision we focus on the general effect of CR and other mimetics in longevity, focusing especially on the cardiovascular system and skeletal muscle. PMID:26607973

  10. Will calorie restriction work in humans?

    PubMed Central

    Cava, Edda; Fontana, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Calorie Restriction (CR) without malnutrition slows aging and increases average and maximal lifespan in simple model organisms and rodents. In rhesus monkeys long-term CR reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer, and protects against age-associated sarcopenia and neurodegeneration. However, so far CR significantly increased average lifespan only in the Wisconsin, but not in the NIA monkey study. Differences in diet composition and study design between the 2 on-going trials may explain the discrepancies in survival and disease. Nevertheless, many of the metabolic and hormonal adaptations that are typical of the long-lived CR rodents did not occur in either the NIA or WNPRC CR monkeys. Whether or not CR will extend lifespan in humans is not yet known, but accumulating data indicate that moderate CR with adequate nutrition has a powerful protective effect against obesity, type 2 diabetes, inflammation, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and reduces metabolic risk factors associated with cancer. Moreover, CR in human beings improves markers of cardiovascular aging, and rejuvenates the skeletal muscle transcriptional profile. More studies are needed to understand the interactions between CR, diet composition, exercise, and other environmental and psychological factors on metabolic and molecular pathways that regulate health and longevity. PMID:23924667

  11. Calorie restriction as an intervention in ageing

    PubMed Central

    López‐Lluch, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ageing causes loss of function in tissues and organs, is accompanied by a chronic inflammatory process and affects life‐ and healthspan. Calorie restriction (CR) is a non‐genetic intervention that prevents age‐associated diseases and extends longevity in most of the animal models studied so far. CR produces a pleiotropic effect and improves multiple metabolic pathways, generating benefits to the whole organism. Among the effects of CR, modulation of mitochondrial activity and a decrease in oxidative damage are two of the hallmarks. Oxidative damage is reduced by the induction of endogenous antioxidant systems and modulation of the peroxidability index in cell membranes. Mitochondrial activity changes are regulated by inhibition of IGF‐1 and Target of Rapamycin (TOR)‐dependent activities and activation of AMP‐dependent kinase (AMPK) and the sirtuin family of proteins. The activity of PGC‐1α and FoxO is regulated by these systems and is involved in mitochondria biogenesis, oxidative metabolism activity and mitochondrial turnover. The use of mimetics and the regulation of common factors have demonstrated that these molecular pathways are essential to explain the effect of CR in the organism. Finally, the anti‐inflammatory effect of CR is an interesting emerging factor to be taken into consideration. In the present revision we focus on the general effect of CR and other mimetics in longevity, focusing especially on the cardiovascular system and skeletal muscle. PMID:26607973

  12. The Effects of Calorie Restriction in Depression and Potential Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yifan; Liu, Changhong; Zhao, Yinghao; Zhang, Xingyi; Li, Bingjin; Cui, Ranji

    2015-01-01

    Depression, also called major depressive disorder, is a neuropsychiatric disorder jeopardizing an increasing number of the population worldwide. To date, a large number of studies have devoted great attention to this problematic condition and raised several hypotheses of depression. Based on these theories, many antidepressant drugs were developed for the treatment of depression. Yet, the depressed patients are often refractory to the antidepressant therapies. Recently, increasing experimental evidences demonstrated the effects of calorie restriction in neuroendocrine system and in depression. Both basic and clinical investigations indicated that short-term calorie restriction might induce an antidepressant efficacy in depression, providing a novel avenue for treatment. Molecular basis underlying the antidepressant actions of calorie restriction might involve multiple physiological processes, primarily including orexin signaling activation, increased CREB phosphorylation and neurotrophic effects, release of endorphin and ketone production. However, the effects of chronic calorie restriction were quite controversial, in the cases that it often resulted in the long-term detrimental effects via inhibiting the function of 5-HT system and decreasing leptin levels. Here we review such dual effects of calorie restriction in depression and potential molecular basis behind these effects, especially focusing on antidepressant effects. PMID:26412073

  13. Calorie Restriction in Mammals and Simple Model Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Mirisola, Mario G.

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR), which usually refers to a 20–40% reduction in calorie intake, can effectively prolong lifespan preventing most age-associated diseases in several species. However, recent data from both human and nonhumans point to the ratio of macronutrients rather than the caloric intake as a major regulator of both lifespan and health-span. In addition, specific components of the diet have recently been identified as regulators of some age-associated intracellular signaling pathways in simple model systems. The comprehension of the mechanisms underpinning these findings is crucial since it may increase the beneficial effects of calorie restriction making it accessible to a broader population as well. PMID:24883306

  14. Calorie restriction in mammals and simple model organisms.

    PubMed

    Taormina, Giusi; Mirisola, Mario G

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR), which usually refers to a 20-40% reduction in calorie intake, can effectively prolong lifespan preventing most age-associated diseases in several species. However, recent data from both human and nonhumans point to the ratio of macronutrients rather than the caloric intake as a major regulator of both lifespan and health-span. In addition, specific components of the diet have recently been identified as regulators of some age-associated intracellular signaling pathways in simple model systems. The comprehension of the mechanisms underpinning these findings is crucial since it may increase the beneficial effects of calorie restriction making it accessible to a broader population as well. PMID:24883306

  15. The effects of calorie restriction on aging: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Al-Regaiey, K A

    2016-06-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) without malnutrition slows aging and increase average and maximal lifespan in model organisms and rodents. In human and non-human primates, CR has beneficial effects on human longevity and reduces the incidence of age-related diseases such as obesity, diabetes mellitus hypertension, cardiovascular disease and cancer. CR exerts its anti-aging effects through different mechanisms including small noncoding RNA molecules (sncRNAs), the composition of diet and IGF-1 signaling. The aim of this review was to discuss recent developments to understand the consequences and mechanisms of CR on longevity. PMID:27338076

  16. Metabolic and Neuropsychiatric Effects of Calorie Restriction and Sirtuins

    PubMed Central

    Libert, Sergiy; Guarente, Lenny

    2012-01-01

    Most living organisms, including humans, age. Over time the ability to do physical and intellectual work deteriorates, and susceptibility to infectious, metabolic, and neurodegenerative diseases increases, which leads to general fitness decline and ultimately to death. Work in model organisms has demonstrated that genetic and environmental manipulations can prevent numerous age-associated diseases, improve health at advanced age, and increase life span. Calorie restriction (CR) (consumption of a diet with fewer calories but containing all the essential nutrients) is the most robust manipulation, genetic or environmental, to extend longevity and improve health parameters in laboratory animals. However, outside of the protected laboratory environment, the effects of CR are much less certain. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of CR may lead to the development of novel therapies to combat diseases of aging and to improve the quality of life. Sirtuins, a family of NAD+-dependent enzymes, mediate a number of metabolic and behavioral responses to CR and are intriguing targets for pharmaceutical interventions. We review the molecular understanding of CR; the role of sirtuins in CR; and the effects of sirtuins on physiology, mood, and behavior. PMID:23043250

  17. Maintaining good hearing: calorie restriction, Sirt3, and glutathione.

    PubMed

    Han, Chul; Someya, Shinichi

    2013-10-01

    Reducing calorie intake extends the lifespan of a variety of experimental models and delays progression of age-related hearing loss (AHL). AHL is a common feature of aging and is characterized by age-related decline of hearing associated with loss of sensory hair cells, spiral ganglion neurons, and/or stria vascularis degeneration in the cochlea. Sirtuins are a family of NAD(+)-dependent enzymes that regulate lifespan in lower organisms and have emerged as broad regulators of cellular fate. Our recent study indicated that mitochondrial Sirt3, a member of the sirtuin family, mediates the anti-aging effects of calorie restriction (CR) on AHL in mice. Interestingly, we also found that weight loss alone may not be sufficient for maintaining normal hearing. How does CR slow the progression of AHL through regulation of Sirt3? Here we review the evidence that during CR, Sirt3 slows the progression of AHL by promoting the glutathione-mediated mitochondrial antioxidant defense system in mice. A significant reduction in food consumption in one's daily life may not be a desirable and realistic option for most people. Therefore, identification/discovery of compounds that induce the activation of SIRT3 or glutathione reductase, or that increase mitochondrial glutathione levels has potential for maintaining good hearing through mimicking the anti-aging effects of CR in human inner ear cells. PMID:23454634

  18. Calorie restriction and cancer prevention: metabolic and molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Valter D; Fontana, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    An important discovery of recent years has been that lifestyle and environmental factors affect cancer initiation, promotion and progression, suggesting that many malignancies are preventable. Epidemiological studies strongly suggest that excessive adiposity, decreased physical activity, and unhealthy diets are key players in the pathogenesis and prognosis of many common cancers. In addition, calorie restriction (CR), without malnutrition, has been shown to be broadly effective in cancer-prevention in laboratory strains of rodents. Adult-onset moderate CR also reduces cancer incidence by 50% in monkeys. Whether the anti-tumorigenic effects of CR will apply to humans is unknown, but CR results in a consistent reduction in circulating levels of growth factors, anabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers associated with various malignancies. Here, we discuss the link between nutritional interventions and cancer prevention with focus on the mechanisms that may be responsible for these effects in simple systems and mammals with a view to developing chemoprevention agents. PMID:20097433

  19. Calorie Restriction on Drinking Days: An Examination of Drinking Consequences Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Steven M.; Champion, Heather; Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Wagoner, Kimberly G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the association between restricting calories on intended drinking days and drunkenness frequency and alcohol-related consequences. Participants Participants included a random sample of 4,271 undergraduate college students from 10 universities. Methods Students completed a web-based survey regarding their high-risk drinking behaviors and calorie restriction on intended drinking days. Results Thirty-nine percent of past 30-day drinkers reported restricting calories on days they planned to drink alcohol, of which 67% restricted because of weight concerns. Restricting calories on drinking days was associated with greater odds of getting drunk in a typical week. Women who restricted were more likely to report memory loss, being injured, being taken advantage of sexually and having unprotected sex while drinking. Men were more likely to get into a physical fight. Conclusions These results highlight the importance of considering weight control behaviors in the examination of high-risk college drinking. PMID:19433398

  20. Multiple pathways regulating the calorie restriction response in yeast.

    PubMed

    Rahat, Ofer; Maoz, Noam; Cohen, Haim Y

    2011-02-01

    In yeast, SIR2 overexpression or calorie restriction (CR) results in life-span extension. It was previously suggested that CR activates Sir2 by reducing the levels of Sir2 inhibitors, NADH, or nicotinamide. Whereas NADH reduction is associated with an increase in respiration, nicotinamide clearance is induced by the upregulation of PNC1. Here, we show that, consistent with the hormesis hypothesis, PNC1 is part of a transcriptional stress response module consisting of 39 genes that increases under various stresses. Under high CR (0.1% glucose), Pnc1 becomes activated and its levels increase. However, low CR (0.5% glucose) increases yeast life span without PNC1 induction or activation of any transcriptional stress response. Instead, microarray analysis of low CR shows that the messenger RNA levels of iron transport genes increase, suggesting that this mode of CR is regulated by a shift toward respiration and lowering NADH levels. Thus, at least two pathways regulate the CR response in yeast. PMID:21081478

  1. Physically Active Rats Lose More Weight during Calorie Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Smyers, Mark E.; Bachir, Kailey Z.; Britton, Steven L.; Koch, Lauren G.; Novak, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Daily physical activity shows substantial inter-individual variation, and low physical activity is associated with obesity and weight gain. Elevated physical activity is also associated with high intrinsic aerobic capacity, which confers considerable metabolic health benefits. Rats artificially selected for high intrinsic aerobic capacity (high-capacity runners, HCR) are more physically active than their low-capacity counterparts (low-capacity runners, LCR). To test the hypothesis that physical activity counters metabolic thriftiness, we measured physical activity and weight loss during three weeks of 50% calorie restriction (CR) in the HCR and LCR rat lines. At baseline, HCR ate more and were more active than LCR; this was seen in male rats, where LCR are considerably heavier than HCR, as well as in a set of female rats where body weight did not differ between the lines, demonstrating that this effect is consistent across sex and not secondary to body weight. We show for the first time that HCR lose more weight than LCR relative to baseline. Physical activity levels declined throughout CR, and this was more pronounced in HCR than in LCR, yet some aspects of activity remained elevated in HCR relative to LCR even during CR. This is consistent with the idea that low physical activity contributes to metabolic thriftiness during food restriction, allowing LCR to defend body mass, particularly lean mass. This has implications for physical activity during diet-induced weight loss, the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in weight loss during a diet, and the potential evolutionary opposition between metabolic thriftiness and aerobic capacity. PMID:25449411

  2. Physically active rats lose more weight during calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Smyers, Mark E; Bachir, Kailey Z; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Novak, Colleen M

    2015-02-01

    Daily physical activity shows substantial inter-individual variation, and low physical activity is associated with obesity and weight gain. Elevated physical activity is also associated with high intrinsic aerobic capacity, which confers considerable metabolic health benefits. Rats artificially selected for high intrinsic aerobic capacity (high-capacity runners, HCR) are more physically active than their low-capacity counterparts (low-capacity runners, LCR). To test the hypothesis that physical activity counters metabolic thriftiness, we measured physical activity and weight loss during three weeks of 50% calorie restriction (CR) in the HCR and LCR rat lines. At baseline, HCR ate more and were more active than LCR; this was seen in male rats, where LCR are considerably heavier than HCR, as well as in a set of female rats where body weight did not differ between the lines, demonstrating that this effect is consistent across sex and not secondary to body weight. We show for the first time that HCR lose more weight than LCR relative to baseline. Physical activity levels declined throughout CR, and this was more pronounced in HCR than in LCR, yet some aspects of activity remained elevated in HCR relative to LCR even during CR. This is consistent with the idea that low physical activity contributes to metabolic thriftiness during food restriction, allowing LCR to defend body mass, particularly lean mass. This has implications for physical activity during diet-induced weight loss, the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in weight loss during a diet, and the potential evolutionary opposition between metabolic thriftiness and aerobic capacity. PMID:25449411

  3. Lifelong caloric restriction increases working memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Kuhla, Angela; Lange, Sophie; Holzmann, Carsten; Maass, Fabian; Petersen, Jana; Vollmar, Brigitte; Wree, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is argued to positively affect general health, longevity and the normally occurring age-related reduction of cognition. This issue is well examined, but most studies investigated the effect of short-term periods of CR. Herein, 4 weeks old female mice were fed caloric restricted for 4, 20 and especially for 74 weeks. CR mice received 60% of food eaten by their ad libitum (AL) fed littermates, and all age-matched groups were behaviorally analyzed. The motor coordination, which was tested by rotarod/accelerod, decreased age-related, but was not influenced by the different periods of CR. In contrast, the age-related impairment of spontaneous locomotor activity and anxiety, both being evaluated by open field and by elevated plus maze test, was found aggravated by a lifelong CR. Measurement of cognitive performance with morris water maze showed that the working memory decreased age-related in AL mice, while a lifelong CR caused a better cognitive performance and resulted in a significantly better spatial memory upon 74 weeks CR feeding. However, a late-onset CR feeding in 66 weeks old mice did not ameliorate the working memory. Therefore, a lifelong CR seems to be necessary to improve working memory. PMID:23874758

  4. Age-related alterations in the sarcolemmal environment are attenuated by lifelong caloric restriction and voluntary exercise.

    PubMed

    Hord, Jeffrey M; Botchlett, Rachel; Lawler, John M

    2016-10-01

    Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, referred to as sarcopenia, is mitigated by lifelong calorie restriction as well as exercise. In aged skeletal muscle fibers there is compromised integrity of the cell membrane that may contribute to sarcopenia. The purpose of this study was to determine if lifelong mild (8%) caloric restriction (CR) and lifelong CR+voluntary wheel running (WR) could ameliorate disruption of membrane scaffolding and signaling proteins during the aging process, thus maintaining a favorable, healthy membrane environment in plantaris muscle fibers. Fischer-344 rats were divided into four groups: 24-month old adults fed ad libitum (OAL); 24-month old on 8% caloric restriction (OCR); 24month old 8% caloric restriction+wheel running (OCRWR); and 6-month old sedentary adults fed ad libitum (YAL) were used to determine age-related changes. Aging resulted in discontinuous membrane expression of dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC) proteins: dystrophin and α-syntrophin. Older muscle also displayed decreased content of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), a key DGC signaling protein. In contrast, OCR and OCRWR provided significant protection against age-related DGC disruption. In conjunction with the age-related decline in membrane DGC patency, key membrane repair proteins (MG53, dysferlin, annexin A6, and annexin A2) were significantly increased in the OAL plantaris. However, lifelong CR and CRWR interventions were effective at maintaining membrane repair proteins near YAL levels of. OAL fibers also displayed reduced protein content of NADPH oxidase isoform 2 (Nox2) subunits (p67phox and p47phox), consistent with a perturbed sarcolemmal environment. Loss of Nox2 subunits was prevented by lifelong CR and CRWR. Our results are therefore consistent with the hypothesis that lifelong CR and WR are effective countermeasures against age-related alterations in the myofiber membrane environment. PMID:27534381

  5. Calorie Restriction Suppresses Age-Dependent Hippocampal Transcriptional Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Marissa J.; Dolgalev, Igor; Alldred, Melissa J.; Heguy, Adriana; Ginsberg, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) enhances longevity and mitigates aging phenotypes in numerous species. Physiological responses to CR are cell-type specific and variable throughout the lifespan. However, the mosaic of molecular changes responsible for CR benefits remains unclear, particularly in brain regions susceptible to deterioration during aging. We examined the influence of long-term CR on the CA1 hippocampal region, a key learning and memory brain area that is vulnerable to age-related pathologies, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Through mRNA sequencing and NanoString nCounter analysis, we demonstrate that one year of CR feeding suppresses age-dependent signatures of 882 genes functionally associated with synaptic transmission-related pathways, including calcium signaling, long-term potentiation (LTP), and Creb signaling in wild-type mice. By comparing the influence of CR on hippocampal CA1 region transcriptional profiles at younger-adult (5 months, 2.5 months of feeding) and older-adult (15 months, 12.5 months of feeding) timepoints, we identify conserved upregulation of proteome quality control and calcium buffering genes, including heat shock 70 kDa protein 1b (Hspa1b) and heat shock 70 kDa protein 5 (Hspa5), protein disulfide isomerase family A member 4 (Pdia4) and protein disulfide isomerase family A member 6 (Pdia6), and calreticulin (Calr). Expression levels of putative neuroprotective factors, klotho (Kl) and transthyretin (Ttr), are also elevated by CR in adulthood, although the global CR-specific expression profiles at younger and older timepoints are highly divergent. At a previously unachieved resolution, our results demonstrate conserved activation of neuroprotective gene signatures and broad CR-suppression of age-dependent hippocampal CA1 region expression changes, indicating that CR functionally maintains a more youthful transcriptional state within the hippocampal CA1 sector. PMID:26221964

  6. Artemisinin mimics calorie restriction to trigger mitochondrial biogenesis and compromise telomere shortening in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming; Li, Si-Ming; Gao, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Calorie restriction is known to extend lifespan among organisms by a debating mechanism underlying nitric oxide-driven mitochondrial biogenesis. We report here that nitric oxide generators including artemisinin, sodium nitroprusside, and L-arginine mimics calorie restriction and resembles hydrogen peroxide to initiate the nitric oxide signaling cascades and elicit the global antioxidative responses in mice. The large quantities of antioxidant enzymes are correlated with the low levels of reactive oxygen species, which allow the down-regulation of tumor suppressors and accessory DNA repair partners, eventually leading to the compromise of telomere shortening. Accompanying with the up-regulation of signal transducers and respiratory chain signatures, mitochondrial biogenesis occurs with the elevation of adenosine triphosphate levels upon exposure of mouse skeletal muscles to the mimetics of calorie restriction. In conclusion, calorie restriction-triggered nitric oxide provides antioxidative protection and alleviates telomere attrition via mitochondrial biogenesis, thereby maintaining chromosomal stability and integrity, which are the hallmarks of longevity. PMID:25780774

  7. Calorie restriction and methionine restriction in control of endogenous hydrogen sulfide production by the transsulfuration pathway.

    PubMed

    Hine, Christopher; Mitchell, James R

    2015-08-01

    H2S is a gas easily identified by its distinctive odor. Although environmental exposure to H2S has been viewed alternately as therapeutic or toxic through the centuries, H2S has recently regained recognition for its numerous beneficial biological effects. Most experiments documenting such benefits, including improved glucose tolerance, increased stress resistance, and even lifespan extension, are based on exposure of experimental organisms to exogenous sources of H2S. However, appreciation is growing for the importance of H2S produced endogenously by the evolutionary conserved transsulfuration pathway (TSP) in health and longevity. Recent data implicate H2S produced by the TSP in pleiotropic benefits of dietary restriction (DR), or reduced nutrient/energy intake without malnutrition. DR, best known as the most reliable way to extend lifespan in a wide range of experimental organisms, includes various regimens aimed at either reducing overall calorie intake (calorie restriction, intermittent/every-other-day fasting) or reducing particular nutrients such as protein or the essential amino acid, methionine (methionine restriction), with overlapping functional benefits on stress resistance, metabolic fitness and lifespan. Here we will review the small but growing body of literature linking the TSP to the functional benefits of DR in part through the production of endogenous H2S, with an emphasis on regulation of the TSP and H2S production by diet and mechanisms of beneficial H2S action. PMID:25523462

  8. Calorie restriction and methionine restriction in control of endogenous hydrogen sulfide production by the transsulfuration pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hine, Christopher; Mitchell, James R.

    2015-01-01

    H2S is a gas easily identified by its distinctive odor. Although environmental exposure to H2S has been viewed alternately as therapeutic or toxic through the centuries, H2S has recently regained recognition for its numerous beneficial biological effects. Most experiments documenting such benefits, including improved glucose tolerance, increased stress resistance, and even lifespan extension, are based on exposure of experimental organisms to exogenous sources of H2S. However, appreciation is growing for the importance of H2S produced endogenously by the evolutionary conserved transsulfuration pathway (TSP) in health and longevity. Recent data implicate H2S produced by the TSP in pleiotropic benefits of dietary restriction (DR), or reduced nutrient/energy intake without malnutrition. DR, best known as the most reliable way to extend lifespan in a wide range of experimental organisms, includes various regimens aimed at either reducing overall calorie intake (calorie restriction, intermittent/ every-other-day fasting) or reducing particular nutrients such as protein or the essential amino acid, methionine (methionine restriction), with overlapping functional benefits on stress resistance, metabolic fitness and lifespan. Here we will review the small but growing body of literature linking the TSP to the functional benefits of DR in part through the production of endogenous H2S, with an emphasis on regulation of the TSP and H2S production by diet and mechanisms of beneficial H2S action. PMID:25523462

  9. Effects of calorie restriction on the zebrafish liver proteome

    PubMed Central

    Jury, David R.; Kaveti, Suma; Duan, Zhong-Hui; Willard, Belinda; Kinter, Michael; Londraville, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A proteomic approach was taken to study how fish respond to changes in calorie availability, with the longer-term goal of understanding the evolution of lipid metabolism in vertebrates. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were fed either high (3 rations/day) or low (1 ration/7 days) calorie diets for 5 weeks and liver proteins extracted for proteomic analyses. Proteins were separated on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels and homologous spots compared between treatments to determine which proteins were up-regulated with high-calorie diet. Fifty-five spots were excised from the gel and analyzed via LC–ESI MS/MS, which resulted in the identification of 69 unique proteins (via multiple peptides). Twenty-nine of these proteins were differentially expressed between treatments. Differentially expressed proteins were mapped to Gene Ontology (GO) terms, and these terms compared to the entire zebrafish GO annotation set by Fisher's exact test. The most significant GO terms associated with high-calorie diet are related to a decrease in oxygen-binding activity in the high-calorie treatment. This response is consistent with a well-characterized response in obese humans, indicating there may be a link between lipid storage and hypoxia sensitivity in vertebrates. PMID:20494847

  10. Rationale for using intermittent calorie restriction as a dietary treatment for drug resistant epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Alan W C; Sander, Josemir W

    2014-04-01

    There has been resurgence in the use of dietary treatment, principally the classical ketogenic diet and its variants, for people with epilepsy. These diets generally require significant medical and dietician support. An effective but less restrictive dietary regimen is likely to be more acceptable and more widely used. Calorie-restricted diets appear to produce a range of biochemical and metabolic changes including reduced glucose levels, reduced inflammatory markers, increased sirtuins, increased AMPK signaling, inhibition of mTOR signaling, and increase in autophagy. There are studies in animal seizure models that suggest that these biochemical and metabolic changes may decrease ictogenesis and epileptogenesis. A calorie-restricted diet might be effective in reducing seizures in people with epilepsy. Hence, there is a sufficient rationale to undertake clinical trials to assess the efficacy and safety of calorie-restricted diets in people with epilepsy. PMID:24657501

  11. CALORIE RESTRICTION ENHANCES T CELL MEDIATED IMMUNE RESPONSE IN OVERWEIGHT MEN AND WOMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is well known that dietary energy restriction prolongs lifespan and enhances immune responsiveness in a wide range of laboratory animals. However, information on the applicability of these results to humans is limited. In this study we examined the effects of calorie restriction on T cell mediate...

  12. Proteome adaptation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to severe calorie restriction in Retentostat cultures.

    PubMed

    Binai, Nadine A; Bisschops, Markus M M; van Breukelen, Bas; Mohammed, Shabaz; Loeff, Luuk; Pronk, Jack T; Heck, Albert J R; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale; Slijper, Monique

    2014-08-01

    Stationary-phase, carbon-starved shake-flask cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are popular models for studying eukaryotic chronological aging. However, their nutrient-starved physiological status differs substantially from that of postmitotic metazoan cells. Retentostat cultures offer an attractive alternative model system in which yeast cells, maintained under continuous calorie restriction, hardly divide but retain high metabolic activity and viability for prolonged periods of time. Using TMT labeling and UHPLC-MS/MS, the present study explores the proteome of yeast cultures during transition from exponential growth to near-zero growth in severely calorie-restricted retentostats. This transition elicited protein level changes in 20% of the yeast proteome. Increased abundance of heat shock-related proteins correlated with increased transcript levels of the corresponding genes and was consistent with a strongly increased heat shock tolerance of retentostat-grown cells. A sizable fraction (43%) of the proteins with increased abundance under calorie restriction was involved in oxidative phosphorylation and in various mitochondrial functions that, under the anaerobic, nongrowing conditions used, have a very limited role. Although it may seem surprising that yeast cells confronted with severe calorie restriction invest in the synthesis of proteins that, under those conditions, do not contribute to fitness, these responses may confer metabolic flexibility and thereby a selective advantage in fluctuating natural habitats. PMID:25000127

  13. Calorie restriction (CR) enhances T cell mediated immune response in overweight men and women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calorie restriction (CR) enhances immunity and prolongs life-spans in animals. However, information on applying these results to humans is limited. A hallmark of aging is declining T-cell function. We examined the effects of CR on human T-cell function. Forty-six subjects aged 20-42 were randomly as...

  14. Calorie Restriction on Drinking Days: An Examination of Drinking Consequences among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Steven M.; Champion, Heather; Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Wagoner, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the association between restricting calories on intended drinking days and drunkenness frequency and alcohol-related consequences among college students. Participants: Participants included a random sample of 4,271 undergraduate college students from 10 universities. Methods: Students completed a Web-based survey…

  15. Drunkorexia: Calorie Restriction Prior to Alcohol Consumption among College Freshman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Sloane C.; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen; Woolsey, Conrad

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 692 freshmen at a southeastern university, this study examined caloric restriction among students prior to planned alcohol consumption. Participants were surveyed for self-reported alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and caloric intake habits prior to drinking episodes. Results indicated that 99 of 695 (14%) of first year…

  16. Effects of calorie restriction and weight loss on glucose and insulin levels in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, R L; Kaiser, D L

    1985-01-01

    The relative contributions of weight loss vs calorie restriction in the improvement of glucose tolerance in obese subjects has not been well studied. We measured fasting and stimulated glucose and insulin levels in seven obese subjects at 4 time periods: on a regular diet before weight loss, on a very low calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) after 4 days and after 6 weeks, and after 4 days back on a regular diet. Fasting glucose and insulin levels fell significantly after only 4 days of calorie restriction and did not change after 6 weeks. With return to a regular diet, these levels rose toward baseline even through body weight remained well below baseline. Stimulated glucose and insulin levels during an insulin tolerance test, intravenous glucose tolerance test, and standard meal demonstrated a similar pattern, although the changes due to either diet or weight loss were minimal. We conclude that calorie restriction has a greater effect on glucose and insulin levels than does weight loss in obese subjects who are losing weight. PMID:3900179

  17. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kevin D; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D; Miller, Bernard V; Prado, Carla M; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J; Yannai, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5-day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53 ± 6 g/day of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction, leading to 89 ± 6 g/day of fat loss, and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p = 0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with prolonged isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. PMID:26278052

  18. The yeast forkhead HCM1 controls life span independent of calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Maoz, Noam; Gabay, Orshay; Waldman Ben-Asher, Hiba; Cohen, Haim Y

    2015-04-01

    Regulation of life span by members of the forkhead transcription factor family of proteins is one of the most highly investigated pathways in the field of aging. Nevertheless, despite the existence of forkhead family homologues in yeast, our knowledge of these proteins' role in yeast longevity is limited. Here, we show that yeast Hcm1p forkhead is the closest homologue of the worm PHA-4 forkhead, which regulates Caenorhabditis elegans life span. Overexpressing the yeast forkhead HCM1 or its deficiency resulted in a significant extension or reduction in yeast replicative life span, respectively. HCM1 regulates stress resistance, significantly increases the mRNA levels of several stress response genes including the catalase enzymes CTA1 and CTT1, and positively regulates life span independently of calorie restriction. Thus, HCM1 is a key regulator of life span, through a mechanism independent of calorie restriction. PMID:24835838

  19. Yeast Life-Span Extension by Calorie Restriction Is Independent of NAD Fluctuation

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Ana Rute; Lavu, Siva; Medvedik, Oliver; Taylor, Christopher; Howitz, Konrad T.; Santos, Helena; Sinclair, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) slows aging in numerous species. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this effect requires Sir2, a conserved NAD+-dependent deacetylase. We report that CR reduces nuclear NAD+ levels in vivo. Moreover, the activity of Sir2 and its human homologue SIRT1 are not affected by physiological alterations in the NAD+:NADH ratio. These data implicate alternate mechanisms of Sir2 regulation by CR. PMID:14605207

  20. Dietary Fat and Aging Modulate Apoptotic Signaling in Liver of Calorie-Restricted Mice

    PubMed Central

    López-Domínguez, José Alberto; Khraiwesh, Husam; González-Reyes, José Antonio; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Navas, Plácido; Ramsey, Jon Jay; de Cabo, Rafael; Burón, María Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Imbalance between proliferation and cell death accounts for several age-linked diseases. Aging, calorie restriction (CR), and fat source are all factors that may influence apoptotic signaling in liver, an organ that plays a central metabolic role in the organism. Here, we have studied the combined effect of these factors on a number of apoptosis regulators and effectors. For this purpose, animals were fed diets containing different fat sources (lard, soybean oil, or fish oil) under CR for 6 or 18 months. An age-linked increase in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway was detected with CR, including a decrease in Bcl-2/Bax ratio, an enhanced release of cytochrome c to the cytosol and higher caspase-9 activity. However, these changes were not fully transmitted to the effectors apoptosis-inducing factor and caspase-3. CR (which abated aging-related inflammatory responses) and dietary fat altered the activities of caspases-8, -9, and -3. Apoptotic index (DNA fragmentation) and mean nuclear area were increased in aged animals with the exception of calorie-restricted mice fed a lard-based fat source. These results suggest possible protective changes in hepatic homeostasis with aging in the calorie-restricted lard group. PMID:24691092

  1. Calorie Restriction Alleviates Age-Related Decrease in Neural Progenitor Cell Division in the Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Park, June-Hee; Glass, Zachary; Sayed, Kasim; Michurina, Tatyana V.; Lazutkin, Alexander; Mineyeva, Olga; Velmeshev, Dmitry; Ward, Walter F.; Richardson, Arlan; Enikolopov, Grigori

    2013-01-01

    Production of new neurons from stem cells is important for cognitive function, and the reduction of neurogenesis in the aging brain may contribute to the accumulation of age-related cognitive deficits. Restriction of calorie intake and prolonged treatment with rapamycin have been shown to extend the lifespan of animals and delay the onset of age-related decline in tissue and organ function. Using a reporter line in which neural stem and progenitor cells are marked by the expression of GFP, we examined the effect of prolonged exposure to calorie restriction (CR) or rapamycin on hippocampal neural stem and progenitor cell proliferation in aging mice. We show that CR increases the number of dividing cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of female mice. The majority of these cells corresponded to Nestin-GFP-expressing neural stem or progenitor cells; however, this increased proliferative activity of stem and progenitor cells did not result in a significant increase in the number of doublecortin-positive newborn neurons. Our results suggest that restricted calorie intake may increase the number of divisions that neural stem and progenitor cells undergo in the aging brain of females. PMID:23773068

  2. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: V. Impact of short term calorie and protein restriction on physical activity in the C57BL/6 mouse

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Sharon E.; Delville, Camille; Konstantopedos, Penelope; Derous, Davina; Green, Cara L.; Wang, Yingchun; Han, Jing-Dong J.; Promislow, Daniel E.L.; Douglas, Alex; Chen, Luonan; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) delays the onset of age-related disease and extends lifespan in a number of species. When faced with reduced energy supply animals need to lower energy demands, which may be achieved in part by reducing physical activity (PA). We monitored changes in PA using implanted transmitters in male C57BL/6 mice in response to graded levels of CR (10 to 40%) or matched levels of graded protein restriction (PR) for 3 months. Mice were fed at lights out and ad libitum controls were limited to dark-phase feeding (12AL) or 24hr/day. Total daily PA declined in a non-linear manner over the first 30 days of CR or PR, remaining stable thereafter. Total daily PA was not related to the level of CR or PR. Total daily PA over the last 20 days of restriction was related to circulating leptin, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 levels, measured after 3 months. Mice under restriction showed a high level of activity in the 2hrs before feeding (food anticipatory activity: FAA). FAA followed a complex pattern, peaking around day 20, falling on ∼day 37 then increasing again. FAA was also positively related to the level of restriction and inversely to leptin, insulin, TNF-α and IGF-1. Non-FAA, in contrast, declined over the period of restriction, generally more so in mice under greater restriction, thereby offsetting to some extent the increase in FAA. Mice under PR displayed no changes in PA over time or in comparison to 12AL, and showed no increase in FAA. PMID:27007156

  3. Calorie restriction and NAD⁺/sirtuin counteract the hallmarks of aging.

    PubMed

    Michan, Shaday

    2014-01-01

    Among diverse environmental factors that modify aging, diet has a profound effect. Calorie restriction (CR), which entails reduced calorie consumption without malnutrition, is the only natural regimen shown to extend maximum and mean lifespan, as well as healthspan in a wide range of organisms. Although the knowledge about the biological mechanisms underlying CR is still incipient, various approaches in biogerontology research suggest that CR can ameliorate hallmarks of aging at the cellular level including telomere erosion, epigenetic alterations, stem cells depletion, cellular senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction, genomic instability, proteostasis imbalance, impaired nutrient sensing and abnormal intercellular communication. Currently, the NAD + /sirtuin pathway is one of the few mechanisms described to mediate CR effects and sirtuin-activating compounds (STACs) mimic many effects of CR. Herein, we discuss the effects of CR on healthspan with emphasis on neuroprotection, how CR counteracts cellular aging, how sirtuin pathways intertwine with CR, and the relevance of STACs in mimicking CR effects. PMID:24896352

  4. Clues to maintaining calorie restriction? Psychosocial profiles of successful long-term restrictors.

    PubMed

    Incollingo Belsky, Angela C; Epel, Elissa S; Tomiyama, A Janet

    2014-08-01

    To combat the obesity epidemic, interventions and treatments often recommend low-calorie dieting. Calorie restriction (CR) as a weight intervention, however, is often unsuccessful, as most people cannot sustain the behavior. Yet one small group has maintained extreme CR over years - members of the CR Society and followers of The CR Way. This study examined stable psychosocial characteristics of these individuals to identify traits that may promote success at long-term CR. In 65 participants, we measured diet, eating behaviors, and personality traits comparing calorie restrictors with two age-, gender-, ethnicity-, and education-matched comparison groups (normal weight and overweight/obese). We first tested whether the CR group restricted calories without indications of eating disorder pathology, and second, what crystallized psychosocial characteristics set them apart from their nonrestricting comparisons. Results indicated the CR group averaged 10 years of CR but scored lower than comparison groups on measures of disordered eating (p < .001) and psychopathology (p < .001). Particularly against overweight/obese participants, CR participants scored lower on neuroticism (p < .04) and hostility (p < .01), and were stronger in future time orientation (p < .05). Overall, CR profiles reflected high self-control and well being, except for having few close relationships. This study suggests a potential predisposition for successful long-term CR without disordered eating. Since modifying trait factors may be unrealistic, there may be psychosocial boundaries to the capacity for sustaining CR. Paralleling a movement toward personalized medicine, this study points toward a personalized behavioral medicine model in behavioral nutrition and treatment of overweight/obesity. PMID:24747211

  5. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: VI. Impact of short-term graded calorie restriction on transcriptomic responses of the hypothalamic hunger and circadian signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Green, Cara L.; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing‐Dong J.; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E.L.; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R.; Douglas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Food intake and circadian rhythms are regulated by hypothalamic neuropeptides and circulating hormones, which could mediate the anti‐ageing effect of calorie restriction (CR). We tested whether these two signaling pathways mediate CR by quantifying hypothalamic transcripts of male C57BL/6 mice exposed to graded levels of CR (10 % to 40 %) for 3 months. We found that the graded CR manipulation resulted in upregulation of core circadian rhythm genes, which correlated negatively with circulating levels of leptin, insulin‐like growth factor 1 (IGF‐1), insulin, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF‐α). In addition, key components in the hunger signaling pathway were expressed in a manner reflecting elevated hunger at greater levels of restriction, and which also correlated negatively with circulating levels of insulin, TNF‐α, leptin and IGF‐1. Lastly, phenotypes, such as food anticipatory activity and body temperature, were associated with expression levels of both hunger genes and core clock genes. Our results suggest modulation of the hunger and circadian signaling pathways in response to altered levels of circulating hormones, that are themselves downstream of morphological changes resulting from CR treatment, may be important elements in the response to CR, driving some of the key phenotypic outcomes. PMID:26945906

  6. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: VI. Impact of short-term graded calorie restriction on transcriptomic responses of the hypothalamic hunger and circadian signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Derous, Davina; Mitchell, Sharon E; Green, Cara L; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing-Dong J; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E L; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R; Douglas, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Food intake and circadian rhythms are regulated by hypothalamic neuropeptides and circulating hormones, which could mediate the anti-ageing effect of calorie restriction (CR). We tested whether these two signaling pathways mediate CR by quantifying hypothalamic transcripts of male C57BL/6 mice exposed to graded levels of CR (10 % to 40 %) for 3 months. We found that the graded CR manipulation resulted in upregulation of core circadian rhythm genes, which correlated negatively with circulating levels of leptin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In addition, key components in the hunger signaling pathway were expressed in a manner reflecting elevated hunger at greater levels of restriction, and which also correlated negatively with circulating levels of insulin, TNF-α, leptin and IGF-1. Lastly, phenotypes, such as food anticipatory activity and body temperature, were associated with expression levels of both hunger genes and core clock genes. Our results suggest modulation of the hunger and circadian signaling pathways in response to altered levels of circulating hormones, that are themselves downstream of morphological changes resulting from CR treatment, may be important elements in the response to CR, driving some of the key phenotypic outcomes. PMID:26945906

  7. What are the roles of calorie restriction and diet quality in promoting healthy longevity?

    PubMed

    Rizza, Wanda; Veronese, Nicola; Fontana, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that diet plays a central role in the pathogenesis of many age-associated chronic diseases, and in the biology of aging itself. Data from several animal studies suggest that the degree and time of calorie restriction (CR) onset, the timing of food intake as well as diet composition, play major roles in promoting health and longevity, breaking the old dogma that only calorie intake is important in extending healthy lifespan. Data from human studies indicate that long-term CR with adequate intake of nutrients results in several metabolic adaptations that reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Moreover, CR opposes the expected age-associated alterations in myocardial stiffness, autonomic function, and gene expression in the human skeletal muscle. However, it is possible that some of the beneficial effects on metabolic health are not entirely due to CR, but to the high quality diets consumed by the CR practitioners, as suggested by data collected in individuals consuming strict vegan diets. More studies are needed to understand the interactions among single nutrient modifications (e.g. protein/aminoacid, fatty acids, vitamins, phytochemicals, and minerals), the degree of CR and the frequency of food consumption in modulating anti-aging metabolic and molecular pathways, and in the prevention of age-associated diseases. PMID:24291541

  8. CTT1 overexpression increases life span of calorie-restricted Saccharomyces cerevisiae deficient in Sod1.

    PubMed

    Rona, Germana; Herdeiro, Ricardo; Mathias, Cristiane Juliano; Torres, Fernando Araripe; Pereira, Marcos Dias; Eleutherio, Elis

    2015-06-01

    Studies using different organisms revealed that reducing calorie intake, without malnutrition, known as calorie restriction (CR), increases life span, but its mechanism is still unkown. Using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as eukaryotic model, we observed that Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1p) is required to increase longevity, as well as to confer protection against lipid and protein oxidation under CR. Old cells of sod1 strain also presented a premature induction of apoptosis. However, when CTT1 (which codes for cytosolic catalase) was overexpressed, sod1 and WT strains showed similar survival rates. Furthermore, CTT1 overexpression decreased lipid peroxidation and delayed the induction of apoptotic process. Superoxide is rapidly converted to hydrogen peroxide by superoxide dismutase, but it also undergoes spontaneous dismutation albeit at a slower rate. However, the quantity of peroxide produced from superoxide in this way is two-fold higher. Peroxide degradation, catalyzed by catalase, is of vital importance, because in the presence of a reducer transition metal peroxide is reduced to the highly reactive hydroxyl radical, which reacts indiscriminately with most cellular constituents. These findings might explain why overexpression of catalase was able to overcome the deficiency of Sod1p, increasing life span in response to CR. PMID:25573485

  9. Calorie restriction-mediated replicative lifespan extension in yeast is non-cell autonomous.

    PubMed

    Mei, Szu-Chieh; Brenner, Charles

    2015-01-01

    In laboratory yeast strains with Sir2 and Fob1 function, wild-type NAD+ salvage is required for calorie restriction (CR) to extend replicative lifespan. CR does not significantly alter steady state levels of intracellular NAD+ metabolites. However, levels of Sir2 and Pnc1, two enzymes that sequentially convert NAD+ to nicotinic acid (NA), are up-regulated during CR. To test whether factors such as NA might be exported by glucose-restricted mother cells to survive later generations, we developed a replicative longevity paradigm in which mother cells are moved after 15 generations on defined media. The experiment reveals that CR mother cells lose the longevity benefit of CR when evacuated from their local environment to fresh CR media. Addition of NA or nicotinamide riboside (NR) allows a moved mother to maintain replicative longevity despite the move. Moreover, conditioned medium from CR-treated cells transmits the longevity benefit of CR to moved mother cells. Evidence suggests the existence of a longevity factor that is dialyzable but is neither NA nor NR, and indicates that Sir2 is not required for the longevity factor to be produced or to act. Data indicate that the benefit of glucose-restriction is transmitted from cell to cell in budding yeast, suggesting that glucose restriction may benefit neighboring cells and not only an individual cell. PMID:25633578

  10. rBTI extends Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan by mimicking calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiao; Cui, Xiaodong; Wang, Zhuanhua; Li, Yuying

    2015-07-01

    Buckwheat trypsin inhibitor (BTI) is a low molecular weight polypeptide extracted from buckwheat. This study examined the effects of BTI on the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) and investigated the mechanism involved. Our results showed that recombinant BTI (rBTI) extended life expectancy by mimicking calorie restriction (CR) in C. elegans. rBTI promoted formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via increasing respiration, induced activities of ROS defense enzymes by activating DAF-16, and increased oxidative stress resistance and survival rates. The inhibition of ROS signal by antioxidants reduced rBTI-mediated longevity by up to 65%. Moreover, it was shown that the disruption of daf-2 abolished the extension of the lifespan and the increased ROS. Taken together, these data indicate that rBTI-mediated longevity mimics CR by down-regulating insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway, implying that BTI has the potential to be a novel anti-aging drug. PMID:25959406

  11. Intermittent fasting vs daily calorie restriction for type 2 diabetes prevention: a review of human findings.

    PubMed

    Barnosky, Adrienne R; Hoddy, Kristin K; Unterman, Terry G; Varady, Krista A

    2014-10-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) regimens have gained considerable popularity in recent years, as some people find these diets easier to follow than traditional calorie restriction (CR) approaches. IF involves restricting energy intake on 1-3 d/wk, and eating freely on the nonrestriction days. Alternate day fasting (ADF) is a subclass of IF, which consists of a "fast day" (75% energy restriction) alternating with a "feed day" (ad libitum food consumption). Recent findings suggest that IF and ADF are equally as effective as CR for weight loss and cardioprotection. What remains unclear, however, is whether IF/ADF elicits comparable improvements in diabetes risk indicators, when compared with CR. Accordingly, the goal of this review was to compare the effects of IF and ADF with daily CR on body weight, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese adults. Results reveal superior decreases in body weight by CR vs IF/ADF regimens, yet comparable reductions in visceral fat mass, fasting insulin, and insulin resistance. None of the interventions produced clinically meaningful reductions in glucose concentrations. Taken together, these preliminary findings show promise for the use of IF and ADF as alternatives to CR for weight loss and type 2 diabetes risk reduction in overweight and obese populations, but more research is required before solid conclusions can be reached. PMID:24993615

  12. Energy metabolism and biochemical features of adipose tissues in ICR mice after long-term calorie-restricted diet.

    PubMed

    Mizonova, O V; Elsukova, E I; Medvedev, L N

    2013-10-01

    Long-term calorie-restricted diet (8 weeks, 60% of control food intake) was followed by an increase in thermogenic activity of interscapular brown fat. The relative amount of DNA and protein and the rate of oxygen consumption increased and tissue-specific marker of brown fat (uncoupling protein UCP1) appeared in significantly reduced deep-pink abdominal adipose tissue. PMID:24288756

  13. Approaches for quantifying energy intake and % calorie restriction (CR) during CR interventions in humans: the multicenter CALERIE study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a component of most weight-loss interventions and a potential strategy to slow aging. Accurate determination of energy intake and %CR is critical when interpreting the results of CR interventions; this is best achieved using the doubly labeled water method to quantify tot...

  14. Inhibition of Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth by Ketogenic Diet and/or Calorie Restriction in a CD1-Nu Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Morscher, Raphael Johannes; Aminzadeh-Gohari, Sepideh; Feichtinger, René Gunther; Mayr, Johannes Adalbert; Lang, Roland; Neureiter, Daniel; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Neuroblastoma is a malignant pediatric cancer derived from neural crest cells. It is characterized by a generalized reduction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet on neuroblastoma tumor growth and monitor potential adaptive mechanisms of the cancer’s oxidative phosphorylation system. Methods Xenografts were established in CD-1 nude mice by subcutaneous injection of two neuroblastoma cell lines having distinct genetic characteristics and therapeutic sensitivity [SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2)]. Mice were randomized to four treatment groups receiving standard diet, calorie-restricted standard diet, long chain fatty acid based ketogenic diet or calorie-restricted ketogenic diet. Tumor growth, survival, metabolic parameters and weight of the mice were monitored. Cancer tissue was evaluated for diet-induced changes of proliferation indices and multiple oxidative phosphorylation system parameters (respiratory chain enzyme activities, western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and mitochondrial DNA content). Results Ketogenic diet and/or calorie restriction significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival in the xenograft model. Neuroblastoma growth reduction correlated with decreased blood glucose concentrations and was characterized by a significant decrease in Ki-67 and phospho-histone H3 levels in the diet groups with low tumor growth. As in human tumor tissue, neuroblastoma xenografts showed distinctly low mitochondrial complex II activity in combination with a generalized low level of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, validating the tumor model. Neuroblastoma showed no ability to adapt its mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity to the change in nutrient supply induced by dietary intervention. Conclusions Our data suggest that targeting the metabolic characteristics of neuroblastoma could open a new front in supporting

  15. Common mechanisms for calorie restriction and adenylyl cyclase type 5 knockout models of longevity.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lin; Park, Ji Yeon; Dillinger, Jean-Guillaume; De Lorenzo, Mariana S; Yuan, Chujun; Lai, Lo; Wang, Chunbo; Ho, David; Tian, Bin; Stanley, William C; Auwerx, Johan; Vatner, Dorothy E; Vatner, Stephen F

    2012-12-01

    Adenylyl cyclase type 5 knockout mice (AC5 KO) live longer and are stress resistant, similar to calorie restriction (CR). AC5 KO mice eat more, but actually weigh less and accumulate less fat compared with WT mice. CR applied to AC5 KO results in rapid decrease in body weight, metabolic deterioration, and death. These data suggest that despite restricted food intake in CR, but augmented food intake in AC5 KO, the two models affect longevity and metabolism similarly. To determine shared molecular mechanisms, mRNA expression was examined genome-wide for brain, heart, skeletal muscle, and liver. Significantly more genes were regulated commonly rather than oppositely in all the tissues in both models, indicating commonality between AC5 KO and CR. Gene ontology analysis identified many significantly regulated, tissue-specific pathways shared by the two models, including sensory perception in heart and brain, muscle function in skeletal muscle, and lipid metabolism in liver. Moreover, when comparing gene expression changes in the heart under stress, the glutathione regulatory pathway was consistently upregulated in the longevity models but downregulated with stress. In addition, AC5 and CR shared changes in genes and proteins involved in the regulation of longevity and stress resistance, including Sirt1, ApoD, and olfactory receptors in both young- and intermediate-age mice. Thus, the similarly regulated genes and pathways in AC5 KO and CR mice, particularly related to the metabolic phenotype, suggest a unified theory for longevity and stress resistance. PMID:23020244

  16. Calorie restriction regulates circadian clock gene expression through BMAL1 dependent and independent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sonal A.; Velingkaar, Nikkhil; Makwana, Kuldeep; Chaudhari, Amol; Kondratov, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Feeding behavior, metabolism and circadian clocks are interlinked. Calorie restriction (CR) is a feeding paradigm known to extend longevity. We found that CR significantly affected the rhythms in the expression of circadian clock genes in mice on the mRNA and protein levels, suggesting that CR reprograms the clocks both transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally. The effect of CR on gene expression was distinct from the effects of time-restricted feeding or fasting. Furthermore, CR affected the circadian output through up- or down-regulation of the expression of several clock-controlled transcriptional factors and the longevity candidate genes. CR-dependent effects on some clock gene expression were impaired in the liver of mice deficient for BMAL1, suggesting importance of this transcriptional factor for the transcriptional reprogramming of the clock, however, BMAL1- independent mechanisms also exist. We propose that CR recruits biological clocks as a natural mechanism of metabolic optimization under conditions of limited energy resources. PMID:27170536

  17. Calorie restriction regulates circadian clock gene expression through BMAL1 dependent and independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sonal A; Velingkaar, Nikkhil; Makwana, Kuldeep; Chaudhari, Amol; Kondratov, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Feeding behavior, metabolism and circadian clocks are interlinked. Calorie restriction (CR) is a feeding paradigm known to extend longevity. We found that CR significantly affected the rhythms in the expression of circadian clock genes in mice on the mRNA and protein levels, suggesting that CR reprograms the clocks both transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally. The effect of CR on gene expression was distinct from the effects of time-restricted feeding or fasting. Furthermore, CR affected the circadian output through up- or down-regulation of the expression of several clock-controlled transcriptional factors and the longevity candidate genes. CR-dependent effects on some clock gene expression were impaired in the liver of mice deficient for BMAL1, suggesting importance of this transcriptional factor for the transcriptional reprogramming of the clock, however, BMAL1- independent mechanisms also exist. We propose that CR recruits biological clocks as a natural mechanism of metabolic optimization under conditions of limited energy resources. PMID:27170536

  18. Systematic review and meta-analysis reveals acutely elevated plasma cortisol following fasting but not less severe calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuko; Walker, Brian R; Ikuta, Toshikazu

    2016-03-01

    Elevated plasma cortisol has been reported following caloric restriction, and may contribute to adverse effects including stress-induced overeating, but results from published studies are inconsistent. To clarify the effects of caloric restriction on plasma cortisol, and to assess cortisol as an indicator of stress during caloric restriction, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies in which cortisol was measured following caloric restriction without other manipulations in humans. We further compared effects of fasting, very low calorie diet (VLCD), and other less intense low calorie diet (LCD), as well as the duration of caloric restriction by meta-regression. Overall, caloric restriction significantly increased serum cortisol level in 13 studies (357 total participants). Fasting showed a very strong effect in increasing serum cortisol, while VLCD and LCD did not show significant increases. The meta-regression analysis showed a negative association between the serum cortisol level and the duration of caloric restriction, indicating serum cortisol is increased in the initial period of caloric restriction but decreased to the baseline level after several weeks. These results suggest that severe caloric restriction causes activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which may be transient, but results in elevated cortisol which could mediate effects of starvation on brain and metabolic function as well as ameliorate weight loss. PMID:26586092

  19. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: VII. Topological rearrangement of hypothalamic aging networks.

    PubMed

    Derous, Davina; Mitchell, Sharon E; Green, Cara L; Wang, Yingchun; Han, Jing Dong J; Chen, Luonan; Promislow, Daniel E L; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R; Douglas, Alex

    2016-05-01

    Connectivity in a gene-gene network declines with age, typically within gene clusters. We explored the effect of short-term (3 months) graded calorie restriction (CR) (up to 40 %) on network structure of aging-associated genes in the murine hypothalamus by using conditional mutual information. The networks showed a topological rearrangement when exposed to graded CR with a higher relative within cluster connectivity at 40CR. We observed changes in gene centrality concordant with changes in CR level, with Ppargc1a, and Ppt1 having increased centrality and Etfdh, Traf3 and Abcc1 decreased centrality as CR increased. This change in gene centrality in a graded manner with CR, occurred in the absence of parallel changes in gene expression levels. This study emphasizes the importance of augmenting traditional differential gene expression analyses to better understand structural changes in the transcriptome. Overall our results suggested that CR induced changes in centrality of biological relevant genes that play an important role in preventing the age-associated loss of network integrity irrespective of their gene expression levels. PMID:27115072

  20. The Influence of Dietary Fat Source on Life Span in Calorie Restricted Mice.

    PubMed

    López-Domínguez, José A; Ramsey, Jon J; Tran, Dianna; Imai, Denise M; Koehne, Amanda; Laing, Steven T; Griffey, Stephen M; Kim, Kyoungmi; Taylor, Sandra L; Hagopian, Kevork; Villalba, José M; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Navas, Plácido; McDonald, Roger B

    2015-10-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) without malnutrition extends life span in several animal models. It has been proposed that a decrease in the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and especially n-3 fatty acids, in membrane phospholipids may contribute to life span extension with CR. Phospholipid PUFAs are sensitive to dietary fatty acid composition, and thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the influence of dietary lipids on life span in CR mice. C57BL/6J mice were assigned to four groups (a 5% CR control group and three 40% CR groups) and fed diets with soybean oil (high in n-6 PUFAs), fish oil (high in n-3 PUFAs), or lard (high in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids) as the primary lipid source. Life span was increased (p < .05) in all CR groups compared to the Control mice. Life span was also increased (p < .05) in the CR lard mice compared to animals consuming either the CR fish or soybean oil diets. These results indicate that dietary lipid composition can influence life span in mice on CR, and suggest that a diet containing a low proportion of PUFAs and high proportion of monounsaturated and saturated fats may maximize life span in animals maintained on CR. PMID:25313149

  1. Long-Term Calorie Restriction Enhances Cellular Quality-Control Processes in Human Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ling; Licastro, Danilo; Cava, Edda; Veronese, Nicola; Spelta, Francesco; Rizza, Wanda; Bertozzi, Beatrice; Villareal, Dennis T; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S; Holloszy, John O; Fontana, Luigi

    2016-01-26

    Calorie restriction (CR) retards aging, acts as a hormetic intervention, and increases serum corticosterone and HSP70 expression in rodents. However, less is known regarding the effects of CR on these factors in humans. Serum cortisol and molecular chaperones and autophagic proteins were measured in the skeletal muscle of subjects on CR diets for 3-15 years and in control volunteers. Serum cortisol was higher in the CR group than in age-matched sedentary and endurance athlete groups (15.6 ± 4.6 ng/dl versus 12.3 ± 3.9 ng/dl and 11.2 ± 2.7 ng/dl, respectively; p ≤ 0.001). HSP70, Grp78, beclin-1, and LC3 mRNA and/or protein levels were higher in the skeletal muscle of the CR group compared to controls. Our data indicate that CR in humans is associated with sustained rises in serum cortisol, reduced inflammation, and increases in key molecular chaperones and autophagic mediators involved in cellular protein quality control and removal of dysfunctional proteins and organelles. PMID:26774472

  2. Skeletal muscle transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α mediates mitochondrial, but not metabolic, changes during calorie restriction

    PubMed Central

    Finley, Lydia W. S.; Lee, Jaewon; Souza, Amanda; Desquiret-Dumas, Valérie; Bullock, Kevin; Rowe, Glenn C.; Procaccio, Vincent; Clish, Clary B.; Arany, Zoltan; Haigis, Marcia C.

    2012-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a dietary intervention that extends lifespan and healthspan in a variety of organisms. CR improves mitochondrial energy production, fuel oxidation, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging in skeletal muscle and other tissues, and these processes are thought to be critical to the benefits of CR. PGC-1α is a transcriptional coactivator that regulates mitochondrial function and is induced by CR. Consequently, many of the mitochondrial and metabolic benefits of CR are attributed to increased PGC-1α activity. To test this model, we examined the metabolic and mitochondrial response to CR in mice lacking skeletal muscle PGC-1α (MKO). Surprisingly, MKO mice demonstrated a normal improvement in glucose homeostasis in response to CR, indicating that skeletal muscle PGC-1α is dispensable for the whole-body benefits of CR. In contrast, gene expression profiling and electron microscopy (EM) demonstrated that PGC-1α is required for the full CR-induced increases in mitochondrial gene expression and mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle. These results demonstrate that PGC-1α is a major regulator of the mitochondrial response to CR in skeletal muscle, but surprisingly show that neither PGC-1α nor mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle are required for the whole-body metabolic benefits of CR. PMID:22308395

  3. Network reconstruction reveals new links between aging and calorie restriction in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Balázsi, Gábor

    2010-01-01

    Aging affects all known organisms and has been studied extensively. Yet, the underlying mechanisms are insufficiently understood, possibly due to the multiscale complexity involved in this process: the aging of multicellular organisms depends on the aging of their cells, which depends on molecular events occurring in each cell. However, the aging of unicellular populations seeded in new niches and the aging of metazoans are surprisingly similar, indicating that the multiscale aspects of aging may have been conserved since the beginnings of cellular life on Earth. This underlines the importance of aging research in unicellular organisms such as a recent study by Lorenz et al., [(2009) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 1145–1150]. In their paper, the authors combine computational network identification with extensive experimentation and literature mining to discover and validate numerous regulatory interactions among ten genes involved in the cellular response to glucose starvation. Since low levels of glucose (calorie restriction) have been known to extend the longevity of various eukaryotes, the authors test the effect of Snf1 kinase overexpression on chronological aging and discover that this key regulator of glucose repression and two of its newly discovered synergistic repressors significantly affect the chronological lifespan of baker’s yeast. PMID:21119761

  4. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: VII. Topological rearrangement of hypothalamic aging networks

    PubMed Central

    Derous, Davina; Mitchell, Sharon E.; Green, Cara L.; Wang, Yingchun; Han, Jing Dong J.; Chen, Luonan; Promislow, Daniel E.L.; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R.; Douglas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Connectivity in a gene-gene network declines with age, typically within gene clusters. We explored the effect of short-term (3 months) graded calorie restriction (CR) (up to 40 %) on network structure of aging-associated genes in the murine hypothalamus by using conditional mutual information. The networks showed a topological rearrangement when exposed to graded CR with a higher relative within cluster connectivity at 40CR. We observed changes in gene centrality concordant with changes in CR level, with Ppargc1a, and Ppt1 having increased centrality and Etfdh, Traf3 and Abcc1 decreased centrality as CR increased. This change in gene centrality in a graded manner with CR, occurred in the absence of parallel changes in gene expression levels. This study emphasizes the importance of augmenting traditional differential gene expression analyses to better understand structural changes in the transcriptome. Overall our results suggested that CR induced changes in centrality of biological relevant genes that play an important role in preventing the age-associated loss of network integrity irrespective of their gene expression levels. PMID:27115072

  5. Autophagy and leucine promote chronological longevity and respiration proficiency during calorie restriction in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Aris, John P.; Alvers, Ashley L.; Ferraiuolo, Roy A.; Fishwick, Laura K.; Hanvivatpong, Amanda; Hu, Doreen; Kirlew, Christine; Leonard, Michael T.; Losin, Kyle J.; Marraffini, Michelle; Seo, Arnold Y.; Swanberg, Veronica; Westcott, Jennifer L.; Wood, Michael S.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Dunn, William A.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that autophagy is required for chronological longevity in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we examine the requirements for autophagy during extension of chronological life span (CLS) by calorie restriction (CR). We find that autophagy is upregulated by two CR interventions that extend CLS: water wash CR and low glucose CR. Autophagy is required for full extension of CLS during water wash CR under all growth conditions tested. In contrast, autophagy was not uniformly required for full extension of CLS during low glucose CR, depending on the atg allele and strain genetic background. Leucine status influenced CLS during CR. Eliminating the leucine requirement in yeast strains or adding supplemental leucine to growth media extended CLS during CR. In addition, we observed that both water wash and low glucose CR promote mitochondrial respiration proficiency during aging of autophagy-deficient yeast. In general, the extension of CLS by water wash or low glucose CR was inversely related to respiration deficiency in autophagy-deficient cells. Also, autophagy is required for full extension of CLS under non-CR conditions in buffered media, suggesting that extension of CLS during CR is not solely due to reduced medium acidity. Thus, our findings show that autophagy is: (1) induced by CR, (2) required for full extension of CLS by CR in most cases (depending on atg allele, strain, and leucine availability) and, (3) promotes mitochondrial respiration proficiency during aging under CR conditions. PMID:23337777

  6. Calorie Restriction Attenuates Monocrotaline-induced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Mingge; Lei, Jingyi; Qu, Yinxian; Zhang, Huan; Xin, Weichuan; Ma, Feng; Liu, Shuwen; Li, Zhichao; Jin, Faguang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Calorie restriction (CR) is one of the most effective nonpharmacological interventions protecting against cardiovascular disease, such as hypertension in the systemic circulation. However, whether CR could attenuate pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is largely unknown. The PAH model was developed by subjecting the rats to a single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline. CR lowered mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) and reduced vascular remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy in PAH rats. Meanwhile, CR attenuated endothelial dysfunction as evidenced by increased relaxation in response to acetylcholine. The beneficial effects of CR were associated with restored sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) expression and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation and reduced eNOS acetylation in pulmonary arteries of PAH rats. To further clarify the role of SIRT1 in the protective effects of CR, adenoviral vectors for overexpression of SIRT1 were administered intratracheally at 1 day before monocrotaline injection. Overexpression of SIRT1 exhibited similar beneficial effects on mPAP and endothelial function, and increased eNOS phosphorylation and reduced eNOS acetylation in the absence of CR. Moreover, SIRT1 overexpression attenuated the increase in mPAP in hypoxia-induced PAH animals. Overall, the present data demonstrate that CR may serve as an effective treatment of PAH, and targeting the SIRT1/eNOS pathway may improve treatment of PAH. PMID:25636073

  7. Calorie restriction does not elicit a robust extension of replicative lifespan in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Huberts, Daphne H E W; González, Javier; Lee, Sung Sik; Litsios, Athanasios; Hubmann, Georg; Wit, Ernst C; Heinemann, Matthias

    2014-08-12

    Calorie restriction (CR) is often described as the most robust manner to extend lifespan in a large variety of organisms. Hence, considerable research effort is directed toward understanding the mechanisms underlying CR, especially in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the effect of CR on lifespan has never been systematically reviewed in this organism. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of replicative lifespan (RLS) data published in more than 40 different papers. Our analysis revealed that there is significant variation in the reported RLS data, which appears to be mainly due to the low number of cells analyzed per experiment. Furthermore, we found that the RLS measured at 2% (wt/vol) glucose in CR experiments is partly biased toward shorter lifespans compared with identical lifespan measurements from other studies. Excluding the 2% (wt/vol) glucose experiments from CR experiments, we determined that the average RLS of the yeast strains BY4741 and BY4742 is 25.9 buds at 2% (wt/vol) glucose and 30.2 buds under CR conditions. RLS measurements with a microfluidic dissection platform produced identical RLS data at 2% (wt/vol) glucose. However, CR conditions did not induce lifespan extension. As we excluded obvious methodological differences, such as temperature and medium, as causes, we conclude that subtle method-specific factors are crucial to induce lifespan extension under CR conditions in S. cerevisiae. PMID:25071164

  8. Exercise Training and Calorie Restriction Influence the Metabolic Parameters in Ovariectomized Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pósa, Anikó; Kupai, Krisztina; Szalai, Zita; Veszelka, Médea; Török, Szilvia; Varga, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    The estrogen deficiency after menopause leads to overweight or obesity, and physical exercise is one of the important modulators of this body weight gain. Female Wistar rats underwent ovariectomy surgery (OVX) or sham operation (SO). OVX and SO groups were randomized into new groups based on the voluntary physical activity (with or without running) and the type of diet for 12 weeks. Rats were fed standard chow (CTRL), high triglyceride diet (HT), or restricted diet (CR). The metabolic syndrome was assessed by measuring the body weight gain, the glucose sensitivity, and the levels of insulin, triglyceride, leptin, and aspartate aminotransferase transaminase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The exercise training combined with the CR resulted in improvements in the glucose tolerance and the insulin sensitivity. Plasma TG, AST, and ALT levels were significantly higher in OVX rats fed with HT but these high values were suppressed by exercise and CR. Compared to SO animals, estrogen deprivation with HT caused a significant increase in leptin level. Our data provide evidence that CR combined with voluntary physical exercise can be a very effective strategy to prevent the development of a metabolic syndrome induced by high calorie diet. PMID:25874022

  9. Increased bile acids in enterohepatic circulation by short-term calorie restriction in male mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zidong Donna; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2013-12-15

    Previous studies showed glucose and insulin signaling can regulate bile acid (BA) metabolism during fasting or feeding. However, limited knowledge is available on the effect of calorie restriction (CR), a well-known anti-aging intervention, on BA homeostasis. To address this, the present study utilized a "dose-response" model of CR, where male C57BL/6 mice were fed 0, 15, 30, or 40% CR diets for one month, followed by BA profiling in various compartments of the enterohepatic circulation by UPLC-MS/MS technique. This study showed that 40% CR increased the BA pool size (162%) as well as total BAs in serum, gallbladder, and small intestinal contents. In addition, CR "dose-dependently" increased the concentrations of tauro-cholic acid (TCA) and many secondary BAs (produced by intestinal bacteria) in serum, such as tauro-deoxycholic acid (TDCA), DCA, lithocholic acid, ω-muricholic acid (ωMCA), and hyodeoxycholic acid. Notably, 40% CR increased TDCA by over 1000% (serum, liver, and gallbladder). Interestingly, 40% CR increased the proportion of 12α-hydroxylated BAs (CA and DCA), which correlated with improved glucose tolerance and lipid parameters. The CR-induced increase in BAs correlated with increased expression of BA-synthetic (Cyp7a1) and conjugating enzymes (BAL), and the ileal BA-binding protein (Ibabp). These results suggest that CR increases BAs in male mice possibly through orchestrated increases in BA synthesis and conjugation in liver as well as intracellular transport in ileum. PMID:24183703

  10. Serum from humans on long-term calorie restriction enhances stress resistance in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Omodei, Daniela; Licastro, Danilo; Salvatore, Francesco; Crosby, Seth D; Fontana, Luigi

    2013-08-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) without malnutrition is the most robust intervention to slow aging and extend healthy lifespan in experimental model organisms. Several metabolic and molecular adaptations have been hypothesized to play a role in mediating the anti-aging effects of CR, including enhanced stress resistance, reduced oxidative stress and several neuroendocrine modifications. However, little is known about the independent effect of circulating factors in modulating key molecular pathways. In this study, we used sera collected from individuals practicing long-term CR and from age- and sex-matched individuals on a typical US diet to culture human primary fibroblasts and assess the effects on gene expression and stress resistance. We show that treatment of cultured cells with CR sera caused increased expression of stress-response genes and enhanced tolerance to oxidants. Cells cultured in serum from CR individuals showed a 30% increase in resistance to H2O2 damage. Consistently, SOD2 and GPX1 mRNA, two key endogenous antioxidant enzymes, were increased by 2 and 2.5 folds respectively in cells cultured with CR sera. These cellular and molecular adaptations mirror some of the key effects of CR in animals, and further suggest that circulating factors contribute to the CR-mediated protection against oxidative stress and stress-response in humans as well. PMID:23912304

  11. Calorie restriction and SIRT3 trigger global reprogramming of the mitochondrial protein acetylome

    PubMed Central

    Hebert, Alexander S.; Dittenhafer-Reed, Kristin E.; Yu, Wei; Bailey, Derek J.; Selen, Ebru Selin; Boersma, Melissa D.; Carson, Joshua J.; Tonelli, Marco; Balloon, Allison; Higbee, Alan J.; Westphall, Michael S.; Pagliarini, David J.; Prolla, Tomas A.; Assadi-Porter, Fariba; Roy, Sushmita; Denu, John M.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Calorie restriction (CR) extends lifespan in diverse species. Mitochondria play a key role in CR adaptation, however, the molecular details remain elusive. We developed and applied a quantitative mass spectrometry method to probe the liver mitochondrial acetyl-proteome during CR vs. control diet in mice that were wild-type or lacked the protein deacetylase SIRT3. Quantification of 3,285 acetylation sites −2,193 from mitochondrial proteins rendered a comprehensive atlas of the acetyl-proteome and enabled global site-specific, relative acetyl occupancy measurements between all four experimental conditions. Bioinformatic and biochemical analyses provided additional support for the effects of specific acetylation on mitochondrial protein function. Our results (1) reveal widespread reprogramming of mitochondrial protein acetylation in response to CR and SIRT3, (2) identify three biochemically distinct classes of acetylation sites, and (3) provide evidence that SIRT3 is a prominent regulator in CR adaptation by coordinately deacetylating proteins involved in diverse pathways of metabolism and mitochondrial maintenance. PMID:23201123

  12. Ghrelin-AMPK Signaling Mediates the Neuroprotective Effects of Calorie Restriction in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Bayliss, Jacqueline A; Lemus, Moyra B; Stark, Romana; Santos, Vanessa V; Thompson, Aiysha; Rees, Daniel J; Galic, Sandra; Elsworth, John D; Kemp, Bruce E; Davies, Jeffrey S; Andrews, Zane B

    2016-03-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is neuroprotective in Parkinson's disease (PD) although the mechanisms are unknown. In this study we hypothesized that elevated ghrelin, a gut hormone with neuroprotective properties, during CR prevents neurodegeneration in an 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD. CR attenuated the MPTP-induced loss of substantia nigra (SN) dopamine neurons and striatal dopamine turnover in ghrelin WT but not KO mice, demonstrating that ghrelin mediates CR's neuroprotective effect. CR elevated phosphorylated AMPK and ACC levels in the striatum of WT but not KO mice suggesting that AMPK is a target for ghrelin-induced neuroprotection. Indeed, exogenous ghrelin significantly increased pAMPK in the SN. Genetic deletion of AMPKβ1 and 2 subunits only in dopamine neurons prevented ghrelin-induced AMPK phosphorylation and neuroprotection. Hence, ghrelin signaling through AMPK in SN dopamine neurons mediates CR's neuroprotective effects. We consider targeting AMPK in dopamine neurons may recapitulate neuroprotective effects of CR without requiring dietary intervention. PMID:26961958

  13. Effects of aging and calorie restriction on white matter in rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Bendlin, B.B.; Canu, E.; Willette, A.A.; Kastman, E.K.; McLaren, D.G.; Kosmatka, K.J.; Xu, G.; Field, A.S.; Colman, R.J.; Coe, C.L.; Weindruch, R.H.; Alexander, A.L.; Johnson, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Rhesus macaques on a calorie restricted diet (CR) develop less age-related disease, have virtually no indication of diabetes, are protected against sarcopenia, and potentially live longer. Beneficial effects of CR likely include reductions in age-related inflammation and oxidative damage. Oligodendrocytes are particularly susceptible to inflammation and oxidative stress, therefore, we hypothesized that CR would have a beneficial effect on brain white matter and would attenuate age-related decline in this tissue. CR monkeys and controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). A beneficial effect of CR indexed by DTI was observed in superior longitudinal fasciculus, fronto-occipital fasciculus, external capsule, and brainstem. Aging effects were observed in several regions, although CR appeared to attenuate age-related alterations in superior longitudinal fasciculus, frontal white matter, external capsule, right parahippocampal white matter and dorsal occipital bundle. The results, however, were regionally specific and also suggested that CR is not salutary across all white matter. Further evaluation of this unique cohort of elderly primates to mortality will shed light on the ultimate benefits of an adult-onset, moderate CR diet for deferring brain aging. PMID:20541839

  14. Dynamic regulation of PGC-1α localization and turnover implicates mitochondrial adaptation in calorie restriction and the stress response

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rozalyn M; Barger, Jamie L; Edwards, Michael G; Braun, Kristina H; O’Connor, Clare E; Prolla, Tomas A; Weindruch, Richard

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that longevity and stress resistance are connected, but the mechanism is unclear. We report that mitochondria are regulated in response to oxidative stress and calorie restriction through a shared mechanism involving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α). We demonstrate that PGC-1α subcellular distribution is regulated, and its transcriptional activity is promoted through SIRT1-dependent nuclear accumulation. In addition, the duration of PGC-1α activity is regulated by glycogen synthase kinase beta (GSK3β), which targets PGC-1α for intranuclear proteasomal degradation. This mechanism of regulation permits the rapidity and persistence of PGC-1α activation to be independently controlled. We provide evidence that this pathway of PGC-1α regulation occurs in vivo in mice, both in the oxidative stress response and with calorie restriction. Our data show how mitochondrial function may be adapted in response to external stimuli, and support the concept that such adaptation is critically involved in cellular survival and in lifespan extension by calorie restriction. PMID:18031569

  15. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: III. Impact of short term calorie and protein restriction on mean daily body temperature and torpor use in the C57BL/6 mouse

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Sharon E.; Delville, Camille; Konstantopedos, Penelope; Derous, Davina; Green, Cara L.; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing-Dong J.; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E.L.; Douglas, Alex; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R.

    2015-01-01

    A commonly observed response in mammals to calorie restriction (CR) is reduced body temperature (Tb). We explored how the Tb of male C57BL/6 mice responded to graded CR (10 to 40%), compared to the response to equivalent levels of protein restriction (PR) over 3 months. Under CR there was a dynamic change in daily Tb over the first 30–35 days, which stabilized thereafter until day 70 after which a further decline was noted. The time to reach stability was dependent on restriction level. Body mass negatively correlated with Tb under ad libitum feeding and positively correlated under CR. The average Tb over the last 20 days was significantly related to the levels of body fat, structural tissue, leptin and insulin-like growth factor-1. Some mice, particularly those under higher levels of CR, showed periods of daily torpor later in the restriction period. None of the changes in Tb under CR were recapitulated by equivalent levels of PR. We conclude that changes in Tb under CR are a response only to the shortfall in calorie intake. The linear relationship between average Tb and the level of restriction supports the idea that Tb changes are an integral aspect of the lifespan effect. PMID:26286956

  16. Calorie restriction in mice overexpressing UCP3: evidence that prior mitochondrial uncoupling alters response.

    PubMed

    Estey, Carmen; Seifert, Erin L; Aguer, Céline; Moffat, Cynthia; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2012-05-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) without malnutrition is the only intervention to consistently increase lifespan in all species tested, and lower age-related pathologies in mammals including humans. It has been suggested that uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, using chemical uncouplers, mimics CR, and that overlapping mechanisms underlie the phenotypic changes induced by uncoupling and CR. We aimed to critically assess this using a unique mouse model of skeletal muscle-targeted UCP3-induced uncoupling (UCP3Tg), and focused our studies mainly on skeletal muscle mitochondria. Compared to ad libitum fed Wt mice, skeletal muscle mitochondria from ad libitum fed UCP3Tg mice showed higher basal uncoupling and lower H(2)O(2) emission, with unchanged maximal oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrial content. UCP3Tg CR mice showed some tendency for differential adaptation to CR, with lowered H(+) leak conductance and evidence for higher H(2)O(2) emission from skeletal muscle mitochondria following 2 weeks CR, and failure to lower H(2)O(2) emission after 1 month CR. Differential adaptation was also apparent at the whole body level: while UCP3Tg CR mice lost as much weight as Wt CR mice, the proportion of muscle lost was higher in UCP3Tg mice. However, a striking outcome of our studies was the absence of change with CR in many of the parameters of mitochondrial function and content that we measured in mice of either genotype. Overall, our study raises the question of whether CR can consistently modify skeletal muscle mitochondria; alterations with CR may only be apparent under certain conditions such as during the 2 wk CR intervention in the UCP3Tg mice. PMID:22406134

  17. Subacute calorie restriction and rapamycin discordantly alter mouse liver proteome homeostasis and reverse aging effects.

    PubMed

    Karunadharma, Pabalu P; Basisty, Nathan; Dai, Dao-Fu; Chiao, Ying A; Quarles, Ellen K; Hsieh, Edward J; Crispin, David; Bielas, Jason H; Ericson, Nolan G; Beyer, Richard P; MacKay, Vivian L; MacCoss, Michael J; Rabinovitch, Peter S

    2015-08-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) and rapamycin (RP) extend lifespan and improve health across model organisms. Both treatments inhibit mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, a conserved longevity pathway and a key regulator of protein homeostasis, yet their effects on proteome homeostasis are relatively unknown. To comprehensively study the effects of aging, CR, and RP on protein homeostasis, we performed the first simultaneous measurement of mRNA translation, protein turnover, and abundance in livers of young (3 month) and old (25 month) mice subjected to 10-week RP or 40% CR. Protein abundance and turnover were measured in vivo using (2) H3 -leucine heavy isotope labeling followed by LC-MS/MS, and translation was assessed by polysome profiling. We observed 35-60% increased protein half-lives after CR and 15% increased half-lives after RP compared to age-matched controls. Surprisingly, the effects of RP and CR on protein turnover and abundance differed greatly between canonical pathways, with opposite effects in mitochondrial (mt) dysfunction and eIF2 signaling pathways. CR most closely recapitulated the young phenotype in the top pathways. Polysome profiles indicated that CR reduced polysome loading while RP increased polysome loading in young and old mice, suggesting distinct mechanisms of reduced protein synthesis. CR and RP both attenuated protein oxidative damage. Our findings collectively suggest that CR and RP extend lifespan in part through the reduction of protein synthetic burden and damage and a concomitant increase in protein quality. However, these results challenge the notion that RP is a faithful CR mimetic and highlight mechanistic differences between the two interventions. PMID:25807975

  18. Efficacy of fasting calorie restriction on quality of life among aging men.

    PubMed

    Teng, Nur Islami Mohd Fahmi; Shahar, Suzana; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Das, Sai Krupa; Taha, Che Suhaili Che; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

    2011-10-24

    Calorie restriction (CR) has been promoted to increase longevity. Previous studies have indicated that CR can negatively affect mood and therefore the effect of CR on mood and quality of life (QOL) becomes crucial when considering the feasibility of CR in humans. We conducted a three month clinical trial on CR (reduction of 300 to 500 kcal/day) combined with two days/week of Muslim sunnah fasting (FCR) to determine the effectiveness of FCR on QOL among aging men in Klang Valley, Malaysia. A total of 25 healthy Malay men (age 58.8±5.1 years), with no chronic diseases and a BMI of 23.0 to 29.9 kg/m2 were randomized to FCR (n=12) and control (n=13) groups. Body composition measurements and QOL questionnaires were ascertained at baseline, week 6 and week 12. QOL was measured using the Short-Form 36, sleep quality was determined using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Beck Depression Inventory II was used to measure mood and the Perceived Stress Scale was used to measure depression. The FCR group had a significant reduction in body weight, BMI, body fat percentage and depression (P<0.05). The energy component of QOL was significantly increased in FCR group (p<0.05). There were no significant changes in sleep quality and stress level between the groups as a result of the intervention. In conclusion, FCR resulted in body weight and fat loss and alleviated depression with some improvement in the QOL in our study and has the potential to be implemented on a wider scale. PMID:21781980

  19. The Role of Sirt1 in Bile Acid Regulation during Calorie Restriction in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zidong Donna; Cui, Julia Yue; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2015-01-01

    Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is an NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase that is proposed to mediate many health-promoting effects of calorie restriction (CR). We recently reported that short-term CR increased the bile acid (BA) pool size in mice, likely due to increased BA synthesis in liver. Given the important role of Sirt1 in the regulation of glucose, lipid, as well as BA metabolism, we hypothesized that the CR-induced increase in BAs is Sirt1-dependent. To address this, the present study utilized genetically-modified mice that were Sirt1 loss of function (liver knockout, LKO) or Sirt1 gain of function (whole body-transgenic, TG). Three genotypes of mice (Sirt1-LKO, wild-type, and Sirt1-TG) were each randomly divided into ad libitum or 40% CR feeding for one month. BAs were extracted from various compartments of the enterohepatic circulation, followed by BA profiling by UPLC-MS/MS. CR increased the BA pool size and total BAs in serum, gallbladder, and small intestine. The CR-induced increase in BA pool size correlated with the tendency of increase in the expression of the rate-limiting BA-synthetic enzyme Cyp7a1. However, in contrast to the hypothesis, the CR-induced increase in BA pool size and Cyp7a1 expression was still observed with ablated expression of Sirt1 in liver, and completely suppressed with whole-body overexpression of Sirt1. Furthermore, in terms of BA composition, CR increased the ratio of 12α-hydroxylated BAs regardless of Sirt1 genotypes. In conclusion, the CR-induced alterations in BA pool size, BA profiles, and expression of BA-related genes do not appear to be dependent on Sirt1. PMID:26372644

  20. Adaptive Stress Response in Segmental Progeria Resembles Long-Lived Dwarfism and Calorie Restriction in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Holcomb, Valerie B; von Lindern, Marieke; Jong, Willeke M. C; Zeeuw, Chris I. De; Suh, Yousin; Hasty, Paul; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T. J; Mitchell, James R

    2006-01-01

    How congenital defects causing genome instability can result in the pleiotropic symptoms reminiscent of aging but in a segmental and accelerated fashion remains largely unknown. Most segmental progerias are associated with accelerated fibroblast senescence, suggesting that cellular senescence is a likely contributing mechanism. Contrary to expectations, neither accelerated senescence nor acute oxidative stress hypersensitivity was detected in primary fibroblast or erythroblast cultures from multiple progeroid mouse models for defects in the nucleotide excision DNA repair pathway, which share premature aging features including postnatal growth retardation, cerebellar ataxia, and death before weaning. Instead, we report a prominent phenotypic overlap with long-lived dwarfism and calorie restriction during postnatal development (2 wk of age), including reduced size, reduced body temperature, hypoglycemia, and perturbation of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 neuroendocrine axis. These symptoms were also present at 2 wk of age in a novel progeroid nucleotide excision repair-deficient mouse model (XPDG602D/R722W/XPA−/−) that survived weaning with high penetrance. However, despite persistent cachectic dwarfism, blood glucose and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 levels returned to normal by 10 wk, with hypoglycemia reappearing near premature death at 5 mo of age. These data strongly suggest changes in energy metabolism as part of an adaptive response during the stressful period of postnatal growth. Interestingly, a similar perturbation of the postnatal growth axis was not detected in another progeroid mouse model, the double-strand DNA break repair deficient Ku80−/− mouse. Specific (but not all) types of genome instability may thus engage a conserved response to stress that evolved to cope with environmental pressures such as food shortage. PMID:17173483

  1. The effects of physiological adaptations to calorie restriction on global cell proliferation rates.

    PubMed

    Bruss, Matthew D; Thompson, Airlia C S; Aggarwal, Ishita; Khambatta, Cyrus F; Hellerstein, Marc K

    2011-04-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) reduces the rate of cell proliferation in mitotic tissues. It has been suggested that this reduction in cell proliferation may mediate CR-induced increases in longevity. However, the mechanisms that lead to CR-induced reductions in cell proliferation rates remain unclear. To evaluate the CR-induced physiological adaptations that may mediate reductions in cell proliferation rates, we altered housing temperature and access to voluntary running wheels to determine the effects of food intake, energy expenditure, percent body fat, and body weight on proliferation rates of keratinocytes, liver cells, mammary epithelial cells, and splenic T-cells in C57BL/6 mice. We found that ∼20% CR led to a reduction in cell proliferation rates in all cell types. However, lower cell proliferation rates were not observed with reductions in 1) food intake and energy expenditure in female mice housed at 27°C, 2) percent body fat in female mice provided running wheels, or 3) body weight in male mice provided running wheels compared with ad libitum-fed controls. In contrast, reductions in insulin-like growth factor I were associated with decreased cell proliferation rates. Taken together, these data suggest that CR-induced reductions in food intake, energy expenditure, percent body fat, and body weight do not account for the reductions in global cell proliferation rates observed in CR. In addition, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that reduced cell proliferation rates could be useful as a biomarker of interventions that increase longevity. PMID:21285400

  2. Calorie restriction: A new therapeutic intervention for age-related dry eye disease in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kawashima, Motoko; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Okada, Naoko; Ogawa, Yoko; Murat, Dogru; Nakamura, Shigeru; Nakashima, Hideo; Shimmura, Shigeto; Shinmura, Ken; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2010-07-09

    A decrease in lacrimal gland secretory function is closely related to aging and leads to an increased prevalence of dry eye syndrome. Since calorie restriction (CR) is considered to prevent functional decline of various organs due to aging, we hypothesized that CR could prevent age-related lacrimal dysfunction. Six-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were randomly divided into ad libitum (AL) and CR (-35%) groups. After 6 months of CR, tear function was examined under conscious state. After euthanasia, lacrimal glands were subjected to histological examination, tear protein secretion stimulation test with Carbachol, and assessment of oxidative stress with 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) antibodies. CR significantly improved tear volume and tended to increase tear protein secretion volume after stimulation with Carbachol compared to AL. The acinar unit density was significantly higher in the CR rats compared to AL rats. Lacrimal glands in the CR rats showed a lesser degree of interstitial fibrosis. CR reduced the concentration of 8-OHdG and the extent of staining with HNE in the lacrimal gland, compared to AL. Furthermore, our electron microscopic observations showed that mitochondrial structure of the lacrimal gland obtained from the middle-aged CR rats was preserved in comparison to the AL rats. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that CR may attenuate oxidative stress related damage in the lacrimal gland with preservation of lacrimal gland functions. Although molecular mechanism(s) by which CR maintains lacrimal gland function remains to be resolved, CR might provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treating dry eye syndrome.

  3. Increased bile acids in enterohepatic circulation by short-term calorie restriction in male mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Zidong Donna; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2013-12-15

    Previous studies showed glucose and insulin signaling can regulate bile acid (BA) metabolism during fasting or feeding. However, limited knowledge is available on the effect of calorie restriction (CR), a well-known anti-aging intervention, on BA homeostasis. To address this, the present study utilized a “dose–response” model of CR, where male C57BL/6 mice were fed 0, 15, 30, or 40% CR diets for one month, followed by BA profiling in various compartments of the enterohepatic circulation by UPLC-MS/MS technique. This study showed that 40% CR increased the BA pool size (162%) as well as total BAs in serum, gallbladder, and small intestinal contents. In addition, CR “dose-dependently” increased the concentrations of tauro-cholic acid (TCA) and many secondary BAs (produced by intestinal bacteria) in serum, such as tauro-deoxycholic acid (TDCA), DCA, lithocholic acid, ω-muricholic acid (ωMCA), and hyodeoxycholic acid. Notably, 40% CR increased TDCA by over 1000% (serum, liver, and gallbladder). Interestingly, 40% CR increased the proportion of 12α-hydroxylated BAs (CA and DCA), which correlated with improved glucose tolerance and lipid parameters. The CR-induced increase in BAs correlated with increased expression of BA-synthetic (Cyp7a1) and conjugating enzymes (BAL), and the ileal BA-binding protein (Ibabp). These results suggest that CR increases BAs in male mice possibly through orchestrated increases in BA synthesis and conjugation in liver as well as intracellular transport in ileum. - Highlights: • Dose response effects of short-term CR on BA homeostasis in male mice. • CR increased the BA pool size and many individual BAs. • CR altered BA composition (increased proportion of 12α-hydroxylated BAs). • Increased mRNAs of BA enzymes in liver (Cyp7a1 and BAL) and ileal BA binding protein.

  4. Oxidative damage to specific proteins in replicative and chronological-aged Saccharomyces cerevisiae: common targets and prevention by calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Reverter-Branchat, Gemma; Cabiscol, Elisa; Tamarit, Jordi; Ros, Joaquim

    2004-07-23

    Oxidative modifications of cellular components have been described as one of the main contributions to aged phenotype. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two distinct life spans can be considered, replicative and chronological. The relationship between both aging models is still not clear despite suggestions that these phenomena may be related. In this work, we show that replicative and chronological-aged yeast cells are affected by an oxidative stress situation demonstrated by increased protein carbonylation when compared with young cells. The data on the identification of these oxidatively modified proteins gives clues to better understand cellular dysfunction that occurs during aging. Strikingly, although in both aging models metabolic differences are important, major targets are almost the same. Common targets include stress resistance proteins (Hsp60 and Hsp70) and enzymes involved in glucose metabolism such as enolase, glyceraldehydes-3-P dehydrogenase, fructose-1,6-biphosphate aldolase, pyruvate decarboxylase, and alcohol dehydrogenase. In both aging models, calorie restriction results in decreased damage to these proteins. In addition, chronological-aged cells grown under glucose restriction displayed lowered levels of lipid peroxidation product lipofuscin. Intracellular iron concentration is kept almost unchanged, whereas in non-restricted cells, the values increase up 4-5 times. The pro-oxidant effects of such increased iron concentration would account for the damage observed. Also, calorie-restricted cells show undamaged catalase, which clearly appears carbonylated in cells grown at a high glucose concentration. These results may explain lengthening of the viability of chronological-aged cells and could have an important role in replicative life span extension by calorie restriction. PMID:15166233

  5. Calorie restriction in biosphere 2: alterations in physiologic, hematologic, hormonal, and biochemical parameters in humans restricted for a 2-year period.

    PubMed

    Walford, Roy L; Mock, Dennis; Verdery, Roy; MacCallum, Taber

    2002-06-01

    Four female and four male crew members, including two of the present authors (R. Walford and T. MacCallum)--seven of the crew being ages 27 to 42 years, and one aged 67 years--were sealed inside Biosphere 2 for two years. During seven eighths of that period they consumed a low-calorie (1750-2100 kcal/d) nutrient-dense diet of vegetables, fruits, nuts, grains, and legumes, with small amounts of dairy, eggs, and meat (approximately 12% calories from protein, approximately 11% from fat, and approximately 77% from complex carbohydrates). They experienced a marked and sustained weight loss of 17 +/- 5%, mostly in the first 8 months. Blood was drawn before entry into Biosphere 2, at many time-points inside it, and four times during the 30 months following exit from it and return to an ad libitum diet. Longitudinal studies of 50 variables on each crew member compared outside and inside values by means of a Bayesian statistical analysis. The data show that physiologic (e.g., body mass index, with a decrease of 19% for men and 13% for women; blood pressure, with a systolic decrease of 25% and a diastolic decrease of 22%), hematologic (e.g., white blood cell count, decreased 31%), hormonal (e.g., insulin, decreased 42%; T3, decreased 19%), biochemical (e.g., blood sugar, decreased 21%; cholesterol, decreased 30%), and a number of additional changes, including values for rT3, cortisol, glycated hemoglobin, plus others, resembled those of rodents or monkeys maintained on a calorie-restricted regime. Significant variations in several substances not hitherto studied in calorie-restricted animals are also reported (e.g., androstenedione, thyroid binding globulin, renin, and transferrin). We conclude that healthy nonobese humans on a low-calorie, nutrient-dense diet show physiologic, hematologic, hormonal, and biochemical changes resembling those of rodents and monkeys on such diets. With regard to the health of humans on such a diet, we observed that despite the selective

  6. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: II. Impact of short term calorie and protein restriction on circulating hormone levels, glucose homeostasis and oxidative stress in male C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Sharon E.; Delville, Camille; Konstantopedos, Penelope; Hurst, Jane; Derous, Davina; Green, Cara; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jackie J.D.; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E.L.; Lusseau, David; Douglas, Alex; Speakman, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Limiting food intake attenuates many of the deleterious effects of aging, impacting upon healthspan and leading to an increased lifespan. Whether it is the overall restriction of calories (calorie restriction: CR) or the incidental reduction in macronutrients such as protein (protein restriction: PR) that mediate these effects is unclear. The impact of 3 month CR or PR, (10 to 40%), on C57BL/6 mice was compared to controls fed ad libitum. Reductions in circulating leptin, tumor necrosis factor-α and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were relative to the level of CR and individually associated with morphological changes but remained unchanged following PR. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were improved following CR but not affected by PR. There was no indication that CR had an effect on oxidative damage, however CR lowered antioxidant activity. No biomarkers of oxidative stress were altered by PR. CR significantly reduced levels of major urinary proteins suggesting lowered investment in reproduction. Results here support the idea that reduced adipokine levels, improved insulin/IGF-1 signaling and reduced reproductive investment play important roles in the beneficial effects of CR while, in the short-term, attenuation of oxidative damage is not applicable. None of the positive effects were replicated with PR. PMID:26061745

  7. Assimilation of endogenous nicotinamide riboside is essential for calorie restriction-mediated life span extension in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shu-Ping; Kato, Michiko; Lin, Su-Ju

    2009-06-19

    NAD(+) (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is an essential cofactor involved in various biological processes including calorie restriction-mediated life span extension. Administration of nicotinamide riboside (NmR) has been shown to ameliorate deficiencies related to aberrant NAD(+) metabolism in both yeast and mammalian cells. However, the biological role of endogenous NmR remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that salvaging endogenous NmR is an integral part of NAD(+) metabolism. A balanced NmR salvage cycle is essential for calorie restriction-induced life span extension and stress resistance in yeast. Our results also suggest that partitioning of the pyridine nucleotide flux between the classical salvage cycle and the NmR salvage branch might be modulated by the NAD(+)-dependent Sir2 deacetylase. Furthermore, two novel deamidation steps leading to nicotinic acid mononucleotide and nicotinic acid riboside production are also uncovered that further underscore the complexity and flexibility of NAD(+) metabolism. In addition, utilization of extracellular nicotinamide mononucleotide requires prior conversion to NmR mediated by a periplasmic phosphatase Pho5. Conversion to NmR may thus represent a strategy for the transport and assimilation of large nonpermeable NAD(+) precursors. Together, our studies provide a molecular basis for how NAD(+) homeostasis factors confer metabolic flexibility. PMID:19416965

  8. A Natural Polymorphism in rDNA Replication Origins Links Origin Activation with Calorie Restriction and Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Elizabeth X.; Foss, Eric J.; Tsuchiyama, Scott; Alvino, Gina M.; Kruglyak, Leonid; Kaeberlein, Matt; Raghuraman, M. K.; Brewer, Bonita J.; Kennedy, Brian K.; Bedalov, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Aging and longevity are complex traits influenced by genetic and environmental factors. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control replicative lifespan, we employed an outbred Saccharomyces cerevisiae model, generated by crossing a vineyard and a laboratory strain. The predominant QTL mapped to the rDNA, with the vineyard rDNA conferring a lifespan increase of 41%. The lifespan extension was independent of Sir2 and Fob1, but depended on a polymorphism in the rDNA origin of replication from the vineyard strain that reduced origin activation relative to the laboratory origin. Strains carrying vineyard rDNA origins have increased capacity for replication initiation at weak plasmid and genomic origins, suggesting that inability to complete genome replication presents a major impediment to replicative lifespan. Calorie restriction, a conserved mediator of lifespan extension that is also independent of Sir2 and Fob1, reduces rDNA origin firing in both laboratory and vineyard rDNA. Our results are consistent with the possibility that calorie restriction, similarly to the vineyard rDNA polymorphism, modulates replicative lifespan through control of rDNA origin activation, which in turn affects genome replication dynamics. PMID:23505383

  9. Inactivation of yeast Isw2 chromatin remodeling enzyme mimics longevity effect of calorie restriction via induction of genotoxic stress response

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Weiwei; Sutphin, George L.; Dorsey, Jean A.; Otte, Gabriel L.; Cao, Kajia; Perry, Rocco M.; Wanat, Jennifer J.; Saviolaki, Dimitra; Murakami, Christopher J.; Tsuchiyama, Scott; Robison, Brett; Gregory, Brian D.; Vermeulen, Michiel; Shiekhattar, Ramin; Johnson, F. Brad; Kennedy, Brian K.; Kaeberlein, Matt; Berger, Shelley L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling is involved in all DNA transactions and linked to numerous human diseases. We explored functions of chromatin remodelers during cellular aging. Deletion of ISW2, or mutations inactivating the Isw2 enzyme complex, extends yeast replicative lifespan. This extension by ISW2 deletion is epistatic to the longevity effect of calorie restriction (CR) and this mechanism is distinct from suppression of TOR signaling by CR. Transcriptome analysis indicates that isw2Δ partially mimics an up-regulated stress response in CR cells. In particular, isw2Δ cells show an increased response to genotoxic stresses, and the DNA repair enzyme Rad51 is important for isw2Δ-mediated longevity. We show that lifespan is also extended in C. elegans by reducing levels of athp-2, a putative ortholog of Itc1/ACF1, a critical subunit of the enzyme complex. Our findings demonstrate that the ISWI class of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes play a conserved role during aging and in calorie restriction. PMID:24814484

  10. Effect of Exercise and Calorie Restriction on Tissue Acylcarnitines, Tissue Desaturase Indices, and Fat Accumulation in Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gopalan, Venkatesh; Michael, Navin; Ishino, Seigo; Lee, Swee Shean; Yang, Adonsia Yating; Bhanu Prakash, K. N.; Yaligar, Jadegoud; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Kaneko, Manami; Zhou, Zhihong; Satomi, Yoshinori; Hirayama, Megumi; Kamiguchi, Hidenori; Zhu, Bin; Horiguchi, Takashi; Nishimoto, Tomoyuki; Velan, S. Sendhil

    2016-01-01

    Both exercise and calorie restriction interventions have been recommended for inducing weight-loss in obese states. However, there is conflicting evidence on their relative benefits for metabolic health and insulin sensitivity. This study seeks to evaluate the differential effects of the two interventions on fat mobilization, fat metabolism, and insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese animal models. After 4 months of ad libitum high fat diet feeding, 35 male Fischer F344 rats were grouped (n = 7 per cohort) into sedentary control (CON), exercise once a day (EX1), exercise twice a day (EX2), 15% calorie restriction (CR1) and 30% calorie restriction (CR2) cohorts. Interventions were carried out over a 4-week period. We found elevated hepatic and muscle long chain acylcarnitines with both exercise and calorie restriction, and a positive association between hepatic long chain acylcarnitines and insulin sensitivity in the pooled cohort. Our result suggests that long chain acylcarnitines may not indicate incomplete fat oxidation in weight loss interventions. Calorie restriction was found to be more effective than exercise in reducing body weight. Exercise, on the other hand, was more effective in reducing adipose depots and muscle triglycerides, favorably altering muscle/liver desaturase activity and improving insulin sensitivity. PMID:27197769

  11. Effect of Exercise and Calorie Restriction on Tissue Acylcarnitines, Tissue Desaturase Indices, and Fat Accumulation in Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Venkatesh; Michael, Navin; Ishino, Seigo; Lee, Swee Shean; Yang, Adonsia Yating; Bhanu Prakash, K N; Yaligar, Jadegoud; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Kaneko, Manami; Zhou, Zhihong; Satomi, Yoshinori; Hirayama, Megumi; Kamiguchi, Hidenori; Zhu, Bin; Horiguchi, Takashi; Nishimoto, Tomoyuki; Velan, S Sendhil

    2016-01-01

    Both exercise and calorie restriction interventions have been recommended for inducing weight-loss in obese states. However, there is conflicting evidence on their relative benefits for metabolic health and insulin sensitivity. This study seeks to evaluate the differential effects of the two interventions on fat mobilization, fat metabolism, and insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese animal models. After 4 months of ad libitum high fat diet feeding, 35 male Fischer F344 rats were grouped (n = 7 per cohort) into sedentary control (CON), exercise once a day (EX1), exercise twice a day (EX2), 15% calorie restriction (CR1) and 30% calorie restriction (CR2) cohorts. Interventions were carried out over a 4-week period. We found elevated hepatic and muscle long chain acylcarnitines with both exercise and calorie restriction, and a positive association between hepatic long chain acylcarnitines and insulin sensitivity in the pooled cohort. Our result suggests that long chain acylcarnitines may not indicate incomplete fat oxidation in weight loss interventions. Calorie restriction was found to be more effective than exercise in reducing body weight. Exercise, on the other hand, was more effective in reducing adipose depots and muscle triglycerides, favorably altering muscle/liver desaturase activity and improving insulin sensitivity. PMID:27197769

  12. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: IV. Non-linear change in behavioural phenotype of mice in response to short-term calorie restriction

    PubMed Central

    Lusseau, David; Mitchell, Sharon E.; Barros, Ceres; Derous, Davina; Green, Cara; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing-Dong Jackie; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E. L.; Douglas, Alex; Speakman, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Animals have to adjust their activities when faced with caloric restriction (CR) to deal with reduced energy intake. If CR is pronounced, allostasis can push individuals into alternate physiological states which can result in important health benefits across a wide range of taxa. Here we developed a new approach to determine the changes in behavioural phenotype associated with different levels of CR. We exposed C57BL/6 male mice to graded CR (from 0 to 40%) for three months and defined their behavioural phenotype using hidden Markov models of their movement and body temperature. All 40% CR mice exhibited a state-shift in behavioural phenotype and only some exposed to 30% CR did. We show for the first time that mice changed their activity characteristics rather than changed their activities. This new phenotyping approach provides an avenue to determine the mechanisms linking CR to healthspan. PMID:26306002

  13. Metabolic phenotype modulation by caloric restriction in a lifelong dog study.

    PubMed

    Richards, Selena E; Wang, Yulan; Claus, Sandrine P; Lawler, Dennis; Kochhar, Sunil; Holmes, Elaine; Nicholson, Jeremy K

    2013-07-01

    Modeling aging and age-related pathologies presents a substantial analytical challenge given the complexity of gene-environment influences and interactions operating on an individual. A top-down systems approach is used to model the effects of lifelong caloric restriction, which is known to extend life span in several animal models. The metabolic phenotypes of caloric-restricted (CR; n = 24) and pair-housed control-fed (CF; n = 24) Labrador Retriever dogs were investigated by use of orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to model both generic and age-specific responses to caloric restriction from the ¹H NMR blood serum profiles of young and older dogs. Three aging metabolic phenotypes were resolved: (i) an aging metabolic phenotype independent of diet, characterized by high levels of glutamine, creatinine, methylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine N-oxide, and glycerophosphocholine and decreasing levels of glycine, aspartate, creatine and citrate indicative of metabolic changes associated largely with muscle mass; (ii) an aging metabolic phenotype specific to CR dogs that consisted of relatively lower levels of glucose, acetate, choline, and tyrosine and relatively higher serum levels of phosphocholine with increased age in the CR population; (iii) an aging metabolic phenotype specific to CF dogs including lower levels of liproprotein fatty acyl groups and allantoin and relatively higher levels of formate with increased age in the CF population. There was no diet metabotype that consistently differentiated the CF and CR dogs irrespective of age. Glucose consistently discriminated between feeding regimes in dogs (≥312 weeks), being relatively lower in the CR group. However, it was observed that creatine and amino acids (valine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, and phenylalanine) were lower in the CR dogs (<312 weeks), suggestive of differences in energy source utilization. ¹H NMR spectroscopic analysis of longitudinal serum

  14. Effects of mild calorie restriction on anxiety and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis responses to stress in the male rat

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, Rachel; Dinan, Tara; Cai, Guohui; Spencer, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Chronic calorie restriction (CR) is one of the few interventions to improve longevity and quality of life in a variety of species. It also reduces behavioral indices of anxiety and influences some stress hormones under basal conditions. However, it is not known how CR influences hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis function or if those on a CR diet have heightened HPA axis responses to stress. We hypothesized elevated basal glucocorticoid levels induced by CR would lead to exacerbated HPA axis responses to the psychological stress, restraint, in the male rat. We first confirmed rats fed 75% of their normal calorie intake for 3 weeks were less anxious than ad libitum‐fed (AD) rats in the elevated plus maze test for anxiety. The anxiolytic effect was mild, with only grooming significantly attenuated in the open field and no measured behavior affected in the light/dark box. Despite elevated basal glucocorticoids, CR rats had very similar hormonal and central responses to 15‐min restraint to the AD rats. Both CR and AD rats responded to restraint stress with a robust increase in glucocorticoids that was resolved by 60 min. Both groups also showed robust neuronal activation in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and in other stress‐ and feeding‐sensitive brain regions that was not substantially affected by calorie intake. Our findings thus demonstrate chronic mild CR is subtly anxiolytic and is not likely to affect HPA axis responses to psychological stress. These findings support research suggesting a beneficial effect of mild CR. PMID:24760519

  15. Short-term calorie restriction enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis and remote fear memory in a Ghsr-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Hornsby, Amanda K.E.; Redhead, Yushi T.; Rees, Daniel J.; Ratcliff, Michael S.G.; Reichenbach, Alex; Wells, Timothy; Francis, Lewis; Amstalden, Katia; Andrews, Zane B.; Davies, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial effects of calorie restriction (CR) have been described at both organismal and cellular levels in multiple organs. However, our understanding of the causal mediators of such hormesis is poorly understood, particularly in the context of higher brain function. Here, we show that the receptor for the orexigenic hormone acyl-ghrelin, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (Ghsr), is enriched in the neurogenic niche of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Acute elevation of acyl-ghrelin levels by injection or by overnight CR, increased DG levels of the neurogenic transcription factor, Egr-1. Two weeks of CR increased the subsequent number of mature newborn neurons in the DG of adult wild-type but not Ghsr−/− mice. CR wild-type mice also showed improved remote contextual fear memory. Our findings suggest that Ghsr mediates the beneficial effects of CR on enhancing adult hippocampal neurogenesis and memory. PMID:26460782

  16. Diluted serum from calorie-restricted animals promotes mitochondrial β-cell adaptations and protect against glucolipotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Fernanda M; Chausse, Bruno; Baranovski, Boris M; Liesa, Marc; Lewis, Eli C; Shirihai, Orian S; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2016-03-01

    β-cells quickly adjust insulin secretion to oscillations in nutrients carried by the blood, acting as fuel sensors. However, most studies of β-cell responses to nutrients do not discriminate between fuel levels and signaling components present in the circulation. Here we studied the effect of serum from calorie-restricted rats versus serum from rats fed ad libitum, diluted tenfold in the medium, which did not contribute significantly to the pool of nutrients, on β-cell mitochondrial function and dynamics under regular and high-nutrient culture conditions. Insulin secreting beta-cell derived line (INS1) cells incubated with serum from calorie-restricted rats (CR serum) showed higher levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α) and active nitric oxide synthase. The expression of mitofusin-2 (Mfn-2) and optic atrophy 1 (OPA-1), proteins involved in mitochondrial fusion, was increased, while the levels of the mitochondrial fission mediator dynamin related protein 1 (DRP-1) were reduced. Consistent with changes in mitochondrial dynamics protein levels, CR serum treatment increased mitochondrial fusion rates, as well as their length and connectivity. These changes in mitochondrial morphology were associated with prolonged glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and mitochondrial respiration. When combining CR serum and high levels of glucose and palmitate (20 and 0.4 mm, respectively), an in vitro model of type II diabetes, we observed that signaling promoted by CR serum was enough to overcome glucolipotoxicity, as indicated by CR-mediated prevention of mitochondrial fusion arrest and reduced respiratory function in INS1 cells under glucolipotoxicity. Overall, our results provide evidence that non-nutrient factors in serum have a major impact on β-cell mitochondrial adaptations to changes in metabolism. PMID:26732506

  17. Improvement in metabolic parameters in obese subjects after 16 weeks on a Brazilian-staple calorie-restricted diet

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Caio E. G.; da Silva, Fábio V. P.; Casulari, Luiz A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The standard pattern of Brazilian food consumption is based on the combination of rice and beans served together in the main meals. This study assessed the effects of Brazilian-staple calorie-restricted (BS-diet) dietary advice, with brown rice and beans, on metabolic parameters, body composition, and food intake in overweight/obese subjects. SUBJECTS/METHODS Twentyseven subjects were randomly assigned to a conventional-type calorie-restricted diet (CT-diet) (n = 13) or a BS-diet (n = 14). Glucose metabolism, lipid profile, anthropometric and body composition parameters, and food intake were measured before and after 16 weeks. Paired t-tests/Wilcoxon tests were used for comparison of differences from baseline and unpaired t-tests/Mann-Whitney tests were used for comparison of differences between the groups. RESULTS After 16 weeks, both groups showed reductions in weight and waist circumference (P < 0.02), and the BS-diet group showed a decrease in body fat (P = 0.0001), and significant improvement in glucose metabolism (fasting plasma glucose, glucose and insulin areas under the curve, Cederholm index, and HOMA2-%β) (P ≤ 0.04) and lipid profile (cholesterol, triacylglycerol, LDL-c, VLDL-c, and cholesterol/HDL-c ratio) (P ≤ 0.05). In addition, the BS-diet group showed significant improvement in HOMA2-%β, compared to the CT-diet group (P = 0.03). The BS-diet group also showed a significant reduction in energy, lipids, carbohydrate, and cholesterol intake (P ≤ 0.04) and an increase in fiber intake (P ≤ 0.001), while the CT-diet group showed a significant reduction in intake of energy, macronutrients, PUFA, and cholesterol (P ≤ 0.002). CONCLUSIONS These results demonstrate the benefits of the BS-diet on metabolic parameters in obese subjects. PMID:25110561

  18. Long-term moderate calorie restriction inhibits inflammation without impairing cell-mediated immunity: a randomized controlled trial in non obese humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calorie restriction (CR) inhibits inflammation and slows aging in many animal species, but in rodents housed in pathogen-free facilities, CR impairs immunity against certain pathogens. However, little is known about the effects of long-term moderate CR on immune function in humans. In this multi-cen...

  19. Calorie restriction improves cognitive decline via up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor: tropomyosin-related kinase B in hippocampus ofobesity-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Takuya; Hirooka, Yoshitaka; Nagayama, Tomomi; Isegawa, Kengo; Katsuki, Masato; Takesue, Ko; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    In metabolic syndrome (MetS), previous studies have suggested that cognitive decline is worsened. Among the factors associated with cognition, decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus causes cognitive decline. We previously reported that exercise training with calorie restriction yielded protection against cognitive decline via BDNF in the hippocampus of hypertensive rats. The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not calorie restriction results in protection against cognitive decline via BDNF and its receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) in the hippocampus of MetS model rats. We divided dietary-induced obesity-prone and hypertensive rats (OP), as metabolic syndrome model rats, into three groups, fed with a high fat diet (HF), treated with calorie restriction (CR) plus vehicle, and treated with CR and ANA-12 (a TrkB antagonist) (CR+A). After treatment for 28 days, body weight, insulin, fasting blood glucose, adiponectin, systolic blood pressure, and oxidative stress in the hippocampus were significantly lower, and BDNF expression in the hippocampus was significantly higher in CR and CR+A than in HF. Cognitive performance determined by the Morris water maze test was significantly higher in CR than in HF, whereas the benefit was attenuated in CR+A. In conclusion, calorie restriction protects against cognitive decline via up-regulation of BDNF/TrkB through an antioxidant effect in the hippocampus of dietary-induced obesity rats. PMID:25503654

  20. Counting the calories: the role of specific nutrients in extension of life span by food restriction.

    PubMed

    Piper, Matthew D W; Mair, William; Partridge, Linda

    2005-05-01

    Reduction of food intake without malnourishment extends life span in many different organisms. The majority of work in this field has been performed in rodents where it has been shown that both restricting access to the entire diet and restricting individual dietary components can cause life-span extension. Thus, for insights into the mode of action of this intervention, it is of great interest to investigate the aspects of diet that are critical for life span extension. Further studies on the mechanisms of how food components modify life span are well suited to the model organism Drosophila melanogaster because of its short life span and ease of handling and containment. Therefore, we summarize practical aspects of implementing dietary restriction in this organism, as well as highlight the major advances already made. Delineation of the nutritional components that are critical for life-span extension will help to reveal the mechanisms by which it operates. PMID:15972601

  1. Stage-Specific MicroRNAs and Their Role in the Anticancer Effects of Calorie Restriction in a Rat Model of ER-Positive Luminal Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Kaylyn L; Sanford, Tiffany; Harrison, Lauren M; LeBourgeois, Paul; Lashinger, Laura M; Mambo, Elizabeth; Hursting, Stephen D

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs have emerged as ubiquitous post-transcriptional regulators that coordinate many fundamental processes within cells, including those commonly linked to cancer when dysregulated. Profiling microRNAs across stages of cancer progression provides focus as to which microRNAs are key players in cancer development and are therefore important to manipulate with interventions to delay cancer onset and progression. Calorie restriction is one of the most effective preventive interventions across many types of cancer, although its effects on microRNAs have not been well characterized. We used the dimethylbenz[a]-anthracene-induced model of luminal mammary cancer in Sprague Dawley rats to elucidate which microRNAs are linked to progression in this type of cancer and, subsequently, to study how calorie restriction affects such microRNAs. We identified eight microRNAs (miR-10a, miR-10b, miR-21, miR-124, miR-125b, miR-126, miR-145 and miR-200a) to be associated with DMBA-induced mammary tumor progression. Calorie restriction, which greatly increased tumor-free survival and decreased the overall size of tumors that did develop, significantly decreased the expression of one microRNA, miR-200a, which was positively associated with tumor progression. We further showed that inhibition of miR-200a function, mimicking the effect of calorie restriction on this microRNA, inhibited proliferation in both rat (LA7) and human (MCF7) luminal mammary cancer cell lines. These findings present, for the first time, a stage-specific profile of microRNAs in a rodent model of luminal mammary cancer. Furthermore, we have identified the regulation of miR-200a, a microRNA that is positively associated with progression in this model, as a possible mechanism contributing to the anticancer effects of calorie restriction. PMID:27433802

  2. Stage-Specific MicroRNAs and Their Role in the Anticancer Effects of Calorie Restriction in a Rat Model of ER-Positive Luminal Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Devlin, Kaylyn L.; Sanford, Tiffany; Harrison, Lauren M.; LeBourgeois, Paul; Lashinger, Laura M.; Mambo, Elizabeth; Hursting, Stephen D.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs have emerged as ubiquitous post-transcriptional regulators that coordinate many fundamental processes within cells, including those commonly linked to cancer when dysregulated. Profiling microRNAs across stages of cancer progression provides focus as to which microRNAs are key players in cancer development and are therefore important to manipulate with interventions to delay cancer onset and progression. Calorie restriction is one of the most effective preventive interventions across many types of cancer, although its effects on microRNAs have not been well characterized. We used the dimethylbenz[a]-anthracene-induced model of luminal mammary cancer in Sprague Dawley rats to elucidate which microRNAs are linked to progression in this type of cancer and, subsequently, to study how calorie restriction affects such microRNAs. We identified eight microRNAs (miR-10a, miR-10b, miR-21, miR-124, miR-125b, miR-126, miR-145 and miR-200a) to be associated with DMBA-induced mammary tumor progression. Calorie restriction, which greatly increased tumor-free survival and decreased the overall size of tumors that did develop, significantly decreased the expression of one microRNA, miR-200a, which was positively associated with tumor progression. We further showed that inhibition of miR-200a function, mimicking the effect of calorie restriction on this microRNA, inhibited proliferation in both rat (LA7) and human (MCF7) luminal mammary cancer cell lines. These findings present, for the first time, a stage-specific profile of microRNAs in a rodent model of luminal mammary cancer. Furthermore, we have identified the regulation of miR-200a, a microRNA that is positively associated with progression in this model, as a possible mechanism contributing to the anticancer effects of calorie restriction. PMID:27433802

  3. mTORC1 and SIRT1 Cooperate to Foster Expansion of Gut Adult Stem Cells during Calorie Restriction.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Masaki; Guarente, Leonard

    2016-07-14

    Longevity-promoting caloric restriction is thought to trigger downregulation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and upregulation of SIRT1 activity with associated health benefits. Here, we show that mTORC1 signaling in intestinal stem cells (ISCs) is instead upregulated during calorie restriction (CR). SIRT1 deacetylates S6K1, thereby enhancing its phosphorylation by mTORC1, which leads to an increase in protein synthesis and an increase in ISC number. Paneth cells in the ISC niche secrete cyclic ADP ribose that triggers SIRT1 activity and mTORC1 signaling in neighboring ISCs. Notably, the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, previously reported to mimic effects of CR, abolishes this expansion of ISCs. We suggest that Paneth cell signaling overrides any direct nutrient sensing in ISCs to sculpt the observed response to CR. Moreover, drugs that modulate pathways important in CR may exert opposing effects on different cell types. PMID:27345368

  4. Weight loss by calorie restriction versus bariatric surgery differentially regulates the HPA axis in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, Bernadette E.; Hakala-Finch, Andrew P.; Kekulawala, Melani; Laub, Holly; Egan, Ann E.; Ressler, Ilana B.; Woods, Stephen C.; Herman, James P.; Seeley, Randy J.; Benoit, Stephen C.; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral modifications for the treatment of obesity, including caloric restriction, have notoriously low long-term success rates relative to bariatric weight-loss surgery. The reasons for the difference in sustained weight loss are not clear. One possibility is that caloric restriction alone activates the stress-responsive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, undermining the long-term maintenance of weight loss, and that this is abrogated after bariatric surgery. Accordingly, we compared the HPA response to weight loss in 5 groups of male rats: (1) high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) rats treated with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB, n=7), (2) DIO rats treated with vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG, n=11), (3) DIO rats given sham surgery and subsequently restricted to the food intake of the VSG/RYGB groups (Pair-fed, n=11), (4) ad libitum-fed DIO rats given sham surgery (Obese, n=11) and (5) ad libitum chow-fed rats given sham surgery (Lean, n=12). Compared to Lean controls, food-restricted rats exhibited elevated morning (nadir) non-stress plasma corticosterone concentrations and increased hypothalamic corticotropin releasing hormone and vasopressin mRNA expression, indicative of basal HPA activation. This was largely prevented when weight loss was achieved by bariatric surgery. DIO increased HPA activation by acute (novel environment) stress and this was diminished by bariatric surgery-, but not pair-feeding-, induced weight loss. These results suggest that the HPA axis is differentially affected by weight loss from caloric restriction versus bariatric surgery, and this may contribute to the differing long-term effectiveness of these two weight-loss approaches. PMID:25238021

  5. Metformin prevents aggressive ovarian cancer growth driven by high-energy diet: similarity with calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Al-Wahab, Zaid; Mert, Ismail; Tebbe, Calvin; Chhina, Jasdeep; Hijaz, Miriana; Morris, Robert T; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Giri, Shailendra; Munkarah, Adnan R; Rattan, Ramandeep

    2015-05-10

    Caloric restriction (CR) was recently demonstrated by us to restrict ovarian cancer growth in vivo. CR resulted in activation of energy regulating enzymes adenosine monophosphate activated kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) followed by downstream inhibition of Akt-mTOR. In the present study, we investigated the effects of metformin on ovarian cancer growth in mice fed a high energy diet (HED) and regular diet (RD) and compared them to those seen with CR in an immunocompetent isogeneic mouse model of ovarian cancer. Mice either on RD or HED diet bearing ovarian tumors were treated with 200 mg/kg metformin in drinking water. Metformin treatment in RD and HED mice resulted in a significant reduction in tumor burden in the peritoneum, liver, kidney, spleen and bowel accompanied by decreased levels of growth factors (IGF-1, insulin and leptin), inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IL-6) and VEGF in plasma and ascitic fluid, akin to the CR diet mice. Metformin resulted in activation of AMPK and SIRT1 and inhibition of pAkt and pmTOR, similar to CR. Thus metformin can closely mimic CR's tumor suppressing effects by inducing similar metabolic changes, providing further evidence of its potential not only as a therapeutic drug but also as a preventive agent. PMID:25895126

  6. Mitochondrial ultrastructure and markers of dynamics in hepatocytes from aged, calorie restricted mice fed with different dietary fats

    PubMed Central

    Khraiwesh, Husam; López-Domínguez, José A.; del Río, Lucía Fernández; Gutierrez-Casado, Elena; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Navas, Plácido; de Cabo, Rafael; Ramsey, Jon J.; Burón, María I.; Villalba, José M.; González-Reyes, José A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyzed changes in hepatocyte mitochondrial mass and ultrastructure as well as in mitochondrial markers of fission/fusion and biogenesis in mice subjected to 40% calorie restriction (CR) for 18 months versus ad libitum-fed controls. Animals subjected to CR were separated into three groups with different dietary fats: soybean oil (also in controls),fish oil and lard. Therefore, the effect of the dietary fat under CR was studied as well. Our results show that CR induced changes in hepatocyte and mitochondrial size, in the volume fraction occupied by mitochondria, and in the number of mitochondria per hepatocyte. Also, mean number of mitochondrial cristae and lengths were significantly higher in all CR groups compared with controls. Finally, CR had no remarkable effects on the expression levels of fission and fusion protein markers. However, considerable differences in many of these parameters were found when comparing the CR groups, supporting the idea that dietary fat plays a relevant role in the modulation of CR effects in aged mice. PMID:24704714

  7. The influence of dietary lipid composition on skeletal muscle mitochondria from mice following eight months of calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Hagopian, K; Bibus, D; Villalba, J M; López-Lluch, G; Navas, P; Kim, K; Ramsey, J J

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) has been shown to decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and retard aging in a variety of species. It has been proposed that alterations in membrane saturation are central to these actions of CR. As a step towards testing this theory, mice were assigned to 4 dietary groups (control and 3 CR groups) and fed AIN-93G diets at 95 % (control) or 60 % (CR) of ad libitum for 8 months. To manipulate membrane composition, the primary dietary fats for the CR groups were soybean oil (also used in the control diet), fish oil or lard. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial lipid composition, proton leak, and H(2)O(2) production were measured. Phospholipid fatty acid composition in CR mice was altered in a manner that reflected the n-3 and n-6 fatty acid profiles of their respective dietary lipid sources. Dietary lipid composition did not alter proton leak kinetics between the CR groups. However, the capacity of mitochondrial complex III to produce ROS was decreased in the CR lard compared to the other CR groups. The results of this study indicate that dietary lipid composition can influence ROS production in muscle mitochondria of CR mice. It remains to be determined if lard or other dietary oils can maximize the CR-induced decreases in ROS production. PMID:24182343

  8. Genomic lesions and colorectal carcinogenesis: the effects of protein-calorie restriction and inulin supplementation on deficiency statuses.

    PubMed

    Cantero, W B; Takahachi, N A; Mauro, M O; Pesarini, J R; Rabacow, A P M; Antoniolli, A C M B; Oliveira, R J

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of restricting protein and calories and supplementation of inulin, a fiber comprising a linear type of polydisperse carbohydrates composed primarily of fructil-fructose bonds (β-(2→1), on the deficiency statuses of animals in which genomic lesion development and colorectal carcinogenesis had been induced. This experiment involved adult male Swiss mice (N = 11/group). The experimental groups were as follows: Negative Control (vehicle), Positive Control, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), Inulin, and Associate. DMH, which promoted colorectal cancer, was administered intraperitoneally in 4 20-mg/kg body weight (bw) doses during a 2-week period; inulin was administered orally at a daily dose of 50 mg/kg bw. Each group was bifurcated; half of each group was fed a normal protein diet and the other half was fed a low-protein diet. The results indicated that a correlation existed between malnutrition and an increased frequency of genomic lesions but that malnutrition did not predispose animals to colorectal cancer development. Inulin exhibited genotoxic activity, which requires further investigation, and low anti-genotoxic activity. Moreover, inulin reduced the levels of intestinal carcinogenesis biomarkers in both malnourished and healthy animals. These data suggest that inulin holds therapeutic potential and is a strong candidate for inclusion among the functional foods used for cancer prevention in both properly nourished and malnourished individuals. PMID:25867388

  9. Calorie restriction leads to greater Akt2 activity and glucose uptake by insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle from old rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiyan; Arias, Edward B; Cartee, Gregory D

    2016-03-01

    Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is associated with many common age-related diseases, but moderate calorie restriction (CR) can substantially elevate glucose uptake by insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle from both young and old rats. The current study evaluated the isolated epitrochlearis muscle from ∼24.5-mo-old rats that were either fed ad libitum (AL) or subjected to CR (consuming ∼65% of ad libitum, AL, intake beginning at ∼22.5 mo old). Some muscles were also incubated with MK-2206, a potent and selective Akt inhibitor. The most important results were that in isolated muscles, CR vs. AL resulted in 1) greater insulin-stimulated glucose uptake 2) that was accompanied by significantly increased insulin-mediated activation of Akt2, as indicated by greater phosphorylation on both Thr(309) and Ser(474) along with greater Akt2 activity, 3) concomitant with enhanced phosphorylation of several Akt substrates, including an Akt substrate of 160 kDa on Thr(642) and Ser(588), filamin C on Ser(2213) and proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kDa on Thr(246), but not TBC1D1 on Thr(596); and 4) each of the CR effects was eliminated by MK-2206. These data provide compelling new evidence linking greater Akt2 activation to the CR-induced elevation of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by muscle from old animals. PMID:26739650

  10. Intermittent fasting combined with calorie restriction is effective for weight loss and cardio-protection in obese women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intermittent fasting (IF; severe restriction 1 d/week) facilitates weight loss and improves coronary heart disease (CHD) risk indicators. The degree to which weight loss can be enhanced if IF is combined with calorie restriction (CR) and liquid meals, remains unknown. Objective This study examined the effects of IF plus CR (with or without a liquid diet) on body weight, body composition, and CHD risk. Methods Obese women (n = 54) were randomized to either the IFCR-liquid (IFCR-L) or IFCR-food based (IFCR-F) diet. The trial had two phases: 1) 2-week weight maintenance period, and 2) 8-week weight loss period. Results Body weight decreased more (P = 0.04) in the IFCR-L group (3.9 ± 1.4 kg) versus the IFCR-F group (2.5 ± 0.6 kg). Fat mass decreased similarly (P < 0.0001) in the IFCR-L and IFCR-F groups (2.8 ± 1.2 kg and 1.9 ± 0.7 kg, respectively). Visceral fat was reduced (P < 0.001) by IFCR-L (0.7 ± 0.5 kg) and IFCR-F (0.3 ± 0.5 kg) diets. Reductions in total and LDL cholesterol levels were greater (P = 0.04) in the IFCR-L (19 ± 10%; 20 ± 9%, respectively) versus the IFCR-F group (8 ± 3%; 7 ± 4%, respectively). LDL peak particle size increased (P < 0.01), while heart rate, glucose, insulin, and homocysteine decreased (P < 0.05), in the IFCR-L group only. Conclusion These findings suggest that IF combined with CR and liquid meals is an effective strategy to help obese women lose weight and lower CHD risk. PMID:23171320

  11. Hyperinsulinemia/diabetes, hearing, and aging in the University of Wisconsin calorie restriction monkeys.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Cynthia G; Chiasson, Kirstin Beach; Colman, Ricki J; Kemnitz, Joseph W; Beasley, T Mark; Weindruch, Richard H

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of hyperinsulinemia/Type 2 diabetes mellitus (HI-T2DM) on hearing impairment using rhesus monkeys to obtain control over diet and lifestyle factors that confound human studies. The study is a retrospective evaluation of rhesus monkeys from the Wisconsin National Primate Research Center (WNPRC) study on caloric restriction and aging. The research questions were the following: 1. Is HI-T2DM related to hearing impairment? 2. If so, what is the site of lesion in the auditory system? and 3. What physiological factors affect the risk of hearing loss in HI-T2DM? Three groups of eight monkeys each were matched by sex and age; the caloric restricted (CR) monkeys had a reduced risk of diabetes, the normal control (NL) group had a normal risk, and the hyperinsulinemia/diabetes (HI-D) group had already developed HI-T2DM. Auditory testing included distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) with f2 frequencies from 2211 to 8837 Hz and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) obtained with clicks and tone bursts (8, 16, and 32 kHz). DPOAEs had signal-to-noise ratios 8-17 dB larger in the NL group than in the HI-D and CR groups, signifying that cochlear function was best in the NL group. ABR thresholds were 5-8 dB better in the NL group than in the HI-D group, although no significant differences across the groups were evident for the thresholds, latencies, interwave intervals, or amplitudes. Correlations were significant for quadratic relations between body mass index (BMI) and DPOAE, with largest DPOAEs for animals in the middle of the BMI range. ABR thresholds elicited with 16 and 32 kHz signals were significantly correlated, positively with BMI and HbA1c, and negatively with KG (glucose tolerance), SI (insulin sensitivity index) and DI (disposition index). These findings suggest that the hearing loss associated with HI-T2DM is predominantly cochlear, and auditory structures underlying the higher frequencies are at

  12. Short-Term Preoperative Calorie and Protein Restriction Is Feasible in Healthy Kidney Donors and Morbidly Obese Patients Scheduled for Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jongbloed, Franny; de Bruin, Ron W. F.; Klaassen, René A.; Beekhof, Piet; van Steeg, Harry; Dor, Frank J. M. F.; van der Harst, Erwin; Dollé, Martijn E. T.; IJzermans, Jan N. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Surgery-induced oxidative stress increases the risk of perioperative complications and delay in postoperative recovery. In mice, short-term preoperative dietary and protein restriction protect against oxidative stress. We investigated the feasibility of a calorie- and protein-restricted diet in two patient populations. Methods. In this pilot study, 30 live kidney donors and 38 morbidly obese patients awaiting surgery were randomized into three groups: a restricted diet group, who received a synthetic liquid diet with 30% fewer calories and 80% less protein for five consecutive days; a group who received a synthetic diet containing the daily energy requirements (DER); and a control group. Feasibility was assessed using self-reported discomfort, body weight changes, and metabolic parameters in blood samples. Results. Twenty patients (71%) complied with the restricted and 13 (65%) with the DER-diet. In total, 68% of the patients reported minor discomfort that resolved after normal eating resumed. The mean weight loss on the restricted diet was significantly greater (2.4 kg) than in the control group (0 kg, p = 0.002), but not in the DER-diet (1.5 kg). The restricted diet significantly reduced levels of serum urea and plasma prealbumin (PAB) and retinol binding protein (RBP). Conclusions. A short-term preoperative calorie- and protein-restricted diet is feasible in kidney donors and morbidly obese patients. Compliance is high and can be objectively measured via changes in urea, PAB, and RBP levels. These results demonstrate that this diet can be used to study the effects of dietary restriction on surgery-induced oxidative stress in a clinical setting. PMID:27213441

  13. Beneficial effects of lifelong caloric restriction on endothelial function are greater in conduit arteries compared to cerebral resistance arteries.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ashley E; Henson, Grant D; Reihl, Kelly D; Nielson, Elizabeth I; Morgan, R Garrett; Lesniewski, Lisa A; Donato, Anthony J

    2014-04-01

    Endothelial dysfunction occurs in conduit and cerebral resistance arteries with advancing age. Lifelong caloric restriction (CR) can prevent the onset of age-related dysfunction in many tissues, but its effects on cerebral resistance artery function, as compared with conduit artery function, have not been determined. We measured endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) in the carotid artery and middle cerebral artery (MCA) from young (5-7 months), old ad libitum fed (AL, 29-32 months), and old lifelong CR (CR, 40 % CR, 29-32 months) B6D2F1 mice. Compared with young, EDD for old AL was 24 % lower in the carotid and 47 % lower in the MCA (p < 0.05). For old CR, EDD was not different from young in the carotid artery (p > 0.05), but was 25 % lower than young in the MCA (p < 0.05). EDD was not different between groups after NO synthase inhibition with N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester in the carotid artery or MCA. Superoxide production by the carotid artery and MCA was greater in old AL compared with young and old CR (p < 0.05). In the carotid, incubation with the superoxide scavenger TEMPOL improved EDD for old AL (p > 0.05), with no effect in young or old CR (p > 0.05). In the MCA, incubation with TEMPOL or the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin augmented EDD in old AL (p < 0.05), but reduced EDD in young and old CR (p < 0.05). Thus, age-related endothelial dysfunction is prevented by lifelong CR completely in conduit arteries, but only partially in cerebral resistance arteries. These benefits of lifelong CR on EDD result from lower oxidative stress and greater NO bioavailability. PMID:24065292

  14. Daily leptin blunts marrow fat but does not impact bone mass in calorie-restricted mice.

    PubMed

    Devlin, M J; Brooks, D J; Conlon, C; Vliet, M van; Louis, L; Rosen, C J; Bouxsein, M L

    2016-06-01

    Starvation induces low bone mass and high bone marrow adiposity in humans, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The adipokine leptin falls in starvation, suggesting that hypoleptinemia may be a link between negative energy balance, bone marrow fat accumulation, and impaired skeletal acquisition. In that case, treating mice with leptin during caloric restriction (CR) should reduce marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and improve bone mass. To test this hypothesis, female C57Bl/6J mice were fed a 30% CR or normal (N) diet from 5 to 10 weeks of age, with daily injections of vehicle (VEH), 1mg/kg leptin (LEP1), or 2mg/kg leptin (LEP2) (N=6-8/group). Outcomes included body mass, body fat percentage, and whole-body bone mineral density (BMD) via peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, cortical and trabecular microarchitecture via microcomputed tomography (μCT), and MAT volume via μCT of osmium tetroxide-stained bones. Overall, CR mice had lower body mass, body fat percentage, BMD, and cortical bone area fraction, but more connected trabeculae, vs N mice (P<0.05 for all). Most significantly, although MAT was elevated in CR vs N overall, leptin treatment blunted MAT formation in CR mice by 50% vs VEH (P<0.05 for both leptin doses). CR LEP2 mice weighed less vs CR VEH mice at 9-10 weeks of age (P<0.05), but leptin treatment did not affect body fat percentage, BMD, or bone microarchitecture within either diet. These data demonstrate that once daily leptin bolus during CR inhibits bone marrow adipose expansion without affecting bone mass acquisition, suggesting that leptin has distinct effects on starvation-induced bone marrow fat formation and skeletal acquisition. PMID:27340200

  15. Severe Calorie Restriction Reduces Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Protects Rat Hearts from Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Dirceu S.; Costa-Pereira, Liliane V.; Santos, Carina S.; Mendes, Bruno F.; Costa, Karine B.; Santos, Cynthia Fernandes F.; Rocha-Vieira, Etel; Magalhães, Flávio C.; Esteves, Elizabethe A.; Ferreira, Anderson J.; Guatimosim, Sílvia; Dias-Peixoto, Marco F.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Recent studies have proposed that if a severe caloric restriction (SCR) is initiated at the earliest period of postnatal life, it can lead to beneficial cardiac adaptations later on. We investigated the effects of SCR in Wistar rats from birth to adult age on risk factors for cardiac diseases (CD), as well as cardiac function, redox status, and HSP72 content in response to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods and Results: From birth to the age of 3 months, CR50 rats were fed 50% of the food that the ad libitum group (AL) was fed. Food intake was assessed daily and body weight were assessed weekly. In the last week of the SCR protocol, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured and the double product index was calculated. Also, oral glucose and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests were performed. Thereafter, rats were decapitated, visceral fat was weighed, and blood and hearts were harvested for biochemical, functional, tissue redox status, and western blot analyzes. Compared to AL, CR50 rats had reduced the main risk factors for CD. Moreover, the FR50 rats showed increased cardiac function both at baseline conditions (45% > AL rats) and during the post-ischemic period (60% > AL rats) which may be explained by a decreased cardiac oxidative stress and increased HSP72 content. Conclusion: SCR from birth to adult age reduced risk factors for CD, increased basal cardiac function and protected hearts from the I/R, possibly by a mechanism involving ROS. PMID:27092082

  16. Do long-lived mutant and calorie-restricted mice share common anti-aging mechanisms?--a pathological point of view.

    PubMed

    Ikeno, Yuji; Lew, Christie M; Cortez, Lisa A; Webb, Celeste R; Lee, Shuko; Hubbard, Gene B

    2006-06-01

    Rodent models are an invaluable resource for studying the mechanism of mammalian aging. In recent years, the availability of transgenic and knockout mouse models has facilitated the study of potential mechanisms of aging. Since 1996, aging studies with several long-lived mutant mice have been conducted. Studies with the long-lived mutant mice, Ames and Snell dwarf, and growth hormone receptor/binding protein knockout mice, are currently providing important clues regarding the role of the growth hormone/insulin like growth factor-1 axis in the aging process. Interestingly, these studies demonstrate that these long-lived mutant mice have physiological characteristics that are similar to the effects of calorie restriction, which has been the most effective experimental manipulation capable of extending lifespan in various species. However, a question remains to be answered: do these long-lived mutant and calorie-restricted mice extend their lifespan through a common underlying mechanism? PMID:19943137

  17. Dietary Restriction-Induced Alterations in Bone Phenotype: Effects of Lifelong Versus Short-Term Caloric Restriction on Femoral and Vertebral Bone in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Ann-Kathrin; Kuhla, Angela; Osterberg, Anja; Polley, Christian; Herlyn, Philipp; Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane; Scotland, Maike; Wree, Andreas; Histing, Tina; Menger, Michael D; Müller-Hilke, Brigitte; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Vollmar, Brigitte

    2016-04-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is a well-described dietary intervention that delays the onset of aging-associated biochemical and physiological changes, thereby extending the life span of rodents. The influence of CR on metabolism, strength, and morphology of bone has been controversially discussed in literature. Thus, the present study evaluated whether lifelong CR versus short-term late-onset dietary intervention differentially affects the development of senile osteoporosis in C57BL/6 mice. Two different dietary regimens with 40% food restriction were performed: lifelong CR starting in 4-week-old mice was maintained for 4, 20, or 74 weeks. In contrast, short-term late-onset CR lasting a period of 12 weeks was commenced at 48 or 68 weeks of age. Control mice were fed ad libitum (AL). Bone specimens were assessed using microcomputed tomography (μCT, femur and lumbar vertebral body) and biomechanical testing (femur). Adverse effects of CR, including reduced cortical bone mineral density (Ct.BMD) and thickness (Ct.Th), were detected to some extent in senile mice (68+12w) but in particular in cortical bone of young growing mice (4+4w), associated with reduced femoral failure force (F). However, we observed a profound capacity of bone to compensate these deleterious changes of minor nutrition with increasing age presumably via reorganization of trabecular bone. Especially in lumbar vertebrae, lifelong CR lasting 20 or 74 weeks had beneficial effects on trabecular bone mineral density (Tb.BMD), bone volume fraction (BV/TV), and trabecular number (Tb.N). In parallel, lifelong CR groups showed reduced structure model index values compared to age-matched controls indicating a transformation of vertebral trabecular bone microarchitecture toward a platelike geometry. This effect was not visible in senile mice after short-term 12-week CR. In summary, CR has differential effects on cortical and trabecular bone dependent on bone localization and starting age. Our study underlines

  18. Opposite effects of a high-fat diet and calorie restriction on ciliary neurotrophic factor signaling in the mouse hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Severi, Ilenia; Perugini, Jessica; Mondini, Eleonora; Smorlesi, Arianna; Frontini, Andrea; Cinti, Saverio; Giordano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In the mouse hypothalamus, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is mainly expressed by ependymal cells and tanycytes of the ependymal layer covering the third ventricle. Since exogenously administered CNTF causes reduced food intake and weight loss, we tested whether endogenous CNTF might be involved in energy balance regulation. We thus evaluated CNTF production and responsiveness in the hypothalamus of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), of ob/ob obese mice, and of mice fed a calorie restriction (CR) regimen. RT-PCR showed that CNTF mRNA increased significantly in HFD mice and decreased significantly in CR animals. Western blotting confirmed that CNTF expression was higher in HFD mice and reduced in CR mice, but high interindividual variability blunted the significance of these differences. By immunohistochemistry, hypothalamic tuberal and mammillary region tanycytes stained strongly for CNTF in HFD mice, whereas CR mice exhibited markedly reduced staining. RT-PCR and Western blotting disclosed that changes in CNTF expression were paralleled by changes in the expression of its specific receptor, CNTF receptor α (CNTFRα). Injection of recombinant CNTF and detection of phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (P-STAT3) showed that CNTF responsiveness by the ependymal layer, mainly by tanycytes, was higher in HFD than CR mice. In addition, in HFD mice CNTF administration induced distinctive STAT3 signaling in a large neuron population located in the dorsomedial and ventromedial nuclei, perifornical area and mammillary body. The hypothalamic expression of CNTF and CNTFRα did not change in the hyperphagic, leptin-deficient ob/ob obese mice; accordingly, P-STAT3 immunoreactivity in CNTF-treated ob/ob mice was confined to ependymal layer and arcuate neurons. Collectively, these data suggest that hypothalamic CNTF is involved in controlling the energy balance and that CNTF signaling plays a role in HFD obese mice at specific sites. PMID:24409114

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids partially revert the metabolic gene expression profile induced by long-term calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    López-Domínguez, José Alberto; Cánovas, Ángela; Medrano, Juan F; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Kim, Kyoungmi; Taylor, Sandra L; Villalba, José Manuel; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Navas, Plácido; Ramsey, Jon J

    2016-05-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) consistently extends longevity and delays age-related diseases across several animal models. We have previously shown that different dietary fat sources can modulate life span and mitochondrial ultrastructure, function and membrane fatty acid composition in mice maintained on a 40% CR. In particular, animals consuming lard as the main fat source (CR-Lard) lived longer than CR mice consuming diets with soybean oil (CR-Soy) or fish oil (CR-Fish) as the predominant lipid source. In the present work, a transcriptomic analysis in the liver and skeletal muscle was performed in order to elucidate possible mechanisms underlying the changes in energy metabolism and longevity induced by dietary fat in CR mice. After 8 months of CR, transcription downstream of several mediators of inflammation was inhibited in liver. In contrast, proinflammatory signaling was increased in the CR-Fish versus other CR groups. Dietary fish oil induced a gene expression pattern consistent with increased transcriptional regulation by several cytokines (TNF, GM-CSF, TGF-β) and sex hormones when compared to the other CR groups. The CR-Fish also had lower expression of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and increased expression of mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation genes than the other CR diet groups. Our data suggest that a diet high in n-3 PUFA, partially reverts CR-related changes in gene expression of key processes, such as inflammation and steroid hormone signaling, and this may mitigate life span extension with CR in mice consuming diets high in fish oil. PMID:26875793

  20. Improvement in coronary heart disease risk factors during an intermittent fasting/calorie restriction regimen: Relationship to adipokine modulations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The ability of an intermittent fasting (IF)-calorie restriction (CR) regimen (with or without liquid meals) to modulate adipokines in a way that is protective against coronary heart disease (CHD) has yet to be tested. Objective Accordingly, we examined the effects of an IFCR diet on adipokine profile, body composition, and markers of CHD risk in obese women. Methods Subjects (n = 54) were randomized to either the IFCR-liquid (IFCR-L) or IFCR-food based (IFCR-F) diet for 10 weeks. Results Greater decreases in body weight and waist circumference were noted in the IFCR-L group (4 ± 1 kg; 6 ± 1 cm) versus the IFCR-F group (3 ± 1 kg; 4 ± 1 cm). Similar reductions (P < 0.0001) in fat mass were demonstrated in the IFCR-L (3 ± 1 kg) and IFCR-F group (2 ± 1 kg). Reductions in total and LDL cholesterol levels were greater (P = 0.04) in the IFCR-L (19 ± 10%; 20 ± 9%, respectively) versus the IFCR-F group (8 ± 3%; 7 ± 4%, respectively). LDL peak particle size increased (P < 0.01) in the IFCR-L group only. The proportion of small LDL particles decreased (P < 0.01) in both groups. Adipokines, such as leptin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) decreased (P < 0.05), in the IFCR-L group only. Conclusion These findings suggest that IFCR with a liquid diet favorably modulates visceral fat and adipokines in a way that may confer protection against CHD. PMID:23113919

  1. Calorie restriction attenuates astrogliosis but not amyloid plaque load in aged rhesus macaques: a preliminary quantitative imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Aadhavi; Pehar, Mariana; Salamat, M Shahriar; Pugh, Thomas D; Bendlin, Barbara B; Willette, Auriel A; Anderson, Rozalyn M; Kemnitz, Joseph W; Colman, Ricki J; Weindruch, Richard H; Puglielli, Luigi; Johnson, Sterling C

    2013-01-01

    While moderate calorie restriction (CR) in the absence of malnutrition has been consistently shown to have a systemic, beneficial effect against aging in several animals models, its effect on the brain microstructure in a non-human primate model remains to be studied using post-mortem histopathologic techniques. In the present study, we investigated differences in expression levels of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and β-amyloid plaque load in the hippocampus and the adjacent cortical areas of 7 Control (ad libitum)-fed and 6 CR male rhesus macaques using immunostaining methods. CR monkeys expressed significantly lower levels (∼30% on average) of GFAP than Controls in the CA region of the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, suggesting a protective effect of CR in limiting astrogliosis. These results recapitulate the neuroprotective effects of CR seen in shorter-lived animal models. There was a significant positive association between age and average amyloid plaque pathology in these animals, but there was no significant difference in amyloid plaque distribution between the two groups. Two of the seven Control animals (28.6%) and one of the six CR animal (16.7%) did not express any amyloid plaques, five of seven Controls (71.4%) and four of six CR animals (66.7%) expressed minimal to moderate amyloid pathology, and one of six CR animals (16.7%) expressed severe amyloid pathology. That CR affects levels of GFAP expression but not amyloid plaque load provides some insight into the means by which CR is beneficial at the microstructural level, potentially by offsetting the increased load of oxidatively damaged proteins, in this non-human primate model of aging. The present study is a preliminary post-mortem histological analysis of the effects of CR on brain health, and further studies using molecular and biochemical techniques are warranted to elucidate underlying mechanisms. PMID:23473840

  2. Calorie restriction reduces psychological stress reactivity and its association with brain volume and microstructure in aged rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Willette, Auriel A.; Coe, Christopher L.; Colman, Ricki J.; Bendlin, Barbara B; Kastman, Erik K; Field, Aaron S.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Allison, David B.; Weindruch, Richard H.; Johnson, Sterling C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Heightened stress reactivity is associated with hippocampal atrophy, age-related cognitive deficits, and increased risk for Alzheimer s disease. This temperament predisposition may aggravate age-associated brain pathology or be reflective of it. This association may be mediated through repeated activation of the stress hormone axis over time. Dietary interventions, such as calorie restriction (CR), affect stress biology and may moderate the pathogenic relationship between stress reactivity and brain in limbic and prefrontal regions. Methods Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) aged 19–31 years consumed either a standard diet (N=18) or were maintained on 30% CR relative to baseline intake (N=26) for 13–19 years. Behavior was rated in both normative and aversive contexts. Urinary cortisol was collected. Animals underwent magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to acquire volumetric and tissue microstructure data respectively. Voxel-wise statistics regressed a global stress reactivity factor, cortisol, and their interaction on brain indices across and between dietary groups. Results CR significantly reduced stress reactivity during aversive contexts without affecting activity, orientation, or attention behavior. Stress reactivity was associated with less volume and tissue density in areas important for emotional regulation and the endocrine axis including prefrontal cortices, hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus. CR reduced these relationships. A Cortisol by Stress Reactivity voxel-wise interaction indicated that only monkeys with high stress reactivity and high basal cortisol demonstrated lower brain volume and tissue density in prefrontal cortices, hippocampus, and amygdala. Conclusions High stress reactivity predicted lower volume and microstructural tissue density in regions involved in emotional processing and modulation. A CR diet reduced stress reactivity and regional associations with neural modalities. High levels of

  3. Development of a bioassay to screen for chemicals mimicking the anti-aging effects of calorie restriction

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, Takuya; Tsuchiya, Tomoshi; Komatsu, Toshimitsu; Mori, Ryoichi; Hayashi, Hiroko; Shimano, Hitoshi; Spindler, Stephen R.; Shimokawa, Isao

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} We identified four sequence motifs lying upstream of putative pro-longevity genes. {yields} One of these motifs binds to HNF-4{alpha}. {yields} HNF-4{alpha}/PGC-1{alpha} could up-regulate the transcription of a reporter gene linked to this motif. {yields} The reporter system described here could be used to screen candidate anti-aging molecules. -- Abstract: Suppression of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I pathway in Ames dwarf (DF) mice, and caloric restriction (CR) in normal mice extends lifespan and delays the onset of age-related disorders. In combination, these interventions have an additive effect on lifespan in Ames DF mice. Therefore, common signaling pathways regulated by DF and CR could have additive effects on longevity. In this study, we tried to identity the signaling mechanism and develop a system to assess pro-longevity status in cells and mice. We previously identified genes up-regulated in the liver of DF and CR mice by DNA microarray analysis. Motif analysis of the upstream sequences of those genes revealed four major consensus sequence motifs, which have been named dwarfism and calorie restriction-responsive elements (DFCR-REs). One of the synthesized sequences bound to hepatocyte nuclear factor-4{alpha} (HNF-4{alpha}), an important transcription factor involved in liver metabolism. Furthermore, using this sequence information, we developed a highly sensitive bioassay to identify chemicals mimicking the anti-aging effects of CR. When the reporter construct, containing an element upstream of a secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) gene, was co-transfected with HNF-4{alpha} and its regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {gamma} coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}), SEAP activity was increased compared with untransfected controls. Moreover, transient transgenic mice established using this construct showed increased SEAP activity in CR mice compared with ad libitum-fed mice. These data

  4. Hypothalamic Npy mRNA is correlated with increased wheel running and decreased body fat in calorie-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Speichinger, Katherine R; Manier, Jacob B; Younger, Kyle M; Childs, Thomas E; Booth, Frank W

    2016-04-01

    The neuro-molecular mechanisms that regulate the relationship between physical activity level, energy homeostasis regulation, and body fat are unclear. Thus, we aimed to investigate the relationship between mRNAs in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) related to energy homeostasis, wheel running distance, and body fat in ad lib (AL) and calorie-restricted (CR) growing rats. We hypothesized that changes in select mRNAs (Pomc, Cart, Agrp, Npy, Lepr, Insr, Mc4r, Ampk, Sirt1, Sirt3) in CR would be associated with decreases in body fat percentage and increased wheel running behavior. Male Wistar rats were given access to voluntary running wheels at 4 weeks of age and randomized into AL (n=8) and CR (70% of AL; n=7) groups at 5 weeks of age until study termination at 12 weeks of age. Body composition, serum leptin, insulin, and adiponectin, and ARC mRNA expression in AL and CR rats were assessed and correlated with week-12 running distance to examine potential relationships that may exist. By 12 weeks of age, wheel running was increased ∼3.3-fold (p=0.03) while body fat percentage was ∼2-fold lower in CR compared to AL (p=0.001). Compared to AL, ARC Npy mRNA expression was ∼2-fold greater in CR (p=0.02), while Lepr, Insr, Ampk, and Sirt1 mRNA were additionally increased in CR (p<0.05). Significant correlations existed between ARC Npy mRNA levels versus week-12 wheel running distance (r=0.81, p=0.03), body fat (r=-0.93, p<0.01), and between body fat and wheel running (r=-0.83, p=0.02) in CR, but not in AL. These results reveal possible mechanisms by which fat-brain crosstalk may influence physical activity during energy deficit. These data suggest that below a 'threshold' fat content, body fat may drive activity levels, potentially through hypothalamic Npy action. PMID:26921453

  5. Calorie restriction prevents the occlusive coronary vascular disease of autoimmune (NZW x BXSB)F1 mice.

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, H; Engelman, R W; Kinjoh, K; Kurata, Y; Ikehara, S; Matsuzawa, Y; Good, R A

    1994-01-01

    Male (NZW x BXSB)F1 (W/BF1) mice develop systemic autoimmunity involving autoantibodies, thrombocytopenia, lupus nephritis, and coronary vascular disease (CVD) with myocardial infarction. To determine whether this murine lupus-associated CVD can be prevented by the reduction of dietary calories, male W/BF1 mice were separated into five experimental groups and fed either ad libitum (designated group A, n = 50), fed 32% fewer calories of an otherwise comparable diet (designated group B6, n = 20), or initially fed ad libitum and then switched to reduced calorie intake (RCI) feeding at ages 14, 17, or 22 weeks (designated B14, n = 10; B17, n = 20; or B22, n = 20). Occlusive CVD was prevented by RCI. Life-span was significantly extended among the early onset RCI cohorts, B6 and B14 (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.005), compared to group A mice. Mean anti-cardiolipin autoantibody titers and mean levels of circulating immune complexes were also lowered in RCI mice when all RCI mice were compared to ad libitum fed group A mice. Histological grades of both coronary vascular and glomerular lesions were significantly less than those of group A mice (P < 0.001). Immunoprecipitates indicative of immunoglobulin deposition within coronary or glomerular vascular walls were also substantially less than those of group A mice. These findings indicate a possible causal role for anti-cardiolipin autoantibody in development of autoimmune CVD in W/BF1 mice and suggest that regulating dietary calories can influence the mechanism involved in pathogenesis of autoimmune-associated CVD development. Images PMID:8183920

  6. Phylloquinone and Menaquinone-4 Tissue Distribution at Different Life Stages in Male and Female Sprague–Dawley Rats Fed Different VK Levels Since Weaning or Subjected to a 40% Calorie Restriction since Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Ferland, Guylaine; Doucet, Isabelle; Mainville, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Whether through the vitamin K-dependent proteins or the individual K vitamers, vitamin K (VK) is associated with a number of age-related conditions (e.g., osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, cognitive decline). In light of this, we investigated the influence of lifetime dietary VK exposure on the tissue distribution of phylloquinone (K1) and menaquinone-4 (MK-4) vitamers in 3-, 12- and 22-month-old male and female rats fed different K1 diets since weaning or subjected to a 40% calorie restricted diet (CR) since adulthood. Dietary K1 intakes around the minimal amount required for normal blood coagulation had no significant influence on body weights of both male and female rats at different life stages. Tissue contents of the K vitamers differed according to organs, were generally higher in females than in males, and increased with K1 intake. The MK-4/total VK ratios tended to be increased in old age possibly reflecting an increased physiological demand for MK-4 during aging. Our study also confirmed the greater susceptibility of male rats to low VK containing diet, notably at a younger age. Despite lifelong higher K1 intakes per unit body weight, tissue K1 and MK-4 contents at 20 months were generally lower in CR rats compared to their ad libitum (AL) counterparts. Whether the lower tissue MK-4 content is the result of lower synthesis from K1 or greater tissue utilization remains to be determined. However, the more youthful coagulation profile observed in old CR rats (vs. AL rats) tends to support the notion that CR is associated with greater utilization of the K vitamers to sustain physiological functions. PMID:26959054

  7. Phylloquinone and Menaquinone-4 Tissue Distribution at Different Life Stages in Male and Female Sprague-Dawley Rats Fed Different VK Levels Since Weaning or Subjected to a 40% Calorie Restriction since Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Ferland, Guylaine; Doucet, Isabelle; Mainville, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    Whether through the vitamin K-dependent proteins or the individual K vitamers, vitamin K (VK) is associated with a number of age-related conditions (e.g., osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, cognitive decline). In light of this, we investigated the influence of lifetime dietary VK exposure on the tissue distribution of phylloquinone (K₁) and menaquinone-4 (MK-4) vitamers in 3-, 12- and 22-month-old male and female rats fed different K₁ diets since weaning or subjected to a 40% calorie restricted diet (CR) since adulthood. Dietary K₁ intakes around the minimal amount required for normal blood coagulation had no significant influence on body weights of both male and female rats at different life stages. Tissue contents of the K vitamers differed according to organs, were generally higher in females than in males, and increased with K₁ intake. The MK-4/total VK ratios tended to be increased in old age possibly reflecting an increased physiological demand for MK-4 during aging. Our study also confirmed the greater susceptibility of male rats to low VK containing diet, notably at a younger age. Despite lifelong higher K₁ intakes per unit body weight, tissue K₁ and MK-4 contents at 20 months were generally lower in CR rats compared to their ad libitum (AL) counterparts. Whether the lower tissue MK-4 content is the result of lower synthesis from K₁ or greater tissue utilization remains to be determined. However, the more youthful coagulation profile observed in old CR rats (vs. AL rats) tends to support the notion that CR is associated with greater utilization of the K vitamers to sustain physiological functions. PMID:26959054

  8. Protein and Calorie Restriction Contribute Additively to Protection from Renal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury Partly via Leptin Reduction in Male Mice123

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Lauren T; Treviño-Villarreal, J Humberto; Mejia, Pedro; Grondin, Yohann; Harputlugil, Eylul; Hine, Christopher; Vargas, Dorathy; Zheng, Hanqiao; Ozaki, C Keith; Kristal, Bruce S; Simpson, Stephen J; Mitchell, James R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Short-term dietary restriction (DR) without malnutrition preconditions against surgical stress in rodents; however, the nutritional basis and underlying nutrient/energy-sensing pathways remain poorly understood. Objectives: We investigated the relative contribution of protein restriction (PR) vs. calorie restriction (CR) to protection from renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) and changes in organ-autonomous nutrient/energy-sensing pathways and hormones underlying beneficial effects. Methods: Mice were preconditioned on experimental diets lacking total calories (0–50% CR) or protein/essential amino acids (EAAs) vs. complete diets consumed ad libitum (AL) for 1 wk before IRI. Renal outcome was assessed by serum markers and histology and integrated over a 2-dimensional protein/energy landscape by geometric framework analysis. Changes in renal nutrient/energy-sensing signal transduction and systemic hormones leptin and adiponectin were also measured. The genetic requirement for amino acid sensing via general control non-derepressible 2 (GCN2) was tested with knockout vs. control mice. The involvement of the hormone leptin was tested by injection of recombinant protein vs. vehicle during the preconditioning period. Results: CR-mediated protection was dose dependent up to 50% with maximal 2-fold effect sizes. PR benefits were abrogated by EAA re-addition and additive with CR, with maximal benefits at any given amount of CR occurring with a protein-free diet. GCN2 was not required for functional benefits of PR. Activation and repression of nutrient/energy-sensing kinases, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), respectively, on PR reflected a state of negative energy balance, paralleled by 13% weight loss and an 87% decrease in leptin, independent of calorie intake. Recombinant leptin administration partially abrogated benefits of dietary preconditioning against renal IRI. Conclusions: In male mice, PR

  9. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...

  10. Blood cell transcriptomic-based early biomarkers of adverse programming effects of gestational calorie restriction and their reversibility by leptin supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Konieczna, Jadwiga; Sánchez, Juana; Palou, Mariona; Picó, Catalina; Palou, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of preventing major chronic diseases requires reliable, early biomarkers. Gestational mild undernutrition in rats is enough to program the offspring to develop later pathologies; the intake of leptin, a breastmilk component, during lactation may reverse these programming effects. We used these models to identify, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), transcriptomic-based early biomarkers of programmed susceptibility to later disorders, and explored their response to neonatal leptin intake. Microarray analysis was performed in PBMCs from the offspring of control and 20% gestational calorie-restricted dams (CR), and CR-rats supplemented with physiological doses of leptin throughout lactation. Notably, leptin supplementation normalised 218 of the 224 mRNA-levels identified in PBMCs associated to undernutrition during pregnancy. These markers may be useful for early identification and subsequent monitoring of individuals who are at risk of later diseases and would specifically benefit from the intake of appropriate amounts of leptin during lactation. PMID:25766068

  11. Effects of 2-year calorie restriction on circulating levels of IGF-1, IGF-binding proteins and cortisol in nonobese men and women: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Luigi; Villareal, Dennis T; Das, Sai K; Smith, Steven R; Meydani, Simin N; Pittas, Anastassios G; Klein, Samuel; Bhapkar, Manjushri; Rochon, James; Ravussin, Eric; Holloszy, John O

    2016-02-01

    Young-onset calorie restriction (CR) in rodents decreases serum IGF-1 concentration and increases serum corticosterone levels, which have been hypothesized to play major roles in mediating its anticancer and anti-aging effects. However, little is known on the effects of CR on the IGF-1 system and cortisol in humans. To test the sustained effects of CR on these key hormonal adaptations, we performed a multicenter randomized trial of a 2-year 25% CR intervention in 218 nonobese (body mass index between 22 and 27.8 kg m(-2) ) young and middle-aged (20-50 years age range) men and women. Average CR during the first 6 months was 19.5 ± 0.8% and 9.1 ± 0.7% over the next 18 months of the study. Weight loss averaged 7.6 ± 0.3 kg over the 2-years period of which 71% was fat mass loss (P < 0.0001). Average CR during the CR caused a significant 21% increase in serum IGFBP-1 and a 42% reduction in IGF-1:IGFBP-1 ratio at 2 years (P < 0.008), but did not change IGF-1 and IGF-1:IGFBP-3 ratio levels. Serum cortisol concentrations were slightly but significantly increased by CR at 1 year only (P = 0.003). Calorie restriction had no effect on serum concentrations of PDGF-AB and TGFβ-1. We conclude, on the basis of the present and previous findings, that, in contrast to rodents, humans do not respond to CR with a decrease in serum IGF-1 concentration or with a sustained and biological relevant increase in serum cortisol. However, long-term CR in humans significantly and persistently increases serum IGFBP-1 concentration. PMID:26443692

  12. Lifelong wheel running exercise and mild caloric restriction attenuate nuclear EndoG in the aging plantaris muscle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Yang; Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Lawler, John M

    2015-09-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role in atrophy and sarcopenia in skeletal muscle. Recent evidence suggests that insufficient heat shock proteins (HSPs) may contribute to apoptosis and muscle wasting. In addition, long-term caloric restriction (CR) and lifelong wheel running exercise (WR) with CR provide significant protection against caspase-dependent apoptosis and sarcopenia. Caspase-independent mediators (endonuclease G: EndoG; apoptosis-inducing factor: AIF) of apoptosis are also linked to muscles wasting with disuse and aging. However, the efficacy of CR and WR with CR to attenuate caspase-independent apoptosis and preserve HSPs in aging skeletal muscle are unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that CR and WR with CR would ameliorate age-induced elevation of EndoG and AIF while protecting HSP27 and HSP70 levels in the plantaris. Male Fischer-344 rats were divided into 4 groups at 11weeks: ad libitum feeding until 6months (YAL); fed ad libitum until 24months old (OAL); 8%CR to 24months (OCR); WR+8%CR to 24months (OExCR). Nuclear EndoG levels were significantly higher in OAL (+153%) than in YAL, while CR (-38%) and WR with CR (-46%) significantly attenuated age-induced increment in nuclear EndoG. HSP27 (-63%) protein content and phosphorylation at Ser82 (-49%) were significantly lower in OAL than in YAL, while HSP27 protein content was significantly higher in OCR (+136%) and OExCR (+155%) and p-HSP27 (+254%) was significantly higher in OExCR compared with OAL, respectively. In contrast, AIF and HSP70 were unaltered by CR or WR with CR in aging muscle. These data indicate that CR and WR with CR attenuate age-associated upregulation of EndoG translocation in the nucleus, potentially involved with HSP27 signaling. PMID:26055450

  13. Effects of 2-year calorie restriction on circulating levels of IGF-1, IGF-binding proteins and cortisol in non-obese men and women: a randomized clinical trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Young-onset calorie restriction (CR) in rodents decreases serum IGF-1 concentration and increases serum corticosterone levels, which have been hypothesized to play major roles in mediating its anti-cancer and anti-aging effects. However, little is known on the effects of CR on the IGF-1 system and c...

  14. Low-calorie cocktails

    MedlinePlus

    Low-calorie spirits; Low-calorie mixed drinks; Low-calorie alcohol; Low-calorie alcoholic beverages ... For beer and wine, try choosing lower-calorie options, such as: 12 ... Draught beer: 125 calories 2 oz. Sherry wine: 75 calories 2 ...

  15. System Model Network for Adipose Tissue Signatures Related to Weight Changes in Response to Calorie Restriction and Subsequent Weight Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Montastier, Emilie; Villa-Vialaneix, Nathalie; Caspar-Bauguil, Sylvie; Hlavaty, Petr; Tvrzicka, Eva; Gonzalez, Ignacio; Saris, Wim H. M.; Langin, Dominique; Kunesova, Marie; Viguerie, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Nutrigenomics investigates relationships between nutrients and all genome-encoded molecular entities. This holistic approach requires systems biology to scrutinize the effects of diet on tissue biology. To decipher the adipose tissue (AT) response to diet induced weight changes we focused on key molecular (lipids and transcripts) AT species during a longitudinal dietary intervention. To obtain a systems model, a network approach was used to combine all sets of variables (bio-clinical, fatty acids and mRNA levels) and get an overview of their interactions. AT fatty acids and mRNA levels were quantified in 135 obese women at baseline, after an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) and after 6 months of ad libitum weight maintenance diet (WMD). After LCD, individuals were stratified a posteriori according to weight change during WMD. A 3 steps approach was used to infer a global model involving the 3 sets of variables. It consisted in inferring intra-omic networks with sparse partial correlations and inter-omic networks with regularized canonical correlation analysis and finally combining the obtained omic-specific network in a single global model. The resulting networks were analyzed using node clustering, systematic important node extraction and cluster comparisons. Overall, AT showed both constant and phase-specific biological signatures in response to dietary intervention. AT from women regaining weight displayed growth factors, angiogenesis and proliferation signaling signatures, suggesting unfavorable tissue hyperplasia. By contrast, after LCD a strong positive relationship between AT myristoleic acid (a fatty acid with low AT level) content and de novo lipogenesis mRNAs was found. This relationship was also observed, after WMD, in the group of women that continued to lose weight. This original system biology approach provides novel insight in the AT response to weight control by highlighting the central role of myristoleic acid that may account for the beneficial

  16. The number of cardiac myocytes in the hypertrophic and hypotrophic left ventricle of the obese and calorie-restricted mouse heart.

    PubMed

    Schipke, Julia; Banmann, Ewgenija; Nikam, Sandeep; Voswinckel, Robert; Kohlstedt, Karin; Loot, Annemarieke E; Fleming, Ingrid; Mühlfeld, Christian

    2014-11-01

    Changes in body mass due to varying amounts of calorie intake occur frequently with obesity and anorexia/cachexia being at opposite sides of the scale. Here, we tested whether a high-fat diet or calorie restriction (CR) decreases the number of cardiac myocytes and affects their volume. Ten 6-8-week-old mice were randomly assigned to a normal (control group, n = 5) or high-fat diet (obesity group, n = 5) for 28 weeks. Ten 8-week-old mice were randomly assigned to a normal (control group, n = 5) or CR diet (CR group, n = 5) for 7 days. The left ventricles of the hearts were prepared for light and electron microscopy, and analysed by design-based stereology. In CR, neither the number of cardiac myocytes, the relationship between one- and multinucleate myocytes nor their mean volume were significantly different between the groups. In contrast, in the obese mice we observed a significant increase in cell size combined with a lower number of cardiomyocytes (P < 0.05 in the one-sided U-test) and an increase in the mean number of nuclei per myocyte. The mean volume of myofibrils and mitochondria per cardiac myocyte reflected the hypertrophic and hypotrophic remodelling in obesity and CR, respectively, but were only significant in the obese mice, indicating a more profound effect of the obesity protocol than in the CR experiments. Taken together, our data indicate that long-lasting obesity is associated with a loss of cardiomyocytes of the left ventricle, but that short-term CR does not alter the number of cardiomyocytes. PMID:25322944

  17. Weight loss by calorie restriction versus bariatric surgery differentially regulates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in male rats.

    PubMed

    Grayson, Bernadette E; Hakala-Finch, Andrew P; Kekulawala, Melani; Laub, Holly; Egan, Ann E; Ressler, Ilana B; Woods, Stephen C; Herman, James P; Seeley, Randy J; Benoit, Stephen C; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M

    2014-12-01

    Behavioral modifications for the treatment of obesity, including caloric restriction, have notoriously low long-term success rates relative to bariatric weight-loss surgery. The reasons for the difference in sustained weight loss are not clear. One possibility is that caloric restriction alone activates the stress-responsive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, undermining the long-term maintenance of weight loss, and that this is abrogated after bariatric surgery. Accordingly, we compared the HPA response to weight loss in five groups of male rats: (1) high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) rats treated with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB, n = 7), (2) DIO rats treated with vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG, n = 11), (3) DIO rats given sham surgery and subsequently restricted to the food intake of the VSG/RYGB groups (Pair-fed, n = 11), (4) ad libitum-fed DIO rats given sham surgery (Obese, n = 11) and (5) ad libitum chow-fed rats given sham surgery (Lean, n = 12). Compared with Lean controls, food-restricted rats exhibited elevated morning (nadir) non-stress plasma corticosterone concentration and increased hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin mRNA expression, indicative of basal HPA activation. This was largely prevented when weight loss was achieved by bariatric surgery. DIO increased HPA activation by acute (novel environment) stress and this was diminished by bariatric surgery-, but not pair-feeding-, induced weight loss. These results indicate that the HPA axis is differentially affected by weight loss from caloric restriction versus bariatric surgery, and this may contribute to the differing long-term effectiveness of these two weight-loss approaches. PMID:25238021

  18. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply ... calories) Average Drinks Per Week Monthly Subtotal Calories Beer Regular 12 149 Regular Beer Light 12 110 ...

  19. Calorie restriction lowers body temperature in rhesus monkeys, consistent with a postulated anti-aging mechanism in rodents.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, M A; Baer, D J; Rumpler, W V; Weindruch, R; Ingram, D K; Tilmont, E M; Cutler, R G; Roth, G S

    1996-01-01

    Many studies of caloric restriction (CR) in rodents and lower animals indicate that this nutritional manipulation retards aging processes, as evidenced by increased longevity, reduced pathology, and maintenance of physiological function in a more youthful state. The anti-aging effects of CR are believed to relate, at least in part, to changes in energy metabolism. We are attempting to determine whether similar effects occur in response to CR in nonhuman primates. Core (rectal) body temperature decreased progressively with age from 2 to 30 years in rhesus monkeys fed ad lib (controls) and is reduced by approximately 0.5 degrees C in age-matched monkeys subjected to 6 years of a 30% reduction in caloric intake. A short-term (1 month) 30% restriction of 2.5-year-old monkeys lowered subcutaneous body temperature by 1.0 degrees C. Indirect calorimetry showed that 24-hr energy expenditure was reduced by approximately 24% during short-term CR. The temporal association between reduced body temperature and energy expenditure suggests that reductions in body temperature relate to the induction of an energy conservation mechanism during CR. These reductions in body temperature and energy expenditure are consistent with findings in rodent studies in which aging rate was retarded by CR, now strengthening the possibility that CR may exert beneficial effects in primates analogous to those observed in rodents. PMID:8633033

  20. Calorie restriction in humans inhibits the PI3K/AKT pathway and induces a younger transcription profile

    PubMed Central

    Mercken, Evi M.; Crosby, Seth D.; Lamming, Dudley W.; JeBailey, Lellean; Krzysik-Walker, Susan; Villareal, Dennis; Capri, Miriam; Franceschi, Claudio; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin; Sabatini, David M.; de Cabo, Rafael; Fontana, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Summary Caloric restriction (CR) and down-regulation of the insulin/IGF pathway are the most robust interventions known to increase longevity in lower organisms. However, little is known about the molecular adaptations induced by CR in humans. Here we report that long-term CR in humans inhibits the IGF-1/insulin pathway in skeletal muscle, a key metabolic tissue. We also demonstrate that CR-induced dramatic changes of the skeletal muscle transcriptional profile that resemble those of younger individuals. Finally, in both rats and humans CR evoked similar responses in the transcriptional profiles of skeletal muscle. This common signature consisted of three key pathways typically associated with longevity: IGF-1/insulin signaling, mitochondrial biogenesis and inflammation. Furthermore, our data identifies promising pathways for therapeutic targets to combat age-related diseases and promote health in humans. PMID:23601134

  1. Effect of calorie restriction on spontaneous physical activity and body mass in mice divergently selected for basal metabolic rate (BMR).

    PubMed

    Brzęk, Paweł; Gębczyński, Andrzej K; Książek, Aneta; Konarzewski, Marek

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous physical activity (SPA) represents an important component of daily energy expenditures in animals and humans. Intra-specific variation in SPA may be related to the susceptibility to metabolic disease or obesity. In particular, reduced SPA under conditions of limited food availability may conserve energy and prevent loss of body and fat mass ('thrifty genotype hypothesis'). However, both SPA and its changes during food restriction show wide inter-individual variations. We studied the effect of 30% caloric restriction (CR) on SPA in laboratory mice divergently selected for high (H-BMR) and low (L-BMR) basal metabolic rate. Selection increased SPA in the H-BMR line but did not change it in the L-BMR mice. This effect reflected changes in SPA intensity but not SPA duration. CR increased SPA intensity more strongly in the L-BMR line than in the H-BMR line and significantly modified the temporal variation of SPA. However, the initial between-line differences in SPA were not affected by CR. Loss of body mass during CR did not differ between both lines. Our results show that the H-BMR mice can maintain their genetically determined high SPA under conditions of reduced food intake without sacrificing their body mass. We hypothesize that this pattern may reflect the higher flexibility in the energy budget in the H-BMR line, as we showed previously that mice from this line reduced their BMR during CR. These energy savings may allow for the maintenance of elevated SPA in spite of reduced food intake. We conclude that the effect of CR on SPA is in large part determined by the initial level of BMR, whose variation may account for the lack of universal pattern of behavioural responses to CR. PMID:27090226

  2. Long-term moderate calorie restriction inhibits inflammation without impairing cell-mediated immunity: a randomized controlled trial in non-obese humans

    PubMed Central

    Meydani, Simin N.; Das, Sai K.; Pieper, Carl F.; Lewis, Michael R.; Klein, Sam; Dixit, Vishwa D.; Gupta, Alok K.; Villareal, Dennis T.; Bhapkar, Manjushri; Huang, Megan; Fuss, Paul J.; Roberts, Susan B.; Holloszy, John O.; Fontana, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) inhibits inflammation and slows aging in many animal species, but in rodents housed in pathogen-free facilities, CR impairs immunity against certain pathogens. However, little is known about the effects of long-term moderate CR on immune function in humans. In this multi-center, randomized clinical trial to determine CR's effect on inflammation and cell-mediated immunity, 218 healthy non-obese adults (20-50 y), were assigned 25% CR (n=143) or an ad-libitum (AL) diet (n=75), and outcomes tested at baseline, 12, and 24 months of CR. CR induced a 10.4% weight loss over the 2-y period. Relative to AL group, CR reduced circulating inflammatory markers, including total WBC and lymphocyte counts, ICAM-1 and leptin. Serum CRP and TNF-α concentrations were about 40% and 50% lower in CR group, respectively. CR had no effect on the delayed-type hypersensitivity skin response or antibody response to vaccines, nor did it cause difference in clinically significant infections. In conclusion, long-term moderate CR without malnutrition induces a significant and persistent inhibition of inflammation without impairing key in vivo indicators of cell-mediated immunity. Given the established role of these pro-inflammatory molecules in the pathogenesis of multiple chronic diseases, these CR-induced adaptations suggest a shift toward a healthy phenotype. PMID:27410480

  3. Artemisinin mimics calorie restriction to extend yeast lifespan via a dual-phase mode: a conclusion drawn from global transcriptome profiling.

    PubMed

    Wang, DaTing; Wu, Ming; Li, SiMing; Gao, Qian; Zeng, QingPing

    2015-05-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) promotes longevity among distinct organisms from yeast to mammals. Although CR-prolonged lifespan is believed to associate with enhanced respiratory activity, it is apparently controversial for accelerated energy consumption regardless of insufficient nutrient intake. In reconciling the contradiction of less food supply versus much metabolite dispense, we revealed a CR-based mode of dual-phase responses that encompass a phase of mitochondrial enhancement (ME) and a phase of post-mitochondrial enhancement (PME), which can be distinguished by the expression patterns and activity dynamics of mitochondrial signatures. ME is characterized by global antioxidative activation, and PME is denoted by systemic metabolic modulation. CR-mediated aging-delaying effects are replicated by artesunate, a semi-synthetic derivative of the antimalarial artemisinin that can alkylate heme-containing proteins, suggesting artesunate-heme conjugation functionally resembles nitric oxide-heme interaction. A correlation of artesunate-heme conjugation with cytochrome c oxidase activation has been established from adduct formation and activity alteration. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide also mimics CR to trigger antioxidant responses, affect signaling cascades, and alter respiratory rhythms, implying hydrogen peroxide is engaged in lifespan extension. Conclusively, artesunate mimics CR-triggered nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide to induce antioxidative networks for scavenging reactive oxygen species and mitigating oxidative stress, thereby directing metabolic conversion from anabolism to catabolism, maintaining essential metabolic functionality, and extending life expectancy in yeast. PMID:25682392

  4. Calorie restriction does not restore brain mitochondrial function in P301L tau mice, but it does decrease mitochondrial F0F1-ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Delic, Vedad; Brownlow, Milene; Joly-Amado, Aurelie; Zivkovic, Sandra; Noble, Kenyaria; Phan, Tam-Anh; Ta, Yen; Zhang, Yumeng; Bell, Stephen D; Kurien, Crupa; Reynes, Christian; Morgan, Dave; Bradshaw, Patrick C

    2015-07-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) has been shown to increase lifespan and delay aging phenotypes in many diverse eukaryotic species. In mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), CR has been shown to decrease amyloid-beta and hyperphosphorylated tau levels and preserve cognitive function. Overexpression of human mutant tau protein has been shown to induce deficits in mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I activity. Therefore, experiments were performed to determine the effects of 4-month CR on brain mitochondrial function in Tg4510 mice, which express human P301L tau. Expression of mutant tau led to decreased ADP-stimulated respiratory rates, but not uncoupler-stimulated respiratory rates. The membrane potential was also slightly higher in mitochondria from the P301L tau mice. As shown previously, tau expression decreased mitochondrial complex I activity. The decreased complex I activity, decreased ADP-stimulated respiratory rate, and increased mitochondrial membrane potential occurring in mitochondria from Tg4510 mice were not restored by CR. However, the CR diet did result in a genotype independent decrease in mitochondrial F0F1-ATPase activity. This decrease in F0F1-ATPase activity was not due to lowered levels of the alpha or beta subunits of F0F1-ATPase. The possible mechanisms through which CR reduces the F0F1-ATPase activity in brain mitochondria are discussed. PMID:26048366

  5. Dietary fat composition influences glomerular and proximal convoluted tubule cell structure and autophagic processes in kidneys from calorie-restricted mice.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Rubio, Miguel; Burón, M Isabel; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Navas, Plácido; de Cabo, Rafael; Ramsey, Jon J; Villalba, José M; González-Reyes, José A

    2016-06-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) has been repeatedly shown to prevent cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and other age-related diseases in a wide range of animals, including non-human primates and humans. In rodents, CR also increases lifespan and is a powerful tool for studying the aging process. Recently, it has been reported in mice that dietary fat plays an important role in determining lifespan extension with 40% CR. In these conditions, animals fed lard as dietary fat showed an increased longevity compared with mice fed soybean or fish oils. In this paper, we study the effect of these dietary fats on structural and physiological parameters of kidney from mice maintained on 40% CR for 6 and 18 months. Analyses were performed using quantitative electron microcopy techniques and protein expression in Western blots. CR mitigated most of the analyzed age-related parameters in kidney, such as glomerular basement membrane thickness, mitochondrial mass in convoluted proximal tubules and autophagic markers in renal homogenates. The lard group showed improved preservation of several renal structures with aging when compared to the other CR diet groups. These results indicate that dietary fat modulates renal structure and function in CR mice and plays an essential role in the determination of health span in rodents. PMID:26853994

  6. Calorie restriction inhibits relapse behaviour and preference for alcohol within a two-bottle free choice paradigm in the alcohol preferring (iP) rat.

    PubMed

    Guccione, Lisa; Djouma, Elvan; Penman, Jim; Paolini, Antonio G

    2013-02-17

    Among its many beneficial effects, calorie restriction (CR) has also been found to reduce anxiety related behavior in the rodent. With heightened levels of stress and anxiety implicated as a key precipitating factor of relapse and alcohol addiction, it was found that a 25% CR in addition to inducing anxiolytic effects also had the capacity to reduce intake of alcohol and inhibit relapse within a model of operant self-administration. The aim of this study was to investigate if a 25% CR would also display similar effects in a two-bottle free choice paradigm, whereby 24 h ad libitum access to both 10% ethanol and water is provided. All animals were initially tested on the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test prior to commencing the two-bottle free choice paradigm. Differences between control and CR25% animals demonstrated the anxiolytic effects of CR, with the CR25% group displaying greater percentage of open arm/total arm duration and open arm/total arm entries in the EPM. During the acquisition phase of the two-bottle free choice paradigm, CR25% animals showed a reduced intake of 10% ethanol in ml/kg, in comparison to the control group. Whilst control animals displayed a strong preference for 10% ethanol, the CR25% group consumed both 10% ethanol and water equally with no differences found in total fluid intake between groups. Similarly this was also the case following forced deprivation. In addition to reduced intake and lack of preference for 10% ethanol, CR 25% animals unlike controls failed to display a typical alcohol deprivation effect following abstinence. Taken collectively the results of this study suggest that CR may act as a protective factor against addiction and relapse in the alcohol preferring (iP) rat. In addition, given CR25% animals did not display a preference for 10% ethanol, results also suggest that CR may be altering the hedonic impact of ethanol within this group. PMID:23246223

  7. Short-term Calorie Restriction Feminizes the mRNA Profiles of Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters in Livers of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zidong Donna; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2015-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is one of the most effective anti-aging interventions in mammals. A modern theory suggests that aging results from a decline in detoxification capabilities and thus accumulation of damaged macromolecules. The present study aimed to determine how short-term CR alters mRNA profiles of genes that encode metabolism and detoxification machinery in liver. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed CR (0, 15, 30, or 40%) diets for one month, followed by mRNA quantification of 98 xenobiotic processing genes (XPGs) in liver, including 7 uptake transporters, 39 phase-I enzymes, 37 phase-II enzymes, 10 efflux transporters, and 5 transcription factors. In general, 15% CR did not alter mRNAs of most XPGs, whereas 30 and 40% CR altered over half of the XPGs (32 increased and 29 decreased). CR up-regulated some phase-I enzymes (fold increase), such as Cyp4a14 (12), Por (2.3), Nqo1 (1.4), Fmo2 (5.4), and Fmo3 (346), and numerous number of phase-II enzymes, such as Sult1a1 (1.2), Sult1d1 (2.0), Sult1e1 (33), Sult3a1 (2.2), Gsta4 (1.3), Gstm2 (1.3), Gstm3 (1.7), and Mgst3 (2.2). CR feminized the mRNA profiles of 32 XPGs in livers of male mice. For instance, CR decreased the male-predominantly expressed Oatp1a1 (97%) and increased the female-predominantly expressed Oatp1a4 (11). In conclusion, short-term CR alters the mRNA levels of over half of the 98 XPGs quantified in livers of male mice, and over half of these alterations appear to be due to feminization of the liver. PMID:24240088

  8. Short-term calorie restriction feminizes the mRNA profiles of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in livers of mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zidong Donna; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is one of the most effective anti-aging interventions in mammals. A modern theory suggests that aging results from a decline in detoxification capabilities and thus accumulation of damaged macromolecules. The present study aimed to determine how short-term CR alters mRNA profiles of genes that encode metabolism and detoxification machinery in the liver. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed CR (0, 15, 30, or 40%) diets for one month, followed by mRNA quantification of 98 xenobiotic processing genes (XPGs) in the liver, including 7 uptake transporters, 39 phase-I enzymes, 37 phase-II enzymes, 10 efflux transporters, and 5 transcription factors. In general, 15% CR did not alter mRNAs of most XPGs, whereas 30 and 40% CR altered over half of the XPGs (32 increased and 29 decreased). CR up-regulated some phase-I enzymes (fold increase), such as Cyp4a14 (12), Por (2.3), Nqo1 (1.4), Fmo2 (5.4), and Fmo3 (346), and numerous number of phase-II enzymes, such as Sult1a1 (1.2), Sult1d1 (2.0), Sult1e1 (33), Sult3a1 (2.2), Gsta4 (1.3), Gstm2 (1.3), Gstm3 (1.7), and Mgst3 (2.2). CR feminized the mRNA profiles of 32 XPGs in livers of male mice. For instance, CR decreased the male-predominantly expressed Oatp1a1 (97%) and increased the female-predominantly expressed Oatp1a4 (11). In conclusion, short-term CR alters the mRNA levels of over half of the 98 XPGs quantified in livers of male mice, and over half of these alterations appear to be due to feminization of the liver. PMID:24240088

  9. Factors that Affect Pancreatic Islet Cell Autophagy in Adult Rats: Evaluation of a Calorie-Restricted Diet and a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingxiao; Yang, Fan; Meng, Zhangming; Xiao, Hengyi; Xiang, Bing; Li, Xiujun; Fu, Xianghui; Wang, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    Aging may be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in the elderly. Dietary intervention can affect glucose tolerance in adults, which may be due to body composition and islet cell autophagy. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of various dietary interventions on islet cell autophagy. Pancreatic tissue and blood samples were collected from Sprague Dawley rats (14–16 months old, n = 15 for each group) that received a normal diet (ND), a high-fat diet (HFD), or a calorie-restricted diet (CRD). The body weight (BW), visceral fat, serum lipid levels, fasting serum glucose, insulin levels, and β/α cell area were determined in 14-16-(0-w), 16-18-(8-w), and 18-20(16-w)-month-old rats. Pancreatic islet autophagy (LC3B and LAMP2), AP (Acid Phosphatase) and apoptosis (apoptosis index, AI (TUNEL assay) and cleaved caspase-3) were detected using immunohistochemistry, ELISA and western blot. At 16 weeks, the expressions of LC3B, LAMP2 and AP markedly increased in both the HFD (P<0.01) and CRD (P<0.05) groups; however, an increase in the AI (P<0.05), cleaved caspase-3 and Beclin1 expression and a decrease in the expressions of BCL2 and BCLXL (P<0.05) were observed in only the HFD group. FFA, triglyceride levels, HOMA-IR, insulin levels and glucagon levels were significantly increased in the HFD group but decreased in the CRD group at 16 weeks (P<0.05). The degree of islet cell autophagy was potentially regulated by the levels of FFA and islet cell insulin and glucagon, which may have been due to the effects of Beclin1/BCL2. PMID:26963814

  10. Long-term calorie restriction decreases metabolic cost of movement and prevents decrease of physical activity during aging in the rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yosuke; Colman, Ricki J; Kemnitz, Joseph W.; Baum, Scott T.; Anderson, Rozalyn M.; Weindruch, Richard; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Short-term (<1 year) calorie restriction (CR) has been reported to decrease physical activity and metabolic rate in humans and non-human primate models; however, studies examining the very long-term (>10 year) effect of CR on these parameters are lacking. Objective The objective of this study was to examine metabolic and behavioral adaptations to long-term CR longitudinally in rhesus macaques. Design Eighteen (10 male, 8 female) control (C) and 24 (14 male, 10 female) age matched CR rhesus monkeys between 19.6 and 31.9 years old were examined after 13 and 18 years of moderate adult-onset CR. Energy expenditure (EE) was examined by doubly labeled water (DLW; TEE) and respiratory chamber (24hrEE). Physical activity was assessed both by metabolic equivalent (MET) in a respiratory chamber and by an accelerometer. Metabolic cost of movements during 24h were also calculated. Age and fat-free mass were included as covariates. Results Adjusted total and 24hr EE were not different between C and CR. Sleeping metabolic rate was significantly lower, and physical activity level was higher in CR than in C independent from the CR-induced changes in body composition. The duration of physical activity above 1.6 METs was significantly higher in CR than in C, and CR had significantly higher accelerometer activity counts than C. Metabolic cost of movements during 24h were significantly lower in CR than in C. The accelerometer activity counts were significantly decreased after seven years in C animals, but not in CR animals. Conclusions The results suggest that long-term CR decreases basal metabolic rate, but maintains higher physical activity with lower metabolic cost of movements compared with C. PMID:23954367

  11. Decreased systemic IGF-1 in response to calorie restriction modulates murine tumor cell growth, nuclear factor-κB activation, and inflammation-related gene expression.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Alison E; Lashinger, Laura M; Otto, Glen; Nunez, Nomeli P; Hursting, Stephen D

    2013-12-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) prevents obesity and has potent anticancer effects associated with altered hormones and cytokines. We tested the hypothesis that CR inhibits MC38 mouse colon tumor cell growth through modulation of hormone-stimulated nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation and protumorigenic gene expression. Female C57BL/6 mice were randomized (n = 30/group) to receive control diet or 30% CR diet. At 20 wk, 15 mice/group were killed for body composition analysis. At 21 wk, serum was obtained for hormone analysis. At 22 wk, mice were injected with MC38 cells; tumor growth was monitored for 24 d. Gene expression in excised tumors and MC38 cells was analyzed using real-time RT-PCR. In vitro MC38 NF-κB activation (by p65 ELISA and immunofluorescence) were measured in response to varying IGF-1 concentrations (1-400 ng/mL). Relative to controls, CR mice had decreased tumor volume, body weight, body fat, serum IGF-1, serum leptin, and serum insulin, and increased serum adiponectin (P < 0.05, each). Tumors from CR mice, versus controls, had downregulated inflammation- and/or cancer-related gene expression, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-2, S100A9, and F4/80, and upregulated 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase expression. In MC38 cells in vitro, IGF-1 increased NF-κB activation and NF-κB downstream gene expression (P < 0.05, each). We conclude that CR, in association with reduced systemic IGF-1, modulates MC38 tumor growth, NF-κB activation, and inflammation-related gene expression. Thus, IGF-1 and/or NF-κB inhibition may pharmacologically mimic the anticancer effects of CR to break the obesity-colon cancer link. PMID:22778026

  12. Insulin Signaling and Glucose Uptake in the Soleus Muscle of 30-Month-Old Rats After Calorie Restriction With or Without Acute Exercise.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiyan; Sharma, Naveen; Arias, Edward B; Cartee, Gregory D

    2016-03-01

    Exercise and calorie restriction (CR) can each improve insulin sensitivity in older individuals, but benefits of combining these treatments on skeletal muscle insulin signaling and glucose uptake are poorly understood, especially in predominantly slow-twitch muscles (eg, soleus). Accordingly, our purpose was to determine independent and combined effects of prior acute exercise and CR (beginning at 14 weeks old) on insulin signaling and glucose uptake in insulin-stimulated soleus muscles of 30-month-old rats. CR alone (but not exercise alone) versus ad libitum sedentary controls induced greater insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. There was a main effect of diet (CR > ad libitum) for insulin-stimulated Akt(Ser473) and Akt(Thr308) phosphorylation. CR alone versus ad libitum sedentary increased Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) Ser(588) phosphorylation and TBC1D1 Thr(596), but not AS160 Thr(642) phosphorylation or abundance of GLUT4, GLUT1, or hexokinase II proteins. Combined CR and exercise versus CR alone did not further increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake although phosphorylation of Akt(Ser473), Akt(Thr308), TBC1D1(Thr596), and AMPK(Thr172) for the combined group exceeded values for CR and/or exercise alone. These results revealed that although the soleus was highly responsive to a CR-induced enhancement of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, the exercise protocol did not elevate insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, either alone or when combined with CR. PMID:26341783

  13. Gain of survival signaling by down-regulation of three key miRNAs in brain of calorie-restricted mice

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Ruqiang; Sarojini, Harshini; Wang, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    The decline in cognitive robustness with aging can be attributed to complex genetic pathways involving many cellular dysfunctions, cumulative over time, precipitating in frailty and loss of wellness in the elderly brain. The size and health of the neuronal cell population determines cognitive robustness in mammals. A transgenic mouse model over-expressing Bcl-2 has been shown to rescue neurons from naturally occurring cell death (NOCD). Here we show that in the brain of calorie-restricted (CR) mice, there is an age-dependent decreased expression of microRNAs mmu-miR-181a-1*, mmu-miR-30e and mmu-miR-34a, with a corresponding gain in Bcl-2 expression, and decreases in pro-apoptosis genes such as Bax and cleavage of Caspases. Functional characterization shows that these miRNAs repress Bcl-2 expression by the 3'UTR reporter assays, accompanied by loss of this gene's endogenous expression, and a gain in pro-apoptosome-specific proteins. Over-expression of these miRNAs increases the rate of apoptosis, accompanied by a decline in Bcl-2 expression in miRNA-transfected mouse and human cell lines. We report here that down-regulation of miR-34a, -30e, and -181a permits their shared target gene expression (Bcl-2) to remain at a high level without post-transcriptional repression, accompanied by concomitant low levels of Bax expression and Caspase cleaving; this chain event may be a part of the underlying mechanism contributing to the gain in neuronal survival in long-lived CR-fed mice. PMID:21415464

  14. Short-term calorie restriction feminizes the mRNA profiles of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in livers of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Zidong Donna; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is one of the most effective anti-aging interventions in mammals. A modern theory suggests that aging results from a decline in detoxification capabilities and thus accumulation of damaged macromolecules. The present study aimed to determine how short-term CR alters mRNA profiles of genes that encode metabolism and detoxification machinery in the liver. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed CR (0, 15, 30, or 40%) diets for one month, followed by mRNA quantification of 98 xenobiotic processing genes (XPGs) in the liver, including 7 uptake transporters, 39 phase-I enzymes, 37 phase-II enzymes, 10 efflux transporters, and 5 transcription factors. In general, 15% CR did not alter mRNAs of most XPGs, whereas 30 and 40% CR altered over half of the XPGs (32 increased and 29 decreased). CR up-regulated some phase-I enzymes (fold increase), such as Cyp4a14 (12), Por (2.3), Nqo1 (1.4), Fmo2 (5.4), and Fmo3 (346), and numerous number of phase-II enzymes, such as Sult1a1 (1.2), Sult1d1 (2.0), Sult1e1 (33), Sult3a1 (2.2), Gsta4 (1.3), Gstm2 (1.3), Gstm3 (1.7), and Mgst3 (2.2). CR feminized the mRNA profiles of 32 XPGs in livers of male mice. For instance, CR decreased the male-predominantly expressed Oatp1a1 (97%) and increased the female-predominantly expressed Oatp1a4 (11). In conclusion, short-term CR alters the mRNA levels of over half of the 98 XPGs quantified in livers of male mice, and over half of these alterations appear to be due to feminization of the liver. - Highlights: • Utilized a graded CR model in male mice • The mRNA profiles of xenobiotic processing genes (XPGs) in liver were investigated. • CR up-regulates many phase-II enzymes. • CR tends to feminize the mRNA profiles of XPGs.

  15. A re-evaluation of life-long severe galactose restriction for the nutrition management of classic galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Van Calcar, Sandra C; Bernstein, Laurie E; Rohr, Frances J; Scaman, Christine H; Yannicelli, Steven; Berry, Gerard T

    2014-07-01

    The galactose-restricted diet is life-saving for infants with classic galactosemia. However, the benefit and extent of dietary galactose restriction required after infancy remain unclear and variation exists in practice. There is a need for evidence-based recommendations to better standardize treatment for this disorder. This paper reviews the association between diet treatment and outcomes in classic galactosemia and evaluates the contribution of food sources of free galactose in the diet. Recommendations include allowing all fruits, vegetables, legumes, soy products that are not fermented, various aged cheeses and foods containing caseinates. Further research directions are discussed. PMID:24857409

  16. Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Peggy, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Selected college and university programs established to assist adults in continuing their education, earning their degrees, and learning about whatever interests them are described, and an essay on lifelong learning is presented. In "Curriculum Development for Lifelong Learning," Charles S. Claxton describes how life cycle research, adult…

  17. Research Advances: Calorie Restriction and Increased Longevity Linked to Metabolic Changes; Isotope Ratios Reveal Trickery in the Produce Aisle; An Ancient Inca Tax and Metallurgy in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    The different lifelong patterns related to different levels of energy metabolism and the activities of the microbes in various animals are described. The analysis shows that many important beneficial changes occur due to the activities of symbiotic bacteria living in the intestinal tract.

  18. Burning Questions about Calories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, J. David; Berry, Kimberly A.

    2001-01-01

    Uses questioning techniques to teach about caloric consumption and weight gain. Starts with defining questions about calories and includes the stages of measuring calories, analyzing data, and conducting inquiry research. Includes directions for the experiment. (YDS)

  19. Lifelong Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    This booklet was developed by early education teachers to help parents teach their children values necessary for learning and for living. The introduction identifies six lifelong values, discusses the important role played by parents in teaching these values, and offers a checklist of positive ways parents interact with their children. Each of the…

  20. Calorie restriction reduces the incidence of myeloid leukemia induced by a single whole-body radiation in C3H/He mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Inoue, T; Nojima, K; Hirabayashi, Y; Sado, T

    1997-03-18

    Dietary restriction, especially caloric restriction, is a major modifier in experimental carcinogenesis and is known to decrease significantly the incidence of neoplasms. Gross and Dreyfuss [Gross, L. & Dreyfuss, Y. (1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 7596-7598; Gross, L. & Dreyfuss, Y. (1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 7928-7931] reported that a 36% restriction in caloric intake dramatically decreased the radiation-induced solid tumors and/or leukemias. Their protocol predominantly produced lymphatic neoplasms. It is of interest to observe the effect of caloric restriction on radiation-induced myeloid leukemia, because the disease was observed to have been increased in the survivors of the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The spontaneous incidence of myeloid leukemia in C3H/He male mice is 1%, and the incidence increased to 23.3% when 3 Gy of whole-body x-ray irradiation was given. However, the incidence of myeloid leukemia was found to be significantly decreased by caloric restriction; it was reduced to 7.9% and 10.7% when restriction was started before (6 weeks old) and after (10 weeks old) irradiation, respectively. In addition, the onset of the myeloid leukemia in both restricted groups was prolonged to a greater extent as compared with the control diet group. Caloric restriction demonstrated a significant prolongation of the life span in the groups on a restricted diet after having been exposed to irradiation, either before or after dietary restriction, in comparison with mice that were only irradiated. PMID:9122244

  1. Figuring Out Fat and Calories

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Figuring Out Fat and Calories KidsHealth > For Teens > Figuring Out Fat ... the truth on fat and calories? What Are Fat and Calories? Fats, or lipids , are nutrients in ...

  2. Perceptions of university students regarding calories, food healthiness, and the importance of calorie information in menu labelling.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ana Carolina; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Rodrigues, Vanessa Mello; Fiates, Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck; da Costa Proença, Rossana Pacheco

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated Brazilian university students' perceptions of the concept of calories, how it relates to food healthiness, and the role of calorie information on menus in influencing food choices in different restaurant settings. Focus groups were conducted with 21 undergraduate students from various universities. Transcriptions were analysed for qualitative content, by coding and grouping words and phrases into similar themes. Two categories were obtained: Calorie concept and connection to healthiness; and Calorie information and food choices in restaurants. Calories were understood as energy units, and their excessive intake was associated with weight gain or fat gain. However, food healthiness was not associated to calorie content, but rather to food composition as a whole. Calorie information on restaurant menus was not considered enough to influence food choices, with preferences, dietary restrictions, food composition, and even restaurant type mentioned as equally or more important. Only a few participants mentioned using calorie information on menus to control food intake or body weight. Students' discussions were suggestive of an understanding of healthy eating as a more complex issue than calorie-counting. Discussions also suggested the need for more nutrition information, besides calorie content, to influence food choices in restaurants. PMID:25865662

  3. Calorie count - Alcoholic beverages

    MedlinePlus

    ... want to watch how much you drink. Cocktails mixed with soda, cream, or ice cream can have especially high calorie counts. If you find you are having trouble cutting back on alcohol , talk with your doctor. Here is a list ...

  4. Low-calorie cocktails

    MedlinePlus

    Cocktails are alcoholic drinks. They include wine, beer, liqueurs, and mixed drinks. Cocktails contain extra calories that ... pint or smaller pours instead. Distilled spirits and liqueurs are often mixed with other juices and mixes ...

  5. Angiotensin II blockade: how its molecular targets may signal to mitochondria and slow aging. Coincidences with calorie restriction and mTOR inhibition.

    PubMed

    de Cavanagh, Elena M V; Inserra, Felipe; Ferder, León

    2015-07-01

    Caloric restriction (CR), renin angiotensin system blockade (RAS-bl), and rapamycin-mediated mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition increase survival and retard aging across species. Previously, we have summarized CR and RAS-bl's converging effects, and the mitochondrial function changes associated with their physiological benefits. mTOR inhibition and enhanced sirtuin and KLOTHO signaling contribute to the benefits of CR in aging. mTORC1/mTORC2 complexes contribute to cell growth and metabolic regulation. Prolonged mTORC1 activation may lead to age-related disease progression; thus, rapamycin-mediated mTOR inhibition and CR may extend lifespan and retard aging through mTORC1 interference. Sirtuins by deacetylating histone and transcription-related proteins modulate signaling and survival pathways and mitochondrial functioning. CR regulates several mammalian sirtuins favoring their role in aging regulation. KLOTHO/fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) contribute to control Ca(2+), phosphate, and vitamin D metabolism, and their dysregulation may participate in age-related disease. Here we review how mTOR inhibition extends lifespan, how KLOTHO functions as an aging suppressor, how sirtuins mediate longevity, how vitamin D loss may contribute to age-related disease, and how they relate to mitochondrial function. Also, we discuss how RAS-bl downregulates mTOR and upregulates KLOTHO, sirtuin, and vitamin D receptor expression, suggesting that at least some of RAS-bl benefits in aging are mediated through the modulation of mTOR, KLOTHO, and sirtuin expression and vitamin D signaling, paralleling CR actions in age retardation. Concluding, the available evidence endorses the idea that RAS-bl is among the interventions that may turn out to provide relief to the spreading issue of age-associated chronic disease. PMID:25934099

  6. Very Low-Calorie Diets

    MedlinePlus

    ... list of resources ​​. Alternate Language URL Very Low-calorie Diets Page Content What is a VLCD? Should ... weight? Research ​ Clinical Trials Resources​ A very low-calorie diet (VLCD) is not just any diet that ...

  7. Trial Protocol: Randomised controlled trial of the effects of very low calorie diet, modest dietary restriction, and sequential behavioural programme on hunger, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers stopping smoking

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Weight gain accompanies smoking cessation, but dieting during quitting is controversial as hunger may increase urges to smoke. This is a feasibility trial for the investigation of a very low calorie diet (VLCD), individual modest energy restriction, and usual advice on hunger, ketosis, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers trying to quit. Methods This is a 3 armed, unblinded, randomized controlled trial in overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2), daily smokers (CO > 10 ppm); with at least 30 participants in each group. Each group receives identical behavioural support and NRT patches (25 mg(8 weeks),15 mg(2 weeks),10 mg(2 weeks)). The VLCD group receive a 429-559 kcal/day liquid formula beginning 1 week before quitting and continuing for 4 weeks afterwards. The modest energy restricted group (termed individual dietary and activity planning(IDAP)) engage in goal-setting and receive an energy prescription based on individual basal metabolic rate(BMR) aiming for daily reduction of 600 kcal. The control group receive usual dietary advice that accompanies smoking cessation i.e. avoiding feeling hungry but eating healthy snacks. After this, the VLCD participants receive IDAP to provide support for changing eating habits in the longer term; the IDAP group continues receiving this support. The control group receive IDAP 8 weeks after quitting. This allows us to compare IDAP following a successful quit attempt with dieting concurrently during quitting. It also aims to prevent attrition in the unblinded, control group by meeting their need for weight management. Follow-up occurs at 6 and 12 months. Outcome measures include participant acceptability, measured qualitatively by semi-structured interviewing and quantitatively by recruitment and attrition rates. Feasibility of running the trial within primary care is measured by interview and questionnaire of the treatment providers. Adherence to the VLCD is verified by the presence of urinary ketones

  8. Calories and fat per serving (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and stores the rest in the form of fat. A calorie is a calorie, whether it comes ... between them is the number of calories, nutrients, fat, and other ingredients in a typical serving . Calories ...

  9. Calorie labeling and consumer estimation of calories purchased

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies rarely find fewer calories purchased following calorie labeling implementation. However, few studies consider whether estimates of the number of calories purchased improved following calorie labeling legislation. Findings Researchers surveyed customers and collected purchase receipts at fast food restaurants in the United States cities of Philadelphia (which implemented calorie labeling policies) and Baltimore (a matched comparison city) in December 2009 (pre-implementation) and June 2010 (post-implementation). A difference-in-difference design was used to examine the difference between estimated and actual calories purchased, and the odds of underestimating calories. Participants in both cities, both pre- and post-calorie labeling, tended to underestimate calories purchased, by an average 216–409 calories. Adjusted difference-in-differences in estimated-actual calories were significant for individuals who ordered small meals and those with some college education (accuracy in Philadelphia improved by 78 and 231 calories, respectively, relative to Baltimore, p = 0.03-0.04). However, categorical accuracy was similar; the adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for underestimation by >100 calories was 0.90 (p = 0.48) in difference-in-difference models. Accuracy was most improved for subjects with a BA or higher education (AOR = 0.25, p < 0.001) and for individuals ordering small meals (AOR = 0.54, p = 0.001). Accuracy worsened for females (AOR = 1.38, p < 0.001) and for individuals ordering large meals (AOR = 1.27, p = 0.028). Conclusions We concluded that the odds of underestimating calories varied by subgroup, suggesting that at some level, consumers may incorporate labeling information. PMID:25015547

  10. Caloric restriction.

    PubMed

    Speakman, John R; Mitchell, Sharon E

    2011-06-01

    Restricting the intake of calories has been practiced as a method for increasing both the length and quality of life for over 500 years. Experimental work confirming the success of this approach in animals has accumulated over the last 100 years. Lifelong caloric restriction (CR) may extend life by up to 50% in rodents, with progressively less impact the later in life it is started. This effect is matched by profound impacts on age related diseases including reduced risk of cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, autoimmune disease, cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes mellitus. The disposable soma theory of ageing suggests that CR evolved as a somatic protection response to enable animals to survive periods of food shortage. The shutdown of reproductive function during CR is consistent with this suggestion, but other features of the phenomenon are less consistent with this theory, and some have suggested that in rodents it may be mostly an artifact of domestication. CR induces profound effects on animals at all levels from the transcriptome to whole animal physiology and behavior. Animals under CR lose weight which is disproportionately contributed to by white adipose tissue. Generally animals on CR change their activity patterns so that they are more active prior to food delivery each day but total activity may be unchanged or reduced. Considerable debate has occurred over the effects of CR on resting metabolic rate (RMR). Total RMR declines, but as body mass and body composition also change it is unclear whether metabolism at the tissue level also declines, is unchanged or even increases. Body temperature universally decreases. Hunger is increased and does not seem to abate even with very long term restriction. Circulating adipokines are reduced reflecting the reduction in white adipose tissue (WAT) mass under restriction and there is a large reduction in circulating insulin and glucose levels. There are profound tissue level changes in metabolism with a

  11. The Lifelong Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Ronald

    Designed to provide a general guide and stimuli for lifelong learning, this book examines all the positive factors of independent study. Lifelong learning is defined as self-directed growth free from the traditional schooling procedures. Chapters discuss the following: the lifelong learner; profiles of such learners in action; how to be…

  12. Integrating Lifelong Learning Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn, Ed.

    This publication is comprised of 43 papers on the topic of promoting lifelong learning. The papers in Part 1, Overcoming False Dichotomies, are "Lifelong Learning in the North, Education for All in the South" (Torres); "Practice of Lifelong Learning in Indigenous Africa" (Omolewa); "Gender and Information Societies" (Youngs); and "Lifelong…

  13. Mercury's Caloris Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Mercury: Computer Photomosaic of the Caloris Basin

    The largest basin on Mercury (1300 km or 800 miles across) was named Caloris (Greek for 'hot') because it is one of the two areas on the planet that face the Sun at perihelion.

    The Image Processing Lab at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory produced this photomosaic using computer software and techniques developed for use in processing planetary data. The Mariner 10 spacecraft imaged the region during its initial flyby of the planet.

    The Mariner 10 spacecraft was launched in 1974. The spacecraft took images of Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury in March and September 1974 and March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 images of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon during its mission.

    The Mariner 10 Mission was managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science in Washington, D.C.

  14. Beneficial effects of weight loss associated with moderate calorie/carbohydrate restriction, and increased proportional intake of protein and unsaturated fat on serum urate and lipoprotein levels in gout: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Dessein, P; Shipton, E; Stanwix, A; Joffe, B; Ramokgadi, J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Insulin resistance (IR) has been increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of gout. The lipoprotein abnormalities described in hyperuricaemic subjects are similar to those associated with IR, and insulin influences renal urate excretion. In this study it was investigated whether dietary measures, reported to be beneficial in IR, have serum uric acid (SU) and lipid lowering effects in gout.
METHODS—Thirteen non-diabetic men (median age 50, range 38-62) were enrolled. Each patient had had at least two gouty attacks during the four months before enrolment. Dietary recommendations consisted of calorie restriction to 6690 kJ (1600 kcal) a day with 40% derived from carbohydrate, 30% from protein, and 30% from fat; replacement of refined carbohydrates with complex ones and saturated fats with mono- and polyunsaturated ones. At onset and after 16 weeks, fasting blood samples were taken for determination of SU, serum cholesterol (C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TGs). Results were expressed as median (SD).
RESULTS—At onset, the body mass index (BMI) was 30.5 (8.1) kg/m2. Dietary measures resulted in weight loss of 7.7 (5.4) kg (p=0.002) and a decrease in the frequency of monthly attacks from 2.1 (0.8) to 0.6 (0.7) (p=0.002). The SU decreased from 0.57 (0.10) to 0.47 (0.09) mmol/l (p=0.001) and normalised in 7 (58%) of the 12 patients with an initially raised level. Serum cholesterol decreased from 6.0 (1.7) to 4.7 (0.9) mmol/l (p=0.002), LDL-C from 3.5 (1.2) to 2.7 (0.8) mmol/l (p=0.004), TGs from 4.7 (4.2) to 1.9 (1.0) mmol/l (p=0.001), and C:HDL-C ratios from 6.7 (1.7) to 5.2 (1.0) (p=0.002). HDL-C levels increased insignificantly. High baseline SU, frequency of attacks, total cholesterol, LDL-C and TG levels, and total C:HDL-C ratios correlated with higher decreases in the respective variables upon dietary intervention (p<0.05).

  15. Eating extra calories when sick - adults

    MedlinePlus

    Getting more calories - adults ... it is important to get enough protein and calories so you do not lose too much weight. ... better. Change your eating habits to get more calories. Eat when you are hungry, not just at ...

  16. Lifelong Learning: Emergent Enactments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article represents four emergences through which to explore the significance of lifelong learning. Drawing in particular on complexity theory and actor-network theory, it seeks to develop an understanding of the reductions and emergences, and purifications and translations to which lifelong learning is subject. To do this, the article also…

  17. Nurturing Lifelong Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judkins, Gerri

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the author relates how the thing he enjoys most about his job as a school librarian is nurturing lifelong readers, in particular readers of children's literature. In talking about nurturing lifelong readers and, referring to students, staff and school librarians, the author discusses: (1) The Southwell Library Programme; (2) The Lit…

  18. Does calorie information promote lower calorie fast food choices among college students?

    PubMed

    Gerend, Mary A

    2009-01-01

    This experiment evaluated effects of calorie information on college students' fast food choices. Women chose lower calorie meals, lower calorie items, and lower priced meals when calorie information was provided than when it was not. Men's selections were unaffected. Providing calorie information at point of purchase could have positive implications for public health. PMID:19101463

  19. Calorie Underestimation When Buying High-Calorie Beverages in Fast-Food Contexts.

    PubMed

    Franckle, Rebecca L; Block, Jason P; Roberto, Christina A

    2016-07-01

    We asked 1877 adults and 1178 adolescents visiting 89 fast-food restaurants in New England in 2010 and 2011 to estimate calories purchased. Calorie underestimation was greater among those purchasing a high-calorie beverage than among those who did not (adults: 324 ±698 vs 102 ±591 calories; adolescents: 360 ±602 vs 198 ±509 calories). This difference remained significant for adults but not adolescents after adjusting for total calories purchased. Purchasing high-calorie beverages may uniquely contribute to calorie underestimation among adults. PMID:27196648

  20. Effects on food cravings of a very low calorie diet or a balanced, low calorie diet.

    PubMed

    Harvey, J; Wing, R R; Mullen, M

    1993-10-01

    It is commonly believed that dieting and the restriction of specific types of foods produces cravings for these foods. This study, therefore, compared changes in self-reported cravings experienced by 93 obese subjects with Type II diabetes who were randomly assigned to behavioral treatment programmes which used either: (a) a balanced, low-calorie diet (LCD) of 1000-1200 kcal/day throughout, with all foods allowed in moderation, or (b) a programme which included a 12-week period of a very low calorie diet (VLCD), where intake was restricted to 400 kcal/day with only lean meat, fish, or fowl allowed. There were significant decreases in cravings for all types of foods over the 20 weeks of the study for both the VLCD and the LCD conditions. The decreases in cravings were particularly pronounced for the VLCD condition for low-fat, high-protein foods (the only foods allowed on the VLCD) and for complex carbohydrates, especially grains (one of the types of foods prohibited on this diet). There was no evidence to support the belief that restricting intake of certain foods leads to increased craving for these foods or that the magnitude of weight loss is related to food cravings. PMID:8285649

  1. Perspectives on Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, K. Patricia

    Although lifelong learning was a term created to mean cradle-to-grave learning, it has come to mean specifically adult learning and education. The adult learning force in the U.S. is huge and growing in size as well as interest. Since eighty-five percent of the active adult learners are high school graduates, they are eligible for postsecondary…

  2. Death and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Lifelong learning has a crucial role in enabling individuals to handle key transition points in their lives, but what can education do to prepare them for the final, inevitable transition. Some of the educational contribution to managing the final transition is very broad, a matter of general enlightenment. But there are some more specific…

  3. Invitation to Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Ronald, Ed.

    In this anthology of readings, 28 scholars and educators consider the theoretical and practical forces that shape the concept of lifelong learning. After Ronald Gross's introduction, the first section begins its consideration of the Western tradition in adult learning with Plato's metaphor of the cave and includes Pico della Mirandola's essay on…

  4. Interaction for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Norm; Anderson, Terry

    2004-01-01

    The term lifelong, as applied to education or learning, has been in circulation for more than a quarter of a century. It has played an important role in policy discussions, as well as in studies of the sociology and economics of education. The relationship of this term to the rapidly changing world of information and educational technologies, and…

  5. Leading Through Lifelong Learning.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Dawn

    2016-07-01

    School nurses, as leaders, are able to exhibit leadership skills through embracing, advocating for, and demonstrating a commitment to lifelong learning. With the continual changes in healthcare and technology, ongoing education is essential to maintain a high standard of expertise and practice. School nurses have many opportunities for continuing education. This article will briefly explore various levels of continuing education, as well as relating ongoing learning to leadership principles. PMID:27194238

  6. Height and calories in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Griffen, Andrew S

    2016-03-01

    This paper estimates a height production function using data from a randomized nutrition intervention conducted in rural Guatemala from 1969 to 1977. Using the experimental intervention as an instrument, the IV estimates of the effect of calories on height are an order of magnitude larger than the OLS estimates. Information from a unique measurement error process in the calorie data, counterfactuals results from the estimated model and external evidence from migration studies suggest that IV is not identifying a policy relevant average marginal impact of calories on height. The preferred, attenuation bias corrected OLS estimates from the height production function suggest that, averaging over ages, a 100 calorie increase in average daily calorie intake over the course of a year would increase height by 0.06 cm. Counterfactuals from the model imply that calories gaps in early childhood can explain at most 16% of the height gap between Guatemalan children and the US born children of Guatemalan immigrants. PMID:26656205

  7. Stratigraphy of the Caloris basin, Mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCauley, J.F.; Guest, J.E.; Schaber, G.G.; Trask, N.J.; Greeley, R.

    1981-01-01

    The 1300-km-diameter Caloris impact basin is surrounded by well-defined ejecta units that can be recognized from more than 1000 km, radially outward from the basin edge. A formal rock stratigraphic nomenclature is proposed for the Caloris ejecta units, which are collectively called the Caloris Group. Each of the individual formations within the Group are described and compared to similar rock units associated with the lunar Imbrium and Orientale basins. A crater degradation chronology, linked the the Caloris event, is also proposed to assist in stratigraphic correlation on a Mercury-wide basis. ?? 1981.

  8. 10 ways to cut 500 calories a day

    MedlinePlus

    Weight loss - 500 calories; Overweight - 500 calories; Obesity - 500 calories; Diet - 500 calories ... Try these ten ways to cut 500 calories every day. It is easier than you may think. Swap your snack. Many people reach for a snack or two in between meals. ...

  9. Who Is the Lifelong Learner? Globalization, Lifelong Learning and Hermeneutics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uggla, Bengt Kristensson

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this essay is to elaborate on the inner connection between three such diverse entities as lifelong learning, globalization and hermeneutics. After placing lifelong learning in a societal context framed by globalization, my intention is to reflect on the prerequisites for introducing a hermeneutical contribution to the understanding of…

  10. Lifelong Learning Facilities in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirai, Akishige

    1997-01-01

    Examines Japan's educational system and the role of national policy and local government in fostering lifelong learning. Reasons why Japan is building a lifelong learning society are examined, as are the opportunities available in Japan for learning beyond traditional education, the national and local government's role, access to facilities,…

  11. Federal Programs Supporting Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christoffel, Pam, Comp.

    Approximately 275 Federal programs support some form of lifelong learning. While the majority of the lifelong learning programs are administered by the various agencies within HEW, a significant number of programs are run by such Federal agencies as the Department of Justice, the National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities, and the Smithsonian…

  12. International Perspectives on Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holford, John, Ed.; Jarvis, Peter, Ed.; Griffin, Colin, Ed.

    This book contains 30 papers providing international perspectives on lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Edgar Faure after 25 Years" (Roger Boshier); "Public Rhetoric and Public Policy" (Colin Griffin); "Lifelong Learning and the European Union" (Barry J. Hake); "Critical Perspectives and New Beginnings" (Michael Collins);…

  13. 14 ways to burn more calories every day

    MedlinePlus

    ... you burn, and the healthier you will be. Alternative Names Weight loss - burning calories; Overweight - burning calories; Obesity - burning calories References American College of Sports Medicine. Energy Expenditure in Different Modes of Exercise. Available at: ...

  14. A protein restriction-dependent sulfur code for longevity.

    PubMed

    Shim, Hong Seok; Longo, Valter D

    2015-01-15

    The restriction of proteins has recently emerged as the most important factor for the beneficial effects of calorie restriction. Hine et al. now provide strong evidence for the role of the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas in the protective effects of calorie and protein restriction against ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) but also implicate H2S in longevity extension in model organisms. PMID:25594171

  15. Restaurants With Calories Displayed On Menus Had Lower Calorie Counts Compared To Restaurants Without Such Labels.

    PubMed

    Bleich, Sara N; Wolfson, Julia A; Jarlenski, Marian P; Block, Jason P

    2015-11-01

    Beginning in December 2016, calorie labeling on menus will be mandatory for US chain restaurants and many other establishments that serve food, such as ice cream shops and movie theaters. But before the federal mandate kicks in, several large chain restaurants have begun to voluntarily display information about the calories in the items on their menus. This increased transparency may be associated with lower overall calorie content of offered items. This study used data for the period 2012-14 from the MenuStat project, a data set of menu items at sixty-six of the largest US restaurant chains. We compared differences in calorie counts of food items between restaurants that voluntarily implemented national menu labeling and those that did not. We found that the mean per item calorie content in all years was lower for restaurants that voluntarily posted information about calories (the differences were 139 calories in 2012, 136 in 2013, and 139 in 2014). New menu items introduced in 2013 and 2014 showed a similar pattern. Calorie labeling may have important effects on the food served in restaurants by compelling the introduction of lower-calorie items. PMID:26526245

  16. Methionine restriction and lifespan control

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung Cheon; Kaya, Alaattin; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) without malnutrition is associated with longevity in various organisms. However, it has also been shown that reduced calorie intake is often ineffective in extending lifespan. Selecting optimal dietary regimens for DR studies is complicated, as the same regimen may lead to different outcomes depending on genotype and environmental factors. Recent studies suggested that interventions such as moderate protein restriction with/without adequate nutrition (e.g. particular amino acids or carbohydrates) may have additional beneficial effects mediated by certain metabolic and hormonal factors implicated in the biology of aging, regardless of total calorie intake. In particular, it was shown that restriction of a single amino acid, methionine, can mimic the effects of DR and extend lifespan in various model organisms. We discuss beneficial effects of methionine-restricted (MR) diet, the molecular pathways involved, and the use of this regimen in longevity interventions. PMID:26663138

  17. Social media for lifelong learning.

    PubMed

    Kind, Terry; Evans, Yolanda

    2015-04-01

    Learning is ongoing, and can be considered a social activity. In this paper we aim to provide a review of the use of social media for lifelong learning. We start by defining lifelong learning, drawing upon principles of continuous professional development and adult learning theory. We searched Embase and MEDLINE from 2004-2014 for search terms relevant to social media and learning. We describe examples of lifelong learners using social media in medical education and healthcare that have been reported in the peer-reviewed literature. Medical or other health professions students may have qualities consistent with being a lifelong learner, yet once individuals move beyond structured learning environments they will need to recognize their own gaps in knowledge and skills over time and be motivated to fill them, thereby incorporating lifelong learning principles into their day-to-day practice. Engagement with social media can parallel engagement in the learning process over time, to the extent that online social networking fosters feedback and collaboration. The use of social media and online networking platforms are a key way to continuously learn in today's information sharing society. Additional research is needed, particularly rigorous studies that extend beyond learner satisfaction to knowledge, behaviour change, and outcomes. PMID:25906988

  18. Critical Approaches to Lifelong Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Rosemary

    1999-11-01

    This paper argues that contemporary interest in lifelong learning can be seen as an artefact of the market. It points out how the attractive vocabulary associated with personal development and empowerment often masks other economic and social purposes. Bearing in mind the social function of education, the author compares the strategies for the promotion of lifelong learning designed for those in "included social categories" with the policies designed for those in marginal and excluded positions. It concludes by challenging its own position by citing positive learner experience in each case.

  19. International Concepts and Agendas of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Hans G.

    2006-01-01

    International organisations were the main proponents of Lifelong Learning when the concept was first developed in the early 1970s. Although different organisations used different labels--Lifelong Learning, recurrent education, education permanente--they all emphasised that learning is a lifelong process and that all education should be organised…

  20. Lifelong Learning Policies, Paradoxes and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tett, Lyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that there are many ways of conceptualising lifelong learning and examines EU and Scottish lifelong learning policies in order to identify their underlying assumptions. Through an analysis of these policies, it is demonstrated that they draw on a number of inter-related fallacies that prioritise lifelong learning mainly in…

  1. Lifelong Learning--A Public Library Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlert, Maureen

    This paper presents a public library perspective on lifelong learning. The first section discusses the lifelong learning challenge, including the aims of the Australian National Marketing Strategy for Skills and Lifelong Learning, and findings of a national survey related to the value of and barriers to learning. The second section addresses the…

  2. The Routledge International Handbook of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Peter, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    As lifelong learning grows in popularity, few comprehensive pictures of the phenomenon have emerged. The "Routledge International Handbook of Lifelong Learning" provides a disciplined and complete overview of lifelong learning internationally. The theoretical structure puts the learner at the centre and the book emanates from there, pointing to…

  3. Lifelong Learning: Policies, Practices, and Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Michael J., Ed.

    The 26 articles in this book focus on lifelong learning policies, practices, and programs in 13 Asia Pacific countries. The following papers are included: "Half a Revolution: A Brief Survey of Lifelong Learning in New Zealand" (P. Methven and J. Hansen); "HRD in a Multicultural Workplace: The Need for Lifelong Learning" (M. Ogisu-Kamiya);…

  4. What Makes a Lifelong Learner?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen; Selwyn, Neil

    2005-01-01

    This article uses the reports from 1,001 home-based interviews, with adults living in the United Kingdom, to describe their varying patterns of participation in lifelong, learning. It finds that 37% of all adults report no further education or training of any kind after reaching compulsory school-leaving age. This proportion declines in each age…

  5. The Future for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, David

    2007-01-01

    The independent Commission of Inquiry into the future of lifelong learning, established and supported by National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE), has set itself the ambitious task of understanding both the motivation for engaging (and especially re-engaging) with learning through the life-course, and the infrastructure that is…

  6. Lifelong Learning: A Human Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overly, Norman V., Ed.

    Focusing on lifelong learning and its relevance and importance to American education, this yearbook examines goals, obstacles, and suggested approaches. The first two of three parts are presented in an expressionistic style--a collage of musings, vignettes, and headlines intended to raise questions and reflect the diversity of views in our…

  7. Re-Thinking Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchliffe, Geoff

    2006-01-01

    The current dominant concept of lifelong learning has arisen from the pressures of globalisation, economic change and the needs of the "knowledge economy". Its importance is not disputed in this paper. However, its proponents often advocate it in a form which places unrealistic demands on the individual without at the same time addressing their…

  8. Lifelong Learning, Policy and Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Recent lifelong learning policies have been criticized for creating an illusion of freedom whilst simultaneously reducing choice. The concept of desire permits engagement with the conscious and unconscious drives that underpin individual decision-making, which direct the life course. Utilizing the ideas of Hume and Spinoza, the present article…

  9. What's Become of Lifelong Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dainton, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    The author's father left school aged 13 at the start of the Great Depression. When he finally found work the wealth of educational opportunity he encountered inspired him with a lifelong love of learning. He signed up for evening classes and loved anything and everything to do with what he proudly called self-improvement. As a novice to retirement…

  10. Fiction, Empathy and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The article aims to demonstrate that the impact of fiction on adult learning could be illuminated by a deeper engagement with research into empathy. It recognises that the lifelong learning literature acknowledges the importance of empathy in adult learning and that discussions of the role of fiction in adult learning often refer to fiction's…

  11. Lifelong Learning as Transitional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glastra, Folke J.; Hake, Barry J.; Schedler, Petra E.

    2004-01-01

    Globalization and individualization have radically changed both the economic system and the personal life world in industrial or postindustrial nation-states. To survive hypercompetition and volatile consumer choice, learning organizations and a workforce engaged in lifelong learning are needed. Constructing "the good life" has become an…

  12. Developing Local Lifelong Guidance Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, A. G.; Hawthorn, Ruth; Hoffbrand, Jill; Jackson, Heather; Spurling, Andrea

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the background, rationale, methodology, and outcomes of developing local lifelong guidance strategies in four geographic areas. Analyzes the main components of the strategies developed and addresses a number of issues relating to the process of strategy development. Explores implications for parallel work in other localities. (RJM)

  13. Lifelong Learning from Ethical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najder-Stefaniak, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    The author reflects upon the specific character of ethics as a domain of knowledge that came into being in order to gather truths, which would help human beings to wisely take care of themselves. She argues that the ethical perspective should be taken into account while planning the lifelong learning activities. Further, she notes that if the goal…

  14. Staff Members as Lifelong Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Joanne V.

    Based on the assumption that all community college staff members should be lifelong learners, this paper outlines the purposes and principles underlying a quality staff development program and enumerates the elements, activities, incentives, and other considerations that are necessary for the program to be successful. First, the purposes of staff…

  15. Lifelong Learning in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Grace O. M.

    Despite recent attempts at implementation, the government must play a more active role in promoting lifelong learning in Hong Kong. They did little until 1989, when the Open Learning Institute (OLI) was established. The OLI was innovative because it provided degree level courses for adults, without concern for prerequisite academic qualifications.…

  16. 20 healthy snacks with 100 calories or less

    MedlinePlus

    ... you full. Healthy snacks are: Whole grain Low-calorie Low-salt Low-sugar Fresh foods, rather than ... damage), and other disease-fighting nutrients. Choosing low-calorie snacks can help you or your child maintain ...

  17. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / Summer ... learn more about the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factors affecting aging. This ...

  18. Identifying Protein-Calorie Malnutrition Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Susan S.; Barker, Ellen M.

    Instructional materials are provided for a workshop to enable participants to assist in identifying patients at risk with protein-calorie malnutrition and in corrrecting this nutritional deficiency. Representative topics are nutrients; protein, mineral, and vitamin sources, functions, and deficiency symptoms; malnutrition; nutritional deficiency…

  19. Embodied crop calories in animal products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Prajal; Lüdeke, Matthias K. B.; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-12-01

    Increases in animal products consumption and the associated environmental consequences have been a matter of scientific debate for decades. Consequences of such increases include rises in greenhouse gas emissions, growth of consumptive water use, and perturbation of global nutrients cycles. These consequences vary spatially depending on livestock types, their densities and their production system. In this letter, we investigate the spatial distribution of embodied crop calories in animal products. On a global scale, about 40% of the global crop calories are used as livestock feed (we refer to this ratio as crop balance for livestock) and about 4 kcal of crop products are used to generate 1 kcal of animal products (embodied crop calories of around 4). However, these values vary greatly around the world. In some regions, more than 100% of the crops produced is required to feed livestock requiring national or international trade to meet the deficit in livestock feed. Embodied crop calories vary between less than 1 for 20% of the livestock raising areas worldwide and greater than 10 for another 20% of the regions. Low values of embodied crop calories are related to production systems for ruminants based on fodder and forage, while large values are usually associated with production systems for non-ruminants fed on crop products. Additionally, we project the future feed demand considering three scenarios: (a) population growth, (b) population growth and changes in human dietary patterns and (c) changes in population, dietary patterns and feed conversion efficiency. When considering dietary changes, we project the global feed demand to be almost doubled (1.8-2.3 times) by 2050 compared to 2000, which would force us to produce almost equal or even more crops to raise our livestock than to directly nourish ourselves in the future. Feed demand is expected to increase over proportionally in Africa, South-Eastern Asia and Southern Asia, putting additional stress on these

  20. Influence of reducing luxury calories in the treatment of experimental mammary carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Bunk, B.; Zhu, P.; Klinga, K.; Berger, M. R.; Schmähl, D.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary calorie intake at three different fat levels on (a) the growth of established methylnitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary carcinoma, (b) the reappearance of mammary carcinomas after surgical removal, and (c) the growth of manifest lesions in animals treated with the cytostatic agent hexadecylphosphocholine (HPC). A reduction of calories by 30% significantly inhibited tumour growth of manifest mammary carcinomas in rats, without having a negative influence on body weight gain. After chemotherapeutic treatment no significant dietary influence was observed besides the high antineoplastic efficacy of HPC, but when feeding calorically restricted diets to surgically treated animals the number of reappearing tumours was considerably smaller (P = 0.06) than after feeding the diets ad libitum. The fat content of the diets did not influence the growth of manifest mammary carcinomas. No significant dietary effects were exerted on oestradiol or testosterone levels in untreated tumour bearing animals. An elevation of oestradiol levels was observed when animals were subjected to HPC and fed a high calorie diet. An elevation of testosterone levels was assessed after surgical treatment of the rats, irrespective of fat content and calorie level. Our results suggest that a reduction of calories can inhibit growth of manifest mammary carcinomas and has impeding effects on tumour development after surgical removal. After effective chemotherapeutic treatment the additional influence of dietary changes was of less relevance. Furthermore, our data do not establish any association between growth inhibition of mammary tumours, caused by the mild caloric restriction, and altered oestradiol or testosterone production. PMID:1616856

  1. Dietary restriction with and without caloric restriction for healthy aging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Changhan; Longo, Valter

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction is the most effective and reproducible dietary intervention known to regulate aging and increase the healthy lifespan in various model organisms, ranging from the unicellular yeast to worms, flies, rodents, and primates. However, caloric restriction, which in most cases entails a 20–40% reduction of food consumption relative to normal intake, is a severe intervention that results in both beneficial and detrimental effects. Specific types of chronic, intermittent, or periodic dietary restrictions without chronic caloric restriction have instead the potential to provide a significant healthspan increase while minimizing adverse effects. Improved periodic or targeted dietary restriction regimens that uncouple the challenge of food deprivation from the beneficial effects will allow a safe intervention feasible for a major portion of the population. Here we focus on healthspan interventions that are not chronic or do not require calorie restriction. PMID:26918181

  2. Stricter School Soda Limits Offered: Facing Lawsuit Threat, Beverage Industry Vows to Curb High-Calorie Drinks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2006-01-01

    The soft-drink industry vowed to voluntarily curb selling sugary sodas and other high-calorie beverages in schools, a move that was taken under threat of litigation by critics who see the industry as a prime culprit in a national obesity crisis. The promise offered no guarantee that schools would go along with the restrictions, though many…

  3. Metabolomics Insights into the Modulatory Effects of Long-Term Low Calorie Intake in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junfang; Yang, Liu; Li, Shoufeng; Huang, Ping; Liu, Yong; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2016-07-01

    There is increasing evidence that calorie restriction without malnutrition can extend longevity and delay the onset of age-associated disorders. Identifying the biochemical perturbations associated with different dietary habits would provide valuable insights into associations between metabolism and longevity. To reveal the effects of long-term dietary interventions on metabolic perturbations, we investigated serum and urinary metabolic changes induced by interactive high/low fat diet in combination with/without reduced caloric intake over a life span in mice using NMR-based metabonomics. We found that the high calorie dietary regime disturbed lipid metabolism, suppressed glycolysis and TCA cycles, stimulated oxidative stress, promoted nucleotide metabolism and gluconeogenesis, and perturbed gut microbiota-host interactions. Such changes could be modified by long-term low calorie intake. Most importantly, we found that the calorie intake index exerts a dominant effect on metabolic perturbations irrespective of dietary regime. Our investigation provides a holistic view of the metabolic impact of long-term dietary interventions, which are important for detecting physiological changes and dietary effects on mammalian metabolism. PMID:27267303

  4. Alcohol and calories: a matter of balance.

    PubMed

    Leibel, R L; Dufour, M; Hubbard, V S; Lands, W E

    1993-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies show that alcohol-derived calories added to food intake of men and women in amounts of 0-25% of total energy do not appreciably alter the average daily intake of other macronutrients (carbohydrate, fat, and protein). With such lack of evidence for caloric compensation, alcohol and its calories seem to make little contribution to metabolic energy, body weight, or body composition (as indicated by the body mass index, BMI). In fact, a major study by Colditz et al. (Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 54:49-55; 1991) reported a clear inverse relationship between alcohol intake and BMI for women! Research on alcohol metabolism has left unresolved some apparent contradictions regarding the effect of alcohol on caloric control, appetite and satiation, and body mass and composition. To resolve those apparent contradictions, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism cosponsored with the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center of the U.S. Department of Agriculture an all-day workshop titled "Alcohol and Calories: A Matter of Balance" on January 27, 1993. The workshop included sessions on calorimetry and body mass maintenance, alcohol metabolism, thermoregulation, and an overview of energy balance. This report provides summaries of the four discussion sessions at the workshop. PMID:8123195

  5. Influence of calorie reduction on DNA repair capacity of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Matt, Katja; Burger, Katharina; Gebhard, Daniel; Bergemann, Jörg

    2016-03-01

    Caloric restrictive feeding prolongs the lifespan of a variety of model organisms like rodents and invertebrates. It has been shown that caloric restriction reduces age-related as well as overall-mortality, reduces oxidative stress and influences DNA repair ability positively. There are numerous studies underlining this, but fewer studies involving humans exist. To contribute to a better understanding of the correlation of calorie reduction and DNA repair in humans, we adapted the host cell reactivation assay to an application with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Furthermore, we used this reliable and reproducible assay to research the influence of a special kind of calorie reduction, namely F. X. Mayr therapy, on DNA repair capacity. We found a positive effect in all persons with low pre-existing DNA repair capacity. In individuals with normal pre-existing DNA repair capacity, no effect on DNA repair capacity was detectable. Decline of DNA repair, accumulation of oxidative DNA damages, mitochondrial dysfunction, telomere shortening as well as caloric intake are widely thought to contribute to aging. With regard to that, our results can be considered as a strong indication that calorie reduction may support DNA repair processes and thus contribute to a healthier aging. PMID:26879629

  6. Methionine restriction and life-span control.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Cheon; Kaya, Alaattin; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) without malnutrition is associated with longevity in various organisms. However, it has also been shown that reduced calorie intake is often ineffective in extending life span. Selecting optimal dietary regimens for DR studies is complicated, as the same regimen may lead to different outcomes depending on genotype and environmental factors. Recent studies suggested that interventions such as moderate protein restriction with or without adequate nutrition (e.g., particular amino acids or carbohydrates) may have additional beneficial effects mediated by certain metabolic and hormonal factors implicated in the biology of aging, regardless of total calorie intake. In particular, it was shown that restriction of a single amino acid, methionine, can mimic the effects of DR and extend life span in various model organisms. We discuss the beneficial effects of a methionine-restricted diet, the molecular pathways involved, and the use of this regimen in longevity interventions. PMID:26663138

  7. Two Wheels for Lifelong Learning in Korea: Credit Banking & Multimedia Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pak, Min Sun

    Despite Korea's current emphasis on college entrance exams and formal education, the lifelong learning paradigm adhered to in the past can be re-established with the development of credit banking and multimedia technology. Due to restricted participation in higher education, a university degree has become a ticket to the social elite, with…

  8. Effect of aging and dietary restriction on DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Weraarchakul, N.; Strong, R.; Wood, W.G.; Richardson, A.

    1989-03-01

    DNA repair was studied as a function of age in cells isolated from both the liver and the kidney of male Fischer F344 rats. DNA repair was measured by quantifying unscheduled DNA synthesis induced by UV irradiation. Unscheduled DNA synthesis decreased approximately 50% between the ages of 5 and 30 months in both hepatocytes and kidney cells. The age-related decline in unscheduled DNA synthesis in cells isolated from the liver and kidney was compared in rats fed ad libitum and rats fed a calorie-restricted diet; calorie restriction has been shown to increase the survival of rodents. The level of unscheduled DNA synthesis was significantly higher in hepatocytes and kidney cells isolated from the rats fed the restricted diet. Thus, calorie restriction appears to retard the age-related decline in DNA repair.

  9. Reflexivity: Towards a Theory of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Richard; Ranson, Stewart; Strain, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The current notion of lifelong learning in policy and practice is dominated by behaviorist, adaptive accumulation of skills and qualifications. An alternative is reflexive lifelong learning, developed through social learning networks within the context of dislocation and uncertainty. It involves the reflexive practices of metacognitive analysis…

  10. A National Strategy for Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Frank, Ed.

    The first paper of this set of 12 conference papers, "Nine Learning Fallacies and Their Replacement by a National Strategy for Lifelong Learning," by Frank Coffield, synthesizes the opinions of other participants, and goes beyond them to set forth an outline of a strategy for lifelong learning in the United Kingdom. Following this introductory…

  11. Lifelong Learning Policy in Two National Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and discusses the development of lifelong learning policy in two EU member states, Denmark and Portugal. The purpose is to show how different societal and historical contexts shape the development and implementation of lifelong learning policies, even though these policies have significant common elements. As a basis for the…

  12. The Nordic Model of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenson, Kjell

    2006-01-01

    This article explores how the so called Nordic welfare state, with its specific institutional make up, handles Lifelong Learning in a time characterised by the challenges of economic globalisation and the hegemonic impact of the neo-liberal agenda. The analysis reveals a high participation in the Nordic countries in Lifelong Learning and, in…

  13. In Search of a Lifelong Learning Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom

    2008-01-01

    A decade after the National Advisory Group for Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning (NAGCELL) report, "The Learning Age", born in the first flush of the New Labour Government, the task of providing and securing an overall strategic framework for lifelong learning remains as large as ever. NIACE is the Inquiry into the Future for Lifelong…

  14. Lifelong Learning: A Pacification of "Know How"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicoll, Katherine; Fejes, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    A tendency of previous studies of lifelong learning to focus on learning and learning subjectivities may have led to an underestimation of potential effects in terms of a system of knowledge constitutive processes that operates powerfully to shape our societies. In this paper we explore lifelong learning and practices in the construction of…

  15. Candlestick and Faces: Aspects of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Cheryl

    1999-01-01

    Government policies view lifelong learning in terms of economic development. A SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis of the environment of British community education councils revealed other views of lifelong learning: it takes time and political expediency and national policy can adversely affect what and how people learn.…

  16. A Critical Look at Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, H. Eylem

    2014-01-01

    Education, which is a fundamental right of human being, has been transformed into a kind of lifelong prisoning by marketing step by step under the name of lifelong learning. Adult education as one of the most crucial parts of the educational system has also been affected by the global trend of an international actor, the European Union through its…

  17. A Design Model for Lifelong Learning Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koper, Rob; Giesbers, Bas; van Rosmalen, Peter; Sloep, Peter; van Bruggen, Jan; Tattersall, Colin; Vogten, Hubert; Brouns, Francis

    2005-01-01

    The provision of lifelong learning facilities is considered to be a major new direction for higher and distance teaching educational institutes catering for the demands of industry and society. ICT networks will in future support seamless, ubiquitous access to lifelong learning facilities at home, at work, in schools and universities. This implies…

  18. Social Software for Life-Long Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klamma, Ralf; Chatti, Mohamed Amine; Duval, Erik; Hummel, Hans; Hvannberg, Ebba Thora; Kravcik, Milos; Law, Effie; Naeve, Ambjorn; Scott, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Life-long learning is a key issue for our knowledge society. With social software systems new heterogeneous kinds of technology enhanced informal learning are now available to the life-long learner. Learners outside of learning institutions now have access to powerful social communities of experts and peers who are together forging a new web 2.0.…

  19. Supporting Lifelong Learning in the Information Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Wei; Yasuda, Takami; Yokoi, Shigeki

    2007-01-01

    Many countries are considering lifelong learning, which is becoming an important education goal, and promoting lifelong learning in the information age. With the development of Information and Communications Technology (ICT), digital divides have become a major concern in the world. In this study, we focus on three dimensions of digital divides in…

  20. Lifelong Learning and Sustainable Managed Forests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odgaard, Gunde

    In forestry, as in other fields, technological advances have resulted in significant changes in work practices and skill requirements. Vocational training and improvement of forestry workers' skills through lifelong learning can help achieve sustainability in forestry. The objectives of lifelong learning are to integrate people into working life…

  1. Do calories or osmolality determine gastric emptying

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recent animal studies suggest that gastric emptying is dependent on the caloric and osmotic content of the ingested food. These studies have involved intubation with infusion of liquid meals into the stomach. Scintigraphic methods, which are non-invasive and do not alter normal physiology, are now available for precise quantitation of gastric emptying. To study the role of calories and osmolality on gastric emptying, the authors employed a standardized /sup 99m/Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water in 10 normal human volunteers. A variety of simple and complex sugars, non-absorbable complex carbohydrate (polycose), medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) and gluten were dissolved in water and ingested with the test meal. Each subject acted as his own control. Coefficient of variation in control tests in each subject 12 weeks apart was 9.9%. Results showed that incremental glucose (25-66 gm) produced a linear increase in gastric emptying (T/2 control 50 +- 3, 25 gm 60 +- 3, 50 gm 79 +- 3 and 66 gm 102 +- 3 minutes). 25 gm fructose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) and 25 gm polycose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) had similar effects to glucose. 25 gm sucrose and 25 gm gluten did not significantly differ from controls. MCFA had an effect similar to 50 gm glucose - suggesting that calories are important in gastric emptying. However, 25 gm xylose markedly prolonged gastric emptying to 80 +- 5 minutes. The rank order for osmolality for substances tested MCFA = gluten < polycose < polycose < fructose < sucrose = glucose < xylose defined no relationship to gastric emptying. The authors' results suggest that neither calories nor osmolality alone determine gastric emptying. A specific food does not necessarily have the same effect on gastric emptying in different individuals.

  2. Counting Calories: Resident Perspectives on Calorie Labeling in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Cynthia; Hayes, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigates consumer responses to New York City's 2008 calorie labeling regulation in 2 lower-income neighborhoods of New York City. Methods: Focus groups were conducted, and 34 fast-food consumers participated. Group summaries and descriptive and analytic depictions of group responses and interactions were developed…

  3. Gastric Bypass Surgery but not Caloric Restriction Improves Reproductive Function in Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Frank, Aaron P; Zechner, Juliet F; Clegg, Deborah J

    2016-02-01

    In women, obesity is associated with decrements in reproductive health that are improved with weight loss. Due to the difficulty of maintaining weight loss through lifestyle interventions, surgical interventions have become popular treatments for obesity. We examined how weight loss induced by Roux-en Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) or calorie restriction impacted expression of hypothalamic genes related to energy intake and reproduction. RYGB and calorie restriction induced equivalent weight loss; however, expression of the anorexigenic melanocortin pathway decreased only in calorie restricted mice. Serum estradiol concentrations were lower in calorie restricted mice relative to RYGB during proestrous, suggesting that RYGB maintained normal estrous cycling. Thus, the effects of RYGB for female mice, and possibly humans, extend beyond weight loss to include enhanced reproductive health. PMID:26667161

  4. Functional roles of low calorie sweeteners on gut function.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Gerspach, A C; Wölnerhanssen, B; Beglinger, C

    2016-10-01

    This short review summarizes the effects of low calorie sweeteners (fructose, non-nutritive low calorie sweeteners) on gut functions focusing on the gut sweet taste receptor system. The effects of these molecules on secretion of gut peptides associated with glycemic homeostasis and appetite regulation is reviewed as well as effects on gastric emptying and glucose absorption. PMID:26861179

  5. Quantifying Accurate Calorie Estimation Using the "Think Aloud" Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmstrup, Michael E.; Stearns-Bruening, Kay; Rozelle, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Clients often have limited time in a nutrition education setting. An improved understanding of the strategies used to accurately estimate calories may help to identify areas of focused instruction to improve nutrition knowledge. Methods: A "Think Aloud" exercise was recorded during the estimation of calories in a standard dinner meal…

  6. Calorie Labeling, Fast Food Purchasing and Restaurant Visits

    PubMed Central

    Elbel, Brian; Mijanovich, Tod; Dixon, Beth; Abrams, Courtney; Weitzman, Beth; Kersh, Rogan; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity is a pressing public health problem without proven population-wide solutions. Researchers sought to determine whether a city-mandated policy requiring calorie labeling at fast food restaurants was associated with consumer awareness of labels, calories purchased and fast food restaurant visits. Design and Methods Difference-in-differences design, with data collected from consumers outside fast food restaurants and via a random digit dial telephone survey, before (December 2009) and after (June 2010) labeling in Philadelphia (which implemented mandatory labeling) and Baltimore (matched comparison city). Measures included: self-reported use of calorie information, calories purchased determined via fast food receipts, and self-reported weekly fast-food visits. Results The consumer sample was predominantly Black (71%), and high school educated (62%). Post-labeling, 38% of Philadelphia consumers noticed the calorie labels for a 33 percentage point (p<.001) increase relative to Baltimore. Calories purchased and number of fast food visits did not change in either city over time. Conclusions While some consumer reports noticing and using calorie information, no population level changes were noted in calories purchased or fast food visits. Other controlled studies are needed to examine the longer term impact of labeling as it becomes national law. PMID:24136905

  7. It's Not All About Calories | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Losing weight is about balancing calories in (food and drink) with calories out (exercise). Sounds simple, right? But if it were that simple, you and the millions of other men and women struggling with their weight probably would have figured it out.

  8. Calorie-induced ER stress suppresses uroguanylin satiety signaling in diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, G W; Lin, J E; Snook, A E; Aing, A S; Merlino, D J; Li, P; Waldman, S A

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The uroguanylin-GUCY2C gut–brain axis has emerged as one component regulating feeding, energy homeostasis, body mass and metabolism. Here, we explore a role for this axis in mechanisms underlying diet-induced obesity (DIO). Subjects/Methods: Intestinal uroguanylin expression and secretion, and hypothalamic GUCY2C expression and anorexigenic signaling, were quantified in mice on high-calorie diets for 14 weeks. The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in suppressing uroguanylin in DIO was explored using tunicamycin, an inducer of ER stress, and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a chemical chaperone that inhibits ER stress. The impact of consumed calories on uroguanylin expression was explored by dietary manipulation. The role of uroguanylin in mechanisms underlying obesity was examined using Camk2a-Cre-ERT2-Rosa-STOPloxP/loxP-Guca2b mice in which tamoxifen induces transgenic hormone expression in brain. Results: DIO suppressed intestinal uroguanylin expression and eliminated its postprandial secretion into the circulation. DIO suppressed uroguanylin through ER stress, an effect mimicked by tunicamycin and blocked by TUDCA. Hormone suppression by DIO reflected consumed calories, rather than the pathophysiological milieu of obesity, as a diet high in calories from carbohydrates suppressed uroguanylin in lean mice, whereas calorie restriction restored uroguanylin in obese mice. However, hypothalamic GUCY2C, enriched in the arcuate nucleus, produced anorexigenic signals mediating satiety upon exogenous agonist administration, and DIO did not impair these responses. Uroguanylin replacement by transgenic expression in brain repaired the hormone insufficiency and reconstituted satiety responses opposing DIO and its associated comorbidities, including visceral adiposity, glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis. Conclusions: These studies reveal a novel pathophysiological mechanism contributing to obesity in which calorie-induced suppression

  9. Protein-calorie deficits in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Béhar, M

    1977-11-30

    Twenty years ago, we were invited to present a paper on severe protein-malnutrition in children in a meeting organized by this same Academy. In reviewing that paper for this presentation, it was very frustrating to find that the basic principles we stated there in regard to the nature of the probelm and its epidemiology are as valid today as they were 20 years ago. As most other workers in the field, we were then particularly concerned with the severe forms of protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM): kwashiorkor and marasmus. These individual cases occupied a large proportion of pediatric beds in hospitals of most developing countries, and we were interested in finding better ways to treat them. But also we were studying these cases as a basis for understanding the responsible factors better and for designing possible preventive measures. The interrelations of kwashiorkor and marasmus were recognized then, as well the fact that both protein and calories should be considered together in the epidemiology of the problem. We were also beginning to understand that the severe clinical cases that we were seeing in the hospitals were only the visible part of a much greater problem affecting the communities from which these children came. With the knowledge then available on the epidemiology of PCM, we were also starting to explore some specific measures for its prevention. I would like now to review what progress we have made, if any, in the understanding of the nature and magnitude of the problem, its epidemiology, and in designing preventive measures. PMID:100038

  10. Youth and Lifelong Education: After-School Programmes as a Vital Component of Lifelong Education Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauzon, Allan C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that after-school programmes need to be considered an essential part of lifelong learning infrastructure, particularly in light of the dominance of the economic discourse in both lifelong learning literature and the initial schooling literature. The paper, which is based upon existing literature, begins by providing an overview…

  11. Consumers may not use or understand calorie labeling in restaurants.

    PubMed

    Krukowski, Rebecca A; Harvey-Berino, Jean; Kolodinsky, Jane; Narsana, Rashmi T; Desisto, Thomas P

    2006-06-01

    This study was an investigation of the possible utility of calorie labeling legislation in restaurants in community (n=649) and college student (n=316) samples. Only 48% to 66% of participants presently looked at food labels, and 64% to 73% were able to report accurate knowledge of daily caloric needs. Furthermore, 44% to 57% reported that they were not likely to use food label information in restaurants if it were available. Therefore, public education campaigns focused on calorie requirements may need to precede restaurant labeling, and perhaps other possibilities in labeling formats should be considered (eg, defining foods as "low," "moderate," and "high" calorie). PMID:16720133

  12. Calorie-labelling: does it impact on calorie purchase in catering outlets and the views of young adults?

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, C K; Hankey, C R; Lean, M E J

    2015-03-01

    Calorie-labelling of meals has been suggested as an antiobesity measure, but evidence for impact is scarce. It might have a particular value for young adults, when weight gain is most rapid. A systematic literature review and a meta-analysis was performed to assess the effect of calorie-labelling on calories purchased. Seven studies met the inclusion and quality criteria of which six provided data allowing a meta-analysis. Three reported significant changes, all reductions in calories purchased (-38.1 to -12.4 kcal). Meta-analysis showed no overall effect, -5.8 kcal (95% confidence interval (CI)=-19.4 to 7.8 kcal) but a reduction of -124.5 kcal (95% CI=-150.7 to 113.8 kcal) among those who noticed the calorie-labelling (30-60% of customers). A questionnaire, to gauge views on calorie-labelling, was devised and sent to young adults in higher education: 1440 young adults (mean age 20.3 (s.d.=2.9) years) completed the survey. Nearly half (46%) said they would welcome calorie information in catering settings and on alcoholic drinks. Females opposing to calorie-labelling were heavier to those who did not (64.3 kg vs. 61.9 kg, P=0.03; BMI=22.4 kg m(-2) vs. 21.7 kg m(-2), P=0.02). In conclusion, the limited evidence supports a valuable effect from clearly visible calorie-labelling for obesity prevention, and it appears an attractive strategy to many young adults. PMID:25174452

  13. Potential Effect of Physical Activity Calorie Equivalent (PACE) Labeling on Adult Fast Food Ordering and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, Ray; Viera, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numeric calorie content labels show limited efficacy in reducing the number of calories ordered from fast food meals. Physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) labels are an alternative that may reduce the number of calories ordered in fast food meals while encouraging patrons to exercise. Methods A total of 1000 adults from 47 US states were randomly assigned via internet survey to one of four generic fast food menus: no label, calories only, calories + minutes, or calories + miles necessary to walk to burn off the calories. After completing hypothetical orders participants were asked to rate the likelihood of calorie-only and PACE labels to influence (1) food choice and (2) physical activity. Results Respondents (n = 823) ordered a median of 1580 calories from the no-label menu, 1200 from the calories-only menu, 1140 from the calories + minutes menu, and 1210 from the calories + miles menu (p = 0.0001). 40% of respondents reported that PACE labels were “very likely” to influence food item choice vs. 28% for calorie-only labels (p<0.0001). 64% of participants reported that PACE labels were “somewhat likely” or “very likely” to influence their level of physical activity vs. 49% for calorie-only labels (p<0.0001). Conclusions PACE labels may be helpful in reducing the number of calories ordered in fast food meals and may have the added benefit of encouraging exercise. PMID:26222056

  14. A Geologic Map of the Caloris Basin, Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buczkowski, D. L.; Goosmann, E.; Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Fasset, C. I.; Byrne, P. K.

    2016-06-01

    We present a geologic map of the Caloris basin, which will serve to synthesize the results of previous studies into a contextual framework for quickly viewing the thematic research that has been performed on this interesting region.

  15. Sweet proteins--potential replacement for artificial low calorie sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ravi

    2005-01-01

    Exponential growth in the number of patients suffering from diseases caused by the consumption of sugar has become a threat to mankind's health. Artificial low calorie sweeteners available in the market may have severe side effects. It takes time to figure out the long term side effects and by the time these are established, they are replaced by a new low calorie sweetener. Saccharine has been used for centuries to sweeten foods and beverages without calories or carbohydrate. It was also used on a large scale during the sugar shortage of the two world wars but was abandoned as soon as it was linked with development of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring sweet and taste modifying proteins are being seen as potential replacements for the currently available artificial low calorie sweeteners. Interaction aspects of sweet proteins and the human sweet taste receptor are being investigated. PMID:15703077

  16. 10 ways to cut 500 calories a day

    MedlinePlus

    ... Accessed September 25, 2015. United States Department of Agriculture. ChooseMyPlate.gov: Empty Calories Chart. Updated July 22, ... Accessed September 25, 2015. United States Department of Agriculture. ... Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Updated December ...

  17. Sweet proteins – Potential replacement for artificial low calorie sweeteners

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Ravi

    2005-01-01

    Exponential growth in the number of patients suffering from diseases caused by the consumption of sugar has become a threat to mankind's health. Artificial low calorie sweeteners available in the market may have severe side effects. It takes time to figure out the long term side effects and by the time these are established, they are replaced by a new low calorie sweetener. Saccharine has been used for centuries to sweeten foods and beverages without calories or carbohydrate. It was also used on a large scale during the sugar shortage of the two world wars but was abandoned as soon as it was linked with development of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring sweet and taste modifying proteins are being seen as potential replacements for the currently available artificial low calorie sweeteners. Interaction aspects of sweet proteins and the human sweet taste receptor are being investigated. PMID:15703077

  18. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of ... project sponsored by the NIH's National Institute on Aging (NIA) to learn more about the effects of ...

  19. Immunosuppressive mechanisms in protein-calorie malnutrition

    SciTech Connect

    Redmond, H.P.; Shou, J.; Kelly, C.J.; Schreiber, S.; Miller, E.; Leon, P.; Daly, J.M. )

    1991-08-01

    Protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) induces immunosuppression leading to increased mortality rates. Impaired macrophage respiratory burst activity (superoxide anion (O2-) generation) occurs in PCM, but cellular mechanisms are unclear. The major pathway resulting in O2- production involves inositol lipid-dependent signal transduction. This study examined the effect of mild versus severe PCM on macrophage O2- generating signal transduction pathways specific for responses to Candida albicans. Mice (CFW/Swiss Webster: n = 300) were randomized to either control or low protein diets for 3 or 8 weeks. Peritoneal macrophages were harvested for O2- production, mannose-fucose receptor (MFR) expression, membrane phospholipid analysis, arachidonic acid (AA) content, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, and protein kinase C levels. O2- release was impaired in both mild and severe PCM. MFR expression was also decreased at these time points. Inositol lipid content was significantly lower at the 8-week time point only, although PGE2 and AA were significantly higher in the low protein diet group at 3 weeks. Protein kinase C levels were unchanged by PCM. Thus, mild PCM significantly increases macrophage-PGE2 production secondary to increased AA phospholipid content, with subsequent inhibition of O2- and MFR expression. Severe PCM inhibits macrophage (O2-) through depletion of critical membrane phospholipid components with subsequent impairment in signal transduction.

  20. Purchasing behavior and calorie information at fast-food chains in New York City, 2007.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Mary T; Dumanovsky, Tamara; Huang, Christina; Silver, Lynn D; Young, Candace; Nonas, Cathy; Matte, Thomas D; Chideya, Sekai; Frieden, Thomas R

    2008-08-01

    We surveyed 7318 customers from 275 randomly selected restaurants of 11 fast food chains. Participants purchased a mean of 827 calories, with 34% purchasing 1000 calories or more. Unlike other chains, Subway posted calorie information at point of purchase and its patrons more often reported seeing calorie information than patrons of other chains (32% vs 4%; P<.001); Subway patrons who saw calorie information purchased 52 fewer calories than did other Subway patrons (P<.01). Fast-food chains should display calorie information prominently at point of purchase, where it can be seen and used to inform purchases. PMID:18556597

  1. Purchasing Behavior and Calorie Information at Fast-Food Chains in New York City, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Mary T.; Dumanovsky, Tamara; Huang, Christina; Silver, Lynn D.; Young, Candace; Nonas, Cathy; Matte, Thomas D.; Chideya, Sekai; Frieden, Thomas R.

    2008-01-01

    We surveyed 7318 customers from 275 randomly selected restaurants of 11 fast food chains. Participants purchased a mean of 827 calories, with 34% purchasing 1000 calories or more. Unlike other chains, Subway posted calorie information at point of purchase and its patrons more often reported seeing calorie infomation than patrons of other chains (32% vs 4%; P<.001); Subway patrons who saw calorie information purchased 52 fewer calories than did other Subway patrons (P<.01). Fast-food chains should display calorie information prominently at point of purchase, where it can be seen and used to inform purchases. PMID:18556597

  2. Comments on dietary restriction, Okinawa diet and longevity.

    PubMed

    Gavrilova, Natalia S; Gavrilov, Leonid A

    2012-01-01

    Longevity in Okinawa is considered to be a result of traditional low calorie diet. Le Bourg suggests that Okinawa is an example of severe malnutrition, which is harmful for later generations. We believe that current loss of longevity advantage in Okinawa is a result of diet westernization and that the dietary restriction is a valid way of life extension in humans. PMID:21893946

  3. Elevated ghrelin predicts food intake during experimental sleep restriction

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Josiane L.; Kilkus, Jennifer M.; Delebecque, Fanny; Abraham, Varghese; Day, Andrew; Whitmore, Harry R.; Tasali, Esra

    2015-01-01

    Objective Sleep curtailment has been linked to obesity, but underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. We assessed whether sleep restriction alters 24-hour profiles of appetite-regulating hormones ghrelin, leptin and pancreatic polypeptide during a standardized diet, and whether these hormonal alterations predict food intake during ad libitum feeding. Methods Nineteen healthy, lean men were studied under normal sleep and sleep restriction in a randomized crossover design. Blood samples were collected for 24-hours during standardized meals. Subsequently, participants had an ad libitum feeding opportunity (buffet meals and snacks) and caloric intake was measured. Results Ghrelin levels were increased after sleep restriction as compared to normal sleep (p<0.01). Overall, sleep restriction did not alter leptin or pancreatic polypeptide profiles. Sleep restriction was associated with an increase in total calories from snacks by 328 ± 140 Kcal (p=0.03), primarily from carbohydrates (p=0.02). The increase in evening ghrelin during sleep restriction was correlated with higher consumption of calories from sweets (r=0.48, p=0.04). Conclusions Sleep restriction as compared to normal sleep significantly increases ghrelin levels. The increase in ghrelin is associated with more consumption of calories. Elevated ghrelin may be a mechanism by which sleep loss leads to increased food intake and the development of obesity. PMID:26467988

  4. Key Competences for Lifelong Learning: The Case of Prospective Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; Akbasli, Sait; Yelken, Tugba Yanpar

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to determine the level of prospective teachers in terms of lifelong learning key competences. Lifelong learning is an extensive educational approach receiving much attention not only by educational politics of European Union but also by the rest of the world. Lifelong learning competence requires an active and constant usage of…

  5. Lifelong Learning Strategies and Practice in Latvia and Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luka, Ineta; Sungsri, Sumalee

    2015-01-01

    The importance of lifelong learning has been recognized for many years and consequently many countries, disregarding their geographical location, differences in education systems and traditions, have adopted their lifelong learning policies to develop the lifelong learning system. The goal of the present comparative research is to study the…

  6. Lifelong Learning in Action: Hong Kong Practitioners' Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cribbin, John, Ed.; Kennedy, Peter, Ed.

    This document consists of 32 papers presenting Hong Kong practitioners' perspectives on lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Lifelong Learning" (Albert Tuijnman); "Growth and Development of Lifelong Learning in Hong Kong " (John Cribbin); "Competition and Collaboration" (John Cribbin); "A Profile of Hong Kong Adult Learners"…

  7. Lifelong Learning in SMEs: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Rick; Smith, Vikki; Devins, Dave

    2002-01-01

    Learning centers using information-communications technologies were established in three British industrial estates. A case study of one organization shows the center contributed to lifelong learning and enhanced information technology training and employee confidence. Transfer of training and productivity improvements were not as clear. (Contains…

  8. Lifelong Learning for Adults through Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Barbara; And Others

    This report contains six presentations by members of the Task Force on Libraries and Lifelong Learning. "Library Programming for Groups with Special Needs" describes the library as a local alternative education agency, complementing school systems, and ways libraries serve adults with special needs through outreach and special programming efforts.…

  9. Lifelong Learning: Thematic Bibliography. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EURYDICE European Unit, Brussels (Belgium).

    This seventh publication in the Eurydice European Unit series of thematic bibliographies draws attention to a selection of publications on the topic of lifelong learning. This annotated bibliography lists 268 books, articles, publications, and reports that have appeared since 1994. Some earlier items of published literature of special historical…

  10. Lifelong Learning and Leadership. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on programs that promote lifelong learning through literacy education, parent empowerment, or parent leadership training. "Adult Literacy Outreach Innovations: Porque Significa Tanto" (Christie L. Goodman) describes a Texas outreach project that focuses on raising public awareness about adult education and literacy,…

  11. Life-Long Education in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaron, Kalman, Ed.

    The essays in this collection describe some of the main aspects--theories, programs and practices--of adult education in Israel. The 22 essays are: "Problems and Objectives of Adult Education," by Elad Peled; "The Principle of Dialogue in Education," by Martin Buber; "The Jewish Tradition of Life-long Learning," by Jacob Katz; "Phases of…

  12. European Year of Lifelong Learning 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education, Training, and Youth.

    This publication provides glimpses of how different individuals and organizations have responded to the spirit of lifelong learning during the European Year. Each case study consists of the project's location, name, and objective and brief description. They include the following: Chapito Project, Lisbon, Portugal; Ligerius Project, a…

  13. Motivational and Emotional Correlates of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller-Wolf, H. M.

    1974-01-01

    On the basis of a representative sample consisting of 45 4th-year forms (1,236 pupils) from primary schools in Hamburg, the relationships between teacher or parent behavior and motivation for lifelong learning, achievement motivation and emotional stability were investigated. (Editor)

  14. Determining the Value of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Allen

    2002-01-01

    In contemporary educational discourse, value in relation to lifelong learning can mean a moral/ethical concept, economic or monetary value, or mathematical or numerical value. "Added value" is devoid of ethical/moral meaning; it encourages a view of learning that is purely technical. (SK)

  15. Lifelong Learning for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnight, Ron

    The Lifelong Learning Center for the 21st Century was proposed to provide personal renewal and technical training for employees at a major United States automotive manufacturing company when it implemented a new, computer-based Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machining, robotics, and high technology facility. The employees needed training for…

  16. Australian Universities, Generic Skills and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitman, Tim; Broomhall, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The concept of lifelong learning implies a cycle where the learner contributes prior learning into a new learning environment and sees that learning upgraded. In recent years, a range of internal and external pressures have encouraged Australian universities to identify the meta or generic skills embedded in tertiary study. Using a content…

  17. Lifelong Learning within HE in The Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Dungen, Marja

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on work-based learning in higher vocational education and training in relation to lifelong learning. It begins with an overview of the Dutch National Policy and the ambitions of a national Project Directorate Learning & Working. It then goes on to the concrete results of projects within higher education (HE) aimed at the…

  18. Lifelong Learning as Being: The Heideggerian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Ya-hui

    2011-01-01

    This article contends that the development of lifelong learning needs to be grounded within the framework of "being," a concept inspired by Heidegger, rather than within the framework of "having." This article also describes the problems of the adult education literature, which favors the pragmatic sense of being and, thus, may undertheorize the…

  19. Changing Lives through Lifelong Learning Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    As conceived by the Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (CAEL), Lifelong Learning Accounts (LiLAs[SM]) are employer-matched, portable individual accounts used to finance employee education and training. They provide employees with an affordable means of upgrading their skills and knowledge, while helping to meet the needs of employers and…

  20. Elders' Lifelong Connection with the Natural Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Our interaction with nature does not end just because we age. People have a lifelong connection with the outdoor environment in varying degrees. For some, this participation may be subtle by simply watching others interact with the outdoor environment. For others, there is a deeper connection with nature through gardening, birding, exercise,…

  1. The Philosophical Foundations of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michopoulos, Aristotle

    The current lifelong learning movement, the new force toward global education, owes much to the League of Nations and the United Nations that sponsored an expanded multiracial "polis." Its philosophical foundations go back, however, to ancient China, India, and especially Greece, where philosophers and scientists got their creative stimulus from…

  2. Lifelong Learning in Higher Education. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapper, Christopher K.; Cropley, Arthur J.

    This book, which is intended for academics, educators, educational managers, and policymakers concerned with higher education, examines how universities and colleges can prepare their students for lifelong learning through continuing education, specialized courses for adults, and mainstream teaching programs geared toward traditional students. The…

  3. The Philosophical Roots of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Rosa B.

    The philosophical roots of the concept of lifelong learning are considered in relation to the views of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. They pioneered in their analyses of intellectual development and in the importance of the use of the mind throughout the life span. Plato and Aristotle added metaphysical arguments to support their systems of…

  4. Wise Up. The Challenge of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, Guy

    This book on lifelong learning has two overarching themes: the three Rs of learning power (resilience, resourcefulness, and reflectiveness) and a good learner's toolkit of learning strategies. An introduction previews the main conclusions. Chapter 1 explains how different communities can hold different beliefs about learning. Chapter 2 explores…

  5. Lifelong Learning: Workforce Development and Economic Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alice

    Lifelong learning through a strong, policy-supported information technology (IT) infrastructure is critical to the success of Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) member economies. There is a great need to upgrade the quality of skills within the workforce, and there have been unprecedented investments in infrastructure and advanced…

  6. Getting Closer: Workplace Guidance for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Peter; Turner, Bob

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this article are twofold. First, it considers the policy links between guidance and lifelong learning, highlighting in particular the implications of findings from a recent study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Secondly, it critically compares two approaches to workplace guidance about…

  7. Designing Instruction to Improve Lifelong Inquiry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Marcia C.; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Rafferty, Anna; Vitale, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Citizens need the capability to conduct their own inquiry projects so that they can make sense of claims about new energy policies, health remedies, or financial opportunities. To develop the lifelong capability to grapple with these dilemmas, we report on ways to design precollege units that engage students in realistic, personally relevant…

  8. Lifelong Learning and the Limits of Tolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnall, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    Lifelong education or learning theory is presented by its apologists as a universal normative ethic. That ethic may be understood as an aretaic ethic, embracing a number of ethical values or informed commitments and a teleology of optimising universal human flourishing through learning. In an effort to examine possible barriers to the universality…

  9. Can Lifelong Learning Reshape Life Chances?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen; Schoon, Ingrid; Weale, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Despite the expansion of post-school education and incentives to participate in lifelong learning, institutions and labour markets continue to interlock in shaping life chances according to starting social position, family and private resources. The dominant view that the economic and social returns to public investment in adult learning are too…

  10. Research and Policy in Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Colin

    2006-01-01

    It has long been acknowledged that adult and lifelong educators have exercised little influence over national education policies. This article addresses the issue, with particular reference to the research elements of policy advocacy. Researchers and policy-makers are distinguished and related as communities of practice and intellectual categories…

  11. Skills and Knowledge in Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplin, Jennifer

    In a pilot project, Vance-Granville Community College in North Carolina and a local roofing manufacturer jointly developed the SKILL (Skills and Knowledge in Lifelong Learning) training program. The 63 employees enrolled in the voluntary program thus far have received weekly instruction in functional, learning, and computer skills, as well as…

  12. Oral protein calorie supplementation for children with chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Damian K; Smith, Joanne; Saljuqi, Tawab; Watling, Ruth M

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor growth and nutritional status are common in children with chronic diseases. Oral protein calorie supplements are used to improve nutritional status in these children. These expensive products may be associated with some adverse effects, e.g. the development of inappropriate eating behaviour patterns. This is a new update of a Cochrane review last updated in 2009. Objectives To examine evidence that in children with chronic disease, oral protein calorie supplements alter daily nutrient intake, nutritional indices, survival and quality of life and are associated with adverse effects, e.g. diarrhoea, vomiting, reduced appetite, glucose intolerance, bloating and eating behaviour problems. Search methods Trials of oral protein calorie supplements in children with chronic diseases were identified through comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearching relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Companies marketing these products were also contacted. Most recent search of the Group's Trials Register: 24 February 2015. Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing oral protein calorie supplements for at least one month to increase calorie intake with existing conventional therapy (including advice on improving nutritional intake from food or no specific intervention) in children with chronic disease. Data collection and analysis We independently assessed the outcomes: indices of nutrition and growth; anthropometric measures of body composition; calorie and nutrient intake (total from oral protein calorie supplements and food); eating behaviour; compliance; quality of life; specific adverse effects; disease severity scores; and mortality; we also assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. Main results Four studies (187 children) met the inclusion criteria. Three studies were carried out in children with cystic fibrosis and one study included children with paediatric malignant disease

  13. Potential effect of physical activity based menu labels on the calorie content of selected fast food meals.

    PubMed

    Dowray, Sunaina; Swartz, Jonas J; Braxton, Danielle; Viera, Anthony J

    2013-03-01

    In this study we examined the effect of physical activity based labels on the calorie content of meals selected from a sample fast food menu. Using a web-based survey, participants were randomly assigned to one of four menus which differed only in their labeling schemes (n=802): (1) a menu with no nutritional information, (2) a menu with calorie information, (3) a menu with calorie information and minutes to walk to burn those calories, or (4) a menu with calorie information and miles to walk to burn those calories. There was a significant difference in the mean number of calories ordered based on menu type (p=0.02), with an average of 1020 calories ordered from a menu with no nutritional information, 927 calories ordered from a menu with only calorie information, 916 calories ordered from a menu with both calorie information and minutes to walk to burn those calories, and 826 calories ordered from the menu with calorie information and the number of miles to walk to burn those calories. The menu with calories and the number of miles to walk to burn those calories appeared the most effective in influencing the selection of lower calorie meals (p=0.0007) when compared to the menu with no nutritional information provided. The majority of participants (82%) reported a preference for physical activity based menu labels over labels with calorie information alone and no nutritional information. Whether these labels are effective in real-life scenarios remains to be tested. PMID:23220355

  14. Caloris Basin - An enhanced source for potassium in Mercury's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprague, Ann L.; Kozlowski, Richard W. H.; Hunten, Donald M.

    1990-01-01

    Enhanced abundances of neutral K in the atmosphere of Mercury have been found above the longitude range containing Caloris Basin. Results of a large data set including six elongations of the planet between June 1986 and January 1988 show typical K column abundances of about 5.4 x 10 to the 8th K atmos/sq cm. During the observing period in October 1987, when Caloris Basin was in view, the typical K column was about 2.7 x 10 to the 9th K atoms/sq cm. Another large value was seen over the Caloris antipode in January 1988. This enhancement is consistent with an increased source of K from the well-fractured crust and regolith associated with this large impact basin. The phenomenon is localized because at most solar angles, thermal alkali atoms cannot move more than a few hundred kilometers from their source before being lost to ionization by solar ultraviolet radiation.

  15. Proximity of foods in a competitive food environment influences consumption of a low calorie and a high calorie food.

    PubMed

    Privitera, Gregory J; Zuraikat, Faris M

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to test if proximity of a food or preference for a food influences food intake in a competitive food environment in which one low calorie/low fat (apple slices) and one higher calorie/higher fat (buttered popcorn) food was available in the same environment. The proximity of popcorn and apple slices was manipulated and 56 participants were randomly assigned to groups. In Group Apples Near, apple slices were placed near (within arms reach) a participant and popcorn was placed far (2m away). In Group Popcorn Near, buttered popcorn was placed near and apple slices were placed far. As a control for the absence of a proximity manipulation, Group Both Near had both test foods placed near. Although participants rated the popcorn as more liked than apples, the food that was placed closer to the participant was consumed most in the two experimental groups, regardless of preference (R(2)=0.38). Total energy intake was reduced most when popcorn was placed far from a participant compared to when it was placed near (R(2)=0.24). The effects reported here were not moderated by BMI and did not vary by sex. In all, the results support the hypothesis that making a low calorie food more proximate will reduce total energy intake and increase intake of a low calorie food, even when a higher calorie and more preferred food is also available, but less proximate. PMID:24560689

  16. Resveratrol improves health and survival of mice on a high-calorie diet

    PubMed Central

    Baur, Joseph A.; Pearson, Kevin J.; Price, Nathan L.; Jamieson, Hamish A.; Lerin, Carles; Kalra, Avash; Prabhu, Vinayakumar V.; Allard, Joanne S.; Lopez-Lluch, Guillermo; Lewis, Kaitlyn; Pistell, Paul J.; Poosala, Suresh; Becker, Kevin G.; Boss, Olivier; Gwinn, Dana; Wang, Mingyi; Ramaswamy, Sharan; Fishbein, Kenneth W.; Spencer, Richard G.; Lakatta, Edward G.; Le Couteur, David; Shaw, Reuben J.; Navas, Placido; Puigserver, Pere; Ingram, Donald K.; de Cabo, Rafael; Sinclair, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene) extends the lifespan of diverse species including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. In these organisms, lifespan extension is dependent on Sir2, a conserved deacetylase proposed to underlie the beneficial effects of caloric restriction. Here we show that resveratrol shifts the physiology of middle-aged mice on a high-calorie diet towards that of mice on a standard diet and significantly increases their survival. Resveratrol produces changes associated with longer lifespan, including increased insulin sensitivity, reduced insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) levels, increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) activity, increased mitochondrial number, and improved motor function. Parametric analysis of gene set enrichment revealed that resveratrol opposed the effects of the high-calorie diet in 144 out of 153 significantly altered pathways. These data show that improving general health in mammals using small molecules is an attainable goal, and point to new approaches for treating obesity-related disorders and diseases of ageing. PMID:17086191

  17. Lifelong literacy: Some trends and issues in conceptualising and operationalising literacy from a lifelong learning perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanemann, Ulrike

    2015-06-01

    In a fast-changing and highly inequitable world, lifelong learning is becoming increasingly important, not only as a key organising principle for all forms of education and learning but also as an absolute necessity for everyone. It is particularly important for disadvantaged individuals and groups who have been excluded from or failed to acquire basic competencies through formal schooling. Within a lifelong learning framework, literacy and numeracy are viewed as foundation skills which are the core of basic education and indispensable to full participation in society. This article discusses recent developments in conceptualising literacy as a foundation of lifelong learning. Starting from the evolving notions of adult literacy, the author identifies some current trends, the most important being that literacy is now perceived as a learning continuum of different proficiency levels. Dichotomous states of being either "literate" or "illiterate" no longer apply. She analyses (1) findings extracted from UNESCO Member States' national reports submitted to the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) for the 2nd Global Report on Adult Learning and Education; (2) a desk study of national literacy campaigns and programmes as well as (3) some recent developments in formal education. Her suggested three-dimensional analytical framework considers literacy as a lifelong and life-wide learning process and as part of lifelong learning systems. She draws a number of conclusions for policy and practice of literacy as a foundation of lifelong learning. These conclusions are a timely contribution to the ongoing post-2015 education debate, in particular to the challenge of how to mainstream youth and adult literacy into the implementation of the sustainable development agenda for 2015-2030.

  18. Potential Effect of Physical Activity Calorie Equivalent Labeling on Parent Fast Food Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, Ray

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Menu labels displaying food energy in physical activity calorie equivalents (PACE) is a possible strategy to encourage ordering meals with fewer calories and promoting physical activity. Potential effects of such labeling for children have never been examined. METHODS: We conducted a national survey of 1000 parents randomized to 1 of 4 fast food menus: no labels, calories only, calories plus minutes, or calories plus miles needed to walk to burn the calories. Respondents were asked to imagine they were in a fast food restaurant and place an order for their child. At the survey’s conclusion, all respondents were shown a calorie-only label and both PACE labels and asked to rate the likelihood each label would influence them to encourage their child to exercise. RESULTS: We excluded respondents whose meals totaled 0 calories or >4000 calories, leaving 823 parents in the analysis. The mean age of the child for whom the meal was “ordered” was 9.5 years. Parents whose menus displayed no label ordered an average of 1294 calories, whereas those shown calories only, calories plus minutes, or calories plus miles ordered 1066, 1060, and 1099 calories, respectively (P = .0001). Only 20% of parents reported that calories-only labeling would be “very likely” to prompt them to encourage their children to exercise versus 38% for calories plus minutes (P < .0001) and 37% for calories plus miles (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: PACE labeling may influence parents’ decisions on what fast food items to order for their children and encourage them to get their children to exercise. PMID:25624379

  19. Consumers’ estimation of calorie content at fast food restaurants: cross sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Condon, Suzanne K; Kleinman, Ken; Mullen, Jewel; Linakis, Stephanie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl; Gillman, Matthew W

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate estimation of calorie (energy) content of meals from fast food restaurants in adults, adolescents, and school age children. Design Cross sectional study of repeated visits to fast food restaurant chains. Setting 89 fast food restaurants in four cities in New England, United States: McDonald’s, Burger King, Subway, Wendy’s, KFC, Dunkin’ Donuts. Participants 1877 adults and 330 school age children visiting restaurants at dinnertime (evening meal) in 2010 and 2011; 1178 adolescents visiting restaurants after school or at lunchtime in 2010 and 2011. Main outcome measure Estimated calorie content of purchased meals. Results Among adults, adolescents, and school age children, the mean actual calorie content of meals was 836 calories (SD 465), 756 calories (SD 455), and 733 calories (SD 359), respectively. A calorie is equivalent to 4.18 kJ. Compared with the actual figures, participants underestimated calorie content by means of 175 calories (95% confidence interval 145 to 205), 259 calories (227 to 291), and 175 calories (108 to 242), respectively. In multivariable linear regression models, underestimation of calorie content increased substantially as the actual meal calorie content increased. Adults and adolescents eating at Subway estimated 20% and 25% lower calorie content than McDonald’s diners (relative change 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.96; 0.75, 0.57 to 0.99). Conclusions People eating at fast food restaurants underestimate the calorie content of meals, especially large meals. Education of consumers through calorie menu labeling and other outreach efforts might reduce the large degree of underestimation. PMID:23704170

  20. High-Cost Calories: Food Preference and Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    Food preferences play an important role in the diet of the poor. Increasing the supply of unappealing foods is not likely to effectively solve the problem of malnutrition. Improved income is more likely to remedy malnutrition than are categorical programs aimed at providing protein or calories. (Author/GC)

  1. Maintenance Following a Very-Low-Calorie Diet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agras, W. Stewart; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Studied maintenance procedures in 201 overweight female participants who completed a very-low-calorie diet. Posed two questions: (1) Would stimulus narrowing during the reintroduction of solid food improve weight losses and the maintenance of those losses? and (2) Would reintroduction of foods dependent on progress in losing or maintaining weight…

  2. Differential Gender Effects of a Reduced Calorie Diet on Systemic Inflammatory and Immune Parameters in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Ebersole, J.L; Steffen, M.J; Reynolds, M.A.; Branch-Mays, G.L; Dawson, D.R; Novak, K.F; Gunsolley, J.C; Mattison, J.A.; Ingram, D.K.; Novak, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Dietary manipulation, including caloric restriction, has been shown to significantly impact host response capabilities, particularly associated with aging. This investigation compared systemic inflammatory and immune response molecules in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) on continuous long term calorie-restricted (CR) diets with a matched group of animals on a control diet, examining the effects of both gender and aging. The results demonstrated that haptoglobin and α1anti-glycoprotein were elevated in serum of male monkeys. Serum IgG antibody responses to C. rectus, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and P. gingivalis were significantly elevated in female monkeys. While only the antibody to F. nucleatum was significantly affected by the calorie-restricted diet in females, antibody levels to P. intermedia, C. rectus and T. denticola demonstrated a similar trend. In this investigation, only selected serum antibody levels were influenced by the age in male animals, seemingly related to increasing clinical disease in this gender. More generally, analytes were modulated by gender and/or diet in this oral model system of mucosal microbial challenge. PMID:18565132

  3. Use of calorie information at fast-food and chain restaurants among US Adults, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Wethington, Holly; Maynard, Leah M.; Haltiwanger, Christine; Blanck, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine reading and use of calorie information at fast-food/chain restaurants. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on a sample of 4363 US adults using the 2009 HealthStyles survey. The outcome variable was reading calorie information when available while ordering at fast-food/chain restaurants. Among those who go to fast-food/chain restaurants, we conducted multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between sociodemographic variables and reading calorie information when available. Among those who report reading calorie information when available, we assessed the proportion using calorie information. Results Among those who reported eating at fast-food/chain restaurants, 36.4% reported reading calorie information when available. Reading calorie information was not related to race/ethnicity, income or education. Compared with men, women had higher odds [adjusted odds ratio (OR) =1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.5–2.1] of reading calorie information when available while those who frequented fast-food/chain restaurants ≥3 times/week (aOR =0.6; 95% CI =0.4–0.8) had lower odds compared with those going <4 times/month. Of those who reported reading calorie information when available, 95.4% reported using calorie information at least sometimes. Conclusions Almost all who read calorie information when available use the information at least sometimes. Research is needed on how calorie information is being used. PMID:24263224

  4. 9 CFR 381.460 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for calorie... § 381.460 Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only be made on the label or in labeling of the product if:...

  5. 21 CFR 101.60 - Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of... Claims § 101.60 Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a food may only be made on the label or in the labeling of...

  6. 9 CFR 317.360 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for calorie... Labeling § 317.360 Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only be made on the label or in labeling of the product if:...

  7. 21 CFR 101.60 - Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of... Claims § 101.60 Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a food may only be made on the label or in the labeling of...

  8. 9 CFR 381.460 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for calorie... § 381.460 Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only be made on the label or in labeling of the product if:...

  9. 21 CFR 101.60 - Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of... Claims § 101.60 Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a food may only be made on the label or in the labeling of...

  10. 9 CFR 381.460 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for calorie... § 381.460 Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only be made on the label or in labeling of the product if:...

  11. 9 CFR 317.360 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for calorie... Labeling § 317.360 Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only be made on the label or in labeling of the product if:...

  12. 9 CFR 317.360 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for calorie... Labeling § 317.360 Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only be made on the label or in labeling of the product if:...

  13. 9 CFR 317.360 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for calorie... Labeling § 317.360 Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only be made on the label or in labeling of the product if:...

  14. 9 CFR 381.460 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for calorie... § 381.460 Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only be made on the label or in labeling of the product if:...

  15. 21 CFR 101.60 - Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of... Claims § 101.60 Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a food may only be made on the label or in the labeling of...

  16. 9 CFR 317.360 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for calorie... Labeling § 317.360 Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only be made on the label or in labeling of the product if:...

  17. 9 CFR 381.460 - Nutrient content claims for calorie content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for calorie... § 381.460 Nutrient content claims for calorie content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a product may only be made on the label or in labeling of the product if:...

  18. 21 CFR 101.60 - Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of... Claims § 101.60 Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a food may only be made on the label or in the labeling of...

  19. Calorie Changes in Chain Restaurant Menu Items: Implications for Obesity and Evaluations of Menu Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.; Jarlenski, Marian P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Supply-side reductions to the calories in chain restaurants are a possible benefit of upcoming menu labeling requirements. Purpose To describe trends in calories available in large U.S. restaurants. Methods Data were obtained from the MenuStat project, a census of menu items in 66 of the 100 largest U.S. restaurant chains, for 2012 and 2013 (N=19,417 items). Generalized linear models were used to calculate: (1) the mean change in calories from 2012 to 2013, among items on the menu in both years; and (2) the difference in mean calories, comparing newly introduced items to those on the menu in 2012 only (overall and between core versus non-core items). Data were analyzed in 2014. Results Mean calories among items on menus in both 2012 and 2013 did not change. Large restaurant chains in the U.S. have recently had overall declines in calories in newly introduced menu items (−56 calories, 12% decline). These declines were concentrated mainly in new main course items (−67 calories, 10% decline). New beverage (−26 calories, 8% decline) and children’s (−46 calories, 20% decline) items also had fewer mean calories. Among chain restaurants with a specific focus (e.g., burgers), average calories in new menu items not core to the business declined more than calories in core menu items. Conclusions Large chain restaurants significantly reduced the number of calories in newly introduced menu items. Supply-side changes to the calories in chain restaurants may have a significant impact on obesity prevention. PMID:25306397

  20. Restrictive cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood returns from the body (diastole). When the disease progresses, the heart may not pump blood strongly. The abnormal heart function can affect the lungs, liver, and other body systems. Restrictive cardiomyopathy may affect either or both of the ...

  1. Restrictive cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood returns from the body (diastole). When the disease progresses, the heart may not pump blood strongly. The abnormal heart function can affect the lungs, liver, and other body systems. Restrictive cardiomyopathy may affect ...

  2. Easing Access for Lifelong Learners: A Comparison of European Models for University Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Müller, Romina; Remdisch, Sabine; Köhler, Katharina; Marr, Liz; Repo, Saara; Yndigegn, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Easing access to higher education (HE) for those engaging in lifelong learning has been a common policy objective across the European Union since the late 1990s. To reach this goal, the transition between vocational and academic routes must be simplified, but European countries are at different developmental stages. This article maps the…

  3. Confucian Educational Philosophy and Its Implication for Lifelong Learning and Lifelong Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Qi

    2008-01-01

    This paper, from historical and philosophical perspectives, presents Confucian education philosophy, a philosophy that is argued is a philosophy of lifelong learning. Examined and illustrated are the Confucian concepts of "Sage", a Confucian ideal human model, and "Jun Zi", a Confucian realistic educational result. Through "Sage", Confucius…

  4. Lifelong Literacy: Some Trends and Issues in Conceptualising and Operationalising Literacy from a Lifelong Learning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanemann, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    In a fast-changing and highly inequitable world, lifelong learning is becoming increasingly important, not only as a key organising principle for all forms of education and learning but also as an absolute necessity for everyone. It is particularly important for disadvantaged individuals and groups who have been excluded from or failed to acquire…

  5. Learning to Live: The Relationship between Lifelong Learning and Lifelong Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Sue

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which people with lifelong chronic illness engage with learning, and how learning impacts on the ways in which they learn to live with their illness. It considers their engagement with and changing focus of learning at different stages: prior to diagnosis, at about the time of diagnosis, and as their understanding…

  6. Supplementing Menu Labeling With Calorie Recommendations to Test for Facilitation Effects

    PubMed Central

    Wisdom, Jessica; Wansink, Brian; Loewenstein, George

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effect on food purchases of adding recommended calorie intake per day or per meal to the mandated calorie information posted on chain restaurant menus. Methods. Before and after New York City implemented calorie posting on chain restaurant menus in 2008, we provided daily, per-meal, or no calorie recommendations to randomized subsets of adult lunchtime customers (n = 1121) entering 2 McDonald’s restaurants, in Manhattan and Brooklyn, and collected receipts and survey responses as they exited. In linear and logistic regressions, with adjustment for gender, race, age, and day, we tested for simple differences in calories consumed and interactions between variables. Results. Posting calorie benchmarks had no direct impact, nor did it moderate the impact of calorie labels on food purchases. The recommendation appeared to promote a slight increase in calorie intake, attributable to increased purchases of higher-calorie entrées. Conclusions. These results do not support the introduction of calorie recommendations as a means of enhancing the impact of posted calorie information or reducing the contribution of restaurant dining to the obesity epidemic. PMID:23865657

  7. Respiratory metabolism and calorie restriction relieve persistent endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by calcium shortage in yeast.

    PubMed

    Busti, Stefano; Mapelli, Valeria; Tripodi, Farida; Sanvito, Rossella; Magni, Fulvio; Coccetti, Paola; Rocchetti, Marcella; Nielsen, Jens; Alberghina, Lilia; Vanoni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Calcium homeostasis is crucial to eukaryotic cell survival. By acting as an enzyme cofactor and a second messenger in several signal transduction pathways, the calcium ion controls many essential biological processes. Inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium concentration is carefully regulated to safeguard the correct folding and processing of secretory proteins. By using the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae we show that calcium shortage leads to a slowdown of cell growth and metabolism. Accumulation of unfolded proteins within the calcium-depleted lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress) triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) and generates a state of oxidative stress that decreases cell viability. These effects are severe during growth on rapidly fermentable carbon sources and can be mitigated by decreasing the protein synthesis rate or by inducing cellular respiration. Calcium homeostasis, protein biosynthesis and the unfolded protein response are tightly intertwined and the consequences of facing calcium starvation are determined by whether cellular energy production is balanced with demands for anabolic functions. Our findings confirm that the connections linking disturbance of ER calcium equilibrium to ER stress and UPR signaling are evolutionary conserved and highlight the crucial role of metabolism in modulating the effects induced by calcium shortage. PMID:27305947

  8. Ghrelin O-Acyl Transferase in Zebrafish Is an Evolutionarily Conserved Peptide Upregulated During Calorie Restriction.

    PubMed

    Hatef, Azadeh; Yufa, Roman; Unniappan, Suraj

    2015-10-01

    Ghrelin is a multifunctional orexigenic hormone with a unique acyl modification enabled by ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT). Ghrelin is well-characterized in nonmammals, and GOAT sequences of several fishes are available in the GenBank. However, endogenous GOAT in non-mammals remains poorly understood. In this research, GOAT sequence comparison, tissue-specific GOAT expression, and its regulation by nutrient status and exogenous ghrelin were studied. It was found that the bioactive core of zebrafish GOAT amino acid sequence share high identity with that of mammals. GOAT mRNA was most abundant in the gut. GOAT-like immunoreactivity (i.r.) was found colocalized with ghrelin in the gastric mucosa. Food deprivation increased, and feeding decreased GOAT and preproghrelin mRNA expression in the brain and gut. GOAT and ghrelin peptides in the gut and brain showed corresponding decrease in food-deprived state. Intraperitoneal injection of acylated fish ghrelin caused a significant decrease in GOAT mRNA expression, suggesting a feedback mechanism regulating its abundance. Together, these results provide the first in-depth characterization of GOAT in a non-mammal. Our results demonstrate that endogenous GOAT expression is responsive to metabolic status and availability of acylated ghrelin, providing further evidences for GOAT in the regulation of feeding in teleosts. PMID:26226634

  9. Benefits of Moderate-Intensity Exercise during a Calorie-Restricted Low-Fat Diet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apekey, Tanefa A.; Morris, A. E. J.; Fagbemi, S.; Griffiths, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite the health benefits, many people do not undertake regular exercise. This study investigated the effects of moderate-intensity exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness (lung age, blood pressure and maximal aerobic power, VO[subscript 2]max), serum lipids concentration and body mass index (BMI) in sedentary overweight/obese adults…

  10. The health pros and cons of continuous versus intermittent calorie restriction: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Skaznik-Wikiel, Malgorzata E; Polotsky, Alex J

    2014-11-01

    Beneficial effects on health of limiting food intake for certain periods of time have been recognized for a long time. While many diets can produce short-term weight loss, most fail to result in a long-lasting impact. Current data suggest that intermittent fasting may be beneficial for overall health and wellbeing. However, the lack of properly designed clinical studies makes it challenging to formulate evidence-based practice recommendations. Potential health risks of drastic changes in food intake are often ignored and might only be revealed after extensive follow-up. This review summarizes the popular intermittent dieting methods and their potential impact on fertility and reproduction. PMID:25216760

  11. Respiratory metabolism and calorie restriction relieve persistent endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by calcium shortage in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Busti, Stefano; Mapelli, Valeria; Tripodi, Farida; Sanvito, Rossella; Magni, Fulvio; Coccetti, Paola; Rocchetti, Marcella; Nielsen, Jens; Alberghina, Lilia; Vanoni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Calcium homeostasis is crucial to eukaryotic cell survival. By acting as an enzyme cofactor and a second messenger in several signal transduction pathways, the calcium ion controls many essential biological processes. Inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium concentration is carefully regulated to safeguard the correct folding and processing of secretory proteins. By using the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae we show that calcium shortage leads to a slowdown of cell growth and metabolism. Accumulation of unfolded proteins within the calcium-depleted lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress) triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) and generates a state of oxidative stress that decreases cell viability. These effects are severe during growth on rapidly fermentable carbon sources and can be mitigated by decreasing the protein synthesis rate or by inducing cellular respiration. Calcium homeostasis, protein biosynthesis and the unfolded protein response are tightly intertwined and the consequences of facing calcium starvation are determined by whether cellular energy production is balanced with demands for anabolic functions. Our findings confirm that the connections linking disturbance of ER calcium equilibrium to ER stress and UPR signaling are evolutionary conserved and highlight the crucial role of metabolism in modulating the effects induced by calcium shortage. PMID:27305947

  12. Geology of the Caloris basin, Mercury: a view from MESSENGER.

    PubMed

    Murchie, Scott L; Watters, Thomas R; Robinson, Mark S; Head, James W; Strom, Robert G; Chapman, Clark R; Solomon, Sean C; McClintock, William E; Prockter, Louise M; Domingue, Deborah L; Blewett, David T

    2008-07-01

    The Caloris basin, the youngest known large impact basin on Mercury, is revealed in MESSENGER images to be modified by volcanism and deformation in a manner distinct from that of lunar impact basins. The morphology and spatial distribution of basin materials themselves closely match lunar counterparts. Evidence for a volcanic origin of the basin's interior plains includes embayed craters on the basin floor and diffuse deposits surrounding rimless depressions interpreted to be of pyroclastic origin. Unlike lunar maria, the volcanic plains in Caloris are higher in albedo than surrounding basin materials and lack spectral evidence for ferrous iron-bearing silicates. Tectonic landforms, contractional wrinkle ridges and extensional troughs, have distributions and age relations different from their counterparts in and around lunar basins, indicating a different stress history. PMID:18599772

  13. Lobate Scarps within the Hummocky Plains East of Caloris Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Plains material east of the Caloris basin is shown this image (FDS 191) acquired during the spacecraft's first encounter with Mercury. Several west-facing lobate scarps occur in the hummocky plains interpreted as Caloris ejecta and may be short flow fronts of partially melted ejecta which flowed back toward the basin after deposition.

    The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

    Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  14. Biotechnological production of natural zero-calorie sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Ryan N; De Mey, Marjan; Anderson, Jeff; Ajikumar, Parayil Kumaran

    2014-04-01

    The increasing public awareness of adverse health impacts from excessive sugar consumption has created increasing interest in plant-derived, natural low-calorie or zero-calorie sweeteners. Two plant species which contain natural sweeteners, Stevia rebaudiana and Siraitia grosvenorii, have been extensively profiled to identify molecules with high intensity sweetening properties. However, sweetening ability does not necessarily make a product viable for commercial applications. Some criteria for product success are proposed to identify which targets are likely to be accepted by consumers. Limitations of plant-based production are discussed, and a case is put forward for the necessity of biotechnological production methods such as plant cell culture or microbial fermentation to meet needs for commercial-scale production of natural sweeteners. PMID:24503452

  15. Verbal descriptors influence hypothalamic response to low-calorie drinks.

    PubMed

    Veldhuizen, Maria G; Nachtigal, Danielle J; Flammer, Linda J; de Araujo, Ivan E; Small, Dana M

    2013-01-01

    Messages describing foods constitute a pervasive form of reward cueing. Different descriptions may produce particular appeal depending upon the individual. To examine the extent to which verbal descriptors and individual differences interact to influence food preferences, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure brain responses to the same low-calorie drinks preceded by the spoken verbal descriptor "treat" or "healthy" in 27 subjects varying in BMI, eating style and reward sensitivity. Subjects also sampled a prototypical milkshake treat. Despite the fact that the verbal descriptor had no influence on pleasantness ratings, preferential responses to the low-calorie drinks labeled "treat" vs. "healthy" were observed in the midbrain and hypothalamus. These same regions were also preferentially responsive to the prototypical treat. These results reveal a previously undocumented influence of verbal descriptors on brain circuits regulating energy homeostasis. PMID:24049739

  16. Calorie Offsets: Environmental Policy for the Food Environment

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Although obesity continues to challenge the public’s health, effective policy solutions are wanting. Borrowing from environmental protection efforts, we explored the potential for a “calorie offset” regulatory mechanism, which is similar to the carbon emission offsets used to curb greenhouse gas emissions, to mitigate the harmful health externalities of unhealthy food production. This approach might have a number of advantages over traditional policy tools, and warrants attention from health policymakers and industry alike. PMID:26066923

  17. Calorie increase and water savings of redistributing global crop production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, K. F.; Seveso, A.; Rulli, M. C.; D'Odorico, P.

    2015-12-01

    Human demand for crop production is expected to increase substantially in the coming decades as a result of population growth, richer diets and biofuel use. In order for food production to keep pace, unprecedented amounts of resources - water, fertilizers, energy - will be required. This has led to calls for 'sustainable intensification' in which yields are increased on existing croplands while seeking to minimize impacts on water and other agricultural resources. Recent studies have quantified aspects of this, showing that there is a large potential to improve crop yields and increase harvest frequencies to better meet human demand. Though promising, both solutions would necessitate large additional inputs of water and fertilizer in order to be achieved under current technologies. However, the question of whether the current distribution of crops is, in fact, the best for realizing maximized production has not been considered to date. To this end, we ask: Is it possible to increase calorie production and minimize water demand by simply growing crops where soil and climate conditions are best suited? Here we use maps of agro-ecological suitability - a measure of physical and chemical soil fertility - for 15 major food crops to identify differences between current crop distributions and where they can most suitably be planted. By redistributing crops across currently cultivated lands, we determine the potential improvement in calorie production as well as the associated change in water demand. We also consider what distribution of crops would maintain current calorie production while minimizing crop water demand. In doing all of this, our study provides a novel tool for improving crop calorie production without necessarily increasing resource demands.

  18. Caloris Basin: An Enhanced Source for Potassium in Mercury's Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Sprague, A L; Kozlowski, R W; Hunten, D M

    1990-09-01

    Enhanced abundances of neutral potassium (K) in the atmosphere of Mercury have been found above the longitude range containing Caloris Basin. Results of a large data set including six elongations of the planet between June 1986 and January 1988 show typical K column abundances of approximately 5.4 x 10(8) K atoms/cm(2). During the observing period in October 1987, when Caloris Basin was in view, the typical K column was approximately 2.7 x 10(9) K atoms/cm(2). Another large value (2.1 x 10(9) K atoms/cm(2)) was seen over the Caloris antipode in January 1988. This enhancement is consistent with an increased source of K from the well-fractured crust and regolith associated with this large impact basin. The phenomenon is localized because at most solar angles, thermal alkali atoms cannot move more than a few hundred kilometers from their source before being lost to ionization by solar ultraviolet radiation. PMID:17831982

  19. Effects of dietary fat and calorie on immunologic function

    SciTech Connect

    Barness, L.A.; Carver, J.D.; Friedman, H.; Hsu, K.H.L.

    1986-03-05

    The effect of dietary fat and calories on immunologic function in specific pathogen-free inbred DBA/2 and CBA/J mice was studied. Three diets were modified from control, the AIN-76 purified diet. The high saturated fat diet contained 22.5% coconut oil and 2.5% safflower oil. The high unsaturated fat diet contained 25% safflower oil. Fat was substituted isoclorically for carbohydrate in these two diets. The low calorie diet contained 40% less protein, carbohydrate and fat than control diet; fiber was substituted for these ingredients. Female weanling mice were on the diets for more than 35 days before testing. The natural killer (NK) activity of spleen cells was determined by in vitro cytolysis of /sup 51/Cr-labeled YAC-1 cells. The spleen cells response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) or allogeneic tumor EL-4 cells was measured after immunizing the mice with SRBC or EL-4 cells for 4 or 11 days, respectively. The results showed no significant effect of the low calorie diet on NK activity, anti-SRBC or anti-EL-4 response compared to normal diet. Anti-SRBC plaque response was significantly enhanced (27% higher), while anti-EL-4 response was significantly suppressed (15% less) with high saturated fat diet. NK activity was normal. Mice on high unsaturated fat diet showed suppressed anti-SRBC response (16% less) and anti-EL-4 response (17% less), while NK activity was significantly enhanced (70% higher).

  20. Revisiting Lifelong Learning for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn; Ohsako, Toshio; Mauch, Werner

    Although lifelong learning is being increasingly cited as one of the key principles in the fields of education and development, shared understanding of the term's usage at the global level is lacking. Lifelong learning is closely tied to the challenge of openness and the changes with which modern individuals must cope in their lifetimes. Lifelong…

  1. Africa and International Policy Making for Lifelong Learning: Textual Revelations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between international agendas for lifelong learning and financial aid for low income countries, especially those on the African continent. It argues that there are subtle differences in terminology written by policymakers respectively in Europe and South Africa for lifelong learning but that international…

  2. Lifelong Learning for Facilitating Democratic Participation in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruatona, Tonic

    2006-01-01

    Lifelong learning has come to be internationally recognized as a framework in the development of sustainable education. However, in spite of rhetoric and its endorsement in some nations' policy documents, lifelong learning is not operationalized and Africa continues to be plagued by social maladies such as HIV/AIDS, capacity poverty, low quality…

  3. Lifelong Learning in a Developed and a Developing Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaupre, Charles

    Comparing the evolution of lifelong learning in Chinese Taipei and Vietnam, this paper describes cultural, political, and economic factors influencing approaches and attitudes towards the lifelong learning movement and makes projections for the future. Following a description of sources used, including informal interviews with 50 adult learners in…

  4. Career Education as Humanization: A Freirean Approach to Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; Naseem, M. Ayaz

    2007-01-01

    This article contrasts the view of lifelong learning posed by the human capital discourse with Freire's understanding of education as a lifelong journey toward personal growth and social transformation. Rather than reducing learners to objects of economic globalization, Freire's pedagogy considers students as political participants who actively…

  5. Some Critical Reflections on Lifelong Learning Policy in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayilan, Fevziye

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the Lifelong Learning Strategy document which was on the agenda during the European Union harmonization process of Turkey. The public policies in the document, regarding non-formal and adult education, will be analyzed. Lifelong Learning strategy became a current issue in the last stage of neoliberal transformation of…

  6. Charting the Course of Lifelong Learning for Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Shirley T.

    This overview of the history of lifelong learning for African Americans is in a chart format. Lifelong learning events are matched with social and historical events and with black adult educators and black adult education-related institutions. The chart begins with slavery around 1800, a time when slaves were forbidden to learn how to read. It…

  7. Learners or Participants? The Pros and Cons of "Lifelong Learning"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantie, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Whereas adult education used to be the preferred concept for those studying adult music-making, there is now an increasing trend away from this and towards lifelong learning. Uncritically adopting government lifelong learning discourses, however, blurs the line between educational ideals and political ones. Although there may be merit in the…

  8. Rerooting Lifelong Learning: Resourcing Neighbourhood Renewal. Policy Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jane

    The relationship between lifelong learning, active citizenship, and neighborhood renewal was explored in the context of the British government's declared intention to address the consequences of poverty through neighborhood renewal, encourage public participation in renewal, and make lifelong learning a central strategy for ensuring future…

  9. Propensity to Lifelong Learning: Reflections of a Research Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    The author's tertiary learning journey began as a research assistant reviewing educational literature. Among the mountain of lifelong learning literature, the author could find nothing that explained why people are or are not lifelong learners. Eventually he found the British work of Gorard and Selwyn (2005). Mindful of Osborne's (2002) caution…

  10. Lifelong Learning--Is It Just for the Rich?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Lifelong learning is a powerful concept and perspective for transforming education systems and enabling learning societies. Developed in the advanced industrialised North, it is now being considered in poor countries where Education for All is a main educational preoccupation. The meaning of lifelong learning is confused and contested, caught up…

  11. Lifelong Education (Learning) in China: Present Situation and Development Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zhupeng

    2009-01-01

    Based on the historic background and development of lifelong education (learning) in China, this paper introduces major developments of lifelong education (learning) that have been achieved through adopting a series of measures under policies issued by the Chinese government since the 1990s. Throughout the decades, efforts have been made to…

  12. The Design and Management of an Organisation's Lifelong Learning Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dealtry, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the successful design and management of high performance work-based lifelong learning processes. Design: The paper summarises the process management practices and contextual parameters that are being applied in the successful design and management of high performance work based lifelong learning…

  13. TBI-ROC Part Six: Lifelong Living after TBI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeing, Marianne; Barton, Barbara; Zinsmeister, Paula; Brouwers, Lynn; Trudel, Tina M.; Elias, Eileen; Weider, Katie

    2010-01-01

    This article is the sixth of a multi-part series on traumatic brain injury (TBI) and discusses lifelong living after TBI. Following TBI, lifelong outcomes vary depending on the individual affected, treatment provided and severity of injury. Fortunately, many individuals who experience mild concussions common to childhood have no lasting symptoms.…

  14. Lifelong Learning in South Africa: Dreams and Delusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aitchison, John

    2004-01-01

    The new South Africa has formally embraced the concept of 'lifelong learning' in its education and training policies. But what is the concept of 'lifelong learning' that has informed these policies and what progress has there been in implementing them? Have these new policies brought significant changes to education and training for adults?

  15. Higher Education and Lifelong Learners: International Perspectives on Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Hans G., Ed.; Slowey, Maria, Ed.

    This book contains 11 papers on higher education and lifelong learners. The following papers are included: "Traditions and New Directions in Higher Education: A Comparative Perspective on Non-Traditional Students and Lifelong Learners" (Hans G. Schuetze, Maria Slowey); "Austria: The Enduring Myth of the Full-Time Student: An Exploration of the…

  16. Lifelong Learning in Singapore: Where Are We Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Prem

    2004-01-01

    The term lifelong learning has been used in different contexts and in policy application for a wide variety of purposes and initiatives. Singapore's approach to lifelong learning is pragmatic and rational. It is one of the economic drivers used by policy makers to enhance Singapore's competitiveness and is viewed as an antidote against…

  17. Lifelong Learning: Foundational Models, Underlying Assumptions and Critiques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2015-01-01

    Lifelong learning has become a catchword in almost all countries because of its growing influence on education policies in the globalised world. In the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the European Union (EU), the promotion of lifelong learning has been a strategy to speed up economic growth and become competitive.…

  18. Development of a Scale to Measure Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.; Knapper, Christopher; Lamon, Patrick; Egnatoff, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Primary objective: to develop a scale to measure students' disposition to engage in lifelong learning. Research design, methods and procedures: using items that reflected the components of lifelong learning, we constructed a 14-item scale that was completed by 309 university and vocational college students, who also completed a measure of deep and…

  19. Lifelong Adaptability: A Cultural Literacy Perspective (Revised Edition)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, John Thayer

    2011-01-01

    This revised 1997 ex post facto study attempted to identify a lifelong adaptability curriculum from a cultural literacy perspective. It investigated students' lifelong adaptability ratings of 15 general school subjects as predicted by family structure, parental age, parental educational level, student cultural literacy, and student gender;…

  20. Legal Educators' Perceptions of Lifelong Learning: Conceptualisation and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Sara Jeanne; Chardon, Toni; Collins, Pauline; Hart, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Lifelong learning appears frequently on university statements of desirable graduate outcomes. It is also referred to as a desirable outcome for Australian law graduates. This paper examines academic staff perceptions of lifelong learning as part of a broader study about assessment practices in a recently established Australian law school. Findings…

  1. Lifelong Learning. A Guide to Adult Education in the Church.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grothe, Rebecca, Ed.

    This book contains eight papers about lifelong learning in the Christian church. The preface and foreword are written by Rebecca Groth and H. George Anderson, respectively. (1) "The Gospel Calls Us" (Margaret A. Krych) examines five theological themes of lifelong learning. Adult development and learning styles are considered in (2) "What Teachers…

  2. Lifelong Learning for All in Asian Communities: ICT Based Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Pradeep Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The necessity to adjust to the prerequisites of the knowledge based society and economy brought about the need for lifelong learning for all in Asian communities. The concept of lifelong learning stresses that learning and education are related to life as a whole - not just to work - and that learning throughout life is a continuum that should run…

  3. Architecture for Implementation of a Lifelong Online Learning Environment (LOLE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caron, Philippe; Beaudoin, Gregg; Leblanc, Frederic; Grant, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an architecture for the implementation of a lifelong online learning environment (LOLE). The stakeholder independent architecture enables the development of a LOLE system to fulfill the complex requirements of the different actors involved in lifelong education. A particular emphasis is placed on the continuation of a…

  4. Purpose of Lifelong Learning: Analysis from a Single Participant Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2012-01-01

    What should be goal of education in general? What type of education are we practicing in the name of lifelong learning? What perspective of lifelong learning is becoming more dominant? Should the education system of a nation fulfill the demand of the market or the demand of the society? In this short single participant interview research I have…

  5. ICCE/ICCAI 2000 Full & Short Papers (Lifelong Learning).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains the following full and short papers on lifelong learning from ICCE/ICCAI 2000 (International Conference on Computers in Education/International Conference on Computer-Assisted Instruction): (1) "A Study on the School Information Technology Pilot Scheme: Possibilities of Creative and Lifelong Learning" (Siu-Cheung Kong,…

  6. Selective Reduction in Neural Responses to High Calorie Foods Following Gastric Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ochner, Christopher N.; Kwok, Yolande; Conceição, Eva; Pantazatos, Spiro P.; Puma, Lauren M.; Carnell, Susan; Teixeira, Julio; Hirsch, Joy; Geliebter, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate changes in neural activation and desire to eat in response to appetitive cues from pre- to postbariatric surgery for obesity. Background Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most common bariatric procedure. However, the mechanisms of action in RYGB are not well understood. A significant proportion of the resulting reduction in caloric intake is unaccounted for by the restrictive and malabsorptive mechanisms and is thought to be mediated by neuroendocrine function. Numerous investigations of postsurgical changes in gut peptides have resulted; however, changes in neural activation after RYGB surgery have not been previously investigated. Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging and verbal rating scales were used to assess brain activation and desire to eat in response to high-and low-calorie food cues in 10 female patients 1-month pre- and post-RYGB surgery. Results Postsurgical reductions in brain activation were found in key areas within the mesolimbic reward pathway, which were significantly more pronounced in response to food cues that were high (vs. low) in caloric density. These changes mirrored concurrent postsurgical reductions in desire to eat, which were also greater in response to food cues that were high versus low in caloric density (P = 0.007). Conclusions Findings support the contention that RYGB surgery leads to substantial changes in neural responses to food cues encountered in the environment, provide a potential mechanism for the selective reduction in preferences for high-calorie foods, and suggest partial neural mediation of changes in caloric intake seen after RYGB surgery. PMID:21169809

  7. Availability of and Ease of Access to Calorie Information on Restaurant Websites

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Gary G.; Steinberg, Dori M.; Lanpher, Michele G.; Askew, Sandy; Lane, Ilana B.; Levine, Erica L.; Goodman, Melody S.; Foley, Perry B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Offering calories on restaurant websites might be particularly important for consumer meal planning, but the availability of and ease of accessing this information are unknown. Methods We assessed websites for the top 100 U.S. chain restaurants to determine the availability of and ease of access to calorie information as well as website design characteristics. We also examined potential predictors of calorie availability and ease of access. Results Eighty-two percent of restaurants provided calorie information on their websites; 25% presented calories on a mobile-formatted website. On average, calories could be accessed in 2.35±0.99 clicks. About half of sites (51.2%) linked to calorie information via the homepage. Fewer than half had a separate section identifying healthful options (46.3%), or utilized interactive meal planning tools (35.4%). Quick service/fast casual, larger restaurants, and those with less expensive entrées and lower revenue were more likely to make calorie information available. There were no predictors of ease of access. Conclusion Calorie information is both available and largely accessible on the websites of America’s leading restaurants. It is unclear whether consumer behavior is affected by the variability in the presentation of calorie information. PMID:23977193

  8. Rapid estimation of the energy content of composite foods: the application of the Calorie Answer™.

    PubMed

    Lau, Evelyn; Goh, Hui Jen; Quek, Rina; Lim, Siang Wee; Henry, Jeyakumar

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of calories in foods is central in the maintenance of body weight and energy regulation. Conventional laboratory analysis using bomb calorimetry to determine calorie content is expensive and time-consuming. There is a need to explore alternative techniques for calorie estimation that requires less processing and resources. The potential of using near infrared spectroscopy for calorie measurements with Calorie Answer™ was evaluated in this study. The caloric content of 105 different foods was measured, and compared against values reported on nutrition labels. The average percentage relative standard deviation for triplicate measurements was 1.7% for all foods. The percentage difference between stated and measured calories was modest, at 4.0% for all foods. Stated and measured calorie contents were significantly and highly correlated (R2=0.98, p<0.001). The use of near infrared spectroscopy, using Calorie Answer™, is a rapid, reproducible and cost-effective way of measuring calorie content in a diverse range of foods. Its application in many parts of Asia Pacific and other emerging nations will generate much needed information on the calorie content of complex foods consumed by people living in these regions. PMID:26965757

  9. The Role of Higher Education in Promoting Lifelong Learning. UIL Publication Series on Lifelong Learning Policies and Strategies: No. 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jin, Ed.; Schneller, Chripa, Ed.; Roche, Stephen, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    There is no doubt that universities have a vital role to play in promoting lifelong learning. This publication presents possible ways of expanding and transforming higher education to facilitate lifelong learning in different socio-economic contexts. Nine articles address the various dimensions of the role of higher education in promoting lifelong…

  10. Childhood Sleep Duration and Lifelong Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, Katherine A.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Kern, Margaret L.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sleep duration is known to significantly affect health in adults and children, but little is understood about long-term associations. This prospective cohort study is the first to examine whether childhood sleep duration is associated with lifelong mortality risk. Methods Data from childhood were refined and mortality data collected for 1,145 participants from the Terman Life Cycle Study. Participants were born between 1904 and 1915, lived to at least 1940, and had complete age, bedtime, and waketime data at initial data collection (1917–1926). Homogeneity of the cohort sample (intelligent, mostly white) limits generality but provides natural control of common confounds. Through 2009, 1,039 participants had confirmed deaths. Sleep duration was calculated as the difference between each child’s bed and wake times. Age-adjusted sleep (deviation from that predicted by age) was computed. Cox proportional hazards survival models evaluated childhood sleep duration as a predictor of mortality separately by sex, controlling for baseline age. Results For males, a quadratic relation emerged: male children who under-slept or over-slept compared to peers were at increased risk of lifelong all-cause mortality (HR = 1.15, CI = 1.05 – 1.27). Effect sizes were smaller and non-significant in females (HR = 1.02, CI = 0.91 – 1.14). Conclusions Male children with shorter or longer sleep durations than expected for their age were at increased risk of death at any given age in adulthood. The findings suggest that sleep may be a core biobehavioral trait, with implications for new models of sleep and health throughout the entire lifespan. PMID:24588628

  11. Lifelong learning: Established concepts and evolving values

    PubMed Central

    Talati, Jamsheer Jehangir

    2014-01-01

    Objective To summarise the concepts critical for understanding the content and value of lifelong learning (LL). Methods Ideas generated by personal experience were combined with those of philosophers, social scientists, educational institutions, governments and UNESCO, to facilitate an understanding of the importance of the basic concepts of LL. Results Autopoietic, continuous, self-determined, informal, vicarious, biographical, lifelong reflexive learning, from and for society, when supported by self-chosen formal courses, can build capacities and portable skills that allow useful responses to challenges and society’s new structures of governance. The need for LL is driven by challenges. LL flows continuously in pursuit of one agenda, which could either be citizenship, as is conventional, or as this article proposes, health. LL cannot be wholly centred on vocation. Continuous medical education and continuous professional development, important in their own right, cannot supply all that is needed. LL aids society with its learning, and it requires an awareness of the environment and structures of society. It is heavily vicarious, draws on formal learning and relies for effectiveness on reflection, self-assessment and personal shaping of views of the world from different perspectives. Conclusion Health is critical to rational thought and peace, and determines society’s capacity to govern itself, and improve its health. LL should be reshaped to focus on health not citizenship. Therefore, embedding learning in society and environment is critical. Each urologist must develop an understanding of the numerous concepts in LL, of which ‘biographicisation’ is the seed that will promote innovative strategies. PMID:26019932

  12. A Moderate Low-Carbohydrate Low-Calorie Diet Improves Lipid Profile, Insulin Sensitivity and Adiponectin Expression in Rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie-Hua; Ouyang, Caiqun; Ding, Qiang; Song, Jia; Cao, Wenhong; Mao, Limei

    2015-06-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) via manipulating dietary carbohydrates has attracted increasing interest in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. There is little consensus about the extent of carbohydrate restriction to elicit optimal results in controlling metabolic parameters. Our study will identify a better carbohydrate-restricted diet using rat models. Rats were fed with one of the following diets for 12 weeks: Control diet, 80% energy (34% carbohydrate-reduced) and 60% energy (68% carbohydrate-reduced) of the control diet. Changes in metabolic parameters and expressions of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activator receptor γ (PPARγ) were identified. Compared to the control diet, 68% carbohydrate-reduced diet led to a decrease in serum triglyceride and increases inlow density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol; a 34% carbohydrate-reduced diet resulted in a decrease in triglycerides and an increase in HDL-cholesterol, no changes however, were shown in LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol; reductions in HOMA-IR were observed in both CR groups. Gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ in adipose tissues were found proportionally elevated with an increased degree of energy restriction. Our study for the first time ever identified that a moderate-carbohydrate restricted diet is not only effective in raising gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ which potentially lead to better metabolic conditions but is better at improving lipid profiles than a low-carbohydrate diet in rats. PMID:26110252

  13. Fasting and Caloric Restriction in Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Brandhorst, Sebastian; Longo, Valter D

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA and among the leading major diseases in the world. It is anticipated to continue to increase because of the growth of the aging population and prevalence of risk factors such as obesity, smoking, and/or poor dietary habits. Cancer treatment has remained relatively similar during the past 30 years with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in combination with surgery remaining the standard therapies although novel therapies are slowly replacing or complementing the standard ones. According to the American Cancer Society, the dietary recommendation for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy is to increase calorie and protein intake. In addition, there are no clear guidelines on the type of nutrition that could have a major impact on cancer incidence. Yet, various forms of reduced caloric intake such as calorie restriction (CR) or fasting demonstrate a wide range of beneficial effects able to help prevent malignancies and increase the efficacy of cancer therapies. Whereas chronic CR provides both beneficial and detrimental effects as well as major compliance challenges, periodic fasting (PF), fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs), and dietary restriction (DR) without a reduction in calories are emerging as interventions with the potential to be widely used to prevent and treat cancer. Here, we review preclinical and preliminary clinical studies on dietary restriction and fasting and their role in inducing cellular protection and chemotherapy resistance. PMID:27557543

  14. Hotspots of inefficiency: Mapping the difference between crop production and food calorie delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, E. S.; Foley, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Meeting growing demands for food calories will be a substantial challenge. One place to search for solutions is in how we allocate the world's crops, and finding ways to feed more people with current crop production. Currently, a substantial proportion of crop calories are used as animal feed, and only a small fraction of those feed calories ultimately contribute to human diets. Countries like the United States and China, which together produce over a third of the world's meat, eggs and dairy, lose a substantial portion of calories and protein to the feed-to-animal conversion process. This study looks at global croplands that have a large difference between calories grown, and the food calories available for consumption. These hotspots have the potential to feed more people, while reducing environmental impacts of agriculture.;

  15. Does the history of food energy units suggest a solution to "Calorie confusion"?

    PubMed

    Hargrove, James L

    2007-01-01

    The Calorie (kcal) of present U.S. food labels is similar to the original French definition of 1825. The original published source (now available on the internet) defined the Calorie as the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water from 0 to 1 degrees C. The Calorie originated in studies concerning fuel efficiency for the steam engine and had entered dictionaries by 1840. It was the only energy unit in English dictionaries available to W.O. Atwater in 1887 for his popular articles on food and tables of food composition. Therefore, the Calorie became the preferred unit of potential energy in nutrition science and dietetics, but was displaced when the joule, g-calorie and kcal were introduced. This article will explain the context in which Nicolas Clément-Desormes defined the original Calorie and the depth of his collaboration with Sadi Carnot. It will review the history of other energy units and show how the original Calorie was usurped during the period of international standardization. As a result, no form of the Calorie is recognized as an SI unit. It is untenable to continue to use the same word for different thermal units (g-calorie and kg-calorie) and to use different words for the same unit (Calorie and kcal). The only valid use of the Calorie is in common speech and public nutrition education. To avoid ongoing confusion, scientists should complete the transition to the joule and cease using kcal in any context. PMID:18086303

  16. Calorie menu labeling on quick-service restaurant menus: an updated systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Jonas J; Braxton, Danielle; Viera, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition labels are one strategy being used to combat the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 mandates that calorie labels be added to menu boards of chain restaurants with 20 or more locations. This systematic review includes seven studies published since the last review on the topic in 2008. Authors searched for peer-reviewed studies using PUBMED and Google Scholar. Included studies used an experimental or quasi-experimental design comparing a calorie-labeled menu with a no-calorie menu and were conducted in laboratories, college cafeterias, and fast food restaurants. Two of the included studies were judged to be of good quality, and five of were judged to be of fair quality. Observational studies conducted in cities after implementation of calorie labeling were imprecise in their measure of the isolated effects of calorie labels. Experimental studies conducted in laboratory settings were difficult to generalize to real world behavior. Only two of the seven studies reported a statistically significant reduction in calories purchased among consumers using calorie-labeled menus. The current evidence suggests that calorie labeling does not have the intended effect of decreasing calorie purchasing or consumption. PMID:22152038

  17. Calorie menu labeling on quick-service restaurant menus: an updated systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition labels are one strategy being used to combat the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 mandates that calorie labels be added to menu boards of chain restaurants with 20 or more locations. This systematic review includes seven studies published since the last review on the topic in 2008. Authors searched for peer-reviewed studies using PUBMED and Google Scholar. Included studies used an experimental or quasi-experimental design comparing a calorie-labeled menu with a no-calorie menu and were conducted in laboratories, college cafeterias, and fast food restaurants. Two of the included studies were judged to be of good quality, and five of were judged to be of fair quality. Observational studies conducted in cities after implementation of calorie labeling were imprecise in their measure of the isolated effects of calorie labels. Experimental studies conducted in laboratory settings were difficult to generalize to real world behavior. Only two of the seven studies reported a statistically significant reduction in calories purchased among consumers using calorie-labeled menus. The current evidence suggests that calorie labeling does not have the intended effect of decreasing calorie purchasing or consumption. PMID:22152038

  18. Stevia, Nature’s Zero-Calorie Sustainable Sweetener

    PubMed Central

    Ashwell, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Stevia is a plant native to South America that has been used as a sweetener for hundreds of years. Today, zero-calorie stevia, as high-purity stevia leaf extract, is being used globally to reduce energy and added sugar content in foods and beverages. This article introduces stevia, explaining its sustainable production, metabolism in the body, safety assessment, and use in foods and drinks to assist with energy reduction. The article also summarizes current thinking of the evidence for the role of nonnutritive sweeteners in energy reduction. Overall, stevia shows promise as a new tool to help achieve weight management goals. PMID:27471327

  19. Trends in the consumption of low-calorie sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Sylvetsky, Allison C; Rother, Kristina I

    2016-10-01

    Low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) offer a palatable alternative to caloric sugars such as sucrose (table sugar) and high fructose corn syrup and are commonly found in soft drinks, sweetener packets, grains, snack foods, dairy products, hygiene products, and medications. Consumption of LCS has increased significantly in recent years and while this trend is expected to continue, controversy exists surrounding their use. The purpose of this article is to review trends in the consumption of LCS, to summarize differences in LCS consumption across socio-demographic subgroups and subtypes of LCS-containing products, and to highlight important challenges in the accurate assessment of LCS consumption. PMID:27039282

  20. Dietary Restriction and Nutrient Balance in Aging.

    PubMed

    Santos, Júlia; Leitão-Correia, Fernanda; Sousa, Maria João; Leão, Cecília

    2016-01-01

    Dietary regimens that favour reduced calorie intake delay aging and age-associated diseases. New evidences revealed that nutritional balance of dietary components without food restriction increases lifespan. Particular nutrients as several nitrogen sources, proteins, amino acid, and ammonium are implicated in life and healthspan regulation in different model organisms from yeast to mammals. Aging and dietary restriction interact through partially overlapping mechanisms in the activation of the conserved nutrient-signalling pathways, mainly the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IIS) and the Target Of Rapamycin (TOR). The specific nutrients of dietary regimens, their balance, and how they interact with different genes and pathways are currently being uncovered. Taking into account that dietary regimes can largely influence overall human health and changes in risk factors such as cholesterol level and blood pressure, these new findings are of great importance to fully comprehend the interplay between diet and humans health. PMID:26682004

  1. Dietary Restriction and Nutrient Balance in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Leitão-Correia, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Dietary regimens that favour reduced calorie intake delay aging and age-associated diseases. New evidences revealed that nutritional balance of dietary components without food restriction increases lifespan. Particular nutrients as several nitrogen sources, proteins, amino acid, and ammonium are implicated in life and healthspan regulation in different model organisms from yeast to mammals. Aging and dietary restriction interact through partially overlapping mechanisms in the activation of the conserved nutrient-signalling pathways, mainly the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IIS) and the Target Of Rapamycin (TOR). The specific nutrients of dietary regimens, their balance, and how they interact with different genes and pathways are currently being uncovered. Taking into account that dietary regimes can largely influence overall human health and changes in risk factors such as cholesterol level and blood pressure, these new findings are of great importance to fully comprehend the interplay between diet and humans health. PMID:26682004

  2. Understanding Lifelong Learning and Adult Education Policy in Estonia: Tendencies and Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jogi, Larissa

    2012-01-01

    There have been many theoretical and empirical analyses of lifelong learning policies and how to implement, develop, measure and facilitate lifelong learning and lifelong learning policy in order to cater for the needs and requirements of individuals as well as society in general. The particular slant on lifelong learning in different countries…

  3. Lifelong and Continuing Education. What Is a Learning Society? Monitoring Change in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Paul, Ed.

    The 14 chapters in this book explore the concept of lifelong learning and illustrate its application to specific situations. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Concept of Lifelong Learning" (Paul Oliver); "Degrees of Adult Participation: Lifelong Learning in European Universities" (Barbara Merrill); "Lifelong (L)earning and a 'New Age' at…

  4. Lifelong Education in Jewish Sources: Principles and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodesh, Shlomo

    1997-01-01

    Jewish cultural tradition shows strong support for lifelong learning and study for its own sake. Basic principles of Jewish education include functionalism (life change resulting from education) and accessibility (all are entitled to education). (SK)

  5. The motivation of lifelong mathematics learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim Ali, Siti Aishah

    2013-04-01

    As adults, we have always learned throughout our life, but this learning is informal. Now, more career-switchers and career-upgraders who are joining universities for further training are becoming the major group of adult learners. This current situation requires formal education in courses with controlled output. Hence, lifelong learning is seen as a necessity and an opportunity for these adult learners. One characteristic of adult education is that the learners tend to bring with them life experience from their past, especially when learning mathematics. Most of them associate mathematics with the school subjects and unable to recognize the mathematics in their daily practice as mathematics. They normally place a high value on learning mathematics because of its prominent role in their prospective careers, but their learning often requires overcoming personal experience and motivating themselves to learn mathematics again. This paper reports on the study conducted on a group of adult learners currently pursuing their study. The aim of this study is to explore (i) the motivation of the adult learners continuing their study; and (ii) the perception and motivation of these learners in learning mathematics. This paper will take this into account when we discuss learners' perception and motivation to learning mathematics, as interrelated phenomena. Finding from this study will provide helpful insights in understanding the learning process and adaption of adult learners to formal education.

  6. Inviting consumers to downsize fast-food portions significantly reduces calorie consumption.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Janet; Riis, Jason; Elbel, Brian; Ariely, Dan

    2012-02-01

    Policies that mandate calorie labeling in fast-food and chain restaurants have had little or no observable impact on calorie consumption to date. In three field experiments, we tested an alternative approach: activating consumers' self-control by having servers ask customers if they wanted to downsize portions of three starchy side dishes at a Chinese fast-food restaurant. We consistently found that 14-33 percent of customers accepted the downsizing offer, and they did so whether or not they were given a nominal twenty-five-cent discount. Overall, those who accepted smaller portions did not compensate by ordering more calories in their entrées, and the total calories served to them were, on average, reduced by more than 200. We also found that accepting the downsizing offer did not change the amount of uneaten food left at the end of the meal, so the calorie savings during purchasing translated into calorie savings during consumption. Labeling the calorie content of food during one of the experiments had no measurable impact on ordering behavior. If anything, the downsizing offer was less effective in changing customers' ordering patterns with the calorie labeling present. These findings highlight the potential importance of portion-control interventions that specifically activate consumers' self-control. PMID:22323171

  7. Protein - Calorie Malnutrition in Children and its Relation to Psychological Development and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Michael C.

    1974-01-01

    Encompassing only human and excluding animal studies, this review surveys the literature on protein-calorie malnutrition and its possible role in retarding psychological, intellectual or behavioral development. Areas reviewed include types of protein-calorie malnutrition, the effects of malnutrition on brain development, cross-sectional and…

  8. Five Years Later: Awareness Of New York City's Calorie Labels Declined, With No Changes In Calories Purchased.

    PubMed

    Cantor, Jonathan; Torres, Alejandro; Abrams, Courtney; Elbel, Brian

    2015-11-01

    To follow up on a previous study that examined how the mandated displaying of calorie information on menu boards in fast-food restaurants in New York City influenced consumers' behavior, we analyzed itemized cash register receipts and survey responses from 7,699 consumers at four fast-food chains. Using a difference-in-differences study design, we found that consumers exposed to menu labeling immediately after the mandate took effect in 2008 and at three points in 2013-14 reported seeing and using the information more often than their counterparts at fast-food restaurants without menu labeling. In each successive period of data collection, the percentage of respondents noticing and using the information declined, while remaining above the prelabeling baseline. There were no statistically significant changes over time in levels of calories or other nutrients purchased or in the frequency of visits to fast-food restaurants. Menu labeling at fast-food chain restaurants, which the Affordable Care Act requires to be implemented nationwide in 2016, remains an unproven strategy for improving the nutritional quality of consumer food choices at the population level. Additional policy efforts that go beyond labeling and possibly alter labeling to increase its impact must be considered. PMID:26526247

  9. Health Behavior Theory in Popular Calorie Counting Apps: A Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Siena F; Ellsworth, Marisa A; Payne, Hannah E; Hall, Shelby M; Nordhagen, Amber L

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the Health & Fitness category of the Apple App Store features hundreds of calorie counting apps, the extent to which popular calorie counting apps include health behavior theory is unknown. Objective This study evaluates the presence of health behavior theory in calorie counting apps. Methods Data for this study came from an extensive content analysis of the 10 most popular calorie counting apps in the Health & Fitness category of the Apple App Store. Results Each app was given a theory score to reflect the extent to which health behavior theory was integrated into the app. The highest possible score was 60. Out of the 10 apps evaluated, My Diet Coach obtained the highest theory score of 15. MapMyFitness and Yumget received the lowest scores of 0. The average theory score among the apps was 5.6. Conclusions Most of the calorie counting apps in the sample contained minimal health behavior theory. PMID:26935898

  10. [Effects of low calorie sweeteners based on data from clinical trials, in vitro and animal studies].

    PubMed

    Szűcs, Zsuzsanna; Ábel, Tatjána; Lengyel, Gabriella

    2016-04-01

    Low calorie sweeteners are used by many consumers as they can provide the sweet taste without calories and, therefore, they may have a beneficial effect on weight management. These positive outcomes are often questioned and accused of keeping up or increasing a liking for sweetness and leading to overconsumption of sugar containing food and beverages. The most recent studies failed to find any positive correlation between usage of low calorie sweeteners and craving for sweet taste. In randomized controlled trials consumption of low calorie sweeteners have accompanied with lower intake of sugar containing food, higher healthy eating index and better weight management. Several laboratory trials on cell cultures and animal studies found a link between the usage of low calorie sweeteners and positive metabolic effects, e.g. smaller ectopic fat deposits in the fat and liver tissue versus controll group. In addition, increased adipogenesis and reduction of lipolysis were also observed. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(Suppl. 1), 3-7. PMID:27088713

  11. Lifelong Learning, Lifelong Education and Adult Education in Higher Institutions of Learning in Eastern Africa: The Case of Makerere University Institute of Adult and Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openjuru, George L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper advocates for policy recognition of lifelong learning by institutions of higher learning and governments in Eastern Africa. Lifelong learning and lifelong education are two concepts that aim at widening access to and the participation of adult learners in the acquisition of new knowledge, skills, values and attitudes. There are many…

  12. Micronutrient deficiency in obese subjects undergoing low calorie diet

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies is higher in obese individuals compared to normal-weight people, probably because of inadequate eating habits but also due to increased demands among overweight persons, which are underestimated by dietary reference intakes (DRI) intended for the general population. We therefore evaluated the dietary micronutrient intake in obese individuals compared to a reference population and DRI recommendations. Furthermore, we determined the micronutrient status in obese subjects undergoing a standardized DRI-covering low-calorie formula diet to analyze if the DRI meet the micronutrient requirements of obese individuals. Methods In 104 subjects baseline micronutrient intake was determined by dietary record collection. A randomly assigned subgroup of subjects (n = 32) underwent a standardized DRI-covering low-calorie formula diet over a period of three months. Pre- and post-interventional intracellular micronutrient status in buccal mucosa cells (BMC) was analyzed, as well as additional micronutrient serum concentrations in 14 of the subjects. Results Prior to dietetic intervention, nutrition was calorie-rich and micronutrient-poor. Baseline deficiencies in serum concentrations were observed for 25-hydroxyvitamin-D, vitamin C, selenium, iron, as well as ß-carotene, vitamin C, and lycopene in BMC. After a three-month period of formula diet even more subjects had reduced micronutrient levels of vitamin C (serum, BMC), zinc, and lycopene. There was a significant negative correlation between lipophilic serum vitamin concentrations and body fat, as well as between iron and C-reactive protein. Conclusions The present pilot study shows that micronutrient deficiency occurring in obese individuals is not corrected by protein-rich formula diet containing vitamins and minerals according to DRI. In contrast, micronutrient levels remain low or become even lower, which might be explained by insufficient intake, increased demand

  13. Soft drink "pouring rights": marketing empty calories to children.

    PubMed

    Nestle, M

    2000-01-01

    Healthy People 2010 objectives call for meals and snacks served in schools to contribute to overall diets that meet federal dietary guidelines. Sales in schools of foods and drinks high in calories and low in nutrients undermine this health objective, as well as participation in the more nutritious, federally sponsored, school lunch programs. Competitive foods also undermine nutrition information taught in the classroom. Lucrative contracts between school districts and soft drink companies for exclusive rights to sell one brand are the latest development in the increasing commercialization of school food. These contracts, intended to elicit brand loyalty among young children who have a lifetime of purchases ahead of them, are especially questionable because they place schools in the position of "pushing" soft drink consumption. "Pouring rights" contracts deserve attention from public health professionals concerned about the nutritional quality of children's diets. PMID:11059423

  14. Very low calorie diets--history, safety and recent developments.

    PubMed

    Vertes, V

    1984-01-01

    Poor results from orthodox diets for the obese have emphasized the need for suitable alternatives such as very low calorie diets (VLCD). These have now been in use for some ten years and their advantages and pitfalls are well known. Initial investigations were based on the use of total fasting and examining the significance of protein supplementation during therapeutic starvation. Subsequent studies employed ordinary food stuffs as the protein source but included no carbohydrate. Others developed formula diets which involved the use of both protein and carbohydrate. In the U.S.A. diets such as these are either monitored by the medical profession or in some instances sold directly to the public. In these connections two areas of concern have emerged. One is the ability of patients to maintain weight loss and most importantly, the safety of the programme itself. It is now well established that unless some follow-up support is made available patients will not be stabilized at the reduced weight level. The use of behaviour modification, increased physical activity and the concept of free and fixed calories offers the hope of a more complete answer to weight control. The safety of VLCD became a cause for concern when liquid protein sold over the counter was associated with a number of deaths for which other causes could not be determined. Subsequent monitoring has indicated that where patients are maintained on high quality protein supplement the potentially lethal arrhythmias associated with liquid protein are not seen. On the basis of clinical experience in over 4000 patients it is felt that three factors are necessary for any programme to be maximally safe and efficient. These elements are proper patient selection, high quality supplement and proper patient monitoring. PMID:6514655

  15. Adverse Fetal and Neonatal Outcomes Associated with a Life-Long High Fat Diet: Role of Altered Development of the Placental Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Petrik, Jim J.; Storozhuk, Yaryna; Paez-Parent, Sabrina; Dai, Qin; Samjoo, Imtiaz A.; Mansell, Margaret; Gruslin, Andree; Holloway, Alison C.; Raha, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    Maternal obesity results in a number of obstetrical and fetal complications with both immediate and long-term consequences. The increased prevalence of obesity has resulted in increasing numbers of women of reproductive age in this high-risk group. Since many of these obese women have been subjected to hypercaloric diets from early childhood we have developed a rodent model of life-long maternal obesity to more clearly understand the mechanisms that contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes in obese women. Female Sprague Dawley rats were fed a control diet (CON - 16% of calories from fat) or high fat diet (HF - 45% of calories from fat) from 3 to 19 weeks of age. Prior to pregnancy HF-fed dams exhibited significant increases in body fat, serum leptin and triglycerides. A subset of dams was sacrificed at gestational day 15 to evaluate fetal and placental development. The remaining animals were allowed to deliver normally. HF-fed dams exhibited a more than 3-fold increase in fetal death and decreased neonatal survival. These outcomes were associated with altered vascular development in the placenta, as well as increased hypoxia in the labyrinth. We propose that the altered placental vasculature may result in reduced oxygenation of the fetal tissues contributing to premature demise and poor neonatal survival. PMID:22442686

  16. Low-calorie- and calorie-sweetened beverages: diet quality, food intake, and purchase patterns of US household consumers123

    PubMed Central

    Piernas, Carmen; Mendez, Michelle A; Ng, Shu Wen; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated the diet quality of consumers of low-calorie-sweetened (LCS) and calorie-sweetened (CS) beverages. Objective: The objective was to examine the dietary quality and adherence to dietary purchasing and consumption patterns of beverage consumers from 2000 to 2010. Design: We analyzed purchases for 140,352 households from the Homescan longitudinal data set 2000–2010 and dietary intake from NHANES 2003–2010 (n = 34,393). We defined mutually exclusive consumer profiles as main exposures: LCS beverages, CS beverages, LCS & CS beverages, and non/low consumers. As main outcomes, we explored dietary quality by using total energy and macronutrients (kcal/d). We performed factor analyses and applied factor scores to derive dietary patterns as secondary outcomes. Using multivariable linear (NHANES) and random-effects (Homescan) models, we investigated the associations between beverage profiles and dietary patterns. Results: We found “prudent” and “breakfast” patterns in Homescan and NHANES, “ready-to-eat meals/fast-food” and “prudent/snacks/LCS desserts” patterns in Homescan, and “protein/potatoes” and “CS desserts/sweeteners” patterns in NHANES. In both data sets, compared with non/low consumers, both CS- and LCS-beverage consumers had a significantly higher total energy from foods, higher energy from total and SFAs, and lower probability of adherence to prudent and breakfast patterns. In Homescan, LCS-beverage consumers had a higher probability of adherence to 2 distinct patterns: a prudent/snacks/LCS dessert pattern and a ready-to-eat meals/fast-food purchasing pattern. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that overall dietary quality is lower in LCS-, CS-, and LCS & CS–beverage consumers relative to non/low consumers. Our study highlights the importance of targeting foods that are linked with sweetened beverages (either LCS or CS) in intervention and policy efforts that aim to improve nutrition in the

  17. Placental Nutrient Transport and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Gaccioli, Francesca; Lager, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction refers to the inability of the fetus to reach its genetically determined potential size. Fetal growth restriction affects approximately 5–15% of all pregnancies in the United States and Europe. In developing countries the occurrence varies widely between 10 and 55%, impacting about 30 million newborns per year. Besides having high perinatal mortality rates these infants are at greater risk for severe adverse outcomes, such as hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and cerebral palsy. Moreover, reduced fetal growth has lifelong health consequences, including higher risks of developing metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Numerous reports indicate placental insufficiency as one of the underlying causes leading to altered fetal growth and impaired placental capacity of delivering nutrients to the fetus has been shown to contribute to the etiology of intrauterine growth restriction. Indeed, reduced expression and/or activity of placental nutrient transporters have been demonstrated in several conditions associated with an increased risk of delivering a small or growth restricted infant. This review focuses on human pregnancies and summarizes the changes in placental amino acid, fatty acid, and glucose transport reported in conditions associated with intrauterine growth restriction, such as maternal undernutrition, pre-eclampsia, young maternal age, high altitude and infection. PMID:26909042

  18. Consumer estimation of recommended and actual calories at fast food restaurants.

    PubMed

    Elbel, Brian

    2011-10-01

    Recently, localities across the United States have passed laws requiring the mandatory labeling of calories in all chain restaurants, including fast food restaurants. This policy is set to be implemented at the federal level. Early studies have found these policies to be at best minimally effective in altering food choice at a population level. This paper uses receipt and survey data collected from consumers outside fast food restaurants in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) (which implemented labeling) and a comparison community (which did not) to examine two fundamental assumptions necessary (though not sufficient) for calorie labeling to be effective: that consumers know how many calories they should be eating throughout the course of a day and that currently customers improperly estimate the number of calories in their fast food order. Then, we examine whether mandatory menu labeling influences either of these assumptions. We find that approximately one-third of consumers properly estimate that the number of calories an adult should consume daily. Few (8% on average) believe adults should be eating over 2,500 calories daily, and approximately one-third believe adults should eat lesser than 1,500 calories daily. Mandatory labeling in NYC did not change these findings. However, labeling did increase the number of low-income consumers who correctly estimated (within 100 calories) the number of calories in their fast food meal, from 15% before labeling in NYC increasing to 24% after labeling. Overall knowledge remains low even with labeling. Additional public policies likely need to be considered to influence obesity on a large scale. PMID:21779085

  19. Consumer Estimation of Recommended and Actual Calories at Fast Food Restaurants

    PubMed Central

    Elbel, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Recently, localities across the United States have passed laws requiring the mandatory labeling of calories in all chain restaurants, including fast food restaurants. This policy is set to be implemented at the federal level. Early studies have found these policies to be at best minimally effective in altering food choice at a population level. This paper uses receipt and survey data collected from consumers outside fast food restaurants in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) (which implemented labeling) and a comparison community (which did not) to examine two fundamental assumptions necessary (though not sufficient) for calorie labeling to be effective: that consumers know how many calories they should be eating throughout the course of a day and that currently customers improperly estimate the number of calories in their fast food order. Then, we examine whether mandatory menu labeling influences either of these assumptions. We find that approximately one-third of consumers properly estimate that the number of calories an adult should consume daily. Few (8% on average) believe adults should be eating over 2,500 calories daily, and approximately one-third believe adults should eat lesser than 1,500 calories daily. Mandatory labeling in NYC did not change these findings. However, labeling did increase the number of low-income consumers who correctly estimated (within 100 calories) the number of calories in their fast food meal, from 15% before labeling in NYC increasing to 24% after labeling. Overall knowledge remains low even with labeling. Additional public policies likely need to be considered to influence obesity on a large scale. PMID:21779085

  20. Lifelong Learning and Adult Education: Russia Meets the West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajda, Joseph

    2003-03-01

    This article examines the impact of social change and economic transformation on adult education and lifelong learning in post-Soviet Russia. The article begins with a brief economic and historical background to lifelong learning and adult education in terms of its significance as a feature of the Russian cultural heritage. An analysis of Ministerial education policy and curriculum changes reveals that these policies reflect neo-liberal and neo-conservative paradigms in the post-Soviet economy and education. Current issues and trends in adult education are also discussed, with particular attention to the Adult Education Centres, which operate as a vast umbrella framework for a variety of adult education and lifelong learning initiatives. The Centres are designed to promote social justice by means of compensatory education and social rehabilitation for individuals dislocated by economic restructuring. The article comments on their role in helping to develop popular consciousness of democratic rights and active citizenship in a participatory and pluralistic democracy.

  1. Calorie Labeling in a Rural Middle School Influences Food Selection: Findings from Community-Based Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    McGinnis, Paul; Beamer, Beth Ann; O'Malley, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Background. Calorie labeling at the point-of-purchase in chain restaurants has been shown to reduce energy intake. Objective. To investigate the impact of point-of-purchase calorie information at one rural middle school. Methods. With a community-based participatory research framework a mixed method approach was used to evaluate the impact of point-of-purchase calorie information. Students in grades 6–8, dining at the school cafeteria January and February 2010, participated for 17 school days each month; in January a menu was offered in the usual manner without calorie labels; the same menu was prepared in February with the addition of calorie labels at point-of-purchase. Gross calories served per student were measured each day allowing for matched comparison by menu. In March/April of 2010, 32 students who ate in the cafeteria 3 or more times per week were interviewed regarding their views on menu labeling. Results. Calorie consumption decreased by an average of 47 calories/day; fat intake reduced by 2.1 grams/day. Five main themes were consistent throughout the interviews. Conclusion. Point-of-purchase calorie labels can play a role in reducing the number of calories consumed by middle school age children at the lunch. The majority of students interviewed found the calorie labels helped them choose healthier food. PMID:25874121

  2. Dietary restriction, caloric value and the accumulation of hepatic fat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies using laboratory animals under what are considered to be "standard" conditions normally offer unrestricted amounts of food to the animals, which can lead to metabolic disorders. Moreover, standard diets have different compositions. Aim Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of two non-isocaloric diets (commercial Purina® and AIN-93M), which are considered standard diets, on the accumulation of fat in the liver of rats when offered ad libitum or in a restricted amount. Methods Thus, 40 Wistar rats (90 days old) were separated into 4 groups according to the amount of food offered (ad libitum or dietary restriction) and the type of diet (commercial diet, 3,028.0 kcal/g or AIN-93M, 3,802.7 kcal/g): animals fed the commercial Purina® diet ad libitum (AP), animals fed restricted amounts of the commercial Purina® diet (RP), animals fed the AIN-93M diet ad libitum (AD), and animals fed restricted amounts of the AIN-93M diet (RD). Dietary restriction consisted of pair-feeding the RP and RD groups with 60% of the total food consumed by the corresponding ad libitum groups. Results Because of its higher carbohydrate and calorie content, AIN-93M was found to accelerate weight gain, reduce glucose tolerance and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and increase the amount of fat in the liver when compared to the commercial diet. Conversely, a 40% dietary restriction assisted in weight loss without causing malnutrition, contributing to an improved glucose tolerance and higher levels of HDL cholesterol. Conclusion Therefore, differences in the amount of carbohydrates and calories provided by the diet can lead to important metabolic disorders, such as impaired tolerance and accumulation of hepatic fat, and dietary restriction improves serum and tissue lipid profiles in laboratory animals. PMID:22221448

  3. Metabolic reprogramming, caloric restriction and aging

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rozalyn M.; Weindruch, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) without malnutrition slows the aging process and extends lifespan in diverse species by unknown mechanisms. The inverse linear relationship between calorie intake and lifespan suggests that regulators of energy metabolism are important in CR’s actions. Studies in several species reveal tissue-specific changes in energy metabolism with CR and suggest that metabolic reprogramming plays a critical role in its mechanism of aging retardation. We herein describe common signatures of CR and suggest how they may slow aging. We discuss recent advances in understanding the function of key metabolic regulators that likely coordinate the response to altered nutrient availability with CR, and how the pathways they regulate may retard the aging process. PMID:20004110

  4. How calorie-focused thinking about obesity and related diseases may mislead and harm public health. An alternative.

    PubMed

    Lucan, Sean C; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2015-03-01

    Prevailing thinking about obesity and related diseases holds that quantifying calories should be a principal concern and target for intervention. Part of this thinking is that consumed calories - regardless of their sources - are equivalent; i.e. 'a calorie is a calorie'. The present commentary discusses various problems with the idea that 'a calorie is a calorie' and with a primarily quantitative focus on food calories. Instead, the authors argue for a greater qualitative focus on the sources of calories consumed (i.e. a greater focus on types of foods) and on the metabolic changes that result from consuming foods of different types. In particular, the authors consider how calorie-focused thinking is inherently biased against high-fat foods, many of which may be protective against obesity and related diseases, and supportive of starchy and sugary replacements, which are likely detrimental. Shifting the focus to qualitative food distinctions, a central argument of the paper is that obesity and related diseases are problems due largely to food-induced physiology (e.g. neurohormonal pathways) not addressable through arithmetic dieting (i.e. calorie counting). The paper considers potential harms of public health initiatives framed around calorie balance sheets - targeting 'calories in' and/or 'calories out' - that reinforce messages of overeating and inactivity as underlying causes, rather than intermediate effects, of obesity. Finally, the paper concludes that public health should work primarily to support the consumption of whole foods that help protect against obesity-promoting energy imbalance and metabolic dysfunction and not continue to promote calorie-directed messages that may create and blame victims and possibly exacerbate epidemics of obesity and related diseases. PMID:25416919

  5. Calories Consumed from Alcoholic Beverages by U.S. Adults, 2007-2010

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Nutrition Examination Survey. Are there differences by poverty level in mean calories consumed from alcoholic beverages? ... those living at or above 350% of the poverty level, higher than the average of just over ...

  6. Positive affect modulates activity in the visual cortex to images of high calorie foods.

    PubMed

    Killgore, William D S; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

    2007-05-01

    Activity within the visual cortex can be influenced by the emotional salience of a stimulus, but it is not clear whether such cortical activity is modulated by the affective status of the individual. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the relationship between affect ratings on the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and activity within the occipital cortex of 13 normal-weight women while viewing images of high calorie and low calorie foods. Regression analyses revealed that when participants viewed high calorie foods, Positive Affect correlated significantly with activity within the lingual gyrus and calcarine cortex, whereas Negative Affect was unrelated to visual cortex activity. In contrast, during presentations of low calorie foods, affect ratings, regardless of valence, were unrelated to occipital cortex activity. These findings suggest a mechanism whereby positive affective state may affect the early stages of sensory processing, possibly influencing subsequent perceptual experience of a stimulus. PMID:17464782

  7. Severe Protein-Calorie Malnutrition and Cognitive Development in Infancy and Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockman, Lois M.; Ricciuti, Henry N.

    1971-01-01

    Following nutritional recovery from severe protein-calorie deficiency, 20 young children evidenced a retarded level of categorization behavior compared to a control group of 19 adequately nourished children from similar socioeconomic background. (NH)

  8. Selected Intakes of Energy from Empty Calories, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    Cancer.gov

    This section provides information on population distributions of energy intakes from solid fats, alcoholic beverages and added sugars. These sources of energy comprise a major portion of the discretionary calories consumed by the US population.

  9. Flavor-calorie relationships: effect on weight gain in rats.

    PubMed

    Warwick, Z S; Schiffman, S S

    1991-09-01

    The effects of flavor variety, caloric density variety, and inconsistency of flavor-caloric density relationships on caloric intake and weight gain were studied in 36 young male rats. Lab chow was diluted with cellulose to produce three foods that differed in caloric density while having identical nutritional composition. High-density (HD) food contained 3.33 kcal/g; mid-density (MD) food contained 2.64 kcal/g; low-density (LD) food contained 2.06 kcal/g. These foods were flavored with nonnutritive powders and were used in four different feeding regimens. For 15 days, group FLAV ate MD with one of 3 flavors added daily in a 3-day rotation. Groups DENS and NOVEL rotated daily among LD, HD, and MD. One of three flavors was added to each food. For group DENS, LD always contained one flavor, MD always contained another flavor, and HD always contained the third flavor. For group NOVEL, flavor-density pairings were not consistent. A control group, CONT, ate only MD with a single flavor. Weight gain was greatest in group NOVEL. Neither density variety nor flavor variety alone enhanced weight gain relative to control. In a subsequent experiment, group NOVEL did not display a preference for a glucose-paired flavor. These results suggest that reduced orosensory control of energy balance induced by uncoupling of flavor-calorie relationships contributes to weight gain. PMID:1800996

  10. Development of low calorie snack food based on intense sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Patil, Swapna; Ravi, R; Saraswathi, G; Prakash, Maya

    2014-12-01

    Intense sweeteners namely Aspartame, Acesulfame K and Sucralose were used in the preparation of sugar substitute sprinklers and these were used in snack food, replacing sugar. Study was conducted with an objective to develop low calorie snack food. The psychometric study showed that the threshold values for Acesulfame K, Aspartame and Sucralose were 0.012, 0.030 and 0.005 g respectively. The time intensity study revealed that among three sweeteners Aspartame had more lingering sweetness (at 60 s). The sensory evaluation of Shankarpoli prepared using refined wheat flour revealed that there was no significant difference in typical attributes of the snack; Aspartame and Acesulfame K had same sweetness intensity where as Sucralose had higher intensity of sweetness. Consumer acceptance study revealed that 53 % of the consumers liked the snack with Sucralose, which is highest compared to other two sweeteners namely Aspartame and Acesulfame K (47 %). Thus sweeteners can be used as sweetening agents in traditional food preparations. PMID:25477687

  11. Metabolic effects of fasting and very low calorie diets

    SciTech Connect

    Henson, L.C.

    1986-01-01

    To examine the mechanism of nitrogen sparing in obese subjects on very low calorie diets (VLC-PS), effects of total fasting (TF) and VLC-PS (380 Kcal/day) supplying protein without carbohydrate on metabolites, hormones, urea nitrogen excretion, and plasma (3-/sup 3/H)glucose turnover, (U-/sup 14/C)lysine flux, and (1-/sup 14/C)leucine flux and oxidation were compared. Subjects with a wide range of relative obesity were studied during a control period and after one week of TF. Urea excretion and lysine flux decreased in all subjects, while 3-methylhistidine excretion was unchanged. Glucagon:insulin ratio and cortisol increased, while triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) decreased and would be expected to be nitrogen-sparing. In a separate study, groups of obese women were studied during a control period and during 14 days of TF or VLC-PS supplying either 80 g (80G) or 40 g (40G) high-quality protein. Increases in branched chain amino acids, ..beta..-hydroxybutyrate, and glucagon:insulin ratio and decrease in T/sub 3/ did not differ among groups. Glucose production decreased to the same extent in all groups. Serum and urinary urea nitrogen were maintained at control values throughout the diet in 80G but decreased to the same extent in TF and 40G. Nitrogen balance estimated from urea nitrogen appearance was negative in all groups.

  12. Lifelong Learning: Making It Work. An Adult Learning Australia Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tony, Ed.

    This discussion paper is from the Adult Learners Week National Seminar on Lifelong Learning Policy (Canberra, Australia, September 1999) that identified a number of ideas about how to foster national policy development on lifelong learning. It consists of three sections. Part 1 contains "A National Lifelong Learning Policy for Australia?" (Tony…

  13. International Handbook of Lifelong Learning. Part One [and] Part Two. Kluwer International Handbooks of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspin, David, Ed.; Chapman, Judith, Ed.; Hatton, Michael, Ed.; Sawano, Yukiko, Ed.

    These volumes contain 40 papers examining the principles, policies, structure, and practice of lifelong learning worldwide. The following are among the papers included: "Towards a Philosophy of Lifelong Learning" (David Aspin, Judith Chapman); "Locating Lifelong Learning and Education in Contemporary Currents of Thought and Culture" (Richard…

  14. Risk Management by a Neoliberal State: Construction of New Knowledge through Lifelong Learning in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Akihiro

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the current developments in Japan's lifelong learning policy and practices. I argue that promoting lifelong learning is an action that manages the risks of governance for the neoliberal state. Implementing a new lifelong learning policy involves the employment of a political technique toward integrating the currently divided…

  15. Conceptions of Lifelong Learning in Confucian Culture: Their Impact on Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Weiyuan

    2008-01-01

    The philosophy and practice of lifelong learning has a long history in China, being traceable to Confucius's idea (circa 500 BC) of "education for all". However, very little research has been done on the development of the Confucian idea of lifelong learning in ancient China, or on its influence on current practices of lifelong learning within the…

  16. Meta-Analyses from a Collaborative Project in Mobile Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrigo, Marco; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes; Arnedillo-Sanchez, Inmaculada; Kismihok, Gabor

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of mobile technologies in relation to the aims of the European Union's Lifelong Learning programme. First, we explain the background to the notion of mobile lifelong learning. We then present a methodological framework to analyse and identify good practices in mobile lifelong learning, based on the outcomes of the…

  17. An Examination of Lifelong Learning Policy Rhetoric and Practice in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Pak Tee

    2013-01-01

    Lifelong learning is now a recurring topic in national human resource, employment, entrepreneurship and educational reform discourse. In Singapore, the government urges citizens to be lifelong learners to enhance their employability and reminds them that lifelong learning is a survival strategy for the country. This paper presents and analyses…

  18. Lifelong Learning: Characteristics, Skills, and Activities for a Business College Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The literature places great importance on lifelong learning, but leaves its meaning open to a wide range of interpretations. Much is written about lifelong learning after leaving school with little about business college preparation of lifelong learners. This is the departure point for the study's providing one college's operational definition of…

  19. Pre-Service Teachers as Lifelong Learners: University Facilities for Promoting Their Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Köksal, Necla; Çögmen, Suna

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Many countries pay more attention to the modern concept of lifelong learning as an educational issue with the Bologna Process. As higher education has a significant role to play in the lifelong learning of teachers, pre-service teachers need supportive learning environments that foster the culture of lifelong learning at the…

  20. The Constitution of Agency in Developing Lifelong Learning Ability: The "Being" Mode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Ya-Hui

    2011-01-01

    In an age of uncertainty, one of the aims of higher education is to establish lifelong learning abilities in students. However, different authors remain divided on the question of what constitutes "lifelong learning ability". This article proposes the hypothesis that the cultivation of lifelong learning abilities in higher education needs to be…

  1. Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia and Germany. Australia Centre Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gerald, Ed.; Reuling, Jochen, Ed.

    This document contains 17 papers on vocational training and lifelong learning in Australia and Germany. The following papers are included: "Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia and Germany: Background" (Gerald Burke); "Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia: Observations and Conclusions from a German Perspective"…

  2. Lifelong Learning Bibliography: A European VET Perspective, January-June 2001. CEDEFOP Dossier Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willem, Marc, Ed.; Brenner, Bettina, Ed.; da Cruz, Carlos, Ed.; Santos, Maite, Ed.; Waniart, Anne, Ed.

    This first issue of the semi-annual lifelong learning bibliography contains references to output from January to June 2001, a time of intense debate and reflection on lifelong learning in Europe. It also includes monographs, chapters, journal articles, legal texts, Internet sites, and CD-ROMs dealing with lifelong learning at European,…

  3. The EU "Memorandum on Lifelong Learning". Old Wine in New Bottles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Carmel; Mayo, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a critical analysis of the EU's "Memorandum on lifelong learning" in light of the evolution of the concepts of lifelong education and lifelong learning from the late sixties onward. It also analyses this document in light of the forces of globalisation that impinge on educational policy-making in Europe as well as the…

  4. Developing a Lifelong Learning System in Ethiopia: Contextual Considerations and Propositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abiy, Dessalegn Samuel; Kabeta, Genet Gelana; Mihiretie, Dawit Mekonnen

    2014-01-01

    Initiated by a "Pilot workshop on developing capacity for establishing lifelong learning systems in UNESCO Member States" held at the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, the purpose of this study was to develop a Lifelong Learning system in Ethiopia. Preparations for its conceptualisation included the review of relevant national…

  5. Metacognition and Lifelong E-Learning: A Contextual and Cyclical Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrall, Lisa; Bell, Frances

    2007-01-01

    Metacognition is arguably an important conceptualisation within the area of lifelong e-learning, with many theorists and practitioners claiming that it enhances the learning process. However, the lifelong, cyclical and flexible aspects of "before", "during" and "after" metacognitions within lifelong e-learning (inclusive of whether an "input"…

  6. How Social and Human Capital Predict Participation in Lifelong Learning: A Longitudinal Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipprath, Heidi; De Rick, Katleen

    2015-01-01

    Policy makers and researchers are increasingly showing interest in lifelong learning due to a rising unemployment rate in recent years. Much attention has been paid to determinants and benefits of lifelong learning but not to the impact of social capital on lifelong learning so far. In this article, we study how social and human capital can…

  7. The Gaian Paradigm: Cooperative Community Life-Long Learning Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Bill

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative community life-long learning centers may be the catalyst for fundamental change in the existing authoritarian education system. An outgrowth of the homeschooling movement, these cooperatively owned centers use community resources to provide a wide range of learning services to everyone regardless of age, ability, or status. (TD)

  8. Research in the Osher Lifelong Learning Institute Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, R. Jack; Brady, E. Michael

    2013-01-01

    A 19-question online survey was administered to all 115 directors of Osher Lifelong Learning Institutes (OLLIs) across the United States to explore the extent to which research is being conducted and for what purposes. A response rate of 87% was attained. Findings revealed that most research focused on issues such as course and instructor…

  9. School Nurse Book Clubs: An Innovative Strategy for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenawald, Deborah A.; Adams, Theresa M.

    2008-01-01

    Recognizing the ongoing need for continuing education for school nurses, the authors discuss the use of school nurse book clubs as an innovative lifelong-learning strategy. Current research supports the use of literature in nursing education. This article discusses the benefits of book club participation for school nurses and includes suggested…

  10. Real Stakeholder Education? Lifelong Learning in the Buffyverse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Christine

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the representation of lifelong learning in "Buffy the Vampire Slayer (BtVS)." Critics acknowledge the series' representation of school life, but pay less attention to its emphasis on self-directed adult learning. The article draws on the extensive range of academic "BtVS" writing and on relevant educational theory concerned…

  11. The End of Lifelong Learning: A Post-Human Condition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the significance of theories of the post-human for lifelong learning. Drawing upon the works of Karen Barad and Bruno Latour, it suggests that education has focused on the learning subject as a result of an a priori assumption of a separation of matter from meaning, the object from the subject. By contrast, a post-human…

  12. Cartographical Imaginations: Spatiality, Adult Education and Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Richard; Cervero, Ron; Clarke, Julia; Morgan-Klein, Brenda; Usher, Robin; Wilson, Arthur

    Recent empirical and theoretical literature in cultural geography, feminist and postcolonial philosophy, cultural studies, and political economy, was explored in an examination of the significance of spatiality to the changes taking place in the policy, practice, and study of adult education and lifelong learning. The following were among the key…

  13. Individual Learning Accounts: A Strategy for Lifelong Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renkema, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Since the end of the previous century social partners in different branches of industry have laid down measures to stimulate individual learning and competence development of workers in collective labour agreements. Special attention is given to stimulating learning demand among traditional non-participants to lifelong learning, such as…

  14. Towards CONFINTEA VI: Lifelong Learning Advocacy in South Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrova, Anelia

    2007-01-01

    Adult learning is a field that has so far been neglected in education and training reforms in South Eastern European countries and territories but which is beginning to emerge as an important policy area. Further efforts are needed to foster national policy debate about the importance of lifelong learning (and adult education as a vital component…

  15. An Empirical Framework for Implementing Lifelong Learning Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Song Seng; Low, Sock Hwee

    Based on a literature review of factors that affect the provision of learning opportunities for adults and the experiences of Singapore's Institute of Technical Education (ITE), this paper proposes an empirical framework for developing and implementing lifelong learning systems. Following an introduction, the theoretical foundation for the…

  16. Quality Assurance in Lifelong Learning. ENQA Workshop Report 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengoetxea, Endika; Kallioinen, Outi; Schmidt-Jortzig, Immo; Thorn, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of Lifelong Learning (LLL) in European higher education institutions is one of the most important educational and carrier development oriented initiatives of this decade. Albeit an essential path in the continuous improvement of skills, competences and knowledge throughout the life of an individual, this project is also…

  17. Design of Educational Delivery Systems for Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, R. Oliver; Gilbert, Randall L.

    To clarify delivery system concepts, several topics will be addressed: educational needs of lower-income older people, formulation of a design concept, specification of the system's concrete aspects, and research/development implications. As the proportion of persons over age sixty-four grows and sensitivity to unmet lifelong learning needs rises,…

  18. Measuring the Returns to Lifelong Learning. CEE DP 110

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanden, Jo; Buscha, Franz; Sturgis, Patrick; Urwin, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Using the 1991 to 2007 waves of the UK British Household Panel Survey (BHPS), the authors estimate a fixed effects specification that has as outcomes (i) earnings and (ii) an indicator of social position measured using the CAMSIS scale. Adopting a fixed effects specification enables them to isolate the role of lifelong learning on these two…

  19. Financing Lifelong Learning for All: An International Perspective. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gerald

    Recent international discussions provide information on various countries' responses to lifelong learning, including the following: (1) existing unmet needs and emerging needs for education and training; (2) funds required compared with what was provided; and (3) methods for acquiring additional funds, among them efficiency measures leading to…

  20. Achieving Lifelong Music Education: Cooperation, Coordination, and Coherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazareth, Theresa C.

    1998-01-01

    Explains that education should provide the knowledge and skills that promote improvement in ones quality of life and foster personal development during the life span of an individual. Identifies various suggestions for encouraging lifelong music learning in adults ages 35-50 through age-appropriate and challenging activities. (CMK)

  1. Measuring the Earnings Returns to Lifelong Learning in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanden, Jo; Buscha, Franz; Sturgis, Patrick; Urwin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the earnings returns to learning that takes place following the conventional "school-to-work" stage of the life-course. We operationalise such "lifelong learning" as the attainment of certified qualifications in adulthood, following the completion of the first period of continuous full-time education. Using data from the…

  2. The Shifting Demographics and Lifelong Learning. Conference Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This paper was presented at the International Symposium on Lifelong Learning for Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Development: Developing a Research Agenda for the Asia-Pacific in Hong Kong, 12-13 January 2011. Tom Karmel suggests that there are four implications of an ageing population: the need to improve labour force participation and…

  3. Lifelong Learning for Elders in Hong Kong: Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    Hong Kong's ageing population is growing at an unprecedented rate. Over the past two decades, the government has implemented policies and innovative engagement activities for elders in areas including lifelong learning and community participation. This paper aims to discuss conceptual, policy and practical issues relevant to the participation of…

  4. Cyberspace Education and Lifelong Learning for Professionals: Dangerous Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattem, Linda; Reynolds, Kathryn; Bernhardt, Gregory R.; Burdeshaw, Jean R.

    Rapidly advancing technology presents challenges in the education of helping professionals. With these challenges come limitless opportunities. Using technology, professionals reach more people, individualize therapeutic approaches, access more resources, and support different learning styles. And they become lifelong learners themselves as they…

  5. Lifelong Learning Center: An Experiment in Counseling Succeeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Arthur

    1979-01-01

    Describes the evolution and program of Philadelphia's Lifelong Learning Center, which stresses helping individuals to overcome problems of unemployment due to job obsolescence, mid-life career change, women returning to the job market, and career education and planning. Both workshops and individual interviews are used in working with clients.…

  6. The Potential for Literacy to Shape Lifelong Cognitive Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.; Hussey, Erika K.; Ng, Shukhan

    2015-01-01

    In light of population aging, an understanding of factors that promote lifelong cognitive resilience is urgent. There is considerable evidence that education early in the life span, which promotes the development of literacy skills, leads to cognitive health and longevity, but the ways in which activity engagement in later adulthood affects…

  7. The Development of a System for Supporting the Lifelong Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Sara; Harrison, Ian; Magoulas, George; Mee, Adrian; Mohamad, Fitri; Oliver, Martin; Papamarkos, George; Poulovassilis, Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    Given the rapidly changing skills needs of post-industrial economies, lifelong learning forms an integral part of government policy within the UK and abroad. However, like the UK, most economies are faced with the problem of how to reach those sections of the community that have traditionally not embraced learning and educational opportunities. In…

  8. The Norwegian Competence Reform and the Limits of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Today, "lifelong learning for all" figures prominently within the education and training policies of governments throughout the developed world and is presented as a powerful solution to a wide range of economic and social challenges. Norway is often regarded as a country that has perhaps made more progress towards this ideal than many others.…

  9. Values Added: The Lifelong Returns of an Independent School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS), 2004

    2004-01-01

    This report highlights findings from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS), a study funded by the U.S. Department of Education that charted the life experiences of nearly 25,000 students from public and private schools from the time they were eighth graders through their mid-20s. "Values Added: The Lifelong Benefits of an Independent…

  10. Lifelong Learning in Artistic Context Mediated by Advanced Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Mirella

    2016-01-01

    This research starts by analysing the current state of artistic heritage in Italy and studying some examples in Europe: we try to investigate the scope of non-formal learning in artistic context, mediated by advanced technology. The framework within which we have placed our investigation is that of lifelong learning and lifedeep learning. The…

  11. Lifelong Learning: Proceedings of a Symposium. 16 May 2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selby Smith, Chris, Ed.; Ferrier, Fran, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    The Educational Research Centre for the Economics of Education and Training (CEET) conducted a survey focusing on lifelong learning and the world of work, particularly on the need for retraining and upgrading of skills and knowledge. The survey involved five different approaches: surveys of the available quantitative and qualitative material; a…

  12. Who Wants What? Lifelong Learning Centers Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donsky, Aaron P.; And Others

    To examine characteristics and needs of participants and potential participants of nineteen lifelong learning centers in Lake County, Ohio, a study was conducted. Because of the great variety of agency offerings, no attempt was made to summarize or analyze results. A descriptive format was used, and agencies were encouraged to examine performance…

  13. Foundations of Life-Long Sexual Health Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Allyson Stella; Patrick, Julie Hicks

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Sexual education in adolescence may represent the only formal sexual information individuals ever receive. It is unclear whether this early educational experience is sufficient to promote lifelong sexual health literacy. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of the timing and source of sexual knowledge on current safe sex…

  14. Competences, Learning Theories and MOOCs: Recent Developments in Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffens, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Our societies have come to be known as knowledge societies in which lifelong learning is becoming increasingly important. In this context, competences have become a much discussed topic. Many documents were published by international organisations (UNESCO, World Bank, European Commission) which enumerated 21st century key competences. The field of…

  15. Making Lifelong Learning Work: Learning Cities for a Learning Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longworth, Norman

    This book demonstrates how lifelong learning has become a rapidly developing reality as learning communities emerge in which business and industry, schools, colleges, universities, professional organizations, and local government are cooperating and building dynamic new environments to foster learning. The following are among the topics discussed:…

  16. Demographic and Behavioral Characteristics of Osher Lifelong Learning Institute Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Robert Jack; Brady, E. Michael; Thaxton, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    The number of lifelong learning institutes (LLIs) is growing across the United States and it is important for educational planners and administrators to know about current demographic and behavioral characteristics of program participants. A 14-question survey was administered via SurveyMonkey to members who use computers in eight Osher Lifelong…

  17. Lifelong Learning for Sustainable Community Development in a Japanese Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruyama, Hideki

    2009-01-01

    The scope of lifelong learning in Japan covers school education and informal learning. Japan faces large social changes: severe child population decline could ease competition for entrance examination but students are pushed to win in the society; cyber communication changes the human relationships more invisible and atomized; the gap between…

  18. Conceptual Evolution and Policy Developments in Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jin, Ed.; Valdes-Cotera, Raul, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    In recognition of the status of the World Expo 2010 in Shanghai as a platform for exchange of ideas and experience in lifelong learning, UNESCO, the Shanghai Municipal People's Government, the Chinese Society of Educational Development Strategy and the Chinese National Commission for UNESCO joined forces to co-organise the Shanghai International…

  19. Lifelong Learning in Architectural Design Studio: The Learning Contract Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassanpour, B.; Che-Ani, A. I.; Usman, I. M. S.; Johar, S.; Tawil, N. M.

    2015-01-01

    Avant-garde educational systems are striving to find lifelong learning methods. Different fields and majors have tested a variety of proposed models and found varying difficulties and strengths. Architecture is one of the most critical areas of education because of its special characteristics, such as learning by doing and complicated evaluation…

  20. Lifelong Learning at the Heart of All We Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willmott, Ross

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the author shares his perspective on the future of lifelong learning by looking back to the vision of the pioneers of adult learning, and picking out four messages that are relevant as people face their own, distinct, challenges. The author stresses the need to seize the opportunity to reinvigorate the original vision of adult…

  1. What Did Lifelong Learning Networks Ever Do for Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Jill

    2009-01-01

    The case for Lifelong Learning Networks (LLNs) was made by Sir Howard Newby, then Chief Executive of the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE), in the Colin Bell Memorial Lecture in March 2004. Their purpose was to widen participation by combining the strengths of diverse higher education institutions (HEIs) and further education…

  2. Preparation for Lifelong Learning Using ePortfolios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, E.; Bhattacharya, M.; Rayudu, R.

    2007-01-01

    Rapid technological change, increasing globalization and a changing world of employment with multiple roles during one's professional life are necessitating a change from knowledge to learning societies. Full participation requires lifelong learning skills, meaning the ability to solve problems, work both independently and in a team, communicate…

  3. Sequence Dance for Lifelong Leisure Activity: An International Experience!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, John P.

    This paper provides the outline of a session in dance at the annual meeting of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance. The purpose of the session was to provide an opportunity to celebrate individual differences while learning new skills for lifelong leisure activity through an English dance form known as…

  4. Lifelong Learning in Europe: Equity and Efficiency in the Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila, Ed.; Markowitsch, Jorg, Ed.; Weedon, Elisabet, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing economic crisis in Europe raises fundamental questions about the European Union's ability to harmonize educational policy across its member states. With evidence that European unity is clearly faltering, many educational goals, including lifelong learning, are in trouble. In this book, the contributors work toward a greater…

  5. Basil Yeaxlee and Lifelong Education: Caught in Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross-Durant, Angela

    1984-01-01

    Basil Yeaxlee believed in the examination of life as the foundation for all learning, in a Christian context. The question of meanings, the purpose of life, and their relationship to education, as well as lifelong learning as a metaphysical quest, are the foundations of his philosophy. (SK)

  6. Lifelong Learning Bibliography: A European VET Perspective. CEDEFOP Dossier Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    This annotated bibliography is designed to inform vocational education and training specialists in Europe of new publications on lifelong learning. The 394 publications included are organized into four sections. Section 1 is organized by the following key themes: (1) skill development (literacy, learning to learn); (2) human and financial…

  7. Got Ice? Teaching Ice-Skating as a Lifelong Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarkinton, Brenda C.; Karp, Grace Goc

    2010-01-01

    With today's focus on the importance of lifelong physical activity, educators are increasingly offering a variety of such activities in their classes, as well as in before- and after-school programs. This article describes the benefits of offering ice skating as a challenging and rewarding lifetime activity, either before or after school or in…

  8. My Lifelong Learning Realm: An Autoethnography Experiential Learning in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh

    2011-01-01

    My journey to write autoethnography report started with inclination to learn cultural and social phenomena in Finland. This was my realm of learning through experiential learning. The ontological philosophy was perceived through objectivistic and subjectivistic approaches. The lifelong experiential learning realm was a benchmark for me to perceive…

  9. Economic Costs and Benefits of Lifelong Learning in Livingston, Montana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirk, John C.

    A Livingston, Montana, study on lifelong learning was conducted in two parts. The first part gathered data about the following: (1) what respondents had learned in the previous 12 months; (2) their sources of information and how they rated them; (3) why they initiated learning activities; (4) economic costs and benefits; (5) what they might like…

  10. Lifelong Learning in the EU: Changing Conceptualisations, Actors, and Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volles, Nina

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the changing conceptualisations, actors, and policies of lifelong learning (LLL) in the European Union (EU) from the time the topic first emerged and was promoted by international organisations in the 1960s. The author uses Kingdon's Multiple Streams Framework to analyse how the LLL discourse became an important part of the EU…

  11. UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning: Annual Report 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In the introduction to this report, UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) Director, Arne Carlsen, announces that UIL is presenting a new design and a new concept, aiming to make the report more reader-friendly. The main activities are highlighted, testimonies from beneficiaries and actors are included, and the report opens with a…

  12. Lifelong Learning and the Sultans of Spin: Policy as Persuasion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicoll, Katherine; Edwards, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This paper seeks to extend work previously published that points to the importance of rhetorical analysis to policy studies. It argues against the notion that policy can be dismissed as 'spin' and explores further the work of rhetoric within the UK government's policy texts of lifelong learning. For the authors, rhetorical analysis helps to point…

  13. Self-Directed Lifelong Learning in Hybrid Learning Configurations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cremers, Petra H. M.; Wals, Arjen E. J.; Wesselink, Renate; Nieveen, Nienke; Mulder, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Present-day students are expected to be lifelong learners throughout their working life. Higher education must therefore prepare students to self-direct their learning beyond formal education, in real-life working settings. This can be achieved in so-called hybrid learning configurations in which working and learning are integrated. In such a…

  14. The Lifelong Learning Ecosystem in Korea: Evolution of Learning Capitalism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Soonghee

    2008-01-01

    Korean lifelong learning in practice is gradually adapted by neo-liberals and the discourses of the economic market. Considering that the public foundation of Korean education is fragile to cope with the market challenge, the whole picture of Korean learning ecology is rapidly distorted towards the establishment of the learning market and the…

  15. The Significance of School for Life-Long Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karvonen, Juhani

    1971-01-01

    Argues that the disengagement of the school from social reality on one hand, and from the objectives and needs of the pupil on the other, are factors strongly preventing the forming of positive learning attitudes and thus essentially weakening the psychological conditions for life-long education. (RB)

  16. Lifelong Learning Policies in Mexico: Context, Challenges and Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez-Mendiola, German

    2006-01-01

    For Mexico, a country characterised by a high degree of inequality both with regard to income and education, concepts such as the "knowledge-based economy" and Lifelong Learning are even more elusive than in other countries. Given its poor school system and the large part of the adult population who are without any basic educational…

  17. Lifelong Learning in the People's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Huiping; Ye, Qilian

    Despite the relative novelty of lifelong learning in the People's Republic of China (PRC), significant achievements have been made, and China's potential for economic development and personal enrichment remains undisputed. Economic and social change, as well as technological advancements, have profoundly influenced educational development and…

  18. PKS: An Ontology-Based Learning Construct for Lifelong Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manganello, Flavio; Falsetti, Carla; Spalazzi. Luca; Leo, Tommaso

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses adult lifelong learners, i.e., persons interested in learning or compelled to learn during their working life but not able to, or not interested in participating in formal learning. These learners are motivated and self-aware enough to self-direct their learning, are presumed to be novices with respect to the needed knowledge…

  19. Knowledge, Sentience and Receptivity: A Paradigm of Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eneroth, Bo

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to develop a paradigm of lifelong learning situations. The starting point is the EU-Commission policy document where three kinds of learning situations are identified: formal, non-formal and informal. The article tries to deepen this categorisation by searching for the underlying ontological and epistemological dimensions. The…

  20. Lifelong Learning and Development: A Perspective from the "South"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, Julia

    2009-01-01

    This paper highlights some tensions regarding lifelong learning discourses for countries which are listed in the lower part of international development indexes. Such countries are often referred to collectively as the "South", though this represents a political focus rather than geographical accuracy and usually represents those formerly…

  1. "Active Learning for Active Citizenship": Democratic Citizenship and Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annette, John

    2009-01-01

    This article explores to what extent citizenship education for lifelong learning should be based on a more "political" or civic republican conception of citizenship as compared to a liberal individualist conception, which emphasizes individual rights, or a communitarian conception, which emphasizes moral and social responsibilities. It also…

  2. Lifelong Learning & Distance Higher Education. Perspectives on Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Christopher, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Reflecting a common objective of ensuring quality Education for All, this book is a joint initiative of UNESCO and COL and jointly published. Lifelong Learning in Distance Higher Education brings together a diverse group of experts from many countries. The book provides a clear picture of the challenges, problems and potential of distance higher…

  3. Lifelong learning: Foundational models, underlying assumptions and critiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2015-04-01

    Lifelong learning has become a catchword in almost all countries because of its growing influence on education policies in the globalised world. In the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the European Union (EU), the promotion of lifelong learning has been a strategy to speed up economic growth and become competitive. For UNESCO and the World Bank, lifelong learning has been a novel education model to improve educational policies and programmes in developing countries. In the existing body of literature on the topic, various models of lifelong learning are discussed. After reviewing a number of relevant seminal texts by proponents of a variety of schools, this paper argues that the vast number of approaches are actually built on two foundational models, which the author calls the "human capital model" and the "humanistic model". The former aims to increase productive capacity by encouraging competition, privatisation and human capital formation so as to enhance economic growth. The latter aims to strengthen democracy and social welfare by fostering citizenship education, building social capital and expanding capability.

  4. Lifelong Learning: Web-Based Information Literacy Module for Merchandisers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Jean D.; Frey, Diane K.; Swinker, Mary E.

    2005-01-01

    Universities are strategically positioned to serve as a vital impetus in developing pre-professionals' lifelong learning skills. The development of a Web portal, InfoWIZARD, a tool for integrating information literacy and information technology in problem-based research assignments is described in this article. InfoWIZARD includes 20 modules in…

  5. Perceptions of Workplace Mentoring Behaviors for Lifelong Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Lynne A.

    2013-01-01

    This study's purpose was to investigate the importance of mentoring functions and behaviors for lifelong career development as perceived by protégés. The population included individuals in middle to late adulthood (age 40 years and older) who reported they had been a protege in at least one mentoring association perceived as beneficial to their…

  6. Roundtable: Theory, Policy and Practice in Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Sabine, Ed.

    This document contains outlines of 14 presentations at a roundtable discussion on theory, policy, and practice in lifelong learning that was held during a conference on human resource development (HRD) research and practice across Europe. Outlines of the following presentations and discussions are included: "Discourses on HRD and Lifelong…

  7. Fundamentals of Adult Education: Issues and Practices for Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poonwassie, Deo H., Ed.; Poonwassie, Anne, Ed.

    This document contains 20 papers on the fundamentals of adult education and foundations, practices, and issues for lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "The Metamorphoses of Andragogy" (James A. Draper); "Stages in the Development of Canadian Adult Education" (Gordon Selman); "Philosophical Considerations" (Mark Selman); "Theory…

  8. Lifelong Learning and the New Economy: Rhetoric or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruikshank, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Historically, lifelong learning (under the name adult education) in Canada had a broad base and covered a wide variety of purposes and activities. Many programs included social, community and social justice visions and worked to strengthen local communities. However, with the advent of the so-called New Economy, this has changed. Canadian…

  9. Designing a Mobile System for Lifelong Learning on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, X.; Gu, F.; Laffey, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The Life-long Learning Initiative seeks to fulfil a variety of learning needs for Shanghai citizens. Given the popularity of mobile devices in Shanghai, the ability to provide learning in informal settings through mobile devices is a key objective and challenge of the Initiative. In order to learn how to develop usable learning content for…

  10. From Policy to Guidelines: Metamorphosis of Lifelong Learning in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandal, Sayantan

    2013-01-01

    In this era of globalisation, the present perception of lifelong learning (LLL) in the Indian policy domain has been going through major changes in an attempt to make it nationally realistic yet globally viable. In this process, all facets of the concept of LLL are constantly metamorphosing, and this in many ways outperforms the older perception…

  11. Lifelong Learning: The Whole DAMN Cycle--A Singapore Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Daphne Yuen

    The Desire, Ability, Means, and Need (DAMN) Cycle is a useful paradigm for understanding the lifelong learning framework in Singapore. The cycle suggests that, for learning to occur, students must have a desire and an ability to learn, including inquiring minds and higher order process skills; the means must be provided through a well-defined…

  12. Action Learning Guided by Tao for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San, Sam Kong

    2006-01-01

    Information Technology brings about rapid changes in working environment, quickly rendering skills and knowledge gained in formal learning institutions obsolete. Even as they prepare students for their first career, institutions also need to equip students with skills necessary for lifelong learning. The Nanyang Technological University (NTU),…

  13. The Struggle Over Lifelong Learning: A Marxist-Feminist Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojab, Shahrzad; Gorman, Rachel

    Political and economic upheavals in the 1990s have left their mark on adult education. A major source of change is globalization of the capitalist economy and its restructuring, which make extraordinary demands on education, particularly adult education. Lifelong learning has become an ideological distraction shifting the burden of increasing…

  14. Promoting Lifelong Learning in Multilingual Context: A Case from Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2011-01-01

    Nepal is a multilingual country with low adult literacy rate (about 57% in 2008). Through different policy documents and motivation from some of the transnational organizations such as UNESCO, Nepal is on the process of adopting lifelong learning perspective as a major educational policy. In this context the article raises two issues: how to…

  15. Education in the Rural American Community: A Lifelong Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Michael W., Ed.

    This book provides a conceptual and practical framework for understanding lifelong education in the context of the multifaceted rural community. The goal of the discussion is to develop educational programs involving new combinations of services and new organizational arrangements so that individuals will become resourceful, autonomous, and…

  16. Diet and body composition. Effect of very low calorie diets and exercise.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, J E; Jakicic, J; Gunderson, S

    1991-10-01

    Obesity is the presence of excess body fat and is associated with a variety of medical conditions which increase morbidity and mortality. Millions of individuals participate in weight-reduction programmes which include reduced calorie diets and may also include exercise. Very low calorie diets (VLCD) of 400 to 800 kcal/day appear attractive as they generally show an increase in weight loss from 0.2 to 0.5 kg/week found with the traditional diet to 1.5 to 2.0 kg/week. Early use of very low calorie diets with poor quality protein and loose medical supervision resulted in about 60 deaths, many of which were attributed to loss of lean body mass and in particular, cardiac muscle atrophy. Although current very low calorie diets are presumed safe, concern regarding preservation of lean body mass (LBM) remains. Investigators have used exercise to slow the depletion of lean body mass during very low calorie diets; however, the results are not conclusive. A host of different methodologies and questionable documentation and design of exercise protocols precludes a definitive statement for the benefits of exercise during very low calorie diets for the purpose of LBM retention. PMID:1784876

  17. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of restaurant menu calorie labeling.

    PubMed

    Long, Michael W; Tobias, Deirdre K; Cradock, Angie L; Batchelder, Holly; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2015-05-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the relationship between menu calorie labeling and calories ordered or purchased in the PubMed, Web of Science, PolicyFile, and PAIS International databases through October 2013. Among 19 studies, menu calorie labeling was associated with a -18.13 kilocalorie reduction ordered per meal with significant heterogeneity across studies (95% confidence interval = -33.56, -2.70; P = .021; I(2) = 61.0%). However, among 6 controlled studies in restaurant settings, labeling was associated with a nonsignificant -7.63 kilocalorie reduction (95% confidence interval = -21.02, 5.76; P = .264; I(2) = 9.8%). Although current evidence does not support a significant impact on calories ordered, menu calorie labeling is a relatively low-cost education strategy that may lead consumers to purchase slightly fewer calories. These findings are limited by significant heterogeneity among nonrestaurant studies and few studies conducted in restaurant settings. PMID:25790388

  18. BMI Modulates Calorie-Dependent Dopamine Changes in Accumbens from Glucose Intake

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gene-Jack; Tomasi, Dardo; Convit, Antonio; Logan, Jean; Wong, Christopher T.; Shumay, Elena; Fowler, Joanna S.; Volkow, Nora D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Dopamine mediates the rewarding effects of food that can lead to overeating and obesity, which then trigger metabolic neuroadaptations that further perpetuate excessive food consumption. We tested the hypothesis that the dopamine response to calorie intake (independent of palatability) in striatal brain regions is attenuated with increases in weight. Method We used positron emission tomography with [11C]raclopride to measure dopamine changes triggered by calorie intake by contrasting the effects of an artificial sweetener (sucralose) devoid of calories to that of glucose to assess their association with body mass index (BMI) in nineteen healthy participants (BMI range 21–35). Results Neither the measured blood glucose concentrations prior to the sucralose and the glucose challenge days, nor the glucose concentrations following the glucose challenge vary as a function of BMI. In contrast the dopamine changes in ventral striatum (assessed as changes in non-displaceable binding potential of [11C]raclopride) triggered by calorie intake (contrast glucose – sucralose) were significantly correlated with BMI (r = 0.68) indicating opposite responses in lean than in obese individuals. Specifically whereas in normal weight individuals (BMI <25) consumption of calories was associated with increases in dopamine in the ventral striatum in obese individuals it was associated with decreases in dopamine. Conclusion These findings show reduced dopamine release in ventral striatum with calorie consumption in obese subjects, which might contribute to their excessive food intake to compensate for the deficit between the expected and the actual response to food consumption. PMID:25000285

  19. Who reports noticing and using calorie information posted on fast food restaurant menus?

    PubMed Central

    Breck, Andrew; Cantor, Jonathan; Martinez, Olivia; Elbel, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Identify consumer characteristics that predict seeing and using calorie information on fast food menu boards. Methods Two separate data collection methods were used in Philadelphia during June 2010, several weeks after calorie labeling legislation went into effect: 1) point-of-purchase survey and receipt collection conducted outside fast food restaurants (N=669) and 2) a random digit dial telephone survey (N=702). Logistic regressions were used to predict the odds of reporting seeing, and of reporting seeing and being influenced by posted calorie information. Results Of the 35.1% of point-of-purchase and 65.7% of telephone survey respondents who reported seeing posted calorie information, 11.8% and 41.7%, respectively, reported that the labels influenced their purchasing decisions; of those influenced, 8.4% and 17% reported they were influenced in a healthful direction. BMI, education, income, gender, consumer preferences, restaurant chain, and frequency of visiting fast food restaurants were associated with heterogeneity in the likelihood of reporting seeing and reporting seeing and using calorie labels. Conclusions Demographic characteristics and consumer preferences are important determinants in the use of posted calorie information. Future work should consider the types of consumers this information is intended for, and how to effectively reach them. PMID:24882449

  20. Underestimating Calorie Content When Healthy Foods Are Present: An Averaging Effect or a Reference-Dependent Anchoring Effect?

    PubMed Central

    Forwood, Suzanna E.; Ahern, Amy; Hollands, Gareth J.; Fletcher, Paul C.; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have shown that estimations of the calorie content of an unhealthy main meal food tend to be lower when the food is shown alongside a healthy item (e.g. fruit or vegetables) than when shown alone. This effect has been called the negative calorie illusion and has been attributed to averaging the unhealthy (vice) and healthy (virtue) foods leading to increased perceived healthiness and reduced calorie estimates. The current study aimed to replicate and extend these findings to test the hypothesized mediating effect of ratings of healthiness of foods on calorie estimates. Methods In three online studies, participants were invited to make calorie estimates of combinations of foods. Healthiness ratings of the food were also assessed. Results The first two studies failed to replicate the negative calorie illusion. In a final study, the use of a reference food, closely following a procedure from a previously published study, did elicit a negative calorie illusion. No evidence was found for a mediating role of healthiness estimates. Conclusion The negative calorie illusion appears to be a function of the contrast between a food being judged and a reference, supporting the hypothesis that the negative calorie illusion arises from the use of a reference-dependent anchoring and adjustment heuristic and not from an ‘averaging’ effect, as initially proposed. This finding is consistent with existing data on sequential calorie estimates, and highlights a significant impact of the order in which foods are viewed on how foods are evaluated. PMID:23967216