Burke, Gerald, Ed.; Reuling, Jochen, Ed.
This document contains 17 papers on vocational training and lifelong learning in Australia and Germany. The following papers are included: "Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia and Germany: Background" (Gerald Burke); "Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia: Observations and Conclusions from a German Perspective"…
Giavrimis, Panagiotis; Papanis, Efstratios; Mitrellou, Sotiria; Nikolarea, Ekaterini
This study presents, discusses and assesses the findings of a research into lifelong learning through Vocational Training Centres (VTCs) in the region of Northern Aegean, Greece. In the first part, the paper introduces its readers to the theoretical framework of lifelong education, whereas in the second part it makes a brief historical overview of…
Nyyssola, Kari; Hamalainen, Kimmo
The extent to which vocational education and training policy is nurturing lifelong learning in Finland was examined. The analysis focused on the following issues: the political and structural framework of education in Finland; mechanisms supporting lifelong learning; and pedagogical solutions and learning environments facilitating lifelong…
Kamakari, Anna; Drigas, Athanasios
In Greece, the training system and education can be adapted to distance lifelong e-learning and the teachers, the society and the economy can be benefited via the introduction and training of in-service teachers in a) the Video Conferencing (VC) technology and mode of distant training, granted that VC is put into a learning framework, and b) Knowledge Management (KM) methodology, through lectures and seminars. Incidentally, VC technology and KM methodology can be integrated into in-service teacher distance lifelong training and development, and to this end, an example, a hybrid model, of the manner VC technology and KM methodology can be integrated into in-service teacher distance lifelong training and development, that is, a microteaching session via VC and KM, which is advisable for Greek teachers of all specialisations in Greece or abroad, is given.
This article traces the EC vocational training policy historically and describes the discursive alignments which brought the policy from a "common vocational training policy" as laid down in Article 128, in the Treaty of Rome to the Lisbon Lifelong Learning strategy. The argument is that vocational training has served as a lever for the…
This paper explores the traditional European model of vocational training in light of a new focus on employability and lifelong learning that is becoming more common in Europe. It includes the following four sections: (1) an overview of some examples of vocational training systems in Europe and the proposal that they share enough to be considered…
The individual results to vocational education and training qualifications (VET) and the implications thereof for lifelong learning were examined by analyzing data from Australia's 1997 Survey of Education and Training. Private rates of return to various VET qualifications for individuals were calculated by using the internal rate of return, which…
Jensen-Urstad, K; Bouvier, F; Saltin, B; Jensen-Urstad, M
Objective—To characterise cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac autonomic function in 11 elderly men (mean (SD) age 73.2 (2.8) years) with a lifelong history of regular very strenuous exercise. A control group of 12 healthy sedentary or moderately physically active men (74.5 (2.7) years) was also studied. Design—48 hour ambulatory electrocardiograms were recorded. Cardiac autonomic function was estimated from power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Maximal oxygen uptake during treadmill exercise testing was 2.91 (0.52) l (41 (7) ml/kg). Results—Nine of 11 athletes had complex ventricular arrhythmias compared with five of 12 controls. Seven athletes but none of the controls had episodes of heart rate below 40 beats/min and two athletes had RR intervals longer than two seconds. Heart rate variability in the athletes was higher than in the controls. Conclusions—Elderly athletes with a lifelong training history seem to have more complex arrhythmias and profound bradyarrhythmias than do healthy elderly controls, which may increase the risk of sudden cardiac death. In contrast, the age related decrease in heart rate variability seems to be retarded, which has a positive prognostic value and may decrease the risk of life threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Keywords: arrhythmias; heart rate variability; athletes; exercise; elderly men PMID:9538309
Unhjem, Runar; Nygård, Mona; van den Hoven, Lene T; Sidhu, Simranjit K; Hoff, Jan; Wang, Eivind
Recently, we documented age-related attenuation of efferent drive to contracting skeletal muscle. It remains elusive if this indication of reduced muscle strength is present with lifelong strength training. For this purpose, we examined evoked potentials in the calf muscles of 11 [71 ± 4 (SD) yr] strength-trained master athletes (MA) contrasted with 10 (71 ± 4 yr) sedentary (SO) and 11 (73 ± 6 yr) recreationally active (AO) old subjects, as well as 9 (22 ± 2 yr) young controls. As expected, MA had higher leg press maximal strength (MA, 185 ± 32 kg; AO, 128 ± 15 kg; SO, 106 ± 11 kg; young, 147 ± 22 kg, P < 0.01) and rate of force development (MA, 5,588 ± 2,488 N/s; AO, 2,156 ± 1,100 N/s; SO, 2,011 ± 825 N/s; young, 3,663 ± 1,140 N/s, P < 0.05) than the other groups. MA also exhibited higher musculus soleus normalized V waves during maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) [maximal V wave amplitude/maximal M wave during MVC (Vsup/Msup); 0.28 ± 0.15] than AO (0.13 ± 0.06, P < 0.01) and SO (0.11 ± 0.05, P < 0.01), yet lower than young (0.45 ± 0.12, P < 0.01). No differences were apparent between the old groups in H reflex recorded at rest or during MVC [maximal H reflex amplitude/maximal M wave during rest (Hmax/Mmax); maximal H reflex amplitude during MVC/maximal M wave during MVC (Hsup/Msup)], and all were lower (P < 0.01) than young. MA (34.4 ± 2.1 ms) had shorter (P < 0.05) H reflex latency compared with AO (36.4 ± 3.7 ms) and SO (37.3 ± 3.2 ms), but longer (P < 0.01) than young (30.7 ± 2.0 ms). Using interpolated twitch analysis, MA (89 ± 7%) had plantar flexion voluntary activation similar to young (90 ± 6%), and this was higher (P < 0.05), or tended to be higher (P = 0.06-0.09), than SO (83 ± 10%) and AO (84 ± 5%). These observations suggest that lifelong strength training has a protective effect against age-related attenuation of efferent drive. In contrast, no beneficial effect seems to derive from habitual recreational activity, indicating
Axford, Beverley; Seddon, Terry
Australian public policy adopted the concept of lifelong learning in the 1980s and harnessed it to human capital theory to articulate a new policy emphasis on "up-skilling" the Australian labour force. This paper addresses the question of how this conception of lifelong learning has fared in practice as Australian Commonwealth government policies,…
The mathematical formula of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution of lifelong premature ejaculation differs from the IELT distribution formula of men in the general male population
Janssen, Paddy K.C.
Purpose To find the most accurate mathematical description of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution in the general male population. Materials and Methods We compared the fitness of various well-known mathematical distributions with the IELT distribution of two previously published stopwatch studies of the Caucasian general male population and a stopwatch study of Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). The accuracy of fitness is expressed by the Goodness of Fit (GOF). The smaller the GOF, the more accurate is the fitness. Results The 3 IELT distributions are gamma distributions, but the IELT distribution of lifelong PE is another gamma distribution than the IELT distribution of men in the general male population. The Lognormal distribution of the gamma distributions most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 965 men in the general population, with a GOF of 0.057. The Gumbel Max distribution most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 110 men with lifelong PE with a GOF of 0.179. There are more men with lifelong PE ejaculating within 30 and 60 seconds than can be extrapolated from the probability density curve of the Lognormal IELT distribution of men in the general population. Conclusions Men with lifelong PE have a distinct IELT distribution, e.g., a Gumbel Max IELT distribution, that can only be retrieved from the general male population Lognormal IELT distribution when thousands of men would participate in a IELT stopwatch study. The mathematical formula of the Lognormal IELT distribution is useful for epidemiological research of the IELT. PMID:26981594
Dawson, William J
Recent publications indicate that musical training has effects on non-musical activities, some of which are lifelong. This study reviews recent publications collected from the Performing Arts Medicine Association bibliography. Music training, whether instrumental or vocal, produces beneficial and long-lasting changes in brain anatomy and function. Anatomic changes occur in brain areas devoted to hearing, speech, hand movements, and coordination between both sides of the brain. Functional benefits include improved sound processing and motor skills, especially in the upper extremities. Training benefits extend beyond music skills, resulting in higher IQs and school grades, greater specialized sensory and auditory memory/recall, better language memory and processing, heightened bilateral hand motor functioning, and improved integration and synchronization of sensory and motor functions. These changes last long after music training ends and can minimize or prevent age-related loss of brain cells and some mental functions. Early institution of music training and prolonged duration of training both appear to contribute to these positive changes. PMID:24925171
Steding-Ehrenborg, Katarina; Boushel, Robert C; Calbet, José A; Åkeson, Per; Mortensen, Stefan P
Age-related decline in cardiac function can be prevented or postponed by lifelong endurance training. However, effects of normal ageing as well as of lifelong endurance exercise on longitudinal and radial contribution to stroke volume are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine resting longitudinal and radial pumping in elderly athletes, sedentary elderly and young sedentary subjects. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate determinants of maximal cardiac output in elderly. Eight elderly athletes (63 ± 4 years), seven elderly sedentary (66 ± 4 years) and ten young sedentary subjects (29 ± 4 years) underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. All subjects underwent maximal exercise testing and for elderly subjects maximal cardiac output during cycling was determined using a dye dilution technique. Longitudinal and radial contribution to stroke volume did not differ between groups (longitudinal left ventricle (LV) 52-65%, P = 0.12, right ventricle (RV) 77-87%, P = 0.16, radial 7.9-8.6%, P = 1.0). Left ventricular atrioventricular plane displacement (LVAVPD) was higher in elderly athletes and young sedentary compared with elderly sedentary subjects (14 ± 3, 15 ± 2 and 11 ± 1 mm, respectively, P < 0.05). There was no difference between groups for RVAVPD (P = 0.2). LVAVPD was an independent predictor of maximal cardiac output (R(2) = 0.61, P < 0.01, β = 0.78). Longitudinal and radial contributions to stroke volume did not differ between groups. However, how longitudinal pumping was achieved differed; elderly athletes and young sedentary subjects showed similar AVPD whereas this was significantly lower in elderly sedentary subjects. Elderly sedentary subjects achieved longitudinal pumping through increased short-axis area of the ventricle. Large AVPD was a determinant of maximal cardiac output and exercise capacity. PMID:26496146
Lindell, Mats; Abrahamsson, Kenneth
In Sweden, initial vocational education (IVT) is financed by public money and is designed to provide basic skills and general qualifications to perform certain functions in an occupation. Continuing vocational training (CVT) is provided primarily by public school institutions, private enterprises, and training companies, trade unions, and employer…
Brown, Peggy, Ed.
Selected college and university programs established to assist adults in continuing their education, earning their degrees, and learning about whatever interests them are described, and an essay on lifelong learning is presented. In "Curriculum Development for Lifelong Learning," Charles S. Claxton describes how life cycle research, adult…
Peer, Kimberly S.
Objective: This review of literature presents the theoretical framework of goal orientation and student achievement from a pedagogical perspective while providing practical applications and implications for integrating goal orientation into athletic training education programs. Data Sources: Selected literature derived from EBSCO, Education…
Langsford, Marian; Griffiths, Trevor
This article describes an innovative, rapidly effective, low cost, health promoting educational input that can strengthen social systems to support the social and emotional development of orphan children. The training project took place in a resource-poor area of rural southern Zimbabwe. The teaching was found to be culturally relevant and transferable, to the extent that several of the learners progressed to become tutors, training others to use the method in local languages. The method promotes healthy adjustment, emotional resilience and intelligent decision-making for health. By reducing chronic stress in orphans and their carers, lifelong learning may improve immune function. PMID:25808248
Shaikh, Alauddin; Mallick, Nazrul Islam
Introduction: The aim of this study was to find out the effects of plyometrics training and weight training among university male students.Procedure: 60 male students from the different colleges of the Burdwan University were randomly selected as subjects and their age were 19-25 years served as Weight training Group (WTG), second group served as Plyometric Training Group (PTG) and the third group served as Control Group (CT). Eight weeks weight training and six weeks plyometric training were given for experiment accordingly. The control group was not given any training except of their routine. The selected subjects were measured of their motor ability components, speed, endurance, explosive power and agility. ANCOVA was calculation for statistical treatment.Finding: Plyometric training and weight training groups significantly increase speed, endurance, explosive power and agility.Conclusion: The plyometric training has significantly improved speed, explosive power, muscular endurance and agility. The weight training programme has significantly improved agility, muscular endurance, and explosive power. The plometric training is superior to weight training in improving explosive power, agility and muscular endurance.
Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.
This booklet was developed by early education teachers to help parents teach their children values necessary for learning and for living. The introduction identifies six lifelong values, discusses the important role played by parents in teaching these values, and offers a checklist of positive ways parents interact with their children. Each of the…
Ordway, Jason D; Laubach, Lloyd L; Vanderburgh, Paul M; Jackson, Kurt J
Backwards running (BR) results in greater cardiopulmonary response and muscle activity compared with forward running (FR). BR has traditionally been used in rehabilitation for disorders such as stroke and lower leg extremity injuries, as well as in short bursts during various athletic events. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of sustained backwards running training on forward running economy in trained male athletes. Eight highly trained, male runners (26.13 ± 6.11 years, 174.7 ± 6.4 cm, 68.4 ± 9.24 kg, 8.61 ± 3.21% body fat, 71.40 ± 7.31 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) trained with BR while harnessed on a treadmill at 161 m·min(-1) for 5 weeks following a 5-week BR run-in period at a lower speed (134 m·min(-1)). Subjects were tested at baseline, postfamiliarized, and post-BR training for body composition, a ramped VO2max test, and an economy test designed for trained male runners. Subjects improved forward running economy by 2.54% (1.19 ± 1.26 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), p = 0.032) at 215 m·min(-1). VO2max, body mass, lean mass, fat mass, and % body fat did not change (p > 0.05). Five weeks of BR training improved FR economy in healthy, trained male runners without altering VO2max or body composition. The improvements observed in this study could be a beneficial form of training to an already economical population to improve running economy. PMID:26332781
Kazeminasab, Fatemeh; Marandi, Mohammad; Ghaedi, Kamran; Esfarjani, Fahimeh; Moshtaghian, Jamal
Liver X receptor α (LXRα) is a member of the ligand-activated transcription factor of nuclear hormonal receptor superfamily, whose activation leads to modulation in the expression of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis including ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), which plays a crucial role in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) remodeling. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether endurance training enhanced the expression level of liver LXRα gene. Twelve adult male Wistar rats (200-220 g) were divided into control and training groups. Training group received exercise on a motor-driven treadmill at 28 m/min (0 % grade) for 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks. Twenty-four hours after the last exercise session, the rats were killed and blood was taken from the right ventricle of each rat. Plasma was collected for HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), TC and TG measurements. Furthermore, a portion of the liver of each rat was excised and washed in ice-cold saline and frozen in liquid nitrogen for assessment of LXRα and ABCA1 mRNA levels. Data indicated significant increase in both LXRα and ABCA1 mRNA levels in trained rats, compared to control rats. Plasma HDL-C concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in trained rats at the end of treadmill exercise. However, there was a significant decrease in LDL-C (P < 0.003), TG, TC concentration, TC/HDL-C and LDL/HDL-C ratios in trained rats compared with those in the control group (P < 0.001). In conclusion, we found that endurance training induced significant elevation in LXRα gene expression, which correlated with enhanced levels of ABCA1 mRNA and plasma HDL-C concentration. PMID:23674092
Hackett, Daniel A; Johnson, Nathan A; Chow, Chin-Moi
Bodybuilding involves performing a series of poses on stage where the competitor is judged on aesthetic muscular appearance. The purpose of this study was to describe training practices and ergogenic aids used by competitive bodybuilders and to determine whether training practices comply with current recommendations for muscular hypertrophy. A web-based survey was completed by 127 competitive male bodybuilders. The results showed that during the off-season phase of training (OFF), the majority of respondents performed 3-6 sets per exercise (95.3%), 7-12 repetition maximum (RM) per set (77.0%), and 61- to 120-seconds recovery between sets and exercises (68.6%). However, training practices changed 6 weeks before competition (PRE), where there was an increased number of respondents who reported undertaking 3-4 sets per exercise at the expense of 5-6 sets per exercise (p < 0.001), an increase in the number reporting 10-15RM per set from 7-9RM per set (p < 0.001), and an increase in the number reporting 30-60 seconds vs. 61-180 seconds recovery between sets and exercises (p < 0.001). Anabolic steroid use was high among respondents competing in amateur competitions (56 of 73 respondents), whereas dietary supplementation was used by all respondents. The findings of this study demonstrate that competitive bodybuilders comply with current resistance exercise recommendations for muscular hypertrophy; however, these changed before competition during which there is a reduction resistance training volume and intensity. This alteration, in addition to an increase in aerobic exercise volume, is purportedly used to increase muscle definition. However, these practices may increase the risk of muscle mass loss in natural compared with amateur bodybuilders who reportedly use drugs known to preserve muscle mass. PMID:22990567
In forestry, as in other fields, technological advances have resulted in significant changes in work practices and skill requirements. Vocational training and improvement of forestry workers' skills through lifelong learning can help achieve sustainability in forestry. The objectives of lifelong learning are to integrate people into working life…
Gorard, Stephen; Selwyn, Neil
This article uses the reports from 1,001 home-based interviews, with adults living in the United Kingdom, to describe their varying patterns of participation in lifelong, learning. It finds that 37% of all adults report no further education or training of any kind after reaching compulsory school-leaving age. This proportion declines in each age…
Age related vascular endothelial function following lifelong sedentariness: positive impact of cardiovascular conditioning without further improvement following low frequency high intensity interval training
Grace, Fergal M.; Herbert, Peter; Ratcliffe, John W.; New, Karl J.; Baker, Julien S.; Sculthorpe, Nicholas F.
Abstract Aging is associated with diffuse impairments in vascular endothelial function and traditional aerobic exercise is known to ameliorate these changes. High intensity interval training (HIIT) is effective at improving vascular function in aging men with existing disease, but its effectiveness remains to be demonstrated in otherwise healthy sedentary aging. However, the frequency of commonly used HIIT protocols may be poorly tolerated in older cohorts. Therefore, the present study investigated the effectiveness of lower frequency HIIT (LfHIIT) on vascular function in a cohort of lifelong sedentary (SED; n =22, age 62.7 ± 5.2 years) men compared with a positive control group of lifelong exercisers (LEX; n = 17, age 61.1 ± 5.4 years). The study consisted of three assessment phases; enrolment to the study (Phase A), following 6 weeks of conditioning exercise in SED (Phase B) and following 6 weeks of low frequency HIIT in both SED and LEX (LfHIIT; Phase C). Conditioning exercise improved FMD in SED (3.4 ± 1.5% to 4.9 ± 1.1%; P <0.01) such that the difference between groups on enrolment (3.4 ± 1.5% vs. 5.3 ± 1.4%; P <0.01) was abrogated. This was maintained but not further improved following LfHIIT in SED whilst FMD remained unaffected by LfHIIT in LEX. In conclusion, LfHIIT is effective at maintaining improvements in vascular function achieved during conditioning exercise in SED. LfHIIT is a well‐tolerated and effective exercise mode for reducing cardiovascular risk and maintaining but does not improve vascular function beyond that achieved by conditioning exercise in aging men, irrespective of fitness level. PMID:25626864
Garcin, M.; Fleury, A.; Ansart, N.; Mille-Hamard, L.; Billat, V.
The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the content of 8 weeks of training in young endurance-trained male and female runners and study the potential impact of this training content on performance. Fourteen men and 11 women performed two criterion exercises until exhaustion on an outdoor track before and after the 8-week training…
Kyndt, Eva; Govaerts, Natalie; Dochy, Filip; Baert, Herman
In our continuously changing society, a need for updating one's skills and knowledge puts pressure on safeguarding the labour market position of low-qualified employees. However, prior research and official statistics show that employees with a lower level of education tend to participate less in training than highly-educated individuals. This…
Gibb, Tara; Walker, Judith
Government reports and documents claim that building a knowledge economy and innovative society are key goals in Canada. In this paper, we draw on critical policy analysis to examine 10 Canadian federal government training and employment policies in relation to the government's espoused priorities of innovation and developing a high skills society…
Pfeiffer, Ronald D.; Francis, Rulon S.
Thirty-three males from ages 8 to 21 years participated in a nine-week resistive exercise program to test the hypothesis that pubescent males respond better to strength training than older or younger males do. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)
Designed to provide a general guide and stimuli for lifelong learning, this book examines all the positive factors of independent study. Lifelong learning is defined as self-directed growth free from the traditional schooling procedures. Chapters discuss the following: the lifelong learner; profiles of such learners in action; how to be…
Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn, Ed.
This publication is comprised of 43 papers on the topic of promoting lifelong learning. The papers in Part 1, Overcoming False Dichotomies, are "Lifelong Learning in the North, Education for All in the South" (Torres); "Practice of Lifelong Learning in Indigenous Africa" (Omolewa); "Gender and Information Societies" (Youngs); and "Lifelong…
The new South Africa has formally embraced the concept of 'lifelong learning' in its education and training policies. But what is the concept of 'lifelong learning' that has informed these policies and what progress has there been in implementing them? Have these new policies brought significant changes to education and training for adults?
Holden, Rick; Smith, Vikki; Devins, Dave
Learning centers using information-communications technologies were established in three British industrial estates. A case study of one organization shows the center contributed to lifelong learning and enhanced information technology training and employee confidence. Transfer of training and productivity improvements were not as clear. (Contains…
The Lifelong Learning Center for the 21st Century was proposed to provide personal renewal and technical training for employees at a major United States automotive manufacturing company when it implemented a new, computer-based Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machining, robotics, and high technology facility. The employees needed training for…
Gutierrez-Santiago, Alfonso; Cancela, Jose M.; Zubiaur, Marta; Ayan, Carlos
Introduction: One aim of the study was to describe the temporal structure of judo combat among male judokas with visual impairments. Another aim was to determine the possible differences between the judokas with visual impairments and sighted male judokas to determine whether judokas with visual impairments need specific training to achieve their…
This research evaluated the effects of resistance training with upper body plyometric effects on the performance of male basketball players. Sixteen males in the physical education and sport science faculty of Ataturk University were randomly determined into two groups. The experimental group performed a combined strength and plyometric training…
Rothman, Emily F.; Decker, Michele R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G.; Miller, Elizabeth
The authors used qualitative research methods to explore the context and sexual risk behavior associated with sexual intercourse involving multiple males and one female, commonly called "running a train." Participants were 20 adolescent males aged 14 to 22 years who were either perpetrators of dating violence or perceived by teachers to be at risk…
Caffrey, Garret P.; And Others
This study attempts to appraise the effectiveness of chronic heavy exercise on 13 male swimmers from 10 to 17 years of age. The experimental group trained six days a week, often with more than one workout per day. During this period, the principles of interval training were employed in conjunction with high-intensity swimming. At the completion of…
This article represents four emergences through which to explore the significance of lifelong learning. Drawing in particular on complexity theory and actor-network theory, it seeks to develop an understanding of the reductions and emergences, and purifications and translations to which lifelong learning is subject. To do this, the article also…
In this paper the author relates how the thing he enjoys most about his job as a school librarian is nurturing lifelong readers, in particular readers of children's literature. In talking about nurturing lifelong readers and, referring to students, staff and school librarians, the author discusses: (1) The Southwell Library Programme; (2) The Lit…
Sedano, Silvia; Marín, Pedro J; Cuadrado, Gonzalo; Redondo, Juan C
Much recent attention has been given to the compatibility of combined aerobic and anaerobic training modalities. However, few of these studies have reported data related to well-trained runners, which is a potential limitation. Therefore, because of the limited evidence available for this population, the main aim was to determine which mode of concurrent strength-endurance training might be the most effective at improving running performance in highly trained runners. Eighteen well-trained male runners (age 23.7 ± 1.2 years) with a maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) more than 65 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) were randomly assigned into 1 of the 3 groups: Endurance-only Group (n = 6), who continued their usual training, which included general strength training with Thera-band latex-free exercise bands and endurance training; Strength Group (SG; n = 6) who performed combined resistance and plyometric exercises and endurance training; Endurance-SG (ESG; n = 6) who performed endurance-strength training with loads of 40% and endurance training. The study comprised 12 weeks of training in which runners trained 8 times a week (6 endurance and 2 strength sessions) and 5 weeks of detraining. The subjects were tested on 3 different occasions (countermovement jump height, hopping test average height, 1 repetition maximum, running economy (RE), VO2max, maximal heart rate [HRmax], peak velocity (PV), rating of perceived exertion, and 3-km time trial were measured). Findings revealed significant time × group interaction effects for almost all tests (p < 0.05). We can conclude that concurrent training for both SG and ESG groups led to improved maximal strength, RE, and PV with no significant effects on the VO2 kinetics pattern. The SG group also seems to show improvements in 3-km time trial tests. PMID:23287831
Wilborn, Colin D; Taylor, Lemuel W; Campbell, Bill I; Kerksick, Chad; Rasmussen, Chris J; Greenwood, Michael; Kreider, Richard B
Purpose Methoxyisoflavone (M), 20-hydroxyecdysone (E), and sulfo-polysaccharide (CSP3) have been marketed to athletes as dietary supplements that can increase strength and muscle mass during resistance-training. However, little is known about their potential ergogenic value. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these supplements affect training adaptations and/or markers of muscle anabolism/catabolism in resistance-trained athletes. Methods Forty-five resistance-trained males (20.5 ± 3 yrs; 179 ± 7 cm, 84 ± 16 kg, 17.3 ± 9% body fat) were matched according to FFM and randomly assigned to ingest in a double blind manner supplements containing either a placebo (P); 800 mg/day of M; 200 mg of E; or, 1,000 mg/day of CSP3 for 8-weeks during training. At 0, 4, and 8-weeks, subjects donated fasting blood samples and completed comprehensive muscular strength, muscular endurance, anaerobic capacity, and body composition analysis. Data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA. Results No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed in training adaptations among groups in the variables FFM, percent body fat, bench press 1 RM, leg press 1 RM or sprint peak power. Anabolic/catabolic analysis revealed no significant differences among groups in active testosterone (AT), free testosterone (FT), cortisol, the AT to cortisol ratio, urea nitrogen, creatinine, the blood urea nitrogen to creatinine ratio. In addition, no significant differences were seen from pre to post supplementation and/or training in AT, FT, or cortisol. Conclusion Results indicate that M, E, and CSP3 supplementation do not affect body composition or training adaptations nor do they influence the anabolic/catabolic hormone status or general markers of catabolism in resistance-trained males. PMID:18500969
IDRA Newsletter, 1996
This theme issue focuses on programs that promote lifelong learning through literacy education, parent empowerment, or parent leadership training. "Adult Literacy Outreach Innovations: Porque Significa Tanto" (Christie L. Goodman) describes a Texas outreach project that focuses on raising public awareness about adult education and literacy,…
van den Dungen, Marja
This article focuses on work-based learning in higher vocational education and training in relation to lifelong learning. It begins with an overview of the Dutch National Policy and the ambitions of a national Project Directorate Learning & Working. It then goes on to the concrete results of projects within higher education (HE) aimed at the…
Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2007
As conceived by the Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (CAEL), Lifelong Learning Accounts (LiLAs[SM]) are employer-matched, portable individual accounts used to finance employee education and training. They provide employees with an affordable means of upgrading their skills and knowledge, while helping to meet the needs of employers and…
In a pilot project, Vance-Granville Community College in North Carolina and a local roofing manufacturer jointly developed the SKILL (Skills and Knowledge in Lifelong Learning) training program. The 63 employees enrolled in the voluntary program thus far have received weekly instruction in functional, learning, and computer skills, as well as…
Willems, Mark Et; Sallis, Chris W; Haskell, Jonathan A
Muscle strength and fatigue resistance increases with resistance training. Resistance training adaptations can be enhanced with single-ingredient or dual-ingredient supplementation but less is known about resistance training adaptations by multi-ingredient supplementation. We examined the effects of a commercial multi-ingredient supplement on resistance training adaptations for training-specific and non-training-specific tasks in young males. Male participants (n = 16, age 21±2 years, body mass 74.5±5.9 kg, body height 177±5 cm) had at least 1 year experience with resistance training exercises. Training (7 muscle groups, 4 sessions/week, weekly adjustments) consisted of two 6 weeks blocks with 4 weeks between blocks. During training, participants consumed placebo (i.e. maltodextrin, n = 7) or the sports nutritional supplement Cyclone (Maximuscle Ltd, UK, n = 9) (main ingredients creatine monohydrate, whey protein, glutamine and HMB) twice daily with one intake <15 min following a training session. Unpaired Student's t-test was used for placebo and Cyclone group comparison of percentage changes with p < 0.05. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated for the Cyclone group. Cyclone did not enhance maximal voluntary isometric force (MVIF) (p = 0.56), time to fatigue at 70% MVIF (p = 0.41) and peak concentric strength (60°·s(-1)) (p = 0.66) of m.quadriceps femoris (i.e. the non-specific training tasks). For the specific-training tasks, Cyclone did not enhance one-repetition maximum (1-RM) of lateral pull (p = 0.48) but there was a trend and large effect size for 1-RM of bench press (p = 0.07, d = 0.98) and 45° leg press (p = 0.07, d = 1.41). Cyclone resulted in an increase in number of repetitions for 80% pre-training 1-RM for lateral pull (p = 0.02, d = 1.30), bench press (p = 0.03, d = 1.20) with a trend for 45° leg press (p = 0.08, d = 0.96). Cyclone during resistance training enhanced the performance of 1-RM and number of repetitions at 80% of pre-training 1
Chlif, Mehdi; Keochkerian, David; Temfemo, Abdou; Choquet, Dominique; Ahmaidi, Said
The aim of this study was to compare the inspiratory muscle performance during an incremental exercise of twelve fit old endurance-trained athletes (OT) with that of fit young athletes (YT) and healthy age-matched controls (OC). The tension-time index (TT0.1) was determined according to the equation TT0.1=P0.1/PImax×ti/ttot, where P0.1 is the mouth occlusion pressure, PImax the maximal inspiratory pressure and ti/ttot the duty cycle. For a given VCO2, OT group displayed P0.1, P0.1/PImax ratio, TT0.1 and effective impedance of the respiratory muscle values which were lower than OC group and higher than YT group. At maximal exercise, P0.1/PImax ratio and TT0.1 was still lower in the OT group than OC group and higher than YT group. This study showed lower inspiratory muscle performance attested by a higher (TT0.1) during exercise in the OT group than YT group, but appeared to be less marked in elderly men having performed lifelong endurance training compared with sedentary elderly subjects. PMID:26994757
Weltman, A; Janney, C; Rians, C B; Strand, K; Berg, B; Tippitt, S; Wise, J; Cahill, B R; Katch, F I
In order to examine the effectiveness and safety of hydraulic resistance strength training in young males, 26 pre-pubertal males (mean age = 8.2 +/- 1.3 yr) completed a 14-wk strength training study. Subjects were evaluated before and after the 14-wk experimental period for pubertal state (Tanner's sexual maturity rating, serum testosterone, and serum dihydroepiandrosterone sulfate). Effectiveness of the strength training program was determined by measuring pre-post differences in: isokinetic strength for flexion and extension at the knee and elbow joints at two speeds (30 degrees and 90 degrees X s-1) (KIN COM, Chattecx, Inc., Chattanooga, TN), flexibility, standing long jump, vertical jump, body composition parameters, maximal oxygen consumption, and creatinine phosphokinase. Safety of strength training was assessed by biphasic musculoskeletal scintigraphy before and after the program and by physician evaluation of complaints by subjects. Strength training subjects (N = 16) participated in a 45 min/session, 3 session/wk, 14-wk supervised strength training program with an attendance rate of 91.5%. Participants performed concentric work using hydraulic resistance equipment (Hydra-Fitness Industries, Belton, TX). Eccentric work was not performed. Control subjects (N = 10) did not strength train but did participate in sport activities and activities of daily living. Results indicated that strength training subjects increased isokinetic strength as a result of strength training (average concentric work/repetition increases by 18.5 to 36.6% for the eight motions tested; torque scores over the first 90% of the range of motion increases by 13.1 to 45.1% for the eight motions tested). These changes were significantly greater than changes seen in the control group (P less than 0.05). Strength training subjects also demonstrated significant improvements (as compared to control subjects) in vertical jump (+10.4%), flexibility (+8.4%), and maximal oxygen consumption [+19
Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas
In 28 male Caucasian nonprofessional ultracyclists, we investigated whether anthropometry or training volume had an influence on race speed in the 600 km at the Swiss Cycling Marathon 2007. Anthropometric parameters (age, body mass, body height, skinfold thicknesses) were determined before the race to calculate body mass index and percent body…
Ward, Patricia J.; Herrity, April N.; Smith, Rebecca R.; Willhite, Andrea; Harrison, Benjamin J.; Petruska, Jeffrey C.; Harkema, Susan J.
Abstract Locomotor training (LT) after spinal cord injury (SCI) is a rehabilitative therapy used to enhance locomotor recovery. There is evidence, primarily anecdotal, also associating LT with improvements in bladder function and reduction in some types of SCI-related pain. In the present study, we determined if a step training paradigm could improve outcome measures of locomotion, bladder function, and pain/allodynia. After a T10 contusive SCI trained animals (adult male Wistar rats), trained animals began quadrupedal step training beginning 2 weeks post-SCI for 1 h/day. End of study experiments (3 months of training) revealed significant changes in limb kinematics, gait, and hindlimb flexor-extensor bursting patterns relative to non-trained controls. Importantly, micturition function, evaluated with terminal transvesical cystometry, was significantly improved in the step trained group (increased voiding efficiency, intercontraction interval, and contraction amplitude). Because both SCI and LT affect neurotrophin signaling, and neurotrophins are involved with post-SCI plasticity in micturition pathways, we measured bladder neurotrophin mRNA. Training regulated the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) but not BDNF or NT3. Bladder NGF mRNA levels were inversely related to bladder function in the trained group. Monitoring of overground locomotion and neuropathic pain throughout the study revealed significant improvements, beginning after 3 weeks of training, which in both cases remained consistent for the study duration. These novel findings, improving non-locomotor in addition to locomotor functions, demonstrate that step training post-SCI could contribute to multiple quality of life gains, targeting patient-centered high priority deficits. PMID:24294909
Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros
The aim of this study was to analyse the variance of training load between male and female football and futsal players. The statistical analysis tested the variance between gender and type of sport during training sessions. Fifty-nine male and female amateur football and futsal amateur players were monitored during 48 training sessions. The heart rate (HR) responses and the percentage of time spent in zones of intensity were analysed during training sessions. Differences were found in football between the gender and the dependent variables of %HRmax (p value = 0.001; η (2) = 0.042; minimum effect), %time in Z2 (p value = 0.001; η (2) = 0.054; minimum effect), %time in Z4 (p value = 0.001; η (2) = 0.031; minimum effect) and %time in Z5 (p value = 0.001; η (2) = 0.053; minimum effect). The analysis in male players revealed differences between football and futsal in %HRmax (p value = 0.001; η (2) = 0.172; minimum effect). Similar results were found in female category (p value = 0.001; η (2) = 0.040; minimum effect). In this study it was possible to verify that female players spent more time in high intensity zones and that futsal training sessions are more intense than football sessions. Based on such results, coaches and fitness trainers may identify the physiological characteristics of training load imposed to different sports and genders and optimize the training plan for specific categories. PMID:27347469
Chaturapanich, G; Chaiyakul, S; Verawatnapakul, V; Yimlamai, T; Pholpramool, C
This study aimed to investigate the effects of Kaempferia parviflora extract (KD) and exercise training on reproductive function in male rats. Sexually mature males were assigned to four groups: control, KD70 (received 70 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 4 weeks), Ex (exercise training for 4 weeks), Ex + KD70 (exercise training with KD 70 mg kg(-1) day(-1)). At the end of treatment regimes, sexual behaviours including mount latency (ML), mount frequency (MF), ejaculation latency (EL), post-ejaculation latency (PEL), number of mount within 30 min (MF(30)) and number of ejaculation (NEL) were assessed by a video camera, and fertility was tested by natural mating. Results showed that KD had no effect on the weights of reproductive organs, liver, kidneys and levator ani muscle. On the other hand, the weights of epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate gland and levator ani muscle were significantly increased in the Ex and Ex+KD70 groups. ML and EL were shortened in all treatment groups, but PEL was decreased only in KP70 group. Only Ex and Ex + KD70 groups exhibited lower MF and higher NEL whilst MF(30) were not changed in all groups. None of the treatments altered male fertility. It is concluded that KD enhanced sexual motivation whereas exercise training promoted both sexual motivation and performance. PMID:21729142
Kassing, Leslee R.; Prieto, Loreto R.
Surveyed counselors-in-training regarding their acceptance of rape myths and their willingness to make blame-based attributions toward a male victim of rape. Results suggested male counselor trainees tended to endorse the greatest degree of acceptance of rape myths. Trainees of both sexes thought that a male rape victim who showed no resistance to…
Johnson, S; Flinn, J M; Tyer, Z E
The effect of practice and training in spatial skills on scores obtained by male and female students on the Embedded Figures Test was examined. Forms A and B were administered 6 wk. apart to three groups of subjects (ns = 28, 27, 27) enrolled in drafting, mathematics, and liberal arts courses. During the pretest-posttest period the drafting students received training while the other two groups served as controls. Analysis indicated (1) no initial sex difference in test scores; (2) liberal arts students differed significantly from drafting and mathematics students, but there was no significant difference between the last two groups; (3) all groups improved with practice; (4) women receiving training improved more than women who did not; (5) there was a trend toward women receiving spatial training scoring more poorly than males receiving training on the pretest, but there was no significant difference on the posttest. These results suggest that sex differences in embedded-figures scores found by many previous experimenters may have been associated with differences in prior experience in spatial skills and by a confounding of sex with area of academic study. PMID:482055
Cross, K. Patricia
Although lifelong learning was a term created to mean cradle-to-grave learning, it has come to mean specifically adult learning and education. The adult learning force in the U.S. is huge and growing in size as well as interest. Since eighty-five percent of the active adult learners are high school graduates, they are eligible for postsecondary…
Lifelong learning has a crucial role in enabling individuals to handle key transition points in their lives, but what can education do to prepare them for the final, inevitable transition. Some of the educational contribution to managing the final transition is very broad, a matter of general enlightenment. But there are some more specific…
Gross, Ronald, Ed.
In this anthology of readings, 28 scholars and educators consider the theoretical and practical forces that shape the concept of lifelong learning. After Ronald Gross's introduction, the first section begins its consideration of the Western tradition in adult learning with Plato's metaphor of the cave and includes Pico della Mirandola's essay on…
Friesen, Norm; Anderson, Terry
The term lifelong, as applied to education or learning, has been in circulation for more than a quarter of a century. It has played an important role in policy discussions, as well as in studies of the sociology and economics of education. The relationship of this term to the rapidly changing world of information and educational technologies, and…
Makhlouf, Issam; Castagna, Carlo; Manzi, Vincenzo; Laurencelle, Louis; Behm, David G; Chaouachi, Anis
This study examined the effects of strength and endurance training sequence (strength before or after endurance) on relevant fitness variables in youth soccer players. Fifty-seven young elite-level male field soccer players (13.7 ± 0.5 years; 164 ± 8.3 cm; 53.5 ± 8.6 kg; body fat; 15.6 ± 3.9%) were randomly assigned to a control (n = 14, CG) and 3 experimental training groups (twice a week for 12 weeks) strength before (SE, n = 15), after (ES, n = 14) or on alternate days (ASE, n = 14) with endurance training. A significant (p = 0.001) intervention main effect was detected. There were only trivial training sequence differences (ES vs. SE) for all variables (p > 0.05). The CG showed large squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and medium sprint, change of direction ability, and jump improvements. ASE demonstrated a trivial difference in endurance performance with ES and SE (p > 0.05). Large to medium greater improvements for SE and ES were reported compared with ASE for sprinting over 10 and 30 m (p < 0.02). The SE squat 1RM was higher than in ASE (moderate, p < 0.02). Postintervention differences between ES and SE with CG fitness variables were small to medium (p ≤ 0.05) except for a large SE advantage with the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (p < 0.001, large). This study showed no effect of intrasession training sequence on soccer fitness-relevant variables. However, combining strength and endurance within a single training session provided superior results vs. training on alternate days. Concurrent training may be considered as an effective and safe training method for the development of the prospective soccer player. PMID:26332782
Reyes, Laura M; Kirschenman, Raven; Quon, Anita; Morton, Jude S; Shah, Amin; Davidge, Sandra T
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been associated with increased susceptibility to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Exercise is an effective preventive intervention for cardiovascular diseases; however, it may be detrimental in conditions of compromised health. The aim of this study was to determine whether exercise training can improve cardiac performance after I/R injury in IUGR offspring. We used a hypoxia-induced IUGR model by exposing pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to 21% oxygen (control) or hypoxic (11% oxygen; IUGR) conditions from gestational day 15 to 21. At 10 wk of age, offspring were randomized to a sedentary group or to a 6-wk exercise protocol. Transthoracic echocardiography assessments were performed after 6 wk. Twenty-four hours after the last bout of exercise, ex vivo cardiac function was determined using a working heart preparation. With exercise training, there was improved baseline cardiac performance in male control offspring but a reduced baseline cardiac performance in male IUGR exercised offspring (P < 0.05). In male offspring, exercise decreased superoxide generation in control offspring, while in IUGR offspring, it had the polar opposite effect (interaction P ≤ 0.05). There was no effect of IUGR or exercise on cardiac function in female offspring. In conclusion, in male IUGR offspring, exercise may be a secondary stressor on cardiac function. A reduction in cardiac performance along with an increase in superoxide production in response to exercise was observed in this susceptible group. PMID:26157059
Renda, C. Renee; Stein, Jeffrey S.; Madden, Gregory J.
Delay discounting describes the devaluation of a reward as the delay to the receipt of the reward increases. Because steep delay discounting is robustly correlated with a number of behavioral problems (e.g., substance dependence, gambling) and some evidence suggests steep discounting precedes and predicts drug-taking in humans and rats, this study sought to experimentally reduce rats' delay discounting. Human stimulant-dependent participants given working-memory training reportedly decreased their rates of discounting relative to a sham-training group (Bickel, Yi, Landes, Hill, & Baxter, 2011). To evaluate the cross-species generality of this effect, 38 male Long-Evans rats, matched on pretraining delay-discounting rates, were randomly assigned to receive 140 sessions of working-memory training or sham training (which required no memory of the sample stimulus). Large between-group differences in working memory were observed after training; however, posttraining delay-discounting rates were undifferentiated across groups. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed. PMID:25418508
Rosety-Rodriguez, Manuel; Camacho, Alejandra; Rosety, Ignacio; Fornieles, Gabriel; Rosety, Miguel A.; Diaz, Antonio J.; Rosety, Manuel; Ordonez, Francisco J.
Background It is widely accepted that muscle strength plays a key role on functional tasks of daily living and employability in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Recent studies have also reported resistance training may improve chronic inflammation in other clinical situations. This is the first study conducted to determine the effect of resistance circuit training on low-grade systemic inflammation in adults with DS. Material/Methods A total of 40 young male adults with DS were recruited for the trial through different community support groups for people with intellectual disabilities and their families. They had medical approval for physical activity participation. Twenty-four were randomly assigned to perform resistance circuit training with 6 stations, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Exercise intensity was based on function of the 8RM assessments. The control group included 16 age-, sex-, and BMI-matched adults with Down syndrome. Plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, and TNF-α were assessed by commercial ELISA kits. C-reactive protein (CRP) was assessed by nephelometry. Body composition was also determined, measuring fat-free mass percentage and waist circumference (WC). This protocol was approved by our Institutional Ethics Committee. Results Plasma levels of leptin, TNF-α, and IL-6 were significantly decreased after the completion of the training program, as were fat-free mass and WC. No sports-related injuries or withdrawals from the program were reported during the entire study period. No changes were observed in the control group. Conclusions Resistance circuit training improved low-grade systemic inflammation in male sedentary adults with DS. PMID:24196521
School nurses, as leaders, are able to exhibit leadership skills through embracing, advocating for, and demonstrating a commitment to lifelong learning. With the continual changes in healthcare and technology, ongoing education is essential to maintain a high standard of expertise and practice. School nurses have many opportunities for continuing education. This article will briefly explore various levels of continuing education, as well as relating ongoing learning to leadership principles. PMID:27194238
Currie, Katharine D; Thomas, Scott G; Goodman, Jack M
We investigated effects of 6 days of endurance exercise training [cycling at 65% of peak oxygen consumption (VO(2peak)) for 2 h a day on six consecutive days] on vascular function in young males. Measures of VO(2peak), arterial stiffness, calf vascular conductance and heart rate variability were obtained pre- and post-training. Indices of arterial stiffness were obtained by applanation tonometry to determine aortic augmentation index normalized to a heart rate of 75 bpm (AI(x) at 75 bpm), and central and peripheral pulse wave velocity (CPWV, PPWV). Resting and maximal calf vascular conductances were calculated from concurrent measures of blood pressure and calf blood flow using venous occlusion strain-gauge plethysmography. Time and frequency domain measures of heart rate variability were obtained from recording R-R intervals during supine and standing conditions. Both CPWV (5.9 +/- 0.8 vs. 5.4 +/- 0.8 m/s) and PPWV (9.7 +/- 0.8 vs. 8.9 +/- 1.3 m/s) were reduced following the training program. No significant changes were observed in AI(x) at 75 bpm, vascular conductance, heart rate variability or VO(2peak). These data indicate that changes in arterial stiffness independent of changes in heart rate variability or vascular conductance can be achieved in healthy young males following only 6 days of intense endurance exercise. PMID:19554346
Joo, W; Singh, H; Ahles, C P; Lee, Y; Colazas, W; Lee, L C; Prakash, A; Jaque, S V; Sumida, K D
The purpose of this study was to determine the existence of sex differences in the resistance training-induced elevation in bone mineral density (BMD) and bone strength (Fmax) during the growth period in rats. 16 male (M) and 16 female (F) rats (approx. 8 weeks old) were randomly divided into sedentary control (MC=8, FC=8), and resistance-trained (RT) groups (M-RT=8, F-RT=8). The RT groups were conditioned to climb a vertical ladder 4 consecutive times (per exercise session) with weights attached to their tail 3 days per week for a total of 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, there were no interaction effects (sex×exercise). The main effect of sex indicated no difference in tibial BMD (in g/cm(2)) for males (0.226±0.005) compared to females (0.221±0.004). However, Fmax (in Newtons) was significantly greater for males (131.3±5.3) compared to females (89.9±3.0). The main effect of exercise indicated that tibial BMD and Fmax were significantly greater for RT groups (0.234±0.004 g/cm(2) and 120.9±7.4 Newtons) compared to controls (0.212±0.003 g/cm(2) and 100.3±5.1 Newtons). The results indicate that during growth, there were no sex differences in the training-induced elevation in BMD and bone mechanical properties. PMID:26212247
Sulter, A M; Schutte, H K; Miller, D G
Singing not only requires good voluntary control over phonation and a musical ear, it also demands certain capacities of the voice source. These capacities include a desirable range of sound intensity and frequency, which can be measured and represented in a phonetogram. The influence of specific factors on voice capacities may be ascertained by the analysis of phonetograms. To determine the influence of the factors gender and voice training, phonetograms of 224 subjects, subdivided accordingly into four groups, were analyzed in two different ways. One is based on the rescaling of phonetograms, whereas the other derives analytic variables from the features' shape, area, and dynamic range. Analysis showed that, regarding gender, male subjects are able to produce softer phonations, whereas female subjects produced louder phonations at specific parts of their comparable frequency ranges. Trained subjects have a larger enclosed area of the phonetogram, which is primarily based on extended soft voice capabilities in both genders and the significantly larger frequency range in trained female subjects. The shape analysis, performed with Fourier Descriptors, revealed differences for the factors gender and training. PMID:8574302
Omiza, Michael M.
The effects of relaxation training and biofeedback on five factors of self-concept among hyperactive male elementary school students are investigated: levels of aspiration; anxiety; academic interest and satisfaction; leadership and initiative; and identification v alienation. Findings suggest that relaxation training/biofeedback warrant inclusion…
Sheykhlouvand, Mohsen; Khalili, Erfan; Agha-Alinejad, Hamid; Gharaat, Mohammadali
Sheykhlouvand, M, Khalili, E, Agha-Alinejad, H, and Gharaat, M. Hormonal and physiological adaptations to high-intensity interval training in professional male canoe polo athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(3): 859-866, 2016-This study compared the effects of 2 different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) programs in professional male canoe polo athletes. Responses of peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), ventilatory threshold (VT), peak and mean anaerobic power output (PPO and MPO), blood volume, and hormonal adaptations to HIIT were examined. Male athletes (n = 21, age: 24 ± 3 years; height: 181 ± 4 cm; mass: 85 ± 6 kg; and body fat: 12.9 ± 2.7%) were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups (N = 7): (a) (G1) interval paddling with variable volume (6, 7, 8, 9, 9, 9, 8, 7, 6 repetitions per session from first to ninth session, respectively) × 60 second at lowest velocity that elicited V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak (vV[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), 1:3 work to recovery ratio; (b) (G2) interval paddling with variable intensity (6 × 60 second at 100, 110, 120, 130, 130, 130, 120, 110, 100% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2peak from first to ninth session, respectively, 1:3 work to recovery); and (c) (GCON) the control group performed three 60 minutes paddling sessions (75% vV[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) per week for 3 weeks. High-intensity interval training resulted in significant (except as shown) increases compared with pretest, in V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak (G1 = +8.8% and G2 = +8.5%), heart rate at VT (b·min) (G1 = +9.7% and G2 = +5.9%) and (%maximum) (G1 = +6.9%; p = 0.29 and G2 = +6.5%), PPO (G1 = +9.7% and G2 = +12.2%), MPO (G1 = +11.1%; p = 0.29 and G2 = +16.2%), total testosterone (G1 = +29.4% and G2 = +16.7%), total testosterone/cortisol ratio (G1 = +40.9% and G2 = +28.1%), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (G1 = +1.7% and G2 = +1.3%). No significant changes were found in GCON. High-intensity interval paddling may improve both aerobic and anaerobic
Uggla, Bengt Kristensson
The aim of this essay is to elaborate on the inner connection between three such diverse entities as lifelong learning, globalization and hermeneutics. After placing lifelong learning in a societal context framed by globalization, my intention is to reflect on the prerequisites for introducing a hermeneutical contribution to the understanding of…
Zolaktaf, Vahid; Ghasemi, Gholam A; Sadeghi, Morteza
Background: There are some auspicious records on applying aerobic exercise for asthmatic patients. Recently, it is suggested that rebound exercise might even increase the gains. This study was designed to compare the effects of rebound therapy to aerobic training in male asthmatic patients. Methods: Sample included 37 male asthmatic patients (20-40 years) from the same respiratory clinic. After signing the informed consent, subjects volunteered to take part in control, rebound, or aerobic groups. There was no change in the routine medical treatment of patients. Supervised exercise programs continued for 8 weeks, consisting of two sessions of 45 to 60 minutes per week. Criteria measures were assessed pre- and post exercise program. Peak exercise capacity (VO2peak) was estimated by modified Bruce protocol, Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and FEV1% were measured by spirometer. Data were analyzed by repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Significant interactions were observed for all 4 criteria measures (P < 0.01), meaning that both the exercise programs were effective in improving FVC, FEV1, FEV1%, and VO2peak. Rebound exercise produced more improvement in FEV1, FEV1%, and VO2peak. Conclusions: Regular exercise strengthens the respiratory muscles and improves the cellular respiration. At the same time, it improves the muscular, respiratory, and cardio-vascular systems. Effects of rebound exercise seem to be promising. Findings suggest that rebound exercise is a useful complementary means for asthmatic male patients. PMID:23717762
Andersen, Jesper L.; Eidemak, Inge; Harrison, Adrian P.; Jørgensen, Niels
Background. We investigated serum testosterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels' associations with muscle fibre size and resistance training in male dialysis patients. Methods. Male patients were included in a 16-week control period followed by 16 weeks of resistance training thrice weekly. Blood samples were obtained to analyse testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), IGF-1, and IGF-binding protein 3. Muscle fibres' size was analysed in biopsies from m. vastus lateralis. Results. The patients' testosterone levels were within the normal range at baseline (n = 20) (19.5 (8.2–52.1) nmol/L versus 17.6 (16.1–18.0), resp.) whereas LH levels were higher (13.0 (5.5–82.8) U/L versus 4.3 (3.3–4.6), P < 0.001, resp.). IGF-1 and IGF-binding protein 3 levels were higher in the patients compared with reference values (203 (59–590) ng/mL versus 151 (128–276), P = 0.014, and 5045 (3370–9370) ng/mL versus 3244 (3020–3983), P < 0.001, resp.). All hormone levels and muscle fibre size (n = 12) remained stable throughout the study. Age-adjusted IGF-1 was associated with type 1 and 2 fibre sizes (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Patients' total testosterone values were normal due to markedly increased LH values, which suggest a compensated primary insufficiency of the testosterone producing Leydig cell. Even though testosterone values were normal, resistance training was not associated with muscle hypertrophy. This trial is registered with ISRCTN72099857. PMID:24804194
A project in Europe is working to improve the quality of work, promote equal opportunities, combat exclusion and poverty; promote lasting economic growth and a European Union economic policy; and promote sustainable development and quality of life. In order to achieve these goals, three main objectives for vocational education and training (VET)…
Knighton, Tamara; Hujaleh, Filsan; Iacampo, Joe; Werkneh, Gugsa
This report is based on the Access and Support to Education and Training Survey (ASETS), which was undertaken by Statistics Canada in partnership with Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC). The ASETS brings together three previous education surveys that covered specific population groups: (1) the Survey of Approaches to Educational…
Examines Japan's educational system and the role of national policy and local government in fostering lifelong learning. Reasons why Japan is building a lifelong learning society are examined, as are the opportunities available in Japan for learning beyond traditional education, the national and local government's role, access to facilities,…
Christoffel, Pam, Comp.
Approximately 275 Federal programs support some form of lifelong learning. While the majority of the lifelong learning programs are administered by the various agencies within HEW, a significant number of programs are run by such Federal agencies as the Department of Justice, the National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities, and the Smithsonian…
Holford, John, Ed.; Jarvis, Peter, Ed.; Griffin, Colin, Ed.
This book contains 30 papers providing international perspectives on lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Edgar Faure after 25 Years" (Roger Boshier); "Public Rhetoric and Public Policy" (Colin Griffin); "Lifelong Learning and the European Union" (Barry J. Hake); "Critical Perspectives and New Beginnings" (Michael Collins);…
Wilkie, Sabrina S.; Dominelli, Paolo B.; Sporer, Benjamin C.; Koehle, Michael S.
In this study we tested the hypothesis that inspiring a low-density gas mixture (helium-oxygen; HeO2) would minimize mechanical ventilatory constraints and preferentially increase exercise performance in females relative to males. Trained male (n = 11, 31 yr) and female (n = 10, 26 yr) cyclists performed an incremental cycle test to exhaustion to determine maximal aerobic capacity (V̇o2max; male = 61, female = 56 ml·kg−1·min−1). A randomized, single-blinded crossover design was used for two experimental days where subjects completed a 5-km cycling time trial breathing humidified compressed room air or HeO2 (21% O2:balance He). Subjects were instrumented with an esophageal balloon for the assessment of respiratory mechanics. During the time trial, we assessed the ability of HeO2 to alleviate mechanical ventilatory constraints in three ways: 1) expiratory flow limitation, 2) utilization of ventilatory capacity, and 3) the work of breathing. We found that HeO2 significantly reduced the work of breathing, increased the size of the maximal flow-volume envelope, and reduced the fractional utilization of the maximal ventilatory capacity equally between men and women. The primary finding of this study was that inspiring HeO2 was associated with a statistically significant performance improvement of 0.7% (3.2 s) for males and 1.5% (8.1 s) for females (P < 0.05); however, there were no sex differences with respect to improvement in time trial performance (P > 0.05). Our results suggest that the extent of sex-based differences in airway anatomy, work of breathing, and expiratory flow limitation is not great enough to differentially affect whole body exercise performance. PMID:25429095
Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.
Lifelong learning has emerged as a central focus of the European Union's (EU) goal of becoming a knowledge society. Lifelong learning aims to build an inclusive society, to adjust the ways in which education and training are provided, and to encourage and equip people to participate in all spheres of modern public life. Indicators of lifelong…
Martin, D E; Vroon, D H; May, D F; Pilbeam, S P
In Brief: Nine elite male distance runners were evaluated by comprehensive periodic monitoring of selected blood chemistry variables, percent body fat and lean body mass, and cardiopulmonary performance as they prepared for the 1984 Olympic Summer Games in Los Angeles. The most consistent changes included a decrease in percent body fat (5.4% to 4.6%, p <.05) and an increase in anaerobic threshold. Compared with a healthy, untrained group matched for age, sex, and height, the runners showed measurable differences in resting pulmonary function, including elevated pulmonary diffusing capacity, maximum voluntary ventilation, and peak expiratory flow rate. Consistent deviations in indexes of iron stores and metabolism were also noted. The extent to which such altered iron status compromises training and competitive performance or may be restored by iron supplementation needs further investigation. PMID:27442830
Jahnke, Sara A.; Hyder, Melissa L.; Haddock, Christopher K.; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Day, R. Sue; Poston, Walker S. Carlos
Obesity and fitness have been identified as key health concerns among USA firefighters yet little is known about the current habits related to exercise and diet. In particular, high-intensity training (HIT) has gained increasing popularity among this population but limited quantitative data are available about how often it is used and the relationship between HIT and other outcomes. Using survey methodology, the current study evaluated self-reported HIT and diet practice among 625 male firefighters. Almost one-third (32.3%) of participants reported engaging in HIT. Body composition, as measured by waist circumference and percentage body fat, was significantly related to HIT training, with HIT participants being approximately half as likely to be classified as obese using body fat [odds ratio (OR) = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.34–0.78] or waist circumference (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37–0.98). Those who engaged in HIT were more than twice as likely as those who did not (OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.42–3.55) to meet fitness recommendations. Findings highlight directions for future prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:25830073
Brito, João; Vasconcellos, Fabrício; Oliveira, José; Krustrup, Peter; Rebelo, António
This study aimed to analyse the short-term performance effects of three in-season low-volume strength-training programmes in college male soccer players. Fifty-seven male college soccer players (age: 20.3±1.6 years) were randomly assigned to a resistance-training group (n=12), plyometric training group (n=12), complex training group (n=12), or a control group (n=21). In the mid-season, players underwent a 9-week strength-training programme, with two 20 min training sessions per week. Short-term effects on strength, sprint, agility, and vertical jump abilities were measured. All training groups increased 1-RM squat (range, 17.2–24.2%), plantar flexion (29.1–39.6%), and knee extension (0.5–22.2%) strength compared with the control group (p<0.05). The resistance-training group increased concentric peak torque of the knee extensor muscles by 9.9–13.7%, and changes were greater compared with the control group (p<0.05). The complex training group presented major increments (11.7%) in eccentric peak torque of the knee flexor muscles on the non-dominant limb compared with the control group and plyometric training group (p<0.05). All training groups improved 20-m sprint performance by 4.6–6.2% (p<0.001) compared with the control group. No differences were observed in 5-m sprint and agility performances (p>0.05). Overall, the results suggest that in-season low-volume strength training is adequate for developing strength and speed in soccer players. PMID:25031680
Kerr, Ava; Slater, Gary; Byrne, Nuala; Chaseling, Janet
The three-compartment (3-C) model of physique assessment (fat mass, fat-free mass, water) incorporates total body water (TBW) whereas the two-compartment model (2-C) assumes a TBW of 73.72%. Deuterium dilution (D2O) is the reference method for measuring TBW but is expensive and time consuming. Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS SFB7) estimates TBW instantaneously and claims high precision. Our aim was to compare SFB7 with D2O for estimating TBW in resistance trained males (BMI >25kg/m2). We included TBWBIS estimates in a 3-C model and contrasted this and the 2-C model against the reference 3-C model using TBWD2O. TBW of 29 males (32.4 ± 8.5 years; 183.4 ± 7.2 cm; 92.5 ± 9.9 kg; 27.5 ± 2.6 kg/m2) was measured using SFB7 and D2O. Body density was measured by BODPOD, with body composition calculated using the Siri equation. TBWBIS values were consistent with TBWD2O (SEE = 2.65L; TE = 2.6L) as were %BF values from the 3-C model (BODPOD + TBWBIS) with the 3-C reference model (SEE = 2.20%; TE = 2.20%). For subjects with TBW more than 1% from the assumed 73.72% (n = 16), %BF from the 2-C model differed significantly from the reference 3-C model (Slope 0.6888; Intercept 5.093). The BIS SFB7 measured TBW accurately compared with D2O. The 2C model with an assumed TBW of 73.72% introduces error in the estimation of body composition. We recommend TBW should be measured, either via the traditional D2O method or when resources are limited, with BIS, so that body composition estimates are enhanced. The BIS can be accurately used in 3C equations to better predict TBW and BF% in resistance trained males compared with a 2C model. PMID:26011918
Adult learning is a field that has so far been neglected in education and training reforms in South Eastern European countries and territories but which is beginning to emerge as an important policy area. Further efforts are needed to foster national policy debate about the importance of lifelong learning (and adult education as a vital component…
Recent international discussions provide information on various countries' responses to lifelong learning, including the following: (1) existing unmet needs and emerging needs for education and training; (2) funds required compared with what was provided; and (3) methods for acquiring additional funds, among them efficiency measures leading to…
Today, "lifelong learning for all" figures prominently within the education and training policies of governments throughout the developed world and is presented as a powerful solution to a wide range of economic and social challenges. Norway is often regarded as a country that has perhaps made more progress towards this ideal than many others.…
Selby Smith, Chris, Ed.; Ferrier, Fran, Ed.
The Educational Research Centre for the Economics of Education and Training (CEET) conducted a survey focusing on lifelong learning and the world of work, particularly on the need for retraining and upgrading of skills and knowledge. The survey involved five different approaches: surveys of the available quantitative and qualitative material; a…
European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).
This annotated bibliography is designed to inform vocational education and training specialists in Europe of new publications on lifelong learning. The 394 publications included are organized into four sections. Section 1 is organized by the following key themes: (1) skill development (literacy, learning to learn); (2) human and financial…
Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Baumann, Barbara; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas
We studied male and female nonprofessional Ironman triathletes to determine whether percent body fat, training, and/or previous race experience were associated with race performance. We used simple linear regression analysis, with total race time as the dependent variable, to investigate the relationship among athletes' percent body fat, average…
Lee, Sukho; Misra, Ranjita; Kaster, Elizabeth
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 10-week active intervention program (AIP), which incorporates dietary education with exercise training, among 30 healthy Mexican American male children, aged 8-12 years, in Laredo, Texas. Participants were randomly divided into 3 groups: education (EDU), dietary education to participants and parents and…
Kuhman, Daniel; Melcher, Daniel; Paquette, Max R
The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction of foot strike and common speeds on sagittal plane ankle and knee joint kinetics in competitive rear foot strike (RFS) runners when running with a RFS pattern and an imposed forefoot strike (FFS) pattern. Sixteen competitive habitual male RFS runners ran at two different speeds (i.e. 8 and 6 min mile(-1)) using their habitual RFS and an imposed FFS pattern. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess a potential interaction between strike pattern and speed for selected ground reaction force (GRF) variables and, sagittal plane ankle and knee kinematic and kinetic variables. No foot strike and speed interaction was observed for any of the kinetic variables. Habitual RFS yielded a greater loading rate of the vertical GRF, peak ankle dorsiflexor moment, peak knee extensor moment, peak knee eccentric extensor power, peak dorsiflexion and sagittal plane knee range of motion compared to imposed FFS. Imposed FFS yielded greater maximum vertical GRF, peak ankle plantarflexor moment, peak ankle eccentric plantarflexor power and sagittal plane ankle ROM compared to habitual RFS. Consistent with previous literature, imposed FFS in habitual RFS reduces eccentric knee extensor and ankle dorsiflexor involvement but produce greater eccentric ankle plantarflexor action compared to RFS. These acute differences between strike patterns were independent of running speeds equivalent to typical easy and hard training runs in competitive male runners. Current findings along with previous literature suggest differences in lower extremity kinetics between habitual RFS and imposed FFS running are consistent among a variety of runner populations. PMID:26371382
Kind, Terry; Evans, Yolanda
Learning is ongoing, and can be considered a social activity. In this paper we aim to provide a review of the use of social media for lifelong learning. We start by defining lifelong learning, drawing upon principles of continuous professional development and adult learning theory. We searched Embase and MEDLINE from 2004-2014 for search terms relevant to social media and learning. We describe examples of lifelong learners using social media in medical education and healthcare that have been reported in the peer-reviewed literature. Medical or other health professions students may have qualities consistent with being a lifelong learner, yet once individuals move beyond structured learning environments they will need to recognize their own gaps in knowledge and skills over time and be motivated to fill them, thereby incorporating lifelong learning principles into their day-to-day practice. Engagement with social media can parallel engagement in the learning process over time, to the extent that online social networking fosters feedback and collaboration. The use of social media and online networking platforms are a key way to continuously learn in today's information sharing society. Additional research is needed, particularly rigorous studies that extend beyond learner satisfaction to knowledge, behaviour change, and outcomes. PMID:25906988
Duggan, Katherine A.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Kern, Margaret L.; Friedman, Howard S.
Objective Sleep duration is known to significantly affect health in adults and children, but little is understood about long-term associations. This prospective cohort study is the first to examine whether childhood sleep duration is associated with lifelong mortality risk. Methods Data from childhood were refined and mortality data collected for 1,145 participants from the Terman Life Cycle Study. Participants were born between 1904 and 1915, lived to at least 1940, and had complete age, bedtime, and waketime data at initial data collection (1917–1926). Homogeneity of the cohort sample (intelligent, mostly white) limits generality but provides natural control of common confounds. Through 2009, 1,039 participants had confirmed deaths. Sleep duration was calculated as the difference between each child’s bed and wake times. Age-adjusted sleep (deviation from that predicted by age) was computed. Cox proportional hazards survival models evaluated childhood sleep duration as a predictor of mortality separately by sex, controlling for baseline age. Results For males, a quadratic relation emerged: male children who under-slept or over-slept compared to peers were at increased risk of lifelong all-cause mortality (HR = 1.15, CI = 1.05 – 1.27). Effect sizes were smaller and non-significant in females (HR = 1.02, CI = 0.91 – 1.14). Conclusions Male children with shorter or longer sleep durations than expected for their age were at increased risk of death at any given age in adulthood. The findings suggest that sleep may be a core biobehavioral trait, with implications for new models of sleep and health throughout the entire lifespan. PMID:24588628
Kjaer, M.; Christensen, N.J.; Sonne, B.; Richter, E.A.; Galbo, H.
The kinetics underlying plasma epinephrine concentrations were studied. Six athletes (T) and six sedentary males (C) were given intravenous infusions of TH-labeled epinephrine, after which arterial blood was drawn. They rested sitting and bicycled continuously to exhaustion (60 min at 125 W, 60 min at 160 W, 40 min at 200 W, and 240 W to the end). Work time was 154 +/- 13 (SE) (T) and 75 +/- 6 (C) min. At rest, epinephrine clearance was identical (28.4 +/- 1.3 (T) vs. 29.2 +/- 1.8 (C) ml . kg-1 . min-1), but plasma concentration (1.42 +/- 0.27 (T) vs. 0.71 +/- 0.16 (C) nmol . l-1) and, accordingly, secretion (2.9 +/- 0.7 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.4 nmol . min-1) were higher (P less than 0.05) in T than C subjects. Epinephrine clearance was closely related to relative work load, decreasing from 15% above the basal level at 30% of maximal O2 uptake (VO2 max) to 22% below at 76% of VO2 max. Epinephrine concentrations increased much more with work intensity than could be accounted for by changes in clearance and were, at exhaustion, higher (P less than 0.05) in T (7.2 +/- 1.6) than in C (2.5 +/- 0.7 nmol . l-1) subjects despite similar glucose, heart rate, and hematocrit values. At a given load, epinephrine clearance rapidly became constant, whereas concentration increased continuously. Forearm extraction of epinephrine invalidated use of blood from a cubital vein or a hand vein arterialized by hot water in turnover measurements. During exercise, changes in epinephrine concentrations reflect changes in secretion rather than in clearance. Training may increase adrenal medullary secretory capacity.
Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Vergara-Pedreros, Marcelo; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Martínez-Salazar, Cristian; Alvarez, Cristian; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; De La Fuente, Carlos I; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel
In a randomised controlled trial design, effects of 6 weeks of plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance performance were compared in male and female soccer players. Young (age 21.1 ± 2.7 years) players with similar training load and competitive background were assigned to training (women, n = 19; men, n = 21) and control (women, n = 19; men, n = 21) groups. Players were evaluated for lower- and upper-body maximal-intensity exercise, 30 m sprint, change of direction speed and endurance performance before and after 6 weeks of training. After intervention, the control groups did not change, whereas both training groups improved jumps (effect size (ES) = 0.35-1.76), throwing (ES = 0.62-0.78), sprint (ES = 0.86-1.44), change of direction speed (ES = 0.46-0.85) and endurance performance (ES = 0.42-0.62). There were no differences in performance improvements between the plyometric training groups. Both plyometric groups improved more in all performance tests than the controls. The results suggest that adaptations to plyometric training do not differ between men and women. PMID:26197721
de Villarreal, Eduardo Sáez; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Requena, Bernardo; Haff, G Gregory; Ramos-Veliz, Rafael
We compared the effects of 6-week dry-land and in-water specific strength training combined with a water polo (WP) program on 7 sport-specific performance parameters. Nineteen professional players were randomly assigned to 2 groups: in-water strength group (WSG) (in-water training only) and dry-land strength group (LSG). The program included 3 weekly strength training sessions and 5 days of WP training per week for 6 weeks during the preseason. Ten-meter T-agility test, 20-m maximal sprint swim, maximal dynamic strength (1 repetition maximum), bench press (BP) and full squat (FS), in-water boost, countermovement jump (CMJ), and WP throwing speed were measured. Significant improvements (p ≤ 0.05) were found in the experimental groups in some variables: CMJ in the LSG and WSG (2.35 cm, 9.07%, effect size [ES] = 0.89; and 2.6 cm, 7.6%, ES = 0.83, respectively), in-water boost increased in the WSG group (4.1 cm; 11.48%; ES = 0.70), and FS and BP increased (p ≤ 0.05) only in the LSG group (12.1 kg; 11.27%; ES = 1.15 and 8.3 kg; 9.55%; ES = 1.30, respectively). There was a decrease of performance in agility test (-0.55 seconds; 5.60%; ES = 0.74). Both dry-land and in-water specific strength training and high-intensity training in these male WP players produced medial to large effects on most WP-specific performance parameters. Therefore, we propose modifications to current training methodology for WP players in preseason to include both the training programs (dry-land and in-water specific strength training and high-intensity training) for athlete preparation in this sport. PMID:24818541
This paper argues that contemporary interest in lifelong learning can be seen as an artefact of the market. It points out how the attractive vocabulary associated with personal development and empowerment often masks other economic and social purposes. Bearing in mind the social function of education, the author compares the strategies for the promotion of lifelong learning designed for those in "included social categories" with the policies designed for those in marginal and excluded positions. It concludes by challenging its own position by citing positive learner experience in each case.
Multiple Employment Training Programs. Major Overhaul Needed To Create a More Efficient, Customer-Driven System. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education, Training and Lifelong Learning, Committee on Economic and Educational Opportunities, House of Representatives.
Crawford, Clarence C.
Today, 163 federal programs scattered across 15 federal agencies provide employment training assistance. Although they frequently target the same clients, share the same goals, compete for funds, and provide similar services, agencies maintain separate administrative structures that devote staff and other resources to administer, monitor, and…
Wang, Xingze; Chatchawan, Uraiwan; Nakmareong, Saowanee; Silsirivanit, Atit; Wang, Yingying; Xie, Dongbei; Yang, Jinsheng; Eungpinichpong, Wichai
Objectives. This paper aims at exploring the effects of GUASHA on heart rate variability between healthy volunteers under normal condition and weightlifters after training sessions. Methods. Ten healthy male volunteers under normal condition and 15 male weightlifters after weightlifting training sessions were recruited into two groups. Electrocardiography was recorded before and immediately after 20-minute GUASHA. HRV was calculated in both the time domain and the frequency domain. Results. Stress index was reduced, while standard deviation of N-N intervals (SDNN), proportion derived by dividing the number of interval differences of successive N-N intervals greater than 50 ms, and root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) were enhanced after GUASHA therapy in the two groups. The changes in SDNN and RMSSD were higher in the healthy men group than in the weightlifters group. In addition, low frequency was decreased whereas high frequency was significantly increased in healthy men after the GUASHA session. Conclusions. GUASHA therapy facilitates the parasympathetic nervous activity and modulates the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic activities in both healthy men under normal condition and weightlifters after training sessions as indicated. Although the changes of the HRV parameters were similar in both groups, the responsiveness was more pronounced in healthy men than in male weightlifters. PMID:26120346
Schuetze, Hans G.
International organisations were the main proponents of Lifelong Learning when the concept was first developed in the early 1970s. Although different organisations used different labels--Lifelong Learning, recurrent education, education permanente--they all emphasised that learning is a lifelong process and that all education should be organised…
This paper argues that there are many ways of conceptualising lifelong learning and examines EU and Scottish lifelong learning policies in order to identify their underlying assumptions. Through an analysis of these policies, it is demonstrated that they draw on a number of inter-related fallacies that prioritise lifelong learning mainly in…
This paper presents a public library perspective on lifelong learning. The first section discusses the lifelong learning challenge, including the aims of the Australian National Marketing Strategy for Skills and Lifelong Learning, and findings of a national survey related to the value of and barriers to learning. The second section addresses the…
Jarvis, Peter, Ed.
As lifelong learning grows in popularity, few comprehensive pictures of the phenomenon have emerged. The "Routledge International Handbook of Lifelong Learning" provides a disciplined and complete overview of lifelong learning internationally. The theoretical structure puts the learner at the centre and the book emanates from there, pointing to…
Hatton, Michael J., Ed.
The 26 articles in this book focus on lifelong learning policies, practices, and programs in 13 Asia Pacific countries. The following papers are included: "Half a Revolution: A Brief Survey of Lifelong Learning in New Zealand" (P. Methven and J. Hansen); "HRD in a Multicultural Workplace: The Need for Lifelong Learning" (M. Ogisu-Kamiya);…
The independent Commission of Inquiry into the future of lifelong learning, established and supported by National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE), has set itself the ambitious task of understanding both the motivation for engaging (and especially re-engaging) with learning through the life-course, and the infrastructure that is…
Overly, Norman V., Ed.
Focusing on lifelong learning and its relevance and importance to American education, this yearbook examines goals, obstacles, and suggested approaches. The first two of three parts are presented in an expressionistic style--a collage of musings, vignettes, and headlines intended to raise questions and reflect the diversity of views in our…
The current dominant concept of lifelong learning has arisen from the pressures of globalisation, economic change and the needs of the "knowledge economy". Its importance is not disputed in this paper. However, its proponents often advocate it in a form which places unrealistic demands on the individual without at the same time addressing their…
Recent lifelong learning policies have been criticized for creating an illusion of freedom whilst simultaneously reducing choice. The concept of desire permits engagement with the conscious and unconscious drives that underpin individual decision-making, which direct the life course. Utilizing the ideas of Hume and Spinoza, the present article…
The author's father left school aged 13 at the start of the Great Depression. When he finally found work the wealth of educational opportunity he encountered inspired him with a lifelong love of learning. He signed up for evening classes and loved anything and everything to do with what he proudly called self-improvement. As a novice to retirement…
The article aims to demonstrate that the impact of fiction on adult learning could be illuminated by a deeper engagement with research into empathy. It recognises that the lifelong learning literature acknowledges the importance of empathy in adult learning and that discussions of the role of fiction in adult learning often refer to fiction's…
Glastra, Folke J.; Hake, Barry J.; Schedler, Petra E.
Globalization and individualization have radically changed both the economic system and the personal life world in industrial or postindustrial nation-states. To survive hypercompetition and volatile consumer choice, learning organizations and a workforce engaged in lifelong learning are needed. Constructing "the good life" has become an…
Watts, A. G.; Hawthorn, Ruth; Hoffbrand, Jill; Jackson, Heather; Spurling, Andrea
Outlines the background, rationale, methodology, and outcomes of developing local lifelong guidance strategies in four geographic areas. Analyzes the main components of the strategies developed and addresses a number of issues relating to the process of strategy development. Explores implications for parallel work in other localities. (RJM)
The author reflects upon the specific character of ethics as a domain of knowledge that came into being in order to gather truths, which would help human beings to wisely take care of themselves. She argues that the ethical perspective should be taken into account while planning the lifelong learning activities. Further, she notes that if the goal…
Stern, Joanne V.
Based on the assumption that all community college staff members should be lifelong learners, this paper outlines the purposes and principles underlying a quality staff development program and enumerates the elements, activities, incentives, and other considerations that are necessary for the program to be successful. First, the purposes of staff…
Lee, Grace O. M.
Despite recent attempts at implementation, the government must play a more active role in promoting lifelong learning in Hong Kong. They did little until 1989, when the Open Learning Institute (OLI) was established. The OLI was innovative because it provided degree level courses for adults, without concern for prerequisite academic qualifications.…
European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).
To help the New Independent States and Mongolia address central issues related to lifelong learning, the European Training Foundation organized a project on lifelong learning that involved the following countries: Armenia; Belarus; Georgia; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Mongolia; the Russian Federation; Ukraine; and Uzbekistan. The project's principal…
In the past, adult education focused on basic training, providing general skills that lasted a lifetime. Today social and economic pressures are pushing adults into lifelong learning. For lifelong learning to become a reality, a system is needed that allows individuals to further their learning, with regular periodic breaks, without penalties or…
Petray, Clayre K.; Krahenbuhl, Gary S.
This study attempted to determine the effects of running training, instruction on running techniques, or a combination of instruction and training on the running economy of 10-year-old children. No significant alterations in running economy or technique were produced as a result of the various regimens. (Author/MT)
Eslami, Saghar; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Marandi, Seyed Mohammad; Ghasemi, Gholamali; Eslami, Sepehr
Background & objectives: Enhanced muscle strength is seen when resistance exercise is combined with the consumption of nutritional supplements. Although there is a limited number of studies available about the efficacy of gamma oryzanol supplementation with resistance exercise in humans, but its usage as a nutritional supplement for strength is common in athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma oryzanol supplementation during 9-week resistance training on muscular strength and anthropometric measurements of young healthy males. Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial, changes of anthropometric measurements and muscular strength were studied after chronic resistance exercise and gamma oryzanol supplementation in 30 healthy volunteers (16 in supplement and 14 in placebo). Each day, gamma oryzanol supplement (600 mg) and placebo (the same amount of lactose) were consumed after training. The participants exercised with 80 per cent 1-Repetition Maximum (1-RM), for one hour and four days/week. Anthropometric measurements and subjects’ 1-RM for muscular strength were determined at the commencement and end of the 9-week study. Results: There was no significant difference between the baseline characteristics and target variables at baseline between the two groups. After gamma oryzanol supplementation, there was no significant difference in the means of anthropometric and skin fold measurements between the supplement and placebo groups. However, there were significant differences between the supplement and placebo groups for 1-RM of bench press and leg curl, which showed that gamma oryzanol improved muscle strength following resistance training. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicated that 600 mg/day gamma oryzanol supplementation during the 9-week resistance training did not change anthropometric and body measurements, but it increased muscular strength in young healthy males. Further, studies need to be done in trained
Souza, Eduardo O.; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Tricoli, Valmor; Roschel, Hamilton; Lowery, Ryan P.; Aihara, André Y.; Leão, Alberto R.S.; Wilson, Jacob M.
This study compared quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and maximum strength (1RM) after three different short-term strength training (ST) regimens (i.e. non-periodized [NP], traditional-periodization [TP], and undulating-periodization [UP]) matched for volume load in previously untrained individuals. Thirty-one recreationally active males were randomly divided into four groups: NP: n = 9; TP: n = 9; UP: n = 8 and control group (C): n = 5. Experimental groups underwent a 6-week program consisting of two training sessions per week. Muscle strength was assessed at baseline and after the training period. Dominant leg quadriceps CSA was obtained through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and 48h after the last training session. Results The 1RM increased from pre to post only in the NP and UP groups (NP = 17.0 %, p = 0.002; UP = 12.9 %, p = 0.03), respectively. There were no significant differences in 1RM for LP and C groups after 6 weeks (TP = 7.7 %, p = 0.58, C = 1.2 %, p = 1.00). The CSA increased from pre to post in all of the experimental groups (NP = 5.1 %, p = 0.0001; TP = 4.6 %, p = 0.001; UP = 5.2 %, p = 0.0001), with no changes observed in the C group (p = 0.93). Conclusion Our results suggest that different ST periodization regimens over a short-term (i.e. 6 weeks), volume load equated conditions seem to induce similar hypertrophic responses regardless of the loading scheme employed. In addition, for those recreational males who need to develop muscle strength in the short-term, the training regimen should be designed properly. Key points Muscle hypertrophy occurs within six weeks in recreationally active men regardless the ST training regimen employed. When the total volume is similar, training at greater intensities will demonstrate superior gains in the 1RM performance. Some caution should be exercised when interpreting our findings since long-term periodized regimens could produce different training-induced responses. PMID:25177188
Drenowatz, Clemens; Eisenmann, Joey C; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Pivarnik, James M
The primary purpose of this study was to examine dietary intake in endurance-trained athletes during a week of high-volume and a week of low-volume training while measuring exercise energy expenditure (EEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR), and nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). In addition, compliance with current American College of Sports Medicine/American Dietetic Association nutrition and performance recommendations for macronutrients was evaluated. Energy expenditure and dietary intake were measured in 15 male endurance athletes during 2 nonconsecutive weeks resembling a high-volume and a low-volume training period. Anthropometric measurements were taken and percentage body fat was determined at the beginning and end of each week of training. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was calculated by summing RMR, NEAT, and EEE. Dietary intake was assessed with an online food-frequency questionnaire completed at the end of each week of data collection. Despite significant differences between TDEE and energy intake, no difference in body composition between the beginning and end of either week of training was observed, suggesting underreporting of caloric intake. Further, no changes in total caloric intake or macronutrient intake occurred even though TDEE increased significantly during the high-volume training. Reported carbohydrate intake (4.5 g·kg(-1)) and fiber intake (25 g·day(-1)) were below recommendations, whereas fat intake (1.3 g·kg(-1)) was slightly above recommendations. In summary, no short-term dietary adjustments occurred in response to differences in training regimen. Because these athletes were generally consuming a Western diet, they may have required some support to achieve desirable intakes for health and performance. PMID:22360344
Elsangedy, Hassan Mohamed; Krinski, Kleverton; Machado, Daniel Gomes da Silva; Agrícola, Pedro Moraes Dutra; Okano, Alexandre Hideki; Gregório da Silva, Sergio
[Purpose] This study examined the exercise intensity and psychophysiological responses to a self-selected resistance training session in sedentary male subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve sedentary male subjects (35.8 ± 5.8 years; 25.5 ± 2.6 kg·m2) underwent four sessions at 48-h intervals: familiarization; two sessions of one repetition maximum test and a resistance training session in which they were told to self-select a load to complete 3 sets of 10 repetitions of chest press, leg press, seated rows, knee extension, overhead press, biceps curl, and triceps pushdown exercises. During the latter, the percentage of one repetition maximum, affective responses (feeling scale), and rating of perceived exertion (OMNI-RES scale) were measured. [Results] The percentage of one repetition maximum for all exercises was >51% (14–31% variability), the rating of perceived exertion was 5–6 (7–11% variability), and the affective responses was 0–1 point with large variability. [Conclusion] Sedentary male subjects self-selected approximately 55% of one maximum repetition, which was above the intensity suggested to increase strength in sedentary individuals, but below the recommended intensity to improve strength in novice to intermediate exercisers. The rating of perceived exertion was indicative of moderate intensity and slightly positive affective responses. PMID:27390418
Váczi, Márk; Nagy, Szilvia A; Kőszegi, Tamás; Ambrus, Míra; Bogner, Péter; Perlaki, Gábor; Orsi, Gergely; Tóth, Katalin; Hortobágyi, Tibor
The growth promoting effects of eccentric (ECC) contractions are well documented but it is unknown if the rate of stretch per se plays a role in such muscular responses in healthy aging human skeletal muscle. We tested the hypothesis that exercise training of the quadriceps muscle with low rate ECC and high rate ECC contractions in the form of stretch-shortening cycles (SSCs) but at equal total mechanical work would produce rate-specific adaptations in healthy old males age 60-70. Both training programs produced similar improvements in maximal voluntary isometric (6%) and ECC torque (23%) and stretch-shortening cycle function (reduced contraction duration [24%] and enhanced elastic energy storage [12%]) (p<0.05). The rate of torque development increased 30% only after SSC exercise (p<0.05). Resting testosterone and cortisol levels were unchanged but after each program the acute exercise-induced cortisol levels were 12-15% lower (p<0.05). Both programs increased quadriceps size 2.5% (p<0.05). It is concluded that both ECC and SSC exercise training produces favorable adaptations in healthy old males' quadriceps muscle. Although the rate of muscle tension during the SSC vs. ECC contractions was about 4-fold greater, the total mechanical work seems to regulate the hypetrophic, hormonal, and most of the mechanical adaptations. However, SSC exercise was uniquely effective in improving a key deficiency of aging muscle, i.e., its ability to produce force rapidly. PMID:25064038
Martin, D. E.; And Others
Nine elite male distance runners were evaluated by comprehensive periodic monitoring of selected blood chemistry variables, percent body fat and lean body mass, and cardiopulmonary performance as they prepared for the 1984 Olympic Summer Games. Results are discussed. (MT)
Gahreman, Daniel E; Boutcher, Yati N; Bustamante, Sonia; Boutcher, Stephen H
[Purpose] This study investigated the combined effect of green tea and acute interval sprinting exercise on fat oxidation of trained and untrained males. [Methods] Fourteen trained and 14 untrained males ingested one capsule containing either green tea or cellulose with breakfast, lunch, and dinner, 24 hours before two exercise sessions. A fourth capsule was consumed 90 minutes before exercise after overnight NPO (nil per os). Participants performed a 20-minute interval sprinting cycling protocol, consisting of repeated bouts of 8-seconds of sprint cycling (at 65% of maximum power output) and 12-seconds of recovery (at 25% of maximum power output), followed by 75 minutes of post-exercise recovery. [Results] Fat oxidation was significantly greater in the resting condition after green tea ingestion (p < 0.05) compared with the placebo. Fat oxidation was also significantly increased post-exercise in the green tea, compared with the placebo condition (p < 0.01). During and after exercise the plasma glycerol levels significantly increased in both groups after green tea consumption and were significantly higher in the untrained group compared with the trained group (p < 0.05). Compared with the placebo, the plasma epinephrine levels were significantly higher for both groups in the green tea condition during and after exercise, however, norepinephrine levels were only significantly greater, p < 0.05, during and after exercise in the untrained group. [Conclusion] Green tea significantly increased resting and post-exercise fat oxidation and also elevated plasma glycerol and epinephrine levels during and after interval sprinting. Glycerol and norepinephrine levels during interval sprinting were significantly higher in the untrained group compared with the trained group. PMID:27298806
Ezeukwu, Antoninus O; Agwubike, Elias O; Uadia, Patrick O
Background The process of atherogenicity is known to be influenced by exercise. However, appropriate exercise stimulus necessary to generate the response and adaptation in sedentary non-obese individuals has not yet been investigated. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of an 8-week continuous training and corresponding interval training on the atherogenic index of plasma in sedentary Nigerian males. Methods Overall, there were 54 male university students that participated in our study, which used a pretest- posttest control group design. Participants (18 males per group) were assigned into continuous, interval and control groups respectively. During the first two weeks, training was done 3 times weekly for 30 minutes each day, and was increased by 5 minutes every 2 weeks. Continuous training was done at 70-84% of heart rate reserve. Interval training was done at 70-84%/30-39% heart rate reserve in 1:2 minutes work/rest intervals, respectively. The control group did not participate in the training. Data collected were analysed using descriptive, paired t-test, analysis of covariance and Bonferroni post-hoc analysis. Results Young sedentary non-obese males were at high risk (atherogenic index of plasma > 0.24) of cardiovascular diseases/conditions. However, continuous training led to significant reductions (p = 0.002) in the atherogenic index of plasma. In contrast, non-significant increase (p = 0.084) followed interval training. After controlling for baseline values, only continuous training still had significant effects on atherogenic index of plasma when compared with other groups. Conclusions Continuous training of vigorous intensity is better than a corresponding interval training protocol as a natural anti-atherogenic method of reducing risk of cardiovascular event in sedentary non-obese males. PMID:27122890
In a competitive market training economy, vocational education and training (VET) and small business in Australia face a number of challenges. They need to qualify the extent of lifelong learning skills being used in the small firm workplace, define the range of learning partnerships both within VET and the wider informal learning community in…
van Leeuwen, Marko J.; van Praag, Bernard M. S.
A model for calculating on-the-job training costs and benefits was developed and applied to Dutch employer/employee data. The model was used to generate scenarios for policy measures to stimulate lifelong learning, depicting costs and benefits for those in the market for training as well as macroeconomic consequences. (SK)
Asadi, Abbas; Saez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Arazi, Hamid
Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are common in basketball athletes; common preventive programs for decreasing these injures may be enhancing postural control (PC) or balance with plyometric training. This study investigated the efficiency of plyometric training program within basketball practice to improve PC performance in young basketball players. Sixteen players were recruited and assigned either to a plyometric + basketball training group (PT) or basketball training group (BT). All players trained twice per week, but the PT + BT followed a 6-week plyometric program implemented within basketball practice, whereas the BT followed regular practice. The star excursion balance test (SEBT) at 8 directions (anterior, A; anteromedial, AM; anterolateral, AL; medial, M; lateral, L; posterior, P; posteromedial, PM; and posterolateral, PL) was measured before and after the 6-week period. The PT group induced significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) and small to moderate effect size in the SEBT (A = 0.95, AM = 0.62, AL = 0.61, M = 0.36, L = 0.47, P = 0.27, PM = 0.25, PL = 0.24). No significant improvements were found in the BT group. Also, there were significant differences between groups in all directions except PM and PL. An integrated plyometric program within the regular basketball practice can lead to significant improvements in SEBT and consequently PC. It can be recommended that strength and conditioning professionals use PT to enhance the athletes' joint awareness and PC to reduce possible future injuries in the lower extremity. PMID:25563677
This paper is motivated by concern about the decline in the numbers of males entering the teaching profession in Malaysia. It seeks to explore first year student teachers' views of teaching as a career choice and to determine the factors that influenced their decision to enter the teaching profession. A total of 425 student teachers completed a…
Koss, Mary P.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Yuan, Nicole P.; Herrera, Veronica M.; Lichter, Erika L.
Male violence is an enduring feature of women's lives from childhood through old age. The review covers child sexual abuse, rape, and partner violence with emphasis on the prevalence of violence, its mental health consequences, the course of recovery, and mediators and moderators of traumatic impact. The primary focus is depression and…
Johnson, Janice K.
An instructional program called "Passport to a Job" provided prerelease training for inmates at Riker's Island Correctional Facility. The inmates were taught the important steps in preparing for employment; how to identify and cope with discriminatory employment; and how to demonstrate the interview techniques of opening the interview with a…
Jacobs, Patrick L; Goldstein, Erica R; Blackburn, Will; Orem, Ihsan; Hughes, John J
Background Recent research has indicated that short term administration of glycine propionyl-L-carnitine (GPLC) significantly elevates levels of nitric oxide metabolites at rest and in response to reactive hyperaemia. However, no scientific evidence exists that suggests such supplementation enhances exercise performance in healthy, trained individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of GPLC on the performance of repeated high intensity stationary cycle sprints with limited recovery periods in resistance trained male subjects. Methods In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, twenty-four male resistance trained subjects (25.2 ± 3.6 years) participated in two test sessions separated by one week. Testing was performed 90 minutes following oral ingestion of either 4.5 grams GPLC or 4.5 grams cellulose (PL), in randomized order. The exercise testing protocol consisted of five 10-second Wingate cycle sprints separated by 1-minute active recovery periods. Peak (PP) and mean values (MP) of sprint power output and percent decrement of power (DEC) were determined per bout and standardized relative to body masss. Heart rate (HR) and blood lactate (LAC) were measured prior to, during and following the five sprint bouts. Results Significant main effects (p < 0.001) were observed for sprint bout order in values of PP, MP, DEC, and HR. There were significant main effects detected for condition in PP and MP (p < 0.05), with values across the five sprint bouts 2.6 – 15% greater with GPLC. Significant statistical interactions were detected between bout order and condition for both PP and MP (p < 0.05). There was a significant main effect of condition for LAC, LAC values 15.7% lower 4 min post-exercise with GPLC (p = 0.09) and with GPLC resulting in 16.2% less LAC at 14 min post-exercise (p < 0.05). Conclusion These findings indicate that short-term oral supplementation of GPLC can enhance peak power production in resistance trained males with
Erceg, Marko; Zagorac, Nebojsa; Katić, Ratko
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of football school program and physical education curriculum on changes in the motor abilities of 7- and 8-year-old boys. The study included a sample of 180 boys divided into group 1 (7-year-old boys), subdivided to experimental (n = 40) and control (n = 50) groups, and group 2 (8-year-old boys), subdivided to experimental (n = 40) and control (n = 50) groups. Experimental groups included children attending three training units of football training over a 9-month period, in addition to the conventional physical education curriculum. Control groups included children attending only conventional physical education curriculum. All study subjects underwent testing with a battery of 12 motor tests at the beginning and at the end of the study. Results obtained by discriminative canonic analysis showed no statistically significant between-group difference in motor abilities at the beginning of the study. However, significant differences in favor of experimental groups were recorded at the end of the study. Favorable changes in all motor variables were observed in both experimental and control groups of children from the initial through the final state. These changes were more pronounced in experimental groups. Analysis of variance for difference variables (final to initial measurement) indicated programmed education in the form of football training in addition to regular physical education curriculum to predominantly influence the development of aerobic endurance, agility, speed and flexibility in 7-year-old boys, and of explosive strength, aerobic endurance, flexibility and speed in 8-year-old boys. In the latter, football training led to the formation of a motor complex integrating explosiveness, speed, coordination, endurance and flexibility as a general motor factor determining future quality development in football. PMID:18494210
Özdemir, F; Çolak, R
The relationship between oxidative stress and some exercise components of resistance exercise (e.g. intensity, exercise volume) has not been clearly defined. Additionally, the oxidative stress markers may respond differently in various conditions. This study aims to determine the effects of progressive intensity of resistance exercise (RE) on oxidative stress and antioxidants in trained and untrained men, and also to investigate the possible threshold intensity required to evoke oxidative stress. RE trained (N=8) and untrained (N=8) men performed the leg extension RE at progressive intensities standardized for total volume: 1x17 reps at 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM); 1x14 reps at 60% of 1RM; 1x12 reps at 70% of 1RM; 2x5 reps at 80% of 1RM; and 3x3 reps at 90% of 1RM. Blood samples were drawn before (PRE) and immediately after each intensity, and after 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 24 hours following the RE. Lipid-hydroperoxide (LHP) significantly increased during the test and then decreased during the recovery in both groups (p<0.05); the POST-24 h LHP level was lower than PRE-LHP. Protein carbonyl (PCO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly increased (p<0.05); however, 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and glutathione (GSH) were not affected by the RE (p > 0.05). The results indicated that there was no significant training status x intensity interaction for examined variables (p > 0.05). Standardized volume of RE increased oxidative stress responses. Our study suggests that lower intensity (50%) is enough to increase LHP, whereas higher intensity (more than 80%) is required to evoke protein oxidation. PMID:26681835
Edwards, Richard; Ranson, Stewart; Strain, Michael
The current notion of lifelong learning in policy and practice is dominated by behaviorist, adaptive accumulation of skills and qualifications. An alternative is reflexive lifelong learning, developed through social learning networks within the context of dislocation and uncertainty. It involves the reflexive practices of metacognitive analysis…
Coffield, Frank, Ed.
The first paper of this set of 12 conference papers, "Nine Learning Fallacies and Their Replacement by a National Strategy for Lifelong Learning," by Frank Coffield, synthesizes the opinions of other participants, and goes beyond them to set forth an outline of a strategy for lifelong learning in the United Kingdom. Following this introductory…
This article describes and discusses the development of lifelong learning policy in two EU member states, Denmark and Portugal. The purpose is to show how different societal and historical contexts shape the development and implementation of lifelong learning policies, even though these policies have significant common elements. As a basis for the…
This article explores how the so called Nordic welfare state, with its specific institutional make up, handles Lifelong Learning in a time characterised by the challenges of economic globalisation and the hegemonic impact of the neo-liberal agenda. The analysis reveals a high participation in the Nordic countries in Lifelong Learning and, in…
A decade after the National Advisory Group for Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning (NAGCELL) report, "The Learning Age", born in the first flush of the New Labour Government, the task of providing and securing an overall strategic framework for lifelong learning remains as large as ever. NIACE is the Inquiry into the Future for Lifelong…
Nicoll, Katherine; Fejes, Andreas
A tendency of previous studies of lifelong learning to focus on learning and learning subjectivities may have led to an underestimation of potential effects in terms of a system of knowledge constitutive processes that operates powerfully to shape our societies. In this paper we explore lifelong learning and practices in the construction of…
Government policies view lifelong learning in terms of economic development. A SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis of the environment of British community education councils revealed other views of lifelong learning: it takes time and political expediency and national policy can adversely affect what and how people learn.…
Kaya, H. Eylem
Education, which is a fundamental right of human being, has been transformed into a kind of lifelong prisoning by marketing step by step under the name of lifelong learning. Adult education as one of the most crucial parts of the educational system has also been affected by the global trend of an international actor, the European Union through its…
Koper, Rob; Giesbers, Bas; van Rosmalen, Peter; Sloep, Peter; van Bruggen, Jan; Tattersall, Colin; Vogten, Hubert; Brouns, Francis
The provision of lifelong learning facilities is considered to be a major new direction for higher and distance teaching educational institutes catering for the demands of industry and society. ICT networks will in future support seamless, ubiquitous access to lifelong learning facilities at home, at work, in schools and universities. This implies…
Klamma, Ralf; Chatti, Mohamed Amine; Duval, Erik; Hummel, Hans; Hvannberg, Ebba Thora; Kravcik, Milos; Law, Effie; Naeve, Ambjorn; Scott, Peter
Life-long learning is a key issue for our knowledge society. With social software systems new heterogeneous kinds of technology enhanced informal learning are now available to the life-long learner. Learners outside of learning institutions now have access to powerful social communities of experts and peers who are together forging a new web 2.0.…
Zhou, Wei; Yasuda, Takami; Yokoi, Shigeki
Many countries are considering lifelong learning, which is becoming an important education goal, and promoting lifelong learning in the information age. With the development of Information and Communications Technology (ICT), digital divides have become a major concern in the world. In this study, we focus on three dimensions of digital divides in…
Ouergui, Ibrahim; Houcine, Nizar; Marzouki, Hamza; Davis, Philip; Zaouali, Monia; Franchini, Emerson; Gmada, Nabil; Bouhlel, Ezzedine
The aim of this study was to verify whether the specific kickboxing circuit training protocol (SKCTP) could reproduce kickboxing combat's hormonal, physiological, and physical responses. Twenty athletes of regional and national level volunteered to participate in the study (mean ± SD, age: 21.3 ± 2.7 years; height: 170 ± 0.5 cm; body mass: 73.9 ± 13.9 kg). After familiarization, SKCTP was conducted 1 week before a kickboxing competition. Cortisol, testosterone, growth hormone (GH), blood lactate [La], and glucose concentrations, as well as the Wingate upper-body test and countermovement jump (CMJ) performances were measured before and after SKCTP and combat. Heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured throughout rounds (R) R1, R2, and R3. Testosterone, GH, glucose, [La], HR, RPE, and CMJ did not differ among the 2 conditions (p > 0.05). However, Cortisol was higher for competition (p = 0.038), whereas both peak (p = 0.003) and mean power (p < 0.001) were higher in SKCTP. The study suggests that SKCTP replicates the hormonal, physiological, and physical aspects of competition. It is therefore suggested as a good form of specific kickboxing training, as well as a specific assessment tool to be used by kickboxing coaches to quantify kickboxers' fitness levels, when physiological parameters responses to the test are measured. PMID:25970497
Hittinger, Elizabeth A; Maher, Jennifer L; Nash, Mark S; Perry, Arlette C; Signorile, Joseph F; Kressler, Jochen; Jacobs, Kevin A
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) may improve blood flow and oxygen delivery to tissues, including skeletal muscle, and has the potential to improve intense aerobic exercise performance, especially that which results in arterial hypoxemia. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of IPC of the legs on peak exercise capacity (W(peak)), submaximal and peak cardiovascular hemodynamics, and peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) in trained males at sea level (SL) and simulated high altitude (HA; 13.3% FIO2, ∼ 3650 m). Fifteen highly trained male cyclists and triathletes completed 2 W(peak) tests (SL and HA) and 4 experimental exercise trials (10 min at 55% altitude-specific W(peak) then increasing by 30 W every 2 min until exhaustion) with and without IPC. HA resulted in significant arterial hypoxemia during exercise compared with SL (73% ± 6% vs. 93% ± 4% SpO2, p < 0.001) that was associated with 21% lower W(peak) values. IPC did not significantly improve W(peak) at SL or HA. Additionally, IPC failed to improve cardiovascular hemodynamics or SpO2 during submaximal exercise or at W(peak). In conclusion, IPC performed 45 min prior to exercise does not improve W(peak) or systemic oxygen delivery during submaximal or peak exercise at SL or HA. Future studies must examine the influence of IPC on local factors, such as working limb blood flow, oxygen delivery, and arteriovenous oxygen difference as well as whether the effectiveness of IPC is altered by the volume of muscle made ischemic, the timing prior to exercise, and high altitude acclimatization. PMID:25474566
Hashim Ali, Siti Aishah
As adults, we have always learned throughout our life, but this learning is informal. Now, more career-switchers and career-upgraders who are joining universities for further training are becoming the major group of adult learners. This current situation requires formal education in courses with controlled output. Hence, lifelong learning is seen as a necessity and an opportunity for these adult learners. One characteristic of adult education is that the learners tend to bring with them life experience from their past, especially when learning mathematics. Most of them associate mathematics with the school subjects and unable to recognize the mathematics in their daily practice as mathematics. They normally place a high value on learning mathematics because of its prominent role in their prospective careers, but their learning often requires overcoming personal experience and motivating themselves to learn mathematics again. This paper reports on the study conducted on a group of adult learners currently pursuing their study. The aim of this study is to explore (i) the motivation of the adult learners continuing their study; and (ii) the perception and motivation of these learners in learning mathematics. This paper will take this into account when we discuss learners' perception and motivation to learning mathematics, as interrelated phenomena. Finding from this study will provide helpful insights in understanding the learning process and adaption of adult learners to formal education.
Koska, Juraj; Ksinantová, Lucia; Kvetnanský, Richard; Hamar, Dusan; Martinkovic, Miroslav; Vigas, Milan
The study was designed to evaluate how a bout of endurance training (ET) influences the endocrine response after head-down bed rest (HDBR). Eleven healthy males completed the study, which consisted of a 6-wk ET followed by 5 days of -6 degrees head-down HDBR. Treadmill exercise at 80% of pretraining maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2max)) was performed before and after ET as well as after HDBR. ET increased VO(2max) by 13%. The response of norepinephrine was attenuated after ET and exaggerated after HDBR (P < 0.001). The differences in epinephrine responses were not statistically significant. The responses of cortisol and plasma renin activity (PRA) were unchanged after ET and were enhanced after HDBR (P < 0.001). The response of growth hormone after HDBR was reduced (P < 0.05). Only the change in cortisol response was associated with the increment of VO(2max) after ET (r = 0.68, P < 0.01). Endurance training failed to completely prevent changes in endocrine responses seen after HDBR. Improvement of physical fitness was associated with an enhancement of the cortisol response to exercise following the period of bed rest. PMID:15240416
Lloyd, Rhodri S; Radnor, John M; De Ste Croix, Mark B A; Cronin, John B; Oliver, Jon L
Lloyd, RS, Radnor, JM, De Ste Croix, MBA, Cronin, JB, and Oliver, JL. Changes in sprint and jump performances after traditional, plyometric, and combined resistance training in male youth pre- and post-peak height velocity. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1239-1247, 2016-The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 6-week training interventions using different modes of resistance (traditional strength, plyometric, and combined training) on sprinting and jumping performances in boys before and after peak height velocity (PHV). Eighty school-aged boys were categorized into 2 maturity groups (pre- or post-PHV) and then randomly assigned to (a) plyometric training, (b) traditional strength training, (c) combined training, or (d) a control group. Experimental groups participated in twice-weekly training programs for 6 weeks. Acceleration, maximal running velocity, squat jump height, and reactive strength index data were collected pre- and postintervention. All training groups made significant gains in measures of sprinting and jumping irrespective of the mode of resistance training and maturity. Plyometric training elicited the greatest gains across all performance variables in pre-PHV children, whereas combined training was the most effective in eliciting change in all performance variables for the post-PHV cohort. Statistical analysis indicated that plyometric training produced greater changes in squat jump and acceleration performances in the pre-PHV group compared with the post-PHV cohort. All other training responses between pre- and post-PHV cohorts were not significant and not clinically meaningful. The study indicates that plyometric training might be more effective in eliciting short-term gains in jumping and sprinting in boys who are pre-PHV, whereas those who are post-PHV may benefit from the additive stimulus of combined training. PMID:26422612
Gillespie, Brent D; McCormick, James J; Mermier, Christine M; Gibson, Ann L
The Talk Test (TT) has been used to determine exercise intensity among various population subgroups but not for competitive athletes. This study was designed to compare the ventilatory threshold (VT) with the last positive (+/+), equivocal (+/-), and negative (-/-) stages of the TT for highly trained cyclists. Twelve men (26.5 ± 4.6 years, 71.9 ± 7.6 kg) consented and completed the study, as approved by the university institutional review board. A maximal graded exercise test was used to identify VT, maximal aerobic capacity ((Equation is included in full-text article.)max: 65.9 ± 6.9 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)), and maximal heart rate (HRmax: 187.3 ± 11.3 b·min). On a separate visit, the TT was administered using the same protocol. Participants were asked if they could speak comfortably after a standard passage recitation. Response options were: "Yes" (+/+), "I'm not sure" (+/-), or "No" (-/-). Variables at VT were compared with the last (+/+), (+/-), and (-/-) stages of TT through t-test with Bonferroni's adjustment (0.05/3). Differences (p ≤ 0.017) were found between variables at VT, as compared with (+/+) TT ((Equation is included in full-text article.): 32.9 ± 7.7 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), %(Equation is included in full-text article.): 49.9 ± 9.9, heart rate [HR]: 128.7 ± 18.7 b·min, %HRmax: 68.6 ± 7.9, rating of perceived exertion [RPE]: 11.1 ± 1.1) and (+/-) TT ((Equation is included in full-text article.): 44.4 ± 7.5 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), %(Equation is included in full-text article.): 67.2 ± 7.5). There were no differences between RPE- and HR-based variables at VT, as compared with (+/-) TT (RPE: 13.6 ± 0.63, HR: 147.1 ± 17.2 b·min, %HRmax: 78.5 ± 7.4) or (-/-) TT ((Equation is included in full-text article.): 48.8 ± 7.8 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), %(Equation is included in full-text article.): 73.9 ± 7.1, HR: 155.6 ± 13.6 b·min, %HRmax: 83.1 ± 5.3, RPE: 14.8 ± 0.90). We found that when the athlete could no longer speak comfortably, he was exercising
Kilic-Toprak, Emine; Ardic, Fusun; Erken, Gulten; Unver-Kocak, Fatma; Kucukatay, Vural; Bor-Kucukatay, Melek
Summary Background This study aimed to explore the effects of progressive resistance exercise training (PRET) on hemorheology. Material/Methods Exercise sessions included 1–3 sets of 8–12 repetitions at 40–60% of 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) for 3 weeks and at 75–80% of 1-RM during weeks 4–12. Red blood cell (RBC) deformability and aggregation were determined by ektacytometry, plasma and whole blood viscosities (WBV) by rotational viscometry. Lactate concentration was evaluated by an analyzer and fibrinogen was evaluated by coagulometry. Plasma total oxidant/antioxidant status was measured by colorimetry. Results Following an acute increase after exercise on the first day, RBC deformability was elevated during weeks 3 and 4 (p=0.028; p=0.034, respectively). The last exercise protocol applied in week 12 again caused an acute increase in this parameter (p=0.034). RBC aggregation was increased acutely on the first day, but decreased after that throughout the protocol (p<0.05). At weeks 4 and 12 pre-exercise measurements of WBV at standard hematocrit and plasma viscosity were decreased (p=0.05; p=0.041, respectively), while post-exercise values were increased (p=0.005; p=0.04, respectively). Post-exercise WBV at autologous hematocrit measured at week 12 was increased (p=0.01). Lactate was elevated after each exercise session (p<0.05). Fibrinogen was decreased on the third week (p<0.01), while it was increased on the 4th week (p=0.005). Plasma antioxidant status was increased at week 3 (p=0.034) and oxidative stress index was decreased at week 4 (p=0.013) after exercise. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that PRET may have positive effects on hemorheological parameters. PMID:22648250
Beytekin, Osman Ferda; Kadi, Aysegül
The purpose of this study is to examine the university students' opinions about quality of faculty life and their lifelong learning tendencies. Research was conducted with 375 university students. According to the findings: the quality of faculty life of students differ according to gender. Male students have lower quality of faculty life than…
Xu, Yali; Hu, Yang; Ren, Zhijun; Yi, Longyan
Objective: Each individual shows great variations to hypoxic training, which may be due to individual differences in genotype or gene polymorphism. δ-aminolevulinic acid synthase 2 (ALAS2) polymorphism is used as a marker for X-linked sideroblastic anemia. This study assessed the ALAS2 polymorphism for an association with response to Living-high exercise-high training-low (HiHiLo) training in Han Chinese males. Methods: A total of 244 healthy young male subjects of Han nationality were recruited from Northern China for detection of the ALAS2 polymorphism, 72 of whom were then selected for undergoing a four-week HiHiLo training program (i.e., subject to 10 h of hypoxia training daily at 14.5-14.8% O2 exposure, three occurrences of hypoxic training every week at 15.4% O2 level, and normal training at sea level). GeneScan and DNA sequencing were used to analyze ALAS2 polymorphism. Before and after training, the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) in each individual was recorded. Results: A successive cut-point analysis showed that the initial hemoglobin value in individuals with dinucleotide repeats ≤ 166 bp was significantly higher than in individuals with dinucleotide repeats > 166-bp (P = 0.05). The ∆VO2 max and ∆rVO2 max after HiHiLo training were significantly higher in individuals with dinucleotide repeats ≤ 166 bp than in individuals with dinucleotide repeats > 166 bp (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The compound dinucleotide repeat polymorphism in ALAS2 intron 7 correlated with response to HiHiLo training. Further study will evaluate this ALAS2 SNP as a genetic marker to predict responses to HiHiLo training. PMID:26885114
Expanding the Education Agenda. Meeting the Lifelong Learning Needs of North Dakota's Work Force. A Report on the Recommendations of the Working Conference on Adult/Industry Education and Training (Bismarck, North Dakota, November 14-15, 1988).
North Dakota State Council on Vocational Education, Bismarck.
This report provides the text of panel discussions from a working conference on adult/industry education and training. Four key issues facing North Dakota's education providers are identified: (1) the need for expanded leadership, planning, and a vision for adult and industry education and training; (2) the need for increased financing, both in…
Seo, Myong-Won; Jung, Hyun-Chul; Song, Jong-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Bae
The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of 8 weeks pre-season training on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic strength in collegiate taekwondo athletes. Thirty-four collegiate athletes (male: 22, female: 12) participated. Body composition, bone mineral density, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, and isokinetic muscle strength were tested. After statistical analysis was performed the results indicated that there were significant decreases in body weight, percent body fat, and fat tissue after 8 weeks of pre-season training. Bone mineral density increased significantly only in males. There were significant improvements in the 50 m shuttle run and 20 m multistage endurance run in both males and females. The sit & reach test and standing long jump were not significantly changed after 8 weeks. Relative peak power and anaerobic capacity were significantly improved in males. Significant increases in angular velocity were observed for knee extension at both % BW 60°/sec and 180°/sec in both males and females. A significant increase in angular velocity was seen for right knee flexion at % BW 60°/sec for males, but it decreased at % BW 180°/sec for both males and females. In conclusion, this study suggests that 8 weeks of pre-season training has a positive effect on body composition, physical fitness, anaerobic capacity, isokinetic muscular strength, and endurance. Nevertheless, an exercise approach with the goal of increasing lean tissue, and improving power in knee flexors and flexibility of athletes, should be included in the training program. PMID:25960983
Fernandes, Pedro Afonso
The process for recognising, validating and certifying (RVC) non-formally or informally acquired lifelong learning, launched in 2000, is now part of mainstream education and training policies in Portugal. This article aims to determine how much the labour-market behaviour of the RVC-certified unemployed differs from that of other unemployed…
Kearns, Peter; McDonald, Rod; Candy, Philip; Knights, Susan; Papadopoulos, George
This study examined the implications of lifelong learning for vocational education and training (VET) in Australia. Data were collected from the following activities: literature review; consultations across Australia with stakeholders; case studies in five locations (Albury-Wodonga, Devonport, Ballarat, Newcastle, Canberra); investigations into…
Ihm, Chon Sun
Korean economic development has been supported by early investment in public vocational education and training and a labor-force planning approach. Recent policy reforms emphasize quality and lifelong learning. Late-century economic changes signal a need to reassess the centralized employment-projections approach. (SK)
Godinez, Eileen U.
The purpose of this qualitative, correlational study was to determine if a relationship existed between employee value for learning, supervisor support for training, education, and leader development, perceived access to learning opportunities, demographic characteristics, and pursuit of lifelong learning. A researcher-generated survey was used to…
Sampson, Demetrios G.
In the context of the emerging paradigm of Lifelong Learning, competence-based learning is gradually attracting the attention of the Technology-Enhanced Learning community, since it appears to meet the 21st Century learning and training expectations of both individuals and organisations. On the other hand, the paradigm of Learning Objects--as a…
The learning organization has been promoted as providing a viable blueprint for an integrated approach to training and development. According to the literature on employer provision of lifelong learning opportunities in the United Kingdom (U.K.), relatively few U.K. work organizations have or are about to become learning organizations.…
Lauzon, Allan C.
This paper argues that after-school programmes need to be considered an essential part of lifelong learning infrastructure, particularly in light of the dominance of the economic discourse in both lifelong learning literature and the initial schooling literature. The paper, which is based upon existing literature, begins by providing an overview…
Badalzadeh, Reza; Shaghaghi, Mehrnoush; Mohammadi, Mustafa; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Mohammadi, Zeynab
Purpose: Regular training is suggested to offer a host of benefits especially on cardiovascular system. In addition, medicinal plants can attenuate oxidative stress-mediated damages induced by stressor insults. In this study, we investigated the concomitant effect of cinnamon extract and long-term aerobic training on cardiac function, biochemical alterations and lipid profile following exhaustive exercise. Methods: Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided into five groups depending on receiving regular training, cinnamon bark extraction, none or both of them, and then encountered with an exhausted exercise in last session. An 8-week endurance training program was designed with a progressive increase in training speed and time. Myocardial hemodynamics was monitored using a balloon-tipped catheter inserted into left ventricles. Blood samples were collected for analyzing biochemical markers, lipid profiles and lipid-peroxidation marker, malondealdehyde (MDA). Results: Trained animals showed an enhanced cardiac force and contractility similar to cinnamon-treated rats. Co-application of regular training and cinnamon had additive effect in cardiac hemodynamic (P<0.05). Both regular training and supplementation with cinnamon significantly decreased serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level and HDL/LDL ratio as compared to control group (P<0.01). Furthermore, pre-treatment with cinnamon extract and/or regular training significantly reduced MDA level elevation induced by exhausted exercise (P<0.01). Conclusion: Long-term treatment of rats with cinnamon and regular training improved cardiac hemodynamic through an additive effect. The positive effects of cinnamon and regular training on cardiac function were associated with a reduced serum MDA level and an improved blood lipid profile. PMID:25671183
Mogus, Mate; Fric, Vlasta Orsić; Atalić, Bruno
The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the age, the body mass index (BMI), and the years of training on the average muscle power in male and female rowers. The analysis of the testing results of the members of the Rowing club Iktus from Osijek in Croatia was performed. Results were obtained during the regular yearly testing on the rowing ergometer for the rowing season of 2009. Members of the Rowing club Iktus were divided into two subgroups according to their sex. The obtained results were analysed in accordance with the age, the BMI, and the years of training independently for the each of the two subgroups. The results have showed that the average muscle power is independent of all the three parameters in the male rowers, while it is dependent on the age and the years of training in the female rowers. It seems that the BMI does not play any role at all in the average muscle power. As a conclusion, it could be stated that while one can suggest to female rowers to improve their performance with prolonged training, there is a need for a further research in order to formulate a suitable advice for male rowers. PMID:26987157
Trans-Nationalization of Educational Policy Making: From European Innovation Projects in Adult Education to an Emerging European Space for Lifelong Learning: What Model for the European Vocational Education and Training Policy?
This article is drawn from broader qualitative research on innovation in the field of professional adult training within the framework of European pilot projects such as the LEONARDO projects. This research aims at contributing to a general understanding of the phenomenon of innovation, in the context of European calls for projects, as an…
Agrebi, Brahim; Tkatchuk, Vladimir; Hlila, Nawel; Mouelhi, Emna; Belhani, Ali
Handball activity involves cardiac changes and demands a mixture of both eccentric and concentric remodeling within the heart. This study seeks to explore heart performance and cardiac remodeling likely to define cardiac parameters which influence specific performance in male handball players across different age ranges. Forty three players, with a regular training and competitive background in handball separated into three groups aged on average 11.78±0.41 for youth players aka “schools”, “elite juniors” 15.99±0.81 and “elite adults” 24.46±2.63 years, underwent echocardiography and ECG examinations. Incremental ergocycle and specific field (SFT) tests have also been conducted. With age and regular training and competition, myocardial remodeling in different age ranges exhibit significant differences in dilatation’s parameters between “schools” and “juniors” players, such as the end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and the end-systolic diameter of the left ventricle (LVESD), the root of aorta (Ao) and left atrial (LA), while significant increase is observed between “juniors” and “adults” players in the interventricular septum (IVS), the posterior wall thicknesses (PWT) and LV mass index. ECG changes are also noted but NS differences were observed in studied parameters. For incremental maximal test, players demonstrate a significant increase in duration and total work between “schools” and “juniors” and, in total work only, between “juniors” and “seniors”. The SFT shows improvement in performance which ranged between 26.17±1.83 sec to 31.23±2.34 sec respectively from “seniors” to “schools”. The cross-sectional approach used to compare groups with prior hypothesis that there would be differences in exercise performance and cardiac parameters depending on duration of prior handball practice, leads to point out the early cardiac remodeling within the heart as adaptive change. Prevalence of cardiac chamber dilation
Agrebi, Brahim; Tkatchuk, Vladimir; Hlila, Nawel; Mouelhi, Emna; Belhani, Ali
Handball activity involves cardiac changes and demands a mixture of both eccentric and concentric remodeling within the heart. This study seeks to explore heart performance and cardiac remodeling likely to define cardiac parameters which influence specific performance in male handball players across different age ranges. Forty three players, with a regular training and competitive background in handball separated into three groups aged on average 11.78 ± 0.41 for youth players aka "schools", "elite juniors" 15.99 ± 0.81 and "elite adults" 24.46 ± 2.63 years, underwent echocardiography and ECG examinations. Incremental ergocycle and specific field (SFT) tests have also been conducted. With age and regular training and competition, myocardial remodeling in different age ranges exhibit significant differences in dilatation's parameters between "schools" and "juniors" players, such as the end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and the end-systolic diameter of the left ventricle (LVESD), the root of aorta (Ao) and left atrial (LA), while significant increase is observed between "juniors" and "adults" players in the interventricular septum (IVS), the posterior wall thicknesses (PWT) and LV mass index. ECG changes are also noted but NS differences were observed in studied parameters. For incremental maximal test, players demonstrate a significant increase in duration and total work between "schools" and "juniors" and, in total work only, between "juniors" and "seniors". The SFT shows improvement in performance which ranged between 26.17 ± 1.83 sec to 31.23 ± 2.34 sec respectively from "seniors" to "schools". The cross-sectional approach used to compare groups with prior hypothesis that there would be differences in exercise performance and cardiac parameters depending on duration of prior handball practice, leads to point out the early cardiac remodeling within the heart as adaptive change. Prevalence of cardiac chamber dilation with less hypertrophy remodeling was found
Cherif, Monsef; Said, Mohamed; Chaatani, Sana; Nejlaoui, Olfa; Gomri, Daghbaji; Abdallah, Aouidet
Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a combined program including sprint repetitions and drop jump training in the same session on male handball players. Methods Twenty-two male handball players aged more than 20 years were assigned into 2 groups: experimental group (n=11) and control group (n=11). Selection was based on variables “axis” and “lines”, goalkeepers were not included. The experimental group was subjected to 2 testing periods (test and retest) separated by 12 weeks of an additional combined plyometric and running speed training program. The control group performed the usual handball training. The testing period comprised, at the first day, a medical checking, anthropometric measurements and an incremental exercise test called yo-yo intermittent recovery test. 2 days later, participants performed the Repeated Sprint Ability test (RSA), and performed the Jumping Performance using 3 different events: Squat jump (SJ), Countermovement jump without (CMJ) and with arms (CMJA), and Drop jump (DJ). At the end of the training period, participants performed again the repeated sprint ability test, and the jumping performance. Results The conventional combined program improved the explosive force ability of handball players in CMJ (P=0.01), CMJA (P=0.01) and DJR (P=0.03). The change was 2.78, 2.42 and 2.62% respectively. No significant changes were noted in performances of the experimental group at the squat jump test and the drop jump with the left leg test. The training intervention also improved the running speed ability of the experimental group (P=0.003). No statistical differences were observed between lines or axes. Conclusion Additional combined training program between sprint repetition and vertical jump in the same training session positively influence the jumping ability and the sprint ability of handball players. PMID:22461962
Ghiasi, Rafigheh; Ghadiri Soufi, Farhad; Somi, Mohammad hossein; Mohaddes, Gisou; Mirzaie Bavil, Fariba; Naderi, Roya; Alipour, Mohammad Reza
Purpose: Insulin resistance plays a key role in the onset and development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its complications. In this study, we evaluated the effect of swim training on insulin resistance in diabetic rats. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=10): sedentary control (Con), sedentary diabetic (Dia), swim trained control (Exe) and swim trained diabetic (Dia+Exe) rats. Diabetes was induced by high fat diet (HFD) and a low dose of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg, i.p). In trained groups, one week after the induction of diabetes, animals were subjected to swimming (60 min/5 days a week) for 10 weeks. At the end of training, fasting blood sugar (FBS), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), fasting/basal insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, insulin resistance index, homeostasis model assessment method (HOMA-IR), triglycerides (TG,) total cholesterol (TCh), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels in blood were measured. Results: Swimming significantly improved OGTT (P<0.01) and HOMA-IR (P<0.01). Swim training also significantly decreased FBS (p<0.01), fasting/basal insulin (P<0.01), HbA1C (p<0.01), TG (P<0.05), and TCh (P<0.05) levels. It also significantly increased HDL (p<0.05) level. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that swim training improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes caused by high fat diet in male rats. PMID:26504760
Cardinal, Bradley J.
This study sought to determine the changes elicited following 9 weeks of fast fitness circuit training 4 days a week. Data were gathered for a 3-year time period on 5,993 female and 4,708 male volunteer subjects with a mean age of 27.6. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used. The independent variable consisted of 24 exercise stations equally…
Aguiar e Silva, Marco Aurélio; Vechetti-Junior, Ivan José; Nascimento, André Ferreira do; Furtado, Kelly Silva; Azevedo, Luciana; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Barbisan, Luis Fernando
The present study aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of swim training on the promotion-progression stages of rat liver carcinogenesis. Male Wistar rats were submitted to chemically induced liver carcinogenesis and allocated into 4 major groups, according their dietary regimen (16 weeks) and swim training of 5 days per week (8 weeks): 2 groups were fed low-fat diet (LFD, 6% fat) and trained or not trained and 2 groups were fed high-fat diet (HFD, 21% fat) and trained or not trained. At week 20, the animals were killed and liver samples were processed for histological analyses; immunohistochemical detection of persistent or remodeling preneoplastic lesions (pPNL and rPNL) expressing placental glutathione S-transferase (GST-P) enzyme; or proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cleaved caspase-3, and bcl-2 protein levels by Western blotting or malonaldehyde (MDA) and total glutathione detection by HPLC. Overall analysis indicated that swim training reduced the body weight and body fat in both LFD and HFD groups, normalized total cholesterol levels in the HFD group while decreased the MDA levels, increased glutathione levels and both number of GST-P-positive pPNL and hepatocellular adenomas in LFD group. Also, a favorable balance in PCNA, cleaved caspase-3, and bcl-2 levels was detected in the liver from the LFD-trained group in relation to LFD-untrained group. The findings of this study indicate that the swim training protocol as a result of exercise postconditioning may attenuate liver carcinogenesis under an adequate dietary regimen with lowered fat intake. PMID:22957766
In this article, the author presents a descriptive survey of China's policies in the field of lifelong education in the 1980s and early 1990s, undertaken as part of the country's overall drive towards modernization. With the second largest illiterate population in the world, one of China's highest priorities is the promotion of literacy, and a variety of initiatives with this aim have been launched at national and local level. In China, the concept of lifelong education is taken literally to encompass all ages from infancy onwards. Recognizing the importance of the family, and especially of the mother, in educating the young, China has created a programme for strengthening family education through workshops, lectures, advisory services and the mass media. The author goes on to survey recent policies in primary and secondary education, vocational education, workers' in-service training, continuing education for specialists, and the development of a radio and television university, the expansion of evening classes and correspondence courses, education for the aged, and examinations for independent learners.
Guo, Wen; Wong, Siu; Li, Michelle; Liang, Wentao; Liesa, Marc; Serra, Carlo; Jasuja, Ravi; Bartke, Andrzej; Kirkland, James L.; Shirihai, Orian; Bhasin, Shalender
Testosterone supplementation increases muscle mass in older men but has not been shown to consistently improve physical function and activity. It has been hypothesized that physical exercise is required to induce the adaptations necessary for translation of testosterone-induced muscle mass gain into functional improvements. However, the effects of testosterone plus low intensity physical exercise training (T/PT) on functional performance and bioenergetics are unknown. In this pilot study, we tested the hypothesis that combined administration of T/PT would improve functional performance and bioenergetics in male mice late in life more than low-intensity physical training alone. 28-month old male mice were randomized to receive T/PT or vehicle plus physical training (V/PT) for 2 months. Compare to V/PT control, administration of T/PT was associated with improvements in muscle mass, grip strength, spontaneous physical movements, and respiratory activity. These changes were correlated with increased mitochondrial DNA copy number and expression of markers for mitochondrial biogenesis. Mice receiving T/PT also displayed increased expression of key elements for mitochondrial quality control, including markers for mitochondrial fission-and-fusion and mitophagy. Concurrently, mice receiving T/PT also displayed increased expression of markers for reduced tissue oxidative damage and improved muscle quality. Conclusion: Testosterone administered with low-intensity physical training improves grip strength, spontaneous movements, and respiratory activity. These functional improvements were associated with increased muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and improved mitochondrial quality control. PMID:23240002
Zhang, X H; Lowe, D; Giles, P; Fell, S; Board, A R; Baughan, J A; Connock, M J; Maslin, D J
Most trials of bulb garlic and garlic powder tablets indicate reduced coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in elevated-risk subjects. Most persons taking garlic supplements lack overt risk of CHD. However, no trials have tested steam-distilled garlic oil (GO) capsules with healthy subjects. The objectives of the present randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study were to determine whether GO capsules reduce CHD risk in trained male runners. Twenty-seven volunteers (mean age, 28.8 years) completed the study. Each took 12.3 mg/day GO (or placebo) capsules for 16 weeks. Main outcome measures were 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between GO and placebo groups for differences in changes of blood pressure (BP), plasma lipids, total antioxidant status (TAS), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) composition and blood clotting factors. Principal results as mean differences (95% CI) between GO and placebo are: pulse, 2.9 beats/min (-0.8 to 6.7), P = 0.12; systolic BP, -4.5 mmHg (-10.8 to 1.9), P = 0.16; plasma total cholesterol, 0.01 mmol/l (-0.34 to 0.37), P = 0.95; plasma triglycerides, -0.20 mmol/l (-0.43 to 0.03), P = 0.09; plasma TAS, 45 micromol Trolox equivalent/l (-35 to 124), P = 0.26; LDL density, 0.0019 g/ml (-0.0005 to 0.0043), P = 0.12; LDL triglycerides/protein, -0.078 mg/mg (-0.149 to -0.007), P = 0.03; LDL cholesterol/protein, -0.24 mg/mg (-0.69 to 0.22), P = 0.3; LDL TAS/triglycerides, 29 nmol/mg (11, 68), P = 0.15; prothrombin time, 0.99 s (-0.36 to 2.35), P = 0.14; partial thromboplastin time, 3.0 s (-1.0 to 7.1), P = 0.13. Results were null statistically. Trends with GO were mostly towards lower CHD risk, and a larger study (approximately 150 subjects) is required to test their validity. PMID:11229829
Heke, TOL; Keogh, JWL
This study examined the effects of two equal-volume resistance-training protocols upon strength, body composition and salivary hormones in male rugby union players. Using a crossover design, 24 male rugby players completed a 4-week full-body (FB) and split-body (SB) training protocol of equal volume during the competitive season. One repetition maximum (1RM) strength, body composition via skinfold measurements and salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations were assessed pre and post training. The FB and SB protocols improved upper (7.3% and 7.4%) and lower body 1RM strength (7.4% and 5.4%), whilst reducing body fat (-0.9% and -0.4%) and fat mass (-5.7% and -2.1%), respectively (all p ≤ 0.021). The SB protocol elevated T (21%) and C (50%) concentrations with a higher T/C ratio (28%) after FB training (all p ≤ 0.039). The strength changes were similar, but the body composition and hormonal results differed by protocol. Slope testing on the individual responses identified positive associations (p ≤ 0.05) between T and C concentrations and absolute 1RM strength in stronger (squat 1RM = 150.5 kg), but not weaker (squat 1RM = 117.4 kg), men. A short window of training involving FB or SB protocols can improve strength and body composition in rugby players. The similar strength gains highlight training volume as a key adaptive stimulus, although the programme structure (i.e. FB or SB) did influence the body composition and hormonal outcomes. It also appears that 1RM strength is associated with individual hormonal changes and baseline strength. PMID:27274103
Crewther, B T; Heke, Tol; Keogh, Jwl
This study examined the effects of two equal-volume resistance-training protocols upon strength, body composition and salivary hormones in male rugby union players. Using a crossover design, 24 male rugby players completed a 4-week full-body (FB) and split-body (SB) training protocol of equal volume during the competitive season. One repetition maximum (1RM) strength, body composition via skinfold measurements and salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations were assessed pre and post training. The FB and SB protocols improved upper (7.3% and 7.4%) and lower body 1RM strength (7.4% and 5.4%), whilst reducing body fat (-0.9% and -0.4%) and fat mass (-5.7% and -2.1%), respectively (all p ≤ 0.021). The SB protocol elevated T (21%) and C (50%) concentrations with a higher T/C ratio (28%) after FB training (all p ≤ 0.039). The strength changes were similar, but the body composition and hormonal results differed by protocol. Slope testing on the individual responses identified positive associations (p ≤ 0.05) between T and C concentrations and absolute 1RM strength in stronger (squat 1RM = 150.5 kg), but not weaker (squat 1RM = 117.4 kg), men. A short window of training involving FB or SB protocols can improve strength and body composition in rugby players. The similar strength gains highlight training volume as a key adaptive stimulus, although the programme structure (i.e. FB or SB) did influence the body composition and hormonal outcomes. It also appears that 1RM strength is associated with individual hormonal changes and baseline strength. PMID:27274103
Sahin, Mehmet; Akbasli, Sait; Yelken, Tugba Yanpar
This study aims to determine the level of prospective teachers in terms of lifelong learning key competences. Lifelong learning is an extensive educational approach receiving much attention not only by educational politics of European Union but also by the rest of the world. Lifelong learning competence requires an active and constant usage of…
Luka, Ineta; Sungsri, Sumalee
The importance of lifelong learning has been recognized for many years and consequently many countries, disregarding their geographical location, differences in education systems and traditions, have adopted their lifelong learning policies to develop the lifelong learning system. The goal of the present comparative research is to study the…
Cribbin, John, Ed.; Kennedy, Peter, Ed.
This document consists of 32 papers presenting Hong Kong practitioners' perspectives on lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Lifelong Learning" (Albert Tuijnman); "Growth and Development of Lifelong Learning in Hong Kong " (John Cribbin); "Competition and Collaboration" (John Cribbin); "A Profile of Hong Kong Adult Learners"…
Conroy, Barbara; And Others
This report contains six presentations by members of the Task Force on Libraries and Lifelong Learning. "Library Programming for Groups with Special Needs" describes the library as a local alternative education agency, complementing school systems, and ways libraries serve adults with special needs through outreach and special programming efforts.…
EURYDICE European Unit, Brussels (Belgium).
This seventh publication in the Eurydice European Unit series of thematic bibliographies draws attention to a selection of publications on the topic of lifelong learning. This annotated bibliography lists 268 books, articles, publications, and reports that have appeared since 1994. Some earlier items of published literature of special historical…
Yaron, Kalman, Ed.
The essays in this collection describe some of the main aspects--theories, programs and practices--of adult education in Israel. The 22 essays are: "Problems and Objectives of Adult Education," by Elad Peled; "The Principle of Dialogue in Education," by Martin Buber; "The Jewish Tradition of Life-long Learning," by Jacob Katz; "Phases of…
Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education, Training, and Youth.
This publication provides glimpses of how different individuals and organizations have responded to the spirit of lifelong learning during the European Year. Each case study consists of the project's location, name, and objective and brief description. They include the following: Chapito Project, Lisbon, Portugal; Ligerius Project, a…
Muller-Wolf, H. M.
On the basis of a representative sample consisting of 45 4th-year forms (1,236 pupils) from primary schools in Hamburg, the relationships between teacher or parent behavior and motivation for lifelong learning, achievement motivation and emotional stability were investigated. (Editor)
In contemporary educational discourse, value in relation to lifelong learning can mean a moral/ethical concept, economic or monetary value, or mathematical or numerical value. "Added value" is devoid of ethical/moral meaning; it encourages a view of learning that is purely technical. (SK)
Pitman, Tim; Broomhall, Susan
The concept of lifelong learning implies a cycle where the learner contributes prior learning into a new learning environment and sees that learning upgraded. In recent years, a range of internal and external pressures have encouraged Australian universities to identify the meta or generic skills embedded in tertiary study. Using a content…
This article contends that the development of lifelong learning needs to be grounded within the framework of "being," a concept inspired by Heidegger, rather than within the framework of "having." This article also describes the problems of the adult education literature, which favors the pragmatic sense of being and, thus, may undertheorize the…
Our interaction with nature does not end just because we age. People have a lifelong connection with the outdoor environment in varying degrees. For some, this participation may be subtle by simply watching others interact with the outdoor environment. For others, there is a deeper connection with nature through gardening, birding, exercise,…
The current lifelong learning movement, the new force toward global education, owes much to the League of Nations and the United Nations that sponsored an expanded multiracial "polis." Its philosophical foundations go back, however, to ancient China, India, and especially Greece, where philosophers and scientists got their creative stimulus from…
Knapper, Christopher K.; Cropley, Arthur J.
This book, which is intended for academics, educators, educational managers, and policymakers concerned with higher education, examines how universities and colleges can prepare their students for lifelong learning through continuing education, specialized courses for adults, and mainstream teaching programs geared toward traditional students. The…
Lewis, Rosa B.
The philosophical roots of the concept of lifelong learning are considered in relation to the views of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. They pioneered in their analyses of intellectual development and in the importance of the use of the mind throughout the life span. Plato and Aristotle added metaphysical arguments to support their systems of…
This book on lifelong learning has two overarching themes: the three Rs of learning power (resilience, resourcefulness, and reflectiveness) and a good learner's toolkit of learning strategies. An introduction previews the main conclusions. Chapter 1 explains how different communities can hold different beliefs about learning. Chapter 2 explores…
Lifelong learning through a strong, policy-supported information technology (IT) infrastructure is critical to the success of Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) member economies. There is a great need to upgrade the quality of skills within the workforce, and there have been unprecedented investments in infrastructure and advanced…
Plant, Peter; Turner, Bob
The purposes of this article are twofold. First, it considers the policy links between guidance and lifelong learning, highlighting in particular the implications of findings from a recent study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Secondly, it critically compares two approaches to workplace guidance about…
Lin, Marcia C.; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Rafferty, Anna; Vitale, Jonathan M.
Citizens need the capability to conduct their own inquiry projects so that they can make sense of claims about new energy policies, health remedies, or financial opportunities. To develop the lifelong capability to grapple with these dilemmas, we report on ways to design precollege units that engage students in realistic, personally relevant…
Bagnall, Richard G.
Lifelong education or learning theory is presented by its apologists as a universal normative ethic. That ethic may be understood as an aretaic ethic, embracing a number of ethical values or informed commitments and a teleology of optimising universal human flourishing through learning. In an effort to examine possible barriers to the universality…
Evans, Karen; Schoon, Ingrid; Weale, Martin
Despite the expansion of post-school education and incentives to participate in lifelong learning, institutions and labour markets continue to interlock in shaping life chances according to starting social position, family and private resources. The dominant view that the economic and social returns to public investment in adult learning are too…
It has long been acknowledged that adult and lifelong educators have exercised little influence over national education policies. This article addresses the issue, with particular reference to the research elements of policy advocacy. Researchers and policy-makers are distinguished and related as communities of practice and intellectual categories…
Szczepanowska, Ewa; Czapla, Zbigniew; Cieślik, Joachim
The aim of this study is to attempt to determine the relationship between the degree of the EMN index and the depth of changes of selected hormones and metabolic parameters as an effect of intensive physical exercise during the training process in male rowers. Juniors (N = 62; chronological age 16.4 y.o. SD = 1.14 y.; training experience 3.0 y.o. SD = 1.05 y.) and seniors (N = 27; chronological age 21.4 y. SD = 1.73 y.; training experience 5.5 y.o. SD = 1.10 y.), in the preparatory period of the training process, performed physical exercise of maximum intensity on a rowing ergometer. Acid-base balance parameters (pH, BE) and the concentration of lactic acid (LA) were determined as the result of physical exercise. Some selected hormones were also indicated (hGH, PrL and Prg) to show their exercise changes. A sample of buccal epithelium cells was taken from each of the male rowers, before and after the exercise, to evaluate the percentage of the EMN index by intracellular microelectrophoresis. A greater differentiation of metabolic changes during exercise was manifested in juniors than seniors. This was reflected in changes of acid-base balance parameters, exercise physiological parameters, hormone concentration and also in changes of the EMN index. These changes were probably dependent on deep metabolic processes of an acid character during exercise. This could prove a more stable homeostasis through more economical metabolic reactions in seniors as the effect of the training process, meaning that seniors were better adapted to heavy physical exercise than juniors. PMID:23390817
Carvalho, Alberto; Mourão, Paulo; Abade, Eduardo
The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of a strength training program combined with specific plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump (VJ) height and strength development of lower limbs in elite male handball players. A 12-week program with combined strength and specific plyometric exercises was carried out for 7 weeks. Twelve elite male handball players (age: 21.6 ± 1.73) competing in the Portuguese Major League participated in the study. Besides the anthropometric measurements, several standardized jump tests were applied to assess VJ performance together with the strength development of the lower limbs in an isokinetic setting. No significant changes were found in body circumferences and diameters. Body fat content and fat mass decreased by 16.4 and 15.7% respectively, while lean body mass increased by 2.1%. Despite small significance, there was in fact an increase in squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and 40 consecutive jumps after the training period (6.1, 3.8 and 6.8%, respectively). After the applied protocol, peak torque increased in lower limb extension and flexion in the majority of the movements assessed at 90ºs-1. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that combining general strength-training with plyometric exercises can not only increase lower limb strength and improve VJ performance but also reduce body fat content. PMID:25114739
In a fast-changing and highly inequitable world, lifelong learning is becoming increasingly important, not only as a key organising principle for all forms of education and learning but also as an absolute necessity for everyone. It is particularly important for disadvantaged individuals and groups who have been excluded from or failed to acquire basic competencies through formal schooling. Within a lifelong learning framework, literacy and numeracy are viewed as foundation skills which are the core of basic education and indispensable to full participation in society. This article discusses recent developments in conceptualising literacy as a foundation of lifelong learning. Starting from the evolving notions of adult literacy, the author identifies some current trends, the most important being that literacy is now perceived as a learning continuum of different proficiency levels. Dichotomous states of being either "literate" or "illiterate" no longer apply. She analyses (1) findings extracted from UNESCO Member States' national reports submitted to the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) for the 2nd Global Report on Adult Learning and Education; (2) a desk study of national literacy campaigns and programmes as well as (3) some recent developments in formal education. Her suggested three-dimensional analytical framework considers literacy as a lifelong and life-wide learning process and as part of lifelong learning systems. She draws a number of conclusions for policy and practice of literacy as a foundation of lifelong learning. These conclusions are a timely contribution to the ongoing post-2015 education debate, in particular to the challenge of how to mainstream youth and adult literacy into the implementation of the sustainable development agenda for 2015-2030.
Gorard, Stephen; Selwyn, Neil; Rees, Gareth
Although the National Targets for Education and Training in England and Wales include indicators for lifelong learning, and the progress towards the targets set for these indicators has been lauded by politicians and other observers, much of this apparent progress is actually accounted for by changes in these same indicators. However, once the…
For a decade or so the policy debate on post-school education and training across OECD countries has been shaped to a considerable extent by the associated, although distinct, concepts of lifelong learning and the learning society. Developments in the UK have both reflected this trend and contributed to pushing forward these notions. The plethora…
Zhang, Simei; Wang, Hong; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Jiansong; Wang, Xiaoping
This randomized controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Williams LifeSkills Training (WLST) as a means of improving the psychological health of Chinese male juvenile violent offenders. Sixty-six participants were assigned randomly to receive the usual intervention plus 8 weeks of WLST (study group, n = 33) or only the usual intervention (control group, n = 33). We found that the study group exhibited significantly decreased State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI X-1, X-2) STAX2 scores and Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ) negative scores, and increased Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL) tangible scores from baseline to 9 weeks later (P <0.01). In addition, a between-group difference in changes of TCSQ negative score was observed at the end of week 9 (P <0.05). These fndings suggest that WLST can improve trait anxiety, coping style, and interpersonal support in male Chinese juvenile violent offenders. PMID:25564194
Heavy Resistance Training and Supplementation With the Alleged Testosterone Booster Nmda has No Effect on Body Composition, Muscle Performance, and Serum Hormones Associated With the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Resistance-Trained Males
Willoughby, Darryn S.; Spillane, Mike; Schwarz, Neil
The effects of 28 days of heavy resistance training while ingesting the alleged testosterone-boosting supplement, NMDA, were determined on body composition, muscle strength, serum cortisol, prolactin, and hormones associated with the hypothalamo-pituitary- gonadal (HPG) axis. Twenty resistance-trained males engaged in 28 days of resistance training 4 times/wk while orally ingesting daily either 1.78 g of placebo (PLAC) or NMDA. Data were analyzed with separate 2 x 2 ANOVA (p < 0.05). Criterion measures involved body composition, muscle strength, serum cortisol, prolactin, and gonadal hormone levels [free and total testosterone, luteininzing hormome (LH), gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH), estradiol], and were assessed before (Day 0) and after (Day 29) resistance training and supplementation. No changes were noted for total body water and fat mass in response to resistance training (p > 0.05) or supplementation (p > 0.05). In regard to total body mass and fat-free mass, however, each was significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training (p < 0.05), but were not affected by supplementation (p > 0.05). In both groups, lower-body muscle strength was significantly increased in response to resistance training (p < 0.05); however, supplementation had no effect (p > 0.05). All serum hormones (total and free testosterone, LH, GnRH, estradiol, cortisol, prolactin) were unaffected by resistance training (p > 0.05) or supplementation (p > 0.05). The gonadal hormones and cortisol and prolactin were unaffected by 28 days of NMDA supplementation and not associated with the observed increases in muscle strength and mass. At the dose provided, NMDA had no effect on HPG axis activity or ergogenic effects in skeletal muscle. Key Points In response to 28 days of heavy resistance training and NMDA supplementation, similar increases in muscle mass and strength in both groups occurred; however, the increases were not different between supplement groups. The
Hermassi, Souhail; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Tabka, Zouhair; Shephard, Roy J; Chamari, Karim
The aims of this study were to test the potential of in-season heavy upper and lower limb strength training to enhance peak power output (Wpeak), vertical jump, and handball related field performance in elite male handball players who were apparently already well trained, and to assess any adverse effects on sprint velocity. Twenty-four competitors were divided randomly between a heavy resistance (HR) group (age 20 ± 0.7 years) and a control group (C; age 20 ± 0.1 years). Resistance training sessions were performed twice a week for 8 weeks. Performance was assessed before and after conditioning. Peak power (W(peak)) was determined by cycle ergometer; vertical squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ); video analyses assessed velocities during the first step (V(1S)), the first 5 m (V(5m)), and between 25 and 30 m (V(peak)) of a 30-m sprint. Upper limb bench press and pull-over exercises and lower limb back half squats were performed to 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Upper limb, leg, and thigh muscle volumes and mean thigh cross-sectional area (CSA) were assessed by anthropometry. W(peak) (W) for both limbs (p < 0.001), vertical jump height (p < 0.01 for both SJ and CMJ), 1RM (p < 0.001 for both upper and lower limbs) and sprint velocities (p < 0.01 for V(1S) and V(5m); p < 0.001 for V(peak)) improved in the HR group. Upper body, leg, and thigh muscle volumes and thigh CSA also increased significantly after strength training. We conclude that in-season biweekly heavy back half-squat, pull-over, and bench-press exercises can be commended to elite male handball players as improving many measures of handball-related performance without adverse effects upon speed of movement. PMID:21869628
Barrett, Matthew D; McLoughlin, Terence F; Gallagher, Kieran R; Gatherer, Don; Parratt, Michael TR; Perera, Jonathan R; Briggs, Tim WR
Purpose To investigate the effect of a tailored neck muscle conditioning program on neck muscle strength, neck muscle fatigue, and range of neck movement in 16–18-year-old male rugby players. Materials and methods Thirty-four male rugby players were divided into forward and back playing positions and randomized within these groups. Seventeen players were randomly assigned to each group. The test group was given a tailored 6-week exercise regime based on their baseline measurements to be performed three times a week in addition to their normal training and playing. The control group trained and played as normal. The outcome measures used were cervical spine range of movement, neck strength, and neck muscle fatigability. Results There were no clinically relevant statistically significant differences between the two groups. Trends identified between the two groups suggest that a tailored neck exercise program increases neck strength, particularly neck extension, and increases resistance to fatigue, as well as influencing right- and left-sided neck muscle balance. A reduction in range of movement was also demonstrated in the test group. There was a great deal of variability in range of movement and strength within this age group. No previously undiagnosed neck conditions were detected, and there were no adverse events reported. Conclusion This study has shown that neck strength, range of movement, and susceptibility of the neck muscles to fatigue can be influenced using a focused neck training regime. It forms an important basis for a larger, multicenter study to ensure the neck is given due attention in rugby training and receives the same focus of conditioning as other parts of the body. PMID:25999771
Chalimoniuk, M; Jagsz, S; Sadowska-Krepa, E; Chrapusta, S J; Klapcinska, B; Langfort, J
Studies on the effect of physical activity on brain oxidative stress, performed mostly in adult rats, have shown that moderate aerobic activity increases resistance to oxidative stress and reduces cellular damage. These effects can greatly differ between various brain regions. The postnatal period of the highest brain sensitivity to various stimuli is adolescence. We hypothesized that endurance training will modify brain antioxidant barrier differently in various regions, depending on their role in locomotion. Therefore, we studied the effect of moderate intensity endurance training on the activities of selected antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, gluthathione peroxidase and catalase and the contents of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (the key index of lipid peroxidation) and glutathione in several brain regions with dissimilar relationship to locomotion, as well as in circulating blood. Additionally, we investigated the effect of the training on nitric oxide synthase activity that may be a major player in exercise-related oxidative stress in brain regions that are directly involved in the locomotion control and execution (the striatum, midbrain and cerebellum). The training significantly enhanced nitric oxide synthase activity only in the latter three regions. Surprisingly, it elevated the activities of all studied antioxidant enzymes (excepting gluthathione peroxidase) in the neocortex, while no appreciable change in these activities was found in either the cerebellum (except for elevated catalase activity), or the striatum, or the midbrain. The training also elevated total glutathione content (a key protector of brain proteins under the conditions of enhanced nitric oxide production) in the cerebellum and striatum, but not in the other regions. The observed brain changes greatly differed from those in circulating blood and did not prevent the training-related increases in oxidative damage as evidenced by elevations in cerebellar and striatal
Hughes, Edward G; Grantmyre, John; Zini, Armand
Subfertile men and women are usually cared for by different clinicians, namely urologists and gynaecologists. While these doctors share each other's goals, they may not always appreciate the content or implications of their opposite number's clinical decisions; to some degree they may practice in "silos." We address this problem by reviewing the effectiveness of medical treatments for male factor subfertility in the context of female factors. The effectiveness of treatments for couples with male factor subfertility, other than IVF with ICSI, appears modest. However, data from randomized controlled trials suggest benefits from some treatments: clomiphene and tamoxifen for the male (common odds ratio for pregnancy [COR] 2.42; 95% CI 1.47 to 3.94), antioxidants (COR 4.18; 95% CI 2.65 to 6.59) and surgical management of a clinical varicocele (COR 2.39; 95% CI 1.56 to 3.66). Nevertheless, close attention to female age and the duration of subfertility help to avoid lost opportunity through delays in treatment when IVF with ICSI is indicated. Making treatment decisions squarely in the context of the couple's overall prognosis is key for optimal outcomes. Future trials of male fertility treatments should focus on pregnancy as the primary outcome, rather than less important surrogates such as sperm quality. PMID:26001873
Background Xpand® 2X is a proprietary blend comprised of branched chain amino acids, creatine monohydrate, beta-alanine (CarnoSyn®), quercetin, coenzymated B-vitamins, alanyl-glutamine (Sustamine®), and natural nitrate sources from pomegranate and beet root extracts purported to enhance the neuromuscular adaptations of resistance training. However to date, no long-term studies have been conducted with this supplement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a multi-ingredient performance supplement (MIPS) on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, lean body mass and lower body strength in resistance-trained males. Methods Twenty resistance-trained males (21.3 ± 1.9 years) were randomly assigned to consume a MIPS or a placebo of equal weight and volume (food-grade orange flavors and sweeteners) in a double-blind manner, 30 minutes prior to exercise. All subjects participated in an 8-week, 3-day per week, periodized, resistance-training program that was split-focused on multi-joint movements such as leg press, bench press, and bent-over rows. Ultrasonography measured muscle thickness of the quadriceps, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) determined lean body mass, and strength of the bench press and leg press were determined at weeks 0, 4, and 8 of the study. Data were analyzed with a 2 × 3 repeated measures ANOVA with LSD post hoc tests utilized to locate differences. Results There was a significant group-by-time interaction in which the MIPS supplementation resulted in a significant (p < 0.01) increase in strength of the bench press (18.4% vs. 9.6%) compared with placebo after 4 and 8 weeks of training. There were no significant group by time interactions between MIPS supplementation nor the placebo in leg press strength (p = .08). MIPS supplementation also resulted in a significant increase in lean body mass (7.8% vs. 3.6%) and quadriceps muscle thickness (11.8% vs. 4.5%) compared with placebo (group*time, p <0.01). Conclusions
Jordan, Steve; Jackson, Nancy
Learning for work is the focus of public policy in Australia, New Zealand, and Britain. However, meaningful public debate about the presumed benefits of training and lifelong learning has been stifled by rhetoric about competitiveness and economic survival. (SK)
Kemmler, Wolfgang; Wittke, Andreas; Bebenek, Michael; Fröhlich, Michael; von Stengel, Simon
Time-effective protocols may potentially increase people's compliance with exercise. The purpose of this paper was to compare the relative effects of 16 weeks of high intensity (resistance) training (HIT) with and without protein supplementation (HIT&P) and HVHIT (high volume/high intensity training) versus a nontraining control group on cardiometabolic risk factors. One hundred and twenty untrained males 30–50 years old were randomly assigned to 3 subgroups: (a) a HIT group; (b) a HIT&P group, and (c) a waiting-control group (phase I) that crossed over to (d) high volume/high intensity training (HVHIT) during the second study phase. HIT was defined as “single set to failure protocol” while HVHIT consistently applied two sets. Protein supplementation provided an overall intake of 1.5 g/kg/body mass. Primary study endpoint was the metabolic syndrome Z-Score (MetS-Z-Score). MetS-Z-Score significantly improved in all exercise groups (p ≤ 0.001) with no significant difference between HIT, HIT&P, and HVHIT (p ≥ 0.829). However, all the exercise groups differed significantly from the CG (p < 0.001) which deteriorated significantly (p = 0.039). In conclusion, all exercise protocols were similarly effective in improving cardiometabolic risk factors. Thus, HIT may be the best choice for people with low time budgets looking to improve their cardiometabolic health. PMID:26885526
Kemmler, Wolfgang; Wittke, Andreas; Bebenek, Michael; Fröhlich, Michael; von Stengel, Simon
Time-effective protocols may potentially increase people's compliance with exercise. The purpose of this paper was to compare the relative effects of 16 weeks of high intensity (resistance) training (HIT) with and without protein supplementation (HIT&P) and HVHIT (high volume/high intensity training) versus a nontraining control group on cardiometabolic risk factors. One hundred and twenty untrained males 30-50 years old were randomly assigned to 3 subgroups: (a) a HIT group; (b) a HIT&P group, and (c) a waiting-control group (phase I) that crossed over to (d) high volume/high intensity training (HVHIT) during the second study phase. HIT was defined as "single set to failure protocol" while HVHIT consistently applied two sets. Protein supplementation provided an overall intake of 1.5 g/kg/body mass. Primary study endpoint was the metabolic syndrome Z-Score (MetS-Z-Score). MetS-Z-Score significantly improved in all exercise groups (p ≤ 0.001) with no significant difference between HIT, HIT&P, and HVHIT (p ≥ 0.829). However, all the exercise groups differed significantly from the CG (p < 0.001) which deteriorated significantly (p = 0.039). In conclusion, all exercise protocols were similarly effective in improving cardiometabolic risk factors. Thus, HIT may be the best choice for people with low time budgets looking to improve their cardiometabolic health. PMID:26885526
Ojeda, Álvaro Huerta; Ríos, Luis Chirosa; Barrilao, Rafael Guisado; Serrano, Pablo Cáceres
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the acute effect temporal of a complex training protocol on 30 meter sprint times. A secondary objective was to evaluate the fatigue indexes of military athletes. [Subjects and Methods] Seven military athletes were the subjects of this study. The variables measured were times in 30-meter sprint, and average power and peak power of squats. The intervention session with complex training consisted of 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 30% 1RM + 4 repetitions at 60% 1RM + 3 repetitions of 30 meters with 120-second rests. For the statistical analysis repeated measures of ANOVA was used, and for the post hoc analysis, student’s t-test was used. [Results] Times in 30 meter sprints showed a significant reduction between the control set and the four experimental sets, but the average power and peak power of squats did not show significant changes. [Conclusion] The results of the study show the acute positive effect of complex training, over time, in 30-meter sprint by military athletes. This effect is due to the post activation potentiation of the lower limbs’ muscles in the 30 meters sprint. PMID:27134353
Benice, Ted S.; Raber, Jacob
New neurons are generated in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus (GCL) throughout adulthood. This process is modulated by many environmental and neurochemical factors. We previously observed that castrated mice, compared to sham-operated mice, perform poorly in the delayed matching to place water-maze task (DMTP). In this study we quantified the number of doublecortin expressing (DCX+) immature neurons and Ki-67 expressing (Ki-67+) proliferating progenitors in mice previously tested in a spatial DMTP task, a non-spatial DMTP, or that received equivalent amounts of handling only. Regardless of DMTP training experience castration reduced immature neuron number in the GCL but had no effect on proliferating progenitors. Compared to handling only, visible DMTP training reduced the immature neuron number but hidden DMTP training had no effect. Castration did not alter these environmental effects. Finally, performance on the spatial DMTP task did not correlate with immature neuron number. In addition, while the number of immature neurons was strongly reduced following cranial irradiation with 137Cs, this treatment did not affect spatial DMTP performance. Thus, in mice, castration disrupts spatial memory and reduces immature neuron number, but there is no strong link between these effects. PMID:20233585
Ziaaldini, Mohammad Mosaferi; Koltai, Erika; Csende, Zsolt; Goto, Sataro; Boldogh, Istvan; Taylor, Albert W; Radak, Zsolt
Aging results in significant loss of mass and function of the skeletal muscle, which negatively impacts the quality of life. In this study we investigated whether aerobic exercise training has the potential to alter anabolic and catabolic pathways in the skeletal muscle. Five and twenty eight month old rats were used in the study. Aging resulted in decreased levels of follistatin/mTOR/Akt/Erk activation and increased myostatin/Murf1/2, proteasome subunits, and protein ubiquitination levels. In addition, TNF-α, reactive oxygen species (ROS), p53, and Bax levels were increased while Bcl-2 levels were decreased in the skeletal muscle of aged rats. Six weeks of exercise training at 60% of VO2max reversed the age-associated activation of catabolic and apoptotic pathways and increased anabolic signaling. The results suggest that the age-associated loss of muscle mass and cachexia could be due to the orchestrated down-regulation of anabolic and up-regulation of catabolic and pro-apoptotic processes. These metabolic changes can be attenuated by exercise training. PMID:25910622
Fisher, Gordon; Brown, Andrew W.; Bohan Brown, Michelle M.; Alcorn, Amy; Noles, Corey; Winwood, Leah; Resuehr, Holly; George, Brandon; Jeansonne, Madeline M.; Allison, David B.
Purpose To compare the effects of six weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT) vs continuous moderate intensity training (MIT) for improving body composition, insulin sensitivity (SI), blood pressure, blood lipids, and cardiovascular fitness in a cohort of sedentary overweight or obese young men. We hypothesized that HIIT would result in similar improvements in body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood lipids, and SI as compared to the MIT group, despite requiring only one hour of activity per week compared to five hours per week for the MIT group. Methods 28 sedentary overweight or obese men (age, 20 ± 1.5 years, body mass index 29.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2) participated in a six week exercise treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to HIIT or MIT and evaluated at baseline and post-training. DXA was used to assess body composition, graded treadmill exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness, oral glucose tolerance to measure SI, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess lipoprotein particles, and automatic auscultation to measure blood pressure. Results A greater improvement in VO2peak was observed in MIT compared to HIIT (11.1% vs 2.83%, P = 0.0185) in the complete-case analysis. No differences were seen in the intention to treat analysis, and no other group differences were observed. Both exercise conditions were associated with temporal improvements in % body fat, total cholesterol, medium VLDL, medium HDL, triglycerides, SI, and VO2peak (P < 0.05). Conclusion Participation in HIIT or MIT exercise training displayed: 1) improved SI, 2) reduced blood lipids, 3) decreased % body fat, and 4) improved cardiovascular fitness. While both exercise groups led to similar improvements for most cardiometabolic risk factors assessed, MIT led to a greater improvement in overall cardiovascular fitness. Overall, these observations suggest that a relatively short duration of either HIIT or MIT training may improve cardiometabolic risk factors in
The battle for an adequate careers guidance service for adults has been a long one. A succession of governments have been formally committed to lifelong learning, to broadening choice and diversity in education and training, and to asking individuals to take more control of (and pay more for) their education, but only in the last few years have…
Lifelong learning is an essential trait that is expected of every physician. The CanMeds 2005 Physician Competency Framework emphasizes lifelong learning as a key competency that physicians must achieve in becoming better physicians. However, many physicians are not competent at engaging in lifelong learning. The current medical education system is deficient in preparing medical students to develop and carry out their own lifelong learning curriculum upon graduation. Despite understanding how physicians learn at work, medical students are not trained to learn while working. Similarly, although barriers to lifelong learning are known, medical students are not adequately skilled in overcoming these barriers. Learning to learn is just as important, if not more, as acquiring the skills and knowledge required of a physician. The medical undergraduate curriculum lacks a specific learning strategy to prepare medical students in becoming an adept lifelong learner. In this article, we propose a learning strategy for lifelong learning at the undergraduate level. In developing this novel strategy, we paid particular attention to two parameters. First, this strategy should be grounded on literature describing a physician’s lifelong learning process. Second, the framework for implementing this strategy must be based on existing undergraduate learning strategies to obviate the need for additional resources, learner burden, and faculty time. In this paper, we propose a Problem, Analysis, Independent Research Reporting, Experimentation Debriefing (PAIRED) framework that follows the learning process of a physician and serves to synergize the components of problem-based learning and simulation-based learning in specifically targeting the barriers to lifelong learning. PMID:27446767
Müller, Romina; Remdisch, Sabine; Köhler, Katharina; Marr, Liz; Repo, Saara; Yndigegn, Carsten
Easing access to higher education (HE) for those engaging in lifelong learning has been a common policy objective across the European Union since the late 1990s. To reach this goal, the transition between vocational and academic routes must be simplified, but European countries are at different developmental stages. This article maps the…
This paper, from historical and philosophical perspectives, presents Confucian education philosophy, a philosophy that is argued is a philosophy of lifelong learning. Examined and illustrated are the Confucian concepts of "Sage", a Confucian ideal human model, and "Jun Zi", a Confucian realistic educational result. Through "Sage", Confucius…
In a fast-changing and highly inequitable world, lifelong learning is becoming increasingly important, not only as a key organising principle for all forms of education and learning but also as an absolute necessity for everyone. It is particularly important for disadvantaged individuals and groups who have been excluded from or failed to acquire…
This paper explores the ways in which people with lifelong chronic illness engage with learning, and how learning impacts on the ways in which they learn to live with their illness. It considers their engagement with and changing focus of learning at different stages: prior to diagnosis, at about the time of diagnosis, and as their understanding…
Ghanbari-Niaki, Abbass; Ghanbari-Abarghooi, Safieyh; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Zare-Kookandeh, Navabeh; Gholizadeh, Monireh; Roudbari, Fatemeh; Zare-Kookandeh, Asghar
Introduction: Heart as a high metabolic and aerobic tissue is consuming lipid as a fuel for its energy provision at rest during light and moderate exercise, except when lactate level is higher in blood circulation. It has been shown that any type of regular exercise and crataegus species would improve cardiovascular function and minimizes several risk factors via stimulating lipid metabolism by acting on enzymes and genes expression such as ABCA1 and PPAR α which are involving in this process. Materials and Methods: Twenty Wistar male rats (4-6 weeks old, 140-173 g weight) were used. Animals were randomly classified into training (n = 10) and control (n = 10) groups and then divided into saline-control (SC), saline-training (ST), Crataegus-Pentaegyna -control (CPC), and Crataegus-Pentaegyna -training (CPT) groups. Training groups have performed a high-intensity running program (at 34 m/min (0% grade), 60 min/day, 5 days/week) on a motor-driven treadmill for eight weeks. Animals were orally fed with Crataegus-Pentaegyna extraction (500mg/kg) and saline solution for six weeks. Seventy- two hours after the last training session, rats were sacrificed, hearts were excised, cleaned and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C until RNA extraction. Plasma also was collected for plasma variable measurements. Statistical analysis was performed using a two way analysis of variance, and significance was accepted at P < 0.05. Results: A non-significant (P < 0.4, P < 0.79, respectively) increase in ABCA1 and PPAR α genes expression was accompanied by a significant (P < 0.01, P < 0.04, P < 0.04, respectively) reduction in TC, TG, and VLDL-C levels in Crataegus-Pentaegyna groups. Conclusions: Our findings show that a high intensity treadmill running was able to express ABCA1 and PPAR α in rat heart. Data also possibly indicate that the Crataeguse-Pentaegyna supplementation solely could mimic training effect on the mentioned genes and lipid profiles via
Daily Overfeeding from Protein and/or Carbohydrate Supplementation for Eight Weeks in Conjunction with Resistance Training Does not Improve Body Composition and Muscle Strength or Increase Markers Indicative of Muscle Protein Synthesis and Myogenesis in Resistance-Trained Males
Spillane, Mike; Willoughby, Darryn S.
This study determined the effects of heavy resistance training and daily overfeeding with carbohydrate and/or protein on blood and skeletal muscle markers of protein synthesis (MPS), myogenesis, body composition, and muscle performance. Twenty one resistance-trained males were randomly assigned to either a protein + carbohydrate [HPC (n = 11)] or a carbohydrate [HC (n = 10)] supplement group in a double-blind fashion. Body composition and muscle performance were assessed, and venous blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained before and after eight weeks of resistance training and supplementation. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05). Total body mass, body water, and fat mass were significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training, but not supplementation (p < 0.05); however, lean mass was not significantly increased in either group (p = 0.068). Upper- (p = 0.024) and lower-body (p = 0.001) muscle strength and myosin heavy chain (MHC) 1 (p = 0.039) and MHC 2A (p = 0.027) were also significantly increased with resistance training. Serum IGF-1, GH, and HGF were not significantly affected (p > 0.05). Muscle total DNA, total protein, and c-Met were not significantly affected (p > 0.05). In conjunction with resistance training, the peri-exercise and daily overfeeding of protein and/or carbohydrate did not preferentially improve body composition, muscle performance, and markers indicative of MPS and myogenic activation. Key points In response to 56 days of heavy resistance training and HC or HPC supplementation, similar increases in muscle mass and strength in both groups occurred; however, the increases were not different between supplement groups. The supplementation of HPC had no preferential effect on augmenting serum IGF-1 GH, or HGF. The supplementation of HPC had no preferential effect on augmenting increases in total muscle protein content or the myogenic markers, total DNA and muscle cMet content. In response to 56 days of
Daily Overfeeding from Protein and/or Carbohydrate Supplementation for Eight Weeks in Conjunction with Resistance Training Does not Improve Body Composition and Muscle Strength or Increase Markers Indicative of Muscle Protein Synthesis and Myogenesis in Resistance-Trained Males.
Spillane, Mike; Willoughby, Darryn S
This study determined the effects of heavy resistance training and daily overfeeding with carbohydrate and/or protein on blood and skeletal muscle markers of protein synthesis (MPS), myogenesis, body composition, and muscle performance. Twenty one resistance-trained males were randomly assigned to either a protein + carbohydrate [HPC (n = 11)] or a carbohydrate [HC (n = 10)] supplement group in a double-blind fashion. Body composition and muscle performance were assessed, and venous blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained before and after eight weeks of resistance training and supplementation. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05). Total body mass, body water, and fat mass were significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training, but not supplementation (p < 0.05); however, lean mass was not significantly increased in either group (p = 0.068). Upper- (p = 0.024) and lower-body (p = 0.001) muscle strength and myosin heavy chain (MHC) 1 (p = 0.039) and MHC 2A (p = 0.027) were also significantly increased with resistance training. Serum IGF-1, GH, and HGF were not significantly affected (p > 0.05). Muscle total DNA, total protein, and c-Met were not significantly affected (p > 0.05). In conjunction with resistance training, the peri-exercise and daily overfeeding of protein and/or carbohydrate did not preferentially improve body composition, muscle performance, and markers indicative of MPS and myogenic activation. Key pointsIn response to 56 days of heavy resistance training and HC or HPC supplementation, similar increases in muscle mass and strength in both groups occurred; however, the increases were not different between supplement groups.The supplementation of HPC had no preferential effect on augmenting serum IGF-1 GH, or HGF.The supplementation of HPC had no preferential effect on augmenting increases in total muscle protein content or the myogenic markers, total DNA and muscle cMet content.In response to 56 days of a
Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn; Ohsako, Toshio; Mauch, Werner
Although lifelong learning is being increasingly cited as one of the key principles in the fields of education and development, shared understanding of the term's usage at the global level is lacking. Lifelong learning is closely tied to the challenge of openness and the changes with which modern individuals must cope in their lifetimes. Lifelong…
This paper discusses the relationship between international agendas for lifelong learning and financial aid for low income countries, especially those on the African continent. It argues that there are subtle differences in terminology written by policymakers respectively in Europe and South Africa for lifelong learning but that international…
Lifelong learning has come to be internationally recognized as a framework in the development of sustainable education. However, in spite of rhetoric and its endorsement in some nations' policy documents, lifelong learning is not operationalized and Africa continues to be plagued by social maladies such as HIV/AIDS, capacity poverty, low quality…
Comparing the evolution of lifelong learning in Chinese Taipei and Vietnam, this paper describes cultural, political, and economic factors influencing approaches and attitudes towards the lifelong learning movement and makes projections for the future. Following a description of sources used, including informal interviews with 50 adult learners in…
Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; Naseem, M. Ayaz
This article contrasts the view of lifelong learning posed by the human capital discourse with Freire's understanding of education as a lifelong journey toward personal growth and social transformation. Rather than reducing learners to objects of economic globalization, Freire's pedagogy considers students as political participants who actively…
This paper discusses the Lifelong Learning Strategy document which was on the agenda during the European Union harmonization process of Turkey. The public policies in the document, regarding non-formal and adult education, will be analyzed. Lifelong Learning strategy became a current issue in the last stage of neoliberal transformation of…
Morton, Shirley T.
This overview of the history of lifelong learning for African Americans is in a chart format. Lifelong learning events are matched with social and historical events and with black adult educators and black adult education-related institutions. The chart begins with slavery around 1800, a time when slaves were forbidden to learn how to read. It…
Whereas adult education used to be the preferred concept for those studying adult music-making, there is now an increasing trend away from this and towards lifelong learning. Uncritically adopting government lifelong learning discourses, however, blurs the line between educational ideals and political ones. Although there may be merit in the…
The relationship between lifelong learning, active citizenship, and neighborhood renewal was explored in the context of the British government's declared intention to address the consequences of poverty through neighborhood renewal, encourage public participation in renewal, and make lifelong learning a central strategy for ensuring future…
White, Robert D.
The author's tertiary learning journey began as a research assistant reviewing educational literature. Among the mountain of lifelong learning literature, the author could find nothing that explained why people are or are not lifelong learners. Eventually he found the British work of Gorard and Selwyn (2005). Mindful of Osborne's (2002) caution…
Lifelong learning is a powerful concept and perspective for transforming education systems and enabling learning societies. Developed in the advanced industrialised North, it is now being considered in poor countries where Education for All is a main educational preoccupation. The meaning of lifelong learning is confused and contested, caught up…
Based on the historic background and development of lifelong education (learning) in China, this paper introduces major developments of lifelong education (learning) that have been achieved through adopting a series of measures under policies issued by the Chinese government since the 1990s. Throughout the decades, efforts have been made to…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the successful design and management of high performance work-based lifelong learning processes. Design: The paper summarises the process management practices and contextual parameters that are being applied in the successful design and management of high performance work based lifelong learning…
Boeing, Marianne; Barton, Barbara; Zinsmeister, Paula; Brouwers, Lynn; Trudel, Tina M.; Elias, Eileen; Weider, Katie
This article is the sixth of a multi-part series on traumatic brain injury (TBI) and discusses lifelong living after TBI. Following TBI, lifelong outcomes vary depending on the individual affected, treatment provided and severity of injury. Fortunately, many individuals who experience mild concussions common to childhood have no lasting symptoms.…
Schuetze, Hans G., Ed.; Slowey, Maria, Ed.
This book contains 11 papers on higher education and lifelong learners. The following papers are included: "Traditions and New Directions in Higher Education: A Comparative Perspective on Non-Traditional Students and Lifelong Learners" (Hans G. Schuetze, Maria Slowey); "Austria: The Enduring Myth of the Full-Time Student: An Exploration of the…
The term lifelong learning has been used in different contexts and in policy application for a wide variety of purposes and initiatives. Singapore's approach to lifelong learning is pragmatic and rational. It is one of the economic drivers used by policy makers to enhance Singapore's competitiveness and is viewed as an antidote against…
Regmi, Kapil Dev
Lifelong learning has become a catchword in almost all countries because of its growing influence on education policies in the globalised world. In the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the European Union (EU), the promotion of lifelong learning has been a strategy to speed up economic growth and become competitive.…
Kirby, John R.; Knapper, Christopher; Lamon, Patrick; Egnatoff, William J.
Primary objective: to develop a scale to measure students' disposition to engage in lifelong learning. Research design, methods and procedures: using items that reflected the components of lifelong learning, we constructed a 14-item scale that was completed by 309 university and vocational college students, who also completed a measure of deep and…
Moyer, John Thayer
This revised 1997 ex post facto study attempted to identify a lifelong adaptability curriculum from a cultural literacy perspective. It investigated students' lifelong adaptability ratings of 15 general school subjects as predicted by family structure, parental age, parental educational level, student cultural literacy, and student gender;…
Hammer, Sara Jeanne; Chardon, Toni; Collins, Pauline; Hart, Caroline
Lifelong learning appears frequently on university statements of desirable graduate outcomes. It is also referred to as a desirable outcome for Australian law graduates. This paper examines academic staff perceptions of lifelong learning as part of a broader study about assessment practices in a recently established Australian law school. Findings…
Grothe, Rebecca, Ed.
This book contains eight papers about lifelong learning in the Christian church. The preface and foreword are written by Rebecca Groth and H. George Anderson, respectively. (1) "The Gospel Calls Us" (Margaret A. Krych) examines five theological themes of lifelong learning. Adult development and learning styles are considered in (2) "What Teachers…
Misra, Pradeep Kumar
The necessity to adjust to the prerequisites of the knowledge based society and economy brought about the need for lifelong learning for all in Asian communities. The concept of lifelong learning stresses that learning and education are related to life as a whole - not just to work - and that learning throughout life is a continuum that should run…
Caron, Philippe; Beaudoin, Gregg; Leblanc, Frederic; Grant, Andrew
This article describes an architecture for the implementation of a lifelong online learning environment (LOLE). The stakeholder independent architecture enables the development of a LOLE system to fulfill the complex requirements of the different actors involved in lifelong education. A particular emphasis is placed on the continuation of a…
Regmi, Kapil Dev
What should be goal of education in general? What type of education are we practicing in the name of lifelong learning? What perspective of lifelong learning is becoming more dominant? Should the education system of a nation fulfill the demand of the market or the demand of the society? In this short single participant interview research I have…
This document contains the following full and short papers on lifelong learning from ICCE/ICCAI 2000 (International Conference on Computers in Education/International Conference on Computer-Assisted Instruction): (1) "A Study on the School Information Technology Pilot Scheme: Possibilities of Creative and Lifelong Learning" (Siu-Cheung Kong,…
Lankard, Bettina A.
Economic, social, and technological changes highlight the value of human resources and employee training. Acquiring the knowledge and skills demanded of today's workers represents a lifelong learning experience that must be nurtured through work-related learning activities and workplace training. For the employer, training supports organizational…
Edimansyah, BA; Rusli, BN; Naing, L
To examine the effects of short duration stress management training (SMT) on self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress in male automotive assembly workers, 118 male automotive workers from Pekan, Pahang (n = 60, mean age = 40.0 years, SD = 6.67) and Kota Bharu, Kelantan (n = 58, mean age = 38.1 years, SD = 5.86) were assigned to experimental and control group, respectively. A SMT program consisting of aerobic exercise, stress management manual, video session, lecture, question and answer session, and pamphlet and poster session were conducted in the experimental group. A validated short-form Malay version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) were self-administered before and after the intervention program in the experimental and control group and their time and group interaction effects were examined using the repeated measure ANOVA test. Results indicated that the mean (SD) scores for DASS-Depression (p = 0.036) and DASS-Anxiety (p = 0.011) were significantly decreased, respectively, after the intervention program in the experimental group as compared to the control group (significant time-group interaction effects). No similar effect was observed for the mean (SD) scores for DASS-Stress (p = 0.104). However, the mean (SD) scores for subscales of DASS-Depression (Dysphoria, p = 0.01), DASS-Anxiety (Subjective Anxiety, p = 0.007, Situational Anxiety, p = 0.048), and DASS-Stress (Nervous Arousal, p = 0.018, Easily Upset, p = 0.047) showed significant time and group interaction effects. These findings suggest that short duration SMT is effective in reducing some aspects of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress in male automotive workers. PMID:19021918
Kern, Margaret L; Della Porta, Serenity S; Friedman, Howard S
Building upon decades of research with the lifelong (nine-decade) Terman Life Cycle Study, we present a life pathway model for understanding human thriving that accounts for long-term individual difference in health and longevity, with a particular focus on child personality and adult social relationships. Developing data derived and supplemented from the Terman study (N = 570 males, 451 females), we employed regression and survival analyses to test models of childhood personality predicting adult psychosocial factors (subjective well-being, family relationships, community involvement, subjective achievement, hardships) and subsequent longevity. Child personality differentially related to midlife social relationships, well-being, and hardships. Conscientiousness and good social relationships predicted longer life, whereas subjective well-being was unrelated to mortality risk. Examining multiple life factors across long time periods uncovers important pathways through which personality relates to premature mortality or longevity. Typical stress-and-illness models are untenable and should be replaced with life span trajectory approaches. PMID:23927423
Yang, Jin, Ed.; Schneller, Chripa, Ed.; Roche, Stephen, Ed.
There is no doubt that universities have a vital role to play in promoting lifelong learning. This publication presents possible ways of expanding and transforming higher education to facilitate lifelong learning in different socio-economic contexts. Nine articles address the various dimensions of the role of higher education in promoting lifelong…
Background The pattern of protein intake following exercise may impact whole-body protein turnover and net protein retention. We determined the effects of different protein feeding strategies on protein metabolism in resistance-trained young men. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to ingest either 80g of whey protein as 8x10g every 1.5h (PULSE; n=8), 4x20g every 3h (intermediate, INT; n=7), or 2x40g every 6h (BOLUS; n=8) after an acute bout of bilateral knee extension exercise (4x10 repetitions at 80% maximal strength). Whole-body protein turnover (Q), synthesis (S), breakdown (B), and net balance (NB) were measured throughout 12h of recovery by a bolus ingestion of [15N]glycine with urinary [15N]ammonia enrichment as the collected end-product. Results PULSE Q rates were greater than BOLUS (~19%, P<0.05) with a trend towards being greater than INT (~9%, P=0.08). Rates of S were 32% and 19% greater and rates of B were 51% and 57% greater for PULSE as compared to INT and BOLUS, respectively (P<0.05), with no difference between INT and BOLUS. There were no statistical differences in NB between groups (P=0.23); however, magnitude-based inferential statistics revealed likely small (mean effect±90%CI; 0.59±0.87) and moderate (0.80±0.91) increases in NB for PULSE and INT compared to BOLUS and possible small increase (0.42±1.00) for INT vs. PULSE. Conclusion We conclude that the pattern of ingested protein, and not only the total daily amount, can impact whole-body protein metabolism. Individuals aiming to maximize NB would likely benefit from repeated ingestion of moderate amounts of protein (~20g) at regular intervals (~3h) throughout the day. PMID:23067428
Talati, Jamsheer Jehangir
Objective To summarise the concepts critical for understanding the content and value of lifelong learning (LL). Methods Ideas generated by personal experience were combined with those of philosophers, social scientists, educational institutions, governments and UNESCO, to facilitate an understanding of the importance of the basic concepts of LL. Results Autopoietic, continuous, self-determined, informal, vicarious, biographical, lifelong reflexive learning, from and for society, when supported by self-chosen formal courses, can build capacities and portable skills that allow useful responses to challenges and society’s new structures of governance. The need for LL is driven by challenges. LL flows continuously in pursuit of one agenda, which could either be citizenship, as is conventional, or as this article proposes, health. LL cannot be wholly centred on vocation. Continuous medical education and continuous professional development, important in their own right, cannot supply all that is needed. LL aids society with its learning, and it requires an awareness of the environment and structures of society. It is heavily vicarious, draws on formal learning and relies for effectiveness on reflection, self-assessment and personal shaping of views of the world from different perspectives. Conclusion Health is critical to rational thought and peace, and determines society’s capacity to govern itself, and improve its health. LL should be reshaped to focus on health not citizenship. Therefore, embedding learning in society and environment is critical. Each urologist must develop an understanding of the numerous concepts in LL, of which ‘biographicisation’ is the seed that will promote innovative strategies. PMID:26019932
Ramos Veliz, Rafael; Requena, Bernardo; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Newton, Robert U; Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo
We examined the effects of 18 weeks of strength and high-intensity training on key sport performance measures of elite male water polo (WP) players. Twenty-seven players were randomly assigned to 2 groups, control (in-water training only) and strength group, (strength training sessions [twice per week] + in-water training). In-water training was conducted 5 d·wk. Twenty-meter maximal sprint swim, maximal dynamic strength 1-repetition maximum (1RM) for upper bench press (BP) and lower full squat (FS) body, countermovement jump (CMJ), and throwing velocity were measured before and after the training. The training program included upper and lower body strength and high-intensity exercises (BP, FS, military press, pull-ups, CMJ loaded, and abs). Baseline-training results showed no significant differences between the groups in any of the variables tested. No improvement was found in the control group; however, meaningful improvement was found in all variables in the experimental group: CMJ (2.38 cm, 6.9%, effect size [ES] = 0.48), BP (9.06 kg, 10.53%, ES = 0.66), FS (11.06 kg, 14.21%, ES = 0.67), throwing velocity (1.76 km·h(-1), 2.76%, ES = 0.25), and 20-m maximal sprint swim (-0.26 seconds, 2.25%, ES = 0.29). Specific strength and high-intensity training in male WP players for 18 weeks produced a positive effect on performance qualities highly specific to WP. Therefore, we propose modifications to the current training methodology for WP players to include strength and high-intensity training for athlete preparation in this sport. PMID:24077370
Hayes, Erik; Galpin, Andrew; Kaminsky, Leonard; Jemiolo, Bozena; Fink, William; Trappe, Todd; Jansson, Anna; Gustafsson, Thomas; Tesch, Per
We examined whole body aerobic capacity and myocellular markers of oxidative metabolism in lifelong endurance athletes [n = 9, 81 ± 1 yr, 68 ± 3 kg, body mass index (BMI) = 23 ± 1 kg/m2] and age-matched, healthy, untrained men (n = 6; 82 ± 1 y, 77 ± 5 kg, BMI = 26 ± 1 kg/m2). The endurance athletes were cross-country skiers, including a former Olympic champion and several national/regional champions, with a history of aerobic exercise and participation in endurance events throughout their lives. Each subject performed a maximal cycle test to assess aerobic capacity (V̇o2max). Subjects had a resting vastus lateralis muscle biopsy to assess oxidative enzymes (citrate synthase and βHAD) and molecular (mRNA) targets associated with mitochondrial biogenesis [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam)]. The octogenarian athletes had a higher (P < 0.05) absolute (2.6 ± 0.1 vs. 1.6 ± 0.1 l/min) and relative (38 ± 1 vs. 21 ± 1 ml·kg−1·min−1) V̇o2max, ventilation (79 ± 3 vs. 64 ± 7 l/min), heart rate (160 ± 5 vs. 146 ± 8 beats per minute), and final workload (182 ± 4 vs. 131 ± 14 W). Skeletal muscle oxidative enzymes were 54% (citrate synthase) and 42% (βHAD) higher (P < 0.05) in the octogenarian athletes. Likewise, basal PGC-1α and Tfam mRNA were 135% and 80% greater (P < 0.05) in the octogenarian athletes. To our knowledge, the V̇o2max of the lifelong endurance athletes is the highest recorded in humans >80 yr of age and comparable to nonendurance trained men 40 years younger. The superior cardiovascular and skeletal muscle health profile of the octogenarian athletes provides a large functional reserve above the aerobic frailty threshold and is associated with lower risk for disability and mortality. PMID:23065759
Wiewelhove, Thimo; Raeder, Christian; Meyer, Tim; Kellmann, Michael; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander
Aim Our study aimed to investigate changes of different markers for routine assessment of fatigue and recovery in response to high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Methods 22 well-trained male and female team sport athletes (age, 23.0 ± 2.7 years; V̇O2max, 57.6 ± 8.6 mL·min·kg−1) participated in a six-day running-based HIIT-microcycle with a total of eleven HIIT sessions. Repeated sprint ability (RSA; criterion measure of fatigue and recovery), countermovement jump (CMJ) height, jump efficiency in a multiple rebound jump test (MRJ), 20-m sprint performance, muscle contractile properties, serum concentrations of creatinkinase (CK), c-reactive protein (CRP) and urea as well as perceived muscle soreness (DOMS) were measured pre and post the training program as well as after 72 h of recovery. Results Following the microcycle significant changes (p < 0.05) in RSA as well as in CMJ and MRJ performance could be observed, showing a decline (%Δ ± 90% confidence limits, ES = effect size; RSA: -3.8 ± 1.0, ES = -1.51; CMJ: 8.4 ± 2.9, ES = -1.35; MRJ: 17.4 ± 4.5, ES = -1.60) and a return to baseline level (RSA: 2.8 ± 2.6, ES = 0.53; CMJ: 4.1 ± 2.9, ES = 0.68; MRJ: 6.5 ± 4.5, ES = 0.63) after 72 h of recovery. Athletes also demonstrated significant changes (p < 0.05) in muscle contractile properties, CK, and DOMS following the training program and after the recovery period. In contrast, CRP and urea remained unchanged throughout the study. Further analysis revealed that the accuracy of markers for assessment of fatigue and recovery in comparison to RSA derived from a contingency table was insufficient. Multiple regression analysis also showed no correlations between changes in RSA and any of the markers. Conclusions Mean changes in measures of neuromuscular function, CK and DOMS are related to HIIT induced fatigue and subsequent recovery. However, low accuracy of a single or combined use of these markers requires the verification of their applicability on an
Kilpatrick, Sue; Fulton, Amabel; Johns, Susan
Lifelong learning has been linked by policymakers to economic and social wellbeing. This paper introduces the concept of training brokerage as an efficient way of meeting the needs of learners, industry and education and training providers. It presents findings from a study of the features, processes and outcomes of training brokerage arrangements…
There have been many theoretical and empirical analyses of lifelong learning policies and how to implement, develop, measure and facilitate lifelong learning and lifelong learning policy in order to cater for the needs and requirements of individuals as well as society in general. The particular slant on lifelong learning in different countries…
Oliver, Paul, Ed.
The 14 chapters in this book explore the concept of lifelong learning and illustrate its application to specific situations. Titles and authors are as follows: "The Concept of Lifelong Learning" (Paul Oliver); "Degrees of Adult Participation: Lifelong Learning in European Universities" (Barbara Merrill); "Lifelong (L)earning and a 'New Age' at…
Gallardo-Fuentes, Francisco; Gallardo-Fuentes, Jorge; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Martínez, Cristian; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Cañas, Rodrigo; Banzer, Winfried; Loturco, Irineu; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Izquierdo, Mikel
Gallardo-Fuentes, F, Gallardo-Fuentes, J, Ramírez-Campillo, R, Balsalobre-Fernández, C, Martínez, C, Caniuqueo, A, Cañas, R, Banzer, W, Loturco, I, Nakamura, FY, and Izquierdo, M. Intersession and intrasession reliability and validity of the My Jump app for measuring different jump actions in trained male and female athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2049-2056, 2016-The purpose of this study was to analyze the concurrent validity and reliability of the iPhone app named My Jump for measuring jump height in 40-cm drop jumps (DJs), countermovement jumps (CMJs), and squat jumps (SJs). To do this, 21 male and female athletes (age, 22.1 ± 3.6 years) completed 5 maximal DJs, CMJs, and SJs on 2 separate days, which were evaluated using a contact platform and the app My Jump, developed to calculate jump height from flight time using the high-speed video recording facility on the iPhone. A total of 630 jumps were compared using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Bland-Altman plots, Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient (r), Cronbach's alpha (α), and coefficient of variation (CV). There was almost perfect agreement between the measurement instruments for all jump height values (ICC = 0.97-0.99), with no differences between the instruments (p > 0.05; mean difference of 0.2 cm). Almost perfect correlation was observed between the measurement instruments for SJs, CMJs, and DJs (r = 0.96-0.99). My Jump showed very good within-subject reliability (α = 0.94-0.99; CV = 3.8-7.6) and interday reliability (r = 0.86-0.95) for SJs, CMJs, and DJs in all subjects. Therefore, the iPhone app named My Jump provides reliable intersession and intrasession data, as well as valid measurements for maximal jump height during fast (i.e., DJs) and slow (i.e., CMJs) stretch-shortening cycle muscle actions, and during concentric-only explosive muscle actions (i.e., SJs), in both male and female athletes in comparison with a professional contact platform. PMID:27328276
This report presents innovative vocational training (VT) initiatives to improve integration of low-skilled workers into lifelong learning and the labor market. Chapter 1 describes study structure and methodology. Chapter 2 addresses the theoretical basis for observing innovations. It analyzes the definition and significance of innovation in system…
Jewish cultural tradition shows strong support for lifelong learning and study for its own sake. Basic principles of Jewish education include functionalism (life change resulting from education) and accessibility (all are entitled to education). (SK)
Mamaqi, Xhevrie; Rubio, Pilar Olave; Alvarez, Jesús Miguel
The workplace of today is characterized by rapid changes in work processes, in competition, in customer demands, and in work practices. To keep abreast of these rapid changes employers and employees must be committed to lifelong learning in order to keep ahead. One of the most important actors in the lifelong learning development process are the trainers, whose professional characteristics needs meeting new skills and adapting an varied and specific contents of the current labour market. Affected by the discontinuity and a high rate of job rotation, the recognition of it labour status and basic competence and skills, forms part of the Bologna Process recognized as Vocational Education Training (VET). Sixty in-depth interviews realized to managers of the centres of formation, are used as tools to obtain information about following topics: recruitment strategies, conventional and not conventional routes of the recruitment, rate rotation, qualification and training of the Spanish trainers. The transcription of the interviews achieve that not always exist a previous plan of recruitment, except that it is a question as big centers of formation. Also, the obtained information indicates a high rate of rotation that affects the trainers ones as professionals since there exists the discontinuity of the formative offer on the labour market.
Openjuru, George L.
This paper advocates for policy recognition of lifelong learning by institutions of higher learning and governments in Eastern Africa. Lifelong learning and lifelong education are two concepts that aim at widening access to and the participation of adult learners in the acquisition of new knowledge, skills, values and attitudes. There are many…
Serefoglu, E C
Premature ejaculation (PE) is considered to be the most common form of male sexual dysfunction. Given that acute oral administration of d-isomer of modafinil (d-modafinil) can extend the latency to ejaculation in rats without suppressing sexual behaviour, the effects of on-demand d-modafinil treatment were examined on a 30-year-old male patient with lifelong PE. The patient was instructed to take d-modafinil 100 mg 3 h prior to the sexual relation for four times and was invited for a control visit. The patient was re-evaluated 2 weeks later. He reported that his IELT increased to 15 min. He reported heartburn and insomnia when he used d-modafinil for the first time; however, these symptoms were transient and did not recur after the initial dose. Overall, he reported considerable improvement and noted that he feels much better with the treatment. Based on this limited data, on-demand d-modafinil seems to be an effective treatment for men with lifelong PE. The side effects were transient and mild in the reported case. Further randomised clinical trials are necessary to elucidate the therapeutic concept of this drug in patients with lifelong PE. PMID:25735219
Randers, M B; Nybo, L; Petersen, J; Nielsen, J J; Christiansen, L; Bendiksen, M; Brito, J; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P
The present study examined the activity profile, heart rate and metabolic response of small-sided football games for untrained males (UM, n=26) and females (UF, n=21) and investigated the influence of the number of players (UM: 1v1, 3v3, 7v7; UF: 2v2, 4v4 and 7v7). Moreover, heart rate response to small-sided games was studied for children aged 9 and 12 years (C9+C12, n=75), as well as homeless (HM, n=15), middle-aged (MM, n=9) and elderly (EM, n=11) men. During 7v7, muscle glycogen decreased more for UM than UF (28 +/- 6 vs 11 +/- 5%; P<0.05) and lactate increased more (18.4 +/- 3.6 vs 10.8 +/- 2.1 mmol kg(-1) d.w.; P<0.05). For UM, glycogen decreased in all fiber types and blood lactate, glucose and plasma FFA was elevated (P<0.05). The mean heart rate (HR(mean)) and time >90% of HR(max) ranged from 147 +/- 4 (EM) to 162 +/- 2 (UM) b.p.m. and 10.8 +/- 1.5 (UF) to 47.8 +/- 5.8% (EM). Time >90% of HR(max) (UM: 16-17%; UF: 8-13%) and time spent with high speed running (4.1-5.1%) was similar for training with 2-14 players, but more high-intensity runs were performed with few players (UM 1v1: 140 +/- 17; UM 7v7: 97 +/- 5; P<0.05): Small-sided games were shown to elucidate high heart rates for all player groups, independently of age, sex, social background and number of players, and a high number of intense actions both for men and women. Thus, small-sided football games appear to have the potential to create physiological adaptations and improve performance with regular training for a variety of study groups. PMID:20149143
Thorburn, Megan S; Vistisen, Bodil; Thorp, Rhys M; Rockell, Mike J; Jeukendrup, Asker E; Xu, Xuebing; Rowlands, David S
We investigated the effects of modifying a normal dietary fatty acid composition and ingestion of high-fat exercise supplements on gastrointestinal distress, substrate oxidation, and endurance cycling performance. Nine well-trained male cyclists completed a randomized triple-crossover comprising a 2-wk diet high in octanoate-rich esterified oil (MCFA) or twice long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). Following the diets, participants performed 3-h of cycling at 50% of peak power followed by 10 maximal sprints while ingesting either 1) a carbohydrate (CHO)+MCFA-rich oil emulsion after the 2-wk MCFA-rich dietary condition (MC-MC, Intervention) and 2) after one of the LCFA-rich dietary conditions (LC-MC, Placebo) or 3) CHO only following a LCFA-rich diet (LC-CHO, Control). During the 3-h ride MCFA-adaptation decreased octanoic-acid oxidation by 24% (90% confidence interval: 14-34%). The CHO+MCFA-rich oil emulsion reduced endogenous fat oxidation by 61% (33-89%) and 110% (89-131%) in the MC-MC and LC-MC conditions, respectively, and MCFA-adaptation reduced endogenous-carbohydrate oxidation by 10% (-3-23%). MCFA-adaptation attenuated gastrointestinal distress and nausea during the sprints, but the effect of the oil emulsion was to lower sprint power by 10.9% (7.7-14.1%) in the LC-MC condition and by 7.1% (5.7-8.5%) in the MC-MC condition, relative to the LC-CHO control; every one unit increase in nausea decreased mean power by 6.0 W (3.2-8.8 W). We conclude that despite some attenuation of endogenous-carbohydrate oxidation and gastric distress following adaptation to a MCFA-rich diet, repeat sprint performance was substantially impaired in response to the ingestion of a CHO+MCFA-rich oil emulsion. PMID:16840580
Randall, Carla A; Ross, Emma Z; Maxwell, Neil S
This study investigated whether torso and thigh precooling during a warm-up effects neuromuscular function and 5-km time-trial performance in hot, humid conditions. Eight well-trained male runners completed 3 randomized time-trials in 32.2 ± 0.8° C and 48.6 ± 6.7% relative humidity. A 30-minute warm-up was completed with no cooling (Control), precooling by an ice vest (Vest), or ice packs covering the thighs (Packs). Before the warm-up and after the time-trial, supramaximal femoral nerve stimulation was delivered during and following maximal isometric contractions. Core and skin temperature, heart rate, and perceptual ratings were recorded before and during the warm-up and time-trial. Overall performance time was improved in Packs compared with Control (1,407 ± 80 seconds vs. 1,492 ± 88 seconds; p ≤ 0.05) but not in Vest (1,444 ± 71 seconds; p > 0.05). In Packs, a higher exercise intensity (p ≤ 0.05) and less cumulative time (p < 0.01) were evident during the last kilometer compared with Control. Maximum voluntary force, voluntary activation, muscle contractility, and membrane excitability were not different after exercise or between conditions. Ten minutes after the warm-up, skin temperature was lower in Vest and Packs compared with Control (p < 0.01). Thermal strain and body heat content change was lower in Vest and Packs, respectively (p ≤ 0.05). Findings indicate that torso and thigh precooling during a warm-up reduces thermoregulatory strain. However, thigh opposed to torso precooling provides greater performance improvements. Neuromuscular function did not aid performance, indicating that transient changes in afferent feedback and muscle recruitment may enhance endurance trial performance. PMID:26102259
Background Life expectancy at birth in the first world has increased from 35 years at the beginning of the 20th century to more than 80 years now. The increase in life expectancy has resulted in an increase in age-related diseases and larger numbers of frail and dependent people. The aim of our study was to determine whether life-long spontaneous aerobic exercise affects lifespan and healthspan in mice. Results Male C57Bl/6J mice, individually caged, were randomly assigned to one of two groups: sedentary (n = 72) or spontaneous wheel-runners (n = 72). We evaluated longevity and several health parameters including grip strength, motor coordination, exercise capacity (VO2max) and skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis. We also measured the cortical levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin associated with brain plasticity. In addition, we measured systemic oxidative stress (malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl plasma levels) and the expression and activity of two genes involved in antioxidant defense in the liver (that is, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD)). Genes that encode antioxidant enzymes are considered longevity genes because their over-expression may modulate lifespan. Aging was associated with an increase in oxidative stress biomarkers and in the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, GPx and Mn-SOD, in the liver in mice. Life-long spontaneous exercise did not prolong longevity but prevented several signs of frailty (that is, decrease in strength, endurance and motor coordination). This improvement was accompanied by a significant increase in the mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and in the cortical BDNF levels. Conclusion Life-long spontaneous exercise does not prolong lifespan but improves healthspan in mice. Exercise is an intervention that delays age-associated frailty, enhances function and can be translated into the clinic. PMID:24472376
This document contains 18 papers from the human resource development and manpower training section of an international conference on vocational education and training (VET) for lifelong learning in the information era. The following papers are included: "Use of Social and Economic Modeling to Plan Vocational Education and Training" (David L.…
This article examines the impact of social change and economic transformation on adult education and lifelong learning in post-Soviet Russia. The article begins with a brief economic and historical background to lifelong learning and adult education in terms of its significance as a feature of the Russian cultural heritage. An analysis of Ministerial education policy and curriculum changes reveals that these policies reflect neo-liberal and neo-conservative paradigms in the post-Soviet economy and education. Current issues and trends in adult education are also discussed, with particular attention to the Adult Education Centres, which operate as a vast umbrella framework for a variety of adult education and lifelong learning initiatives. The Centres are designed to promote social justice by means of compensatory education and social rehabilitation for individuals dislocated by economic restructuring. The article comments on their role in helping to develop popular consciousness of democratic rights and active citizenship in a participatory and pluralistic democracy.
Palleschi, Giovanni; Fuschi, Andrea; Maggioni, Cristina; Rago, Rocco; Zucchi, Alessandro; Costantini, Elisabetta; Carbone, Antonio
Objectives: Premature ejaculation is the most common male sexual disorder. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible therapeutic role of pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation in patients affected by lifelong premature ejaculation. Methods: We treated 40 men with lifelong premature ejaculation, reporting, a baseline intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) ≤ 1 min, with 12-week pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation. Results: At the end of the rehabilitation, mean IELTs were calculated to evaluate the effectiveness of the therapy. At the end of the treatment, 33 (82.5%) of the 40 patients gained control of their ejaculatory reflex, with a mean IELT of 146.2 s (range: 123.6–152.4 s). A total of 13 out of 33 (39%) patients were evaluated at 6 months follow up, and they maintained a significant IELT (112.6 s) compared with their initial IELT (mean 39.8 s). Conclusions: The results obtained in our subjects treated with pelvic floor rehabilitation are promising. This therapy represents an important cost reduction compared with the standard treatment (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). Based on the present data, we propose pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation as a new, viable therapeutic option for the treatment of premature ejaculation. PMID:24883105
Karsten, Bettina; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Kandemir, Gokhan; Hazir, Tahir; Klose, Andreas; Naclerio, Fernando
The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of a moderate intensity strength training on changes in critical velocity (CV), anaerobic running distance (D'), sprint performance and Yo-Yo intermittent running test (Yo-Yo IR1) performances. Methods: two recreational soccer teams were divided in a soccer training only group (SO; n = 13) and a strength and soccer training group (ST; n = 13). Both groups were tested for values of CV, D', Yo-Yo IR1 distance and 30-m sprint time on two separate occasions (pre and post intervention). The ST group performed a concurrent 6-week upper and lower body strength and soccer training, whilst the SO group performed a soccer only training. Results: after the re-test of all variables, the ST demonstrated significant improvements for both, YoYo IR1 distance (p = 0.002) and CV values (p<0.001) with no significant changes in the SO group. 30-m sprint performance were slightly improved in the ST group with significantly decreased performance times identified in the SO group (p<0.001). Values for D' were slightly reduced in both groups (ST -44.5 m, 95% CI = -90.6 to 1.6; SO -42.6 m, 95% CI = -88.7 to 3.5). Conclusions: combining a 6-week moderate strength training with soccer training significantly improves CV, Yo-Yo IR1 whilst moderately improving 30-m sprint performances in non-previously resistance trained male soccer players. Critical Velocity can be recommended to coaches as an additional valid testing tool in soccer. PMID:27015418
Samiee, Fateme; Sadeghian, Zahra; Akrami, Nahid; Kiani, Mehdi Keikhosro; Golkian, Mina
The present study aimed to study the effect of business education on the attitudes of the secondary school male student towards major selection. The population of the study were all male secondary students in Isfahan in the year 2013/2015. The sample was a group of 44 students were placed in the experimental and 44 in the control group. In this…
Discussion of the need for training and lifelong learning in light of new information and communication technologies focuses on small businesses with few employees who need rapid and continuous training. Topics include communities of practice; network-based learning; distance education; enterprise training; mutual training; knowledge creation;…
Brown, Tony, Ed.
This discussion paper is from the Adult Learners Week National Seminar on Lifelong Learning Policy (Canberra, Australia, September 1999) that identified a number of ideas about how to foster national policy development on lifelong learning. It consists of three sections. Part 1 contains "A National Lifelong Learning Policy for Australia?" (Tony…
Aspin, David, Ed.; Chapman, Judith, Ed.; Hatton, Michael, Ed.; Sawano, Yukiko, Ed.
These volumes contain 40 papers examining the principles, policies, structure, and practice of lifelong learning worldwide. The following are among the papers included: "Towards a Philosophy of Lifelong Learning" (David Aspin, Judith Chapman); "Locating Lifelong Learning and Education in Contemporary Currents of Thought and Culture" (Richard…
This article examines the current developments in Japan's lifelong learning policy and practices. I argue that promoting lifelong learning is an action that manages the risks of governance for the neoliberal state. Implementing a new lifelong learning policy involves the employment of a political technique toward integrating the currently divided…
The philosophy and practice of lifelong learning has a long history in China, being traceable to Confucius's idea (circa 500 BC) of "education for all". However, very little research has been done on the development of the Confucian idea of lifelong learning in ancient China, or on its influence on current practices of lifelong learning within the…
Arrigo, Marco; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes; Arnedillo-Sanchez, Inmaculada; Kismihok, Gabor
This paper focuses on the use of mobile technologies in relation to the aims of the European Union's Lifelong Learning programme. First, we explain the background to the notion of mobile lifelong learning. We then present a methodological framework to analyse and identify good practices in mobile lifelong learning, based on the outcomes of the…
Ng, Pak Tee
Lifelong learning is now a recurring topic in national human resource, employment, entrepreneurship and educational reform discourse. In Singapore, the government urges citizens to be lifelong learners to enhance their employability and reminds them that lifelong learning is a survival strategy for the country. This paper presents and analyses…
The literature places great importance on lifelong learning, but leaves its meaning open to a wide range of interpretations. Much is written about lifelong learning after leaving school with little about business college preparation of lifelong learners. This is the departure point for the study's providing one college's operational definition of…
Köksal, Necla; Çögmen, Suna
Problem Statement: Many countries pay more attention to the modern concept of lifelong learning as an educational issue with the Bologna Process. As higher education has a significant role to play in the lifelong learning of teachers, pre-service teachers need supportive learning environments that foster the culture of lifelong learning at the…
In an age of uncertainty, one of the aims of higher education is to establish lifelong learning abilities in students. However, different authors remain divided on the question of what constitutes "lifelong learning ability". This article proposes the hypothesis that the cultivation of lifelong learning abilities in higher education needs to be…
Willem, Marc, Ed.; Brenner, Bettina, Ed.; da Cruz, Carlos, Ed.; Santos, Maite, Ed.; Waniart, Anne, Ed.
This first issue of the semi-annual lifelong learning bibliography contains references to output from January to June 2001, a time of intense debate and reflection on lifelong learning in Europe. It also includes monographs, chapters, journal articles, legal texts, Internet sites, and CD-ROMs dealing with lifelong learning at European,…
Borg, Carmel; Mayo, Peter
This paper provides a critical analysis of the EU's "Memorandum on lifelong learning" in light of the evolution of the concepts of lifelong education and lifelong learning from the late sixties onward. It also analyses this document in light of the forces of globalisation that impinge on educational policy-making in Europe as well as the…
Abiy, Dessalegn Samuel; Kabeta, Genet Gelana; Mihiretie, Dawit Mekonnen
Initiated by a "Pilot workshop on developing capacity for establishing lifelong learning systems in UNESCO Member States" held at the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, the purpose of this study was to develop a Lifelong Learning system in Ethiopia. Preparations for its conceptualisation included the review of relevant national…
Worrall, Lisa; Bell, Frances
Metacognition is arguably an important conceptualisation within the area of lifelong e-learning, with many theorists and practitioners claiming that it enhances the learning process. However, the lifelong, cyclical and flexible aspects of "before", "during" and "after" metacognitions within lifelong e-learning (inclusive of whether an "input"…
Knipprath, Heidi; De Rick, Katleen
Policy makers and researchers are increasingly showing interest in lifelong learning due to a rising unemployment rate in recent years. Much attention has been paid to determinants and benefits of lifelong learning but not to the impact of social capital on lifelong learning so far. In this article, we study how social and human capital can…
Cooperative community life-long learning centers may be the catalyst for fundamental change in the existing authoritarian education system. An outgrowth of the homeschooling movement, these cooperatively owned centers use community resources to provide a wide range of learning services to everyone regardless of age, ability, or status. (TD)
Hansen, R. Jack; Brady, E. Michael
A 19-question online survey was administered to all 115 directors of Osher Lifelong Learning Institutes (OLLIs) across the United States to explore the extent to which research is being conducted and for what purposes. A response rate of 87% was attained. Findings revealed that most research focused on issues such as course and instructor…
Greenawald, Deborah A.; Adams, Theresa M.
Recognizing the ongoing need for continuing education for school nurses, the authors discuss the use of school nurse book clubs as an innovative lifelong-learning strategy. Current research supports the use of literature in nursing education. This article discusses the benefits of book club participation for school nurses and includes suggested…
This article examines the representation of lifelong learning in "Buffy the Vampire Slayer (BtVS)." Critics acknowledge the series' representation of school life, but pay less attention to its emphasis on self-directed adult learning. The article draws on the extensive range of academic "BtVS" writing and on relevant educational theory concerned…
This article explores the significance of theories of the post-human for lifelong learning. Drawing upon the works of Karen Barad and Bruno Latour, it suggests that education has focused on the learning subject as a result of an a priori assumption of a separation of matter from meaning, the object from the subject. By contrast, a post-human…
Edwards, Richard; Cervero, Ron; Clarke, Julia; Morgan-Klein, Brenda; Usher, Robin; Wilson, Arthur
Recent empirical and theoretical literature in cultural geography, feminist and postcolonial philosophy, cultural studies, and political economy, was explored in an examination of the significance of spatiality to the changes taking place in the policy, practice, and study of adult education and lifelong learning. The following were among the key…
Purpose: Since the end of the previous century social partners in different branches of industry have laid down measures to stimulate individual learning and competence development of workers in collective labour agreements. Special attention is given to stimulating learning demand among traditional non-participants to lifelong learning, such as…
Law, Song Seng; Low, Sock Hwee
Based on a literature review of factors that affect the provision of learning opportunities for adults and the experiences of Singapore's Institute of Technical Education (ITE), this paper proposes an empirical framework for developing and implementing lifelong learning systems. Following an introduction, the theoretical foundation for the…
Bengoetxea, Endika; Kallioinen, Outi; Schmidt-Jortzig, Immo; Thorn, Richard
The implementation of Lifelong Learning (LLL) in European higher education institutions is one of the most important educational and carrier development oriented initiatives of this decade. Albeit an essential path in the continuous improvement of skills, competences and knowledge throughout the life of an individual, this project is also…
Gibson, R. Oliver; Gilbert, Randall L.
To clarify delivery system concepts, several topics will be addressed: educational needs of lower-income older people, formulation of a design concept, specification of the system's concrete aspects, and research/development implications. As the proportion of persons over age sixty-four grows and sensitivity to unmet lifelong learning needs rises,…
Blanden, Jo; Buscha, Franz; Sturgis, Patrick; Urwin, Peter
Using the 1991 to 2007 waves of the UK British Household Panel Survey (BHPS), the authors estimate a fixed effects specification that has as outcomes (i) earnings and (ii) an indicator of social position measured using the CAMSIS scale. Adopting a fixed effects specification enables them to isolate the role of lifelong learning on these two…
Nazareth, Theresa C.
Explains that education should provide the knowledge and skills that promote improvement in ones quality of life and foster personal development during the life span of an individual. Identifies various suggestions for encouraging lifelong music learning in adults ages 35-50 through age-appropriate and challenging activities. (CMK)
Blanden, Jo; Buscha, Franz; Sturgis, Patrick; Urwin, Peter
This paper examines the earnings returns to learning that takes place following the conventional "school-to-work" stage of the life-course. We operationalise such "lifelong learning" as the attainment of certified qualifications in adulthood, following the completion of the first period of continuous full-time education. Using data from the…
This paper was presented at the International Symposium on Lifelong Learning for Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Development: Developing a Research Agenda for the Asia-Pacific in Hong Kong, 12-13 January 2011. Tom Karmel suggests that there are four implications of an ageing population: the need to improve labour force participation and…
Hong Kong's ageing population is growing at an unprecedented rate. Over the past two decades, the government has implemented policies and innovative engagement activities for elders in areas including lifelong learning and community participation. This paper aims to discuss conceptual, policy and practical issues relevant to the participation of…
Sattem, Linda; Reynolds, Kathryn; Bernhardt, Gregory R.; Burdeshaw, Jean R.
Rapidly advancing technology presents challenges in the education of helping professionals. With these challenges come limitless opportunities. Using technology, professionals reach more people, individualize therapeutic approaches, access more resources, and support different learning styles. And they become lifelong learners themselves as they…
Describes the evolution and program of Philadelphia's Lifelong Learning Center, which stresses helping individuals to overcome problems of unemployment due to job obsolescence, mid-life career change, women returning to the job market, and career education and planning. Both workshops and individual interviews are used in working with clients.…
Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.; Hussey, Erika K.; Ng, Shukhan
In light of population aging, an understanding of factors that promote lifelong cognitive resilience is urgent. There is considerable evidence that education early in the life span, which promotes the development of literacy skills, leads to cognitive health and longevity, but the ways in which activity engagement in later adulthood affects…
de Freitas, Sara; Harrison, Ian; Magoulas, George; Mee, Adrian; Mohamad, Fitri; Oliver, Martin; Papamarkos, George; Poulovassilis, Alexandra
Given the rapidly changing skills needs of post-industrial economies, lifelong learning forms an integral part of government policy within the UK and abroad. However, like the UK, most economies are faced with the problem of how to reach those sections of the community that have traditionally not embraced learning and educational opportunities. In…
National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS), 2004
This report highlights findings from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS), a study funded by the U.S. Department of Education that charted the life experiences of nearly 25,000 students from public and private schools from the time they were eighth graders through their mid-20s. "Values Added: The Lifelong Benefits of an Independent…
This research starts by analysing the current state of artistic heritage in Italy and studying some examples in Europe: we try to investigate the scope of non-formal learning in artistic context, mediated by advanced technology. The framework within which we have placed our investigation is that of lifelong learning and lifedeep learning. The…
Donsky, Aaron P.; And Others
To examine characteristics and needs of participants and potential participants of nineteen lifelong learning centers in Lake County, Ohio, a study was conducted. Because of the great variety of agency offerings, no attempt was made to summarize or analyze results. A descriptive format was used, and agencies were encouraged to examine performance…
Graf, Allyson Stella; Patrick, Julie Hicks
Purpose: Sexual education in adolescence may represent the only formal sexual information individuals ever receive. It is unclear whether this early educational experience is sufficient to promote lifelong sexual health literacy. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of the timing and source of sexual knowledge on current safe sex…
Our societies have come to be known as knowledge societies in which lifelong learning is becoming increasingly important. In this context, competences have become a much discussed topic. Many documents were published by international organisations (UNESCO, World Bank, European Commission) which enumerated 21st century key competences. The field of…
This book demonstrates how lifelong learning has become a rapidly developing reality as learning communities emerge in which business and industry, schools, colleges, universities, professional organizations, and local government are cooperating and building dynamic new environments to foster learning. The following are among the topics discussed:…
Hansen, Robert Jack; Brady, E. Michael; Thaxton, Steven P.
The number of lifelong learning institutes (LLIs) is growing across the United States and it is important for educational planners and administrators to know about current demographic and behavioral characteristics of program participants. A 14-question survey was administered via SurveyMonkey to members who use computers in eight Osher Lifelong…
The scope of lifelong learning in Japan covers school education and informal learning. Japan faces large social changes: severe child population decline could ease competition for entrance examination but students are pushed to win in the society; cyber communication changes the human relationships more invisible and atomized; the gap between…
Yang, Jin, Ed.; Valdes-Cotera, Raul, Ed.
In recognition of the status of the World Expo 2010 in Shanghai as a platform for exchange of ideas and experience in lifelong learning, UNESCO, the Shanghai Municipal People's Government, the Chinese Society of Educational Development Strategy and the Chinese National Commission for UNESCO joined forces to co-organise the Shanghai International…
Hassanpour, B.; Che-Ani, A. I.; Usman, I. M. S.; Johar, S.; Tawil, N. M.
Avant-garde educational systems are striving to find lifelong learning methods. Different fields and majors have tested a variety of proposed models and found varying difficulties and strengths. Architecture is one of the most critical areas of education because of its special characteristics, such as learning by doing and complicated evaluation…
In this paper, the author shares his perspective on the future of lifelong learning by looking back to the vision of the pioneers of adult learning, and picking out four messages that are relevant as people face their own, distinct, challenges. The author stresses the need to seize the opportunity to reinvigorate the original vision of adult…
The case for Lifelong Learning Networks (LLNs) was made by Sir Howard Newby, then Chief Executive of the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE), in the Colin Bell Memorial Lecture in March 2004. Their purpose was to widen participation by combining the strengths of diverse higher education institutions (HEIs) and further education…
Heinrich, E.; Bhattacharya, M.; Rayudu, R.
Rapid technological change, increasing globalization and a changing world of employment with multiple roles during one's professional life are necessitating a change from knowledge to learning societies. Full participation requires lifelong learning skills, meaning the ability to solve problems, work both independently and in a team, communicate…
Bennett, John P.
This paper provides the outline of a session in dance at the annual meeting of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance. The purpose of the session was to provide an opportunity to celebrate individual differences while learning new skills for lifelong leisure activity through an English dance form known as…
Riddell, Sheila, Ed.; Markowitsch, Jorg, Ed.; Weedon, Elisabet, Ed.
The ongoing economic crisis in Europe raises fundamental questions about the European Union's ability to harmonize educational policy across its member states. With evidence that European unity is clearly faltering, many educational goals, including lifelong learning, are in trouble. In this book, the contributors work toward a greater…
Basil Yeaxlee believed in the examination of life as the foundation for all learning, in a Christian context. The question of meanings, the purpose of life, and their relationship to education, as well as lifelong learning as a metaphysical quest, are the foundations of his philosophy. (SK)
Tarkinton, Brenda C.; Karp, Grace Goc
With today's focus on the importance of lifelong physical activity, educators are increasingly offering a variety of such activities in their classes, as well as in before- and after-school programs. This article describes the benefits of offering ice skating as a challenging and rewarding lifetime activity, either before or after school or in…
Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh
My journey to write autoethnography report started with inclination to learn cultural and social phenomena in Finland. This was my realm of learning through experiential learning. The ontological philosophy was perceived through objectivistic and subjectivistic approaches. The lifelong experiential learning realm was a benchmark for me to perceive…
Shirk, John C.
A Livingston, Montana, study on lifelong learning was conducted in two parts. The first part gathered data about the following: (1) what respondents had learned in the previous 12 months; (2) their sources of information and how they rated them; (3) why they initiated learning activities; (4) economic costs and benefits; (5) what they might like…
This paper explores the changing conceptualisations, actors, and policies of lifelong learning (LLL) in the European Union (EU) from the time the topic first emerged and was promoted by international organisations in the 1960s. The author uses Kingdon's Multiple Streams Framework to analyse how the LLL discourse became an important part of the EU…
UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, 2014
In the introduction to this report, UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) Director, Arne Carlsen, announces that UIL is presenting a new design and a new concept, aiming to make the report more reader-friendly. The main activities are highlighted, testimonies from beneficiaries and actors are included, and the report opens with a…
Nicoll, Katherine; Edwards, Richard
This paper seeks to extend work previously published that points to the importance of rhetorical analysis to policy studies. It argues against the notion that policy can be dismissed as 'spin' and explores further the work of rhetoric within the UK government's policy texts of lifelong learning. For the authors, rhetorical analysis helps to point…
Cremers, Petra H. M.; Wals, Arjen E. J.; Wesselink, Renate; Nieveen, Nienke; Mulder, Martin
Present-day students are expected to be lifelong learners throughout their working life. Higher education must therefore prepare students to self-direct their learning beyond formal education, in real-life working settings. This can be achieved in so-called hybrid learning configurations in which working and learning are integrated. In such a…
Korean lifelong learning in practice is gradually adapted by neo-liberals and the discourses of the economic market. Considering that the public foundation of Korean education is fragile to cope with the market challenge, the whole picture of Korean learning ecology is rapidly distorted towards the establishment of the learning market and the…
Argues that the disengagement of the school from social reality on one hand, and from the objectives and needs of the pupil on the other, are factors strongly preventing the forming of positive learning attitudes and thus essentially weakening the psychological conditions for life-long education. (RB)
For Mexico, a country characterised by a high degree of inequality both with regard to income and education, concepts such as the "knowledge-based economy" and Lifelong Learning are even more elusive than in other countries. Given its poor school system and the large part of the adult population who are without any basic educational…
Wu, Huiping; Ye, Qilian
Despite the relative novelty of lifelong learning in the People's Republic of China (PRC), significant achievements have been made, and China's potential for economic development and personal enrichment remains undisputed. Economic and social change, as well as technological advancements, have profoundly influenced educational development and…
Manganello, Flavio; Falsetti, Carla; Spalazzi. Luca; Leo, Tommaso
This paper addresses adult lifelong learners, i.e., persons interested in learning or compelled to learn during their working life but not able to, or not interested in participating in formal learning. These learners are motivated and self-aware enough to self-direct their learning, are presumed to be novices with respect to the needed knowledge…
This article aims to develop a paradigm of lifelong learning situations. The starting point is the EU-Commission policy document where three kinds of learning situations are identified: formal, non-formal and informal. The article tries to deepen this categorisation by searching for the underlying ontological and epistemological dimensions. The…
This paper highlights some tensions regarding lifelong learning discourses for countries which are listed in the lower part of international development indexes. Such countries are often referred to collectively as the "South", though this represents a political focus rather than geographical accuracy and usually represents those formerly…
This article explores to what extent citizenship education for lifelong learning should be based on a more "political" or civic republican conception of citizenship as compared to a liberal individualist conception, which emphasizes individual rights, or a communitarian conception, which emphasizes moral and social responsibilities. It also…
McIntosh, Christopher, Ed.
Reflecting a common objective of ensuring quality Education for All, this book is a joint initiative of UNESCO and COL and jointly published. Lifelong Learning in Distance Higher Education brings together a diverse group of experts from many countries. The book provides a clear picture of the challenges, problems and potential of distance higher…
Regmi, Kapil Dev
Lifelong learning has become a catchword in almost all countries because of its growing influence on education policies in the globalised world. In the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the European Union (EU), the promotion of lifelong learning has been a strategy to speed up economic growth and become competitive. For UNESCO and the World Bank, lifelong learning has been a novel education model to improve educational policies and programmes in developing countries. In the existing body of literature on the topic, various models of lifelong learning are discussed. After reviewing a number of relevant seminal texts by proponents of a variety of schools, this paper argues that the vast number of approaches are actually built on two foundational models, which the author calls the "human capital model" and the "humanistic model". The former aims to increase productive capacity by encouraging competition, privatisation and human capital formation so as to enhance economic growth. The latter aims to strengthen democracy and social welfare by fostering citizenship education, building social capital and expanding capability.
Hines, Jean D.; Frey, Diane K.; Swinker, Mary E.
Universities are strategically positioned to serve as a vital impetus in developing pre-professionals' lifelong learning skills. The development of a Web portal, InfoWIZARD, a tool for integrating information literacy and information technology in problem-based research assignments is described in this article. InfoWIZARD includes 20 modules in…
Key, Lynne A.
This study's purpose was to investigate the importance of mentoring functions and behaviors for lifelong career development as perceived by protégés. The population included individuals in middle to late adulthood (age 40 years and older) who reported they had been a protege in at least one mentoring association perceived as beneficial to their…
Manning, Sabine, Ed.
This document contains outlines of 14 presentations at a roundtable discussion on theory, policy, and practice in lifelong learning that was held during a conference on human resource development (HRD) research and practice across Europe. Outlines of the following presentations and discussions are included: "Discourses on HRD and Lifelong…
Poonwassie, Deo H., Ed.; Poonwassie, Anne, Ed.
This document contains 20 papers on the fundamentals of adult education and foundations, practices, and issues for lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "The Metamorphoses of Andragogy" (James A. Draper); "Stages in the Development of Canadian Adult Education" (Gordon Selman); "Philosophical Considerations" (Mark Selman); "Theory…
Historically, lifelong learning (under the name adult education) in Canada had a broad base and covered a wide variety of purposes and activities. Many programs included social, community and social justice visions and worked to strengthen local communities. However, with the advent of the so-called New Economy, this has changed. Canadian…
Gu, X.; Gu, F.; Laffey, J. M.
The Life-long Learning Initiative seeks to fulfil a variety of learning needs for Shanghai citizens. Given the popularity of mobile devices in Shanghai, the ability to provide learning in informal settings through mobile devices is a key objective and challenge of the Initiative. In order to learn how to develop usable learning content for…
In this era of globalisation, the present perception of lifelong learning (LLL) in the Indian policy domain has been going through major changes in an attempt to make it nationally realistic yet globally viable. In this process, all facets of the concept of LLL are constantly metamorphosing, and this in many ways outperforms the older perception…
Pan, Daphne Yuen
The Desire, Ability, Means, and Need (DAMN) Cycle is a useful paradigm for understanding the lifelong learning framework in Singapore. The cycle suggests that, for learning to occur, students must have a desire and an ability to learn, including inquiring minds and higher order process skills; the means must be provided through a well-defined…
San, Sam Kong
Information Technology brings about rapid changes in working environment, quickly rendering skills and knowledge gained in formal learning institutions obsolete. Even as they prepare students for their first career, institutions also need to equip students with skills necessary for lifelong learning. The Nanyang Technological University (NTU),…
Mojab, Shahrzad; Gorman, Rachel
Political and economic upheavals in the 1990s have left their mark on adult education. A major source of change is globalization of the capitalist economy and its restructuring, which make extraordinary demands on education, particularly adult education. Lifelong learning has become an ideological distraction shifting the burden of increasing…
Regmi, Kapil Dev
Nepal is a multilingual country with low adult literacy rate (about 57% in 2008). Through different policy documents and motivation from some of the transnational organizations such as UNESCO, Nepal is on the process of adopting lifelong learning perspective as a major educational policy. In this context the article raises two issues: how to…
Galbraith, Michael W., Ed.
This book provides a conceptual and practical framework for understanding lifelong education in the context of the multifaceted rural community. The goal of the discussion is to develop educational programs involving new combinations of services and new organizational arrangements so that individuals will become resourceful, autonomous, and…
Hassan, Asmaa F.; Kamal, Manal M.
Objectives To investigate the effects of exercise training and anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) on hemodynamics, glycogen content, angiogenesis, apoptosis and histology of cardiac muscle. Methods Forty rats were divided into 4 groups; control, steroid, exercise-trained and exercise-trained plus steroid groups. The exercise-trained and trained plus steroid groups, after one week of water adaptation, were exercised by jumping into water for 5 weeks. The steroid and trained plus steroid groups received nandrolone decanoate, for 5 weeks. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were monitored weekly. Heart weight/body weight ratio (HW/BW ratio) were determined. Serum testosterone, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cardiac caspase-3 activity and glycogen content were measured. Results Compared with control, the steroid group had significantly higher blood pressure, HR, sympathetic nerve activity, testosterone level, HW/BW and cardiac caspase-3 activity. Histological examination revealed apoptotic changes and hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes. In exercise-trained group, cardiac glycogen, VEGF and testosterone levels were significantly higher while HR was significantly lower than control. HW/BW was more than control confirmed by hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes with angiogenesis on histological examination. Trained plus steroid group, had no change in HR, with higher blood pressure and HW/BW than control, cardiac glycogen and serum VEGF were higher than control but lower than exercise-trained group. Histological examination showed hypertrophy of cardiomyoctes with mild angiogenesis rather than apoptosis. Conclusion When exercise is augmented with AAS, exercise-associated cardiac benefits may not be fully gained with potential cardiac risk from AAS if used alone or combined with exercise. PMID:23559905
This booklet is aimed at school students desiring to improve their lifelong learning skills. Part 1 is a checklist to help students determine their preferred learning styles, including sense modalities (reading, listening, viewing pictures or diagrams, touching, or moving) and best learning conditions (preferred sounds, lighting, temperature,…
This report examines access to lifelong learning opportunities on Canada's information highway. The report begins with a glossary and a learner-centered model in which the information highway links learners with learning opportunities provided through educational institutions, community organizations, government, and business and industry.…
Burtscher, Martin; Gatterer, Hannes
Anthropometric and training data have been reported as statistically significant predictors of race performance in endurance events. However, it is well established that physiological characteristics, i.e., maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), the use of a high percentage of VO2max during sustained exercise, and work efficiency are predominant predictors of performance in those events. Thus, the essential issue is whether the anthropometric and training data give additional predictive power beyond these other measures. PMID:24032337
Youngs, Gillian, Ed.; Ohsako, Toshio, Ed.; Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn, Ed.
This document consists of 12 papers from an international roundtable on creative and inclusive strategies for lifelong learning that focused on the following topics: the need to redefine lifelong learning; ways lifelong learning can aid critical understanding of globalization and its problems; and ways lifelong learning can be a transformative…
New Innovations and Best Practices under the Workforce Investment Act: Field Hearing before the Subcommittee on Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, and Competitiveness Committee on Education and Labor, U.S. House of Representatives (May 29, 2009)
US House of Representatives, 2009
This paper presents the Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, and Competitiveness Subcommittee's fifth hearing in preparation for the reauthorization of the Workforce Investment Act. The last time the Workforce Investment Act reauthorized was in 1998. The Workforce Investment Act was designed to streamline and coordinate job training programs. It…
Walters, Shirley; Cooper, Linda
CONFINTEA VI took place against the background of an uneven and contradictory social and economic impact of globalisation. This impact registered globally and locally, in both the political North and South, drawing new lines of inequality between "core" and "periphery", between insiders and outsiders of contemporary society. Financial turmoil in the world has exacerbated levels of poverty and insecurity. The question is how work-related education and conceptions of learning might promote greater inclusion and security for those whose livelihoods are most severely affected by globalisation. The Belém Framework for Action implicitly recognises that lifelong learning and work cannot be discussed outside broader socio-economic and political contexts. The authors of this article draw substantially on research from around the world and argue for the re-insertion of "politics and power" into both the theory and practice of "lifelong learning" and "work".
Yang, Guang; Pan, Feng; Gan, Wen-Biao
Changes in synaptic connections are considered essential for learning and memory formation1–6. However, it is unknown how neural circuits undergo continuous synaptic changes during learning while maintaining lifelong memories. Here we show, by following postsynaptic dendritic spines over time in the mouse cortex7–8, that learning and novel sensory experience lead to spine formation and elimination by a protracted process. The extent of spine remodelling correlates with behavioural improvement after learning, suggesting a crucial role of synaptic structural plasticity in memory formation and storage. Importantly, a small fraction of new spines induced by novel experience, together with most spines formed early during development and surviving experience-dependent elimination, are preserved throughout the entire life of an animal. These studies indicate that learning and daily sensory experience leave minute but permanent marks on cortical connections and suggest that lifelong memories are stored in largely stably connected synaptic networks. PMID:19946265
Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Jennings, Jerry L.; Murphy, Christopher J.; Hunter, Linda A.; Siv, Alexander M.
This research study compared the efficacy of three treatment methodologies for adolescent males in residential treatment with conduct disorders and/or personality dysfunctions and documented problems with physical and sexual aggression. The results showed that Mode Deactivation Therapy, an advanced form of cognitive behavioral therapy based on…
Pollitt, David, Ed.
Eleven articles focus on issues surrounding employer investment in training in Britain. Topics include employee induction, flexible lifelong learning, workplace learning partnerships, retention through training, management development, cooperation with competitors, technician career paths to management, online learning in small businesses, and…
With the ageing of society, policy-makers are aware of the need to retain older workers in employment. Across Europe, lifelong learning is increasingly important. Adults who remain active longer need (re-)training to maintain their productivity. However, vocational training tends to decline with age. The article analyses European employment policy…
Dorner, Ralph; Schafer, Arno; Elcacho, Colette; Luckas, Volker
This paper shows how World Wide Web-based technology using VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) can be applied in an industrial education and training context. Following an introduction to the importance of lifelong learning and training in industry, the state of the art of VRML is discussed, including its features and integration into the Web…
Kuhla, Angela; Lange, Sophie; Holzmann, Carsten; Maass, Fabian; Petersen, Jana; Vollmar, Brigitte; Wree, Andreas
Caloric restriction (CR) is argued to positively affect general health, longevity and the normally occurring age-related reduction of cognition. This issue is well examined, but most studies investigated the effect of short-term periods of CR. Herein, 4 weeks old female mice were fed caloric restricted for 4, 20 and especially for 74 weeks. CR mice received 60% of food eaten by their ad libitum (AL) fed littermates, and all age-matched groups were behaviorally analyzed. The motor coordination, which was tested by rotarod/accelerod, decreased age-related, but was not influenced by the different periods of CR. In contrast, the age-related impairment of spontaneous locomotor activity and anxiety, both being evaluated by open field and by elevated plus maze test, was found aggravated by a lifelong CR. Measurement of cognitive performance with morris water maze showed that the working memory decreased age-related in AL mice, while a lifelong CR caused a better cognitive performance and resulted in a significantly better spatial memory upon 74 weeks CR feeding. However, a late-onset CR feeding in 66 weeks old mice did not ameliorate the working memory. Therefore, a lifelong CR seems to be necessary to improve working memory. PMID:23874758
Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.
This document provides information relevant to the commission's communication on "Making a European Area of Lifelong Learning a Reality." Section 2 presents a selection of illustrative examples of lifelong learning in practice throughout Europe, grouped under these same priority areas used in the communication itself: valuing learning;…
Welfare Reform. States' Implementation and Effects on the Workforce Development System. Statement of Cynthia M. Fagnoni, Director, Education, Workforce, and Income Security Issues, Health, Education, and Human Services Division. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education, Training, and Life-Long Learning, Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives.
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.
Research on effectiveness of welfare-to-work approaches shows programs that combine approaches--job search assistance and education and training--have better employment and earnings outcomes than either approach alone. Consistent with findings and the work focus of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, states have…
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Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Krustrup, Peter; Bangsbo, Jens
The effects of 52 weeks of soccer or resistance training were investigated in untrained elderly men. The subjects aged 68.1±2.1 yrs were randomised into a soccer (SG; n = 9), a resistance (RG; n = 9) and a control group (CG; n = 8). The subjects in SG and RG, respectively, trained 1.7±0.3 and 1.8±0.3 times weekly on average during the intervention period. Muscle function and body composition were determined before and after 16 and 52 weeks of the intervention period. In SG, BMI was reduced by 1.5% and 3.0% (p<0.05) after 16 and 52 weeks, respectively, unchanged in RG and 2% higher (p<0.05) in CG after 52 weeks of the intervention period. In SG, the response to a glucose tolerance test was 16% lower (p<0.05) after 16 wks, but not after 52 wks, compared to before the intervention period, and unchanged in RG and CG. In SG, superoxide dismutase-2 expression was 59% higher (p<0.05) after 52 wks compared to before the intervention period, and unchanged in RG and CG. In RG, upper body lean mass was 3 and 2% higher (p<0.05) after 16 and 52 wks, respectively, compared to before the intervention period, and unchanged in SG and CG. In RG, Akt-2 expression increased by 28% (p<0.01) and follistatin expression decreased by 38% (p<0.05) during the 52-wk intervention period, and was unchanged in SG and CG. Thus, long-term soccer training reduces BMI and improves anti-oxidative capacity, while long-term resistance training impacts muscle protein enzyme expression and increases lean body mass in elderly men. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01530035. PMID:26886262
Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Krustrup, Peter; Bangsbo, Jens
The effects of 52 weeks of soccer or resistance training were investigated in untrained elderly men. The subjects aged 68.1±2.1 yrs were randomised into a soccer (SG; n = 9), a resistance (RG; n = 9) and a control group (CG; n = 8). The subjects in SG and RG, respectively, trained 1.7±0.3 and 1.8±0.3 times weekly on average during the intervention period. Muscle function and body composition were determined before and after 16 and 52 weeks of the intervention period. In SG, BMI was reduced by 1.5% and 3.0% (p<0.05) after 16 and 52 weeks, respectively, unchanged in RG and 2% higher (p<0.05) in CG after 52 weeks of the intervention period. In SG, the response to a glucose tolerance test was 16% lower (p<0.05) after 16 wks, but not after 52 wks, compared to before the intervention period, and unchanged in RG and CG. In SG, superoxide dismutase-2 expression was 59% higher (p<0.05) after 52 wks compared to before the intervention period, and unchanged in RG and CG. In RG, upper body lean mass was 3 and 2% higher (p<0.05) after 16 and 52 wks, respectively, compared to before the intervention period, and unchanged in SG and CG. In RG, Akt-2 expression increased by 28% (p<0.01) and follistatin expression decreased by 38% (p<0.05) during the 52-wk intervention period, and was unchanged in SG and CG. Thus, long-term soccer training reduces BMI and improves anti-oxidative capacity, while long-term resistance training impacts muscle protein enzyme expression and increases lean body mass in elderly men. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01530035 PMID:26886262
Watson, Sara; Fuqua, John S; Lee, Peter A
The treatment of adolescent males with hypogonadism using testosterone is dependent on the underlying diagnosis as well as the patient's and family's preferences. Those with testicular failure, always a pathologic condition, begin lifelong therapy, while short-term therapy is often begun for those who have a delayed puberty. There is a wide variety of testosterone formulations available, with differences in adverse events sometimes associated with the method of administration. The goals of treatment involve stimulating physical puberty, including achievement of virilization, a normal muscle mass and bone mineral density for age, and improvement in psychosocial wellbeing. While androgen therapy results in physical changes of puberty, the potential for fertility must be considered for those with permanent gonadotropin deficiency. in this population, therapy with gonadotropins or gonadotropin releasing hormone may be effective. For those with testicular failure, fertility may be possible but requires assisted reproductive procedures. PMID:24683947
Storen, Liv Anne
What are the driving forces behind the unequal distribution of training after graduation among higher education graduates? Participation in lifelong learning is restricted here to work-related training. The paper aims at examining the mechanisms that cause variation in training rates, by taking into account fields of study, personal competency…
Gorard, Stephen; Furlong, John; Rees, Gareth
A study attempted to determine whether the United States experience of continuing education and training provides an appropriate resource for changes intended to increase lifelong learning in the United Kingdom by considering institutional and cultural differences for the two countries. The study considered the trajectories for lifelong learning…
Dwyer, Brian M.
Discusses a new training model that takes into account the diversity of learners and the emotional, physical and social environmental conditions essential for lifelong learning. Considers how the brain learns and functions, brain-based learning, multiple intelligence, and emotional intelligence as well as personal reflection. (LRW)
Leong, Aliana Man Wai
This paper describes the evolution of lifelong learning and the development of continuing education among higher education institutions in Macau. Future directions for development are also identified.
Lebowitz, Brian K.; Weinstein, Cheryl; Beiser, Alexa; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A.; Auerbach, Sandford; Au, Rhoda
Although neuropsychological tests are commonly used in the evaluation of possible mild cognitive impairment (MCI), poor test scores may be indicative of factors other than neurological compromise. The current study assessed the role of lifelong reading disorder on MCI classification. Community dwelling older adults with a suspected developmental reading disorder were identified by inference based on reading test performance. Individuals with a suspected reading disorder were significantly more likely to perform at a level consistent with MCI on several commonly used neuropsychological tests. The findings suggest a relationship between a history of reading disorder and MCI classification. PMID:26639959
In South Africa under apartheid higher education was inaccessible to the majority. This article argues that in the new South Africa there is an opportunity to redress this situation and promote equity though lifelong learning. This would involve greatly widening access and providing programmes to develop broadly applicable abilities such as computer literacy and problem-solving skills, which would increase the economic competitiveness and personal empowerment of learners. At the same time, the author argues, new educational approaches are needed to promote active citizenship.
Zampieri, S; Pietrangelo, L; Loefler, S; Fruhmann, H; Vogelauer, M; Burggraf, S; Pond, A; Grim-Stieger, M; Cvecka, J; Sedliak, M; Tirpáková, V; Mayr, W; Sarabon, N; Rossini, K; Barberi, L; De Rossi, M; Romanello, V; Boncompagni, S; Musarò, A; Sandri, M; Protasi, F; Carraro, U; Kern, H
Aging is usually accompanied by a significant reduction in muscle mass and force. To determine the relative contribution of inactivity and aging per se to this decay, we compared muscle function and structure in (a) male participants belonging to a group of well-trained seniors (average of 70 years) who exercised regularly in their previous 30 years and (b) age-matched healthy sedentary seniors with (c) active young men (average of 27 years). The results collected show that relative to their sedentary cohorts, muscle from senior sportsmen have: (a) greater maximal isometric force and function, (b) better preserved fiber morphology and ultrastructure of intracellular organelles involved in Ca(2+) handling and ATP production, (c) preserved muscle fibers size resulting from fiber rescue by reinnervation, and (d) lowered expression of genes related to autophagy and reactive oxygen species detoxification. All together, our results indicate that: (a) skeletal muscle of senior sportsmen is actually more similar to that of adults than to that of age-matched sedentaries and (b) signaling pathways controlling muscle mass and metabolism are differently modulated in senior sportsmen to guarantee maintenance of skeletal muscle structure, function, bioenergetic characteristics, and phenotype. Thus, regular physical activity is a good strategy to attenuate age-related general decay of muscle structure and function (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01679977). PMID:24550352
Objectives To explore possible relationships between residents’ lifelong learning orientation, skills in practicing evidence-based medicine (EBM), and perceptions of the environment for learning and practicing EBM. Methods This was a pilot study with a cross-sectional survey design. Out of 60 residents in a medical residency program, 29 participated in the study. Data were collected using a survey that comprised three sections: the JeffSPLL Scale, EBM Environment Scale, and an EBM skill questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS and were reported with descriptive and inferential statistics (mean, standard deviation, Pearson’s correlation, and a two-sample t-test). Results Mean scores on the JeffSPLL Scale were significantly correlated with perceptions of the EBM Scale and use of EBM resources to keep up to date or solve a specific patient care problem. There was a significant correlation between mean scores on the EBM Scale and hours per week spent in reading medical literature to solve a patient care problem. Two-sample t-tests show that residents with previous training in research methods had significantly higher scores on the JeffSPLL Scale (p=0.04), EBM Scale (p=0.006), and self-efficacy scale (p =0.024). Conclusions Given the fact that physicians are expected to be lifelong learners over the course of their professional career, developing residents’ EBM skills and creating interventions to improve specific areas in the EBM environment would likely foster residents’ lifelong learning orientation. PMID:27372836
... PREGNANCY? If the sperm contained in a male's semen reach a woman's vagina, pregnancy may occur. Condoms ... receptacle) on the end of it (to collect semen), place the condom against the top of the ...
Skinner, Diane E; Saylors, Cynthia P; Boone, Erna L; Rye, Kathy J; Berry, Katherine S; Kennedy, Robert L
While health professions educators espouse the need to develop lifelong learning skills in students, little is written about such attempts. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of educational and awareness interventions designed to promote self-regulated learning processes as a means to improve lifelong learning skills. First-year students in respiratory care and radiologic imaging sciences took the Learning and Study Skills Inventory (LASSI) in fall and spring semesters. They made the decision to use or not use educational resources in an online course focused on self-regulated learning skills. All students maintained a journal and responded to prompts about changes in their study skills. Final grades, reported in percentages, from selected required courses for fall and spring semesters were recorded. There were no substantive effects of the intervention (LASSI and online resources) as measured by the LASSI and course averages. Qualitative analysis indicated that students valued the LASSI and the online resources and that they altered their study skills as they perceived the need. Suggestions for future work include continued use of the LASSI, integration of self-regulated learning strategies into courses with role-modeling by faculty, and the use of microanalytic protocols. PMID:26342616
Tanaka, Hirofumi; Tomoto, Tsubasa; Kosaki, Keisei; Sugawara, Jun
Japanese female pearl divers called Ama specialize in free diving in the cold sea for collecting foods and pearls in oysters. Exercising in the water combined with marked bradycardia and pressor responses provides a circulatory challenge to properly buffer or cushion elevated cardiac pulsations. Because Ama perform repeated free dives throughout their lives, it is possible that they may have adapted similar arterial structure and function to those seen in diving mammals. We compared arterial stiffness of lifelong Japanese pearl divers with age-matched physically inactive adults living in the same fishing villages. A total of 115 Japanese female pearl divers were studied. Additionally, 50 physically inactive adults as well as 33 physically active adults (participating in community fitness programs) living in the same coastal villages were also studied. There were no differences in age (∼65 yr), body mass index, and brachial blood pressure between the groups. Measures of arterial stiffness, cardio-ankle vascular index and β-stiffness index were lower (P < 0.05) in pearl divers and physically active adults than in their physically inactive peers. Augmentation pressure and augmentation index adjusted for the heart rate of 75 beats/min were lower (P < 0.05) in pearl divers than in other groups. These results indicate that lifelong Japanese pearl divers demonstrate reduced arterial stiffness and arterial wave reflection compared with age-matched physically inactive peers living in the same fishing villages. PMID:26984889
Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.
A Europe-wide consultation elicited contributions from more than 12,000 citizens and was conducted to identify coherent strategies and practical measures with a view toward fostering lifelong learning for all. The responses called for a broad definition of lifelong learning that emphasizes learning from preschool to postretirement and encompasses…
Kasworm, Carol; Hemmingsen, Lis
There has been continued debate regarding educational policies and practices regarding the lifelong learning social order with significant focus upon the preparation of educators of children and youth for this global lifelong learning society. However, there has been limited discussion and research regarding the professional preparation of…
National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.
This document contains the eight appendixes from the National Center for Education Statistics's (NCES's) final report on lifelong learning in the United States. Appendix A discusses the considerations that entered into the formulation of the definition of lifelong learning adopted for the NCES study. Appendix B, "Literature Review on Lifelong…
Istance, David, Ed.; Schuetze, Hans G., Ed.; Schuller, Tom, Ed.
This book, consisting of 17 chapters written by different authors, traces the progress that has been made in developing lifelong learning policies over the past 30 years and examines current challenges to lifelong learning policymakers. Focusing on a global agenda, the book is organized in six parts with thematic chapters following an introductory…
Leung, Dion S. Y.; Liu, Ben C. P.
This study aimed to identify the relationships between lifelong learning, quality of life, and self-efficacy of older adults. One thousand and three participants of a lifelong educational program participated; the mean age was 50.6 (SD = 7.8, range: 18-78). Findings revealed that the patterns of study established a positive association with…
Popescu, Veronica Adriana; Popescu, Gheorghe N.; Popescu, Cristina Raluca
Our research study focuses on the problems of education and lifelong learning in the Romanian society of the year 2020. Starting from the idea that lifelong learning represents the continuous building of skills and knowledge through the life of an individual, we believe that the process of continuous education is the key element that each and…
This study examined and compared the legal inputs, structural settings and implementation process of lifelong learning policy in Thailand and Japan focusing on street-level agents. The findings demonstrated that while both countries had legal frameworks that provided a legislative platform to promote lifelong learning among the elderly based on a…
Public libraries in Europe have supported lifelong learning for the past 500 years. Since the Lisbon Strategy emphasized the role of lifelong learning in economic policy, public libraries have been repositioning their services to respond to this new context. In some cases, these roles are undertaken with limited legislative or strategic changes…
Finke, Wolfgang F.
This book examines lifelong learning in the Information Age and the role of higher education (HE) in providing the educational services needed by lifelong learners. The following are among the topics discussed in the book's eight chapters: (1) changes in HE (repercussions of globalization in the educational sector; competition in higher learning;…
Wightman, Louise; Moriarty, Beverley
The purpose of this research was to identify how lifelong learning has the potential to accommodate the changed circumstances and future needs of women who become mothers as teenagers. The research drew on the previously separate theories of lifelong learning and becoming a mother to frame this initial study. A qualitative case study was used to…
ter Kuile, Moniek M.; Bulte, Isis; Weijenborg, Philomeen T. M.; Beekman, Aart; Melles, Reinhilde; Onghena, Patrick
Vaginismus is commonly described as a persistent difficulty in allowing vaginal entry of a penis or other object. Lifelong vaginismus occurs when a woman has never been able to have intercourse. A replicated single-case A-B-phase design was used to investigate the effectiveness of therapist-aided exposure for lifelong vaginismus. A baseline period…
Green, Susan K.; Hale, Connie L.
Music educators can nurture students' lifelong musical involvement, both as consumers and as participants. Orienting musical instructional practices around classroom elements suggested by achievement goal theory can foster lifelong musical connections. Practices related to using meaningful and challenging tasks, evaluations that decrease emphasis…
Dutta, Debasish; Patil, Lalit; Porter, James B., Jr.
The Lifelong Learning Imperative (LLI) project was initiated to assess current practices in lifelong learning for engineering professionals, reexamine the underlying assumptions behind those practices, and outline strategies for addressing unmet needs. The LLI project brought together leaders of U.S. industry, academia, government, and…
Poley, Janet K.
Lifelong learning is what happens after the formal schooling process is completed. Most of the individuals pursuing lifelong learning courses are older and are holding various jobs. Distance education offers flexibility and convenience for these individuals. On the other hand, innovation to create access to learning has always been the hallmark of…
Lifelong learning programs for older adults are expanding in university communities, given the growing emphasis on successful aging in our society. This dissertation consists of two articles that examine data from ethnographic research in a southeastern lifelong learning institute associated with a state university. Data include observations over…
This article explores how assessment plays a role in helping learners to learn on a continuous, sustainable basis. It begins by exploring the paradigm of lifelong learning, which implies a shift in the way we think about learning and knowledge. Based on knowledge formation rooted in a flux of learning, lifelong learning assessment is not so much…
The discourse of lifelong learning has undergone great changes, from its initial engagement when it was a matter of social and humanitarian issues as outlined in the early documents of UNESCO, to emphasising lifelong learning as a moral and individual obligation in a more competitive and market-oriented language. This policy trajectory has taken…
Harney, Klaus, Ed.; Heikkinen, Anja, Ed.; Rahn, Sylvia, Ed.; Schemmann, Michael, Ed.
These 17 articles on different subjects of the broader theme "lifelong learning" represent the latest results of the discussions of the Vocational Education and Culture Research Network. An introduction (Klaus Harney et al.) provides summaries of the contents. The articles are "The Global and International Discourse of Lifelong Learning from the…
The concept of "lifelong learning" or "shogai gakushu" has rapidly become one of the topmost priorities in Japan's education policy agenda. This was considerably evident in December 2006 when the term 'lifelong learning' was added to Japan's educational charter, the Fundamental Law of Education. This paper explores, as a means to develop Japan's…
Molz, R. Kathleen
The two central themes of this discussion guide on the conference theme, Library and Information Services for Enhancing Lifelong Learning, relate to the roles of the library in supporting the educational programs of schools and universities, and in supporting adult education, continuing education, and lifelong learning. Following a general…
Mikk, Jaan, Ed.; Veisson, Marika, Ed.; Luik, Piret, Ed.
The papers in this collection contribute to the understanding of several aspects of lifelong learning. Two papers highlight the characteristics of reflection among teachers including self-evaluation and blogging. Two other papers study cooperation in lifelong learning--one, the impact of communities on professional learning among university…
Lans, Thomas; Wesselink, Renate; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Mulder, Martin
This article presents a study on work-related lifelong learning for entrepreneurs in the agri-food sector. Accordingly, learning needs, learning preferences, learning motivation and conditions in the context of lifelong learning were identified. The results indicate that technology, IT and entrepreneurial competencies will become of increasing…
This paper argues against the dominant discourse of lifelong learning. It is primarily a mode of social control that acts as a new disciplinary technology to make people more compliant and adaptable for work in the era of flexible capitalism. Whilst the main reference point is trends in the UK, the argument has a wider resonance. Lifelong learning…
This paper offers a critique of the Chinese philosophy of online distance learning as a means of building a lifelong learning society. Literature about lifelong learning and its implications for online distance learning is reviewed. Documents, reports and research papers are examined to explore the characteristics of the Chinese philosophy of…
A growing number of physical education teachers are introducing a new kind of P.E. in schools, emphasizing lifelong activities such as running, cycling, yoga, and skateboarding, in an attempt to make exercise more engaging--and lifelong--for elementary and middle school students. The new generation of P.E. classes is introducing youngsters to…
Misra, Pradeep Kumar
In times of liberalization, privatization and globalization (LPG), countries are looking to establish effective systems of lifelong learning to prepare farmers for changing agricultural sector. But offering lifelong learning to farmers in developing countries) is a vital challenge as majority of them are residing in remote and rural areas and have…
The purpose of this study is to determine the perception level of pre-school pre-service teachers concerning lifelong learning and to verify if there is a meaningful relationship between lifelong learning perception and gender/grade levels of students. The study group of the research designed by scanning model is made up of Abant Izzet Baysal…
Adult Learning in Australia (ALA), the lead organization in the field of adult learning in Australia and the national organization for adult learners in Australia, reviewed the current state of lifelong learning in Australia and identified why and how Australian policymakers should develop and finance a national strategy for lifelong learning. The…
These 11 essays explore the promise and limitations of current models of lifelong learning. "The Sociology of Lifelong Learning" discusses the relevance of various movements to understanding learning in modern society. "Knowledge, Power, and Ignorance" suggests that a new kind of society--the expert society--is emerging. "Knowing, Understanding,…
Young, Enoch C. M.
This paper examines the role and position of continuing education in the lifelong learning society of Hong Kong. The first section describes the basic components of Hong Kong's lifelong learning system, which is composed of two interconnected sub-systems--namely, conventional education and continuing education--integrated under a common…
The EU has become one of the most prominent promoters of lifelong learning policies. Inside the European single market, EU member states have strong incentives to adopt similar approaches to lifelong learning and recognition of educational attainments in order to foster labour mobility. More surprisingly, countries neighbouring the EU also develop…
Ng, Roxana; Shan, Hongxia
Critiques of lifelong learning have focused on the neo-liberal underpinning of state policy, where individuals are expected to take responsibility for meeting the needs of changing labour market conditions in the post-Fordist economy. We treat lifelong learning as an "ideological frame" that (re)shapes how people see and understand social reality,…
This paper presents the design and application of a major individual assessment task created in part to develop students' capacity for lifelong assessment, a key element of lifelong learning. Additionally the task contributes to fostering a sense of community in asynchronous online learning environments. The task is a supra disciplinary report,…
A significant but seldom explored feature of social change brought about by popular education in the modern period lies in its intimate and complex association with the humanizing idea of the "lifelong". At a moment when the idea of "lifelong learning" exercises a considerable policy influence, it is perhaps timely to reflect on the relation of…
The study of lifelong learning is a study that has deep roots in higher education. The reasons a student seeks further education is important to the overall study of lifelong learning. When a student completes an associate degree and subsequently pursues a higher education degree, it is important to understand the motivation that drives them to…
Explores the concept of lifelong learning and other related ideas, highlighting applications such as human rights, literacy, and gender. Reports on new areas for lifelong learning and suggests lessons in learning for the high development countries, such as development-related learning and popular participation. (CMK)
Lee, Moosung; Friedrich, Tom
Although the lifelong learning policy of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has had a unique impact on international discussions over the last four decades, little historical research has revealed the ideological influences at work within UNESCO's lifelong learning policy texts. With this in mind, this…
This paper argues that underlying the OECD's promotion of inclusion in, for and through lifelong learning is the notion of an "active citizen" who establishes their worth through learning and, ultimately, competence. Through the critical examination of recent OECD policy documents on adult and lifelong learning, the paper also calls for a…
Hajimoradi, Maryam; Fazilati, Mohammad; Gharib-Naseri, Mohammad Kazem; Sarkaki, Alireza
Objective: The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of oral administration of gallic acid (GA) for 21 days alone and in combination with exercise on nerve conduction velocity and sensory and motor functions in rats with sciatic nerve crush. Materials and Methods: Seventy adult male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided randomly into 7 groups with 10 in each: 1) Control (Cont), 2) Crushed + Vehicle (Cr +Veh), 3-5) Crushed + gallic acid (Cr+GA) (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/2 mL, orally), 6) Crushed + exercise (Cr+Exe), and 7) Crushed + exercise + effective dose of gallic acid (Cr+Exe +GA200) for 21 days. In order to establish an animal model of sciatic nerve crush, equivalent to 7 kg of force pressed on 2-3 mm of sciatic nerve for 30 s, three times with 30 s intervals. Pain sense reflex in hot plate, motor coordination in rotarod, and sciatic nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) in all groups were tested. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc test and p<0.05 has assigned as the significant difference. Results: Pain threshold was increased significantly in untreated crushed rats while motor function and SNCV were decreased in all groups with nerve crush (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001 vs. control). Pain reflex latency was not changed in treated groups. Motor coordination and SNCV were improved in groups Cr+GA200 and Cr+Exe + GA200 (p<0.05, p<0.01 vs. Cr+Veh). Conclusion: GA, dose-dependently, may have therapeutic potential to improve the peripheral nerve degeneration, which is most likely related, at least in part, to its antioxidant and therapeutic properties. PMID:26445710
Lifelong Learning for Social Development: A Review of Global Perspectives. Papers Presented at the International Conference on Lifelong Learning for Social Development (Kerala, India, August 13-15, 2002).
This document contains 67 papers from an international conference on lifelong learning for social development. The following papers are among those included: "Lifelong Learning for Social Development" (John Dewar Wilson); "Building Networks of Lifelong Learning for Social Development outside the Center" (Shen-Tzay Huang, Chi chuan Li, An-Chi Li);…
Widmark, Ulla; Koroma, Eeva
Our learning design for lifelong learning has been developed during the past ten years at the Teacher Education unit at Stockholm University. The same design but with different content has been used to higher the competence of different target groups; teachers in the field, policemen, medical personal, headmasters etc. As an example we will present our learning design for the course “Steps for Skills” which was a government appointed, multi-year national initiative to support municipalities’ long-term quality and skills development in health and social care for older people. The purpose of the Steps for Skills was to improve the internal quality of health and social care. This was to be achieved by developing the skills of the staff working close to older people.
Drake, Matthew T.; Khosla, Sundeep
Synopsis Osteoporosis is now recognized as a major threat to health in aging men. Morbidity and mortality, particularly following hip fracture, are substantial. Whereas trabecular bone loss starts in early adulthood, loss of cortical bone only appears to occur from mid-life onwards. Declining bioavailable estradiol levels play an integral role in male age-associated bone loss. Both pharmacologic and supportive care interventions are important for optimal care in men at increased fracture risk. PMID:22877433
This article explores how assessment plays a role in helping learners to learn on a continuous, sustainable basis. It begins by exploring the paradigm of lifelong learning, which implies a shift in the way we think about learning and knowledge. Based on knowledge formation rooted in a flux of learning, lifelong learning assessment is not so much the assessment of how much fixed knowledge learners possess but rather the assessment of learners' abilities to reconstruct knowledge and engage with change. This article argues that three concerns - the primacy of self-assessment, the assessment of learners' engagement, and the importance of qualitative assessment - are crucial to an assessment which contributes to the development of lifelong learners who have the continuing ability to grow and to find deep and meaningful connections during times of change. The importance of self-assessment as the central aspect of lifelong learning is presented, and the way in which self-assessment relates to formative assessment and summative assessment to ensure a valid development of lifelong learning is considered. Judging whether lifelong learning is relevant or desirable requires learners' engagement in considering how they are holistically related to the world. To assess learners' overall engagement, this article suggests a multi-faceted, holistic approach which emphasises qualitative methods to track each individual's learning situation, although quantitative methods are not rejected. It is hoped that the article's discussion of this lifelong learning assessment will contribute to an understanding of the assessment's appropriate nature and development.
Bainbridge, Steve; Murray, Julie; Harrison, Tim; Ward, Terry
An overall policy agenda about vocational education and training in Europe and its links with general education and lifelong learning has been developed to bring together other policy agendas to serve one strategic goal. Education and training are key, with a number of benchmarks set to adapt education and provide better quality of employment.…
An Evidence-Based Unified Definition of Lifelong and Acquired Premature Ejaculation: Report of the Second International Society for Sexual Medicine Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation
Serefoglu, Ege Can; McMahon, Chris G; Waldinger, Marcel D; Althof, Stanley E; Shindel, Alan; Adaikan, Ganesh; Becher, Edgardo F; Dean, John; Giuliano, Francois; Hellstrom, Wayne JG; Giraldi, Annamaria; Glina, Sidney; Incrocci, Luca; Jannini, Emmanuele; McCabe, Marita; Parish, Sharon; Rowland, David; Segraves, R Taylor; Sharlip, Ira; Torres, Luiz Otavio
Introduction The International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation developed the first evidence-based definition for lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) in 2007 and concluded that there were insufficient published objective data at that time to develop a definition for acquired PE. Aim The aim of this article is to review and critique the current literature and develop a contemporary, evidence-based definition for acquired PE and/or a unified definition for both lifelong and acquired PE. Methods In April 2013, the ISSM convened a second Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation in Bangalore, India. The same evidence-based systematic approach to literature search, retrieval, and evaluation used by the original committee was adopted. Results The committee unanimously agreed that men with lifelong and acquired PE appear to share the dimensions of short ejaculatory latency, reduced or absent perceived ejaculatory control, and the presence of negative personal consequences. Men with acquired PE are older, have higher incidences of erectile dysfunction, comorbid disease, and cardiovascular risk factors, and have a longer intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) as compared with men with lifelong PE. A self-estimated or stopwatch IELT of 3 minutes was identified as a valid IELT cut-off for diagnosing acquired PE. On this basis, the committee agreed on a unified definition of both acquired and lifelong PE as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by (i) ejaculation that always or nearly always occurs prior to or within about 1 minute of vaginal penetration from the first sexual experience (lifelong PE) or a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in latency time, often to about 3 minutes or less (acquired PE); (ii) the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations; and (iii) negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration, and/or the
This document contains 18 papers from the partnership for vocational education and training (VET) section of an international conference on VET for lifelong learning in the information era. The following are papers are included: "School, TAFE (Technical and Further Education), and University Links, in Pursuit of a Seamless Pathway" (Robert…
Lambert, Marion; Vero, Josiane; Zimmermann, Benedicte
Lifelong learning has become one of the keys to making workers' career paths more secure at both the French and the European policy level. However, the implementation of these policy lines raises delicate questions as to how the responsibility for vocational training should be shared among employees, employers and public institutions. The…
New Jersey State Employment and Training Commission, Trenton.
The State Employment and Training Commission (SETC) was charged with the responsibility of designing and helping to implement a unified work force readiness system for New Jersey. In 1991, the Unified State Plan for New Jersey's Workforce Readiness System addressed three key areas: lifelong learning, employers' human resource needs, and efficient…
Olofsson, Gunilla; Karan, Orv. C.
The present case study describes a toilet training program planned, developed, and implemented within a sheltered workshop. The client was a severely retarded woman for whom incontinence had been a life-long problem. The ease with which the program was carried out recommends its use with similar client problems. (Author)
Padden, Lisa; Ellis, Carol
It is vital that all university staff have awareness of the difficulties that may be experienced by students with disabilities. Staff must be given the knowledge and resources to support these students effectively. University College Dublin (UCD) Access & Lifelong Learning has developed a communication and training strategy to improve…
This book is the second in a series aiming to promote international exchange of ideas, experiences, and studies relating to technical and vocational education. Information provided is designed to help educators and trainers plan for an intelligent use of new training technologies (NTTs) to improve the access to basic and advanced lifelong learning…
Thery, Michel; Roussel, Patrick; Zygmunt, Christian
Comparison of company practices regarding continuing training of employees shows great diversity among the 15 European Union member states. In 11 countries, over 70 percent of companies are "training involved" (TICs). South European countries have a low percentage of TICs; the proportion of TICs in north European countries is over 80 percent. The…
Cobb, B. E.
Mature adults are sometimes underserved by the professional astronomical community, which often focuses on K-12/undergraduate education and outreach. Mature adults hold as much interest and enthusiasm for astronomy as their younger cohorts, but often face a greater challenge in obtaining access to adult-level information that is more structured than sporadic public lectures or the occasional popular-science article. I present here my efforts to bring astronomy classes to the Osher Lifelong Learning Institute (OLLI) at UC Berkeley. There are over 120 OLLIs on university and college campuses throughout the United States. These institutes provide adults, age 50 and above, with both a diverse curriculum of study and a stimulating community of peers. Teaching at OLLI has been a straightforward way so share astronomy with this segment of the public—outreach that could be replicated by astronomers at other universities and colleges with associated OLLIs. The OLLI classroom can be challenging because of the wide range of student educational backgrounds. However, teaching at OLLI is extremely rewarding because mature adults bring to the classroom a vast array of life experiences, great curiosity, and immense independence of thought. The OLLI also provides the unique opportunity to inspire other non-traditional astronomy outreach activities by building partnerships both with professors in other disciplines and with the students themselves, as adult students often have the resources and connections to call upon to further explore and share astronomy outside the classroom.
Robinson, S M
Understanding the role and importance of nutrition in early postnatal life, as an influence on lifelong vulnerability to poor health, is an important part of current research. We need to be able to define optimal patterns of infant feeding, not just to support growth and development in infancy, but also as determinants of later health. To date, much of the focus on the long-term effects of infant nutrition has been on milk feeding, to compare breast and formula feeding and to evaluate the effects of exclusivity, timing and duration of feeding different types of milk in infancy; other aspects of infant feeding such as age at introduction of solid foods and type of weaning diet have received less attention, and relatively little is known about their links to later health. Contemporary data are needed to enable us to move beyond explanation of historical infant feeding data in order to understand and predict health outcomes in future generations. Ongoing and new population studies, that include infants from diverse settings, will be key to providing generalizable data that can be used to define optimal feeding practice. There are some methodological challenges ahead, although significant progress has already been made, and further progress is envisaged in the future. In particular, the opportunity to bring together epidemiological studies and new mechanistic insights that will help identify key aspects of infant nutrition and their causal effects offer great promise both in moving this field forward as well as the potential for health benefits for future generations. PMID:26088394
Complex congenital urological anomalies often necessitate ongoing clinical and surgical management as patients reach adulthood and beyond. However, adolescent and lifelong care of such conditions is a relatively new urological specialty, and approaches to transitional health care require further development. Thus, although literature relating to the use of such approaches in urology are lacking, we are able to draw upon experience of models from other specialties. Urological anomalies might complicate an individual's development, particularly during adolescence, which represents a time of rapid and considerable change in most aspects of life. During this period, increased independence and responsibility, necessitating a shift from parent-driven to patient-driven care, and the desire to develop important and intimate social relationships can affect a patient's ability to cope with, and manage, disease. These factors also influence the ability of health-care providers to deliver adequate treatment. In particular, consideration of the effect of a condition or its treatment on the patient's capacity to live a normal life is important. A multidisciplinary approach is essential to overcoming these issues. Furthermore, diagnostic and treatment registries, as well as an increase in the number of adult-focused urologists willing to participate in the transition of patients from paediatric to adult care, are needed to enable provision of optimal patient care for the future. PMID:24709966
This research proposes a systematic approach with which the decision makers can evaluate the value and risk of a new aircraft development program, including potential derivative development opportunities. The proposed Evaluation of Lifelong Vehicle Evolution (EvoLVE) method is a two- or multi-stage representation of the aircraft design process that accommodates initial development phases as well as follow-on phases. One of the key elements of this method is the Stochastic Programming with Recourse (SPR) technique, which accounts for uncertainties associated with future requirements. The remedial approach of SPR in its two distinctive problem-solving steps is well suited to aircraft design problems where derivatives, retrofits, and upgrades have been used to fix designs that were once but no longer optimal. The solution approach of SPR is complemented by the Risk-Averse Strategy Selection (RASS) technique to gauge risk associated with vehicle evolution options. In the absence of a full description of the random space, a scenario-based approach captures the randomness with a few probable scenarios and reveals implications of different future events. Last, an interactive framework for decision-making support allows simultaneous navigation of the current and future design space with a greater degree of freedom. A cantilevered beam design problem was set up and solved using the SPR technique to showcase its application to an engineering design setting. The full EvoLVE method was conducted on a notional multi-role fighter based on the F/A-18 Hornet.
Chao, Jing; Page, Stephanie T; Anderson, Richard A
Clear evidence shows that many men and women would welcome new male methods of contraception, but none have become available. The hormonal approach is based on suppression of gonadotropins and thus of testicular function and spermatogenesis, and has been investigated for several decades. This approach can achieve sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis for effective contraception in most men, but not all; the basis for these men responding insufficiently is unclear. Alternatively, the non-hormonal approach is based on identifying specific processes in sperm development, maturation and function. A range of targets has been identified in animal models, and targeted effectively. This approach, however, remains in the pre-clinical domain at present. There are, therefore, grounds for considering that safe, effective and reversible methods of contraception for men can be developed. PMID:24947599
Chao, Jing; Page, Stephanie T.; Anderson, Richard A.
Clear evidence shows that many men and women would welcome new male methods of contraception, but none have become available. The hormonal approach is based on suppression of gonadotropins and thus of testicular function and spermatogenesis, and has been investigated for several decades. This approach can achieve sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis for effective contraception in most men, but not all; the basis for these men responding insufficiently is unclear. Alternatively, the nonhormonal approach is based on identifying specific processes in sperm development, maturation and function. A range of targets has been identified in animal models, and targeted effectively. This approach, however, remains in the pre-clinical domain at present. There are, therefore, grounds for considering that safe, effective and reversible methods of contraception for men can be developed. PMID:24947599
The study assessed transfer of visual training for myopia using two different training stimuli and a single subject A-B-C-A design with a male student volunteer. A procedure including stimulus fading and reinforcement (positive verbal feedback) was used to effectively improve performance on both behavioral acuity tests during the training phases…
Jones, Kenneth M.
Describes educational, economic, and other social factors combining to fill the life of a Black American man with a disproportionate share of pressures and obstacles. Argues that guidance from older Black men is crucial for young Blacks who must prepare for a lifelong struggle. Provides statistics on marital status and occupational distribution.…
Roark, Alison M.; Bjorndal, Karen A.
Determining the effects of lifelong intake patterns on performance is challenging for many species, primarily because of methodological constraints. Here, we used a parthenogenetic insect (Carausius morosus) to determine the effects of limited and unlimited food availability across multiple life-history stages. Using a parthenogen allowed us to quantify intake by juvenile and adult females and to evaluate the morphological, physiological, and life-history responses to intake, all without the confounding influences of pair-housing, mating, and male behavior. In our study, growth rate prior to reproductive maturity was positively correlated with both adult and reproductive lifespans but negatively correlated with total lifespan. Food limitation had opposing effects on lifespan depending on when it was imposed, as it protracted development in juveniles but hastened death in adults. Food limitation also constrained reproduction regardless of when food was limited, although decreased fecundity was especially pronounced in individuals that were food-limited as late juveniles and adults. Additional carry-over effects of juvenile food limitation included smaller adult size and decreased body condition at the adult molt, but these effects were largely mitigated in insects that were switched to ad libitum feeding as late juveniles. Our data provide little support for the existence of a trade-off between longevity and fecundity, perhaps because these functions were fueled by different nutrient pools. However, insects that experienced a switch to the limited diet at reproductive maturity seem to have fueled egg production by drawing down body stores, thus providing some evidence for a life-history trade-off. Our results provide important insights into the effects of food limitation and indicate that performance is modulated by intake both within and across life-history stages. PMID:25365446
Seidelin, Susanne, Ed.; Hamilton, Stuart, Ed.; Sturges, Paul, Ed.
The IFLA/FAIFE (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions/Committee on Free Access to Information and Freedom of Expression) Theme Report 2004 presents visions of how libraries can promote literacy and lifelong learning. The literacy process has to be recognised as inclusive of all ranges of communication, and it occurs at…
Vocational Education and Training for Life Long Learning in the Information Era. IVETA [International Vocational Education and Training Association] Conference Proceedings (Hong Kong, China, August 6-9, 2000).
Vocational Training Council (Hong Kong).
This document contains 123 papers from an international conference on vocational education and training (VET) for lifelong learning in the information era. The papers focus on the following themes: (1) societal and ethical issues; (2) human resource development and personnel training; (3) international issues; (4) information technology in VET;…
Shonkoff, Jack P; Garner, Andrew S
Advances in fields of inquiry as diverse as neuroscience, molecular biology, genomics, developmental psychology, epidemiology, sociology, and economics are catalyzing an important paradigm shift in our understanding of health and disease across the lifespan. This converging, multidisciplinary science of human development has profound implications for our ability to enhance the life prospects of children and to strengthen the social and economic fabric of society. Drawing on these multiple streams of investigation, this report presents an ecobiodevelopmental framework that illustrates how early experiences and environmental influences can leave a lasting signature on the genetic predispositions that affect emerging brain architecture and long-term health. The report also examines extensive evidence of the disruptive impacts of toxic stress, offering intriguing insights into causal mechanisms that link early adversity to later impairments in learning, behavior, and both physical and mental well-being. The implications of this framework for the practice of medicine, in general, and pediatrics, specifically, are potentially transformational. They suggest that many adult diseases should be viewed as developmental disorders that begin early in life and that persistent health disparities associated with poverty, discrimination, or maltreatment could be reduced by the alleviation of toxic stress in childhood. An ecobiodevelopmental framework also underscores the need for new thinking about the focus and boundaries of pediatric practice. It calls for pediatricians to serve as both front-line guardians of healthy child development and strategically positioned, community leaders to inform new science-based strategies that build strong foundations for educational achievement, economic productivity, responsible citizenship, and lifelong health. PMID:22201156
Kestutis, Pukelis; Lauzackas, Rimantas
In this article the contemporary state of pedagogical qualification of Lithuanian vocational teachers is discussed. The new role of VET teacher and VET school in vocational teacher training, following the lifelong learning paradigm, are discussed. Main approaches, principles and parameters of the new vocational teacher training strategy in…
Tam, May Yeuk-Mui
Participation in job-related training as part and parcel of lifelong learning is widely advocated. While many empirical research about job-related training of employees are about advanced western economies, little is known about advanced Asian economies. To fill this void in the literature, this study applies the human capital, institutional and…
Newson, Martha; Buhrmester, Michael; Whitehouse, Harvey
Pledging lifelong loyalty to an ingroup can have far-reaching behavioural effects, ranging from ordinary acts of ingroup kindness to extraordinary acts of self-sacrifice. What motivates this important form of group commitment? Here, we propose one especially potent answer to this question-the experience of a visceral sense of oneness with a group (i.e., identity fusion). In a sample of British football fans, a population in which high levels of lifelong loyalty are thought to be common, we first examined the hypothesised relationship between fusion and perceptions of lifelong loyalty to one's club. We further explored the hypothesis that fusion and lifelong loyalty are not merely a reflection of past time investment in a group, but also reflect a deeper, memory-based process of feeling personally shaped by key group events, both euphoric and dysphoric. We found broad support for these hypotheses. Results suggest that feeling personally self-shaped by club events (e.g., crucial wins and losses), rather than time invested in the club, leads to greater identity fusion to one's club. In turn, fusion engenders a sense of lifelong club loyalty. We discuss our findings in relation to the growing literature on the experiential origins of intense social cohesion. PMID:27508386
Newson, Martha; Buhrmester, Michael; Whitehouse, Harvey
Pledging lifelong loyalty to an ingroup can have far-reaching behavioural effects, ranging from ordinary acts of ingroup kindness to extraordinary acts of self-sacrifice. What motivates this important form of group commitment? Here, we propose one especially potent answer to this question–the experience of a visceral sense of oneness with a group (i.e., identity fusion). In a sample of British football fans, a population in which high levels of lifelong loyalty are thought to be common, we first examined the hypothesised relationship between fusion and perceptions of lifelong loyalty to one’s club. We further explored the hypothesis that fusion and lifelong loyalty are not merely a reflection of past time investment in a group, but also reflect a deeper, memory-based process of feeling personally shaped by key group events, both euphoric and dysphoric. We found broad support for these hypotheses. Results suggest that feeling personally self-shaped by club events (e.g., crucial wins and losses), rather than time invested in the club, leads to greater identity fusion to one’s club. In turn, fusion engenders a sense of lifelong club loyalty. We discuss our findings in relation to the growing literature on the experiential origins of intense social cohesion. PMID:27508386
Adult education has long been the Cinderella of the education system. This is not helped by the fact that there is currently an impasse between employers, government and individuals over who should finance such training. So what, if anything, can philosophers do to help resolve the normative question of who ought to pay, setting aside for the…
Jones, Kenneth M.
In 1989, Valmont Industries, a global manufacturer of steel lighting poles, center pivot irrigation systems, and other technologies and Metropolitan Community College began to work closely to address the basic skills training needs of Valmont workers. This partnership provided a unique educational opportunity for both Valmont employees and the…
Stendal, Karen; Balandin, Susan; Molka-Danielsen, Judith
Virtual worlds, such as Second Life[R], are the latest star in the online communication sky. Created by Linden Lab, Second Life is a three-dimensional environment that provides a context for avatars to communicate and socialise with other avatars in a variety of settings (Bell, 2009). Virtual worlds have been used to train people with intellectual…
In Italy the "Education and Training System" is undergoing a period of complex reorganization. This occurs within a "European Integration Process" aimed at achieving a full "Citizenship right" and the maximum mobility among "Member States". Starting from the latest "European Directives", which make…
Mukhopadhyay, S; Smith, S; Cresswell, J
Lifelong learning refers to the systematic acquisition, renewal, updating and completion of knowledge. It is synonymous with the term 'self-directed learning'. This is a new educational strategy meant to consolidate knowledge in a fashion that is reproducible for a lifetime with successful application to both known and unknown clinical exercises. The development of lifelong learning is based on the principles of andragogy (autonomy and independence in one's learning activities), reflection and learning from experience. This paper deals with the development of these theories culminating in the advent of self-directed learning. Evidence to support experiential, reflective and self-directed learning is provided, including the use of rating scales. An example from obstetrics is used to highlight the application of these principles. There are barriers to adopting a new educational paradigm, however, lifelong learning remains an excellent tool for continuous professional development. PMID:21823841
Miao, Yongwu; van der Klink, Marcel; Boon, Jo; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob
Efficient and effective lifelong learning requires that people can make informed decisions about their continuous personal development in the different stages of their life. In this paper we state that lifelong learners need to be characterized as decision-makers. In order to improve the quality of their decisions, we propose the development of an integrated lifelong learning and employment support system, which traces learners’ competence development and provides a decision support environment. An abstract conceptual model has been developed and the main design ideas have been documented using Z notation. Moreover, we analyzed the main technical challenges for the realization of the target system: competence information fusion, decision analysis models, spatial indexing structures and browsing structures and visualization of competence-related information objects.
National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.
CertainTeed's Precision Strike training program was designed to close the gaps between the current status of its workplace and where that work force needed to be to compete successfully in global markets. Precision Strike included Skills and Knowledge in Lifelong Learning (SKILL) customized, computerized lessons in basic skills, one-on-one…
Key Issues and Policy Considerations in Promoting Lifelong Learning in Selected African Countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Namibia, Rwanda and Tanzania. UIL Publication Series on Lifelong Learning Policies and Strategies. No. 1
Walters, Shirley; Yang, Jim; Roslander, Peter
This cross-national study focuses on key issues and policy considerations in promoting lifelong learning in Ethiopia, Kenya, Namibia, Rwanda, and Tanzania (the five African countries that took part in a pilot workshop on "Developing Capacity for Establishing Lifelong Learning Systems in UNESCO Member States: at the UNESCO Institute for…
Alheit, Peter, Ed.; Kammler, Eva, Ed.
This book contains 56 papers from a European conference. Representative papers include the following: "Adult Education, European Citizenship and the Role of the Regions" (Sussmuth); "Can Lifelong Learning Prevent the Breakdown of Society?" (Young); "Two Challenges to a Modern Concept of Lifelong Learning" (Alheit); "Widening Access to Higher…
Recent curriculum reforms emphasize the importance of the public understanding of science and lifelong learning. This article develops from the assumption that school science should act as a preparation for lifelong science learning. The article documents a study of the public learning of physics. More specifically, it explores factors that influence how the public learns about a potential health hazard - radon gas. The article concludes by suggesting that meeting the needs of citizens requires more than a minor adjustment of curriculum content - it also requires the recognition of an important conative dimension in physics education.
Grace, Andre P.
In Canada, current federal learning-and-work policy is focused on individual learner-worker development using an iteration of lifelong learning as cyclical. This policy aims to enhance the social as an effect of enhancing the economic. In this neoliberal milieu, cyclical lifelong learning has become not only a norm but also a culture and an…
CIHED Newsletter, 1982
This newsletter deals with lifelong learning and adult and continuing education. Included in the issue are the following articles: "The Learning Society," by Solveig M. Turner; "Adult Education at the Beginning of the 1980s," by J. Roby Kidd; "Lifelong Learning in an International Perspective: Selected Case Studies," by J. Roby Kidd; "Continuing…
This paper analyses a collection of musical life histories, drawn from 71 British respondents who have maintained a lifelong interest in music as regular concert-goers, amateur performers and/or music educators. These respondents reflect on the influences and opportunities which have contributed to their lifelong engagement in music, and in doing…
Jones, Patrick M.
This article advocates the adoption of the concept of lifewide by school music teachers in the United States of America. The author presents limitations of the lifelong paradigm as applied to school music in the United States of America and advocates that music teachers would better foster lifelong musicking if they addressed the lifewide musical…
This paper analyses Gen Y pre-service primary school teachers' conceptualisations of lifelong learning. It is situated within a context of improving the provision and delivery of pre-service teacher education. This paper argues that Gen Y's understanding of lifelong learning has been influenced by their engagements with digital technologies and…
Dolan, Anne M.
Lifelong learning has become a prominent fixture in educational policy in recent years in many countries around the world. In terms of teacher education, it is now widely accepted that initial teacher education is insufficient for the lifelong professional needs of teachers. From September 2012, initial teacher education in Ireland will be offered…
Padgett, Ryan D.; Keup, Jennifer R.; Pascarella, Ernest T.
Using longitudinal data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education, this study measured the impact of first-year seminars on college students' life-long learning orientations. The findings suggest that first-year seminars enhance students' life-long learning orientations and that the effect of first-year seminars is…
Vandenbroeck, Michel; Peeters, Jan; Bouverne-De Bie, Maria
We provide a historical (genealogical) study of the changes in discourses on adult education since the famous UNESCO conference in Montreal, to present day texts of the European Union on lifelong learning. We also analyse how these changing global discourses on lifelong learning have travelled--through the hegemony of English language--to local…
The government of Viet Nam has made a commitment to build a Lifelong Learning Society by 2020. A range of related initiatives have been launched, including the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization Centre for Lifelong Learning (SEAMEO CELLL) and "Book Day"--a day aimed at encouraging reading and raising awareness of its…
Downing, David L.
This study describes and implements a necessary preliminary strategic planning procedure, the Internal Environmental Scanning (IES), and discusses its relevance to strategic planning and university-sponsored lifelong learning program model selection. Employing a qualitative research methodology, a proposed lifelong learning-centric IES process…
Mayhew, Matthew J.; Wolniak, Gregory C.; Pascarella, Ernest T.
We investigated curricular conditions and educational practices that influenced the development of life-long learning orientations among 405 undergraduate students. Results suggest that growth in life-long learning orientations was facilitated by instruction that included opportunities for reflection, active learning, and perspective-taking and…
Gouthro, Patricia A.
This paper argues that while the Inquiry into the Future of Lifelong Learning that was commissioned by NIACE makes some helpful recommendations for broadening the scope of lifelong learning to include considerations around well-being and happiness, the reports do not provide a sufficiently critical or philosophical analysis of the challenges…
Allen, Ray; Mackey, Marcia J.; Rollenhagen, Benjamin R.
The purpose of this study was to identify what lifelong activities stakeholders agree upon as most important to include in physical education programs. Little research has been conducted regarding which lifelong activities are most important to include in the curriculum and if there is consensus in priorities across program stakeholders. Consensus…
Kaminski, Artur; Gut, Grzegorz; Uhrynowska-Tyszkiewicz, Izabela; Olender, Ewa
Personnel directly involved in the donation, procurement, testing, processing, preservation, storage and distribution of human tissues and cells should be appropriately qualified and provided with timely and relevant training according to EU directives. In the time of new tissue and cells regulations implementation such a training system existed in Poland only at a local level. The first training programme outlines for various groups of health professionals engaged in tissue banking practice was created in co-operation with the Institute for LifeLong Learning at University of Barcelona in 2006. This initial training courses were financially supported by EU Transition Facility Programme 2004. Then, starting from 2006, based on previous experience, system of advanced training courses was created. This training programme was financially supported by the National Programme for the Development of Transplantation Medicine 2006-2009-POLGRAFT financed by Polish Ministry of Health. During 2006 and 2007 first set of tissue banking initial training courses were provided according to TF 2004 project. Over 200 pathologists, forensic medicine specialists and other medical doctors responsible for donor screening and classification, medical directors of tissue establishments, technical staff; tissue graft users: orthopaedic surgeons, neurosurgeons, cardiosurgeons and ophthalmologists were trained. Between 2006 and 2009 there were organized 8 advanced tissue banking training courses according to POLGRAFT programme. There were organized both theoretical and practical courses on various aspects of tissue for over 350 persons. We present our experience in organisation of international and national tissue banking training courses. PMID:22318653
Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...
McGlinn, Evan P.; Chung, Kevin C.
Reflection is an important learning technique for surgeons during their training and is a valuable tool for life-long learning and maintenance of certification to assure competency. Reflection helps individuals to evaluate their performance in the interest of improving their ability to deal with similar experiences in the future. Additionally, reflection can be helpful for established surgeons to continue to improve upon their performance and hone their craft. This article outlines the theoretical role of reflection in the learning process. We will discuss methods for incorporating reflection into training programs, and review the evidence for implementing reflection in surgical training. PMID:25003410
Macia, Laura; Ruiz, Hector Camilo; Boyzo, Roberto; Documet, Patricia Isabel
Little documentation exists about male community health workers (promotores) networks. The experiences of promotores can provide input on how to attract, train, supervise and maintain male promotores in CHW programs. We present the experience and perspectives of promotores who participated in a male promotores network assisting Latino immigrant men in an emerging Latino community. All promotores in this community-based participatory study received payment for work 10 hours a week. We conducted qualitative interviews with all promotores starting the program, after 5 and 13 months. Three main themes emerged: 1) Men decided to become promotores to help others, yet appreciated being paid. 2) Promotores' learning experience was ongoing and was facilitated by a cooperative dynamic among them. Learning how to listen was crucial for promotores 3) Promotores experienced difficulty separating their personal lives form their role as a promotor We conclude that paying promotores facilitates the fulfillment of their drive to serve the community. Enhancing listening abilities needs to be part of promotores' training curricula. Finally, it is advisable to build a project with many opportunities for promotores and project staff to share professional and non-professional time and discuss their challenges. PMID:27102810
Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013
The study visits programme for education and vocational training specialists, part of the lifelong learning programme (2007-13), is an initiative of the European Commission's Directorate-General for Education and Culture. Cedefop coordinates the programme at the European level, whereas the national agencies implement the programme in the…
This document contains 15 papers from the information technology (IT) in vocational education and training (VET) section of an international conference on VET for lifelong learning in the information era. The following papers are included: "Adapting the System of Continuing Vocational Education for the 3rd Industrial Revolution--Experiences from…
Tierney, Lucy; Clarke, Marie
This paper examines recent reforms in the Irish further education and training (FET) sector in response to government commitments to move towards a lifelong learning society. The context is set by tracing development of the Irish FET sector. An outline of legislative change and measures that have been put in place to reform the Irish system in…
Arney, Janna B.
Training students in assessment can not only help lighten grading load but also--and more importantly--equip students with a lifelong skill. The goal of educators in grading is to reinforce teaching concepts by identifying students' strengths and weaknesses. If educators require students to create Web site as a class project, this can become a…
Haukka, Sandra; Keating, Jack; Lamb, Stephen
Financing vocational education and training, as part of Australia's commitment to lifelong learning, will become a greater challenge as increased spending on other public services, such as health and welfare caused by an aging population, constrains government education expenditure. This report examines a range of mechanisms to encourage…
Davey, Bill; Tatnall, Arthur
This article describes a study that examined the lifelong learning of information systems academics in relation to their normal work. It begins by considering the concept of lifelong learning, its relationship to real-life learning and that lifelong learning should encompass the whole spectrum of formal, non-formal and informal learning. Most…
This article argues that adult education/lifelong learning policies in Greece, as these are expressed by law 3879/2010 "Development of Lifelong Learning and Other Provisions," have the characteristics of the "statist" model of lifelong learning in Europe, namely strong governmental control and centralization. However, there are…
International Association of Universities, Paris (France).
Redistribution and redeployment of university resources, both human and material, have begun in a number of countries to meet the new needs of lifelong education. Selected case studies that appear to be characteristic and representative of different types of university situations in different countries are presented in this book. Analysis of the…
Keeling, Debbie; Jones, Eleri; Botterill, David; Gray, Colin
A qualitative study examined factors promoting participation in and the success of work-based learning. Identifies congruence and dissonance between employer and employee perspectives of work-based learning as a major influence affecting motivation and participation. Discusses the implications of the findings for lifelong learning and the creation…
Lee, Wing On
Over the last two decades, there have been numerous attempts to review and re-examine whether conventional learning and teaching approaches are still useful or relevant. Lifelong learning institutions have grown in number and scope, and now fulfil a significant function in bridging the gap between what traditional formal education systems provide…
Learning in the teaching workplace is crucial for the development of all trainee teachers. Workplace learning is particularly important for trainee teachers in the lifelong learning sector (LLS) in the UK, the majority of whom are already working as teachers, tutors, trainers or lecturers while undertaking initial teacher education. However,…
Robinson, Denise; Rennie, Sandra
Volunteer trainee teachers (trainee teachers who teach on an unpaid basis and not on a pre-service course) are present in a number of institutions across the lifelong learning sector (LLS) in England, giving the opportunity to gain entry into the teaching profession to those who might otherwise face difficulties in accessing paid teaching. Whilst…
Whilst in government, New Labour defined social exclusion as a state of "disadvantage" resulting from individual psychology: namely, low aspirations, a lack of self-confidence or moral deviancy. Engagement in lifelong learning was considered a means of promoting social inclusion and of overcoming such disadvantage. This policy review explores how…
Maruatona, Tonic L.
Southern African Development Community (SADC) nations in principle endorse lifelong learning (LLL) as a useful framework for sustainable development. However, in spite of the rhetoric, only a few member states such as South Africa, Botswana and Namibia have officially endorsed LLL in their educational policies. The sub-region is plagued by social…
Hanrahan, Paul Terence
The changing nature of work and the role of educational processes and cultures of practice and research in helping put people back into the center of learning and preparing individuals for lifelong learning were examined in the context of Australia's technical and further education institutes, higher educational facilities, and private providers.…
Computer-mediated communication (CMC) in public libraries can contribute to lifelong learning and social inclusion. Its use in libraries is hindered by concerns about privacy, limited resources, and beliefs that free Internet access is justifiable only for information, not communication. CMC in fiction/reader services, family history, community…