Sample records for ligand hydroxo complexes

  1. Charge transfer of iron(III) monomeric and oligomeric aqua hydroxo complexes: semiempirical investigation into photoactivity.


    Lopes, Ludovic; de Laat, Joseph; Legube, Bernard


    Aqueous hydrolyses of iron(III) solutions were studied using electronic spectroscopy. Complete spectra from 200 to 800 nm were obtained for the four ferric aqua hydroxo complexes: Fe(H(2)O)(6)(3+), Fe(OH)(H(2)O)(5)(2+), Fe(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(4)(+), and the dimer Fe(2)(mu-Omicron Eta)(2)(H(2)O)(8)(4+). Semiempirical Zindo/s calculations were employed to assign which types of electronic transfers are involved so that the photoactivity as regards the photoreduction dissociation Fe(III)(aq) Fe(II)(aq) + OH* can be discussed. Fe(3+) exhibits two LMCT from non-bonding p orbitals (nLp) located at 190 and 240 nm. Fe(OH)(2+) shows two major nLp(OH) --> d transitions at 205 and 295 nm. As regards its geometry, computed investigations using an Fe-OH distance of 2.05 A better fit than using a shorter distance ( approximately 1.8 A); the same conclusion remains constant for all hydroxo complexes. The dihydroxo form's spectrum was confronted to its common cis and trans expectable isomers plus an unusual pentacoordinate one. Even if the trans isomer is supposed to be the lowest Gibbs free energy species in solution, there is some evidence of the presence of the cis form; hence, both species must be close in energy. Other isolated nLp(OH) --> d transfer wavelengths are 235, 245, and 335 nm. As for the dimer, this study provides some clue in favor of the bis(mu-hydroxo)) description. Both water and hydroxo ligands are involved along the electronic transitions toward only d(1) metal-centered orbitals at 220 and 260 nm for H(2)O, 335 and 470 nm for OH(-), and 205 nm for both. Charge transfers for the hydrogen oxide bridge form Fe(2)(mu-Eta(3)Omicron(2))(H(2)O)(8)(5+) were also computed. Finally predictions about the two bis(mu-hydroxo) bridge trimer Fe(3)(OH)(4)(H(2)O)(10)(5+) enable one to foresee a huge and broad charge transfer in the UV region (approximately 240 nm) followed by a multi nLp(OH) --> d(1) transfer extending up to approximately 650 nm. PMID:11978119

  2. Hydroxo sulfate complexes of iron (III) in solution.


    Ciavatta, Liberato; De Tommaso, Gaetano; Iuliano, Mauro


    The ternary Fe (III)-OH(-)-SO4(2-) complexes have been investigated at 25 degrees C in 3 M NaClO4 by potentiometric titration with glass electrode. The metal and sulfate concentrations ranged from 2.5 x 10(-3) to 0.03 M and from 5.10(-3) to 0.060 M, respectively. [H+] was decreased from 0.05 M to incipient precipitation of basic sulfate which occured at log[H+] between -2.3 and -2.5 depending on the concentration of the metal. For the interpretation of the data stability constants of HSO4(-), of binary hydroxo complexes (FeOH2+, Fe(OH)2+, Fe2(OH)2(4+), Fe3(OH)4(5+), Fe3(OH)5(4+)) and of sulfate complexes (FeSO4+, FeHSO4(2+), Fe(SO4)2-) were assumed from independent sources. The data are consistent with the presence of FeOHSO4, log beta 1-11 = -0.49 +/- 0.03. Equilibrium constants are defined as beta pqr for pFe3+ +qH+ +rSO4(2-) [symbol: see text] FepHq(SO4)r3p+q-2r. No substantial better fit could be found by adding a second mixed complex. Only a slightly smaller agreement factor resulted introducing as minor ternary complex Fe3(OH)6(SO4)3(3-) with log beta 3-63 = -5.8 +/- 0.5. Its evidence, however, cannot be considered conclusive. PMID:12185749

  3. Gas-Phase Photoluminescence Characterization of Stoichiometrically Pure Nonanuclear Lanthanoid Hydroxo Complexes Comprising Europium or Gadolinium.


    Greisch, Jean-François; Chmela, Jiří; Harding, Michael E; Klopper, Wim; Kappes, Manfred M; Schooss, Detlef


    Gas-phase photoluminescence measurements involving mass-spectrometric techniques enable determination of the properties of selected molecular systems with knowledge of their exact composition and unaffected by matrix effects such as solvent interactions or crystal packing. The resulting reduced complexity facilitates a comparison with theory. Herein, we provide a detailed report of the intrinsic luminescence properties of nonanuclear europium(III) and gadolinium(III) 9-hydroxyphenalen-1-one (HPLN) hydroxo complexes. Luminescence spectra of [Eu9(PLN)16(OH)10](+) ions reveal an europium-centered emission dominated by a 4-fold split Eu(III) hypersensitive transition, while photoluminescence lifetime measurements for both complexes support an efficient europium sensitization via a PLN-centered triplet-state manifold. The combination of gas-phase measurements with density functional theory computations and ligand-field theory is used to discuss the antiprismatic core structure of the complexes and to shed light on the energy-transfer mechanism. This methodology is also employed to fit a new set of parameters, which improves the accuracy of ligand-field computations of Eu(III) electronic transitions for gas-phase species. PMID:26974169

  4. Reactivity of molybdenum and rhenium hydroxo-carbonyl complexes toward organic electrophiles.


    Cuesta, Luciano; Gerbino, Darío C; Hevia, Eva; Morales, Dolores; Navarro Clemente, M Elena; Pérez, Julio; Riera, Lucía; Riera, Víctor; Miguel, Daniel; del Río, Ignacio; García-Granda, Santiago


    The hydroxo compounds [Re(OH)(CO)(3)(N-N)] (N-N=bipy, 2 a; Me(2)-bipy, 2 b) were prepared in a biphasic H(2)O/CH(2)Cl(2) medium by reaction of [Re(OTf)(CO)(3)(N-N)] with KOH. In contrast, when anhydrous CH(2)Cl(2) was used, the binuclear hydroxo-bridged compound [[Re(CO)(3)(bipy)](2)(mu-OH)]OTf (3-OTf) was obtained. Compound [Re(OH)(CO)(3)(Me(2)-bipy)] (2 b) reacted with phenyl acetate or vinyl acetate to afford [Re(OAc)(CO)(3)(Me(2)-bipy)] (4) and phenol or acetaldehyde, respectively. The reactions of [Mo(OH)(eta(3)-C(3)H(4)-Me-2)(CO)(2)(phen)] (1), 2 a, and 2 b toward several unsaturated organic electrophiles were studied. The reaction of 1 with (p-tolyl)isocyanate afforded an adduct of N,N'-di(p-tolyl)urea and the carbonato-bridged compound [[Mo(eta(3)-C(3)H(4)-Me-2)(CO)(2)(phen)](2)(mu-eta(1)(O),eta(1)(O)-CO(3))] (5). In contrast, the reaction of 2 a with phenylisocyanate afforded [Re(OC(O)NHPh)(CO)(3)(bipy)] (6); this results from formal PhNCO insertion into the O-H bond. On the other hand, compounds [Mo[SC(O)NH(p-tolyl)](eta(3)-C(3)H(4)-Me-2)(CO)(2)(phen)] (7), [Re[SC(O)NH(p-tolyl)](CO)(3)(Me(2)-bipy)] (8 a), and [Re[SC(O)NHEt](CO)(3)(Me(2)-bipy)] (8 b) were obtained by reaction of 1 or 2 b with the corresponding alkyl or aryl isothiocyanates. In those cases, RNCS was inserted into the M-O bond. The reactions of 1, 2 a, and 2 b with dimethylacetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD) gave the complexes [Mo[C(OH)-C(CO(2)Me)C(CO(2)Me)-O](eta(3)-C(3)H(4)-Me-2)(CO)(phen)] (9) and [Re[C(OH)C(CO(2)Me)C(CO(2)Me)O](CO)(2)(N-N)] (N-N=bipy, 10 a; Me(2)-bipy, 10 b). The molecules of these compounds contain five-membered metallacycles that are the result of coupling between the hydroxo ligand, DMAD, and one of the CO ligands. The new compounds were characterized by a combination of IR and NMR spectroscopy, and for [[Re(CO)(3)(bipy)(2)(mu-OH)]BF(4) (3-BF(4)), 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 b, 9, and 10 b, also by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction. PMID:15054764

  5. Structural characterization of an enantiopure hydroxo-bridged binuclear iron(III) complex with empty one-dimensional helical channels.


    Alam, Md Akhtarul; Nethaji, Munirathinum; Ray, Manabendra


    A H-bond capable chiral tetradentate ligand, Fe3+, and acetate ion assembles into a hydroxo-bridged binuclear complex with the formula [FeIII2(mu-OH)(mu-OAc)(S-L)2] x 4H2O (1) where H2S-L = S-2-(2-hydroxy-benzylamino)-3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)-propionic acid. The crystal of 1 contains right-handed one-dimensional (1D) helical channels with 7.3-9.8 A diameter. A similar reaction with a ligand having opposite chirality forms the complex with left-handed helical channels (1a). Heating the crystals of 1 at 95 degrees C under reduced pressure selectively removes three waters from the channel forming an enantiopure porous crystal with empty channels (solvent accessible voids 18% v/v). Intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the imidazole N-H and phenolate oxygen in 1-2 forms a C6 symmetric helix with bridging hydroxo groups pointing inside the channels. All the H-bond capable atoms in the ligand along with one water molecule form an extended H-bonded network throughout the crystal. Exposing the empty channels of 2 to iodine vapor indicates partial filling of the channels with iodine. Crystal data for 1 x 4H2O include the following: hexagonal, P61, a = b = 13.164(3) A, c = 36.305 (11) A, alpha = beta = 90 degrees , gamma = 120 degrees , Z = 6, R1 = 0.0387, wR2 = 0.0842. Crystal data for 1a x 2H2O include the following: hexagonal, P6(5), a = b = 13.151(4) A, c = 36.558(2) A, alpha = beta = 90 degrees , gamma = 120 degrees , Z = 6, R1 = 0.0416, wR2 = 0.1190. Crystal data for 2 x H2O include the following: hexagonal, P61, a = b = 13.160(7) A, c = 36.559 (4) A, alpha = beta = 90 degrees , gamma = 120 degrees , Z = 6, R1 = 0.0574, wR2 = 0.1423. PMID:15732970

  6. Steric and Electronic Influence on Proton-Coupled Electron-Transfer Reactivity of a Mononuclear Mn(III)-Hydroxo Complex.


    Rice, Derek B; Wijeratne, Gayan B; Burr, Andrew D; Parham, Joshua D; Day, Victor W; Jackson, Timothy A


    A mononuclear hydroxomanganese(III) complex was synthesized utilizing the N5 amide-containing ligand 2-[bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)]amino-N-2-methyl-quinolin-8-yl-acetamidate (dpaq(2Me) ). This complex is similar to previously reported [Mn(III)(OH)(dpaq(H))](+) [Inorg. Chem. 2014, 53, 7622-7634] but contains a methyl group adjacent to the hydroxo moiety. This α-methylquinoline group in [Mn(III)(OH)(dpaq(2Me))](+) gives rise to a 0.1 Å elongation in the Mn-N(quinoline) distance relative to [Mn(III)(OH)(dpaq(H))](+). Similar bond elongation is observed in the corresponding Mn(II) complex. In MeCN, [Mn(III)(OH)(dpaq(2Me))](+) reacts rapidly with 2,2',6,6'-tetramethylpiperidine-1-ol (TEMPOH) at -35 °C by a concerted proton-electron transfer (CPET) mechanism (second-order rate constant k2 of 3.9(3) M(-1) s(-1)). Using enthalpies and entropies of activation from variable-temperature studies of TEMPOH oxidation by [Mn(III)(OH)(dpaq(2Me))](+) (ΔH(‡) = 5.7(3) kcal(-1) M(-1); ΔS(‡) = -41(1) cal M(-1) K(-1)), it was determined that [Mn(III)(OH)(dpaq(2Me))](+) oxidizes TEMPOH ∼240 times faster than [Mn(III)(OH)(dpaq(H))](+). The [Mn(III)(OH)(dpaq(2Me))](+) complex is also capable of oxidizing the stronger O-H and C-H bonds of 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenol and xanthene, respectively. However, for these reactions [Mn(III)(OH)(dpaq(2Me))](+) displays, at best, modest rate enhancement relative to [Mn(III)(OH)(dpaq(H))](+). A combination of density function theory (DFT) and cyclic voltammetry studies establish an increase in the Mn(III)/Mn(II) reduction potential of [Mn(III)(OH)(dpaq(2Me))](+) relative to [Mn(III)(OH)(dpaq(H))](+), which gives rise to a larger driving force for CPET for the former complex. Thus, more favorable thermodynamics for [Mn(III)(OH)(dpaq(2Me))](+) can account for the dramatic increase in rate with TEMPOH. For the more sterically encumbered substrates, DFT computations suggest that this effect is mitigated by unfavorable steric interactions between the

  7. Supramolecular assemblies with calix[6]arenes and copper ions: from dinuclear to trinuclear linear arrangements of hydroxo-Cu(II) complexes.


    Izzet, Guillaume; Akdas, Huriye; Hucher, Nicolas; Giorgi, Michel; Prangé, Thierry; Reinaud, Olivia


    Complexation of copper(II) by calix[6]arene-based ligands bearing either two or three N-benzylimidazole coordinating arms under basic conditions has been studied. Whereas the tris(imidazole) derivative stabilizes dicationic 5-coordinate aqua complexes in a mononuclear state with an intracavity bound guest, in the presence of hydroxide ions, the latter undergo dimerization. An X-ray structure revealed decoordination of one imidazole arm and formation of a bis(hydroxo) bridged Cu(II) core with a square-planar geometry for both metal centers sandwiched by two empty calixarene cavities. Upon methanolysis, the dinuclear complex underwent an unexpected rearrangement leading to the clean formation of a trinuclear complex. X-ray diffraction analyses of this novel species revealed a trinuclear core constructed around a central Cu(II) ion that is doubly bridged through either methoxide or hydroxide anions to two Cu(II) ions hold by two calixarene units. The same complex could be directly synthesized by reacting the ligand with copper(II) perchlorate in a 2:3 ratio in the presence of base. In solution, the tetrahydroxo Cu(3) complex was characterized by UV-vis and (1)H NMR spectroscopies and displayed an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal only below 100 K that accounts for a S = 1/2 fundamental state. Formation of the same di- and trinuclear species was observed with a calix[6]arene-based bis(imidazole) ligand, which demonstrates the generality of the reaction schemes. All these results emphasize the versatility of the calix[6]arene scaffold for the stabilization of metal complexes with various nuclearities. PMID:16441115

  8. Dinuclear first-row transition metal complexes with a naphthyridine-based dinucleating ligand.


    Davenport, T C; Tilley, T D


    A series of dinuclear and tetranuclear first-row transition metal complexes were synthesized with the dinucleating ligand 2,7-bis(di(2-pyridyl)fluoromethyl)-1,8-naphthyridine (DPFN). The coordination pocket and rigidity of the DPFN ligand enforces pseudo-octahedral geometries about the metal centers that contain chloro, hydroxo, and aqua bridging ligands forming a "diamond" shaped configuration with metal-metal distances varying from 2.7826(5) to 3.2410(11) Å. Each metal center in the dinuclear complexes has an additional open coordination site that accommodates terminal ligands in a syn geometry of particular interest in catalyst design. The complexes are characterized by electronic spectroscopy, electrochemistry and potentiometric titration methods. PMID:25420206

  9. Analysis of macromolecules, ligands and macromolecule-ligand complexes


    Von Dreele, Robert B.


    A method for determining atomic level structures of macromolecule-ligand complexes through high-resolution powder diffraction analysis and a method for providing suitable microcrystalline powder for diffraction analysis are provided. In one embodiment, powder diffraction data is collected from samples of polycrystalline macromolecule and macromolecule-ligand complex and the refined structure of the macromolecule is used as an approximate model for a combined Rietveld and stereochemical restraint refinement of the macromolecule-ligand complex. A difference Fourier map is calculated and the ligand position and points of interaction between the atoms of the macromolecule and the atoms of the ligand can be deduced and visualized. A suitable polycrystalline sample of macromolecule-ligand complex can be produced by physically agitating a mixture of lyophilized macromolecule, ligand and a solvent.

  10. Kinetics of phosphodiester cleavage by differently generated cerium(IV) hydroxo species in neutral solutions.


    Maldonado, Ana L; Yatsimirsky, Anatoly K


    Neutral aqueous solutions of cerium ammonium nitrate obtained by dilution of their acetonitrile stock solution with imidazole buffer show high catalytic activity in the hydrolysis of bis(p-nitrophenyl) phosphate (BNPP) and better reproducibility than other similar systems, but suffer from low stability. The kinetics of catalytic hydrolysis is second-order in Ce(IV), independent of pH in the range 5-8 and tentatively involves the Ce2(OH)7+ species as the active form. Attempts to stabilize the active species by different types of added ligands failed, but the use of Ce(IV) complexes pre-synthesized in an organic solvent with potentially stabilizing ligands as precursors of active hydroxo species appeared to be more successful. Three new Ce(IV) complexes, [Ce(Phen)2O(NO3)2], [Ce(tris)O(NO3)(OH)] and [Ce(BTP)2(NO3)4].2H2O (BTP = bis-tris propane, 1,3-bis[tris(hydroxymethyl)methylamino]propane), were prepared by reacting cerium ammonium nitrate with the respective ligands in acetonitrile and were characterized by analytical and spectroscopic techniques. Aqueous solutions of these complexes undergo rapid hydrolysis producing nearly neutral polynuclear Ce(IV) oxo/hydroxo species with high catalytic activity in BNPP hydrolysis. Potentiometric titrations of the solutions obtained from the complex with BTP revealed the formation of Ce4(OH)15+ species at pH > 7, which are protonated affording Ce4(OH)14(2+) and then Ce4(OH)13(3+) on a decrease in pH from 7 to 5. The catalytic activity increases strongly on going to species with a higher positive charge. The reaction mechanism involves first- and second-order in catalyst paths as well as intermediate complex formation with the substrate for higher charged species. PMID:16032364

  11. X-Band Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Comparison of Mononuclear Mn(IV)-oxo and Mn(IV)-hydroxo Complexes and Quantum Chemical Investigation of Mn(IV) Zero-Field Splitting.


    Leto, Domenick F; Massie, Allyssa A; Colmer, Hannah E; Jackson, Timothy A


    X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to probe the ground-state electronic structures of mononuclear Mn(IV) complexes [Mn(IV)(OH)2(Me2EBC)](2+) and [Mn(IV)(O)(OH)(Me2EBC)](+). These compounds are known to effect C-H bond oxidation reactions by a hydrogen-atom transfer mechanism. They provide an ideal system for comparing Mn(IV)-hydroxo versus Mn(IV)-oxo motifs, as they differ by only a proton. Simulations of 5 K EPR data, along with analysis of variable-temperature EPR signal intensities, allowed for the estimation of ground-state zero-field splitting (ZFS) and (55)Mn hyperfine parameters for both complexes. From this analysis, it was concluded that the Mn(IV)-oxo complex [Mn(IV)(O)(OH)(Me2EBC)](+) has an axial ZFS parameter D (D = +1.2(0.4) cm(-1)) and rhombicity (E/D = 0.22(1)) perturbed relative to the Mn(IV)-hydroxo analogue [Mn(IV)(OH)2(Me2EBC)](2+) (|D| = 0.75(0.25) cm(-1); E/D = 0.15(2)), although the complexes have similar (55)Mn values (a = 7.7 and 7.5 mT, respectively). The ZFS parameters for [Mn(IV)(OH)2(Me2EBC)](2+) were compared with values obtained previously through variable-temperature, variable-field magnetic circular dichroism (VTVH MCD) experiments. While the VTVH MCD analysis can provide a reasonable estimate of the magnitude of D, the E/D values were poorly defined. Using the ZFS parameters reported for these complexes and five other mononuclear Mn(IV) complexes, we employed coupled-perturbed density functional theory (CP-DFT) and complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) calculations with second-order n-electron valence-state perturbation theory (NEVPT2) correction, to compare the ability of these two quantum chemical methods for reproducing experimental ZFS parameters for Mn(IV) centers. The CP-DFT approach was found to provide reasonably acceptable values for D, whereas the CASSCF/NEVPT2 method fared worse, considerably overestimating the magnitude of D in several cases. Both methods were poor in

  12. Determination of formation constants of hydroxo and carbonate complexes of Pr(3+) in 2 M NaCl at 303 K.


    López-González, H; Jiménez-Reyes, M; Rojas-Hernández, A; Solache-Ríos, M


    The hydrolysis of praseodymium III in 2 M sodium chloride at 303 K was studied. Two methods were used: pH titration followed by a computational refinement and solvent extraction in the presence of a competitive ligand. The hydrolysis constants obtained by pH titration were: logbeta(1,H)=-7.68+/-0.07, logbeta(1,2H)=-15.10+/-0.03, and beta(1,3H)=-23.80+/-0.04. The stability constants of praseodymium carbonate complexes were determined by pH titration as well and were: logbeta(1,CO(2-)(3))=5.94+/-0.08 and logbeta(1,2CO(2-)(3))=11.15+/-0.15. Praseodymium carbonate species were taken into consideration for calculating the first hydrolysis constants by the solvent extraction method and the value obtained was: logbeta(1,H)=-7.69+/-0.27. The values for logbeta(1,H) attained by both methods are the same. The species-distribution diagram was obtained from the stability constants of praseodymium carbonate complexes and hydrolysis products in the conditions of the present work. PMID:18966931

  13. DFT Study of Uranyl Peroxo Complexes with H₂O, F⁻, OH⁻, CO₃ ²⁻, and NO₃-

    SciTech Connect

    Odoh, Samuel O.; Schreckenbach, Georg


    The structural and electronic properties of monomeric uranyl peroxo complexes with aquo, hydroxo, fluoro, carbonate, and nitrate ligands have been studied using DFT calculations with relativistic pseudopotentials. The calculated affinity of the peroxo group for the actinyl moiety far exceeds that of the other ligands tested in this work.

  14. Water oxidation chemistry of a synthetic dinuclear ruthenium complex containing redox-active quinone ligands.


    Isobe, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Koji; Shen, Jian-Ren; Yamaguchi, Kizashi


    We investigated theoretically the catalytic mechanism of electrochemical water oxidation in aqueous solution by a dinuclear ruthenium complex containing redox-active quinone ligands, [Ru2(X)(Y)(3,6-tBu2Q)2(btpyan)](m+) [X, Y = H2O, OH, O, O2; 3,6-tBu2Q = 3,6-di-tert-butyl-1,2-benzoquinone; btpyan =1,8-bis(2,2':6',2″-terpyrid-4'-yl)anthracene] (m = 2, 3, 4) (1). The reaction involves a series of electron and proton transfers to achieve redox leveling, with intervening chemical transformations in a mesh scheme, and the entire molecular structure and motion of the catalyst 1 work together to drive the catalytic cycle for water oxidation. Two substrate water molecules can bind to 1 with simultaneous loss of one or two proton(s), which allows pH-dependent variability in the proportion of substrate-bound structures and following pathways for oxidative activation of the aqua/hydroxo ligands at low thermodynamic and kinetic costs. The resulting bis-oxo intermediates then undergo endothermic O-O radical coupling between two Ru(III)-O(•) units in an anti-coplanar conformation leading to bridged μ-peroxo or μ-superoxo intermediates. The μ-superoxo species can liberate oxygen with the necessity for the preceding binding of a water molecule, which is possible only after four-electron oxidation is completed. The magnitude of catalytic current would be limited by the inherent sluggishness of the hinge-like bending motion of the bridged μ-superoxo complex that opens up the compact, hydrophobic active site of the catalyst and thereby allows water entry under dynamic conditions. On the basis of a newly proposed mechanism, we rationalize the experimentally observed behavior of electrode kinetics with respect to potential and discuss what causes a high overpotential for water oxidation by 1. PMID:24694023

  15. Sorption of trivalent lanthanides and actinides onto montmorillonite: Macroscopic, thermodynamic and structural evidence for ternary hydroxo and carbonato surface complexes on multiple sorption sites.


    Fernandes, M Marques; Scheinost, A C; Baeyens, B


    The credibility of long-term safety assessments of radioactive waste repositories may be greatly enhanced by a molecular level understanding of the sorption processes onto individual minerals present in the near- and far-fields. In this study we couple macroscopic sorption experiments to surface complexation modelling and spectroscopic investigations, including extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopies (TRLFS), to elucidate the uptake mechanism of trivalent lanthanides and actinides (Ln/An(III)) by montmorillonite in the absence and presence of dissolved carbonate. Based on the experimental sorption isotherms for the carbonate-free system, the previously developed 2 site protolysis non electrostatic surface complexation and cation exchange (2SPNE SC/CE) model needed to be complemented with an additional surface complexation reaction onto weak sites. The fitting of sorption isotherms in the presence of carbonate required refinement of the previously published model by reducing the strong site capacity and by adding the formation of Ln/An(III)-carbonato complexes both on strong and weak sites. EXAFS spectra of selected Am samples and TRLFS spectra of selected Cm samples corroborate the model assumptions by showing the existence of different surface complexation sites and evidencing the formation of Ln/An(III) carbonate surface complexes. In the absence of carbonate and at low loadings, Ln/An(III) form strong inner-sphere complexes through binding to three Al(O,OH)6 octahedra, most likely by occupying vacant sites in the octahedral layers of montmorillonite, which are exposed on {010} and {110} edge faces. At higher loadings, Ln/An(III) binds to only one Al octahedron, forming a weaker, edge-sharing surface complex. In the presence of carbonate, we identified a ternary mono- or dicarbonato Ln/An(III) complex binding directly to one Al(O,OH)6 octahedron, revealing that type-A ternary complexes form with the one

  16. Formation, Characterization, and O-O Bond Activation of a Peroxomanganese(III) Complex Supported by a Cross-Clamped Cyclam Ligand.


    Colmer, Hannah E; Howcroft, Anthony W; Jackson, Timothy A


    Although there have been reports describing the nucleophilic reactivity of peroxomanganese(III) intermediates, as well as their conversion to high-valent oxo-bridged dimers, it remains a challenge to activate peroxomanganese(III) species for conversion to high-valent, mononuclear manganese complexes. Herein, we report the generation, characterization, and activation of a peroxomanganese(III) adduct supported by the cross-clamped, macrocyclic Me2EBC ligand (4,11-dimethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazabicyclo[6.6.2]hexadecane). This ligand is known to support high-valent, mononuclear Mn(IV) species with well-defined spectroscopic properties, which provides an opportunity to identify mononuclear Mn(IV) products from O-O bond activation of the corresponding Mn(III)-peroxo adduct. The peroxomanganese(III) intermediate, [Mn(III)(O2)(Me2EBC)](+), was prepared at low-temperature by the addition of KO2 to [Mn(II)(Cl)2(Me2EBC)] in CH2Cl2, and this complex was characterized by electronic absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and Mn K-edge X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies. The electronic structure of the [Mn(III)(O2)(Me2EBC)](+) intermediate was examined by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent (TD) DFT calculations. Detailed spectroscopic investigations of the decay products of [Mn(III)(O2)(Me2EBC)](+) revealed the presence of mononuclear Mn(III)-hydroxo species or a mixture of mononuclear Mn(IV) and Mn(III)-hydroxo species. The nature of the observed decay products depended on the amount of KO2 used to generate [Mn(III)(O2)(Me2EBC)](+). The Mn(III)-hydroxo product was characterized by Mn K-edge XAS, and shifts in the pre-edge transition energies and intensities relative to [Mn(III)(O2)(Me2EBC)](+) provide a marker for differences in covalency between peroxo and nonperoxo ligands. To the best of our knowledge, this work represents the first observation of a mononuclear Mn(IV) center upon decay of a nonporphyrinoid Mn(III)-peroxo center. PMID:26908013

  17. Neodymium(III) Complexation by Amino-Carbohydrates via a Ligand-Controlled Hydrolysis Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Chen, Yongsheng; Fulton, John L.; Sinkov, Sergey I.


    Chelation of neodymium-III Nd(III) by D-glucosamine (DGA) and chitosan was investigated in solution at near-physiological pH and ionic strength. This research demonstrates the first example of the lanthanide ion heteroleptic hydroxo-carbohydrate complex in solution. It was demonstrated that DGA and chitosan suppressed formation of polynuclear Nd(III) species at elevated pH.

  18. Synthesis and Photophysical Studies of Iridium Complexes Having Different Ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rho, Hyeon Hee; Park, Gui Youn; Ha, Yunkyoung; Kim, Young Sik


    The synthesis and photophysical study of efficient phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes having two different (C∧N) ligands are reported. In order to improve the luminescence efficiency by avoiding triplet-triplet (T-T) annihilation, the iridium complexes, Ir(ppy)2(piq) and Ir(ppy)2(piq-F), are designed and prepared where ppy, piq and piq-F represent 2-phenylpyridine, 1-(phenyl)isoquinoline and 2-(4'-fluorophenyl)isoquinoline, respectively. Two ppy ligands and a piq derivative act as a source of energy supply and a piq derivative acts as a chromophore. Since Ir(ppy)3, Ir(piq)3 and Ir(piq-F)3 can be placed in the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited state, they absorb light effectively. When Ir(ppy)2(piq-F) is placed in excited state, the excitation energy is neither quenched nor deactivated but quickly intramolecular transferred from two ppy ligands to one luminescent piq-F ligand. This can occure because the triplet energy level of ppy is higher than that of piq-F and light is emitted from piq-F ligand in the end. Thus, Ir(ppy)2(piq-F) shows strong photoluminescence originated from piq-F ligand because piq-F ligand is known to have a shorter lifetime than that of ppy ligand. To analyze luminescent mechanism, we calculated these complexes having two different ligand sets theoretically by using computational method.

  19. Protein Ligand Complex Guided Approach for Virtual Screening.


    Karthikeyan, Muthukumarasamy; Pandit, Deepak; Vyas, Renu


    The target ligand association data is a rich source of information which is not exploited enough for drug design efforts in virtual screening. A java based open-source toolkit for Protein Ligand Network Extraction (J-ProLiNE) focused on protein-ligand complex analysis with several features integrated in a distributed computing network has been developed. Sequence alignment and similarity search components have been automated to yield local, global alignment scores along with similarity and distance scores. 10000 proteins with co-crystallized ligands from pdb and MOAD databases were extracted and analyzed for revealing relationships between targets, ligands and scaffolds. Through this analysis, we could generate a protein ligand network to identify the promiscuous and selective scaffolds for multiple classes of proteins targets. Using J-ProLiNE we created a 507 x 507 matrix of protein targets and native ligands belonging to six enzyme classes and analyzed the results to elucidate the protein-protein, protein-ligand and ligand-ligand interactions. In yet another application of the J-ProLiNE software, we were able to process kinase related information stored in US patents to construct disease-gene-ligand-scaffold networks. It is hoped that the studies presented here will enable target ligand knowledge based virtual screening for inhibitor design. PMID:26138572

  20. Niobium tetrahalide complexes with neutral diphosphine ligands.


    Benjamin, Sophie L; Chang, Yao-Pang; Hector, Andrew L; Jura, Marek; Levason, William; Reid, Gillian; Stenning, Gavin


    The reactions of NbCl4 with diphosphine ligands o-C6H4(PMe2)2, Me2PCH2CH2PMe2 or Et2PCH2CH2PEt2 in a 1 : 2 molar ratio in MeCN solution produced eight-coordinate [NbCl4(diphosphine)2]. [NbBr4(diphosphine)2] (diphosphine = o-C6H4(PMe2)2 or Me2PCH2CH2PMe2) were made similarly from NbBr4. X-ray crystal structures show that [NbCl4{o-C6H4(PMe2)2}2] has a dodecahedral geometry, but the complexes with dimethylene-backboned diphosphines are distorted square antiprisms. The Nb-P distances and complexes. These paramagnetic (d(1)) complexes were also characterised by microanalysis, magnetic measurements, IR and UV-visible spectroscopy. Using a 1 : 1 molar ratio of NbCl4 : diphosphine (diphosphine = Me2PCH2CH2PMe2, Et2PCH2CH2PEt2, Cy2PCH2CH2PCy2 and Ph2PCH2CH2CH2PPh2) afforded [NbCl4(diphosphine)], and [NbBr4(Me2PCH2CH2PMe2)] was obtained similarly. These 1 : 1 complexes are unstable in solution, preventing X-ray crystallographic study, but based upon their diamagnetism, IR, UV-visible and (31)P{(1)H} NMR spectra, they are formulated as halide-bridged dimers [(diphosphine)X2Nb(μ-X)4NbX2(diphosphine)], with single Nb-Nb bonds and chelating diphosphines. The Nb(iv) complexes are prone to hydrolysis and oxidation in solution and the structures of the Nb(v) complexes [NbBr4(Me2PCH2CH2PMe2)2][NbOBr4(MeCN)] with a dodecahedral cation, and [{NbOCl3{Et2P(CH2)2PEt2}}2{μ-Et2P(CH2)2PEt2}] which contains seven-coordinate Nb(v) centres with a symmetrical diphosphine bridge, are reported. The structure of niobium tetrabromide, conveniently made from NbCl4 and BBr3, is a chain polymer with edge-linked NbBr6 octahedra and alternating long and short Nb-Nb distances, the latter ascribed to Nb-Nb bonds. PMID:27094082

  1. Unique advantages of organometallic supporting ligands for uranium complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Diaconescu, Paula L.; Garcia, Evan


    The objective of our research project was to study the reactivity of uranium complexes supported by ferrocene-based ligands. In addition, this research provides training of graduate students as the next generation of actinide scientists.

  2. Undecametallic and hexadecametallic ferric oxo–hydroxo/ethoxo pivalate clusters


    Baca, Svetlana G.; Speldrich, Manfred; van Leusen, Jan; Ellern, Arkady; Kögerler, Paul


    The synthesis strategies for highly condensed {Fe11} and {Fe16} pivalate clusters have been developed based on archetypal geometrically frustrated triangular {Fe3(μ3-O)} motifs that are interlinked via oxo, hydroxo, ethoxo, and carboxylate groups.

  3. A new fullerene complexation ligand: N-pyridylfulleropyrrolidine.


    Tat, Fatma T; Zhou, Zhiguo; MacMahon, Shaun; Song, Fayi; Rheingold, Arnold L; Echegoyen, Luis; Schuster, David I; Wilson, Stephen R


    The subject of this paper is a new fullerene building block design with the potential for defined geometry and good electronic communication. The synthesis and characterization of a new pyridinofullerene ligand capable of forming axially symmetric complexes with metalloporphyrins is reported. X-ray structural and molecular modeling studies, (1)H NMR, UV-vis spectroscopy, electrochemistry studies, and fluorescence quenching data support the formation of a strong complex between the new ligand and the metal center of ZnTPP. On the basis of computational studies, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of this ligand is significantly different from a model compound with insulating carbons between the pyridine and the fullerene. The N-pyridinium fulleropyrrolidine salts of the new ligand and model compound were also prepared and their spectral and electrochemical properties are reported. PMID:15230581

  4. Luminescent cyclometallated iridium(III) complexes having acetylide ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Mark E.; Bossi, Alberto; Djurovich, Peter Ivan


    The present invention relates to phosphorescent (triplet-emitting) organometallic materials. The phosphorescent materials of the present invention comprise Ir(III)cyclometallated alkynyl complexes for use as triplet light-emitting materials. The Ir(III)cyclometallated alkynyl complexes comprise at least one cyclometallating ligand and at least one alkynyl ligand bonded to the iridium. Also provided is an organic light emitting device comprising an anode, a cathode and an emissive layer between the anode and the cathode, wherein the emissive layer comprises a Ir(III)cyclometallated alkynyl complex as a triplet emitting material.

  5. Bonding in titanocenyl complexes containing O,O‧-cyclic ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conradie, Jeanet

    Density functional theory calculations show that the formal 16-electron count of d0 [Cp2TiIV(O,O‧-BID)]0/1 complexes containing a O,O‧-chelated bidentate ligand O,O‧-BID of different ring size, is increased via Ti←O π bonding when both the O donor atoms carry a formal negative charge. The Ti←O π bonding occurs by symmetry lowering of the complex by either symmetrical (Cs) or unsymmetrical (C2) folding of the O,O‧-BID ligand round the O···O axis. An NBO analysis confirms the Ti←O π charge transfer via back-bonding.

  6. Titanium complex formation of organic ligands in titania gels.


    Nishikiori, Hiromasa; Todoroki, Kenta; Setiawan, Rudi Agus; Teshima, Katsuya; Fujii, Tsuneo; Satozono, Hiroshi


    Thin films of organic ligand-dispersing titania gels were prepared from titanium alkoxide sols containing ligand molecules by steam treatment without heating. The formation of the ligand-titanium complex and the photoinduced electron transfer process in the systems were investigated by photoelectrochemical measurements. The complex was formed between the 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) and titanium species, such as the titanium ion, on the titania nanoparticle surface through the oxygen and nitrogen atoms of the quinolate. A photocurrent was observed in the electrodes containing the complex due to the electron injection from the LUMO of the complex into the titania conduction band. A bidentate ligand, 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN), formed the complex on the titania surface through dehydration between its two hydroxyl groups of DHN and two TiOH groups of the titania. The electron injection from the HOMO of DHN to the titania conduction band was observed during light irradiation. This direct electron injection was more effective than the two-step electron injection. PMID:25535798

  7. Ruthenium indenylidene complexes containing dichalcogenoimidodiphosphinate ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Ai-Quan; Xin, Zhi-Feng; Chen, Qun; Leung, Wa-Hung; Zhang, Qian-Feng


    Reactions of ruthenium indenylidene starting material [Ru(PPh3)2(Ind)Cl2] (Ind = 3-phenylinden-1-ylidene) with potassium dichalcogenoimidodiphosphinates K[R2P(E)NP(E')R2] afforded a series of complexes [Ru(PPh3)(Ind){кE,кE'-R2P(E)NP(E')R2}Cl] [R = Ph, E = E' = S (1a); R = Ph, E = E' = Se (1b); R = iPr, E = E' = S (1c); R = iPr, E = E' = Se (1d); R = Ph, E = S, E' = Se (1e); R = iPr, E = S, E' = Se (1f)] which were characterized by microanalyses, IR and NMR spectroscopies. The molecular structure of 1a has been confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The catalytic reactivity of the ruthenium indenylidene complexes in the ring closing metathesis of diethyl 1,2-diallylmalonate has also been investigated.

  8. A three-coordinate iron-silylene complex stabilized by ligand-ligand dispersion forces.


    Hänninen, Mikko M; Pal, Kuntal; Day, Benjamin M; Pugh, Thomas; Layfield, Richard A


    The structural and bonding properties of a three-coordinate N-heterocyclic silyene (NHSi) complex of the iron(ii) amide [Fe{N(SiMe3)2}2] are reported. Computational studies reveal that dispersion forces between the amido SiMe3 substituents and the isopropyl substituents on the NHSi ligand significantly enhance the stability of the complex, along with Fe-to-Si π-backbonding. PMID:27362948

  9. Synthesis, spectroscopic, thermogravimetric and antimicrobial studies of mixed ligands complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Walaa H.; Mahmoud, Nessma F.; Mohamed, Gehad G.; El-Sonbati, Adel Z.; El-Bindary, Ashraf A.


    An interesting series of mixed ligand complexes have been synthesized by the reaction of metal chloride with guaifenesin (GFS) in the presence of 2-aminoacetic acid (HGly) (1:1:1 molar ratio). The elemental analysis, magnetic moments, molar conductance, spectral (UV-Vis, IR, 1H NMR and ESR) and thermal studies were used to characterize the isolated complexes. The molecular structure of GFS is optimized theoretically and the quantum chemical parameters are calculated. The IR showed that the ligand (GFS) acts as monobasic tridentate through the hydroxyl, phenoxy etheric and methoxy oxygen atoms and co-ligand (HGly) as monobasic bidentate through the deprotonated carboxylate oxygen atom and nitrogen atom of amino group. The molar conductivities showed that all the complexes are non-electrolytes except Cr(III) complex is electrolyte. Electronic and magnetic data proposed the octahedral structure for all complexes under investigation. ESR spectrum for Cu(II) revealed data which confirm the proposed structure. Antibacterial screening of the compounds were carried out in vitro on gram positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Escherichia coli and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) bacteria and for in vitro antifungal activity against Candida albicans organism. However, some complexes showed more chemotherapeutic efficiency than the parent GFS drug. The complexes were also screened for their in vitro anticancer activity against the breast cell line (MFC7) and the results obtained showed that they exhibit a considerable anticancer activity.

  10. Redox-Active-Ligand-Mediated Formation of an Acyclic Trinuclear Ruthenium Complex with Bridging Nitrido Ligands.


    Bagh, Bidraha; Broere, Daniël L J; Siegler, Maxime A; van der Vlugt, Jarl Ivar


    Coordination of a redox-active pyridine aminophenol ligand to Ru(II) followed by aerobic oxidation generates two diamagnetic Ru(III) species [1 a (cis) and 1 b (trans)] with ligand-centered radicals. The reaction of 1 a/1 b with excess NaN3 under inert atmosphere resulted in the formation of a rare bis(nitrido)-bridged trinuclear ruthenium complex with two nonlinear asymmetrical Ru-N-Ru fragments. The spontaneous reduction of the ligand centered radical in the parent 1 a/1 b supports the oxidation of a nitride (N(3-) ) to half an equivalent of N2 . The trinuclear omplex is reactive toward TEMPO-H, tin hydrides, thiols, and dihydrogen. PMID:27321547

  11. Supramolecular coordination and antimicrobial activities of constructed mixed ligand complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sonbati, A. Z.; Diab, M. A.; El-Bindary, A. A.; Abou-Dobara, M. I.; Seyam, H. A.


    A novel series of copper(II) and palladium(II) with 4-derivatives benzaldehyde pyrazolone (Ln) were synthesized. The mixed ligand complexes were prepared by using 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) as second ligand. The structure of these complexes was identified and confirm by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, UV-Vis, IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy and magnetic moment measurements as well as thermal analysis. The ligand behaves as a neutral bidentate ligand through ON donor sites. ESR spectra show the simultaneous presence of a planar trans and a nearly planar cis isomers in the 1:2 ratio for all N,O complexes [Cu(Ln)2]Cl2ṡ2H2O. Schiff bases (Ln) were tested against bacterial species; namely two Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and two Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and fungal species (Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporium, Penicillium italicum and Alternaria alternata). The tested compounds have antibacterial activity against S. aureus, B. cereus and K. pneumoniae.

  12. Electron Transfer Reactions in Colloidal Quantum Dot-Ligand Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris-Cohen, Adam Joshua

    This thesis describes a quantitative analysis of the chemical composition of colloidal II-VI quantum dot (QD)-ligand complexes and transient absorption experiments analyzing the rates of electron transfer reactions in these complexes functionalized with redox active ligands. Chemical analysis reveals that phosphonate impurities in the surfactants used to synthesize CdSe QDs are the dominant ligands on the surface of the QDs, and these phosphonate impurities cause size-dependent Cd-enrichment of the QD surface. A study of the adsorption equilibrium of solution-phase CdS quantum dots and acid-derivatized viologen ligands (V2+) reveals that the structure of the surfaces of the QDs depends on the concentration of the QDs. A new model based on the Langmuir isotherm that treats both the number of adsorbed ligands per QD and the number of available binding sites per QD as binomially-distributed quantities is described. Transient absorption spectroscopy of solution-phase mixtures of colloidal CdS QDs and V2+ indicates electron transfer occurs from the conduction band of the QD to the LUMO of V2+. The rate constant for photoinduced electron transfer (PET) is independent of the number of methylene groups in the alkyl chain on the acid-derivatized viologen. The insensitivity of the electron transfer rate constant to the length of the functional groups on the viologen suggests a van der Waals (vdW) pathway for PET, where the electron bypasses the alkylcarboxylate and tunnels through the orbitals of the QD and of the bipyridinium core. The rate of PET from colloidal CdSe quantum dots (QDs) to oxo-centered triruthenium clusters (Ru 3O) depends on the structure of the chemical headgroup by which the Ru3O clusters adsorb to the QDs. Complexes comprising QDs and Ru 3O clusters adsorbed through a pyridine-4-carboxylic acid ligand have a PET rate constant of (4.9 ± 0.9)×109 s -1 whereas complexes comprising QDs and Ru3O clusters adsorbed through a 4-mercaptopyridine ligand have an

  13. Conducting dimerized cobalt complexes with tetrathiafulvalene dithiolate ligands.


    Fujiwara, Emiko; Hosoya, Kazumasa; Kobayashi, Akiko; Tanaka, Hisashi; Tokumoto, Madoka; Okano, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Hideki; Kobayashi, Hayao; Fujishiro, Yuichi; Nishibori, Eiji; Takata, Masaki; Sakata, Makoto


    To obtain novel single-component molecular metals, we attempted to synthesize several cobalt complexes coordinated by TTF (tetrathiafulvalene)-type dithiolate ligands. We succeeded in the syntheses and structure determinations of ((n)Bu(4)N)(2)[Co(chdt)(2)](2) (1), ((n)Bu(4)N)(2)[Co(dmdt)(2)](2) (2), [Co(dmdt)(2)](2) (3), and [Co(dt)(2)](2) (4) (chdt = cyclohexeno-TTF-dithiolate, dmdt = dimethyl-TTF-dithiolate, and dt = TTF-dithiolate). Structure analyses of complexes 1-4 revealed that two monomeric [Co(ligand)2]- or [Co(ligand)(2)](0) units are connected by two Co-S bonds resulting in dimeric [Co(ligand)(2)](2)(2-) or [Co(ligand)(2)](2) molecules. Complex 1 has a cation-anion-intermingled structure and exhibited Curie-Weiss magnetic behavior with a large Curie constant (C = 2.02 K x emu x mol(-1)) and weak antiferromagnetic interactions (theta = -8.3 K). Complex 2 also has a cation-anion-intermingled structure. However, the dimeric molecules are completely isolated by cations. Complexes 3 and 4 are single-component molecular crystals. The molecules of complex 3 form two-dimensional molecular stacking layers and exhibit a room-temperature conductivity of sigmart = 1.2 x 10(-2) and an activation energy of E(a) = 85 meV. The magnetic behavior is almost consistent with Curie-Weiss law, where the Curie constant and Weiss temperature are 8.7 x 10(-2) K x emu x mol(-1) and -0.85 K, respectively. Complex 4 has a rare chair form of the dimeric structure. The electrical conductivity was fairly large (sigmart = 19, and its temperature dependence was very small (sigma(0.55K)/sigma(rt) = ca. 1:10), although the measurements were performed on the compressed pellet sample. Complex 4 showed an almost constant paramagnetic susceptibility (chi(300) (K) = 3.5 x 10(-4) emu x mol(-1)) from 300 to 50 K. The band structure calculation of complex 4 suggested the metallic nature of the system. Complex 4 is a novel single-component molecular conductor with a dimeric

  14. Undecametallic and hexadecametallic ferric oxo–hydroxo/ethoxo pivalate clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, Svetlana G.; Speldrich, Manfred; van Leusen, Jan; Ellern, Arkady; Kögerler, Paul


    The synthesis strategies for highly condensed {Fe11} and {Fe16} pivalate clusters have been developed based on archetypal geometrically frustrated triangular {Fe33-O)} motifs that are interlinked via oxo, hydroxo, ethoxo, and carboxylate groups.

  15. A comparative study of actinide complexation in three ligand systems with increasing complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanson, A.; Dahou, S.; Guillaumont, D.; Moisy, P.; Den Auwer, C.; Scheinost, A.; Hennig, C.; Vidaud, C.; Subra, G.; Solari, P. L.


    The complexation of thorium, neptunium and plutonium at oxidation state +IV with three ligands of increasing complexity has been investigated. These ligands are relevant for bio inorganic systems. The first ligand is the small nitrilotriacetic acid that often play the role of protecting ligands against hydrolysis. EXAFS results for the Th to Pu series have been correlated to quantum chemical calculations and show an homogeneous behavior of the actinide at oxidation state +IV. For larger ligands, steric effects may become significant and one can ask how the ligand may accommodate the large actinide cation coordination sphere. Model pentapeptides have been synthesized and tested as complexing agents. Comparison with NTA shows that the molecular arrangements are radically different. The third ligand system is transferrin, a diferric metalloptrotein that is well known to coordinate a large variety of cations from transition metals of f-elements. Metalloproteins bear primary, secondary and tertiary structures that all play a crucial role in bonding. At a given oxidation state (+IV), but for various atomic numbers (Th, Np, Pu) EXAFS data at the cation LIII edge exhibit significant coordination discrepancies that are related to a changes in protein geometry. In that sense, the metalloprotein may be viewed as a complex system.

  16. Ultrafast infrared studies of complex ligand rearrangements in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Christine K.


    The complete description of a chemical reaction in solution depends upon an understanding of the reactive molecule as well as its interactions with the surrounding solvent molecules. Using ultrafast infrared spectroscopy it is possible to observe both the solute-solvent interactions and the rearrangement steps which determine the overall course of a chemical reaction. The topics addressed in these studies focus on reaction mechanisms which require the rearrangement of complex ligands and the spectroscopic techniques necessary for the determination of these mechanisms. Ligand rearrangement is studied by considering two different reaction mechanisms for which the rearrangement of a complex ligand constitutes the most important step of the reaction. The first system concerns the rearrangement of a cyclopentadienyl ring as the response of an organometallic complex to a loss of electron density. This mechanism, commonly referred to as ''ring slip'', is frequently cited to explain reaction mechanisms. However, the ring slipped intermediate is too short-lived to be observed using conventional methods. Using a combination of ultrafast infrared spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations it has been shown that the intermediate exists, but does not form an eighteen-electron intermediate as suggested by traditional molecular orbital models. The second example examines the initial steps of alkyne polymerization. Group 6 (Cr, Mo, W) pentacarbonyl species are generated photolytically and used to catalyze the polymerization of unsaturated hydrocarbons through a series of coordination and rearrangement steps. Observing this reaction on the femto- to millisecond timescale indicates that the initial coordination of an alkyne solvent molecule to the metal center results in a stable intermediate that does not rearrange to form the polymer precursor. This suggests that polymerization requires the dissociation of additional carbonyl ligands before rearrangement can occur. Overall

  17. Heteroleptic Complexes of Cyclometalated Platinum with Triarylformazanate Ligands.


    Kabir, Evanta; Wu, Chia-Hua; Wu, Judy I-Chia; Teets, Thomas S


    Formazanates are a ligand class featuring a 1,2,4,5-tetraazapentadienyl core, with variable substitution at the 1, 3, and 5 positions. Here we describe a set of four heteroleptic cylcometalated platinum complexes containing triarylformazanate ligands. The complexes are prepared by metathesis reactions of chloro-bridged dimers [Pt(C∧N)(μ-Cl)]2 (C∧N = 2-phenylpyridine or 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine) with triarylformazans in the presence of base. X-ray diffraction studies reveal the molecular structures of three such complexes. Cyclic voltammograms and UV-vis absorption spectra of the complexes show features characteristic of both the cyclometalated platinum fragment and the formazanate, with the latter giving rise to two reversible one-electron reductions in the CV and an intense visible π → π* absorption which is red-shifted by >100 nm relative to the free formazan. The electronic structures and redox properties of the complexes were further investigated by UV-vis spectroelectrochemistry and density functional theory calculations. All of the experimental and theoretical work points to a frontier molecular orbital manifold where the formazanate π and π* orbitals are substantially mixed with d-orbitals derived from the platinum center. PMID:26702999

  18. Scope and Mechanistic Analysis for Chemoselective Hydrogenolysis of Carbonyl Compounds Catalyzed by a Cationic Ruthenium Hydride Complex with a Tunable Phenol Ligand.


    Kalutharage, Nishantha; Yi, Chae S


    A cationic ruthenium hydride complex, [(C6H6)(PCy3)(CO)RuH](+)BF4(-) (1), with a phenol ligand was found to exhibit high catalytic activity for the hydrogenolysis of carbonyl compounds to yield the corresponding aliphatic products. The catalytic method showed exceptionally high chemoselectivity toward the carbonyl reduction over alkene hydrogenation. Kinetic and spectroscopic studies revealed a strong electronic influence of the phenol ligand on the catalyst activity. The Hammett plot of the hydrogenolysis of 4-methoxyacetophenone displayed two opposite linear slopes for the catalytic system 1/p-X-C6H4OH (ρ = -3.3 for X = OMe, t-Bu, Et, and Me; ρ = +1.5 for X = F, Cl, and CF3). A normal deuterium isotope effect was observed for the hydrogenolysis reaction catalyzed by 1/p-X-C6H4OH with an electron-releasing group (kH/kD = 1.7-2.5; X = OMe, Et), whereas an inverse isotope effect was measured for 1/p-X-C6H4OH with an electron-withdrawing group (kH/kD = 0.6-0.7; X = Cl, CF3). The empirical rate law was determined from the hydrogenolysis of 4-methoxyacetophenone: rate = kobsd[Ru][ketone][H2](-1) for the reaction catalyzed by 1/p-OMe-C6H4OH, and rate = kobsd[Ru][ketone][H2](0) for the reaction catalyzed by 1/p-CF3-C6H4OH. Catalytically relevant dinuclear ruthenium hydride and hydroxo complexes were synthesized, and their structures were established by X-ray crystallography. Two distinct mechanistic pathways are presented for the hydrogenolysis reaction on the basis of these kinetic and spectroscopic data. PMID:26235841

  19. The secondary coordination sphere and axial ligand effects on oxygen reduction reaction by iron porphyrins: a DFT computational study.


    Ohta, Takehiro; Nagaraju, Perumandla; Liu, Jin-Gang; Ogura, Takashi; Naruta, Yoshinori


    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyzed by a bio-inspired iron porphyrin bearing a hanging carboxylic acid group over the porphyrin ring, and a tethered axial imidazole ligand was studied by DFT calculations. BP86 free energy calculations of the redox potentials and pK a's of reaction components involved in the proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions of the ferric-hydroxo and -superoxo complexes were performed based on Born-Haber thermodynamic cycle in conjunction with a continuum solvation model. The comparison was made with iron porphyrins that lack either in the hanging acid group or axial ligand, suggesting that H-bond interaction between the carboxylic acid and iron-bound hydroxo, aquo, superoxo, and peroxo ligands (de)stabilizes the Fe-O bonding, resulting in the increase in the reduction potential of the ferric complexes. The axial ligand interaction with the imidazole raises the affinity of the iron-bound superoxo and peroxo ligands for proton. In addition, a low-spin end-on ferric-hydroperoxo intermediate, a key precursor for O-O cleavage, can be stabilized in the presence of axial ligation. Thus, selective and efficient ORR of iron porphyrin can be achieved with the aid of the secondary coordination sphere and axial ligand interactions. PMID:27501847

  20. Metal-ligand cooperation in H2 activation with iron complexes bearing hemilabile bis(diphenylphosphino)amine ligands.


    Frank, Nicolas; Hanau, Katharina; Langer, Robert


    The octahedral transition-metal complex [(dppa)Fe(Ph2P-N-PPh2)2] (1) [dppa = bis(diphenylphosphino)amine] with homofunctional bidentate ligands is described. The ligand exhibits hemilability due to its small bite angle and the steric repulsion of the coordinated donor groups. As the {Ph2P-N-PPh2}(-) ligand can act as an internal base, heterolytic cleavage of dihydrogen by complex 1 leads to the formation of the hydride complex [(dppa)(Ph2P-N-PPh2)Fe(H)(κ(1)-Ph2P-NH-PPh2)2] (2), representing an example of cooperative bond activation with a homofunctional hemilabile ligand. This study demonstrates that hemilability of homofunctionalized ligands can be affected by careful adjustment of geometric parameters. PMID:25290535

  1. Catalytic hydrogenation using complexes of base metals with tridentate ligands


    Vasudevan, Kalyan V.; Zhang, Guoqi; Hanson, Susan K.


    Complexes of cobalt and nickel with tridentate ligand PNHP.sup.R are effective for hydrogenation of unsaturated compounds. Cobalt complex [(PNHP.sup.Cy)Co(CH.sub.2SiMe.sub.3)]BAr.sup.F.sub.4 (PNHP.sup.Cy=bis[2-(dicyclohexylphosphino)ethyl]amine, BAr.sup.F.sub.4=B(3,5-(CF.sub.3).sub.2C.sub.6H.sub.3).sub.4)) was prepared and used with hydrogen for hydrogenation of alkenes, aldehydes, ketones, and imines under mild conditions ( C., 1-4 atm H.sub.2). Nickel complex [(PNHP.sup.Cy)Ni(H)]BPh.sub.4 was used for hydrogenation of styrene and 1-octene under mild conditions. (PNP.sup.Cy)Ni(H) was used for hydrogenating alkenes.

  2. Ambidentate thiocyanate and cyanate ligands in dinitrosyl iron complexes.


    Hsieh, Chung-Hung; Brothers, Scott M; Reibenspies, Joseph H; Hall, Michael B; Popescu, Codrina V; Darensbourg, Marcetta Y


    To explore the effect of delocalization in the Fe(NO)(2) unit on possible linkage isomerism of ambidentate ECN(-) ligands, E = S and O, anionic DNICs, dinitrosyl iron complexes, (SCN)(2)Fe(NO)(2)(-) (1) and (OCN)(2)Fe(NO)(2)(-) (2) were synthesized by the reaction of in situ-generated [Fe(CO)(2)(NO)(2)](+) and PPN(+)ECN(-). Other {Fe(NO)(2)}(9) (Enemark-Feltham notation) complexes, (N(3))(2)Fe(NO)(2)(-) and (PhS)(2)Fe(NO)(2)(-), were prepared for comparison. The X-ray diffraction analysis of 1 and 2 yielded the typical tetrahedral structures of DNICs with two slightly bent Fe-N-O oriented toward each other, and linear FeNCE units. The ν(NO) IR values shift to lower values for 1 > 2 > (N(3))(2)Fe(NO)(2)(-) > (PhS)(2)Fe(NO)(2)(-), reflecting the increasing donor ability of the ancillary ligands and consistent with the redox potentials of the complexes, and the small trends in Mössbauer isomer shifts. Computational studies corroborate that the {Fe(NO)(2)}(9) motif prefers N-bound rather than E-bound isomers. The calculated energy differences between the linkage isomers of 1 (Fe-NCS preferred over Fe-SCN by about 6 kcal/mol) are smaller than those of 2 (Fe-NCO preferred over Fe-OCN by about 16 kcal/mol), a difference that is justified by the frontier molecular orbitals of the ligands themselves. PMID:23373599

  3. Stereochemistry of lead(II) complexes with oxygen donor ligands.

    SciTech Connect

    Stavilla, Vitalie; Davidovich, Ruven L.; Whitmire, Kenton Herbert; Voit, Elena I.; Marinin, Dmitry V.


    This review discusses the coordination number (CN) and the coordination geometry of the first coordination sphere of Pb(II) atoms in crystal structures of 98 lead(II) complexes with O-donor ligands and the stereochemically active lone pair of electrons (LP, E) in the terms of the valence shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) model. The CN of Pb(II) atoms of the first coordination sphere has values falling into the range (3 + E) to (6 + E). The following coordination polyhedra-{psi}-tetrahedron (I), {psi}-trigonal bipyramid (II), {psi}-octahedron (III), {psi}-pentagonal bipyramid with an axial (IV) or equatorial (V) vacant position are formed. For the investigated structures of the Pb(II) complexes, the formula of each compound, the overall CN of the Pb(II) atom considered as the sum of the CN in the first coordination sphere and the number of secondary bonds, the polyhedron shape, the Pb-O bond lengths, and O-Pb-O bond angles in the first coordination sphere, secondary bond lengths, references and REFCODEs are presented in the comprehensive Tables. The quantum chemical investigations performed using density functional theory (DFT) method have confirmed the stereochemical activity of the LP of Pb(II) atoms in the studied structures of lead(II) complexes with O-donor ligands.

  4. Reactivity of halide and pseudohalide ligands in transition-metal complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Kukushkin, Yu.N.; Kukushkin, V.Yu.


    The experimental material on the reactions of coordinated halide ligands, as well as cyanide, azido, thiocyanato, and cyanato ligands, in transition-metal complexes has been generalized in this review.

  5. Two dimensional heteronuclear complexes with cyanide and 4-aminomethylpyridine ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaağaç, Dursun; Kürkçüoğlu, Güneş Süheyla; Yeşilel, Okan Zafer; MuratTaş


    Two new cyano-bridged two-dimensional heteronuclear complexes, [Cd(NH3)2(μ-ampy)Ni(μ-CN)2(CN)2]n (1) and [Cd(H2O)2(μ-ampy)Pt(μ-CN)2(CN)2]n (2) (ampy = 4-aminomethylpyridine), were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopic, thermal (TG, DTG and DTA) and elemental analyses and single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. They crystallize in the triclinic system and P-1 space group. The Ni(II) or Pt(II) ions are four coordinate with four cyanide-carbon atoms in a square planar geometry and the Cd(II) ion exhibits a distorted octahedral coordination by two different N-atoms from two symmetrically equivalent ampy ligands, two ammine or aqua ligands and two bridging cyano groups.The most important features of the complexes are the presence of obvious M⋯π (M = Ni(II) or Pt(II)) interactions.

  6. Activation of isocyanate ligands in Ru25+ complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barral, M. Carmen; Herrero, Santiago; Jiménez-Aparicio, Reyes; Priego, José L.; Torres, M. Rosario; Urbanos, Francisco A.


    The reaction of [Ru 2(O 2CMe)(DPhF) 3(H 2O)]BF 4 · 0.5CH 2Cl 2 (DphF dbnd N, N'-diphenylformidinate) with sodium cyanate leads to the substitution of the H 2O ligand giving Ru 2(NCO)(O 2CMe)(DPhF) 3 ( 1). In contrast, in the similar reaction of Ru 2Cl 2(DPhF) 3 with NaOCN one of the cyanate groups undergoes the addition of a MeOH molecule leading to the carbamate complex Ru 2(NCO)(NH(O)COMe)(DPhF) 3 ( 2). The spectroscopic properties of 1 and 2 are studied. Both complexes are paramagnetic showing the presence of three unpaired electrons with an important zero-field splitting and a small intermolecular antiferromagnetic interaction. The crystal structures of 1 · 3CHCl 3 and 2 · C 7H 8 · 0.5MeOH are also reported. Compound 2 represents the first example of a ruthenium paddlewheel compound with a carbamate ligand.

  7. Cage Opening of a Carborane Ligand by Metal Cluster Complexes.


    Adams, Richard D; Kiprotich, Joseph; Peryshkov, Dmitry V; Wong, Yuen Onn


    The reaction of Os3 (CO)10 (NCMe)2 with closo-o-C2 B10 H10 has yielded two interconvertible isomers Os3 (CO)9 (μ3 -4,5,9-C2 B10 H8 )(μ-H)2 (1 a) and Os3 (CO)9 (μ3 -3,4,8-C2 B10 H8 )(μ-H)2 (1 b) formed by the loss of the two NCMe ligands and one CO ligand from the Os3 cluster. Two BH bonds of the o-C2 B10 H10 were activated in its addition to the osmium cluster. A second triosmium cluster was added to the 1 a/1 b mixture to yield the complex Os3 (CO)9 (μ-H)2 (μ3 -4,5,9-μ3 -7,11,12-C2 B10 H7 )Os3 (CO)9 (μ-H)3 (2) that contains two triosmium triangles attached to the same carborane cage. When heated, 2 was transformed to the complex Os3 (CO)9 (μ-H)(μ3 -3,4,8-μ3 -7,11,12-C2 B10 H8 )Os3 (CO)9 (μ-H) (3) by a novel opening of the carborane cage with loss of H2 . PMID:26971388

  8. Complexation of trivalent americium and lanthanides with terdentate 'N' donor ligands: the role of rigidity in the ligand structure.


    Bhattacharyya, Arunasis; Gadly, Trilochan; Pathak, Priyanath; Ghosh, Sunil K; Mohapatra, Manoj; Ghanty, Tapan K; Mohapatra, Prasanta K


    A systematic study on the Ln(3+) complexation behaviour with two terdentate 'N' donor ligands of varying structural rigidity, viz. 5,6-dimethyl-(1,2,4)-triazinylbipyridine (Me2TBipy) and 5,6-dimethyl-(1,2,4)-triazinylphenanthroline (Me2TPhen), is performed in the present work by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) studies. These studies indicate the formation of a 1 : 1 complex of La(3+), 1 : 2 complexes of Eu(3+) and Er(3+) with both the ligands. Density functional theoretical (DFT) study is carried out to determine the solution phase structure of the Eu(3+) complex considering the species (from UV-Vis spectrophotometry) and C2v site symmetry around the Eu(3+) ion (from TRFS study). Me2TPhen is found to be a stronger complexing ligand as compared to Me2TBipy irrespective of the Ln(3+) ions. The solid state crystal structure of the La(3+) complex of Me2TPhen is determined using the single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) technique. The complexation of the trivalent Am(3+) ion is also studied with both these ligands using UV-Vis spectrophotometric titrations which show the formation of 1 : 2 complexes with higher complexation constant values as compared to all the Ln(3+) ions studied, indicating the selectivity of these ligands for the trivalent actinides over the lanthanides. PMID:25001925

  9. EXAFS Studies of Some Copper(II) Mixed-Ligand Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, S. K.; Katare, R. K.; Shrivastava, B. D.


    X-ray K-absorption spectroscopic studies have been carried out on copper (II) mixed-ligand complexes with glutamic acid and aspartic acid as the primary ligands, where as water, pyridine, imidazole and benz-imidazole have been used as secondary ligands. Chemical shifts obtained from the X-ray absorption data have indicated that the glutamic acid complexes are more ionic as compared to their corresponding aspartic acid complexes having similar secondary ligands. Further, we have estimated the average metal-ligand bond distances from the from structure data. For the different complexes studied under the present investigation, the studies reveal that the bonding parameter {alpha}1 decreases with the increase in the percentage covalency of the metal-ligand bond. Thus, the bonding parameter {alpha}1 may be used for the estimation of percentage covalency of the metal-ligand bond in other similar complexes.

  10. Thermodynamic study of the complexation between Nd(3+) and functionalized diacetamide ligands in solution.


    Dau, Phuong V; Zhang, Zhicheng; Dau, Phuong D; Gibson, John K; Rao, Linfeng


    A series of amine functionalized ligands, including 2,2'-(benzylazanediyl)bis(N,N'-dimethylacetamide) (BnABDMA), 2,2'-azanediylbis(N,N'-dimethylacetamide) (ABDMA), and 2,2'-(methylazanediyl)bis(N,N'-dimethylacetamide) (MABDMA), are synthesized for the thermodynamic study of their complexation with Nd(3+) ions. Their complexation in solution is investigated using potentiometry, spectrophotometry, calorimetry, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The results suggest that these ligands act as tridentate ligands. Furthermore, direct comparison between ABDMA and an analogous ether-functionalized ligand, 2,2'-oxybis(N,N'-dimethylacetamide) (TMDGA), showed that the amine functionalized ligand forms thermodynamically stronger complexes with Nd(3+) ions than the ether-functionalized ligand. In addition, the amine functionalized ligand can allow the fine-tuning of the binding strength with metal ions via substitution on the central amine N atom with different functional groups, which is not possible for ether functionalized ligands such as TMDGA. PMID:27222301

  11. New formamidine ligands and their mixed ligand palladium(II) oxalate complexes: Synthesis, characterization, DFT calculations and in vitro cytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliman, Ahmed A.; Alajrawy, Othman I.; Attabi, Fawzy A.; Shaaban, Mohamed R.; Linert, W.


    A series of new ternary palladium(II) complexes of the type [Pd(L1-4)ox]·xH2O where L = formamidine ligands and ox = oxalate, were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility, UV-Vis, infrared (IR) and mass spectroscopy and thermal analysis. The spectroscopic data indicated that the formamidine ligands act as bidentate N2 donors and the oxalate as O2 ligand. The complexes (1-4) are diamagnetic and the optimization of their structures indicated that the geometry is distorted square planer with O-Pd-O and N-Pd-N bond angles ranged 82.70-83.87° and 88.21-95.02°; respectively which is acceptable for the heteroleptic complexes. The dipole moment of the complexes (13.97-18.77 Debye) indicating that the complexes are more polarized than the ligands (1.93-4.96 Debye). The complexes are thermally stable as shown from their relatively higher overall activation energies (441-688 kJ mol-1). The ligands and the complexes are proved to have good cytotoxicity with IC50 (μM) in the range of (0.011-0.168) against MCF-7, (0.012-0.150) against HCT-116, (0.042-0.094) against PC-3 and (0.006-0.222) against HepG-2 cell lines, which open the field for further application as antitumor compounds.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial studies on some mixed ligand thorium complexes with N- and O-donor ligands.


    Patil, Sunil S; Thakur, Ganesh A; Shaikh, Manzoor M


    Mixed ligand Th(IV) complexes of the type [M(Q)(L)(NO3)2] x 2H2O have been synthesized using 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) as a primary ligand and N- and/or O- donor amino acids (HL) such as L-threonine, L-tryptophan and L-isoleucine as secondary ligands. The metal complexes have been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, electrical conductance, room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements, spectral and thermal studies. The electrical conductance studies of the complexes in DMF in 10(-3). M concentration indicate their non-electrolytic nature. Room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed diamagnetic nature of the complexes. Electronic absorption spectra of the complexes show intra-ligand and charge transfer transitions, respectively. Bonding of the metal ion through N- and O-donor atoms of the ligands revealed by IR studies and the chemical environment of the protons is also confirmed by NMR studies. The thermal analysis data of the complexes indicate the presence of crystalline water molecules. The tube dilution method has been used to study the antibacterial activity of the complexes against the pathogenic bacteria S. aureus, C. diphtheriae, S. typhi and E. coli. PMID:22125953

  13. Electronic spectra and photophysics of platinum(II) complexes with alpha-diimine ligands - Solid-state effects. I - Monomers and ligand pi dimers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miskowski, Vincent M.; Houlding, Virginia H.


    Two types of emission behavior for Pt(II) complexes containing alpha-diimine ligands have been observed in dilute solution. If the complex also has weak field ligands such as chloride, ligand field (d-d) excited states become the lowest energy excited states. If only strong field ligands are present, a diimine 3(pi-pi/asterisk/) state becomes the lowest. In none of the cases studied did metal-to-ligand charge transfer excited state lie lowest.

  14. Coinage metal complexes supported by the tri- and tetraphosphine ligands.


    Dau, Minh Thuy; Shakirova, Julia R; Karttunen, Antti J; Grachova, Elena V; Tunik, Sergey P; Melnikov, Alexey S; Pakkanen, Tapani A; Koshevoy, Igor O


    A series of tri- and tetranuclear phosphine complexes of d(10) metal ions supported by the polydentate ligands, bis(diphenylphosphinomethyl)phenylphosphine (PPP) and tris(diphenylphosphinomethyl)phosphine (PPPP), were synthesized. All the compounds under study, [AuM2(PPP)2](3+) (M = Au (1), Cu (2), Ag (3)), [M4(PPPP)2](4+) (M = Ag (4), Au (5)), [AuAg3(PPPP)2](4+) (6), and [Au2Cu2(PPPP)2(NCMe)4](4+) (7), were characterized crystallographically. The trinuclear clusters 1-3 contain a linear metal core, while in the isostructural tetranuclear complexes 4-6 the metal framework has a plane star-shaped arrangement. Cluster 7 adopts a structural motif that involves a digold unit bridged by two arms of the PPPP phosphines and decorated two spatially separated Cu(I) ions chelated by the remaining P donors. The NMR spectroscopic investigation in DMSO solution revealed the heterometallic clusters 2, 3, and 6 are stereochemically nonrigid and undergo reversible metal ions redistribution between several species, accompanied by their solvation-desolvation. The complexes 1-3 and 5-7 exhibit room temperature luminescence in the solid state (Φem = 6-64%) in the spectral region from 450 to 563 nm. The phosphorescence observed originates from the triplet excited states, determined by the metal cluster-centered dσ* → pσ transitions. PMID:24750114

  15. Luminescent dinuclear Cu(I) complexes containing rigid tetraphosphine ligands.


    Bizzarri, Claudia; Strabler, Christof; Prock, Johannes; Trettenbrein, Barbara; Ruggenthaler, Martin; Yang, Cheng-Han; Polo, Federico; Iordache, Adriana; Brüggeller, Peter; De Cola, Luisa


    The synthesis and the photophysics of three dinuclear copper(I) complexes containing bis(bidentate)phosphine ligands are described. The steric constraint imposed by tetrakis(di(2-methoxyphenyl)phosphanyl)cyclobutane) (o-MeO-dppcb) in combination with 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline in one of the complexes leads to interesting photophysical properties. The compound shows an intense emission at room temperature in deoxygenated acetonitrile solution (Φ = 49%) and a long excited-state lifetime (13.8 μs). Interestingly, at low temperature, 77 K, the emission maximum shifts to lower energy, and the excited-state lifetime increases. This observation leads to the conclusion that a mixing between the excited triplet and singlet states is possible and that the degree of mixing and population of state strongly depends on temperature, as the energy difference is quite small. The electroluminescent properties of this compound were therefore tested in light-emitting electrochemical cells (LEECs), proving that the bright emission can also be obtained by electrically driven population of the singlet state. PMID:25272317

  16. Lanthanide complexes of cage-type ligands as luminescent labels in fluoroimmunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbatini, Nanda; Guardigli, Massimo; Manet, Ilse; Ziessel, Raymond; Ungaro, Rocco


    General aspects of immunological analyses are reported and the application of some lanthanide complexes in fluoroimmunoassays is discussed. The photophysical properties of the complexes of cage-type ligands, which, up to now, showed the most intense metal luminescence are reported. The luminescence intensity of these complexes is discussed considering the efficiency of the incident light/emitted light conversion, defined as the product of the absorption efficiency of the ligand and the metal luminescence quantum yield upon excitation in the ligand. It is illustrated how the luminescence intensity can be enhanced by adapting the ligands on basis of the previously obtained results.

  17. IR and ESR studies on novel Cu(II) theophyllinato complexes containing mono- or bidentate ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forizs, Edit; David, L.; Cozar, O.; Chiş, V.; Damian, G.; Csibi, Jolán


    Three mixed-ligand copper(II) complexes containing theophylline and mono- or bidentate N-donor ligands (2,2'-bipyridine, 4-fluoraniline and 1,10-phenanthroline) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and ESR spectra. According to IR and ESR data the Cu(II) complexes exhibit a distorted tetrahedral coordination of copper by two nitrogen atoms of the monodentate or bidentate ligands and the two monodentate theophyllinate anion bonded through N(7) atom.

  18. Luminescent solutions and films of new europium complexes with chelating ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharcheva, Anastasia V.; Ivanov, Alexey V.; Borisova, Nataliya E.; Kaminskaya, Tatiana P.; Patsaeva, Svetlana V.; Popov, Vladimir V.; Yuzhakov, Viktor I.


    The development of new complexes of rare earth elements (REE) with chelating organic ligands opens up the possibility of purposeful alteration in the composition and structure of the complexes, and therefore tuning their optical properties. New ligands possessing two pyridine rings in their structure were synthesized to improve coordination properties and photophysical characteristics of REE compounds. Complexes of trivalent europium with novel chelating ligands were investigated using luminescence and absorption spectroscopy, as well as atomic force microscopy. Luminescence properties of new compounds were studied both for solutions and films deposited on the solid support. All complexes exhibit the characteristic red luminescence of Eu (III) ion with the absolute lumenescence quantum yield in polar acetonitrile solution varying from 0.21 to 1.45 % and emission lifetime ranged from 0.1 to 1 ms. Excitation spectra of Eu coordination complexes correspond with absorption bands of chelating ligand. The energy levels of the triplet state of the new ligands were determined from the phosphorescence at 77 K of the corresponding Gd (III) complexes. The morphology of films of europium complexes with different substituents in the organic ligands was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). It strongly depends both on the type of substituent in the organic ligand, and the rotation speed of the spin-coater. New europium complexes with chelating ligands containing additional pyridine fragments represent outstanding candidates for phosphors with improved luminescence properties.

  19. Polynuclear complexes with alkoxo and phenoxo bridges from in situ generated hydroxy-rich Schiff base ligands: syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties.


    Ding, Caixia; Gao, Chen; Ng, Seikweng; Wang, Bingwu; Xie, Yongshu


    Complexes of new Schiff base ligands generated in situ from the reaction of 1-aminoglycerol, aldehydes, and metal ions are reported. [Cu4(HL(1))4] (1) and [Ni4O(HL(1))3(H2O)3)]⋅6 H2O⋅DMF⋅DMSO (2) have M4O4 cubane cores, with the L/M molar ratios of 4:4 and 3:4, respectively. [Mn(III)3Mn(II)NaOCl4(HL(1))3]⋅3 MeCN (3) has a unique pentanuclear trigonal propeller-shaped Mn(III)3Mn(II)Na core structure, and the coordination assemblies are linked by hydrogen bonds to afford a 3D channel structure. [Cu2(HL(2))2] (4) has a bis(μ2-alkoxo)-bridged Cu2O2 core, with the binuclear species linked by hydrogen bonds to afford a 1D double-chain. [Ni7(OH)2(OCH3)4(H2L(3)2(MeOH)2(H2O)2]-(ClO4)2⋅10 H2O (5) has a heptanuclear structure containing heptadentate di-Schiff base ligands, with the nickel(II) ions bridged by phenoxo, alkoxo, hydroxo, and methoxo groups to afford a very rare face-sharing hexadruple defective cubane core with a Ni@Ni6 arrangement. The lattice water molecules are linked by hydrogen bonds to form helical chains, which are further hydrogen-bonded to the coordination moieties to afford a 2D network. Variable temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements and nonlinear data-fitting revealed that the "2+4" type of cubane complex 1 shows medium intradimeric ferromagnetic interactions and weak interdimeric ferromagnetic interactions. For complexes 2 and 5, coexistent ferro- and antiferromagnetic couplings afford a non-zero spin ground state. However, compound 3 shows antiferromagnetic interactions between Mn(III) and Mn(II) , and ferromagnetic interactions between the Mn(III) centers, resulting in a global antiferromagnetic behavior. In conclusion, the reaction of 1-aminoglycerol with aldehydes and metal salts afforded polynuclear complexes with a rich structural diversity and remarkable magnetic behavior. PMID:23765514

  20. Mixed ligand complexes of bis(phenylimine) Schiff base ligands incorporating pyridinium moiety. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Gehad G.; El-Wahab, Zeinab H. Abd


    The synthesis and structural characterization of mixed ligand complexes derived from 2,6-pyridinedicarboxaldehydebis( o-hydroxyphenylimine), 2,6-pyridinedicarboxaldehydebis( p-hydroxyphenylimine) (1 ry ligands) and 2-aminopyridne (2 ry ligand) are reported. The ligands and their transition metal complexes were characterized on the bases of their elemental analyses, IR, solid reflectance, magnetic moment, molar conductance and thermal analysis (TGA). The mixed ligand complexes are formed in the 1:1:1 (M:L 1 or L 2:L') ratio as found from the elemental analyses and found to have the formulae [MX 2(L 1 or L 2)(L')]· nH 2O where M = Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II), L 1 = 2,6-pyridinedicarboxaldehydebis( p-hydroxyphenylimine), L 2 = 2,6-pyridine dicarboxaldehydebis( o-hydroxyphenylimine), L' = 2-aminopyridine, X = Cl - in case of Cu(II) complex and Br - in case of Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes and y = 0-3. The molar conductance data reveal that the chelates are non-electrolytes. IR spectra show that the Schiff bases are coordinated to the metal ions in a terdentate manner with NNN donor sites of the pyridine- N and two azomethine- N. While 2-aminopyridine coordinated to the metal ions via its pyridine- N. Magnetic and solid reflectance spectra are used to infer the coordinating capacity of the ligand and the geometrical structure of these complexes are found to be octahedral. The thermal behaviour of these chelates shows that the hydrated water molecules and the anions are removed in a successive two steps followed immediately by decomposition of the ligands (L 1, L 2 and L') in the subsequent steps. The activation thermodynamic parameters, such as, E*, Δ H*, Δ S* and Δ G* are calculated from the TG curves and discussed. The ligands and their metal chelates have been screened for their antimicrobial activities and the findings have been reported, explained and compared with some known antibiotics.

  1. Mixed ligand complexes of bis(phenylimine) Schiff base ligands incorporating pyridinium moiety Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity.


    Mohamed, Gehad G; Abd El-Wahab, Zeinab H


    The synthesis and structural characterization of mixed ligand complexes derived from 2,6-pyridinedicarboxaldehydebis(o-hydroxyphenylimine), 2,6-pyridinedicarboxaldehydebis(p-hydroxyphenylimine) (1(ry) ligands) and 2-aminopyridne (2(ry) ligand) are reported. The ligands and their transition metal complexes were characterized on the bases of their elemental analyses, IR, solid reflectance, magnetic moment, molar conductance and thermal analysis (TGA). The mixed ligand complexes are formed in the 1:1:1 (M:L(1) or L(2):L') ratio as found from the elemental analyses and found to have the formulae [MX(2)(L(1) or L(2))(L')].nH(2)O where M = Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II), L(1) = 2,6-pyridinedicarboxaldehydebis(p-hydroxyphenylimine), L(2) = 2,6-pyridine dicarboxaldehydebis(o-hydroxyphenylimine), L' = 2-aminopyridine, X = Cl(-) in case of Cu(II) complex and Br(-) in case of Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes and y = 0-3. The molar conductance data reveal that the chelates are non-electrolytes. IR spectra show that the Schiff bases are coordinated to the metal ions in a terdentate manner with NNN donor sites of the pyridine-N and two azomethine-N. While 2-aminopyridine coordinated to the metal ions via its pyridine-N. Magnetic and solid reflectance spectra are used to infer the coordinating capacity of the ligand and the geometrical structure of these complexes are found to be octahedral. The thermal behaviour of these chelates shows that the hydrated water molecules and the anions are removed in a successive two steps followed immediately by decomposition of the ligands (L(1), L(2) and L') in the subsequent steps. The activation thermodynamic parameters, such as, E*, DeltaH*, DeltaS* and DeltaG* are calculated from the TG curves and discussed. The ligands and their metal chelates have been screened for their antimicrobial activities and the findings have been reported, explained and compared with some known antibiotics. PMID:15741103

  2. DFT Study of Acceptorless Alcohol Dehydrogenation Mediated by Ruthenium Pincer Complexes: Ligand Tautomerization Governing Metal Ligand Cooperation.


    Hou, Cheng; Zhang, Zhihan; Zhao, Cunyuan; Ke, Zhuofeng


    Metal ligand cooperation (MLC) catalysis is a popular strategy to design highly efficient transition metal catalysts. In this presented theoretical study, we describe the key governing factor in the MLC mechanism, with the Szymczak's NNN-Ru and the Milstein's PNN-Ru complexes as two representative catalysts. Both the outer-sphere and inner-sphere mechanisms were investigated and compared. Our calculated result indicates that the PNN-Ru pincer catalyst will be restored to aromatic state during the catalytic cycle, which can be considered as the driving force to promote the MLC process. On the contrary, for the NNN-Ru catalyst, the MLC mechanism leads to an unfavored tautomerization in the pincer ligand, which explains the failure of the MLC mechanism in this system. Therefore, the strength of the driving force provided by the pincer ligand actually represents a prerequisite factor for MLC. Spectator ligands such as CO, PPh3, and hydride are important to ensure the catalyst follow a certain mechanism as well. We also evaluate the driving force of various bifunctional ligands by computational methods. Some proposed pincer ligands may have the potential to be the new pincer catalysts candidates. The presented study is expected to offer new insights for MLC catalysis and provide useful guideline for future catalyst design. PMID:27322755

  3. Thiopyridazine-Based Copper Boratrane Complexes Demonstrating the Z-type Nature of the Ligand.


    Holler, Stefan; Tüchler, Michael; Belaj, Ferdinand; Veiros, Luis F; Kirchner, Karl; Mösch-Zanetti, Nadia C


    In Z-type ligands the electrons for the coordination bond are formally provided by the metal. They represent an important addition to the much more extensively used L- and X-type σ-donor ligands for the development of transition metal complexes with new reactivities. We report here a new boron Z-type ligand with three tethering thiopyridazinyl donors forming exclusively complexes that feature a metal boron bond. Rational substitution pattern in the backbone of the pyridazinyl heterocycle led to a well-behaved ligand system that allowed preparation of a series of copper boratrane complexes in high yields. They are found to be more soluble in common organic solvents allowing reactivity studies in contrast to previous complexes with this type of ligand. Thus, copper complexes [Cu{B(Pn(Me,tBu))3}X] with X = Cl, OTf, N3, and κN-NCS are reported. Solution behavior was explored, and the molecular structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. The thiocyanate ligand is found to coordinate via its nitrogen atom pointing to a high oxidation state of the copper. Density functional theory calculations indicate a high positive charge on copper and a strong copper-boron interaction. Thus, here reported complexes deliver synthetic evidence for the Z-type nature of the ligand. These findings are important for further dissemination of these types of ligands in coordination chemistry. PMID:27110725

  4. DPP dyes as ligands in transition-metal complexes.


    Lorenz, Ingo-Peter; Limmert, Michael; Mayer, Peter; Piotrowski, Holger; Langhals, Heinz; Poppe, Martin; Polborn, Kurt


    The DPP dyes (=diketopyrrolopyrrole) 1 are deprotonated to give the corresponding dianions 2. These are treated with two moles of the transition-metal complexes [L(n)MX]=[(Ph(3)P)(2)MX] (M=Cu, Ag; X=Cl, NO(3)), [(Ph(3)P)AuCl], [(Et(3)P)AuCl], [(tBuNC)AuCl], [(Ph(3)P)(2)PdCl(2)], and [(Ph(3)P)(2)PtCl(2)] to give the novel bismetalated DPP dyes [L(n)MN[C(3)R(1)(O)](2)NML(n)] (4-10). In comparison with the starting materials, these compounds show better solubilities, high fluorescence quantum yields (Phi > or = 80 %), and bathochromic absorptions. The compounds 4 c, 5 a, 6 b, 6 c, 6 e, 7 c, and 8 c were characterized by X-ray crystallography. The copper and silver atoms in 4 c and 5 a are trigonal planar and are surrounded by the P atoms of the phosphane ligands and the N atom of the DPP dianion 2. Both metals are somewhat forced out-of-plane, and the P(2)M plane and the phenyl planes of R1 are twisted by > or = 70 degrees and < or = 25 degrees, respectively, towards the chromophore plane. The gold atoms in 6-8 are linearly coordinated to one N and one P (6 b, c, e, 7 c) or one C atom (8 c), respectively. The gold atoms are only slightly pressed out-of-plane, and the P substituents are staggered so that there is enough space for the planarization of R(1) into the plane of the chromophore. Compound 8 c shows intermolecular d(10)-d(10) interactions between Au(I) centers of different molecules, and these interactions lead to infinite chains of parallel orientated molecules in a gauche conformation of neighbors (torsion angle=150 degrees) in the crystal. PMID:12360946

  5. Predicting Electrophoretic Mobility of Protein-Ligand Complexes for Ligands from DNA-Encoded Libraries of Small Molecules.


    Bao, Jiayin; Krylova, Svetlana M; Cherney, Leonid T; Hale, Robert L; Belyanskaya, Svetlana L; Chiu, Cynthia H; Shaginian, Alex; Arico-Muendel, Christopher C; Krylov, Sergey N


    Selection of target-binding ligands from DNA-encoded libraries of small molecules (DELSMs) is a rapidly developing approach in drug-lead discovery. Methods of kinetic capillary electrophoresis (KCE) may facilitate highly efficient homogeneous selection of ligands from DELSMs. However, KCE methods require accurate prediction of electrophoretic mobilities of protein-ligand complexes. Such prediction, in turn, requires a theory that would be applicable to DNA tags of different structures used in different DELSMs. Here we present such a theory. It utilizes a model of a globular protein connected, through a single point (small molecule), to a linear DNA tag containing a combination of alternating double-stranded and single-stranded DNA (dsDNA and ssDNA) regions of varying lengths. The theory links the unknown electrophoretic mobility of protein-DNA complex with experimentally determined electrophoretic mobilities of the protein and DNA. Mobility prediction was initially tested by using a protein interacting with 18 ligands of various combinations of dsDNA and ssDNA regions, which mimicked different DELSMs. For all studied ligands, deviation of the predicted mobility from the experimentally determined value was within 11%. Finally, the prediction was tested for two proteins and two ligands with a DNA tag identical to those of DELSM manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline. Deviation between the predicted and experimentally determined mobilities did not exceed 5%. These results confirm the accuracy and robustness of our model, which makes KCE methods one step closer to their practical use in selection of drug leads, and diagnostic probes from DELSMs. PMID:27119259

  6. In air a spin crossover active iron(II) complex of amine/NCBH3(-) ligands is converted to a low spin complex of imine/CN(-) ligands.


    Zhou, Jian; Zhu, Bo-Wen; Luan, Jie; Liu, Zhan; Fang, Jing-Kun; Bao, Xin; Peng, Guo; Tucek, Jiri; Bao, Song-Song; Zheng, Li-Min


    Two new mononuclear Fe(II) complexes, [FeL1(NCBH3)2] (1) and [FeL2(CN)2]·3H2O (2) (L1 = N,N'-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,2-ethanediamine, L2 = N-(2-pyridylmethyl)-N'-(2-pyridylmethylene)-1,2-ethanediamine) were synthesized from the same starting solution under different atmospheric conditions. Complex 1 was isolated under an N2 atmosphere with an expected molecular structure, namely a tetradentate L1 ligand and two NCBH3(-) co-ligands wrapping an iron(ii) ion. It exhibits a gradual spin crossover centered around 355 K, as confirmed by X-ray crystallography, magnetic, DSC and Mössbauer studies. Complex 2 was isolated in the presence of air. One of the secondary amine groups in L1 undergoes an in situ oxidative dehydrogenation, forming a new monoimine asymmetric ligand L2. Besides, a CN(-) co-ligand is also in situ generated from NCBH3(-) during the reaction. The strong ligand field strength imposed by CN(-) and L2 stabilizes 2 in the LS state. Solvent water molecules in complex 2 are hydrogen bonded into a well-defined 1D water chain. 2 shows a proton conductivity of 8.9 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) at 55 °C and 95% relative humidity. PMID:26550798

  7. Ligand substitution reactions of a phenolic quinolyl hydrazone; oxidovanadium (IV) complexes

    PubMed Central


    Background Quinoline ring has therapeutic and biological activities. Quinolyl hydrazones constitute a class of excellent chelating agents. Recently, the physiological and biological activities of quinolyl hydrazones arise from their tendency to form metal chelates with transition metal ions. In this context, we have aimed to study the competency effect of a phenolic quinolyl hydrazone (H2L; primary ligand) with some auxiliary ligands (Tmen, Phen or Oxine; secondary ligands) towards oxidovanadium (IV) ions. Results Mono- and binuclear oxidovanadium (IV) - complexes were obtained from the reaction of a phenolic quinolyl hydrazone with oxidovanadium (IV)- ion in absence and presence of N,N,N',N'- tetramethylethylenediamine (Tmen), 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) or 8-hydroxyquinoline (Oxine). The phenolic quinolyl hydrazone ligand behaves as monobasic bidentate (NO- donor with O- bridging). All the obtained complexes have the preferable octahedral geometry except the oxinato complex (2) which has a square pyramid geometry with no axial interaction; the only homoleptic complex in this study. Conclusion The ligand exchange (substitution/replacement) reactions reflect the strong competency power of the auxiliary aromatic ligands (Phen/Oxine) compared to the phenolic quinolyl hydrazone (H2L) towards oxidovanadium (IV) ion; (complexes 2 and 3). By contrast, in case of the more flexible aliphatic competitor (Tmen), an adduct was obtained (4). The obtained complexes reflect the strength of the ligand field towards the oxidovanadium (IV)- ion; Oxine or Phen >> phenolic hydrazone (H2L) > Tmen. PMID:21846387

  8. Iminosemiquinone radical ligands enable access to a well-defined redox-active Cu(II)-CF₃ complex.


    Jacquet, Jérémy; Salanouve, Elise; Orio, Maylis; Vezin, Hervé; Blanchard, Sébastien; Derat, Etienne; Desage-El Murr, Marine; Fensterbank, Louis


    The reaction of a copper complex bearing iminosemiquinone ligands with a CF3(+) source provides an unprecedented Cu(II)-CF3 complex through ligand-based oxidation. Reactivity of this complex leads to nucleophilic trifluoromethylation of the ligand, suggesting an electronic interplay that results in a formal umpolung of the initial CF3(+). PMID:25065468

  9. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of a Series of Novel Dimanganese(III) μ-Hydroxo Bisporphyrins: Magneto-Structural Correlation and Effect of Metal Spin on Porphyrin Core Deformation.


    Sil, Debangsu; Bhowmik, Susovan; Khan, Firoz Shah Tuglak; Rath, Sankar Prasad


    The synthesis, structure, and properties of a new family of five ethane-bridged dimanganese(III) μ-hydroxo bisporphyrins with the same core structure but different counteranions are reported here. Additions of 10% Brønsted acids such as HI, HBF4, HSbF6, HPF6, and HClO4 to a dichloromethane solution of the dichloro dimanganese(III) bisporphyrin produces complexes having a remarkably bent μ-hydroxo group with I3(-), BF4(-), SbF6(-), PF6(-), and ClO4(-) as counteranions, respectively. The X-ray structures of all complexes have been determined, which have revealed the presence of two equivalent high-spin manganese(III) centers with equally distorted porphyrin rings in the complexes, in sharp contrast with the case for the diiron(III) μ-hydroxo bisporphyrin analogues. (1)H NMR spectra have shown highly deshielded meso resonances, unlike the case for the diiron(III) analogues, where the meso resonances are highly shielded. The variable-temperature magnetic data have been subjected to a least-squares fit which provides a moderate antiferromagnetic coupling through the hydroxo bridge between two zero-field split Mn(III) centers with coupling constant (J) values ranging from -29.5 to -38.6 cm(-1). Fairly good correlations are observed for J with Mn-O(H) distances and Mn-O(H)-Mn angles for all the complexes except for that having an I3(-) counteranion. DFT calculations support the stabilization of two equivalent high-spin Mn(III) porphyrin cores in the complexes and have also explored the role of metal spin in controlling porphyrin ring deformation. Unlike diiron(III) μ-hydroxo bisporphyrin complexes, the dimanganese(III) analogues do not have easily accessible spin states of the metal attainable by subtle environmental perturbations and, therefore, can only stabilize the high-spin state with a variety of counteranions. PMID:27002790

  10. Electric relaxation processes in chemodynamics of aqueous metal complexes: from simple ligands to soft nanoparticulate complexants.


    van Leeuwen, Herman P; Buffle, Jacques; Town, Raewyn M


    The chemodynamics of metal complexes with nanoparticulate complexants can differ significantly from that for simple ligands. The spatial confinement of charged sites and binding sites to the nanoparticulate body impacts on the time scales of various steps in the overall complex formation process. The greater the charge carried by the nanoparticle, the longer it takes to set up the counterion distribution equilibrium with the medium. A z+ metal ion (z > 1) in a 1:1 background electrolyte will accumulate in the counterionic atmosphere around negatively charged simple ions, as well as within/around the body of a soft nanoparticle with negative structural charge. The rate of accumulation is often governed by diffusion and proceeds until Boltzmann partition equilibrium between the charged entity and the ions in the medium is attained. The electrostatic accumulation proceeds simultaneously with outer-sphere and inner-sphere complex formation. The rate of the eventual inner-sphere complex formation is generally controlled by the rate constant of dehydration of the metal ion, k(w). For common transition metal ions with moderate to fast dehydration rates, e.g., Cu(2+), Pb(2+), and Cd(2+), it is shown that the ionic equilibration with the medium may be the slower step and thus rate-limiting in their overall complexation with nanoparticles. PMID:22126743

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Metal Complexes with Schiff Base Ligands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Shane M.; Sheedy, Timothy M.; New, Elizabeth J.


    In order for undergraduate laboratory experiments to reflect modern research practice, it is essential that they include a range of elements, and that synthetic tasks are accompanied by characterization and analysis. This intermediate general chemistry laboratory exercise runs over 2 weeks, and involves the preparation of a Schiff base ligand and…

  12. (S)-5-(p-Nitrobenzyl)-PCTA, a Promising Bifunctional Ligand with Advantageous Metal Ion Complexation Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Tircsó, Gyula; Benyó, Enikő Tircsóné; Suh, Eul Hyun; Jurek, Paul; Kiefer, Garry E.; Sherry, A. Dean; Kovács, Zoltán


    A bifunctional version of PCTA (3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene-3,6,9,-triacetic acid) that exhibits fast complexation kinetics with the trivalent lanthanide(III) ions was synthesized in reasonable yields starting from N, N′, N″-tristosyl-(S)-2-(p-nitrobenzyl)-diethylenetriamine. pH-potentiometric studies showed that the basicities of p-nitrobenzyl-PCTA and the parent ligand PCTA were similar. The stability of M(NO2-Bn-PCTA) (M = Mg2+, Ca2+, Cu2+, Zn2+) complexes was similar to that of the corresponding PCTA complexes while the stability of Ln3+ complexes of the bifunctional ligand is somewhat lower than that of PCTA chelates. The rate of complex formation of Ln(NO2-Bn-PCTA) complexes was found to be quite similar to that of PCTA, a ligand known to exhibit the fastest formation rates among all lanthanide macrocyclic ligand complexes studied to date. The acid catalyzed decomplexation kinetic studies of the selected Ln(NO2-Bn-PCTA) complexes showed that the kinetic inertness of the complexes was comparable to that of Ln(DOTA) chelates making the bifunctional ligand NO2-Bn-PCTA suitable for labeling biological vectors with radioisotopes for nuclear medicine applications. PMID:19220012

  13. Catalysis by aluminum(III) complexes of non-innocent ligands.


    Berben, Louise A


    Non-Innocent ligand complexes of aluminum are described in this Concept article, beginning with a discussion of their synthesis, and then structural and electronic characterization. The main focus concerns the ability of the ligands in these complexes to mediate proton transfer reactions. As examples, aluminum-ligand cooperation in the activation of polar bonds is described, as is the importance of hydrogen bonding to stabilization of a transition state for β-hydride abstraction. Taken together these reactions enable catalytic processes such as the dehydrogenation of formic acid. PMID:25429760

  14. Synthesis, characterization, and stability of iron (III) complex ions possessing phenanthroline-based ligands

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Andrew; Frias, Elma; Eichler, Jack F.


    It has previously been demonstrated that phenanthroline-based ligands used to make gold metallotherapuetics have the ability to exhibit cytotoxicity when not coordinated to the metal center. In an effort to help assess the mechanism by which these ligands may cause tumor cell death, iron binding and removal experiments have been considered. The close linkage between cell proliferation and intracellular iron concentrations suggest that iron deprivation strategies may be a mechanism involved in inhibiting tumor cell growth. With the creation of iron (III) phen complexes, the iron binding abilities of three polypyridal ligands [1,10-phenanthroline (phen), 2,9-dimethyl-1, 10-phenanthroline (methylphen), and 2,9-di-sec-butyl-1, 10-phenanthroline (sec-butylphen)] can be tested via a competition reaction with a known iron chelator. Therefore, iron (III) complexes possessing all three ligands were synthesized. Initial mass spectrometric and infrared absorption data indicate that iron (III) tetrachloride complex ions with protonated phen ligands (RphenH+) were formed: [phenH][FeCl4], [methylphenH][FeCl4], [sec-butylphenH][FeCl4]. UV-Vis spectroscopy was used to monitor the stability of the complex ions, and it was found that the sec-butylpheniron complex was more stable than the phen and methylphen analogues. This was based on the observation that free ligand was observed immediately upon the addition of EDTA to the [phenH][FeCl4] and [methylphenH] [FeCl4] complex ions. PMID:25379358

  15. Luminescent Iridium(III) Cyclometalated Complexes with 1,2,3-Triazole "Click" Ligands.


    Connell, Timothy U; White, Jonathan M; Smith, Trevor A; Donnelly, Paul S


    A series of cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes with either 4-(2-pyridyl)-1,2,3-triazole or 1-(2-picolyl)-1,2,3-triazole ancillary ligands to give complexes with either 5- or 6-membered chelate rings were synthesized and characterized by a combination of X-ray crystallography, electron spin ionization-high-resolution mass spectroscopy (ESI-HRMS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The electronic properties of the complexes were probed using absorption and emission spectroscopy, as well as cyclic voltammetry. The relative stability of the complexes formed from each ligand class was measured, and their excited-state properties were compared. The emissive properties are, with the exception of complexes that contain a nitroaromatic substituent, insensitive to functionalization of the ancillary pyridyl-1,2,3-triazole ligand but tuning of the emission maxima was possible by modification of the cyclometalating ligands. It is possible to prepare a wide range of optimally substituted pyridyl-1,2,3-triazoles using copper Cu(I)-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition, which is a commonly used "click" reaction, and this family of ligands represent an useful alternative to bipyridine ligands for the preparation of luminescent iridium(III) complexes. PMID:26938838

  16. Probing Ternary Complex Equilibria of Crown Ether Ligands by Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central


    Ternary complex formation with solvent molecules and other adventitious ligands may compromise the performance of metal-ion-selective fluorescent probes. As Ca(II) can accommodate more than 6 donors in the first coordination sphere, commonly used crown ether ligands are prone to ternary complex formation with this cation. The steric strain imposed by auxiliary ligands, however, may result in an ensemble of rapidly equilibrating coordination species with varying degrees of interaction between the cation and the specific donor atoms mediating the fluorescence response, thus diminishing the change in fluorescence properties upon Ca(II) binding. To explore the influence of ligand architecture on these equilibria, we tethered two structurally distinct aza-15-crown-5 ligands to pyrazoline fluorophores as reporters. Due to ultrafast photoinduced electron-transfer (PET) quenching of the fluorophore by the ligand moiety, the fluorescence decay profile directly reflects the species composition in the ground state. By adjusting the PET driving force through electronic tuning of the pyrazoline fluorophores, we were able to differentiate between species with only subtle variations in PET donor abilities. Concluding from a global analysis of the corresponding fluorescence decay profiles, the coordination species composition was indeed strongly dependent on the ligand architecture. Altogether, the combination of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy with selective tuning of the PET driving force represents an effective analytical tool to study dynamic coordination equilibria and thus to optimize ligand architectures for the design of high-contrast cation-responsive fluorescence switches. PMID:25313708

  17. Ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes with hydrophobic ancillary ligand as Aβ aggregation inhibitors.


    Vyas, Nilima A; Ramteke, Shefali N; Kumbhar, Avinash S; Kulkarni, Prasad P; Jani, Vinod; Sonawane, Uddhavesh B; Joshi, Rajendra R; Joshi, Bimba; Erxleben, Andrea


    The synthesis, spectral and electrochemical characterization of the complexes of the type [Ru(NN)2(txbg)](2+) where NN is 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) (1), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) (2), dipyrido [3,2-d:2',3f] quinoxaline (dpq) (3), and dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz) (4) which incorporate the tetra-xylene bipyridine glycoluril (txbg) as the ancillary ligand are described in detail. Crystal structures of ligand txbg and complex 2 were solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results indicated that at micromolar concentration all complexes exhibit significant potential of Aβ aggregation inhibition, while the ligand txbg displayed weak activity towards Aβ aggregation. Complex 1 showed relatively low inhibition (70%) while complexes 2-4 inhibited nearly 100% Aβ aggregation after 240 h of incubation. The similar potential of complexes 2-4 and absence of any trend in their activity with the planarity of polypyridyl ligands suggests there is no marked effect of planarity of coligands on their inhibitory potential. Further studies on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition indicated very weak activity of these complexes against AChE. Detailed interactions of Aβ with both ligand and complex 2 have been studied by molecular modeling. Complex 2 showed interactions involving all three polypyridyl ligands with hydrophobic region of Aβ. Furthermore, the toxicity of these complexes towards human neuroblastoma cells was evaluated by MTT assay and except complex 4, the complexes displayed very low toxicity. PMID:27406812

  18. Iridium complexes of new NCP pincer ligands: catalytic alkane dehydrogenation and alkene isomerization.


    Jia, Xiangqing; Zhang, Lei; Qin, Chuan; Leng, Xuebing; Huang, Zheng


    Iridium complexes of novel NCP pincer ligands containing pyridine and phosphinite arms have been synthesized. One Ir complex shows good catalytic activity for alkane dehydrogenation, and all complexes are highly active for olefin isomerization. A combination of the Ir complex and a (PNN)Fe pincer complex catalyzes the formation of linear alkylboronates selectively from internal olefins via sequential olefin isomerization-hydroboration. PMID:25101950

  19. Understanding M-ligand bonding and mer-/fac-isomerism in tris(8-hydroxyquinolinate) metallic complexes.


    Lima, Carlos F R A C; Taveira, Ricardo J S; Costa, José C S; Fernandes, Ana M; Melo, André; Silva, Artur M S; Santos, Luís M N B F


    Tris(8-hydroxyquinolinate) metallic complexes, Mq3, are one of the most important classes of organic semiconductor materials. Herein, the nature of the chemical bond in Mq3 complexes and its implications on their molecular properties were investigated by a combined experimental and computational approach. Various Mq3 complexes, resulting from the alteration of the metal and substitution of the 8-hydroxyquinoline ligand in different positions, were prepared. The mer-/fac-isomerism in Mq3 was explored by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy, evidencing that, irrespective of the substituent, mer- and fac-are the most stable molecular configurations of Al(iii) and In(iii) complexes, respectively. The relative M-ligand bond dissociation energies were evaluated experimentally by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS-MS), showing a non-monotonous variation along the group (Al > In > Ga). The results reveal a strong covalent character in M-ligand bonding, which allows for through-ligand electron delocalization, and explain the preferred molecular structures of Mq3 complexes as resulting from the interplay between bonding and steric factors. The mer-isomer reduces intraligand repulsions, being preferred for smaller metals, while the fac-isomer is favoured for larger metals where stronger covalent M-ligand bonds can be formed due to more extensive through-ligand conjugation mediated by metal "d" orbitals. PMID:27273193

  20. Luminescent solutions and powders of new samarium complexes with N,N',O,O'-chelating ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharcheva, Anastasia V.; Nikolskiy, Kirill S.; Borisova, Nataliya E.; Ivanov, Alexey V.; Reshetova, Marina D.; Yuzhakov, Viktor I.; Patsaeva, Svetlana V.


    Imaging techniques in biology and medicine are crucial tools to obtain information on structural and functional properties of living cells and organisms. To fulfill the requirements associated with application of these techniques it appears necessary to design markers with specific characteristics. Luminescent complexes of trivalent lanthanide ions with chelating ligands are of increasing importance in biomedical applications because of their millisecond luminescence lifetime, narrow emission band, high signal-to-noise ratio and minimal photodamage to biological samples. In order to extend the available emission wavelength range the luminescent samarium chelates are highly desirable. In this study the ligands with diamides of 2,2'-bipyridin-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid were used to improve photophysical characteristics of samarium complexes. We report the luminescence characteristics of samarium complexes with novel ligands. All complexes exhibited the characteristic emission of Sm (III) ion with the lines at 565, 597, 605, 645 and 654 nm, the intensity strongly depended on the ligand. Absorption and luminescence excitation spectra of Sm (III) complexes showed main peaks in the UV range demonstrating lanthanide coordination to the ligand. The absolute lumenescence quantum yield was measured for solutions in acetonitrile with excitation at 350 nm. The largest luminescence quantum yield was found for the samarium complex Bipy 6MePy Sm (3%) being much higher that for samarium complexes reported in the literature earlier. These results prove as well that samarium chelates are potential markers for multiparametric imaging techniques.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of new Ln(III) complexes with an unsymmetrical schiff base ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caifeng, Bi; Liangliang, Yan; Yuhua, Fan; Xia, Zhang; Aidong, Wang


    A new unsymmetrical Schiff base ligand (H2LLi) was synthesized using L-lysine, salicyladehyde and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde. Three solid metal complexes of this ligand [Ln(H2L)(NO3)] NO3·2H2O (Ln=La, Sm, Ho) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, UV spectra, TG-DTG and molar conductance. The antibacterial activities of the ligand and its complexes are also studied. The antibacterial experiments indicate that the ligand and its complexes possess antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis and that the complexes have higher activity than those of the ligand.

  2. Conversion of a monodentate amidinate-germylene ligand into chelating imine-germanate ligands (on mononuclear manganese complexes).


    Cabeza, Javier A; García-Álvarez, Pablo; Pérez-Carreño, Enrique; Polo, Diego


    The unprecedented transformation of a terminal two-electron-donor amidinate-germylene ligand into a chelating three-electron-donor κ(2)-N,Ge-imine-germanate ligand has been achieved by treating the manganese amidinate-germylene complex [MnBr{Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(t)Bu}(CO)4] (1; (i)Pr2bzam = N,N'-bis(isopropyl)benzamidinate) with LiMe or Ag[BF4]. In these reactions, which afford [Mn{κ(2)Ge,N-GeMe((i)Pr2bzam)(t)Bu}(CO)4] (2) and [Mn{κ(2)Ge,N-GeF((i)Pr2bzam)(t)Bu}(CO)4] (3), respectively, the anionic nucleophile, Me(-) or F(-), ends on the Ge atom while an arm of the amidinate fragment migrates from the Ge atom to the Mn atom. In contrast, the reaction of 1 with AgOTf (OTf = triflate) leads to [Mn(OTf){Ge((i)Pr2bzam)(t)Bu}(CO)4] (4), which maintains intact the amidinate-germylene ligand. Complex 4 is very moisture-sensitive, leading to [Mn2{μ-κ(4)Ge2,O2-Ge2(t)Bu2(OH)2O}(CO)8] (5) and [(i)Pr2bzamH2]OTf (6) in wet solvents. In 5, a novel digermanate(II) ligand, [(t)Bu(OH)GeOGe(OH)(t)Bu](2-), doubly bridges two Mn(CO)4 units. The structures of 1-6 have been characterized by spectroscopic (IR, NMR) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. PMID:25084394

  3. GIANT: pattern analysis of molecular interactions in 3D structures of protein–small ligand complexes

    PubMed Central


    Background Interpretation of binding modes of protein–small ligand complexes from 3D structure data is essential for understanding selective ligand recognition by proteins. It is often performed by visual inspection and sometimes largely depends on a priori knowledge about typical interactions such as hydrogen bonds and π-π stacking. Because it can introduce some biases due to scientists’ subjective perspectives, more objective viewpoints considering a wide range of interactions are required. Description In this paper, we present a web server for analyzing protein–small ligand interactions on the basis of patterns of atomic contacts, or “interaction patterns” obtained from the statistical analyses of 3D structures of protein–ligand complexes in our previous study. This server can guide visual inspection by providing information about interaction patterns for each atomic contact in 3D structures. Users can visually investigate what atomic contacts in user-specified 3D structures of protein–small ligand complexes are statistically overrepresented. This server consists of two main components: “Complex Analyzer”, and “Pattern Viewer”. The former provides a 3D structure viewer with annotations of interacting amino acid residues, ligand atoms, and interacting pairs of these. In the annotations of interacting pairs, assignment to an interaction pattern of each contact and statistical preferences of the patterns are presented. The “Pattern Viewer” provides details of each interaction pattern. Users can see visual representations of probability density functions of interactions, and a list of protein–ligand complexes showing similar interactions. Conclusions Users can interactively analyze protein–small ligand binding modes with statistically determined interaction patterns rather than relying on a priori knowledge of the users, by using our new web server named GIANT that is freely available at PMID:24423161

  4. Iridium(III) complexes with phenyl-tetrazoles as cyclometalating ligands.


    Monti, Filippo; Baschieri, Andrea; Gualandi, Isacco; Serrano-Pérez, Juan J; Junquera-Hernández, José M; Tonelli, Domenica; Mazzanti, Andrea; Muzzioli, Sara; Stagni, Stefano; Roldan-Carmona, Cristina; Pertegás, Antonio; Bolink, Henk J; Ortí, Enrique; Sambri, Letizia; Armaroli, Nicola


    Ir(III) cationic complexes with cyclometalating tetrazolate ligands were prepared for the first time, following a two-step strategy based on (i) a silver-assisted cyclometalation reaction of a tetrazole derivative with IrCl3 affording a bis-cyclometalated solvato-complex P ([Ir(ptrz)2(CH3CN)2](+), Hptrz = 2-methyl-5-phenyl-2H-tetrazole); (ii) a substitution reaction with five neutral ancillary ligands to get [Ir(ptrz)2L](+), with L = 2,2'-bypiridine (1), 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine (2), 1,10-phenanthroline (3), and 2-(1-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine (4), and [Ir(ptrz)2L2](+), with L = tert-butyl isocyanide (5). X-ray crystal structures of P, 2, and 3 were solved. Electrochemical and photophysical studies, along with density functional theory calculations, allowed a comprehensive rationalization of the electronic properties of 1-5. In acetonitrile at 298 K, complexes equipped with bipyridine or phenanthroline ancillary ligands (1-3) exhibit intense and structureless emission bands centered at around 540 nm, with metal-to-ligand and ligand-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT/LLCT) character; their photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) are in the range of 55-70%. By contrast, the luminescence band of 5 is weak, structured, and blue-shifted and is attributed to a ligand-centered (LC) triplet state of the tetrazolate cyclometalated ligand. The PLQY of 4 is extremely low (<0.1%) since its lowest level is a nonemissive triplet metal-centered ((3)MC) state. In rigid matrix at 77 K, all of the complexes exhibit intense luminescence. Ligands 1-3 are also strong emitters in solid matrices at room temperature (1% poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix and neat films), with PLQYs in the range of 27-70%. Good quality films of 2 could be obtained to make light-emitting electrochemical cells that emit bright green light and exhibit a maximum luminance of 310 cd m(-2). Tetrazolate cyclometalated ligands push the emission of Ir(III) complexes to the blue, when compared to

  5. Phosphinosilylenes as a novel ligand system for heterobimetallic complexes.


    Breit, Nora C; Eisenhut, Carsten; Inoue, Shigeyoshi


    A dihydrophosphinosilylene iron complex [LSi{Fe(CO)4}PH2] has been prepared and utilized in the synthesis of novel heterobimetallic complexes. The phosphine moiety in this phosphinosilylene complex allows coordination towards tungsten leading to the iron-tungsten heterobimetallic complex [LSi{Fe(CO)4}PH2{W(CO)5}]. In contrast, the reaction of [LSi{Fe(CO)4}PH2] with ethylenebis(triphenylphosphine)platinum(0) results in the formation of the iron-platinum heterobimetallic complex [LSi{Fe(CO)4}PH{PtH(PPh3)2}] via oxidative addition. PMID:26974121

  6. Heterometallic Triiron-Oxo/Hydroxo Clusters: Effect of Redox-Inactive Metals

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, David E.; Lionetti, Davide; Rittle, Jonathan; Agapie, Theodor


    A series of tetranuclear oxo/hydroxo clusters comprised of three Fe centers and a redox-inactive metal (M) of various charge is reported. Crystallographic studies show an unprecedented Fe3M(μ4-O)(μ2-OH) core that remains intact upon changing M or the oxidation state of iron. Electrochemical studies reveal that the reduction potentials (E1/2) span a window of 500 mV and depend upon the Lewis acidity of M. Using the pKa of the redox-inactive metal aqua complex as a measure of Lewis acidity, these compounds display a linear dependence between E1/2 and acidity with a slope of ca. 70 mV per pKa unit. The current study of [Fe3MO(OH)] and previous ones of [Mn3MOn] (n = 2, 4) moieties support the generality of the above relationship between the reduction potentials of heterometallic oxido clusters and the Lewis acidity of incorporated cations, as applied to clusters of different redox-active metals. PMID:24304416

  7. Heterometallic triiron-oxo/hydroxo clusters: effect of redox-inactive metals.


    Herbert, David E; Lionetti, Davide; Rittle, Jonathan; Agapie, Theodor


    A series of tetranuclear oxo/hydroxo clusters comprised of three Fe centers and a redox-inactive metal (M) of various charge is reported. Crystallographic studies show an unprecedented Fe3M(μ4-O)(μ2-OH) core that remains intact upon changing M or the oxidation state of iron. Electrochemical studies reveal that the reduction potentials (E1/2) span a window of 500 mV and depend upon the Lewis acidity of M. Using the pKa of the M-aqua complex as a measure of Lewis acidity, these compounds display a linear dependence between E1/2 and acidity, with a slope of ∼70 mV per pKa unit. The current study of [Fe3MO(OH)] and previous ones of [Mn3MOn] (n = 2,4) moieties support the generality of the above relationship between the reduction potentials of heterometallic oxido clusters and the Lewis acidity of incorporated cations, as applied to clusters of different redox-active metals. PMID:24304416

  8. Gas-phase unfolding and disassembly reveals stability differences in ligand-bound multiprotein complexes.


    Hyung, Suk-Joon; Robinson, Carol V; Ruotolo, Brandon T


    Mass spectrometry (MS) is widely used to assess the binding of small molecules to proteins and their complexes. In many cases, subtle differences in the stability afforded by binding of ligands to protein assemblies cannot be detected by MS. Here we show that monitoring the unfolding of protein subunits, using ion mobility-MS, allows differentiation of the effects of ligand binding not normally observed by MS alone. Using wild-type and disease-associated variants of tetrameric transthyretin, MS data indicate that populations of the variant protein are less stable than wild-type. Ion mobility-MS, however, is able to show that the natural ligand of transthyretin, thyroxine, provides a larger stability increase to the tetramer composed of variant subunits than to the wild-type protein-ligand complex. Overall, therefore, our results have implications for small-molecule drug design directed at multiprotein targets. PMID:19389624

  9. Water oxidation catalyzed by molecular di- and nonanuclear Fe complexes: importance of a proper ligand framework.


    Das, Biswanath; Lee, Bao-Lin; Karlsson, Erik A; Åkermark, Torbjörn; Shatskiy, Andrey; Demeshko, Serhiy; Liao, Rong-Zhen; Laine, Tanja M; Haukka, Matti; Zeglio, Erica; Abdel-Magied, Ahmed F; Siegbahn, Per E M; Meyer, Franc; Kärkäs, Markus D; Johnston, Eric V; Nordlander, Ebbe; Åkermark, Björn


    The synthesis of two molecular iron complexes, a dinuclear iron(iii,iii) complex and a nonanuclear iron complex, based on the dinucleating ligand 2,2'-(2-hydroxy-5-methyl-1,3-phenylene)bis(1H-benzo[d]imidazole-4-carboxylic acid) is described. The two iron complexes were found to drive the oxidation of water by the one-electron oxidant [Ru(bpy)3](3+). PMID:27265239

  10. The synthesis and characterization of new iron coordination complexes utilizing an asymmetric coordinating chelate ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, B.E.; Satcher, J.H.


    A binuclear, unsymmetric coordinating ligand that is an effective metal chelator has been designed and synthesized. The new ligand has been shown to react readily with iron(II)/(III) forming a variety of coordination complexes. The binuclear complexes are of significant interest since they represent proof-of-principle for the development of coordinatively asymmetric, binuclear metal chelate compounds. Although this structural type of chelator now appears to be common in biological systems, it has not been previously described for inorganic coordination chemistry. The isolation of oxidation products will be helpful in establishing reaction mechanism(s) of these complexes with molecular oxygen. It is expected that this ligand and derivatives of it will play an important role in the development of bioinorganic complexes that aim to mimic enzyme active sites that function by substrate interaction at only one metal site of a multimetal active site.

  11. Ruthenium(II) complexes containing quinone based ligands: Synthesis, characterization, catalytic applications and DNA interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anitha, P.; Manikandan, R.; Endo, A.; Hashimoto, T.; Viswanathamurthi, P.


    1,2-Naphthaquinone reacts with amines such as semicarbazide, isonicotinylhydrazide and thiosemicarbazide in high yield procedure with the formation of tridentate ligands HLn (n = 1-3). By reaction of ruthenium(II) starting complexes and quinone based ligands HLn (n = 1-3), a series of ruthenium complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental and spectroscopic methods (FT-IR, electronic, 1H, 13C, 31P NMR and ESI-MS). The ligands were coordinated to ruthenium through quinone oxygen, imine nitrogen and enolate oxygen/thiolato sulfur. On the basis of spectral studies an octahedral geometry may be assigned for all the complexes. Further, the catalytic oxidation of primary, secondary alcohol and transfer hydrogenation of ketone was carried out. The DNA cleavage efficiency of new complexes has also been tested.

  12. Near-Infrared Phosphorescent Iridium(III) Benzonorrole Complexes Possessing Pyridine-based Axial Ligands.


    Maurya, Yogesh Kumar; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Kawabe, Yasunori; Ishida, Masatoshi; Toganoh, Motoki; Mori, Shigeki; Yasutake, Yuhsuke; Fukatsu, Susumu; Furuta, Hiroyuki


    Novel near-infrared phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes based on benzo-annulated N-linked corrole analogue (termed as benzonorrole) were synthesized. The structures of the complexes revealed octahedral coordination geometries involving an organometallic iridium-carbon bond with two external axial ligands. Interestingly, the iridium(III) complex exhibits near-infrared phosphorescence at room temperature at wavelengths beyond 900 nm. The significant redshift of the emission, as compared to the corrole congener, is originated from the ligand-centered triplet character. The fine-tuning of the photophysical properties of the complexes was achieved by introducing electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents on the axial pyridine ligands. PMID:27249778

  13. Dinuclear palladium complexes with two ligand-centered radicals and a single bridging ligand: subtle tuning of magnetic properties.


    Broere, Daniël L J; Demeshko, Serhiy; de Bruin, Bas; Pidko, Evgeny A; Reek, Joost N H; Siegler, Maxime A; Lutz, Martin; van der Vlugt, Jarl Ivar


    The facile and tunable preparation of unique dinuclear [(L(⋅))Pd-X-Pd(L(⋅))] complexes (X = Cl or N3), bearing a ligand radical on each Pd, is disclosed, as well as their magnetochemistry in solution and solid state is reported. Chloride abstraction from [PdCl(NNO(ISQ))] (NNO(ISQ) = iminosemiquinonato) with TlPF6 results in an unusual monochlorido-bridged dinuclear open-shell diradical species, [{Pd(NNO(ISQ))}2(μ-Cl)](+), with an unusually small Pd-Cl-Pd angle (ca. 93°, determined by X-ray). This suggests an intramolecular d(8)-d(8) interaction, which is supported by DFT calculations. SQUID measurements indicate moderate antiferromagnetic spin exchange between the two ligand radicals and an overall singlet ground state in the solid state. VT EPR spectroscopy shows a transient signal corresponding to a triplet state between 20 and 60 K. Complex 2 reacts with PPh3 to generate [Pd(NNO(ISQ))(PPh3)](+) and one equivalent of [PdCl(NNO(ISQ))]. Reacting an 1:1 mixture of [PdCl(NNO(ISQ))] and [Pd(N3)(NNO(ISQ))] furnishes the 1,1-azido-bridged dinuclear diradical [{Pd(NNO(ISQ))}2(κ(1)-N;μ-N3](+), with a Pd-N-Pd angle close to 127° (X-ray). Magnetic and EPR measurements indicate two independent S = 1/2 spin carriers and no magnetic interaction in the solid state. The two diradical species both show no spin exchange in solution, likely because of unhindered rotation around the Pd-X-Pd core. This work demonstrates that a single bridging atom can induce subtle and tunable changes in structural and magnetic properties of novel dinuclear Pd complexes featuring two ligand-based radicals. PMID:25735905

  14. Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Production by an Aluminum(III) Complex: Ligand-Based Proton and Electron Transfer.


    Thompson, Emily J; Berben, Louise A


    Environmentally sustainable hydrogen-evolving electrocatalysts are key in a renewable fuel economy, and ligand-based proton and electron transfer could circumvent the need for precious metal ions in electrocatalytic H2 production. Herein, we show that electrocatalytic generation of H2 by a redox-active ligand complex of Al(3+) occurs at -1.16 V vs. SCE (500 mV overpotential). PMID:26249108

  15. Asymmetric ligand-exchange reaction of biphenol derivatives and chiral bis(oxazolinyl)phenyl-rhodium complex.


    Inoue, Hiroko; Ito, Jun-ichi; Kikuchi, Makoto; Nishiyama, Hisao


    Chiral bis(oxazolinyl)phenyl-rhodium acetate complex can enantioselectively capture 1,1'-binaphthol derivatives by ligand-exchange reaction. The structure of the bis(oxazolinyl)phenyl-rhodium biphenol and binaphthol complexes were confirmed by X-ray analysis. PMID:18496824

  16. New Ruthenium Complexes Based on Tetradentate Bipyridine Ligands for Catalytic Hydrogenation of Esters.


    Wang, Fangyuan; Tan, Xuefeng; Lv, Hui; Zhang, Xumu


    New bipyridinemethanamine-containing tetradentate ligands and their corresponding ruthenium complexes have been synthesized. The synthesized complexes performed well in the hydrogenation of a variety of esters with high efficiency (TON up to 9700) giving alcohols in good yields. PMID:27385062

  17. Connecting mononuclear dysprosium single-molecule magnets to form dinuclear complexes via in situ ligand oxidation.


    Yutronkie, Nathan J; Kühne, Irina A; Korobkov, Ilia; Brusso, Jaclyn L; Murugesu, Muralee


    A Dy2 complex, exhibiting SMM behaviour, and its Y analogue were prepared via in situ oxidation of Py2TTA, a pincer type ligand, followed by dimerisation. This unique metal complexation and subsequent dimerization were followed by solution NMR studies. PMID:26567706

  18. Four transition metal complexes with a semicarbazone ligand bearing pyrazine unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hong; Ma, Xiu-qin; Lv, Yan-yun; Jia, Lei; Xu, Jun; Wang, Yuan; Ge, Zhi-jun


    Four new complexes based on L (where L = 3-ethyl-2-acetylpyrazine semicarbazone), namely [CoL2]Cl2·0.5H2O (1), [CoL2](NO3)2 (2), [CdL(H2O)2(NO3)](NO3)·H2O (3) and [CuL(CH3OH)Cl2]·[CuLCl2] (4) have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction analyses. The results show that the semicarbazone acts as a tridentate neutral ligand in all complexes. Each of complex 1 and 2 reveals a distorted octahedral geometry around the metal ion provided by two units of the ligand, while the ratio of the ligand and metal is 1:1 in complexes 3 and 4. The effect of complexes 1-4 on cell proliferation, apoptosis of human pancreatic cancer (Patu8988), human gastric cancer (SGC7901) and human hepatic cancer (SMMC7721) cell lines have been detected by MTT assay, Annexin V/PI double staining flow cytometry and TUNEL assay. The results show that complexes 1-4 can inhibit cell proliferation of Patu8988, SGC7901 and SMMC7721 cells, significantly higher than the effect of the ligand. However, the complex 4 reveals higher apoptosis rate, and displays up-regulated expression level of caspase 3, detected by western blotting, which also indicates the complex 4 can induce caspase-dependent cell apoptosis in SMMC7721.

  19. Affinity of An(VI) for N4-Tetradentate Donor Ligands: Complexation of the Actinyl(VI) Ions with N4-Tetradentate Ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, Mark; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Nash, Kenneth L.


    In this report the affinity of four N4-tetradentate ligands that incorporate the 2- methylpyridyl functionality with hexavalent actinides (AnO2+2 ) has been investigated in methanol solution. The ligands studied include N,N*-bis(2-methylpyridyl)diaminoethane (BPMDAE), N,N-bis(2-methylpyridyl)-1,3-diaminopropane (BPMDAP), N,N*-bis(2-pyridylmethyl) piperazine (BPMPIP), and trans-N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane (BPMDAC). Conditional stability constants describing the strength of the interaction were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry. The log10K101 values for both U(VI) and Pu(VI) are comparable and show the same trend of stability with ligand structure. Dinuclear complexes are also indicated as being important. The log10K201 values for Pu(VI) complexation with the N4-ligands are identical for the four ligands (within experimental error), indicating that the structure of the ligand backbone has little effect on the stability of the (PuO2)2L2+ complex. The exception to this trend is the behavior of N,N*- bis(2-pyridylmethyl)piperazine (BPMPIP) with Pu(VI). This ligand displays a tendency to reduce Pu(VI) within the experimental time frame of 45 minutes. BPMPIP is the only ligand tested that contains tertiary amines in the ligand backbone. The decomposition of BPMPIP by Pu(VI) suggests a susceptibility of tertiary amines to oxidative degradation.

  20. Reductive Cleavage of CO2 by Metal-Ligand-Cooperation Mediated by an Iridium Pincer Complex.


    Feller, Moran; Gellrich, Urs; Anaby, Aviel; Diskin-Posner, Yael; Milstein, David


    A unique mode of stoichiometric CO2 activation and reductive splitting based on metal-ligand-cooperation is described. The novel Ir hydride complexes [((t)Bu-PNP*)Ir(H)2] (2) ((t)Bu-PNP*, deprotonated (t)Bu-PNP ligand) and [((t)Bu-PNP)Ir(H)] (3) react with CO2 to give the dearomatized complex [((t)Bu-PNP*)Ir(CO)] (4) and water. Mechanistic studies have identified an adduct in which CO2 is bound to the ligand and metal, [((t)Bu-PNP-COO)Ir(H)2] (5), and a di-CO2 iridacycle [((t)Bu-PNP)Ir(H)(C2O4-κC,O)] (6). DFT calculations confirm the formation of 5 and 6 as reversibly formed side products, and suggest an η(1)-CO2 intermediate leading to the thermodynamic product 4. The calculations support a metal-ligand-cooperation pathway in which an internal deprotonation of the benzylic position by the η(1)-CO2 ligand leads to a carboxylate intermediate, which further reacts with the hydride ligand to give complex 4 and water. PMID:27124097

  1. Stereochemical Properties of Multidentate Nitrogen Donor Ligands and Their Copper Complexes by Electronic CD and DFT.


    Poopari, Mohammad Reza; Dezhahang, Zahra; Xu, Yunjie


    UV-Vis and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy, complemented with Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations, were used to elucidate the structural diversities of three multidentate nitrogen donor ligands and two associated copper complexes in solution directly. The three chiral salen ligands all consist of trans-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine as a chiral scaffold and also of pyridine rings as chromophores, differing only in the linking groups between the two functional groups mentioned above. Very different ECD intensities and somewhat different ECD patterns were observed for these ligands and satisfactorily interpreted theoretically. For the geometry optimization and spectral simulation of the open-shell metal complexes, the LANL2DZ basis set with effective core potential for the Cu and Cl atoms and pure cc-pVTZ for the rest of the atoms was utilized. The performance of the same calculations with the polarization functions (f,g) from the cc-pVTZ basis added to the LANL2DZ basis was compared. While the three ligands exhibit different conformational flexibility, the associated copper complexes show great rigidity imposed by the metal-ligand coordination, taking on a single structure in each case. In addition, dispersion interactions were shown to change the conformational stability ordering of the ligands noticeably and to exert considerable influence on the simulated UV-Vis and ECD spectra. Chirality 28:545-555, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27349956

  2. Synthesis, spectral and electrochemical studies of binuclear Ru(III) complexes containing dithiosemicarbazone ligand.


    Kanchana Devi, A; Ramesh, R


    Synthesis of several new octahedral binuclear ruthenium(III) complexes of the general composition [(EPh3)2(X)Ru-L-Ru(X)(EPh3)2] containing benzene dithiosemicarbazone ligands (where E=P or As; X=Cl or Br; L=binucleating ligands) is presented. All the complexes have been fully characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-vis and EPR spectroscopy together with magnetic susceptibility measurements. IR study shows that the dithiosemicarbazone ligands behave as dianionic tridentate ligands coordinating through the oxygen atom of the deprotonated phenolic group, nitrogen atom of the azomethine group and thiolate sulphur. In DMF solution, all the complexes exhibit intense d-d transition and ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) transition in the visible region. The magnetic moment values of the complexes are in the range 1.78-1.82 BM, which reveals the presence of one unpaired electron on each metal ion. The EPR spectra of the liquid samples at LNT show the presence of three different 'g' values (gx≠gy≠gz) indicate a rhombic distortion around the ruthenium ion. All the complexes exhibit two quasi-reversible one electron oxidation responses (Ru(III)-Ru(III)/Ru(III)-Ru(IV); Ru(III)-Ru(IV)/Ru(IV)-Ru(IV)) within the E1/2 range of 0.61-0.74 V and 0.93-0.98 V respectively, versus Ag/AgCl. PMID:23988528

  3. Synthesis, spectral and electrochemical studies of binuclear Ru(III) complexes containing dithiosemicarbazone ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanchana Devi, A.; Ramesh, R.


    Synthesis of several new octahedral binuclear ruthenium(III) complexes of the general composition [(EPh3)2(X)Ru-L-Ru(X)(EPh3)2] containing benzene dithiosemicarbazone ligands (where E = P or As; X = Cl or Br; L = binucleating ligands) is presented. All the complexes have been fully characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-vis and EPR spectroscopy together with magnetic susceptibility measurements. IR study shows that the dithiosemicarbazone ligands behave as dianionic tridentate ligands coordinating through the oxygen atom of the deprotonated phenolic group, nitrogen atom of the azomethine group and thiolate sulphur. In DMF solution, all the complexes exhibit intense d-d transition and ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) transition in the visible region. The magnetic moment values of the complexes are in the range 1.78-1.82 BM, which reveals the presence of one unpaired electron on each metal ion. The EPR spectra of the liquid samples at LNT show the presence of three different 'g' values (gx ≠ gy ≠ gz) indicate a rhombic distortion around the ruthenium ion. All the complexes exhibit two quasi-reversible one electron oxidation responses (RuIII-RuIII/RuIII-RuIV; RuIII-RuIV/RuIV-RuIV) within the E1/2 range of 0.61-0.74 V and 0.93-0.98 V respectively, versus Ag/AgCl.

  4. Circularly Polarized Luminescence in Enantiopure Europium and Terbium Complexes with Modular, All-Oxygen Donor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, Michael; Do, King; Ingram, Andrew J.; Moore, Evan G.; Muller, Gilles; Raymond, Kenneth N.


    Abstract: Circulaly polarized luminescence from terbium(III) complexed and excited by chiral antenna ligands gives strong emission The modular synthesis of three new octadentate, enantiopure ligands are reported - one with the bidentate chelating unit 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) and two with 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (1,2-HOPO) units. A new design principle is introduced for the chiral, non-racemic hexamines which constitute the central backbones for the presented class of ligands. The terbium(III) complex of the IAM ligand, as well as the europium(III) complexes of the 1,2-HOPO ligands are synthesized and characterized by various techniques (NMR, UV, CD, luminescence spectroscopy). All species exhibit excellent stability and moderate to high luminescence efficiency (quantum yields ΦEu = 0.05–0.08 and ΦTb = 0.30–0.57) in aqueous solution at physiological pH. Special focus is put onto the properties of the complexes in regard to circularly polarized luminescence (CPL). The maximum luminescence dissymmetry factors (glum) in aqueous solution are high with |glum|max = 0.08 – 0.40. Together with the very favorable general properties (good stability, high quantum yields, long lifetimes), the presented lanthanide complexes can be considered as good candidates for analytical probes based on CPL in biologically relevant environments. PMID:19639983

  5. Rhodium Complex with Ethylene Ligands Supported on Highly Dehydroxylated MgO: Synthesis, Characterization, and Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Bhirud,V.; Ehresmann, J.; Kletnieks, P.; Haw, J.; Gates, B.


    Mononuclear rhodium complexes with reactive olefin ligands, supported on MgO powder, were synthesized by chemisorption of Rh(C2H4)2(C5H7O2) and characterized by infrared (IR), {sup 13}C MAS NMR, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopies. IR spectra show that the precursor adsorbed on MgO with dissociation of acetylacetonate ligand from rhodium, with the ethylene ligands remaining bound to the rhodium, as confirmed by the NMR spectra. EXAFS spectra give no evidence of Rh-Rh contributions, indicating that site-isolated mononuclear rhodium species formed on the support. The EXAFS data also show that the mononuclear complex was bonded to the support by two Rh-O bonds, at a distance of 2.18 Angstroms, which is typical of group 8 metals bonded to oxide supports. This is the first simple and nearly uniform supported mononuclear rhodium-olefin complex, and it appears to be a close analogue of molecular catalysts for olefin hydrogenation in solution. Correspondingly, the ethylene ligands bonded to rhodium in the supported complex were observed to react with H{sub 2} to form ethane, and the supported complex was catalytically active for the ethylene hydrogenation at 298 K. The ethylene ligands also underwent facile exchange with C{sub 2}D{sub 4}, and exposure of the sample to carbon monoxide led to the formation of rhodium gem dicarbonyls.

  6. Synthesis, Characterization, and Reactivity Studies of Iron Complexes Supported by the Redox-Active [ONO] Ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Janice Lin

    The work reported herein primarily focuses on the development of new platforms for multi-electron reactivity using iron complexes supported by a redox-active pincer-type ligand. This dissertation details the synthesis, characterization, and reactivity of iron complexes coordinated to the redox-active [ONO] ([ONO]H3 = bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-phenol)amine) ligand. Chapter 1 provides a general background on ligand-centered and metal-centered redox reactivity. Specifically, the characteristics of redox-active ligands and their ability to promote multi-electron reactivity at redox-inert metal centers is presented. In addition, iron-catalyzed organic transformations in which the metal center undergoes redox changes is also discussed. Finally, ligand-enabled redox reactions mediated by iron complexes containing redox-active ligands is described. Chapter 2 reports on the complexation of bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-phenoxy)amine, [ONHO], and the redox-active [ONO] ligands by iron centers to afford a new family of iron complexes. Characterizations of each compound through a battery of analytical techniques reveal the oxidation states of the metal center and ligand. Furthermore, the electronic properties of each complex were investigated in order to evaluate their potential to facilitate multi-electron reactivity. Chapter 3 details the reactivity of the [ONO]Fe platform. Metathesis reactions are conducted with [ONOq]FeIIIX 2 (X = Cl, N[SiMe3]2) complexes, demonstrating the capability of the fully-oxidized [ONOq]1-- to act as a two-electron acceptor to generate the fully reduced [ONO cat]3-- that is coordinated to an iron(III) center. Similarly, oxidation of [ONOcat]FeIII(py) 3 (py = pyridine) using dihalogens result in two-electron oxidations of the tridentate ligand while the metal oxidation state remains the same. These redox reactions showcase the ability of the [ONO] ligand platform to undergo reversible two-electron oxidation state changes, allowing multi-electron reactivity

  7. Ligand Rearrangements of Organometallic Complexes inSolution

    SciTech Connect

    Shanoski, Jennifer E.


    Many chemical reactions utilize organometallic complexes as catalysts. These complexes find use in reactions as varied as bond activation, polymerization, and isomerization. This thesis outlines the construction of a new ultrafast laser system with an emphasis on the generation of tunable mid-infrared pulses, data collection, and data analysis.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and biological activity of new mixed ligand complexes of Zn(II) naproxen with nitrogen based ligands.


    Abu Ali, Hijazi; Fares, Hadeel; Darawsheh, Mohanad; Rappocciolo, Emilia; Akkawi, Mutaz; Jaber, Suhair


    A series of novel Zn(II) complexes [Zn2(nap)4] (1), [Zn(nap)21,10-phen](2), [Zn(nap)22,9-dmphen] (3), [Zn(nap)2(2-ampy)2] (4), [Zn(nap)2(imid)2] (5), [Zn(nap)2(1,2-dmimid)2] (6) (nap = naproxen, 1,10-phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, 2,9-dmphen = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline, 2-ampy = 2-aminopyridine, imid = imidazole, 1,2-dmimid = 1,2-dimethyl imidazole) were synthesized and characterized using IR, UV-Vis, (1)H NMR, (13)C{(1)H} NMR spectroscopy. The crystal structure of complex 3 was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In order to assess the effect of the metal ions on the anti-bacterial activity, complexes 1-6 have been screened in vitro, against (G(+)) bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus) and (G(-)) bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli) using the agar well diffusion method. Complex 2 was the only complex that showed antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa, where the complexation of the parent ligand 1,10-phenathroline enhanced significantly the activity. All the complexes showed different activity against the different bacteria, and were compared with activity of the parent ligands. The complexes were tested also for their anti-malarial activity using two methods: a semi-quantitative micro-assay and a previously self-developed quantitative in-vitro method. Both were used to study the efficiency of these complexes in inhibiting the formation of the Malaria pigment. This is considered an important target of many known anti-malarial drugs such as Chloroquine and Amodaquine. Results showed that the efficiency of complex 3 in preventing the formation of β-hematin was 75%. The efficiency of Amodiaquine as a standard drug was reported to give 92.5. PMID:25462227

  9. Synthesis and anti-fungicidal activity of some transition metal complexes with benzimidazole dithiocarbamate ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Gehad G.; Ibrahim, Nasser A.; Attia, Hanaa A. E.


    Seven transition metal complexes of benzimidazole ligand (HL) are reported and characterized based on elemental analyses, IR, solid reflectance, magnetic moment, molar conductance and thermal analyses (TGA and DTA). From the obtained data, the complexes were proposed to have the general formulae [MX 2(HL)(H 2O)]· yH 2O, where M = Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cr(III); X = Cl -, SO 42- and y = 0-4. The molar conductance data revealed that all the metal chelates were non-electrolytes. From the magnetic and solid reflectance spectra, it was found that the geometrical structure of these complexes is octahedral. The thermal behaviour of these chelates showed that the hydrated complexes loss water molecules of hydration in the first step followed immediately by decomposition of the anions and ligand molecules in the subsequent steps. Fungicidal activity of the prepared complexes and free ligand was evaluated against three soil borne fungi. Data obtained showed the higher biological activity of the prepared complexes than the parent Schiff base ligand. Formulation of the most potent complex was carried out in the form of 25% WP. Fungicidal activity of the new formulation was evaluated and compared with the standard fungicide Pencycuron (Monceren 25% WP). In most cases, the new formulation possessed higher fungicidal activity than the standard fungicide under the laboratory conditions.

  10. Macrocyclic bis(ureas) as ligands for anion complexation

    PubMed Central

    Kretschmer, Claudia; Dittmann, Gertrud


    Summary Two macrocyclic bis(ureas) 1 and 2, both based on diphenylurea, have been synthesized. Compound 1 represents the smaller ring with two ethynylene groups as linkers and 2 the larger ring with two butadiynylene groups. On thermal treatment to 130 °C molecule 1 splits up into two dihydroindoloquinolinone (3) molecules. Both compounds 1 and 2 form adducts with polar molecules such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and dimethylformamide (DMF) and act as complexing agents towards a series of anions (Cl−, Br−, I−, NO3 −, HSO4 −). The crystal structures of 3, 2·2DMSO, 2·2DMF, and of the complex NEt4[Br·2] have been determined. Quantitative investigations of the complexation equilibria were performed via 1H NMR titrations. While 1 is a rather weak complexing agent, the large ring of 2 binds anions with association constants up to log K = 7.93 for chloride ions. PMID:25161744

  11. Uranium complexes with amide, alkoxide and thiolate ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ephritikhine, Michel


    Alkoxide, hydroxide and mu-oxo complexes of U(IV) have been synthesized by (a) the reaction of alcohols, ketones and water with hydride or borohydride derivatives, (b) the coupling reaction of ketones with UCl4 in the presence of sodium amalgam; (c) the reduction of CO2 by (U(C5H4SiMe3)3) or (U(C5H4SiMe3)3H); (d) the deoxygenation of CO by (U(C5H5)3R) complexes; and (e) condensation reactions of alkoxide and hydroxide compounds. Thiolate complexes were made by the treatment of uranium borohydride or hydride compounds with thiols. The reaction of UCl4 with NaSR reagents afforded the homoleptic thiolate complexes ((THF)3Na(mu-SR)3U(mu-SR)3Na(THF)3). Amide compounds, including U(V) derivatives, were prepared from U(NEt 2)4.

  12. CO2 hydrogenation catalyzed by iridium complexes with a proton-responsive ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Naoya; Xu, Shaoan; Manaka, Yuichi; Suna, Yuki; Wang, Wan -Hui; Muckerman, James T.; Fujita, Etsuko; Himeda, Yuichiro


    In this study, the catalytic cycle for the production of formic acid by CO₂ hydrogenation and the reverse reaction has received renewed attention because they are viewed as offering a viable scheme for hydrogen storage and release. In this Forum Article, CO₂ hydrogenation catalyzed by iridium complexes bearing N^N-bidentate ligands is reported. We describe how a ligand containing hydroxyl groups as proton-responsive substituents enhances catalytic performance by an electronic effect of the oxyanions and a pendent-base effect through secondary coordination sphere interaction. In particular, [(Cp*IrCl)₂(TH2BPM)]Cl₂ (Cp* = pentamethyl cyclopentadienyl, TH2BPM = 4,4',6,6'-tetrahydroxy-2,2'-bipyrimidine) promotes enormously the catalytic hydrogenation of CO₂ by these synergistic effects under atmospheric pressure and at room temperature. Additionally, newly designed complexes with azole-type ligands are applied to CO₂ hydrogenation. The catalytic efficiencies of the azole-type complexes are much higher than that of the unsubstituted bipyridine complex [Cp*Ir(bpy)(OH₂)]SO₄. Furthermore, the introduction of one or more hydroxyl groups into ligands such as 2-pyrazolyl-6-hydroxypyridine, 2-pyrazolyl-4,6-dihydroxyl pyrimidine, and 4-pyrazolyl-2,6-dihydroxyl pyrimidine enhanced catalytic activity. It is clear that the incorporation of electron-donating hydroxyl groups into proton-responsive ligands is effective for promoting the hydrogenation of CO₂.

  13. CO2 hydrogenation catalyzed by iridium complexes with a proton-responsive ligand


    Onishi, Naoya; Xu, Shaoan; Manaka, Yuichi; Suna, Yuki; Wang, Wan -Hui; Muckerman, James T.; Fujita, Etsuko; Himeda, Yuichiro


    In this study, the catalytic cycle for the production of formic acid by CO₂ hydrogenation and the reverse reaction has received renewed attention because they are viewed as offering a viable scheme for hydrogen storage and release. In this Forum Article, CO₂ hydrogenation catalyzed by iridium complexes bearing N^N-bidentate ligands is reported. We describe how a ligand containing hydroxyl groups as proton-responsive substituents enhances catalytic performance by an electronic effect of the oxyanions and a pendent-base effect through secondary coordination sphere interaction. In particular, [(Cp*IrCl)₂(TH2BPM)]Cl₂ (Cp* = pentamethyl cyclopentadienyl, TH2BPM = 4,4',6,6'-tetrahydroxy-2,2'-bipyrimidine) promotes enormously the catalytic hydrogenation of CO₂ bymore » these synergistic effects under atmospheric pressure and at room temperature. Additionally, newly designed complexes with azole-type ligands are applied to CO₂ hydrogenation. The catalytic efficiencies of the azole-type complexes are much higher than that of the unsubstituted bipyridine complex [Cp*Ir(bpy)(OH₂)]SO₄. Furthermore, the introduction of one or more hydroxyl groups into ligands such as 2-pyrazolyl-6-hydroxypyridine, 2-pyrazolyl-4,6-dihydroxyl pyrimidine, and 4-pyrazolyl-2,6-dihydroxyl pyrimidine enhanced catalytic activity. It is clear that the incorporation of electron-donating hydroxyl groups into proton-responsive ligands is effective for promoting the hydrogenation of CO₂.« less

  14. Complexation of N4-Tetradentate Ligands with Nd(III) and Am(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, Mark D.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Meier, G. Patrick; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Nash, Kenneth L.


    To improve understanding of aza-complexants in trivalent actinide–lanthanide separations, a series of tetradentate N-donor ligands have been synthesized and their complexation of americium(III) and neodymium(III) investigated by UV–visible spectrophotometry in methanolic solutions. The six pyridine/alkyl amine/imine ligands are N,N0-bis(2-methylpyridyl)-1,2-diaminoethane, N,N0-bis(2-methylpyridyl)-1,3-diaminopropane, trans-N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane (BPMDAC), N,N’-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)piperazine, N,N’-bis-[pyridin-2-ylmethylene]ethane-1,2-diamine, and trans-N,Nbis-([pyridin-2-ylmethylene]-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine. Each ligand has two pyridine groups and two aliphatic amine/imine N-donor atoms arranged with different degrees of preorganization and structural backbone rigidity. Conditional stability constants for the complexes of Am(III) and Nd(III) by these ligands establish the selectivity patterns. The overall selectivity of Am(III) over Nd(III) is similar to that reported for the terdentate bis(dialkyltriazinyl)pyridine molecules. The cyclohexane amine derivative (BPMDAC) is the strongest complexant and shows the highest selectivity for Am(III) over Nd(III) while the imines appear to prefer a bridging arrangement between two cations. These results suggest that this series of ligands could be employed to develop an enhanced actinide(III)– lanthanide(III) separation system.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and luminescent properties of lanthanide complexes with a novel multipodal ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhen-Zhong; Hou, Na; Wang, Cong-Min


    Solid complexes of lanthanide nitrates with an novel multipodal ligand, 1,2,4,5-tetramethyl-3,6-bis{N,N-bis[((2‧-furfurylaminoformyl)phenoxyl)ethyl]-aminomethyl}-benzene (L) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectra and molar conductivity measurements. At the same time, the luminescent properties of the Sm(III), Eu(III), Tb(III) and Dy(III) nitrate complexes in solid state were investigated. Under the excitation of UV light, these complexes exhibited characteristic emission of central metal ions. The lowest triplet state energy level of the ligand indicates that the triplet state energy level (T1) of the ligand matches better the resonance level of Tb(III) than other lanthanide ions.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and luminescent properties of lanthanide complexes with a novel multipodal ligand.


    Yan, Zhen-Zhong; Hou, Na; Wang, Cong-Min


    Solid complexes of lanthanide nitrates with an novel multipodal ligand, 1,2,4,5-tetramethyl-3,6-bis{N,N-bis[((2'-furfurylaminoformyl)phenoxyl)ethyl]-aminomethyl}-benzene (L) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectra and molar conductivity measurements. At the same time, the luminescent properties of the Sm(III), Eu(III), Tb(III) and Dy(III) nitrate complexes in solid state were investigated. Under the excitation of UV light, these complexes exhibited characteristic emission of central metal ions. The lowest triplet state energy level of the ligand indicates that the triplet state energy level (T1) of the ligand matches better the resonance level of Tb(III) than other lanthanide ions. PMID:25305620

  17. Copper(II) complexes with heterocyclic hydroxyimino-containing ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, V.A.; Burlov, A.S.; Popov, L.D.; Lukov, V.V.; Koshchienko, Yu.V.; Tsupak, E.B.; Barchan, G.P.; Chigarenko, G.G.; Bolotnikov, V.S.


    The reaction of oximes (R = Ph (L'), C=N (L'')) with the copper(II) salts CuA/sub 2/ in methanol has given the complexes CuL/sub 2/ ' x H/sub 2/O and CuL/sub 2//sup ''/ x 2H/sub 2/O (I) (A = Acet/sup -/), CuHLCl/sub 2/ x H/sub 2/O (II) (A = Cl/sup -/), CuLOH(ClO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ x 2H/sub 2/O (III) (A = ClO/sub 4//sup -/) and the complexes Cu/sub 3/L/sub 3//sup '/OH(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ and Cu/sub 3/L/sub 3//sup ''/(OH)/sub 2/NO/sub 3/ (IV) (A = NO/sub 3//sup -/). Their physicochemical properties have been studied by the methods of IR spectroscopy and magnetochemistry. It has been shown that complexes I have a chelate structure and that their magnetic moments are not dependent on the temperature. An anti-ferromagnetic exchange interaction takes place in complexes II-IV. On the basis of magnetochemical measurements over a broad temperature range and data calculated in the framework of the Heisenberg-Dirac-Van Vleck model of isotropic exchange interactions, a dimeric structure has been proposed for the complexes of type II, and a trinuclear cluster structure has been proposed for complexes III and IV.

  18. Effect of complexing ligands on the adsorption of Cu(II) onto the silica gel surface. 2: Adsorption of Cu(II)-ligand complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.J.; Jung, K.H.; Park, K.K.


    The effect of complexing ligands on the adsorption of Cu(II) onto silica gel was investigated in aqueous solution. The adsorption was conspicuously enhanced by 2,2{prime},6{prime},2{double_prime}-terpyridine, 2-pyridine methanol and 2-aminomethyl pyridine, as compared to non-complexed Cu{sup 2+} ions. This enhancement was attributed to both hydrophobic interaction in the low pH region and the formation of ternary surface complexes in the high pH region. It was attenuated by picolinic acid, salicylic acid, and 5-sulfosalicylic acid due to the competition of dissolved ligands and silanol groups with Cu{sup 2+} ions. In the presence of pyridine or 3,4-lutidine, the adsorption was slightly increased, as compared to non-complexed Cu{sup 2+} ions. In both cases, the adsorption at low pH was interpreted in terms of the type B ternary surface complex formation. For 2-pyridine methanol, the formation of cyclic ternary surface complexes was proposed. The Stern model was adopted for the treatment of the adsorption data in the present study.

  19. Photophysical studies of metal to ligand charge transfer involving quadruply bonded complexes of molybdenum and tungsten.


    Chisholm, Malcolm H; Brown-Xu, Samantha E; Spilker, Thomas F


    Photoinduced metal-to-ligand charge transfer transitions afford numerous applications in terms of photon energy harvesting. The majority of metal complexes studied to date involve diamagnetic systems of d(6), d(8), and d(10) transition metals. These typically have very short-lived, ∼100 fs, singlet metal to ligand charge transfer ((1)MLCT) states that undergo intersystem crossing to triplet metal to ligand charge transfer ((3)MLCT) states that are longer lived and are responsible for much of the photophysical studies. In contrast, the metal-metal quadruply bonded complexes of molybdenum and tungsten supported by carboxylate, O2CR, and related amidinate ligands (RN)2C(R') have relatively long-lived (1)MLCT states arising from M2δ to Lπ* transitions. These have lifetimes in the range 1-20 ps prior to intersystem crossing to T1 states that may be (3)MLCT or (3)MMδδ* with lifetimes of 1-100 ns and 1-100 μs, respectively. The M2 quadruply bonded complexes take the form M2L4 or M2L4-nL'n where n = 1-3. Thus, in their photoexcited MLCT states, these compounds pose the question of how the charge resides on the ligands. This Account reviews the current knowledge of how charge is positioned with time in S1 and T1 states with the aid of active IR reported groups located on the ligands, for example, C≡X multiple bonds (X = C, N, or O). Several examples of localized and delocalized charge distributions are noted along with kinetic barriers to the interconversion of MLCT and δδ* states. On the 50th anniversary of the recognition of the MM quadruple bond, these complexes are revealing some remarkable features in the study of the photophysical properties of metal-ligand charge transfer states. PMID:25695495

  20. A Mesoionic Carbene as Neutral Ligand for Phosphorescent Cationic Ir(III) Complexes.


    Baschieri, Andrea; Monti, Filippo; Matteucci, Elia; Mazzanti, Andrea; Barbieri, Andrea; Armaroli, Nicola; Sambri, Letizia


    Two phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes bearing a mesoionic carbene ligand based on 1,2,3-triazolylidene are obtained for the first time. A silver-iridium transmetalation of the in situ-generated mesoionic carbene affords the cationic dichloro complex [Ir(trizpy)2Cl2](+) (3, trizpy = 1-benzyl-3-methyl-4-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-1,2,3-triazolylidene) that reacts with a bis-tetrazolate (b-trz) dianionic ligand to give [Ir(trizpy)2(b-trz)](+) (5). The new compounds are fully characterized by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, and the X-ray structure of 3 is determined. The electrochemical behavior is somewhat different compared to most standard cationic iridium complexes. The first oxidation process is shifted to substantially higher potential in both 3 and 5, due to peculiar and different ligand-induced effects in the two cases, which stabilize the highest occupied molecular orbital; reduction processes are centered on the mesoionic carbene ligands. Both compounds exhibit a mostly ligand-centered luminescence band in the blue-green spectral region, substantially stronger in the case of 5 versus 3, both in CH3CN solution and in poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix at room temperature. Optimized geometries, orbital energies, spin densities, and electronic transitions are determined via density functional theory calculations, which support a full rationalization of the electrochemical and photophysical behavior. This work paves the way for the development of Ir-based emitters with neutral mesoionic carbene ligands and anionic ancillary ligands, a new concept in the area of cationic Ir(III) complexes. PMID:27483041

  1. Rhenium complexes of bidentate, bis-bidentate and tridentate N-heterocyclic carbene ligands.


    Chan, Chung Ying; Barnard, Peter J


    A series of eight Rhenium(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes of the general form [ReCl(CO)3(C^C)] (where C^C is a bis(NHC) bidentate ligand), [ReCl(CO)3(C^C)]2 (where C^C is a bis-bidentate tetra-NHC ligand) and [Re(CO)3(C^N^C)](+)[X](-) (where C^N^C is a bis(NHC)-amine ligand and the counter ion X is either the ReO4(-) or PF6(-)) have been synthesised using a Ag2O transmetallation protocol. The novel precursor imidazolium salts and Re(I) complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and the molecular structures for two imidazolium salt and six Re(I) complexes were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. These NHC ligand systems are of interest for possible applications in the development of Tc-99m or Re-186/188 radiopharmaceuticals and as such the stability of two complexes of the form [ReCl(CO)3(C^C)] and [Re(CO)3(C^N^C)][ReO4] were evaluated in ligand challenge experiments using the metal binding amino acids L-histidine or L-cysteine. These studies showed that the former was unstable, with the chloride ligand being replaced by either cysteine or histidine, while no evidence for transchelation was observed for the latter suggesting that bis(NHC)-amine ligands of this type may be suitable for biological applications. PMID:26477971

  2. Validation of a new restraint docking method for solution structure determinations of protein-ligand complexes.


    Polshakov, V I; Morgan, W D; Birdsall, B; Feeney, J


    A new method is proposed for docking ligands into proteins in cases where an NMR-determined solution structure of a related complex is available. The method uses a set of experimentally determined values for protein-ligand, ligand-ligand, and protein-protein restraints for residues in or near to the binding site, combined with a set of protein-protein restraints involving all the other residues which is taken from the list of restraints previously used to generate the reference structure of a related complex. This approach differs from ordinary docking methods where the calculation uses fixed atomic coordinates from the reference structure rather than the restraints used to determine the reference structure. The binding site residues influenced by replacing the reference ligand by the new ligand were determined by monitoring differences in 1H chemical shifts. The method has been validated by showing the excellent agreement between structures of L. casei dihydrofolate reductase trimetrexate calculated by conventional methods using a full experimentally determined set of restraints and those using this new restraint docking method based on an L. casei dihydrofolate reductase methotrexate reference structure. PMID:10610140

  3. Metal Complexes of Macrocyclic Schiff-Base Ligand: Preparation, Characterisation, and Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Riyadh M.; Yousif, Enaam I.; Hasan, Hasan A.; Al-Jeboori, Mohamad J.


    A new macrocyclic multidentate Schiff-base ligand Na4L consisting of two submacrocyclic units (10,21-bis-iminomethyl-3,6,14,17-tricyclo[,12]tetracosa-1(23),2,6,8,10,12(24),13,17,19,21,-decaene-23,24-disodium) and its tetranuclear metal complexes with Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) are reported. Na4L was prepared via a template approach, which is based on the condensation reaction of sodium 2,4,6-triformyl phenolate with ethylenediamine in mole ratios of 2 : 3. The tetranuclear macrocyclic-based complexes were prepared from the reaction of the corresponding metal chloride with the ligand. The mode of bonding and overall geometry of the compounds were determined through physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. These studies revealed tetrahedral geometries about Mn, Co, and Zn atoms. However, square planar geometries have been suggested for NiII and CuII complexes. Biological activity of the ligand and its metal complexes against Gram positive bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli revealed that the metal complexes become more potentially resistive to the microbial activities as compared to the free ligand. However, these metal complexes do not exhibit any effects on the activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. There is therefore no inhibition zone. PMID:23935414

  4. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Transition Metal Complexes Derived from N, S Bidentate Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Md Yusof, Enis Nadia; Ravoof, Thahira Begum S. A.; Tiekink, Edward R. T.; Veerakumarasivam, Abhimanyu; Crouse, Karen Anne; Mohamed Tahir, Mohamed Ibrahim; Ahmad, Haslina


    Two bidentate NS ligands were synthesized by the condensation reaction of S-2-methylbenzyldithiocarbazate (S2MBDTC) with 2-methoxybenzaldehyde (2MB) and 3-methoxybenzaldehyde (3MB). The ligands were reacted separately with acetates of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) yielding 1:2 (metal:ligand) complexes. The metal complexes formed were expected to have a general formula of [M(NS)2] where M = Cu2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+. These compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility and various spectroscopic techniques. The magnetic susceptibility measurements and spectral results supported the predicted coordination geometry in which the Schiff bases behaved as bidentate NS donor ligands coordinating via the azomethine nitrogen and thiolate sulfur. The molecular structures of the isomeric S2M2MBH (1) and S2M3MBH (2) were established by X-ray crystallography to have very similar l-shaped structures. The Schiff bases and their metal complexes were evaluated for their biological activities against estrogen receptor-positive (MCF-7) and estrogen receptor-negative (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cell lines. Only the Cu(II) complexes showed marked cytotoxicity against the cancer cell lines. Both Schiff bases and other metal complexes were found to be inactive. In concordance with the cytotoxicity studies, the DNA binding studies indicated that Cu(II) complexes have a strong DNA binding affinity. PMID:25988384

  5. Zinc Complexes of Sequential Tetradentate Monoanionic Ligands in the Isoselective Polymerization of rac-Lactide.


    Rosen, Tomer; Popowski, Yanay; Goldberg, Israel; Kol, Moshe


    Zinc complexes of {ONNN}-type sequential tetradentate monoanionic ligands reacted with diethylzinc to give the mononuclear ethylzinc complexes. The benzyloxy complexes were formed readily and were found to be highly active as well as living/immortal catalysts for ring-opening polymerization of rac-lactic acid with a clear isospecific inclination. Chiral gas chromatography analysis revealed a mild preference for a given lactide enantiomer by the chiral catalysts. PMID:27325142

  6. Control of photosubstitution in dinuclear ruthenium polypyridyl complexes by choice of bridging ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, H.P.; Vos, J.G.


    Photochemical studies of [(Ru(bpy){sub 2}){sub 2}(bpzt)]{sup 3+} are discussed. The results are compared with earlier studies on complexes containing the 3,5`-bis(pyridin-2-yl)-1,2,4-triazole (Hbpt). Differences in the {pi}{sup *} levels in Hbpt versus Hbpzt ligands alter the location of the LUMO for the complexes. The objective of these studies is to investigate the photochemistry of these complexes.

  7. Macrocyclic ligands for uranium complexation. Final report, August 1, 1986--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Potts, K.T.


    Macrocycles, designed for complexation of the uranyl ion by computer modeling studies and utilizing six ligating atoms in the equatorial plane of the uranyl ions, have been prepared and their complexation of the uranyl ions evaluated. The ligating atoms, either oxygen or sulfur, were part of acylurea, biuret or thiobiuret subunits with alkane chains or pyridine units completing the macrocyclic periphery. These macrocycles with only partial preorganization formed uranyl complexes in solution but no crystalline complexes were isolated. Refinement of the cavity diameter by variation of the peripheral functional groups is currently studied to achieve an optimized cavity diameter of 4.7--5.2 {angstrom}. Acyclic ligands containing the same ligating atoms in equivalent functional entities were found to form a crystalline 1:1 uranyl-ligand complex (stability constant log K = 10.7) whose structure was established by X-ray data. This complex underwent a facile, DMSO-induced rearrangement to a 2:1 uranyl-ligand complex whose structure was also established by X-ray data. The intermediates to the macrocycles all behaved as excellent ligands for the complexation of transition metals. Acylthiourea complexes of copper and nickel as well as intermolecular, binuclear copper and nickel complexes of bidentate carbonyl thioureas formed readily and their structures were established in several representative instances by X-ray structural determinations. Tetradentate bis(carbonylthioureas) were found to be very efficient selective reagents for the complexation of copper in the presence of nickel ions. Several preorganized macrocycles were also prepared but in most instances these macrocycles underwent ring-opening under complexation conditions.

  8. Modelling of trace metal uptake by roots taking into account complexation by exogenous organic ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean-Marc, Custos; Christian, Moyne; Sterckeman, Thibault


    The context of this study is phytoextraction of soil trace metals such as Cd, Pb or Zn. Trace metal transfer from soil to plant depends on physical and chemical processes such as minerals alteration, transport, adsorption/desorption, reactions in solution and biological processes including the action of plant roots and of associated micro-flora. Complexation of metal ions by organic ligands is considered to play a role on the availability of trace metals for roots in particular in the event that synthetic ligands (EDTA, NTA, etc.) are added to the soil to increase the solubility of the contaminants. As this role is not clearly understood, we wanted to simulate it in order to quantify the effect of organic ligands on root uptake of trace metals and produce a tool which could help in optimizing the conditions of phytoextraction.We studied the effect of an aminocarboxilate ligand on the absorption of the metal ion by roots, both in hydroponic solution and in soil solution, for which we had to formalize the buffer power for the metal. We assumed that the hydrated metal ion is the only form which can be absorbed by the plants. Transport and reaction processes were modelled for a system made up of the metal M, a ligand L and the metal complex ML. The Tinker-Nye-Barber model was adapted to describe the transport of solutes M, L and ML in the soil and absorption of M by the roots. This allowed to represent the interactions between transport, chelating reactions, absorption of the solutes at the root surface, root growth with time, in order to simulate metal uptake by a whole root system.Several assumptions were tested such as i) absorption of the metal by an infinite sink and according to a Michaelis-Menten kinetics, solutes transport by diffusion with and without ii) mass flow and iii) soil buffer power for the ligand L. In hydroponic solution (without soil buffer power), ligands decreased the trace metal flux towards roots, as they reduced the concentration of hydrated

  9. Transition metal complexes bearing NHC ligands substituted with secondary polyfluoroalkyl groups.


    Kolaříková, V; Šimůnek, O; Rybáčková, M; Cvačka, J; Březinová, A; Kvíčala, J


    Using three different approaches, racemic 1-(perfluoroalkyl)ethylamines were synthesized from perfluoroalkyl iodides or perfluoroalkanoic acids, and further transformed to the corresponding N,N'-disubstituted ethane-1,2-diimines and ethane-1,2-diamines as mixtures of diastereoisomers. Their cyclization afforded imidazolium or dihydroimidazolium salts, which led to silver or palladium complexes bearing NHC ligands substituted with secondary polyfluoroalkyl groups. The palladium complexes bearing a throwaway 3-chloropyridine ligand proved to be moderately active in the model Suzuki-Miyaura coupling. PMID:26374142

  10. Voltage clustering in redox-active ligand complexes: mitigating electronic communication through choice of metal ion


    Zarkesh, Ryan A.; Ichimura, Andrew S.; Monson, Todd C.; Tomson, Neil C.; Anstey, Mitchell R.


    We used the redox-active bis(imino)acenapthene (BIAN) ligand to synthesize homoleptic aluminum, chromium, and gallium complexes of the general formula (BIAN)3M. The resulting compounds were characterized using X-ray crystallography, NMR, EPR, magnetic susceptibility and cyclic voltammetry measurements and modeled using both DFT and ab initio wavefunction calculations to compare the orbital contributions of main group elements and transition metals in ligand-based redox events. Ultimately, complexes of this type have the potential to improve the energy density and electrolyte stability of grid-scale energy storage technologies, such as redox flow batteries, through thermodynamically-clustered redox events.

  11. Voltage clustering in redox-active ligand complexes: mitigating electronic communication through choice of metal ion.


    Zarkesh, Ryan A; Ichimura, Andrew S; Monson, Todd C; Tomson, Neil C; Anstey, Mitchell R


    The redox-active bis(imino)acenapthene (BIAN) ligand was used to synthesize homoleptic aluminum, chromium, and gallium complexes of the general formula (BIAN)3M. The resulting compounds were characterized using X-ray crystallography, NMR, EPR, magnetic susceptibility and cyclic voltammetry measurements and modeled using both DFT and ab initio wavefunction calculations to compare the orbital contributions of main group elements and transition metals in ligand-based redox events. Complexes of this type have the potential to improve the energy density and electrolyte stability of grid-scale energy storage technologies, such as redox flow batteries, through thermodynamically-clustered redox events. PMID:26998892

  12. Influence of the ligand field on slow magnetization relaxation versus spin crossover in mononuclear cobalt complexes.


    Habib, Fatemah; Luca, Oana R; Vieru, Veacheslav; Shiddiq, Muhandis; Korobkov, Ilia; Gorelsky, Serge I; Takase, Michael K; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Hill, Stephen; Crabtree, Robert H; Murugesu, Muralee


    The electronic and magnetic properties of the complexes [Co(terpy)Cl2 ] (1), [Co(terpy)(NCS)2 ] (2), and [Co(terpy)2 ](NCS)2 (3) were investigated. The coordination environment around Co(II) in 1 and 2 leads to a high-spin complex at low temperature and single-molecule magnet properties with multiple relaxation pathways. Changing the ligand field and geometry with an additional terpy ligand leads to spin-crossover behavior in 3 with a gradual transition from high spin to low spin. PMID:24009214

  13. In situ synthesis of stable mixed ligand Fe2+ complexes on bipyridinyl functionalized electrodes and nanotube supports.


    Haddad, Raoudha; Gorgy, Karine; Holzinger, Michael; Cosnier, Serge


    A simple method is presented to synthesize asymmetric mixed ligand iron(II) diimine complexes using bipyridinyl functionalized carbon nanotubes. The synthesis of these complexes was realized using subsequent dip coating processes. The in situ formed mixed ligand complexes were used in aqueous media to act as building blocks in biosensor devices. PMID:22582181

  14. Bivalent transition metal complexes of ONO donor hydrazone ligand: Synthesis, structural characterization and antimicrobial activity.


    Bhaskar, Ravindra; Salunkhe, Nilesh; Yaul, Amit; Aswar, Anand


    Mononuclear transition metal complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) with a new hydrazone ligand derived from pyrazine-2-carbohydrazide and 2-hydroxyacetophenone have been synthesized. The isolated complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, spectral and analytical methods including elemental analyses, IR, diffuse reflectance, (1)H-NMR, mass spectra, molar conductance, magnetic moment, ESR, XRD, TG and SEM analysis. From the elemental analyses data, the stoichiometry of the complexes was found to be 1:1 (metal:ligand) having the general formulae [M(HL)(Cl)(H2O)2], [M=Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II)] and [M(L)(H2O)], [M=Zn(II) and Cd(II)]. The molar conductance values indicate the nonelectrolytic nature of metal complexes. The IR spectral data suggest that the ligand behaves as tridentate moiety with ONO donor atoms sequence towards central metal ion. The Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes have been assigned a monomeric octahedral geometry whereas tetrahedral to Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the ligand and its metal complexes were studied against bacterial species Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus pyogenes and fungi Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus clavatus. The activity data show that the metal complexes have a promising biological activity comparable with the parent ligand against all bacterial and fungal species. PMID:26163785

  15. A neutral organometallic fluoro complex can be a good ligand.


    Coue, Laurent; Cuesta, Luciano; Morales, Dolores; Halfen, Jason A; Pérez, Julio; Riera, Lucía; Riera, Víctor; Miguel, Daniel; Connelly, Neil G; Boonyuen, Supakorn


    The reaction of the complex [Mo(OTf)(eta(3)-C(3)H(4)-Me-2)(CO)(2)(phen)] (1) (OTf = trifluoromethylsulfonate; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) with tetrabutylammonium fluoride trihydrate afforded the fluoride complex [MoF(eta(3)-C(3)H(4)-Me-2)(CO)(2)(phen)] (2). The IR spectrum and the oxidation potential of 2 reflect the fact that its metal center is more electron-rich than that of the chloro analogue [MoCl(eta(3)-C(3)H(4)-Me-2)(CO)(2)(phen)]. Compound 2 reacted with 1 affording the homobinuclear complex [[Mo(eta(3)-C(3)H(4)-Me-2)(CO)(2)(phen)](2)(mu-F)][OTf] (3), with a fluoride bridge. Compound 2 also reacts with the species generated in situ by triflate abstraction from [M(OTf)(CO)(3)('N-N')] (M = Mn, Re; 'N-N' = 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy), phen) using NaBAr'(4) (Ar' = 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl), affording the heterobinuclear complexes [[Mo(eta(3)-C(3)H(4)-Me-2)(CO)(2)(phen)](mu-F)[M(CO)(3)('N--N')

  16. Controlled ligand distortion and its consequences for structure, symmetry, conformation and spin-state preferences of iron(II) complexes.


    Kroll, Nicole; Theilacker, Kolja; Schoknecht, Marc; Baabe, Dirk; Wiedemann, Dennis; Kaupp, Martin; Grohmann, Andreas; Hörner, Gerald


    The ligand-field strength in metal complexes of polydentate ligands depends critically on how the ligand backbone places the donor atoms in three-dimensional space. Distortions from regular coordination geometries are often observed. In this work, we study the isolated effect of ligand-sphere distortion by means of two structurally related pentadentate ligands of identical donor set, in the solid state (X-ray diffraction, (57)Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy), in solution (NMR spectroscopy, UV/Vis spectroscopy, conductometry), and with quantum-chemical methods. Crystal structures of hexacoordinate iron(II) and nickel(II) complexes derived from the cyclic ligand L(1) (6-methyl-6-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,4-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-1,4-diazepane) and its open-chain congener L(2) (N(1),N(3),2-trimethyl-2-(pyridine-2-yl)-N(1),N(3)-bis(pyridine-2-ylmethyl) propane-1,3-diamine) reveal distinctly different donor set distortions reflecting the differences in ligand topology. Distortion from regular octahedral geometry is minor for complexes of ligand L(2), but becomes significant in the complexes of the cyclic ligand L(1), where trans elongation of Fe-N bonds cannot be compensated by the rigid ligand backbone. This provokes trigonal twisting of the ligand field. This distortion causes the metal ion in complexes of L(1) to experience a significantly weaker ligand field than in the complexes of L(2), which are more regular. The reduced ligand-field strength in complexes of L(1) translates into a marked preference for the electronic high-spin state, the emergence of conformational isomers, and massively enhanced lability with respect to ligand exchange and oxidation of the central ion. Accordingly, oxoiron(IV) species derived from L(1) and L(2) differ in their spectroscopic properties and their chemical reactivity. PMID:26488906

  17. Rare Earth Metal Complexes of Bidentate Nitroxide Ligands: Synthesis and Electrochemistry.


    Kim, Jee Eon; Bogart, Justin A; Carroll, Patrick J; Schelter, Eric J


    We report rare earth metal complexes with tri- and bidentate ligands including strongly electron-donating nitroxide groups. The tridentate ligand 1,3,5-tris(2'-tert-butylhydroxylaminoaryl)benzene (H3arene-triNOx) was complexed to cerium(IV) in a 2:1 ligand-to-metal stoichiometry as Ce(Harene-triNOx)2 (1). Cyclic voltammetry of this compound showed stabilization of the tetravalent cerium cation with a Ce(IV/III) couple at E1/2 = -1.82 V versus Fc/Fc(+). On the basis of the uninvolvement of the third nitroxide group in the coordination chemistry with the cerium(IV) cation, the ligand system was redesigned toward a simpler bidentate mode, and a series of rare earth metal-arene-diNOx complexes were prepared with La(III), Ce(IV), Pr(III), Tb(III), and Y(III), [RE(arene-diNOx)2](-) ([2-RE](-), RE = La, Pr, Y, Tb) and Ce(IV)(arene-diNOx)2, where H2arene-diNOx = 1,3-bis(2'-tert-butylhydroxylaminoaryl)benzene. The core structures were isostructural throughout the series, with three nitroxide groups in η(2) binding modes and one κ(1) nitroxide group coordinated to the metal center in the solid state. In all cases except Ce(IV)(arene-diNOx)2, electrochemical analysis described two subsequent, ligand-based, quasi-reversible redox waves, indicating that a stable [N-O•] group was generated on the electrochemical time scale. Chemical oxidation of the terbium complex was performed, and isolation of the resulting complex, Tb(arene-diNOx)2·CH2Cl2 (3·CH2Cl2), confirmed the assignment of the cyclic voltammograms. Magnetic data showed no evidence of mixing between the Tb(III) states and the states of the open-shell ligand. PMID:26689656

  18. Ligand Exchange Reaction of Au(I) R-N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes with Cysteine.


    Dos Santos, H F; Vieira, M A; Sánchez Delgado, G Y; Paschoal, D


    The chemotherapy with gold complexes has been attempted since the 90s after the clinical success of auranofin, a gold(I) coordination complex. Currently, the organometallics compounds have shown promise in cancer therapy, mainly in those complexes containing N-heterocylic carbenes (NHC) as a ligand. The present study shows a kinetic analysis of the reaction of six alkyl-substituted NHC with cysteine (Cys), which is taken as an important bionucleophile representative. The first and second ligand exchange processes were analyzed with the complete description of the mechanism and energy profiles. For the first reaction step, which is the rate-limiting step of the whole substitution reaction, the activation enthalpy follows the order 1/Me2 < 2/Me,Et < 4/n-Bu2 < 3/i-Pr2 < 6/Cy2 < 5/t-Bu2, which is fully explained by steric and electronic features. From a steric point of view, the previous reactivity order is correlated with the r(Au-S) calculated for the transition state structures where S is the sulfur ligand from the Cys entering group. This means that longer r(Au-S) leads to higher activation enthalpy and is consistent with the effectiveness of gold shielding from nucleophile attack by bulkier alkyl-substituted NHC ligand. When electronic effect was addressed we found that higher activation barrier was predicted for strongly electron-donating NHC ligand, represented by the eigenvalue of σ-HOMO orbital of the free ligands. The molecular interpretation of the electronic effects is that strong donating NHC forms strong metal-ligand bond. For the second reaction step, similar structure-reactivity relationships were obtained, however the activation energies are less sensitive to the structure. PMID:27010796

  19. Redox, thermodynamic and spectroscopic of some transition metal complexes containing heterocyclic Schiff base ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Hussen, Azza A. A.; Linert, Wolfgang


    Complexes of two series of Schiff base ligands, H 2L a and H 2L b derived from the reaction of 2,6-diacetyl pyridine with semicarbazide, H 2L a and thiosemicarbazide, H 2L b, with the metal ions, Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), VO(IV) and UO 2(VI) have been prepared. The ligands are characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-vis and 1H NMR. The structures of the complexes are investigated with the IR, UV-vis, X-band ESR spectra, 1H NMR and thermal gravimetric analysis as well as conductivity and magnetic moment measurements. The IR-spectra reveal the presence of variable modes of chelation for the investigated ligands. A variety of binuclear or mononuclear complexes were obtained with the two ligands in tri-, tetra or pentadentate forms. The bonding sites are the pyridine nitrogen, two azomethine nitrogen atoms and ketonic oxygen in case of H 2L a or sulphur atoms in case of H 2L b. The Coats-Redfern equation has been used to calculate the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the different thermal decomposition steps of some complexes. Cyclic voltammograms of Co(II) and Ni(II) show quasi-reversible peaks. The redox properties and the nature of the electro-active species of the complexes have been characterized.

  20. Syntheses, characterization, biological activities and photophysical properties of lanthanides complexes with a tetradentate Schiff base ligand.


    Taha, Ziyad A; Ajlouni, Abdulaziz M; Al Momani, Waleed; Al-Ghzawi, Abeer A


    A tetradentate Schiff base ligand L (N,N'-bis(1-naphthaldimine)-o-phenylenediamine) was prepared from the condensation of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde with o-phenylenediamine in a molar ratio of 2:1. New eight lanthanide metal complexes [LnL(NO(3))(2)(H(2)O)(x)](NO(3)) {Ln(III) = Nd, Dy, Sm, Pr, Gd, Tb, La and Er, x = 0 for Nd, Sm, 1 for La, Gd, Pr, Nd, Dy, and 2 for Tb} were prepared. The characterization and nature of bonding of these complexes were elucidated by elemental analysis, spectral analysis ((1)H NMR, FT-IR, UV-vis), molar conductivity measurements, luminescence spectra and thermogravimetric studies. Analytical and spectral data revealed that the ligand L coordinates to the central Ln(III) ions by its two imine nitrogen atoms and two phenolic oxygen atoms with 1:1 stoichiometry. Under the excitation with 329 nm at room temperature, Tb and Dy complexes exhibited characteristic luminescence of the central metal ions attributed to efficient energy transfer from the ligand to the metal center. Most of Ln(III) complexes found to exhibit antibacterial activities against a number of pathogenic bacteria. We found that the antioxident activity of Ln(III) complexes on DPPH(•) is concentration dependent and higher than that of the free ligand L. PMID:21764359

  1. Dinuclear Pd(I) complexes with bridging allyl and related ligands.


    Hazari, Nilay; Hruszkewycz, Damian P


    There are many important synthetic methods that utilize palladium catalysts. In most of these reactions, the palladium species are proposed to exist exclusively in either the Pd(0) or Pd(II) oxidation states. However, in the last decade, dinuclear Pd(I) complexes have repeatedly been isolated from reaction mixtures previously suggested to involve only species in the Pd(0) and Pd(II) oxidation states. As a consequence, in order to design improved catalysts there is considerable interest in understanding the chemistry of dinuclear Pd(I) complexes. A significant proportion of the known dinuclear Pd(I) complexes are supported by bridging allyl or related ligands such as cyclopentadienyl or indenyl ligands. This review provides a detailed account of the synthesis, electronic structure and stoichiometric reactivity of dinuclear Pd(I) complexes with bridging allyl and related ligands. Additionally, it describes recent work where dinuclear Pd(I) complexes with bridging allyl ligands have been detected in catalytic reactions, such as cross-coupling, and discusses the potential implications for catalysis. PMID:27051890

  2. Hydrido carbonyl complexes of osmium(II) and ruthenium(II) containing polypyridyl ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, B.P.; Caspar, J.V.; Johnson, S.R.; Meyer, T.J.


    Several different synthetic routes have been explored to produce hydrido complexes of Os(II) and Ru(II) containing polypyridyl ligands. The resulting complexes, the majority of which contain coordinated CO, are of three types: cis-(M(chelate)/sub 2/(CO)H)/sup +/, trans-(Os(chelate)(PPh/sub 3/)/sub 2/(CO)H)/sup +/, and (Os(chelate)(diphos)(PR/sub 2/)H)/sup +/ (where M = Ru or Os and chelate is, for example, 2,2'-bipyridine or 1,10-phenanthroline or a related ligand). The electronic, infrared, and NMR spectral properties of the complexes are discussed along with the redox properties of their ground and excited states. An important observation is that the hydride ligand endows the metal to ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) excited states of some of the complexes with strong reducing properties. The ground-state chemistry of the complexes is discussed especially with regard to their use as synthetic precursors to new, highly oxidizing, long-lived MLCT excited states of Os(II)< e.g., (Os/sup III/(bpy/sup -/.)(bpy)(CO)(CH/sub 3/CH))/sup 2 +/. 33 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Late transition metal. mu. -oxo and. mu. -imido complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, P.R.


    The synthesis and reactions of late-transition-metal oxo and imido complexes was explored. The deprotonation of platinum(II) hydroxo complexes yielded new oxo complexes. Attempted deprotonation of Cp*Rh(III) hydroxo complexes did not give oxo complexes but complex mixtures probably resulting from reduction of the Rh(III) center. The reaction of Na/Hg with (Cp*RhCl{sub 2}){sub 2} gave the very reactive Rh(II) dimer, (Cp*RhCl){sub 2}. Rhodium(I) imido complexes with the bis(dimethylphosphino)methane ligand were prepared and found to be similar to the previously prepared bis(diphenylphosphino)methane complexes. Attempts to prepare bis(diphenylphosphino)methylamine, bis(diphenylphosphino)phenylamine, PMe{sub e} and NO{sup +} analogues were not successful. Attempts to prepare Cp*Rh(III) imido complexes resulted in amido complexes and reduction. Rhodium (III) tris(3.5-dimethylpyrazoyl)borate analogues are reduction resistant but have not yet yielded imido complexes. The first imido complexes of Au were prepared by treating a Au oxo complex with amines or isocyanates. Dimeric Cp*Rh dioxygen and nitrosobenzene complexes were prepared by insertion into the Rh-Rh bond of (Cp*RhCl){sub 2}. The dioxygen complex activates a C-H bond of the Cp* ligand on treatment with PMe{sub 3}. Imido and oxo complexes nitrene and oxygen atom transfer product in reactions with CO. A novel electrophilic ring addition was observed with sterically protected aryl imido complexes. 15 refs.

  4. Estimating the acidity of transition metal hydride and dihydrogen complexes by adding ligand acidity constants.


    Morris, Robert H


    A simple equation (pKa(THF) = ∑AL + Ccharge + Cnd + Cd6) can be used to obtain an estimate of the pKa of diamagnetic transition metal hydride and dihydrogen complexes in tetrahydrofuran, and, by use of conversion equations, in other solvents. It involves adding acidity constants AL for each of the ligands in the 5-, 6-, 7-, or 8-coordinate conjugate base complex of the hydride or dihydrogen complex along with a correction for the charge (Ccharge = -15, 0 or 30 for x = +1, 0 or -1 charge, respectively) and the periodic row of the transition metal (Cnd = 0 for 3d or 4d metal, 2 for 5d metal) as well as a correction for d(6) octahedral acids (Cd6 = 6 for d(6) metal ion in the acid, 0 for others) that are not dihydrogen complexes. Constants AL are provided for 13 commonly occurring ligand types; of these, nine neutral ligands are correlated with Lever's electrochemical ligand parameters EL. This method gives good estimates of the over 170 literature pKa values that range from less than zero to 50 with a standard deviation of 3 pKa units for complexes of the metals chromium to nickel, molybdenum, ruthenium to palladium, and tungsten to platinum in the periodic table. This approach allows a quick assessment of the acidity of hydride complexes found in nature (e.g., hydrogenases) and in industry (e.g., catalysis and hydrogen energy applications). The pKa values calculated for acids that have bulky or large bite angle chelating ligands deviate the most from this correlation. The method also provides an estimate of the base strength of the deprotonated form of the complex. PMID:24410025

  5. Syntheses, crystal structures, anticancer activities of three reduce Schiff base ligand based transition metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hui-Qin; Jia, Lei; Xu, Jun; Zhu, Tao-Feng; Xu, Zhou-Qing; Chen, Ru-Hua; Ma, Tie-Liang; Wang, Yuan; Wu, Wei-Na


    Three nickel(II) complexes, [Ni2(L1)2(tren)2(H2O)](ClO4)3 (1), [NiL2(tren)2](ClO4)·2.5H2O (2), [NiL2(tren)2]I·1.5H2O·CH3OH (3) based on amino acid reduced Schiff ligands are synthesized and characterized by physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The results show that in all complexes, the amino acid ligand is deprotonated and acts as an anionic ligand. In the dinuclear complex 1, each Ni(II) atom has a distorted octahedron geometry while with different coordination environment. However, the complexes 2 and 3 are mononuclear, almost with the same coordination environment. Furthermore, in vitro experiments are carried out, including MTT assay, Annexin V/PI flow cytometry and western blotting, to assess whether the complexes have antitumor effect. And the results show that all the three complexes have moderate anticancer activity towards human hepatic cancer (HepG2), human cervical cancer (HeLa) and human prostate (PC3) cell lines, in a concentration dependent way. The complex 1 exhibit higher cytotoxicity than the other two complexes and can induce human hepatic cancer cell (HepG2) to cell apoptosis by activating caspase 3.

  6. Zinc (II) complex with a cationic Schiff base ligand: Synthesis, characterization, and biological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sze Koon; Tan, Kong Wai; Ng, Seik Weng; Ooi, Kah Kooi; Ang, Kok Pian; Abdah, Md Akim


    A cationic Schiff base ligand, TSB (L) and its Zn (II) complex (1) were synthesized and characterized by using CHN, 1H-NMR, FT-IR, UV, LC-MS, and X-ray methods. Their ability to inhibit topoisomerase I, DNA cleavage activities, and cytotoxicity were studied. X-ray diffraction study shows that the mononuclear complex 1 is four coordinated with distorted tetrahedral geometry. The singly deprotonated Schiff base ligand L acts as a bidentate ON-donor ligand. Complexation of L increases the inhibitory strength on topoisomerase I activity. Complex 1 could fully inhibit topoisomerase I activity at 250 μM, while L did not show any inhibitory effect on topoisomerase I activity. In addition, L and complex 1 could cleave pBR322 DNA in a concentration and time dependent profile. Surprisingly, L has better DNA cleavage activity than complex 1. The cleavage of DNA by complex 1 is altered in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, L and complex 1 are mildly cytotoxic towards human ovarian cancer A2780 and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2.

  7. Effect of template ion-ligand complex stoichiometry on selectivity of ion-imprinted polymers.


    Laatikainen, Katri; Udomsap, Dutduan; Siren, Heli; Brisset, Hugues; Sainio, Tuomo; Branger, Catherine


    In order to highlight the importance of the complex stoichiometry during ion imprinted polymer (IIP) synthesis, we investigated the effect of the complex structure on IIPs selectivity by adjusting the complex stoichiometry before polymerization. 2-(aminomethyl)pyridine monomer (amp) was chosen as a functionalized ligand for nickel(II) ions and a polymerizable vinylbenzyl derivative (Vbamp) was prepared. Complex formation was studied by varying the nickel/Vbamp ratio and recording absorption spectra of the complexes at the polymerization conditions. Using a least-squares minimization scheme, the complex species distribution was successfully established. From these results, it was possible to choose the metal/ligand stoichiometry in the complex (1:1; 1:2 or 1:3) by adjusting the initial metal/ligand ratio. IIPs were then prepared by inverse suspension copolymerization of Vbamp with ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EDMA). Highly porous particles with good nickel binding capacity and good Ni/Zn selectivity even at acidic conditions were obtained. Equilibrium uptake of Ni(II) at pH 7 ranged from 0.12 to 0.2 mmol g(-1) and relative selective coefficient was as high as 260 for the IIP prepared using the Ni(Vbamp)2 complex. PMID:25618705

  8. Bioavailability and Electroreactivity of Zinc Complexed to Strong and Weak Organic Ligands.


    Kim, Ja-Myung; Baars, Oliver; Morel, François M M


    Laboratory experiments have established the importance of complexation by organic ligands in determining the bioavailability of trace metals to marine phytoplankton, while electrochemical measurements with field samples have demonstrated that a large fraction of bioactive trace metals are complexed to strong organic ligands in seawater. Using the model organic ligands, EDTA and histidine, we show a quantitative correspondence between the bioavailability of Zn to the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, and its reduction at -1.2 V (vs Ag/AgCl) on a hanging mercury drop electrode. Equilibrium calculations and polarographic data indicate that Zn bound in inorganic complexes and the 1:1 Zn-histidine complex, but not in the 1:2 Zn-histidine complex or the Zn-EDTA complexes, is taken up by the organism and reduced at the electrode surface, confirming a previous report of the bioavailability of weak Zn complexes. Electrochemical measurements of Zn speciation in seawater do not generally reveal the presence of weak (and potentially bioavailable) complexes; but such measurements (particularly by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry) should nonetheless often provide good estimates of the bioavailable Zn concentrations. These results can likely be generalized to other bioactive divalent trace metals. PMID:26252068

  9. Novel supramolecular assembly of symmetrical mixed-metal-ligand complexes of dioxouranium(VI).


    Mubarak, Ahmed T


    Some binary and ternary novel complexes of dioxouranium(VI) with 8-hydroxy-7-quinolinecarboxaldehyde (OXH) have been prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility measurements and spectral studies. Coordination effects on the vibrational spectra of the ligands have been investigated. The amine exchange reactions of coordinated Schiff bases in these complexes have been also studied, which reveal symmetrical tetradentate Schiff base complexes. Metal exchange reaction of dioxouranium(VI) complexes was obtained when reacted with tetradentate Schiff base complexes of Cu(II) with ZrCl(4)/UO(2)(CH(3)COO)(2) giving heterobinuclear complexes. Magnetic, electronic and IR spectral data suggest the configurations of distorted square planar ligand field copper(II) complexes. The ligands behave as bi-(O,O) and tetradentate (N(2),O(2)) donors. El-Sonbati equation has been used to evaluate the symmetric stretching frequency from which the F(U-O) and F(UO,UO)(-) were calculated. The bond distances of these complexes were also investigated. PMID:16843709

  10. Kinetico-Mechanistic Studies of Nucleoside and Nucleotide Substitution Reactions of Co(III) Complexes of Fully Alkylated Cyclen.


    Martínez, Manuel; Vázquez, Marta


    The solution chemistry of complex [Co{(Me)2(μ-ET)cyclen}(H2O)2](3+) containing a fully substituted tetraammine ligand designed for the avoidance of base-conjugated substitution mechanisms in the 6-8 pH range has been studied. The study should shed some light on the possible involvement of such Co(III) skeleton in inert interactions with biomolecules. The reactivity and speciation of the complex has been found similar to that of the parent cyclen derivative with the presence of mono- and bis-hydroxo-bridged species; at pH < 7.1, all reactivity has been found to be related to the aqua/hydroxo monomeric complexes. Under these pH conditions, the substitution reactions of the aqua/hydroxo ligands by chloride, inorganic phosphate, thymidine, cytidine 5'-monophosphate (5'-CMP), and thymidine-5'-monophosphate (5'-TMP) have been studied at varying conditions; ionic strength has been kept at 1.0 NaClO4 due to the high concentration of 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) or N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) used to ensure buffering. Except for chloride, the process occurs neatly in a one or two step process, showing dissociatively activated substitution mechanisms, having in general large ΔH(⧧), positive ΔS(⧧), and values of ΔV(⧧) close to those corresponding to the liberation of an aqua ligand to the reaction medium. The actuation of noticeable encounter-complex formation equilibrium constants has been found to be the determinant for the reactions with nucleosides and nucleotides, a clear indication of the relevance of hydrogen-bonding interactions in the reactivity of these molecules, even in this highly ionic strength medium. For the substitution of the active aqua/hydroxo ligands with 5'-TMP, the first substitution reaction produces an Nthymine-bound 5'-TMP complex that evolves to a bis-5'-TMP with an Nthymine,Ophosphate-bonding structure. The formation of outer-sphere complexes between the dangling phosphate group of the Nthymine

  11. Cleaved thioredoxin fusion protein enables the crystallization of poorly soluble ERα in complex with synthetic ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Cura, Vincent; Gangloff, Monique; Eiler, Sylvia; Moras, Dino; Ruff, Marc


    A new crystallization strategy: the presence of cleaved thioredoxin fusion is critical for crystallization of the estrogen nuclear receptor ligand binding domain in complex with synthetic ligands. This novel technique should be regarded as an interesting alternative for crystallization of difficult proteins. The ligand-binding domain (LBD) of human oestrogen receptor α was produced in Escherichia coli as a cleavable thioredoxin (Trx) fusion in order to improve solubility. Crystallization trials with either cleaved and purified LBD or with the purified fusion protein both failed to produce crystals. In another attempt, Trx was not removed from the LBD after endoproteolytic cleavage and its presence promoted nucleation and subsequent crystal growth, which allowed the structure determination of two different LBD–ligand–coactivator peptide complexes at 2.3 Å resolution. This technique is likely to be applicable to other low-solubility proteins.

  12. Effect of DNA interaction involving antioxidative 4-aminoantipyrine incorporating mixed ligand complexes having alpha-amino acid as co-ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Natarajan; Sakthivel, Arunagiri; Selvaganapathy, Muthusamy; Mitu, Liviu


    Few new mixed ligand transition metal complexes of the stoichiometry [ML(A)2], where M = Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II), L = FFAP (furfurylidene-4-aminoantipyrine) and A = amino acid (glycine/alanine/valine), have been designed, synthesized and characterized. The molar conductivity of the complexes in DMF at 10-3 M concentration shows that they are non-electrolytes. The interaction of these complexes with CT-DNA indicates that the valine mixed ligand complexes are having higher binding constant than alanine and glycine mixed ligand complexes. This analysis reveals that binding constant depends on the size of the alkyl group present in the amino acid. The binding constants of valine mixed ligand complexes are in the order of 104 to 105 M-1 revealing that the complexes interact with DNA through moderate intercalation mode. The metal complexes exhibit effective cleavage of pUC19 DNA but it is not preceded via radical cleavage and superoxide anion radical. They are good antimicrobial agents than the free ligand. On comparing the IC50 values, [Ni(L)(Gly)2] is considered as a potential drug to eliminate the hydroxyl radical.

  13. NMR and theoretical study on interactions between diperoxovanadate complex and pyrazole-like ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xianyong; Liu, Ronghua; Peng, Hongliang; Huang, Haowen; Li, Xiaofang; Zheng, Baishu; Yi, Pinggui; Chen, Zhong


    To understand the effects of pyrazole substitution on reaction equilibrium, the interactions between a series of pyrazole-like ligands and [OV(O 2) 2(D 2O)] -/[OV(O 2) 2(HOD)] - were explored by using multinuclear ( 1H, 13C, and 51V) magnetic resonance, HSQC, and variable temperature NMR in 0.15 mol/L NaCl ionic medium mimicking physiological conditions. These results show that the relative reactivities among the pyrazole-like ligands are 3-methyl-1 H-pyrazole ≈ 4-methyl-1 H-pyrazole ≈ 1 H-pyrazole > 1-methyl-1 H-pyrazole. As a result, the main factor which affects the reaction equilibrium is the steric effect instead of the electronic effect of the methyl group of these ligands. A pair of isomers has been formed resulting from the coordination of 3-methyl-1 H-pyrazole and a vanadium complex, which is attributed to different types of coordination between the vanadium atom and the ligands. Thus, the competitive coordination leads to the formation of a series of six-coordinate peroxovanadate species [OV(O 2) 2L] - (L, pyrazole-like ligands). Moreover, the results of density functional calculations provided a reasonable explanation on the relative reactivity of the pyrazole-like ligands as well as the important role of solvation in these reactions.

  14. Rhenium and technetium tricarbonyl complexes of N-heterocyclic carbene ligands.


    Chan, Chung Ying; Pellegrini, Paul A; Greguric, Ivan; Barnard, Peter J


    A strategy for the conjugation of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands to biomolecules via amide bond formation is described. Both 1-(2-pyridyl)imidazolium or 1-(2-pyridyl)benzimidazolium salts functionalized with a pendant carboxylic acid group were prepared and coupled to glycine benzyl ester using 1-ethyl-3-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide. A series of 10 rhenium(I) tricarbonyl complexes of the form [ReX(CO)3(ĈN)] (ĈN is a bidentate NHC ligand, and X is a monodentate anionic ligand: Cl(-), RCO2(-)) were synthesized via a Ag2O transmetalation protocol from the Re(I) precursor compound Re(CO)5Cl. The synthesized azolium salts and Re(I) complexes were characterized by elemental analysis and by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and the molecular structures for one imidazolium salt and seven Re(I) complexes were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. (1)H NMR and mass spectrometry studies for an acetonitrile-d3 solution of [ReCl(CO)3(1-(2-pyridyl)-3-methylimidazolylidene)] show that the monodentate chloride ligand is labile and exchanges with this solvent yielding a cationic acetonitrile adduct. For the first time the labeling of an NHC ligand with technetium-99m is reported. Rapid Tc-99m labeling was achieved by heating the imidazolium salt 1-(2-pyridyl)-3-methylimidazolium iodide and Ag2O in methanol, followed by the addition of fac-[(99m)Tc(OH2)3(CO)3](+). To confirm the structure of the (99m)Tc-labeled complex, the equivalent (99)Tc complex was prepared, and mass spectrometric studies showed that the formed Tc complexes are of the form [(99m/99)Tc(CH3CN)(CO)3(1-(2-pyridyl)-3-methylimidazolylidene)](+) with an acetonitrile molecule coordinated to the metal center. PMID:25280253

  15. Palladium(II) complexes featuring a mixed phosphine-pyridine-iminophosphorane pincer ligand: synthesis and reactivity.


    Cheisson, Thibault; Auffrant, Audrey


    An original mixed ligand (labelled L) of formula PPh2-CH2-Pyr-CH2-N[double bond, length as m-dash]PPh3, combining a pyridine core with phosphine and iminophosphorane, was synthesised. Its coordination with palladium(II) centers was studied. With [Pd(COD)Cl2], a cationic complex [LPdCl](Cl) 1, where L is coordinated in the pincer mode, was obtained. Chloride abstraction with silver salt in the presence of pyridine generated the dicationic complex [LPd(py)](BF4)2 (2). When reacting with a base such as potassium hexamethyldisilazane (KHMDS), 1 gave the neutral complex 3 [L*PdCl], wherein the benzylic position alpha to phosphine was selectively deprotonated, which induced dearomatisation of the pyridine ring. A similar complex [L*Pd(CH3)] (4) was obtained upon a reaction of [Pd(CH3)2(TMEDA)] and Lvia the departure of methane. Neutral complexes with the deprotonated ligand such as 3 yielded in the presence of deuterated methanol the corresponding deuterated complex, showing that the protonation is reversible with this ligand. Finally, upon attempting to dealkylate complex 4 using B(C6F5)3, an unexpected zwitterionic borated complex 5, resulting from the formation of a C-B bond in the benzylic position with restoration of the aromatic character of the pyridine, was isolated. Interestingly, when the metal was introduced after the ligand interacted with the borane reagent, another palladium complex formed, namely, [LPdMe][MeB(C6F5)3], originating from methyl abstraction. PMID:26419539

  16. Sandwich phosphate complexes of macrocyclic tris(urea) ligands and their rotation around the anion.


    Ji, Liguo; Yang, Zaiwen; Zhao, Yanxia; Sun, Meng; Cao, Liping; Yang, Xiao-Juan; Wang, Yao-Yu; Wu, Biao


    Four heteroditopic macrocyclic ligands incorporating both anion coordination sites (tris-urea units) and a cation binding fragment (polyether) were designed for possible application in molecular devices. Sandwich-type phosphate complexes were formed, which display a reversible rotation around the anion upon protonation/deprotonation of phosphate and binding of the cation (Emim(+)). PMID:27181693

  17. Synthesis of triple-stranded complexes using bis(dipyrromethene) ligands.


    Zhang, Zhan; Dolphin, David


    The reaction of an α-free, β,β'-linked bis(dipyrromethene) ligand with Fe(3+) or Co(3+) led to noninterconvertible triple-stranded helicates and mesocates. In the present context, a stable α-free ligand 2 has been developed and complexation of ligands 1 and 2 with diamagnetic Co(3+), Ga(3+), and In(3+) has been studied. The triple-stranded M(2)1(3) (M = Ga, In) and M(2)2(3) (M = Co, Ga, In) complexes were characterized using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight spectrometry, (1)H NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. Again, the (1)H NMR analysis showed that both the triple-stranded helicates and mesocates were generated in this metal-directed assembly. Consistent with our previous finding on coordinatively inert Co(3+) complexes, variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy indicated that the triple-stranded helicate and mesocate of labile In(3+) did not interconvert in solution, either. However, the diastereoselectivity of the M(2)2(3) complexes was found to improve with an increase in the reaction temperature. Taken together, this study complements the coordination chemistry of poly(dipyrromethene) ligands and provides further insight into the formation of helicates versus mesocates. PMID:21070002

  18. Circularly Polarized Luminescence in Enantiopure Europium and Terbium Complexes with Modular, All-Oxygen Donor Ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Michael; Do, King; Ingram, Andrew; Moore, Evan; Muller, Gilles; Raymond, Kenneth


    The modular syntheses of three new octadentate, enantiopure ligands are reported, one with the bidentate chelating unit 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) and two with bidentate 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (1,2-HOPO) units. A new design principle is introduced for the chiral, non-racemic hexamines which constitute the central backbones for the presented class of ligands. The terbium(III) complex of the IAM ligand, as well as the europium(III) complexes of the 1,2-HOPO ligands, are synthesized and characterized by various techniques (NMR, UV, CD, luminescence spectroscopy). All species exhibit excellent stability and moderate to high luminescence efficiency (quantum yields {phi}{sub Eu} = 0.05-0.08 and {phi}{sub Tb} = 0.30-0.57) in aqueous solution at physiological pH. Special focus is put onto the properties of the complexes in regard to circularly polarized luminescence (CPL). The maximum luminescence dissymmetry factors (glum) in aqueous solution are high with |glum|max = 0.08-0.40. Together with the very favorable general properties (good stability, high quantum yields, long lifetimes), the presented lanthanide complexes can be considered as good candidates for analytical probes based on CPL in biologically relevant environments.

  19. Synthesis and Base Hydrolysis of a Cobalt(III) Complex Coordinated by a Thioether Ligand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roecker, Lee


    A two-week laboratory experiment for students in advanced inorganic chemistry is described. Students prepare and characterize a cobalt(III) complex coordinated by a thioether ligand during the first week of the experiment and then study the kinetics of Co-S bond cleavage in basic solution during the second week. The synthetic portion of the…

  20. Crystal structures of complexes of vitamin D receptor ligand-binding domain with lithocholic acid derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Masuno, Hiroyuki; Ikura, Teikichi; Morizono, Daisuke; Orita, Isamu; Yamada, Sachiko; Shimizu, Masato; Ito, Nobutoshi


    The secondary bile acid lithocholic acid (LCA) and its derivatives act as selective modulators of the vitamin D receptor (VDR), although their structures fundamentally differ from that of the natural hormone 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3)]. Here, we have determined the crystal structures of the ligand-binding domain of rat VDR (VDR-LBD) in ternary complexes with a synthetic partial peptide of the coactivator MED1 (mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription subunit 1) and four ligands, LCA, 3-keto LCA, LCA acetate, and LCA propionate, with the goal of elucidating their agonistic mechanism. LCA and its derivatives bind to the same ligand-binding pocket (LBP) of VDR-LBD that 1,25(OH)2D3 binds to, but in the opposite orientation; their A-ring is positioned at the top of the LBP, whereas their acyclic tail is located at the bottom of the LBP. However, most of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions observed in the complex with 1,25(OH)2D3 are reproduced in the complexes with LCA and its derivatives. Additional interactions between VDR-LBD and the C-3 substituents of the A-ring are also observed in the complexes with LCA and its derivatives. These may result in the observed difference in the potency among the LCA-type ligands. PMID:23723390

  1. Metallophore mapping in complex matrices by metal isotope coded profiling of organic ligands.


    Deicke, Michael; Mohr, Jan Frieder; Bellenger, Jean-Philippe; Wichard, Thomas


    Metal isotope coded profiling (MICP) introduces a universal discovery platform for metal chelating natural products that act as metallophores, ion buffers or sequestering agents. The detection of cation and oxoanion complexing ligands is facilitated by the identification of unique isotopic signatures created by the application of isotopically pure metals. PMID:25298978

  2. Amylose inclusion complexes produced by combining various ligands with jet-cooked amylose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our research on starch-lipid composites obtained by steam jet cooking showed the involvement of amylose/fatty acid complexes in both spherulite formation and the coatings that form on oil droplets, imparting composite stability. Native fatty acids present in cornstarch granules serve as ligands for...

  3. Catalytic water oxidation by mononuclear Ru complexes with an anionic ancillary ligand.


    Tong, Lianpeng; Inge, A Ken; Duan, Lele; Wang, Lei; Zou, Xiaodong; Sun, Licheng


    Mononuclear Ru-based water oxidation catalysts containing anionic ancillary ligands have shown promising catalytic efficiency and intriguing properties. However, their insolubility in water restricts a detailed mechanism investigation. In order to overcome this disadvantage, complexes [Ru(II)(bpc)(bpy)OH2](+) (1(+), bpc = 2,2'-bipyridine-6-carboxylate, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) and [Ru(II)(bpc)(pic)3](+) (2(+), pic = 4-picoline) were prepared and fully characterized, which features an anionic tridentate ligand and has enough solubility for spectroscopic study in water. Using Ce(IV) as an electron acceptor, both complexes are able to catalyze O2-evolving reaction with an impressive rate constant. On the basis of the electrochemical and kinetic studies, a water nucleophilic attack pathway was proposed as the dominant catalytic cycle of the catalytic water oxidation by 1(+), within which several intermediates were detected by MS. Meanwhile, an auxiliary pathway that is related to the concentration of Ce(IV) was also revealed. The effect of anionic ligand regarding catalytic water oxidation was discussed explicitly in comparison with previously reported mononuclear Ru catalysts carrying neutral tridentate ligands, for example, 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine (tpy). When 2(+) was oxidized to the trivalent state, one of its picoline ligands dissociated from the Ru center. The rate constant of picoline dissociation was evaluated from time-resolved UV-vis spectra. PMID:23409776

  4. Synthesis and reactions of U(III) complexes with tripodal nitrogen and oxygen donor ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Robert; Sun, Yimin; Takats, Josef; Day, Victor W.; Eberspracher, Todd A.


    Reaction of UI3(THF)4 (where THF is tetrahydrofuran) with sodium or potassium hydrotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)borate ligand ((HBpz 3*)(-) in 1:1 and 1:2 ratios gives the corresponding U(HBpz 3*)I2(THF)2(1) and U(HBpz 3*)2I(2) complexes in excellent yields. Iodide abstraction from (2) with TlBPh4 results in the formation of the cationic complex (U(HBpz 3*)2(THF)) BPh4(3). The solid state structures of 1, 2 and 3 have been determined. Similar reactions with the anionic tripodal oxygen donor ligand ((eta (sub 5) - (5H5) Co(P(O)(OC2H5)2)3)(-) (L(sub OEt)) proceeded via oxidation of U(3+) to U(4+) and fragmentation of the ligand. The structures of some key compounds were established by X-ray crystallography. U(HBpz 3*)I2(THF)2 readily reacts with two equivalents of KH2Bpz (pz equivalent to pyrazolyl) to give U(HBpz3*)(H2Bpz2)2, but attempted substitution with other ligands led to mixtures or, in one case, displacement of the (HBpz 3*)(-) ligand.

  5. Heterobridged dinuclear, tetranuclear, dinuclear-based 1-d, and heptanuclear-based 1-D complexes of copper(II) derived from a dinucleating ligand: syntheses, structures, magnetochemistry, spectroscopy, and catecholase activity.


    Majumder, Samit; Sarkar, Sohini; Sasmal, Sujit; Sañudo, E Carolina; Mohanta, Sasankasekhar


    The work in this paper presents syntheses, characterization, crystal structures, variable-temperature/field magnetic properties, catecholase activity, and electrospray ionization mass spectroscopic (ESI-MS positive) study of five copper(II) complexes of composition [Cu(II)(2)L(μ(1,1)-NO(3))(H(2)O)(NO(3))](NO(3)) (1), [{Cu(II)(2)L(μ-OH)(H(2)O)}(μ-ClO(4))](n)(ClO(4))(n) (2), [{Cu(II)(2)L(NCS)(2)}(μ(1,3)-NCS)](n) (3), [{Cu(II)(2)L(μ(1,1)-N(3))(ClO(4))}(2)(μ(1,3)-N(3))(2)] (4), and [{Cu(II)(2)L(μ-OH)}{Cu(II)(2)L(μ(1,1)-N(3))}{Cu(II)(μ(1,1)-N(3))(4)(dmf)}{Cu(II)(2)(μ(1,1)-N(3))(2)(N(3))(4)}](n)·ndmf (5), derived from a new compartmental ligand 2,6-bis[N-(2-pyridylethyl)formidoyl]-4-ethylphenol, which is the 1:2 condensation product of 4-ethyl-2,6-diformylphenol and 2-(2-aminoethyl)pyridine. The title compounds are either of the following nuclearities/topologies: dinuclear (1), dinuclear-based one-dimensional (2 and 3), tetranuclear (4), and heptanuclear-based one-dimensional (5). The bridging moieties in 1-5 are as follows: μ-phenoxo-μ(1,1)-nitrate (1), μ-phenoxo-μ-hydroxo and μ-perchlorate (2), μ-phenoxo and μ(1,3)-thiocyanate (3), μ-phenoxo-μ(1,1)-azide and μ(1,3)-azide (4), μ-phenoxo-μ-hydroxo, μ-phenoxo-μ(1,1)-azide, and μ(1,1)-azide (5). All the five compounds exhibit overall antiferromagnetic interaction. The J values in 1-4 have been determined (-135 cm(-1) for 1, -298 cm(-1) for 2, -105 cm(-1) for 3, -119.5 cm(-1) for 4). The pairwise interactions in 5 have been evaluated qualitatively to result in S(T) = 3/2 spin ground state, which has been verified by magnetization experiment. Utilizing 3,5-di-tert-butyl catechol (3,5-DTBCH(2)) as the substrate, catecholase activity of all the five complexes have been checked. While 1 and 3 are inactive, complexes 2, 4, and 5 show catecholase activity with turn over numbers 39 h(-1) (for 2), 40 h(-1) (for 4), and 48 h(-1) (for 5) in dmf and 167 h(-1) (for 2) and 215 h(-1) (for 4) in acetonitrile

  6. Salt marsh plants ( Juncus maritimus and Scirpus maritimus) as sources of strong complexing ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucha, Ana P.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Bordalo, Adriano A.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.


    This work aimed to evaluate, in vitro, the capability of roots of salt marsh plants to release strong Cu-complexing ligands and to ascertain whether Cu contamination would stimulate ligands' exudation or not. The sea rush Juncus maritimus and the sea-club rush Scirpus maritimus, both from the lower Douro river estuary (NW Portugal), were used. Plants were collected seasonally, four times a year in 2004, during low tide. After sampling, plant roots were washed for removal of adherent particles and immersed for 2 h in a solution that matched salinity (3) and pH (7.5) of the pore water from the same location and spiked with Cu 2+ in the range 0-1600 nM to obtain plant exudates. In the final solutions as well as in sediment pore water total dissolved Zn and Cu, Cu-complexing ligand concentrations and the respective conditional stability constants ( KCuL') values were determined by voltammetry. This study demonstrated that plants are able to release, in a short period of time, relatively high amounts of strong Cu-complexing ligands (56-265 nmol g root-1), which differed among plants and sampling site but were independent of the season. Cu contamination did not stimulate exudation of Cu-complexing ligands. On the other hand, in media contaminated with Cu both plants accumulated relatively high amounts (29-83%) of the initially dissolved Cu, indicating that they have alternative internal mechanisms for Cu detoxification. Cu exchange between roots and medium (either accumulation in contaminated medium or release in the absence of Cu) was more intense for S. maritimus than for J. maritimus. It was observed that exudate solutions obtained in the absence of added Cu and sediment pore water (the densities of roots observed inside the salt marsh where comparable to those used in the in vitro experiments), displayed similarities in terms of total dissolved metals, Cu-complexing ligands concentrations, values of KCuL' (12 < log KCuL' < 14), as well as patterns of variation among

  7. Relationship between gallium pyramidalization in L·GaCl3 complexes and the electronic ligand properties.


    El-Hellani, Ahmad; Monot, Julien; Tang, Shun; Guillot, Régis; Bour, Christophe; Gandon, Vincent


    Six new molecular GaCl3 adducts of electron rich compounds of the carbone (carbodiphosphorane, tetraaminoallene) and cyclic alkyl amino carbene (CAAC) families have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography. The sum of their Cl-Ga-Cl angles has been compared to those of 20 other complexes exhibiting various oxygen-, nitrogen-, phosphorus-, and carbon-donor ligands for which good quality X-ray analyses have been reported. The pyramidalization of the GaCl3 moiety in L·GaCl3 complexes has been checked against the computed antisymmetric stretching of the Ga-Cl bonds. It has also been compared to the symmetric stretching of the C-O bonds of the corresponding L·Ni(CO)3 complexes (Tolman Electronic Parameter). On this basis, a relationship between the pyramidalization observed in the gallium complexes and the electronic ligand properties has been established. PMID:24070393

  8. Antiproliferative activity of ruthenium(ii) arene complexes with mono- and bidentate pyridine-based ligands.


    Richter, Stefan; Singh, Sushma; Draca, Dijana; Kate, Anup; Kumbhar, Anupa; Kumbhar, Avinash S; Maksimovic-Ivanic, Danijela; Mijatovic, Sanja; Lönnecke, Peter; Hey-Hawkins, Evamarie


    A series of Ru(II) arene complexes of mono- and bidentate N-donor ligands with carboxyl or ester groups and chlorido ancillary ligands were synthesised and structurally characterised. The complexes have a distorted tetrahedral piano-stool geometry. The binding interaction was studied with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) by absorption titration, viscosity measurement, thermal melting, circular dichroism, ethidium bromide displacement assay and DNA cleavage of plasmid DNA (pBR322), investigated by gel electrophoresis. The dichlorido complexes bind covalently to DNA in the dark, similar to cisplatin, while the monochlorido complexes bind covalently on irradiation, similar to cisplatin analogues. The compounds are selectively cytotoxic against several tumour cell lines and show specific nonlinear correlation between dose and activity. This phenomenon is closely related to their potential to act preferentially as inhibitors of cell division. PMID:27264161

  9. Comparative investigation of N donor ligand-lanthanide complexes from the metal and ligand point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prüßmann, T.; Denecke, M. A.; Geist, A.; Rothe, J.; Lindqvist-Reis, P.; Löble, M.; Breher, F.; Batchelor, D. R.; Apostolidis, C.; Walter, O.; Caliebe, W.; Kvashnina, K.; Jorissen, K.; Kas, J. J.; Rehr, J. J.; Vitova, T.


    N-donor ligands such as n-Pr-BTP (2,6-bis(5,6-dipropyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)pyridine) studied here preferentially bind An(III) over Ln(III) in liquid-liquid separation of trivalent ac-tinides from spent nuclear fuel. The chemical and physical processes responsible for this selectivity are not yet well understood. We present systematic comparative near-edge X-ray absorption structure (XANES) spectroscopy investigations at the Gd L3 edge of [GdBTP3](NO3)3, [Gd(BTP)3](OTf)3, Gd(NO3)3, Gd(OTf)3 and N K edge of [Gd(BTP)3](NO3)3, Gd(NO3)3 complexes. The pre-edge absorption resonance in Gd L3 edge high-energy resolution X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra (HR-XANES) is explained as arising from 2p3/2 → 4f/5d electronic transitions by calculations with the FEFF9.5 code. Experimental evidence is found for higher electronic density on Gd in [Gd(BTP)3](NO3)3 and [Gd(BTP)3](OTf)3 compared to Gd in Gd(NO3)3 and Gd(OTf)3, and on N in [Gd(BTP)3](NO3)3 compared to n-Pr-BTP. The origin of the pre-edge structure in the N K edge XANES is explained by density functional theory (DFT) with the ORCA code. Results at the N K edge suggest a change in ligand orbital occupancies and mixing upon complexation but further work is necessary to interpret observed spectral variations.

  10. Complexes with Hg(II) and macrocyclic ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Luis, S.V.; Frias, J.C.; Salvador, R.V.; Bolte, M.


    The crystal structures of 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaoxa-cyclooctadecane dicyano mercury(II) monohydrate, C{sub 14}H{sub 24}HgN{sub 2}O{sub 6}{center{underscore}dot}H{sub 2}O, 1, and 2,5,8,11,18,21,24,27-octaoxa-tricyclo[{sub 12,17}]-dotriconta-1(28),12,14,16,29,31-hexaene dicyano mercury(II) monohydrate, C{sub 26}H{sub 32}HgN{sub 2}O{sub 8}{center{underscore}dot}H{sub 2}O, 2, were determined: 1 crystallizes in the trigonal space group R{bar 3} with cell dimensions a = 11.7842(1) and c = 12.0316(1) {angstrom}. 2 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/c with cell dimensions a = 11.156(3) {angstrom}, b = 8.417(2), c = 30.901(8) {angstrom}, and {beta} = 93.279{degree}. In spite of the different cyclic systems, similar complexes are formed where the Hg atom is coordinated by two CN groups and six oxygen atoms of the crown ether. The structure of 1 is isostructural with the crystal structures of 18C6-HgCl{sub 2}, 18C6-CdBr{sub 2}, 18C6-Sr(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}, and 18C6-Ba(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}. Furthermore, 1 is very similar to other 18C6-HgX{sub 2} complexes.

  11. Method for preparing radionuclide-labeled chelating agent-ligand complexes


    Meares, Claude F.; Li, Min; DeNardo, Sally J.


    Radionuclide-labeled chelating agent-ligand complexes that are useful in medical diagnosis or therapy are prepared by reacting a radionuclide, such as .sup.90 Y or .sup.111 In, with a polyfunctional chelating agent to form a radionuclide chelate that is electrically neutral; purifying the chelate by anion exchange chromatography; and reacting the purified chelate with a targeting molecule, such as a monoclonal antibody, to form the complex.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Aluminum Complexes of Redox-Active Pyridyl Nitroxide Ligands.


    Poitras, Andrew M; Bogart, Justin A; Cole, Bren E; Carroll, Patrick J; Schelter, Eric J; Graves, Christopher R


    The aluminum complexes ((R)pyNO(-))2AlCl ((R)pyNO(-) = N-tert-butyl-N-(2-pyridyl)nitroxyl; R = H (1), CH3 (2), CF3 (3)) were prepared in 80-98% yield through the protonolysis reaction between the pyridyl hydroxylamine ligand precursors (R)pyNOH and dimethylaluminum chloride. Complex 1 was also prepared using a salt metathesis route in 92% yield. Complexes 1-3 were characterized using (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopies. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of the complexes revealed that 1-3 are isostructural, with the Al(III) cation in all cases being five coordinate with distorted square pyramidal geometries. The geometry of complex 1 was studied using DFT, which showed primarily ligand-based frontier molecular orbitals. Reaction of 1 with NaOt-Bu gave (pyNO(-))2AlOt-Bu (4), while reaction of 1 with AgBPh4 gave [(pyNO(-))2Al(THF)2][BPh4] (5) in 54% and 87% yields, respectively. Compounds 4 and 5 were both characterized using (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopies and compound 5 by X-ray diffraction. Complexes 1-5 were also characterized by UV-vis electronic absorption spectroscopy and electrochemistry. The cyclic voltammograms of the complexes show two separate oxidation process, the potentials of which are dependent on both the substitution pattern of the (R)pyNO(-) ligands and the anion that completes the aluminum coordination sphere. A correlation was determined between the chemical shift of the t-Bu of the (R)pyNO(-) ligand in the (1)H NMR spectroscopy and the potentials of the redox events for complexes 1-4. PMID:26513133

  13. Axial Ligand Effects on the Geometric and Electronic Structures of Nonheme Oxoiron(IV) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Timothy A.; Rohde, Jan-Uwe; Seo, Mi Sook; Sastri, Chivukula V.; DeHont, Raymond; Ohta, Takehiro; Kitagawa, Teizo; Münck, Eckard; Nam, Wonwoo; Que, Lawrence


    A series of complexes [FeIV(O)(TMC)(X)]+ (where X = OH−, CF3CO2−, N3−, NCS−, NCO−, and CN−) were obtained by treatment of the well characterized nonheme oxoiron(IV) complex [FeIV(O)(TMC)(NCMe)]2+ (TMC = tetramethylcyclam) with the appropriate NR4X salts. Because of the topology of the TMC macrocycle, the [FeIV(O)(TMC)(X)]+ series represents an extensive collection of S = 1 oxoiron(IV) complexes that only differ with respect to the ligand trans to the oxo unit. Electronic absorption, Fe K-edge X-ray absorption, resonance Raman, and Mössbauer data collected for these complexes conclusively demonstrate that the characteristic spectroscopic features of the S = 1 FeIV=O unit, namely i) the near-IR absorption properties, ii) X-ray absorption pre-edge intensities, and iii) quadrupole splitting parameters, are strongly dependent on the identity of the trans ligand. However, on the basis of EXAFS data, most [FeIV(O)(TMC)(X)]+ species have Fe=O bond lengths similar to that of [FeIV(O)(TMC)(NCMe)]2+ (1.66 ± 0.02 Å). The mechanisms by which the trans ligands perturb the FeIV=O unit were probed using density functional theory (DFT) computations, yielding geometric and electronic structures in good agreement with our experimental data. These calculations revealed that the trans ligands modulate the energies of the Fe=O σ- and π-antibonding molecular orbitals, causing the observed spectroscopic changes. Time-dependent DFT methods were used to aid in the assignment of the intense near-UV absorption bands found for the oxoiron(IV) complexes with trans N3−, NCS−, and NCO− ligands as X−-to-FeIV=O charge transfer transitions, thereby rationalizing the resonance enhancement of the ν(Fe=O) mode upon excitation of these chromophores. PMID:18712873

  14. Methylpalladium complexes with pyrimidine-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbene ligands

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Dirk


    Summary A series of methylpalladium(II) complexes with pyrimidine-NHC ligands carrying different aryl- and alkyl substituents R ([((pym)^(NHC-R))PdII(CH3)X] with X = Cl, CF3COO, CH3) has been prepared by transmetalation reactions from the corresponding silver complexes and chloro(methyl)(cyclooctadiene)palladium(II). The dimethyl(1-(2-pyrimidyl)-3-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolin-2-ylidene)palladium(II) complex was synthesized via the free carbene route. All complexes were fully characterized by standard methods and in three cases also by a solid state structure. PMID:27559406

  15. Dissecting allosteric effects of activator–coactivator complexes using a covalent small molecule ligand

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ningkun; Lodge, Jean M.; Fierke, Carol A.; Mapp, Anna K.


    Allosteric binding events play a critical role in the formation and stability of transcriptional activator–coactivator complexes, perhaps in part due to the often intrinsically disordered nature of one or more of the constituent partners. The kinase-inducible domain interacting (KIX) domain of the master coactivator CREB binding protein/p300 is a conformationally dynamic domain that complexes with transcriptional activators at two discrete binding sites in allosteric communication. The complexation of KIX with the transcriptional activation domain of mixed-lineage leukemia protein leads to an enhancement of binding by the activation domain of CREB (phosphorylated kinase-inducible domain of CREB) to the second site. A transient kinetic analysis of the ternary complex formation aided by small molecule ligands that induce positive or negative cooperative binding reveals that positive cooperativity is largely governed by stabilization of the bound complex as indicated by a decrease in koff. Thus, this suggests the increased binding affinity for the second ligand is not due to an allosteric creation of a more favorable binding interface by the first ligand. This is consistent with data from us and from others indicating that the on rates of conformationally dynamic proteins approach the limits of diffusion. In contrast, negative cooperativity is manifested by alterations in both kon and koff, suggesting stabilization of the binary complex. PMID:25049401

  16. Ruthenium(ii) complexes of hemilabile pincer ligands: synthesis and catalysing the transfer hydrogenation of ketones.


    Nair, Ashwin G; McBurney, Roy T; Walker, D Barney; Page, Michael J; Gatus, Mark R D; Bhadbhade, Mohan; Messerle, Barbara A


    A series of Ru(ii) complexes were synthesised based on a hemilabile pyrazole-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-pyrazole (C3N2H3)CH2(C3N2H2)CH2(C3N2H3) NCN pincer ligand 1. All complexes were fully characterised using single crystal X-ray crystallography and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. Hemilabile ligands provide flexible coordination modes for the coordinating metal ion which can play a significant effect on the efficiency and mechanism of catalysis by the resulting complex. Here we observed and isolated mono-, bi- and tri-dentate complexes of both Ag(i) and Ru(ii) with 1 in which the resultant coordination mode was controlled by careful reagent selection. The catalytic activity of the Ru(ii) complexes for the transfer hydrogenation reaction of acetophenone with isopropanol was investigated. The unexpected formation of the pentaborate anion, [B5O6(OH)4](-), during the synthesis of complex 6a was found to have an unexpected positive effect by enhancing the catalysis rate. This work provides insights into the roles that different coordination modes, counterions and ligand hemilability play on the catalytic activity in transfer hydrogenations. PMID:27539740

  17. O2 reduction reaction by biologically relevant anionic ligand bound iron porphyrin complexes.


    Samanta, Subhra; Das, Pradip Kumar; Chatterjee, Sudipta; Sengupta, Kushal; Mondal, Biswajit; Dey, Abhishek


    Iron porphyrin complex with a covalently attached thiolate ligand and another with a covalently attached phenolate ligand has been synthesized. The thiolate bound complex shows spectroscopic features characteristic of P450, including the hallmark absorption spectrum of the CO adduct. Electrocatalytic O2 reduction by this complex, which bears a terminal alkyne group, is investigated by both physiabsorbing on graphite surfaces (fast electron transfer rates) and covalent attachment to azide terminated self-assembled monolayer (physiologically relevant electron transfer rates) using the terminal alkyne group. Analysis of the steady state electrochemical kinetics reveals that this catalyst can selectively reduce O2 to H2O with a second-order k(cat.) ~10(7) M(-1 )s(-1) at pH 7. The analogous phenolate bound iron porphyrin complex reduces O2 with a second-order rate constant of 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) under the same conditions. The anionic ligand bound iron porphyrin complexes catalyze oxygen reduction reactions faster than any known synthetic heme porphyrin analogues. The kinetic parameters of O2 reduction of the synthetic thiolate bound complex, which is devoid of any second sphere effects present in protein active sites, provide fundamental insight into the role of the protein environment in tuning the reactivity of thiolate bound iron porphyrin containing metalloenzymes. PMID:24171513

  18. New perspective on iron-ligand vibrations of oxyheme complexes.

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; Peng, Q.; Barabanschikov, A.; Pavlik, J.W.; Alp, E.E.; Sturhahn, W.; Zhao, J.; Schulz, C.E.; Sage, J.T.; Scheidt, W.R.


    We report our studies of the vibrational dynamics of iron for three imidazole-ligated oxyheme derivatives that mimic the active sites of histidine-ligated heme proteins complexed with dioxygen. The experimental vibrational data are obtained from nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) measurements conducted on both powder samples and oriented single crystals, and which includes several in-plane (ip) and out-of-plane (oop) measurements. Vibrational spectral assignments have been made through a combination of the oriented sample spectra and predictions based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The two Fe-O{sub 2} modes that have been previously observed by resonance Raman spectroscopy in heme proteins are clearly shown to be very strongly mixed and are not simply either a bending or stretching mode. In addition, a third Fe-O{sub 2} mode, not previously reported, has been identified. The long-sought Fe-Im stretch, not observed in resonance Raman spectra, has been identified and compared with the frequencies observed for the analogous CO and NO species. The studies also suggest that the in-plane iron motion is anisotropic and is controlled by the orientation of the Fe-O{sub 2} group and not sensitive to the in-plane Fe-N{sub p} bonds and/or imidazole orientations.

  19. Formic acid dehydrogenation catalysed by ruthenium complexes bearing the tripodal ligands triphos and NP3.


    Mellone, Irene; Peruzzini, Maurizio; Rosi, Luca; Mellmann, Dörthe; Junge, Henrik; Beller, Matthias; Gonsalvi, Luca


    The selective formic acid dehydrogenation to a mixture of CO(2) and H(2) was achieved with moderate to good productivities in the presence of homogeneous Ru catalysts bearing the polydentate tripodal ligands 1,1,1-tris-(diphenylphosphinomethyl)ethane (triphos) and tris-[2-(diphenylphosphino)ethyl]amine (NP(3)), either made in situ from suitable Ru(III) precursors or as molecular complexes. Preliminary mechanistic studies highlighting subtle differences due to ligand effects in the corresponding systems under study are also presented. PMID:23212285

  20. Metal complexes of ONO donor Schiff base ligand as a new class of bioactive compounds; Synthesis, characterization and biological evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar Naik, K. H.; Selvaraj, S.; Naik, Nagaraja


    Present work reviews that, the synthesis of (E)-N";-((7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-8-yl)methylene)benzohydrazide [L] ligand and their metal complexes. The colored complexes were prepared of type [M2+L]X2, where M2+ = Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Sr and Cd, L = (7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-8-yl)methylene)benzohydrazide, X = Cl-. Ligand derived from the condensation of 8-formyl-7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin and benzohydrazide in the molar ratio 1:1 and in the molar ratio 1:2 for metal complexes have been prepared. The chelation of the ligand to metal ions occurs through the both oxygen groups, as well as the nitrogen atoms of the azomethine group of the ligand. Reactions of the Schiff base ligand with Manganese(II), Cobalt(II), Nickel(II), Copper(II), Strontium(II), and Cadmium(II) afforded the corresponding metal complexes. The structures of the obtained ligand and their respective metal complexes were elucidated by infra-red, elemental analysis, Double beam UV-visible spectra, conductometric measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements and also thermochemical studies. The metal complex exhibits octahedral coordination geometrical arrangement. Schiff base ligand and their metal complexes were tested against antioxidants, antidiabetic and antimicrobial activities have been studied. The Schiff base metal complexes emerges effective α-glucosidase inhibitory activity than free Schiff base ligand.

  1. Nonheme Oxoiron(IV) Complexes of Pentadentate N5 Ligands: Spectroscopy, Electrochemistry, and Oxidative Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong; Ray, Kallol; Collins, Michael J.; Farquhar, Erik R.; Frisch, Jonathan R.; Gómez, Laura; Jackson, Timothy A.; Kerscher, Marion; Waleska, Arkadius; Comba, Peter; Costas, Miquel; Que, Lawrence


    Oxoiron(IV) species have been found to act as the oxidants in the catalytic cycles of several mononuclear nonheme iron enzymes that activate dioxygen. To gain insight into the factors that govern the oxidative reactivity of such complexes, a series of five synthetic S = 1 [FeIV(O)(LN5)]2+ complexes has been characterized with respect to their spectroscopic and electrochemical properties as well as their relative abilities to carry out oxo transfer and hydrogen atom abstraction. The Fe=O units in these five complexes are supported by neutral pentadentate ligands having a combination of pyridine and tertiary amine donors but with different ligand frameworks. Characterization of the five complexes by X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals Fe=O bonds of ca. 1.65 Å in length that give rise to the intense 1s→3d pre-edge features indicative of iron centers with substantial deviation from centrosymmetry. Resonance Raman studies show that the five complexes exhibit ν(Fe=O) modes at 825–841 cm−1. Spectropotentiometric experiments in acetonitrile with 0.1 M water reveal that the supporting pentadentate ligands modulate the E1/2(IV/III) redox potentials with values ranging from 0.83 to 1.23 V vs. Fc, providing the first electrochemical determination of the E1/2(IV/III) redox potentials for a series of oxoiron(IV) complexes. The 0.4-V difference in potential may arise from differences in the relative number of pyridine and tertiary amine donors on the LN5 ligand and in the orientations of the pyridine donors relative to the Fe=O bond that are enforced by the ligand architecture. The rates of oxo-atom transfer (OAT) to thioanisole correlate linearly with the increase in the redox potentials, reflecting the relative electrophilicities of the oxoiron(IV) units. However this linear relationship does not extend to the rates of hydrogen-atom transfer (HAT) from 1,3-cyclohexadiene (CHD), 9,10-dihydroanthracene (DHA), and benzyl alcohol, suggesting that the HAT reactions are not

  2. Mixed ligand ruthenium(III) complexes of benzaldehyde 4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazones with triphenylphosphine/triphenylarsine co-ligands: Synthesis, DNA binding, DNA cleavage, antioxidative and cytotoxic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, K.; Sathiyaraj, S.; Raja, G.; Jayabalakrishnan, C.


    The new ruthenium(III) complexes with 4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone ligands, (E)-2-(2-chlorobenzylidene)-N-methylhydrazinecarbothioamide (HL1) and (E)-2-(2-nitrobenzylidene)-N-methylhydrazinecarbothioamide (HL2), were prepared and characterized by various physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The title compounds act as bidentate, monobasic chelating ligands with S and N as the donor sites and are preferably found in the thiol form in all the complexes studied. The molecular structure of HL1 and HL2 were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. DNA binding of the ligands and complexes were investigated by absorption spectroscopy and IR spectroscopy. It reveals that the compounds bind to nitrogenous bases of DNA via intercalation. The oxidative cleavage of the complexes with CT-DNA inferred that the effects of cleavage are dose dependent. Antioxidant study of the ligands and complexes showed the significant antioxidant activity against DPPH radical. In addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity of the ligands and complexes against MCF-7 cell line was assayed which showed higher cytotoxic activity with the lower IC50 values indicating their efficiency in killing the cancer cells even at low concentrations.

  3. Phosphorescent Platinum(II) Complexes with Mesoionic 1H-1,2,3-Triazolylidene Ligands.


    Soellner, Johannes; Tenne, Mario; Wagenblast, Gerhard; Strassner, Thomas


    The synthesis and characterization of eight unprecedented phosphorescent C^C* cyclometalated mesoionic aryl-1,2,3-triazolylidene platinum(II) complexes with different β-diketonate ligands are reported. All compounds proved to be strongly emissive at room temperature in poly(methyl methacrylate) films with an emitter concentration of 2 wt %. The observed photoluminescence properties were strongly dependent on the substitution on the aryl system and the β-diketonate ligand. Compared to acetylacetonate, the β-diketonates with aromatic substituents (mesityl and duryl) were found to significantly enhance the quantum yield while simultaneously reducing the emission lifetimes. Characterization was carried out by standard techniques, as well as solid-state structure determination, which confirmed the binding mode of the carbene ligand. DFT calculations, carried out to predict the emission wavelength with maximum intensity, were in excellent agreement with the (later) obtained experimental data. PMID:27294887

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of a New TRIPHOS Ligand Derivative and the Corresponding Pd(II) Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Deanna L.; Boro, Brian J.; Grubel, Katarzyna; Helm, Monte L.; Appel, Aaron M.


    The synthesis of the new bis(2-(diphenylphosphino)ethyl)methylhydroxyphosphine tridentate phosphine ligand, LCH2OH/Ph, is reported. The ligand reacts with [Pd(Cl)2(PhCN)2 to form [Pd(LCH2OH/Ph)Cl]Cl. Exchange of the chloride ions for triflate (OTf–) using AgOTf yielded pure [Pd(LCH2OH/Ph)OTf]OTf. In addition to spectral characterization the free ligand, LCH2OH/Ph, and Pd(II) complex, [Pd(LCH2OH/Ph)OTf]OTf, are structurally characterized. This research was supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Biosciences, and Geosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is a multiprogram national laboratory operated by Battelle for DOE.

  5. Modulation of Intersystem Crossing Rate by Minor Ligand Modifications in Cyclometalated Platinum(II) Complexes.


    Shafikov, Marsel Z; Kozhevnikov, Dmitry N; Bodensteiner, Michael; Brandl, Fabian; Czerwieniec, Rafał


    Photophysical properties of four new platinum(II) complexes comprising extended ppy (Hppy = 2-phenylpyridine) and thpy (Hthpy = 2-(2'-thienyl)pyridine) cyclometalated ligands and acetylacetonate (acac) are reported. Substitution of the benzene ring of Pt-ppy complexes 1 and 2 with a more electron-rich thiophene of Pt-thpy complexes 3 and 4 leads to narrowing of the HOMO-LUMO gap and thus to a red shift of the lowest energy absorption band and phosphorescence band, as expected for low-energy excited states of the intraligand/metal-to-ligand charge transfer character. However, in addition to these conventional spectral shifts, another, at first unexpected, substitution effect occurs. Pt-thpy complexes 3 and 4 are dual emissive showing fluorescence about 6000 cm(-1) (∼0.75 eV) higher in energy relative to the phosphorescence band, while for Pt-ppy complexes 1 and 2 only phosphorescence is observed. For dual-emissive complexes 3 and 4, ISC rates kISC are estimated to be in order of 10(9)-10(10) s(-1), while kISC of Pt-ppy complexes 1 and 2 is much faster amounting to 10(12) s(-1) or more. The relative intensities of the fluorescence and phosphorescence signals of Pt-thpy complexes 3 and 4 depend on the excitation wavelength, showing that hyper-intersystem crossing (HISC) in these complexes is observably significant. PMID:27388146

  6. [Mono- and Binuclear Dinitrosyl Iron Complexes with Thiol-containing Ligands in Various Biosystems].


    Vanin, A F; Mikoyan, V D; Kubrina, L N; Borodulin, R R; Burgova, E N


    It has been shown that dinitrosyl iron complexes with thiol-containing ligands, bound with modified bovine serum albumin with high amount of thiol groups, appeared in baker yeast or in animal tissues in the presence of exogenous or endogenous nitric oxide, respectively, are represented predominantly by EPR-silent binuclear form. This form can be transformed into EPR-active mononuclear form of dinitrosyl iron complexes with an increase in pH to basic values, into EPR-active form of mononuclear iron nitrosyl complexes in case of bielectronic recovery of the binuclear form of dinitrosyl iron complexes or under the action of dithiocarbamate derivatives. The latter induced the transformation of dinitrosyl iron complexes into EPR-active mononitrosyl iron complexes with dithiocarbamates. A significant amount of binuclear dinitrosyl iron complexes with thiol-containing ligands in living systems and identical biological activity of these complexes and endogenous nitric oxide systems allow of considering endogenous binuclear dinitrosyl iron complexes as a "working form" of endogenous nitric oxide recognized now as a universal regulator of biological processes. PMID:26394474

  7. ESI-MS studies of palladium (II) complexes with 1-(p-toluenesulfonyl)cytosine/cytosinato ligands.


    Kobetić, Renata; Gembarovski, Dubravka; Visnjevac, Aleksandar; Zinić, Biserka; Gabelica-Marković, Vesna


    The mononuclear complex Pd(1-TosC-N3)(2)Cl(2) (2) containing 1-(p-toluenesulfonyl)cytosine (1) as a ligand, as well as dinuclear complexes Pd(2)(1-TosC(-)-N3,N4)(4) (3) and Pd(2)(1-TosC(-)-N3,N4)(2)DMSO(2)Cl(2) (4) containing the ligand anion (1-TosC(-)), was mass analyzed by electrospray ionization ion trap MS/MS and high resolution MS. Complexes 3 and 4 were obtained by recrystallization of 2 from DMF and DMSO, respectively. The behavior of complex 2 in different solutions was monitored by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Under the applied ESI-MS conditions, complex 2 in methanol reorganized itself dominantly as new complex 3 and the solvent did not coordinate the formed species. In H(2)O/DMSO, CH(3)CN/DMSO and CH(3)OH/DMSO solutions, complex 2 formed several new species with solvent molecules involved in their structure, e.g. complex 4 was formed as the major product. The newly formed species were also examined by LC-MS-DAD, confirming the solvent induced reorganization and the solution instability of complex 2. PMID:19882593

  8. Tc-99m complexes of new functionalized propylene amine oxime (PnAO) ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Pillai, M.R.A.; Kothari, K.; Ramamoorthy, N.


    Three new functionalized PnAO ligands, 3,3,9,9-tetra-methyl-6-R-4, 8-diazaundecane-2,10-dionedioxime (R=benzyl, p-nitrobenzyl and p-aminobenzyl) were synthesised. Tc-99m complexes of these ligands were prepared by direct reduction of Tc-99m O{sub 4}{sup -} using stannous tartrate in the presence of ligands at pH 9.0. Complexation yields were greater than 95% at 1h and 24h post preparation as assessed by ITLC, HPLC and extraction into CHCl3. All three of the complexes were neutral and lipophilic (logP > 2.0) and eluted as single peak from a RP HPLC column. Biodistribution studies of the Tc-99m complexes of the benzyl and the nitrobenzyl derivatives were done in Wistar rats. Both complexes showed brain uptake but were washed out of the brain similar to the behavior of Tc-99m PnAO.

  9. Ligand-dependent localization and function of ORP-VAP complexes at membrane contact sites.


    Weber-Boyvat, Marion; Kentala, Henriikka; Peränen, Johan; Olkkonen, Vesa M


    Oxysterol-binding protein/OSBP-related proteins (ORPs) constitute a conserved family of sterol/phospholipid-binding proteins with lipid transporter or sensor functions. We investigated the spatial occurrence and regulation of the interactions of human OSBP/ORPs or the S. cerevisiae orthologs, the Osh (OSBP homolog) proteins, with their endoplasmic reticulum (ER) anchors, the VAMP-associated proteins (VAPs), by employing bimolecular fluorescence complementation and pull-down set-ups. The ORP-VAP interactions localize frequently at distinct subcellular sites, shown in several cases to represent membrane contact sites (MCSs). Using established ORP ligand-binding domain mutants and pull-down assays with recombinant proteins, we show that ORP liganding regulates the ORP-VAP association, alters the subcellular targeting of ORP-VAP complexes, or modifies organelle morphology. There is distinct protein specificity in the effects of the mutants on subcellular targeting of ORP-VAP complexes. We provide evidence that complexes of human ORP2 and VAPs at ER-lipid droplet interfaces regulate the hydrolysis of triglycerides and lipid droplet turnover. The data suggest evolutionarily conserved, complex ligand-dependent functions of ORP-VAP complexes at MCSs, with implications for cellular lipid homeostasis and signaling. PMID:25420878

  10. Synthesis, characterization luminiscence studies and microbial activity of ethylenediamine ruthenium (II) complexes with dipyridophenazine ligands.


    Shilpa, Mynam; Nagababu, Penumaka; Kumar, Y Praveen; Latha, J Naveena Lavanya; Reddy, M Rajender; Karthikeyan, K S; Gabra, Nazar Md; Satyanarayana, Sirasani


    Three symmetric ligands 7-methyl dipyrido-[3,2-a;2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz-CH(3)), 7-nitro dipyrido-[3,2-a;2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz-NO(2)) and benzo[i]dipyrido-[3,2-a;2',3'-c]phenazine (dppn) and their ruthenium(II) complexes [Ru(en)(2)(L)][ClO(4)](2) (en= ethylenediamine), L= dppz-CH(3), dppz-NO(2) and dppn have been synthesized and characterized by IR, (1)H, (13)C NMR and Mass spectra. The interactions of these complexes with calf thymus DNA have been investigated by spectrophotometric, spectrofluorimetric, circular dichroism, viscosity and thermal denaturation studies. As the planar extension of the intercalative ligand increases, the interaction of the complex with DNA increases, indicating that the size and shape of the intercalalative ligand has a marked effect on the strength of interaction. The plot of log K versus log [Na(+)] yield a slope of -1.26, -1.53, -1.60 for the complexes 1, 2 and 3 respectively. These three complexes have been found to promote the cleavage of plasmid pBR 322 DNA upon irradiation. PMID:21181246

  11. Bidentate NHC^pyrozolate ligands in luminescent platinum(II) complexes.


    Naziruddin, Abbas Raja; Galstyan, Anzhela; Iordache, Adriana; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Strassert, Cristian A; De Cola, Luisa


    A bidentate C^N donor set derived from an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) precursor linked to a trifluoromethyl (CF3) functionalized pyrazole ring is described for the first time. The ligands have been employed to prepare four new phosphorescent complexes by the coordination of platinum(II) centres bearing cyclometalated phenyl-pyridine/triazole-pyridine chelates. The electronic and steric environments of these complexes were tuned through the incorporation of suitable substituents in the phenyl-pyridine/triazole-pyridine ligands, wherein the position of the phenyl-ring substituent (a CF3 group) also directs the selective adoption of either a trans or a cis configuration between the C(NHC) and the C(phenyl) donor atoms. Molecular structures obtained by X-ray diffraction for three of the complexes confirm a distorted square-planar configuration around the platinum centre, and DFT calculations show that the substituents have a significant influence on the energies of the frontier orbitals. Moreover, a platinum(II) complex featuring the new bidentate NHC^pyrazolate ligand and a bulky adamantyl functionalized pyridine-triazole luminophore was observed to be highly emissive and exhibiting a sky-blue luminescence (λ(Em) = 470 nm) with photoluminescence quantum yields as high as 50% in doped PMMA matrices. A complete photophysical investigation of all of the complexes in solution as well as in the solid state is herein reported. PMID:25616069

  12. Pyridylalkylamine ligands and their palladium complexes: structure and reactivity revisited by NMR.


    Requet, Alexandre; Colin, Olivier; Bourdreux, Flavien; Salim, Salim M; Marque, Sylvain; Thomassigny, Christine; Greck, Christine; Farjon, Jonathan; Prim, Damien


    Pyridylmethylamines or pma are versatile platforms for different catalytic transformations. Five pma-ligands and their respective Pd complexes have been studied by liquid state NMR. By comparing (1)H, (13)C and (15)N chemical shifts for each pma/pma-Pd couple, a general trend for the metallacycle atoms concerns variations of the electronic distribution at the pendant arm, especially at the nitrogen atom of the ligand. Moreover, the increase of the chemical shift of the pendant arm nitrogen atom from primary to tertiary amine is also related to the increase of crowding within the complex. This statement is in good agreement with X-ray data collected for several complexes. Catalytic results for the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction involving the pma-Pd complexes showed within this series that a sterically crowded and electron-rich ligand in the metallacycle was essential to reach the coupling product with a good selectivity. In this context, NMR study of chemical shifts of all active nuclei especially in the metallacycle could give a trend of reactivity in the studied family of pma-Pd complexes. PMID:24652706

  13. Aspects of C-H Activation in Metal Complexes Containing Sulfur Ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski-DuBois, Mary C.


    The research project proposed to synthesize new metal complexes with sulfido, disulfido and other types of reactive sulfur ligands, and to explore the joint reactivity of metal and sulfur ligands with hydrogen and organic molecules. The overall objective was to investigate reaction pathways relevant to those observed for the heterogeneous metal sulfide catalysts which promote hydrogen activation, hydrogenation-dehydrogenation of organic substrates, and hydrogenolysis of carbon-heteroatom bonds. Particular emphasis was placed on CpRe derivatives (where Cp might be C5H5 or alkylated versions) so that comparisons could be made with the previously studied CpMo complexes, which showed extensive reactivity at the sulfur ligands. Heterogeneous rhenium sulfides generally show higher catalytic activity than molybdenum sulfides, and this is attributed, in part, to the weaker Re-S bond strength, relative to the moybdenum-sulfur bond. In our studies of discrete Re-sulfide complexes, we have also observed evidence for weaker Re-S bonds relative to the molybdenum systems. In addition we have characterized novel hydrogen activation by rhenium sulfido complexes, as well as carbon-hydrogen, carbon-sulfur and metal sulfur bond cleavage reactions. Hydrogen Activation. The complex Cp{prime}ReCl2S3 was synthesized in ca 70% yield and characterized by an X-ray diffraction study which confirms that the complex contains a {eta}2-trisulfide ligand. The cyclic voltammogram of Cp{prime}ReCl2S3 shows a wide window of redox stability with an irreversible reduction wave at -0.97 V and an irreversible oxidation at +1.03 V vs Fc. Nevertheless, the complex undergoes a facile reaction with hydrogen at 50 C to form H2S and a new dinuclear sulfido bridged rhenium complex. This reaction is of interest because it is the first example of the hydrogenolysis of a discrete metal polysulfide complex to produce H2S, a reaction also observed for heterogeneous rhenium sulfides. The reaction contrasts with

  14. Geometric and Electronic Structure of a Peroxomanganese(III) Complex Supported by a Scorpionate Ligand

    PubMed Central

    Colmer, Hannah E.; Geiger, Robert A.; Leto, Domenick F.; Wijeratne, Gayan B.; Day, Victor W.; Jackson, Timothy A.


    A monomeric MnII complex has been prepared with the facially-coordinating TpPh2 ligand, (TpPh2 = hydrotris(3,5-diphenylpyrazol-1-yl)borate). The X-ray crystal structure shows three coordinating solvent molecules resulting in a six-coordinate complex with Mn-ligand bond lengths that are consistent with a high-spin MnII ion. Treatment of this MnII complex with excess KO2 at room temperature resulted in the formation of a MnIII-O2 complex that is stable for several days at ambient conditions, allowing for the determination of the X-ray crystal structure of this intermediate. The electronic structure of this peroxomanganese(III) adduct was examined by using electronic absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), low-temperature magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), and variable-temperature variable-field (VTVH) MCD spectroscopies. Density functional theory (DFT), time-dependent (TD)-DFT, and multireference ab initio CASSCF/NEVPT2 calculations were used to assign the electronic transitions and further investigate the electronic structure of the peroxomanganese(III) species. The lowest ligand-field transition in the electronic absorption spectrum of the MnIII-O2 complex exhibits a blue shift in energy compared to other previously characterized peroxomanganese(III) complexes that results from a large axial bond elongation, reducing the metal-ligand covalency and stabilizing the σ-antibonding Mn dz2 MO that is the donor MO for this transition. PMID:25312785

  15. Slow Magnetic Relaxation Observed in Dysprosium Compounds Containing Unsupported Near-Linear Hydroxo- and Fluoro-Bridges.


    Brunet, Gabriel; Habib, Fatemah; Korobkov, Ilia; Murugesu, Muralee


    The encapsulating N1,N3-bis(3-methoxysalicylidene)diethylenetriamine (H2valdien) ligand was employed to isolate two novel Dy(III) compounds which contain rare bridging pathways for lanthanide systems. Compound 1, [Na2Dy(III)2(valdien)2(μ-OH)(dbm)2(H2O)2][Na2Dy(III)2(valdien)2(μ-OH)(NO3)2(dbm)2], where dbm(-) is dibenzoylmethanido, and compound 2, [Na3Dy(III)2(valdien)2(μ-F)(μ3-F)2(Cl)2(MeOH)2]n·0.5(MeOH)·(H2O), both exhibit linear lone hydroxo- and fluoro-bridges, respectively, between the metal centers. The unit cell of 1 comprises two discrete dinuclear molecules, which differ slightly, forming a cation-anion pair, while 2 forms a coordination polymer. The magnetic investigations indicate that both compounds display ferromagnetic coupling between the Dy(III) ions. Magnetic susceptibility measurements in the temperature range 1.8-300 K reveal that the Dy(III) ions in 1 are weakly coupled, resulting in a mononuclear single-molecule magnet-like behavior under an applied field. In the case of 2, the stronger coupling arising from the fluoride-bridge, leads to zero-field single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior with a non-negligible anisotropy barrier (Ueff) of 42 K. PMID:26091098

  16. Coinage metal complexes with bridging hybrid phosphine-NHC ligands: synthesis of di- and tetra-nuclear complexes.


    Simler, Thomas; Braunstein, Pierre; Danopoulos, Andreas A


    A series of P-NHC-type hybrid ligands containing both PR2 and N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) donors on meta-bis-substituted phenylene backbones, L(Cy), L(tBu) and L(Ph) (R = Cy, tBu, Ph, respectively), was accessed through a modular synthesis from a common precursor, and their coordination chemistry with coinage metals was explored and compared. Metallation of L(Ph)·n(HBr) (n = 1, 2) with Ag2O gave the pseudo-cubane [Ag4Br4(L(Ph))2], isostructural to [Ag4Br4(L(R))2] (R = Cy, tBu) (T. Simler, P. Braunstein and A. A. Danopoulos, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 2015, 54, 13691), whereas metallation of ·HBF4 (R = Ph, tBu) led to the dinuclear complexes [Ag2(L(R))2](BF4)2 which, in the solid state, feature heteroleptic Ag centres and a 'head-to-tail' (HT) arrangement of the bridging ligands. In solution, interconversion with the homoleptic 'head-to-head' (HH) isomers is facilitated by ligand fluxionality. 'Head-to-tail' [Cu2Br2(L(R))2] (R = Cy, tBu) dinuclear complexes were obtained from L(R)·HBr and [Cu5(Mes)5], Mes = 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl, which also feature bridging ligands and heteroleptic Cu centres. Although the various ligands L(R)l ed to structurally analogous complexes for R = Cy, tBu and Ph, the rates of dynamic processes occurring in solution are dependent on R, with faster rates for R = Ph. Transmetallation of both NHC and P donor groups from [Ag4Br4(L(tBu))2] to AuI by reaction with [AuCl(THT)] (THT = tetrahydrothiophene) led to L(tBu) transfer and to the dinuclear complex [Au2Cl2L(tBu)] with one L(tBu) ligand bridging the two Au centres. Except for the silver pseudo-cubanes, all other complexes do not exhibit metallophilic interactions. PMID:26886084

  17. Structural diversity of halocarbonyl molybdenum and tungsten PNP pincer complexes through ligand modifications.


    Aguiar, Sara R M M de; Stöger, Berthold; Pittenauer, Ernst; Allmaier, Günter; Veiros, Luis F; Kirchner, Karl


    This work presents a comparative study of a series of halocarbonyl Mo(ii) and W(ii) complexes of the types [M(PNP)(CO)3X]X and [M(PNP)(CO)2X2] (M = Mo, W; X = I, Br), featuring PNP pincer ligands based on a 2,6-diaminopyridine scaffold. The complexes were prepared and fully characterized. The syntheses of these complexes were accomplished by treatment of [M(PNP)(CO)3] with stoichiometric amounts of I2 and Br2, respectively. The modification of the 2,6-diaminopyridine scaffold by introducing NMe and NPh instead of NH spacers with concomitant modification of the phosphine moieties changed the steric and electronic properties of the PNP ligand significantly. While in the case of NH linkers exclusively cationic seven-coordinate complexes of the type [M(PNP)(CO)3X](+) were obtained with NMe and NPh spacers neutral seven-coordinate complexes of the type [M(PNP)(CO)2X2] were afforded. In the case of the latter, when the reaction is performed in the presence of CO also [M(PNP)(CO)3X](+) complexes are formed which slowly lose CO to give [M(PNP)(CO)2X2]. The halocarbonyl tungsten chemistry parallels that of molybdenum. The only exception is molybdenum in conjunction with the PNP(Me)-iPr ligand, where the coordinatively unsaturated complex [Mo(PNP(Me)-iPr)(CO)X2] is formed. DFT mechanistic studies reveal that the seven-coordinate complexes should be the thermodynamic as well as the kinetic products. Since [Mo(PNP(Me)-iPr)(CO)X2] is the observed product it suggests that the reaction follows an alternative path. Structures of representative complexes were determined by X-ray single crystal analyses. PMID:27513832

  18. Electronic Perturbations of Iron Dipyrrinato Complexes via Ligand [beta]-Halogenation and meso-Fluoroarylation

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, Austin B.; Betley, Theodore A.


    Systematic electronic variations were introduced into the monoanionic dipyrrinato ligand scaffold via halogenation of the pyrrolic {beta}-positions and/or via the use of fluorinated aryl substituents in the ligand bridgehead position in order to synthesize proligands of the type 1,9-dimesityl-{beta}-R{sub 4}-5-Ar-dipyrrin [R = H, Cl, Br, I; Ar = mesityl, 3,5-(F{sub 3}C){sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 3}, C{sub 6}F{sub 5} in ligand 5-position; {beta} = 2,3,7,8 ligand substitution; abbreviated ({sup {beta},Ar}L)H]. The electronic perturbations were probed using standard electronic absorption and electrochemical techniques on the different ligand variations and their divalent iron complexes. The free-ligand variations cause modest shifts in the electronic absorption maxima ({lambda}{sub max}: 464-499 nm) and more pronounced shifts in the electrochemical redox potentials for one-electron proligand reductions (E{sub 1/2}: -1.25 to -1.99 V) and oxidations (E{sub 1/2}: +0.52 to +1.14 V vs [Cp{sub 2}Fe]{sup +/0}). Installation of iron into the dipyrrinato scaffolds was effected via deprotonation of the proligands followed by treatment with FeCl{sub 2} and excess pyridine in tetrahydrofuran to afford complexes of the type ({sup {beta},Ar}L)FeCl(py) (py = pyridine). The electrochemical and spectroscopic behavior of these complexes varies significantly across the series: the redox potential of the fully reversible Fe{sup III/II} couple spans more than 400 mV (E{sub 1/2}: -0.34 to +0.50 V vs [Cp{sub 2}Fe]{sup +/0}); {lambda}{sub max} spans more than 40 nm (506-548 nm); and the {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer quadrupole splitting (|{Delta}E{sub Q}|) spans nearly 2.0 mm/s while the isomer shift ({delta}) remains essentially constant (0.86-0.89 mm/s) across the series. These effects demonstrate how peripheral variation of the dipyrrinato ligand scaffold can allow systematic variation of the chemical and physical properties of iron dipyrrinato complexes.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of a Tetrapodal NO4(4-) Ligand and Its Transition Metal Complexes.


    Axelson, Jordan C; Gonzalez, Miguel I; Meihaus, Katie R; Chang, Christopher J; Long, Jeffrey R


    We present the synthesis and characterization of alkali metal salts of the new tetraanionic, tetrapodal ligand 2,2'-(pyridine-2,6-diyl)bis(2-methylmalonate) (A4[PY(CO2)4], A = Li(+), Na(+), K(+), and Cs(+)), via deprotection of the neutral tetrapodal ligand tetraethyl 2,2'-(pyridine-2,6-diyl)bis(2-methylmalonate) (PY(CO2Et)4). The [PY(CO2)4](4-) ligand is composed of an axial pyridine and four equatorial carboxylate groups and must be kept at or below 0 °C to prevent decomposition. Exposing it to a number of divalent first-row transition metals cleanly forms complexes to give the series K2[(PY(CO2)4)M(H2O)] (M = Mn(2+), Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+)). The metal complexes were comprehensively characterized via single-crystal X-ray diffraction, (1)H NMR and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. Crystal structures reveal that [PY(CO2)4](4-) coordinates in a pentadentate fashion to allow for a nearly ideal octahedral coordination geometry upon binding an exogenous water ligand. Additionally, depending on the nature of the charge-balancing countercation (Li(+), Na(+), or K(+)), the [(PY(CO2)4)M(H2O)](2-) complexes can assemble in the solid state to form one-dimensional channels filled with water molecules. Aqueous electrochemistry performed on [(PY(CO2)4)M(H2O)](2-) suggested accessible trivalent oxidation states for the Fe, Co, and Ni complexes, and the trivalent Co(3+) species [(PY(CO2)4)Co(OH)](2-) could be isolated via chemical oxidation. The successful synthesis of the [PY(CO2)4](4-) ligand and its transition metal complexes illustrates the still-untapped versatility within the tetrapodal ligand family, which may yet hold promise for the isolation of more reactive and higher-valent metal complexes. PMID:27404805

  20. A study of in vitro antibacterial activity of lanthanides complexes with a tetradentate Schiff base ligand

    PubMed Central

    Al Momani, Waleed Mahmoud; Taha, Ziyad Ahmed; Ajlouni, Abdulaziz Mahmoud; Shaqra, Qasem Mohammad Abu; Al Zouby, Muaz


    Objective To establish the antibacterial activity of lanthanides complexes with a tetradentate Schiff base ligand L. Methods (N, N′-bis (1-naphthaldimine)-o-phenylenediamine) was prepared from the condensation of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde with o-phenylenediamine in a molar ratio of 2:1. The antimicrobial activity of the resultant Ln (III) complexes was investigated using agar well diffusion and micro-broth dilution techniques; the latter was used to establish the minimum inhibitory concentrations for each compound investigated. Results Most of Ln (III) complexes were found to exhibit antibacterial activities against a number of pathogenic bacteria with MICs ranging between 1.95-250.00 µg/mL. Staphylococcus aureus was the most susceptible bacterial species to [LaL(NO3)2(H2O)](NO3) complex while Shigella dysenteriae and Escherichia coli required a relatively higher MIC (250 µg/mL). The complexes La (III) and Pr (III) were effective inhibitors against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas Sm (III) complex was effective against Serratia marcescens. On the other hand, Gd (III), La (III) and Nd (III) were found to be more potent inhibitors against Pseudomonas aeruginosa than two of commonly used antibiotics. The remaining Ln (III) complexes showed no remarkable activity as compared to the two standard drugs used. Conclusions Tetradentate Schiff base ligand L and its complexes could be a potential antibacterial compounds after further investigation. PMID:23646299

  1. Mössbauer effect study of iron(III) inidazolidine nitroxyl-free radical ligand complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulaba, A.; Kiremire, E.; Pollak, H.; Boeyens, J.


    A new complex, [Fe(acac)L2], bearing inidazolidine nitroxyl-free radical ligand (L-) was recently synthesised for biological studies. It proved to be biologically active against African sleeping sickness, plasmodium falciparum (malaria), leishmaniasis and chaga disease causative agents. Three ESR well resolved peaks indicated the presence of a free (unpaired) and chemically active electron in the complex. The structural complex ferric iron was found at the centre of two electric gradient whose the biggest is suggested to be initiated by the unpaired charge. No distinction between different cis isomers could be made.

  2. iview: an interactive WebGL visualizer for protein-ligand complex

    PubMed Central


    Background Visualization of protein-ligand complex plays an important role in elaborating protein-ligand interactions and aiding novel drug design. Most existing web visualizers either rely on slow software rendering, or lack virtual reality support. The vital feature of macromolecular surface construction is also unavailable. Results We have developed iview, an easy-to-use interactive WebGL visualizer of protein-ligand complex. It exploits hardware acceleration rather than software rendering. It features three special effects in virtual reality settings, namely anaglyph, parallax barrier and oculus rift, resulting in visually appealing identification of intermolecular interactions. It supports four surface representations including Van der Waals surface, solvent excluded surface, solvent accessible surface and molecular surface. Moreover, based on the feature-rich version of iview, we have also developed a neat and tailor-made version specifically for our istar web platform for protein-ligand docking purpose. This demonstrates the excellent portability of iview. Conclusions Using innovative 3D techniques, we provide a user friendly visualizer that is not intended to compete with professional visualizers, but to enable easy accessibility and platform independence. PMID:24564583

  3. Ambient Stable Trigonal Bipyramidal Copper(III) Complexes Equipped with an Exchangeable Axial Ligand.


    Chang, Hao-Ching; Lo, Feng-Chun; Liu, Wen-Chi; Lin, Tsung-Han; Liaw, Wen-Feng; Kuo, Ting-Shen; Lee, Way-Zen


    A stable trigonal bipyramidal copper(III) complex, [PPN][Cu((TMS)PS3)Cl] (1, wherein PPN represents bis(triphenylphosphine)iminium), was synthesized from CuCl2/PPNCl via intramolecular copper(II) disproportionation. Under ambient conditions, the axial chloride of 1 is exchangeable in solution thus making 1 serve as an intermediate to prepare trigonal bipyramidal copper(III) derivatives, e.g., [PPN][Cu((TMS)PS3)(N3)] (2) and [Cu((TMS)PS3)(DABCO)] (3). Diamagnetic complexes 1-3 were fully characterized by X-ray crystallography, NMR, UV-vis, and Cu K-edge absorption spectroscopy. A series of UV-vis titrations were performed to investigate the relative ligand affinity toward the [Cu((TMS)PS3)] moiety, verifying the 1:1 binding equilibrium between various ligands. Compared to known copper(III) compounds, Cu K-edge absorptions of 1-3 possess lower pre-edge energy and higher shakedown transition energy, which, respectively, attribute to the electron donation from (TMS)PS3(3-) ligand and their trigonal ligand field. PMID:25993313

  4. Improving the LIE Method for Binding Free Energy Calculations of Protein-Ligand Complexes.


    Miranda, Williams E; Noskov, Sergei Yu; Valiente, Pedro A


    In this work, we introduced an improved linear interaction energy (LIE) method parameterization for computations of protein–ligand binding free energies. The protocol, coined LIE-D, builds on the linear relationship between the empirical coefficient γ in the standard LIE scheme and the D parameter, introduced in our work. The D-parameter encompasses the balance (difference) between electrostatic (polar) and van der Waals (nonpolar) energies in protein–ligand complexes. Leave-one-out cross-validation showed that LIE-D reproduced accurately the absolute binding free energies for our training set of protein–ligand complexes (<|error|> = 0.92 kcal/mol, SDerror = 0.66 kcal/mol, R(2) = 0.90, QLOO(2) = 0.89, and sPRESS(LOO) = 1.28 kcal/mol). We also demonstrated LIE-D robustness by predicting accurately the binding free energies for three different protein–ligand systems outside the training data set, where the electrostatic and van der Waals interaction energies were calculated with different force fields. PMID:26180998

  5. Tropolone Complexes Formed with Amphoteric Ligands: Structure and Dynamics as Viewed across the Vibronic Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemchick, Deacon J.; Chew, Kathryn; Vaccaro, Patrick H.


    Owing to the presence of a finite potential barrier that adjoins hydroxylic (proton-donating) and ketonic (proton-accepting) oxygen atom centers, tropolone (TrOH) long has served as a model system for the investigation of coherent (symmetrical) proton-transfer events. Hydrogen-bound complexes formed by docking amphoteric species onto the TrOH substrate, such as those involving formic acid [TrOH-(FA)_n] and other simultaneous donor-acceptor ligands, have been generated under supersonic free-jet expansion conditions. For binary adducts (n=1), quantum-chemical calculations predict two nearly degenerate isomers that can be labeled as external (ligand attached to the seven-membered aromatic ring) and internal (ligand bound to the O-H \\cdot\\cdot\\cdot O reaction site), where the latter cleft-bound form offers the tantalizing possibility of undergoing a double proton-transfer process. A variety of spectroscopic probes build around the intense ˜{A}^{1}{B}_{2}-˜{X}^{1}{A}_{1} (π ^{*}←π) near-ultraviolet absorption feature of bare tropolone have been enlisted to elucidate the binding motifs and reaction pathways in complexes containing one or more amphoteric ligands, including vibrationally resolved schemes based upon laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), dispersed fluorescence (DF), and fluorescence hole-burning (FHB) methods. Structural and dynamical information gleaned from these experiments will be discussed in light of complementary ab initio calculations.

  6. Synthesis, spectroscopic, coordination and biological activities of some organometallic complexes derived from thio-Schiff base ligands

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Hussein, Azza A.; Linert, Wolfgang


    Two series of mono- and binuclear complexes cyclic or acyclic thio-ferocine Schiff base ligands, derived from the condensation of 2-aminobenzenthiol (L) with monoacetyl ferrocene in the molar ratio 1:1 or in the molar ratio 1:2 for diacetyl ferocine have been prepared. The condensation reactions yield the corresponding Schiff Base ligands, HLa-Maf and H2Lb-Daf. The chelation of the ligands to metal ions occurs through the sulfur of the thiol group as well as the nitrogen atoms of the azomethine group of the ligands. HLa-Maf acts as monobasic bidentate or dibasic tetradentate, while H2Lb-Daf behaves as twice negatively cargend tetradentate ligand. The structures of these ligands were elucidated by elemental analysis, infrared, ultraviolet–visible spectra, as well as 1H NMR spectra. Reactions of the Schiff bases ligands with ruthenium(III), oxovanadium(IV) and dioxouranium(VI) afforded the corresponding transition metal complexes. The properties of the newly prepared complexes were analyse by elemental analyses, infrared, electronic spectra, 1H NMR as well as the magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurement. The metal complexes exhibits different geometrical arrangements such as octahedral and square pyramidal coordination. Schiff base ligands and their metal complexes were tested against two pathogenic bacteria as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as one kind of fungi to study their biological activity. All the complexes exhibit antibacterial and antifungal activities against these organisms. PMID:24070648

  7. Synthesis, spectroscopic, coordination and biological activities of some organometallic complexes derived from thio-Schiff base ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou-Hussein, Azza A.; Linert, Wolfgang


    Two series of mono- and binuclear complexes cyclic or acyclic thio-ferocine Schiff base ligands, derived from the condensation of 2-aminobenzenthiol (L) with monoacetyl ferrocene in the molar ratio 1:1 or in the molar ratio 1:2 for diacetyl ferocine have been prepared. The condensation reactions yield the corresponding Schiff Base ligands, HLa-Maf and H2Lb-Daf. The chelation of the ligands to metal ions occurs through the sulfur of the thiol group as well as the nitrogen atoms of the azomethine group of the ligands. HLa-Maf acts as monobasic bidentate or dibasic tetradentate, while H2Lb-Daf behaves as twice negatively cargend tetradentate ligand. The structures of these ligands were elucidated by elemental analysis, infrared, ultraviolet-visible spectra, as well as 1H NMR spectra. Reactions of the Schiff bases ligands with ruthenium(III), oxovanadium(IV) and dioxouranium(VI) afforded the corresponding transition metal complexes. The properties of the newly prepared complexes were analyse by elemental analyses, infrared, electronic spectra, 1H NMR as well as the magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurement. The metal complexes exhibits different geometrical arrangements such as octahedral and square pyramidal coordination. Schiff base ligands and their metal complexes were tested against two pathogenic bacteria as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as one kind of fungi to study their biological activity. All the complexes exhibit antibacterial and antifungal activities against these organisms.

  8. Near-IR luminescent lanthanide complexes with 1,8-diaminoanthraquinone-based chromophoric ligands.


    Stacey, Oliver J; Ward, Benjamin D; Amoroso, Angelo J; Pope, Simon J A


    Three new chromophoric anthraquinone-based multidentate ligands have been synthesised in a step-wise manner from 1,8-dichloroanthraquinone. The ligands each comprise two dipicolyl amine units and react with trivalent lanthanide ions to form monometallic complexes of the form [Ln(L)](OTf)3 as indicated by MS studies and elemental analyses. Supporting DFT studies show that the monometallic species are highly favoured (>1000 kJ mol(-1)) over the formation of a 2 : 2 dimetallic congener. Both ligands and complexes absorb light efficiently (ε ∼ 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1)) in the visible part of the spectrum, with λabsca. 535-550 nm through an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) transition localised on the substituted anthraquinone unit. In all cases the complexes show a fluorescence band at ca. 675 nm due to the ICT emitting state. The corresponding Nd(iii), Yb(iii) and Er(iii) complexes also reveal sensitised near-IR emission characteristic of each ion following excitation of the ICT visible absorption band at 535 nm. PMID:26974664

  9. Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Production by a Nickel(II) Complex with a Phosphinopyridyl Ligand.


    Tatematsu, Ryo; Inomata, Tomohiko; Ozawa, Tomohiro; Masuda, Hideki


    A novel nickel(II) complex [Ni(L)2 Cl]Cl with a bidentate phosphinopyridyl ligand 6-((diphenylphosphino)methyl)pyridin-2-amine (L) was synthesized as a metal-complex catalyst for hydrogen production from protons. The ligand can stabilize a low Ni oxidation state and has an amine base as a proton transfer site. The X-ray structure analysis revealed a distorted square-pyramidal Ni(II)  complex with two bidentate L ligands in a trans arrangement in the equatorial plane and a chloride anion at the apex. Electrochemical measurements with the Ni(II) complex in MeCN indicate a higher rate of hydrogen production under weak acid conditions using acetic acid as the proton source. The catalytic current increases with the stepwise addition of protons, and the turnover frequency is 8400 s(-1) in 0.1 m [NBu4 ][ClO4 ]/MeCN in the presence of acetic acid (290 equiv) at an overpotential of circa 590 mV. PMID:26991364

  10. Ligand induction of a transcriptionally active thyroid hormone receptor coactivator complex.

    PubMed Central

    Fondell, J D; Ge, H; Roeder, R G


    Transcriptional regulation by nuclear hormone receptors is thought to involve interactions with putative cofactors that may potentiate receptor function. Here we show that human thyroid hormone receptor alpha purified from HeLa cells grown in the presence of thyroid hormone (T3) is associated with a group of distinct nuclear proteins termed thyroid hormone receptor-associated proteins (TRAPs). In an in vitro system reconstituted with general initiation factors and cofactors (and in the absence of added T3), the "liganded" thyroid hormone receptor (TR)/TRAP complex markedly activates transcription from a promoter template containing T3-response elements. Moreover, whereas the retinoid X receptor is not detected in the TR/TRAP complex, its presence is required for the function of the complex. In contrast, human thyroid hormone receptor alpha purified from cells grown in the absence of T3 lacks the TRAPs and effects only a low level of activation that is dependent on added ligand. These findings demonstrate the ligand-dependent in vivo formation of a transcriptionally active TR-multisubunit protein complex and suggest a role for TRAPs as positive coactivators for gene-specific transcriptional activation. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8710870

  11. Effects of ancillary ligands on selectivity of protein labeling with platinum(II) chloro complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xia-Ying.


    Potassium (2,6-pyridinedicarboxylato)chloroplatinate(II) was synthesized. The molecular structure of the complex in (n-Bu){sub 4}N(Pt(dipic)Cl){center dot}0.5H{sub 2}O was determined by x-ray crystallography. The (Pt(dipic)Cl){sup {minus}} is essentially planar and contains a Pt(II) atom, a tridentate dipicolinate dianion ligand, and a unidentate Cl{sup {minus}} ligand. The bis(bidentate) complex trans-(Pt(dipic){sub 2}){sup 2{minus}} was also observed by {sup 1}H NMR. A red gel-like substance was observed when the yellow aqueous solution of K(Pt(dipic)Cl) was cooled or concentrated. The K(Pt(dipic)Cl) molecules form stacks in the solid state and gel-like substance but remain monomeric over a wide range of concentrations and temperatures. The reactivity and selectivity of(Pt(dipic)Cl){sup {minus}} toward cytochromes c from horse and tuna were studied. The new transition-metal reagent is specific for methionine residues. Di(2-pyridyl-{beta}-ethyl)sulfidochloroplatinum(II) chloride dihydrate was also synthesized. This complex labels histidine and methionine residues in cytochrome c. The ancillary ligands in these platinum(II) complexes clearly determine the selectivity of protein labeling. 106 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. Dinuclear gold(I) complexes of bridging bidentate carbene ligands: synthesis, structure and spectroscopic characterisation.


    Barnard, Peter J; Baker, Murray V; Berners-Price, Susan J; Skelton, Brian W; White, Allan H


    Eight dinuclear Au(i)-carbene complexes have been synthesized from various imidazolium-linked cyclophanes and related acyclic bis(imidazolium) salts, by treatment of the imidazolium salts with [Au(i)(SMe(2))Cl] in the presence of a carboxylate base. Single crystal structural studies showed that the Au(i)-carbene compounds contain dinuclear (AuL)(2) cations in which a pair of gold(i) centres are linked by a pair of bridging dicarbenoid ligands. Interestingly, the structural studies revealed short AuAu contacts of 3.0485(3)[Angstrom] and 3.5425(6)[Angstrom] in two of these complexes. NMR studies showed that the (AuL)(2) cations constructed from the cyclophane-based ligands retain a relatively rigid structure in solution, whilst those of the non-cyclophane ligand systems are fluxional in solution. The electronic absorption and emission spectra of the complexes in solution at room temperature were recorded and the complex with the shortest AuAu contact was found to emit intensely at 400 nm and more weakly at 780 nm upon excitation at 260 nm. The compounds with longer AuAu separations were not emissive under these conditions. PMID:15252682

  13. Influence of neutral amine ligands on the network assembly of lead(II) 4-sulfobenzoate complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li-Ping; Zhu, Long-Guan


    Two new lead(II) 4-sulfobenzoate complexes with amine ligands, [Pb(4-sb)(2,2'-bipy)] n ( 1) and {[Pb(4-sb)(4,4'-bipy) 1/2] · (4,4'-bipy) 1/2} n ( 2) (2,2'-bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine; 4,4'-bipy = 4,4'-bipyridine; 4-sb = 4-sulfobenzoate dianion), were synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray analyses, IR, TG, elemental analyses and fluorescent studies. Complexes 1 and 2, in addition to previously reported [Pb(4-sb)(H 2O) 2] n ( 3) and {[Pb(4-sb)(phen)] · (H 2O)} n ( 4) where phen is 1,10-phenanthroline, all contain [Pb(4-sb)] building units, while four [Pb(4-sb)] networks in 1- 4 are very different, which is significantly influenced by the neutral ligands. The coordination array of complex 1 is a 2-D network in which each 4-sb acts as a η 5-μ 3 mode while the complex 2 is a 3-D architecture in which each 4-sb performs a η 5-μ 6 mode. Both coordination modes of 4-sb ligands in 1- 2 are novel and first reported in this paper.

  14. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Mass Selected [UO2(ligand)n]2+ Complexes in the Gas Phase

    SciTech Connect

    Gary S. Groenewold; Anita Gianotto; Michael Vanstipdonk; Kevin C. Cossel; David T. Moore,; Nick Polfer; Jos Oomens


    The gas-phase infrared spectra of discrete uranyl ([UO2]2+) complexes ligated with acetone and/or acetonitrile were used to evaluate systematic trends of ligation on the position of the O=U=O stretch, and to enable rigorous comparison with the results of computational studies. Ionic uranyl complexes isolated in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer were fragmented via infrared multiphoton dissociation using a free electron laser scanned over the mid-IR wavelengths. The asymmetric O=U=O stretching frequency was measured at 1017 cm-1 for [UO2(CH3COCH3)2]2+, and was systematically red shifted to 1000 and 988 cm-1 by the addition of a third and fourth acetone ligands, respectively, which was consistent with more donation of electron density to the uranium center in complexes with higher coordination number. The experimental measurements were in good agreement with values generated computationally using LDA, B3LYP, and ZORA-PW91 approaches. In contrast to the uranyl frequency shifts, the carbonyl frequencies of the acetone ligands were progressively blue shifted as the number of ligands increased from 2 to 4, and approached that of free acetone. This observation was consistent with the formation of weaker noncovalent bonds between uranium and the carbonyl oxygen as the extent of ligation increases. Similar trends were observed for [UO2(CH3CN)n]2+ complexes although the magnitude of the red shift in the uranyl frequency upon addition more acetonitrile ligands was smaller than for acetone, consistent with the more modest nucleophilic nature of acetonitrile. This conclusion was amplified by the uranyl stretching frequencies measured for mixed acetone/acetonitrile complexes, which showed that substitution of one acetone for one acetonitrile produced a modest red shift of 3 to 6 cm-1.

  15. Unusually Efficient Pyridine Photodissociation from Ru(II) Complexes with Sterically Bulky Bidentate Ancillary Ligands

    PubMed Central


    The introduction of steric bulk to the bidentate ligand in [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(py)]2+ (1; tpy = 2,2′:2′,6″-terpyridine; bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine; py = pyridine) to provide [Ru(tpy)(Me2bpy)(py)]2+ (2; Me2bpy = 6,6′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipyridine) and [Ru(tpy)(biq)(py)]2+ (3; biq = 2,2′-biquinoline) facilitates photoinduced dissociation of pyridine with visible light. Upon irradiation of 2 and 3 in CH3CN (λirr = 500 nm), ligand exchange occurs to produce the corresponding [Ru(tpy)(NN)(NCCH3)]2+ (NN = Me2bpy, biq) complex with quantum yields, Φ500, of 0.16(1) and 0.033(1) for 2 and 3, respectively. These values represent an increase in efficiency of the reaction by 2–3 orders of magnitude as compared to that of 1, Φ500 < 0.0001, under similar experimental conditions. The photolysis of 2 and 3 in H2O with low energy light to produce [Ru(tpy)(NN)(OH2)]2+ (NN = Me2bpy, biq) also proceeds rapidly (λirr > 590 nm). Complexes 1–3 are stable in the dark in both CH3CN and H2O under similar experimental conditions. X-ray crystal structures and theoretical calculations highlight significant distortion of the planes of the bidentate ligands in 2 and 3 relative to that of 1. The crystallographic dihedral angles defined by the bidentate ligand, Me2bpy in 2 and biq in 3, and the tpy ligand were determined to be 67.87° and 61.89°, respectively, whereas only a small distortion from the octahedral geometry is observed between bpy and tpy in 1, 83.34°. The steric bulk afforded by Me2bpy and biq also result in major distortions of the pyridine ligand in 2 and 3, respectively, relative to 1, which are believed to weaken its σ-bonding and π-back-bonding to the metal and play a crucial role in the efficiency of the photoinduced ligand exchange. The ability of 2 and 3 to undergo ligand exchange with λirr > 590 nm makes them potential candidates to build photochemotherapeutic agents for the delivery of drugs with pyridine binding groups. PMID:25027458

  16. Effect of doping of calcium fluoride nanoparticles on the photoluminescence properties of europium complexes with benzoic acid derivatives as secondary ligands and 2-aminopyridine as primary ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Garima; Narula, Anudeep Kumar


    The present article reports the synthesis of three Eu(III) complexes [Eu(BA)3(2-ap)] (1), [Eu(HBA)3(2-ap)] (2) and [Eu(ABA)3(2-ap)] (3) (BA = benzoic acid, HBA = 2-hydroxy benzoic acid, ABA = 2-amino benzoic acid and 2-ap = 2-aminopyridine) carried out in ethanol solution. The complexes were further doped with CaF2 nanoparticles and a change in the photoluminescence properties was observed. The compositions and structural investigation of the complexes were determined by elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) which suggest the coordination of ligands with the central Eu(III) ion. The optical properties of the complexes were studied by Ultraviolet Visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and photoluminescence studies (PL). The relative PL intensity was enhanced in the Eu(III) complexes doped with CaF2 nanoparticles as compared to the pure Eu(III) complexes, however the increase in intensity varied in the order of ligands ABA > HBA > BA. The photoluminescence lifetime decay curves also revealed the longer lifetime (τ) and higher quantum efficiency (η) for europium complexes with ABA ligands suggesting the efficient energy transfer and better sensitizing ability of the ligand to europium ion. The morphology of the synthesized compounds were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealing spherical morphology with agglomeration of the nanoparticles.

  17. New metal complexes of N3 tridentate ligand: Synthesis, spectral studies and biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hamdani, Abbas Ali Salih; Al Zoubi, Wail


    New tridentate ligand 3-amino-4-{1,5-dimethyl-3-[2-(5-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-ethylimino]-2phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-ylazo}-phenol L was synthesized from the reaction of 1,5-dimethyl-3-[2-(5-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-ethylimino]-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-ylamine and 3.4-amino phenol. A complexes of these ligand [Ni(II)(L)(H2O)2 Cl]Cl, [pt(IV)(L)Cl3]Cl and [M(II)(L)Cl]Cl (M = Pd (II), Zn (II), Cd (II) and Hg (II) were synthesized. The complexes were characterized by spectroscopic methods and magnetic moment measurements, elemental analysis, metal content, Chloride containing and conductance. These studies revealed octahedral geometries for the Ni (II), pt (IV) complexes, square planar for Pd (II) complex and tetrahedral for the Zn (II), Cd(II) and Hg (II) complexes. The study of complexes formation via molar ratio and job method in DMF solution has been investigated and results were consistent to those found in the solid complexes with a ratio of (M:L) as (1:1). The thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔE*, ΔH*, ΔS* ΔG* and K are calculated from the TGA curve using Coats-Redfern method. Hyper Chem-8 program has been used to predict structural geometries of compounds in gas phase. The synthesized ligand and its metal complexes were screened for their biological activity against bacterial species, two Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonasaeruginosa).

  18. Antitumor properties of five-coordinate gold(III) complexes bearing substituted polypyridyl ligands.


    Sanghvi, Chinar D; Olsen, Pauline M; Elix, Catherine; Peng, Shifang Bruce; Wang, Dongsheng; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Shin, Dong M; Hardcastle, Kenneth I; MacBeth, Cora E; Eichler, Jack F


    In an on-going effort to discover metallotherapeutic alternatives to the chemotherapy drug cisplatin, neutral distorted square pyramidal gold(III) coordination complexes possessing 2,9-disubstituted-1,10-phenanthroline ligands {[((R)phen)AuCl3]; R = n-butyl, sec-butyl} have been previously synthesized and characterized. A structurally analogous gold(III) complex bearing a 6,6'-di-methylbipyridine ligand ([((methyl)bipy)AuCl3]) has been synthesized and fully characterized to probe the effect of differing aromatic character of the ligand on solution stability and tumor cell cytotoxicity. The two compounds [((sec-butyl)phen)AuCl3] and [((methyl)bipy)AuCl3]) were subsequently assessed for their stability against the biological reductant glutathione, and it was found that the [((sec-butyl)phen)AuCl3] complex exhibits slightly enhanced stability compared to the [((methyl)bipy)AuCl3] complex and significantly higher stability than previously reported square planar gold(III) complex ions. Furthermore, these complexes were tested for cytotoxic effects against existing lung and head and neck cancer cell lines in vitro. The [((sec-butyl)phen)AuCl3] complex was found to be more cytotoxic than cisplatin against five different tumor cell lines, whereas [((methyl)bipy)AuCl3] had more limited in vitro antitumor activity. Given that [((sec-butyl)phen)AuCl3] had significantly higher antitumor activity, it was tested against an in vivo tumor model. It was found that this complex did not significantly reduce the growth of xenograft tumors in mice and initial model binding studies with bovine serum albumin indicate that interactions with serum albumin proteins may be the cause for the limited in vivo activity of this potential metallotherapeutic. PMID:23948576

  19. Homoleptic Transition Metal Complexes of the 7-Azaindolide Ligand Featuring κ1-N1 Coordination

    PubMed Central

    Fillman, Kathlyn L.; Arman, Hadi D.; Tonzetich, Zachary J.


    Homoleptic complexes of the anion of 7-azaindole (AzaIn) have been synthesized and characterized for a series of 3d transition metals. For Mn(II), Fe(II), and Co(II), complexes of formula Na2[M(AzaIn)4]·2L (L = THF, 2-MeTHF, toluene, or benzene) have been isolated by treatment of the corresponding metal chloride salts with 7-azaindole in the presence of sodium hexamethyldisilazide. The complexes adopt tetrahedral geometries with exclusive coordination to the transition metal ion through the pyrrolic N1 nitrogen atoms of the AzaIn ligands. Solid-state structures of the complexes demonstrate that the sodium cations remain tightly associated to the coordination entities through interaction with both the pyrrolic and pyridine nitrogen atoms of the azaindolide ligands. For Fe(II), replacement of the sodium cations by other alkali metal ions (Li or K) generates new complexes that demonstrate similar coordination geometries to the sodium salts. As a means of comparison, the Fe(II) complex of 4-azaindolide was also investigated. Na2[Fe(4-AzaIn)4]·2L adopts a similar solution structure to the 7-azaindolide complexes as judged by NMR spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. DFT calculations have been performed to investigate the bonding in the 7-azaindolide complexes. Results demonstrate that 7-azaindolide-κ1-N1 is a nearly pure sigma donor ligand that features a high degree of ionic character in its bonding to mid 3d transition metal ions. PMID:26378471

  20. New ruthenium nitrosyl pincer complexes bearing an O2 ligand. Mono-oxygen transfer.


    Fogler, Eran; Efremenko, Irena; Gargir, Moti; Leitus, Gregory; Diskin-Posner, Yael; Ben-David, Yehoshoa; Martin, Jan M L; Milstein, David


    We report on Ru((II))(μ(2)-O2) nitrosyl pincer complexes that can return to their original Ru(0) state by reaction with mono-oxygen scavengers. Potential intermediates were calculated by density functional theory (DFT) and a mechanism is proposed, revealing a new type of metal-ligand cooperation consisting of activation of the O2 moiety by both the metal center and the NO ligand. Reaction of the Ru(0) nitrosyl complex 1 with O2 quantitatively yielded the crystallographically characterized Ru((II)) (μ(2)-O2) nitrosyl complex 2. Reaction of 2 with the mono-oxygen scavengers phosphines or CO gave the Ru(0) complex 1 and phosphine oxides, or the carbonyl complex 3 (1 trapped by CO) and CO2, respectively. Reaction of 2 with 1 equiv of phosphine at room temperature or -40 °C resulted in immediate formation of half an equivalent of 1 and 1 equiv of phosphine oxide, while half an equivalent of 2 remained unchanged. Overnight reaction at room temperature of 2 with excess CO (≥3 equiv) resulted in 3 and CO2 gas as the only products. Reaction of 1 with 1 equiv of mono-oxygen source (dioxirane) at -78 °C yielded the Ru((II))(μ(2)-O2) complex 2. Similarly, reaction of the Ru(0) dearomatized complex 4 with O2 led to the crystallographicaly characterized Ru((II))(μ(2)-O2) complex 5. Further reaction of 5 with mono-oxygen scavengers (phosphines or CO) led to the Ru(0) complex 4 and phosphine oxides or complex 6 (4 trapped by CO) and CO2. When instead only 1 equiv of 5 was reacted with 1 equiv of phosphine at room temperature, immediate formation of half an equivalent of 4 and 1 equiv of phosphine oxide took place, while half an equivalent of 5 remained unchanged. When 5 reacted with an excess of CO (≥3 equiv), complex 6 and CO2 gas were the only products obtained. DFT studies indicate a new mode of metal-ligand cooperation involving the nitrosyl ligand in the oxygen transfer process. PMID:25695626

  1. Mechanistic elucidation of linker and ancillary ligand substitution reactions in Pt(II) dinuclear complexes.


    Ongoma, Peter O; Jaganyi, Deogratius


    The rate of substitution of aqua ligands by three nucleophiles, thiourea (TU), N,N-dimethylthiourea (DMTU) and N,N,N,N-tetramethylthiourea (TMTU), for the complexes [cis-{PtOH2(NH3)2}2-μ-pyrazine](ClO4)2 (pzn), [cis-{PtOH2(NH3)2}2-μ-2,3-dimethylpyrazine](ClO4)2 (2,3pzn), [cis-{PtOH2(NH3)2}2-μ-2,5-pyrazine](ClO4)2 (2,5pzn) and [cis-{PtOH2(NH3)2}2-μ-2,6-dimethylpyrazine](ClO4)2 (2,6pzn) was investigated under pseudo first-order conditions as a function of concentration and temperature by stopped-flow and UV-Visible spectrophotometry. The reaction proceeded in three consecutive steps; each step follows first order kinetics with respect to each complex and nucleophile. The pseudo first-order rate constants, k(obs(1/2/3)), for sequential substitution of the aqua ligands and subsequent displacement of the linker obeyed the rate law: k(obs(1/2/3)) = k((1/2/3))[nucleophile]. The steric hindrance properties of the pyrazine-bridging ligand control the overall reaction pattern. The order of reactivity of the complexes is 2,3pzn ≈ 2,5pzn < 2,6pzn < pzn. The difference in reactivity attributed to the steric crowding at the Pt(II) centre imposed by the methyl groups reduces the lability of the aqua complexes. The order of reactivity of the nucleophiles decreases with the increase in steric demand TU > DMTU > TMTU. 1H and 195Pt NMR spectroscopic results confirmed the observed dissociation of the bridging ligand from the metal centre of the cis-dinuclear complexes and its derivatives in the third step. The dissociation process is accelerated by the introduction of the steric effect on the linker in conjunction with the increased ligand field strength imparted by additional thiourea ligands at each metal centre. The large negative entropy of activation ΔS(≠) values in all cases support an associative substitution mechanism. PMID:23223554

  2. Substitution reactions on cyclometalated Pt(IV) complexes. Associative tuning by fluoro ligands and fluorinated substituents.


    Bernhardt, Paul V; Gallego, Carlos; Martinez, Manuel; Parella, Teodor


    The substitution reactions of sulfide by phosphines on Pt(IV) complexes having a cyclometalated imine ligand, two methyl groups in a cis geometrical arrangement, and a halogen and a sulfide as ligands, [Pt (Me)(2)X(C-N)(SR(2))], have been studied as a function of temperature, solvent, and electronic and steric characteristics of the phosphines, sulfides, X, and C-N. In most of these cases, a limiting dissociative mechanism has been found, where the dissociation of the sulfide ligand corresponds to the rate-determining step. The intermediate species formed behaves as a true pentacoordinated Pt(IV) compound in a steady-state concentration only for the systems with SMe(2); for the bulkier SEt(2) and SBzl(2) leaving ligands the rate constants and activation parameters show an important degree of solvent dependence, which correlates with the ability of the solvent to form hydrogen bonds. The X-ray crystal structure of one of the dibenzyl sulfide complexes has been determined, and the geometrical arrangement of the ligands has been determined by NOE NMR measurements at low temperature. The nature of the solvent, imine, sulfide, and halogen ligands produces differences in the reaction rates, which can be quantified very well by the corresponding DeltaS values that move from +48 to -90 J K(-1) mol(-1). The reaction on [Pt(Me)(2)F(C(5)CF(4)CHNCH(2)Ph) (SMe(2))] has been found to take place via a mechanism that depends strongly on the bulkiness of the substituting phosphine. While for PCy(3) the reaction is dissociative, for smaller entering ligands the first associatively activated substitution mechanisms on organometallic Pt(IV) complexes have been established with values of DeltaH and DeltaS in the 28-44 kJ mol(-1) and -120 to -83 J K(-1) mol(-1) ranges. Important intramolecular hydrogen bonding in the starting material can be held responsible for this difference with the remaining systems. PMID:11925165

  3. Variable Temperature FTIR Spectroscopy Of Transition Metal Complexes Using The SCN Reporter Ligand.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herber, Rolfe H...


    Due to its large oscillator strength, as well as its position in the IR spectrum (ca. 2100 cm-1) which is relatively free of interferences, the CN stretch absorption in transition metal thiocyanate and iso-thiocyanate complexes has long been used as a diagnostic measure of both the ligand binding mode, as well as an indication of molecular point-group symmetry. In bis-SCN complexes of the first-row transition metals having (distorted) D, symmetry, cis complexes are expected to show two absorbances, corresponding to the sym and asym stretching modes, while for trans complexes (D,) having inversion symmetry, the sym stretch should be IR forbidden and Raman allowed, while the asym stretch is IR allowed and Raman forbidden. Similar considerations apply to square planar complexes (Cav and D). In this study, a number of octahedral and square planar transition metal bis-thiocyanate (isothiocyanate) complexes of Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II),Cu(II), Ru(II) and Pt(II) have been synthesized, and characterized. by variable temperature IR spectroscopy both in KBr and Kel-F grease mull matrices. Depending on the steric requirements of the other ligands, the characteristic signature of the pseudohalide stretching mode is found to depend critically on the (near) degeneracy of the sym and asym CN stretching modes. Low temperature IR data, as well as supporting nmr and Raman spectroscopic results are required to completely characterize the geometry of these inorganic and metal organic complexes.

  4. Synthesis and Reactivity of Palladium(II) Fluoride Complexes Containing Nitrogen-Donor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Nicholas D.; Kampf, Jeff W.; Sanford, Melanie S.


    This article describes the synthesis, characterization, and reactivity of palladium(II) fluoride complexes containing sp2 and sp3 nitrogen-containing supporting ligands. Both cis and trans complexes of general structure (N)(N’)PdII(R)(F) (R = Ar or CH3) as well as cis-(N)2PdII(F)2 are reported. Crystallographic characterization of these molecules has allowed structural comparisons to related phosphine-ligated species. Furthermore, these studies have revealed that nitrogen-donor ligands support some of the longest and the shortest Pd–F bonds reported to date. The thermal decomposition of (N)(N’)PdII(R)(F) has also been examined, and no products of C–F bond-forming reductive elimination were obtained in any cases. PMID:20024002

  5. Communication: Free energy of ligand-receptor systems forming multimeric complexes.


    Di Michele, Lorenzo; Bachmann, Stephan J; Parolini, Lucia; Mognetti, Bortolo M


    Ligand-receptor interactions are ubiquitous in biology and have become popular in materials in view of their applications to programmable self-assembly. Although complex functionalities often emerge from the simultaneous interaction of more than just two linker molecules, state of the art theoretical frameworks enable the calculation of the free energy only in systems featuring one-to-one ligand/receptor binding. In this Communication, we derive a general formula to calculate the free energy of systems featuring simultaneous direct interaction between an arbitrary number of linkers. To exemplify the potential and generality of our approach, we apply it to the systems recently introduced by Parolini et al. [ACS Nano 10, 2392 (2016)] and Halverson and Tkachenko [J. Chem. Phys. 144, 094903 (2016)], both featuring functionalized Brownian particles interacting via three-linker complexes. PMID:27131522

  6. Communication: Free energy of ligand-receptor systems forming multimeric complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Michele, Lorenzo; Bachmann, Stephan J.; Parolini, Lucia; Mognetti, Bortolo M.


    Ligand-receptor interactions are ubiquitous in biology and have become popular in materials in view of their applications to programmable self-assembly. Although complex functionalities often emerge from the simultaneous interaction of more than just two linker molecules, state of the art theoretical frameworks enable the calculation of the free energy only in systems featuring one-to-one ligand/receptor binding. In this Communication, we derive a general formula to calculate the free energy of systems featuring simultaneous direct interaction between an arbitrary number of linkers. To exemplify the potential and generality of our approach, we apply it to the systems recently introduced by Parolini et al. [ACS Nano 10, 2392 (2016)] and Halverson and Tkachenko [J. Chem. Phys. 144, 094903 (2016)], both featuring functionalized Brownian particles interacting via three-linker complexes.

  7. How big is a Cp? Novel cycloheptatrienyl zirconium complexes with tri-, tetra- and pentasubstituted cyclopentadienyl ligands.


    Bauer, Heiko; Glöckner, Andreas; Tagne Kuate, Alain C; Schäfer, Sebastian; Sun, Yu; Freytag, Matthias; Tamm, Matthias; Walter, Marc D; Sitzmann, Helmut


    The new bulky cyclopentadienyl anions 1,2,4-tri(cyclopentyl)cyclopentadienide and 2,3-diisopropyl-1,4-dimethyl-5-trimethylsilyl-cyclopentadienide were prepared. These and the already known 1,2,4-tri(cyclohexyl)-, 1,2,4-tri(isopropyl)-, 2,3-diisopropyl-1,4-dimethyl-, 1,3,4-triisopropyl-2,5-dimethyl-, pentaphenyl-, and p-butylphenyl-tetraphenyl-cyclopentadienide as well as tert-butylindenide were coordinated to the cycloheptatrienylzirconium fragment [(CHT)ZrCl(tmeda)]. The nine zirconium complexes of the [(CHT)Zr(Cp)] type were characterized by elemental analysis and NMR spectroscopy. For five of the sandwich complexes X-ray crystal structure determination could be carried out; structures of the four others were obtained by DFT calculations. The data serve as a basis for cone angle measurements of cyclopentadienyl ligands to evaluate the steric demand of these ligands. PMID:25222005

  8. Intramolecular Entropy and Size-Dependent Solution Properties of Nanocrystal-Ligands Complexes.


    Yang, Yu; Qin, Haiyan; Peng, Xiaogang


    CdSe-stearates nanocrystal-ligands complex as a whole possess strongly temperature- and size-dependent yet well-defined solubility in small organic solvents, which shows little solvent effects as long as the complexes remained intact. A quantitative thermodynamic model is developed to describe such solubility behavior, which differs fundamentally from conventional models for micron colloids. The model reveals that the conformation entropy of the n-alkanoate chain released in dissolution greatly stabilize the colloidal solution but the strong chain-chain interdigitation between adjacent particles in solid diminishes the solubility. These understandings result in "entropic ligands" (see full disclosure in another report (10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b00730)) as the universal means to battle processability challenges of colloidal nanocrystals. PMID:26923516

  9. Unique behaviour of dinitrogen-bridged dimolybdenum complexes bearing pincer ligand towards catalytic formation of ammonia

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hiromasa; Arashiba, Kazuya; Kuriyama, Shogo; Sasada, Akira; Nakajima, Kazunari; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Nishibayashi, Yoshiaki


    It is vital to design effective nitrogen fixation systems that operate under mild conditions, and to this end we recently reported an example of the catalytic formation of ammonia using a dinitrogen-bridged dimolybdenum complex bearing a pincer ligand, where up to twenty three equivalents of ammonia were produced based on the catalyst. Here we study the origin of the catalytic behaviour of the dinitrogen-bridged dimolybdenum complex bearing the pincer ligand with density functional theory calculations, based on stoichiometric and catalytic formation of ammonia from molecular dinitrogen under ambient conditions. Comparison of di- and mono-molybdenum systems shows that the dinitrogen-bridged dimolybdenum core structure plays a critical role in the protonation of the coordinated molecular dinitrogen in the catalytic cycle. PMID:24769530

  10. Synthesis of binuclear platinum complexes containing the ligands 8-naphthyridine, 2-aminopyridine, and 7-azaindolate. An experimental study of the steric hindrance of the bulky pentafluorophenyl ligands in the synthesis of binuclear complexes.


    Casas, José M; Diosdado, Beatriz E; Forniés, Juan; Martín, Antonio; Rueda, Angel J; Orpen, A Guy


    The bidentate N-donor ligands 2-aminopyridine (2-ampy), 7-azaindolate (aza) and 1,8-naphthyridine (napy) have been used to study the steric effect of pentafluorophenyl groups in the synthesis of binuclear platinum(II) complexes. The 2-ampy and aza ligands bridge two "Pt(C 6F 5) 2" fragments with Pt...Pt distances of 4.1 and 3.4 A, respectively (complexes 1 and 3). Under the same reaction conditions the napy ligand shows chelating behavior and makes the mononuclear complex ( A) highly reactive because of its strained coordination. One of the Pt-N bonds of the chelating complex is broken on reaction with HX {X = Cl ( 4), Br ( 5)} because of protonation while the anion X (-) occupies a created vacant site. The resulting mononuclear complex eliminates C 6F 5H when refluxed, and a binuclear complex ( 6) with two napy ligands bridging two "Pt(C 6F 5)Cl" fragments is obtained. The reaction of A with HPPh 2 affords a mononuclear complex ( 7) analogous to complexes 5 and 6, but reflux gives a binuclear complex ( 8) with the two napy ligands terminally bound and the PPh 2 groups bridging the "Pt(C 6F 5)napy" moieties. The reaction of A with HCCPh gives a binuclear complex; moreover, the final product does not depend on the ratio of complex A to HCCPh. Complexes 1, 4, 6, 9 have been structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction. PMID:18767797

  11. Excited-State Electronic Structure in Polypyridyl Complexes Containing Unsymmetrical Ligands.


    Omberg, Kristin M.; Smith, Gregory D.; Kavaliunas, Darius A.; Chen, Pingyun; Treadway, Joseph A.; Schoonover, Jon R.; Palmer, Richard A.; Meyer, Thomas J.


    Step-scan Fourier transform infrared absorption difference time-resolved (S(2)FTIR DeltaA TRS) and time-resolved resonance Raman (TR(3)) spectroscopies have been applied to a series of questions related to excited-state structure in the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited states of [Ru(bpy)(2)(4,4'-(CO(2)Et)(2)bpy)](2+), [Ru(bpy)(2)(4-CO(2)Et-4'-CH(3)bpy)](2+), [Ru(bpy)(4,4'-(CO(2)Et)(2)bpy)(2)](2+), [Ru(4,4'-(CO(2)Et)(2)bpy)(3)](2+), [Ru(bpy)(2)(4,4'-(CONEt(2))(2)bpy)](2+), [Ru(bpy)(2)(4-CONEt(2)-4'-CH(3)bpy)](2+), and [Ru(4-CONEt(2)-4'-CH(3)bpy)(3)](2+) (bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine). These complexes contain bpy ligands which are either symmetrically or unsymmetrically derivatized with electron-withdrawing ester or amide substituents. Analysis of the vibrational data, largely based on the magnitudes of the nu(CO) shifts of the amide and ester substituents (Deltanu(CO)), reveals that the ester- or amide-derivatized ligands are the ultimate acceptors and that the excited electron is localized on one acceptor ligand on the nanosecond time scale. In the unsymmetrically substituted acceptor ligands, the excited electron is largely polarized toward the ester- or amide-derivatized pyridine rings. In the MLCT excited states of [Ru(bpy)(2)(4,4'-(CO(2)Et)(2)bpy)](2+) and [Ru(bpy)(2)(4,4'-(CONEt(2))(2)bpy)](2+), Deltanu(CO) is only 60-70% of that observed upon complete ligand reduction due to a strong polarization interaction in the excited state between the dpi(5) Ru(III) core and the excited electron. PMID:11670867

  12. New Ru(II) complexes for dual photoreactivity: ligand exchange and (1)O2 generation.


    Knoll, Jessica D; Albani, Bryan A; Turro, Claudia


    Uncovering the factors that govern the electronic structure of Ru(II)-polypyridyl complexes is critical in designing new compounds for desired photochemical reactions, and strategies to tune excited states for ligand dissociation and (1)O2 production are discussed herein. The generally accepted mechanism for photoinduced ligand dissociation proposes that population of the dissociative triplet ligand field ((3)LF) state proceeds through thermal population from the vibrationally cooled triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer ((3)MLCT) state; however, temperature-dependent emission spectroscopy provides varied activation energies using the emission and ligand exchange quantum yields for [Ru(bpy)2(L)2](2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; L = CH3CN or py). This suggests that population of the (3)LF state proceeds from the vibrationally excited (3)MLCT state. Because the quantum yield of ligand dissociation for nitriles is much more efficient than that for py, steric bulk was introduced into the ligand set to distort the pseudo-octahedral geometry and lower the energy of the (3)LF state. The py dissociation quantum yield with 500 nm irradiation in a series of [Ru(tpy)(NN)(py)](2+) complexes (tpy = 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine; NN = bpy, 6,6'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine (Me2bpy), 2,2'-biquinoline (biq)) increases by 2-3 orders of magnitude with the sterically bulky Me2bpy and biq ligands relative to bpy. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy reveals population of the (3)LF state within 3-7 ps when NN is bulky, and density functional theory calculations support stabilized (3)LF states. Dual activity via ligand dissociation and (1)O2 production can be achieved by careful selection of the ligand set to tune the excited-state dynamics. Incorporation of an extended π system in Ru(II) complexes such as [Ru(bpy)(dppn)(CH3CN)2](2+) (dppn = benzo[i]dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine) and [Ru(tpy)(Me2dppn)(py)](2+) (Me2dppn = 3,6-dimethylbenzo[i]dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine) introduces

  13. New Ru(II) Complexes for Dual Photoreactivity: Ligand Exchange and 1O2 Generation

    PubMed Central

    Knoll, Jessica D.; Albani, Bryan A.; Turro, Claudia


    CONSPECTUS Uncovering the factors that govern the electronic structure of Ru(II)–polypyridyl complexes is critical in designing new compounds for desired photochemical reactions, and strategies to tune excited states for ligand dissociation and 1O2 production are discussed herein. The generally accepted mechanism for photoinduced ligand dissociation proposes that population of the dissociative triplet ligand field (3LF) state proceeds through thermal population from the vibrationally cooled triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer (3MLCT) state; however, temperature-dependent emission spectroscopy provides varied activation energies using the emission and ligand exchange quantum yields for [Ru(bpy)2(L)2]2+ (bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine; L = CH3CN or py). This suggests that population of the 3LF state proceeds from the vibrationally excited 3MLCT state. Because the quantum yield of ligand dissociation for nitriles is much more efficient than that for py, steric bulk was introduced into the ligand set to distort the pseudo-octahedral geometry and lower the energy of the 3LF state. The py dissociation quantum yield with 500 nm irradiation in a series of [Ru(tpy)(NN)(py)]2+ complexes (tpy = 2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridine; NN = bpy, 6,6′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipyridine (Me2bpy), 2,2′-biquinoline (biq)) increases by 2–3 orders of magnitude with the sterically bulky Me2bpy and biq ligands relative to bpy. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy reveals population of the 3LF state within 3–7 ps when NN is bulky, and density functional theory calculations support stabilized 3LF states. Dual activity via ligand dissociation and 1O2 production can be achieved by careful selection of the ligand set to tune the excited-state dynamics. Incorporation of an extended π system in Ru(II) complexes such as [Ru(bpy)(dppn)(CH3CN)2]2+ (dppn = benzo[i]dipyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c]phenazine) and [Ru(tpy)(Me2dppn)(py)]2+ (Me2dppn = 3,6-dimethylbenzo[i]dipyrido[3,2-a:2′,3

  14. Scrutinizing the Noninnocence of Quinone Ligands in Ruthenium Complexes: Insights from Structural, Electronic, Energy, and Effective Oxidation State Analyses.


    Skara, Gabriella; Gimferrer, Marti; De Proft, Frank; Salvador, Pedro; Pinter, Balazs


    The most relevant manifestations of ligand noninnocence of quinone and bipyridine derivatives are thoroughly scrutinized and discussed through an extensive and systematic set of octahedral ruthenium complexes, [(en)2RuL](z), in four oxidation states (z = +3, +2, +1, and 0). The characteristic structural deformation of ligands upon coordination/noninnocence is put into context with the underlying electronic structure of the complexes and its change upon reduction. In addition, by means of decomposing the corresponding reductions into electron transfer and structural relaxation subprocesses, the energetic contribution of these structural deformations to the redox energetics is revealed. The change of molecular electron density upon metal- and ligand-centered reductions is also visualized and shown to provide novel insights into the corresponding redox processes. Moreover, the charge distribution of the π-subspace is straightforwardly examined and used as indicator of ligand noninnocence in the distinct oxidation states of the complexes. The aromatization/dearomatization processes of ligand backbones are also monitored using magnetic (NICS) and electronic (PDI) indicators of aromaticity, and the consequences to noninnocent behavior are discussed. Finally, the recently developed effective oxidation state (EOS) analysis is utilized, on the one hand, to test its applicability for complexes containing noninnocent ligands, and, on the other hand, to provide new insights into the magnitude of state mixings in the investigated complexes. The effect of ligand substitution, nature of donor atom, ligand frame modification on these manifestations, and measures is discussed in an intuitive and pedagogical manner. PMID:26866981

  15. N-heterocyclic phosphenium and phosphido nickel complexes supported by a pincer ligand framework.


    Evers-McGregor, Deirdra A; Bezpalko, Mark W; Foxman, Bruce M; Thomas, Christine M


    A chelating diphosphine ligand with a central N-heterocyclic phosphenium cation (NHP(+)) has been used to explore the coordination chemistry of NHPs with nickel. Treatment of the chlorophosphine precursor [PPP]Cl (1) with stoichiometric Ni(COD)2 affords (PPP)NiCl (8), which is best described as a Ni(II)/NHP(-) phosphido complex formed via oxidative addition of the P-Cl bond. In contrast, treating [PPP]Cl (1) with excess Ni(COD)2 results in a mixture of the trimetallic complex (PPP)2Ni3Cl2 (9) and the reduced NHP-bridged dimer [(PPP)Ni]2 (10). Compound 9 is found to be a Ni(II)Ni(II)Ni(0) complex in which the two NHP ligands act as bridging NHP(-) phosphidos, while complex 10 is a Ni(I)Ni(I) complex that is highly delocalized throughout the symmetric Ni2P2 core. In contrast, the reaction of [PPP][PF6] (11) with Ni(COD)2 affords an asymmetrically-bridged dication [(PPP)Ni]2[PF6]2 (12), which is found to contain two bridging NHP(+) cations bridging two Ni(0) centers. Comproportionation of 10 and 12 affords monocationic [(PPP)Ni]2[PF6] (13), completing the redox series. Nickel complexes 8-10 and 12 are largely similar to their Pd and Pt analogues, but a paramagnetic monocation such as 13 was not observed in the Pd and Pt case. Computational studies lend further insight into the electronic structure and bonding in complexes 8-10 and 12-13, and further support the potential redox non-innocent properties of NHP ligands. PMID:26464003

  16. Directing Protons to the Dioxygen Ligand of a Ruthenium(II) Complex with Pendent Amines in the Second Coordination Sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Tronic, Tristan A.; DuBois, M. Rakowski; Kaminsky, Werner; Coggins, Michael K.; Liu, Tianbiao; Mayer, James M.


    A side-on Ru–O₂ complex with pendent amines in the ligand backbone has been synthesized to model proton delivery in O₂ reduction (see scheme and structure; red O, purple Ru, blue N, yellow P). Protonation occurs at the amine near the O₂ ligand, forming a hydrogen bond between the ammonium ion and the O₂ ligand, leading to a small increase in O-O bond length.

  17. Strong ferromagnetic metal-ligand exchange in a nickel bis(3,5-dipyridylverdazyl) complex

    PubMed Central

    Brook, David J. R.; Richardson, Cardius; Haller, Benjamin C.; Hundley, Michael; Yee, Gordon


    A new 1,5-dipyridyl verdazyl, synthesized from the corresponding dipyridyl hydrazone, coordinates nickel(II) to form a structurally characterized, pseudooctahedral complex analogous to Ni(terpy)22+. The unusually short Ni-verdazyl distance results in strong ferromagnetic exchange (JNi-rad=+300, Jrad-rad=+160 cm−1) between all three paramagnetic species along with a metal-ligand charge transfer band in the electronic spectrum. PMID:20697644

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Paramagnetic Tungsten Imido Complexes Bearing α-Diimine Ligands.


    Tanahashi, Hiromasa; Ikeda, Hideaki; Tsurugi, Hayato; Mashima, Kazushi


    Tungsten imido complexes bearing a redox-active ligand, such as N,N'-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-1,4-diaza-2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene (L1), N,N'-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-1,4-diaza-1,3-butadiene (L2), and 1,2-bis[(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imino]acenaphthene (L3), were prepared by salt-free reduction of W(═NC6H3-2,6-(i)Pr2)Cl4 (1) using 1-methyl-3,6-bis(trimethylsilyl)-1,4-cyclohexadiene (MBTCD) followed by addition of the corresponding redox-active ligands. In the initial stage, reaction of W(═NC6H3-2,6-(i)Pr2)Cl4 with MBTCD afforded a tetranuclear W(V) imido cluster, [W(═NC6H3-2,6-(i)Pr2)Cl3]4 (2), which served as a unique precursor for introducing redox-active ligands to the tungsten center to give the corresponding mononuclear complexes with a general formula of W(═NC6H3-2,6-(i)Pr2)Cl3(L) (3, L = L1; 4, L = L2; and 6, L = L3). X-ray analyses of complexes 3 and 6 revealed a neutral coordination mode of L1 and L3 to the tungsten in solid state, while the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of 3 and 4 clarified that a radical was predominantly located on the tungsten center supported by neutral L1 or L2, and the EPR spectra of complex 6 indicated that a radical was delocalized over both the tungsten center and the monoanionic redox-active ligand L3. PMID:26841126

  19. Synthesis, structure, photophysical and catalytic properties of CuI-Iodide complexes of di-imine ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Jahangir; Ghorai, Anupam; Singh, Sunil K.; Saha, Rajat; Patra, Goutam K.


    Two new multifunctional CuII based complexes [CuI(L1)] (1) and [Cu2(μ-I)2(L2)] (2) with bidentate N-N donor ligands L1 and imino-pyridyl ligand L2 have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis, NMR and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The bidentate di-imine ligand (L1) forms monomeric CuI complex (1) whereas the bis-bidentate di-imine ligand (L2) favours the formation of dimeric CuI complex (2) in association with two bridging iodides. Structural analysis reveals that in complex 1 each monomeric units are connected by π⋯π and C-H⋯π interactions to form 3D supramolecular structure whereas in complex 2 each molecules are connected by only π⋯π interactions to form 3D supramolecular structure. The photoluminescence properties of the complexes have been studied at room temperature. Theoretical analysis shows that HOMO is focused on the Cu and iodides while LUMO is focused on di-imine ligands and the luminescence behaviour arises due to metal to ligand charge transfer (MLCT) and halide to ligand charge transfer (XLCT). The complexes 1 and 2 are effective catalysts for the synthesis of 2-substituted benzoxazoles.

  20. Emissive bis-salicylaldiminato Schiff base ligands and their zinc(II) complexes: Synthesis, photophysical properties, mesomorphism and DFT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Manoj Kr.; Dilipkumar Singh, Y.; Bedamani Singh, N.; Sarkar, Utpal


    Bis-salicylaldiminato Schiff base ligands and their Zn(II) complexes derived from 2,3-Diaminomaleonitrile (DAMN) were synthesized. Their molecular structures, photophysical properties and mesogenic behaviors were investigated. The ligands and their Zn(II) complexes were characterized by using elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR and molar conductivity measurements. Photophysical properties of ligands and their Zn(II) complexes were investigated in different polar solvents by using UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopic studies. Ligands emit green light whereas complexes emit orange light upon irradiation with UV-visible light. The liquid crystalline phases of ligands and their Zn(II) complexes were characterized by polarizing optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The ligand having longer 4-n-octadecyloxy chain (n = 18) displays columnar phase whereas the lower homologues (n = 16, 12) did not show mesophase. The Zn(II) complexes having 4-n-octadecyloxy end chain display smectic B like phase whereas other lower homologues are non mesogenic in nature. The thermal stability of the compounds were studied by using thermo gravimetric analysis. The density functional theory was carried out to obtain the stable molecular conformation, dipole moment, molecular orbitals and polarizability of the ligands and their Zn(II) complexes.

  1. A mixed chloride/trifluoromethanesulfonate ligand species in a ruthenium(II) complex.


    Santiso-Quinones, Gustavo; Rodriguez-Lugo, Rafael E


    The compound [2-(aminomethyl)pyridine-κ²N,N'][chlorido/trifluoromethanesulfonato(0.91/0.09)][(10,11-η)-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5-amine-κN](triphenylphosphane-κP)ruthenium(II) trifluoromethanesulfonate dichloromethane 0.91-solvate, [Ru(CF₃SO₃)0.09Cl0.91(C₆H₈N₂)(C₁₅H₁₃N)(C₁₈H₁₅P)]CF₃SO₃·0.91CH₂Cl₂, belongs to a series of RuII complexes that had been tested for transfer hydrogenation, hydrogenation of polar bonds and catalytic transfer hydrogenation. The crystal structure determination of this complex revealed disorder in the form of two different anionic ligands sharing the same coordination site, which other spectroscopic methods failed to characterize. The reduced catalytic activity of the title compound was not fully understood until the crystallographic data provided evidence for the mixed ligand species. The crystal structure clearly shows that the majority of the synthesized material has a chloride ligand present. Only a small portion of the material is the expected complex [RuII(OTf)(ampy)(η²-tropNH₂)(PPh₃)]OTf, where OTf is triflate or trifluoromethanesulfonate, ampy is 2-(aminomethyl)pyridine and tropNH₂ is 5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5-amine. PMID:23907876

  2. Vanadium Complexes with Hydrazone or Thiosemicarbazone Ligands as Potential Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis Agents.


    de Souza, Paula C; Maia, Pedro I S; de Barros, Heloisa B; Leite, Clarice Q F; Deflon, Victor M; Pavan, Fernando R


    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused mainly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and still an important public health problem worldwide. Some factors like the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains make urgent the research of new active compounds. Searching for new inorganic compounds against TB, three new dioxovanadium(V) complexes were obtained upon reaction of [VO(acac)2] with hydrazone and thiosemicarbazone ligands derived from di-2-pyridyl ketone. Spectroscopic studies and X-ray crystallography revealed asymmetrically oxo bridged binuclear complexes of the type [{VO(L(1,2))}2(μ-O)2], involving the hydrazone ligands, while a mononuclear square pyramidal complex of the type [VO2(L(3))] was formed with the thiosemicarbazone ligand. The compounds were tested against M. tuberculosis and three of them, with MICs values between 2.00 and 3.76 μM were considered promising for TB treatment. Such MIC values are comparable or better than those found for some drugs currently used in TB treatment. PMID:24433444

  3. Highly Fluorescent Group 13 Metal Complexes with Cyclic, Aromatic Hydroxamic Acid Ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Michael; Moore, Evan G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.


    The neutral complexes of two ligands based on the 1-oxo-2-hydroxy-isoquinoline (1,2-HOIQO) motif with group 13 metals (Al, Ga, In) show bright blue-violet luminescence in organic solvents. The corresponding transition can be attributed to ligand-centered singlet emission, characterized by a small Stokes shifts of only a few nm combined with lifetimes in the range between 1-3 ns. The fluorescence efficiency is high, with quantum yields of up to 37% in benzene solution. The crystal structure of one of the indium(III) complexes (trigonal space group R-3, a = b = 13.0384(15) {angstrom}, c = 32.870(8) {angstrom}, ? = {beta} = 90{sup o}, {gamma} = 120{sup o}, V = 4839.3(14) {angstrom}{sup 3}, Z = 6) shows a six-coordinate geometry around the indium center which is close to trigonal-prismatic, with a twist angle between the two trigonal faces of 20.7{sup o}. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations (Al and Ga: B3LYP/6-31G(d)); In: B3LYP/LANL2DZ of the fac and mer isomers with one of the two ligands indicate that there is no clear preference for either one of the isomeric forms of the metal complexes. In addition, the metal centers do not have a significant influence on the electronic structure, and as a consequence, on the predominant intraligand optical transitions.

  4. Metal-Ligand Cooperativity in a Methandiide-Derived Iridium Carbene Complex.


    Weismann, Julia; Waterman, Rory; Gessner, Viktoria H


    The synthesis, electronic structure, and reactivity of the first Group 9 carbene complex, [Cp*IrL] [L=C(Ph2 PS)(SO2 Ph)] (2), based on a dilithio methandiide are reported. Spectroscopic as well as computational studies have shown that, despite using a late transition-metal precursor, sufficient charge transfer occurred from the methandiide to the metal, resulting in a stable, nucleophilic carbene species with pronounced metal-carbon double-bond character. The potential of this iridium complex in the activation of a series of E-H bonds by means of metal-ligand cooperation has been tested. These studies have revealed distinct differences in the reactivity of 2 compared to a previously reported ruthenium analogue. Whereas attempts to activate the O-H bond in different phenol derivatives resulted in ligand cleavage, H-H and Si-H activation as well as dehydrogenation of isopropanol have been accomplished. These reactions are driven by the transformation of the carbene to an alkyl ligand. Contrary to a previously reported ruthenium carbene system, the dihydrogen activation has been found to proceed by a stepwise mechanism, with the activation first taking place solely at the metal. The activated products further reacted to afford a cyclometalated complex through liberation of the activated substrates. In the case of triphenylsilane, cyclometalation could thus be induced by a substoichiometric (i.e., catalytic) amount of silane. PMID:26748420

  5. Synthesis, characterization, X-ray structure and photoluminescence properties of two Ce(III) complexes derived from pentadentate ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köse, Muhammet; Akgün, Eyup; Ceyhan, Gökhan


    In this study, two new Ce(III) complexes [Ce(L1)(NO3)3]•H2O and [Ce(L2)(NO3)3]•H2O were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic and analytical methods where L1 and L2 are pentadentate diimine ligands. Molecular structure of [Ce(L1)(NO3)3]•H2O was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction study. The complex was found to crystallize as [Ce(L1)(NO3)3] H2O. In the complex, the ligand L1 coordinates to the Ce(III) ion with the N3O2 donor set and the Ce(III) ion sits within the cavity of acyclic ligand. The Ce(III) ion is 11-coordinated by three nitrogen atoms from the ligand and eight O atoms, six of which come from three nitrate ions, two from the ligand. In the structure of the complex, water molecules link molecules together to form a 3D hydrogen bond network. Thermal behavior of the Schiff base ligands and their Ce(III) complexes metal complexes were studied under nitrogen atmosphere in the temperature range of 20-800 °C. Thermal stability of the ligands increased upon complexation with Ce(III) ion. In the UV-Vis spectra of Ce(III) complexes, new absorption bands appeared at 340-450 nm and these new bands were attributed to metal-ligand (M-L) charge transitions. Photoluminescence properties of the ligands and their Ce(III) complexes were examined.

  6. A TRLFS study on the complexation of novel BTP type ligands with Cm(III).


    Beele, Björn B; Rüdiger, Elias; Schwörer, Felicitas; Müllich, Udo; Geist, Andreas; Panak, Petra J


    Two BTP-type N-donor ligands with different numbers of aromatic nitrogen atoms (2,6-bis(4-ethyl-pyridazin-1-yl)pyridine, Et-BDP and 2,6-bis(4-(n)propyl-2,3,5,6-tetrazine-1-yl)pyridine, (n)Pr-Tetrazine) have been synthesized and characterized by NMR and MS techniques. The complexation with Cm(III) in 2-propanol-water (1 : 1, vol.) is studied for both ligands using time resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and the complexation properties are compared to (n)Pr-BTP. With increasing the ligand concentration three different species, the 1 : 1-, 1 : 2- and 1 : 3-complex, were found. Log β3 values of 7.6 for the formation of Cm(Et-BDP)3 and 9.2 for the formation of Cm((n)Pr-Tetrazine)3 are determined. The complexation with (n)Pr-Tetrazine shows slow kinetics. Thermodynamic data of the complexation reactions are determined in a temperature range of 25 °C-60 °C. The complexation with Et-BDP is exothermic (ΔH = -16.3 ± 1.2 kJ mol(-1)) and exergonic (ΔG = -43.8 ± 2.6 kJ mol(-1)) whereas the complexation with (n)Pr-Tetrazine is endothermic (ΔH = 43.9 ± 3.1 kJ mol(-1)) and exergonic (ΔG = -51.7 ± 2.2 kJ mol(-1)). In the case of the latter the complexation is driven by a highly positive reaction entropy change (ΔS = 320.6 ± 15.4 J mol(-1) K(-1)). In comparison to (n)Pr-BTP, less negative ΔG values were found for the complexation of Cm(III) with both ligands. PMID:23552476

  7. Toward Functional Carboxylate-Bridged Diiron Protein Mimics: Achieving Structural Stability and Conformational Flexibility Using a Macrocylic Ligand Framework

    PubMed Central

    Do, Loi H.; Lippard, Stephen J.


    A dinucleating macrocycle, H2PIM, containing phenoxylimine metal-binding units has been prepared. Reaction of H2PIM with [Fe2(Mes)4] (Mes = 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl) and sterically hindered carboxylic acids, Ph3CCO2H or ArTolCO2H (2,6-bis(p-tolyl)benzoic acid), afforded complexes [Fe2(PIM)(Ph3CCO2)2] (1) and [Fe2(PIM)(ArTolCO2)2] (2), respectively. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that these diiron(II) complexes closely mimic the active site structures of the hydroxylase components of bacterial multi-component monooxygenases (BMMs), particularly the syn disposition of the nitrogen donor atoms and the bridging μ-η1η2 and μ-η1η1 modes of the carboxylate ligands at the diiron(II) centers. Cyclic voltammograms of 1 and 2 displayed quasi-reversible redox couples at +16 and +108 mV vs. ferrocene/ferrocenium, respectively. Treatment of 2 with silver perchlorate afforded a silver(I)/iron(III) heterodimetallic complex, [Fe2(μ-OH)2(ClO4)2(PIM)(ArTolCO2)Ag] (3), which was structurally and spectroscopically characterized. Complexes 1 and 2 both react rapidly with dioxygen. Oxygenation of 1 afforded a (μ-hydroxo)diiron(III) complex [Fe2(μ-OH)(PIM)(Ph3CCO2)3] (4), a hexa(μ-hydroxo)tetrairon(III) complex [Fe4(μ-OH)6(PIM)2(Ph3CCO2)2] (5), and an unidentified iron(III) species. Oxygenation of 2 exclusively formed di(carboxylato)diiron(III) compounds, a testimony to the role of the macrocylic ligand in preserving the dinuclear iron center under oxidizing conditions. X-ray crystallographic and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic investigations indicated that 2 reacts with dioxygen to give a mixture of (μ-oxo)diiron(III) [Fe2(μ-O)(PIM)(ArTolCO2)2] (6) and di(μ-hydroxo)diiron(III) [Fe2(μ-OH)2(PIM)(ArTolCO2)2] (7) units in the same crystal lattice. Compounds 6 and 7 spontaneously convert to a tetrairon(III) complex, [Fe4(μ-OH)6(PIM)2(ArTolCO2)2] (8), when treated with excess H2O. PMID:21682286

  8. Phenoxy-bridged binuclear Zn(II) complex holding salen ligand: Synthesis and structural characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azam, Mohammad; Al-Resayes, Saud I.


    A novel binuclear phenoxo-bridged zinc complex obtained from the interaction of ligand, 2,2-(1E,1E)-(2,2-dimethylpropane-1,3-diyl)bis(azanylylidene) bis(methanylylidene)diphenol with zinc chloride is reported. The synthesized and isolated zinc complex has been characterized by FT-IR, 1H- and 13C- NMR, ESI-MS, TGA/DTA and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The phenoxo-bridge in this binuclear Zn(II) complex is due to the phenolic oxygen of the salen liagnd. The complex crystallizes in monoclinic P-1 space group, and different geometry has been assigned for both zinc ions in the complex.

  9. Chemical consequences of pyrazole orientation in Ru(II) complexes of unsymmetric quinoline-pyrazole ligands.


    Hedberg Wallenstein, Joachim; Fredin, Lisa A; Jarenmark, Martin; Abrahamsson, Maria; Persson, Petter


    A series of homoleptic Ru(II) complexes including the tris-bidentate complexes of a new bidentate ligand 8-(1-pyrazol)-quinoline (Q1Pz) and bidentate 8-(3-pyrazol)-quinoline (Q3PzH), as well as the bis-tridentate complex of bis(quinolinyl)-1,3-pyrazole (DQPz) was studied. Together these complexes explore the orientation of the pyrazole relative to the quinoline. By examining the complexes structurally, photophysically, photochemically, electrochemically, and computationally by DFT and TD-DFT, it is shown that the pyrazole orientation has a significant influence on key properties. In particular, its orientation has noticeable effects on oxidation and reduction potentials, photostability and proton sensitivity, indicating that [Ru(Q3PzH)3](2+) is a particularly good local environment acidity-probe candidate. PMID:27240703

  10. Characterization and biological activities of two copper(II) complexes with dipropylenetriamine and diamine as ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AL-Noaimi, Mousa; Choudhary, Mohammad I.; Awwadi, Firas F.; Talib, Wamidh H.; Hadda, Taibi Ben; Yousuf, Sammer; Sawafta, Ashraf; Warad, Ismail


    Two new mixed-ligand copper(II) complexes, [Cu(dipn)(Nsbnd N)]Br2(1-2) [dipn = dipropylenetriamine, Nsbnd N = ethylenediamine (en) (1) and propylenediamine (pn) (2)], have been synthesized. These complexes were characterized by spectroscopic and thermal techniques. Crystal structure for 2 shows a distorted trigonal-bipyramidal geometry around Cu(II) ion with one solvate water molecule. Antimicrobial and antiproliferative assays were conducted to evaluate the biological activities of these complexes. The complexes exhibit a promising antimicrobial effect against an array of microbes at 200 μg/mL concentration. The antiproliferative assay shows a high potential of these complexes to target Human keratinocyte cell line with IC50 values of 155 and 152 μM. The absorption spectrum of 2 in water was modeled by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT).