Science.gov

Sample records for lifting equipment enhancements

  1. UF{sub 6} cylinder lifting equipment enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    Hortel, J.M.

    1991-12-31

    This paper presents numerous enhancements that have been made to the Portsmouth lifting equipment to ensure the safe handling of cylinders containing liquid uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). The basic approach has been to provide redundancy to all components of the lift path so that any one component failure would not cause the load to drop or cause any undesirable movement.

  2. Enhanced Rescue Lift Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    The evolving and ever-increasing demands of emergency response and disaster relief support provided by rotorcraft dictate, among other things, the development of enhanced rescue lift capability for these platforms. This preliminary analysis is first-order in nature but provides considerable insight into some of the challenges inherent in trying to effect rescue using a unique form of robotic rescue device deployed and operated from rotary-wing aerial platforms.

  3. Lift enhancing tabs for airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A tab deployable from the trailing edge of a main airfoil element forces flow onto a following airfoil element, such as a flap, to keep the flow attached and thus enhance lift. For aircraft wings with high lift systems that include leading edge slats, the slats may also be provided with tabs to turn the flow onto the following main element.

  4. Lift enhancement in flying snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Anush; Socha, John; Vlachos, Pavlos; Barba, Lorena

    2013-11-01

    Flying snakes use a unique method of aerial locomotion: they jump from tree branches, flatten their bodies and undulate through the air to produce a glide. The shape of their body cross-section during the glide plays an important role in generating lift. We present a computational investigation of the aerodynamics of the cross-sectional shape. We performed two-dimensional simulations of incompressible flow past the anatomically correct cross-section of the species Chrysopelea paradisi, which show that a significant enhancement in lift appears at an angle of attack of 35 degrees, for Reynolds numbers 2000 and above. Previous experiments on physical models also demonstrated an increased lift and at the same angle of attack. The simulations point to the lift enhancement arising from the early separation of the boundary layer on the dorsal surface of the snake profile, without stall. The separated shear layer rolls up and interacts with secondary vorticity in the near-wake, inducing the primary vortex to remain closer to the body and thus cause enhanced suction, resulting in higher lift. In physical experiments, the flow is inherently 3-D due to fluid instabilities, and it is intriguing that the enhanced lift also appears in the two-dimensional simulations.

  5. Lift enhancement by trapped vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of lift enhancement by trapped vortex are provided. Efforts are continuously being made to find simple ways to convert wings of aircraft from an efficient cruise configuration to one that develops the high lift needed during landing and takeoff. The high-lift configurations studied here consist of conventional airfoils with a trapped vortex over the upper surface. The vortex is trapped by one or two vertical fences that serve as barriers to the oncoming stream and as reflection planes for the vortex and the sink that form a separation bubble on top of the airfoil. Since the full three-dimensional unsteady flow problem over the wing of an aircraft is so complicated that it is hard to get an understanding of the principles that govern the vortex trapping process, the analysis is restricted here to the flow field illustrated in the first slide. It is assumed that the flow field between the two end plates approximates a streamwise strip of the flow over a wing. The flow between the endplates and about the airfoil consists of a spanwise vortex located between the suction orifices in the endplates. The spanwise fence or spoiler located near the nose of the airfoil serves to form a separated flow region and a shear layer. The vorticity in the shear layer is concentrated into the vortex by withdrawal of fluid at the suction orifices. As the strength of the vortex increases with time, it eventually dominates the flow in the separated region so that a shear or vertical layer is no longer shed from the tip of the fence. At that point, the vortex strength is fixed and its location is such that all of the velocity contributions at its center sum to zero thereby making it an equilibrium point for the vortex. The results of a theoretical analysis of such an idealized flow field are described.

  6. Lift enhancement by bats' dynamically changing wingspan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shizhao; Zhang, Xing; He, Guowei; Liu, Tianshu

    2015-12-01

    This paper elucidates the aerodynamic role of the dynamically changing wingspan in bat flight. Based on direct numerical simulations of the flow over a slow-flying bat, it is found that the dynamically changing wingspan can significantly enhance the lift. Further, an analysis of flow structures and lift decomposition reveal that the elevated vortex lift associated with the leading-edge vortices intensified by the dynamically changing wingspan considerably contributed to enhancement of the time-averaged lift. The nonlinear interaction between the dynamically changing wing and the vortical structures plays an important role in the lift enhancement of a flying bat in addition to the geometrical effect of changing the lifting-surface area in a flapping cycle. In addition, the dynamically changing wingspan leads to the higher efficiency in terms of generating lift for a given amount of the mechanical energy consumed in flight. PMID:26701882

  7. 11. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF EQUIPMENT AND FISH LIFTS BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW OF EQUIPMENT AND FISH LIFTS BETWEEN POWERHOUSE #1 AND NAVIGATION LOCK #1; VIEW IS TAKEN FROM ROOF OF POWERHOUSE #1. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  8. Lift-Enhancing Tabs on Multielement Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C.; Storms, Bruce L.; Carrannanto, Paul G.

    1995-01-01

    The use of flat-plate tabs (similar to Gurney flaps) to enhance the lift of multielement airfoils is extended here by placing them on the pressure side and near the trailing edge of the main element rather than just on the furthest downstream wing element. The tabs studied range in height from 0.125 to 1.25% of the airfoil reference chord. In practice, such tabs would be retracted when the high-lift system is stowed. The effectiveness of the concept was demonstrated experimentally and computationally on a two-dimensional NACA 63(sub 2)-215 Mod B airfoil with a single-slotted, 30%-chord flap. Both the experiments and computations showed that the tabs significantly increase the lift at a given angle of attack and the maximum lift coefficient of the airfoil. The computational results showed that the increased lift was a result of additional turning of the flow by the tab that reduced or eliminated now separation on the flap. The best configuration tested, a 0.5%-chord tab placed 0.5% chord upstream of the trailing edge of the main element, increased the maximum lift coefficient of the airfoil by 12% and the maximum lift-to-drag ratio by 40%.

  9. AORN Ergonomic Tool 6: lifting and carrying supplies and equipment in the perioperative setting.

    PubMed

    Waters, Thomas; Baptiste, Andrea; Short, Manon; Plante-Mallon, Lori; Nelson, Audrey

    2011-08-01

    Perioperative team members often are required to lift and carry heavy supplies and equipment into and around the OR; this includes lifting equipment such as hand tables, fluoroscopy boards, stirrups, Wilson frames, irrigation containers for lithotripsy, and heavy instrument pans. Lifting heavy objects creates considerable risk for musculoskeletal injuries to the back and shoulders. AORN Ergonomic Tool 6: Lifting and Carrying Supplies and Equipment in the Perioperative Setting can help caregivers evaluate lifting and carrying tasks and take measures to protect themselves from injury. Caregivers can use the revised National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health lifting equation to assess whether a specific lifting task can be performed safely. PMID:21802544

  10. 46 CFR 170.095 - Data submittal for a vessel equipped to lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Data submittal for a vessel equipped to lift. 170.095 Section 170.095 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND... vessel equipped to lift. The following data must be submitted with the plans required by § 170.075 if...

  11. NASA safety standard for lifting devices and equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-09-01

    NASA's minimum safety requirements are established for the design, testing, inspection, maintenance, certification, and use of overhead and gantry cranes (including top running monorail, underhung, and jib cranes), mobile cranes, derrick hoists, and special hoist supported personnel lifting devices (these do not include elevators, ground supported personnel lifts, or powered platforms). Minimum requirements are also addressed for the testing, inspection, and use of Hydra-sets, hooks, and slings. Safety standards are thoroughly detailed.

  12. NASA safety standard for lifting devices and equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's minimum safety requirements are established for the design, testing, inspection, maintenance, certification, and use of overhead and gantry cranes (including top running monorail, underhung, and jib cranes), mobile cranes, derrick hoists, and special hoist supported personnel lifting devices (these do not include elevators, ground supported personnel lifts, or powered platforms). Minimum requirements are also addressed for the testing, inspection, and use of Hydra-sets, hooks, and slings. Safety standards are thoroughly detailed.

  13. Coriolis effects enhance lift on revolving wings.

    PubMed

    Jardin, T; David, L

    2015-03-01

    At high angles of attack, an aircraft wing stalls. This dreaded event is characterized by the development of a leading edge vortex on the upper surface of the wing, followed by its shedding which causes a drastic drop in the aerodynamic lift. At similar angles of attack, the leading edge vortex on an insect wing or an autorotating seed membrane remains robustly attached, ensuring high sustained lift. What are the mechanisms responsible for both leading edge vortex attachment and high lift generation on revolving wings? We review the three main hypotheses that attempt to explain this specificity and, using direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, we show that the latter originates in Coriolis effects. PMID:25871040

  14. Coriolis effects enhance lift on revolving wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardin, T.; David, L.

    2015-03-01

    At high angles of attack, an aircraft wing stalls. This dreaded event is characterized by the development of a leading edge vortex on the upper surface of the wing, followed by its shedding which causes a drastic drop in the aerodynamic lift. At similar angles of attack, the leading edge vortex on an insect wing or an autorotating seed membrane remains robustly attached, ensuring high sustained lift. What are the mechanisms responsible for both leading edge vortex attachment and high lift generation on revolving wings? We review the three main hypotheses that attempt to explain this specificity and, using direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, we show that the latter originates in Coriolis effects.

  15. A Lighter-Than-Air System Enhanced with Kinetic Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid airship system is proposed in which the buoyant lift is enhanced with kinetic lift. The airship would consist of twin hulls in which the buoyant gas is contained. The twin hulls would be connected in parallel by a wing having an airfoil contour. In forward flight, the wing would provide kinetic lift that would add to the buoyant lift. The added lift would permit a greater payload/altitude combination than that which could be supported by the buoyant lift alone. The buoyant lift is a function of the volume of gas and the flight altitude. The kinetic lift is a function of the airfoil section, wing area, and the speed and altitude of flight. Accordingly there are a number of factors that can be manipulated to arrive at a particular design. Particular designs could vary from small, lightweight systems to very large, heavy-load systems. It will be the purpose of this paper to examine the sensitivity of such a design to the several variables. In addition, possible uses made achievable by such a hybrid system will be suggested.

  16. Lift Enhancement Using Pulsed Blowing At Compressible Flow Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hites, Michael; Nagib, Hassan; Sytsma, Brian; Wygnanski, Israel; Seifert, Avi; Bachar, Tomer

    1997-11-01

    Oscillatory wall-jets were introduced through spanwise slots along a NACA 0015 airfoil to establish lift augmentation by the unsteady forcing of the wall layer. Pressure coefficients, lift coefficients, and wake velocity profiles were measured for experiments where the oscillatory blowing momentum coefficient was held constant at various frequencies up to M=0.4. At high angles of attack, it was observed that lift coefficient increased by as much as 80% due to the pulsed blowing and that supercritical flow was detected near the leading edge. Measurements at low angles of attack with the flap set at 20^o (an aft loaded airfoil near cruise conditions) showed that low amplitude pulsed forcing from the flap provided a 27% increasing in lift while steady blowing from the flap reduced lift by as much as 15% even at blowing coefficients as high as 3.5%. Wake profiles showed that not only was the lift enhanced due to the oscillatory blowing, but the drag was reduced, demonstrating the effectiveness of pulsed blowing as a tool to increase lift and reduce drag, especially when compared to the relative ineffectiveness of steady blowing under similar conditions.

  17. Research on speed control of secondary regulation lifting system of parking equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Faye

    2005-12-01

    Hydrostatic transmission with secondary regulation is a new kind of hydrostatic transmission that can regenerate inertial and gravitational energy of load. On the basis of an in-depth analysis of the working principles and energy-saving mechanisms of the parking equipment lifting systems with, secondary regulating technology, this paper proposes a method of regenerating a lifting system's inertial energy by controlling rotational speed and reclaiming the gravitational energy by use of a constant rotational speed. Considering large changes of the parameters of lifting systems and then non-linearity, a fuzzy control was adopted to control the lifting system, and a mathematical model of the system was established. By simulation and experiment of the lifting system, the conclusion was reached a lifting system's braking achieved by controlling rotational speed is reliable and stable at a definite speed. It also permits changing the efficiency of recovery by changing the rotational speed. The design power of the lifting system can be chosen in terms of the system's average power, so the system's power can be reduced and energy savings achieved.

  18. Wing flexibility enhances load-lifting capacity in bumblebees

    PubMed Central

    Mountcastle, Andrew M.; Combes, Stacey A.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of wing flexibility on aerodynamic force production has emerged as a central question in insect flight research. However, physical and computational models have yielded conflicting results regarding whether wing deformations enhance or diminish flight forces. By experimentally stiffening the wings of live bumblebees, we demonstrate that wing flexibility affects aerodynamic force production in a natural behavioural context. Bumblebee wings were artificially stiffened in vivo by applying a micro-splint to a single flexible vein joint, and the bees were subjected to load-lifting tests. Bees with stiffened wings showed an 8.6 per cent reduction in maximum vertical aerodynamic force production, which cannot be accounted for by changes in gross wing kinematics, as stroke amplitude and flapping frequency were unchanged. Our results reveal that flexible wing design and the resulting passive deformations enhance vertical force production and load-lifting capacity in bumblebees, locomotory traits with important ecological implications. PMID:23536604

  19. Wing flexibility enhances load-lifting capacity in bumblebees.

    PubMed

    Mountcastle, Andrew M; Combes, Stacey A

    2013-05-22

    The effect of wing flexibility on aerodynamic force production has emerged as a central question in insect flight research. However, physical and computational models have yielded conflicting results regarding whether wing deformations enhance or diminish flight forces. By experimentally stiffening the wings of live bumblebees, we demonstrate that wing flexibility affects aerodynamic force production in a natural behavioural context. Bumblebee wings were artificially stiffened in vivo by applying a micro-splint to a single flexible vein joint, and the bees were subjected to load-lifting tests. Bees with stiffened wings showed an 8.6 per cent reduction in maximum vertical aerodynamic force production, which cannot be accounted for by changes in gross wing kinematics, as stroke amplitude and flapping frequency were unchanged. Our results reveal that flexible wing design and the resulting passive deformations enhance vertical force production and load-lifting capacity in bumblebees, locomotory traits with important ecological implications. PMID:23536604

  20. Lift-Off Performance of Ferrite Enhanced Generation Emats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yichao; Dixon, Steve; Jian, Xiaoming

    2008-02-01

    Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs) are non-contact ultrasonic transducers capable of generating wide-band ultrasonic waves on electrically conductive and magnetostrictive samples. The lack of physical contact makes EMATs particularly suitable for online inspection applications, or situations where samples may be moving or hot. The generation efficiency of a given EMAT on a given sample is dependent on the "lift-off", which is the distance between the EMAT and the sample surface. Efficiency dramatically reducing with increased lift-off. This requirement to be in close proximity to the sample imposes a practical limit of operation and changes in lift-off due to phenomena such as sample vibration can have practical implications in certain NDE applications. This paper describes some results from experiments comparing the performance of a ferrite enhanced EMAT design to one of our `standard' EMATs, where we have substituted the permanent magnet from the standard EMAT with a suitable ferrite material. When the EMAT coil is placed in proximity to the ferrite, but not wrapped around the ferrite, the increase in the generated eddy current amplitude is significant, whilst the inductance or bandwidth of the EMAT is not significantly affected. Using a ferrite material eliminated eddy current losses in the permanent magnet, and also enhances the self-field generation mechanism, which generates a repulsive normal force on the sample surface. Direct experimental results show the ferrite enhanced EMAT generation efficiency can be higher at large stand-offs and is also less sensitive to lift-off variations. Although the example we describe here only applies to EMAT generation, there are situations where ferrite could be used to enhance detector efficiencies.

  1. Gurney flap—Lift enhancement, mechanisms and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. J.; Li, Y. C.; Choi, K.-S.

    2008-01-01

    Since its invention by a race car driver Dan Gurney in 1960s, the Gurney flap has been used to enhance the aerodynamics performance of subsonic and supercritical airfoils, high-lift devices and delta wings. In order to take stock of recent research and development of Gurney flap, we have carried out a review of the characteristics and mechanisms of lift enhancement by the Gurney flap and its applications. Optimum design of the Gurney flap is also summarized in this paper. For the Gurney flap to be effective, it should be mounted at the trailing edge perpendicular to the chord line of airfoil or wing. The flap height must be of the order of local boundary layer thickness. For subsonic airfoils, an additional Gurney flap increases the pressure on the upstream surface of the Gurney flap, which increases the total pressure of the lower surface. At the same time, a long wake downstream of the flap containing a pair of counter-rotating vortices can delay or eliminate the flow separation near the trailing edge on the upper surface. Correspondingly, the total suction on the airfoil is increased. For supercritical airfoils, the lift enhancement of the Gurney flap mainly comes from its ability to shift the shock on the upper surface in the downstream. Applications of the Gurney flap to modern aircraft design are also discussed in this review.

  2. What`s new in artificial lift. Part 2: Advances in electrical submersible pumping equipment and instrumentation/control, plus other new artificial lift developments

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F.; Winkler, H.W.

    1996-04-01

    The Part 1 article presented last month discussed recent industry artificial lift innovations for sucker rod pumping, progressing cavity pumping and gas lift. Described in this presentation are 22 advances recently introduced by 15 different companies for electrical submersible pumping (ESP), and other new developments related to artificial lift field operations. ESP innovations include contributions ranging from new downhole pump equipment, gas separators and cables to various surface controllers/monitors. Other R and D contributions cover desangers, separators, fluid level measurements, chemical injection and well-heads.

  3. Active Tailoring of Lift Distribution to Enhance Cruise Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D. (Technical Monitor); Pfeiffer, Neal J.; Christians, Joel G.

    2005-01-01

    During Phase I of this project, Raytheon Aircraft Company (RAC) has analytically and experimentally evaluated key components of a system that could be implemented for active tailoring of wing lift distribution using low-drag, trailing-edge modifications. Simple systems such as those studied by RAC could be used to enhance the cruise performance of a business jet configuration over a range of typical flight conditions. The trailing-edge modifications focus on simple, deployable mechanisms comprised of extendable small flap panels over portions of the span that could be used to subtly but positively optimize the lift and drag characteristics. The report includes results from low speed wind tunnel testing of the trailing-edge devices, descriptions of potential mechanisms for automation, and an assessment of the technology.

  4. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Turnquist, Norman; Qi, Xuele; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Salas, Ken; Samudrala, Omprakash; Shah, Manoj; Van Dam, Jeremy; Yin, Weijun; Zia, Jalal

    2013-12-20

    This report summarizes the progress made during the April 01, 2010 – December 30, 2013 period under Cooperative Agreement DE-EE0002752 for the U.S. Department of Energy entitled “High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems.” The overall objective of this program is to advance the technology for well fluids lifting systems to meet the foreseeable pressure, temperature, and longevity needs of the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) industry for the coming ten years. In this program, lifting system requirements for EGS wells were established via consultation with industry experts and site visits. A number of artificial lift technologies were evaluated with regard to their applicability to EGS applications; it was determined that a system based on electric submersible pump (ESP) technology was best suited to EGS. Technical barriers were identified and a component-level technology development program was undertaken to address each barrier, with the most challenging being the development of a power-dense, small diameter motor that can operate reliably in a 300°C environment for up to three years. Some of the targeted individual component technologies include permanent magnet motor construction, high-temperature insulation, dielectrics, bearings, seals, thrust washers, and pump impellers/diffusers. Advances were also made in thermal management of electric motors. In addition to the overall system design for a full-scale EGS application, a subscale prototype was designed and fabricated. Like the full-scale design, the subscale prototype features a novel “flow-through-the-bore” permanent magnet electric motor that combines the use of high temperature materials with an internal cooling scheme that limits peak internal temperatures to <330°C. While the full-scale high-volume multi-stage pump is designed to lift up to 80 kg/s of process water, the subscale prototype is based on a production design that can pump 20 kg/s and has been modified

  5. Lifting bloody footwear impressions using alginate casts followed by chemical enhancement.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Sarena; Izraeli, Elad; Shor, Yaron; Domb, Avi

    2013-05-01

    A method for lifting bloody footwear impressions using alginate casts and enhancing the lifted impressions with amido black is presented. On rough or dark substrates, background interferences may conceal significant details of footwear impressions. Illumination with alternative light sources and chemically enhancing the bloody footwear impressions may reveal additional details, but sometimes, lifting footwear impressions prior to enhancing is the only way to expose hidden details (by using blood reagents not adequate on the original). Several cast formulations were tested for lifting the footwear impressions. The best results were achieved using Aroma fine®. Enhancement of the footwear impressions was attempted with several reagents prior to lifting, during the casting process, and on the lifted footwear impressions. Applying amido black to footwear impressions lifted with alginate produced the sharpest and most detailed footwear impressions. Alginate castings followed by chemical enhancement with amido black may produce high-quality footwear impressions for comparison. PMID:23488772

  6. Design Considerations for Artificial Lifting of Enhanced Geothermal System Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Xina Xie; K. K. Bloomfield; G. L. Mines; G. M. Shook

    2005-07-01

    This work evaluates the effect of production well pumping requirements on power generation. The amount of work that can be extracted from a geothermal fluid and the rate at which this work is converted to power increase as the reservoir temperature increases. Artificial lifting is an important issue in this process. The results presented are based on a configuration comprising one production well and one injection well, representing an enhanced geothermal system. The effects of the hydraulic conductivity of the geothermal reservoir, the flow rate, and the size of the production casing are considered in the study. Besides submersible pumps, the possibility of using lineshaft pumps is also discussed.

  7. 29 CFR 1926.1441 - Equipment with a rated hoisting/lifting capacity of 2,000 pounds or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1441 Equipment with a rated hoisting/lifting capacity... crane/derrick lifts—supplemental requirements); § 1926.1434 (Equipment modifications); § 1926.1435 (Tower cranes); § 1926.1436 (Derricks); § 1926.1437 (Floating cranes/derricks and land cranes/derricks...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.1441 - Equipment with a rated hoisting/lifting capacity of 2,000 pounds or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1441 Equipment with a rated hoisting/lifting capacity... crane/derrick lifts—supplemental requirements); § 1926.1434 (Equipment modifications); § 1926.1435 (Tower cranes); § 1926.1436 (Derricks); § 1926.1437 (Floating cranes/derricks and land cranes/derricks...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.1441 - Equipment with a rated hoisting/lifting capacity of 2,000 pounds or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1441 Equipment with a rated hoisting/lifting capacity... crane/derrick lifts—supplemental requirements); § 1926.1434 (Equipment modifications); § 1926.1435 (Tower cranes); § 1926.1436 (Derricks); § 1926.1437 (Floating cranes/derricks and land cranes/derricks...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.1441 - Equipment with a rated hoisting/lifting capacity of 2,000 pounds or less.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1441 Equipment with a rated hoisting/lifting capacity... crane/derrick lifts—supplemental requirements); § 1926.1434 (Equipment modifications); § 1926.1435 (Tower cranes); § 1926.1436 (Derricks); § 1926.1437 (Floating cranes/derricks and land cranes/derricks...

  11. A method for impregnating nylon transfer membranes with leucocrystal violet for enhancing and lifting bloody impressions.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Amy L; Brun-Conti, Leanora

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this research project was to demonstrate a quick and easy method for impregnating nylon transfer membranes with leucocrystal violet (LCV) for the purpose of lifting and enhancing impressions made in blood. A stamp that would simulate fine detail found in fingerprints or footwear was used to create impressions on a variety of substrates. Four different LCV formulations were tested to determine the effectiveness of the prepared membranes in lifting and enhancing the impressions. Further investigation involved the feasibility of using the LCV membranes in the field by studying the shelf life and storage of the impregnated membranes and the longevity of the lifted impressions. One of the formations studied demonstrated superior lifting and enhancing capabilities, as well as a prolonged shelf life and a resilience of the lifted impressions, thus proving LCV to be an extremely valuable technique. PMID:15171168

  12. Experimental Study of Lift-Enhancing Tabs on a Two-Element Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storms, Bruce L.; Ross, James C.

    1995-01-01

    The results of a wind-tunnel test are presented for a two-dimensional NASA 63(sub 2)-215 Mod B airfoil with a 30% chord single-slotted flap. The use of lift-enhancing tabs (similar to Gurney flaps) on the lower surface near the trailing edge of both elements was investigated on four nap configurations. A combination of vortex generators on the flap and lift-enhancing tabs was also investigated. Measurements of surface-pressure distributions and wake profiles were used to determine the aerodynamic performance of each configuration. By reducing flow separation on the flap, a lift-enhancing tab at the main-element trailing edge increased the maximum lift by 10.3% for the 42-deg flap case. The tab had a lesser effect at a moderate flap deflection (32 deg) and adversely affected the performance at the smallest flap deflection (22 deg). A tab located near the flap trailing edge produced an additional lift increment for all flap deflections. The application of vortex generators to the flap eliminated lift-curve hysteresis and reduced flow separation on two configurations with large flap deflections (greater than 40 deg). A maximum-lift coefficient of 3.32 (17% above the optimum baseline) was achieved with the combination of lift-enhancing tabs on both elements and vortex generators on the flap.

  13. Static Extended Trailing Edge for Lift Enhancement: Experimental and Computational Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tianshu; Montefort; Liou, William W.; Pantula, Srinivasa R.; Shams, Qamar A.

    2007-01-01

    A static extended trailing edge attached to a NACA0012 airfoil section is studied for achieving lift enhancement at a small drag penalty. It is indicated that the thin extended trailing edge can enhance the lift while the zero-lift drag is not significantly increased. Experiments and calculations are conducted to compare the aerodynamic characteristics of the extended trailing edge with those of Gurney flap and conventional flap. The extended trailing edge, as a simple mechanical device added on a wing without altering the basic configuration, has a good potential to improve the cruise flight efficiency.

  14. Experimental and computational investigation of lift-enhancing tabs on a multi-element airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, Dale

    1996-01-01

    An experimental and computational investigation of the effect of lift enhancing tabs on a two-element airfoil was conducted. The objective of the study was to develop an understanding of the flow physics associated with lift enhancing tabs on a multi-element airfoil. A NACA 63(sub 2)-215 ModB airfoil with a 30 percent chord Fowler flap was tested in the NASA Ames 7 by 10 foot wind tunnel. Lift enhancing tabs of various heights were tested on both the main element and the flap for a variety of flap riggings. Computations of the flow over the two-element airfoil were performed using the two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes code INS2D-UP. The computer results predict all of the trends in the experimental data quite well. When the flow over the flap upper surface is attached, tabs mounted at the main element trailing edge (cove tabs) produce very little change in lift. At high flap deflections. however, the flow over the flap is separated and cove tabs produce large increases in lift and corresponding reductions in drag by eliminating the separated flow. Cove tabs permit high flap deflection angles to be achieved and reduce the sensitivity of the airfoil lift to the size of the flap gap. Tabs attached to the flap training edge (flap tabs) are effective at increasing lift without significantly increasing drag. A combination of a cove tab and a flap tab increased the airfoil lift coefficient by 11 percent relative to the highest lift tab coefficient achieved by any baseline configuration at an angle of attack of zero percent and the maximum lift coefficient was increased by more than 3 percent. A simple analytic model based on potential flow was developed to provide a more detailed understanding of how lift enhancing tabs work. The tabs were modeled by a point vortex at the training edge. Sensitivity relationships were derived which provide a mathematical basis for explaining the effects of lift enhancing tabs on a multi-element airfoil. Results of the modeling

  15. Experimental and Computational Investigation of Lift-Enhancing Tabs on a Multi-Element Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, Dale L.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental and computational investigation of the effect of lift-enhancing tabs on a two-element airfoil has been conducted. The objective of the study was to develop an understanding of the flow physics associated with lift-enhancing tabs on a multi-element airfoil. An NACA 63(2)-215 ModB airfoil with a 30% chord fowler flap was tested in the NASA Ames 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel. Lift-enhancing tabs of various heights were tested on both the main element and the flap for a variety of flap riggings. A combination of tabs located at the main element and flap trailing edges increased the airfoil lift coefficient by 11% relative to the highest lift coefficient achieved by any baseline configuration at an angle of attack of 0 deg, and C(sub 1max) was increased by 3%. Computations of the flow over the two-element airfoil were performed using the two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes code INS2D-UP. The computed results predicted all of the trends observed in the experimental data quite well. In addition, a simple analytic model based on potential flow was developed to provide a more detailed understanding of how lift-enhancing tabs work. The tabs were modeled by a point vortex at the air-foil or flap trailing edge. Sensitivity relationships were derived which provide a mathematical basis for explaining the effects of lift-enhancing tabs on a multi-element airfoil. Results of the modeling effort indicate that the dominant effects of the tabs on the pressure distribution of each element of the airfoil can be captured with a potential flow model for cases with no flow separation.

  16. Cost-Effective Integration of Efficient Low-Lift Baseload Cooling Equipment: FY08 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Armstrong, P. R.; Wang, Weimin; Fernandez, Nicholas; Cho, Heejin; Goetzler, W.; Burgos, J.; Radhakrishnan, R.; Ahlfeldt, C.

    2010-01-31

    Documentation of a study to investigate one heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system option, low-lift cooling, which offers potentially exemplary HVAC energy performance relative to American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1-2004.

  17. 78 FR 3356 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Wing Lift Struts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... 39-39-10972 (63 FR 72132, December 31, 1998), we have been informed that the language in paragraph (c.... Discussion On December 22, 1998, we issued AD 99-01-05, amendment 39-10972 (63 FR 72132, December 31, 1998... wing lift struts. That AD superseded AD 93-10-06, amendment 39-8586 (58 FR 29965, May 25, 1993),...

  18. Scaling law and enhancement of lift generation of an insect-size hovering flexible wing.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chang-kwon; Shyy, Wei

    2013-08-01

    We report a comprehensive scaling law and novel lift generation mechanisms relevant to the aerodynamic functions of structural flexibility in insect flight. Using a Navier-Stokes equation solver, fully coupled to a structural dynamics solver, we consider the hovering motion of a wing of insect size, in which the dynamics of fluid-structure interaction leads to passive wing rotation. Lift generated on the flexible wing scales with the relative shape deformation parameter, whereas the optimal lift is obtained when the wing deformation synchronizes with the imposed translation, consistent with previously reported observations for fruit flies and honeybees. Systematic comparisons with rigid wings illustrate that the nonlinear response in wing motion results in a greater peak angle compared with a simple harmonic motion, yielding higher lift. Moreover, the compliant wing streamlines its shape via camber deformation to mitigate the nonlinear lift-degrading wing-wake interaction to further enhance lift. These bioinspired aeroelastic mechanisms can be used in the development of flapping wing micro-robots. PMID:23760300

  19. Lift enhancement of an airfoil using a Gurney flap and vortex generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storms, Bruce L.; Jang, Cory S.

    1993-01-01

    The results of a low-speed wind tunnel test are presented for a single-element airfoil incorporating two lift-enhancing devices, namely a Gurney flap and vortex generators. The former consists of a small plate, on the order of one to two percent of the airfoil chord in height, located at the trailing edge perpendicular to the pressure side of the airfoil. The later consist of commercially-available, wishbone-shaped vortex generators. The test was conducted in the NASA Ames 7- by 10-foot Wind Tunnel with a full-span NACA 4412 airfoil. Measurements of surface pressure distributions and wake profiles were made to determine the lift, drag, and pitching-moment coefficients for the various airfoil configurations. The results indicate that the addition of a Gurney flap increased the maximum lift coefficient from 1.49 up to 1.96.

  20. Lift-enhanced Electrical Pinched Flow Fractionation for Particle and Cell Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Cory; Todd, Andrew; Lu, Xinyu; Xuan, Xiangchun

    Pinched flow fractionation (PFF) is a microfluidic technique that utilizes the laminar flow profile in microchannels to continuously separate particles or cells by size. The flow can be either pressure-driven or electric field-driven. We demonstrate in this work that the wall-induced electrical lift force can be exploited to significantly increase the particle or cell displacement in electrical PFF due to its strong size dependence. This enhanced particle and cell separation is implemented by a simple elongation of the pinched segment in electrical PFF. It is demonstrated through both a binary and a ternary separation of polymer particles and biological cells based on surface charge and/or size. We also develop a numerical model to predict and understand this lift-enhanced electrical PFF. This work was supported by the Honors and Creative Inquiry programs at Clemson University.

  1. Cost-Effective Integration of Efficient Low-Lift Base Load Cooling Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Wei; Winiarski, David W.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Armstrong, Peter R.

    2008-01-14

    The long-term goal of DOE’s Commercial Buildings Integration subprogram is to develop cost-effective technologies and building practices that will enable the design and construction of net Zero Energy Buildings — commercial buildings that produce as much energy as they use on an annual basis — by 2025. To support this long-term goal, DOE further called for — as part of its FY07 Statement of Needs — the development by 2010 of “five cost-effective design technology option sets using highly efficient component technologies, integrated controls, improved construction practices, streamlined commissioning, maintenance and operating procedures that will make new and existing commercial buildings durable, healthy and safe for occupants.” In response, PNNL proposed and DOE funded a scoping study investigation of one such technology option set, low-lift cooling, that offers potentially exemplary HVAC energy performance relative to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. The primary purpose of the scoping study was to estimate the national technical energy savings potential of this TOS.

  2. Epitaxial lift-off of quantum dot enhanced GaAs single junction solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Mitchell F.; Bittner, Zachary S.; Forbes, David V.; Hubbard, Seth M.; Rao Tatavarti, Sudersena; Wibowo, Andree; Pan, Noren; Chern, Kevin; Phillip Ahrenkiel, S.

    2013-11-18

    InAs/GaAs strain-balanced quantum dot (QD) n-i-p solar cells were fabricated by epitaxial lift-off (ELO), creating thin and flexible devices that exhibit an enhanced sub-GaAs bandgap current collection extending into the near infrared. Materials and optical analysis indicates that QD quality after ELO processing is preserved, which is supported by transmission electron microscopy images of the QD superlattice post-ELO. Spectral responsivity measurements depict a broadband resonant cavity enhancement past the GaAs bandedge, which is due to the thinning of the device. Integrated external quantum efficiency shows a QD contribution to the short circuit current density of 0.23 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  3. Investigation of a bio-inspired lift-enhancing effector on a 2D airfoil.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Joe; Gopalarathnam, Ashok

    2012-09-01

    A flap mounted on the upper surface of an airfoil, called a 'lift-enhancing effector', has been shown in wind tunnel tests to have a similar function to a bird's covert feathers, which rise off the wing's surface in response to separated flows. The effector, fabricated from a thin Mylar sheet, is allowed to rotate freely about its leading edge. The tests were performed in the NCSU subsonic wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of 4 × 10(5). The maximum lift coefficient with the effector was the same as that for the clean airfoil, but was maintained over an angle-of-attack range from 12° to almost 20°, resulting in a very gentle stall behavior. To better understand the aerodynamics and to estimate the deployment angle of the free-moving effector, fixed-angle effectors fabricated out of stiff wood were also tested. A progressive increase in the stall angle of attack with increasing effector angle was observed, with diminishing returns beyond the effector angle of 60°. Drag tests on both the free-moving and fixed effectors showed a marked improvement in drag at high angles of attack. Oil flow visualization on the airfoil with and without the fixed-angle effectors proved that the effector causes the separation point to move aft on the airfoil, as compared to the clean airfoil. This is thought to be the main mechanism by which an effector improves both lift and drag. A comparison of the fixed-effector results with those from the free-effector tests shows that the free effector's deployment angle is between 30° and 45°. When operating at and beyond the clean airfoil's stall angle, the free effector automatically deploys to progressively higher angles with increasing angles of attack. This slows down the rapid upstream movement of the separation point and avoids the severe reduction in the lift coefficient and an increase in the drag coefficient that are seen on the clean airfoil at the onset of stall. Thus, the effector postpones the stall by 4-8° and makes the

  4. Sagebrush carrying out hydraulic lift enhances surface soil nitrogen cycling and nitrogen uptake into inflorescences

    PubMed Central

    Cardon, Zoe G.; Stark, John M.; Herron, Patrick M.; Rasmussen, Jed A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant roots serve as conduits for water flow not only from soil to leaves but also from wetter to drier soil. This hydraulic redistribution through root systems occurs in soils worldwide and can enhance stomatal opening, transpiration, and plant carbon gain. For decades, upward hydraulic lift (HL) of deep water through roots into dry, litter-rich, surface soil also has been hypothesized to enhance nutrient availability to plants by stimulating microbially controlled nutrient cycling. This link has not been demonstrated in the field. Working in sagebrush-steppe, where water and nitrogen limit plant growth and reproduction and where HL occurs naturally during summer drought, we slightly augmented deep soil water availability to 14 HL+ treatment plants throughout the summer growing season. The HL+ sagebrush lifted greater amounts of water than control plants and had slightly less negative predawn and midday leaf water potentials. Soil respiration was also augmented under HL+ plants. At summer’s end, application of a gas-based 15N isotopic labeling technique revealed increased rates of nitrogen cycling in surface soil layers around HL+ plants and increased uptake of nitrogen into HL+ plants’ inflorescences as sagebrush set seed. These treatment effects persisted even though unexpected monsoon rainstorms arrived during assays and increased surface soil moisture around all plants. Simulation models from ecosystem to global scales have just begun to include effects of hydraulic redistribution on water and surface energy fluxes. Results from this field study indicate that plants carrying out HL can also substantially enhance decomposition and nitrogen cycling in surface soils. PMID:24191007

  5. Inertial lift enhanced phase partitioning for continuous microfluidic surface energy based sorting of particles.

    PubMed

    Parichehreh, Vahidreza; Sethu, Palaniappan

    2012-04-01

    A new microfluidics technique that exploits the selectivity of phase partitioning and high-speed focusing capabilities of the inertial effects in flow was developed for continuous label-free sorting of particles and cells. Separations were accomplished by introducing particles at the interface of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and dextran (DEX) phases in rectangular high aspect-ratio microfluidic channels and allowing them to partition to energetically favorable locations within the PEG phase, DEX phase or interface at the center of the microchannel. Separation of partitioned particles was further enhanced via inertial lift forces that develop in high aspect-ratio microchannels that move particles to equilibrium positions close to the outer wall. Combining phase partitioning with inertial focusing ensures selectivity is possible using phase partitioning with sufficient throughput (at least an order of magnitude greater than phase partitioning alone) for application in the clinical and research setting. Using this system we accomplished separation of 15 μm polystyrene (PS) particles from 1-20 μm polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles. Results confirm the feasibility of separation based on phase partitioning and enhancement of separation via inertial focusing. Approximately 86% of PS particles were isolated within the PEG phase whereas 78% of PMMA particles were isolated within the DEX phase. When a binary mixture of PS and PMMA was introduced within the device, ~83% of PS particles were isolated in the PEG phase and ~74% of PMMA particles were isolated in the DEX phase. These results confirm the feasibility of this technique for rapid and reliable separation of particles and potentially cells. PMID:22336961

  6. Study of lift enhancing mechanisms via comparison of two distinct flapping patterns in the dragonfly Sympetrum flaveolum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. H.; Skote, M.

    2015-03-01

    The computational fluid dynamic model of a live-sized dragonfly (Sympetrum flaveolum) hindwing is simulated according to the in-flight flapping motions measured in kinematic experiments. The flapping motion of the simulated wing is accomplished by dynamically re-gridding the wing-fluid mesh according to the established kinematic model for each flapping pattern. Comparisons between two distinct flapping patterns (double figure-eight and simple figure-eight) are studied via analysis of the aerodynamic forces and flow field structures. The result shows that additional lift is generated during supination and upstroke for the double figure-eight pattern, while maximum thrust is generated during pronation for the simple figure-eight pattern. In addition, through our comparisons of the different kinematics, we are able to reveal the mechanism behind the leading edge vortex stabilization prior to supination and the kinematic movement responsible for additional lift generation during supination. By increasing the translational deceleration during stroke-end rotations in the double figure-eight flapping pattern, a trailing edge vortex is formed which is stronger as compared to the single figure-eight flapping pattern, thus enhancing the lift.

  7. Breast lift

    MedlinePlus

    ... enable JavaScript. A breast lift, or mastopexy, is cosmetic breast surgery to lift the breasts. The surgery ... the position of the areola and nipple. Description Cosmetic breast surgery can be done at an outpatient ...

  8. Eyelid lift

    MedlinePlus

    Eyelid lift surgery is done to repair sagging or drooping upper eyelids ( ptosis ). The surgery is called blepharoplasty. Sagging ... An eyelid lift is needed when eyelid drooping reduces your vision. You may be asked to have your eye doctor test ...

  9. Forehead lift

    MedlinePlus

    ... both sides even. If you have already had plastic surgery to lift your upper eyelids, a forehead lift ... Managing the cosmetic patient. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap ...

  10. Enhanced UK teletext: Experimental equipment for high-quality picture coding and other enhancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. L.

    1983-07-01

    The construction of a pair of microcomputer-based units which will serve as a research tool in engineering teletext enhancements, one unit a transmitter and the other a receiver in a closed-circuit teletext transmission is described. The microcomputer system and frame store design is basically similar to that currently used by Logica in the Flair electronic graphics equipment. Considerable effort was devoted to the development of software handling. The units are equipped with a CP/M operating system, which is already widely known. This greatly simplifies the management of files and includes compiling routines and a software debugging tool. Software is being prepared in PASCAL. Routines were developed to receive, generate, edit and transmit teletext in its present form. Early attention was given to demonstrating that picture teletext is feasible through a crudely-coded slow-scan television system. An acceptable sampling structure for these pictures and optimizing the coding of data to fit in with a hierarchy of coding embracing other aspects of enhanced teletext, for example, geometric drawing, electronic painting and telesoftware are addressed. A high quality character font was incorporated to improve the display of text.

  11. Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szumski, Michał

    This chapter describes the most important features of capillary electrophoretic equipment. A presentation of the important developments in high voltage power supplies for chip CE is followed by preparation of fused silica capillaries for use in CE. Detection systems that are used in capillary electrophoresis are widely described. Here, UV-Vis absorbance measurements are discussed including different types of detection cells—also those less popular (u-shaped, Z-shaped, mirror-coated). Fluorescence detection and laser-induced fluorescence detection are the most sensitive detection systems. Several LIF setups, such as collinear, orthogonal, confocal, and sheath-flow cuvette, are presented from the point of view of the sensitivity they can provide. Several electrochemical detectors for CE, such as conductivity, amperometric, and potentiometric, are also shown and their constructions discussed. CE-MS and much less known CE (CEC)-NMR systems are also described. The examples of automation and robotized CE systems together with their potential fields of application are also presented.

  12. Pneumatic Spoiler Controls Airfoil Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, D.; Krauss, T.

    1991-01-01

    Air ejection from leading edge of airfoil used for controlled decrease of lift. Pneumatic-spoiler principle developed for equalizing lift on helicopter rotor blades. Also used to enhance aerodynamic control of short-fuselage or rudderless aircraft such as "flying-wing" airplanes. Leading-edge injection increases maneuverability of such high-performance fixed-wing aircraft as fighters.

  13. Aerodynamic characteristics of a propeller-powered high-lift semispan wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Garl L., Jr.; Takallu, M. A.; Applin, Zachary T.

    1994-01-01

    A small-scale semispan high-lift wing-flap system equipped under the wing with a turboprop engine assembly was tested in the LaRC 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. Experimental data were obtained for various propeller rotational speeds, nacelle locations, and nacelle inclinations. To isolate the effects of the high lift system, data were obtained with and without the flaps and leading-edge device. The effects of the propeller slipstream on the overall longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of the wing-propeller assembly were examined. Test results indicated that the lift coefficient of the wing could be increased by the propeller slipstream when the rotational speed was increased and high-lift devices were deployed. Decreasing the nacelle inclination (increased pitch down) enhanced the lift performance of the system much more than varying the vertical or horizontal location of the nacelle. Furthermore, decreasing the nacelle inclination led to higher lift curve slope values, which indicated that the powered wing could sustain higher angles of attack near maximum lift performance. Any lift augmentation was accompanied by a drag penalty due to the increased wing lift.

  14. Serrated-Planform Lifting-Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, Brian E. (Inventor); Wood, Richard M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A novel set of serrated-planform lifting surfaces produce unexpectedly high lift coefficients at moderate to high angles-of-attack. Each serration, or tooth, is designed to shed a vortex. The interaction of the vortices greatly enhances the lifting capability over an extremely large operating range. Variations of the invention use serrated-planform lifting surfaces in planes different than that of a primary lifting surface. In an alternate embodiment, the individual teeth are controllably retractable and deployable to provide for active control of the vortex system and hence lift coefficient. Differential lift on multiple serrated-planform lifting surfaces provides a means for vehicle control. The important aerodynamic advantages of the serrated-planform lifting surfaces are not limited to aircraft applications but can be used to establish desirable performance characteristics for missiles, land vehicles, and/or watercraft.

  15. Enhanced anthocyanin production from grape callus in an air-lift type bioreactor using a viscous additive-supplemented medium.

    PubMed

    Honda, Hiroyuki; Hiraoka, Kousuke; Nagamori, Eiji; Omote, Mariko; Kato, Yoshihito; Hiraoka, Setsuro; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2002-01-01

    An N-medium containing carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was applied to an air-lift type bioreactor culture of grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Bailey alicant A.) callus, and anthocyanin production was investigated. Grape callus grew well at an air flow rate of 80 ml/min and anthocyanin production was significantly increased in the N-medium, reaching 17 mg/l after 7 d of culture. The anthocyanin content of the N-medium was about two times higher than that of the conventional medium without CMC. The effect of air flow rate was also investigated within the range from 40 to 160 ml/min. A twofold increase in anthocyanin content was obtained at all the air flow rates tested in the N-medium. The distribution of grape callus size obtained after 7 d of the bioreactor culture was investigated. The average callus size was 490 mum which was 1.6 times larger than that obtained in the conventional medium. It was found that large calli with a relatively high anthocyanin pigment content were formed in the bioreactor culture using the N-medium. The fluid dynamics in the bioreactor was also investigated at three points (top, middle and bottom) in the bioreactor by laser doppler velocimetry. The average axial velocity of the circulated medium was 0.4 times lower than that of the conventional medium while their average radial velocities were almost the same (zero). The standard deviation of radial velocity fluctuation in the N-medium was also 0.4 times less than that in the conventional medium. These results suggest that turbulent flow occurred in the bioreactor culture using the conventional medium and the degree of turbulent flow decreased significantly when 0.8% CMC was added to the medium to prepare the N-medium. A change of the flow pattern is considered to be the cause of the decrease in hydrodynamic stress, resulting in enhanced pigment production due to the enlargement of the callus. PMID:16233283

  16. New and expected developments in artificial lift

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F.; Winkler, H.W.

    1994-12-31

    Artificial lift is a broad subject. This paper discusses some of the new developments in the major areas of artificial lift. These are (1) beam lift, (2) electrical submersible pumping, (3) gas lift, (4) hydraulic pumping and (5) miscellaneous topics. The beam lift discussion concerns a new rod material, downhole measurements for rod loading, unit design and some miscellaneous topics. The ESP (Electrical Submersible Pump) section includes a discussion on solids handling, downhole sensor technology, new motor temperature limitations, motor efficiency, and other topics. The gas lift discussion includes mention of coiled tubing with gas lift valves internal, a surface controlled gas lift valve concept, and gas lift valve testing and modeling. Hydraulic pumping is used in many locations with deep pay and fairly small production rates. New hydraulic developments include a wider availability of power fluid pumps other than positive displacement pumps, and small jet pumps specifically designed for de-watering gas wells. Some miscellaneous developments include an insertable PC (progressing cavity) pump and improved plunger lift algorithms and equipment.

  17. Total Facelift: Forehead Lift, Midface Lift, and Neck Lift

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Patients with thick skin mainly exhibit the aging processes of sagging, whereas patients with thin skin develop wrinkles or volume loss. Asian skin is usually thicker than that of Westerners; and thus, the sagging of skin due to aging, rather than wrinkling, is the chief problem to be addressed in Asians. Asian skin is also relatively large in area and thick, implying that the weight of tissue to be lifted is considerably heavier. These factors account for the difficulties in performing a facelift in Asians. Facelifts can be divided into forehead lift, midface lift, and lower face lift. These can be performed individually or with 2-3 procedures combined. PMID:25798381

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR EQUIPPED WITH A LOW-NOX BURNER. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a compendium of detailed test sampling and analysis data obtained in field tests of an enhanced oil recovery steam generator (EOR steamer) equipped with a MHI PM low-NOx crude oil burner. Test data included in the report include equipment calibration records, steame...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR EQUIPPED WITH A LOW-NOX BURNER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses results from sampling flue gas from an enhanced oil recovery steam generator (EOR steamer) equipped with an MHI PM low-NOx burner. The tests included burner performance/emission mapping tests, comparative testing of an identical steamer equipped with a conven...

  20. Performance Enhancement of a Full-Scale Vertical Tail Model Equipped with Active Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Edward A.; Lacy, Douglas; Lin, John C.; Andino, Marlyn Y.; Washburn, Anthony E.; Graff, Emilio; Wygnanski, Israel J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes wind tunnel test results from a joint NASA/Boeing research effort to advance active flow control (AFC) technology to enhance aerodynamic efficiency. A full-scale Boeing 757 vertical tail model equipped with sweeping jet actuators was tested at the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel (40x80) at NASA Ames Research Center. The model was tested at a nominal airspeed of 100 knots and across rudder deflections and sideslip angles that covered the vertical tail flight envelope. A successful demonstration of AFC-enhanced vertical tail technology was achieved. A 31- actuator configuration significantly increased side force (by greater than 20%) at a maximum rudder deflection of 30deg. The successful demonstration of this application has cleared the way for a flight demonstration on the Boeing 757 ecoDemonstrator in 2015.

  1. An Updated Methodology for Enhancing Risk Monitors with Integrated Equipment Condition Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Coles, Garill A.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.; Ivans, William J.; Wootan, David W.; Mitchell, Mark R.

    2014-07-18

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) generally include reactors with electric output of ~350 MWe or less (this cutoff varies somewhat but is substantially less than full-size plant output of 700 MWe or more). Advanced SMRs (AdvSMRs) refer to a specific class of SMRs and are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts. Enhancing affordability of AdvSMRs will be critical to ensuring wider deployment, as AdvSMRs suffer from loss of economies of scale inherent in small reactors when compared to large (~greater than 600 MWe output) reactors and the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs will be dominated by operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Technologies that help characterize real-time risk are important for controlling O&M costs. Risk monitors are used in current nuclear power plants to provide a point-in-time estimate of the system risk given the current plant configuration (e.g., equipment availability, operational regime, and environmental conditions). However, current risk monitors are unable to support the capability requirements listed above as they do not take into account plant-specific normal, abnormal, and deteriorating states of active components and systems. This report documents technology developments towards enhancing risk monitors that, if integrated with supervisory plant control systems, can provide the capability requirements listed and meet the goals of controlling O&M costs. The report describes research results on augmenting an initial methodology for enhanced risk monitors that integrate real-time information about equipment condition and POF into risk monitors. Methods to propagate uncertainty through the enhanced risk monitor are evaluated. Available data to quantify the level of uncertainty and the POF of key components are examined for their relevance, and a status update of this data evaluation is described. Finally, we describe potential targets for developing new risk metrics that may be useful for studying trade-offs for economic

  2. Variable Lifting Index (VLI)

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Thomas; Occhipinti, Enrico; Colombini, Daniela; Alvarez-Casado, Enrique; Fox, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We seek to develop a new approach for analyzing the physical demands of highly variable lifting tasks through an adaptation of the Revised NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) Lifting Equation (RNLE) into a Variable Lifting Index (VLI). Background: There are many jobs that contain individual lifts that vary from lift to lift due to the task requirements. The NIOSH Lifting Equation is not suitable in its present form to analyze variable lifting tasks. Method: In extending the prior work on the VLI, two procedures are presented to allow users to analyze variable lifting tasks. One approach involves the sampling of lifting tasks performed by a worker over a shift and the calculation of the Frequency Independent Lift Index (FILI) for each sampled lift and the aggregation of the FILI values into six categories. The Composite Lift Index (CLI) equation is used with lifting index (LI) category frequency data to calculate the VLI. The second approach employs a detailed systematic collection of lifting task data from production and/or organizational sources. The data are organized into simplified task parameter categories and further aggregated into six FILI categories, which also use the CLI equation to calculate the VLI. Results: The two procedures will allow practitioners to systematically employ the VLI method to a variety of work situations where highly variable lifting tasks are performed. Conclusions: The scientific basis for the VLI procedure is similar to that for the CLI originally presented by NIOSH; however, the VLI method remains to be validated. Application: The VLI method allows an analyst to assess highly variable manual lifting jobs in which the task characteristics vary from lift to lift during a shift. PMID:26646300

  3. Study of belly-flaps to enhance lift and pitching moment coefficient of a Blended-Wing-Body airplane in landing and takeoff configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staelens, Yann Daniel

    During the first century of flight few major changes have been made to the configuration of subsonic airplanes. A distinct fuselage with wings, a tail, engines and a landing gear persists as the dominant arrangement. During WWII some companies developed tailless all-wing airplanes. However the concept failed to advance till the late 80's when the B-2, the only flying wing to enter production to date, illustrated its benefits at least for a stealth platform. The advent of the Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) addresses the historical shortcomings of all-wing designs, specifically poor volume utility and excess wetted area as a result. The BWB is now poised to become the new standard for large subsonic airplanes. Major aerospace companies are studying the concept for next generation of passenger airplanes. But there are still challenges. One is the BWB's short control lever-arm pitch. This affects rotation and go-around performances. This study presents a possible solution by using a novel type of control surface, a belly-flap, on the under side of the wing to enhance its lift and pitching moment coefficient during landing, go-around and takeoff. Increases of up to 30% in lift-off CL and 8% in positive pitching moment have been achieved during wind tunnel tests on a generic BWB-model with a belly-flap. These aerodynamic improvements when used in a mathematical simulation of landing, go-around and takeoff procedure were showing reduction in landing-field-length by up to 22%, in takeoff-field-length by up to 8% and in loss in altitude between initiation of rotation and actual rotation during go-around by up to 21.5%.

  4. Technical Report on Preliminary Methodology for Enhancing Risk Monitors with Integrated Equipment Condition Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coles, Garill A.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hirt, Evelyn H.

    2013-09-17

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) generally include reactors with electric output of ~350 MWe or less (this cutoff varies somewhat but is substantially less than full-size plant output of 700 MWe or more). Advanced SMRs (AdvSMRs) refer to a specific class of SMRs and are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts. AdvSMRs may provide a longer-term alternative to traditional light-water reactors (LWRs) and SMRs based on integral pressurized water reactor concepts currently being considered. Enhancing affordability of AdvSMRs will be critical to ensuring wider deployment. AdvSMRs suffer from loss of economies of scale inherent in small reactors when compared to large (~greater than 600 MWe output) reactors. Some of this loss can be recovered through reduced capital costs through smaller size, fewer components, modular fabrication processes, and the opportunity for modular construction. However, the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs will be dominated by operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Technologies that help characterize real-time risk are important for controlling O&M costs. Risk monitors are used in current nuclear power plants to provide a point-in-time estimate of the system risk given the current plant configuration (e.g., equipment availability, operational regime, and environmental conditions). However, current risk monitors are unable to support the capability requirements listed above as they do not take into account plant-specific normal, abnormal, and deteriorating states of active components and systems. This report documents technology developments that are a step towards enhancing risk monitors that, if integrated with supervisory plant control systems, can provide the capability requirements listed and meet the goals of controlling O&M costs. The report describes research results from an initial methodology for enhanced risk monitors by integrating real-time information about equipment condition and POF into risk monitors.

  5. Lift truck safety review

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter`s Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given.

  6. Enhancement of current collection in epitaxial lift-off InAs/GaAs quantum dot thin film solar cell and concentrated photovoltaic study

    SciTech Connect

    Sogabe, Tomah Shoji, Yasushi; Tamayo, Efrain; Okada, Yoshitaka; Mulder, Peter; Schermer, John

    2014-09-15

    We report the fabrication of a thin film InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cell (QD cell) by applying epitaxial lift-off (ELO) approach to the GaAs substrate. We confirmed significant current collection enhancement (∼0.91 mA/cm{sup 2}) in the ELO-InAs QD cell within the wavelength range of 700 nm–900 nm when compared to the ELO-GaAs control cell. This is almost six times of the sub-GaAs bandgap current collection (∼0.16 mA/cm{sup 2}) from the wavelength range of 900 nm and beyond, we also confirmed the ELO induced resonance cavity effect was able to increase the solar cell efficiency by increasing both the short circuit current and open voltage. The electric field intensity of the resonance cavity formed in the ELO film between the Au back reflector and the GaAs front contact layer was analyzed in detail by finite-differential time-domain (FDTD) simulation. We found that the calculated current collection enhancement within the wavelength range of 700 nm–900 nm was strongly influenced by the size and shape of InAs QD. In addition, we performed concentrated light photovoltaic study and analyzed the effect of intermediate states on the open voltage under varied concentrated light intensity for the ELO-InAs QD cell.

  7. Enhanced Cr bioleaching efficiency from tannery sludge with coinoculation of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans TS6 and Brettanomyces B65 in an air-lift reactor.

    PubMed

    Fang, Di; Zhou, Li-Xiang

    2007-09-01

    Bioleaching process has been demonstrated to be an effective technology in removing Cr from tannery sludge, but a large quantity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) present in tannery sludge often exhibits a marked toxicity to chemolithoautotrophic bioleaching bacteria such as Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. The purpose of the present study was therefore to enhance Cr bioleaching efficiencies through introducing sludge DOM-degrading heterotrophic microorganism into the sulfur-based sludge bioleaching system. An acid-tolerant DOM-degrading yeast strain Brettanomyces B65 was successfully isolated from a local Haining tannery sludge and it could metabolize sludge DOM as a source of energy and carbon for growth. A combined bioleaching experiment (coupling Brettanomyces B65 and A. thiooxidans TS6) performed in an air-lift reactor indicated that the rates of sludge pH reduction and ORP increase were greatly improved, resulting in enhanced Cr solubilization. Compared with the 5 days required for maximum solubilization of Cr for the control (single bioleaching process without inoculation of Brettanomyces B65), the bioleaching period was significantly shorten to 3 days for the combined bioleaching system. Moreover, little nitrogen and phosphorous were lost and the content of Cr was below the permitted levels for land application after 3 days of bioleaching treatment. PMID:17537479

  8. Enhancement of current collection in epitaxial lift-off InAs/GaAs quantum dot thin film solar cell and concentrated photovoltaic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogabe, Tomah; Shoji, Yasushi; Mulder, Peter; Schermer, John; Tamayo, Efrain; Okada, Yoshitaka

    2014-09-01

    We report the fabrication of a thin film InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cell (QD cell) by applying epitaxial lift-off (ELO) approach to the GaAs substrate. We confirmed significant current collection enhancement (˜0.91 mA/cm2) in the ELO-InAs QD cell within the wavelength range of 700 nm-900 nm when compared to the ELO-GaAs control cell. This is almost six times of the sub-GaAs bandgap current collection (˜0.16 mA/cm2) from the wavelength range of 900 nm and beyond, we also confirmed the ELO induced resonance cavity effect was able to increase the solar cell efficiency by increasing both the short circuit current and open voltage. The electric field intensity of the resonance cavity formed in the ELO film between the Au back reflector and the GaAs front contact layer was analyzed in detail by finite-differential time-domain (FDTD) simulation. We found that the calculated current collection enhancement within the wavelength range of 700 nm-900 nm was strongly influenced by the size and shape of InAs QD. In addition, we performed concentrated light photovoltaic study and analyzed the effect of intermediate states on the open voltage under varied concentrated light intensity for the ELO-InAs QD cell.

  9. Enhancing Quality Interventions Promoting Healthy Sexuality (EQUIPS): A novel application of translational research methods

    PubMed Central

    Chinman, Matthew; Acosta, Joie; Ebener, Patricia; Driver, Jennifer; Keith, Jamie; Peebles, Dana

    2013-01-01

    Translational research is expanding, in part, because Evidence-Based Programs or Practices (EBPs) are not adopted in many medical domains. However, little translational research exists on EBPs that are prevention programs delivered in non-clinical, community-based settings. These organizations often have low capacity, which undermines implementation quality and outcomes. Rigorous translational research is needed in these settings so within a single study, capacity, implementation quality, and outcomes are measured and links between them tested. This paper overviews the study Enhancing Quality Interventions Promoting Healthy Sexuality (EQUIPS), which tests how well a community-based setting (Boys & Girls Clubs) conducts an EBP called Making Proud Choices that aims to prevent teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, with and without an implementation support intervention called Getting To Outcomes®. The study design is novel as it assesses: Getting To Outcomes’ impact on capacity, implementation quality, and outcomes simultaneously and in both study conditions; will assess sustainability by measuring capacity and fidelity a year after the Getting To Outcomes support ends; and will operate on a large scale similar to many national initiatives. Many studies have not incorporated all these elements and thus EQUIPS could serve as a model for translational research in many domains. PMID:23751031

  10. Enhanced data reduction of the velocity data on CETA flight experiment. [Crew and Equipment Translation Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, Tom D.; Wong, Douglas T.; Tripp, John S.

    1993-01-01

    A newly developed technique for enhanced data reduction provides an improved procedure that allows least squares minimization to become possible between data sets with an unequal number of data points. This technique was applied in the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) experiment on the STS-37 Shuttle flight in April 1991 to obtain the velocity profile from the acceleration data. The new technique uses a least-squares method to estimate the initial conditions and calibration constants. These initial conditions are estimated by least-squares fitting the displacements indicated by the Hall-effect sensor data to the corresponding displacements obtained from integrating the acceleration data. The velocity and displacement profiles can then be recalculated from the corresponding acceleration data using the estimated parameters. This technique, which enables instantaneous velocities to be obtained from the test data instead of only average velocities at varying discrete times, offers more detailed velocity information, particularly during periods of large acceleration or deceleration.

  11. MASCAL: RFID Tracking of Patients, Staff and Equipment to Enhance Hospital Response to Mass Casualty Events

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Emory A.; Lenert, Leslie A.

    2005-01-01

    Most medical facilities practice managing the large numbers of seriously injured patients expected during catastrophic events. As the demands on the healthcare team increase, however, the challenges faced by managers escalate, workflow bottlenecks develop and system capacity decreases. This paper describes MASCAL, an integrated software–hardware system designed to enhance management of resources at a hospital during a mass casualty situation. MASCAL uses active 802.11b asset tags to track patients, equipment and staff during the response to a disaster. The system integrates tag position information with data from personnel databases, medical information systems, registration applications and the US Navy’s TACMEDCS triage application in a custom visual disaster management environment. MASCAL includes interfaces for a hospital command center, local area managers (emergency room, operating suites, radiology, etc.) and registration personnel. MASCAL is an operational system undergoing functional evaluation at the Naval Medical Center, San Diego, CA. PMID:16779042

  12. Enhancement in Diffusion of Electrolyte through Membrane Using Ultrasonic Dialysis Equipment with Plane Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Ohdaira, Etsuzo; Ide, Masao

    1995-05-01

    Application of ultrasound to accelerate the dialysis separation of electrolytes through a membrane was studied with ultrasonic dialysis equipment. The experiments were conducted with cellophane membrane and KCl solution, CH3COONa solution, and a mixture of KCl and saponin solutions. It was found that the diffusion velocity of electrolyte through a membrane with ultrasonic irradiation is faster than that without ultrasonic irradiation, and it increases with acoustic pressure. It has become clear that the reasons for enhancement caused by ultrasound are increase in liquid particle velocity and diffusion coefficient due to ultrasonic vibration. It was confirmed that the permeability of the membrane was not degraded by ultrasound in the ranges of acoustic pressure and irradiation time in this study.

  13. The PAVE (peeling-assisted volume-enhancing) lift: A retrospective 6-year clinical analysis of a combined approach for facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Kai Oliver; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Jaminet, Patrick; Gonser, Phillipp

    2016-08-01

    The peeling-assisted volume-enhancing (PAVE) lift is a single-stage approach that combines superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) plication techniques with fat grafting and different peeling agents. To evaluate the safety of this approach, we analyzed the records of 159 patients who underwent surgery between 2008 and 2014. The percentage of complications observed was not higher than values reported in the literature for each treatment entity: surgical facelift: n=3 haematomas (1.89 %), n=2; temporary apraxia of the mandibular branch (1.26%); fat transfer: minor asymmetry in n = 5 cases (3.14%); peeling: temporary hyperpigmentation in trichloroacetic acid (n = 5; 3.8%) and phenol peels (n = 4; 3.1%), permanent hypopigmentation (n = 6; 5.6%), formation of skin miliae persisting longer than 2 to 3 months (n = 5; 4.6%) and prolonged erythema (n = 3; 0.28%) in phenol peels. The single-stage use of chemical peels, autologous fat transfer, and surgical rhytidectomy was safe. PMID:27320171

  14. High lift selected concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    The benefits to high lift system maximum life and, alternatively, to high lift system complexity, of applying analytic design and analysis techniques to the design of high lift sections for flight conditions were determined and two high lift sections were designed to flight conditions. The influence of the high lift section on the sizing and economics of a specific energy efficient transport (EET) was clarified using a computerized sizing technique and an existing advanced airplane design data base. The impact of the best design resulting from the design applications studies on EET sizing and economics were evaluated. Flap technology trade studies, climb and descent studies, and augmented stability studies are included along with a description of the baseline high lift system geometry, a calculation of lift and pitching moment when separation is present, and an inverse boundary layer technique for pressure distribution synthesis and optimization.

  15. Back injury prevention: a lift team success story.

    PubMed

    Hefti, Kelly S; Farnham, Richard J; Docken, Lisa; Bentaas, Ruth; Bossman, Sharon; Schaefer, Jill

    2003-06-01

    Work related back injuries among hospital personnel account for high volume, high cost workers' compensation claims. These injuries can be life altering experiences, affecting both the personal and professional lives of injured workers. Lifting must be viewed as a skill involving specialized training and mandated use of mechanical equipment, rather than as a random task performed by numerous health care providers. The use of a lift team specially trained in body mechanics, lifting techniques, and the use of mandated mechanical equipment can significantly affect injury data, financial outcomes, and employee satisfaction. The benefits of a lift team extend beyond the effect on injury and financial outcomes--they can be used for recruitment and retention strategies, and team members serve as mentors to others by demonstrating safe lifting techniques. Ultimately, a lift team helps protect a valuable resource--the health care worker. PMID:12846457

  16. Lift and wakes of flying snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Anush; Socha, John J.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.; Barba, L. A.

    2014-03-01

    Flying snakes use a unique method of aerial locomotion: they jump from tree branches, flatten their bodies, and undulate through the air to produce a glide. The shape of their body cross-section during the glide plays an important role in generating lift. This paper presents a computational investigation of the aerodynamics of the cross-sectional shape. Two-dimensional simulations of incompressible flow past the anatomically correct cross-section of the species Chrysopelea paradisi show that a significant enhancement in lift appears at a 35° angle of attack, above Reynolds numbers 2000. Previous experiments on physical models also obtained an increased lift, at the same angle of attack. The flow is inherently three-dimensional in physical experiments, due to fluid instabilities, and it is thus intriguing that the enhanced lift also appears in the two-dimensional simulations. The simulations point to the lift enhancement arising from the early separation of the boundary layer on the dorsal surface of the snake profile, without stall. The separated shear layer rolls up and interacts with secondary vorticity in the near-wake, inducing the primary vortex to remain closer to the body and thus cause enhanced suction, resulting in higher lift.

  17. Lifting BLS Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Sarychev, Michael

    2007-08-01

    This note describes BLS power supplies lifting techniques and provides stress calculations for lifting plate and handles bolts. BLS power supply weight is about 120 Lbs, with the center of gravity shifted toward the right front side. A lifting plate is used to attach a power supply to a crane or a hoist. Stress calculations show that safety factors for lifting plate are 12.9 (vs. 5 required) for ultimate stress and 5.7 (vs. 3 required) for yield stress. Safety factor for shackle bolt thread shear load is 37, and safety factor for bolts that attach handles is 12.8.

  18. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrophotometry for thin film monitors: Computer and equipment integration for enhanced capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.N.; Sedayao, J.; Shergill, G.; Villasol, R. ); Haaland, D.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) is a valuable technique for monitoring thin films used in semiconductor device manufacture. Determinations of the constituent contents in borophosphosilicate (BPSG), phosphosilicate (PSG), silicon oxynitride (SiON:H,OH), and spin-on-glass (SOG) thin films are a few applications. Due to the nature of the technique, FTIR instrumentation is one of the most extensively computer-dependent pieces of equipment that is likely to be found in a microelectronics plant. In the role of fab monitor or reactor characterization tool, FTIR instruments can rapidly generate large amounts of data. By linking a local FTIR data station to a remote minicomputer its capabilities are greatly improved. We discuss three caused of enhancement. First, the FTIR in the fab area communicates and interacts in real time with the minicomputer: transferring data segments to it, instructing it to perform sophisticated processing, and returning the result to the operator in the fab. Characterizations of PSG thin films by this approach are discussed. Second, the spectra of large numbers of samples are processed locally. The large database is then transmitted to the minicomputer for study by statistical/graphics software. Results of CVD-reactor spatial profiling experiments for plasma SiON are presented. Third, processing of calibration spectra is performed on the minicomputer to optimize the accuracy and precision of a Partial Least Squares'' analysis mode. This model is then transferred to the data station in the fab. The analysis of BPSG thin films is discussed in this regard. The prospects for fully automated at-line monitoring and for real-time, in-situ monitoring will be discussed. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Understanding Wing Lift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, J.; Soares, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    The conventional explanation of aerodynamic lift based on Bernoulli's equation is one of the most common mistakes in presentations to school students and is found in children's science books. The fallacies in this explanation together with an alternative explanation for aerofoil lift have already been presented in an excellent article by Babinsky…

  20. Portable seat lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A portable seat lift that can help individuals either (1) lower themselves to a sitting position or (2) raise themselves to a standing position is presented. The portable seat lift consists of a seat mounted on a base with two levers, which are powered by a drive unit.

  1. Portable Lifting Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Portable lifting machine assists user in rising from seated position to standing position, or in sitting down. Small and light enough to be carried like briefcase. Used on variety of chairs and benches. Upholstered aluminum box houses mechanism of lifting seat. Springs on outer shaft-and-arm subassembly counterbalance part of user's weight to assist motor.

  2. Interior of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span, looking northwest. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. Development of Advanced Surface Enhancement Technology for Decreasing Wear and Corrosion of Equipment Used for Mineral Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Tao; Craig A. Blue

    2004-08-01

    Equipment wear is a major concern in the mineral processing industry, which dramatically increases the maintenance cost and adversely affects plant operation efficiency. In this research, wear problems of mineral processing equipment including screens, sieve bends, heavy media vessel, dewatering centrifuge, etc., were identified. A novel surface treatment technology, high density infrared (HDI) surface coating process was proposed for the surface enhancement of selected mineral processing equipment. Microstructural and mechanical properties of the coated samples were characterized. Laboratory-simulated wear tests were conducted to evaluate the tribological performance of the coated components. Test results indicate that the wear resistance of AISI 4140 and ASTM A36 steels can be increased 3 and 5 folds, respectively by the application of HDI coatings.

  4. Samus Counter Lifting Fixture

    SciTech Connect

    Stredde, H.; /Fermilab

    1998-05-27

    A lifting fixture has been designed to handle the Samus counters. These counters are being removed from the D-zero area and will be transported off site for further use at another facility. This fixture is designed specifically for this particular application and will be transferred along with the counters. The future use of these counters may entail installation at a facility without access to a crane and therefore a lift fixture suitable for both crane and/or fork lift usage has been created The counters weigh approximately 3000 lbs. and have threaded rods extended through the counter at the top comers for lifting. When these counters were first handled/installed these rods were used in conjunction with appropriate slings and handled by crane. The rods are secured with nuts tightened against the face of the counter. The rod thread is M16 x 2({approx}.625-inch dia.) and extends 2-inch (on average) from the face of the counter. It is this cantilevered rod that the lift fixture engages with 'C' style plates at the four top comers. The strongback portion of the lift fixture is a steel rectangular tube 8-inch (vertical) x 4-inch x .25-inch wall, 130-inch long. 1.5-inch square bars are welded perpendicular to the long axis of the rectangular tube at the appropriate lift points and the 'C' plates are fastened to these bars with 3/4-10 high strength bolts -grade 8. Two short channel sections are positioned-welded-to the bottom of the rectangular tube on 40 feet centers, which are used as locators for fork lift tines. On the top are lifting eyes for sling/crane usage and are rated at 3500 lbs. safe working load each - vertical lift only.

  5. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    SciTech Connect

    Moulden, Steve

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  6. Technical Needs for Enhancing Risk Monitors with Equipment Condition Assessment for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, Jamie B.; Coles, Garill A.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Berglin, Eric J.; Wootan, David W.; Mitchell, Mark R.

    2013-04-04

    Advanced small modular reactors (aSMRs) can provide the United States with a safe, sustainable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The controllable day-to-day costs of aSMRs are expected to be dominated by operation and maintenance costs. Health and condition assessment coupled with online risk monitors can potentially enhance affordability of aSMRs through optimized operational planning and maintenance scheduling. Currently deployed risk monitors are an extension of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For complex engineered systems like nuclear power plants, PRA systematically combines event likelihoods and the probability of failure (POF) of key components, so that when combined with the magnitude of possible adverse consequences to determine risk. Traditional PRA uses population-based POF information to estimate the average plant risk over time. Currently, most nuclear power plants have a PRA that reflects the as-operated, as-modified plant; this model is updated periodically, typically once a year. Risk monitors expand on living PRA by incorporating changes in the day-by-day plant operation and configuration (e.g., changes in equipment availability, operating regime, environmental conditions). However, population-based POF (or population- and time-based POF) is still used to populate fault trees. Health monitoring techniques can be used to establish condition indicators and monitoring capabilities that indicate the component-specific POF at a desired point in time (or over a desired period), which can then be incorporated in the risk monitor to provide a more accurate estimate of the plant risk in different configurations. This is particularly important for active systems, structures, and components (SSCs) proposed for use in aSMR designs. These SSCs may differ significantly from those used in the operating fleet of light-water reactors (or even in LWR-based SMR designs). Additionally, the operating characteristics of aSMRs can present significantly different

  7. Dubai gas lift automation

    SciTech Connect

    Coltharp, E.D.; Khokhar, M.

    1984-09-01

    Dubai Petroleum Company has recently installed a computer gas lift surveillance and gas lift gas injection control system in the Fateh and S.W. Fateh Fields located in the southern part of the Arabian Gulf. This system is the fourth generation of the computer control system installed in California in 1971 by Conoco, Inc. This paper describes the advantages and problems in this system to monitor and control the gas lift operation of 116 wells through 30 intelligent remote terminal units (RTU). In addition, this system monitors the condition of critical operational

  8. Understanding wing lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J.; Soares, A. A.

    2010-05-01

    The conventional explanation of aerodynamic lift based on Bernoulli's equation is one of the most common mistakes in presentations to school students and is found in children's science books. The fallacies in this explanation together with an alternative explanation for aerofoil lift have already been presented in an excellent article by Babinsky (2003 Phys. Educ. 38 497-503). However, in Babinsky's explanation, the air friction forces are ignored and the flow-field curvature introduced by the aerofoil shape is understood intuitively. In this article, a simple analysis of the lift with friction forces incorporated is presented to give a more precise qualitative explanation.

  9. 49 CFR 571.404 - Standard No. 404; Platform lift installations in motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Lift Systems for Motor Vehicles (49 CFR 571.403). S4.1.2Lift-equipped motor vehicles, other than ones... Systems for Motor Vehicles (49 CFR 571.403). S4.1.3Platform lifts must be installed in the vehicle in... Systems for Motor Vehicles (49 CFR 571.403). S4.1.5Platform lighting on public use lifts. Public use...

  10. Wind tower service lift

    DOEpatents

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  11. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    SciTech Connect

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  12. Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)

  13. Advanced underwater lift device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, David T.; Hopkins, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Flexible underwater lift devices ('lift bags') are used in underwater operations to provide buoyancy to submerged objects. Commercially available designs are heavy, bulky, and awkward to handle, and thus are limited in size and useful lifting capacity. An underwater lift device having less than 20 percent of the bulk and less than 10 percent of the weight of commercially available models was developed. The design features a dual membrane envelope, a nearly homogeneous envelope membrane stress distribution, and a minimum surface-to-volume ratio. A proof-of-concept model of 50 kg capacity was built and tested. Originally designed to provide buoyancy to mock-ups submerged in NASA's weightlessness simulators, the device may have application to water-landed spacecraft which must deploy flotation upon impact, and where launch weight and volume penalties are significant. The device may also be useful for the automated recovery of ocean floor probes or in marine salvage applications.

  14. 47 CFR 64.702 - Furnishing of enhanced services and customer-premises equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the procedures set forth in 47 CFR 51.325 through 51.335. (3) (4) Must obtain Commission approval as... facilities used in interstate communications, which employ computer processing applications that act on the... to tariff, and may not own any network or local distribution transmission facilities or equipment....

  15. 47 CFR 64.702 - Furnishing of enhanced services and customer-premises equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the procedures set forth in 47 CFR 51.325 through 51.335. (3) (4) Must obtain Commission approval as... facilities used in interstate communications, which employ computer processing applications that act on the... to tariff, and may not own any network or local distribution transmission facilities or equipment....

  16. 47 CFR 64.702 - Furnishing of enhanced services and customer-premises equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the procedures set forth in 47 CFR 51.325 through 51.335. (3) (4) Must obtain Commission approval as... facilities used in interstate communications, which employ computer processing applications that act on the... to tariff, and may not own any network or local distribution transmission facilities or equipment....

  17. 47 CFR 64.702 - Furnishing of enhanced services and customer-premises equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the procedures set forth in 47 CFR 51.325 through 51.335. (3) (4) Must obtain Commission approval as... format, content, code, protocol or similar aspects of the subscriber's transmitted information; provide... to tariff, and may not own any network or local distribution transmission facilities or equipment....

  18. HGSYSTEM/UF{sub 6} model enhancements for plume rise and dispersion around buildings, lift-off of buoyant plumes, and robustness of numerical solver

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, S.R.; Chang, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    The HGSYSTEM/UF{sub 6} model was developed for use in preparing Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) by estimating the consequences of possible accidental releases of UF{sub 6} to the atmosphere at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) located in Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky. Although the latter report carries a 1996 date, the work that is described was completed in late 1994. When that report was written, the primary release scenarios of interest were thought to be gas pipeline and liquid tank ruptures over open terrain away from the influence of buildings. However, upon further analysis of possible release scenarios, the developers of the SARs decided it was necessary to also consider accidental releases within buildings. Consequently, during the fall and winter of 1995-96, modules were added to HGSYSTEM/UF{sub 6} to account for flow and dispersion around buildings. The original HGSYSTEM/UF{sub 6} model also contained a preliminary method for accounting for the possible lift-off of ground-based buoyant plumes. An improved model and a new set of wind tunnel data for buoyant plumes trapped in building recirculation cavities have become available that appear to be useful for revising the lift-off algorithm and modifying it for use in recirculation cavities. This improved lift-off model has been incorporated in the updated modules for dispersion around buildings.

  19. Adaptive Driving Equipment: Selection and Major Considerations [and] Battery Powered Scooters and 3-Wheelers. Information Support Packets #1 and #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, John H.

    Two brief guides offer suggestions for persons with physical disabilities who are considering the purchase of adaptive driving equipment, battery-powered scooters, or three wheelers. The first guide offers guidelines for individuals considering purchase of special hand controls or other modifications or a van lift to enhance their independence in…

  20. Development of Advanced Surface Enhancement Technology for Decreasing Wear and Corrosion of Equipment Used for Mineral Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Tao; R. Honaker; B. K. Parekh

    2007-09-20

    Equipment wear is a major concern in the mineral processing industry, which dramatically increases the maintenance cost and adversely affects plant operation efficiency. In this research, novel surface treatment technologies, High Density Infrared (HDI) and Laser Surface Engineering (LSE) surface coating processes were developed for the surface enhancement of selected mineral and coal processing equipment. Microstructural and mechanical properties of the coated specimens were characterized. Laboratory-simulated wear tests were conducted to evaluate the tribological performance of the coated components. Test results indicate that the wear resistance of ASTM A36 (raw coal screen section) and can be significantly increased by applying HDI and LSE coating processes. Field testing has been performed using a LSE-treated screen panel and it showed a significant improvement of the service life.

  1. Development of Advanced Surface Enhancement Technology for Decreasing Wear and Corrosion of Equipment Used for Mineral Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Tao; Craig A. Blue

    2006-07-20

    Equipment wear is a major concern in the mineral processing industry, which dramatically increases the maintenance cost and adversely affects plant operation efficiency. In this research, novel surface treatment technologies, High Density Infrared (HDI) and Laser Surface Engineering (LSE) surface coating processes were developed for the surface enhancement of selected mineral processing equipment. Microstructural and mechanical properties of the coated specimens were characterized. Laboratory-simulated wear tests were conducted to evaluate the tribological performance of the coated components. Test results indicate that the wear resistance of ASTM A36 (raw coal screen section) and can be significantly increased by applying HDI and LSE coating processes. Field testing has been performed using a LSE-treated screen panel and it showed a 2 times improvement of the service life.

  2. Development of Advanced Surface Enhancement Technology for Decreasing Wear and Corrosion of Equipment Used for Mineral Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Tao; Craig A. Blue

    2005-08-01

    Equipment wear is a major concern in the mineral processing industry, which dramatically increases the maintenance cost and adversely affects plant operation efficiency. In this research, a novel surface treatment technology, laser surface engineering (LSE) surface coating process was proposed for the surface enhancement of selected mineral processing equipment. Microstructural and mechanical properties of the coated specimen were characterized. Laboratory-simulated wear tests were conducted to evaluate the tribological performance of the coated components. Test results indicate that the wear resistance of ASTM A36 (raw coal screen section) and AISI 4140 steels can be increased 10 and 25 folds, respectively by the application of LSE process. Initial field testing showed a 2 times improvement of the service life of a raw coal screen panel.

  3. Aerodynamic characteristics of a propeller powered high lift semispan wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takallu, M. A.; Gentry, G. L., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted on the engine/airframe integration aerodynamics for potential high-lift aircraft configurations. The model consisted of a semispan wing with a double-isolated flap system and a Krueger leading edge device. The advanced propeller and the powered nacelle were tested and aerodynamic characteristics of the combined system are presented. It was found that the lift coefficient of the powered wing could be increased by the propeller slipstream when the rotational speed was increased and high-lift devices were deployed. Moving the nacelle/propeller closer to the wing in the vertical direction indicated higher lift augmentation than a shift in the longitudinal direction. A pitch-down nacelle inclination enhanced the lift performance of the system much better than vertical and horizontal variation of the nacelle locations and showed that the powered wing can sustain higher angles of attack near maximum lift performance.

  4. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    H. Marr

    2000-05-11

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation.

  5. CT gas lift captures last of field reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, T.B.; Miller, J.; Woodell, M.E.; Johnson, H.

    1996-06-01

    Texaco Exploration and Production Inc.`s (TEPI) Brookeland Field in Newton County, Texas, produces from 30, mostly dual-horizontal, wells in the Austin Chalk reservoir. The wells are typically drilled vertically and casing is set to the top of the Austin Chalk at about 10,000 ft. Building at 15{degree}/100 ft, 4,000-ft laterals are drilled to the northwest and southeast to intersect the natural fractures of the Austin Chalk. The horizontal sections of the wellbore are openhole completions that average 700 b/d of oil and 5 MMcfd of gas. Within 1 year of initial production, the wells require compression to sustain flow and conventional gas lift is used when the wells load up with fluid. Typically, when production declines to 200 Mcfd and 100 b/d of fluid, the gas lift injection point is at 8,000 ft and average gas lift usage is 500 Mcfd. Coiled tubing-conveyed artificial lift was suggested, but first other concerns had to be addressed. The long, horizontal lateral sections functioned as a natural gas and fluid separator, resulting in a distinct slug flow pattern. During a 24-hour period, slug flow caused the wells to produce 100% gas or 100% fluid. For cost reasons TEPI chose conventional, field-installed coiled tubing (CT) gas lift equipment over spoolable equipment. Texaco then formed a team alliance with McMurry-Macco Lift Systems and Dowell to evaluate and complete trial wells with coiled tubing gas lift equipment. This paper reviews the case history of the field, the design considerations of the coiled tubing gas lift, and the surface support equipment used.

  6. Nitrogen removal characteristics of indigenous aerobic denitrifiers and changes in the microbial community of a reservoir enclosure system via in situ oxygen enhancement using water lifting and aeration technology.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shilei; Huang, Tinglin; Ngo, Huu Hao; Zhang, Haihan; Liu, Fei; Zeng, Mingzheng; Shi, Jianchao; Qiu, Xiaopeng

    2016-08-01

    Indigenous aerobic denitrifiers of a reservoir system were enhanced in situ by water lifting and aeration technology. Nitrogen removal characteristics and changes in the bacterial community were investigated. Results from a 30-day experiment showed that the TN in the enhanced water system decreased from 1.08-2.02 to 0.75-0.91mg/L and that TN removal rates varied between 21.74% and 52.54% without nitrite accumulation, and TN removal rate of surface sediments reached 41.37±1.55%. The densities of aerobic denitrifiers in the enhanced system increased. Furthermore, the enhanced system showed a clear inhibition of Fe, Mn, and P performances. Community analysis using Miseq showed that diversity was higher in the in situ oxygen enhanced system than in the control system. In addition, the microbial composition was significantly different between systems. It can be concluded that in situ enhancement of indigenous aerobic denitrifiers is very effective in removing nitrogen from water reservoir systems. PMID:27128190

  7. Interior view of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span, showing trunion gears at left and right, and counterweight above. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. Interior view of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of lift mechanism area of eastern lift span looking south, showing trunion gears at left and right, and counterweight above. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. JWST Lifting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolleson, William

    2012-01-01

    A document describes designing, building, testing, and certifying a customized crane (Lifting Device LD) with a strong back (cradle) to facilitate the installation of long wall panels and short door panels for the GHe phase of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The LD controls are variable-frequency drive controls designed to be adjustable for very slow and very-short-distance movements throughout the installation. The LD has a lift beam with an electric actuator attached at the end. The actuator attaches to a rectangular strong back (cradle) for lifting the long wall panels and short door panels from a lower angle into the vertical position inside the chamber, and then rotating around the chamber for installation onto the existing ceiling and floor. The LD rotates 360 (in very small increments) in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions. Eight lifting pads are on the top ring with 2-in. (.5-cm) eye holes spaced evenly around the ring to allow for the device to be suspended by three crane hoists from the top of the chamber. The LD is operated by remote controls that allow for a single, slow mode for booming the load in and out, with slow and very slow modes for rotating the load.

  10. Lifting as You Climb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Debra R.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses leadership themes and answers leadership questions presented to "Exchange" by the Panel members who attended the "Exchange" Panel of 300 Reception in Dallas, Texas, last November. There is an old proverb that encourages people to lift as they climb: "While you climb a mountain, you must not forget others along the way." With…

  11. [Subperiosteal midface lifting].

    PubMed

    Bonnefon, A

    2006-04-01

    Since 1990, when we had found the solutions about the oval of the face and the neck problems by the vertical lift, our whole attention was focused on the midface. We have been through the "cheek lift", high SMAS incision. We followed Oscar Ramirez and Richard Anderson in the subperiosteal undermining of the mid face under endoscopic control by a buccal and temporal incision. The actual technic made possible by Paul Tessier's work who initiated the subperiosteal undermining and Oscar Ramirez who initiated the endoscopy. The endoscopy allowed us to go through this technic, but now we don't use it anymore. We have to credit Thierry Besins who mixed these concepts alltogether to obtain a complete and effective technic. The idea is to move up the centrofacial structures and to secure them reliably because of the perioste strengh. This technic solve in an unparallel way, all the stigmata of the centrofacial aging; so, we have a scarless lifting. For the one who have a neck problem, we associate the deep vertical lift. PMID:16631299

  12. Hydraulic lifting device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrell, Kyle (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A piston and cylinder assembly is disclosed which is constructed of polyvinyl chloride that uses local water pressure to perform small lifting tasks. The chamber is either pressurized to extend the piston or depressurized to retract the piston. The present invention is best utilized for raising and lowering toilet seats.

  13. RETRIEVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    J. Steinhoff

    1997-08-25

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) retrieval from the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. There are no quality assurance requirements or QA controls in this document. Retrieval under normal conditions is accomplished with the same fleet of equipment as is used for emplacement. Descriptions of equipment used for retrieval under normal conditions is found in Emplacement Equipment Descriptions, DI: BCAF00000-01717-5705-00002 (a document in progress). Equipment used for retrieval under abnormal conditions is addressed in this document and consists of the following: (1) Inclined Plane Hauler; (2) Bottom Lift Transporter; (3) Load Haul Dump (LHD) Loader; (4) Heavy Duty Forklift for Emplacement Drifts; (5) Covered Shuttle Car; (6) Multipurpose Vehicle; and (7) Scaler.

  14. A report on training equipment enhancements for the U.S. Special Operations Command

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    Training support systems - including devices, simulators and simulations - significantly improve training. Of course this is important for all military units. But for Special Operations Forces, such improvements are critical. Special Operations Forces must be prepared to operate in the most difficult, least forgiving of environments and do it right on the first try. The objective of this project is to report on the latest state-of-the-art training devices and systems which can enhance the training of Special Operations Forces.

  15. Bottom/Side Lift Gantry Conceptual Design Rev. 01

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, P.S.

    2000-04-11

    The purpose of this task is to update the existing bottom/side lift gantry analysis so that the design is consistent with Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II) design constraints listed in the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document (CRWMS M and O 1999a, Section 2.2.1.1, p. 9a). This update is consistent with the requirements of the Technical Guidance Document for License Application Preparation (YMP 1999, Section 6.2.5.1). This update will also take into account the latest available equipment classification and Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System Description Document (SDD) (CRWMS M and O 2000c) requirements. The principal objective of this analysis is to verify that the newly developed bottom/side lift gantry concept continues to be a suitable design concept for the current Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) design. This analysis includes an examination of the waste package (WP) transfer operation at the emplacement drift transfer dock. In addition, this analysis verifies that the gantry is compatible with the WP transporter, which has been redesigned to handle WPs sitting on pallets (CRWMS M and O 2000a). The scope of this work is to examine the existing analysis and to determine what, if any, modifications to the analysis may be required as a result of additional requirements imposed by the EDA II concept. Then, a revision will be made to the conceptual design accordingly. The analysis will also be revised to show the approximate sizes and locations of the electrical equipment and control cabinets, and to take into account the weight of that equipment in the total gantry weight. The analytical portions of the analysis are revised, as required, to address changes resulting from modifications to the conceptual design or from changes in classification and/or SDD requirements. Finally, the revised conceptual design is evaluated to verify that it continues to be a suitable method for handling the WPs within the emplacement drift. Except as noted

  16. Helicopter Toy and Lift Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-05-01

    A1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight.

  17. Helicopter Toy and Lift Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-01-01

    A $1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight. (Contains 1 figure.)

  18. [Subperiosteal face-lift].

    PubMed

    Tessier, P

    1989-01-01

    The "facial mask" is composed of all of the tissues lying on top of the skeleton: periosteum, deep adipose tissue, superficial musculo-aponeurotic tissue and skin. The periosteum is the intermediate zone between the skeleton, responsible for the shape of the face, and the more superficial tissues which complete the shapes and, most importantly, represent the mobile part of the face and consequently the site of facial expression. The secret of an effective "mask-lift" depends on complete subperiosteal dissection of the malar bones, zygomatic arches and orbital margins. This dissection can be performed via a coronal approach, but it is easier to start the subperiosteal dissection via a short vestibular incision. Subperiosteal dissection via a coronal incision is not only useful to lift the facial mask; it is also useful for remodelling the orbital margins and to obtain bone grafts from the parietal area in order to reinforce the glabella, check bones and nasogenial folds. PMID:2473674

  19. Lifting Body Flight Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1998-01-01

    NASA has a technology program in place to build the X-33 test vehicle and then the full sized Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. VentureStar is a Lifting Body (LB) flight vehicle which will carry our future payloads into orbit, and will do so at a much reduced cost. There were three design contenders for the new Reusable Launch Vehicle: a Winged Vehicle, a Vertical Lander, and the Lifting Body(LB). The LB design won the competition. A LB vehicle has no wings and derives its lift solely from the shape of its body, and has the unique advantages of superior volumetric efficiency, better aerodynamic efficiency at high angles-of-attack and hypersonic speeds, and reduced thermal protection system weight. Classically, in a ballistic vehicle, drag has been employed to control the level of deceleration in reentry. In the LB, lift enables the vehicle to decelerate at higher altitudes for the same velocity and defines the reentry corridor which includes a greater cross range. This paper outlines our LB heritage which was utilized in the design of the new Reusable Launch Vehicle, VentureStar. NASA and the U.S. Air Force have a rich heritage of LB vehicle design and flight experience. Eight LB's were built and over 225 LB test flights were conducted through 1975 in the initial LB Program. Three LB series were most significant in the advancement of today's LB technology: the M2-F; HL-1O; and X-24 series. The M2-F series was designed by NASA Ames Research Center, the HL-10 series by NASA Langley Research Center, and the X-24 series by the Air Force. LB vehicles are alive again today.

  20. Powered-lift aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, W. H.; Franklin, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Powered lift aircraft have the ability to vary the magnitude and direction of the force produced by the propulsion system so as to control the overall lift and streamwise force components of the aircraft, with the objective of enabling the aircraft to operate from minimum sized terminal sites. Power lift technology has contributed to the development of the jet lift Harrier and to the forth coming operational V-22 Tilt Rotor and the C-17 military transport. This technology will soon be expanded to include supersonic fighters with short takeoff and vertical landing capability, and will continue to be used for the development of short- and vertical-takeoff and landing transport. An overview of this field of aeronautical technology is provided for several types of powered lift aircraft. It focuses on the description of various powered lift concepts and their operational capability. Aspects of aerodynamics and flight controls pertinent to powered lift are also discussed.

  1. AFC-Enabled Simplified High-Lift System Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwich, Peter M.; Dickey, Eric D.; Sclafani, Anthony J.; Camacho, Peter; Gonzales, Antonio B.; Lawson, Edward L.; Mairs, Ron Y.; Shmilovich, Arvin

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this trade study report is to explore the potential of using Active Flow Control (AFC) for achieving lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift systems for transonic commercial transport aircraft. This assessment was conducted in four steps. First, based on the Common Research Model (CRM) outer mold line (OML) definition, two high-lift concepts were developed. One concept, representative of current production-type commercial transonic transports, features leading edge slats and slotted trailing edge flaps with Fowler motion. The other CRM-based design relies on drooped leading edges and simply hinged trailing edge flaps for high-lift generation. The relative high-lift performance of these two high-lift CRM variants is established using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions to the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations for steady flow. These CFD assessments identify the high-lift performance that needs to be recovered through AFC to have the CRM variant with the lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift system match the performance of the conventional high-lift system. Conceptual design integration studies for the AFC-enhanced high-lift systems were conducted with a NASA Environmentally Responsible Aircraft (ERA) reference configuration, the so-called ERA-0003 concept. These design trades identify AFC performance targets that need to be met to produce economically feasible ERA-0003-like concepts with lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift designs that match the performance of conventional high-lift systems. Finally, technical challenges are identified associated with the application of AFC-enabled highlift systems to modern transonic commercial transports for future technology maturation efforts.

  2. Detail of lift wire rope attachment to lift span at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of lift wire rope attachment to lift span at southeast corner. Note rope-adjustment turnbuckle with strap keepers to prevent its rotation, which could pull the bridge out of alignment. A single rope and light-gauge attachment at each corner were adequate for lifting the span because most of its weight was balanced by the two counterweights. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  3. Induction factor optimization through variable lift control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooney, John; Corke, Thomas; Nelson, Robert; Williams, Theodore

    2011-11-01

    Due to practical design limitations coupled with the detrimental effects posed by complex wind regimes, modern wind turbines struggle to maintain or even reach ideal operational states. With additional gains through traditional approaches becoming more difficult and costly, active lift control represents a more attractive option for future designs. Here, plasma actuators have been explored experimentally in trailing edge applications for use in attached flow regimes. This authority would be used to drive the axial induction factor toward the ideal given by the Betz limit through distributed lift control thereby enhancing energy capture. Predictions of power improvement achievable by this methodology are made with blade - element momentum theory but will eventually be demonstrated in the field at the Laboratory for Enhanced Wind Energy Design, currently under construction at the University of Notre Dame.

  4. Lifting Bodies on Lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The wingless, lifting body aircraft sitting on Rogers Dry Lake at what is now NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, from left to right are the X-24A, M2-F3 and the HL-10.The lifting body aircraft studied the feasibility of maneuvering and landing an aerodynamic craft designed for reentry from space. These lifting bodies were air launched by a B-52 mother ship, then flew powered by their own rocket engines before making an unpowered approach and landing. They helped validate the concept that a space shuttle could make accurate landings without power. The X-24A flew from April 17, 1969 to June 4, 1971. The M2-F3 flew from June 2, 1970 until December 22, 1972. The HL-10 flew from December 22, 1966 until July 17, 1970, and logged the highest and fastest records in the lifting body program. The X-24 was one of a group of lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center (FRC-now Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, in a joint program with the U.S. Air Force at Edwards Air Force Base from 1963 to 1975. The lifting bodies were used to demonstrate the ability of pilots to maneuver and safely land wingless vehicles designed to fly back to Earth from space and be landed like an airplane at a predetermined site. Lifting bodies' aerodynamic lift, essential to flight in the atmosphere, was obtained from their shape. The addition of fins and control surfaces allowed the pilots to stabilize and control the vehicles and regulate their flight paths. Built by Martin Aircraft Company, Maryland, for the U.S. Air Force, the X-24A was a bulbous vehicle shaped like a teardrop with three vertical fins at the rear for directional control. It weighed 6,270 pounds, was 24.5 feet long and 11.5 feet wide (measuring just the fuselage, not the distance between the tips of the outboard fins). Its first unpowered glide flight was on April 17, 1969, with Air Force Maj. Jerauld Gentry at the controls. Gentry also piloted its first powered flight on March 19

  5. Artificial lift alternatives offer operators options for best production at low cost

    SciTech Connect

    Duey, R.

    1996-03-01

    An operator can produce wells cheaper and make equipment last longer with the right artificial lift combination for the task at hand. This paper describes beam pumps, long stroke pumping units, electric submersible pumps, a plunger lift, progressive cavity pumps, hydraulic pumps.

  6. Circulation control lift generation experiment: Hardware development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panontin, T. L.

    1985-01-01

    A circulation control airfoil and its accompanying hardware were developed to allow the investigation of lift generation that is independent of airfoil angle of attack and relative flow velocity. The test equipment, designed for use in a water tunnel, includes the blown airfoil, the support systems for both flow visualization and airfoil load measurement, and the fluid control system, which utilizes hydraulic technology. The primary design tasks, the selected solutions, and the unforseen problems involved in the development of these individual components of hardware are described.

  7. Variable-Compliance Couplings For Heavy Lifting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James; Eklund, Wayne; Burkhardt, Raymond; Richardson, George W.

    1992-01-01

    New coupling devices contain manual or electronically controlled, motorized drives that vary stiffnesses. Short, clamped lengths of cable provide compliance. Using threaded rods, cables stretched, relaxed, or folded to make coupling more or less stiff. In more-advanced device, brackets holding cables moved by stepping motor via gearbox and ball screw. Motor operates under computer control with position feedback. Control computer commands greater stiffness during operations requiring precise positioning, and greater compliance to accommodate manufacturing tolerances. Intended for use in wrist joints of robotic manipulators and other industrial equipment that must lift heavy objects.

  8. Refined AFC-Enabled High-Lift System Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwich, Peter M.; Shmilovich, Arvin; Lacy, Douglas S.; Dickey, Eric D.; Scalafani, Anthony J.; Sundaram, P.; Yadlin, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    A prior trade study established the effectiveness of using Active Flow Control (AFC) for reducing the mechanical complexities associated with a modern high-lift system without sacrificing aerodynamic performance at low-speed flight conditions representative of takeoff and landing. The current technical report expands on this prior work in two ways: (1) a refined conventional high-lift system based on the NASA Common Research Model (CRM) is presented that is more representative of modern commercial transport aircraft in terms of stall characteristics and maximum Lift/Drag (L/D) ratios at takeoff and landing-approach flight conditions; and (2) the design trade space for AFC-enabled high-lift systems is expanded to explore a wider range of options for improving their efficiency. The refined conventional high-lift CRM (HL-CRM) concept features leading edge slats and slotted trailing edge flaps with Fowler motion. For the current AFC-enhanced high lift system trade study, the refined conventional high-lift system is simplified by substituting simply-hinged trailing edge flaps for the slotted single-element flaps with Fowler motion. The high-lift performance of these two high-lift CRM variants is established using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions to the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. These CFD assessments identify the high-lift performance that needs to be recovered through AFC to have the CRM variant with the lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift system match the performance of the conventional high-lift system. In parallel to the conventional high-lift concept development, parametric studies using CFD guided the development of an effective and efficient AFC-enabled simplified high-lift system. This included parametric trailing edge flap geometry studies addressing the effects of flap chord length and flap deflection. As for the AFC implementation, scaling effects (i.e., wind-tunnel versus full-scale flight conditions) are addressed

  9. Large xray room from crane ladder showing scissor lift for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Large x-ray room from crane ladder showing scissor lift for x-ray equipment, view facing west-northwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Peripheral dose from a dual energy linear accelerator equipped with tertiary multileaf collimators and enhanced dynamic wedge.

    PubMed

    Varatharaj, C; Ravikumar, M; Sathiyan, S; Supe, S S

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral dose (PD) or the dose outside the geometrical boundaries of the radiation field is of clinical importance when anatomical structures with low dose tolerances might be involved(1). It is the aim of this study is to estimate the PD on linear accelerators on different wedge systems without multileaf collimator (MLC). Measurements were performed on a dual energy linear accelerator equipped with tertiary MLC and enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW). Measurements were made using an ionization chamber embedded in a Radiation Field Analyser (RFA-300) with the secondary collimator and MLC setting of 5x5, 10x10, 15x15, and 20x20 cm2, and with the MLC fully retracted. The effects of SSD on PD were measured at three SSDs of 90, 100, and 110 cm for the irradiation fields of 5x5, 10x10, 15x15, and 20x20 cm2 and the effects of the three different wedges (Upper wedge, Lower Wedge and Enhanced Dynamic Wedge) on PD were measured for 45° wedges with field size of 15x15 cm2. Data were taken from 3 cm to 24 cm away from the field edge. Results show that due to tertiary MLC, PD can be reduced by means of a factor of two to three at certain distance from the edge of the field compared with TG-36 data. In between the wedges, the PD was less for the EDW when compared with the upper and lower physical wedges. We conclude that the reduction in PD is significant in reducing or eliminating the need for external peripheral shielding to reduce the dose on affected critical organs. PMID:21177206

  11. Endoscopic brow lifts: have they replaced coronal lifts?

    PubMed

    Javidnia, Hedyeh; Sykes, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    This article describes the use of the endoscopic brow-lifting technique in addressing periorbital aging. This article discusses the advantages and disadvantage of the endoscopic versus traditional techniques of brow lifting and gives our treatment algorithm depending on patient needs. PMID:23731581

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR EQUIPPED WITH AN EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) HEAVY OIL LOW-NOX BURNER. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of comprehensive emission measurements and 30-day flue gas monitoring on a 16-MW (55 million Btu/hr) enhanced oil recovery steam generator equipped with the EPA low-NOx burner firing high-nitrogen crude.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR EQUIPPED WITH AN EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) HEAVY OIL LOW-NOX BURNER. VOLUME 2. DATA SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of comprehensive emission measurements and 30-day flue gas monitoring on a 16-MW (55 million Btu/hr) enhanced oil recovery steam generator equipped with the EPA low-NOx burner firing high-nitrogen crude.

  14. Low-speed tests of a high-aspect-ratio, supercritical-wing transport model equipped with a high-lift flap system in the Langley 4- by 7-meter and Ames 12-foot pressure tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, H. L., Jr.; Kjelgaard, S. O.

    1983-01-01

    The Ames 12-Foot Pressure Tunnel was used to determine the effects of Reynolds number on the static longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of an advanced, high-aspect-ratio, supercritical wing transport model equipped with a full span, leading edge slat and part span, double slotted, trailing edge flaps. The model had a wing span of 7.5 ft and was tested through a free stream Reynolds number range from 1.3 to 6.0 x 10 to 6th power per foot at a Mach number of 0.20. Prior to the Ames tests, an investigation was also conducted in the Langley 4 by 7 Meter Tunnel at a Reynolds number of 1.3 x 10 to 6th power per foot with the model mounted on an Ames strut support system and on the Langley sting support system to determine strut interference corrections. The data obtained from the Langley tests were also used to compare the aerodynamic charactertistics of the rather stiff, 7.5-ft-span steel wing model tested during this investigation and the larger, and rather flexible, 12-ft-span aluminum-wing model tested during a previous investigation. During the tests in both the Langley and Ames tunnels, the model was tested with six basic wing configurations: (1) cruise; (2) climb (slats only extended); (3) 15 deg take-off flaps; (4) 30 deg take-off flaps; (5) 45 deg landing flaps; and (6) 60 deg landing flaps.

  15. Effects of range and mode on lifting capability and lifting time.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 3 lifting ranges and 3 lifting modes on maximum lifting capability and total lifting time. The results demonstrated that the maximum lifting capability for FK (from floor to knuckle height) was greater than that for KS (from knuckle height to shoulder height) or FS (from floor to shoulder height). Additionally, asymmetric lifting with initial trunk rotation decreased maximum lifting capability compared with symmetric lifting or asymmetric lifting with final trunk rotation. The difference in total lifting time between KS and FS was not significant, while FK increased total lifting time by ~20% compared with FS even though the travel distance was 50% shorter. PMID:22995136

  16. Lifting Loads With Two Helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicolani, L. S.; Kanning, G.

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses theoretical equilibrium characteristics of dual-helicopter lifting system. Analysis presented provides mathematical basis for selection of lifting configurations and flight parameters. Force-balance equations serve as basis for coordination in flight. Employed in both military and civilian sectors to deliver weapons, vehicles, and construction materials.

  17. Project LIFT: Year 1 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Michael; Piccinino, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Research for Action (RFA) is currently in the second year of a five-year external evaluation of the Project Leadership and Investment for Transformation (LIFT) Initiative in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg School District (CMS). Project LIFT is a public-private partnership between CMS and the local philanthropic and business communities in Charlotte,…

  18. Summary of Lift and Lift/Cruise Fan Powered Lift Concept Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Woodrow L.

    1993-01-01

    A summary is presented of some of the lift and lift/cruise fan technology including fan performance, fan stall, ground effects, ingestion and thrust loss, design tradeoffs and integration, control effectiveness and several other areas related to vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft conceptual design. The various subjects addressed, while not necessarily pertinent to specific short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) supersonic designs being considered, are of interest to the general field of lift and lift/cruise fan aircraft designs and may be of importance in the future. The various wind tunnel and static tests reviewed are: (1) the Doak VZ-4 ducted fan, (2) the 0.57 scale model of the Bell X-22 ducted fan aircraft, (3) the Avrocar, (4) the General Electric lift/cruise fan, (5) the vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) lift engine configurations related to ingestion and consequent thrust loss, (6) the XV-5 and other fan-in-wing stall consideration, (7) hybrid configurations such as lift fan and lift/cruise fan or engines, and (8) the various conceptual design studies by air-frame contractors. Other design integration problems related to small and large V/STOL transport aircraft are summarized including lessons learned during more recent conceptual design studies related to a small executive V/STOL transport aircraft.

  19. Lift force of delta wings

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.; Ho, Chihming )

    1990-09-01

    On a delta wing, the separation vortices can be stationary due to the balance of the vorticity surface flux and the axial convection along the swept leading edge. These stationary vortices keep the wing from losing lift. A highly swept delta wing reaches the maximum lift at an angle of attack of about 40, which is more than twice as high as that of a two-dimensional airfoil. In this paper, the experimental results of lift forces for delta wings are reviewed from the perspective of fundamental vorticity balance. The effects of different operational and geometrical parameters on the performance of delta wings are surveyed.

  20. Air-cushion lift pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaise, H. T.; Dane, D. H.

    1969-01-01

    Mathematical model is formulated for an air pad which is capable of lifting a structure to a height of 0.125 inch. Design is superior to conventional air cushion devices because it eliminates flutter, vibration, heaving, and pitching.

  1. Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle development phase, Marshall plarners concluded a Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) would be needed for successful Space Industrialization. Shown here in this 1976's artist's conception is an early version of the HLLV during launch.

  2. Construction Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    FMC Corporation conducts extensive proof lift tests and computerized analysis to insure that the cranes can lift rated capacity loads up to one million pounds in a wide range of applications. In their analysis work, engineers makes use of a computer program supplied by COSMIC. Called Analysis of Beam Columns, the program is used as part of the required analysis for determining bending moments, deflections and critical load for latticed crane booms.

  3. Face lift postoperative recovery.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A Aldo

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe what I have studied and experienced, mainly regarding the control and prediction of the postoperative edema; how to achieve an agreeable recovery and give positive support to the patient, who in turn will receive pleasant sensations that neutralize the negative consequences of the surgery.After the skin is lifted, the drainage flow to the flaps is reversed abruptly toward the medial part of the face, where the flap bases are located. The thickness and extension of the flap determines the magnitude of the post-op edema, which is also augmented by medial surgeries (blepharo, rhino) whose trauma obstruct their natural drainage, increasing the congestion and edema. To study the lymphatic drainage, the day before an extended face lift (FL) a woman was infiltrated in the cheek skin with lynfofast (solution of tecmesio) and the absorption was observed by gamma camera. Seven days after the FL she underwent the same study; we observed no absorption by the lymphatic, concluding that a week after surgery, the lymphatic network was still damaged. To study the venous return during surgery, a fine catheter was introduced into the external jugular vein up to the mandibular border to measure the peripheral pressure. Following platysma plication the pressure rose, and again after a simple bandage, but with an elastic bandage it increased even further, diminishing considerably when it was released. Hence, platysma plication and the elastic bandage on the neck augment the venous congestion of the face. There are diseases that produce and can prolong the surgical edema: cardiac, hepatic, and renal insufficiencies, hypothyroidism, malnutrition, etc. According to these factors, the post-op edema can be predicted, the surgeon can choose between a wide dissection or a medial surgery, depending on the social or employment compromises the patient has, or the patient must accept a prolonged recovery if a complex surgery is necessary. Operative

  4. Lifting and wound closure with barbed sutures.

    PubMed

    Mulholland, R Stephen; Paul, Malcolm D

    2011-07-01

    The advent of barbed sutures has been a novel and useful adjunct for the aesthetic plastic surgeon in properly selected patients. The deployment of a barbed suture minimizes the risks of cheese wiring and stress relaxation, facilitating the minimally invasive repositioning of soft tissue in the head and neck, as well as optimizing and enhancing traditionally long and potentially tedious procedures in body contouring. This article highlights the advances, advantages, and efficacy associated with the use of barbed sutures in lifting and wound closure. PMID:21824547

  5. Subperiosteal brow lifts without fixation.

    PubMed

    Troilius, Carl

    2004-11-01

    Most surgeons today advocate an endoscopic subperiosteal brow lift for surgical correction of the upper third of the face. At the author's clinic, this operation has been performed since 1994 and the subgaleal bicoronal brow lift is no longer used. In earlier investigations, the author showed that the subperiosteal approach (n = 60) gives a better result than the subgaleal method (n = 60) when compared 1 year after surgery. In the literature, however, there are no published data regarding the long-term results of subperiosteal brow lifts. The author took material from his earlier investigations and looked at the same patients 5 years postoperatively. He compared the subperiosteal approach (n = 30) with the subgaleal brow lift (n = 15) and found that after 5 years the brows of the subgaleal patients were on the same level as they were before surgery, but in the group of subperiosteal brow lifts, almost all of the brows were higher 5 years after surgery than they were 1 year after surgery, with a mean increase in height of 2.5 mm. These findings led the author to the question whether scalp fixation was necessary at all when performing a subperiosteal brow lift. He performed 20 subperiosteal endoscopic brow lifts where scalp fixation was not used at all, relying only on changing the balance of muscle vectors around the eyebrows. Using a computerized instrument, measurements were made of the distance between the medial canthus and the top of the eyebrow, the midpupil and the top of the eyebrow, and the lateral canthus and the top of the eyebrow. All patients were measured before and 1 year after surgery. The author found an increase of the vertical height from the midpupil to the top of the brow, with an average increase of 3.9 mm. There were no differences between patients who had only a brow lift and those who had a brow lift and an upper blepharoplasty at the same time. The author concludes that for most cases where an increased vertical height of the brows of more

  6. Normalized Lift: An Energy Interpretation of the Lift Coefficient Simplifies Comparisons of the Lifting Ability of Rotating and Flapping Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Burgers, Phillip; Alexander, David E.

    2012-01-01

    For a century, researchers have used the standard lift coefficient CL to evaluate the lift, L, generated by fixed wings over an area S against dynamic pressure, ½ρv2, where v is the effective velocity of the wing. Because the lift coefficient was developed initially for fixed wings in steady flow, its application to other lifting systems requires either simplifying assumptions or complex adjustments as is the case for flapping wings and rotating cylinders. This paper interprets the standard lift coefficient of a fixed wing slightly differently, as the work exerted by the wing on the surrounding flow field (L/ρ·S), compared against the total kinetic energy required for generating said lift, ½v2. This reinterpreted coefficient, the normalized lift, is derived from the work-energy theorem and compares the lifting capabilities of dissimilar lift systems on a similar energy footing. The normalized lift is the same as the standard lift coefficient for fixed wings, but differs for wings with more complex motions; it also accounts for such complex motions explicitly and without complex modifications or adjustments. We compare the normalized lift with the previously-reported values of lift coefficient for a rotating cylinder in Magnus effect, a bat during hovering and forward flight, and a hovering dipteran. The maximum standard lift coefficient for a fixed wing without flaps in steady flow is around 1.5, yet for a rotating cylinder it may exceed 9.0, a value that implies that a rotating cylinder generates nearly 6 times the maximum lift of a wing. The maximum normalized lift for a rotating cylinder is 1.5. We suggest that the normalized lift can be used to evaluate propellers, rotors, flapping wings of animals and micro air vehicles, and underwater thrust-generating fins in the same way the lift coefficient is currently used to evaluate fixed wings. PMID:22629326

  7. Mist lift analysis summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    The mist flow open-cycle OTEC concept proposed by S.L. Ridgway has much promise, but the fluid mechanics of the mist flow are not well understood. The creation of the mist and the possibility of droplet growth leading to rainout (when the vapor can no longer support the mist) are particularly troublesome. This report summarizes preliminary results of a numerical analysis initiated at SERI in FY79 to study the mist-lift process. The analysis emphasizes the mass transfer and fluid mechanics of the steady-state mist flow and is based on one-dimensional models of the mist flow developed for SERI by Graham Wallis. One of Wallis's models describes a mist composed of a single size of drops and another considers several drop sizes. The latter model, further developed at SERI, considers a changing spectrum of discrete drop sizes and incorporates the mathematics describing collisions and growth of the droplets by coalescence. The analysis results show that under conditions leading to maximum lift in the single-drop-size model, the multigroup model predicts significantly reduced lift because of the growth of droplets by coalescence. The predicted lift height is sensitive to variations in the mass flow rate and inlet pressure. Inclusion of a coasting section, in which the drops would rise ballistically without change in temperature, may lead to increased lift within the existing range of operation.

  8. High-Lift Propeller System Configuration Selection for NASA's SCEPTOR Distributed Electric Propulsion Flight Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael D.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Borer, Nicholas K.

    2016-01-01

    Although the primary function of propellers is typically to produce thrust, aircraft equipped with distributed electric propulsion (DEP) may utilize propellers whose main purpose is to act as a form of high-lift device. These \\high-lift propellers" can be placed upstream of wing such that, when the higher-velocity ow in the propellers' slipstreams interacts with the wing, the lift is increased. This technique is a main design feature of a new NASA advanced design project called Scalable Convergent Electric Propulsion Technology Operations Research (SCEPTOR). The goal of the SCEPTOR project is design, build, and y a DEP aircraft to demonstrate that such an aircraft can be much more ecient than conventional designs. This paper provides details into the high-lift propeller system con guration selection for the SCEPTOR ight demonstrator. The methods used in the high-lift propeller system conceptual design and the tradeo s considered in selecting the number of propellers are discussed.

  9. Cognitive attribution of the source of an error in object-lifting results in differences in motor generalization.

    PubMed

    Fercho, Kelene; Baugh, Lee A

    2016-09-01

    To lift an object, the motor system must predict the weight of the object and use this information to program appropriate lifting forces. If this prediction is erroneous, people may assign blame for the error to either themselves or an external source-a process called credit assignment. In the present study, we explored the role of credit assignment on weight predictions during a lifting task. Participants were told that the EMG surface electrodes attached to their lifting hand were either part of a "passive" system that recorded muscular activity, or part of an "active" system that would apply energy to the muscle, influencing weight perception. Participants performed 90 lifts of the training blocks, followed by 10 lifts of a newly encountered larger test block. In between training and test trials, the experimenter turned off the recording system and removed the surface electrodes for participants in the "active" group. For each lift, we determined the initial peak rate of change of vertical load force rate and load-phase duration, estimates of predicted object weight. Analysis of the first 10 training lifts and the last 10 training lifts revealed no effect of Active versus Passive EMG on weight predictions. However, after removing the EMG equipment, participants in the "active" group failed to scale their predictive load forces in the same manner as those in the "passive" condition when lifting a novel block. We conclude that cognitive information may play a role in credit assignment, influencing weight prediction when lifting novel objects. PMID:27150316

  10. Slug bucket lifting yoke analysis

    SciTech Connect

    McElfresh, A.J.

    1994-11-14

    There are baskets of fuel in the storage pools in the Purex facility (202-A). These baskets (called slug buckets) need to be removed from Purex and taken to the K-Basins. The current slug bucket lifting yoke is of sufficient age to be in question structurally. Therefore new yokes need to be fabricated. Prior to fabricating new yokes, the slug bucket lifting yoke DWG needs to be updated for fabrication. However, the design needs to be refined so that the yoke will be easier to fabricate. These calculations are prepared to demonstrate the adequacy of the new design. The objective of these calculations is to select appropriately sized structural members and weld sizes to serve as components in the slug bucket lifting yoke.

  11. Prosthetic Hand Lifts Heavy Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, James R.; Norton, William; Belcher, Jewell G.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Prosthetic hand designed to enable amputee to lift diverse heavy objects like rocks and logs. Has simple serrated end effector with no moving parts. Prosthesis held on forearm by system of flexible straps. Features include ruggedness, simplicity, and relatively low cost.

  12. Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.

  13. Lifting wavelet method of target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jun; Zhang, Chi; Jiang, Xu; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Jin

    2009-11-01

    Image target recognition plays a very important role in the areas of scientific exploration, aeronautics and space-to-ground observation, photography and topographic mapping. Complex environment of the image noise, fuzzy, all kinds of interference has always been to affect the stability of recognition algorithm. In this paper, the existence of target detection in real-time, accuracy problems, as well as anti-interference ability, using lifting wavelet image target detection methods. First of all, the use of histogram equalization, the goal difference method to obtain the region, on the basis of adaptive threshold and mathematical morphology operations to deal with the elimination of the background error. Secondly, the use of multi-channel wavelet filter wavelet transform of the original image de-noising and enhancement, to overcome the general algorithm of the noise caused by the sensitive issue of reducing the rate of miscarriage of justice will be the multi-resolution characteristics of wavelet and promotion of the framework can be designed directly in the benefits of space-time region used in target detection, feature extraction of targets. The experimental results show that the design of lifting wavelet has solved the movement of the target due to the complexity of the context of the difficulties caused by testing, which can effectively suppress noise, and improve the efficiency and speed of detection.

  14. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lift, except in case of emergency. (x) Climbers shall not be worn while performing work from an aerial... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a)...

  15. Lift distribution in a rectangular jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, A.

    1971-01-01

    Computer programs predict effect of slipstream-wing flow interaction on aerodynamic characteristics of deflected slipstream and tilt aircraft. One program calculates lift distribution, lift, and drag of wing in wide slipstream. Results permit development of simplified lifting surface theory for circular jet.

  16. Protect Your Back: Guidelines for Safer Lifting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantu, Carolyn O.

    2002-01-01

    Examines back injury in teachers and child care providers; includes statistics, common causes of back pain (improper alignment, improper posture, improper lifting, and carrying), and types of back pain (acute and chronic). Focuses on preventing back injury, body mechanics for lifting and carrying, and proper lifting and carrying of children. (SD)

  17. 49 CFR 37.203 - Lift maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lift maintenance. 37.203 Section 37.203... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.203 Lift maintenance. (a) The entity shall establish a system of regular and frequent maintenance checks of lifts sufficient to determine if they are...

  18. Vertical Lift - Not Just For Terrestrial Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A

    2000-01-01

    Autonomous vertical lift vehicles hold considerable potential for supporting planetary science and exploration missions. This paper discusses several technical aspects of vertical lift planetary aerial vehicles in general, and specifically addresses technical challenges and work to date examining notional vertical lift vehicles for Mars, Titan, and Venus exploration.

  19. 30 CFR 57.16016 - Lift trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lift trucks. 57.16016 Section 57.16016 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... § 57.16016 Lift trucks. Fork and other similar types of lift trucks shall be operated with the:...

  20. 30 CFR 56.16016 - Lift trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lift trucks. 56.16016 Section 56.16016 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....16016 Lift trucks. Fork and other similar types of lift trucks shall be operated with the— (a)...

  1. Investigation of physical image characteristics and phenomenon of edge enhancement by phase contrast using equipment typical for mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, Asumi; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro; Kodera, Yoshie

    2008-11-15

    A technique called phase contrast mammography (PCM) has only recently been applied in clinical examination. In this application, PCM images are acquired at a 1.75x magnification using an x-ray tube for clinical use, and then reduced to the real size of the object by image processing. The images showed enhanced object edges; reportedly, this enhancement occurred because of the refraction of x rays through a cylindrical object. The authors measured the physical image characteristics of PCM to compare the image characteristics of PCM with those of conventional mammography. More specifically, they measured the object-edge-response characteristics and the noise characteristics in the spatial frequency domain. The results revealed that the edge-response characteristics of PCM outperformed those of conventional mammography. In addition, the characteristics changed with the object-placement conditions and the object shapes. The noise characteristics of PCM were better than those of conventional mammography. Subsequently, to verify why object edges were enhanced in PCM images, the authors simulated image profiles that would be obtained if the x rays were refracted and totally reflected by using not only a cylindrical substance but also a planar substance as the object. So, they confirmed that the object edges in PCM images were enhanced because x rays were refracted irrespective of the object shapes. Further, they found that the edge enhancements depended on the object shapes and positions. It was also proposed that the larger magnification than 1.75 in the commercialized system might be more suitable for PCM. Finally, the authors investigated phase-contrast effects to breast tissues by the simulation and demonstrated that PCM would be helpful in the diagnoses of mammography.

  2. Serrated trailing edges for improving lift and drag characteristics of lifting surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vijgen, Paul M. H. W. (Inventor); Howard, Floyd G. (Inventor); Bushnell, Dennis M. (Inventor); Holmes, Bruce J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An improvement in the lift and drag characteristics of a lifting surface is achieved by attaching a serrated panel to the trailing edge of the lifting surface. The serrations may have a saw-tooth configuration, with a 60 degree included angle between adjacent serrations. The serrations may vary in shape and size over the span-wise length of the lifting surface, and may be positioned at fixed or adjustable deflections relative to the chord of the lifting surface.

  3. Minipool Caprylic Acid Fractionation of Plasma Using Disposable Equipment: A Practical Method to Enhance Immunoglobulin Supply in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    El-Ekiaby, Magdy; Vargas, Mariángela; Sayed, Makram; Gorgy, George; Goubran, Hadi; Radosevic, Mirjana; Burnouf, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Background Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is an essential plasma-derived medicine that is lacking in developing countries. IgG shortages leave immunodeficient patients without treatment, exposing them to devastating recurrent infections from local pathogens. A simple and practical method for producing IgG from normal or convalescent plasma collected in developing countries is needed to provide better, faster access to IgG for patients in need. Methodology/Principal Findings IgG was purified from 10 consecutive minipools of 20 plasma donations collected in Egypt using single-use equipment. Plasma donations in their collection bags were subjected to 5%-pH5.5 caprylic acid treatment for 90 min at 31°C, and centrifuged to remove the precipitate. Supernatants were pooled, then dialyzed and concentrated using a commercial disposable hemodialyzer. The final preparation was filtered online by gravity, aseptically dispensed into storage transfusion bags, and frozen at <-20°C. The resulting preparation had a mean protein content of 60.5 g/L, 90.2% immunoglobulins, including 83.2% IgG, 12.4% IgA, and 4.4% IgM, and residual albumin. There was fourfold to sixfold enrichment of anti-hepatitis B and anti-rubella antibodies. Analyses of aggregates (<3%), prekallicrein (5-7 IU/mL), plasmin (26.3 mU/mL), thrombin (2.5 mU/mL), thrombin-like activity (0.011 U/g), thrombin generation capacity (< 223 nM), and Factor XI (<0.01 U/mL) activity, Factor XI/XIa antigen (2.4 ng/g) endotoxin (<0.5 EU/mL), and general safety test in rats showed the in vitro safety profile. Viral validation revealed >5 logs reduction of HIV, BVDV, and PRV infectivity in less than 15 min of caprylic acid treatment. Conclusions/Significance 90% pure, virally-inactivated immunoglobulins can be prepared from plasma minipools using simple disposable equipment and bag systems. This easy-to-implement process could be used to produce immunoglobulins from local plasma in developing countries to treat immunodeficient patients

  4. Quiet powered-lift propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Latest results of programs exploring new propulsion technology for powered-lift aircraft systems are presented. Topics discussed include results from the 'quiet clean short-haul experimental engine' program and progress reports on the 'quiet short-haul research aircraft' and 'tilt-rotor research aircraft' programs. In addition to these NASA programs, the Air Force AMST YC 14 and YC 15 programs were reviewed.

  5. [Lifting procedures in cosmetic facial surgery].

    PubMed

    Jansma, J; Schepers, R H; Vissink, A

    2014-10-01

    A prominent characteristic of the aging face is the descent of skin and subcutaneous tissues. In order to reduce this and create a more youthful appearance, several lifting procedures can be employed. In the forehead and eyebrow region the transblepharoplastic brow lift, the direct brow lift, the temporal brow lift, the coronal brow lift and the endoscopic brow lift can be distinguished. For the mid-face, the facelift is known to be an effective treatment for aging characteristics. Classic facelifts can be divided into the one layer-, two layer- and the deep plane facelift. Nowadays the minimal access cranial suspension lift is popular. The lifting capacity of this lift may be less, but the risk of complications is lower and the result is often more natural. A neck lift improves the chin-neck angle and a submental liposuction/lipectomy can contribute to this. Complications in lifting procedures are rare. Hematoma is the most frequent complication. Skin necrosis of the wound edges and laceration of the end branches of the facial nerve can also occur. There is a tendency towards minimally invasive procedures with smaller risk of complications and shorter recovery periods. PMID:26185994

  6. Generalised Eisenhart lift of the Toda chain

    SciTech Connect

    Cariglia, Marco; Gibbons, Gary

    2014-02-15

    The Toda chain of nearest neighbour interacting particles on a line can be described both in terms of geodesic motion on a manifold with one extra dimension, the Eisenhart lift, or in terms of geodesic motion in a symmetric space with several extra dimensions. We examine the relationship between these two realisations and discover that the symmetric space is a generalised, multi-particle Eisenhart lift of the original problem that reduces to the standard Eisenhart lift. Such generalised Eisenhart lift acts as an inverse Kaluza-Klein reduction, promoting coupling constants to momenta in higher dimension. In particular, isometries of the generalised lift metric correspond to energy preserving transformations that mix coordinates and coupling constants. A by-product of the analysis is that the lift of the Toda Lax pair can be used to construct higher rank Killing tensors for both the standard and generalised lift metrics.

  7. The relationship between maximal lifting capacity and maximum acceptable lift in strength-based soldiering tasks.

    PubMed

    Savage, Robert J; Best, Stuart A; Carstairs, Greg L; Ham, Daniel J

    2012-07-01

    Psychophysical assessments, such as the maximum acceptable lift, have been used to establish worker capability and set safe load limits for manual handling tasks in occupational settings. However, in military settings, in which task demand is set and capable workers must be selected, subjective measurements are inadequate, and maximal capacity testing must be used to assess lifting capability. The aim of this study was to establish and compare the relationship between maximal lifting capacity and a self-determined tolerable lifting limit, maximum acceptable lift, across a range of military-relevant lifting tasks. Seventy male soldiers (age 23.7 ± 6.1 years) from the Australian Army performed 7 strength-based lifting tasks to determine their maximum lifting capacity and maximum acceptable lift. Comparisons were performed to identify maximum acceptable lift relative to maximum lifting capacity for each individual task. Linear regression was used to identify the relationship across all tasks when the data were pooled. Strong correlations existed between all 7 lifting tasks (rrange = 0.87-0.96, p < 0.05). No differences were found in maximum acceptable lift relative to maximum lifting capacity across all tasks (p = 0.46). When data were pooled, maximum acceptable lift was equal to 84 ± 8% of the maximum lifting capacity. This study is the first to illustrate the strong and consistent relationship between maximum lifting capacity and maximum acceptable lift for multiple single lifting tasks. The relationship developed between these indices may be used to help assess self-selected manual handling capability through occupationally relevant maximal performance tests. PMID:22643137

  8. Simulation using novel equipment designed to explain spirometric abnormalities in respiratory disease enhances learning in higher cognitive domains.

    PubMed

    Jamison, J P; Stewart, M T

    2015-10-01

    Simulation of disorders of respiratory mechanics shown by spirometry provides insight into the pathophysiology of disease but some clinically important disorders have not been simulated and none have been formally evaluated for education. We have designed simple mechanical devices which, along with existing simulators, enable all the main dysfunctions which have diagnostic value in spirometry to be simulated and clearly explained with visual and haptic feedback. We modelled the airways as Starling resistors by a clearly visible mechanical action to simulate intra- and extra-thoracic obstruction. A narrow tube was used to simulate fixed large airway obstruction and inelastic bands to simulate restriction. We hypothesized that using simulators whose action explains disease promotes learning especially in higher domain educational objectives. The main features of obstruction and restriction were correctly simulated. Simulation of variable extra-thoracic obstruction caused blunting and plateauing of inspiratory flow, and simulation of intra-thoracic obstruction caused limitation of expiratory flow with marked dynamic compression. Multiple choice tests were created with questions allocated to lower (remember and understand) or higher cognitive domains (apply, analyse and evaluate). In a cross-over design, overall mean scores increased after 1½ h simulation spirometry (43-68 %, effect size 1.06, P < 0.0001). In higher cognitive domains the mean score was lower before and increased further than lower domains (Δ 30 vs 20 %, higher vs lower effect size 0.22, P < 0.05). In conclusion, the devices successfully simulate various patterns of obstruction and restriction. Using these devices medical students achieved marked enhancement of learning especially in higher cognitive domains. PMID:25528245

  9. Three Lifting Bodies on Lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The wingless, lifting body aircraft sitting on Rogers Dry Lake at what is now NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, from left to right are the X-24A, M2-F3 and the HL-10.The lifting body aircraft studied the feasibility of maneuvering and landing an aerodynamic craft designed for reentry from space. These lifting bodies were air launched by a B-52 mother ship, then flew powered by their own rocket engines before making an unpowered approach and landing. They helped validate the concept that a space shuttle could make accurate landings without power. The X-24A flew from April 17, 1969 to June 4, 1971. The M2-F3 flew from June 2, 1970 until December 20, 1972. The HL-10 flew from December 22, 1966 until July 17, 1970 and logged the highest and fastest records in the lifting body program. The X-24 was one of a group of lifting bodies flown by the NASA Flight Research Center (FRC--now Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, in a joint program with the U.S. Air Force at Edwards Air Force Base from 1963 to 1975. The lifting bodies were used to demonstrate the ability of pilots to maneuver and safely land wingless vehicles designed to fly back to Earth from space and be landed like an airplane at a predetermined site. Lifting bodies' aerodynamic lift, essential to flight in the atmosphere, was obtained from their shape. The addition of fins and control surfaces allowed the pilots to stabilize and control the vehicles and regulate their flight paths. Built by Martin Aircraft Company, Maryland, for the U.S. Air Force, the X-24A was a bulbous vehicle shaped like a teardrop with three vertical fins at the rear for directional control. It weighed 6,270 pounds, was 24.5 feet long and 11.5 feet wide (measuring just the fuselage, not the distance between the tips of the outboard fins). Its first unpowered glide flight was on April 17, 1969, with Air Force Maj. Jerauld Gentry at the controls. Gentry also piloted its first powered flight on March 19

  10. Enhancing the Quality of Prescribing Practices for Older Veterans Discharged from the Emergency Department (EQUiPPED): Preliminary Results from Enhancing Quality of Prescribing Practices for Older Veterans Discharged from the Emergency Department, a Novel Multicomponent Interdisciplinary Quality Improvement Initiative.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Melissa B; Hastings, Susan Nicole; Powers, James; Vandenberg, Ann E; Echt, Katharina V; Bryan, William E; Peggs, Kiffany; Markland, Alayne D; Hwang, Ula; Hung, William W; Schmidt, Anita J; McGwin, Gerald; Ikpe-Ekpo, Edidiong; Clevenger, Carolyn; Johnson, Theodore M; Vaughan, Camille P

    2015-05-01

    Suboptimal medication prescribing for older adults has been described in a number of emergency department (ED) studies. Despite this, few studies have examined ED-targeted interventions aimed at reducing the use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs). Enhancing Quality of Prescribing Practices for Older Veterans Discharged from the ED (EQUiPPED) is an ongoing multicomponent, interdisciplinary quality improvement initiative in eight Department of Veterans Affairs EDs. The project aims to decrease the use of PIMs, as identified by the Beers criteria, prescribed to veterans aged 65 and older at the time of ED discharge. Interventions include provider education; informatics-based clinical decision support with electronic medical record-embedded geriatric pharmacy order sets and links to online geriatric content; and individual provider education including academic detailing, audit and feedback, and peer benchmarking. Poisson regression was used to compare the number of PIMs that staff providers prescribed to veterans aged 65 and older discharged from the ED before and after the initiation of the EQUiPPED intervention. Initial data from the first implementation site show that the average monthly proportion of PIMs that staff providers prescribed was 9.4±1.5% before the intervention and 4.6±1.0% after the initiation of EQUiPPED (relative risk=0.48, 95% confidence interval=0.40-0.59, P<.001). Preliminary evaluation demonstrated a significant and sustained reduction of ED-prescribed PIMs in older veterans after implementation of EQUiPPED. Longer follow-up and replication at collaborating sites would allow for an assessment of the effect on health outcomes and costs. PMID:25945692

  11. Tethered lifting systems for measurements in the lower atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Michael Lamar

    2000-10-01

    This work defines a Tethered Lifting System for measurements in the lower atmosphere, its design and development, and applications for its use. Using historical kite research and the unique capabilities of tethered lifting platforms as motivation, a complete system has been created offering the complementary benefits of parafoil kites and tethered balloons as lifting platforms. Support systems including tethers, winching systems and payload data collection and telemetry systems round out the Tethered Lifting System to provide a complete atmospheric measurement system. The kite platforms have been enhanced by the invention and development of a wind-powered Tether Rover for Atmospheric Research (WindTRAM), providing rapid profiling and precise positioning capabilities. Design of the WindTRAM and implementation of onboard feedback control are covered in detail, as they comprise the most novel contribution of this research. The breadth of possible applications for these technologies is touched upon by examination of some of the specific research applications undertaken by the researchers at the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences during the last decade.

  12. Influence of Lift Offset on Rotorcraft Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The influence of lift offset on the performance of several rotorcraft configurations is explored. A lift-offset rotor, or advancing blade concept, is a hingeless rotor that can attain good efficiency at high speed by operating with more lift on the advancing side than on the retreating side of the rotor disk. The calculated performance capability of modern-technology coaxial rotors utilizing a lift offset is examined, including rotor performance optimized for hover and high-speed cruise. The ideal induced power loss of coaxial rotors in hover and twin rotors in forward flight is presented. The aerodynamic modeling requirements for performance calculations are evaluated, including wake and drag models for the high-speed flight condition. The influence of configuration on the performance of rotorcraft with lift-offset rotors is explored, considering tandem and side-by-side rotorcraft as well as wing-rotor lift share.

  13. Influence of Lift Offset on Rotorcraft Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The influence of lift offset on the performance of several rotorcraft configurations is explored. A lift-offset rotor, or advancing blade concept, is a hingeless rotor that can attain good efficiency at high speed, by operating with more lift on the advancing side than on the retreating side of the rotor disk. The calculated performance capability of modern-technology coaxial rotors utilizing a lift offset is examined, including rotor performance optimized for hover and high-speed cruise. The ideal induced power loss of coaxial rotors in hover and twin rotors in forward flight is presented. The aerodynamic modeling requirements for performance calculations are evaluated, including wake and drag models for the high speed flight condition. The influence of configuration on the performance of rotorcraft with lift-offset rotors is explored, considering tandem and side-by-side rotorcraft as well as wing-rotor lift share.

  14. Simulated lift testing using computerized isokinetics.

    PubMed

    Porterfield, J A; Mostardi, R A; King, S; Ariki, P; Moats, E; Noe, D

    1987-09-01

    Eighty-four volunteer asymptomatic men between 18 and 40 years of age were evaluated as to their ability to lift. An innovative isokinetic device was used to measure lifting force. This device does not isolate any specific body part, yet it measures the muscular force of lifting an object whose speed of ascent is controlled. Two lifting methods (bent knee, straight leg) and two foot positions were used. The results indicate the bent-knee lift method and forward-foot position was the position of optimal force production. Force production increase was inversely proportional to age. The authors concluded that the isokinetic lift device has promising capabilities to produce repeatable data and may be advantageous in generating standards for rehabilitation and specific job criteria. PMID:3686220

  15. Conceptual design, evaluation and research identification for Remote Augmented Propulsive Lift Systems (RALS) with ejectors for VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, W. S.; Konarski, M.; Sutherland, M. V.

    1982-01-01

    Ejector concepts for use with a remote augmented lift system (RALS) exhaust nozzle were studied. A number of concepts were considered and three were selected as having the greatest promise of providing the desired aircraft and exhaust gas cooling and lift enhancement. A scale model test program is recommended to explore the effects of the more important parameters on ejector performance.

  16. The lift-fan aircraft: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, Wallace H.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the highlights and results of a workshop held at NASA Ames Research Center in October 1992. The objective of the workshop was a thorough review of the lessons learned from past research on lift fans, and lift-fan aircraft, models, designs, and components. The scope included conceptual design studies, wind tunnel investigations, propulsion systems components, piloted simulation, flight of aircraft such as the SV-5A and SV-5B and a recent lift-fan aircraft development project. The report includes a brief summary of five technical presentations that addressed the subject The Lift-Fan Aircraft: Lessons Learned.

  17. Artificial lift: Many new developments are emerging

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F.

    1984-03-01

    Methods of artificially lifting oil production are almost countless, testifying to the ingenuity of inventors, engineers, technicians, etc., that have worked in this area. And, artificial lift improvements continue to be important, especially now that product prices are nearly constant and production costs are under closer scruitiny. Some methods of artificial lift thought to be new to industry are mentioned in this article, including: Aluminum sucker rods, Graphite composite lift system, Unique pumping unit geometry, Chain drive pumping unit, Two types of pump-off control, Downhole gas pump, Hydraulic-centrifugal pump, Improvements in submersible pumps, and Submersible pump gas separators.

  18. Facial emphysema after sinus lift.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Atsuya; Hasegawa, Takumi; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Furudoi, Shungo; Komori, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    An 80-year-old man with a history of en bloc resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate (T4aN0M0) was performed a lateral-window sinus lift of the edentulous area of the left maxillary molar region to facilitate future placement of dental implants.Two hours after the surgery, the patient complained of sudden malar swelling. Marked swelling was present from the left infraorbital region to the buccal region. The swelling was associated with air pockets at the alar base and in the angulus oculi medialis region and subcutaneous malar tissue. Emphysema appeared after the patient blew his nose. Therefore, the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus might have had a small hole, and air might have entered the subcutaneous tissue via the bone window when the air pressure in the maxillary sinus increased with nose blowing. It is important to advise patients to avoid increasing the intraoral pressure after sinus-lift procedure. PMID:26088054

  19. Facial emphysema after sinus lift

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Atsuya; Hasegawa, Takumi; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Furudoi, Shungo; Komori, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    An 80-year-old man with a history of en bloc resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the hard palate (T4aN0M0) was performed a lateral-window sinus lift of the edentulous area of the left maxillary molar region to facilitate future placement of dental implants. Two hours after the surgery, the patient complained of sudden malar swelling. Marked swelling was present from the left infraorbital region to the buccal region. The swelling was associated with air pockets at the alar base and in the angulus oculi medialis region and subcutaneous malar tissue. Emphysema appeared after the patient blew his nose. Therefore, the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus might have had a small hole, and air might have entered the subcutaneous tissue via the bone window when the air pressure in the maxillary sinus increased with nose blowing. It is important to advise patients to avoid increasing the intraoral pressure after sinus-lift procedure. PMID:26088054

  20. New life for heavy lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demeis, Richard

    1991-03-01

    The advisory committee to NASA on overall approaches for implementing the U.S. space program in the years ahead has concluded that Shuttle missions should only be flown when a human presence is necessary. It was noted that reducing the number of missions would extend the life of the existing fleet and retain the number of orbiters required at the presently planned four and any funding for a fifth orbiter should be utilized instead for the development of a new heavy lift launch vehicle. These recommendations have led to increased design proposals under the Advanced Launch Development (ADLP) Program such as the Shuttle C (cargo), an unmanned version that could orbit 100,00 to 150,000 lb for two- and three-engine versions, respectively, and would make maximum utilization of present Shuttle processing and pad facilities. Other concepts under investigation by ADLP include electromechanical actuators to replace hydraulic systems, advanced modular avionics and common avionics/payload interfaces, and laser-initiated ordnance for component separation and staging. It is noted that the drive to evolve a heavy lift system will fully employ the total quality management approach, with producibility and operability built into the system from the start.

  1. On the second-order tangent bundle with horizontal lift connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezer, Aydin; Magden, Abdullah; Karaca, Kubra

    2016-04-01

    Let M be an n-dimensional differentiable manifold equipped with a torsion-free linear connection ∇ and T2 M be its second-order tangent bundle. The present paper aims to study some curvature properties of T2 M with respect to the horizontal lift connection H∇.

  2. Leading-edge slat optimization for maximum airfoil lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, L. E.; Mcgowan, P. R.; Guest, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    A numerical procedure for determining the position (horizontal location, vertical location, and deflection) of a leading edge slat that maximizes the lift of multielement airfoils is presented. The structure of the flow field is calculated by iteratively coupling potential flow and boundary layer analysis. This aerodynamic calculation is combined with a constrained function minimization analysis to determine the position of a leading edge slat so that the suction peak on the nose of the main airfoil is minized. The slat position is constrained by the numerical procedure to ensure an attached boundary layer on the upper surface of the slat and to ensure negligible interaction between the slat wake and the boundary layer on the upper surface of the main airfoil. The highest angle attack at which this optimized slat position can maintain attached flow on the main airfoil defines the optimum slat position for maximum lift. The design method is demonstrated for an airfoil equipped with a leading-edge slat and a trailing edge, single-slotted flap. The theoretical results are compared with experimental data, obtained in the Ames 40 by 80 Foot Wind Tunnel, to verify experimentally the predicted slat position for maximum lift. The experimentally optimized slat position is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction, indicating that the theoretical procedure is a feasible design method.

  3. 77 FR 20558 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... vehicles with lift systems must comply with objective safety requirements in order to be sold. \\1\\ 67 FR... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AJ93 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Platform Lifts for Motor Vehicles; Platform Lift Installations in Motor Vehicles AGENCY:...

  4. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  5. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  6. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  7. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  8. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  9. The Selection of a Van Lift or a Scooter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, John H.

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter issue describes 3-wheeled scooters and van lifts that can assist a person with a disability to drive independently or have access to transportation. The section on van lifts compares hydraulic lifts and electric lifts, lists manufacturers, and offers an "assessment quiz" outlining factors to consider in selecting a van lift. In the…

  10. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aerial lifts. 1926.453 Section 1926.453 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Scaffolds § 1926.453 Aerial lifts. (a) General requirements. (1) Unless otherwise provided...

  11. Improving Grading Consistency through Grade Lift Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millet, Ido

    2010-01-01

    We define Grade Lift as the difference between average class grade and average cumulative class GPA. This metric provides an assessment of how lenient the grading was for a given course. In 2006, we started providing faculty members individualized Grade Lift reports reflecting their position relative to an anonymously plotted school-wide…

  12. Training Guidelines: Fork Lift Truck Driving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, Harrow (England).

    This manual of operative training guidelines for fork lift truck driving has been developed by the Ceramics, Glass and Mineral Products Industry Training Board (Great Britain) in consultation with a number of firms which manufacture fork lift trucks or which already have training--programs for their use. The purpose of the guidelines is to assist…

  13. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  14. Heavy-lift airship dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. B.; Ringland, R. F.; Jex, H. R.

    1983-01-01

    The basic aerodynamic and dynamic properties of an example heavy-lift airship (HLA) configuration are analyzed using a nonlinear, multibody, 6-degrees-of-freedom digital simulation. The slung-payload model is described, and a preliminary analysis of the coupled vehicle-payload dynamics is presented. Trim calculations show the importance of control mixing selection and suggest performance deficiencies in crosswind stationkeeping for the unloaded example HLA. Numerically linearized dynamics of the unloaded vehicle exhibit a divergent yaw mode and an oscillatory pitch mode whose stability characteristic is sensitive to flight speed. An analysis of the vehicle-payload dynamics shows significant coupling of the payload dynamics with those of the basic HLA. It is shown that significant improvement in the vehicle's dynamic behavior can be achieved with the incorporation of a simple flight controller having proportional, rate, and integral-error feedbacks.

  15. Air Bearing Lift Pad (ABLP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dane, Dan H.; Blaise, Herman T.

    1968-01-01

    Typical air bearings float on air films of only a few thousandths of an inch and so will only operate above very smooth, even surfaces. For the mechanical simulation of space, the small drag of the bladder type air pads is much more than can be coped with, and the practicality of large floor areas being machined for precision air bearings is nonexistent. To enable operation above surfaces that undulate slightly or feature cracks and discontinuities, an ABLP has been developed. It consists of a rigid pad beneath which an inflatable bladder is mounted. The bladder is inflated with air which then escapes through passages into a cavity in the center of the bladder to produce the lifting energy. As the air escapes about the perimeter of the bladder, a certain degree of balance and equilibrium is imparted to the pad as it is able to move a limited weight across slightly uneven surfaces.

  16. Prompting correct lifting posture using signs.

    PubMed

    Burt, C D; Henningsen, N; Consedine, N

    1999-08-01

    The use of a symbol to prompt the adoption of correct lifting posture was examined in three studies. Study 1 used an Appropriateness Test to evaluate nine symbols designed to encourage the adoption of correct lifting posture. Four symbols met the appropriateness criteria and were tested for comprehension in Study 2. Study 3 examined the effect of the best performing symbol from Study 2 in a field setting which involved subjects lifting a small box. Results indicate significant increases in the adoption of the use of correct lifting posture when the symbol was present compared to a control condition. The study also identified the placement of a lifting criterion symbol onto packaging as a useful technique for communicating safety information. PMID:10416848

  17. Thrust and Lift generation of heaving and pitching oscillating foil propulsion in ground effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mivehchi, Amin; Dahl, Jason M.; Licht, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    Experimental results are presented for the thrust and lift generation on a NACA0012 airfoil undergoing heave and pitch oscillation near a solid boundary. For ground effect in the steady flow over a lifting surface, lift and drag forces are altered by an enhanced spanwise flow around the tip of the lifting surface, resulting in a strong low pressure region on the upper part of the wing and increased lift in the presence of a boundary. In the present study, this effect is investigated for an inherently unsteady flow, a propulsive flapping foil. It is found that ground effect has a significant effect on the instantaneous and average lift and thrust forces generated by the oscillating foil with heave and pitch motion. It is found that the forces on a flapping foil in the presence of the ground is not only dependent on the aspect ratio but shows high dependency on the kinematics of motion such as maximum angle of attack, frequency of flapping, and the distance from the ground. The relation between these parameters and their effect on the cycle averaged thrust, lift, propulsive efficiency, and instantaneous force over the airfoil is shown. It is hypothesized that ground effect may be used as a proxy sensor for identifying solid boundaries with biomimetic underwater vehicles. Keywords: Ground effect, Flapping foil propulsion, flow-structure interaction.

  18. Development of high-lift laminar wing using steady active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Patrick J.

    Fuel costs represent a large fraction of aircraft operating costs. Increased aircraft fuel efficiency is thus desirable. Laminar airfoils have the advantage of reduced cruise drag and increased fuel efficiency. Unfortunately, they cannot perform adequately during high-lift situations (i.e. takeoff and landing) due to low stall angles and low maximum lift caused by flow separation. Active flow control has shown the ability to prevent or mitigate separation effects, and increase maximum lift. This fact makes AFC technology a fitting solution for improving high-lift systems and reducing the need for slats and flap elements. This study focused on experimentally investigating the effects of steady active flow control from three slots, located at 1%, 10%, and 80% chord, respectively, over a laminar airfoil with 45 degree deflected flap. A 30-inch-span airfoil model was designed, fabricated, and then tested in the Bill James 2.5'x3' Wind Tunnel at Iowa State University. Pressure data were collected along the mid-span of the airfoil, and lift and drag were calculated. Five test cases with varying injection locations and varying Cμ were chosen: baseline, blown flap, leading edge blowing, equal blowing, and unequal blowing. Of these cases, unequal blowing achieved the greatest lift enhancement over the baseline. All cases were able to increase lift; however, gains were less than anticipated.

  19. An adaptive morphological gradient lifting wavelet for detecting bearing defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bing; Zhang, Pei-lin; Mi, Shuang-shan; Hu, Ren-xi; Liu, Dong-sheng

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents a novel wavelet decomposition scheme, named adaptive morphological gradient lifting wavelet (AMGLW), for detecting bearing defects. The adaptability of the AMGLW consists in that the scheme can select between two filters, mean the average filter and morphological gradient filter, to update the approximation signal based on the local gradient of the analyzed signal. Both a simulated signal and vibration signals acquired from bearing are employed to evaluate and compare the proposed AMGLW scheme with the traditional linear wavelet transform (LWT) and another adaptive lifting wavelet (ALW) developed in literature. Experimental results reveal that the AMGLW outperforms the LW and ALW obviously for detecting bearing defects. The impulsive components can be enhanced and the noise can be depressed simultaneously by the presented AMGLW scheme. Thus the fault characteristic frequencies of bearing can be clearly identified. Furthermore, the AMGLW gets an advantage over LW in computation efficiency. It is quite suitable for online condition monitoring of bearings and other rotating machineries.

  20. Incremental wind tunnel testing of high lift systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victor, Pricop Mihai; Mircea, Boscoianu; Daniel-Eugeniu, Crunteanu

    2016-06-01

    Efficiency of trailing edge high lift systems is essential for long range future transport aircrafts evolving in the direction of laminar wings, because they have to compensate for the low performance of the leading edge devices. Modern high lift systems are subject of high performance requirements and constrained to simple actuation, combined with a reduced number of aerodynamic elements. Passive or active flow control is thus required for the performance enhancement. An experimental investigation of reduced kinematics flap combined with passive flow control took place in a low speed wind tunnel. The most important features of the experimental setup are the relatively large size, corresponding to a Reynolds number of about 2 Million, the sweep angle of 30 degrees corresponding to long range airliners with high sweep angle wings and the large number of flap settings and mechanical vortex generators. The model description, flap settings, methodology and results are presented.

  1. View of West end of central lift span truss web ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of West end of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River Bridge, showing web brace of lift girder superstructure, looking west - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  2. Lithography equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, Harry J.

    1996-07-01

    Until recently, lithography capability evolved consistently with Moore's law. It appears that semiconductor manufacturers are now deviating from Moore's law, which has implications for lithography equipment. DUV lithography is moving into production in a mix-and-match environment. Step- and-scan technology is the wave of the near-future, as a way to contend with the difficulty of manufacturing wide-field lenses. Resist processing equipment will undergo few fundamental changes, but will often be integrated with steppers, particularly for DUV applications. Metrology is being stretched beyond its limits for technologies below 250 nm. The move is on to 300 m diameter wafers, and 193 nm lithography is under consideration.

  3. An experimental study of the lift, drag and static longitudinal stability for a three lifting surface configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostowari, C.; Naik, D.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental procedure and aerodynamic force and moment measurements for wind tunnel testing of the three lifting surface configuration (TLC) are described. The influence of nonelliptical lift distributions on lift, drag, and static longitudinal stability are examined; graphs of the lift coefficient versus angle of attack, the pitching moment coefficient, drag coefficient, and lift to drag ratio versus lift coefficient are provided. The TLC data are compared with the conventional tail-aft configuration and the canard-wing configuration; it is concluded that the TLC has better lift and high-lift drag characteristics, lift to drag ratio, and zero-lift moments than the other two configurations. The effects of variations in forward and tail wind incidence angles, gap, stagger, and forward wind span on the drag, lift, longitudinal stability, and zero-lift moments of the configuration are studied.

  4. Rotating cylinder design as a lifting generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asrokin, Azharrudin; Rizal Ramly, Mohammad; Halim Ahmad, Abdul

    2013-12-01

    The airfoil shape of a wing has always been the design to generate lift. But few realized that a simple rotating cylinder can also create lift. However, the explanation and study of how a rotating cylinder creates lift are still complex. In remote area where it is difficult for air vehicle to access, the exploration and discovery of different configuration for design concept is rather important. Due to this reason, there is a need to think of a lift generator that can produce better lift (few fold better than conventional airfoil) at lower speed to take off in a short distance of time. This paper will explain the conditions and the design of such a wing using the rotating cylinder concept that will take off in a short time and requires little takeoff and landing strip. Spokes will be attached to the cylinder to force the surrounding air to rotate along with the cylinder. This will create a vortex that hastens the speed of the air on top of the cylinder and at the same time retarding the speed of air below the cylinder. From the results, the rougher surface cylinder produces more lift when rotating and also, higher speed rotation of the cylinder greatly changes the speed of the surrounding air, thus better lift.

  5. Dynamic ECA lift-off compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepage, Benoit; Brillon, Charles

    2015-03-01

    Good control on lift-off is crucial in Eddy Current Testing (ECT) as the signal amplitude, directly affected by lif-toff changes, can potentially lead to reduced detection performance and/or false positives. This is especially true in automated inspections with Eddy Current Array (ECA) technology, where lift-off cannot be mechanically compensated for at each coil position. Here, we report on a novel method for compensating sensitivity variations induced by varying lift-off for an ECA probe. This method makes use of a single ECA probe operated in two different ways: One is to create a set of detection channels and the other is to create a set of lift-off measurement channels. Since a simple relationship exists between the two measurements, an improved calibration process can be used which combines the calibration of both detection and lift-off measurement channels on a simple calibration block exhibiting a reference indication, thus eliminating the need for a predefined lift-off condition. In this work, we will show results obtained on a weld cap, where lift-off condition is known to vary significantly over the scanning area.

  6. Solar Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A medical refrigeration and a water pump both powered by solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are among the line of solar powered equipment manufactured by IUS (Independent Utility Systems) for use in areas where conventional power is not available. IUS benefited from NASA technology incorporated in the solar panel design and from assistance provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center.

  7. Secondary lift for magnetically levitated vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Richard K.

    1976-01-01

    A high-speed terrestrial vehicle that is magnetically levitated by means of magnets which are used to induce eddy currents in a continuous electrically conductive nonferromagnetic track to produce magnetic images that repel the inducing magnet to provide primary lift for the vehicle. The magnets are arranged so that adjacent ones have their fields in opposite directions and the magnets are spaced apart a distance that provides a secondary lift between each magnet and the adjacent magnet's image, the secondary lift being maximized by optimal spacing of the magnets.

  8. Remote lift fan study program, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A study program to select and conduct preliminary design of advanced technology lift fan systems to meet low noise goals of future V/STOL transport aircraft is discussed. This volume contains results of additional studies conducted to support the main preliminary design effort done under the Remote Lift Fan Study Program (Contract NAS3-14406) and a companion effort, the Integral Lift Fan Study (NAS3-14404). These results cover engine emission study, a review of existing engines for research aircraft application and support data for aircraft studies.

  9. Airfoil Lift with Changing Angle of Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Elliott G

    1927-01-01

    Tests have been made in the atmospheric wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to determine the effects of pitching oscillations upon the lift of an airfoil. It has been found that the lift of an airfoil, while pitching, is usually less than that which would exist at the same angle of attack in the stationary condition, although exceptions may occur when the lift is small or if the angle of attack is being rapidly reduced. It is also shown that the behavior of a pitching airfoil may be qualitatively explained on the basis of accepted aerodynamic theory.

  10. Wingless Flight: The Lifting Body Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, R. Dale; Lister, Darlene (Editor); Huntley, J. D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Wingless Flight tells the story of the most unusual flying machines ever flown, the lifting bodies. It is my story about my friends and colleagues who committed a significant part of their lives in the 1960s and 1970s to prove that the concept was a viable one for use in spacecraft of the future. This story, filled with drama and adventure, is about the twelve-year period from 1963 to 1975 in which eight different lifting-body configurations flew. It is appropriate for me to write the story, since I was the engineer who first presented the idea of flight-testing the concept to others at the NASA Flight Research Center. Over those twelve years, I experienced the story as it unfolded day by day at that remote NASA facility northeast of los Angeles in the bleak Mojave Desert. Benefits from this effort immediately influenced the design and operational concepts of the winged NASA Shuttle Orbiter. However, the full benefits would not be realized until the 1990s when new spacecraft such as the X-33 and X-38 would fully employ the lifting-body concept. A lifting body is basically a wingless vehicle that flies due to the lift generated by the shape of its fuselage. Although both a lifting reentry vehicle and a ballistic capsule had been considered as options during the early stages of NASA's space program, NASA initially opted to go with the capsule. A number of individuals were not content to close the book on the lifting-body concept. Researchers including Alfred Eggers at the NASA Ames Research Center conducted early wind-tunnel experiments, finding that half of a rounded nose-cone shape that was flat on top and rounded on the bottom could generate a lift-to-drag ratio of about 1.5 to 1. Eggers' preliminary design sketch later resembled the basic M2 lifting-body design. At the NASA Langley Research Center, other researchers toyed with their own lifting-body shapes. Meanwhile, some of us aircraft-oriented researchers at the, NASA Flight Research Center at Edwards Air

  11. Geometry program for aerodynamic lifting surface theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medan, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program that provides the geometry and boundary conditions appropriate for an analysis of a lifting, thin wing with control surfaces in linearized, subsonic, steady flow is presented. The kernel function method lifting surface theory is applied. The data which is generated by the program is stored on disk files or tapes for later use by programs which calculate an influence matrix, plot the wing planform, and evaluate the loads on the wing. In addition to processing data for subsequent use in a lifting surface analysis, the program is useful for computing area and mean geometric chords of the wing and control surfaces.

  12. Midface lift: our current approaches.

    PubMed

    Botti, G; Botti, C

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years, surgery of the ageing face seems to have shifted from tissue uplifting and tightening to mere filling. We do not agree with this trend. We are positive that ageing brings about 2 basic phenomena: on one hand bone and fat volume reduction, whilst on the other a deterioration of the skin lining (elastosis) leading to an increase in its compliance and extension. We therefore deem of the utmost importance to couple soft tissue filling with indispensable tightening and repositioning together with resection of overabundant skin. For what concerns the mid-face area in particular, we suggest to resort to 3 different lifting techniques, according to the kind of defect to be treated. It is important to take the right pulling vector into consideration as well as the need of skin excess removal. The procedures can be tailored to suit any peculiar need such as malar bag, lower lid border malposition, tear trough deformity, etc. Different cases will be taken into consideration as examples of the various indications and techniques. PMID:25162240

  13. Texas passes first law for safe patient handling in America: landmark legislation protects health-care workers and patients from injury related to manual patient lifting.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Mary Anne

    2005-01-01

    On June 17,2005, Texas Governor Rick Perry (R) signed into law Senate Bill 1525, making Texas the first state in the nation to require hospitals and nursing homes to implement safe patient handling and movement programs. Governor Perry is to be commended for this heroic first stand for safe patient handling in America. The landmark legislation will take effect January 1, 2006, requiring the establishment of policy to identify, assess, and develop methods of controlling the risk of injury to patients and nurses associated with lifting, transferring, repositioning, and movement of patients; evaluation of alternative methods from manual lifting to reduce the risk of injury from patient lifting, including equipment and patient care environment; restricting, to the extent feasible with existing equipment, manual handling of all or most of a patient's weight to emergency, life-threatening, or exceptional circumstances; and provision for refusal to perform patient handling tasks believed to involve unacceptable risks of injury to a patient or nurse. Manually lifting patients has been called deplorable, inefficient, dangerous to nurses, and painful and brutal to patients; manual lifting can cause needless suffering and injury to patients, with dangers including pain, bruising, skin tears, abrasions, tube dislodgement, dislocations, fractures, and being dropped by nursing staff during attempts to manually lift. Use of safe, secure, mechanical lift equipment and gentle friction-reducing devices for patient maneuvering tasks could eliminate such needless brutality. Research has proven that manual patient lifting is extremely hazardous to health-care workers, creating substantial risk of low-back injury, whether with one or two patient handlers. Studies on the use of mechanical patient lift equipment, by either nursing staff or lift teams, have proven repeatedly that most nursing staff back injury is preventable, leading to substantial savings to employers on medical and

  14. Heavy Lift & Propulsion Technology (HL&PT)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Cris Guidi delivers a presentation from the Heavy Lift & Propulsion Technology (HL&PT) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of ...

  15. Bernoulli's Law and Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Explains the lifting force based on Bernoulli's law and as a reaction force. Discusses the interrelation of both explanations. Considers accelerations in line with stream lines and perpendicular to stream lines. (YP)

  16. How good is jet lift VTOL technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, S. B.; Petersen, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The status of technologies for jet-lift V/STOL aircraft is examined, and a critical review of the performance of jet-lift VTOL aircraft built to date is made. Most jet-lift aircraft have suffered from adverse propulsion-induced effects during takeoff and landing. Flight dynamics of jet-lift aircraft have suffered from shortcomings in static and dynamic stability, control characteristics, and flight path control. Some of the main problems to be considered during the selection of a propulsion system arrangement for a V/STOL fighter are discussed. At present, experimental and analytical data on supersonic V/STOL configurations are insufficient to permit evaluating propulsion system arrangements.

  17. More Americans Opting for Butt Implants, Lifts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overall, the number of U.S. plastic surgery procedures rose 115 percent between 2000 and 2015, and the ... example, the rate of people undergoing buttock lifts rose 252 percent between 2000 and 2015 -- from 1, ...

  18. Integrated lift/drag controller for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olcott, J. W.; Seckel, E.; Ellis, D. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A system for altering the lift/drag characteristics of powered aircraft to provide a safe means of glide path control includes a control device integrated for coordination action with the aircraft throttle. Such lift/drag alteration devices as spoilers, dive brakes, and the like are actuated by manual operation of a single lever coupled with the throttle for integrating, blending or coordinating power control. Improper operation of the controller is inhibited by safety mechanisms.

  19. Liftings and stresses for planar periodic frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Borcea, Ciprian; Streinu, Ileana

    2015-01-01

    We formulate and prove a periodic analog of Maxwell’s theorem relating stressed planar frameworks and their liftings to polyhedral surfaces with spherical topology. We use our lifting theorem to prove deformation and rigidity-theoretic properties for planar periodic pseudo-triangulations, generalizing features known for their finite counterparts. These properties are then applied to questions originating in mathematical crystallography and materials science, concerning planar periodic auxetic structures and ultrarigid periodic frameworks. PMID:26973370

  20. Lifted Partially Premixed Flames in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, Andrew J.; Ganguly, Ranjan; Puri, Ishwar K.; Aggarwal, Suesh K.; Hegde, Uday

    2004-01-01

    Lifted Double and Triple flames are established in the UIC-NASA Partially Premixed microgravity rig. The flames examined in this paper are established above a coannular burner because its axisymmetric geometry allows for future implementation of other non-intrusive optical diagnostic techniques easily. Both burner-attached stable flames and lifted flames are established at normal and microgravity conditions in the drop tower facility.

  1. Lift/cruise fan VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quigley, H. C.; Franklin, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the technology related to lift/cruise fan VTOL aircraft, covering propulsion systems, thrust deflection, flight dynamics, controls, displays, aerodynamics, and configurations. Piloting problems are discussed, and the need for integration of power management and thrust-vector controls is pointed out. Major components for a high-bypass-ratio lift/cruise fan propulsion system for VTOL aircraft have been tested.

  2. Numerical modeling of the gas lift process in gas lift wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temirbekov, N. M.; Turarov, A. K.; Baigereyev, D. R.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, one-dimensional and two-dimensional axisymmetric motion of gas, liquid and a gas-liquid mixture in a gas-lift well is studied. Numerical simulation of the one-dimensional model of gas-lift process is considered where the movement in a gas-lift well is described by partial differential equations of hyperbolic type. Difference schemes for the gas-lift model of the process are developed on a nonuniform grid condensing in subdomains with big gradients of the solution. The results of the proposed algorithm are illustrated on the example of a real well.

  3. A Method for Calculation of Hydrodynamic Lift for Submerged and Planing Rectangular Lifting Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadlin, Kenneth L; Christopher, Kenneth W

    1958-01-01

    A method is presented for the calculation of lift coefficients for rectangular lifting surfaces of aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10 operating at finite depths beneath the water surface, including the zero depth or planing condition. Theoretical values are compared with experimental values obtained at various depths of submergence with lifting surfaces of aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10. The method can also be applied to hydrofoils with dihedral. Lift coefficients computed by this method are in good agreement with existing experimental data for aspect ratios from 0.125 to 10 and dihedral angles up to 10 degrees.

  4. Equipment for removal of the TMI-2 plenum assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Ales, M W; Connell, J D; DeMars, R V; Nitti, D A

    1984-06-01

    Preliminary examinations have shown that the plenum assembly is distorted and possibly might bind against the dreactor vessel and core support shield as it is lifted. Further, fuel assembly components are stuck to the bottom of the plenum assembly and particulate fuel debris is deposited in the plenum assembly. These conditions require special equipment to free the plenum assembly from the reactor internals, to dislodge suspended fuel assembly remnants and to lift, transfer, and store the plenum assembly in the shallow end of the refueling canal. The special equipment to remove the plenum assembly is being designed and built. This equipment includes an integrated video/communication inspection system; a hydraulic jack system with a 240-ton capacity; specially designed tools to dislodge the end fuel assembly fittings from the plenum assembly; a portable work platform; and final lifting equipment and a transfer contamination barrier that will be used in conjunction with the polar crane to lift and transfer the plenum assembly. Test assemblies necessary to check out the performance of equipment and train personnel are also being provided.

  5. Training for lifting; an unresolved ergonomic issue?

    PubMed

    Sedgwick, A W; Gormley, J T

    1998-10-01

    The paper describes a nine year project on lifting training which included nine trans-Australia consensus conferences attended by more than 900 health professionals. Major outcomes were: (1) The essence of lifting work is the need for the performer to cope with variability in task, environment, and self, and the essence of lifting skill is therefore adaptability; (2) the semi-squat approach provides the safest and most effective basis for lifting training; (3) for lifting training to be effective, the basic principles of skill learning must be systematically applied, with adaptability as a specific goal; (4) physical work capacity (aerobic power, strength, endurance, joint mobility) is a decisive ingredient of safe and effective lifting and, in addition to skill learning, should be incorporated in the training of people engaging regularly in heavy manual work; (5) if effective compliance with recommended skilled behaviour is to be achieved, then training must apply the principles and methods appropriate to adult learning and behaviour modification. PMID:9703354

  6. Survey of lift-fan aerodynamic technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, David H.; Kirk, Jerry V.

    1993-01-01

    Representatives of NASA Ames Research Center asked that a summary of technology appropriate for lift-fan powered short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft be prepared so that new programs could more easily benefit from past research efforts. This paper represents one of six prepared for that purpose. The authors have conducted or supervised the conduct of research on lift-fan powered STOVL designs and some of their important components for decades. This paper will first address aerodynamic modeling requirements for experimental programs to assure realistic, trustworthy results. It will next summarize the results or efforts to develop satisfactory specialized STOVL components such as inlets and flow deflectors. It will also discuss problems with operation near the ground, aerodynamics while under lift-fan power, and aerodynamic prediction techniques. Finally, results of studies to reduce lift-fan noise will be presented. The paper will emphasize results from large scale experiments, where available, for reasons that will be brought out in the discussion. Some work with lift-engine powered STOVL aircraft is also applicable to lift-fan technology and will be presented herein. Small-scale data will be used where necessary to fill gaps.

  7. 49 CFR 178.1050 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.1050 Section 178.1050... Containers § 178.1050 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all of Flexible Bulk Containers design types to be lifted from the top. (b) Special...

  8. 49 CFR 178.812 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.812 Section 178.812... Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC design types designed to be lifted from the top or, for flexible IBCs, from the side. (b)...

  9. 49 CFR 178.812 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.812 Section 178.812... Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC design types designed to be lifted from the top or, for flexible IBCs, from the side. (b)...

  10. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.975 Section 178.975... Packagings § 178.975 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all of Large Packagings design types to be lifted from the top or, for flexible Large Packagings,...

  11. 49 CFR 178.1050 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.1050 Section 178.1050... Containers § 178.1050 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all of Flexible Bulk Containers design types to be lifted from the top. (b) Special...

  12. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.975 Section 178.975... Packagings § 178.975 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all of Large Packagings design types to be lifted from the top or, for flexible Large Packagings,...

  13. 49 CFR 178.812 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.812 Section 178.812... Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC design types designed to be lifted from the top or, for flexible IBCs, from the side. (b)...

  14. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.975 Section 178.975... Packagings § 178.975 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all of Large Packagings design types to be lifted from the top or, for flexible Large Packagings,...

  15. 49 CFR 178.812 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.812 Section 178.812... Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC design types designed to be lifted from the top or, for flexible IBCs, from the side. (b)...

  16. 49 CFR 178.812 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.812 Section 178.812... Testing of IBCs § 178.812 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC design types designed to be lifted from the top or, for flexible IBCs, from the...

  17. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.975 Section 178.975... Packagings § 178.975 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all of Large Packagings design types to be lifted from the top or, for flexible Large Packagings,...

  18. Lifting Safety: Tips To Help Prevent Back Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Lifting Safety: Tips to Help Prevent Back Injuries Lifting Safety: Tips to Help Prevent Back Injuries Have you checked the object before you try to lift it? Test every load before you lift by pushing the object lightly with your hands or feet to see how easily ...

  19. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697....697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device control must be designed so that the pilots....101(d). Lift and drag devices must maintain the selected positions, except for movement produced by...

  20. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697....697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device control must be designed so that the pilots....101(d). Lift and drag devices must maintain the selected positions, except for movement produced by...

  1. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697....697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device control must be designed so that the pilots....101(d). Lift and drag devices must maintain the selected positions, except for movement produced by...

  2. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697....697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device control must be designed so that the pilots....101(d). Lift and drag devices must maintain the selected positions, except for movement produced by...

  3. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lift and drag devices, controls. 25.697....697 Lift and drag devices, controls. (a) Each lift device control must be designed so that the pilots....101(d). Lift and drag devices must maintain the selected positions, except for movement produced by...

  4. International Powered Lift Conference and Exposition, Santa Clara, CA, Dec. 7-10, 1987, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The present conference on VTOL, STOVL and V/STOL fixed-wing aircraft powered lift discusses hot gas recirculation in V/STOL, flight testing of a single-engine powered lift aircraft, RAF experience with VTOL, near-term improvements of the AV-8B Harrier II, recent advancements in thrust augmentation, lift ejectors for STOVL combat aircraft, the correlation of entrainment and lift enhancement for a two-dimensional propulsive wing, the thrust efficiency of powered lift systems, and flight propulsion control integration for V/STOL aircraft. Also discussed are VSTOL design implications for tactical transports, the numerical investigation of a jet in ground effect with a cross flow, the NASA supersonic STOVL propulsion technology program, the aeroacoustics of advanced STOVL aircraft plumes, powered lift transport aircraft certification criteria status, the application of vectored thrust V/STOL experience in supersonic designs, wave drag and high speed performance of supersonic STOVL fighter configurations, and the impact of bypass ratio on thrust-to-weight for V/STOL.

  5. Evaluation of tunnel sidewall boundary-layer-control systems for high-lift airfoil testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paschal, K.; Goodman, W.; Mcghee, R.; Walker, B.; Wilcox, Peter A.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted in the NASA Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel to evaluate a suction sidewall boundary-layer-control (BLC) technique used in testing 2D high-lift airfoils. Sidewall BLC is required to maintain spanwise two-dimensionality of the flow over the airfoil at large angles of attack. A supercritical-type high-lift air-foil, equipped with a double-slotted flap and a leading-edge slat, was used for the study which was conducted at a Mach number of 0.2 and Reynolds numbers based on chord of 9 and 16 million. The sidewall BLC technique, which features distributed suction through porous endplates connected to a venting system, was able to control sidewall boundary-layer separation and maintain two-dimensional flow over the high-lift configuration for both Reynolds numbers tested. Discussions on porous endplate optimization and effects of suction on section lift are presented. Results obtained with the suction system were also compared with previous data obtained with a tangential blowing BLC system for the same high-lift configuration.

  6. Rescue Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Lifeshear cutter, a rescue tool for freeing accident victims from wreckage, was developed under the Clinton Administration's Technology Reinvestment Program. Prior cutting equipment was cumbersome and expensive; the new cutter is 50 percent lighter and 70 percent cheaper. The cutter is pyrotechnically-actuated, using a miniature version of the power cartridges used for separation devices on the Space Shuttle and other NASA spacecraft. Hi-Shear Technology Corporation developed the cutter with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and input from the City of Torrance (California) Fire Department.

  7. Investigation of Bio-Inspired High Lift Devices for Stall Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufstedler, Esteban; McKeon, Beverley J.

    2014-11-01

    A passive upper-surface flap has been shown to increase the lift on a wing after stall and reduce the severity of stall at a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Experiments at Re = 20,000 have been conducted that examined the forces and flow fields around an airfoil with passively moving and static upper-surface flaps. Force measurements confirm the reported post-stall lift-enhancing effect. Particle image velocimetry measurements display the interaction of a significant region of reversed flow with the flap in the lift-enhancing regime. Application of proper orthogonal decomposition techniques to the velocity field data leads to identification of relevant timescales in the separated region and a quantification of the intermittency of vortex shedding that occurs after stall. The support of Airbus for this work is gratefully acknowledged.

  8. Heavy Lift for Exploration: Options and Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Steve; Sumrall, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Every study of exploration capabilities since the Apollo Program has recommended the renewal of a heavy lift launch capability for the United States. NASA is aggressively pursuing that capability. This paper will discuss several aspects of that effort and the potential uses for that heavy lift capability. The need for heavy lift was cited most recent in the findings of the Review of U.S. Human Space Flight Plans Committee. Combined with considerations of launch availability and on-orbit operations, the Committee finds that exploration will benefit from the availability of a heavy-lift vehicle, the report said. In addition, heavy lift would enable the launching of large scientific observatories and more capable deep-space missions. It may also provide benefit in national security applications. The most recent focus of NASA s heavy lift effort is the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, which is part of the Constellation Program architecture for human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The most recent point-of-departure configuration of the Ares V was approved during the Lunar Capabilities concept Review (LCCR) in 2008. The Ares V first stage propulsion system consists of a core stage powered by six commercial liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen (LH2/LOX) RS-68 engines, flanked by two 5.5-segment solid rocket boosters (SRBs) based on the 5-segment Ares I first stage. The boosters use the same Polybutadiene Acrylonitrile (PBAN) propellant as the Space Shuttle. Atop the core stage is the Earth departure stage (EDS), powered by a single J-2X upper stage engine based on the Ares I upper stage engine. The 33-foot-diameter payload shroud can enclose a lunar lander, scientific instruments, or other payloads. Since LCCR, NASA has continued to refine the design through several successive internal design cycles. In addition, NASA has worked to quantify the broad national consensus for heavy lift in ways that, to the extent possible, meet the needs of the user community.

  9. The measured field performances of eight different mechanical and air-lift water-pumping wind-turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Kentfield, J.A.C.

    1996-12-31

    Results are presented of the specific performances of eight, different, water-pumping wind-turbines subjected to impartial tests at the Alberta Renewable Energy Test Site (ARETS), Alberta, Canada. The results presented which were derived from the test data, obtained independently of the equipment manufacturers, are expressed per unit of rotor projected area to eliminate the influence of machine size. Hub-height wind speeds and water flow rates for a common lift of 5.5 m (18 ft) constitute the essential test data. A general finding was that, to a first approximation, there were no major differences in specific performance between four units equipped with conventional reciprocating pumps two of which employed reduction gearing and two of which did not. It was found that a unit equipped with a Moyno pump performed well but three air-lift machines had, as was expected, poorer specific performances than the more conventional equipment. 10 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Heavy-Lift for a New Paradigm in Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Bruce; Burkey, Martin

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing an unprecedented heavy-lift capability to enable human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). This capability could also significantly enhance numerous other missions of scientific, national security, and commercial importance. That capability is currently configured as the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. This capability will eclipse the capability the United States lost with the retirement of the Saturn V. It is capable of launching roughly 53 percent more payload mass to trans lunar injection (TLI) and 30 percent more payload mass to LEO than its Apollo Program predecessor. Ares V is a major element of NASA's Constellation Program, which also includes the Ares I crew launch vehicle (CLV), Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV), and a lunar lander for crew and cargo. As currently configured, Ares V will be capable of launching 413,800 pounds (187.7 mT) to LEO, 138,500 pounds (63 mT) direct to the Moon or 156,700 pounds (71.1 mT) in its dual-launch architecture role with Ares I. Its 33-foot (10 m) shroud provides unprecedented payload volume. Assessment of astronomy and planetary science payload requirements since spring 2008 has indicated that a Saturn V-class heavy-lift vehicle has the potential to support a range of payloads and missions. This vehicle configuration enables some missions previously considered difficult or impossible and enhances many others. Collaborative design/architecture inputs, exchanges, and analyses have already begun between scientists and payload developers. This early dialogue between NASA engineers and payload designers allows both communities to shape their designs and operational concepts to be mutually supportive to the extent possible with the least financial impact. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities of a heavy-lift vehicle to launch payloads with increased mass and/or volume and reduce technical and cost risk in both design and operations.

  11. Equipment Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Magnavox Government & Electronics Company originally used the NASTRAN program in the design stage of heavy aluminum fixtures for vibration testing. Program also used to compare the resonant frequencies of the circuitry to predict whether failures may occur because of high vibration levels. The company engineers can then make design alterations to improve the equipment's vibration resistance. Method allows Magnavox to insure reliability and reduce any possibility of vibration-caused failure in critical defense products they manufacture. Magnavox uses another COSMIC software package called GENOPTICS in the development of a Digital Optical Recorder, and also in research and development of other optical systems. This enables use of an optically recorded disc to store and retrieve digital data. It is reported that this program provides accurate results and that its use saved six man-months of time that would have been needed to develop a comparable software package.

  12. Design of a portable powered seat lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    People suffering from degenerative hip or knee joints find sitting and rising from a seated position very difficult. These people can rely on large stationary chairs at home, but must ask others for assistance when rising from any other chair. An orthopedic surgeon identified to the MSFC Technology Utilization Office the need for development of a portable device that could perform a similar function to the stationary lift chairs. The MSFC Structural Development Branch answered the Technology Utilization Office's request for design of a portable powered seat lift. The device is a seat cushion that opens under power, lifting the user to near-standing positions. The largest challenge was developing a mechanism to provide a stable lift over the large range of motion needed, and fold flat enough to be comfortable to sit on. CAD 3-D modeling was used to generate complete drawings for the prototype, and a full-scale working model of the Seat lift was made based on the drawings. The working model is of low strength, but proves the function of the mechanism and the concept.

  13. Noise impact of advanced high lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmer, Kevin R.; Joshi, Mahendra C.

    1995-01-01

    The impact of advanced high lift systems on aircraft size, performance, direct operating cost and noise were evaluated for short-to-medium and medium-to-long range aircraft with high bypass ratio and very high bypass ratio engines. The benefit of advanced high lift systems in reducing noise was found to be less than 1 effective-perceived-noise decibel level (EPNdB) when the aircraft were sized to minimize takeoff gross weight. These aircraft did, however, have smaller wings and lower engine thrusts for the same mission than aircraft with conventional high lift systems. When the advanced high lift system was implemented without reducing wing size and simultaneously using lower flap angles that provide higher L/D at approach a cumulative noise reduction of as much as 4 EPNdB was obtained. Comparison of aircraft configurations that have similar approach speeds showed cumulative noise reduction of 2.6 EPNdB that is purely the result of incorporating advanced high lift system in the aircraft design.

  14. Experimental Study of Lift-Generated Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The flow fields of vortices, whether bouyancy-driven or lift-generated, are fascinating fluid-dynamic phenomena which often possess intense swirl velocities and complex time-dependent behavior. As part of the on-going study of vortex behavior, this paper presents a historical overview of the research conducted on the structure and modification of the vortices generated by the lifting surfaces of subsonic transport aircraft. It is pointed out that the characteristics of lift-generated vortices are related to the aerodynamic shapes that produce them and that various arrangements of surfaces can be used to produce different vortex structures. The primary purpose of the research to be described is to find a way to reduce the hazard potential of lift-generated vortices shed by subsonic transport aircraft in the vicinity of airports during landing and takeoff operations. It is stressed that lift-generated vortex wakes are so complex that progress towards a solution requires application of a combined theoretical and experimental research program because either alone often leads to incorrect conclusions. It is concluded that a satisfactory aerodynamic solution to the wake-vortex problem at airports has not yet been found but a reduction in the impact of the wake-vortex hazard on airport capacity may become available in the foreseeable future through wake-vortex avoidance concepts currently under study. The material to be presented in this overview is drawn from aerospace journals that are available publicly.

  15. Agricultural Machinery - Equipment. Agricultural Cooperative Training. Vocational Agricluture. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlin, David, Comp.; And Others

    Designed for students enrolled in the Agricultural Cooperative Part-Time Training Program, this course of study contains 12 units on agricultural machinery mechanics. Units include (examples of unit topics in parentheses): introduction (agricultural mechanics as an occupation; safety--shop and equipment; use of holding devices, jacks, lifts, and…

  16. Profound Impacts of AN Arctic Face Lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nghiem, Son

    Son Nghiem, son.v.nghiem@jpl.nasa.gov Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States The ice cover on the Arctic Ocean has undergone a face lift that removes much of the older and thicker perennial ice and replaces it with the younger and thinner seasonal ice. Although the sea ice cover is a thin skin compared to the depth of the Arctic Ocean, this face lift exerts profound change in the Arctic environment. Here, we present scatterometer remote sensing of Arctic sea ice change and its implication on chemical processes from the ice surface to the troposphere extending into the internal continental land. In the context of a half century change, the extent of perennial ice declines at rate of 0.5 million km2 per decade in the 1970s-1990s while there is no discernable trend in the 1950s-1960s. Abruptly, the rate of decrease has tripled to 1.5 million km2 per decade in the 2000s. A record was set in the reduction of Arctic perennial ice extent in winter 2008. By 1 March 2008, perennial ice extent was reduced by one million km2 compared to that at the same time in 2007. On 1 May 2009, perennial ice extent was reduced to 2.1 million km2 , which is a virtual tie to 2.2 million km2 of perennial ice extent on 1 May 2008 given the uncertainty of ±0.2 million km2 . Although the extent of perennial ice extent is similar, its distribution is quite different, with a significant perennial ice pack in the Beaufort Sea in 2008, and in contrast a large expanse of perennial ice along the Transpolar Drift Stream in 2009. The continuing drastic reduction of perennial ice significantly decreases the overall surface albedo, resulting in enhanced solar heat absorption in spring and summer, which further decreases the Arctic ice pack through the ice-albedo feedback mechanism and ice melt from the underside due to oceanic thermodynamic interactions. Satellite maps of sea ice class distribution show the closely conformation with patterns of

  17. Unsteady lifting-line theory with applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmadi, A. R.; Widnall, S. E.

    1982-01-01

    Unsteady lifting-line theory is developed for a flexible unswept wing of large aspect ratio oscillating at low frequency in inviscid incompressible flow. The theory is formulated in terms of the acceleration potential and treated by the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The wing displacements are prescribed and the pressure field, airloads, and unsteady induced downwash are obtained in closed form. Sample numerical calculations are presented. The present work identifies and resolves errors in the unsteady lifting-line theory of James and points out a limitation in that of Van Holten. Comparison of the results of Reissner's approximate unsteady lifting-surface theory with those of the present work shows favorable agreement. The present work thus provides some formal justification for Reissner's ad hoc theory. For engineering purposes, the region of applicability of the theory in the reduced frequency-aspect ratio domain is identified approximately and found to cover most cases of practical interest.

  18. NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Watts, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation examined in depth several rotorcraft configurations for large civil transport, designed to meet the technology goals of the NASA Vehicle Systems Program. The investigation identified the Large Civil Tiltrotor as the configuration with the best potential to meet the technology goals. The design presented was economically competitive, with the potential for substantial impact on the air transportation system. The keys to achieving a competitive aircraft were low drag airframe and low disk loading rotors; structural weight reduction, for both airframe and rotors; drive system weight reduction; improved engine efficiency; low maintenance design; and manufacturing cost comparable to fixed-wing aircraft. Risk reduction plans were developed to provide the strategic direction to support a heavy-lift rotorcraft development. The following high risk areas were identified for heavy lift rotorcraft: high torque, light weight drive system; high performance, structurally efficient rotor/wing system; low noise aircraft; and super-integrated vehicle management system.

  19. Frequency response of lift control in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Graetzel, Chauncey F; Nelson, Bradley J; Fry, Steven N

    2010-11-01

    The flight control responses of the fruitfly represent a powerful model system to explore neuromotor control mechanisms, whose system level control properties can be suitably characterized with a frequency response analysis. We characterized the lift response dynamics of tethered flying Drosophila in presence of vertically oscillating visual patterns, whose oscillation frequency we varied between 0.1 and 13 Hz. We justified these measurements by showing that the amplitude gain and phase response is invariant to the pattern oscillation amplitude and spatial frequency within a broad dynamic range. We also showed that lift responses are largely linear and time invariant (LTI), a necessary condition for a meaningful analysis of frequency responses and a remarkable characteristic given its nonlinear constituents. The flies responded to increasing oscillation frequencies with a roughly linear decrease in response gain, which dropped to background noise levels at about 6 Hz. The phase lag decreased linearly, consistent with a constant reaction delay of 75 ms. Next, we estimated the free-flight response of the fly to generate a Bode diagram of the lift response. The limitation of lift control to frequencies below 6 Hz is explained with inertial body damping, which becomes dominant at higher frequencies. Our work provides the detailed background and techniques that allow optomotor lift responses of Drosophila to be measured with comparatively simple, affordable and commercially available techniques. The identification of an LTI, pattern velocity dependent, lift control strategy is relevant to the underlying motion computation mechanisms and serves a broader understanding of insects' flight control strategies. The relevance and potential pitfalls of applying system identification techniques in tethered preparations is discussed. PMID:20462877

  20. Frequency response of lift control in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Graetzel, Chauncey F.; Nelson, Bradley J.; Fry, Steven N.

    2010-01-01

    The flight control responses of the fruitfly represent a powerful model system to explore neuromotor control mechanisms, whose system level control properties can be suitably characterized with a frequency response analysis. We characterized the lift response dynamics of tethered flying Drosophila in presence of vertically oscillating visual patterns, whose oscillation frequency we varied between 0.1 and 13 Hz. We justified these measurements by showing that the amplitude gain and phase response is invariant to the pattern oscillation amplitude and spatial frequency within a broad dynamic range. We also showed that lift responses are largely linear and time invariant (LTI), a necessary condition for a meaningful analysis of frequency responses and a remarkable characteristic given its nonlinear constituents. The flies responded to increasing oscillation frequencies with a roughly linear decrease in response gain, which dropped to background noise levels at about 6 Hz. The phase lag decreased linearly, consistent with a constant reaction delay of 75 ms. Next, we estimated the free-flight response of the fly to generate a Bode diagram of the lift response. The limitation of lift control to frequencies below 6 Hz is explained with inertial body damping, which becomes dominant at higher frequencies. Our work provides the detailed background and techniques that allow optomotor lift responses of Drosophila to be measured with comparatively simple, affordable and commercially available techniques. The identification of an LTI, pattern velocity dependent, lift control strategy is relevant to the underlying motion computation mechanisms and serves a broader understanding of insects' flight control strategies. The relevance and potential pitfalls of applying system identification techniques in tethered preparations is discussed. PMID:20462877

  1. [Anesthetic maintenance during circular face lifting].

    PubMed

    Parshin, V I; Pastukhova, N K

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the specific features of anesthetic maintenance (ketamine, diprivan, dormicum, perfalgan, promedol) during circular face lifting without artificial ventilation. All intravenous anesthesia procedures have yielded good results. Narcotic analgesics may be removed from the anesthetic maintenance scheme, ruling out the necessity of their licensing, storing, and recording. The use of perfalgan causes no hallucinogenic reactions and offers the optimum level of anesthesia. During face lifting, 2.3 +/- 0.6-hour anesthesia with spontaneous breathing is possible, safe, and warranted. PMID:20524331

  2. Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, John Eric; Carré, Matt J.

    2010-07-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.

  3. Subsea production equipment standardization initiative

    SciTech Connect

    George, N.

    1996-12-31

    This paper examines Shell Expro`s work in simplifying and standardizing its subsea production systems on 10,000 psi, 300 F rated equipment through the use of proven technology and configured to meet common interface requirements. A modular ``building block`` approach to design was adopted, whereby trees are easily converted from one style to another (oil, water or gas lift) by the addition or removal of bolt-on, pre-engineered packages. Standardization of associated control systems has also been applied, together with series hook-up of trees for small developments. A common top-of-tree interface enables vendor interchangeability of tooling. The use of ROV compatible designs for choke and control module change out are expected to provide significant operational cost savings. Common interfaces allow cross-sharing of tooling systems between projects and potentially other operators, and are the catalyst for vendors to develop rental tooling pools.

  4. Lift and Drag of Wings with Small Span

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinig, F.

    1947-01-01

    The lift coefficient of!a wing of small span at first shows a linear increase for the increasing angle of attack, but to a lesser degree then was to be expected according to the theory of the lifting line; thereafter the lift coefficient increases more rapidly than linearity, as contrasted with the the theory of the lifting line. The induced drag coefficient for a given lift coefficient, on the other hand, is obviously much smaller than it would be according to the theory. A mall change in the theory of the lifting line will cover these deviations.

  5. The lift-fan powered-lift aircraft concept: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, Wallace H.

    1993-01-01

    This is one of a series of reports on the lessons learned from past research related to lift-fan aircraft concepts. An extensive review is presented of the many lift-fan aircraft design studies conducted by both government and industry over the past 45 years. Mission applications and design integration including discussions on manifolding hot gas generators, hot gas dusting, and energy transfer control are addressed. Past lift-fan evaluations of the Avrocar are discussed. Lessons learned from these past efforts are identified.

  6. DNS of a turbulent lifted DME jet flame

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Minamoto, Yuki; Chen, Jacqueline H.

    2016-05-07

    A three-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a turbulent lifted dimethyl ether (DME) slot jet flame was performed at elevated pressure to study interactions between chemical reactions with low-temperature heat release (LTHR), negative temperature coefficient (NTC) reactions and shear generated turbulence in a jet in a heated coflow. By conditioning on mixture fraction, local reaction zones and local heat release rate, the turbulent flame is revealed to exhibit a “pentabrachial” structure that was observed for a laminar DME lifted flame [Krisman et al., (2015)]. The propagation characteristics of the stabilization and triple points are also investigated. Potential stabilization points, spatialmore » locations characterized by preferred temperature and mixture fraction conditions, exhibit autoignition characteristics with large reaction rate and negligible molecular diffusion. The actual stabilization point which coincides with the most upstream samples from the pool of potential stabilization points fovr each spanwise location shows passive flame structure with large diffusion. The propagation speed along the stoichiometric surface near the triple point is compared with the asymptotic value obtained from theory [Ruetsch et al., (1995)]. At stoichiometric conditions, the asymptotic and averaged DNS values of flame displacement speed deviate by a factor of 1.7. However, accounting for the effect of low-temperature species on the local flame speed increase, these two values become comparable. In conclusion, this suggests that the two-stage ignition influences the triple point propagation speed through enhancement of the laminar flame speed in a configuration where abundant low-temperature products from the first stage, low-temperature ignition are transported to the lifted flame by the high-velocity jet.« less

  7. Measuring Lift with the Wright Airfoils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heavers, Richard M.; Soleymanloo, Arianne

    2011-01-01

    In this laboratory or demonstration exercise, we mount a small airfoil with its long axis vertical at one end of a nearly frictionless rotating platform. Air from a leaf blower produces a sidewise lift force L on the airfoil and a drag force D in the direction of the air flow (Fig. 1). The rotating platform is kept in equilibrium by adding weights…

  8. Evaluation of hydraulic lift in cotton germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydraulic lift (HL) in plants is defined as the redistribution of water from wetter to drier soil through the plant roots in response to soil water potential gradients. Water is released from the roots into the dry soil when transpiration is low (night) and reabsorbed by the plant when higher transp...

  9. The Monoplane as a Lifting Vortex Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blenk, Hermann

    1947-01-01

    In Prandtl's airfoil theory the monoplane was replaced by a single lifting vortex line and yielded fairly practical results. However, the theory remained restricted to the straight wing. Yawed wings and those curved in flight direction could not be computed with this first approximation; for these the chordwise lift distribution must be taken into consideration. For the two-dimensional problem the transition from the lifting line to the lifting surface has been explained by Birnbaum. In the present report the transition to the three-dimensional problem is undertaken. The first fundamental problem involves the prediction of flow, profile, and drag for prescribed circulation distribution on the straight rectangular wing, the yawed wing for lateral boundaries parallel to the direction of flight, the swept-back wing, and the rectangular wing in slipping, with the necessary series developments for carrying through the calculations, the practical range of convergence of which does not comprise the wing tips or the break point of the swept-back wing. The second problem concerns the calculation of the circulation distribution with given profile for a slipping rectangular monoplane with flat profile and aspect ratio 6, and a rectangular wing with cambered profile and variable aspect ratio-the latter serving as check of the so-called conversion formulas of the airfoil theory.

  10. Computation of Lifting Wing-Flap Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, Brian; Kwak, Dochan

    1996-01-01

    Research has been carried out on the computation of lifting wing-flap configurations. The long term goal of the research is to develop improved computational tools for the analysis and design of high lift systems. Results show that state-of-the-art computational methods are sufficient to predict time-averaged lift and overall flow field characteristics on simple high-lift configurations. Recently there has been an increased interest in the problem of airframe generated noise and experiments carried out in the 7 x 10 wind tunnel at NASA Ames have identified the flap edge as an important source of noise. A follow-on set of experiments will be conducted toward the end of 1995. The computations being carried out under this project are coordinated with these experiments. In particular, the model geometry being used in the computations is the same as that in the experiments. The geometry consists of a NACA 63-215 Mod B airfoil section which spans the 7 x lO tunnel. The wing is unswept and has an aspect ratio of two. A 30% chord Fowler flap is deployed modifications of the flap edge geometry have been shown to be effective in reducing noise and the existing code is currently being used to compute the effect of a modified geometry on the edge flow.

  11. Complications of lower blepharoplasty and midface lifting.

    PubMed

    Schwarcz, Robert M; Kotlus, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Lower eyelid blepharoplasty and midface lifting share a complex anatomy, which should be mastered before attempting these types of surgeries. In recent years, there have been significant contributions to rejuvenating this area. A thorough understanding of the rejuvenative approaches and their outcomes is imperative. Thus, the problem must be preoperatively evaluated to offer the appropriate technique and minimize complications. PMID:25440742

  12. Biomechanical exploration on dynamic modes of lifting.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, M; Smyth, G

    1992-03-01

    Whatever the lifting method used, dynamic factors appear to have an effect on the safe realization of movement, and NIOSH guidelines recommend smooth lifting with no sudden acceleration effects. On the other hand, inertial forces may play an important role in the process of transfer of momentum to the load. The direction by which these inertial forces may affect the loadings on body structures and processes of energy transfers cannot be determined a priori. A biomechanical experiment was performed to examine if there were differences in the execution processes between a slow-continuous lift and an accelerated-continuous lift, and also between accelerated lifts either executed continuously or interrupted with a pause. The lifts were executed from a height of 15 cm to a height of 185 cm above the head and with two different loads (6.4 and 11.6 kg). Five experienced workers in manual materials handling were used as subjects. Films and force platforms recordings supplied the data; dynamic segmental analyses were performed to calculate net muscular moments at each joint; a planar single-muscle equivalent was used to estimate compression loadings at L5/S1; total mechanical work, joint work distribution, and energy transfers were determined from a kinetic approach based on the integration of joint power as a function of time. Analyses of variance with repeated measures were applied to the three treatments. The results showed that joint muscular moments, spinal loadings, mechanical work, and muscular utilization ratios were generally increased by the presence of acceleration without inducing benefits of improved energy transfers; therefore slower lifts with reduced acceleration may be safer when handling moderately heavy loads. The maximum values of kinematic and kinetic factors were generally not affected by the pause, but the occurrence of jerks in the movement (acceleration, ground forces, and muscular moments) suggests that the pause may not be indicated when

  13. Sunspots and the physics of magnetic flux tubes. III - Aerodynamic lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1979-01-01

    The aerodynamic lift exerted on a magnetic flux tube by the asymmetric flow around the two sides of the tube is calculated as part of an investigation of the physics of solar flux tubes. The general hydrodynamic forces on a rigid circular cylinder in a nonuniform flow of an ideal fluid are derived from the first derivatives of the velocity field. Aerodynamic lift in a radial nonuniform flow is found to act in the direction of the flow, toward the region of increased flow velocity, while in a shear flow, lift is perpendicular to the free stream and directed toward increasing flow velocity. For a general, three dimensional, large-scale stationary incompressible equilibrium flow, an expression is also derived relating the lift per unit length to the dynamical pressure, cylinder radius and the gradient of the free-stream velocity. Evidence from an asymmetric airfoil in a uniform flow indicates that lift is enhanced in a real fluid in the presence of turbulence.

  14. Three-dimensional flow and lift characteristics of a hovering ruby-throated hummingbird.

    PubMed

    Song, Jialei; Luo, Haoxiang; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2014-09-01

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation is performed for a ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) in hovering flight. Realistic wing kinematics are adopted in the numerical model by reconstructing the wing motion from high-speed imaging data of the bird. Lift history and the three-dimensional flow pattern around the wing in full stroke cycles are captured in the simulation. Significant asymmetry is observed for lift production within a stroke cycle. In particular, the downstroke generates about 2.5 times as much vertical force as the upstroke, a result that confirms the estimate based on the measurement of the circulation in a previous experimental study. Associated with lift production is the similar power imbalance between the two half strokes. Further analysis shows that in addition to the angle of attack, wing velocity and surface area, drag-based force and wing-wake interaction also contribute significantly to the lift asymmetry. Though the wing-wake interaction could be beneficial for lift enhancement, the isolated stroke simulation shows that this benefit is buried by other opposing effects, e.g. presence of downwash. The leading-edge vortex is stable during the downstroke but may shed during the upstroke. Finally, the full-body simulation result shows that the effects of wing-wing interaction and wing-body interaction are small. PMID:25008082

  15. Three-dimensional flow and lift characteristics of a hovering ruby-throated hummingbird

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jialei; Luo, Haoxiang; Hedrick, Tyson L.

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation is performed for a ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) in hovering flight. Realistic wing kinematics are adopted in the numerical model by reconstructing the wing motion from high-speed imaging data of the bird. Lift history and the three-dimensional flow pattern around the wing in full stroke cycles are captured in the simulation. Significant asymmetry is observed for lift production within a stroke cycle. In particular, the downstroke generates about 2.5 times as much vertical force as the upstroke, a result that confirms the estimate based on the measurement of the circulation in a previous experimental study. Associated with lift production is the similar power imbalance between the two half strokes. Further analysis shows that in addition to the angle of attack, wing velocity and surface area, drag-based force and wing–wake interaction also contribute significantly to the lift asymmetry. Though the wing–wake interaction could be beneficial for lift enhancement, the isolated stroke simulation shows that this benefit is buried by other opposing effects, e.g. presence of downwash. The leading-edge vortex is stable during the downstroke but may shed during the upstroke. Finally, the full-body simulation result shows that the effects of wing–wing interaction and wing–body interaction are small. PMID:25008082

  16. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING LIFT BRIDGE. COUNTER WEIGHTS ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING LIFT BRIDGE. COUNTER WEIGHTS ARE LARGE SQUARES VISIBLE ABOVE BRIDGE - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  17. 3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING LIFT BRIDGE. COUNTER WEIGHTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING LIFT BRIDGE. COUNTER WEIGHTS ARE LARGE SQUARES VISIBLE ABOVE BRIDGE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  18. 6. DETAIL OF VERTICAL LIFT SPAN AND FIXED SPAN IMMEDIATELY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF VERTICAL LIFT SPAN AND FIXED SPAN IMMEDIATELY NORTH OF VERTICAL LIFT SPAN, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Shippingsport Bridge, Spanning Illinois River at State Route 51, La Salle, La Salle County, IL

  19. Interior view of eastern lift span, with decking above, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of eastern lift span, with decking above, looking back from center of span, toward lift mechanism area. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF 210' 9' LIFT SPAN TOWER SHEAVES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF 210' 9' LIFT SPAN TOWER SHEAVES AND BEARINGS WITH HOUSING AND SHEAVE HOODS REMOVED - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Newark Bay Lift Bridge, Spanning Newark Bay, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  1. View of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River Bridge, showing support girders for life house, looking east - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  2. Analysis of lifting beam and redesigned lifting lugs for 241-AZ-01A decant pump

    SciTech Connect

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1994-11-29

    This supporting document details calculations for the proper design of a lifting beam and redesigned lifting lugs for the 241AZO1A decant pump. This design is in accordance with Standard Architectural-Civil Design Criteria, Design Loads for Facilities (DOE-RL 1989) and is safety class three. The design and fabrication is in accordance with American Institute of Steel Construction, Manual of Steel Construction, (AISC, 1989) and the Hanford Hoisting and Rigging Manual (DOE-RL 1993).

  3. [Effect of gas-lift device on the morphology and performance of ANAMMOX sludge].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Huang, Yong; Yuan, Yi; Zhou, Cheng; Chen, Zong-Heng; Zhang, Da-Lin

    2014-12-01

    The upflow reactor with gas-lift device was started up by inoculating ANAMMOX sludge granules of less than 0.9 mm. The effects of gas lift device system on the morphology and performance of ANAMMOX sludge were studied by using the nitrogen gas produced in ANAMMOX to drive the effluent circulation in the reactor. The results showed that, the airlift circulation function was not clear in the startup stage of the reactor, because the nitrogen gas production was very low. At the same time, the ANAMMOX granular sludge was easy to condensate. When the load rate of nitrogen removal reached 3.4 kg x (m3 x d)(-1), the function of gas lift was significant, resulting in gradually increased effluent self-circulation, and the granules were dispersed and grew gradually. After 183d of operation, the granular sludge was dominated by the granules with sizes of 1.6-2.5 mm, which accounted for 53.2% of the total sludge volume. The MLVSS content increased with the increase of sludge particle size. The gas lift device had the same function as the external reflux pump, and was helpful for sludge granulation in the ANAMMOX reactor, while reducing power consumption and the cost of the equipment. PMID:25826935

  4. Effects of box size, frequency of lifting, and height of lift on maximum acceptable weight of lift and heart rate for male university students in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abadi, Ali Salehi Sahl; Mazlomi, Adel; Saraji, Gebraeil Nasl; Zeraati, Hojjat; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Amir Homayoun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In spite of the widespread use of automation in industry, manual material handling (MMH) is still performed in many occupational settings. The emphasis on ergonomics in MMH tasks is due to the potential risks of workplace accidents and injuries. This study aimed to assess the effect of box size, frequency of lift, and height of lift on maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) on the heart rates of male university students in Iran. Methods This experimental study was conducted in 2015 with 15 male students recruited from Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Each participant performed 18 different lifting tasks that involved three lifting frequencies (1lift/min, 4.3 lifts/min and 6.67 lifts/min), three lifting heights (floor to knuckle, knuckle to shoulder, and shoulder to arm reach), and two box sizes. Each set of experiments was conducted during the 20 min work period using the free-style lifting technique. The working heart rates (WHR) were recorded for the entire duration. In this study, we used SPSS version 18 software and descriptive statistical methods, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the t-test for data analysis. Results The results of the ANOVA showed that there was a significant difference between the mean of MAWL in terms of frequencies of lifts (p = 0.02). Tukey’s post hoc test indicated that there was a significant difference between the frequencies of 1 lift/minute and 6.67 lifts/minute (p = 0. 01). There was a significant difference between the mean heart rates in terms of frequencies of lifts (p = 0.006), and Tukey’s post hoc test indicated a significant difference between the frequencies of 1 lift/minute and 6.67 lifts/minute (p = 0.004). But, there was no significant difference between the mean of MAWL and the mean heart rate in terms of lifting heights (p > 0.05). The results of the t-test showed that there was a significant difference between the mean of MAWL and the mean heart rate in terms of the sizes of the two boxes (p

  5. 49 CFR 37.165 - Lift and securement use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lift and securement use. 37.165 Section 37.165... DISABILITIES (ADA) Provision of Service § 37.165 Lift and securement use. (a) This section applies to public... with disabilities with the use of securement systems, ramps and lifts. If it is necessary for...

  6. 49 CFR 178.811 - Bottom lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Bottom lift test. (a) General. The bottom lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC... IBC must be loaded to 1.25 times its maximum permissible gross mass, the load being evenly distributed. (c) Test method. All IBC design types must be raised and lowered twice by a lift truck with the...

  7. 14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lift and drag device indicator. 25.699....699 Lift and drag device indicator. (a) There must be means to indicate to the pilots the position of each lift or drag device having a separate control in the cockpit to adjust its position. In...

  8. 14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lift and drag device indicator. 25.699....699 Lift and drag device indicator. (a) There must be means to indicate to the pilots the position of each lift or drag device having a separate control in the cockpit to adjust its position. In...

  9. 14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lift and drag device indicator. 25.699....699 Lift and drag device indicator. (a) There must be means to indicate to the pilots the position of each lift or drag device having a separate control in the cockpit to adjust its position. In...

  10. 14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lift and drag device indicator. 25.699....699 Lift and drag device indicator. (a) There must be means to indicate to the pilots the position of each lift or drag device having a separate control in the cockpit to adjust its position. In...

  11. 14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lift and drag device indicator. 25.699....699 Lift and drag device indicator. (a) There must be means to indicate to the pilots the position of each lift or drag device having a separate control in the cockpit to adjust its position. In...

  12. 14 CFR 29.551 - Auxiliary lifting surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Auxiliary lifting surfaces. 29.551 Section 29.551 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT....551 Auxiliary lifting surfaces. Each auxiliary lifting surface must be designed to withstand— (a)...

  13. 14 CFR 29.551 - Auxiliary lifting surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary lifting surfaces. 29.551 Section 29.551 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT....551 Auxiliary lifting surfaces. Each auxiliary lifting surface must be designed to withstand— (a)...

  14. An assessment of the impact of local processes on dust lifting in martian climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulholland, David P.; Spiga, Aymeric; Listowski, Constantino; Read, Peter L.

    2015-05-01

    observed, including the flushing storm sources of Chryse and Utopia, and southern midlatitude areas from which larger storms tend to initiate, such as Hellas and Solis Planum. The seasonal cycle of emission, which includes a double-peaked structure in northern autumn and winter, also appears realistic. Significant increases to lifting rates are produced for any sensible choices of parameters controlling the sub-grid distributions used, but results are sensitive to the smallest scale of variability considered, which high-resolution modelling suggests should be O(1 km) or less. Use of such models in future will permit the use of a diagnosed (rather than prescribed) variable gustiness intensity, which should further enhance dust lifting in the southern hemisphere in particular.

  15. Method for the determination of the spanwise lift distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lippisch, A

    1935-01-01

    The method for determination of the spanwise lift distribution is based on the Fourier series for the representation of the lift distribution. The lift distribution, as well as the angle of attack, is split up in four elementary distributions. The insertion of the angle-of-attack distribution in the Fourier series for the lift distribution gives a compound third series which is of particular advantage for the determination of the lift distribution. The method is illustrated in an example and supplemented by a graphical method. Lastly, the results of several comparative calculations with other methods are reported.

  16. Drag and lift forces in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillard, F.; Forterre, Y.; Pouliquen, O.

    2013-09-01

    Forces exerted on obstacles moving in granular media are studied. The experiment consists in a horizontal cylinder rotating around the vertical axis in a granular medium. Both drag forces and lift forces experienced by the cylinder are measured. The first striking result is obtained during the first half rotation, before the cylinder crosses its wake. Despite the symmetry of the object, a strong lift force is measured, about 20 times the buoyancy. The scaling of this force is studied experimentally. The second remarkable observation is made after several rotations. The drag force dramatically drops and becomes independent of depth, showing that it no longer scales with the hydrostatic pressure. The rotation of the cylinder induces a structure in the packing, which screens the weight of the grains above

  17. Static Thrust Analysis of the Lifting Airscrew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Montgomery; Hefner, Ralph A

    1937-01-01

    This report presents the results of a combined theoretical and experimental investigation conducted at the Georgia School of Technology on the static thrust of the lifting air screw of the type used in modern autogiros and helicopters. The theoretical part of this study is based on Glauert's analysis but certain modifications are made that further clarify and simplify the problem. Of these changes the elimination of the solidity as an independent parameter is the most important. The experimental data were obtained from tests on four rotor models of two, four, and five blades and, in general, agree quite well with the theoretical calculations. The theory indicates a method of evaluating scale effects on lifting air screws, and these corrections have been applied to the model results to derive general full-scale static thrust, torque, and figure-of-merit curves for constant-chord, constant-incidence rotors. Convenient charts are included that enable hovering flight performance to be calculated rapidly.

  18. [Face lift--indications, contraindications and operation].

    PubMed

    Tschopp, H

    1999-04-01

    The face lift procedure is often performed in aesthetic plastic surgery. It corrects the stigmata of age, i.e. the multiple facial wrinkles and the sagging of the atrophic soft tissues by undermining and retensioning the superficial and deeper facial and cervical structures. Since the public can not fully appreciate the extent and the inconveniences involved with this operation, emphasis must be laid on an exact preoperative information of the patient with regards to possible complications, the pros and cons of this procedure and the results to be expected. In this paper the face lift operation is explained in detail and the indications and contraindications given. The most frequent postoperative complications are outlined and the preventive measures and modalities of treatment discussed. From the medico-legal point of view it is important that such an operation is performed by a certified and well experienced plastic surgeon. PMID:10330880

  19. Clamp usable as jig and lifting clamp

    DOEpatents

    Tsuyama, Yoshizo

    1976-01-01

    There is provided a clamp which is well suited for use as a lifting clamp for lifting and moving materials of assembly in a shipyard, etc. and as a pulling jig in welding and other operations. The clamp comprises a clamp body including a shackle for engagement with a pulling device and a slot for receiving an article, and a pair of jaws provided on the leg portions of the clamp body on the opposite sides of the slot to grip the article in the slot, one of said jaws consisting of a screw rod and the other jaw consisting of a swivel jaw with a spherical surface, whereby when the article clamped in the slot by the pair of jaws tends to slide in any direction with respect to the clamp body, the article is more positively gripped by the pair of jaws.

  20. LIFT Tenant Is Off and Running

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Gynelle C.

    2001-01-01

    Lewis Incubator for Technology (LIFT) tenant, Analiza Inc., graduated from the incubator July 2000. Analiza develops technology and products for the early diagnosis of diseases, quality control of bio-pharmaceutical therapeutics, and other applications involving protein analyses. Technology links with NASA from existing and planned work are in areas of microfluidics and laser light scattering. Since their entry in LIFT in May, 1997, Analiza has: Received a $750,000 grant from the National Institutes of Health. Collaborated with a Nobel Prize winner on drug design. Collaborated with Bristol-Myers Squibb on the characterization of biological therapeutics. Added a Ph.D. senior scientist and several technicians. Received significant interest from major pharmaceutical companies about collaborating and acquiring Analiza technology.

  1. High-Lift Separated Flow About Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    TRANSEP Calculates flow field about low-speed single-element airfoil at high-angle-of-attack and high-lift conditions with massive boundary-layer separation. TRANSEP includes effects of weak viscous interactions and can be used for subsonic/transonic airfoil design and analysis. The approach used in TRANSEP is based on direct-inverse method and its ability to use either displacement surface or pressure as airfoil boundary condition.

  2. Heating Analysis of the Lockheed Lifting Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Grant; Henline, Bill; Olynick, Dave; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis is performed on the Lockheed Lifting Body Single-Stage-to-Orbit vehicle to determine the heat transfer to the vehicle during its descent trajectory. Seven species, chemical nonequilibriurn computations using the GASP code will be completed at several trajectory points to assess the thermal protection requirements of the vehicle. Sophisticated surface boundary conditions including in-depth conduction, catalycity, and a variable temperature wall have been incorporated into the flow solver.

  3. Pressure Roller For Tape-Lift Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, Eve

    1991-01-01

    Rolling device applies nearly constant, uniform pressure to surface. Simple tool exerts nearly constant pressure via compression of sheath by fixed amount. Pins hold wheels on cylinder and cylinder on tangs of handle. Cylinder and handle made of metal or plastic. Sheath press-fit or glued to cylinder. End pins attached to cylinder by adhesive or screw threads. Device intended for use in taking tape-lift samples of particulate contamination on surface.

  4. Heavy-lift launch vehicle propulsion considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordway, Wayne L.

    1991-01-01

    Information on heavy-lift launch vehicle (HLLV) propulsion is given in viewgraph form. The objective was to investigate Earth to orbit options which minimize on-orbit operations and impacts to Space Station Freedom, have a reasonable capability to support Mars missions, and minimize mass in low Earth orbit. Potential synergism with the Space Transportation System is considered. Launch vehicle sizing results, HLLV thrust requirements, and propulsion system reliability are covered.

  5. Lift production in the hovering hummingbird

    PubMed Central

    Warrick, Douglas R.; Tobalske, Bret W.; Powers, Donald R.

    2009-01-01

    Aerodynamic theory and empirical observations of animals flying at similar Reynolds numbers (Re) predict that airflow over hummingbird wings will be dominated by a stable, attached leading edge vortex (LEV). In insects exhibiting similar kinematics, when the translational movement of the wing ceases (as at the end of the downstroke), the LEV is shed and lift production decreases until the energy of the LEV is re-captured in the subsequent half-cycle translation. We here show that while the hummingbird wing is strongly influenced by similar sharp-leading-edge aerodynamics, leading edge vorticity is inconsistent, varying from 0.7 to 26 per cent (mean 16%) of total lift production, is always generated within 3 mm of the dorsal surface of the wing, showing no retrograde (trailing to leading edge) flow, and does not increase from proximal to distal wing as would be expected with a conical vortex (class III LEV) described for hawkmoths. Further, the bound circulation is not shed as a vortex at the end of translation, but instead remains attached and persists after translation has ceased, augmented by the rotation (pronation, supination) of the wing that occurs between the wing-translation half-cycles. The result is a near-continuous lift production through wing turn-around, previously unknown in vertebrates, able to contribute to weight support as well as stability and control during hovering. Selection for a planform suited to creating this unique flow and nearly-uninterrupted lift production throughout the wingbeat cycle may help explain the relatively narrow hummingbird wing. PMID:19656789

  6. Unified treatment of lifting atmospheric entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachtsheim, P. R.; Lehman, L. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a unified treatment of the effect of lift on peak acceleration during atmospheric entry. Earlier studies were restricted to different regimes because of approximations invoked to solve the same transcendental equation. This paper shows the connection between the earlier studies by employing a general expression for the peak acceleration and obtains solutions to the transcendental equation without invoking the earlier approximations. Results are presented and compared with earlier studies where appropriate.

  7. Aerodynamic principles of the direct lifting propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrenk, Martin

    1934-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to make the complicated processes on the direct-lift propeller amenable to analysis and observation. This is accomplished by placing the physical phenomena, starting with the most elementary process, in the foreground, while limiting the mathematical treatment to the most essential in view of the fundamental defects of the theorems. Comparison with model experiments supplements and corroborates the theoretical results.

  8. Hanger-lifting procedure in knee arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Maeno, Shinichi; Hashimoto, Daijo; Otani, Toshiro; Masumoto, Ko; Matsumoto, Hideo; Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Niki, Yasuo; Yuzawa, Itsuki; Fukui, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Masayuki; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Okubo, Masashi

    2008-12-01

    We propose a unique arthroscopic technique, the "hanger-lifting procedure." Unlike conventional arthroscopy, the space in which the arthroscope is placed is not a joint space filled with water but a subcutaneous space filled with air. The space is kept lifted by a semi-loop-shaped hanger and a retraction system by use of a wire. In general, arthroscopes are unable to be applied outside the joint because of the lack of a cavity. However, this method can provide extra-articular visualization of the knee in addition to standard intra-articular visualization. This approach is useful for lateral release of the knee extensor and bipartite patellae, allowing direct vision from both outside and inside the joint. One possible complication is subcutaneous effusion or interstitial edema. Compressive dressings should be applied to prevent subcutaneous effusion after surgery. However, the combination of conventional arthroscopy by use of saline solution and the hanger-lifting technique by use of air arthroscopy can provide an excellent view inside and outside the joint. This technique may continue to evolve, and although some points in the technique can be improved, this method is useful in joint surgeries. PMID:19038715

  9. Analysis of particulates on tape lift samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moision, Robert M.; Chaney, John A.; Panetta, Chris J.; Liu, De-Ling

    2014-09-01

    Particle counts on tape lift samples taken from a hardware surface exceeded threshold requirements in six successive tests despite repeated cleaning of the surface. Subsequent analysis of the particle size distributions of the failed tests revealed that the handling and processing of the tape lift samples may have played a role in the test failures. In order to explore plausible causes for the observed size distribution anomalies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were employed to perform chemical analysis on collected particulates. SEM/EDX identified Na and S containing particles on the hardware samples in a size range identified as being responsible for the test failures. ToF-SIMS was employed to further examine the Na and S containing particulates and identified the molecular signature of sodium alkylbenzene sulfonates, a common surfactant used in industrial detergent. The root cause investigation suggests that the tape lift test failures originated from detergent residue left behind on the glass slides used to mount and transport the tape following sampling and not from the hardware surface.

  10. Progress in high-lift aerodynamic calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Stuart E.

    1993-01-01

    The current work presents progress in the effort to numerically simulate the flow over high-lift aerodynamic components, namely, multi-element airfoils and wings in either a take-off or a landing configuration. The computational approach utilizes an incompressible flow solver and an overlaid chimera grid approach. A detailed grid resolution study is presented for flow over a three-element airfoil. Two turbulence models, a one-equation Baldwin-Barth model and a two equation k-omega model are compared. Excellent agreement with experiment is obtained for the lift coefficient at all angles of attack, including the prediction of maximum lift when using the two-equation model. Results for two other flap riggings are shown. Three-dimensional results are presented for a wing with a square wing-tip as a validation case. Grid generation and topology is discussed for computing the flow over a T-39 Sabreliner wing with flap deployed and the initial calculations for this geometry are presented.

  11. The subperiosteal, drill hole, midface lift.

    PubMed

    Perry, C Blake; Allen, Richard C

    2016-10-01

    This article describes a surgical technique using drill holes through the inferior orbital rim and fixation with permanent sutures as a functional subperiosteal midface lift and compares it to other standard midface elevation techniques. This was a retrospective, comparative, non-randomized study. Charts of all patients undergoing midface elevation between 2009 and 2013 were reviewed. Pre- and post-operative photos were graded on a scale 0 to 3 with 0 representing normal lower lid position and lid/cheek junction and 3 representing the most severe malposition. Twenty-seven patients (35 sides) underwent midface lift. Twelve sides had the subperiosteal drill hole midface lift; 9 preperiosteal with Vicryl suture fixation to periosteum; 14 subperiosteal with Endotine midface B device. All groups had similar demographics and indications for surgery. Average follow-up time was greater than 4 months in all groups. No significant complications were seen in any of the patients. The average post-operative grade of the drill hole group was 0.65 compared to 0.75 of the preperiosteal Vicryl group and 0.7 of the Endotine group. The drill hole group had the most severe pre-operative malposition. Overall, the drill hole group demonstrated the largest improvement score. The subperiosteal drill hole technique proved to be an effective method for functional midface elevation. This technique achieves adequate and durable vertical elevation without relying on the strength of the periosteum or use of a commercial device. PMID:27486865

  12. SPA face lift: SMAS plication-anchoring.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A Aldo

    2011-08-01

    A variation of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) plication called SPA face lift is here described. An axial line and then two medial and lateral parallel lines are penciled on the skin from the lateral canthus to the earlobe to show the future plication area. The undermining zone is delimited 1 cm beyond the medial line. In face- and neck-lifting, such marks extend vertically to the neck. Once the skin is undermined up to the delimiting marks, the three lines are penciled again on the fat layer, and a running lock suture is used for plication, with big superficial bites between the two distal lines. In fatty faces, a strip of fat is removed along the axial line to avoid bulging that can be seen through the skin. Because the undermining is limited, minor swelling occurs, and the postoperative recovery is shorter and faster. The same three lines can be marked in the contralateral side or can differ in cases of asymmetry. This report describes 244 face-lifts without any facial nerve problems. The author managed five hematoma cases in which surgery to the neck was performed. Three patients had to be touched up for insufficient skin tension. The SPA technique is consistent and easy to learn. PMID:21298514

  13. Dynamic response of Hovercraft lift fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, D. D.

    1981-08-01

    Hovercraft lift fans are subjected to varying back pressure due to wave action and craft motions when these vehicles are operating in a seaway. The oscillatory back pressure causes the fans to perform dynamically, exhibiting a hysteresis type of response and a corresponding degradation in mean performance. Since Hovercraft motions are influenced by variations in lift fan pressure and discharge, it is important to understand completely the nature of the dynamic performance of lift fans in order to completely solve the Hovercraft seakeeping problem. The present study was performed to determine and classify the instabilities encountered in a centrifugal fan operating against time-varying back pressure. A model-scale experiment was developed in which the fan discharge was directed into a flow-measuring device, terminating in a rotating valve which produced an oscillatory back pressure superimposed upon a mean aerodynamic resistance. Pressure and local velocity were measured as functions of time at several locations in the fan volute. The measurements permitted the identification of rotating (or propagating) stall in the impeller. One cell and two cell configurations were classified and the transient condition connecting these two configurations was observed. The mechanisms which lead to rotating stall in a centrifugal compressor are presented and discussed with specific reference to Hovercraft applications.

  14. Lift and Drag Measurements of Superhydrophobic Hydrofoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sur, Samrat; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Rothstein, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    For several years, superhydrophobic surfaces which are chemically hydrophobic with micron or nanometer scale surface features have been considered for their ability to reduce drag and produce slip in microfluidic devices. More recently it has been demonstrated that superhydrophobic surfaces reduce friction coefficient in turbulent flows as well. In this talk, we will consider that modifying a hydrofoil's surface to make it superhydrophobic has on the resulting lift and drag measurements over a wide range of angles of attack. Experiments are conducted over the range of Reynolds numbers between 10,000lift coefficients along with changes to separation point at high angles of attack are observed when the hydrofoil is made superhydrophobic. The hydrofoils are coated Teflon that has been hot embossed with a 325grit stainless steel woven mesh to produce a regular pattern of microposts. In addition to fully superhydrophobic hydrofoils, selectively coated symmetrical hydrofoils will also be examined to study the effect that asymmetries in the surface properties can have on lift and drag. Partially funded by NSF CBET-1334962.

  15. Study of Civil Markets for Heavy-Lift Airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettam, P. J.; Hansen, D.; Chabot, C.; Byrne, R.

    1978-01-01

    The civil markets for heavy lift airships (HLAs) were defined by first identifying areas of most likely application. The operational suitability of HLAs for the applications identified were then assessed. The operating economics of HLAs were established and the market size for HLA services estimated by comparing HLA operating and economic characteristics with those of competing modes. The sensitivities of the market size to HLA characteristics were evaluated and the number and sizes of the vehicles required to service the more promising markets were defined. Important characteristics for future HLAs are discussed that were derived from the study of each application, including operational requirements, features enhancing profitability, military compatibility, improved design requirements, approach to entry into service, and institutional implications for design and operation.

  16. Unsteady Lift Response and Energy Extraction in Gusting Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jeesoon; Colonius, Tim; Williams, David

    2012-11-01

    The unsteady aerodynamic forces associated with streamwise (surging) and transverse (plunging) oscillating motions are studied to understand the dynamic response to gusts and the potential for energy extraction. We focus on 2D thin airfoils at low sub- and super-critical Reynolds number so that the role of wake instability can be isolated. Simulations are performed in a large parameter space of angle of attack, reduced frequency, and oscillation amplitude. At low angle of attack, the magnitude and phase of the fluctuating lift are in reasonable agreement with classical theory at all reduced frequencies. In this case, the quasi-steady force is modified by contributions from shed vorticity at the trailing edge and added-mass at high reduced frequency. At high angle of attack, the fluctuating forces are found to be enhanced or attenuated by a leading-edge vortex, depending on the reduced frequency. Resonance with the wake instability is also investigated.

  17. Fuel properties to enable lifted-flame combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Eric

    2015-03-15

    The Fuel Properties to Enable Lifted-Flame Combustion project responded directly to solicitation DE-FOA-0000239 AOI 1A, Fuels and Lubricants for Advanced Combustion Regimes. This subtopic was intended to encompass clean and highly-efficient, liquid-fueled combustion engines to achieve extremely low engine-out nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) as a target and similar efficiency as state-of-the-art direct injection diesel engines. The intent of this project was to identify how fuel properties can be used to achieve controllable Leaner Lifted Flame Combustion (LLFC) with low NOx and PM emissions. Specifically, this project was expected to identify and test key fuel properties to enable LLFC and their compatibility with current fuel systems and to enhance combustion models to capture the effect of fuel properties on advanced combustion. Successful demonstration of LLFC may reduce the need for after treatment devices, thereby reducing costs and improving thermal efficiency. The project team consisted of key technical personnel from Ford Motor Company (FMC), the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL). Each partner had key roles in achieving project objectives. FMC investigated fuel properties relating to LLFC and sooting tendency. Together, FMC and UW developed and integrated 3D combustion models to capture fuel property combustion effects. FMC used these modeling results to develop a combustion system and define fuel properties to support a single-cylinder demonstration of fuel-enabled LLFC. UW investigated modeling the flame characteristics and emissions behavior of different fuels, including those with different cetane number and oxygen content. SNL led spray combustion experiments to quantify the effect of key fuel properties on combustion characteristics critical for LLFC, as well as single cylinder optical engine experiments to improve fundamental

  18. Influence of torque on the lift and drag of a particle in an oscillatory flow.

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, P. F.; Leaf, G. K.; Restrepo, J. M.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Arizona

    2008-10-01

    In the work of Fischer et al. (2002, 'Forces on Particles in an Oscillatory Boundary Layer', J. Fluid Mech., 468, pp. 327-347, 2005; 'Influence of Wall Proximity on the Lift and Drag of a Particle in an Oscillatory Flow', ASME J. Fluids Eng., 127, pp. 583-594) we computed the lift and drag forces on a sphere, subjected to a wall-bounded oscillatory flow. The forces were found as a function of the Reynolds number, the forcing frequency, and the gap between the particle and the ideally smooth rigid bounding wall. Here we investigate how the forces change as a function of the above parameters and its moment of inertia if the particle is allowed to freely rotate. Allowing the particle to rotate does not change appreciably the drag force, as compared to the drag experienced by the particle when it is held fixed. Lift differences between the rotating and nonrotating cases are shown to be primarily dominated in the mean by the pressure component. The lift of the rotating particle varies significantly from the fixed-particle case and depends strongly on the Reynolds number, the forcing frequency, and the gap; much less so on the moment of inertia. Of special significance is that the lift is enhanced for small Reynolds numbers and suppressed for larger ones, with a clear transition point. We also examine how the torque changes when the particle is allowed to rotate as compared to when it is held fixed. As a function of the Reynolds number the torque of the fixed sphere is monotonically decreasing in the range Re=5 to Re=400. The rotating-sphere counterpart experiences a smaller and more complex torque, synchronized with the lift transition mentioned before. As a function of the gap, the torque is significantly larger in the fixed particle case.

  19. Experimental study on instantaneous thrust and lift of two plunging wings in tandem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Wu Qi; Jia, Bo Bo; Xi, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Two tandem wings undergoing a two-dimensional sinusoidal plunging motion are studied in a low Reynolds number water tunnel. The influence of the phase angle and leading-edge vortex (LEV) on the peak value of the instantaneous thrust and lift is studied. The instantaneous lift and thrust are measured by a force sensor; the velocity and vorticity fields are captured by digital particle image velocimetry. For the forewing, noticeable differences at various phase angles are found in the peak value of the instantaneous lift and thrust rather than in their minimum value. The LEV of the hindwing increased the maximum effective angle of attack of the forewing and enhanced the jet-like flow behind the forewing, which accounts for the increase in peak value. For the hindwing, the phase angle determines the sign of the forewing-shed LEV when the hindwing encounters this LEV. If the forewing-shed LEV before the leading edge of the hindwing has the opposite sense of rotation as the LEV of the hindwing, the velocity of the flow on the windward side of the hindwing increases, resulting in high instantaneous thrust and lift. If the two LEVs have the same sense of rotation, the forewing-shed LEV hinders the growth of the hindwing LEV because of the small effective angle of attack, leading to low instantaneous thrust and lift. Non-circulatory forces on the wings are calculated according to a potential flow model. Results show that the non-circulatory force has important effects on the peak value and symmetry of the instantaneous lift and thrust curves.

  20. Maximum acceptable weights for asymmetric lifting of Chinese females.

    PubMed

    Wu, Swei-Pi

    2003-05-01

    This study used the psychophysical approach to evaluate the effects of asymmetric lifting on the maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) and the resulting heart rate, oxygen uptake and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). A randomized complete block factorial design was employed. Twelve female college students lifted weights at three different lifting frequencies (one-time maximum, 1 and 4 lifts/min) in the sagittal plane and at three different asymmetric angles (30 degrees, 60 degrees, and 90 degrees ) from the floor to a 68-cm height pallet. This lifting experiment was conducted for a 1-h work period using a free-style lifting technique. The MAWLs for asymmetric lifting were significantly lower than those for symmetric lifting in the sagittal plane. The MAWL decreased with the increase in the angle of asymmetry. However, the heart rate, oxygen uptake and RPE remained unchanged. Though the MAWL decreased significantly with lifting frequency, both the physiological costs (heart rate and oxygen uptake) and rating of perceived exertion increased with the increase in lift frequency. The most stressed body part was the arm. Lifting frequency had no significant effect on the percentage decrease in MAWL from the sagittal plane values. On average, decreases of 5%, 9% and 14% for MAWL at 30 degrees, 60 degrees and 90 degrees asymmetric lifting, respectively, were revealed. This result was in agreement with the findings of Chinese males studied by Wu [Int. J. Ind. Ergonom. 25 (2000) 675]. The percentage decrease in MAWL with twisting angle for the Chinese participants was somewhat lower than those for Occidental participants. In addition, even though there was an increase in heart rate and RPE with the increase in the symmetrical lift angle for Occidental participants, it was different from the Chinese participants. Lastly, the 1991 NIOSH equation asymmetry multiplier is more conservative in comparison with the results of the present study. PMID:12737921

  1. LiftingWiSe: a lifting-based efficient data processing technique in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Aboelela, Emad

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring thousands of objects which are deployed over large-hard-to-reach areas, is an important application of the wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Such an application requires disseminating a large amount of data within the WSN. This data includes, but is not limited to, the object's location and the environment conditions at that location. WSNs require efficient data processing and dissemination processes due to the limited storage, processing power, and energy available in the WSN nodes. The aim of this paper is to propose a data processing technique that can work under constrained storage, processing, and energy resource conditions. The proposed technique utilizes the lifting procedure in processing the disseminated data. Lifting is usually used in discrete wavelet transform (DWT) operations. The proposed technique is referred to as LiftingWiSe, which stands for Lifting-based efficient data processing technique for Wireless Sensor Networks. LiftingWiSe has been tested and compared to other relevant techniques from the literature. The test has been conducted via a simulation of the monitored field and the deployed wireless sensor network nodes. The simulation results have been analyzed and discussed. PMID:25116902

  2. LiftingWiSe: A Lifting-Based Efficient Data Processing Technique in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Aboelela, Emad

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring thousands of objects which are deployed over large-hard-to-reach areas, is an important application of the wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Such an application requires disseminating a large amount of data within the WSN. This data includes, but is not limited to, the object's location and the environment conditions at that location. WSNs require efficient data processing and dissemination processes due to the limited storage, processing power, and energy available in the WSN nodes. The aim of this paper is to propose a data processing technique that can work under constrained storage, processing, and energy resource conditions. The proposed technique utilizes the lifting procedure in processing the disseminated data. Lifting is usually used in discrete wavelet transform (DWT) operations. The proposed technique is referred to as LiftingWiSe, which stands for Lifting-based efficient data processing technique for Wireless Sensor Networks. LiftingWiSe has been tested and compared to other relevant techniques from the literature. The test has been conducted via a simulation of the monitored field and the deployed wireless sensor network nodes. The simulation results have been analyzed and discussed. PMID:25116902

  3. Wind tunnel and ground static investigation of a large scale model of a lift/cruise fan V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in a 40 foot by 80 foot wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic/propulsion characteristics of a large scale powered model of a lift/cruise fan V/STOL aircraft. The model was equipped with three 36 inch diameter turbotip X376B fans powered by three T58 gas generators. The lift fan was located forward of the cockpit area and the two lift/cruise fans were located on top of the wing adjacent to the fuselage. The three fans with associated thrust vectoring systems were used to provide vertical, and short, takeoff and landing capability. For conventional cruise mode operation, only the lift/cruise fans were utilized. The data that were obtained include lift, drag, longitudinal and lateral-directional stability characteristics, and control effectiveness. Data were obtained up to speeds of 120 knots at one model height of 20 feet for the conventional aerodynamic lift configuration and at several thrust vector angles for the powered lift configuration.

  4. Group Lifting Structures For Multirate Filter Banks, I: Uniqueness Of Lifting Factorizations

    SciTech Connect

    Brislawn, Christopher M

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies two-channel finite impulse response (FIR) perfect reconstruction filter banks. The connection between filter banks and wavelet transforms is well-known and will not be treated here. Figure 1 depicts the polyphase-with-advance representation of a filter bank [6]. A lifting factorization, is a factorization of polyphase matrices into upper and lower triangular lifting matrices. The existence of such decompositions via the Euclidean algorithm was shown for general FIR perfect reconstruction filter banks in [9] and was subsequently refined for linear phase filter banks in [10], [6]. These latter works were motivated by the ISO JPEG 2000 image coding standard [11], [12], [10], which specifies whole-sample symmetric (WS, or FIR type 1 linear phase) filter banks, as in Figure 2(a), in terms of half-sample symmetric (RS, or FIR type 2) lifting filters.

  5. The Lifting Body Legacy...X-33

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barret, Chris

    1999-01-01

    NASA has a technology program in place to enable the development of a next generation Reusable Launch Vehicle that will carry our future payloads into orbit at a much-reduced cost. The VentureStar, Lifting Body (LB) flight vehicle, is one of the potential reusable launch vehicle configurations being studied. A LB vehicle has no wings and derives its lift solely from the shape of its body, and has the unique advantages of superior volumetric efficiency, better aerodynamic efficiency at high angles-of-attack and hypersonic speeds, and reduced thermal protection system weight. Classically, in a ballistic vehicle, drag has been employed to control the level of deceleration in reentry. In the LB, lift enables the vehicle to decelerate at higher altitudes for the same velocity and defines the reentry corridor which includes a greater cross range. This paper outlines the flight stability and control aspects of our LB heritage which was utilized in the design of the VentureStar LB and its test version, the X-33. NASA and the U.S. Air Force have a rich heritage of LB vehicle design and flight experience. In the initial LB Program, eight LB's were built and over 225 LB test flights were conducted through 1975. Three LB series were most significant in the advancement of today's LB technolocy: the M2-F; the HL-10; and the X-24 series. The M2-F series was designed by NASA Ames Research Center, the HL-10 series by NASA Langley Research Center, and the X-24 series by the U. S. Air Force. LB vehicles are alive again today with the X- 33, X-38, and VentureStar.

  6. On the development of lift and drag in a rotating and translating cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Alcantara, Antonio; Sanmiguel-Rojas, Enrique; Fernandez-Feria, Ramon

    2014-11-01

    The two-dimensional flow around a rotating cylinder is investigated numerically using a vorticity forces formulation with the aim of analyzing the flow structures, and their evolutions, that contribute to the lift and drag forces on the cylinder. The Reynolds number, based on the cylinder diameter and steady free-stream speed, considered is Re = 200 , while the non-dimensional rotation rate (ratio of the surface speed and free-stream speed) selected were α = 1 and 3. For α = 1 the wake behind the cylinder for the fully developed flow is oscillatory due to vortex shedding, and so are the lift and drag forces. For α = 3 the fully developed flow is steady with constant (high) lift and (low) drag. Each of these cases is considered in two different transient problems, one with angular acceleration of the cylinder and constant speed, and the other one with translating acceleration of the cylinder and constant rotation. Special attention is paid to explaining the mechanisms of vortex shedding suppression for high rotation (when α = 3) and its relation to the mechanisms by which the lift is enhanced and the drag is almost suppressed when the fully developed flow is reached. Supported by the Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad of Spain Grant No. DPI2013-40479-P.

  7. Labyrinth seal testing for lift fan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobek, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    An abradable buffered labyrinth seal for the control of turbine gas path leakage in a tip-turbine driven lift fan was designed, tested, and analyzed. The seal configuration was not designed to operate in any specific location but was sized to be evaluated in an existing test rig. The final sealing diameter selected was 28 inches. Results of testing indicate that the flow equations predicted seal air flows consistent with measured values. Excellent sealing characteristics of the abradable coating on the stator land were demonstrated when a substantial seal penetration of .030 inch into the land surface was encountered without appreciable wear on the labyrinth knife edges.

  8. Catalytic Generation of Lift Gases for Balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert; Berggren, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A lift-gas cracker (LGC) is an apparatus that generates a low-molecular-weight gas (mostly hydrogen with smaller amounts of carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide) at low gauge pressure by methanol reforming. LGCs are undergoing development for use as sources of buoyant gases for filling zero-gauge-pressure meteorological and scientific balloons in remote locations where heavy, high-pressure helium cylinders are not readily available. LGCs could also be used aboard large, zero-gauge-pressure, stratospheric research balloons to extend the duration of flight.

  9. APOLLO 14: Lift off from lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 14: The lunar module 'Falcon' lifts off from the lunar surface From the film documentary 'APOLLO 14: 'Mission to Fra Mauro'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 14: Third manned lunar landing with Alan B. Shepard, Jr.,Stuart A. Roosa, and Edgar D. Mitchell. Landed in the Fra Mauro area on Ferurary 5, 1971; performed EVA, deployed lunar experiments, returned lunar samples. Mission Duration 216 hrs 1 min 58 sec

  10. Determining safe limits for significant task parameters during manual lifting.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ravindra Pratrap; Batish, Ajay; Singh, Tejinder Pal

    2014-04-01

    This experimental study investigated the effect of lifting task parameters (i.e., lifting weight, frequency, coupling, asymmetric angle, and vertical, horizontal, and travel distances) for various dynamic human lifting activities on the ground reaction forces of workers. Ten male workers loaded containers from different levels asymmetrically during experimental trials. The experimental design evolved using Taguchi's Fractional Factorial Experiments. Three factors (lifting weight, frequency, and vertical distance) were observed to be significant. The results showed that vertical reaction forces increase when workers lift weight from floor to shoulder height frequently. It was also observed that instantaneous loading rate increases with more weight, vertical distance, and frequency; a significant extra loading rate is required to change the lower level of load, frequency, and vertical distance to higher levels. Safe limits for significant factors were determined to result in optimal performance of the manual lifting task. PMID:24702682

  11. Lifting the fog in endoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Legeros, J; De Schutter, C

    1998-03-01

    This article describes a problem encountered in addressing the phase out of CFCs, the subsequent reduction in the use of the low temperature sterilization modailities and the move towards greater utilization of steam sterilization. The ban of CFCs drastically changed the way reprocessing of sterile supplies and equipment is performed in Hospitals. In 1994 at St. Boniface General Hospital Operating Room in Winnipeg, Manitoba, preparations began to meet the challenge. One of the measures taken was to review purchases for new equipment and where ever possible, choose equipment that could be sterilized using steam as opposed to using Ethylene Oxide sterilization. Medical device companies responded to the CFC ban by modifying the manufacture of delicate equipment to withstand the high temperatures used in steam sterilization. Equipment such as rigid telescopes could be steam sterilized for the first time. PMID:9883116

  12. Development of Equipment for Use in Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, David

    2012-01-01

    No one has ever been able to create a running shoe that can make one run faster, but in other sports the design of equipment has the potential to offer considerable enhancement. Judgement has to be made as to whether such advantage becomes unfair. This article indicates many possible sports in which the equipment plays an important part in the…

  13. Lift system and fan performance of air cushion supported vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, D. D.; Jennings, A. N.

    1982-02-01

    An analysis of the AALC JEFF lift systems and fans from the viewpoints of performance and structural design is performed. A summary of performance data related to the JEFF lift systems is presented, and suggested approaches for JEFF (A) lift fan design, for which these data provided the baseline information, are provided. Published methods of scaling fan performance data from model to full-scale are evaluated. Finally, the structural design characteristics of the JEFF fans are discussed.

  14. Interference of multiplane wings having elliptical lift distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Sanden, H

    1924-01-01

    In calculating the self-induction of a wing surface, elliptical lift distribution is assumed, while in calculating the mutual induction or interference of two wing surfaces, a uniform distribution of the lift along the wing has hitherto been assumed. Whether the results of these calculations are substantially altered by assuming an elliptical lift distribution (which is just as probable as uniform distribution) is examined here.

  15. HSR High Lift Program and PCD2 Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemmerly, Guy T.; Coen, Peter; Meredith, Paul; Clark, Roger; Hahne, Dave; Smith, Brian

    1999-01-01

    The mission of High-Lift Technology is to develop technology allowing the design of practical high lift concepts for the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) in order to: 1) operate safely and efficiently; and 2) reduce terminal control area and community noise. In fulfilling this mission, close and continuous coordination will be maintained with other High-Speed Research (HSR) technology elements in order to support optimization of the overall airplane (rather than just the high lift system).

  16. STS-38 Atlantis, OV-104, lifts off from KSC LC Pad during night launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-38 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, lifts off from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex (LC) Pad at 6:48:15:0639 pm (Eastern Standard Time (EST)) for Department of Defense (DOD)-devoted mission. OV-104, atop the external tank (ET) and flanked by solid rocket boosters (SRBs), is almost clear of the launch tower which is lit up by the SRB and space shuttle main engine (SSME) firings. Spotlight equipment is silhouetted against the SRB/SSME glow in the foreground. The retracted rotating service structure (RSS) is highlighted against the evening darkness by the launch fireworks.

  17. Experiences with optimizing airfoil shapes for maximum lift over drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doria, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    The goal was to find airfoil shapes which maximize the ratio of lift over drag for given flow conditions. For a fixed Mach number, Reynolds number, and angle of attack, the lift and drag depend only on the airfoil shape. This then becomes a problem in optimization: find the shape which leads to a maximum value of lift over drag. The optimization was carried out using a self contained computer code for finding the minimum of a function subject to constraints. To find the lift and drag for each airfoil shape, a flow solution has to be obtained. This was done using a two dimensional Navier-Stokes code.

  18. Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric generator. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric generator. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. Boundary Layer Relaminarization and High-Lift Aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourassa, Corey; Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, Robert C.

    1998-11-01

    Modern high-lift devices are complicated systems that exhibit a variety of complex flow physics phenomena. Thomas( Thomas, F.O., Liu, X., & Nelson, R.C., 1997, ``Experimental Investigation of the Confluent Boundary Layer of a High-Lift System,'' AIAA Paper 97-1934.) outlines several critical flow phenomena, dubbed ``high-lift building block flows'', that can be found in a typical multi-element high-lift system. One such high-lift building block flow is turbulent boundary layer relaminarization, which may be responsible for such phenomena as ``inverse Reynolds number effects.'' Flight test experiments on leading edge transition and relaminarization conducted by Yip, et al(Yip, et al), ``The NASA B737-100 High-Lift Flight Research Program--Measurements and Computations,'' Aeronautical Journal, Paper No. 2125, Nov. 1995. using the NASA Transport Systems Research Vehicle, a Boeing 737-100, have provided tantalizing evidence but not proof of the existence of relaminarization in high-lift systems. To investigate the possibility of boundary layer relaminarization occuring on a high-lift system, a joint wind tunnel/flight test program is in progress with the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center to determine the role, if any, that turbulent boundary layer relaminarization plays in high-lift aerodynamics. Sponsored under NASA grant No. NAG4-123

  20. Does Malleolus non-Lifting Tympanoplasty have any Advantage Over Malleus Lifting Techniques?

    PubMed Central

    Vahidi, Mohammad Reza; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl; Shahbazian, Honeyeh; Behniafard, Nasim; Dadgarnia, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In order to achieve a higher success rate for tympanoplasty, different techniques have been developed, and a wide variety of grafting materials have been developed. One of the techniques currently receiving considerable attention involves not lifting the remaining of eardrum from the malleus and embedding the graft underneath in order to repair the eardrum correctly in its original position, as well as minimizing graft lateralization leading to progression of hearing rehabilitation. We compared the effects of tympanoplasty with and without malleus lifting on hearing loss in patients with chronic otitis media. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 consecutive patients diagnosed as having chronic otitis media without cholesteatoma were randomly assigned to two tympanoplasty groups; with or without malleus lifting. Air and bone conduction thresholds were recorded before and 45 days after the intervention. Results: In groups, except for 8000 Hz, the air conduction was significantly improved following surgery. According to air conduction there was no difference between the groups before surgery at different frequencies, although it was improved to a greater degree in the group without lifting at 250 Hz postoperatively. The average post-operative air-bone gap (ABG) gain was significantly higher in all study frequencies in the target group. One of the effects of this technique is inner-ear protection from physical trauma to the ossicular chain, and prevention of damage to bone conduction. Conclusion: A higher hearing threshold and also higher ABG gain can be achieved by not lifting the remaining eardrum from the malleus and embedding the graft undereath it, especially at lower frequencies. PMID:26877998

  1. Modification of integrated partial payload lifting assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groah, Melodie; Haddock, Michael; Woodworth, Warren

    1986-01-01

    The Integrated Partial Payload Lifting Assembly (IPPLA) is currently used to transport and load experimental payloads into the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. It is unable to carry the astronaut/passenger tunnel without a structural modification. The purpose of this design is to create a removalbe modification that will allow the IPPLA to lift and carry the passenger tunnel. Modifications evaluated were full-length insert beams which would extend through the existing strongback arms. These beam proposals were eliminated because of high cost and weight. Other proposals evaluated were attachments of cantilever beams to the existing strongback areas. The cantilever proposals reduced cost and weight compared to the full-length modifications. A third method evaluated was to simply make modifications to one side of the IPPLA therefore reducing the materials of the cantilever proposals by 40 percent. The design of the modification selected was completed with two channel beams jointly welded to a centered steel plate. The extension arm modification is inserted into the existing strongback channel beams and bolted into place. Two extension arms are added to one side of the IPPLA to provide the extra length needed to accommodate the passenger tunnel. The center counterbalance will then be offset about 20 inches to center gravity and therefore maintain horizontal status. The extension arm modification was selected because of minimum cost, low weight, and minimal installation time.

  2. The Random Motion/ Lift-Off Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a crucial role in the development of the huge Saturn rockets that delivered humans to the moon in the 1960s. Many unique facilities existed at MSFC for the development and testing of the Saturn rockets. Affectionately nicknamed 'The Arm Farm', the Random Motion/ Lift-Off Simulator was one of those unique facilities. This facility was developed to test the swingarm mechanisms that were used to hold the rocket in position until lift-off. The Arm Farm provided the capability of testing the detachment and reconnection of various arms under brutally realistic conditions. The 18-acre facility consisted of more than a half dozen arm test positions and one position for testing access arms used by the Apollo astronauts. Each test position had two elements: a vehicle simulator for duplicating motions during countdown and launch; and a section duplicating the launch tower. The vehicle simulator duplicated the portion of the vehicle skin that contained the umbilical connections and personnel access hatches. Driven by a hydraulic servo system, the vehicle simulator produced relative motion between the vehicle and tower. On the Arm Farm, extreme environmental conditions (such as a launch scrub during an approaching Florida thunderstorm) could be simulated. The dramatic scenes that the Marshall engineers and technicians created at the Arm Farm permitted the gathering of crucial technical and engineering data to ensure a successful real time launch from the Kennedy Space Center.

  3. Lifting Mechanism for the Mars Explorer Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melko, Joseph; Iskenderian, Theodore; Harrington, Brian; Voorhees, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    A report discusses the design of a rover lift mechanism (RLM) -- a major subsystem of each of the Mars Exploration Rover vehicles, which were landed on Mars in January 2004. The RLM had to satisfy requirements to (1) be foldable as part of an extremely dense packing arrangement and (2) be capable of unfolding itself in a complex, multistep process for disengaging the rover from its restraints in the lander, lifting the main body of the rover off its landing platform, and placing the rover wheels on the platform in preparation for driving the rover off the platform. There was also an overriding requirement to minimize the overall mass of the rover and lander. To satisfy the combination of these and other requirements, it was necessary to formulate an extremely complex design that integrated components and functions of the RLM with those of a rocker-bogie suspension system, the aspects of which have been described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles. In this design, suspension components also serve as parts of a 4- bar linkage in the RLM.

  4. Method for calculating lift distributions for unswept wings with flaps or ailerons by use of nonlinear section lift data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivells, James C; Westrick, Gertrude C

    1952-01-01

    A method is presented which allows the use of nonlinear section lift data in the calculation of the spanwise lift distribution of unswept wings with flaps or ailerons. This method is based upon lifting line theory and is an extension to the method described in NACA rep. 865. The mathematical treatment of the discontinuity in absolute angle of attack at the end of the flap or aileron involves the use of a correction factor which accounts for the inability of a limited trigonometric series to represent adequately the spanwise lift distribution. A treatment of the apparent discontinuity in maximum section lift coefficient is also described. Simplified computing forms containing detailed examples are given for both symmetrical and asymmetrical lift distributions. A few comparisons of calculated characteristics with those obtained experimentally are also presented.

  5. LASIK enhancements.

    PubMed

    Durrie, D S; Vande Garde, T L

    2000-01-01

    As the field of refractive surgery continues to evolve, an increasing number of surgical options are available for LASIK enhancements. Nonetheless, older methods such as AK continue to play an important role in enhancement procedures. Improvements in instruments and techniques allow for previously made LASIK flaps to be safely lifted for additional myopic or hyperopic ablations. Newer methods such as Intacs placement provide an effective option for patients who are not good candidates for further ablative procedures. These advancements allow refractive surgeons to treat a wider range of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism effectively in eyes with a history of LASIK surgery. PMID:10941651

  6. Robotic sialoadenectomy of the submandibular gland via a modified face-lift approach.

    PubMed

    De Virgilio, A; Park, Y M; Kim, W S; Lee, S Y; Seol, J H; Kim, S-H

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse the advantages and disadvantages of submandibular gland (SMG) resection using a robotic surgical system through a modified face-lift approach. The authors performed robotic sialoadenectomy of the SMG on 5 patients using the daVinci robot system through a modified face-lift approach. Three robotic arms were inserted through a modified face-lift incision; a face-down 30-degree endoscopic arm and two operative arms. The right arm was equipped with a harmonic scalpel and the left arm with a Maryland forceps. In all patients, robotic sialoadenectomy of the SMG was completed successfully. Diagnoses were sialolithiasis in two patients, pleomophic adenoma in two patients, and ranula in one patient. The mean robotic operative time was 90.2 min (range 62-185 min) and that for setting the robotic system was 8.2 min (range 5-15 min). No significant intra-operative or postoperative complications were observed. All patients were satisfied with the outcome and especially the cosmetic results at their last follow-up visit. In the authors opinion robotic sialoadenectomy of the SMG is technically feasible and secures a better cosmetic outcome than endoscopic submandibular resection. PMID:22578632

  7. Soluplus®/TPGS-based solid dispersions prepared by hot-melt extrusion equipped with twin-screw systems for enhancing oral bioavailability of valsartan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Young; Kang, Wie-Soo; Piao, Jingpei; Yoon, In-Soo; Kim, Dae-Duk; Cho, Hyun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Background Soluplus® (SP) and D-alpha-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS)–based solid dispersion (SD) formulations were developed by hot-melt extrusion (HME) to improve oral bioavailability of valsartan (VST). Methods HME process with twin-screw configuration for generating a high shear stress was used to prepare VST SD formulations. The thermodynamic state of the drug and its dispersion in the polymers were evaluated by solid-state studies, including Fourier-transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. Drug release from the SD formulations was assessed at pH values of 1.2, 4.0, and 6.8. Pharmacokinetic study was performed in rats to estimate the oral absorption of VST. Results HME with a high shear rate produced by the twin-screw system was successfully applied to prepare VST-loaded SD formulations. Drug amorphization and its molecular dispersion in the polymer matrix were verified by several solid-state studies. Drug release from SD formulations was improved, compared to the pure drug, particularly at pH 6.8. Oral absorption of drug in rats was also enhanced in SP and TPGS-based SD groups compared to that in the pure drug group. Conclusion SP and TPGS-based SDs, prepared by the HME process, could be used to improve aqueous solubility, dissolution, and oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. PMID:26045660

  8. Construction equipment for lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Georgia Tech's student design projects for the 1986-1989 academic years relate to the proximate era of lunar exploration and habitation. This era might be described as beginning with robotic prospecting for hydrogen at the lunar poles and ending when a continuously inhabited lunar base is established. The focus was on the design of equipment and systems needed to support the activities contemplated for this portion of the space program. Some specific interests which were identified are listed: Geological exploration; Soils testing; Site preparation; Landing and launch operations; Cargo handling; Base construction; Terrain reconfiguration; Mining, beneficiation and haulage; Pilot - plant manufacturing processes. These design efforts were closely coordinated with those by others as they developed habitat modules, flight vehicles, etc. An example is the development of a standardized inter modal cargo interface. Projects for fall quarter 1986 were: A three-legged walker which serves as a chassis for various interchangeable implements; A digging implement for the walker; A lifting implement for the walker; A cargo interface standard. Some projects were limited to one academic quarter, but most have been pursued for several quarters. A few are expected to evolve over the three-year period.

  9. Electronic orders in multiorbital Hubbard models with lifted orbital degeneracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Shintaro; Werner, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    We study the symmetry-broken phases in two- and three-orbital Hubbard models with lifted orbital degeneracy using dynamical mean-field theory. On the technical level, we explain how symmetry relations can be exploited to measure the four-point correlation functions needed for the calculation of the lattice susceptibilities. In the half-filled two-orbital model with crystal-field splitting, we find an instability of the metallic phase to spin-orbital order with neither spin nor orbital moment. This ordered phase is shown to be related to the recently discovered fluctuating-moment induced spin-triplet superconducting state in the orbitally degenerate model with shifted chemical potential. In the three-orbital case, we consider the effect of a crystal-field splitting on the spin-triplet superconducting state in the model with positive Hund coupling, and the spin-singlet superconducting state in the case of negative Hund coupling. It is demonstrated that for certain crystal-field splittings the higher energy orbitals instead of the lower ones are relevant for superconductivity, and that Tc can be slightly enhanced by the crystal-field effect. We comment on the implications of our results for the superconductivity in strontium ruthenates, and for the recently reported light-enhanced superconducting state in alkali-metal-doped fullerides.

  10. High-Lift Systems on Commercial Subsonic Airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, Peter K. C.

    1996-01-01

    The early breed of slow commercial airliners did not require high-lift systems because their wing loadings were low and their speed ratios between cruise and low speed (takeoff and landing) were about 2:1. However, even in those days the benefit of high-lift devices was recognized. Simple trailing-edge flaps were in use, not so much to reduce landing speeds, but to provide better glide-slope control without sideslipping the airplane and to improve pilot vision over the nose by reducing attitude during low-speed flight. As commercial-airplane cruise speeds increased with the development of more powerful engines, wing loadings increased and a real need for high-lift devices emerged to keep takeoff and landing speeds within reasonable limits. The high-lift devices of that era were generally trailing-edge flaps. When jet engines matured sufficiently in military service and were introduced commercially, airplane speed capability had to be increased to best take advantage of jet engine characteristics. This speed increase was accomplished by introducing the wing sweep and by further increasing wing loading. Whereas increased wing loading called for higher lift coefficients at low speeds, wing sweep actually decreased wing lift at low speeds. Takeoff and landing speeds increased on early jet airplanes, and, as a consequence, runways worldwide had to be lengthened. There are economical limits to the length of runways; there are safety limits to takeoff and landing speeds; and there are speed limits for tires. So, in order to hold takeoff and landing speeds within reasonable limits, more powerful high-lift devices were required. Wing trailing-edge devices evolved from plain flaps to Fowler flaps with single, double, and even triple slots. Wing leading edges evolved from fixed leading edges to a simple Krueger flap, and from fixed, slotted leading edges to two- and three-position slats and variable-camber (VC) Krueger flaps. The complexity of high-lift systems probably

  11. Sensorimotor Memory Biases Weight Perception During Object Lifting

    PubMed Central

    van Polanen, Vonne; Davare, Marco

    2015-01-01

    When lifting an object, the brain uses visual cues and an internal object representation to predict its weight and scale fingertip forces accordingly. Once available, tactile information is rapidly integrated to update the weight prediction and refine the internal object representation. If visual cues cannot be used to predict weight, force planning relies on implicit knowledge acquired from recent lifting experience, termed sensorimotor memory. Here, we investigated whether perception of weight is similarly biased according to previous lifting experience and how this is related to force scaling. Participants grasped and lifted series of light or heavy objects in a semi-randomized order and estimated their weights. As expected, we found that forces were scaled based on previous lifts (sensorimotor memory) and these effects increased depending on the length of recent lifting experience. Importantly, perceptual weight estimates were also influenced by the preceding lift, resulting in lower estimations after a heavy lift compared to a light one. In addition, weight estimations were negatively correlated with the magnitude of planned force parameters. This perceptual bias was only found if the current lift was light, but not heavy since the magnitude of sensorimotor memory effects had, according to Weber’s law, relatively less impact on heavy compared to light objects. A control experiment tested the importance of active lifting in mediating these perceptual changes and showed that when weights are passively applied on the hand, no effect of previous sensory experience is found on perception. These results highlight how fast learning of novel object lifting dynamics can shape weight perception and demonstrate a tight link between action planning and perception control. If predictive force scaling and actual object weight do not match, the online motor corrections, rapidly implemented to downscale forces, will also downscale weight estimation in a proportional manner

  12. Levator plate upward lift and levator muscle strength

    PubMed Central

    Rostaminia, Ghazaleh; Peck, Jennifer; Quiroz, Lieschen; Shobeiri, S. Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of study was to compare digital palpation with the levator plate lift measured by endovaginal and transperineal dynamic ultrasound. Methods Dynamic transperineal and endovaginal ultrasound were performed as part of multicompartmental pelvic floor functional assessment. Patients were instructed to perform Kegels while a probe captured the video clip of the levator plate movement at rest and during contraction in 2D mid-sagittal posterior view. We measured the distance between the levator plate and the probe on endovaginal ultrasound as well as the distance between the levator plate and the gothic arch of the pubis in transperineal ultrasound. The change in diameter (lift) and a levator plate lift ratio (lift / rest) x 100) were calculated. Pelvic floor muscle strength was assessed by digital palpation and divided into functional and non-functional groups using the Modified Oxford Scale (MOS). Mean differences in levator plate upward lifts were compared by MOS score using student t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results 74 women were available for analysis. The mean age was 55 (SD±11.9). When measured by vaginal dynamic ultrasound, mean values of the lift and lift/rest ratio increased with increasing MOS score (ANOVA p=0.09 and p=0.04, respectively). When MOS scores were categorized to represent non-functional (MOS 0-1) and functional (MOS 2-5) muscle strength groups, the mean values of the lift (3.2 mm vs. 4.6 mm, p=0.03) and lift/rest ratio (13% vs 20%, p=0.01) were significantly higher in women with functional muscle strength. All patients with ≥ 30% lift detected by vaginal ultrasound had functional muscle strength. Conclusions Greater levator plate lift ratio detected by dynamic endovaginal ultrasound was associated with higher muscle strength as determined by MOS. This novel measurement can be incorporated into ultrasound evaluation of the levator ani function. PMID:26333568

  13. Current Status of NASA's Heavy Lift Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies since the Apollo Program of the 1960s have highlighted the benefits of - and the need for - a national heavy lift launch capability to support human exploration, science, national security, and commercial development of space. NASA's most recent and most refined effort to develop that heavy lift capability is the Ares V. Ares V is a key element of NASA's Constellation Program. It s overall goal s part of approved national space policy is to retire the Space Shuttle and develop its successor, complete the International Space Station, and resume human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), beginning with exploration of the Moon as a step to other destinations in the Solar System. Ares V s first role is that of cargo vehicle to carry a lunar lander into Earth orbit, rendezvous with astronauts launched on the smaller Ares I crew launch vehicle, and perform the trans lunar injection (TLI) mission to send the mated crew and lander vehicles to the Moon. The design reference missions (DRMs) envisioned for it also include direct lunar cargo flights and a human Mars mission. Although NASA's priority from the start of the Constellation Program to the present has been development of the Ares I and Orion crew vehicle to replace the retiring Shuttle fleet, the Ares team has made significant progress in understanding the performance, design trades, technology needs, mission scenarios, ground and flight operations, cost, and other factors associated with heavy lift development. The current reference configuration was selected during the Lunar Capabilities Concept Review (LCCR) in fall 2008. That design has served since then as a point of departure for further refinements and trades among five participating NASA field centers. Ares V development to date has benefited from progress on the Ares I due to commonality between the vehicles. The Ares I first stage completed a successful firing of a 5-segment solid rocket motor. The Ares I-X launch Numerous studies

  14. 78 FR 73997 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped with Wing Lift Struts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ..., 1999 (63 FR 72132, December 31, 1998). ADDRESSES: For service information identified in this AD...-10972 (63 FR 72132, December 31, 1998), (``AD 99-01-05''). AD 99-01-05 applied to the specified products. The NPRM published in the Federal Register on January 16, 2013 (78 FR 3356). The NPRM proposed...

  15. 78 FR 79599 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Wing Lift Struts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...: Airworthiness Directive 99-01-05 R1, Amendment 39-17688 (78 FR 73997, December 10, 2013), will require... published in the Federal Register on January 16, 2013 (78 FR 3356). No other part of the preamble...

  16. Optimization of the lithographic performance for lift-off processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wenyan; Fillmore, Ward; Dempsey, Kevin J.

    1999-06-01

    Shipley MICROPOSIT LOL lift-off technology exploits a develop rate difference in a resist, LOL1000 bi-layer system to generate retrograde profiles. This is an enabling technology for 'additive' processing. Deposition follows lithography and the resist is then 'lifted off' to generate a patterned layer.

  17. Fuel effects on flame lift-off under diesel conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Persson, Helena; Andersson, Oeivind; Egnell, Rolf

    2011-01-15

    An apparent relation between the lift-off length under diesel conditions and the ignition quality of a fuel has previously been reported. To cast light on the underlying mechanism, the current study aims to separate flame lift-off effects of the chemical ignition delay from those of other fuel properties under diesel conditions. Flame lift-off was measured in an optical diesel engine by high-speed video imaging of OH-chemiluminescence. Fuel and ambient-gas properties were varied during the experiment. Only a weak correlation was found between ignition delay and lift-off length. The data indicate that this correlation is due to a common, stronger correlation with the ambient oxygen concentration. The chemical ignition delay and the fuel type had similar, weak effects on the lift-off length. A recently proposed mechanism for lift-off stabilization was used to interpret the results. It assumes that reactants approaching the lift-off position of the jet are mixed with high-temperature products found along the edges of the flame, which trigger autoignition. In this picture, the fuel effect is most likely due to differences in the amount of mixing with high-temperature products that is required for autoignition. In the current experiment, all lift-off effects seem to arise from variations in the reactant and product temperatures, induced by fuel and ambient properties. (author)

  18. 662-E solid waste silo-plug lifting analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, G.E.

    1993-03-01

    The Intermediate Level Tritium Vault No. 1, 662-E, Cell No. 1 contains 140 waste silos. Each silo is approximately 25 feet deep, 30 inches in diameter at the top and covered by a reinforced concrete plug. Two No. 4 reinforcing bars project from the top of each plug for lifting. During lifting operations, the 1.5 inch concrete cover over the lifting bars spelled off 16% of the silo plugs. The No. 4 reinforcing bars were also distorted on many of the silo plugs. Thirteen of the plugs have been repaired to date. The existing silo plug lifting bars have a safe working load of 480 pounds per plug, which is less than 1/3 of the dead weight of the silo plug. The safe working load was calculated using the minimum design factor of 3 based on the yield strength or 5 based on the ultimate strength of the material, as per the Savannah River Site Hoisting and Rigging Manual. The existing design calculations were reviewed, and the following items are noted: (1) Adequate concrete cover was not provided over the horizontal portion of the lifting bars. (2) The lifting bars were allowed to yield in bending, which violates the requirements of the Savannah River Site Hoisting and Rigging Manual. (3) The ultimate strain of the lifting bars would be exceeded before the calculated ultimate strength was achieved. Alternative lifting devices are also identified.

  19. 34. ALTERNATE DESIGN USING BATTERED AND UNSHEATHED LIFT TOWERS, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. ALTERNATE DESIGN USING BATTERED AND UNSHEATHED LIFT TOWERS, WITH DEEPENED TRUSS ON LIFT SPAN. Pen-and-ink drawing by project architect Alfred Eichler, 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  20. 49 CFR 178.970 - Bottom lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... conducted for the qualification of all Large Packagings design types designed to be lifted from the base. (b) Special preparation for the bottom lift test. The Large Packaging must be loaded to 1.25 times its maximum permissible gross mass, the load being evenly distributed. (c) Test method. All Large Packaging design...

  1. The Lift Distribution of Swept-Back Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissinger, J.

    1947-01-01

    Two procedures for calculating the lift distribution along the span are given in which a better account is taken of the distribution of circulation over te area than in the Prandtl lifting-line theory. The methods are also applicable to wing sweepback. Calculated results for the two methods were in agreement.

  2. Does hydraulic lift or nighttime transpiration facilitate nitrogen acquistion?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been proposed that plant species that hydraulically lift water to dry shallow soil layers should have improved nutrient relations. Yet, this idea has not been adequately tested. We choose ten Sarcobatus vermiculatus plants with different magnitudes of hydraulic lift to examine the hypothesis...

  3. 14 CFR 23.345 - High lift devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false High lift devices. 23.345 Section 23.345 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Loads § 23.345 High lift devices. (a) If flaps or...

  4. 49 CFR 178.811 - Bottom lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... qualification of all IBC design types designed to be lifted from the base. (b) Special preparation for the bottom lift test. The IBC must be loaded to 1.25 times its maximum permissible gross mass, the load being evenly distributed. (c) Test method. All IBC design types must be raised and lowered twice by a...

  5. Status of LaRC HSCT high-lift research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, Paul L.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs for a status report of the NASA Langley Reseach Center High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) High-Lift Research Program are provided. A listing of available models and previous wind tunnel studies are presented. Objectives and approach of the piloted simulation program are given. The HSCT High-Lift Research plans are listed and briefly described.

  6. Obesity-related changes in prolonged repetitive lifting performance.

    PubMed

    Ghesmaty Sangachin, Mahboobeh; Cavuoto, Lora A

    2016-09-01

    Despite the rising prevalence of obesity, little is known about its moderating effects on injury risk factors, such as fatigue, in occupational settings. This study investigated the effect of obesity, prolonged repetitive lifting and their interaction on lifting performance of 14 participants, 7 obese (mean body mass index (BMI): 33.2 kg m(-2)) and 7 non-obese (mean BMI: 22.2 kg m(-2)) subjects. To present a physically challenging task, subjects performed repetitive lifting for 1 h at 120% of their maximum acceptable weight of lift. Generalized linear mixed models were fit to posture and acceleration data. The obese group bent to a ∼10° lower peak trunk sagittal flexion angle, had 17% lower root mean square (RMS) jerk and took 0.8 s longer per lift. Over time, the obese group increased their trunk transverse and sagittal posterior accelerations while the non-obese maintained theirs. Although the majority of lifting variables were unaffected by BMI or its interaction with prolonged lifting duration, the observed differences, combined with a greater upper body mass, necessitate a more cautious use of existing psychophysical lifting limits for individuals who are obese, particularly when fatigued. PMID:27184307

  7. Atlantis is lifted from its transporter in the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- This closeup shows the workers, standing on lifts, who are checking the bolts on the apparatus holding the orbiter Atlantis. The orbiter will be rotated and lifted into high bay 1 where it will be stacked with its external tank and solid rocket boosters. Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled to launch on mission STS-104 in early July.

  8. Solid state lift for micrometering in a fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Milam, David M.; Carroll, Thomas S.; Lee, Chien-Chang; Miller, Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    A fuel injector performs main fuel injection by raising fuel pressure in a nozzle chamber to lift a check valve member to a fully open position, and performs preinjection or microinjection by operating a solid state motor to lift the check valve member a much smaller distance.

  9. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Flexible Large Packaging design types must be filled to six times the maximum permissible gross mass, the load being evenly distributed. (c) Test method. (1) A Large Packaging must be lifted in the manner for... minutes. (2) Rigid plastic Large Packaging design types must be: (i) Lifted by each pair of...

  10. Personal protective equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... protective equipment. Available at: www.cdc.gov/niosh/ppe . Accessed October 27, 2015. Holland MG, Cawthon D. Personal protective equipment and decontamination of adults and children. Emerg Med Clin N ...

  11. Medical Issues: Equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At School At Home ... Diagnosed Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life Grief & Loss Community & Local ...

  12. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... on any object the person touched or on equipment that was used during their care. Some germs ... why it is important to disinfect supplies and equipment. To disinfect something means to clean it to ...

  13. Transport properties of epitaxial lift off films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mena, R. A.; Schacham, S. E.; Young, P. G.; Haugland, E. J.; Alterovitz, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    Transport properties of epitaxially lifted-off (ELO) films were characterized using conductivity, Hall, and Shubnikov-de Haas measurements. A 10-15 percent increase in the 2D electron gas concentration was observed in these films as compared with adjacent conventional samples. We believe this result to be caused by a backgating effect produced by a charge build up at the interface of the ELO film and the quartz substrate. This increase results in a substantial decrease in the quantum lifetime in the ELO samples, by 17-30 percent, but without a degradation in carrier mobility. Under persistent photoconductivity, only one subband was populated in the conventional structure, while in the ELO films the population of the second subband was clearly visible. However, the increase of the second subband concentration with increasing excitation is substantially smaller than anticipated due to screening of the backgating effect.

  14. Offshore desulfurization unit permits gas lift operations

    SciTech Connect

    Cabes, A.; Elgue, J.; Tournier-Lasserve, J. )

    1992-01-13

    This paper reports on the installation of a desulfurization unit for the Tchibouela oil field, offshore Congo, which allowed produced low-pressure associated gas containing CO{sub 2} to be kept for gas lift operations while, for safety reasons, the large volume of H{sub 2}S at low pressure was removed prior to compression. Since October 1989, the world's first offshore amine sweetening unit has worked satisfactorily and continues to prove that it is an attractive production alternative. For desulfurization, a selective methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) process, developed by Elf Aquitaine, was chosen because it was the only process that met the required specifications at a low pressure of 3.5 bar (51 psi).

  15. Optimum reentry trajectories of a lifting vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, J. S.; Vinh, N. X.

    1978-01-01

    The optimum maneuver of a space shuttle vehicle reentering a spherical, stationary, and locally exponential atmosphere was investigated. The use of Chapman's modified variables and a rescaled lift-drag polar leads to the formulation of a set of dimensionless equations of motion for flight analysis. The resulting equations are exact in the sense that they are also valid for flight in the vacuum. For planar flight several typical optimum maneuvers are investigated at different altitude ranges, low, moderate and very high. For three-dimensional flight, the procedure to solve the optimum trajectory for maximum cross range is discussed. Finally, using the equilibrium glide condition the maximum cross ranges for entry from circular speed, for several values of E*, and the footprint for E* = 1.5 are computed in this reduced problem.

  16. Force-controlled lifting of molecular wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, N.; Wagner, C.; Weiss, C.; Temirov, R.; Tautz, F. S.

    2011-07-01

    Lifting a single molecular wire off the surface with a combined frequency-modulated atomic force and tunneling microscope it is possible to monitor the evolution of both the wire configuration and the contacts simultaneously with the transport conductance experiment. In particular, critical points where individual bonds to the surface are broken and instabilities where the wire is prone to change its contact configuration can be identified in the force gradient and dissipation responses of the junction. This additional mechanical information can be used to unambiguously determine the conductance of a true molecular wire, that is, of a molecule that is contacted via a pointlike “crocodile clip” to each of the electrodes but is otherwise free.

  17. Oblique waves lift the flapping flag.

    PubMed

    Hœpffner, Jérôme; Naka, Yoshitsugu

    2011-11-01

    The flapping of the flag is a classical model problem for the understanding of fluid-structure interaction: How does the flat state lose stability? Why do the nonlinear effects induce hysteretic behavior? We show in this Letter that, in contrast with the commonly studied model, the full three-dimensional flag with gravity has no stationary state whose stability can be formally studied: The waves are oblique and must immediately be of large amplitude. The remarkable structure of these waves results from the interplay of weight, geometry, and aerodynamic forces. This pattern is a key element in the force balance which allows the flag to hold and fly in the wind: Large amplitude oblique waves are responsible for lift. PMID:22181612

  18. Chemical enhancement of footwear impressions in blood deposited on fabric--evaluating the use of alginate casting materials followed by chemical enhancement.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Kevin J; NicDaéid, Niamh; Savage, Kathleen A; Bandey, Helen

    2010-12-01

    Most footwear marks made in blood on a surface such as fabric tend to be enhanced in situ rather than physically recovered using a lifting technique prior to enhancement. This work reports on the use of an alginate material to recover the impressed footwear marks made in blood and deposited on a range of fabric types and colours. The lifted marks were then enhanced using acid black 1 and leuco crystal violet with excellent results. This presents a new method for the lifting and recovery of blood impressions in situ from crime scene followed by subsequent mark enhancement of the lifted impression. PMID:21075299

  19. Correlation of Puma airloads: Lifting-line and wake calculation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bousman, William G.; Young, Colin; Gilbert, Neil; Toulmay, Francois; Johnson, Wayne; Riley, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    A cooperative program undertaken by organizations in the United States, England, France, and Australia has assessed the strengths and weaknesses of four lifting-line/wake methods and three CFD methods by comparing their predictions with the data obtained in flight trials of a research Puma. The Puma was tested in two configurations: a mixed bladed rotor with instrumented rectangular tip blades, and a configuration with four identical swept tip blades. The results are examined of the lifting-line predictions. The better lifting-line methods show good agreement with lift at the blade tip for the configuration with four swept tips; the moment is well predicted at 0.92 R, but deteriorates outboard. The predictions for the mixed bladed rotor configuration range from fair to good. The lift prediction is better for the swept tip blade than for the rectangular tip blade, but the reasons for this cannot be determined because of the unmodeled effects of the mixed bladed rotor.

  20. Development and flight testing of the HL-10 lifting body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, Robert W.; Painter, Weneth D.

    1993-01-01

    The Horizontal Lander 10 (HL-10) lifting body successfully completed 37 flights, achieved the highest Mach number and altitude of this class of vehicle, and contributed to the technology base used to develop the space shuttle and future generations of lifting bodies. Design, development, and flight testing of this low-speed, air-launched, rocket-powered, lifting body was part of an unprecedented effort by NASA and the Northrop Corporation. This paper describes the evolution of the HL-10 lifting body from theoretical design, through development, to selection as one of two low-speed flight vehicles chosen for fabrication and piloted flight testing. Interesting and unusual events which occurred during the program and flight tests, review of significant problems encountered during the first flight, and discussion of how these problems were solved are presented. In addition, impressions of the pilots who flew the HL-10 lifting body are given.

  1. Mathematical analysis of actuator forces in a scissor lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spackman, H.

    1994-05-01

    In 1985, NCCOSC began development of a tele-operated vehicle as part of the U.S. Marine Corps' Ground-Air Tele-Robotics Systems Program. One of the required vehicle components was a rigid, light-weight, and compact lift mechanism capable of deploying a surveillance package 10 feet above the vehicle bed. The lift mechanism that was eventually built and implemented was a 3-level scissor lift. In order to analyze the forces throughout the lift structure, a set of mathematical equations was derived. From these equations it was discovered that prudent placement of a lift's actuator can significantly reduce the forces required of the actuator and the stress levels in the adjacent scissor members. The purpose of this paper is to present the equations that were derived for analyzing the actuator forces. Using these equations, a designer can quickly determine the optimal locations for mounting an actuator and the resulting forces.

  2. Mobile Equipment Expands Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGough, Robert L.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes the Mobile Equipment Modules (MEM) system in Duluth, Minnesota. MEM is a way to hold down costs and increase learning opportunities by consolidating purchases of expensive shop equipment within the school district, grouping the equipment in modules, and scheduling and moving it from school to school as needed. (MF)

  3. Selecting Microform Reading Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Melinda

    1983-01-01

    Cites sources of information concerning selection of microform reading equipment and provides step-by-step outline of selection process. Defining specific needs for which equipment is used, determining what equipment is being marketed, and examining and evaluating readers' design features in terms of practicability and aesthetics are discussed.…

  4. Microalgae cultivation in a novel top-lit gas-lift open bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Seyed Hosseini, Nekoo; Shang, Helen; Ross, Gregory M; Scott, John A

    2015-09-01

    This work investigated a top-lit open microalgae bioreactor that uses a gas-lift system to enable deeper production depths, thereby significantly reducing the footprint. Growth of Scenedesmus sp. in a one-meter deep system by sparged with 6% CO2-enhanced air was evaluated. The results gave comparable volumetric biomass productivity (0.06 g(dw) L(-1) day(-1)), but around three-times higher areal productivity (60.0 g(dw)m(-)(2) day(-)(1)) than reported for traditional raceways. The lipid content of the Scenedesmus sp. was increased by 27% with an enhanced level of CO2 in the sparging gas. PMID:26072276

  5. Recovery of DNA from latent fingerprint tape lifts archived against matte acetate.

    PubMed

    Steadman, Shelly A; Hoofer, Steven R; Geering, Sarah C; King, Stephanie; Bennett, Marc A

    2015-05-01

    This study was driven by court order to examine methods to remove, extract, and STR-type potential DNA entrapped between latent fingerprint lifting tape and matte acetate that was collected from a 1977 crime scene. Results indicate that recovery of appreciable quantities of DNA is more challenging once adhesive is attached to matte acetate cards and even more difficult when fixed following black powder enhancement. STR amplification of extracts from entrapped fingermarks collected following the dusting/lifting procedure did not produce robust profiles, and extraneous peaks not expressed by print donors were detected for some samples. A hearing was set to argue whether there was DNA remaining to be tested, and if so, whether that DNA could be exculpatory in this postconviction matter. The studies herein provided the basis for the court's decision to not require the testing. PMID:25702951

  6. Nonlinear lift control at high speed and high angle of attack using vortex flow technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    Nonlinear lift control at subsonic, transonic and low supersonic speeds owes its origin to the separated but organized vortical flows interacting with the wing upper surface. Since most of this flow originates near the wing or control-surface leading-edge, a variety of devices have been studied experimentally which interact with and/or control this flow in order to gain a beneficial effect. The benefits (effects) originally studied were only associated with lift enhancement. Whereas, now the studied benefits encompass performance increase, attention to changes in trimmed conditions and longitudinal stability, improvements in lateral stability, and the attendant variation with changing Mach number. For those devices that can be theoretically modeled, state-of-the-art computer codes have been used for device design and/or analysis. Comparisons at design and off-design conditions are presented for validation purposes.

  7. Nonlinear lift control at high speed and high angle of attack using vortex flow technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, John E.

    1987-01-01

    Nonlinear lift control at subsonic, transonic and low supersonic speeds owes its origin to the separated but organized vortical flows interacting with the wing upper surface. Since most of this flow originates near the wing or control-surface leading edge, a variety of devices has been studied experimentally which interact with and/or control this flow in order to gain a beneficial effect. The benefits (effects) originally studied were associated only with lift enhancement. Whereas, now the studied benefits encompass performance increase, attention to changes in trimmed conditions and longitudinal stability, improvements in lateral stability, and the attendant variation with changing Mach number. For those devices that can be theoretically modeled, state-of-the-art computer codes have been used for device design and/or analysis. Comparisons at design and off-design conditions are presented for validation purposes.

  8. In-Flight Subsonic Lift and Drag Characteristics Unique to Blunt-Based Lifting Reentry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Edwin J.; Wang, K. Charles; Iliff, Kenneth W.

    2007-01-01

    Lift and drag measurements have been analyzed for subsonic flight conditions for seven blunt-based reentry-type vehicles. Five of the vehicles are lifting bodies (M2-F1, M2-F2, HL-10, X-24A, and X-24B) and two are wing-body configurations (the X-15 and the Space Shuttle Enterprise). Base pressure measurements indicate that the base drag for full-scale vehicles is approximately three times greater than predicted by Hoerner's equation for three-dimensional bodies. Base drag and forebody drag combine to provide an optimal overall minimum drag (a drag "bucket") for a given configuration. The magnitude of this optimal drag, as well as the associated forebody drag, is dependent on the ratio of base area to vehicle wetted area. Counter-intuitively, the flight-determined optimal minimum drag does not occur at the point of minimum forebody drag, but at a higher forebody drag value. It was also found that the chosen definition for reference area for lift parameters should include the projection of planform area ahead of the wing trailing edge (i.e., forebody plus wing). Results are assembled collectively to provide a greater understanding of this class of vehicles than would occur by considering them individually.

  9. Power affects performance when the pressure is on: evidence for low-power threat and high-power lift.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sonia K; Galinsky, Adam D; Kray, Laura J; Shirako, Aiwa

    2015-05-01

    The current research examines how power affects performance in pressure-filled contexts. We present low-power-threat and high-power-lift effects, whereby performance in high-stakes situations suffers or is enhanced depending on one's power; that is, the power inherent to a situational role can produce effects similar to stereotype threat and lift. Three negotiations experiments demonstrate that role-based power affects outcomes but only when the negotiation is diagnostic of ability and, therefore, pressure-filled. We link these outcomes conceptually to threat and lift effects by showing that (a) role power affects performance more strongly when the negotiation is diagnostic of ability and (b) underperformance disappears when the low-power negotiator has an opportunity to self-affirm. These results suggest that stereotype threat and lift effects may represent a more general phenomenon: When the stakes are raised high, relative power can act as either a toxic brew (stereotype/low-power threat) or a beneficial elixir (stereotype/high-power lift) for performance. PMID:25888684

  10. Numerical simulation of a powered-lift landing, tracking flow features using overset grids, and simulation of high lift devices on a fighter-lift-and-control wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chawla, Kalpana

    1993-01-01

    Attached as appendices to this report are documents describing work performed on the simulation of a landing powered-lift delta wing, the tracking of flow features using overset grids, and the simulation of flaps on the Wright Patterson Lab's fighter-lift-and-control (FLAC) wing. Numerical simulation of a powered-lift landing includes the computation of flow about a delta wing at four fixed heights as well as a simulated landing, in which the delta wing descends toward the ground. Comparison of computed and experimental lift coefficients indicates that the simulations capture the qualitative trends in lift-loss encountered by thrust-vectoring aircraft operating in ground effect. Power spectra of temporal variations of pressure indicate computed vortex shedding frequencies close to the jet exit are in the experimentally observed frequency range; the power spectra of pressure also provide insights into the mechanisms of lift oscillations. Also, a method for using overset grids to track dynamic flow features is described and the method is validated by tracking a moving shock and vortices shed behind a circular cylinder. Finally, Chimera gridding strategies were used to develop pressure coefficient contours for the FLAC wing for a Mach no. of 0.18 and Reynolds no. of 2.5 million.

  11. 75 FR 31803 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning a Lift Unit for an Overhead Patient Lift System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    .... Customs and Border Protection (``CBP'') has issued a final determination concerning the country of origin... in the final determination that Sweden is the country of origin of the lift unit for purposes of U.S... issued a final determination concerning the country of origin of the lift unit which may be offered...

  12. Anaesthesia equipment malfunction.

    PubMed

    Holley, H S; Carroll, J S

    1985-01-01

    Anaesthetic equipment was studied to determine whether the accuracy was improved and failure rate decreased by routine maintenance and calibration by a biomedical technician. Each piece was evaluated, and then repaired and rechecked at intervals by the same technician. Equipment failures were divided into three types: first, equipment that was completely nonfunctional; second, equipment that was functional but inaccurate; and third, equipment that was functional and accurate but needed minor repairs. The percentage of equipment failures in each group was compared on initial evaluation and after 6 months. Of the 311 pieces of equipment, 40% needed repair at the time of the initial survey; 80% was nonfunctional, and 18% was functional but inaccurate. After six months on a maintenance schedule, only 15% of the equipment needed repair, 3% was nonfunctional, and 6% was functional but inaccurate. The difference between the total percentage of equipment failure initially and after six months was statistically significant. After a regular maintenance, calibration, and checkout schedule by a biomedical technician was instituted, there was a significant improvement in the accuracy of the equipment and a reduction in the percentage of equipment needing repair. PMID:3970340

  13. Renewal of radiological equipment.

    PubMed

    2014-10-01

    In this century, medical imaging is at the heart of medical practice. Besides providing fast and accurate diagnosis, advances in radiology equipment offer new and previously non-existing options for treatment guidance with quite low morbidity, resulting in the improvement of health outcomes and quality of life for the patients. Although rapid technological development created new medical imaging modalities and methods, the same progress speed resulted in accelerated technical and functional obsolescence of the same medical imaging equipment, consequently creating a need for renewal. Older equipment has a high risk of failures and breakdowns, which might cause delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient, and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff. The European Society of Radiology is promoting the use of up-to-date equipment, especially in the context of the EuroSafe Imaging Campaign, as the use of up-to-date equipment will improve quality and safety in medical imaging. Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or renewal. This plan should look forward a minimum of 5 years, with annual updates. Teaching points • Radiological equipment has a definite life cycle span, resulting in unavoidable breakdown and decrease or loss of image quality which renders equipment useless after a certain time period.• Equipment older than 10 years is no longer state-of-the art equipment and replacement is essential. Operating costs of older equipment will be high when compared with new equipment, and sometimes maintenance will be impossible if no spare parts are available.• Older equipment has a high risk of failure and breakdown, causing delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff.• Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or replacement. This plan should look forward a

  14. Air-Fed Visors Used for Isocyanate Paint Spraying—Potential Exposure When the Visor Is Lifted

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Mike; Baxter, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Continuous-flow air-supplied breathing apparatus with a visor is the respiratory protective equipment (RPE) of choice within the motor vehicle repair trade for protection against exposure to isocyanate paints. Whilst these devices are capable of providing adequate protection, a common workplace practice of sprayers lifting up the visor of their RPE immediately after spraying when checking the quality of the paint finish is thought to have an impact on the protection afforded. While the visor lift may be only for a few seconds, this action, especially if repeated numerous times during a work shift, could potentially result in a significant increase in exposure. Informal interviews with paint sprayers were conducted to understand the reasons for this behaviour followed by a series of laboratory tests to quantify the potential degree of exposure as a result of a visor lift. The majority of the paint sprayers interviewed explained their reasons for lifting their visors immediately after spraying and before the spray booth had been adequately cleared by ventilation. The main reasons given for a visor lift included a combination of habit, poor visibility due to poor visual clarity of the visor screen material, over spray, scratched visor screens, internal visor reflections, and poor booth lighting. The findings of the tests showed that the degree of protection provided by the visor when in the lifted position is in the approximate range of 1–3.7 (mean 1.7) and over the whole of the exposure period (from start of the lift to recovery of protection after refitting) is in the approximate range of 1.4–9.0 (mean 2.7). This is a significant reduction when compared to the assigned protection factor of 40 for this class of device and the measured protection factors of 5000–10 000 when worn correctly. These results clearly demonstrate that lifting the visor whilst still within a contaminated atmosphere considerably increases the wearer’s exposure and that this is an

  15. Air-Fed Visors Used for Isocyanate Paint Spraying--Potential Exposure When the Visor Is Lifted.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Mike; Baxter, Nick

    2015-11-01

    Continuous-flow air-supplied breathing apparatus with a visor is the respiratory protective equipment (RPE) of choice within the motor vehicle repair trade for protection against exposure to isocyanate paints. Whilst these devices are capable of providing adequate protection, a common workplace practice of sprayers lifting up the visor of their RPE immediately after spraying when checking the quality of the paint finish is thought to have an impact on the protection afforded. While the visor lift may be only for a few seconds, this action, especially if repeated numerous times during a work shift, could potentially result in a significant increase in exposure.Informal interviews with paint sprayers were conducted to understand the reasons for this behaviour followed by a series of laboratory tests to quantify the potential degree of exposure as a result of a visor lift.The majority of the paint sprayers interviewed explained their reasons for lifting their visors immediately after spraying and before the spray booth had been adequately cleared by ventilation. The main reasons given for a visor lift included a combination of habit, poor visibility due to poor visual clarity of the visor screen material, over spray, scratched visor screens, internal visor reflections, and poor booth lighting.The findings of the tests showed that the degree of protection provided by the visor when in the lifted position is in the approximate range of 1-3.7 (mean 1.7) and over the whole of the exposure period (from start of the lift to recovery of protection after refitting) is in the approximate range of 1.4-9.0 (mean 2.7). This is a significant reduction when compared to the assigned protection factor of 40 for this class of device and the measured protection factors of 5000-10 000 when worn correctly.These results clearly demonstrate that lifting the visor whilst still within a contaminated atmosphere considerably increases the wearer's exposure and that this is an example where

  16. IET control building (TAN620). probably facing west in equipment room. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET control building (TAN-620). probably facing west in equipment room. Name brand: P&H Heavi-lift. Note doorway and corridor at left of view. INEEL negative no. HD-21-5-3 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Splitting of liftings in products of probability spaces II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macheras, N. D.; Musial, K.; Strauss, W.

    2007-11-01

    For a probability measure R on a product of two probability spaces that is absolutely continuous with respect to the product measure we prove the existence of liftings subordinated to a regular conditional probability and the existence of a lifting for R with lifted sections which satisfies in addition a rectangle formula. These results improve essentially some of the results from the former work of the authors [W. Strauss, N.D. Macheras, K. Musial, Splitting of liftings in products of probability spaces, Ann. ProbabE 32 (2004) 2389-2408], by weakening considerably the assumptions and by presenting more direct and shorter proofs. In comparison with [W. Strauss, N.D. Macheras, K. Musial, Splitting of liftings in products of probability spaces, Ann. Probab. 32 (2004) 2389-2408] it is crucial for applications intended that we can now prescribe one of the factor liftings completely freely. We demonstrate the latter by applications to [tau]-additive measures, transfer of strong liftings, and stochastic processes.

  18. Early Postoperative Pain After Keyless Abdominal Rope-Lifting Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hüseyınoğlu, Ürfettin; Çıçek, Melek

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery is a novel, gasless, single-incision laparoscopic surgical technique. In this study we aimed to compare the postoperative pain from keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery with carbon dioxide laparoscopy performed for benign ovarian cysts. Methods: During a 20-month period, 77 women underwent surgery for a benign ovarian cyst. Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery and conventional carbon dioxide laparoscopy techniques were used for the operations in 32 women and 45 women, respectively. The 2 operative techniques were compared with regard to demographic characteristics; preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data including early postoperative pain scores; and frequency of shoulder pain and analgesic requirements. Results: Data regarding demographic characteristics, preoperative findings, cyst diameters and rupture rates, intra-abdominal adhesions, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative hospital stay did not differ between groups (P > .05). However, the mean operative and abdominal access times were significantly longer in the keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery group (P < .05). Visual analog scale pain scores at initially and at the second, fourth, and 24th hours of the postoperative period were significantly lower in the keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery group (P < .05). Similarly, keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery caused significantly less shoulder pain and additional analgesic use (P < .05). Conclusion: Keyless abdominal rope-lifting surgery seems to cause less pain in the management of benign ovarian cysts in comparison with conventional carbon dioxide laparoscopy. PMID:25848177

  19. Isokinetic lifting strength and occupational injury. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Mostardi, R A; Noe, D A; Kovacik, M W; Porterfield, J A

    1992-02-01

    One hundred seventy-one nurses had their back strength evaluated on an isokinetic lifting device and filled out an epidemiologic questionnaire. They were then followed prospectively for 2 years to determine the incidence of job-related low-back injuries. The data were analyzed to determine if the injury incidence correlated with any of the strength or epidemiologic variables collected during the original evaluation. Average peak force measured during the isokinetic lift was 63.8 kg + 13.6 kg at a lift speed of 30.5 cm/sec and 59.1 kg + 14.9 kg at a lift speed of 45.7 cm/sec. Sixteen nurses reported an occurrence of job-related low-back pain or injury during the 2-year prospective period. Discriminate statistical techniques showed that none of the strength or epidemiologic variables correlated with the incidence of pain or injury or explained significant amounts of variance when the variables were regressed on strength or work calculated from the lift force/lift height data. It was concluded that in this high risk population, in which loads are heavy and lifting postures are variable, the use of low-back strength or prior history of pain or injury are poor predictors as to subsequent low-back pain or injury. PMID:1532461

  20. A structural model for composite rotor blades and lifting surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rehfield, Lawrence W.; Atilgan, Ali R.

    1987-01-01

    Composite material systems are currently candidates for aerospace structures, primarily for the design flexibiity they offer i.e., it is possible to tailor the material and manufacturing approach to the application. Two notable examples are the wing of the Grumman/USAF/DARPA X-29 and rotor blades under development by the U.S.A. Aerostructures Directorate (AVSCOM), Langley Research Center. A working definition of elastic or structural tailoring is the use of structural concept, fiber orientation, ply stacking sequence, and a blend of materials to achieve specific performance goals. In the design process, choices of materials and dimensions are made which produce specific response characteristics which permit the selected goals to be achieved. Common choices for tailoring goals are preventing instabilities or vibration resonances or enhancing damage tolerance. An essential, enabling factor in the design of tailored composite structures is structural modeling that accurately, but simply, characterizes response. The objective of this paper is to improve the single-cell beam model for composite rotor blades or lifting surfaces and to demonstrate its usefullness in applications.

  1. The Liquid Lift: Looking Natural Without Lumps

    PubMed Central

    de Felipe, Iñigo; Redondo, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Context: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is the most common filler used to rejuvenate. Today, a three-dimensional approach prevails over previous techniques in which this material was used in specific areas of the face such as the nasolabial fold, the marionette line, and the eye trough giving a strange appearance that does not look natural. Even with a volumizing purpose, the injection of HA can sometimes produce clinically detectable nodules or lumps where the filler is deposited. Aims: To develop a new technique of injecting HA that can provide more natural results and avoid the lumpiness and nodular appearance that sometimes occurs with the injection of HA. To detect whether mixing HA with diluted anesthetic agent modifies its behavior. Settings and Design: Prospective, case control, single-center study on a private clinic setting. Materials and Methods: Eighty six patients were enrolled in this study. All of them had a previous treatment with nondiluted HA using a needle at least a year before. Patients were injected with 8 mL of reticulated HA (RHA) mixed with 6 mL of saline and 2 mL of anesthetic agent. The mixture was administered through a cannula inserted in the face, one at mid-cheek and another at frontal-temporal point of entry. Owing to the lifting effect of this mixture we called this procedure liquid lift (LL). Patients were evaluated 1 month, 6 months, and a year later and asked to compare the LL with previous experiences in terms of natural look, pain, and appearance of nodules. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's t-test. Results: One month after the treatment, 83 out of 86 patients (96.5%) thought LL produced a more natural look than the previous treatment with the needle. Sixty two (72%) considered LL less painful than the previous treatment and only eight (9.3%) could detect lumps or nodules 1 month after LL was performed compared with 46 (53.5%) that described this problem with previous needle injections. The incidence of bruising was also clearly lower

  2. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National...) Vertical towers; and (v) A combination of any such devices. Aerial equipment may be made of metal, wood... on the edge of the basket or use planks, ladders, or other devices for a work position. (v) A...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National...) Vertical towers; and (v) A combination of any such devices. Aerial equipment may be made of metal, wood... on the edge of the basket or use planks, ladders, or other devices for a work position. (v) A...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.453 - Aerial lifts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American National...) Vertical towers; and (v) A combination of any such devices. Aerial equipment may be made of metal, wood... on the edge of the basket or use planks, ladders, or other devices for a work position. (v) A...

  5. Separation of Lift-Generated Vortex Wakes Into Two Diverging Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.; Brown, Anthony P.

    2010-01-01

    As part of an ongoing study of the spreading rate of lift-generated vortex wakes, the present investigation considers possible reasons as to why segments of lift-generated wakes sometimes depart from the main part of the wake to move rapidly in either an upward or downward direction. It is assumed that deficiencies or enhancements of the lift carry over across the fuselage-shrouded wing are the driving mechanism for departures of wake-segments. The computations presented first indicate that upwardly departing wake segments that were observed and photographed could have been produced by a deficiency in lift carryover across the fuselage-shrouded part of the wing. Computations made of idealized vortex wakes indicate that upward departure of a wake segment requires a centerline reduction in the span loading of 70% or more, whether the engines are at idle or robust thrust. Similarly, it was found that downward departure of wake segments is produced when the lift over the center part of the wing is enhanced. However, it was also found that downward departures do not occur without the presence of robust engine-exhaust streams (i.e., engines must NOT be at idle). In those cases, downward departures of a wake segment occurs when the centerline value of the loading is enhanced by any amount between about 10% to 100%. Observations of condensation trails indicate that downward departure of wake segments is rare. Upward departures of wake segments appears to be more common but still rare. A study to determine the part of the aircraft that causes wake departures has not been carried out. However, even though departures of wake segments rarely occur, some aircraft do regularly shed these wake structures. If aircraft safety is to be assured to a high degree of reliability, and a solution for eliminating them is not implemented, existing guidelines for the avoidance of vortex wakes [1,3] may need to be broadened to include possible increases in wake sizes caused by vertical

  6. Heavy Lift Launch Capability with a New Hydrocarbon Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Holt, James B.; Philips, Alan D.; Garcia, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center was tasked to define the thrust requirement of a new liquid oxygen rich staged combustion cycle hydrocarbon engine that could be utilized in a launch vehicle to meet NASA s future heavy lift needs. Launch vehicle concepts were sized using this engine for different heavy lift payload classes. Engine out capabilities for one of the heavy lift configurations were also analyzed for increased reliability that may be desired for high value payloads or crewed missions. The applicability for this engine in vehicle concepts to meet military and commercial class payloads comparable to current ELV capability was also evaluated.

  7. Exploration of Titan using Vertical Lift Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. A.

    2001-01-01

    Autonomous vertical lift aerial vehicles (such as rotorcraft or powered-lift vehicles) hold considerable potential for supporting planetary science and exploration missions. Vertical lift aerial vehicles would have the following advantages/attributes for planetary exploration: low-speed and low-altitude detailed aerial surveys; remote-site sample return to lander platforms; precision placement of scientific probes; soft landing capability for vehicle reuse (multiple flights) and remote-site monitoring; greater range, speed, and access to hazardous terrain than a surface rover; greater resolution of surface details than an orbiter or balloons. Exploration of Titan presents an excellent opportunity for the development and usage of such vehicles.

  8. Lifting surface theory for a helicopter rotor in forward flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, H.; Runyan, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    A lifting surface theory was developed for a helicopter rotor in forward flight for compressible and incompressible flow. The method utilizes the concept of the linearized acceleration potential and makes use of the vortex lattice procedure. Calculations demonstrating the application of the method are given in terms of the lift distribution on a single rotor, a two-bladed rotor, and a rotor with swept-forward and swept-back tips. In addition, the lift on a rotor which is vibrating in a pitching mode at 4/rev is given. Compressibility effects and interference effects for a two-bladed rotor are discussed.

  9. Two-dimensional unsteady lift problems in supersonic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaslet, Max A; Lomax, Harvard

    1949-01-01

    The variation of pressure distribution is calculated for a two-dimensional supersonic airfoil either experiencing a sudden angle-of-attack change or entering a sharp-edge gust. From these pressure distributions the indicial lift functions applicable to unsteady lift problems are determined for two cases. Results are presented which permit the determination of maximum increment in lift coefficient attained by an unrestrained airfoil during its flight through a gust. As an application of these results, the minimum altitude for safe flight through a specific gust is calculated for a particular supersonic wing of given strength and wing loading.

  10. Propulsion integration for a hybrid propulsive-lift system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, M. K.; Renshaw, J. H.; Sweet, H. S.

    1974-01-01

    In a discussion of STOL vehicles with conventional high-lift devices, the need for efficient power-augmented lift systems is presented, and the implications of quiet operation are noted. The underlying philosophy of a promising hybrid lift system with major interactions between aerodynamic, thermodynamic, acoustic, and configuration design technologies is derived. The technique by which engine and airframe-related characteristics for this application may be matched in an optimum manner is described and illustrated by describing the features of a particular short-haul commercial STOL vehicle.

  11. Drag and lift coefficients evolution of a Savonius rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvin, A.; Benghrib, D.

    1989-10-01

    The lift and drag coefficients of the rotating Savonius wind machine are determined from the pressure difference measured between the upper plane and the lower plane of a blade. Pressure measurements have been performed for two sets of experiments; the first one for U ∞ = 10 m/s and the second one for U ∞ = 12.5 m/s. In each case it is to be noted that a negative lift effect is present for low values of the tip speed ratio λ. The lift coefficient becomes positive when λ increases. The drag coefficient is of course always negative.

  12. Moderate lift-to-drag aeroassist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florence, D. E.; Fischer, G.

    1984-01-01

    Significant performance benefits are realized via aerodynamic braking and/or aerodynamic maneuvering on return from higher altitude orbits to low Earth orbit. This approach substantially reduces the mission propellant requirements by using the aerodynamic drag, D, to brake the vehicle to near circular velocity and the aerodynamic lift, L, to null out accumulated errors as well as change the orbital inclination to that required for rendezvous with the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Broad concept evaluations were performed and the technology requirements and sensitivities for aeroassisted OTV's over a range of vehicle hypersonic L/D from 0.75 to 1.5 were systematically identified and assessed. The aeroassisted OTV is capable of evolving from an initial delivery only system to one eventually capable of supporting manned roundtrip missions to geosynchronous orbit. Concept screening was conducted on numerous configurations spanning the L/D = 0.75 to 1.5 range, and several with attractive features were identified. Initial payload capability was evaluated for a baseline of delivery to GEO, six hour polar, and Molniya (12 hours x 63.4 deg) orbits with return and recovery of the aeroassist orbit transfer vehicle (AOTV) at LEO. Evolutionary payload requirements that were assessed include a GEO servicing mission (6K up and 2K return) and a manned GEO mission (14K roundtrip).

  13. Analysis of Stabilization Mechanisms in Lifted Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Martinez, S.; Kronenburg, A.

    2009-12-01

    Flame stabilization and the mechanisms that govern the dynamics at the flame base have been subject to numerous studies in recent years. Recent results using a combined Large Eddy Simulation-Conditional Moment Closure (LES-CMC) approach to model the turbulent flow field and the turbulence-chemistry interactions has been successful in predicting flame ignition and stabilization by auto-ignition, but LES-CMCs capability of the accurate modelling of the competition between turbulent quenching and laminar and turbulent flame propagation at the anchor point has not been resolved. This paper will consolidate LES-CMC results by analysing a wide range of lifted flame geometries with different prevailing stabilization mechanisms. The simulations allow a clear distinction of the prevailing stabilization mechanisms for the different flames, LES-CMC accurately predicts the competition between turbulence and chemistry during the auto-ignition process, however, the dynamics of the extinction process and turbulent flame propagation are not well captured. The averaging process inherent in the CMC methods does not allow for an instant response of the transported conditionally averaged reactive species to the changes in the flow conditions and any response of the scalars will therefore be delayed. Stationary or quasi-stationary conditions, however, can be well predicted for all flame configurations.

  14. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Clouds of exhaust fill Launch Pad 39B as Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  15. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Clouds of exhaust seem to fill the marsh near Launch Pad 39B as Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  16. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Clouds of exhaust and blazing light fill Launch Pad 39B as Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  17. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Thousands of gallons of water released as part of the sound suppression system at the launch pad create clouds of steam and exhaust as Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  18. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Against a curtain of blue sky, the Space Shuttle Discovery spews clouds of exhaust as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on the 9-day mission STS-95. On board Discovery are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  19. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    As if sprung from the rolling exhaust clouds below, Space Shuttle Discovery shoots into the heavens over the blue Atlantic Ocean from Launch Pad 39B on mission STS-95. Lifting off at 2:19 p.m. EST, Discovery carries a crew of six, including Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, who is making his second voyage into space after 36 years. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  20. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Framed by the foliage of the Canaveral National Sea Shore, Space Shuttle Discovery soars through bright blue skies as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National agency for Space Development (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  1. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Space Shuttle Discovery clears Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 as it lifts off on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  2. Insulation Test Cryostat with Lift Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Dokos, Adam G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A multi-purpose, cylindrical thermal insulation test apparatus is used for testing insulation materials and systems of materials using a liquid boil-off calorimeter system for absolute measurement of the effective thermal conductivity (k-value) and heat flux of a specimen material at a fixed environmental condition (cold-side temperature, warm-side temperature, vacuum pressure level, and residual gas composition). The apparatus includes an inner vessel for receiving a liquid with a normal boiling point below ambient temperature, such as liquid nitrogen, enclosed within a vacuum chamber. A cold mass assembly, including the upper and lower guard chambers and a middle test vessel, is suspended from a lid of the vacuum canister. Each of the three chambers is filled and vented through a single feedthrough. All fluid and instrumentation feedthroughs are mounted and suspended from a top domed lid to allow easy removal of the cold mass. A lift mechanism allows manipulation of the cold mass assembly and insulation test article.

  3. Electronic Equipment Thermal Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, R. L.; Jenkins, L. C.

    An assessment is made of the importance of thermal management in electronic equipment design, illustrating the ways in which CAD technology may be used to improve electronic equipment thermal management programs. Attention is given to the Electronic Equipment Thermal Management portion of the aircraft system-level Thermal Management Control (TMC) program. TMC establishes the process by which the airframe's environmental control system and the electronic equipment are integrated to optimize system reliability through life cycle cost minimization, by allocating available cooling capacity to system elements on the basis of derived benefits.

  4. Lunar Lander Offloading Operations Using a Heavy-Lift Lunar Surface Manipulator System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferies, Sharon A.; Doggett, William R.; Chrone, Jonathan; Angster, Scott; Dorsey, John T.; Jones, Thomas C.; Haddad, Michael E.; Helton, David A.; Caldwell, Darrell L., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using a heavy-lift variant of the Lunar Surface Manipulator System (LSMS-H) to lift and handle a 12 metric ton payload. Design challenges and requirements particular to handling heavy cargo were examined. Differences between the previously developed first-generation LSMS and the heavy-lift version are highlighted. An in-depth evaluation of the tip-over risk during LSMS-H operations has been conducted using the Synergistic Engineering Environment and potential methods to mitigate that risk are identified. The study investigated three specific offloading scenarios pertinent to current Lunar Campaign studies. The first involved offloading a large element, such as a habitat or logistics module, onto a mobility chassis with a lander-mounted LSMS-H and offloading that payload from the chassis onto the lunar surface with a surface-mounted LSMS-H. The second scenario involved offloading small pressurized rovers with a lander-mounted LSMS-H. The third scenario involved offloading cargo from a third-party lander, such as the proposed ESA cargo lander, with a chassis-mounted LSMS-H. In all cases, the analyses show that the LSMS-H can perform the required operations safely. However, Chariot-mounted operations require the addition of stabilizing outriggers, and when operating from the Lunar surface, LSMS-H functionality is enhanced by adding a simple ground anchoring system.

  5. Excision of the urachal remnant using the abdominal wall-lift laparoscopy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Kosuke; Sasaki, Kazuhito; Iijima, Tatsuo; Yoshimi, Fuyo; Nagai, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Here, we report the surgical excision of the urachal remnant using the abdominal wall-lift laparoscopy with a camera port in the umbilicus, combined with a small Pfannenstiel incision to optimally treat the bladder apex. Presentation of case A 21-year-old woman presented with periumbilical discharge and pain on urination. Contrast enhanced CT and MRI showed an abscess in the umbilical region that was connected to the bladder via a long tube-like structure. It was diagnosed as an infected urachal sinus. Partial excision of the umbilical fossa followed by dissection of the urachal remnant was easily performed using the abdominal wall-lift laparoscopy from the umbilicus down to the bladder without pneumoperitoneum or additional trocar placement. A Pfannenstiel incision was made above the pubis to get access to the junction between the urachal remnant and the bladder. Under direct vision, we succeeded in accurately dividing the remnant tract, and we adequately closed the bladder opening with absorbable sutures. This method has the advantage of easily closing peritoneal defects after excision of the urachal remnant with direct sutures under a laparoscopic view from the umbilicus. Cosmetic satisfaction was obtained postoperatively. Discussion and conclusion Urachal sinus excision using the abdominal wall-lift laparoscopy seems to surpass the previously reported methods in term of safety, cosmetics, and adequacy of surgical procedures. PMID:27064744

  6. "Dedicated To The Continued Education, Training and Demonstration of PEM Fuel Cell Powered Lift Trucks In Real-World Applications."

    SciTech Connect

    Dever, Thomas J.

    2011-11-29

    The project objective was to further assist in the commercialization of fuel cell and H2 technology by building further upon the successful fuel cell lift truck deployments that were executed by LiftOne in 2007, with longer deployments of this technology in real-world applications. We involved facilities management, operators, maintenance personnel, safety groups, and Authorities Having Jurisdiction. LiftOne strived to educate a broad group from many areas of industry and the community as to the benefits of this technology. Included were First Responders from the local areas. We conducted month long deployments with end-users to validate the value proposition and the market requirements for fuel cell powered lift trucks. Management, lift truck operators, Authorities Having Jurisdiction and the general public experienced 'hands on' fuel cell experience in the material handling applications. We partnered with Hydrogenics in the execution of the deployment segment of the program. Air Products supplied the compressed H2 gas and the mobile fueler. Data from the Fuel Cell Power Packs and the mobile fueler was sent to the DOE and NREL as required. Also, LiftOne conducted the H2 Education Seminars on a rotating basis at their locations for lift trucks users and for other selected segments of the community over the project's 36 month duration. Executive Summary The technology employed during the deployments program was not new, as the equipment had been used in several previous demos and early adoptions within the material handling industry. This was the case with the new HyPx Series PEM - Fuel Cell Power Packs used, which had been demo'd before during the 2007 Greater Columbia Fuel Cell Challenge. The Air Products HF-150 Fueler was used outdoors during the deployments and had similarly been used for many previous demo programs. The methods used centered on providing this technology as the power for electric sit-down lift trucks at high profile companies operating large

  7. 51. FRONT VIEW OF ELEVATOR LIFT IN 'CATFISH' SILO Everett ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. FRONT VIEW OF ELEVATOR LIFT IN 'CATFISH' SILO Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. Status of NASA advanced LFC airfoil high-lift study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applin, Z. T.

    1982-01-01

    The design of a high lift system for the NASA advanced LFC airfoil designed by Pfenninger is described. The high lift system consists of both leading and trailing edge flaps. A 3 meter semispan, 1 meter chord wing model using the above airfoil and high lift system is under construction and will be tested in the NASA Langley 4 by 7 meter tunnel. This model will have two separate full span leading edge flaps (0.10c and 0.12c) and one full span trailing edge flap (0.25c). The performance of this high lift system was predicted by the NASA two dimensional viscous multicomponent airfoil program. This program was also used to predict the characteristics of the LFC airfoils developed by the Douglas Aircraft Company and Lockheed-Georgia Aircraft Company.

  9. Detail view of fourth level platform winch used to lift ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of fourth level platform winch used to lift platform segments away from the Shuttle assembly during testing. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  10. View northwest, wharf A, sheet steel bulkhead, steel lift tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest, wharf A, sheet steel bulkhead, steel lift tower - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  11. Energetics of oscillating lifting surfaces using integral conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmadi, Ali R.; Widnall, Sheila E.

    1987-01-01

    The energetics of oscillating flexible lifting surfaces in two and three dimensions is calculated by the use of integral conservation laws in inviscid incompressible flow for general and harmonic transverse oscillations. Total thrust is calculated from the momentum theorem and energy loss rate due to vortex shedding in the wake from the principle of conservation of mechanical energy. Total power required to maintain the oscillations and hydrodynamic efficiency are also determined. In two dimensions, the results are obtained in closed form. In three dimensions, the distribution of vorticity on the lifting surface is also required as input to the calculations. Thus, unsteady lifting-surface theory must be used as well. The analysis is applicable to oscillating lifting surfaces of arbitrary planform, aspect ratio, and reduced frequency and does not require calculation of the leading-edge thrust.

  12. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF LIFTING GEAR ON MULE AND RACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF LIFTING GEAR ON MULE AND RACK ATTACHMENT BOOKS, LOOKING EAST - Nine Mile Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, State Highway 291 along Spokane River, Nine Mile Falls, Spokane County, WA

  13. Oyster shell conveyor used to lift shells from the dock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oyster shell conveyor used to lift shells from the dock into the receiving room housed in the 1965 concrete block addition. - J.C. Lore Oyster House, 14430 Solomons Island Road, Solomons, Calvert County, MD

  14. 53. VIEW SHOWING THE PLACEMENT OF SHEAVES FOR LIFT SPAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. VIEW SHOWING THE PLACEMENT OF SHEAVES FOR LIFT SPAN OF SHOOFLY BRIDGE, January 10, 1935 - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  15. 19. DETAIL VIEW OF LIFT CABLES ON INSIDE FACE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAIL VIEW OF LIFT CABLES ON INSIDE FACE OF YOLO COUNTY TOWER, LOOKING NORTH - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  16. 15. OVERALL VIEW OF UPSTREAM FACE OF LIFT GATE SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. OVERALL VIEW OF UPSTREAM FACE OF LIFT GATE SECTION WITH TAINTER GATE SECTION OF SPILLWAY TO THE LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Starved Rock Locks & Dam, Illinois Waterway River mile 231, Peru, La Salle County, IL

  17. 20. Vertical lift span, north tower, bascule span, and Warren ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Vertical lift span, north tower, bascule span, and Warren truss spans, facing north - Sault Ste. Marie International Railroad Bridge, Spanning Soo Locks at St. Marys Falls Canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  18. Transonic wind-tunnel tests of a lifting parachute model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foughner, J. T., Jr.; Reed, J. F.; Wynne, E. C.

    1976-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests have been made in the Langley transonic dynamics tunnel on a 0.25-scale model of Sandia Laboratories' 3.96-meter (13-foot), slanted ribbon design, lifting parachute. The lifting parachute is the first stage of a proposed two-stage payload delivery system. The lifting parachute model was attached to a forebody representing the payload. The forebody was designed and installed in the test section in a manner which allowed rotational freedom about the pitch and yaw axes. Values of parachute axial force coefficient, rolling moment coefficient, and payload trim angles in pitch and yaw are presented through the transonic speed range. Data are presented for the parachute in both the reefed and full open conditions. Time history records of lifting parachute deployment and disreefing tests are included.

  19. 3. VIEW OF MOVEABLE SPAN IN LIFT POSITION, FROM SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF MOVEABLE SPAN IN LIFT POSITION, FROM SOUTH SIDE OF RIVER LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Pennsylvania Railroad, South Branch Chicago River Bridge, Spanning South Branch of Chicago River Bridge east of Canal Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  20. Unsteady transonic flow calculations for interfering lifting surface configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batina, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    Unsteady transonic flow calculations are presented for aerodynamically interfering lifting surface configurations. Calculations are performed by extending the XTRAN3S (Version 1.5) unsteady transonic small-disturbance code to allow the treatment of an additional lifting surface. The research was conducted as a first-step toward developing the capability to treat a complete flight vehicle. Grid generation procedures for swept tapered interfering lifting surface applications of XTRAN3S are described. Transonic calculations are presented for wing-tail and canard-wing configurations for several values of mean angle of attack. The effects of aerodynamic interference on transonic steady pressure distributions and steady and oscillatory spanwise lift distributions are demonstrated. Results due to wing, tail, or canard pitching motions are presented and discussed in detail.

  1. Interior view of eastern lift span, looking south, showing internal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of eastern lift span, looking south, showing internal truss work. River visible below through chain-link fence. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior room within eastern lift span, showing auxiliary electric and gas generators. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. Interior view of eastern lift span, looking south, showing internal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of eastern lift span, looking south, showing internal truss work. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. Low cost lift-off process optimization for MEMS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Shilpi; Bansal, Deepak; Panwar, Deepak; Shukla, Neha; Kumar, Arvind; Kothari, Prateek; Verma, Seema; Rangra, K. J.

    2016-04-01

    The patterning of thin films play major role in the performance of MEMS devices. The wet etching gives an isotropic profile and etch rate depends on the temperature, size of the microstructures and repetitive use of the solution. Even with the use of selective etchants, it significantly attacks the underlying layer. On the other side, dry etching is expensive process. In this paper, double layer of photoresist is optimized for lift-off process. Double layer lift-off technique offers process simplicity, low cost, over conventional single layer lift-off or bilayer lift-off with LOR. The problem of retention and flagging is resolved. The thickness of double coat photoresist is increased by 2.3 times to single coat photo resist.

  5. Control of turbofan lift engines for VTOL aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, J. F.; Szuch, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analytical study of the dynamics and control of turbofan lift engines, and proposes methods of meeting the response requirements imposed by the VTOL aircraft application. Two types of lift fan engines are discussed: the integral and remote. The integral engine is a conventional two-spool, high bypass ratio turbofan designed for low noise and short length. The remote engine employs a gas generator and a lift fan which are separated by a duct, and which need not be coaxial. For the integral engine, a control system design is presented which satisfies the VTOL response requirements. For the remote engine, two unconventional methods of control involving flow transfer between lift units are discussed.

  6. The unsteady lift of a wing of finite aspect ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert T

    1940-01-01

    Unsteady-lift functions for wings of finite aspect ratio have been calculated by correcting the aerodynamic inertia and the angle of attack of the infinite wing. The calculations are based on the operational method.

  7. Wind tunnel study of slot spoilers for direct lift control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrisani, D., II; Gentry, G. L., Jr.; Stickle, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in a 300-mph 7- by 10- foot tunnel to obtain data for a slot spoiler direct lift control system. Slot spoilers are believed to have advantages over flap-type direct lift control (DLC) systems because of the small amount of power required for actuation. These tests, run at a Reynolds number of 1,400,000 showed that up to 78 percent of the lift due to flap deflection could be spoiled by opening several spanwise slots within the flaps. For a given lift change the drag change was significantly less than that which would be obtained by a variable flap DLC system. A nozzle-shaped slot was the most effective of the slot shapes tested.

  8. Analysis of transonic flow about lifting wing-body configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnwell, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical solution was obtained for the perturbation velocity potential for transonic flow about lifting wing-body configurations with order-one span-length ratios and small reduced-span-length ratios and equivalent-thickness-length ratios. The analysis is performed with the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The angles of attack which are considered are small but are large enough to insure that the effects of lift in the region far from the configuration are either dominant or comparable with the effects of thickness. The modification to the equivalence rule which accounts for these lift effects is determined. An analysis of transonic flow about lifting wings with large aspect ratios is also presented.

  9. 14 CFR 25.345 - High lift devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Flight Maneuver and Gust Conditions § 25.345 High lift... level flight. Gust loads resulting on each part of the structure must be determined by rational...

  10. Effects of jets, wakes, and vortices on lifting surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margason, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The interaction of jets, wakes, and vortices on lifting bodies represents a broad spectrum of aerodynamic flow phenomena. A literature survey is presented of 79 research activities in related aerodynamic situations.

  11. 32. DETAIL OF CONCRETE TOWER AND SLIDE GATE LIFTING GEARS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. DETAIL OF CONCRETE TOWER AND SLIDE GATE LIFTING GEARS ON HEADWORKS OF DEER FLAT LOW LINE CANAL ON LOWER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  12. 13. DETAIL OF CONCRETE TOWER AND SLIDE GATE LIFTING GEARS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL OF CONCRETE TOWER AND SLIDE GATE LIFTING GEARS ON HEADWORKS OF DEER FLAT NAMPA CANAL ON UPPER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  13. CUPOLA, CENTER RIGHT; GONDOLA LIFT MECHANISM, CENTER LEFT. NOTE PARTIAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CUPOLA, CENTER RIGHT; GONDOLA LIFT MECHANISM, CENTER LEFT. NOTE PARTIAL VIEW OF LAMELLA DOME FRAMING COMPRESSION RING AT CROWN AT LOWER RIGHT. - Houston Astrodome, 8400 Kirby Drive, Houston, Harris County, TX

  14. The Use of Compensated Aerological No-Lift Balloons to Determine Relatively Long-Term Dry-Air Parcel Trajectories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terliuc, Benjamin; Asculai, Ephraim; Doron, Eli

    1983-10-01

    A method to compensate the loss of buoyancy due to gas leakage from aerological no-lift balloons is presented. The method is implemented by means of a double vessel device that supplies a constant liquid outflow at constant temperature. It is shown that the average buoyancy loss rate dependence on temperature is almost perfectly matched by the outflow rate dependence on temperature when soya-bean oil is used. The device is simple, inexpensive and can be easily manufactured using standard laboratory equipment.A simple and safe method to carry no-lift systems to prefixed levels is also presented. It is based on a single 30 g pilot balloon provided with a gas leakage nozzle, inflated with H2 to a calibrated initial free-lift. The balloon is totally emptied at the required level, and remains suspended from the no-lift system.The whole system can be easily prepared under field conditions to be used in long travel-time studies of dry-air parcel trajectories in the atmosphere.An example of the use of the improved method over complex terrain is presented. A no-lift system provided with a 1680 MHz radiosonde transmitter, was tracked by two RD-65 radio-theodolites, to investigate the effects of the topographic structure of the Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee) area on the Mediterranean sea breeze summer regime. The system was tracked for at least one hour, following a trajectory with severe vertical variations. This increases our confidence in the ability to track much longer trajectories, if required.

  15. Generalizing Lifted Tensor-Product Wavelets to Irregular Polygonal Domains

    SciTech Connect

    Bertram, M.; Duchaineau, M.A.; Hamann, B.; Joy, K.I.

    2002-04-11

    We present a new construction approach for symmetric lifted B-spline wavelets on irregular polygonal control meshes defining two-manifold topologies. Polygonal control meshes are recursively refined by stationary subdivision rules and converge to piecewise polynomial limit surfaces. At every subdivision level, our wavelet transforms provide an efficient way to add geometric details that are expanded from wavelet coefficients. Both wavelet decomposition and reconstruction operations are based on local lifting steps and have linear-time complexity.

  16. Lift augmentation via spanwise tip blowing - A numerical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Numerical simulations of a low aspect ratio wing with and without a spanwise directed jet issuing from the wing tip have been performed. The results show that the tip vortex is displaced outward and upward by the blowing. This gives rise to a local lift augmentation mechanism, vortex lift caused by the vortex core being above the wing, and a global mechanism, the reduction of induced velocities due to greater apparent spin.

  17. Moving base simulation of an ASTOVL lift-fan aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, William W. Y.; Borchers, Paul F.; Franklin, James A.

    1995-01-01

    Using a generalized simulation model, a moving-base simulation of a lift-fan short takeoff/vertical landing fighter aircraft was conducted on the Vertical Motion Simulator at Ames Research Center. Objectives of the experiment were to (1) assess the effects of lift-fan propulsion system design features on aircraft control during transition and vertical flight including integration of lift fan/lift/cruise engine/aerodynamic controls and lift fan/lift/cruise engine dynamic response, (2) evaluate pilot-vehicle interface with the control system and head-up display including control modes for low-speed operational tasks and control mode/display integration, and (3) conduct operational evaluations of this configuration during takeoff, transition, and landing similar to those carried out previously by the Ames team for the mixed-flow, vectored thrust, and augmentor-ejector concepts. Based on results of the simulation, preliminary assessments of acceptable and borderline lift-fan and lift/cruise engine thrust response characteristics were obtained. Maximum pitch, roll, and yaw control power used during transition, hover, and vertical landing were documented. Control and display mode options were assessed for their compatibility with a range of land-based and shipboard operations from takeoff to cruise through transition back to hover and vertical landing. Flying qualities were established for candidate control modes and displays for instrument approaches and vertical landings aboard an LPH assault ship and DD-963 destroyer. Test pilot and engineer teams from the Naval Air Warfare Center, Boeing, Lockheed, McDonnell Douglas, and the British Defence Research Agency participated in the program.

  18. Subcutaneous lateral brow lift (“Z-lift”)

    PubMed Central

    Ueberreiter, Klaus; Tanzella, Ursula; Surlemont, Yves; Krapohl, Björn Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Surgical eyebrow lift has been described by using many different open and endoscopic methods. Difficult techniques and only short time benefits oft lead to patients’ complaints. We present a safe and simple temporal Z-incision technique for eyebrow lift in 37 patients. Besides simplicity and safety, our technique shows long lasting aesthetic results with hidden scars and a high rate of patient satisfaction. PMID:26734537

  19. Shuttle Derived In-Line Heavy Lift Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, Terry; Twichell, Wallace; Ferrari, Daniel; Kuck, Frederick

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces an evolvable Space Shuttle derived family of launch vehicles. It details the steps in the evolution of the vehicle family, noting how the evolving lift capability compares with the evolving lift requirements. A system description is given for each vehicle. The cost of each development stage is described. Also discussed are demonstration programs, the merits of the SSME vs. an expendable rocket engine (RS-68), and finally, the next steps needed to refine this concept.

  20. The lift distribution of wings with end plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangler, W

    1938-01-01

    The object of the present report is to ascertain the relationship of the circulation distribution over the wing and of the lift to the height and position of the end plate. The side forces and moments on the end plates were also determined. It is found that moving an end plate of certain length up from the symmetrical position, is followed by a slight increase of the total lift.

  1. Noise of fan designed to reduce stator lift fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, J. H.; Woodward, R. P.; Stakolich, E. G.

    1977-01-01

    An existing fan stage was redesigned to reduce stator lift fluctuations and was acoustically tested at three nozzle sizes for reduced noise generation. The lift fluctuations on the stator were reduced by increasing the stator cord, adjusting incidence angles, and adjusting the rotor velocity diagrams. Broadband noise levels were signficantly reduced in the middle to high frequencies. Blade passage tone sound power was not lessened, but decreases in the harmonics were observed. Aerodynamic improvements in both performance and efficiency were obtained.

  2. Civil markets for buoyant heavy-lift vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettam, P. J.; Hansen, D.; Ardema, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    Worldwide civil markets for heavy lift airships were investigated. Substantial potential market demand was identified for payloads of from 13 to 800 tons. The largest markets appear to be in applications to relieve port congestion, construction of power generating plants, and, most notably, logging. Because of significant uncertainties both in vehicle and market characteristics, further analysis will be necessary to verify the identified market potential of heavy lift airship concepts.

  3. Atlantis is lifted from its transporter in the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- In the Vehicle Assembly Building, the orbiter Atlantis is being lifted from a transporter after rolling over from Orbiter Processing Facility bay 3. The orbiter will be raised to a vertical position, rotated and lifted into high bay 1, and stacked with its external tank and solid rocket boosters. Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled to launch on mission STS-104 in early July.

  4. Insulation-Testing Cryostat With Lifting Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James; Dokos, Adam; Scholtens, Brekke; Nagy, Zoltan; Augustynowicz, Stanislaw

    2010-01-01

    The figure depicts selected aspects of an apparatus for testing thermal-insulation materials for cryogenic systems at temperatures and under vacuum or atmospheric conditions representative of those encountered in use. This apparatus, called "Cryostat-100," is based on the established cryogen-boil-off calorimeter method, according to which the amount of heat that passes through an insulation specimen to a cryogenic fluid in a container, and thus the effective thermal conductance of the specimen, is taken to be proportional to the amount of the cryogenic fluid that boils off from the container. The design of Cryostat-100 is based partly on, and incorporates improvements over, the design of a similar prior apparatus called "Cryostat-1" described in "Improved Methods of Testing Cryogenic Insulation Materials" (KSC-12107 & KSC- 12108), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 24, No. 12 (December 2000), page 46. The design of Cryostat-100 also incorporates the best features of two other similar prior apparatuses called "Cryostat-2" (also described in the cited prior article) and "Cryostat- 4." Notable among the improvements in Cryostat-100 is the addition of a lifting mechanism that enables safe, rapid, reliable insertion and removal of insulation specimens and facilitates maintenance operations that involve lifting. As in Cryostat-1, the cold mass is a vertical stainless-steel cylindrical vessel subdivided into a larger measurement vessel with smaller thermal-guard vessels at both ends. During operation, all three vessels are kept filled with liquid nitrogen near saturation at ambient pressure (temperature .77.4 K). The cold mass of Cryostat-100 has a length of 1 m and diameter of 168 mm. Each specimen has a corresponding nominal length and inner diameter and a nominal thickness of 25.4 mm. Specimens that are shorter and have thicknesses between 0 and 50 mm are also acceptable. Bulk-fill, foam, clam-shell, multilayer insulation, and layered materials can be tested over a very wide range

  5. Technology Equipment Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Examines telecommunications equipment room design features that allow for growth and can accommodate numerous equipment replacements and upgrades with minimal service disruption and with minimal cost. Considerations involving the central hub, power and lighting needs, air conditioning, and fire protection are discussed. (GR)

  6. Equipment Operator 1 & C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Program Development Center, Pensacola, FL.

    The Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course (RTM/NRCC) form a self-study package to assist Navy Equipment Operators First and Chief in fulfilling the requirements of their rating. (Navy Equipment Operators First and Chief direct and coordinate efforts of individuals and crews in construction, earthmoving, roadbuilding, quarrying, and…

  7. Equipment & New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Presents several new products and equipment for teaching college science courses such as laser optics bench, portable digital thermometer, solar energy furnaces and blackboard optics kit. A description of all equipment or products, cost, and addresses of manufacturers are also included. (HM)

  8. Laboratory Equipment Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. Construction Fund, Albany, NY.

    Requirements for planning, designing, constructing and installing laboratory furniture are given in conjunction with establishing facility criteria for housing laboratory equipment. Furniture and equipment described include--(1) center tables, (2) reagent racks, (3) laboratory benches and their mechanical fixtures, (4) sink and work counters, (5)…

  9. Troubleshooting rotating equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, R.F. )

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports that equipment problems in a Peruvian refinery illustrate the process engineer's role as a troubleshooter. Examples show that rotating equipment problems can stem from mechanical or process factors and involve both inspection/maintenance specialists and process engineers.

  10. Shipboard Electronic Equipments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    Fundamentals of major electronic equipments on board ships are presented in this text prepared for naval officers in general. Basic radio principles are discussed in connection with various types of transmitters, receivers, antennas, couplers, transfer panels, remote-control units, frequency standard equipments, teletypewriters, and facsimile…

  11. Engineer Equipment Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on engineer equipment mechanics is designed to advance the professional competence of privates through sergeants as equipment mechanics, Military Occupation Specialty 1341, and is adaptable for nonmilitary instruction. Introductory materials include…

  12. Adaptive Recreational Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Mary Lou, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Designed for teachers interested in therapeutic recreation, the document lists sources of adaptive recreational equipment and their homemade counterparts. Brief descriptions for ordering or constructing recreational equipment for the visually impaired, poorly coordinated, physically impaired, and mentally retarded are given. Specific adaptations…

  13. Control of turbofan lift engines for VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, J. F.; Szuch, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The use of turbofan engines as lift units for VTOL aircraft poses new engine control problems. At low flight speeds, the lift units must provide the fast thrust response needed for aircraft attitude and height control. The results are presented of an analytical study of the dynamics and control of turbofan lift engines, and methods are proposed for meeting the response requirements imposed by the VTOL aircraft application. Two types of lift fan engines are discussed: the integral and remote. The integral engine is a conventional two-spool, high bypass ratio turbofan designed for low noise and short length. The remote engine employs a gas generator and a lift fan which are separated by a duct, and which need not be coaxial. For the integral engine, a control system design is presented which satisfies the VTOL response requirements. For the remote engine, two unconventional methods of control involving flow transfer between lift units are discussed. Both methods are shown to have thrust response near the required levels.

  14. Classification of similar medical images in the lifting domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallee, Chad W.; Tashakkori, Rahman

    2002-03-01

    In this paper lifting is used for similarity analysis and classification of sets of similar medical images. The lifting scheme is an invertible wavelet transform that maps integers to integers. Lifting provides efficient in-place calculation of transfer coefficients and is widely used for analysis of similar image sets. Images of a similar set show high degrees of correlation with one another. The inter-set redundancy can be exploited for the purposes of prediction, compression, feature extraction, and classification. This research intends to show that there is a higher degree of correlation between images of a similar set in the lifting domain than in the pixel domain. Such a high correlation will result in more accurate classification and prediction of images in a similar set. Several lifting schemes from Calderbank-Daubechies-Fauveue's family were used in this research. The research shows that some of these lifting schemes decorrelates the images of similar sets more effectively than others. The research presents the statistical analysis of the data in scatter plots and regression models.

  15. The Six Track Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge…Two double track spans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    The Six Track Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge…Two double track spans closed. One double-track span open. Photocopy of plate xvi in Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge Company, Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridges. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Fort Point Channel Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  16. The spanwise distribution of lift for minimum induced drag of wings having a given lift and a given bending moment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T.

    1950-01-01

    The problem of the minimum induced drag of wings having a given lift and a given span is extended to include cases in which the bending moment to be supported by the wing is also given. The theory is limited to lifting surfaces traveling at subsonic speeds. It is found that the required shape of the downwash distribution can be obtained in an elementary way which is applicable to a variety of such problems. Expressions for the minimum drag and the corresponding spanwise load distributions are also given for the case in which the lift and the bending moment about the wing root are fixed while the span is allowed to vary. The results show a 15-percent reduction of the induced drag with a 15-percent increase in span as compared with results for an elliptically loaded wing having the same total lift and bending moment.

  17. Flight-test of the glide-slope track and flare-control laws for an automatic landing system for a powered-lift STOL airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, D. M.; Hardy, G. H.; Warner, D. N., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An automatic landing system was developed for the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Airplane to establish the feasibility and examine the operating characteristics of a powered-lift STOL transport flying a steep, microwave landing system (MLS) glide slope to automatically land on a STOL port. The flight test results address the longitudinal aspects of automatic powered lift STOL airplane operation including glide slope tracking on the backside of the power curve, flare, and touchdown. Three different autoland control laws were evaluated to demonstrate the tradeoff between control complexity and the resulting performance. The flight test and simulation methodology used in developing conventional jet transport systems was applied to the powered-lift STOL airplane. The results obtained suggest that an automatic landing system for a powered-lift STOL airplane operating into an MLS-equipped STOL port is feasible. However, the airplane must be provided with a means of rapidly regulation lift to satisfactorily provide the glide slope tracking and control of touchdown sink rate needed for automatic landings.

  18. Improvements to the kernel function method of steady, subsonic lifting surface theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medan, R. T.

    1974-01-01

    The application of a kernel function lifting surface method to three dimensional, thin wing theory is discussed. A technique for determining the influence functions is presented. The technique is shown to require fewer quadrature points, while still calculating the influence functions accurately enough to guarantee convergence with an increasing number of spanwise quadrature points. The method also treats control points on the wing leading and trailing edges. The report introduces and employs an aspect of the kernel function method which apparently has never been used before and which significantly enhances the efficiency of the kernel function approach.

  19. An Investigation of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Airplane Equipped with Several Different Sets of Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, J W , Jr; Green, M W

    1929-01-01

    This investigation was conducted by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at Langley Field, Va., at the request of the Army Air Corps, for the purpose of comparing the full scale lift and drag characteristics of an airplane equipped with several sets of wings of commonly used airfoil sections. A Sperry Messenger Airplane with wings of R.A.F.-15, U.S.A.-5, U.S.A.-27, and Gottingen 387 airfoil sections was flown and the lift and drag characteristics of the airplane with each set of wings were determined by means of glide tests. The results are presented in tabular and curve form. (author)

  20. Case history - installation of high volume pumping equipment in Talco Field, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The work presents a case history study of Exxon's high volume artificial lift program at Talco Field in Franklin and Titus Counties, Texas. The field produces heavy crude oil from the Paluxy sandstone at an approximate depth of 4200 ft. Discussion includes (1) screening parameters used to optimized selection of high volume artificial lift equipment; (2) representative production flowstreams to quantify the additional recovery expected; (3) analysis of incremental expenses and costs associated with electric submersible pumps and large capacity beam pumping units; and (4) case production histories and operational problems encountered.

  1. 49 CFR 571.404 - Standard No. 404; Platform lift installations in motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 403, Lift Systems for Motor Vehicles (49 CFR 571.403). S4.1.2Lift... Safety Standard No. 403, Lift Systems for Motor Vehicles (49 CFR 571.403). S4.1.3Platform lifts must be... Standard No. 403, Lift Systems for Motor Vehicles (49 CFR 571.403). S4.1.5Platform Lighting on public...

  2. 49 CFR 571.404 - Standard No. 404; Platform lift installations in motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 403, Lift Systems for Motor Vehicles (49 CFR 571.403). S4.1.2Lift... Safety Standard No. 403, Lift Systems for Motor Vehicles (49 CFR 571.403). S4.1.3Platform lifts must be... Standard No. 403, Lift Systems for Motor Vehicles (49 CFR 571.403). S4.1.5Platform Lighting on public...

  3. 49 CFR 571.404 - Standard No. 404; Platform lift installations in motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 403, Lift Systems for Motor Vehicles (49 CFR 571.403). S4.1.2Lift... Safety Standard No. 403, Lift Systems for Motor Vehicles (49 CFR 571.403). S4.1.3Platform lifts must be... Standard No. 403, Lift Systems for Motor Vehicles (49 CFR 571.403). S4.1.5Platform Lighting on public...

  4. Animal Health Equipment Management.

    PubMed

    Rethorst, David N

    2015-07-01

    Proper health equipment management requires significant attention to detail. Establishing and following protocols during processing (eg, cleaning and disinfecting equipment at the end of the work day) is required to ensure a safe product that is free of defects and residues. Overall cleanliness of equipment and facilities is important not only from a food safety standpoint but many view these as an overall indicator of attention to detail in the entire production system. Ensuring that needles are changed, implant guns are managed properly, vaccine is handled in an acceptable manner, and that proper chute operation occurs is essential. PMID:26139191

  5. Heavy Lift Launch Capability with a New Hydrocarbon Engine (NHE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Holt, James B.; Philips, Alan D.; Garcia, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has analyzed over 2000 Ares V and other heavy lift concepts in the last 3 years. These concepts were analyzed for Lunar Exploration Missions, heavy lift capability to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) as well as exploratory missions to other near earth objects in our solar system. With the pending retirement of the Shuttle fleet, our nation will be without a civil heavy lift launch capability, so the future development of a new heavy lift capability is imperative for the exploration and large science missions our Agency has been tasked to deliver. The majority of the heavy lift concepts analyzed by ACO during the last 3 years have been based on liquid oxygen / liquid hydrogen (LOX/LH2) core stage and solids booster stage propulsion technologies (Ares V / Shuttle Derived and their variants). These concepts were driven by the decisions made from the results of the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), which in turn, led to the Ares V launch vehicle that has been baselined in the Constellation Program. Now that the decision has been made at the Agency level to cancel Constellation, other propulsion options such as liquid hydrocarbon fuels are back in the exploration trade space. NASA is still planning exploration missions with the eventual destination of Mars and a new heavy lift launch vehicle is still required and will serve as the centerpiece of our nation s next exploration architecture s infrastructure. With an extensive launch vehicle database already developed on LOX/LH2 based heavy lift launch vehicles, ACO initiated a study to look at using a new high thrust (> 1.0 Mlb vacuum thrust) hydrocarbon engine as the primary main stage propulsion in such a launch vehicle.

  6. Catalytic converters for exhaust emission control of commercial equipment powered by internal combustion engines.

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, J G

    1975-01-01

    The development of PTX, monolithic catalytic exhaust purifiers, is outlined, and their first use for exhaust emissions control of commercial equipment is described. The main use of PTX converters is on forklift trucks. The purification achievable with PTX-equipped fork-lift trucks under various operational conditions is discussed, and examples from the field are given. During more than ten years of operation, no adverse health effects have been reported, and PTX-equipped internal combustion engines appear safe for use in confined areas. PMID:50933

  7. In vivo loads on a vertebral body replacement during different lifting techniques.

    PubMed

    Dreischarf, Marcel; Rohlmann, Antonius; Graichen, Friedmar; Bergmann, Georg; Schmidt, Hendrik

    2016-04-11

    The repeated lifting of heavy weights has been identified as a risk factor for low back pain (LBP). Whether squat lifting leads to lower spinal loads than stoop lifting and whether lifting a weight laterally results in smaller forces than lifting the same weight in front of the body remain matters of debate. Instrumented vertebral body replacements (VBRs) were used to measure the in vivo load in the lumbar spine in three patients at level L1 and in one patient at level L3. Stoop lifting and squat lifting were compared in 17 measuring sessions, in which both techniques were performed a total of 104 times. The trunk inclination and amount of knee bending were simultaneously estimated from recorded images. Compared with the aforementioned lifting tasks, the patients additionally lifted a weight laterally with one hand 26 times. Only a small difference (4%) in the measured resultant force was observed between stoop lifting and squat lifting, although the knee-bending angle (stoop 10°, squat 45°) and trunk inclination (stoop 52°, squat 39°) differed considerably at the time points of maximal resultant forces. Lifting a weight laterally caused 14% less implant force on average than lifting the same weight in front of the body. The current in vivo biomechanical study does not provide evidence that spinal loads differ substantially between stoop and squat lifting. The anterior-posterior position of the lifted weight relative to the spine appears to be crucial for spinal loading. PMID:26603872

  8. Equipment & New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews new science equipment and products for the laboratory. Includes hand-held calculators, fiberglass fume hoods, motorized microtomy, disposable mouse cages, and electric timers. Describes 11 products total. Provides manufacturer name, address, and price. (MA)

  9. Selecting Library Furniture & Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Media & Methods, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Offers suggestions for selecting school library furniture and equipment. Describes various models of computer workstations; reading tables and chairs; and shelving. Sidebar lists names and addresses of library furniture manufactures and distributors. (AEF)

  10. Tracking equipment on hire

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-01

    The first comprehensive computer-based system for managing large inventories of rental equipment in the North Sea has been commissioned by British oilfield services group Expro. Now, after a year of operations in which the system has proved its worth in improving the efficiency of Expro's well testing and other services, it is being offered for sale to other oil industry companies with problems in controlling movement of capital equipment. The computer-based inventory control system to is described.

  11. Medical equipment management strategies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Binseng; Furst, Emanuel; Cohen, Ted; Keil, Ode R; Ridgway, Malcolm; Stiefel, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Clinical engineering professionals need to continually review and improve their management strategies in order to keep up with improvements in equipment technology, as well as with increasing expectations of health care organizations. In the last 20 years, management strategies have evolved from the initial obsession with electrical safety to flexible criteria that fit the individual institution's needs. Few hospitals, however, are taking full advantage of the paradigm shift offered by the evolution of joint Commission standards. The focus should be on risks caused by equipment failure, rather than on equipment with highest maintenance demands. Furthermore, it is not enough to consider risks posed by individual pieces of equipment to individual patients. It is critical to anticipate the impact of an equipment failure on larger groups of patients, especially when dealing with one of a kind, sophisticated pieces of equipment that are required to provide timely and accurate diagnoses for immediate therapeutic decisions or surgical interventions. A strategy for incorporating multiple criteria to formulate appropriate management strategies is provided in this article. PMID:16796335

  12. Development of an integrated staircase lift for home access

    PubMed Central

    Mattie, Johanne L.; Borisoff, Jaimie F.; Leland, Danny; Miller, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Stairways into buildings present a significant environmental barrier for those with mobility impairments, including older adults. A number of home access solutions that allow users to safely enter and exit the home exist, however these all have some limitations. The purpose of this work was to develop a novel, inclusive home access solution that integrates a staircase and a lift into one device. Method The development of an integrated staircase lift followed a structured protocol with stakeholders providing feedback at various stages in the design process, consistent with rehabilitation engineering design methods. Results A novel home access device was developed. The integrated staircase-lift has the following features: inclusivity, by a universal design that provides an option for either use of stairs or a lift; constant availability, with a lift platform always ready for use on either level; and potential aesthetic advantages when integrating the device into an existing home. The potential also exists for emergency descent during a power outage, and self-powered versions. Conclusions By engaging stakeholders in a user centred design process, insight on the limitations of existing home access solutions and specific feedback on our design guided development of a novel home access device. PMID:26793318

  13. Wing rotation and lift in SUEX flapping wing mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateti, Kiron; Byrne-Dugan, Rory A.; Tadigadapa, Srinivas A.; Rahn, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    This research presents detailed modeling and experimental testing of wing rotation and lift in the LionFly, a low cost and mass producible flapping wing mechanism fabricated monolithically from SUEX dry film and powered by piezoelectric bimorph actuators. A flexure hinge along the span of the wing allows the wing to rotate in addition to flapping. A dynamic model including aerodynamics is developed and validated using experimental testing with a laser vibrometer in air and vacuum, stroboscopic photography and high definition image processing, and lift measurement. The 112 mg LionFly produces 46° flap and 44° rotation peak to peak with 12° phase lag, which generates a maximum average lift of 71 μN in response to an applied sinusoidal voltage of 75 V AC and 75 V DC at 37 Hz. Simulated wing trajectories accurately predict measured wing trajectories at small voltage amplitudes, but slightly underpredict amplitude and lift at high voltage amplitudes. By reducing the length of the actuator, reducing the mechanism amplification and tuning the rotational hinge stiffness, a redesigned device is simulated to produce a lift to weight ratio of 1.5.

  14. A simplified palatal lift prosthesis for neurogenic velopharyngeal incompetence.

    PubMed

    Rilo, Benito; Fernández-Formoso, Noelia; da Silva, Luis; Pinho, Joâo Carlos

    2013-08-01

    Velopharyngeal incompetence is a contributing factor to speech disorders and implies the presence of hypernasality, inappropriate nasal escape, and decreased air pressure during speech. One prosthetic treatment is a rehabilitative procedure employing a palatal lift prosthesis (PLP), which reduces hypernasality by approximating the incompetent soft palate to the posterior pharyngeal wall and consists of two parts, the anterior denture base and the palatal lifting plate, which are connected with steel wires; however, it seems difficult to reproduce the mobility of the soft palate in speaking, and it is therefore likely that the palatal lifting plate stimulates or oppresses the tissue of the soft palate and hinders rather than assists articulatory function. To avoid these disturbances we devised an adjustable PLP with a flexible conjunction between the denture base and the palatal lifting plate to obtain the optimal vertical lifting angle. The palatal plate was adapted to conform in a passive manner to the soft palate with light-cured resin. The designed PLP simplified the procedure and reduced the number of adjustments and visits. PMID:23387878

  15. Advances in Engineering Software for Lift Transportation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakoff, Alexander Borisoff

    2012-03-01

    In this paper an attempt is performed at computer modelling of ropeway ski lift systems. The logic in these systems is based on a travel form between the two terminals, which operates with high capacity cabins, chairs, gondolas or draw-bars. Computer codes AUTOCAD, MATLAB and Compaq-Visual Fortran - version 6.6 are used in the computer modelling. The rope systems computer modelling is organized in two stages in this paper. The first stage is organization of the ground relief profile and a design of the lift system as a whole, according to the terrain profile and the climatic and atmospheric conditions. The ground profile is prepared by the geodesists and is presented in an AUTOCAD view. The next step is the design of the lift itself which is performed by programmes using the computer code MATLAB. The second stage of the computer modelling is performed after the optimization of the co-ordinates and the lift profile using the computer code MATLAB. Then the co-ordinates and the parameters are inserted into a program written in Compaq Visual Fortran - version 6.6., which calculates 171 lift parameters, organized in 42 tables. The objective of the work presented in this paper is an attempt at computer modelling of the design and parameters derivation of the rope way systems and their computer variation and optimization.

  16. Lift on Flexible and Rigid Cambered Wings at High Incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Anya; Mancini, Peter; Granlund, Kenneth; Ol, Michael

    2014-11-01

    The effects of camber and camber change due to elastic deflection of a membrane wing were investigated for wings in rectilinear translation with parameter variations in wing incidence and acceleration. Direct force and moment measurements were performed on a rigid flat plate wing, rigid cambered wings, and a membrane wing. Features in the force histories were further examined via flow visualization by planar laser illumination of fluorescent dye. Below 10 degrees of incidence, Wagner's approximation accurately predicts the time-evolution of lift for the rigid wings. At higher incidence, flow separation results in force transients, and the effect of wing camber is no longer additive. Both the rigid flat plate and rigid cambered wings reach peak lift at a 35 degree angle of attack, whereas the flexible wing experiences stall delay and reaches peak lift at 50 degrees. Due to the aeroelasticity of the flexible membrane, flow over the suction surface remains attached for much higher incidence angles than for the rigid wings. For incidence angles less than 30 degrees, the peak lift of the flexible wing is lower than that of its rigid counterparts. Beyond 30 degrees, the flexible wing experiences an aeroelastically induced stall delay that allows lift to exceed the rigid analogs. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program and the U.S. Army Research Laboratory under the Micro Autonomous Systems and Technology (MAST) program.

  17. Experimental research on dust lifting by propagating shock wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żydak, P.; Oleszczak, P.; Klemens, R.

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the presented work was to study the dust lifting process from a layer of dust behind a propagating shock wave. The experiments were conducted with the use of a shock tube and a specially constructed, five-channel laser optical device enabling measurements at five positions located in one vertical plane along the height of the tube. The system enabled measurements of the delay in lifting up of the dust from the layer, and the vertical velocity of the dust cloud was calculated from the dust concentration measurements. The research was carried out for various initial conditions and for three fractions of black coal dust. In the presented tests, three shock wave velocities: 450, 490 and 518 m/s and three dust layer thicknesses, equal to 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm, were taken into consideration. On the grounds of the obtained experimental results, it was assumed that the vertical component of the lifted dust velocity is a function of the dust particle diameter, the velocity of the air flow in the channel, the layer thickness and the dust bulk density. It appeared, however, that lifting up of the dust from the thick layers, thicker than 1 mm, is a more complex process than that from thin layers and still requires further research. A possible explanation is that the shock wave action upon the thick layer results in its aggregation in the first stage of the dispersing process, which suppresses the dust lifting process.

  18. Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) of congruent voxels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqué, Alberto; Kim, Heungsoo; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Beniam, Iyoel; Breckenfeld, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) of functional materials offers unique advantages and capabilities for the rapid prototyping of electronic, optical and sensor elements. The use of LIFT for printing high viscosity metallic nano-inks and nano-pastes can be optimized for the transfer of voxels congruent with the shape of the laser pulse, forming thin film-like structures non-lithographically. These processes are capable of printing patterns with excellent lateral resolution and thickness uniformity typically found in 3-dimensional stacked assemblies, MEMS-like structures and free-standing interconnects. However, in order to achieve congruent voxel transfer with LIFT, the particle size and viscosity of the ink or paste suspensions must be adjusted to minimize variations due to wetting and drying effects. When LIFT is carried out with high-viscosity nano-suspensions, the printed voxel size and shape become controllable parameters, allowing the printing of thin-film like structures whose shape is determined by the spatial distribution of the laser pulse. The result is a new level of parallelization beyond current serial direct-write processes whereby the geometry of each printed voxel can be optimized according to the pattern design. This work shows how LIFT of congruent voxels can be applied to the fabrication of 2D and 3D microstructures by adjusting the viscosity of the nano-suspension and laser transfer parameters.

  19. Toward a new nanoLIFT transfer process

    SciTech Connect

    Mezel, C.; Hallo, L.; Breil, J.; Souquet, A.; Guillemot, F.; Bourgeade, A.; Hebert, D.; Saut, O.

    2010-02-02

    The Laser Induced Forward Transfer (LIFT) is a direct-write technique used to print biological materials such as living cells or molecules. During the LIFT process, the biomaterial to be printed is deposited on a target submitted to a nanosecond laser shot, and the ejecta are collected onto a receiving substrate. Despite the several advantages of this technique (control of the propelled quantity, no spoiling of the substrate), it remains difficult to be employed due to the high sensitivity of its control parameters. Recently, Duocastella published some experimental results which exhibit the real-time jet formation process, under conditions similar to those present in the LIFT process. In the first Section, a typical experimental setup for LIFT process is presented. Then, simulations of Duocastella's and Guillemot's experiments are carried out to model the jet formation in water when irradiated by an ultraviolet nanosecond laser pulse. The 2D axisymmetric hydrodynamic code CHIC (Code d'Hydrodynamique et d'Implosion du CELIA) is used for these simulations with included equations of state (EOS) to take into account the behavior of water under standard conditions. Finally, an improvement of the LIFT technique which consists in using femtosecond lasers instead of nanosecond ones, is presented. It would allow to process smaller bioelements and to control the jet diameter, as it is directly related to the laser beam waist.

  20. A Simple Method for High-Lift Propeller Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael; Borer, Nick; German, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple method for designing propellers that are placed upstream of the leading edge of a wing in order to augment lift. Because the primary purpose of these "high-lift propellers" is to increase lift rather than produce thrust, these props are best viewed as a form of high-lift device; consequently, they should be designed differently than traditional propellers. We present a theory that describes how these props can be designed to provide a relatively uniform axial velocity increase, which is hypothesized to be advantageous for lift augmentation based on a literature survey. Computational modeling indicates that such propellers can generate the same average induced axial velocity while consuming less power and producing less thrust than conventional propeller designs. For an example problem based on specifications for NASA's Scalable Convergent Electric Propulsion Technology and Operations Research (SCEPTOR) flight demonstrator, a propeller designed with the new method requires approximately 15% less power and produces approximately 11% less thrust than one designed for minimum induced loss. Higher-order modeling and/or wind tunnel testing are needed to verify the predicted performance.