Science.gov

Sample records for ligand-field analysis inspiration

  1. INSPIRE and SPIRES Log File Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Cole; /Wheaton Coll. /SLAC

    2012-08-31

    SPIRES, an aging high-energy physics publication data base, is in the process of being replaced by INSPIRE. In order to ease the transition from SPIRES to INSPIRE it is important to understand user behavior and the drivers for adoption. The goal of this project was to address some questions in regards to the presumed two-thirds of the users still using SPIRES. These questions are answered through analysis of the log files from both websites. A series of scripts were developed to collect and interpret the data contained in the log files. The common search patterns and usage comparisons are made between INSPIRE and SPIRES, and a method for detecting user frustration is presented. The analysis reveals a more even split than originally thought as well as the expected trend of user transition to INSPIRE.

  2. INSPIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Bill; Pine, Bill

    2003-01-01

    INSPIRE (Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment - http://image.gsfc.nasa.gov/poetry/inspire) is a non-profit scientific, educational organization whose objective is to bring the excitement of observing natural and manmade radio waves in the audio region to high school students and others. The project consists of building an audio frequency radio receiver kit, making observations of natural and manmade radio waves and analyzing the data. Students also learn about NASA and our natural environment through the study of lightning, the source of many of the audio frequency waves, the atmosphere, the ionosphere, and the magnetosphere where the waves travel.

  3. LCS analysis of a biologically inspired wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Melissa; Smits, Alexander

    2008-11-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to investigate the wakes of rigid pitching panels with a trapezoidal panel geometry, chosen to model idealized fish caudal fins. Experiments were performed for Strouhal numbers from 0.23 to 0.65. The three dimensional flow field around the panel is reconstructed by integrating two-dimensional PIV results across the volume surrounding the panel. A Lagrangian coherent structure (LCS) analysis is employed to investigate the formation and evolution of the panel wake. A classic reverse von Kármán vortex street pattern was observed along the mid-span of the near wake, but the complexity and three-dimensionality of the wake increases away from the mid-span as streamwise vortices interact with the swept edges of the panel.

  4. Reverse engineering for biologically inspired cognitive architectures: a critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Schierwagen, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Research initiatives on both sides of the Atlantic try to utilize the operational principles of organisms and brains to develop biologically inspired, artificial cognitive systems. This paper describes the standard way bio-inspiration is gained, i.e. decompositional analysis or reverse engineering. The indisputable complexity of brain and mind raise the issue of whether they can be understood by applying the standard method. Using Robert Rosen's modeling relation, the scientific analysis method itself is made a subject of discussion. It is concluded that the fundamental assumption of cognitive science, i.e. complex cognitive systems are decomposable, must be abandoned. Implications for investigations of organisms and behavior as well as for engineering artificial cognitive systems are discussed. PMID:21744214

  5. Sound Classification in Hearing Aids Inspired by Auditory Scene Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büchler, Michael; Allegro, Silvia; Launer, Stefan; Dillier, Norbert

    2005-12-01

    A sound classification system for the automatic recognition of the acoustic environment in a hearing aid is discussed. The system distinguishes the four sound classes "clean speech," "speech in noise," "noise," and "music." A number of features that are inspired by auditory scene analysis are extracted from the sound signal. These features describe amplitude modulations, spectral profile, harmonicity, amplitude onsets, and rhythm. They are evaluated together with different pattern classifiers. Simple classifiers, such as rule-based and minimum-distance classifiers, are compared with more complex approaches, such as Bayes classifier, neural network, and hidden Markov model. Sounds from a large database are employed for both training and testing of the system. The achieved recognition rates are very high except for the class "speech in noise." Problems arise in the classification of compressed pop music, strongly reverberated speech, and tonal or fluctuating noises.

  6. A Guided Inquiry Activity for Teaching Ligand Field Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Brian J.; Graham, Kate J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper will describe a guided inquiry activity for teaching ligand field theory. Previous research suggests the guided inquiry approach is highly effective for student learning. This activity familiarizes students with the key concepts of molecular orbital theory applied to coordination complexes. Students will learn to identify factors that…

  7. Black hole binary inspiral: Analysis of the plunge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Richard H.; Nampalliwar, Sourabh; Khanna, Gaurav

    2016-02-01

    Binary black hole coalescence has its peak of gravitational-wave generation during the "plunge," the transition from quasicircular early motion to late quasinormal ringing (QNR). Although advances in numerical relativity have provided plunge waveforms, there is still no intuitive or phenomenological understanding of plunge comparable to that of the early and late stages. Here we make progress in developing such understanding by relying on insights of the linear mathematics of the particle perturbation model for the extreme mass limit. Our analysis, based on the Fourier-domain Green function, and a simple initial model, point to the crucial role played by the kinematics near the "light ring" (the circular photon orbit) in determining the plunge radiation and the excitation of QNR. That insight is then shown to successfully explain results obtained for particle motion in a Schwarzschild background.

  8. Writing Inspired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tischhauser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Students need inspiration to write. Assigning is not teaching. In order to inspire students to write fiction worth reading, teachers must take them through the process of writing. Physical objects inspire good writing with depth. In this article, the reader will be taken through the process of inspiring young writers through the use of boxes.…

  9. Weak Ligand-Field Effect from Ancillary Ligands on Enhancing Single-Ion Magnet Performance.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yin-Shan; Zhang, Yi-Quan; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Wang, Bing-Wu; Gao, Song

    2016-08-26

    A series of bis-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl-supported Dy complexes containing different ancillary ligands were synthesized and characterized. Magnetic studies showed that 1 Dy [Cp*2 DyCl(THF)], 1 Dy' [Cp*2 DyCl2 K(THF)]n , 2 Dy [Cp*2 DyBr(THF)], 3 Dy [Cp*2 DyI(THF)] and 4 Dy [Cp*2 DyTp] (Tp=hydrotris(1-pyrazolyl)borate) were single-ion magnets (SIMs). The 1D dysprosium chain 1 Dy' exhibited a hysteresis at up to 5 K. Furthermore, 3 Dy featured the highest energy barrier (419 cm(-1) ) among the complexes. The effects of ancillary ligands on single-ion magnetic properties were studied by experimental, ab initio calculations and electrostatic analysis methods in detail. These results demonstrated that the QTM rate was strongly dependent on the ancillary ligands and that a weak equatorial ligand field could be beneficial for constructing Dy-SIMs. PMID:27417884

  10. Improved Ligand-Field Theory with Effect of Electron-Phonon Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Dong-Ping; Chen, Ju-Rong

    2005-03-01

    Traditional ligand-field theory has to be improved by taking into account both ``pure electronic'' contribution and electron-phonon interaction one (including lattice-vibrational relaxation energy). By means of improved ligand-field theory, R1, R2, R'3, R'2, and R'1 lines, U band, ground-state zero-field-splitting (GSZFS), and ground-state g factors of ruby and/or GSGG: Cr3+ as well as thermal shifts of GSZFS, R1 line and R2 line of ruby have been calculated. The results are in very good agreement with the experimental data. Moreover, it is found that the value of cubic-field parameter given by traditional ligand-field theory is inappropriately large. For thermal shifts of GSZFS, R1 line and R2 line of ruby, several conclusions have also been obtained.

  11. Two dimensional barcode-inspired automatic analysis for arrayed microfluidic immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Qiao, Lingbo; Ren, Yunke; Wang, Xuwei; Gao, Ming; Tang, Yunfang; Jeff Xi, Jianzhong; Fu, Tzung-May; Jiang, Xingyu

    2013-01-01

    The usability of many high-throughput lab-on-a-chip devices in point-of-care applications is currently limited by the manual data acquisition and analysis process, which are labor intensive and time consuming. Based on our original design in the biochemical reactions, we proposed here a universal approach to perform automatic, fast, and robust analysis for high-throughput array-based microfluidic immunoassays. Inspired by two-dimensional (2D) barcodes, we incorporated asymmetric function patterns into a microfluidic array. These function patterns provide quantitative information on the characteristic dimensions of the microfluidic array, as well as mark its orientation and origin of coordinates. We used a computer program to perform automatic analysis for a high-throughput antigen/antibody interaction experiment in 10 s, which was more than 500 times faster than conventional manual processing. Our method is broadly applicable to many other microchannel-based immunoassays. PMID:24404030

  12. Vortex formation analysis of a piston-cylinder apparatus with passively varying output inspired by jellyfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Alex; Priya, Shashank

    2012-11-01

    The flow analysis of a robotic jellyfish (Robojelly) has led to the observation of an increase in performance due to passive flexible margin. Flexible margin are common on animals using an oscillating mode of propulsion. The understanding of flexible margins is therefore important for a better understanding of animal propulsion and bio-inspired propulsion. This work focuses on analyzing the effects of stiffness and geometry of flexible margins. A piston-cylinder apparatus was used with flexible margin at the output to test the different flexible margin configurations. These results characterize the effects of the different flexible margin parameters on vortex circulation and size. Office of Naval Research through contract number N00014-08-1-0654.

  13. Viscous-Inviscid Methods in Unsteady Aerodynamic Analysis of Bio-Inspired Morphing Wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhruv, Akash V.

    Flight has been one of the greatest realizations of human imagination, revolutionizing communication and transportation over the years. This has greatly influenced the growth of technology itself, enabling researchers to communicate and share their ideas more effectively, extending the human potential to create more sophisticated systems. While the end product of a sophisticated technology makes our lives easier, its development process presents an array of challenges in itself. In last decade, scientists and engineers have turned towards bio-inspiration to design more efficient and robust aerodynamic systems to enhance the ability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to be operated in cluttered environments, where tight maneuverability and controllability are necessary. Effective use of UAVs in domestic airspace will mark the beginning of a new age in communication and transportation. The design of such complex systems necessitates the need for faster and more effective tools to perform preliminary investigations in design, thereby streamlining the design process. This thesis explores the implementation of numerical panel methods for aerodynamic analysis of bio-inspired morphing wings. Numerical panel methods have been one of the earliest forms of computational methods for aerodynamic analysis to be developed. Although the early editions of this method performed only inviscid analysis, the algorithm has matured over the years as a result of contributions made by prominent aerodynamicists. The method discussed in this thesis is influenced by recent advancements in panel methods and incorporates both viscous and inviscid analysis of multi-flap wings. The surface calculation of aerodynamic coefficients makes this method less computationally expensive than traditional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solvers available, and thus is effective when both speed and accuracy are desired. The morphing wing design, which consists of sequential feather-like flaps installed

  14. Improved analytic extreme-mass-ratio inspiral model for scoping out eLISA data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, Alvin J. K.; Gair, Jonathan R.

    2015-12-01

    The space-based gravitational-wave detector eLISA has been selected as the ESA L3 mission, and the mission design will be finalized by the end of this decade. To prepare for mission formulation over the next few years, several outstanding and urgent questions in data analysis will be addressed using mock data challenges, informed by instrument measurements from the LISA Pathfinder satellite launching at the end of 2015. These data challenges will require accurate and computationally affordable waveform models for anticipated sources such as the extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) of stellar-mass compact objects into massive black holes. Previous data challenges have made use of the well-known analytic EMRI waveforms of Barack and Cutler, which are extremely quick to generate but dephase relative to more accurate waveforms within hours, due to their mismatched radial, polar and azimuthal frequencies. In this paper, we describe an augmented Barack-Cutler model that uses a frequency map to the correct Kerr frequencies, along with updated evolution equations and a simple fit to a more accurate model. The augmented waveforms stay in phase for months and may be generated with virtually no additional computational cost.

  15. Visual Cortex Inspired CNN Model for Feature Construction in Text Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hongping; Niu, Zhendong; Zhang, Chunxia; Ma, Jing; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Recently, biologically inspired models are gradually proposed to solve the problem in text analysis. Convolutional neural networks (CNN) are hierarchical artificial neural networks, which include a various of multilayer perceptrons. According to biological research, CNN can be improved by bringing in the attention modulation and memory processing of primate visual cortex. In this paper, we employ the above properties of primate visual cortex to improve CNN and propose a biological-mechanism-driven-feature-construction based answer recommendation method (BMFC-ARM), which is used to recommend the best answer for the corresponding given questions in community question answering. BMFC-ARM is an improved CNN with four channels respectively representing questions, answers, asker information and answerer information, and mainly contains two stages: biological mechanism driven feature construction (BMFC) and answer ranking. BMFC imitates the attention modulation property by introducing the asker information and answerer information of given questions and the similarity between them, and imitates the memory processing property through bringing in the user reputation information for answerers. Then the feature vector for answer ranking is constructed by fusing the asker-answerer similarities, answerer's reputation and the corresponding vectors of question, answer, asker, and answerer. Finally, the Softmax is used at the stage of answer ranking to get best answers by the feature vector. The experimental results of answer recommendation on the Stackexchange dataset show that BMFC-ARM exhibits better performance. PMID:27471460

  16. Computational analysis of a tip vortex structure shed from a bio-inspired blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Sebastian; Gilkey, Lindsay N.; Kaiser, Bryan E.; Poroseva, Svetlana V.

    2013-11-01

    Understanding and predicting a tip vortex structure and its dynamics is of significant importance for all branches of aerodynamics. A particular focus of our research is the rotorcraft performance which is substantially influenced by a tip vortex. A tip vortex also is a major source of energy losses and acoustic noise. In the present study, an impact of a blade shape on a tip vortex structure is analyzed. Simulations are conducted of flows around a rectangular blade and a bio-inspired blade of the same area. An insect wing is chosen as a blade prototype. Indeed, insects developed physical characteristics that reduce energy consumption while permitting sustained and controlled flight at low level of noise. Analysis has been done to determine what insect poses flight characteristics closest to the small rotorcraft design goals. Commercial CFD software STAR-CCM + is used for conducting computations on structured and unstructured grids and for data post-processing. The authors acknowledge support from UNM CARC in a form of access to HPC and from CD-Adapco for providing Star-CCM+ for academic purposes. The first author's work was supported by the New Mexico Space Grant Consortium.

  17. Visual Cortex Inspired CNN Model for Feature Construction in Text Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Hongping; Niu, Zhendong; Zhang, Chunxia; Ma, Jing; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Recently, biologically inspired models are gradually proposed to solve the problem in text analysis. Convolutional neural networks (CNN) are hierarchical artificial neural networks, which include a various of multilayer perceptrons. According to biological research, CNN can be improved by bringing in the attention modulation and memory processing of primate visual cortex. In this paper, we employ the above properties of primate visual cortex to improve CNN and propose a biological-mechanism-driven-feature-construction based answer recommendation method (BMFC-ARM), which is used to recommend the best answer for the corresponding given questions in community question answering. BMFC-ARM is an improved CNN with four channels respectively representing questions, answers, asker information and answerer information, and mainly contains two stages: biological mechanism driven feature construction (BMFC) and answer ranking. BMFC imitates the attention modulation property by introducing the asker information and answerer information of given questions and the similarity between them, and imitates the memory processing property through bringing in the user reputation information for answerers. Then the feature vector for answer ranking is constructed by fusing the asker-answerer similarities, answerer's reputation and the corresponding vectors of question, answer, asker, and answerer. Finally, the Softmax is used at the stage of answer ranking to get best answers by the feature vector. The experimental results of answer recommendation on the Stackexchange dataset show that BMFC-ARM exhibits better performance. PMID:27471460

  18. Bio-inspired group modeling and analysis for intruder detection in mobile sensor/robotic networks.

    PubMed

    Fu, Bo; Xiao, Yang; Liang, Xiannuan; Philip Chen, C L

    2015-01-01

    Although previous bio-inspired models have concentrated on invertebrates (such as ants), mammals such as primates with higher cognitive function are valuable for modeling the increasingly complex problems in engineering. Understanding primates' social and communication systems, and applying what is learned from them to engineering domains is likely to inspire solutions to a number of problems. This paper presents a novel bio-inspired approach to determine group size by researching and simulating primate society. Group size does matter for both primate society and digital entities. It is difficult to determine how to group mobile sensors/robots that patrol in a large area when many factors are considered such as patrol efficiency, wireless interference, coverage, inter/intragroup communications, etc. This paper presents a simulation-based theoretical study on patrolling strategies for robot groups with the comparison of large and small groups through simulations and theoretical results. PMID:24846688

  19. Influence of the ligand field on slow magnetization relaxation versus spin crossover in mononuclear cobalt complexes.

    PubMed

    Habib, Fatemah; Luca, Oana R; Vieru, Veacheslav; Shiddiq, Muhandis; Korobkov, Ilia; Gorelsky, Serge I; Takase, Michael K; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Hill, Stephen; Crabtree, Robert H; Murugesu, Muralee

    2013-10-18

    The electronic and magnetic properties of the complexes [Co(terpy)Cl2 ] (1), [Co(terpy)(NCS)2 ] (2), and [Co(terpy)2 ](NCS)2 (3) were investigated. The coordination environment around Co(II) in 1 and 2 leads to a high-spin complex at low temperature and single-molecule magnet properties with multiple relaxation pathways. Changing the ligand field and geometry with an additional terpy ligand leads to spin-crossover behavior in 3 with a gradual transition from high spin to low spin. PMID:24009214

  20. Ligand field effects on the multiplet structure of the U4f XPS of UO2

    SciTech Connect

    Ilton, Eugene S.; Bagus, Paul S.

    2008-03-01

    Ab initio, fully relativistic four component theory was used to determine atomic and interatomic many-body effects for the 4f X-ray photoelectron spectrum of an embedded UO8-12 cluster representing UO2. Many-body effects were included through the use of configuration interaction wavefunctions that allow the mixing of XPS allowed and XPS forbidden configurations. Charge transfer configurations were not included. This work extends our earlier studies on simulations of the U 4f XPS for the free U4+ cation. While the main XPS features are similar in both cases, ligand field effects changed the multiplet structure in important ways that better simulated experimental data for UO2. Neither initial nor final state covalency significantly reduced the 4f-5f exchange integrals, and the differences between the atom and cluster model was due to ligand field splitting of the 5f band and increased distributions of intensity from XPS allowed to XPS forbidden peaks. The prominent 7 eV satellites associated with UO2 were absent in the simulations, and provides further evidence that these satellites are due to charge transfer and not other interatomic effects.

  1. Inspired Landscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Robert; Spruch, Arthur

    2008-01-01

    It has been nearly 400 years since Harvard College was created, and since then, thousands of colleges and universities have been built across the United States. From the classically inspired lines of Thomas Jefferson's University of Virginia to the Spanish architecture at Stanford University, every campus has its own personality. It's not unusual,…

  2. Inspire Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohach, Barbara M.; Meade, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    The authors collaborated on hosting a "Spring Inspire Day." planned and delivered by preservice elementary teachers as a social studies/science methods project. Projects that have authentic application opportunities can make learning meaningful for prospective teachers as well as elementary students. With the impetus for an integrated…

  3. Analysis of a Scenario for Chaotic Quantal Slowing Down of Inspiration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    On exposure to opiates, preparations from rat brain stems have been observed to continue to produce regular expiratory signals, but to fail to produce some inspiratory signals. The numbers of expirations between two successive inspirations form an apparently random sequence. Here, we propose an explanation based on the qualitative theory of dynamical systems. A relatively simple scenario for the dynamics of interaction between the generators of expiratory and inspiratory signals produces pseudo-random behaviour of the type observed. PMID:24040967

  4. A Fluid-solid Numerical Model for the Analysis of Bio-inspired UUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Santanu; Krishnamurthy, Nagendra; Tafti, Danesh; Priya, Shashank

    2012-11-01

    This research will describe how a biology-inspired approach to engineering has placed jellyfish at the center of efforts to build next-generation underwater vehicles. In order to swim, jellyfish contract the circular muscles that line the undersurface of their bell. The motion of the bell from the relaxed position to the fully contracted position results in the mesoglea interacting with the surrounding water in such a way that causes the jellyfish to move forward. The present method uses two-dimensional fluid elements and plain strain hyperelastic structural elements for the numerical simulation of the problem. The equations of motion of the fluid are expressed as full N-S equation. A new type of bio-inspired boundary condition has been proposed. A prototype of the jellyfish setup has been developed for the experimental validation of the simulation results. The solution of the coupled system is accomplished by solving the two systems separately with the interaction effects using immersed boundary method. This study will be useful in accurate calculation of pressure distribution, maximum blocking stress, strain rate and actuator system for submerged autonomous vehicle. This study will also help in designing efficient propulsion and thruster mechanism for unmanned underwater vehicle. It is believed that the research presented in this paper advances the understanding of the dynamic behavior of bio-inspired UUV.

  5. From Widely Accepted Concepts in Coordination Chemistry to Inverted Ligand Fields.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Roald; Alvarez, Santiago; Mealli, Carlo; Falceto, Andrés; Cahill, Thomas J; Zeng, Tao; Manca, Gabriele

    2016-07-27

    We begin with a brief historical review of the development of our understanding of the normal ordering of nd orbitals of a transition metal interacting with ligands, the most common cases being three below two in an octahedral environment, two below three in tetrahedral coordination, and four below one in a square-planar environment. From the molecular orbital construction of these ligand field splittings evolves a strategy for inverting the normal order: the obvious way to achieve this is to raise the ligand levels above the metal d's; that is, make the ligands better Lewis bases. However, things are not so simple, for such metal/ligand level placement may lead to redox processes. For 18-electron octahedral complexes one can create the inverted situation, but it manifests itself in the makeup of valence orbitals (are they mainly on metal or ligands?) rather than energy. One can also see the effect, in small ways, in tetrahedral Zn(II) complexes. We construct several examples of inverted ligand field systems with a hypothetical but not unrealistic AlCH3 ligand and sketch the consequences of inversion on reactivity. Special attention is paid to the square-planar case, exemplified by [Cu(CF3)4](-), in which Snyder had the foresight to see a case of an inverted field, with the empty valence orbital being primarily ligand centered, the dx2-y2 orbital heavily occupied, in what would normally be called a Cu(III) complex. For [Cu(CF3)4](-) we provide theoretical evidence from electron distributions, geometry of the ligands, thermochemistry of molecule formation, and the energetics of abstraction of a CF3 ligand by a base, all consistent with oxidation of the ligands in this molecule. In [Cu(CF3)4](-), and perhaps more complexes on the right side of the transition series than one has imagined, some ligands are σ-noninnocent. Exploration of inverted ligand fields helps us see the continuous, borderless transition from transition metal to main group bonding. We also give

  6. Phase stability of transition metal dichalcogenide by competing ligand field stabilization and charge density wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    C, Santosh K.; Zhang, Chenxi; Hong, Suklyun; Wallace, Robert M.; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2015-09-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have been investigated extensively for potential application as device materials in recent years. TMDs are found to be stable in trigonal prismatic (H), octahedral (T), or distorted octahedral (Td) coordination of the transition metal. However, the detailed understanding of stabilities of TMDs in a particular phase is lacking. In this work, the detailed TMD phase stability using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) has been investigated to clarify the mechanism of phase stabilities of TMDs, consistent with the experimental observation. Our results indicate that the phase stability of TMDs can be explained considering the relative strength of two competing mechanisms: ligand field stabilization of d-orbitals corresponding to transition metal coordination geometry, and charge density wave (CDW) instability accompanied by a periodic lattice distortion (PLD) causing the phase transition in particular TMDs.

  7. Computational speech segregation based on an auditory-inspired modulation analysis.

    PubMed

    May, Tobias; Dau, Torsten

    2014-12-01

    A monaural speech segregation system is presented that estimates the ideal binary mask from noisy speech based on the supervised learning of amplitude modulation spectrogram (AMS) features. Instead of using linearly scaled modulation filters with constant absolute bandwidth, an auditory-inspired modulation filterbank with logarithmically scaled filters is employed. To reduce the dependency of the AMS features on the overall background noise level, a feature normalization stage is applied. In addition, a spectro-temporal integration stage is incorporated in order to exploit the context information about speech activity present in neighboring time-frequency units. In order to evaluate the generalization performance of the system to unseen acoustic conditions, the speech segregation system is trained with a limited set of low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions, but tested over a wide range of SNRs up to 20 dB. A systematic evaluation of the system demonstrates that auditory-inspired modulation processing can substantially improve the mask estimation accuracy in the presence of stationary and fluctuating interferers. PMID:25480079

  8. Ligand field and Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters of samarium doped tellurite glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanko, Y. A.; Ghoshal, S. K.; Sahar, M. R.

    2016-08-01

    We report the samarium ions (Sm3+) contents dependent ligand field and Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters (Ω2, Ω4, Ω6) of zinc tellurite glass. The amorphous nature of the melt-quench synthesized glasses is confirmed using XRD. The lower energy region of the absorption spectra is used to calculate JO intensity parameters and the UV edge is exploited to determine the Nephelauxetic ratio, bonding, and Racah parameters. The Nephelauxetic ratio and Racah parameter is reduced and the bonding parameter is enhanced with the increase of Sm3+ concentration. The enhancement in covalency is found to increase the non-bridging oxygen and crystal field strength by delocalizing more d-shell electrons. Furthermore, Nephelauxetic function revealed an increase due to the reduction of localized d-electrons that is aroused from the overlap of d-orbital and ligand orbital. The JO intensity parameters displayed the Ω4>Ω6>Ω2 trend. Increase in Ω2 and decrease in Ω2 and Ω2 with the increase of Sm3+ concentration indicated an increase in the Smsbnd O covalency and coordination in the asymmetry of the prepared glasses. The large vale of spectroscopic quality factor (greater than unity) makes the proposed glass system prospective for various optical devices fabrication.

  9. Ligand field spectroscopy of Cu(II) and Ag(II) complexes in the gas phase: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Puskar, Ljiljana; Cox, Hazel; Goren, Alan; Aitken, Georgina D C; Stace, Anthony J

    2003-01-01

    Ligand field spectra have been recorded in the gas phase for the two series of complexes containing either Cu(II) or Ag(II) in association with pyridine. Where comparisons are possible, the gas phase spectra match those recorded in the condensed phase; however, for Ag(II) systems the results differ in interpretation. The Ag(II) data are attributed to a ligand-to-metal charge transfer process, and the Cu(II) data (spectral region and extinction coefficient) match the characteristics of a d-d transition. A detailed theoretical analysis of two complexes. [Cu(py)4]2+ and [Ag(py)4]2+ provides evidence of a minimum energy, D4h structure and two less stable D2h and D2d structures within approximately 60 kJ mol(-1). From these structures it is possible to identify a range of optically and vibronically allowed transitions that could contribute to spectra observed in the gas phase. In the case of calculations on [Ag(py)4]2+ there is strong evidence of an electronic transition that would account for the observation of charge transfer in the experiments. Less detailed calculations on [Cu(py)6]2+ and [Ag(py)6]2+ show structural evidence of extensive Jahn Teller distortion. Taken together with incremental binding energies calculated for complexes containing between two and six pyridine molecules, these results show that the level of theory adopted is capable of providing a semi-quantitative understanding of the experimental data. PMID:14527220

  10. Entropy-Based Analysis and Bioinformatics-Inspired Integration of Global Economic Information Transfer

    PubMed Central

    An, Sungbae; Kwon, Young-Kyun; Yoon, Sungroh

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of information transfer in the global economic network helps to understand the current environment and the outlook of an economy. Most approaches on global networks extract information transfer based mainly on a single variable. This paper establishes an entirely new bioinformatics-inspired approach to integrating information transfer derived from multiple variables and develops an international economic network accordingly. In the proposed methodology, we first construct the transfer entropies (TEs) between various intra- and inter-country pairs of economic time series variables, test their significances, and then use a weighted sum approach to aggregate information captured in each TE. Through a simulation study, the new method is shown to deliver better information integration compared to existing integration methods in that it can be applied even when intra-country variables are correlated. Empirical investigation with the real world data reveals that Western countries are more influential in the global economic network and that Japan has become less influential following the Asian currency crisis. PMID:23300959

  11. Numerical analysis of bio-inspired corrugated airfoil at low Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Partha Protim; Rahman, Md. Masudur; Hasan, A. B. M. Toufique

    2016-07-01

    A numerical study was conducted to investigate the aerodynamic performance of a bio-inspired corrugated airfoil at the chord Reynolds number of Rec=80,000 to explore the potential advantages of such airfoils at low Reynolds numbers. This study represents the transient nature of corrugated airfoils at low Reynolds number where flow is assumed to be laminar, unsteady, incompressible and two dimensional. The simulations include a sharp interface Cartesian grid based meshing employed with laminar viscous model. The flow field surrounding the corrugated airfoil has been analyzed using structured grid Finite Volume Method (FVM) based on Navier-Stokes equation. All parameters used in flow simulation are expressed in non-dimensional quantities for better understanding of flow behavior, regardless of dimensions or the fluid that is used. The simulated results revealed that the corrugated airfoil provides high lift with moderate drag and prevents large scale flow separation at higher angles of attack. This happens due to the negative shear drag produced by the recirculation zones which occurs in the valleys of the corrugated airfoils. The existence of small circulation bubbles sitting in the valleys prevents large scale flow separation thus increasing the aerodynamic performance of the corrugated airfoil.

  12. Entropy-based analysis and bioinformatics-inspired integration of global economic information transfer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinkyu; Kim, Gunn; An, Sungbae; Kwon, Young-Kyun; Yoon, Sungroh

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of information transfer in the global economic network helps to understand the current environment and the outlook of an economy. Most approaches on global networks extract information transfer based mainly on a single variable. This paper establishes an entirely new bioinformatics-inspired approach to integrating information transfer derived from multiple variables and develops an international economic network accordingly. In the proposed methodology, we first construct the transfer entropies (TEs) between various intra- and inter-country pairs of economic time series variables, test their significances, and then use a weighted sum approach to aggregate information captured in each TE. Through a simulation study, the new method is shown to deliver better information integration compared to existing integration methods in that it can be applied even when intra-country variables are correlated. Empirical investigation with the real world data reveals that Western countries are more influential in the global economic network and that Japan has become less influential following the Asian currency crisis. PMID:23300959

  13. Analytical development of a binuclear oxo-manganese complex bio-inspired on oxidase enzyme for doping control analysis of acetazolamide.

    PubMed

    Machini, Wesley B S; Teixeira, Marcos F S

    2016-05-15

    A bio-inspired electrochemical sensor using a binuclear oxo-manganese complex was evaluated and applied in the detection of a substance associated with doping in sports: acetazolamide (ACTZ). Investigation was made of the influence of different experimental variables on the electrocatalytic oxidation of ACTZ by the bio-inspired sensor, such as pH and interfering species. The bio-inspired sensor showed the best response in the range from 5.00×10(-9) to 7.00×10(-8) mol L(-1) ACTZ, with a linear range from 5.00×10(-9) to 2.50×10(-8) mol L(-1) and a detection limit of 4.76×10(-9) mol L(-1). The sensor exhibited characteristics similar to the Michaelis-Menten model of an enzymatic electrode, due to the use of a multinucleated complex of manganese with μ-oxo units, which was able to mimic the properties of enzymes with manganese as a cofactor in their composition, such as Mn-containing oxidase. The determination of ACTZ with the bio-inspired sensor was evaluated using three different synthetic biological fluids (plasma, saliva, and urine), demonstrating its viability for use with real samples. The analysis of ACTZ in real urine samples using the bio-inspired sensor, simulating the method adopted by the World Anti-Doping Agency, which revealed viable, suggesting a new and promising platform to be used in these analysis. PMID:26745790

  14. Inspiral, merger, and ringdown of unequal mass black hole binaries: A multipolar analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor; Gonzalez, Jose A.; Sperhake, Ulrich; Hannam, Mark; Husa, Sascha; Bruegmann, Bernd

    2007-09-15

    We study the inspiral, merger, and ringdown of unequal mass black hole binaries by analyzing a catalogue of numerical simulations for seven different values of the mass ratio (from q=M{sub 2}/M{sub 1}=1 to q=4). We compare numerical and post-Newtonian results by projecting the waveforms onto spin-weighted spherical harmonics, characterized by angular indices (l,m). We find that the post-Newtonian equations predict remarkably well the relation between the wave amplitude and the orbital frequency for each (l,m), and that the convergence of the post-Newtonian series to the numerical results is nonmonotonic. To leading order, the total energy emitted in the merger phase scales like {eta}{sup 2} and the spin of the final black hole scales like {eta}, where {eta}=q/(1+q){sup 2} is the symmetric mass ratio. We study the multipolar distribution of the radiation, finding that odd-l multipoles are suppressed in the equal mass limit. Higher multipoles carry a larger fraction of the total energy as q increases. We introduce and compare three different definitions for the ringdown starting time. Applying linear-estimation methods (the so-called Prony methods) to the ringdown phase, we find resolution-dependent time variations in the fitted parameters of the final black hole. By cross correlating information from different multipoles, we show that ringdown fits can be used to obtain precise estimates of the mass and spin of the final black hole, which are in remarkable agreement with energy and angular momentum balance calculations.

  15. LINEBACkER: Bio-inspired Data Reduction Toward Real Time Network Traffic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Teuton, Jeremy R.; Peterson, Elena S.; Nordwall, Douglas J.; Akyol, Bora A.; Oehmen, Christopher S.

    2013-09-28

    Abstract—One essential component of resilient cyber applications is the ability to detect adversaries and protect systems with the same flexibility adversaries will use to achieve their goals. Current detection techniques do not enable this degree of flexibility because most existing applications are built using exact or regular-expression matching to libraries of rule sets. Further, network traffic defies traditional cyber security approaches that focus on limiting access based on the use of passwords and examination of lists of installed or downloaded programs. These approaches do not readily apply to network traffic occurring beyond the access control point, and when the data in question are combined control and payload data of ever increasing speed and volume. Manual analysis of network traffic is not normally possible because of the magnitude of the data that is being exchanged and the length of time that this analysis takes. At the same time, using an exact matching scheme to identify malicious traffic in real time often fails because the lists against which such searches must operate grow too large. In this work, we introduce an alternative method for cyber network detection based on similarity-measuring algorithms for gene sequence analysis. These methods are ideal because they were designed to identify similar but nonidentical sequences. We demonstrate that our method is generally applicable to the problem of network traffic analysis by illustrating its use in two different areas both based on different attributes of network traffic. Our approach provides a logical framework for organizing large collections of network data, prioritizing traffic of interest to human analysts, and makes it possible to discover traffic signatures without the bias introduced by expert-directed signature generation. Pattern recognition on reduced representations of network traffic offers a fast, efficient, and more robust way to detect anomalies.

  16. The Clubbers' Guide: "Be Inspired, Inspire Others"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Liz

    2012-01-01

    "Be inspired, inspire others" is this author's school motto and also something she aims to achieve by running the Science Club at The Warwick School in Redhill, Surrey, UK, an 11-16 specialist technology comprehensive. The Science Club is part of an extensive science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programme that has developed…

  17. The Inspirational Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benigni, Mark D.; Hughes, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Amid the focus on improved standardized test scores, differentiated instruction, value-added initiatives and improved teacher evaluation, one must not ignore an education leader's need to inspire and be inspired. But how do education leaders inspire their students and teachers during some of the most difficult economic times the nation has ever…

  18. Stress-induced ligand field distribution and consequent multi-mode spin crossover in Fe II(phen) 2(NCS) 2 and Fe II[HB(pz) 3] 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Naoko; Tsukamoto, Atsushi; Ohshita, Tadashi; Isobe, Tetsuhiko; Senna, Mamoru; Yoshioka, Naoki; Inoue, Hidenari

    2001-09-01

    Changes in the nature of spin crossover caused by mechanical stressing exerted on the crystalline powders were studied for Fe II(phen) 2(NCS) 2 (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) and Fe II[HB(pz) 3] 2 (pz = pyrazol-1-yl) by means of a multi-component fitting of the temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility. The analysis revealed the development and broadening of the ligand field distribution as a consequence of mechanical stressing. This was confirmed by the broadening of Mössbauer and far-infrared spectra.

  19. Effect of Ligand Field Tuning on the SMM Behavior for Three Related Alkoxide-Bridged Dysprosium Dimers.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yan; Mereacre, Valeriu; Baniodeh, Amer; Lan, Yanhua; Schlageter, Martin; Kostakis, George E; Powell, Annie K

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of three Dy2 compounds, [Dy2(HL1)2(NO3)4] (1), [Dy2(L2)2(NO3)4] (2), and [Dy2(HL3)2(NO3)4] (3), formed using related tripodal ligands with a central tertiary amine bearing picolyl and alkoxy arms, 2-[(2-hydroxy-ethyl)-pyridin-2-ylmethylamino]-ethanol (H2L1), 2-(bis-pyridin-2-ylmethylamino)-ethanol (HL2), and 2-(bis-pyridin-2-ylmethylamino)-propane-1,3-diol (H2L3), are reported. The compounds are rare examples of alkoxide-bridged {Dy2} complexes and display capped square antiprism coordination geometry around each Dy(III) ion. Changes in the ligand field environment around the Dy(III) ions brought about through variations in the ligand donors can be gauged from the magnetic properties, with compounds 1 and 2 showing antiparallel coupling between the Dy(III) ions and 3 showing parallel coupling. Furthermore, slow relaxation of the magnetization typical of SMM behavior could be observed for compounds 2 and 3, suggesting that small variations in the ligand field can have a significant influence on the slow relaxation processes responsible for SMM behavior of Dy(III)-based systems. PMID:26652937

  20. Efficient enhancement of magnetic anisotropy by optimizing the ligand-field in a typically tetranuclear dysprosium cluster.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiang; Chen, Yan-Cong; Jiang, Zhong-Xia; Liu, Jun-Liang; Jia, Jian-Hua; Wang, Long-Fei; Li, Quan-Wen; Tong, Ming-Liang

    2015-05-01

    The perturbation to the ligand field around the lanthanide ion may significantly contribute to the magnetic dynamics of single molecule magnets. This can be demonstrated by two typical Dy4 cluster-based single molecular magnets (SMMs), [Dy4X2(μ3-OH)2(μ-OH)2(2,2-bpt)4(H2O)4]X2·2H2O·4EtOH (X = Cl and Br for and , respectively), which were constructed by using 3,5-bis(pyridin-2-yl)-1,2,4-triazole (2,2-bptH) as the polynuclear-chelating ligand. Alternating-current (ac) magnetic susceptibility measurements show that the energy barriers in complexes and were immensely enhanced by comparing with our previous work due to the optimization of the ligand field around Dy(III) ions. Remarkably, their high thermal active barriers at 190 K () and 197 K () under a zero applied external dc magnetic field are also among the highest within the reported tetranuclear lanthanide-based SMMs. PMID:25837027

  1. Ligand field density functional theory calculation of the 4f2→ 4f15d1 transitions in the quantum cutter Cs2KYF6:Pr3+.

    PubMed

    Ramanantoanina, Harry; Urland, Werner; Cimpoesu, Fanica; Daul, Claude

    2013-09-01

    Herein we present a Ligand Field Density Functional Theory (LFDFT) based methodology for the analysis of the 4f(n)→ 4f(n-1)5d(1) transitions in rare earth compounds and apply it for the characterization of the 4f(2)→ 4f(1)5d(1) transitions in the quantum cutter Cs2KYF6:Pr(3+) with the elpasolite structure type. The methodological advances are relevant for the analysis and prospection of materials acting as phosphors in light-emitting diodes. The positions of the zero-phonon energy corresponding to the states of the electron configurations 4f(2) and 4f(1)5d(1) are calculated, where the praseodymium ion may occupy either the Cs(+)-, K(+)- or the Y(3+)-site, and are compared with available experimental data. The theoretical results show that the occupation of the three undistorted sites allows a quantum-cutting process. However size effects due to the difference between the ionic radii of Pr(3+) and K(+) as well as Cs(+) lead to the distortion of the K(+)- and the Cs(+)-site, which finally exclude these sites for quantum-cutting. A detailed discussion about the origin of this distortion is also described. PMID:23846586

  2. Tunable infrared solid-state laser materials based on Cr/sup 3 +/ in low ligand fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, P.T.; Andrews, L.; Lempick, A.; McCollum, B.

    1982-08-01

    A new class of solid-state tunable lasers based on Cr/sup 3 +/ in low ligand field materials is described. Spectroscopic and calculated laser properties have been obtained for the /sup 4/T/sub 2/ emission in two low field crystals: K/sub 2/Na Sc/sub 1-x/ Cr/sub x/F/sub 6/ and Al/sub 1-x/ Cr/sub x/ (PO/sub 3/)/sub 3/. A comparison is made with two d/sup 3/ laser materials (Cr/sup 3 +/:alexandrite and V/sup 2 +/:MgF/sub 2/). The prospect of expanding this class of materials is assessed.

  3. Inspire Your Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, William E.; Taylor, William W. L.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a science project, Interactive Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiments (INSPIRE), that allows students to work with physicists to address unanswered questions about the physics of space. (ZWH)

  4. Extending ligand field molecular mechanics to modelling organometallic π-bonded systems: applications to ruthenium-arenes.

    PubMed

    Brodbeck, Ralf; Deeth, Robert J

    2011-11-14

    The ligand field molecular mechanics method has been extended to treat η(6)-arene ligands coordinated to a ruthenium(II) centre by employing a dummy atom located at the centroid of the arene ring and distributing the forces on the dummy to the arene carbon atoms. Angular overlap model parameters based on orbital energies derived from Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KS-DFT) calculations show that, relative to the Ru-dummy vector, the arene behaves as a very strong π donor and weak σ donor. Based on KS-DFT geometries, partial atomic charges and potential energy scans for a series of homoleptic and half sandwich complexes spanning arene, am(m)ine, imine, pyridyl, hydride and chloride ligands, a new LFMM force field has been developed which accurately reproduces the KS-DFT data. This FF was validated against 47 half-sandwich complexes obtained from the Cambridge Structural Database which, after minor corrections to account for the systematic errors between our chosen functional (BP86) and the experimental structures, yields a 'structurally tuned' FF where 93% of the Ru-L contacts are reproduced to 0.05 Å or better and all bar two bond lengths are within 0.1 Å of experiment. Over half the systems have non-hydrogen-atom rmsds of less than 0.5 Å. Larger differences are usually due to rotation of the arene moiety which is shown by ligand field molecular dynamics (LFMD) simulations to be an inherently low-energy process. Comparisons between LFMD and Car-Parrinello MD for [Ru(p-cymene)(ethylenediamine)Cl](+)show that LFMD is equally accurate but much faster enabling modelling of dynamic properties which occur on a timescale beyond the scope of CPMD. PMID:21792446

  5. Clay Bells: Edo Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The ceremonial copper and iron bells at the Smithsonian's National Museum of African Art were the author's inspiration for an interdisciplinary unit with a focus on the contributions various cultures make toward the richness of a community. The author of this article describes an Edo bell-inspired ceramic project incorporating slab-building…

  6. Origin of the Anomalous Color of Egyptian and Han Blue Historical Pigments: Going beyond the Complex Approximation in Ligand Field Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Fernandez, Pablo; Moreno, Miguel; Aramburu, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The complex approximation is widely used in the framework of the Ligand Field Theory for explaining the optical properties of crystalline coordination compounds. Here, we show that there are essential features of these systems that cannot be understood with the usual approximation that only considers an isolated complex at the correct equilibrium…

  7. Using a Combination of Experimental and Computational Methods to Explore the Impact of Metal Identity and Ligand Field Strength on the Electronic Structure of Metal Ions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pernicone, Naomi C.; Geri, Jacob B.; York, John T.

    2011-01-01

    In this exercise, students apply a combination of techniques to investigate the impact of metal identity and ligand field strength on the spin states of three d[superscript 5] transition-metal complexes: Fe(acac)[subscript 3], K[subscript 3][Fe(CN)[subscript 6

  8. Ligand-field symmetry effects in Fe(II) polypyridyl compounds probed by transient X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Hana; Strader, Matthew L.; Hong, Kiryong; Jamula, Lindsey; Kim, Tae Kyu; Groot, Frank M. F. de; McCusker, James K.; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Huse, Nils

    2012-02-28

    Ultrafast excited-state evolution in polypyridyl FeII complexes are of fundamental interest for understanding the origins of the sub-ps spin-state changes that occur upon photoexcitation of this class of compounds as well as for the potential impact such ultrafast dynamics have on incorporation of these compounds in solar energy conversion schemes or switchable optical storage technologies. We have demonstrated that ground-state and, more importantly, ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption methods can offer unique insights into the interplay between electronic and geometric structure that underpin the photo-induced dynamics of this class of compounds. The present contribution examines in greater detail how the symmetry of the ligand field surrounding the metal ion can be probed using these x-ray techniques. In particular, we show that steady-state K-edge spectroscopy of the nearest-neighbour nitrogen atoms reveals the characteristic chemical environment of the respective ligands and suggests an interesting target for future charge-transfer femtosecond and attosecond spectroscopy in the x-ray water window.

  9. On the efficient swimming of a ray-inspired underwater vehicle. Part II: Computational analysis of fin hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Geng; Ren, Yan; Zhu, Jianzhou; Bart-Smith, Hilary; Dong, Haibo

    2014-11-01

    High-fidelity numerical simulations are being used to examine the key hydrodynamic features and thrust performance of the fin of a manta ray-inspired underwater vehicle (MantaBot) which is moving at a constant forward velocity. The numerical modeling approach employs a parallelized DNS immersed boundary solver for low-Reynolds number flows past highly deformable bodies such as fish pectoral fins and insect wings. The three-dimensional, time-dependent fin kinematics is obtained via a stereo-videographic technique. The primary objectives of the CFD effort are to quantify the thrust performance of the MantaBot fin with different bending stiffness as well as to establish the mechanisms responsible for thrust production. Simulations show that the bending angle and bending rate of the fin play important roles in thrust producing. A distinct system of connected vortices produced by the deformable fins is also examined in detail for understanding the thrust producing mechanisms. This research was supported by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) under the Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) Grant N00014-14-1-0533.

  10. Momentum flow in black-hole binaries. I. Post-Newtonian analysis of the inspiral and spin-induced bobbing

    SciTech Connect

    Keppel, Drew; Nichols, David A.; Chen Yanbei; Thorne, Kip S.

    2009-12-15

    A brief overview is presented of a new Caltech/Cornell research program that is exploring the nonlinear dynamics of curved spacetime in binary black-hole collisions and mergers, and of an initial project in this program aimed at elucidating the flow of linear momentum in binary black holes (BBHs). The 'gauge-dependence' (arbitrariness) in the localization of linear momentum in BBHs is discussed, along with the hope that the qualitative behavior of linear momentum will be gauge-independent. Harmonic coordinates are suggested as a possibly preferred foundation for fixing the gauge associated with linear momentum. For a BBH or other compact binary, the Landau-Lifshitz formalism is used to define the momenta of the binary's individual bodies in terms of integrals over the bodies' surfaces or interiors, and define the momentum of the gravitational field (spacetime curvature) outside the bodies as a volume integral over the field's momentum density. These definitions will be used in subsequent papers that explore the internal nonlinear dynamics of BBHs via numerical relativity. This formalism is then used, in the 1.5 post-Newtonian approximation, to explore momentum flow between a binary's bodies and its gravitational field during the binary's orbital inspiral. Special attention is paid to momentum flow and conservation associated with synchronous spin-induced bobbing of the black holes, in the so-called 'extreme-kick configuration' (where two identical black holes have their spins lying in their orbital plane and antialigned)

  11. Inspiration is "Mission Critical"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, D. W.; DeVore, E.; Lebofsky, L.

    2014-07-01

    In spring 2013, the President's budget proposal restructured the nation's approach to STEM education, eliminating ˜$50M of NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) funding with the intent of transferring it to the Dept. of Education, National Science Foundation, and Smithsonian Institution. As a result, Education and Public Outreach (EPO) would no longer be a NASA mission requirement and funds that had already been competed, awarded, and productively utilized were lost. Since 1994, partnerships of scientists, engineers, and education specialists were required to create innovative approaches to EPO, providing a direct source of inspiration for today's youth that may now be lost. Although seldom discussed or evaluated, "inspiration" is the beginning of lasting education. For decades, NASA's crewed and robotic missions have motivated students of all ages and have demonstrated a high degree of leverage in society. Through personal experiences we discuss (1) the importance of inspiration in education, (2) how NASA plays a vital role in STEM education, (3) examples of high-leverage educational materials showing why NASA should continue embedding EPO specialists within mission teams, and (4) how we can document the role of inspiration. We believe that personal histories are an important means of assessing the success of EPO. We hope this discussion will lead other people to document similar stories of educational success and perhaps to undertake longitudinal studies of the impact of inspiration.

  12. Design and experimental gait analysis of a multi-segment in-pipe robot inspired by earthworm's peristaltic locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Hongbin; Wang, Chenghao; Li, Suyi; Xu, Jian; Wang, K. W.

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports the experimental progress towards developing a multi-segment in-pipe robot inspired by earthworm's body structure and locomotion mechanism. To mimic the alternating contraction and elongation of a single earthworm's segment, a robust, servomotor based actuation mechanism is developed. In each robot segment, servomotor-driven cords and spring steel belts are utilized to imitate the earthworm's longitudinal and circular muscles, respectively. It is shown that the designed segment can contract and relax just like an earthworm's body segment. The axial and radial deformation of a single segment is measured experimentally, which agrees with the theoretical predictions. Then a multisegment earthworm-like robot is fabricated by assembling eight identical segments in series. The locomotion performance of this robot prototype is then extensively tested in order to investigate the correlation between gait design and dynamic locomotion characteristics. Based on the principle of retrograde peristalsis wave, a gait generator is developed for the multi-segment earthworm-like robot, following which gaits of the robot can be constructed. Employing the generated gaits, the 8-segment earthworm-like robot can successfully perform both horizontal locomotion and vertical climb in pipes. By changing gait parameters, i.e., with different gaits, locomotion characteristics including average speed and anchor slippage can be significantly tailored. The proposed actuation method and prototype of the multi-segment in-pipe robot as well as the gait generator provide a bionic realization of earthworm's locomotion with promising potentials in various applications such as pipeline inspection and cleaning.

  13. Haring-Inspired Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corfield, Marie

    2007-01-01

    While exploring Keith Haring's Web site one day, the author discovered two untitled pieces from 1982 that became inspiration pieces for a lesson on symmetry and complementary colors for her second graders. Haring's simple shapes and colors and playful images are very similar to those found in the margins or on the cover of any typical child's…

  14. Ndebele Inspired Houses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The house paintings of the South African Ndebele people are more than just an attempt to improve the aesthetics of a community; they are a source of identity and significance for Ndebele women. In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students use the tradition of Ndebele house painting as inspiration for creating their own…

  15. Inspired by Oceans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    Several years ago, the school system discussed in this article, agreed on a five-year cycle of nature themes to integrate instruction across disciplines. Last year, students studied artists and artworks inspired by oceans. Students also explored the theme with their own artistic expressions. Teachers began the year with lessons based on sea…

  16. Laptops and Inspired Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warschauer, Mark; Arada, Kathleen; Zheng, Binbin

    2010-01-01

    Can daily access to laptop computers help students become better writers? Are such programs affordable? Evidence from the Inspired Writing program in Littleton Public Schools, Colorado, USA, provides a resounding yes to both questions. The program employs student netbooks, open-source software, cloud computing, and social media to help students in…

  17. In Search of Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Keeping one's self inspired in the music classroom is all about connections. Sometimes educators need to look at what they're doing from a different perspective. Luckily, there's no shortage of ways to revitalize one's classroom approach, and to help the author explores a few, he made use of some connections of his own, turning to five educators…

  18. Inspired by Nevelson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egenes, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Louise Nevelson's circular assemblage, "Collegiate School" (1972), was the inspiration for an art class with the preschoolers at the Kent Children's Center. Nevelson (1899-1988) was the ultimate "found art" artist. Finding interesting throwaway objects, in and out of trash bins, she constructed assemblages that completely changed their former use.…

  19. An Ark of Inspiration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Steve

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art project suitable for middle and high school students in which they either combine identifiable parts from different animals to create one creature or take one animal and creatively distort it. Explains that this lesson enables students to be satisfied with their animal-inspired artwork. (CMK)

  20. Summer Reading That Inspires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2012-01-01

    Why did you decide on science as a career? For many, it was the inspiration of a mentor or model--an explorer who could communicate excitement and a sense of adventure to others. During the school year, teachers take on that role of motivator for students. But as they recharge over summer break, it is great to treat themselves again to the stories…

  1. Intrinsically incompatible crystal (ligand) field parameter sets for transition ions at orthorhombic and lower symmetry sites in crystals and their implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudowicz, C.; Gnutek, P.

    2010-01-01

    Central quantities in spectroscopy and magnetism of transition ions in crystals are crystal (ligand) field parameters (CFPs). For orthorhombic, monoclinic, and triclinic site symmetry CF analysis is prone to misinterpretations due to large number of CFPs and existence of correlated sets of alternative CFPs. In this review, we elucidate the intrinsic features of orthorhombic and lower symmetry CFPs and their implications. The alternative CFP sets, which yield identical energy levels, belong to different regions of CF parameter space and hence are intrinsically incompatible. Only their ‘images’ representing CFP sets expressed in the same region of CF parameter space may be directly compared. Implications of these features for fitting procedures and meaning of fitted CFPs are categorized into negative: pitfalls and positive: blessings. As a case study, the CFP sets for Tm 3+ ions in KLu(WO 4) 2 are analysed and shown to be intrinsically incompatible. Inadvertent, so meaningless, comparisons of incompatible CFP sets result in various pitfalls, e.g., controversial claims about the values of CFPs obtained by other researchers as well as incorrect structural conclusions or faulty systematics of CF parameters across rare-earth ion series based on relative magnitudes of incompatible CFPs. Such pitfalls bear on interpretation of, e.g., optical spectroscopy, inelastic neutron scattering, and magnetic susceptibility data. An extensive survey of pertinent literature was carried out to assess recognition of compatibility problems. Great portion of available orthorhombic and lower symmetry CFP sets are found intrinsically incompatible, yet these problems and their implications appear barely recognized. The considerable extent and consequences of pitfalls revealed by our survey call for concerted remedial actions of researchers. A general approach based on the rhombicity ratio standardization may solve compatibility problems. Wider utilization of alternative CFP sets in the

  2. Network Theory Inspired Analysis of Time-Resolved Expression Data Reveals Key Players Guiding P. patens Stem Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Hauke; Boerries, Melanie; Rensing, Stefan A.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) often trigger developmental decisions, yet, their transcripts are often only moderately regulated and thus not easily detected by conventional statistics on expression data. Here we present a method that allows to determine such genes based on trajectory analysis of time-resolved transcriptome data. As a proof of principle, we have analysed apical stem cells of filamentous moss (P. patens) protonemata that develop from leaflets upon their detachment from the plant. By our novel correlation analysis of the post detachment transcriptome kinetics we predict five out of 1,058 TFs to be involved in the signaling leading to the establishment of pluripotency. Among the predicted regulators is the basic helix loop helix TF PpRSL1, which we show to be involved in the establishment of apical stem cells in P. patens. Our methodology is expected to aid analysis of key players of developmental decisions in complex plant and animal systems. PMID:23637751

  3. Network theory inspired analysis of time-resolved expression data reveals key players guiding P. patens stem cell development.

    PubMed

    Busch, Hauke; Boerries, Melanie; Bao, Jie; Hanke, Sebastian T; Hiss, Manuel; Tiko, Theodhor; Rensing, Stefan A

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) often trigger developmental decisions, yet, their transcripts are often only moderately regulated and thus not easily detected by conventional statistics on expression data. Here we present a method that allows to determine such genes based on trajectory analysis of time-resolved transcriptome data. As a proof of principle, we have analysed apical stem cells of filamentous moss (P. patens) protonemata that develop from leaflets upon their detachment from the plant. By our novel correlation analysis of the post detachment transcriptome kinetics we predict five out of 1,058 TFs to be involved in the signaling leading to the establishment of pluripotency. Among the predicted regulators is the basic helix loop helix TF PpRSL1, which we show to be involved in the establishment of apical stem cells in P. patens. Our methodology is expected to aid analysis of key players of developmental decisions in complex plant and animal systems. PMID:23637751

  4. Data specifications for INSPIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portele, Clemens; Woolf, Andrew; Cox, Simon

    2010-05-01

    In Europe a major recent development has been the entering in force of the INSPIRE Directive in May 2007, establishing an infrastructure for spatial information in Europe to support Community environmental policies, and policies or activities which may have an impact on the environment. INSPIRE is based on the infrastructures for spatial information established and operated by the 27 Member States of the European Union. The Directive addresses 34 spatial data themes needed for environmental applications, with key components specified through technical implementing rules. This makes INSPIRE a unique example of a legislative "regional" approach. One of the requirements of the INSPIRE Directive is to make existing spatial data sets with relevance for one of the spatial data themes available in an interoperable way, i.e. where the spatial data from different sources in Europe can be combined to a coherent result. Since INSPIRE covers a wide range of spatial data themes, the first step has been the development of a modelling framework that provides a common foundation for all themes. This framework is largely based on the ISO 19100 series of standards. The use of common generic spatial modelling concepts across all themes is an important enabler for interoperability. As a second step, data specifications for the first set of themes has been developed based on the modelling framework. The themes include addresses, transport networks, protected sites, hydrography, administrative areas and others. The data specifications were developed by selected experts nominated by stakeholders from all over Europe. For each theme a working group was established in early 2008 working on their specific theme and collaborating with the other working groups on cross-theme issues. After a public review of the draft specifications starting in December 2008, an open testing process and thorough comment resolution process, the draft technical implementing rules for these themes have been

  5. Inspiral into Gargantua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gralla, Samuel E.; Hughes, Scott A.; Warburton, Niels

    2016-08-01

    We model the inspiral of a compact object into a more massive black hole rotating very near the theoretical maximum. We find that once the body enters the near-horizon regime the gravitational radiation is characterized by a constant frequency, equal to (twice) the horizon frequency, with an exponentially damped profile. This contrasts with the usual ‘chirping’ behavior and, if detected, would constitute a ‘smoking gun’ for a near-extremal black hole in nature.

  6. Biologically inspired intelligent robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Breazeal, Cynthia

    2003-07-01

    Humans throughout history have always sought to mimic the appearance, mobility, functionality, intelligent operation, and thinking process of biological creatures. This field of biologically inspired technology, having the moniker biomimetics, has evolved from making static copies of human and animals in the form of statues to the emergence of robots that operate with realistic behavior. Imagine a person walking towards you where suddenly you notice something weird about him--he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your reaction would probably be "I can't believe it but this robot looks very real" just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. You may even proceed and touch the robot to check if your assessment is correct but, as oppose to the flower case, the robot may be programmed to respond physical and verbally. This science fiction scenario could become a reality as the current trend continues in developing biologically inspired technologies. Technology evolution led to such fields as artificial muscles, artificial intelligence, and artificial vision as well as biomimetic capabilities in materials science, mechanics, electronics, computing science, information technology and many others. This paper will review the state of the art and challenges to biologically-inspired technologies and the role that EAP is expected to play as the technology evolves.

  7. Quantum-Inspired Maximizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    2008-01-01

    A report discusses an algorithm for a new kind of dynamics based on a quantum- classical hybrid-quantum-inspired maximizer. The model is represented by a modified Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced by different, specially chosen 'computational' potential. As a result, the dynamics attains both quantum and classical properties: it preserves superposition and entanglement of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables, using classical methods. Such optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for quantum-inspired computing. As an application, an algorithm for global maximum of an arbitrary integrable function is proposed. The idea of the proposed algorithm is very simple: based upon the Quantum-inspired Maximizer (QIM), introduce a positive function to be maximized as the probability density to which the solution is attracted. Then the larger value of this function will have the higher probability to appear. Special attention is paid to simulation of integer programming and NP-complete problems. It is demonstrated that the problem of global maximum of an integrable function can be found in polynomial time by using the proposed quantum- classical hybrid. The result is extended to a constrained maximum with applications to integer programming and TSP (Traveling Salesman Problem).

  8. Astronomy. Inspiration. Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanic, N.

    2008-10-01

    This paper speculates how poetry and other kind of arts are tightly related to astronomy. Hence the connection between art and natural sciences in general will be discussed in the frame of ongoing multidisciplinary project `Astronomy. Inspiration. Art' at Public Observatory in Belgrade (started in 2004). This project tends to inspire (better to say `infect') artist with a cosmic themes and fantastic sceneries of the Universe. At the very beginning of the project, Serbian poet and philosopher Laza Lazić (who published 49 books of poetry, stories and novels), as well as writer Gordana Maletić (with 25 published novels for children) were interested to work on The Inspiration by Astronomical Phenomena in Serbian Literature. Five young artists and scientists include their new ideas and new approach to multidisciplinary studies too (Srdjan Djukić, Nenad Jeremić, Olivera Obradović, Romana Vujasinović, Elena Dimoski). Two books that will be presented in details in the frame of this Project, "STARRY CITIES" (http://zavod.co.yu) and "ASTROLIES", don't offer only interesting illustrations, images from the latest astronomical observations and currently accepted cosmological theories -- those books induces, provoking curiosity in a specific and witty way, an adventure and challenge to explore and create.

  9. Professional caregivers' work with the dying in nursing homes--a Foucault-inspired analysis of discourses in the last decade in a Danish context.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Karen T; Glasdam, Stinne

    2013-12-01

    International studies on the death of elderly nursing home residents show the complexity in the understanding of the professionals who care for the dying. The aim of this study is to explore the discourses about professional caregivers caring for those dying in Denmark in the last decade. A discourse analysis inspired by Foucault was constructed. The material consists of different source documents: research articles, newspaper articles, theses, books, websites - 35 sources in total. There are constructed six positions of speech, five discourses and three themes: (1) 'the work of the professional caregivers - a complex low-status work'; (2) 'the education of the professionals - the way to ensure a good death or possessing the right qualifications' and (3) 'the vulnerable professionals'. The study concludes that an economical/political discourse is dominating and sets up the frames within which the professionals care for dying residents, although the medical, the social/critical and the religious discourses attempt to speak against it. All positions articulate that the professional caregivers' job has a low status and that it is not possible to provide an optimal care due to lack of time, resources and education. Psychical or mental demands make the professionals vulnerable. The meaning of optimal care varies according to the positions of speech. PMID:23336738

  10. A Bio-Inspired, Motion-Based Analysis of Crowd Behavior Attributes Relevance to Motion Transparency, Velocity Gradients, and Motion Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Raudies, Florian; Neumann, Heiko

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of motion crowds is concerned with the detection of potential hazards for individuals of the crowd. Existing methods analyze the statistics of pixel motion to classify non-dangerous or dangerous behavior, to detect outlier motions, or to estimate the mean throughput of people for an image region. We suggest a biologically inspired model for the analysis of motion crowds that extracts motion features indicative for potential dangers in crowd behavior. Our model consists of stages for motion detection, integration, and pattern detection that model functions of the primate primary visual cortex area (V1), the middle temporal area (MT), and the medial superior temporal area (MST), respectively. This model allows for the processing of motion transparency, the appearance of multiple motions in the same visual region, in addition to processing opaque motion. We suggest that motion transparency helps to identify “danger zones” in motion crowds. For instance, motion transparency occurs in small exit passages during evacuation. However, motion transparency occurs also for non-dangerous crowd behavior when people move in opposite directions organized into separate lanes. Our analysis suggests: The combination of motion transparency and a slow motion speed can be used for labeling of candidate regions that contain dangerous behavior. In addition, locally detected decelerations or negative speed gradients of motions are a precursor of danger in crowd behavior as are globally detected motion patterns that show a contraction toward a single point. In sum, motion transparency, image speeds, motion patterns, and speed gradients extracted from visual motion in videos are important features to describe the behavioral state of a motion crowd. PMID:23300930

  11. Novel Integral Equation Methods Applied to the Analysis of New Guiding and Radiating Structures and Optically-Inspired Phenomena at Microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Diaz, Juan Sebastian

    This PhD. dissertation presents a multidisciplinary work, which involves the development of different novel formulations applied to the accurate and efficient analysis of a wide variety of new structures, devices, and phenomena at themicrowave frequency region. The objectives of the present work can be divided into three main research lines: (1) The first research line is devoted to the Green's function analysis of multilayered enclosures with convex arbitrarily-shaped cross section. For this purpose, three accurate spatial-domain formulations are developed at the Green's functions level. These techniques are then efficiently incorporated into a mixed-potential integral equation framework, which allows the fast and accurate analysis of multilayered printed circuits in shielded enclosures. The study of multilayered shielded circuits has lead to the development of the novel hybridwaveguide-microstrip filter technology, which is light, compact, low-loss and presents important advantages for the space industry. (2) The second research line is related to the impulse-regime study ofmetamaterial-based composite right/left-handed (CRLH) structures and the subsequent theoretical and practical demonstration of several novel optically-inspired phenomena and applications at microwaves, in both, the guided and the radiative region. This study allows the development of new devices for ultra wide band and high data-rate communications systems. Besides, this research line also deals with the simple and accurate characterization of CRLH leaky-wave antennas using transmission line theory. (3) The third and last research line presents a novel CRLH parallel-plate waveguide leaky-wave antenna structure, and a rigorous iterative modal-based technique for its fast and complete characterization, including a systematic calculation of the antenna physical dimensions. It is important to point out that all the theoretical developments and novel structures presented in thiswork have been

  12. Deep inspiration breath-hold technique for left-sided breast cancer: An analysis of predictors for organ-at-risk sparing

    SciTech Connect

    Register, Steven; Takita, Cristiane; Reis, Isildinha; Zhao, Wei; Amestoy, William; Wright, Jean

    2015-04-01

    To identify anatomic and treatment characteristics that correlate with organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing with deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique to guide patient selection for this technique. Anatomic and treatment characteristics and radiation doses to OARs were compared between free-breathing and DIBH plans. Linear regression analysis was used to identify factors independently predicting for cardiac sparing. We identified 64 patients: 44 with intact breast and 20 postmastectomy. For changes measured directly on treatment planning scans, DIBH plans decreased heart-chest wall length (6.5 vs 5.0 cm, p < 0.001), and increased lung volume (1074.4 vs 1881.3 cm{sup 3}, p < 0.001), and for changes measured after fields are set, they decreased maximum heart depth (1.1 vs 0.3 cm, p < 0.001) and heart volume in field (HVIF) (9.1 vs 0.9 cm{sup 3}, p < 0.001). DIBH reduced the mean heart dose (3.4 vs 1.8 Gy, p < 0.001) and lung V{sub 20} (19.6% vs 15.3%, p < 0.001). Regression analysis found that only change in HVIF independently predicted for cardiac sparing. We identified patients in the bottom quartile of the dosimetric benefits seen with DIBH and categorized the cause of this “minimal benefit.” Overall, 29% of patients satisfied these criteria for minimal benefit with DIBH and the most common cause was favorable baseline anatomy. Only the reduction in HVIF predicted for reductions in mean heart dose; no specific anatomic surrogate for the dosimetric benefits of DIBH technique could be identified. Most patients have significant dosimetric benefit with DIBH, and this technique should be planned and evaluated for all patients receiving left-sided breast/chest wall radiation.

  13. Flux Balance Analysis Inspired Bioprocess Upgrading for Lycopene Production by a Metabolically Engineered Strain of Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Nambou, Komi; Jian, Xingxing; Zhang, Xinkai; Wei, Liujing; Lou, Jiajia; Madzak, Catherine; Hua, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Genome-scale metabolic models embody a significant advantage of systems biology since their applications as metabolic flux simulation models enable predictions for the production of industrially-interesting metabolites. The biotechnological production of lycopene from Yarrowia lipolytica is an emerging scope that has not been fully scrutinized, especially for what concerns cultivation conditions of newly generated engineered strains. In this study, by combining flux balance analysis (FBA) and Plackett-Burman design, we screened chemicals for lycopene production from a metabolically engineered strain of Y. lipolytica. Lycopene concentrations of 126 and 242 mg/L were achieved correspondingly from the FBA-independent and the FBA-assisted designed media in fed-batch cultivation mode. Transcriptional studies revealed upregulations of heterologous genes in media designed according to FBA, thus implying the efficiency of model predictions. Our study will potentially support upgraded lycopene and other terpenoids production from existing or prospect bioengineered strains of Y. lipolytica and/or closely related yeast species. PMID:26703753

  14. Flux Balance Analysis Inspired Bioprocess Upgrading for Lycopene Production by a Metabolically Engineered Strain of Yarrowia lipolytica

    PubMed Central

    Nambou, Komi; Jian, Xingxing; Zhang, Xinkai; Wei, Liujing; Lou, Jiajia; Madzak, Catherine; Hua, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Genome-scale metabolic models embody a significant advantage of systems biology since their applications as metabolic flux simulation models enable predictions for the production of industrially-interesting metabolites. The biotechnological production of lycopene from Yarrowia lipolytica is an emerging scope that has not been fully scrutinized, especially for what concerns cultivation conditions of newly generated engineered strains. In this study, by combining flux balance analysis (FBA) and Plackett-Burman design, we screened chemicals for lycopene production from a metabolically engineered strain of Y. lipolytica. Lycopene concentrations of 126 and 242 mg/L were achieved correspondingly from the FBA-independent and the FBA-assisted designed media in fed-batch cultivation mode. Transcriptional studies revealed upregulations of heterologous genes in media designed according to FBA, thus implying the efficiency of model predictions. Our study will potentially support upgraded lycopene and other terpenoids production from existing or prospect bioengineered strains of Y. lipolytica and/or closely related yeast species. PMID:26703753

  15. Sequentially-coupled space-time FSI analysis of bio-inspired flapping-wing aerodynamics of an MAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takizawa, Kenji; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.; Kostov, Nikolay

    2014-08-01

    We present a sequentially-coupled space-time (ST) computational fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis of flapping-wing aerodynamics of a micro aerial vehicle (MAV). The wing motion and deformation data, whether prescribed fully or partially, is from an actual locust, extracted from high-speed, multi-camera video recordings of the locust in a wind tunnel. The core computational FSI technology is based on the Deforming-Spatial-Domain/Stabilized ST (DSD/SST) formulation. This is supplemented with using NURBS basis functions in temporal representation of the wing and mesh motion, and in remeshing. Here we use the version of the DSD/SST formulation derived in conjunction with the variational multiscale (VMS) method, and this version is called "DSD/SST-VMST." The structural mechanics computations are based on the Kirchhoff-Love shell model. The sequential-coupling technique is applicable to some classes of FSI problems, especially those with temporally-periodic behavior. We show that it performs well in FSI computations of the flapping-wing aerodynamics we consider here. In addition to the straight-flight case, we analyze cases where the MAV body has rolling, pitching, or rolling and pitching motion. We study how all these influence the lift and thrust.

  16. Modeling protein conformational transitions by a combination of coarse-grained normal mode analysis and robotics-inspired methods

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obtaining atomic-scale information about large-amplitude conformational transitions in proteins is a challenging problem for both experimental and computational methods. Such information is, however, important for understanding the mechanisms of interaction of many proteins. Methods This paper presents a computationally efficient approach, combining methods originating from robotics and computational biophysics, to model protein conformational transitions. The ability of normal mode analysis to predict directions of collective, large-amplitude motions is applied to bias the conformational exploration performed by a motion planning algorithm. To reduce the dimension of the problem, normal modes are computed for a coarse-grained elastic network model built on short fragments of three residues. Nevertheless, the validity of intermediate conformations is checked using the all-atom model, which is accurately reconstructed from the coarse-grained one using closed-form inverse kinematics. Results Tests on a set of ten proteins demonstrate the ability of the method to model conformational transitions of proteins within a few hours of computing time on a single processor. These results also show that the computing time scales linearly with the protein size, independently of the protein topology. Further experiments on adenylate kinase show that main features of the transition between the open and closed conformations of this protein are well captured in the computed path. Conclusions The proposed method enables the simulation of large-amplitude conformational transitions in proteins using very few computational resources. The resulting paths are a first approximation that can directly provide important information on the molecular mechanisms involved in the conformational transition. This approximation can be subsequently refined and analyzed using state-of-the-art energy models and molecular modeling methods. PMID:24564964

  17. Design of gecko-inspired fibrillar surfaces with strong attachment and easy-removal properties: a numerical analysis of peel-zone.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming; Pesika, Noshir; Zeng, Hongbo; Wan, Jin; Zhang, Xiangjun; Meng, Yonggang; Wen, Shizhu; Tian, Yu

    2012-10-01

    Despite successful fabrication of gecko-inspired fibrillar surfaces with strong adhesion forces, how to achieve an easy-removal property becomes a major concern that may restrict the wide applications of these bio-inspired surfaces. Research on how geckos detach rapidly has inspired the design of novel adhesive surfaces with strong and reversible adhesion capabilities, which relies on further fundamental understanding of the peeling mechanisms. Recent studies showed that the peel-zone plays an important role in the peeling off of adhesive tapes or fibrillar surfaces. In this study, a numerical method was developed to evaluate peel-zone deformation and the resulting mechanical behaviour due to the deformations of fibrillar surfaces detaching from a smooth rigid substrate. The effect of the geometrical parameters of pillars and the stiffness of backing layer on the peel-zone and peel strength, and the strong attachment and easy-removal properties have been analysed to establish a design map for bio-inspired fibrillar surfaces, which shows that the optimized strong attachment and easy-removal properties can vary by over three orders of magnitude. The adhesion and peeling design map established provides new insights into the design and development of novel gecko-inspired fibrillar surfaces. PMID:22572030

  18. Inspirals into Gargantua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warburton, Niels; Gralla, Samuel; Hughes, Scott

    2016-03-01

    We model the inspiral of a compact, stellar mass object into a massive black hole rotating at or just below the theoretical maximum. We find that once the compact object enters the near-horizon regime the gravitational radiation is characterized by a constant frequency, equal to the horizon frequency, with an exponentially damped profile. This contrasts with the usual `chirping' behaviour of a black hole binary system and were such a waveform observed it would constitute a `smoking gun' for a (near) extremal black hole in nature.

  19. Ligand field splittings in core level transitions for transition metal (TM) oxides: Tanabe-Sugano diagrams and (TM) dangling bonds in vacated O-atom defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucovsky, Gerry; Wu, Kun; Pappas, Brian; Whitten, Jerry

    2013-04-01

    Defect states in the forbidden band-gap below the conduction band edge are active as electron traps in nano-grain high-) transition metal (TM) oxides with thickness >0.3 nm, e.g., ZrO2 and HfO2. These oxides have received considerable attention as gate-dielectrics in complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices, and more recently are emerging as candidates for charge storage and memory devices. To provide a theoretical basis for device functionality, ab-initio many-electron theory is combined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to study O K edge and TM core level transitions. These studies identify ligand field splittings (ΔLF) for defect state features,. When compared with those obtained from O-atom and TM-atom core spectroscopic transitions, this provides direct information about defect state sun-nm bonding arrangements. comparisons are made for (i) elemental TiO2 and Ti2O3 with different formal ionic charges, Ti4+ and Ti3+ and for (ii) Magneli Phase alloys, TinO2n-1, n is an integer 9>=n>3, and (TiO2)x(HfO2)1-x alloys. The alloys display multi-valent behavior from (i) different ionic-charge states, (ii} local bond-strain, and (iii) metallic hopping transport. The intrinsic bonding defects in TM oxides are identified as pairs of singly occupied dangling bonds. For 6-fold coordinated Ti-oxides defect excited states in 2nd derivative O K pre-edge spectra are essentially the same as single Ti-atom d2 transitions in Tanabe-Sugano (T-S) diagrams. O-vacated site defects in 8-fold coordinated ZrO2 and HfO2 are described by d8 T-S diagrams. T-S defect state ordering and splittings are functions of the coordination and symmetry of vacated site bordering TM atoms. ΔLF values from the analysis of T-S diagrams indicate medium range order (MRO) extending to 3rd and 4th nearest-neighbor (NN) TM-atoms. Values are different for 6-fold Ti, and 8-fold ZrO2 and HfO2, and scale inversely with differences in respective formal ionic radii. O-vacated site bonding

  20. Geophysics in INSPIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sőrés, László

    2013-04-01

    INSPIRE is a European directive to harmonize spatial data in Europe. Its' aim is to establish a transparent, multidisciplinary network of environmental information by using international standards and OGC web services. Spatial data themes defined in the annex of the directive cover 34 domains that are closely bundled to environment and spatial information. According to the INSPIRE roadmap all data providers must setup discovery, viewing and download services and restructure data stores to provide spatial data as defined by the underlying specifications by 2014 December 1. More than 3000 institutions are going to be involved in the progress. During the data specification process geophysics as an inevitable source of geo information was introduced to Annex II Geology. Within the Geology theme Geophysics is divided into core and extended model. The core model contains specifications for legally binding data provisioning and is going to be part of the Implementation Rules of the INSPIRE directives. To minimize the work load of obligatory data transformations the scope of the core model is very limited and simple. It covers the most essential geophysical feature types that are relevant in economic and environmental context. To fully support the use cases identified by the stake holders the extended model was developed. It contains a wide range of spatial object types for geophysical measurements, processed and interpreted results, and wrapper classes to help data providers in using the Observation and Measurements (O&M) standard for geophysical data exchange. Instead of introducing the traditional concept of "geophysical methods" at a high structural level the data model classifies measurements and geophysical models based on their spatial characteristics. Measurements are classified as geophysical station (point), geophysical profile (curve) and geophysical swath (surface). Generic classes for processing results and interpretation models are curve model (1D), surface

  1. Magneto-Structural Correlations in a Series of Pseudotetrahedral [Co(II)(XR)4](2-) Single Molecule Magnets: An ab Initio Ligand Field Study.

    PubMed

    Suturina, Elizaveta A; Maganas, Dimitrios; Bill, Eckhard; Atanasov, Mihail; Neese, Frank

    2015-10-19

    Over the past several decades, tremendous efforts have been invested in finding molecules that display slow relaxation of magnetization and hence act as single-molecule magnets (SMMs). While initial research was strongly focused on polynuclear transition metal complexes, it has become increasingly evident that SMM behavior can also be displayed in relatively simple mononuclear transition metal complexes. One of the first examples of a mononuclear SMM that shows a slow relaxation of the magnetization in the absence of an external magnetic field is the cobalt(II) tetra-thiolate [Co(SPh)4](2-). Fascinatingly, substitution of the donor ligand atom by oxygen or selenium dramatically changes zero-field splitting (ZFS) and relaxation time. Clearly, these large variations call for an in-depth electronic structure investigation in order to develop a qualitative understanding of the observed phenomena. In this work, we present a systematic theoretical study of a whole series of complexes (PPh4)2[Co(XPh)4] (X = O, S, Se) using multireference ab initio methods. To this end, we employ the recently proposed ab initio ligand field theory, which allows us to translate the ab initio results into the framework of ligand field theory. Magneto-structural correlations are then developed that take into account the nature of metal-ligand covalent bonding, ligand spin-orbit coupling, and geometric distortions away from pure tetrahedral symmetry. The absolute value of zero-field splitting increases when the ligand field strength decreases across the series from O to Te. The zero-field splitting of the ground state of the hypothetical [Co(TePh)4](2-) complex is computed to be about twice as large as for the well-known (PPh4)2[Co(SPh)4] compound. It is shown that due to the π-anisotropy of the ligand donor atoms (S, Se) magneto-structural correlations in [Co(OPh)4](2-) complex differ from [Co(S/SePh)4](2-). In the case of almost isotropic OPh ligand, only variations in the first

  2. Analysis of usefulness of airborne laser scanning for preparation of 3D buildings model consistent with inspire specification. (Polish Title: Analiza przydatności lotniczego skaningu laserowego do opracowania modelu budynków 3D zgodnego ze specyfikacją INSPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisło-Lesicka, U.; Borowiec, N.; Marmol, U.; Pyka, K.

    2014-12-01

    The inspiration to undertake the subject was the announcement of preparations for project Poland 3D+. First the presentation of background analysis of modelling methods was sketched. Then the principles of buildings modelling, imposed by INSPIRE specification, were recalled. Next the conditions of conversion of 2D spatial database to 3D ones, on the basis of experience acquired thanks to the research project performed in AGH in the years 2009 - 2012, was discussed. The research indicated airborne scanning as the best data source but at the same time indicated that highly detailed models considered for large areas may turn out to be poorly efficient for the GIS technology. Then t he systematization of modelling methods of airborne scanning, with emphasis on advantages and disadvantages of the approach model driven and date driven, was presented. The thesis is concluded with a suggestion of modelling strategy in the context of condition of geo - reference databases in Poland, prospects of their development and demand for spatial data from the social and economic point of view. A gradual solution was suggested, in which, firstly, attempts are made to apply the model driven method and in case of failure, the data driven method is applied, which enables modelling the buildings of complex shapes but doe s not guarantee full automation. Such a procedure, in the opinion of the authors, would be optimal at implementation of project Poland 3D+.

  3. Microflyers: inspiration from nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirohi, Jayant

    2013-04-01

    Over the past decade, there has been considerable interest in miniaturizing aircraft to create a class of extremely small, robotic vehicles with a gross mass on the order of tens of grams and a dimension on the order of tens of centimeters. These are collectively refered to as micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) or microflyers. Because the size of microflyers is on the same order as that of small birds and large insects, engineers are turning to nature for inspiration. Bioinspired concepts make use of structural or aerodynamic mechanisms that are observed in insects and birds, such as elastic energy storage and unsteady aerodynamics. Biomimetic concepts attempt to replicate the form and function of natural flyers, such as flapping-wing propulsion and external appearance. This paper reviews recent developments in the area of man-made microflyers. The design space for microflyers will be described, along with fundamental physical limits to miniaturization. Key aerodynamic phenomena at the scale of microflyers will be highlighted. Because the focus is on bioinspiration and biomimetics, scaled-down versions of conventional aircraft, such as fixed wing micro air vehicles and microhelicopters will not be addressed. A few representative bioinspired and biomimetic microflyer concepts developed by researchers will be described in detail. Finally, some of the sensing mechanisms used by natural flyers that are being implemented in man-made microflyers will be discussed.

  4. Bio-inspired vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, C.

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980`s, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ``neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  5. Biogenetically Inspired Synthesis of Lingzhiol.

    PubMed

    Sharmah Gautam, Krishna; Birman, Vladimir B

    2016-04-01

    A concise stereo- and enantioselective synthesis of lingzhiol has been achieved featuring a biogenetically inspired Brønsted acid catalyzed semipinacol rearrangement of a glycidyl alcohol intermediate. PMID:26974229

  6. The Role of INSPIRE in HEP Data Preservation Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Travis C.; /SLAC

    2010-06-11

    INSPIRE is a new community resource for HEP literature and associated information. It is based on the combination of SPIRES content and features and the powerful Invenio software developed at CERN. The INSPIRE service will come online in fall of 2009, and be run by CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. Data preservation, to be successful, must not only preserve the data, but must also organize it and allow it to be found by those who would make use of it, and resources such as INSPIRE are ideally positioned and ready to provide this organization and context. In addition, INSPIRE will soon be ready to provide storage of smaller datasets, such as high-level analysis objects, as stand-alone objects placed in the repository or as objects associated with an analysis paper. This small project could pave the way towards the context and organization which is one piece of the infrastructure needed for all levels of data preservation.

  7. Physicists Get INSPIREd: INSPIRE Project and Grid Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klem, Jukka; Iwaszkiewicz, Jan

    2011-12-01

    INSPIRE is the new high-energy physics scientific information system developed by CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. INSPIRE combines the curated and trusted contents of SPIRES database with Invenio digital library technology. INSPIRE contains the entire HEP literature with about one million records and in addition to becoming the reference HEP scientific information platform, it aims to provide new kinds of data mining services and metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. Grid and cloud computing provide new opportunities to offer better services in areas that require large CPU and storage resources including document Optical Character Recognition (OCR) processing, full-text indexing of articles and improved metrics. D4Science-II is a European project that develops and operates an e-Infrastructure supporting Virtual Research Environments (VREs). It develops an enabling technology (gCube) which implements a mechanism for facilitating the interoperation of its e-Infrastructure with other autonomously running data e-Infrastructures. As a result, this creates the core of an e-Infrastructure ecosystem. INSPIRE is one of the e-Infrastructures participating in D4Science-II project. In the context of the D4Science-II project, the INSPIRE e-Infrastructure makes available some of its resources and services to other members of the resulting ecosystem. Moreover, it benefits from the ecosystem via a dedicated Virtual Organization giving access to an array of resources ranging from computing and storage resources of grid infrastructures to data and services.

  8. Bio-Inspired Antifouling Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschner, Chelsea M.; Brennan, Anthony B.

    2012-08-01

    Biofouling is a complex, dynamic problem that globally impacts both the economy and environment. Interdisciplinary research in marine biology, polymer science, and engineering has led to the implementation of bio-inspired strategies for the development of the next generation of antifouling marine coatings. Natural fouling defense mechanisms have been mimicked through chemical, physical, and/or stimuli-responsive strategies. This review outlines the detrimental effects associated with biofouling, describes the theoretical basis for antifouling coating design, and highlights prominent advances in bio-inspired antifouling technologies.

  9. Inspiring Independent Learning: Successful Classroom Strategies. The Inspired Classroom Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafoth, Mary Ann

    This book provides examples of embedded learning and study strategies, all of which represent success stories used by teachers and support teams in real classrooms. Seven chapters focus on: (1) "Overview: The Teacher's Role in Inspiring Independent Learning"; (2) "Primary Grades: Building a Strong Foundation" (e.g., simple memory strategies,…

  10. Inspiration: One Percent and Rising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Donovan R.

    2009-01-01

    Inventor Thomas Edison once famously declared, "Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration." If that's the case, then the students the author witnessed at the International Student Media Festival (ISMF) last November in Orlando, Florida, are geniuses and more. The students in the ISMF pre-conference workshop had much to…

  11. Inspiring Teachers: Perspectives and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammons, Pam; Kington, Alison; Lindorff-Vijayendran, Ariel; Ortega, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    This research study investigates the notion of "inspiring" teaching through case studies of a purposive sample of 17 primary and secondary school teachers in England. The research was commissioned by CfBT Education Trust as part of a collaborative professional development initiative involving its schools. It arose from headteachers'…

  12. London: An Art Teacher's Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhin, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Often overshadowed in people's minds by Paris, London is truly an artist's jewel. The art and architecture, history, gardens and museums are inspiring, yes, but there's so much more to this ancient city. The performances, attractions and markets are a boon to the creative soul. London can be surprisingly inexpensive to visit. Gazing at statues,…

  13. Inspiring the Best in Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    Students' success in school and later in life is highly dependent on their ability to 1) regulate their emotions and control their behavior and 2) get along with their teachers and peers. In this book, the author wants to teach you how to inspire students to learn, behave responsibly, and improve their relationships with themselves, other…

  14. Novel locomotion via biological inspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Roger D.; Boxerbaum, Alexander; Palmer, Luther; Chiel, Hillel; Diller, Eric; Hunt, Alexander; Bachmann, Richard

    2011-05-01

    Animal behavioral, physiological and neurobiological studies are providing a wealth of inspirational data for robot design and control. Several very different biologically inspired mobile robots will be reviewed. A robot called DIGbot is being developed that moves independent of the direction of gravity using Distributed Inward Gripping (DIG) as a rapid and robust attachment mechanism observed in climbing animals. DIGbot is an 18 degree of freedom hexapod with onboard power and control systems. Passive compliance in its feet, which is inspired by the flexible tarsus of the cockroach, increases the robustness of the adhesion strategy and enables DIGbot to execute large steps and stationary turns while walking on mesh screens. A Whegs™ robot, inspired by insect locomotion principles, is being developed that can be rapidly reconfigured between tracks and wheel-legs and carry GeoSystems Zipper Mast. The mechanisms that cause it to passively change its gait on irregular terrain have been integrated into its hubs for a compact and modular design. The robot is designed to move smoothly on moderately rugged terrain using its tracks and run on irregular terrain and stairs using its wheel-legs. We are also developing soft bodied robots that use peristalsis, the same method of locomotion earthworms use. We present a technique of using a braided mesh exterior to produce fluid waves of motion along the body of the robot that increase the robot's speed relative to previous designs. The concept is highly scalable, for endoscopes to water, oil or gas line inspection.

  15. INSPIRED High School Computing Academies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerschuk, Peggy; Liu, Jiangjiang; Mann, Judith

    2011-01-01

    If we are to attract more women and minorities to computing we must engage students at an early age. As part of its mission to increase participation of women and underrepresented minorities in computing, the Increasing Student Participation in Research Development Program (INSPIRED) conducts computing academies for high school students. The…

  16. A Tony Thomas-Inspired Guide to INSPIRE

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, Heath B.; /Fermilab

    2010-04-01

    The SPIRES database was created in the late 1960s to catalogue the high energy physics preprints received by the SLAC Library. In the early 1990s it became the first database on the web and the first website outside of Europe. Although indispensible to the HEP community, its aging software infrastructure is becoming a serious liability. In a joint project involving CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, a new database, INSPIRE, is being created to replace SPIRES using CERN's modern, open-source Invenio database software. INSPIRE will maintain the content and functionality of SPIRES plus many new features. I describe this evolution from the birth of SPIRES to the current day, noting that the career of Tony Thomas spans this timeline.

  17. Inspire Me! Pupils' Views of What Inspires Them and What Constitutes an Inspiring Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Both "pupil voice" and "staff voice" can be powerful tools in developing various aspects of a school, but only if there is a strong dialogue between the two. This project used a number of different approaches--questionnaires, lesson observations and planning discussions--to investigate pupils' views of what inspires them to learn in science and…

  18. Core electron excitations in U(4+): modelling of the nd(10)5f(2)→nd(9)5f(3) transitions with n = 3, 4 and 5 by ligand field tools and density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Ramanantoanina, Harry; Kuri, Goutam; Daul, Claude; Bertsch, Johannes

    2016-07-28

    Ligand field density functional theory (LFDFT) calculations have been used to model the uranium M4,5, N4,5 and O4,5-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) in UO2, characterized by the promotion of one electron from the core and the semi-core 3d, 4d and 5d orbitals of U(4+) to the valence 5f. The model describes the procedure to resolve non-empirically the multiplet energy levels originating from the two-open-shell system with d and f electrons and to calculate the oscillator strengths corresponding to the dipole allowed d(10)f(2)→ d(9)f(3) transitions appropriate to represent the d electron excitation process. In the first step, the energy and UO2 unit-cell volume corresponding to the minimum structures are determined using the Hubbard model (DFT+U) approach. The model of the optical properties due to the uranium nd(10)5f(2)→nd(9)5f(3) transitions, with n = 3, 4 and 5, has been tackled by means of electronic structure calculations based on the ligand field concept emulating the Slater-Condon integrals, the spin-orbit coupling constants and the parameters of the ligand field potential needed by the ligand field Hamiltonian from Density Functional Theory. A deep-rooted theoretical procedure using the LFDFT approach has been established for actinide-bearing systems that can be valuable to compute targeted results, such as spectroscopic details at the electronic scale. As a case study, uranium dioxide has been considered because it is a nuclear fuel material, and both atomic and electronic structure calculations are indispensable for a deeper understanding of irradiation driven microstructural changes occurring in this material. PMID:27356168

  19. Jellyfish inspired underwater unmanned vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Alex; Bresser, Scott; Chung, Sanghun; Tadesse, Yonas; Priya, Shashank

    2009-03-01

    An unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) was designed inspired by the form and functionality of a Jellyfish. These natural organisms were chosen as bio-inspiration for a multitude of reasons including: efficiency of locomotion, lack of natural predators, proper form and shape to incorporate payload, and varying range of sizes. The structure consists of a hub body surrounded by bell segments and microcontroller based drive system. The locomotion of UUV was achieved by shape memory alloy "Biometal Fiber" actuation which possesses large strain and blocking force with adequate response time. The main criterion in design of UUV was the use of low-profile shape memory alloy actuators which act as artificial muscles. In this manuscript, we discuss the design of two Jellyfish prototypes and present experimental results illustrating the performance and power consumption.

  20. Inspiration of psychotherapists by patients.

    PubMed

    Messner, E

    1976-12-01

    Many patients possess such exemplary traits and virtues that their psychotherapists are inspired to emulate them. This process can benefit the clinician and reinforce the therapeutic alliance, rapport, and the spirit of reciprocity; however, it can also arouse responses by the clinician that are therapeutically detrimental. Awareness of this hazard can enable the clinican to avert it and enhance the benefits provided by the patient's outstanding strengths. PMID:984249

  1. Biologically inspired dynamic material systems.

    PubMed

    Studart, André R

    2015-03-01

    Numerous examples of material systems that dynamically interact with and adapt to the surrounding environment are found in nature, from hair-based mechanoreceptors in animals to self-shaping seed dispersal units in plants to remodeling bone in vertebrates. Inspired by such fascinating biological structures, a wide range of synthetic material systems have been created to replicate the design concepts of dynamic natural architectures. Examples of biological structures and their man-made counterparts are herein revisited to illustrate how dynamic and adaptive responses emerge from the intimate microscale combination of building blocks with intrinsic nanoscale properties. By using top-down photolithographic methods and bottom-up assembly approaches, biologically inspired dynamic material systems have been created 1) to sense liquid flow with hair-inspired microelectromechanical systems, 2) to autonomously change shape by utilizing plantlike heterogeneous architectures, 3) to homeostatically influence the surrounding environment through self-regulating adaptive surfaces, and 4) to spatially concentrate chemical species by using synthetic microcompartments. The ever-increasing complexity and remarkable functionalities of such synthetic systems offer an encouraging perspective to the rich set of dynamic and adaptive properties that can potentially be implemented in future man-made material systems. PMID:25583299

  2. From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2010-10-01

    The conference 'From DNA-Inspired Physics to Physics-Inspired Biology' (1-5 June 2009, International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy) that myself and two former presidents of the American Biophysical Society—Wilma Olson (Rutgers University) and Adrian Parsegian (NIH), with the support of an ICTP team (Ralf Gebauer (Local Organizer) and Doreen Sauleek (Conference Secretary)), have organized was intended to establish stronger links between the biology and physics communities on the DNA front. The relationships between them were never easy. In 1997, Adrian published a paper in Physics Today ('Harness the Hubris') summarizing his thoughts about the main obstacles for a successful collaboration. The bottom line of that article was that physicists must seriously learn biology before exploring it and even having an interpreter, a friend or co-worker, who will be cooperating with you and translating the problems of biology into a physical language, may not be enough. He started his story with a joke about a physicist asking a biologist: 'I want to study the brain. Tell me something about it!' Biologist: 'First, the brain consists of two parts, and..' Physicist: 'Stop. You have told me too much.' Adrian listed a few direct avenues where physicists' contributions may be particularly welcome. This gentle and elegantly written paper caused, however, a stormy reaction from Bob Austin (Princeton), published together with Adrian's notes, accusing Adrian of forbidding physicists to attack big questions in biology straightaway. Twelve years have passed and many new developments have taken place in the biologist-physicist interaction. This was something I addressed in my opening conference speech, with my position lying somewhere inbetween Parsegian's and Austin's, which is briefly outlined here. I will first recall certain precepts or 'dogmas' that fly in the air like Valkyries, poisoning those relationships. Since the early seventies when I was a first year Ph

  3. What Students Value as Inspirational and Transformative Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Sally; Kirby, Emma; Madriaga, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Evidence presented here stems from an analysis of student comments derived from a student-nominated inspirational teaching awards scheme at a large university in the United Kingdom (UK). There is a plethora of literature on teaching excellence and the scholarship of teaching, frequently based upon portfolios or personal claims of excellence, and…

  4. Bio-inspired odor-based navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Maynard J., III; Vasquez, Juan R.

    2006-05-01

    The ability of many insects, especially moths, to locate either food or a member of the opposite sex is an amazing achievement. There are numerous scenarios where having this ability embedded into ground-based or aerial vehicles would be invaluable. This paper presents results from a 3-D computer simulation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) autonomously tracking a chemical plume to its source. The simulation study includes a simulated dynamic chemical plume, 6-degree of freedom, nonlinear aircraft model, and a bio-inspired navigation algorithm. The emphasis of this paper is the development and analysis of the navigation algorithm. The foundation of this algorithm is a fuzzy controller designed to categorize where in the plume the aircraft is located: coming into the plume, in the plume, exiting the plume, or out of the plume.

  5. Prospecting Lighting Applications with Ligand Field Tools and Density Functional Theory: A First-Principles Account of the 4f(7)-4f(6)5d(1) Luminescence of CsMgBr3:Eu(2+).

    PubMed

    Ramanantoanina, Harry; Cimpoesu, Fanica; Göttel, Christian; Sahnoun, Mohammed; Herden, Benjamin; Suta, Markus; Wickleder, Claudia; Urland, Werner; Daul, Claude

    2015-09-01

    The most efficient way to provide domestic lighting nowadays is by light-emitting diodes (LEDs) technology combined with phosphors shifting the blue and UV emission toward a desirable sunlight spectrum. A route in the quest for warm-white light goes toward the discovery and tuning of the lanthanide-based phosphors, a difficult task, in experimental and technical respects. A proper theoretical approach, which is also complicated at the conceptual level and in computing efforts, is however a profitable complement, offering valuable structure-property rationale as a guideline in the search of the best materials. The Eu(2+)-based systems are the prototypes for ideal phosphors, exhibiting a wide range of visible light emission. Using the ligand field concepts in conjunction with density functional theory (DFT), conducted in nonroutine manner, we develop a nonempirical procedure to investigate the 4f(7)-4f(6)5d(1) luminescence of Eu(2+) in the environment of arbitrary ligands, applied here on the CsMgBr3:Eu(2+)-doped material. Providing a salient methodology for the extraction of the relevant ligand field and related parameters from DFT calculations and encompassing the bottleneck of handling large matrices in a model Hamiltonian based on the whole set of 33,462 states, we obtained an excellent match with the experimental spectrum, from first-principles, without any fit or adjustment. This proves that the ligand field density functional theory methodology can be used in the assessment of new materials and rational property design. PMID:26270436

  6. Maitotoxin: An Inspiration for Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Aversa, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Maitotoxin holds a special place in the annals of natural products chemistry as the largest and most toxic secondary metabolite known to date. Its fascinating, ladder-like, polyether molecular structure and diverse spectrum of biological activities elicited keen interest from chemists and biologists who recognized its uniqueness and potential as a probe and inspiration for research in chemistry and biology. Synthetic studies in the area benefited from methodologies and strategies that were developed as part of chemical synthesis programs directed toward the total synthesis of some of the less complex members of the polyether marine biotoxin class, of which maitotoxin is the flagship. This account focuses on progress made in the authors’ laboratories in the synthesis of large maitotoxin domains with emphasis on methodology development, strategy design, and structural comparisons of the synthesized molecules with the corresponding regions of the natural product. The article concludes with an overview of maitotoxin’s biological profile and future perspectives. PMID:21709816

  7. [Nikola Tesla: flashes of inspiration].

    PubMed

    Villarejo-Galende, Albero; Herrero-San Martín, Alejandro

    2013-01-16

    Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) was one of the greatest inventors in history and a key player in the revolution that led to the large-scale use of electricity. He also made important contributions to such diverse fields as x-rays, remote control, radio, the theory of consciousness or electromagnetism. In his honour, the international unit of magnetic induction was named after him. Yet, his fame is scarce in comparison with that of other inventors of the time, such as Edison, with whom he had several heated arguments. He was a rather odd, reserved person who lived for his inventions, the ideas for which came to him in moments of inspiration. In his autobiography he relates these flashes with a number of neuropsychiatric manifestations, which can be seen to include migraine auras, synaesthesiae, obsessions and compulsions. PMID:23307357

  8. Switchable bio-inspired adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroner, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Geckos have astonishing climbing abilities. They can adhere to almost any surface and can run on walls and even stick to ceilings. The extraordinary adhesion performance is caused by a combination of a complex surface pattern on their toes and the biomechanics of its movement. These biological dry adhesives have been intensely investigated during recent years because of the unique combination of adhesive properties. They provide high adhesion, allow for easy detachment, can be removed residue-free, and have self-cleaning properties. Many aspects have been successfully mimicked, leading to artificial, bio-inspired, patterned dry adhesives, and were addressed and in some aspects they even outperform the adhesion capabilities of geckos. However, designing artificial patterned adhesion systems with switchable adhesion remains a big challenge; the gecko's adhesion system is based on a complex hierarchical surface structure and on advanced biomechanics, which are both difficult to mimic. In this paper, two approaches are presented to achieve switchable adhesion. The first approach is based on a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, where adhesion can be switched on and off by applying a low and a high compressive preload. The switch in adhesion is caused by a reversible mechanical instability of the adhesive silicone structures. The second approach is based on a composite material consisting of a Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a patterned adhesive PDMS layer. The NiTi alloy is trained to change its surface topography as a function of temperature, which results in a change of the contact area and of alignment of the adhesive pattern towards a substrate, leading to switchable adhesion. These examples show that the unique properties of bio-inspired adhesives can be greatly improved by new concepts such as mechanical instability or by the use of active materials which react to external stimuli.

  9. An Exploration of Design Students' Inspiration Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dazkir, Sibel S.; Mower, Jennifer M.; Reddy-Best, Kelly L.; Pedersen, Elaine L.

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose was to explore how different sources of inspiration influenced two groups of students' inspiration process and their attitudes toward their design projects. Assigned sources of inspiration and instructor's assistance in the search for inspiration varied for two groups of students completing a small culture inspired product…

  10. Inspiring Teachers: Perspectives and Practices. Summary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammons, Pam; Kington, Alison; Lindorff-Vijayendran, Ariel; Ortega, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the notion of "inspiring" teaching. The research was commissioned by CfBT as part of a collaborative professional development initiative involving its schools. It arose from headteachers' suggestions that schools nominate a number of "inspiring" teachers so that their practice could be studied and…

  11. Business Inspiration: Small Business Leadership in Recovery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, David; Price, Liz; Bosworth, Gary; Parkinson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Business Inspiration was a short, action-centred leadership and innovation development programme designed for owners and managers of smaller firms to address business survival and repositioning needs arising from the UK's economic downturn. The article examines the design and delivery of Business Inspiration and the impact of the programme on…

  12. Highly eccentric inspirals into a black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osburn, Thomas; Warburton, Niels; Evans, Charles R.

    2016-03-01

    We model the inspiral of a compact stellar-mass object into a massive nonrotating black hole including all dissipative and conservative first-order-in-the-mass-ratio effects on the orbital motion. The techniques we develop allow inspirals with initial eccentricities as high as e ˜0.8 and initial separations as large as p ˜50 to be evolved through many thousands of orbits up to the onset of the plunge into the black hole. The inspiral is computed using an osculating elements scheme driven by a hybridized self-force model, which combines Lorenz-gauge self-force results with highly accurate flux data from a Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli code. The high accuracy of our hybrid self-force model allows the orbital phase of the inspirals to be tracked to within ˜0.1 radians or better. The difference between self-force models and inspirals computed in the radiative approximation is quantified.

  13. Vibration isolation by exploring bio-inspired structural nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhijing; Jing, Xingjian; Bian, Jing; Li, Fengming; Allen, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Inspired by the limb structures of animals/insects in motion vibration control, a bio-inspired limb-like structure (LLS) is systematically studied for understanding and exploring its advantageous nonlinear function in passive vibration isolation. The bio-inspired system consists of asymmetric articulations (of different rod lengths) with inside vertical and horizontal springs (as animal muscle) of different linear stiffness. Mathematical modeling and analysis of the proposed LLS reveal that, (a) the system has very beneficial nonlinear stiffness which can provide flexible quasi-zero, zero and/or negative stiffness, and these nonlinear stiffness properties are adjustable or designable with structure parameters; (b) the asymmetric rod-length ratio and spring-stiffness ratio present very beneficial factors for tuning system equivalent stiffness; (c) the system loading capacity is also adjustable with the structure parameters which presents another flexible benefit in application. Experiments and comparisons with existing quasi-zero-stiffness isolators validate the advantageous features above, and some discussions are also given about how to select structural parameters for practical applications. The results would provide an innovative bio-inspired solution to passive vibration control in various engineering practice. PMID:26448392

  14. From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2010-10-01

    The conference 'From DNA-Inspired Physics to Physics-Inspired Biology' (1-5 June 2009, International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy) that myself and two former presidents of the American Biophysical Society—Wilma Olson (Rutgers University) and Adrian Parsegian (NIH), with the support of an ICTP team (Ralf Gebauer (Local Organizer) and Doreen Sauleek (Conference Secretary)), have organized was intended to establish stronger links between the biology and physics communities on the DNA front. The relationships between them were never easy. In 1997, Adrian published a paper in Physics Today ('Harness the Hubris') summarizing his thoughts about the main obstacles for a successful collaboration. The bottom line of that article was that physicists must seriously learn biology before exploring it and even having an interpreter, a friend or co-worker, who will be cooperating with you and translating the problems of biology into a physical language, may not be enough. He started his story with a joke about a physicist asking a biologist: 'I want to study the brain. Tell me something about it!' Biologist: 'First, the brain consists of two parts, and..' Physicist: 'Stop. You have told me too much.' Adrian listed a few direct avenues where physicists' contributions may be particularly welcome. This gentle and elegantly written paper caused, however, a stormy reaction from Bob Austin (Princeton), published together with Adrian's notes, accusing Adrian of forbidding physicists to attack big questions in biology straightaway. Twelve years have passed and many new developments have taken place in the biologist-physicist interaction. This was something I addressed in my opening conference speech, with my position lying somewhere inbetween Parsegian's and Austin's, which is briefly outlined here. I will first recall certain precepts or 'dogmas' that fly in the air like Valkyries, poisoning those relationships. Since the early seventies when I was a first year Ph

  15. Curly arrows meet electron density transfers in chemical reaction mechanisms: from electron localization function (ELF) analysis to valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) inspired interpretation.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Juan; Berski, Sławomir; Silvi, Bernard

    2016-07-01

    Probing the electron density transfers during a chemical reaction can provide important insights, making possible to understand and control chemical reactions. This aim has required extensions of the relationships between the traditional chemical concepts and the quantum mechanical ones. The present work examines the detailed chemical insights that have been generated through 100 years of work worldwide on G. N. Lewis's ground breaking paper on The Atom and the Molecule (Lewis, G. N. The Atom and the Molecule, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1916, 38, 762-785), with a focus on how the determination of reaction mechanisms can be reached applying the bonding evolution theory (BET), emphasizing how curly arrows meet electron density transfers in chemical reaction mechanisms and how the Lewis structure can be recovered. BET that combines the topological analysis of the electron localization function (ELF) and Thom's catastrophe theory (CT) provides a powerful tool providing insight into molecular mechanisms of chemical rearrangements. In agreement with physical laws and quantum theoretical insights, BET can be considered as an appropriate tool to tackle chemical reactivity with a wide range of possible applications. Likewise, the present approach retrieves the classical curly arrows used to describe the rearrangements of chemical bonds for a given reaction mechanism, providing detailed physical grounds for this type of representation. The ideas underlying the valence-shell-electron pair-repulsion (VSEPR) model applied to non-equilibrium geometries provide simple chemical explanations of density transfers. For a given geometry around a central atom, the arrangement of the electronic domain may comply or not with the VSEPR rules according with the valence shell population of the considered atom. A deformation yields arrangements which are either VSEPR defective (at least a domain is missing to match the VSEPR arrangement corresponding to the geometry of the ligands), VSEPR compliant

  16. Berengario's drill: origin and inspiration.

    PubMed

    Chorney, Michael A; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2014-04-01

    Craniotomies are among the oldest neurosurgical procedures, as evidenced by early human skulls discovered with holes in the calvaria. Though devices change, the principles to safely transgress the skull are identical. Modern neurosurgeons regularly use electric power drills in the operating theater; however, nonelectric trephining instruments remain trusted by professionals in certain emergent settings in the rare instance that an electric drill is unavailable. Until the late Middle Ages, innovation in craniotomy instrumentation remained stunted without much documented redesign. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's (c. 1457-1530 CE) text Tractatus de Fractura Calvae sive Cranei depicts a drill previously unseen in a medical volume. Written in 1518 CE, the book was motivated by defeat over the course of Lorenzo II de'Medici's medical care. Berengario's interchangeable bit with a compound brace ("vertibulum"), known today as the Hudson brace, symbolizes a pivotal device in neurosurgery and medical tool design. This drill permitted surgeons to stock multiple bits, perform the craniotomy faster, and decrease equipment costs during a period of increased incidence of cranial fractures, and thus the need for craniotomies, which was attributable to the introduction of gunpowder. The inspiration stemmed from a school of thought growing within a population of physicians trained as mathematicians, engineers, and astrologers prior to entering the medical profession. Berengario may have been the first to record the use of such a unique drill, but whether he invented this instrument or merely adapted its use for the craniotomy remains clouded. PMID:24684339

  17. Biologically-inspired soft exosuit.

    PubMed

    Asbeck, Alan T; Dyer, Robert J; Larusson, Arnar F; Walsh, Conor J

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present the design and evaluation of a novel soft cable-driven exosuit that can apply forces to the body to assist walking. Unlike traditional exoskeletons which contain rigid framing elements, the soft exosuit is worn like clothing, yet can generate moments at the ankle and hip with magnitudes of 18% and 30% of those naturally generated by the body during walking, respectively. Our design uses geared motors to pull on Bowden cables connected to the suit near the ankle. The suit has the advantages over a traditional exoskeleton in that the wearer's joints are unconstrained by external rigid structures, and the worn part of the suit is extremely light, which minimizes the suit's unintentional interference with the body's natural biomechanics. However, a soft suit presents challenges related to actuation force transfer and control, since the body is compliant and cannot support large pressures comfortably. We discuss the design of the suit and actuation system, including principles by which soft suits can transfer force to the body effectively and the biological inspiration for the design. For a soft exosuit, an important design parameter is the combined effective stiffness of the suit and its interface to the wearer. We characterize the exosuit's effective stiffness, and present preliminary results from it generating assistive torques to a subject during walking. We envision such an exosuit having broad applicability for assisting healthy individuals as well as those with muscle weakness. PMID:24187272

  18. Biologically Inspired Phosphino Platinum Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Avijita; Helm, Monte L.; Linehan, John C.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2012-08-01

    Platinum complexes containing phosphino amino acid and amino acid ester ligands, built upon the PPhNR’2 platform, have been synthesized and characterized (PPhNR’2= [1,3-diaza]-5-phenyl phosphacyclohexane, R’=glycine or glycine ester). These complexes were characterized by 31P, 13C, 1H, 195Pt NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The X-ray crystal structure of one of the complexes, [PtCl2(PPhNGlyester 2)2], is also reported. These biologically inspired ligands have potential use in homogeneous catalysis, with special applications in chiral chemistry and water soluble chemistry. These complexes also provide a foundation upon which larger peptides can be attached, to allow the introduction of enzyme-like features onto small molecule catalysts. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  19. Bio-inspired dynamic robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Alan S.; Wax, Steven G.; Christodoulou, Leo

    2003-09-01

    The unique performance of biological systems across a wide spectrum of phylogenetic species has historically provided inspirations for roboticists in new designs and fabrication of new robotic platforms. Of particular interest to a number of important applications is to create dynamic robots able to adapt to a change in their world, unplanned events that are sometimes unexpected, and sometimes unstable, harsh conditions. It is likely that the exploring dynamics in biological systems will continue to provide rich solutions to attaining robots capable of more complex tasks for this purpose. This is because the long-term design process of evolution utilizes a natural selection process that responds to such changes. Recently, there have been significant advances across a number of interdisciplinary efforts that have generated new capabilities in biorobotics. Whole body dynamics that capture the force dynamics and functional stability of legged systems over rough terrain have been elucidated and applied in legged robotic systems. Exploying the force dynamics of flapping winged insect flight has provided key discoveries and enabled the fabrication of new micro air vehicles. New classes of materials are being developed that emulate the ability of natural muscle, capturing the compliant and soft subtle movement and performance of biological appendages. In addition, classes of new multifunctional materials are being developed to enable the design of biorobotics with the structural and functional efficiency of living organisms. Optical flow and other sensors based on the principles of invertebrate vision have been implemented on robotic platforms for autonomous robotic guidance and control. These fundamental advances have resulted in the emergence of a new generation of bioinspired dynamic robots which show significant performance improvements in early prototype testing and that could someday be useful in a number of significant applications such as search and rescue and

  20. Transient resonances in the inspirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinderer, Tanja; Flanagan, Eanna

    2009-05-01

    We show that the two body problem in general relativity in the highly relativistic regime has a qualitatively new feature: the occurence of transient resonances. The resonances occur when the ratio of polar and radial orbital frequencies, which is slowly evolving under the influence of gravitational radiation reaction, passes through a low order rational number. The resonances make the orbit more sensitive to changes in the initial data (though not quite chaotic), and are genuine non-perturbative effects that are not seen at any order in the standard post-Newtonian expansion used for two body systems at large separation. Our results directly apply to an important potential source of gravitational waves, namely the gradual inspiral of compact objects into much more massive black holes. Exploiting observations of these gravitational waves to map the spacetime geometry of black holes is contingent upon accurate theoretical models (templates) of the binary dynamics. At present, only the leading order in the mass ratio gravitational waveforms can be computed. Corrections to the waveform's phase due to resonance effects scale as the square root of the inverse of the mass ratio and are characterized by sudden jumps in the time derivatives of the phase. We numerically estimate the net size of these corrections and find indications that the phase error is of order a few cycles for mass ratios ˜10^- 3 but will be significant (of order tens of cycles) for mass ratios ˜10-6. Computations of these corrections will require the computation of pieces of the forcing terms in the equations of motion which are currently unknown.

  1. Biologically inspired toys using artificial muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments in electroactive polymers, so-called artificial muscles, could one day be used to make bionics possible. Meanwhile, as this technology evolves novel mechanisms are expected to emerge that are biologically inspired.

  2. Biologically Inspired Technology Using Electroactive Polymers (EAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2006-01-01

    Evolution allowed nature to introduce highly effective biological mechanisms that are incredible inspiration for innovation. Humans have always made efforts to imitate nature's inventions and we are increasingly making advances that it becomes significantly easier to imitate, copy, and adapt biological methods, processes and systems. This brought us to the ability to create technology that is far beyond the simple mimicking of nature. Having better tools to understand and to implement nature's principles we are now equipped like never before to be inspired by nature and to employ our tools in far superior ways. Effectively, by bio-inspiration we can have a better view and value of nature capability while studying its models to learn what can be extracted, copied or adapted. Using electroactive polymers (EAP) as artificial muscles is adding an important element to the development of biologically inspired technologies.

  3. NASA Celebrates Atlantis as Pioneer, Inspiration

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronauts and senior NASA management noted the contributions of space shuttle Atlantis as they signed the spacecraft over for a new mission of inspiration as it goes on public display at the Kenne...

  4. Development of OA Abroad and Its Inspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bi, Jing

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces the concept and characteristics of open access (OA), analyses the status quo and development of OA in foreign countries, and discusses its inspiration to its future development in China.

  5. Engaging Students through Astronomically Inspired Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, M.

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a lesson outline in which astronomically inspired musical compositions are used to teach astronomical concepts via an introductory activity, close listening, and critical/creative reflection.

  6. A locust-inspired miniature jumping robot.

    PubMed

    Zaitsev, Valentin; Gvirsman, Omer; Ben Hanan, Uri; Weiss, Avi; Ayali, Amir; Kosa, Gabor

    2015-12-01

    Unmanned ground vehicles are mostly wheeled, tracked, or legged. These locomotion mechanisms have a limited ability to traverse rough terrain and obstacles that are higher than the robot's center of mass. In order to improve the mobility of small robots it is necessary to expand the variety of their motion gaits. Jumping is one of nature's solutions to the challenge of mobility in difficult terrain. The desert locust is the model for the presented bio-inspired design of a jumping mechanism for a small mobile robot. The basic mechanism is similar to that of the semilunar process in the hind legs of the locust, and is based on the cocking of a torsional spring by wrapping a tendon-like wire around the shaft of a miniature motor. In this study we present the jumping mechanism design, and the manufacturing and performance analysis of two demonstrator prototypes. The most advanced jumping robot demonstrator is power autonomous, weighs 23 gr, and is capable of jumping to a height of 3.35 m, covering a distance of 1.37 m. PMID:26602094

  7. Catalytic applications of bio-inspired nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacardo, Dennis Kien Balaong

    The biomimetic synthesis of Pd nanoparticles was presented using the Pd4 peptide, TSNAVHPTLRHL, isolated from combinatorial phage display library. Using this approach, nearly monodisperse and spherical Pd nanoparticles were generated with an average diameter of 1.9 +/- 0.4 nm. The peptide-based nanocatalyst were employed in the Stille coupling reaction under energy-efficient and environmentally friendly reaction conditions of aqueous solvent, room temperature and very low catalyst loading. To this end, the Pd nanocatalyst generated high turnover frequency (TOF) value and quantitative yields using ≥ 0.005 mol% Pd as well as catalytic activities with different aryl halides containing electron-withdrawing and electron-donating groups. The Pd4-capped Pd nanoparticles followed the atom-leaching mechanism and were found to be selective with respect to substrate identity. On the other hand, the naturally-occurring R5 peptide (SSKKSGSYSGSKGSKRRIL) was employed in the synthesis of biotemplated Pd nanomaterials which showed morphological changes as a function of Pd:peptide ratio. TOF analysis for hydrogenation of olefinic alcohols showed similar catalytic activity regardless of nanomorphology. Determination of catalytic properties of these bio-inspired nanomaterials are important as they serve as model system for alternative green catalyst with applications in industrially important transformations.

  8. Laser Spectroscopy of Dysprosium Monofluoride: Ligand Field Assignments of States Belonging to the 4 f96 s2, 4 f106 s, and 4 f96 s6 pSuperconfigurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Michael C.; Bloch, Jonathan C.; Field, Robert W.; Kaledin, Leonid A.

    1996-10-01

    The techniques of selectively detected fluorescence excitation and dispersed fluorescence spectroscopy have been used to characterize two [19.3]8.5 and [20.3]8.5 electronic states of DyF in the region of ∼2.5 eV and five electronic states withT0< 6500 cm-1. Superconfigurational assignments of the observed low-lying states have been made on the basis of vibrational frequencies. TheX(1)7.5 ground state, with ΔG1/2≈ 605 cm-1, is assigned to the Dy+4f96s2superconfiguration, whereas four states, (1)8.5, (2)7.5, (3)7.5, and (4)7.5, with ΔG1/2≈ 508-544 cm-1are assigned to the Dy+4f106ssuperconfiguration. The lowest 4f106s(Ω = 8.5) state is found to lie 2431 cm-1above the 4f96s2X(1)7.5 ground state, thus establishing the linkage between the 4f96s2and 4f106ssuperconfigurations. The upper states in the region of ∼2.5 eV ([19.3]8.5 and [20.3]8.5) are assigned to the Dy+4f96s6psuperconfiguration on the basis of computed ligand field monopoleB00(nl,nl) orbital destabilization energies. The observed electronic states are discussed in relation to predictions of the ligand field theoretical model.

  9. The Inspiring Teacher: New Beginnings for the 21st Century. The Inspired Classroom Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullo, Robert A.

    This book provides educators with information on how to become an inspiring teacher. Nine chapters look at: (1) "The Qualities of an Inspiring Teacher" (e.g., passion for learning, lifelong learners, and actions match words); (2) "Choice Theory" (genetic instructions affecting behavior, the quality world, and perception); (3) "Brain-Based…

  10. Product and technology innovation: what can biomimicry inspire?

    PubMed

    Lurie-Luke, Elena

    2014-12-01

    Biomimicry (bio- meaning life in Greek, and -mimesis, meaning to copy) is a growing field that seeks to interpolate natural biological mechanisms and structures into a wide range of applications. The rise of interest in biomimicry in recent years has provided a fertile ground for innovation. This review provides an eco-system based analysis of biomimicry inspired technology and product innovation. A multi-disciplinary framework has been developed to accomplish this analysis and the findings focus on the areas that have been most strikingly affected by the application of biomimicry and also highlight the emerging trends and opportunity areas. PMID:25316672

  11. Blood Clotting Inspired Polymer Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sing, Charles Edward

    The blood clotting process is one of the human body's masterpieces in targeted molecular manipulation, as it requires the activation of the clotting cascade at a specific place and a specific time. Recent research in the biological sciences have discovered that one of the protein molecules involved in the initial stages of the clotting response, von Willebrand Factor (vWF), exhibits counterintuitive and technologically useful properties that are driven in part by the physical environment in the bloodstream at the site of a wound. In this thesis, we take inspiration from initial observations of the vWF in experiments, and aim to describe the behaviors observed in this process within the context of polymer physics. By understanding these physical principles, we hope to harness nature's ability to both direct molecules in both spatial and conformational coordinates. This thesis is presented in three complementary sections. After an initial introduction describing the systems of interest, we first describe the behavior of collapsed Lennard-Jones polymers in the presence of an infinite medium. It has been shown that simple bead-spring homopolymer models describe vWF quite well in vitro. We build upon this previous work to first describe the behavior of a collapsed homopolymer in an elongational fluid flow. Through a nucleation-protrusion mechanism, scaling relationships can be developed to provide a clear picture of a first-order globule-stretch transition and its ramifications in dilute-solution rheology. The implications of this behavior and its relation to the current literature provides qualitative explanations for the physiological process of vasoconstriction. In an effort to generalize these observations, we present an entire theory on the behavior of polymer globules under influence of any local fluid flow. Finally, we investigate the internal dynamics of these globules by probing their pulling response in an analogous fashion to force spectroscopy. We elucidate

  12. Biologically inspired technologies in NASA's morphing project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Cox, David E.; Lazos, Barry S.; Waszak, Martin R.; Raney, David L.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Pao, S. Paul

    2003-07-01

    For centuries, biology has provided fertile ground for hypothesis, discovery, and inspiration. Time-tested methods used in nature are being used as a basis for several research studies conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center as a part of Morphing Project, which develops and assesses breakthrough vehicle technologies. These studies range from low drag airfoil design guided by marine and avian morphologies to soaring techniques inspired by birds and the study of small flexible wing vehicles. Biology often suggests unconventional yet effective approaches such as non-planar wings, dynamic soaring, exploiting aeroelastic effects, collaborative control, flapping, and fibrous active materials. These approaches and other novel technologies for future flight vehicles are being studied in NASA's Morphing Project. This paper will discuss recent findings in the aeronautics-based, biologically-inspired research in the project.

  13. Biologically Inspired Micro-Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Waszak, Martin R.

    2003-01-01

    Natural fliers demonstrate a diverse array of flight capabilities, many of which are poorly understood. NASA has established a research project to explore and exploit flight technologies inspired by biological systems. One part of this project focuses on dynamic modeling and control of micro aerial vehicles that incorporate flexible wing structures inspired by natural fliers such as insects, hummingbirds and bats. With a vast number of potential civil and military applications, micro aerial vehicles represent an emerging sector of the aerospace market. This paper describes an ongoing research activity in which mechanization and control concepts for biologically inspired micro aerial vehicles are being explored. Research activities focusing on a flexible fixed- wing micro aerial vehicle design and a flapping-based micro aerial vehicle concept are presented.

  14. Blood Clotting Inspired Polymer Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sing, Charles Edward

    The blood clotting process is one of the human body's masterpieces in targeted molecular manipulation, as it requires the activation of the clotting cascade at a specific place and a specific time. Recent research in the biological sciences have discovered that one of the protein molecules involved in the initial stages of the clotting response, von Willebrand Factor (vWF), exhibits counterintuitive and technologically useful properties that are driven in part by the physical environment in the bloodstream at the site of a wound. In this thesis, we take inspiration from initial observations of the vWF in experiments, and aim to describe the behaviors observed in this process within the context of polymer physics. By understanding these physical principles, we hope to harness nature's ability to both direct molecules in both spatial and conformational coordinates. This thesis is presented in three complementary sections. After an initial introduction describing the systems of interest, we first describe the behavior of collapsed Lennard-Jones polymers in the presence of an infinite medium. It has been shown that simple bead-spring homopolymer models describe vWF quite well in vitro. We build upon this previous work to first describe the behavior of a collapsed homopolymer in an elongational fluid flow. Through a nucleation-protrusion mechanism, scaling relationships can be developed to provide a clear picture of a first-order globule-stretch transition and its ramifications in dilute-solution rheology. The implications of this behavior and its relation to the current literature provides qualitative explanations for the physiological process of vasoconstriction. In an effort to generalize these observations, we present an entire theory on the behavior of polymer globules under influence of any local fluid flow. Finally, we investigate the internal dynamics of these globules by probing their pulling response in an analogous fashion to force spectroscopy. We elucidate

  15. Nostalgia-Evoked Inspiration: Mediating Mechanisms and Motivational Implications.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Elena; Sedikides, Constantine; Wildschut, Tim; Cheung, Wing-Yee; Routledge, Clay; Arndt, Jamie

    2015-10-01

    Six studies examined the nostalgia-inspiration link and its motivational implications. In Study 1, nostalgia proneness was positively associated with inspiration frequency and intensity. In Studies 2 and 3, the recollection of nostalgic (vs. ordinary) experiences increased both general inspiration and specific inspiration to engage in exploratory activities. In Study 4, serial mediational analyses supported a model in which nostalgia increases social connectedness, which subsequently fosters self-esteem, which then boosts inspiration. In Study 5, a rigorous evaluation of this serial mediational model (with a novel nostalgia induction controlling for positive affect) reinforced the idea that nostalgia-elicited social connectedness increases self-esteem, which then heightens inspiration. Study 6 extended the serial mediational model by demonstrating that nostalgia-evoked inspiration predicts goal pursuit (intentions to pursue an important goal). Nostalgia spawns inspiration via social connectedness and attendant self-esteem. In turn, nostalgia-evoked inspiration bolsters motivation. PMID:26228477

  16. Bio-Inspired Self-Cleaning Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kesong; Jiang, Lei

    2012-08-01

    Self-cleaning surfaces have drawn a lot of interest for both fundamental research and practical applications. This review focuses on the recent progress in mechanism, preparation, and application of self-cleaning surfaces. To date, self-cleaning has been demonstrated by the following four conceptual approaches: (a) TiO2-based superhydrophilic self-cleaning, (b) lotus effect self-cleaning (superhydrophobicity with a small sliding angle), (c) gecko setae-inspired self-cleaning, and (d) underwater organisms-inspired antifouling self-cleaning. Although a number of self-cleaning products have been commercialized, the remaining challenges and future outlook of self-cleaning surfaces are also briefly addressed. Through evolution, nature, which has long been a source of inspiration for scientists and engineers, has arrived at what is optimal. We hope this review will stimulate interdisciplinary collaboration among material science, chemistry, biology, physics, nanoscience, engineering, etc., which is essential for the rational design and reproducible construction of bio-inspired multifunctional self-cleaning surfaces in practical applications.

  17. Inspiring a Life Full of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludlam, John

    2012-01-01

    The Secrets and Words films had everything one would expect from a BBC drama--great writing, acting and directing allied with high production values. But the dramas were also powerful learning tools, co-commissioned by BBC Learning and aimed at inspiring people who have difficulty with reading and writing to seek help. The BBC's learning vision is…

  18. Basket Weaving Inspired by the Gullah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Rita

    2010-01-01

    Many different cultures created and used the basket not only for utilitarian purposes, but also for ceremonial uses. In this article, the author describes an eighth-grade project inspired by the basket making of the Gullah people, who live along the coast of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.

  19. Towards a Pedagogy of Inspirational Parables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pio, Edwina; Haigh, Neil

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to present a rationale for a learning and assessment activity involving students in the construction of inspirational parables for diversity management within a university business studies programme. The paper reviews processes from teacher and student perspectives, describes initial outcomes and foreshadows further…

  20. Inspiring Students to Create the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Cynthia; Vespia, Kristin M.; Fitzpatrick, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    An exemplary program based at the University of Wisconsin-Green Bay greatly increases the odds that at-risk youngsters will not only graduate from high school, but will go on to higher education. The program is also a model of university/community collaboration. ["Inspiring Students to Create the Future" was written with Timothy U. Kaufman, Linda…

  1. Inspire: A Mars Network Science Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voirin, T.; Larranaga, J.; Taylor, G.; Sanchez Perez, J. M.; Prost, J. P.; Cavel, C.; Falkner, P.

    2014-06-01

    INSPIRE is a Mars Network Science mission which is been studied by ESA in the frame of its Mars Robotic Exploration Program. It consists of three probes performing a direct entry on Mars for geophysics and meteorology science over one full martian year.

  2. Water Treatment Technologies Inspire Healthy Beverages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Mike Johnson, a former technician at Johnson Space Center, drew on his expertise as a wastewater engineer to create a line of kombucha-based probiotic drinks. Unpeeled Inc., based in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, employs 12 people and has sold more than 6 million units of its NASA-inspired beverage.

  3. Inspired by Athletes, Myths, and Poets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melvin, Samantha

    2010-01-01

    Tales of love and hate, of athleticism, heroism, devotion to gods and goddesses that influenced myth and culture are a way of sharing ancient Greece's rich history. In this article, the author describes how her students created their own Greek-inspired clay vessels as artifacts of their study. (Contains 6 online resources.)

  4. Pop Art--Inspired Self-Portraits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Donna J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art lesson that was inspired by Andy Warhol's mass-produced portraits. Warhol began his career as a graphic artist and illustrator. His artwork was a response to the redundancy of the advertising images put in front of the American public. Celebrities and famous people in magazines and newspapers were seen…

  5. Eric Carle-Inspired Insect Collages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palamountain, Eileen; Turner, Kim

    2000-01-01

    Describes a lesson in which students create collage insects inspired by the work of Eric Carle (The Very Hungry Caterpillar). Connects art, language arts, and science. Discusses how students make paper to use as the collage material and how students create the insects. (CMK)

  6. Great Quotes To Inspire Great Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    benShea, Noah

    This book provides a collection of quotes designed to offer support and inspiration to teachers as they face the daily emotional, spiritual, intellectual, and physical challenges of their professional and personal lives. The book's 26 sections focus on: the art of teaching; adversity; behavior; character; children; collaboration and teamwork;…

  7. Art Works ... when Students Find Inspiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Artworks are not produced in a vacuum, but by the interaction of experiences, and interrelationships of ideas, perceptions and feelings acknowledged and expressed in some form. Students, like mature artists, may be inspired and motivated by their memories and observations of their surroundings. Like adult artists, students may find that their own…

  8. Using "1 = 2" to Inspire and Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Premadasa, Kirthi; Samaranayake, Geetha

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical fallacies have an embedded sense of awe and mystery that can be used effectively in a classroom to inspire students to tackle a fallacy and find the "hidden" violation. In doing so, the student may discover the consequence of a rule violation in a stimulating manner, thus making a lasting impact of the rule as well as providing the…

  9. Multiple Unmanned Air Vehicles Control Using Neurobiologically Inspired Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Wang, Li

    In order to develop and evaluate future Unmanned Air Vehicles for the hazardous environmental monitoring, the comprehensive simulation test and analysis of new advanced concepts is imperative. This paper details an on-going proof of concept focused on development of a neurobiologically-inspired system for the high level control of a Air Vehicle team. This study, entitled Neurobiologically Enabled Autonomous Vehicle Operations, will evaluate initial System-Under-Test concept data by selecting well defined tasks, and evaluating performance based on assignment effectiveness, cooperation, and adaptability of the system. The system will be tested thoroughly in simulation, and if mature, will be implemented in hardware.

  10. MCMC exploration of supermassive black hole binary inspirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornish, Neil J.; Porter, Edward K.

    2006-10-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna will be able to detect the inspiral and merger of super massive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) anywhere in the universe. Standard matched filtering techniques can be used to detect and characterize these systems. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are ideally suited to this and other LISA data analysis problems as they are able to efficiently handle models with large dimensions. Here we compare the posterior parameter distributions derived by an MCMC algorithm with the distributions predicted by the Fisher information matrix. We find excellent agreement for the extrinsic parameters, while the Fisher matrix slightly overestimates errors in the intrinsic parameters.

  11. Auxiliary ligand field dominated single-molecule magnets of a series of indole-derivative β-diketone mononuclear Dy(iii) complexes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yanping; Yan, Pengfei; Zou, Xiaoyan; Yao, Xu; Hou, Guangfeng; Li, Guangming

    2016-05-31

    A series of four indole-derivative β-diketone mononuclear dysprosium complexes, namely, Dy(EIFD)3(bpy)·CH3CN (), Dy(EIFD)3(phen)·CH2Cl2 (), Dy(EIFD)3(dpq)·CH2Cl2 (), and Dy(EIFD)3(dppz)·2H2O () (EIFD = 1-(1-ethyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-4,4,4-trifluorobutane-1,3-dione, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, dpq = dipyrazine[2,3-f:2',3'-h]quinoxaline, dppz = dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine) have been isolated by reactions of EIFD, DyCl3·6H2O and a series of auxiliary ligands. X-ray crystallographic analysis reveals that complexes are all eight-coordinated mononuclear structures. Magnetic studies indicate that complexes are all single-molecule magnets. Notably, the auxiliary ligands play an essential role in regulating their magnetism. The corresponding structural and magnetic parameters have been discussed in detail. PMID:27167701

  12. NIH Abroad: Inspiring the Next Generation of Global Health Researchers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Section NIH Abroad: Inspiring the Next Generation of Global Health Researchers Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... turn Javascript on. Inspiring the Next Generation of Global Health Researchers Fogarty scholar helps Zambians fight cervical ...

  13. The Inspiration of Hope in Substance Abuse Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehn, Corinne; Cutcliffe, John R.

    2012-01-01

    This study used a grounded theory method to explore how counselors inspire hope in clients struggling with substance abuse. Findings from 10 participants revealed that hope inspiration occurred in 3 phases and consisted of several categories of hope-inspiring processes. Implications for counseling practice, counselor education, and research are…

  14. Bio-inspired method and system for actionable intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosla, Deepak; Chelian, Suhas E.

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes a bio-inspired VISion based actionable INTelligence system (VISINT) that provides automated capabilities to (1) understand objects, patterns, events and behaviors in vision data; (2) translate this understanding into timely recognition of novel and anomalous entities; and (3) discover underlying hierarchies and relationships between disparate labels entered by multiple users to provide a consistent data representation. VISINT is both a system and a novel collection of novel bio-inspired algorithms/modules. These modules can be used independently for various aspects of the actionable intelligence problem or sequenced together for an end-to-end actionable intelligence system. The algorithms can be useful in many other applications such as scene understanding, behavioral analysis, automatic surveillance systems, etc. The bio-inspired algorithms are a novel combination of hierarchical spatial and temporal networks based on the Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART). The novel aspects of this work are that it is an end-to-end system for actionable intelligence that combines existing and novel implementations of various modules in innovative ways to develop a system concept for actionable intelligence. Although there are other algorithms/implementations of several of the modules in VISINT, they suffer from various limitations and often system integration is not considered. The overall VISINT system can be viewed an incremental learning system where no offline training is required and data from multiple sources and times can be seamlessly integrated. The user is in the loop, but due to the semi-supervised nature of the underlying algorithms, only significant variations of entities, not all false alarms, are shown to the user. It does not forget the past even with new learning. While VISINT is designed as a vision-based system, it could also work with other kinds of sensor data that can recognize and locate individual objects in the scene. Beyond that stage

  15. Voros Product and Noncommutative Inspired Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Sunandan

    2013-03-01

    We emphasize the importance of the Voros product in defining the noncommutative (NC) inspired black holes. The computation of entropy for both the noncommutative inspired Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordström (RN) black holes show that the area law holds up to order (1)/(√ {θ )}e-M2/θ . The leading correction to the entropy (computed in the tunneling formalism) is shown to be logarithmic. The Komar energy E for these black holes is then obtained and a deviation from the standard identity E = 2STH is found at the order √ {θ }e-M2/θ . This deviation leads to a nonvanishing Komar energy at the extremal point TH = 0 of these black holes. The Smarr formula is finally worked out for the NC Schwarzschild black hole. Similar features also exist for a de Sitter-Schwarzschild geometry.

  16. Shadow of noncommutative geometry inspired black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shao-Wen; Cheng, Peng; Zhong, Yi; Zhou, Xiang-Nan

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, the shadow casted by the rotating black hole inspired by noncommutative geometry is investigated. In addition to the dimensionless spin parameter a/M0 with M0 black hole mass and inclination angle i, the dimensionless noncommutative parameter √vartheta/M0 is also found to affect the shape of the black hole shadow. The result shows that the size of the shadow slightly decreases with the parameter √vartheta/M0, while the distortion increases with it. Compared to the Kerr black hole, the parameter √vartheta/M0 increases the deformation of the shadow. This may offer a way to distinguish noncommutative geometry inspired black hole from Kerr one via astronomical instruments in the near future.

  17. Recent developments in biologically inspired seeker technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarley, Paul L.; Massie, Mark A.

    2001-06-01

    As electro-optic sensors increase in size and frame rate, the data transfer and digital processing resource requirements also increase. In many missions, the spatial area of interest is but a small fraction of the available field of view. Choosing the right region of interest, however, is a challenge and still requires an enormous amount of downstream digital processing resources. In order to filter this ever-increasing amount of data, we look at how nature solves the problem. The Advanced Guidance Division of the Munitions Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/MNG) at Eglin AFB, Florida, has been pursuing research in the area of advanced sensor and image processing concepts based on biologically inspired sensory information processing. A summary of some vertebrate and invertebrate inspired 'neuromorphic' processing efforts will be presented along with a seeker system concept utilizing this innovative technology. Concepts and requirements for future such efforts will also be discussed.

  18. Taxonomic etymology – in search of inspiration

    PubMed Central

    Jóźwiak, Piotr; Rewicz, Tomasz; Pabis, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We present a review of the etymology of zoological taxonomic names with emphasis on the most unusual examples. The names were divided into several categories, starting from the most common – given after morphological features – through inspiration from mythology, legends, and classic literature but also from fictional and nonfictional pop-culture characters (e.g., music, movies or cartoons), science, and politics. A separate category includes zoological names created using word-play and figures of speech such as tautonyms, acronyms, anagrams, and palindromes. Our intention was to give an overview of possibilities of how and where taxonomists can find the inspirations that will be consistent with the ICZN rules and generate more detail afterthought about the naming process itself, the meaningful character of naming, as well as the recognition and understanding of names. PMID:26257573

  19. Additive manufacturing of biologically-inspired materials.

    PubMed

    Studart, André R

    2016-01-21

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies offer an attractive pathway towards the fabrication of functional materials featuring complex heterogeneous architectures inspired by biological systems. In this paper, recent research on the use of AM approaches to program the local chemical composition, structure and properties of biologically-inspired materials is reviewed. A variety of structural motifs found in biological composites have been successfully emulated in synthetic systems using inkjet-based, direct-writing, stereolithography and slip casting technologies. The replication in synthetic systems of design principles underlying such structural motifs has enabled the fabrication of lightweight cellular materials, strong and tough composites, soft robots and autonomously shaping structures with unprecedented properties and functionalities. Pushing the current limits of AM technologies in future research should bring us closer to the manufacturing capabilities of living organisms, opening the way for the digital fabrication of advanced materials with superior performance, lower environmental impact and new functionalities. PMID:26750617

  20. Taxonomic etymology - in search of inspiration.

    PubMed

    Jóźwiak, Piotr; Rewicz, Tomasz; Pabis, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    We present a review of the etymology of zoological taxonomic names with emphasis on the most unusual examples. The names were divided into several categories, starting from the most common - given after morphological features - through inspiration from mythology, legends, and classic literature but also from fictional and nonfictional pop-culture characters (e.g., music, movies or cartoons), science, and politics. A separate category includes zoological names created using word-play and figures of speech such as tautonyms, acronyms, anagrams, and palindromes. Our intention was to give an overview of possibilities of how and where taxonomists can find the inspirations that will be consistent with the ICZN rules and generate more detail afterthought about the naming process itself, the meaningful character of naming, as well as the recognition and understanding of names. PMID:26257573

  1. Neurobiologically Inspired Mobile Robot Navigation and Planning

    PubMed Central

    Cuperlier, Nicolas; Quoy, Mathias; Gaussier, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    After a short review of biologically inspired navigation architectures, mainly relying on modeling the hippocampal anatomy, or at least some of its functions, we present a navigation and planning model for mobile robots. This architecture is based on a model of the hippocampal and prefrontal interactions. In particular, the system relies on the definition of a new cell type “transition cells” that encompasses traditional “place cells”. PMID:18958274

  2. Spider's web inspires fibres for industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacey, James

    2010-03-01

    Spiders may not be everybody's idea of natural beauty, but nobody can deny the artistry in the webs that they spin, especially when decorated with water baubles in the morning dew. Inspired by this spectacle, a group of researchers in China has mimicked the structural properties of the spider's web to create a fibre for industry that can manipulate water with the same skill and efficiency, writes James Dacey.

  3. Gravitational radiation, inspiraling binaries, and cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernoff, David F.; Finn, Lee S.

    1993-01-01

    We show how to measure cosmological parameters using observations of inspiraling binary neutron star or black hole systems in one or more gravitational wave detectors. To illustrate, we focus on the case of fixed mass binary systems observed in a single Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)-like detector. Using realistic detector noise estimates, we characterize the rate of detections as a function of a threshold SNR Rho(0), H0, and the binary 'chirp' mass. For Rho(0) = 8, H0 = 100 km/s/Mpc, and 1.4 solar mass neutron star binaries, the sample has a median redshift of 0.22. Under the same assumptions but independent of H0, a conservative rate density of coalescing binaries implies LIGO will observe about 50/yr binary inspiral events. The precision with which H0 and the deceleration parameter q0 may be determined depends on the number of observed inspirals. For fixed mass binary systems, about 100 observations with Rho(0) = 10 in the LIGO will give H0 to 10 percent in an Einstein-DeSitter cosmology, and 3000 will give q0 to 20 percent. For the conservative rate density of coalescing binaries, 100 detections with Rho(0) = 10 will require about 4 yrs.

  4. Biologically Inspired Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Jun; Lee, Jaeho; Yang, Sung-Pyo; Kim, Ha Gon; Kweon, Hee-Seok; Yoo, Seunghyup; Jeong, Ki-Hun

    2016-05-11

    Many animal species employ highly conspicuous traits as courtship signals for successful mating. Fireflies utilize their bioluminescent light as visual courtship signals. In addition to efficient bioluminescent light emission, the structural components of the firefly lantern also contribute to the enhancement of conspicuous optical signaling. Recently, these firefly lantern ultrastructures have attracted much interest and inspired highly efficient light management approaches. Here we report on the unique optical function of the hierarchical ultrastructures found in a firefly (Pyrocoelia rufa) and their biological inspiration of highly efficient organic light-emitting diode (OLED) applications. The hierarchical structures are comprised of longitudinal nanostructures and asymmetric microstructures, which were successfully replicated using geometry-guided resist reflow, replica molding, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) oxidation. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the bioinspired OLEDs was enhanced by up to 61%. The bioinspired OLEDs clearly showed side-enhanced super-Lambertian emission with a wide-viewing angle. The highly efficient light extraction and wide-angle illumination suggest how the hierarchical structures likely improve the recognition of firefly optical courtship signals over a wide-angle range. At the same time, the biologically inspired designs provide a new paradigm for designing functional optical surfaces for lighting or display applications. PMID:27014918

  5. Understanding fly-ear inspired directional microphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haijun; Zhang, Xuming; Yu, Miao

    2009-03-01

    In this article, the equivalent two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) model for the hypersensitive ear of fly Ormia ocharacea is revisited. It is found that in addition to the mechanical coupling between the ears, the key to the remarkable directional hearing ability of the fly is the proper contributions of the rocking mode and bending mode of the ear structure. This can serve as the basis for the development of fly-ear inspired directional microphones. New insights are also provided to establish the connection between the mechanics of the fly ear and the prior biological experiments, which reveals that the fly ear is a nature-designed optimal structure that might have evolved to best perform its localization task at 5 kHz. Based on this understanding, a new design of the fly-ear inspired directional microphone is presented and a corresponding normalized continuum mechanics model is derived. Parametric studies are carried out to study the influence of the identified non-dimensional parameters on the microphone performance. Directional microphones are developed to verify the understanding and concept. This study provides a theoretical guidance to develop miniature bio-inspired directional microphones, and can impact many fronts that require miniature directional microphones.

  6. The temperature of inspired air influences respiratory water loss in young lambs.

    PubMed

    Riesenfeld, T; Hammarlund, K; Norsted, T; Sedin, G

    1994-01-01

    The temperature of inspired air influences respiratory water loss (RWL) in young lambs. Water loss from the airways, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were measured using an open flow-through system with a mass spectrometer, specially equipped with a water channel, for gas analysis. Measurements were made in 9 newborn lambs at 3 different inspired air temperatures keeping all other environmental factors stable, including the ambient air temperature. The water content of the inspired air was also kept constant. RWL was found to be 9.9 +/- 3.9 (SD) mg/kg/min when the temperature of the inspired air was 30 degrees C and its humidity 30%. At 40 degrees C this loss increased to 11.5 +/- 3.6 mg/kg/min, and at about 60 degrees C it increased further to 26.0 +/- 8.2 mg/kg/min. The oxygen consumption was 10.0 +/- 0.8 (SD) ml/kg/min at 30 degrees C and 10.4 +/- 2.0 ml/kg/min at 60 degrees C, a change which is not significant. Thus RWL is influenced by the temperature of the inspired air, with greater loss at higher temperatures. PMID:8054401

  7. Optimized bio-inspired stiffening design for an engine nacelle.

    PubMed

    Lazo, Neil; Vodenitcharova, Tania; Hoffman, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Structural efficiency is a common engineering goal in which an ideal solution provides a structure with optimized performance at minimized weight, with consideration of material mechanical properties, structural geometry, and manufacturability. This study aims to address this goal in developing high performance lightweight, stiff mechanical components by creating an optimized design from a biologically-inspired template. The approach is implemented on the optimization of rib stiffeners along an aircraft engine nacelle. The helical and angled arrangements of cellulose fibres in plants were chosen as the bio-inspired template. Optimization of total displacement and weight was carried out using a genetic algorithm (GA) coupled with finite element analysis. Iterations showed a gradual convergence in normalized fitness. Displacement was given higher emphasis in optimization, thus the GA optimization tended towards individual designs with weights near the mass constraint. Dominant features of the resulting designs were helical ribs with rectangular cross-sections having large height-to-width ratio. Displacement reduction was at 73% as compared to an unreinforced nacelle, and is attributed to the geometric features and layout of the stiffeners, while mass is maintained within the constraint. PMID:26531222

  8. Clinically-inspired automatic classification of ovarian carcinoma subtypes

    PubMed Central

    BenTaieb, Aïcha; Nosrati, Masoud S; Li-Chang, Hector; Huntsman, David; Hamarneh, Ghassan

    2016-01-01

    Context: It has been shown that ovarian carcinoma subtypes are distinct pathologic entities with differing prognostic and therapeutic implications. Histotyping by pathologists has good reproducibility, but occasional cases are challenging and require immunohistochemistry and subspecialty consultation. Motivated by the need for more accurate and reproducible diagnoses and to facilitate pathologists’ workflow, we propose an automatic framework for ovarian carcinoma classification. Materials and Methods: Our method is inspired by pathologists’ workflow. We analyse imaged tissues at two magnification levels and extract clinically-inspired color, texture, and segmentation-based shape descriptors using image-processing methods. We propose a carefully designed machine learning technique composed of four modules: A dissimilarity matrix, dimensionality reduction, feature selection and a support vector machine classifier to separate the five ovarian carcinoma subtypes using the extracted features. Results: This paper presents the details of our implementation and its validation on a clinically derived dataset of eighty high-resolution histopathology images. The proposed system achieved a multiclass classification accuracy of 95.0% when classifying unseen tissues. Assessment of the classifier's confusion (confusion matrix) between the five different ovarian carcinoma subtypes agrees with clinician's confusion and reflects the difficulty in diagnosing endometrioid and serous carcinomas. Conclusions: Our results from this first study highlight the difficulty of ovarian carcinoma diagnosis which originate from the intrinsic class-imbalance observed among subtypes and suggest that the automatic analysis of ovarian carcinoma subtypes could be valuable to clinician's diagnostic procedure by providing a second opinion. PMID:27563487

  9. Bio-inspired approach for intelligent unattended ground sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueber, Nicolas; Raymond, Pierre; Hennequin, Christophe; Pichler, Alexander; Perrot, Maxime; Voisin, Philippe; Moeglin, Jean-Pierre

    2015-05-01

    Improving the surveillance capacity over wide zones requires a set of smart battery-powered Unattended Ground Sensors capable of issuing an alarm to a decision-making center. Only high-level information has to be sent when a relevant suspicious situation occurs. In this paper we propose an innovative bio-inspired approach that mimics the human bi-modal vision mechanism and the parallel processing ability of the human brain. The designed prototype exploits two levels of analysis: a low-level panoramic motion analysis, the peripheral vision, and a high-level event-focused analysis, the foveal vision. By tracking moving objects and fusing multiple criteria (size, speed, trajectory, etc.), the peripheral vision module acts as a fast relevant event detector. The foveal vision module focuses on the detected events to extract more detailed features (texture, color, shape, etc.) in order to improve the recognition efficiency. The implemented recognition core is able to acquire human knowledge and to classify in real-time a huge amount of heterogeneous data thanks to its natively parallel hardware structure. This UGS prototype validates our system approach under laboratory tests. The peripheral analysis module demonstrates a low false alarm rate whereas the foveal vision correctly focuses on the detected events. A parallel FPGA implementation of the recognition core succeeds in fulfilling the embedded application requirements. These results are paving the way of future reconfigurable virtual field agents. By locally processing the data and sending only high-level information, their energy requirements and electromagnetic signature are optimized. Moreover, the embedded Artificial Intelligence core enables these bio-inspired systems to recognize and learn new significant events. By duplicating human expertise in potentially hazardous places, our miniature visual event detector will allow early warning and contribute to better human decision making.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of diatom inspired nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutu, Timothy

    This dissertation addresses the investigation of two novel methods to synthesize composite nanomaterials inspired by marine microalgae called diatoms. Diatoms are inspirational sources of silica structures, ordered at micro- to nanoscale, that possess unique optical properties. The fabrication of nanomaterials with well-defined and controllable micro-to nanoscale features has been of great interest for chemical, optical, electronic, catalytic, environmental, and medical applications. While bottom-up and top-down approaches have been extensively used to fabricate two-dimensional structures and devices, there is a need for inexpensive methods to mass-produce complex micro- to nanoscale structures with a variety of three-dimensional (3D) morphologies at high degrees of precision, reproducibility, and chemical tailorability. To explore the fabrication of 3D nanostructures, this study harnessed the biomineralization capacity of diatom cell cultures to fabricate Si-Ge oxide nanocomposites on one hand and the chemical bath deposition on the other hand. A two-stage photobioreactor strategy was used to metabolically insert nanostructured germanium into the silica microstructure of diatom of diatom Pinnularia sp. In the first stage, diatom cells were grown to the point of silicon starvation. In the second stage, a pulse of silicon and germanium solution was added to the silicon-starved cells. Various electron microscopy techniques were utilized to validate the extent of the insertion and the subsequent incorporation of germanium into the diatom silica matrix. In the second method to form diatom inspired nanocomposites, we utilize a simple, inexpensive chemical bath deposition technique to deposit a cadmium sulfide nanocrystals on the patterned surface of diatom biosilica. A parametric investigation of the factors affecting the chemical bath process was carried out. The morphology, structural and compositional properties of the composites were characterized by electron

  11. Performance of an active inspired hypoxic guard.

    PubMed

    Ghijselings, Idris E; De Cooman, Sofie; Carette, Rik; Peyton, Philip J; De Wolf, Andre M; Hendrickx, Jan F A

    2016-02-01

    Current hypoxic guards systems fail to maintain the inspired O2 concentration (FIO2) ≥ 21 % across the entire fresh gas flow (FGF) range when a second carrier gas is used (N2O or air). We examined the performance of the Maquet O2 Guard(®), a smart hypoxic guard that increases O2 delivery if an inspired hypoxic mixture is formed. After obtaining IRB approval and informed consent, 12 ASA I-II patients were enrolled. During anesthesia with sevoflurane in O2/air, the O2 Guard(®) was tested by administering O2/air at the following delivered hypoxic guard limits [expressed as (total FGF in L min(-1); FDO2 in %)] for 4 min each: [0.3;67], [0.4;50], [0.6;34], [0.8;25], [1.0;21], [1.2;21], [1.5;21], [2;21], [3;21], and [5;21]. The following data were collected: (1) time from FIO2 = 30 to 20 %; (2) time from FIO2 = 20 % to O2 Guard(®) activation; (3) time from O2 Guard(®) activation to FIO2 = 25 %; (4) FGF and FDO2 used by the O2 Guard. If SpO2 was <90 % for 10 s or longer at any time, the patient was excluded. Three patients were excluded for low SpO2. The incidence of FIO2 < 21 % was 100 % within the 1-2 L min(-1) FGF range. The O2 Guard(®) was activated within 20 s after FIO2 became 20 %, except in one patient where FIO2 oscillated between 20 and 21 %. FDO2 was increased to 60 % and FGF to 1 L min(-1) (the latter only if it was lower than 1 L min(-1) prior to activation of the O2 Guard). FIO2 increased to 25 % within 55 s after O2 Guard activation in all patients. The O2 Guard(®), an active inspired hypoxic guard, rapidly reverses and limits the duration of inspired hypoxic episodes when the delivered hypoxic guard fails to do so. PMID:25757405

  12. The "Biologically-Inspired Computing" Column

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Self-managing systems, whether viewed from the perspective of Autonomic Computing, or from that of another initiative, offers a holistic vision for the development and evolution of biologically-inspired computer-based systems. It aims to bring new levels of automation and dependability to systems, while simultaneously hiding their complexity and reducing costs. A case can certainly be made that all computer-based systems should exhibit autonomic properties [6], and we envisage greater interest in, and uptake of, autonomic principles in future system development.

  13. Bio-inspired color image enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meylan, Laurence; Susstrunk, Sabine

    2004-06-01

    Capturing and rendering an image that fulfills the observer's expectations is a difficult task. This is due to the fact that the signal reaching the eye is processed by a complex mechanism before forming a percept, whereas a capturing device only retains the physical value of light intensities. It is especially difficult to render complex scenes with highly varying luminances. For example, a picture taken inside a room where objects are visible through the windows will not be rendered correctly by a global technique. Either details in the dim room will be hidden in shadow or the objects viewed through the window will be too bright. The image has to be treated locally to resemble more closely to what the observer remembers. The purpose of this work is to develop a technique for rendering images based on human local adaptation. We take inspiration from a model of color vision called Retinex. This model determines the perceived color given spatial relationships of the captured signals. Retinex has been used as a computational model for image rendering. In this article, we propose a new solution inspired by Retinex that is based on a single filter applied to the luminance channel. All parameters are image-dependent so that the process requires no parameter tuning. That makes the method more flexible than other existing ones. The presented results show that our method suitably enhances high dynamic range images.

  14. Bio-inspired Fillers for Mechanical Enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korley, Lashanda

    2012-02-01

    An examination of natural materials has offered a new perspective on the development of multi-functional materials with enhanced mechanical properties. One important lesson from nature is the utilization of composite structures to impart improved mechanical behavior and enhanced functionality using nanofillers. A relatively unexplored expansion of this bio-inspired, nanoscale filler approach to high performance materials is the incorporation of responsive, multi-functional reinforcing elements in polymeric composites with the goal of combining superior mechanical behavior that can be tuned with additional functionality, such as sensing and bioactivity. One approach is the use of self-assembling small molecules that form uniform, one-dimensional nanostructures as an emerging class of filler components. Another pathway toward mechanical enhancement is the incorporation of stimuli-responsive and high-modulus electrospun nanofibers. We have probed the utilization of high-aspect ratio, self-assembled small molecules and responsive electrospun nanofibers as all-organic nanofillers to achieve significant modulus changes within elastomeric matrices. The influence of matrix-filler interactions and the role of hierarchical organization in these nature-inspired composites will be discussed. Potential applications in barrier technology and drug delivery have also been explored.

  15. Biomimetic multifunctional surfaces inspired from animals.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhiwu; Mu, Zhengzhi; Yin, Wei; Li, Wen; Niu, Shichao; Zhang, Junqiu; Ren, Luquan

    2016-08-01

    Over millions of years, animals have evolved to a higher intelligent level for their environment. A large number of diverse surface structures on their bodies have been formed to adapt to the extremely harsh environment. Just like the structural diversity existed in plants, the same also applies true in animals. Firstly, this article provides an overview and discussion of the most common functional surface structures inspired from animals, such as drag reduction, noise reduction, anti-adhesion, anti-wear, anti-erosion, anti-fog, water capture, and optical surfaces. Then, some typical characteristics of morphologies, structures, and materials of the animal multifunctional surfaces were discussed. The adaptation of these surfaces to environmental conditions was also analyzed. It mainly focuses on the relationship between their surface functions and their surface structural characteristics. Afterwards, the multifunctional mechanisms or principles of these surfaces were discussed. Models of these structures were provided for the development of structure materials and machinery surfaces. At last, fabrication techniques and existing or potential technical applications inspired from biomimetic multifunctional surfaces in animals were also discussed. The application prospects of the biomimetic functional surfaces are very broad, such as civil field of self-cleaning textile fabrics and non-stick pots, ocean field of oil-water separation, sports field of swimming suits, space development field of lens arrays. PMID:27085632

  16. Measurement of the flow past a cactus-inspired cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oweis, Ghanem F.; El-Makdah, Adnan M.

    2012-11-01

    Desert cacti are tall cylindrical plants characterized by longitudinal u- or v-shaped grooves that run parallel to the plant axis, covering its surface area. We study the wake flow modifications resulting from the introduction of cactus-inspired surface grooves to a circular cylinder. Particle image velocimetry PIV is implemented in a wind tunnel to visualize and quantify the wake flow from a cactus cylinder in cross wind and an equivalent circular cylinder at Re O(1E5). The cactus wake exhibits superior behavior over its circular counterpart as seen from the mean and turbulent velocity profiles. The surface flow within the grooves is also probed to elucidate the origins of the wake alterations. Lastly, we use simple statistical analysis based only on the wake velocity fields, under the assumption of periodicity of the shedding, to recover the time varying flow from the randomly acquired PIV snapshots.

  17. A sawtooth waveform inspired pitch estimator for speech and music.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Arturo; Harris, John G

    2008-09-01

    A sawtooth waveform inspired pitch estimator (SWIPE) has been developed for speech and music. SWIPE estimates the pitch as the fundamental frequency of the sawtooth waveform whose spectrum best matches the spectrum of the input signal. The comparison of the spectra is done by computing a normalized inner product between the spectrum of the signal and a modified cosine. The size of the analysis window is chosen appropriately to make the width of the main lobes of the spectrum match the width of the positive lobes of the cosine. SWIPE('), a variation of SWIPE, utilizes only the first and prime harmonics of the signal, which significantly reduces subharmonic errors commonly found in other pitch estimation algorithms. The authors' tests indicate that SWIPE and SWIPE(') performed better on two spoken speech and one disordered voice database and one musical instrument database consisting of single notes performed at a variety of pitches. PMID:19045655

  18. INSPIRE Natural Risk Zones Data Specification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, M.; Thomas, F.; Tomas, R.

    2012-04-01

    INSPIRE Directive (2007/2/EC) defines Natural Risk Zones theme as: "Vulnerable areas characterised according to natural hazards (all atmospheric, hydrologic, seismic, volcanic and wildfire phenomena that, because of their location, severity, and frequency, have the potential to seriously affect society), e.g. floods, landslides and subsidence, avalanches, forest fires, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions." This specification is the work of the Natural Risk Zones thematic working group. A multinational team of experts volunteered from the community of SDICs (Spatial Data Interest Communities) and LMOs (Legally Mandated Organisations) of INSPIRE. The data specification has been compiled using reference material submitted by SDICs and LMOs and the responses to a user requirements survey. The team themselves have had to draw on their own expertise and that of their organisations and other groups to develop agreed use cases in a selection of areas pertinent to Natural Risk Zones. The scope of the Natural Risk Zones data specification is potentially very large and this presentation will demonstrate this fact. Natural Risk Zones also involves significant engagement with other thematic areas from INSPIRE. This involvement stems from the nature of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and risk. Several other thematic areas input attributes vital to understanding the nature of hazard, yet others are vital in the understanding of exposure. In working on the scope of the Natural Risk Zones theme four use cases have been created for; Floods, Landslide, Forest Fire and Earthquake. These will be used in the presentation to demonstrate the use of the data specification. The approach taken to model Natural Risk Zones is generic in its treatment of each of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and risk, with a core model, whilst allowing extensibility to be more specific where possible and required. Flood risk is significantly more precisely defined than other hazards, due in part to the

  19. Bio-inspired networks for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bing; Huang, Yuanlin; Li, Ruopeng; Peng, Qiang; Luo, Junyi; Pei, Ke; Herczynski, Andrzej; Kempa, Krzysztof; Ren, Zhifeng; Gao, Jinwei

    2014-11-01

    Modern optoelectronics needs development of new materials characterized not only by high optical transparency and electrical conductivity, but also by mechanical strength, and flexibility. Recent advances employ grids of metallic micro- and nanowires, but the overall performance of the resulting material composites remains unsatisfactory. In this work, we propose a new strategy: application of natural scaffoldings perfected by evolution. In this context, we study two bio-inspired networks for two specific optoelectronic applications. The first network, intended for solar cells, light sources and similar devices, has a quasi-fractal structure and is derived directly from a chemically extracted leaf venation system. The second network is intended for touch screens and flexible displays, and is obtained by metalizing a spider’s silk web. We demonstrate that each of these networks attain an exceptional optoelectonic and mechanical performance for its intended purpose, providing a promising direction in the development of more efficient optoelectronic devices.

  20. Biologically inspired emotion recognition from speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caponetti, Laura; Buscicchio, Cosimo Alessandro; Castellano, Giovanna

    2011-12-01

    Emotion recognition has become a fundamental task in human-computer interaction systems. In this article, we propose an emotion recognition approach based on biologically inspired methods. Specifically, emotion classification is performed using a long short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network which is able to recognize long-range dependencies between successive temporal patterns. We propose to represent data using features derived from two different models: mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) and the Lyon cochlear model. In the experimental phase, results obtained from the LSTM network and the two different feature sets are compared, showing that features derived from the Lyon cochlear model give better recognition results in comparison with those obtained with the traditional MFCC representation.

  1. Vibration driven vehicle inspired from grass spike

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Suo; Xu, Qi; Qin, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Searching and detecting in some harsh environments such as collapsed buildings, pipes, small cracks are crucial for human rescue and industrial detection, military surveillance etc. However, the drawbacks of traditional moving modes of current vehicles make them difficult to perform such tasks. So developing some new vehicles is urgent. Here, we report a Setaria viridis spike's interesting behavior on a vibrating track, and inspired by that phenomena we develop a concept for cargo delivery, and give a detailed discussion about its working mechanism. This vehicle can move on a wide range of smooth and rough surfaces. Moreover, its climbing capability in tilted and even vertical smooth pipe is also outstanding. These features make it suitable for search-rescue, military reconnaissance, etc. Finally, this vehicle can be reduced into micro/nano-scale, which makes it would play an important role in target-drug delivery, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). PMID:23677337

  2. Tree-inspired piezoelectric energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, William B.; Hu, David L.

    2012-01-01

    We design and test micro-watt energy-harvesters inspired by tree trunks swaying in the wind. A uniform flow vibrates a linear array of four cylinders affixed to piezoelectric energy transducers. Particular attention is paid to measuring the energy generated as a function of cylinder spacing, flow speed, and relative position of the cylinder within the array. Peak power is generated using cylinder center-to-center spacings of 3.3 diameters and flow speeds in which the vortex shedding frequency is 1.6 times the natural frequency of the cylinders. Using these flow speeds and spacings, the power generated by downstream cylinders can exceed that of leading cylinders by more than an order of magnitude. We visualize the flow in this system by studying the behavior of a dynamically matched flowing soap film with imbedded styrofoam disks. Our qualitative visualizations suggest that peak energy harvesting occurs under conditions in which vortices have fully detached from the leading cylinder.

  3. A Biologically Inspired Network Design Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoge; Adamatzky, Andrew; Chan, Felix T.S.; Deng, Yong; Yang, Hai; Yang, Xin-She; Tsompanas, Michail-Antisthenis I.; Sirakoulis, Georgios Ch.; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2015-01-01

    A network design problem is to select a subset of links in a transport network that satisfy passengers or cargo transportation demands while minimizing the overall costs of the transportation. We propose a mathematical model of the foraging behaviour of slime mould P. polycephalum to solve the network design problem and construct optimal transport networks. In our algorithm, a traffic flow between any two cities is estimated using a gravity model. The flow is imitated by the model of the slime mould. The algorithm model converges to a steady state, which represents a solution of the problem. We validate our approach on examples of major transport networks in Mexico and China. By comparing networks developed in our approach with the man-made highways, networks developed by the slime mould, and a cellular automata model inspired by slime mould, we demonstrate the flexibility and efficiency of our approach. PMID:26041508

  4. Mapping the 2017 Eclipse: Education, Navigation, Inspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeiler, M.

    2015-12-01

    Eclipse maps are a unique vessel of knowledge. At a glance, they communicate the essential knowledge of where and when to successfully view a total eclipse of the sun. An eclipse map also provides detailed knowledge of eclipse circumstances superimposed on the highway system for optimal navigation, especially in the event that weather forces relocation. Eclipse maps are also a vital planning tool for solar physicists and astrophotographers capturing high-resolution imagery of the solar corona. Michael Zeiler will speak to the role of eclipse maps in educating the American public and inspiring people to make the effort to reach the path of totality for the sight of a lifetime. Michael will review the role of eclipse maps in astronomical research and discuss a project under development, the 2017 Eclipse Atlas for smartphones, tablets, and desktop computers.

  5. The periodic table: icon and inspiration.

    PubMed

    Poliakoff, Martyn; Tang, Samantha

    2015-03-13

    To start this discussion meeting on the new chemistry of the elements held on 12 May 2014, Martyn Poliakoff, Foreign Secretary of the Royal Society, was invited to give the opening remarks. As a chemist and a presenter of the popular online video channel 'The periodic table of videos', Martyn communicates his personal and professional interest in the elements to the public, who in turn use these videos both as an educational resource and for entertainment purposes. Ever since Mendeleev's first ideas for the periodic table were published in 1869, the table has continued to grow as new elements have been discovered, and it serves as both icon and inspiration; its form is now so well established that it is recognized the world over as a symbol for science. This paper highlights but a few of the varied forms that the table can take, such as an infographic, which can convey the shortage of certain elements with great impact. PMID:25666072

  6. Tough, bio-inspired hybrid materials

    SciTech Connect

    Munch, Etienne; Launey, Maximimilan E.; Alsem, Daan H.; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2008-10-06

    The notion of mimicking natural structures in the synthesis of new structural materials has generated enormous interest but has yielded few practical advances. Natural composites achieve strength and toughness through complex hierarchical designs extremely difficult to replicate synthetically. Here we emulate Nature's toughening mechanisms through the combination of two ordinary compounds, aluminum oxide and polymethylmethacrylate, into ice-templated structures whose toughness can be over 300 times (in energy terms) that of their constituents. The final product is a bulk hybrid ceramic material whose high yield strength and fracture toughness ({approx}200 MPa and {approx}30 MPa{radical}m) provide specific properties comparable to aluminum alloys. These model materials can be used to identify the key microstructural features that should guide the synthesis of bio-inspired ceramic-based composites with unique strength and toughness.

  7. Aurelia aurita bio-inspired tilt sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Colin; Villanueva, Alex; Priya, Shashank

    2012-10-01

    The quickly expanding field of mobile robots, unmanned underwater vehicles, and micro-air vehicles urgently needs a cheap and effective means for measuring vehicle inclination. Commonly, tilt or inclination has been mathematically derived from accelerometers; however, there is inherent error in any indirect measurement. This paper reports a bio-inspired tilt sensor that mimics the natural balance organ of jellyfish, called the ‘statocyst’. Biological statocysts from the species Aurelia aurita were characterized by scanning electron microscopy to investigate the morphology and size of the natural sensor. An artificial tilt sensor was then developed by using printed electronics that incorporates a novel voltage divider concept in conjunction with small surface mount devices. This sensor was found to have minimum sensitivity of 4.21° with a standard deviation of 1.77°. These results open the possibility of developing elegant tilt sensor architecture for both air and water based platforms.

  8. Quest for excellence: inspiration from the ileum.

    PubMed

    Tappenden, Kelly A

    2010-01-01

    The occasion of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 33rd Presidential Address was used to glean wisdom and inspiration from the ileum. Not only is this intestinal segment so central to the chief organ involved in specialized nutrition support, but it is a complex, yet elegant system that: (1) is interdisciplinary with actions coordinated to achieve a common goal; (2) looks to the future by mentoring the next generation of leaders; (3) constantly seeks evidence of its effectiveness and accordingly adjusts its practice; and (4) strategically forges synergistic partnerships with other habitants within its environment. As relevant within many other realms, it remains true that much can be learned from looking within. PMID:21097772

  9. Compact stars in Eddington inspired gravity.

    PubMed

    Pani, Paolo; Cardoso, Vitor; Delsate, Térence

    2011-07-15

    A new, Eddington inspired theory of gravity was recently proposed by Bañados and Ferreira. It is equivalent to general relativity in vacuum, but differs from it inside matter. This viable, one-parameter theory was shown to avoid cosmological singularities and turns out to lead to many other exciting new features that we report here. First, for a positive coupling parameter, the field equations have a dramatic impact on the collapse of dust, and do not lead to singularities. We further find that the theory supports stable, compact pressureless stars made of perfect fluid, which provide interesting models of self-gravitating dark matter. Finally, we show that the mere existence of relativistic stars imposes a strong, near optimal constraint on the coupling parameter, which can even be improved by observations of the moment of inertia of the double pulsar. PMID:21838345

  10. Inspiration Today: Music, Astronomy, and Popular Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraknoi, A.

    2016-01-01

    We explore a variety of examples of music inspired by serious astronomy (as opposed to simply an astronomical title or quick allusion to spooning in June to the light of the Moon). The examples are drawn from my recently published catalog of 133 such pieces, including both classical and popular genres of music. We discuss operas based on the life and work of astronomers, six songs based on a reasonable understanding of the properties of black holes, constellation pieces written by composers from around the world who are or were active amateur astronomers, the song that compares walking on the Moon to being in love, the little-known rock song that became a reference in the Astrophysical Journal, pieces that base the patterns of the music on the rhythms of astronomical phenomena, and a number of others.

  11. Fall Meeting abstract submission inspires science poetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    When the 4 August deadline for submitting Fall Meeting abstracts passed, AGU had received more than 20,000 abstracts, a record-breaking number. The submission process had an unexpected by-product: It inspired some scientists to write haiku on Twitter. (Haiku is a form of Japanese poetry typically having three lines, the first with five syllables, the second with seven, and the third with five.) The following are examples of the haiku tweets, with the hashtag #AGU11AbstractHaiku. (For those who want to keep updated about the Fall Meeting on Twitter, the hashtag is #AGU11.) For more information about the meeting, including registration and housing, visit http://sites.agu.org/fallmeeting/.

  12. A skin-inspired organic digital mechanoreceptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Chortos, Alex; Berndt, Andre; Nguyen, Amanda Kim; Tom, Ariane; McGuire, Allister; Lin, Ziliang Carter; Tien, Kevin; Bae, Won-Gyu; Wang, Huiliang; Mei, Ping; Chou, Ho-Hsiu; Cui, Bianxiao; Deisseroth, Karl; Ng, Tse Nga; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-10-01

    Human skin relies on cutaneous receptors that output digital signals for tactile sensing in which the intensity of stimulation is converted to a series of voltage pulses. We present a power-efficient skin-inspired mechanoreceptor with a flexible organic transistor circuit that transduces pressure into digital frequency signals directly. The output frequency ranges between 0 and 200 hertz, with a sublinear response to increasing force stimuli that mimics slow-adapting skin mechanoreceptors. The output of the sensors was further used to stimulate optogenetically engineered mouse somatosensory neurons of mouse cortex in vitro, achieving stimulated pulses in accordance with pressure levels. This work represents a step toward the design and use of large-area organic electronic skins with neural-integrated touch feedback for replacement limbs.

  13. A skin-inspired organic digital mechanoreceptor.

    PubMed

    Tee, Benjamin C-K; Chortos, Alex; Berndt, Andre; Nguyen, Amanda Kim; Tom, Ariane; McGuire, Allister; Lin, Ziliang Carter; Tien, Kevin; Bae, Won-Gyu; Wang, Huiliang; Mei, Ping; Chou, Ho-Hsiu; Cui, Bianxiao; Deisseroth, Karl; Ng, Tse Nga; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-10-16

    Human skin relies on cutaneous receptors that output digital signals for tactile sensing in which the intensity of stimulation is converted to a series of voltage pulses. We present a power-efficient skin-inspired mechanoreceptor with a flexible organic transistor circuit that transduces pressure into digital frequency signals directly. The output frequency ranges between 0 and 200 hertz, with a sublinear response to increasing force stimuli that mimics slow-adapting skin mechanoreceptors. The output of the sensors was further used to stimulate optogenetically engineered mouse somatosensory neurons of mouse cortex in vitro, achieving stimulated pulses in accordance with pressure levels. This work represents a step toward the design and use of large-area organic electronic skins with neural-integrated touch feedback for replacement limbs. PMID:26472906

  14. Cognition inspired framework for indoor scene annotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zhipeng; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Wei; Tang, Xianglong

    2015-09-01

    We present a simple yet effective scene annotation framework based on a combination of bag-of-visual words (BoVW), three-dimensional scene structure estimation, scene context, and cognitive theory. From a macroperspective, the proposed cognition-based hybrid motivation framework divides the annotation problem into empirical inference and real-time classification. Inspired by the inference ability of human beings, common objects of indoor scenes are defined for experience-based inference, while in the real-time classification stage, an improved BoVW-based multilayer abstract semantics labeling method is proposed by introducing abstract semantic hierarchies to narrow the semantic gap and improve the performance of object categorization. The proposed framework was evaluated on a variety of common data sets and experimental results proved its effectiveness.

  15. Bio-inspired Computing for Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laufenberg, Larry

    2003-01-01

    Living creatures may provide algorithms to enable active sensing/control systems in robots. Active sensing could enable planetary rovers to feel their way in unknown environments. The surface of Jupiter's moon Europa consists of fractured ice over a liquid sea that may contain microbes similar to those on Earth. To explore such extreme environments, NASA needs robots that autonomously survive, navigate, and gather scientific data. They will be too far away for guidance from Earth. They must sense their environment and control their own movements to avoid obstacles or investigate a science opportunity. To meet this challenge, CICT's Information Technology Strategic Research (ITSR) Project is funding neurobiologists at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and selected universities to search for biologically inspired algorithms that enable robust active sensing and control for exploratory robots. Sources for these algorithms are living creatures, including rats and electric fish.

  16. Biologically Inspired Mushroom-Shaped Adhesive Microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heepe, Lars; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-07-01

    Adhesion is a fundamental phenomenon with great importance in technology, in our everyday life, and in nature. In this article, we review physical interactions that resist the separation of two solids in contact. By using examples of biological attachment systems, we summarize and categorize various principles that contribute to the so-called gecko effect. Emphasis is placed on the contact geometry and in particular on the mushroom-shaped geometry, which is observed in long-term biological adhesive systems. Furthermore, we report on artificial model systems with this bio-inspired geometry and demonstrate that surface microstructures with this geometry are promising candidates for technical applications, in which repeatable, reversible, and residue-free adhesion under different environmental conditions—such as air, fluid, and vacuum—is required. Various applications in robotic systems and in industrial pick-and-place processes are discussed.

  17. Bio-inspired nano tools for neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Das, Suradip; Carnicer-Lombarte, Alejandro; Fawcett, James W; Bora, Utpal

    2016-07-01

    Research and treatment in the nervous system is challenged by many physiological barriers posing a major hurdle for neurologists. The CNS is protected by a formidable blood brain barrier (BBB) which limits surgical, therapeutic and diagnostic interventions. The hostile environment created by reactive astrocytes in the CNS along with the limited regeneration capacity of the PNS makes functional recovery after tissue damage difficult and inefficient. Nanomaterials have the unique ability to interface with neural tissue in the nano-scale and are capable of influencing the function of a single neuron. The ability of nanoparticles to transcend the BBB through surface modifications has been exploited in various neuro-imaging techniques and for targeted drug delivery. The tunable topography of nanofibers provides accurate spatio-temporal guidance to regenerating axons. This review is an attempt to comprehend the progress in understanding the obstacles posed by the complex physiology of the nervous system and the innovations in design and fabrication of advanced nanomaterials drawing inspiration from natural phenomenon. We also discuss the development of nanomaterials for use in Neuro-diagnostics, Neuro-therapy and the fabrication of advanced nano-devices for use in opto-electronic and ultrasensitive electrophysiological applications. The energy efficient and parallel computing ability of the human brain has inspired the design of advanced nanotechnology based computational systems. However, extensive use of nanomaterials in neuroscience also raises serious toxicity issues as well as ethical concerns regarding nano implants in the brain. In conclusion we summarize these challenges and provide an insight into the huge potential of nanotechnology platforms in neuroscience. PMID:27107796

  18. Engaging Generation Now, Inspiring Generation Next

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, Mike; Gay, P.

    2008-05-01

    In 2008, the Education and Public Outreach Committee of the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) initiated several new strategies for disseminating accurate, stimulating, engaging information on general astronomy and variable star science to thousands of students, parents, and amateur astronomers each year through astronomy clubs, societies, and star party events. We are initiating contact with astronomy clubs and organizations to offer qualified speakers from the AAVSO Speakers Bureau for their meetings and activities. The current roster of speakers include, professional astronomers, doctors, engineers, teachers and some of the world's leading variable star observers. Request information is available on the AAVSO website. For organizations and individuals unable to engage one of our speakers due to time, distance or financial constraints, we have made PowerPoint presentations used in previous talks available free for download from the same web pages. Thousands of amateur astronomers and their children attend star parties each year. As an extension of our speakers’ bureau, our goal is to have an AAVSO representative at each of the major star parties each year giving an enthusiastic talk on variable stars or related astronomical subject and supplying inspirational printed materials on astronomy and amateur contributions to science. The nation's largest astronomy clubs have monthly newsletters they distribute to their membership. Newsletter editors are constantly in need of quality, interesting content to fill out their issues each month. We are offering a `writers’ bureau’ service to newsletter editors, similar to the news wire services used by newspapers. We will supply up to a half dozen articles on astronomy and variable star science each month for editors to use at their discretion in their publications. Our goal is to provide information, inspiration and encourage participation among amateur astronomers and their kids, our next

  19. NASA Missions Inspire Online Video Games

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Fast forward to 2035. Imagine being part of a community of astronauts living and working on the Moon. Suddenly, in the middle of just another day in space, a meteorite crashes into the surface of the Moon, threatening life as you know it. The support equipment that provides oxygen for the entire community has been compromised. What would you do? While this situation is one that most people will never encounter, NASA hopes to place students in such situations - virtually - to inspire, engage, and educate about NASA technologies, job opportunities, and the future of space exploration. Specifically, NASA s Learning Technologies program, part of the Agency s Office of Education, aims to inspire and motivate students to pursue careers in the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines through interactive technologies. The ultimate goal of these educational programs is to support the growth of a pool of qualified scientific and technical candidates for future careers at places like NASA. STEM education has been an area of concern in the United States; according to the results of the 2009 Program for International Student Assessment, 23 countries had higher average scores in mathematics literacy than the United States. On the science literacy scale, 18 countries had higher average scores. "This is part of a much bigger picture of trying to grow skilled graduates for places like NASA that will want that technical expertise," says Daniel Laughlin, the Learning Technologies project manager at Goddard Space Flight Center. "NASA is trying to increase the number of students going into those fields, and so are other government agencies."

  20. Origami-inspired active structures: a synthesis and review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peraza-Hernandez, Edwin A.; Hartl, Darren J.; Malak, Richard J., Jr.; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.

    2014-09-01

    Origami, the ancient art of paper folding, has inspired the design of engineering devices and structures for decades. The underlying principles of origami are very general, which has led to applications ranging from cardboard containers to deployable space structures. More recently, researchers have become interested in the use of active materials (i.e., those that convert various forms of energy into mechanical work) to effect the desired folding behavior. When used in a suitable geometry, active materials allow engineers to create self-folding structures. Such structures are capable of performing folding and/or unfolding operations without being kinematically manipulated by external forces or moments. This is advantageous for many applications including space systems, underwater robotics, small scale devices, and self-assembling systems. This article is a survey and analysis of prior work on active self-folding structures as well as methods and tools available for the design of folding structures in general and self-folding structures in particular. The goal is to provide researchers and practitioners with a systematic view of the state-of-the-art in this important and evolving area. Unifying structural principles for active self-folding structures are identified and used as a basis for a quantitative and qualitative comparison of numerous classes of active materials. Design considerations specific to folded structures are examined, including the issues of crease pattern identification and fold kinematics. Although few tools have been created with active materials in mind, many of them are useful in the overall design process for active self-folding structures. Finally, the article concludes with a discussion of open questions for the field of origami-inspired engineering.

  1. BATMAV: a 2-DOF bio-inspired flapping flight platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunget, Gheorghe; Seelecke, Stefan

    2010-04-01

    Due to the availability of small sensors, Micro-Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) can be used for detection missions of biological, chemical and nuclear agents. Traditionally these devices used fixed or rotary wings, actuated with electric DC motortransmission, a system which brings the disadvantage of a heavier platform. The overall objective of the BATMAV project is to develop a biologically inspired bat-like MAV with flexible and foldable wings for flapping flight. This paper presents a flight platform that features bat-inspired wings which are able to actively fold their elbow joints. A previous analysis of the flight physics for small birds, bats and large insects, revealed that the mammalian flight anatomy represents a suitable flight platform that can be actuated efficiently using Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) artificial-muscles. A previous study of the flight styles in bats based on the data collected by Norberg [1] helped to identify the required joint angles as relevant degrees of freedom for wing actuation. Using the engineering theory of robotic manipulators, engineering kinematic models of wings with 2 and 3-DOFs were designed to mimic the wing trajectories of the natural flier Plecotus auritus. Solid models of the bat-like skeleton were designed based on the linear and angular dimensions resulted from the kinematic models. This structure of the flight platform was fabricated using rapid prototyping technologies and assembled to form a desktop prototype with 2-DOFs wings. Preliminary flapping test showed suitable trajectories for wrist and wingtip that mimic the flapping cycle of the natural flyer.

  2. INSPIRE: A VLF Radio Project for High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jill A.; Pine, Bill; Taylor, William W. L.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1988 the Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionospheric Radio Experiment, or INSPIRE, has given students the opportunity to build research-quality VLF radio receivers and make observations of both natural and stimulated radio waves in the atmosphere. Any high school science class is eligible to join the INSPIRE volunteer observing network and…

  3. Concept Mapping in the Classroom with Inspiration Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scappaticci, F. Thomas

    This paper gives an overview of the Inspiration Software, a package that is designed to facilitate the construction and use of concept maps in the classroom. The first section discusses concept mapping, defined as any graphic production that is constructed specifically to represent knowledge. The following basic functions of Inspiration are then…

  4. Cultural Contrasts and Commonalities in Inspiring Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Martin; Wedell, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Inspiring teaching is the kind of pedagogy that motivates pupils to study autonomously, in their own time, of their own volition beyond the classroom, and may be particularly important for long-term endeavours such as learning a second language. This study aimed to find out the prevalence and nature of inspiring English language teaching in the…

  5. Bio-inspired flapping UAV design: a university perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jae-Hung; Lee, Jun-Seong; Kim, Dae-Kwan

    2009-03-01

    Bio-inspired design to make artificial flappers fly does not just imitate biological systems as closely as possible, but also transferring the flappers' own functionalities to engineering solutions. This paper summarizes some key technical issues and the states-of-art of bio-inspired design of flapping UAVs with an introduction to authors' recent research results in this field.

  6. Supporting STEM Teachers to Inspire through Everyday Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bienkowski, Marie; Shechtman, Nicole; Remold, Julie; Knudsen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Science teachers inspire in part by their constant adaptation to the learning needs of their students and to evolving content, curriculum, technology, and student populations. Innovation--bringing novel things to a situation to confer a benefit--is an integral part of teaching overall, and in especially inspired science teaching. While innovation…

  7. Kids as Airborne Mission Scientists: Designing PBL To Inspire Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koszalka, Tiffany A.; Grabowski, Barbara L.; Kim, Younghoon

    Problem-based learning (PBL) has great potential for inspiring K-12 learning. KaAMS, a NASA funded project and an example of PBL, was designed to help teachers inspire middle school students to learn science. The students participate as scientists investigating environmental problems using NASA airborne remote sensing data. Two PBL modules were…

  8. Bio-inspired synthesis of metal nanomaterials and applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiale; Lin, Liqin; Sun, Daohua; Chen, Huimei; Yang, Dapeng; Li, Qingbiao

    2015-10-01

    This critical review focuses on recent advances in the bio-inspired synthesis of metal nanomaterials (MNMs) using microorganisms, viruses, plants, proteins and DNA molecules as well as their applications in various fields. Prospects in the design of bio-inspired MNMs for novel applications are also discussed. PMID:26083903

  9. INSPIRE: A VLF Radio Project for High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jill A.; Pine, Bill; Taylor, William W. L.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1988 the Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionospheric Radio Experiment, or INSPIRE, has given students the opportunity to build research-quality VLF2 radio receivers and make observations of both natural and stimulated radio waves in the atmosphere. Any high school science class is eligible to join the INSPIRE volunteer observing network and contribute to our understanding of near-Earth space.

  10. Frequency and time-domain inspiral templates for comparable mass compact binaries in eccentric orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanay, Sashwat; Haney, Maria; Gopakumar, Achamveedu

    2016-03-01

    Inspiraling compact binaries with non-negligible orbital eccentricities are plausible gravitational wave (GW) sources for the upcoming network of GW observatories. In this paper, we present two prescriptions to compute post-Newtonian (PN) accurate inspiral templates for such binaries. First, we adapt and extend the postcircular scheme of Yunes et al. [Phys. Rev. D 80, 084001 (2009)] to obtain a Fourier-domain inspiral approximant that incorporates the effects of PN-accurate orbital eccentricity evolution. This results in a fully analytic frequency-domain inspiral waveform with Newtonian amplitude and 2PN-order Fourier phase while incorporating eccentricity effects up to sixth order at each PN order. The importance of incorporating eccentricity evolution contributions to the Fourier phase in a PN-consistent manner is also demonstrated. Second, we present an accurate and efficient prescription to incorporate orbital eccentricity into the quasicircular time-domain TaylorT4 approximant at 2PN order. New features include the use of rational functions in orbital eccentricity to implement the 1.5PN-order tail contributions to the far-zone fluxes. This leads to closed form PN-accurate differential equations for evolving eccentric orbits, and the resulting time-domain approximant is accurate and efficient to handle initial orbital eccentricities ≤0.9 . Preliminary GW data analysis implications are probed using match estimates.

  11. Supramolecular Nanostructure Formation of Coassembled Amyloid Inspired Peptides.

    PubMed

    Cinar, Goksu; Orujalipoor, Ilghar; Su, Chun-Jen; Jeng, U-Ser; Ide, Semra; Guler, Mustafa O

    2016-06-28

    Characterization of amyloid-like aggregates through converging approaches can yield deeper understanding of their complex self-assembly mechanisms and the nature of their strong mechanical stability, which may in turn contribute to the design of novel supramolecular peptide nanostructures as functional materials. In this study, we investigated the coassembly kinetics of oppositely charged short amyloid-inspired peptides (AIPs) into supramolecular nanostructures by using confocal fluorescence imaging of thioflavin T binding, turbidity assay and in situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis. We showed that coassembly kinetics of the AIP nanostructures were consistent with nucleation-dependent amyloid-like aggregation, and aggregation behavior of the AIPs was affected by the initial monomer concentration and sonication. Moreover, SAXS analysis was performed to gain structural information on the size, shape, electron density, and internal organization of the coassembled AIP nanostructures. The scattering data of the coassembled AIP nanostructures were best fitted into to a combination of polydisperse core-shell cylinder (PCSC) and decoupling flexible cylinder (FCPR) models, and the structural parameters were estimated based on the fitting results of the scattering data. The stability of the coassembled AIP nanostructures in both fiber organization and bulk viscoelastic properties was also revealed via temperature-dependent SAXS analysis and oscillatory rheology measurements, respectively. PMID:27267733

  12. Bio-Inspired Engineering of Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sanita

    2003-01-01

    The multidisciplinary concept of "bioinspired engineering of exploration systems" (BEES) is described, which is a guiding principle of the continuing effort to develop biomorphic explorers as reported in a number of articles in the past issues of NASA Tech Briefs. The intent of BEES is to distill from the principles found in successful nature-tested mechanisms of specific crucial functions that are hard to accomplish by conventional methods but that are accomplished rather deftly in nature by biological organisms. The intent is not just to mimic operational mechanisms found in a specific biological organism but to imbibe the salient principles from a variety of diverse bio-organisms for the desired crucial function. Thereby, we can build explorer systems that have specific capabilities endowed beyond nature, as they will possess a combination of the best nature-tested mechanisms for that particular function. The approach consists of selecting a crucial function, for example, flight or some selected aspects of flight, and develop an explorer that combines the principles of those specific attributes as seen in diverse flying species into one artificial entity. This will allow going beyond biology and achieving unprecedented capability and adaptability needed in encountering and exploring what is as yet unknown. A classification of biomorphic flyers into two main classes of surface and aerial explorers is illustrated in the figure, with examples of a variety of biological organisms that provide the inspiration in each respective subclass. Such biomorphic explorers may possess varied mobility modes: surface-roving, burrowing, hopping, hovering, or flying, to accomplish surface, subsurface, and aerial exploration. Preprogrammed for a specific function, they could serve as one-way communicating beacons, spread over the exploration site, autonomously looking for/at the targets of interest. In a hierarchical organization, these biomorphic explorers would report to the next

  13. Lunabotics Mining Competition: Inspiration Through Accomplishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Lunabotics Mining Competition is designed to promote the development of interest in space activities and STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) fields. The competition uses excavation, a necessary first step towards extracting resources from the regolith and building bases on the moon. The unique physical properties of lunar regolith and the reduced 1/6th gravity, vacuum environment make excavation a difficult technical challenge. Advances in lunar regolith mining have the potential to significantly contribute to our nation's space vision and NASA space exploration operations. The competition is conducted annually by NASA at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. The teams that can use telerobotic or autonomous operation to excavate a lunar regolith geotechnical simulant, herein after referred to as Black Point-1 (or BP-1) and score the most points (calculated as an average of two separate 10-minute timed competition attempts) will eam points towards the Joe Kosmo Award for Excellence and the scores will reflect ranking in the on-site mining category of the competition. The minimum excavation requirement is 10.0 kg during each competition attempt and the robotic excavator, referred to as the "Lunabot", must meet all specifications. This paper will review the achievements of the Lunabotics Mining Competition in 2010 and 2011, and present the new rules for 2012. By providing a framework for robotic design and fabrication, which culminates in a live competition event, university students have been able to produce sophisticated lunabots which are tele-operated. Multi-disciplinary teams are encouraged and the extreme sense of accomplishment provides a unique source of inspiration to the participating students, which has been shown to translate into increased interest in STEM careers. Our industrial sponsors (Caterpillar, Newmont Mining, Harris, Honeybee Robotics) have all stated that there is a strong need for skills in the workforce related

  14. Perspective of an Artist Inspired by Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanborn, Jim

    2010-02-01

    Using digital images and video I will be presenting thirty years of my science based artwork. Beginning in the late 1970's my gallery and museum installations used lodestones and suspended compasses to reveal the earths' magnetic field. Through the 1980's my work included these compass installations and geologically inspired tableaux that had one thing in common, they were designed to expose the invisible forces of nature. Tectonics, the Coriolis force, and magnetism were among the subjects of study. In 1988, on the basis of my work with invisible forces, I was selected for a commission from the General Services Administration for the new Central Intelligence Agency headquarters in Langley Virginia. This work titled Kryptos included a large cryptographic component that remains undeciphered twenty years after its installation. In the 1990's Kryptos inspired several of my museum and gallery installations using cryptography and secrecy as their main themes. From 1995-1998 I completed a series of large format projections on the landscape in the western US and Ireland. These projections and the resulting series of photographs emulated the 19th century cartographers hired by the United States Government to map the western landscape. In 1998 I began my project titled Atomic Time. This installation shown for the first time in 2004 at the Corcoran Gallery in Washington DC, then again in the Gwangju Biennale in South Korea was a recreation of the 1944 Manhattan Project laboratory that built the first Atomic Bomb. This installation used original equipment and prototypes from the Los Alamos Lab and was an extremely accurate representation of the laboratory and the first nuclear bomb called the ``Trinity Device.'' I began my current project Terrestrial Physics in 2005. This installation to be shown in June 2010 at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Denver is a recreation of the large particle accelerator and the experiment that fissioned Uranium in 1939 at the Carnegie

  15. Development of a biologically inspired hydrobot tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Danielle; Janneh, Alhaji; Philen, Michael

    2014-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that Europa, one of the moons of Jupiter, has a large ocean underneath a thick layer of ice. In order to determine whether life exists, it has been proposed that an underwater glider (hydrobot) capable of propulsion could be sent to explore the vast ocean. In this research, we considered various smart materials to create a propulsion device inspired by dolphin tails. Dolphins are highly efficient and excellent gliders, which makes them the ideal candidate for ocean exploration. In order to select the best dolphin species, we began by reviewing literature and then utilized the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to compare the different species. Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-Sided Dolphin) was found to be the best choice for creating a bioinspired hydrobot. We then conducted literature review of various smart materials and using this knowledge constructed a hydrobot tail prototype. This prototype demonstrates that smart materials can be fashioned into suitable actuators to control a tail fashioned after a dolphin.

  16. Continuum robot arms inspired by cephalopods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Ian D.; Dawson, Darren M.; Flash, Tamar; Grasso, Frank W.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Hochner, Binyamin; Kier, William M.; Pagano, Christopher C.; Rahn, Christopher D.; Zhang, Qiming M.

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, we describe our recent results in the development of a new class of soft, continuous backbone ("continuum") robot manipulators. Our work is strongly motivated by the dexterous appendages found in cephalopods, particularly the arms and suckers of octopus, and the arms and tentacles of squid. Our ongoing investigation of these animals reveals interesting and unexpected functional aspects of their structure and behavior. The arrangement and dynamic operation of muscles and connective tissue observed in the arms of a variety of octopus species motivate the underlying design approach for our soft manipulators. These artificial manipulators feature biomimetic actuators, including artificial muscles based on both electro-active polymers (EAP) and pneumatic (McKibben) muscles. They feature a "clean" continuous backbone design, redundant degrees of freedom, and exhibit significant compliance that provides novel operational capacities during environmental interaction and object manipulation. The unusual compliance and redundant degrees of freedom provide strong potential for application to delicate tasks in cluttered and/or unstructured environments. Our aim is to endow these compliant robotic mechanisms with the diverse and dexterous grasping behavior observed in octopuses. To this end, we are conducting fundamental research into the manipulation tactics, sensory biology, and neural control of octopuses. This work in turn leads to novel approaches to motion planning and operator interfaces for the robots. The paper describes the above efforts, along with the results of our development of a series of continuum tentacle-like robots, demonstrating the unique abilities of biologically-inspired design.

  17. Enhanced photovoltaics inspired by the fovea centralis.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Gil; Schmitt, Sebastian W; Embrechts, Heidemarie; Brönstrup, Gerald; Christiansen, Silke

    2015-01-01

    The fovea centralis is a closely-packed vertical array of inverted-cone photoreceptor cells located in the retina that is responsible for high acuity binocular vision. The cones are operational in well-lit environments and are responsible for trapping the impinging illumination. We present the vertical light-funnel silicon array as a light-trapping technique for photovoltaic applications that is bio-inspired by the properties of the fovea centralis. We use opto-electronic simulations to evaluate the performance of light-funnel solar cell arrays. Light-funnel arrays present ~65% absorption enhancement compared to a silicon film of identical thickness and exhibit power conversion efficiencies that are 60% higher than those of optimized nanowire arrays of the same thickness although nanowire arrays consist of more than 2.3 times the amount of silicon. We demonstrate the superior absorption of the light-funnel arrays as compared with recent advancements in the field. Fabrication of silicon light-funnel arrays using low-cost processing techniques is demonstrated. PMID:25709091

  18. Biologically inspired path to quantum computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogryzko, Vasily; Ozhigov, Yuri

    2014-12-01

    We describe an approach to quantum computer inspired by the information processing at the molecular level in living cells. It is based on the separation of a small ensemble of qubits inside the living system (e.g., a bacterial cell), such that coherent quantum states of this ensemble remain practically unchanged for a long time. We use the notion of a quantum kernel to describe such an ensemble. Quantum kernel is not strictly connected with certain particles; it permanently exchanges atoms and molecules with the environment, which makes quantum kernel a virtual notion. There are many reasons to expect that the state of quantum kernel of a living system can be treated as the stationary state of some Hamiltonian. While the quantum kernel is responsible for the stability of dynamics at the time scale of cellular life, at the longer inter-generation time scale it can change, varying smoothly in the course of biological evolution. To the first level of approximation, quantum kernel can be described in the framework of qubit modification of Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model, in which the relaxation corresponds to the exchange of matter between quantum kernel and the rest of the cell and is represented as Lindblad super-operators.

  19. Biology-inspired Architecture for Situation Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Lodding, Kenneth N.; Olariu, Stephan; Wilson, Larry; Xin, Chunsheng

    2006-01-01

    Situation Management is a rapidly developing science combining new techniques for data collection with advanced methods of data fusion to facilitate the process leading to correct decisions prescribing action. Current research focuses on reducing increasing amounts of diverse data to knowledge used by decision makers and on reducing time between observations, decisions and actions. No new technology is more promising for increasing the diversity and fidelity of observations than sensor networks. However, current research on sensor networks concentrates on a centralized network architecture. We believe this trend will not realize the full potential of situation management. We propose a new architecture modeled after biological ecosystems where motes are autonomous and intelligent, yet cooperate with local neighborhoods. Providing a layered approach, they sense and act independently when possible, and cooperate with neighborhoods when necessary. The combination of their local actions results in global effects. While situation management research is currently dominated by military applications, advances envisioned for industrial and business applications have similar requirements. NASA has requirements for intelligent and autonomous systems in future missions that can benefit from advances in situation management. We describe requirements for the Integrated Vehicle Health Management program where our biology-inspired architecture provides a layered approach and decisions can be made at the proper level to improve safety, reduce costs, and improve efficiency in making diagnostic and prognostic assessments of the structural integrity, aerodynamic characteristics, and operation of aircraft.

  20. Enhanced photovoltaics inspired by the fovea centralis

    PubMed Central

    Shalev, Gil; Schmitt, Sebastian W.; Embrechts, Heidemarie; Brönstrup, Gerald; Christiansen, Silke

    2015-01-01

    The fovea centralis is a closely-packed vertical array of inverted-cone photoreceptor cells located in the retina that is responsible for high acuity binocular vision. The cones are operational in well-lit environments and are responsible for trapping the impinging illumination. We present the vertical light-funnel silicon array as a light-trapping technique for photovoltaic applications that is bio-inspired by the properties of the fovea centralis. We use opto-electronic simulations to evaluate the performance of light-funnel solar cell arrays. Light-funnel arrays present ~65% absorption enhancement compared to a silicon film of identical thickness and exhibit power conversion efficiencies that are 60% higher than those of optimized nanowire arrays of the same thickness although nanowire arrays consist of more than 2.3 times the amount of silicon. We demonstrate the superior absorption of the light-funnel arrays as compared with recent advancements in the field. Fabrication of silicon light-funnel arrays using low-cost processing techniques is demonstrated. PMID:25709091

  1. Structurally tuned iridescent surfaces inspired by nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deparis, Olivier; Rassart, Marie; Vandenbem, Cédric; Welch, Victoria; Pol Vigneron, Jean; Lucas, Stéphane

    2008-01-01

    Iridescent surfaces exhibit vivid colours which change with the angle of incidence or viewing due to optical wave interference in the multilayer structure present at the wavelength scale underneath the surface. In nature, one can find examples of iridescent Coleoptera for which the hue changes either greatly or slightly with the angle. Because these species typically make these structures from a single biological material (usually chitin) and air or water as the low refractive index component, they have evolved by adjusting the layer thicknesses in order to display quite different iridescent aspects. Taking inspiration from this proven strategy, we have designed and fabricated periodic TiO2/SiO2 multilayer films in order to demonstrate the concept of structurally tuned iridescent surfaces. Titanium or silicon oxide layers were deposited on a glass substrate using dc reactive or RF magnetron sputtering techniques, respectively. Two structures were designed for which the period and the TiO2/SiO2 layer thickness ratio were varied in such a way that the films displayed radically different iridescent aspects: a reddish-to-greenish changing hue and a stable bluish hue. The fabricated samples were characterized through specular reflectance/transmittance measurements. Modelling of transmittance spectra using standard multilayer film theory confirmed the high quality of the twelve-period Bragg reflectors. The chromaticity coordinates, which were calculated from measured reflectance spectra taken at different angles, were in accordance with theoretical predictions.

  2. The nanotechnology of life-inspired systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzybowski, Bartosz A.; Huck, Wilhelm T. S.

    2016-07-01

    For some decades now, nanotechnology has been touted as the 'next big thing' with potential impact comparable to the steam, electricity or Internet revolutions -- but has it lived up to these expectations? While advances in top-down nanolithography, now reaching 10-nm resolution, have resulted in devices that are rapidly approaching mass production, attempts to produce nanoscale devices using bottom-up approaches have met with only limited success. We have been inundated with nanoparticles of almost any shape, material and composition, but their societal impact has been far from revolutionary, with growing concerns over their toxicity. Despite nebulous hopes that making hierarchical nanomaterials will lead to new, emergent properties, no breakthrough applications seem imminent. In this Perspective, we argue that the time is ripe to look beyond individual nano-objects and their static assemblies, and instead focus on systems comprising different types of 'nanoparts' interacting and/or communicating with one another to perform desired functions. Such systems are interesting for a variety of reasons: they can act autonomously without external electrical or optical connections, can be dynamic and reconfigurable, and can act as 'nanomachines' by directing the flow of mass, energy or information . In thinking how this systems nanoscience approach could be implemented to design useful -- as opposed to toy-model -- nanosystems, our choice of applications and our nanoengineering should be inspired by living matter.

  3. Bio-Inspired Solar Energy Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warncke, Kurt

    2009-11-01

    The areas of solar-powered catalysts for energy rich fuels formation and bio-inspired molecular assemblies for integrating photon-to-fuels pathways have been identified by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U. S. Department of Energy as challenges for the next generation of sustainable, high-efficiency solar energy conversion systems [1]. The light-harvesting, energy-transducing and carbon compound-synthesizing (carbon dioxide-fixing) reactions that are encompassed by natural photosynthesis offer molecular paradigms for efficient free energy capture and storage. We seek to emulate these features in cell-free, protein-based systems. Our goal is to transform the robust (alpha,beta)8-barrel fold of an enzyme that naturally catalyzes radical reactions into a catalytic module for the reduction of carbon dioxide to formate, by using the cobalt-containing cobalamins and other organocobalt centers. The activation of the catalytic center will be driven by photo-reduction, by using soluble and attached organic or semiconductor architectures. Progress on the biochemical, chemical, physical, and molecular biological (including rational design of high binding affinity and reactivity towards carbon dioxide) approaches to the development of the photocatalytic system will be presented.[4pt] [1] Lewis, N.; Crabtree, G. In: Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization, Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization, Energy, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science: 2005.

  4. Bio-inspired hemispherical compound eye camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jianliang; Song, Young Min; Xie, Yizhu; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Jung, Inhwa; Choi, Ki-Joong; Liu, Zhuangjian; Park, Hyunsung; Lu, Chaofeng; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Li, Rui; Crozier, Kenneth B.; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2014-03-01

    Compound eyes in arthropods demonstrate distinct imaging characteristics from human eyes, with wide angle field of view, low aberrations, high acuity to motion and infinite depth of field. Artificial imaging systems with similar geometries and properties are of great interest for many applications. However, the challenges in building such systems with hemispherical, compound apposition layouts cannot be met through established planar sensor technologies and conventional optics. We present our recent progress in combining optics, materials, mechanics and integration schemes to build fully functional artificial compound eye cameras. Nearly full hemispherical shapes (about 160 degrees) with densely packed artificial ommatidia were realized. The number of ommatidia (180) is comparable to those of the eyes of fire ants and bark beetles. The devices combine elastomeric compound optical elements with deformable arrays of thin silicon photodetectors, which were fabricated in the planar geometries and then integrated and elastically transformed to hemispherical shapes. Imaging results and quantitative ray-tracing-based simulations illustrate key features of operation. These general strategies seem to be applicable to other compound eye devices, such as those inspired by moths and lacewings (refracting superposition eyes), lobster and shrimp (reflecting superposition eyes), and houseflies (neural superposition eyes).

  5. Biologically inspired robots as artificial inspectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2002-06-01

    Imagine an inspector conducting an NDE on an aircraft where you notice something is different about him - he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your first reaction would probably be to say 'it's unbelievable but he looks real' just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. This science fiction scenario could become a reality at the trend in the development of biologically inspired technologies, and terms like artificial intelligence, artificial muscles, artificial vision and numerous others are increasingly becoming common engineering tools. For many years, the trend has been to automate processes in order to increase the efficiency of performing redundant tasks where various systems have been developed to deal with specific production line requirements. Realizing that some parts are too complex or delicate to handle in small quantities with a simple automatic system, robotic mechanisms were developed. Aircraft inspection has benefitted from this evolving technology where manipulators and crawlers are developed for rapid and reliable inspection. Advancement in robotics towards making them autonomous and possibly look like human, can potentially address the need to inspect structures that are beyond the capability of today's technology with configuration that are not predetermined. The operation of these robots may take place at harsh or hazardous environments that are too dangerous for human presence. Making such robots is becoming increasingly feasible and in this paper the state of the art will be reviewed.

  6. Bio-inspired Artificial Apposition Compound Eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jianliang; Song, Youngmin; Xie, Yizhu; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John

    2014-03-01

    In arthropods, evolution has created a remarkably sophisticated class of imaging system, with wide angle field of view, low aberrations, high acuity to motion and infinite depth of field. A challenge in building digital cameras with the hemispherical, compound apposition layouts of arthropod eyes is that essential design requirements cannot be met with existing planar sensor technologies or conventional optics. We present ideas in materials, mechanics and integration schemes that enable scalable pathways to working, arthropod-inspired cameras in nearly full hemispherical shapes with surfaces densely populated by imaging elements (i.e. artificial ommatidia). The devices combine elastomeric compound optical elements with deformable arrays of thin silicon photodetectors, in co-integrated sheets that can be elastically transformed from the planar geometries in which they are fabricated, to hemispherical shapes for integration into apposition cameras. Experimental and theoretical studies reveal key aspects of the materials science and physics of these systems. Imaging results and quantitative ray-tracing based modeling illustrate essential features of their operation.

  7. The nanotechnology of life-inspired systems.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Bartosz A; Huck, Wilhelm T S

    2016-07-01

    For some decades now, nanotechnology has been touted as the 'next big thing' with potential impact comparable to the steam, electricity or Internet revolutions - but has it lived up to these expectations? While advances in top-down nanolithography, now reaching 10-nm resolution, have resulted in devices that are rapidly approaching mass production, attempts to produce nanoscale devices using bottom-up approaches have met with only limited success. We have been inundated with nanoparticles of almost any shape, material and composition, but their societal impact has been far from revolutionary, with growing concerns over their toxicity. Despite nebulous hopes that making hierarchical nanomaterials will lead to new, emergent properties, no breakthrough applications seem imminent. In this Perspective, we argue that the time is ripe to look beyond individual nano-objects and their static assemblies, and instead focus on systems comprising different types of 'nanoparts' interacting and/or communicating with one another to perform desired functions. Such systems are interesting for a variety of reasons: they can act autonomously without external electrical or optical connections, can be dynamic and reconfigurable, and can act as 'nanomachines' by directing the flow of mass, energy or information . In thinking how this systems nanoscience approach could be implemented to design useful - as opposed to toy-model - nanosystems, our choice of applications and our nanoengineering should be inspired by living matter. PMID:27380745

  8. Enhanced photovoltaics inspired by the fovea centralis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalev, Gil; Schmitt, Sebastian W.; Embrechts, Heidemarie; Brönstrup, Gerald; Christiansen, Silke

    2015-02-01

    The fovea centralis is a closely-packed vertical array of inverted-cone photoreceptor cells located in the retina that is responsible for high acuity binocular vision. The cones are operational in well-lit environments and are responsible for trapping the impinging illumination. We present the vertical light-funnel silicon array as a light-trapping technique for photovoltaic applications that is bio-inspired by the properties of the fovea centralis. We use opto-electronic simulations to evaluate the performance of light-funnel solar cell arrays. Light-funnel arrays present ~65% absorption enhancement compared to a silicon film of identical thickness and exhibit power conversion efficiencies that are 60% higher than those of optimized nanowire arrays of the same thickness although nanowire arrays consist of more than 2.3 times the amount of silicon. We demonstrate the superior absorption of the light-funnel arrays as compared with recent advancements in the field. Fabrication of silicon light-funnel arrays using low-cost processing techniques is demonstrated.

  9. Viscous pumping inspired by flexible propulsion.

    PubMed

    Arco, Roger M; Vélez-Cordero, J Rodrigo; Lauga, Eric; Zenit, Roberto

    2014-09-01

    Fluid-suspended microorganisms have evolved different swimming and feeding strategies in order to cope with an environment dominated by viscous effects. For instance, ciliated organisms rely on the collective motion of flexible appendages to move and feed. By performing a non-reciprocal motion, flexible filaments can produce a net propulsive force, or pump fluid, in the absence of inertia. Inspired by such a fundamental concept, we propose a strategy to produce macroscopic pumping and mixing in creeping flow. We measured experimentally the net motion of a Newtonian viscous fluid induced by the reciprocal motion of a flapper. When the flapper is rigid no net motion is induced. In contrast, when the flapper is made of a flexible material, a net fluid pumping is measured. We quantify the effectiveness of this pumping strategy and show that optimal pumping is achieved when the length of the flapper is on the same order as the elasto-hydrodynamic penetration length. We finally discuss the possible applications of flexible impellers in mixing operations at low Reynolds numbers. PMID:24667497

  10. Biologically Inspired Purification and Dispersion of SWCNTs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Clarke, Mark S.; Nikolaev, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    A biologically inspired method has been developed for (1) separating single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) from other materials (principally, amorphous carbon and metal catalysts) in raw production batches and (2) dispersing the SWCNTs as individual particles (in contradistinction to ropes and bundles) in suspension, as required for a number of applications. Prior methods of purification and dispersal of SWCNTs involve, variously, harsh physical processes (e.g., sonication) or harsh chemical processes (e.g., acid reflux). These processes do not completely remove the undesired materials and do not disperse bundles and ropes into individual suspended SWCNTs. Moreover, these processes cut long SWCNTs into shorter pieces, yielding typical nanotube lengths between 150 and 250 nm. In contrast, the present method does not involve harsh physical or chemical processes. The method involves the use of biologically derived dispersal agents (BDDAs) in an aqueous solution that is mechanically homogenized (but not sonicated) and centrifuged. The dense solid material remaining after centrifugation is resuspended by vortexing in distilled water, yielding an aqueous suspension of individual, separated SWCNTs having lengths from about 10 to about 15 microns.

  11. Bio-inspired tactile sensing arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahiya, Ravinder S.; Valle, Maurizio; Metta, Giorgio; Lorenzelli, Leandro

    2009-05-01

    This work presents the development of tactile sensing arrays, inspired by cutaneous sensing in humans, for the fingertips of a humanoid robot. The tactile sensing arrays have been developed in two phases. Microelectrode arrays (MEA), having 32 sensing elements - each epoxy adhered with 25μm thick piezoelectric polymer (PVDF-TrFE) film, were fabricated in the first phase. When connected to the gate of FET devices (external to the chip), each element on MEA acts like an extended gate; thereby facilitating modulation of charge in the induced channel by the charge generated in PVDF-TrFE film - as a result of applied force. Thus, each sensing element converts force into voltage. The tactile sensing arrays developed in second phase work on the same principle but are free from any extended gate. These arrays (having 25 sensing elements) use POSFET (Piezoelectric Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors) touch sensing elements - in which, piezoelectric polymer film is directly spin coated on the gate area of the FET devices. Thus, a POSFET touch sensing element 'senses and partially processes at same site' - as is done by receptors in human skin. The spatial-temporal performance of these chips is similar to that of skin in the human fingertips.

  12. Biologically inspired circuitry that mimics mammalian hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Allyn; Cohen, Howard; Karl, Christian; Freedman, David; Mountain, David; Ziph-Schatzberg, Leah; Nourzad Karl, Marianne; Kelsall, Sarah; Gore, Tyler; Pu, Yirong; Yang, Zibing; Xing, Xinyu; Deligeorges, Socrates

    2009-05-01

    We are developing low-power microcircuitry that implements classification and direction finding systems of very small size and small acoustic aperture. Our approach was inspired by the fact that small mammals are able to localize sounds despite their ears may be separated by as little as a centimeter. Gerbils, in particular are good low-frequency localizers, which is a particularly difficult task, since a wavelength at 500 Hz is on the order of two feet. Given such signals, crosscorrelation- based methods to determine direction fail badly in the presence of a small amount of noise, e.g. wind noise and noise clutter common to almost any realistic environment. Circuits are being developed using both analog and digital techniques, each of which process signals in fundamentally the same way the peripheral auditory system of mammals processes sound. A filter bank represents filtering done by the cochlea. The auditory nerve is implemented using a combination of an envelope detector, an automatic gain stage, and a unique one-bit A/D, which creates what amounts to a neural impulse. These impulses are used to extract pitch characteristics, which we use to classify sounds such as vehicles, small and large weaponry from AK-47s to 155mm cannon, including mortar launches and impacts. In addition to the pitchograms, we also use neural nets for classification.

  13. Liquid crystal assemblies in biologically inspired systems

    PubMed Central

    Safinya, Cyrus R.; Deek, Joanna; Beck, Roy; Jones, Jayna B.; Leal, Cecilia; Ewert, Kai K.; Li, Youli

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, which is part of a collection in honor of Noel Clark's remarkable career on liquid crystal and soft matter research, we present examples of biologically inspired systems, which form liquid crystal (LC) phases with their LC nature impacting biological function in cells or being important in biomedical applications. One area focuses on understanding network and bundle formation of cytoskeletal polyampholytes (filamentous-actin, microtubules, and neurofilaments). Here, we describe studies on neurofilaments (NFs), the intermediate filaments of neurons, which form open network nematic liquid crystal hydrogels in axons. Synchrotron small-angle-x-ray scattering studies of NF-protein dilution experiments and NF hydrogels subjected to osmotic stress show that neurofilament networks are stabilized by competing long-range repulsion and attractions mediated by the neurofilament's polyampholytic sidearms. The attractions are present both at very large interfilament spacings, in the weak sidearm-interpenetrating regime, and at smaller interfilament spacings, in the strong sidearm-interpenetrating regime. A second series of experiments will describe the structure and properties of cationic liposomes (CLs) complexed with nucleic acids (NAs). CL-NA complexes form liquid crystalline phases, which interact in a structure-dependent manner with cellular membranes enabling the design of complexes for efficient delivery of nucleic acid (DNA, RNA) in therapeutic applications. PMID:24558293

  14. A Retinal Mechanism Inspired Color Constancy Model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian-Shi; Gao, Shao-Bing; Li, Ruo-Xuan; Du, Xin-Yu; Li, Chao-Yi; Li, Yong-Jie

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel model for the computational color constancy, inspired by the amazing ability of the human vision system (HVS) to perceive the color of objects largely constant as the light source color changes. The proposed model imitates the color processing mechanisms in the specific level of the retina, the first stage of the HVS, from the adaptation emerging in the layers of cone photoreceptors and horizontal cells (HCs) to the color-opponent mechanism and disinhibition effect of the non-classical receptive field in the layer of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In particular, HC modulation provides a global color correction with cone-specific lateral gain control, and the following RGCs refine the processing with iterative adaptation until all the three opponent channels reach their stable states (i.e., obtain stable outputs). Instead of explicitly estimating the scene illuminant(s), such as most existing algorithms, our model directly removes the effect of scene illuminant. Evaluations on four commonly used color constancy data sets show that the proposed model produces competitive results in comparison with the state-of-the-art methods for the scenes under either single or multiple illuminants. The results indicate that single opponency, especially the disinhibitory effect emerging in the receptive field's subunit-structured surround of RGCs, plays an important role in removing scene illuminant(s) by inherently distinguishing the spatial structures of surfaces from extensive illuminant(s). PMID:26766375

  15. A novel biologically inspired local feature descriptor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Tian, Tian; Tian, Jinwen; Gong, Junbin; Ming, Delie

    2014-06-01

    Local feature descriptor is a fundamental representation for image patch which has been extensively used in many computer vision applications. In this paper, different from state-of-the-art features, a novel biologically inspired local descriptor (BILD) is proposed based on the visual information processing mechanism of ventral pathway in human brain. The local features used for constructing BILD are extracted by a two-layer network, which corresponds to the simple-to-complex cell hierarchy in the primary visual cortex (V1). It works in a similar way as the simple cell and complex cell do to get responses by applying the lateral inhibition from different orientations and operating an improved cortical pooling. To enhance the distinctiveness of BILD, we combine the local features from different orientations. Extensive evaluations have been performed for image matching and object recognition. Experimental results reveal that our proposed BILD outperforms many widely used descriptors such as SIFT and SURF, which demonstrate its efficiency for representing local regions. PMID:24677037

  16. Medical Imaging Inspired Vertex Reconstruction at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hageböck, S.; von Toerne, E.

    2012-12-01

    Three-dimensional image reconstruction in medical applications (PET or X-ray CT) utilizes sophisticated filter algorithms to linear trajectories of coincident photon pairs or x-rays. The goal is to reconstruct an image of an emitter density distribution. In a similar manner, tracks in particle physics originate from vertices that need to be distinguished from background track combinations. In this study it is investigated if vertex reconstruction in high energy proton collisions may benefit from medical imaging methods. A new method of vertex finding, the Medical Imaging Vertexer (MIV), is presented based on a three-dimensional filtered backprojection algorithm. It is compared to the open-source RAVE vertexing package. The performance of the vertex finding algorithms is evaluated as a function of instantaneous luminosity using simulated LHC collisions. Tracks in these collisions are described by a simplified detector model which is inspired by the tracking performance of the LHC experiments. At high luminosities (25 pileup vertices and more), the medical imaging approach finds vertices with a higher efficiency and purity than the RAVE “Adaptive Vertex Reconstructor” algorithm. It is also much faster if more than 25 vertices are to be reconstructed because the amount of CPU time rises linearly with the number of tracks whereas it rises quadratically for the adaptive vertex fitter AVR.

  17. Planck-scale nonthermal correlations in a noncommutative geometry inspired Vaidya black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdipour, S. Hamid

    2012-05-01

    Using the noncommutative geometry inspired Vaidya metric obtained in terms of coordinate coherent states and also utilizing the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), we show that the nonthermal nature of the Hawking spectrum leads to Planck-scale nonthermal correlations between emitted modes of evaporation. Our analysis thus exhibits that owing to self-gravitational effects plus noncommutativity and GUP influences, information can emerge in the form of Planck-scale correlated emissions from the black hole.

  18. Ant- and Ant-Colony-Inspired ALife Visual Art.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Gary; Machado, Penousal

    2015-01-01

    Ant- and ant-colony-inspired ALife art is characterized by the artistic exploration of the emerging collective behavior of computational agents, developed using ants as a metaphor. We present a chronology that documents the emergence and history of such visual art, contextualize ant- and ant-colony-inspired art within generative art practices, and consider how it relates to other ALife art. We survey many of the algorithms that artists have used in this genre, address some of their aims, and explore the relationships between ant- and ant-colony-inspired art and research on ant and ant colony behavior. PMID:26280070

  19. Copper removal using bio-inspired polydopamine coated natural zeolites.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Shapter, Joseph G; Popelka-Filcoff, Rachel; Bennett, John W; Ellis, Amanda V

    2014-05-30

    Herein, for the first time, natural clinoptilolite-rich zeolite powders modified with a bio-inspired adhesive, polydopamine (PDA), have been systematically studied as an adsorbent for copper cations (Cu(II)) from aqueous solution. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed successful grafting of PDA onto the zeolite surface. The effects of pH (2-5.5), PDA treatment time (3-24h), contact time (0 to 24h) and initial Cu(II) ion concentrations (1 to 500mgdm(-3)) on the adsorption of Cu(II) ions were studied using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). The adsorption behavior was fitted to a Langmuir isotherm and shown to follow a pseudo-second-order reaction model. The maximum adsorption capacities of Cu(II) were shown to be 14.93mgg(-1) for pristine natural zeolite and 28.58mgg(-1) for PDA treated zeolite powders. This impressive 91.4% increase in Cu(II) ion adsorption capacity is attributed to the chelating ability of the PDA on the zeolite surface. Furthermore studies of recyclability using NAA showed that over 50% of the adsorbed copper could be removed in mild concentrations (0.01M or 0.1M) of either acid or base. PMID:24731937

  20. Biologically Inspired Flagella-Templated Silica Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Wonjin

    The desire and need for various types of nanostructures have been met with challenges of feasibility, reproducibility, and long fabrication time. To work towards improved bottom-up methods of nanofabrication, bacterial flagella are particularly attractive bio-templates for nanotubes due to their tubular structures and small inner and outer diameters. In this work, flagella isolated from Salmonella typhimurium are used as bio-templates to fabricate silica mineralized nanotubes. The process involves as well-controlled hydrolysis and condensation reaction with aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), followed by the addition of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). By controlling the concentration of TEOS and the reaction time, a simple and precise method is developed for creating silica-mineralized flagella nanotubes (SMFNs) with various thicknesses of the silica layer. In addition, the SMFNs are further modified to multifunctional nanotubes by coating metal nanoparticles (NPs) or metal oxide NPs such as gold, palladium, and iron oxide. The metallized SMFNs are achieved through reactions including reductive metallization or oxidative hydrolysis. The results from these studies provide evidence for the complete coating of SMFNs with uniform metal NP sizes and high surface area coverage. The metallized SMFNs are found to be electrically conductive along their network structures. The current-voltage characteristics show remarkably improved electrical conductivities depending on the types of metal NPs loading and SMFN networks concentration. The biologically inspired SMFNs with metal loading will allow have controlled electrical properties that can lead to the potential of creating unique and precise nanoelectronic materials. Lastly, the randomly entangled SMFNs are characterized to demonstrate their capabilities for hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface applications.

  1. Recent Advances in Skin-Inspired Sensors Enabled by Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Kenneth J.; Azhari, Faezeh

    2012-07-01

    The highly optimized performance of nature's creations and biological assemblies has inspired the development of their bio-inspired artificial counterparts that can potentially outperform conventional systems. In particular, the skin of humans, animals, and insects exhibits unique functionalities and properties and has subsequently led to active research in developing skin-inspired sensors. This paper presents a summary of selected work related to skin-inspired tactile, distributed strain, and artificial hair cell flow sensors, with a particular focus on technologies enabled by recent advancements in the nanotechnology domain. The purpose is not to present a comprehensive review on this broad subject matter but rather to use selected work to outline the diversity of current research activities.

  2. Biomimetics - using nature as an inspiring model for innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2006-01-01

    In this presentation, various aspects of the field of biomimetics will be reviewed, examples of inspiring biological models and practical applications will be described, and challenges and potential direction of the field will be discussed.

  3. INSPIRE - Premission. [Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, William W. L.; Mideke, Michael; Pine, William E.; Ericson, James D.

    1992-01-01

    The Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment (INSPIRE) designed to assist in a Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC) project is discussed. INSPIRE is aimed at recording data from a large number of receivers on the ground to determine the exact propagation paths and absorption of radio waves at frequencies between 50 Hz and 7 kHz. It is indicated how to participate in the experiment that will involve high school classes, colleges, and amateur radio operators.

  4. Functional MRI localisation of central nervous system regions associated with volitional inspiration in humans

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Karleyton C; Shea, Steven A; Saykin, Andrew J

    1999-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a means of studying neuronal circuits that control respiratory muscles in humans with better spatial and temporal resolution than in previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies. Whole brain blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) changes determined by fMRI were used to identify areas of neuronal activation associated with volitional inspiration in five healthy men. Four series of scans of each subject were acquired during voluntary breathing (active task) and mechanical ventilation (passive task). Ventilation and end-tidal PCO2 were similar between tasks. Scan data were re-aligned to correct for movement artefacts and cross-referenced breath by breath to respiratory data for selective averaging of inspiratory and expiratory images. Group analysis identified significant increases in the fMRI signal with volitional inspiration in the superior motor cortex, premotor cortex and supplementary motor area at loci similar to those detected in earlier studies that used PET. Additional regions activated by volitional inspiration included inferolateral sensorimotor cortex, prefrontal cortex and striatum (these foci were only revealed by PET under significant inspiratory load). This study represents the first synchronised breath-by-breath analysis of respiratory-related neuronal activity with whole brain imaging in humans. Temporal resolution is sufficient to distinguish individual breaths at a normal breathing frequency. PMID:10523407

  5. The flow past a cactus-inspired grooved cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Makdah, Adnan M.; Oweis, Ghanem F.

    2013-02-01

    The star-shaped cross section of giant cylindrical cactus plants is thought to be aerodynamically favorable for protection against toppling by strong winds. Particle image velocimetry is used to investigate the flow details within the surface grooves and in the immediate wake of a cactus-inspired model cylinder with eight longitudinal grooves, at biologically relevant Reynolds numbers between 50 × 103 and 170 × 103. The wake flow is analyzed and compared to a similarly sized circular cylinder. At the lowest Re tested, the wakes from the two geometries are similar. At higher Re, the cactus wake exhibits superior behavior as seen from the mean and turbulent velocities, suggesting that the flow mechanisms are Re dependent. The flow within the surface grooves reveals counter rotating rollers, while the geometrical ridges act as vortex generators known to help with the surface flow attachment. Lastly, a simplistic analysis is described to recover, qualitatively, certain time-dependent flow features from the randomly acquired PIV realizations.

  6. Spontaneous structural transition in phospholipid-inspired aromatic phosphopeptide nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Pellach, Michal; Atsmon-Raz, Yoav; Simonovsky, Eyal; Gottlieb, Hugo; Jacoby, Guy; Beck, Roy; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Miller, Yifat; Gazit, Ehud

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipid membranes could be considered a prime example of the ability of nature to produce complex yet ordered structures, by spontaneous and efficient self-assembly. Inspired by the unique properties and architecture of phospholipids, we designed simple amphiphilic decapeptides, intended to fold in the center of the peptide sequence, with a phosphorylated serine "head" located within a central turn segment, and two hydrophobic "tails". The molecular design also included the integration of the diphenylalanine motif, previously shown to facilitate self-assembly and increase nanostructure stability. Secondary structure analysis of the peptides indeed indicated the presence of stabilized conformations in solution, with a central turn connecting two hydrophobic "tails", and interactions between the hydrophobic strands. The mechanisms of assembly into supramolecular structures involved structural transitions between different morphologies, which occurred over several hours, leading to the formation of distinctive nanostructures, including half-elliptical nanosheets and curved tapes. The phosphopeptide building blocks appear to self-assemble via a particular combination of aromatic, hydrophobic and ionic interactions, as well as hydrogen bonding, as demonstrated by proposed constructed simulated models of the peptides and self-assembled nanostructures. Molecular dynamics simulations also gave insight into mechanisms of structural transitions of the nanostructures at a molecular level. Because of the biocompatibility of peptides, the phosphopeptide assemblies allow for expansion of the library of biomolecular nanostructures available for future design and application of biomedical devices. PMID:25802000

  7. Bio-inspired interfacial strengthening strategy through geometrically interlocking designs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuming; Yao, Haimin; Ortiz, Christine; Xu, Jinquan; Dao, Ming

    2012-11-01

    Many biological materials, such as nacre and bone, are hybrid materials composed of stiff brittle ceramics and compliant organic materials. These natural organic/inorganic composites exhibit much enhanced strength and toughness in comparison to their constituents and inspires enormous biomimetic endeavors aiming to synthesize materials with superior mechanical properties. However, most current synthetic composites have not exhibited their full potential of property enhancement compared to the natural prototypes they are mimicking. One of the key issues is the weak junctions between stiff and compliant phases, which need to be optimized according to the intended functions of the composite material. Motivated by the geometrically interlocking designs of natural biomaterials, here we propose an interfacial strengthening strategy by introducing geometrical interlockers on the interfaces between compliant and stiff phases. Finite element analysis (FEA) shows that the strength of the composite depends strongly on the geometrical features of interlockers including shape, size, and structural hierarchy. Even for the most unfavorable scenario when neither adhesion nor friction is present between stiff and compliant phases, the tensile strength of the composites with proper interlocker design can reach up to 70% of the ideal value. The findings in this paper would provide guidelines to the improvement of the mechanical properties of current biomimetic composites. PMID:23032427

  8. Biologically inspired highly efficient buoyancy engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akle, Barbar; Habchi, Wassim; Abdelnour, Rita; Blottman, John, III; Leo, Donald

    2012-04-01

    Undersea distributed networked sensor systems require a miniaturization of platforms and a means of both spatial and temporal persistence. One aspect of this system is the necessity to modulate sensor depth for optimal positioning and station-keeping. Current approaches involve pneumatic bladders or electrolysis; both require mechanical subsystems and consume significant power. These are not suitable for the miniaturization of sensor platforms. Presented in this study is a novel biologically inspired method that relies on ionic motion and osmotic pressures to displace a volume of water from the ocean into and out of the proposed buoyancy engine. At a constant device volume, the displaced water will alter buoyancy leading to either sinking or floating. The engine is composed of an enclosure sided on the ocean's end by a Nafion ionomer and by a flexible membrane separating the water from a gas enclosure. Two electrodes are placed one inside the enclosure and the other attached to the engine on the outside. The semi-permeable membrane Nafion allows water motion in and out of the enclosure while blocking anions from being transferred. The two electrodes generate local concentration changes of ions upon the application of an electrical field; these changes lead to osmotic pressures and hence the transfer of water through the semi-permeable membrane. Some aquatic organisms such as pelagic crustacean perform this buoyancy control using an exchange of ions through their tissue to modulate its density relative to the ambient sea water. In this paper, the authors provide an experimental proof of concept of this buoyancy engine. The efficiency of changing the engine's buoyancy is calculated and optimized as a function of electrode surface area. For example electrodes made of a 3mm diameter Ag/AgCl proved to transfer approximately 4mm3 of water consuming 4 Joules of electrical energy. The speed of displacement is optimized as a function of the surface area of the Nafion

  9. Lunabotics Mining Competition: Inspiration through Accomplishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Space Mining for resources such as water ice, and regolith, which contain many elements in the form of metals, minerals, volatiles and other compounds, is a necessary step in Space Resource Utilization. One of the primary goals is to extract propellants from the regolith such as oxygen and hydrogen which could then be used for in-space transportation. In addition, the space mining system can be used for various construction tasks that can benefit human and robotic exploration as well as scientific investigations based on the exposed topography. The National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) Lunabotics Mining Competition is a university-level competition designed to engage and retain students in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). NASA will directly benefit from the competition by encouraging the development of innovative lunar excavation concepts from universities which may result in clever ideas and solutions which could be applied to an actual lunar excavation device or payload. The challenge is for students to design and build a remote controlled or autonomous excavator, called a lunabot, that can collect and deposit a minimum of 10 kilograms of lunar simulant within 15 minutes. The complexities of the challenge include the abrasive characteristics of the lunar simulant, the weight and size limitations of the lunabot, and the ability to control the lunabot from a remote control center or operate autonomously. This paper will present an update of the results and lessons learned during the first and second annual Lunabotics Mining Competitions held in May 2010 and May 2011. It will also preview the 2012 competition with a review of the revised rules. In 2010,22 United States (US) universities competed, and in May 2011 the competition was opened to international participation. In 2011, 36 teams actually competed from 26 USA states and 4 foreign countries (India, Bangladesh, Colombia and Canada). This combined total directly inspired an

  10. Neurally inspired rapid detection of sparse objects in videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosla, Deepak; Huber, David J.; Bhattacharyya, Rajan; Daily, Mike; Tasinga, Penn

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we describe COGNIVA, a closed-loop Cognitive-Neural method and system for image and video analysis that combines recent technological breakthroughs in bio-vision cognitive algorithms and neural signatures of human visual processing. COGNIVA is an "operational neuroscience" framework for intelligent and rapid search and categorization of Items Of Interest (IOI) in imagery and video. The IOI could be a single object, group of objects, specific image regions, specific spatio-temporal pattern/sequence or even the category that the image itself belongs to (e.g., vehicle or non-vehicle). There are two main types of approach for rapid search and categorization of IOI in imagery and video. The first approach uses conventional machine vision or bio-inspired cognitive algorithms. These usually need a predefined set of IOI and suffer from high false alarm rates. The second class of algorithms is based on neural signatures of target detection. These algorithms usually break the entire image into sub-images and process EEG data from these images and classify them based on it. This approach may suffer from high false alarms and is slow because the entire image is chipped and presented to the human observer. The proposed COGNIVA overcomes the limitations of both methods by combining them resulting in a low false alarm rate and high detection with high throughput making it applicable to both image and video analysis. In the most basic form, COGNIVA first uses bioinspired cognitive algorithms for deciding potential IOI in a sequence of images/video. These potential IOI are then shown to a human and neural signatures of visual detection of IOI are collected and processed. The resulting signatures are used to categorize and provide final IOI. We will present the concept and typical results of COGNIVA for detecting Items of interest in image data.

  11. Modelling cephalopod-inspired pulsed-jet locomotion for underwater soft robots.

    PubMed

    Renda, F; Giorgio-Serchi, F; Boyer, F; Laschi, C

    2015-10-01

    Cephalopods (i.e., octopuses and squids) are being looked upon as a source of inspiration for the development of unmanned underwater vehicles. One kind of cephalopod-inspired soft-bodied vehicle developed by the authors entails a hollow, elastic shell capable of performing a routine of recursive ingestion and expulsion of discrete slugs of fluids which enable the vehicle to propel itself in water. The vehicle performances were found to depend largely on the elastic response of the shell to the actuation cycle, thus motivating the development of a coupled propulsion-elastodynamics model of such vehicles. The model is developed and validated against a set of experimental results performed with the existing cephalopod-inspired prototypes. A metric of the efficiency of the propulsion routine which accounts for the elastic energy contribution during the ingestion/expulsion phases of the actuation is formulated. Demonstration on the use of this model to estimate the efficiency of the propulsion routine for various pulsation frequencies and for different morphologies of the vehicles are provided. This metric of efficiency, employed in association with the present elastodynamics model, provides a useful tool for performing a priori energetic analysis which encompass both the design specifications and the actuation pattern of this new kind of underwater vehicle. PMID:26414068

  12. Synthetic streams in a gravitational wave inspiral search with a multidetector network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haris, K.; Pai, Archana

    2014-07-01

    A gravitational wave inspiral search with a global network of interferometers when carried in a phase coherent fashion mimics a search with two effective synthetic data streams. The streams are constructed by the linear combination of the overwhitened data from individual detectors. We demonstrate here that the two synthetic data streams pertaining to the two polarizations of the gravitational wave can be derived prior to the maximum-likelihood analysis in a most natural way using the technique of singular-value decomposition applied to the network signal-to-noise ratio vector. The singular-value technique combined with the matched filtering in network plus spectral space enables the construction of the synthetic streams. We further show that the network log likelihood ratio is then the sum of the log-likelihood ratios of these synthetic streams. In this formalism, the four extrinsic parameters of the nonspinning inspiral signal, namely, amplitude, initial phase, binary inclination, and the polarization {A0,ϕa,ɛ ,Ψ}, are mapped to the two amplitudes and two phases, namely, {ρL,ρR,ΦL,ΦR}. We show that the maximization over the new extrinsic parameters is a straightforward exercise closely linked to the single detector approach in the literature. Toward the end, we connect all the previous works related to the multidetector gravitational wave inspiral search and present in the same notation.

  13. Caterpillar locomotion-inspired valveless pneumatic micropump using a single teardrop-shaped elastomeric membrane.

    PubMed

    So, Hongyun; Pisano, Albert P; Seo, Young Ho

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a microfluidic pump operated by an asymmetrically deformed membrane, which was inspired by caterpillar locomotion. Almost all mechanical micropumps consist of two major components of fluid halting and fluid pushing parts, whereas the proposed caterpillar locomotion-inspired micropump has only a single, bilaterally symmetric membrane-like teardrop shape. A teardrop-shaped elastomeric membrane was asymmetrically deformed and then consecutively touched down to the bottom of the chamber in response to pneumatic pressure, thus achieving fluid pushing. Consecutive touchdown motions of the teardrop-shaped membrane mimicked the propagation of a caterpillar's hump during its locomotory gait. The initial touchdown motion of the teardrop-shaped membrane at the centroid worked as a valve that blocked the inlet channel, and then, the consecutive touchdown motions pushed fluid in the chamber toward the tail of the chamber connected to the outlet channel. The propagation of the touchdown motion of the teardrop-shaped membrane was investigated using computational analysis as well as experimental studies. This caterpillar locomotion-inspired micropump composed of only a single membrane can provide new opportunities for simple integration of microfluidic systems. PMID:24812661

  14. Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Jun; Lee, Youngseop; Kim, Ha Gon; Choi, Ki-Ju; Kweon, Hee-Seok; Park, Seongchong; Jeong, Ki-Hun

    2012-01-01

    Cuticular nanostructures found in insects effectively manage light for light polarization, structural color, or optical index matching within an ultrathin natural scale. These nanostructures are mainly dedicated to manage incoming light and recently inspired many imaging and display applications. A bioluminescent organ, such as a firefly lantern, helps to out-couple light from the body in a highly efficient fashion for delivering strong optical signals in sexual communication. However, the cuticular nanostructures, except the light-producing reactions, have not been well investigated for physical principles and engineering biomimetics. Here we report a unique observation of high-transmission nanostructures on a firefly lantern and its biological inspiration for highly efficient LED illumination. Both numerical and experimental results clearly reveal high transmission through the nanostructures inspired from the lantern cuticle. The nanostructures on an LED lens surface were fabricated by using a large-area nanotemplating and reconfigurable nanomolding with heat-induced shear thinning. The biologically inspired LED lens, distinct from a smooth surface lens, substantially increases light transmission over visible ranges, comparable to conventional antireflection coating. This biological inspiration can offer new opportunities for increasing the light extraction efficiency of high-power LED packages. PMID:23112185

  15. Biomimetics as a Model for Inspiring Human Innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2006-01-01

    Electroactive polymers (EAP) are human made actuators that are the closest to mimic biological muscles. Technology was advanced to the level that biologically inspired robots are taking increasing roles in the world around us and making science fiction ideas a closer engineering reality. Artificial technologies (AI, AM, and others) are increasingly becoming practical tools for making biologically inspired devices and instruments with enormous potential for space applications. Polymer materials are used to produce figures that resemble human and animals. These materials are widely employed by the movie industry for making acting figures and by the orthopedic industry to construct cyborg components. There are still many challenges ahead that are critical to making such possibilities practical. The annual armwrestling contest is providing an exciting measure of how well advances in EAP are implemented to address the field challenges. There is a need to document natures inventions in an engineering form to possibly inspire new capabilities.

  16. Flow over bio-inspired 3D herringbone wall riblets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huawei; Rao, Fugang; Shang, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Deyuan; Hagiwara, Ichiro

    2014-03-01

    Under the inspiration of small riblets of shark skin, the microgroove drag reduction riblets whose direction set along fluid flow have been widely investigated. Herringbone-type riblets of bird flight feather are seldom exploited although bird also has excellent flight performance. Inspired from the flight feather, novel bio-inspired plane-3D (p-3D) and spatial-3D (s-3D) herringbone wall riblets are proposed. Through experiment measurement of drag reduction in water tunnel, maximum drag reduction of p-3D and s-3D herringbone riblets was about 17 and 20 %, higher than traditional microgroove riblets. Moreover, significant change of drag reduction was also found by change of the angle between herringbone riblets. In particular, maximum drag reduction occurred as angle between herringbone riblets was about 60° close to real flight feather, which indicates that microstructure of bird flight feather has great impact on flight performance.

  17. INSPIRE: Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzen, K. A.; Garcia, L. N.; Webb, P. A.; Green, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    The INSPIRE Project is a non-profit scientific and educational corporation whose objective is to bring the excitement of observing very low frequency (VLF) natural radio waves to high school students. Underlying this objective is the conviction that science and technology are the underpinnings of our modern society, and that only with an understanding of these disciplines can people make correct decisions in their lives. Since 1989, the INSPIRE Project has provided specially designed radio receiver kits to over 2,500 students and other groups to make observations of signals in the VLF frequency range. These kits provide an innovative and unique opportunity for students to actively gather data that can be used in a basic research project. Natural VLF emissions that can be studied with the INSPIRE receiver kits include sferics, tweeks, whistlers, and chorus, which originate from phenomena such as lightning. These emissions can either come from the local atmospheric environment within a few tens of kilometers of the receiver or from outer space thousands of kilometers from the Earth. VLF emissions are at such low frequencies that they can be received, amplified and turned into sound that we can hear, with each emission producing in a distinctive sound. In 2006 INSPIRE was re-branded and its mission has expanded to developing new partnerships with multiple science projects. Links to magnetospheric physics, astronomy, and meteorology are being identified. This presentation will introduce the INSPIRE project, display the INSPIRE receiver kits, show examples of the types of VLF emissions that can be collected and provide information on scholarship programs being offered.

  18. Description of ligand field splitting in terms of density functional theory: Split levels of the lowest-lying subterms of the 4f{sup n{minus}1}6s{sup 2} (n=3{endash}14) configurations in lanthanide monofluorides LnF (Ln=Pr{endash}Yb)

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, J.; Whangbo, M.; Dai, D.; Li, L.

    1998-05-01

    The split levels associated with the lowest-lying subterms of the 4f{sup n{minus}1}6s{sup 2} (n=3{endash}14) configurations of lanthanide monofluorides LnF (Ln=Pr{endash}Yb) were calculated by employing the combined ligand field and density functional theory (CLDT) method recently proposed. The 288 calculated split levels are in excellent agreement with experiment and hence shows that the CLDT method can accurately reproduce the low-lying electronic excited states of lanthanide compounds. To quantitatively describe the low-lying electronic states of a lanthanide compound, therefore, the effective ligand potential must include the Coulomb and exchange-correlation potentials of the compound as well as the pseudopotentials of the ligands. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Inspiration and Intellect: Significant Learning in Musical Forms and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Bruce C.

    2009-01-01

    In his book "Creating Significant Learning Experiences" (2003), Dee Fink challenges professors to create a deep vision for the courses they teach. Educators often have a vision for what their courses could be, but often lack a model for instituting change. Fink's book provides that model. In this article, the author describes how this model helped…

  20. Reproduction and optical analysis of Morpho-inspired polymeric nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tippets, Cary A.; Fu, Yulan; Jackson, Anne-Martine; Donev, Eugenii U.; Lopez, Rene

    2016-06-01

    The brilliant blue coloration of the Morpho rhetenor butterfly originates from complex nanostructures found on the surface of its wings. The Morpho butterfly exhibits strong short-wavelength reflection and a unique two-lobe optical signature in the incident (θ) and reflected (ϕ) angular space. Here, we report the large-area fabrication of a Morpho-like structure and its reproduction in perfluoropolyether. Reflection comparisons of periodic and quasi-random ‘polymer butterfly’ nanostructures show similar normal-incidence spectra but differ in the angular θ–ϕ dependence. The periodic sample shows strong specular reflection and simple diffraction. However, the quasi-random sample produces a two-lobe angular reflection pattern with minimal specular refection, approximating the real butterfly’s optical behavior. Finite-difference time-domain simulations confirm that this pattern results from the quasi-random periodicity and highlights the significance of the inherent randomness in the Morpho’s photonic structure.

  1. Tunneling of massive particles from noncommutative inspired Schwarzschild black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Yan-Gang; Xue, Zhao; Zhang, Shao-Jun

    2012-02-01

    We apply the generalization of the Parikh-Wilczek method to the tunneling of massive particles from noncommutative inspired Schwarzschild black holes. By deriving the equation of radial motion of the tunneling particle directly, we calculate the emission rate which is shown to be dependent on the noncommutative parameter besides the energy and mass of the tunneling particle. After equating the emission rate to the Boltzmann factor, we obtain the modified Hawking temperature which relates to the noncommutativity and recovers the standard Hawking temperature in the commutative limit. We also discuss the entropy of the noncommutative inspired Schwarzschild black hole and its difference after and before a massive particle's emission.

  2. White dwarfs in an ungravity-inspired model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolami, Orfeu; Mariji, Hodjat

    2016-05-01

    An ungravity-inspired model is employed to examine the astrophysical parameters of white dwarf stars (WDs) using polytropic and degenerate gas approaches. Based on the observed properties such as mass, radius, and luminosity of selected WDs, namely, Sirius B and ɛ Reticulum, bounds on the characteristic length and scaling dimension of the ungravity (UG) model are estimated. The UG effect on the Chandrasekhar limit for WDs is shown. The UG model is examined in the study of ultramassive WDs, e.g., EUVE J1746-706. The UG-inspired model implies that a new location for some WDs on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is found.

  3. Self-organization, embodiment, and biologically inspired robotics.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Rolf; Lungarella, Max; Iida, Fumiya

    2007-11-16

    Robotics researchers increasingly agree that ideas from biology and self-organization can strongly benefit the design of autonomous robots. Biological organisms have evolved to perform and survive in a world characterized by rapid changes, high uncertainty, indefinite richness, and limited availability of information. Industrial robots, in contrast, operate in highly controlled environments with no or very little uncertainty. Although many challenges remain, concepts from biologically inspired (bio-inspired) robotics will eventually enable researchers to engineer machines for the real world that possess at least some of the desirable properties of biological organisms, such as adaptivity, robustness, versatility, and agility. PMID:18006736

  4. Wetting-controlled strategies: from theories to bio-inspiration.

    PubMed

    Song, Cheng; Zheng, Yongmei

    2014-08-01

    Creatures have evolved the unique wetting-controlled strategies on their surfaces to collect water for the sake of survival, such as Beetle back, spider silk and plant leaf as well, which inspires us to open the area of novel researches. In this feature article, we review the theoretical basis of wetting-controlling regarding of wettability and highlight the biological wetting-controlled strategies in water transport, and water collection, and also introduce some bio-inspired materials with water collection properties. It is significant to design the novel materials that would be used in the fields of responsive, smart catalysis, filtration and sensing besides water collection. PMID:24290249

  5. Bio-inspired supramolecular self-assembly towards soft nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    LIN, Yiyang; MAO, Chuanbin

    2011-01-01

    Supramolecular self-assembly has proven to be a reliable approach towards versatile nanomaterials based on multiple weak intermolecular forces. In this review, the development of bio-inspired supramolecular self-assembly into soft materials and their applications are summarized. Molecular systems used in bio-inspired “bottom-up self-assembly” involve small organic molecules, peptides or proteins, nucleic acids, and viruses. Self-assembled soft nanomaterials have been exploited in various applications such as inorganic nanomaterial synthesis, drug or gene delivery, tissue engineering, and so on. PMID:21980594

  6. Biologically-Inspired Concepts for Self-Management of Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, G.

    2006-01-01

    Inherent complexity in large-scale applications may be impossible to eliminate or even ameliorate despite a number of promising advances. In such cases, the complexity must be tolerated and managed. Such management may be beyond the abilities of humans, or require such overhead as to make management by humans unrealistic. A number of initiatives inspired by concepts in biology have arisen for self-management of complex systems. We present some ideas and techniques we have been experimenting with, inspired by lesser-known concepts in biology that show promise in protecting complex systems and represent a step towards self-management of complexity.

  7. Protein multiple sequence alignment by hybrid bio-inspired algorithms.

    PubMed

    Cutello, Vincenzo; Nicosia, Giuseppe; Pavone, Mario; Prizzi, Igor

    2011-03-01

    This article presents an immune inspired algorithm to tackle the Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA) problem. MSA is one of the most important tasks in biological sequence analysis. Although this paper focuses on protein alignments, most of the discussion and methodology may also be applied to DNA alignments. The problem of finding the multiple alignment was investigated in the study by Bonizzoni and Vedova and Wang and Jiang, and proved to be a NP-hard (non-deterministic polynomial-time hard) problem. The presented algorithm, called Immunological Multiple Sequence Alignment Algorithm (IMSA), incorporates two new strategies to create the initial population and specific ad hoc mutation operators. It is based on the 'weighted sum of pairs' as objective function, to evaluate a given candidate alignment. IMSA was tested using both classical benchmarks of BAliBASE (versions 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0), and experimental results indicate that it is comparable with state-of-the-art multiple alignment algorithms, in terms of quality of alignments, weighted Sums-of-Pairs (SP) and Column Score (CS) values. The main novelty of IMSA is its ability to generate more than a single suboptimal alignment, for every MSA instance; this behaviour is due to the stochastic nature of the algorithm and of the populations evolved during the convergence process. This feature will help the decision maker to assess and select a biologically relevant multiple sequence alignment. Finally, the designed algorithm can be used as a local search procedure to properly explore promising alignments of the search space. PMID:21071394

  8. Parameter estimation using a complete signal and inspiral templates for low-mass binary black holes with Advanced LIGO sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Hee-Suk

    2015-12-01

    We study the validity of inspiral templates in gravitational wave data analysis with Advanced LIGO sensitivity for low mass binary black holes with total masses of M≤slant 30{M}⊙ . We mainly focus on the nonspinning system. As our complete inspiral-merger-ringdown waveform model ({I}{M}{R} ), we assume the phenomenological model, ‘PhenomA’, and define our inspiral template model ({{I}}{{merg}}) by taking the inspiral part into account from {I}{M}{R} up to the merger frequency ({f}{{merg}}). We first calculate the true statistical uncertainties using {I}{M}{R} signals and {I}{M}{R} templates. Next, using {I}{M}{R} signals and {{I}}{{merg}} templates, we calculate fitting factors and systematic biases, and compare the biases with the true statistical uncertainties. We find that the valid criteria of the bank of {{I}}{{merg}} templates are obtained as {M}{{crit}}˜ 24{M}⊙ for detection (if M\\gt {M}{{crit}}, the fitting factor is smaller than 0.97), and {M}{{crit}}˜ 26{M}⊙ for parameter estimation (if M\\gt {M}{{crit}}, the systematic bias is larger than the true statistical uncertainty where the signal-to-noise ratio is 20), respectively. In order to see the dependence on the cutoff frequency of the inspiral waveforms, we define another inspiral model {{I}}{{isco}} which is terminated at the innermost-stable-circular-orbit frequency ({f}{{isco}}\\lt {f}{{merg}}). We find that the valid criteria of the bank of {{I}}{{isco}} templates are obtained as {M}{{crit}}˜ 15{M}⊙ and ˜ 17{M}⊙ for detection and parameter estimation, respectively. We investigate the statistical uncertainties for the inspiral template models considering various signal-to-noise ratios, and compare those to the true statistical uncertainties. We also consider the aligned-spinning system with fixed mass ratio ({m}1/{m}2=3) and spin (χ =0.5) by employing the recent phenomenological model, ‘PhenomC’. In this case, we find that the true statistical uncertainties can be much larger

  9. Dale Chihuly: An Inspiration in Art, Science, and Math!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbert, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Connecting students to the arts in a concrete way can be an effective teaching tool. In this article, the author describes how Dale Chihuly's "Hart Window," which features hand-blown glass disks affixed to the framework of the window, can be an inspiration for interdisciplinary connections in art, science and math. (Contains 4 online resources.)

  10. Printmaking with Geometric and Nature-Inspired Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burtner, Erin

    2012-01-01

    What excites the author the most is finding something new and turning it into a lesson her students will enjoy and learn from. Lately, she has been most inspired by the work she finds on one website. The lesson began with a brief PowerPoint based on an artist's website. This particular artist--Jennifer Schmitt--does reduction prints using several…

  11. Noncommutative geometry-inspired rotating black hole in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejeiro, Juan Manuel; Larrañaga, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    We find a new rotating black hole in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space using an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. We deduce the thermodynamical quantities of this black hole and compare them with those of a rotating BTZ solution.

  12. Nasal and Oral Inspiration during Natural Speech Breathing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Rosemary A.; Hoit, Jeannette D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the typical pattern for inspiration during speech breathing in healthy adults, as well as the factors that might influence it. Method: Ten healthy adults, 18-45 years of age, performed a variety of speaking tasks while nasal ram pressure, audio, and video recordings were obtained. Inspirations…

  13. In the Zone: Vygotskian-Inspired Pedagogy for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Cosette

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Lev Vygotsky's (1978) Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) provides inspiration for a teaching approach for sustainability in a social science discipline, where students often lack or have widely varied levels of foundational understanding. This qualitative case study describes intellectual processes and aspects of the educational…

  14. Music Inspired by Astronomy: A Great Outreach Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraknoi, A.

    2015-11-01

    We discuss and explain a selection of musical pieces (both classical and popular) that were inspired by astronomical ideas or observations. While the ideas behind such musical pieces can sometimes be a bit abstract, they make for good discussion in many educational and outreach settings.

  15. Pedagogy and Space: Design Inspirations for Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zane, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    The intersection of design and learning is a new and burgeoning area of interest in all levels of education. "Pedagogy and Space" combines architectural design information with early childhood theory to enhance children's learning and educators' experience within the space. Filled with colorful, inspiring photographs of intentionally…

  16. Teaching from the Heart: Reflections, Encouragement, and Inspiration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Sharon M.

    This book offers inspiration and encouragement to any person who may have lost sight of the rewards of teaching from a teacher who was the 1997 Teacher of the Year. It features essays, conversations, and poems that can provide a boost when teachers need one. The chapters are: "First Days--My First Days of School, as a Student Teacher, as a…

  17. Astrophysical constraints on unparticle-inspired models of gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Bertolami, O.; Paramos, J.; Santos, P.

    2009-07-15

    We use stellar dynamics arguments to constrain the relevant parameters of unparticle-inspired models of gravity. We show that resulting bounds do constrain the parameters of the theory of unparticles, as far as its energy scale satisfies the condition {lambda}{sub U}{>=}1 TeV and d{sub U} is close to unity.

  18. Bio-inspired design of dental multilayers: experiments and model.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xinrui; Rahbar, Nima; Farias, Stephen; Soboyejo, Wole

    2009-12-01

    This paper combines experiments, simulations and analytical modeling that are inspired by the stress reductions associated with the functionally graded structures of the dentin-enamel-junctions (DEJs) in natural teeth. Unlike conventional crown structures in which ceramic crowns are bonded to the bottom layer with an adhesive layer, real teeth do not have a distinct "adhesive layer" between the enamel and the dentin layers. Instead, there is a graded transition from enamel to dentin within a approximately 10 to 100 microm thick regime that is called the Dentin Enamel Junction (DEJ). In this paper, a micro-scale, bio-inspired functionally graded structure is used to bond the top ceramic layer (zirconia) to a dentin-like ceramic-filled polymer substrate. The bio-inspired functionally graded material (FGM) is shown to exhibit higher critical loads over a wide range of loading rates. The measured critical loads are predicted using a rate dependent slow crack growth (RDEASCG) model. The implications of the results are then discussed for the design of bio-inspired dental multilayers. PMID:19716103

  19. Music Inspired by Astronomy: A Resource Guide Organized by Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This annotated resource guide presents 133 pieces of music inspired by astronomical ideas, discoveries, or history, organized in 22 subject categories. Both classical and popular music are included, but only when a clear connection to astronomy could be established. Depending on your musical tastes, you are likely to find some pieces resonating…

  20. Mussel-inspired antifouling coatings bearing polymer loops.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Yan, Bin; Zhang, Ling; Tian, Yu; Zeng, Hongbo

    2015-11-11

    This work reports the preparation of antifouling coatings bearing polymer loops using a mussel-inspired ABA triblock copolymer using a simple drop coating method. With similar end graft density, the loop-bearing surfaces show a more enhanced protein-reduction performance than the brush-bearing surfaces. PMID:26364998

  1. Inspiring Jewish Connections: Outreach to Parents with Infants and Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertlieb, Donald; Rosen, Mark I.

    2008-01-01

    Jewish agencies and organizations in communities across the country have developed a variety of innovative programs for parents with young children. Programs combine Jewish themes with content about parenting and child development, both to provide information and support and to inspire families to become more involved with Jewish religion and…

  2. Clay Corner: Italian Inspiration...An Interview with Susan Snyder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Harriet

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Susan Snyder, a ceramic artist who produces pottery inspired by Italian designs from the 13th to 18th centuries. Presents her discussion of topics such as her development as an artist, techniques used when creating her art, and her thoughts on the importance of art education. (CMK)

  3. Fly-ear inspired acoustic sensors for gunshot localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haijun; Currano, Luke; Gee, Danny; Yang, Benjamin; Yu, Miao

    2009-05-01

    The supersensitive ears of the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea have inspired researchers to develop bio-inspired directional microphone for sound localization. Although the fly ear is optimized for localizing the narrow-band calling song of crickets at 5 kHz, experiments and simulation have shown that it can amplify directional cues for a wide frequency range. In this article, a theoretical investigation is presented to study the use of fly-ear inspired directional microphones for gunshot localization. Using an equivalent 2-DOF model of the fly ear, the time responses of the fly ear structure to a typical shock wave are obtained and the associated time delay is estimated by using cross-correlation. Both near-field and far-field scenarios are considered. The simulation shows that the fly ear can greatly amplify the time delay by ~20 times, which indicates that with an interaural distance of only 1.2 mm the fly ear is able to generate a time delay comparable to that obtained by a conventional microphone pair with a separation as large as 24 mm. Since the parameters of the fly ear structure can also be tuned for muzzle blast and other impulse stimulus, fly-ear inspired acoustic sensors offers great potential for developing portable gunshot localization systems.

  4. Learning to Document in Reggio-Inspired Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wien, Carol Anne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how teachers in child care and elementary schools learn to work with Reggio-inspired pedagogical documentation. While teachers grasp the value of such documentation theoretically, it is most challenging but exciting to use in practical settings. Documentation illuminates teacher theories about children's understanding:…

  5. Inspiring Middle School Minds: Gifted, Creative, and Challenging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Judy

    2009-01-01

    Teaching adolescents can be quite challenging. Dr. Judy Willis, a neurologist and teacher, explains the inner workings of the adolescent brain. She uses the findings of brain research in her classroom to explain how parents and teachers can trigger untapped inspiration in students. Middle school education has often been a "black hole" for gifted…

  6. Inspired by flowers: synthetic routes to scalemic deltamethrinic acid.

    PubMed

    Krief, Alain; Jeanmart, Stephane; Kremer, Adrian

    2009-03-15

    This review reports different syntheses of deltamethrinic acid, especially those originating from our laboratory. Deltamethrinic acid is a synthetic compound whose structure is inspired from those present in the flower head of the plant Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium. Its ester 'deltamethrin' exhibits an extremely high insecticidal activity (DDTx35.000) and an extremely low toxicity to mammals. PMID:19231205

  7. Bio-inspired Hierarchical Nanowebs for Green Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung G; Lee, Subeom; Chang, Sung-Jin; Choi, Bong Gill; Seo, Jeongeun; Sangalang, Arvin; Kim, Do Hyun; Park, Tae Jung; Lee, Moon-Keun; Lee, Seok Jae; Lee, Haiwon

    2015-09-01

    Bio-inspired 3D hierarchical nanowebs are fabricated using silicon micropillars, carbon nanotubes (CNT), and manganese oxide. The Si pillars act as artificial branches for growing CNTs and the secondary metal coating strengthens the structures. The simple but effective structure provides both chemical and mechanical stability to be used as a green catalyst for recycling waste polymers into raw materials. PMID:26060049

  8. The "Mbira" Metaphor: Inspiring Creative Thinking through Folktale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngara, Constantine

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the author's views on inspiring creative thinking among students through a folktale. The mbira metaphor is this author's interpretation of a unique African (Shona) folktale that has the potential to enrich the pedagogy of giftedness. The mbira metaphor is an informative and thought-provoking folktale originating from previous…

  9. A Project-Based Biologically-Inspired Robotics Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowder, R. M.; Zauner, K.-P.

    2013-01-01

    The design of any robotic system requires input from engineers from a variety of technical fields. This paper describes a project-based module, "Biologically-Inspired Robotics," that is offered to Electronics and Computer Science students at the University of Southampton, U.K. The overall objective of the module is for student groups to…

  10. Excellent Educators: ISTE's Award Winners Inspire, Captivate, and Motivate!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingal, Diana

    2012-01-01

    In the impassioned debate about school reform, there is one point that all sides agree on: Classroom teachers have a huge impact on student success. Great teachers don't just teach. They inspire, they captivate, and they motivate their students to create, investigate, solve, and continue learning long after their school years are over. This…

  11. Dew inspired breathing-based detection of genetic point mutation visualized by naked eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Liping; Wang, Tongzhou; Huang, Tianqi; Hou, Wei; Huang, Guoliang; Du, Yanan

    2014-09-01

    A novel label-free method based on breathing-induced vapor condensation was developed for detection of genetic point mutation. The dew-inspired detection was realized by integration of target-induced DNA ligation with rolling circle amplification (RCA). The vapor condensation induced by breathing transduced the RCA-amplified variances in DNA contents into visible contrast. The image could be recorded by a cell phone for further or even remote analysis. This green assay offers a naked-eye-reading method potentially applied for point-of-care liver cancer diagnosis in resource-limited regions.

  12. Dew inspired breathing-based detection of genetic point mutation visualized by naked eye

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Liping; Wang, Tongzhou; Huang, Tianqi; Hou, Wei; Huang, Guoliang; Du, Yanan

    2014-01-01

    A novel label-free method based on breathing-induced vapor condensation was developed for detection of genetic point mutation. The dew-inspired detection was realized by integration of target-induced DNA ligation with rolling circle amplification (RCA). The vapor condensation induced by breathing transduced the RCA-amplified variances in DNA contents into visible contrast. The image could be recorded by a cell phone for further or even remote analysis. This green assay offers a naked-eye-reading method potentially applied for point-of-care liver cancer diagnosis in resource-limited regions. PMID:25199907

  13. Investigations into Gravitational Wave Emission from Compact Body Inspiral into Massive Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Scott A.

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to year 1 (when much of the activity associated with this grant focused upon developing our group at MIT), year 2 was a period of very focused attention on research problems. We made significant progress developing relativistic waveforms for the extreme mass ratio inspiral problem; we have pushed forward a formalism our group developed for mapping the spacetimes of massive compact objects; and, in collaboration with the Caltech group, we began to develop a framework for addressing issues in LISA data analysis for extreme mass ratio systems.

  14. THE BUTTERFLY EFFECT IN THE EXTREME-MASS RATIO INSPIRAL PROBLEM

    SciTech Connect

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Brem, Patrick; Cuadra, Jorge; Armitage, Philip J. E-mail: pbrem@ari.uni-heidelberg.de E-mail: pja@jilau1.colorado.edu

    2012-01-10

    Measurements of gravitational waves from the inspiral of a stellar-mass compact object into a massive black hole are unique probes to test general relativity (GR) and massive black hole (MBH) properties, as well as the stellar distribution about these holes in galactic nuclei. Current data analysis techniques can provide us with parameter estimation with very narrow errors. However, an extreme-mass ratio inspiral (EMRI) is not a two-body problem, since other stellar bodies orbiting nearby will influence the capture orbit. Any deviation from the isolated inspiral will induce a small, though observable, deviation from the idealized waveform which could be misinterpreted as a failure of GR. Based on conservative analysis of mass segregation in a Milky-Way-like nucleus, we estimate that the possibility that another star has a semimajor axis comparable to that of the EMRI is non-negligible, although probably very small. This star introduces an observable perturbation in the orbit in the case in which we consider only loss of energy via gravitational radiation. When considering the two first-order non-dissipative post-Newtonian contributions (the periapsis shift of the orbit), the evolution of the orbital elements of the EMRI turns out to be chaotic in nature. The implications of this study are twofold. From the one side, the application to testing GR and measuring MBH parameters with the detection of EMRIs in galactic nuclei with a millihertz mission will be even more challenging than believed. From the other side, this behavior could in principle be used as a signature of mass segregation in galactic nuclei.

  15. 10% Inspiration, 40% Perspiration, 50% Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Robert; Connolly, A.; Krughoff, S.; Pizagno, J.

    2010-03-01

    Modern surveys such as the SDSS enable large-scale, multiwavelength studies of stars, galaxies, and AGN. Upcoming surveys such as Pan-STARRS and LSST will greatly increase sample sizes while opening up the time domain for source classification and characterization. Traditional analysis methods (such as visual inspection) will not scale to such large, complex data sets. As a result, simulations will be a fundamental component of such studies. We are developing a realistic simulation of the LSST sky that can be used for a variety of scientific purposes, including modeling large source populations, determining the sensitivity and biases of observatories for specific scientific studies, and evaluating the effectiveness of new source-classification strategies.

  16. Issues in Applying Bio-Inspiration, Cognitive Critical Mass and Developmental-Inspired Principles to Advanced Intelligent Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg-Cross, Gary; Samsonovich, Alexei V.

    This Chapter summarizes ideas presented at the special PerMIS 2008 session on Biological Inspiration for Intelligent Systems. Bio-inspired principles of development and evolution are a special part of the bio-models and principles that can be used to improve intelligent systems and related artifacts. Such principles are not always explicit. They represent an alternative to incremental engineering expansion using new technology to replicate human intelligent capabilities. They are more evident in efforts to replicate and produce a “critical mass” of higher cognitive functions of the human mind or their emergence through cognitive developmental robotics (DR) and self-regulated learning (SRL). DR approaches takes inspiration from natural processes, so that intelligently engineered systems may create solutions to problems in ways similar to what we hypothesize is occurring with biologics in their natural environment. This Chapter discusses how an SRL-based approach to bootstrap a “critical mass” can be assessed by a set of cognitive tests. It also uses a three-level bio-inspired framework to illustrate methodological issues in DR research. The approach stresses the importance of using bio-realistic developmental principles to guide and constrain research. Of particular importance is keeping models and implementation separate to avoid the possible of falling into a Ptolemaic paradigm that may lead to endless tweaking of models. Several of Lungarella's design principles [36] for developmental robotics are discussed as constraints on intelligence as it emerges from an ecologically balanced, three-way interaction between an agents' control systems, physical embodiment, and the external environment. The direction proposed herein is to explore such principles to avoid slavish following of superficial bio-inspiration. Rather we should proceed with a mature and informed developmental approach using developmental principles based on our incremental understanding of how

  17. Control of Biologically Inspired Robotic Microswimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kei Cheang, U.; Lee, Jun Hee; Roy, Dheeraj; Kim, Min Jun

    2010-11-01

    Flagella have been employed as nanoactuators for biomimetic microswimmers in low Reynolds number fluidic environments. The microswimmers utilize flagellar filaments isolated from Salmonella typhimurium to mimic the spiral-type propulsion mechanism of flagellated bacteria. The microswimmer included a polystyrene microbead conjugated to one or multiple magnetic nanobeads via flagellar filaments using avidin-biotin linkages. Wireless propulsion energy was supplied to magnetic bead by an AC magnetic field, which in turn rotate the bead and induce spiral-type swimming. A magnetic controller consisted of electromagnetic coils arranged in an approximate Helmholtz configuration was designed and constructed. In conjunction with a LabVIEW input interface, a DAQ controller was used as a function generator to induce AC current outputs from the power supply to the magnetic controller in order to generate an AC magnetic field. Numerical analysis was performed to characterize the magnetic controller. A high-speed camera provided real-time imaging of the microswimmer motion in a static fluidic environment. The robotic microswimmers exhibited active propulsion under an AC magnetic field, which demonstrates the possibility for future biomedical applications for drug delivery.

  18. The scientific study of inspiration in the creative process: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Oleynick, Victoria C.; Thrash, Todd M.; LeFew, Michael C.; Moldovan, Emil G.; Kieffaber, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Inspiration is a motivational state that compels individuals to bring ideas into fruition. Creators have long argued that inspiration is important to the creative process, but until recently, scientists have not investigated this claim. In this article, we review challenges to the study of creative inspiration, as well as solutions to these challenges afforded by theoretical and empirical work on inspiration over the past decade. First, we discuss the problem of definitional ambiguity, which has been addressed through an integrative process of construct conceptualization. Second, we discuss the challenge of how to operationalize inspiration. This challenge has been overcome by the development and validation of the Inspiration Scale (IS), which may be used to assess trait or state inspiration. Third, we address ambiguity regarding how inspiration differs from related concepts (creativity, insight, positive affect) by discussing discriminant validity. Next, we discuss the preconception that inspiration is less important than “perspiration” (effort), and we review empirical evidence that inspiration and effort both play important—but different—roles in the creative process. Finally, with many challenges overcome, we argue that the foundation is now set for a new generation of research focused on neural underpinnings. We discuss potential challenges to and opportunities for the neuroscientific study of inspiration. A better understanding of the biological basis of inspiration will illuminate the process through which creative ideas “fire the soul,” such that individuals are compelled to transform ideas into products and solutions that may benefit society. PMID:25009483

  19. Development of a bio-inspired UAV perching system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Pu

    Although technologies of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) including micro air vehicles (MAVs) have been greatly advanced in the recent years, it is still very difficult for a UAV to perform some very challenging tasks such as perching to any desired spot reliably and agilely like a bird. Unlike the UAVs, the biological control mechanism of birds has been optimized through millions of year evolution and hence, they can perform many extremely maneuverability tasks, such as perching or grasping accurately and robustly. Therefore, we have good reason to learn from the nature in order to significantly improve the capabilities of UAVs. The development of a UAV perching system is becoming feasible, especially after a lot of research contributions in ornithology which involve the analysis of the bird's functionalities. Meanwhile, as technology advances in many engineering fields, such as airframes, propulsion, sensors, batteries, micro-electromechanical-system (MEMS), and UAV technology is also advancing rapidly. All of these research efforts in ornithology and the fast growing development technologies in UAV applications are motivating further interests and development in the area of UAV perching and grasping research. During the last decade, the research contributions about UAV perching and grasping were mainly based on fixed-wing, flapping-wing, and rotorcraft UAVs. However, most of the current researches in UAV systems with perching and grasping capability are focusing on either active (powered) grasping and perching or passive (unpowered) perching. Although birds do have both active and passive perching capabilities depending on their needs, there is no UAV perching system with both capabilities. In this project, we focused on filling this gap. Inspired by the anatomy analysis of bird legs and feet, a novel perching system has been developed to implement the bionics action for both active grasping and passive perching. In addition, for developing a robust and

  20. Testing SO(10)-inspired leptogenesis with low energy neutrino experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, Pasquale Di; Riotto, Antonio E-mail: Antonio.Riotto@cern.ch

    2011-04-01

    We extend the results of a previous analysis of ours showing that, when both heavy and light flavour effects are taken into account, successful minimal (type I + thermal) leptogenesis with SO(10)-inspired relations is possible. Barring fine tuned choices of the parameters, these relations enforce a hierarchical RH neutrino mass spectrum that results into a final asymmetry dominantly produced by the next-to-lightest RH neutrino decays (N{sub 2} dominated leptogenesis). We present the constraints on the whole set of low energy neutrino parameters. Allowing a small misalignment between the Dirac basis and the charged lepton basis as in the quark sector, the allowed regions enlarge and the lower bound on the reheating temperature gets relaxed to values as low as ∼ 10{sup 10} GeV. It is confirmed that for normal ordering (NO) there are two allowed ranges of values for the lightest neutrino mass: m{sub 1} ≅ (1−5) × 10{sup −3} eV and m{sub 1} ≅ (0.03−0.1) eV. For m{sub 1}∼<0.01 eV the allowed region in the plane θ{sub 13}-θ{sub 23} is approximately given by θ{sub 23}∼<49°+0.65 (θ{sub 13}−5°), while the neutrinoless double beta decay effective neutrino mass falls in the range m{sub ee} = (1−3) × 10{sup −3} eV for θ{sub 13} = (6°−11.5°). For m{sub 1}∼>0.01 eV, one has quite sharply m{sub ee} ≅ m{sub 1} and an upper bound θ{sub 23}∼<46°. These constraints will be tested by low energy neutrino experiments during next years. We also find that inverted ordering (IO), though quite strongly constrained, is not completely ruled out. In particular, we find approximately θ{sub 23} ≅ 43°+12° log (0.2 eV/m{sub 1}), that will be fully tested by future experiments.

  1. Biologically-inspired, electrically small antenna arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoumi, Amir Reza

    First, the motivation behind adding a passive external coupling network after antenna arrays is discussed, the concept of biomimetic antenna arrays (BMAAs) introduced and some of the previous work done in this area have been reviewed. Next, a BMAA which achieves an angular resolution of roughly 15 times its regular counterpart is introduced and fully characterized. The introduced BMAA employs transformers which considerably degrade its performance, namely its output power. To cicumvent this shortcoming a new architecture of a BMAA that does not employ transformers and therefore yields a higher output power for the same angular resolution has been subsequently presented. Moreover, a detailed noise analysis of this BMAA is carried out and the output noise of the new architecture is compared with the output noise of the original design. The modified twoelement BMAA architecture is then extended to multiple elements. A novel nonlinear optimization process is introduced that maximizes the total power captured by the BMAA for a given angular resolution and the concept illustrated for a three-element antenna array. Next an optimum two-element BMAA which achieves the maximum possible angular resolution while obtaining the same output power level of a regular antenna array with the same elements and spacing is introduced. A novel two-element superdirective array based on this optimum BMAA has been also discussed. The passive BMAAs discussed in this thesis have a relatively narrow bandwidth. To extend the bandwidth of BMAAs, non- Foster networks have been employed in their external coupling networks and it has been demonstrated that they can increase their bandwidth by a factor of roughly 33. Finally, the BMAA concept has been extended to nano-antenna arrays and a concept for designing sub-wavelength angle-sensing detectors at optical wavelengths has been introduced.

  2. Biologically Inspired mm-size Gliding UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, Daniel; Zussman, Eyal; Yarin, Alexander

    2002-11-01

    We present a first design of an unmanned aerial vehicle whose aerodynamic loads are carried by comb-like permeable surfaces. This concept was based on observation and analysis of the flight capabilities of the Thrip family of insects, whose have wings of this form and various plant seeds which use this concept to form an aerodynamic decelerator. This concept is only practical for at low Reynolds numbers, as the viscous trace of bodies moving in fluid becomes thicker as Re becomes smaller. When Re<1, a cylinder moving in fluid can drag along fluid up to several cylinder diameters. This drag effect can be used to produce a comb structure, where the ratio of comb rod to inter-rod distance can be up to 0.1 without significant throughflow, i.e. the comb is equivalent to a continuous surface. To demonstrate this principle, we have built artificial ``dandelion seeds", i.e. stable aerodynamic decelerators (parachutes) made of permeable light mats of submicron diameter nanofibers. We produced the nanofiber matrices (mats) by electrospinning of polymer solutions, obtaining fibers of 200-400 nm diameter. These fibers were then deposited on frames that serve to define the aerodynamic surfaces, thus producing the mat, with controllable density. For stability, the aerodynamic surfaces had positive dihedral ( inverted umbrella) forms with the fuselage hanging below. When dropped, the platforms fell freely through the air, apex down, reaching terminal velocity very quickly. By comparing the sink rate of the permeable structures with equivalent decelerators with continuous (Saran-wrap) surfaces we show that the permeable surfaces are equivalent to continuous surfaces, with significant weight savings, as long as the local Reynolds number is o(1).

  3. Final Report for Bio-Inspired Approaches to Moving-Target Defense Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; Oehmen, Christopher S.

    2012-09-01

    This report records the work and contributions of the NITRD-funded Bio-Inspired Approaches to Moving-Target Defense Strategies project performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under the technical guidance of the National Security Agency’s R6 division. The project has incorporated a number of bio-inspired cyber defensive technologies within an elastic framework provided by the Digital Ants. This project has created the first scalable, real-world prototype of the Digital Ants Framework (DAF)[11] and integrated five technologies into this flexible, decentralized framework: (1) Ant-Based Cyber Defense (ABCD), (2) Behavioral Indicators, (3) Bioinformatic Clas- sification, (4) Moving-Target Reconfiguration, and (5) Ambient Collaboration. The DAF can be used operationally to decentralize many such data intensive applications that normally rely on collection of large amounts of data in a central repository. In this work, we have shown how these component applications may be decentralized and may perform analysis at the edge. Operationally, this will enable analytics to scale far beyond current limitations while not suffering from the bandwidth or computational limitations of centralized analysis. This effort has advanced the R6 Cyber Security research program to secure digital infrastructures by developing a dynamic means to adaptively defend complex cyber systems. We hope that this work will benefit both our client’s efforts in system behavior modeling and cyber security to the overall benefit of the nation.

  4. A Muscle Synergy-Inspired Adaptive Control Scheme for a Hybrid Walking Neuroprosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Alibeji, Naji A.; Kirsch, Nicholas Andrew; Sharma, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid neuroprosthesis that uses an electric motor-based wearable exoskeleton and functional electrical stimulation (FES) has a promising potential to restore walking in persons with paraplegia. A hybrid actuation structure introduces effector redundancy, making its automatic control a challenging task because multiple muscles and additional electric motor need to be coordinated. Inspired by the muscle synergy principle, we designed a low dimensional controller to control multiple effectors: FES of multiple muscles and electric motors. The resulting control system may be less complex and easier to control. To obtain the muscle synergy-inspired low dimensional control, a subject-specific gait model was optimized to compute optimal control signals for the multiple effectors. The optimal control signals were then dimensionally reduced by using principal component analysis to extract synergies. Then, an adaptive feedforward controller with an update law for the synergy activation was designed. In addition, feedback control was used to provide stability and robustness to the control design. The adaptive-feedforward and feedback control structure makes the low dimensional controller more robust to disturbances and variations in the model parameters and may help to compensate for other time-varying phenomena (e.g., muscle fatigue). This is proven by using a Lyapunov stability analysis, which yielded semi-global uniformly ultimately bounded tracking. Computer simulations were performed to test the new controller on a 4-degree of freedom gait model. PMID:26734606

  5. Inspiral-merger-ringdown (2, 0) mode waveforms for aligned-spin black-hole binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhoujian; Han, Wen-Biao

    2016-08-01

    Based on spin weighted spherical harmonic decomposition, the (2,+/- 2) modes dominate the gravitational waveforms generated by binary black holes. Several recent works found that other modes including (l,0) ones are also important to gravitational wave data analysis. For aligned-spin binaries, these (l,0) modes are related to the memory effect of gravitational wave. Based on the post-Newtonian analysis, quasi-normal modes analysis and the results of numerical relativity simulations, we present a full inspiral-merger-ringdown gravitational waveform model for the (2,0) mode generated by binary black holes. Our model includes the quasinormal ringing part and includes the effect of a black hole’s spin. It is complementary to the previous results.

  6. Characterization of a Crosslinked Elastomeric-Protein Inspired Polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Bochicchio, Brigida; Bracalello, Angelo; Pepe, Antonietta

    2016-08-01

    Materials inspired by natural proteins have a great appeal in tissue engineering for their biocompatibility and similarity to extracellular matrix (ECM). Chimeric polypeptides inspired by elastomeric proteins such as silk, elastin, and collagen are of outstanding interest in the field. A recombinant polypeptide constituted of three different blocks, each of them having sequences derived from elastin, resilin, and collagen proteins, was demonstrated to be a good candidate as biomaterial for its self-assembling characteristics and biocompatibility. Herein, taking advantage of the primary amine functionalities present in the linear polypeptide, we crosslinked it with 1,6-hexamethylene-diisocyanate (HMDI). The characterization of the obtained polypeptide was realized by CD spectroscopy, AFM, and SEM microscopies. The obtained results, although not conclusive, demonstrate that the crosslinked polypeptide gave rise to porous networks, thin nanowires, and films not observable for the linear polypeptide. Chirality 28:606-611, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27403636

  7. Semiconductor Devices Inspired By and Integrated With Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, John

    2012-04-25

    Biology is curved, soft and elastic; silicon wafers are not. Semiconductor technologies that can bridge this gap in form and mechanics will create new opportunities in devices that adopt biologically inspired designs or require intimate integration with the human body. This talk describes the development of ideas for electronics that offer the performance of state-of-the-art, wafer- based systems but with the mechanical properties of a rubber band. We explain the underlying materials science and mechanics of these approaches, and illustrate their use in (1) bio- integrated, ‘tissue-like’ electronics with unique capabilities for mapping cardiac and neural electrophysiology, and (2) bio-inspired, ‘eyeball’ cameras with exceptional imaging properties enabled by curvilinear, Petzval designs.

  8. Mussel-Inspired Materials: Self-Healing through Coordination Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Krogsgaard, Marie; Nue, Vicki; Birkedal, Henrik

    2016-01-18

    Improved understanding of the underwater attachment strategy of the blue mussels and other marine organisms has inspired researchers to find new routes to advanced materials. Mussels use polyphenols, such as the catechol-containing amino acid 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), to attach to surfaces. Catechols and their analogues can undergo both oxidative covalent cross-linking under alkaline conditions and take part in coordination chemistry. The former has resulted in the widespread use of polydopamine and related materials. The latter is emerging as a tool to make self-healing materials due to the reversible nature of coordination bonds. We review how mussel-inspired materials have been made with a focus on the less developed use of metal coordination and illustrate how this chemistry can be widely to make self-healing materials. PMID:26558881

  9. High-performance mussel-inspired adhesives of reduced complexity

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, B. Kollbe; Das, Saurabh; Linstadt, Roscoe; Kaufman, Yair; Martinez-Rodriguez, Nadine R.; Mirshafian, Razieh; Kesselman, Ellina; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Lipshutz, Bruce H.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Waite, J. Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent progress in and demand for wet adhesives, practical underwater adhesion remains limited or non-existent for diverse applications. Translation of mussel-inspired wet adhesion typically entails catechol functionalization of polymers and/or polyelectrolytes, and solution processing of many complex components and steps that require optimization and stabilization. Here we reduced the complexity of a wet adhesive primer to synthetic low-molecular-weight catecholic zwitterionic surfactants that show very strong adhesion (∼50 mJ m−2) and retain the ability to coacervate. This catecholic zwitterion adheres to diverse surfaces and self-assembles into a molecularly smooth, thin (<4 nm) and strong glue layer. The catecholic zwitterion holds particular promise as an adhesive for nanofabrication. This study significantly simplifies bio-inspired themes for wet adhesion by combining catechol with hydrophobic and electrostatic functional groups in a small molecule. PMID:26478273

  10. Biologically-inspired hexapod robot design and simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espenschied, Kenneth S.; Quinn, Roger D.

    1994-01-01

    The design and construction of a biologically-inspired hexapod robot is presented. A previously developed simulation is modified to include models of the DC drive motors, the motor driver circuits and their transmissions. The application of this simulation to the design and development of the robot is discussed. The mechanisms thought to be responsible for the leg coordination of the walking stick insect were previously applied to control the straight-line locomotion of a robot. We generalized these rules for a robot walking on a plane. This biologically-inspired control strategy is used to control the robot in simulation. Numerical results show that the general body motion and performance of the simulated robot is similar to that of the robot based on our preliminary experimental results.

  11. Bio-inspired polarized skylight navigation: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Wan, Yongqin; Li, Lijing

    2015-12-01

    The idea of using skylight polarization in navigation is learned from animals such as desert ants and honeybees. Various research groups have been working on the development of novel navigation systems inspired by polarized skylight. The research of background in polarized skylight navigation is introduced, and basic principle of the insects navigation is expatiated. Then, the research progress status at home and abroad in skylight polarization pattern, three bio-inspired polarized skylight navigation sensors and polarized skylight navigation are reviewed. Finally, the research focuses in the field of polarized skylight navigation are analyzed. At the same time, the trend of development and prospect in the future are predicted. It is believed that the review is helpful to people understand polarized skylight navigation and polarized skylight navigation sensors.

  12. Social comparisons in novel situations: finding inspiration during life transitions.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Penelope; Shaughnessy, Sarah C; Fortune, Jennifer L; Tong, Man-On

    2012-08-01

    The authors propose that individuals transitioning to a novel environment will prefer upward comparisons, particularly those made with individuals who have experienced a similar transition. Such comparisons help to reduce uncertainty and demonstrate that future success is possible. Study 1 found that individuals facing transitions to unfamiliar situations seek upward comparisons as a result of their uncertainty. Study 2 demonstrated that individuals who perceive themselves to be making a significant life transition are especially motivated by upward comparisons. Study 3 provided evidence that upward comparisons are especially inspiring to individuals making a transition to a novel cultural environment. Study 4 provided experimental evidence that individuals in a novel cultural environment are particularly inspired by upward comparisons with other newcomers. These studies suggest that upward comparisons with individuals who have experienced a similar transition enhance individuals' sense of control over future outcomes and play a key role during adjustment to novel environments. PMID:22825208

  13. Immune Inspired Security Approach for Manets: a Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Yasir Abdelgadir

    2011-06-01

    This paper extends the work that has earlier been established. Immune inspired approach for securing mobile ad hoc networks is specified there. Although it is clearly indicated there that the research scope is the wireless networks in general and hybrid mobile ad hoc networks in particular, we have seen that specifying the security system in one of the communications applications that need further security approach may help to understand how effectively the system can contribute to this vital and important networks sector. Security in this type of networks is important and controversial as it plays a key role in users' eagerness or reluctance for the services provided by these networks. In this paper, the immune inspired security system is specified to secure web services in converged networks.

  14. Quantum Tunneling and Spectroscopy of Noncommutative Inspired Kerr Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Yan-Gang; Xue, Zhao; Zhang, Shao-Jun

    We discuss the thermodynamics of the noncommutative inspired Kerr black hole by means of a reformulated Hamilton-Jacobi method and a dimensional reduction technique. In order to investigate the effect of the angular momentum of the tunneling particle, we calculate the wave function to the first order of the WKB ansatz. Then, using a density matrix technique we derive the radiation spectrum from which the radiation temperature can be read out. Our results show that the radiation of this noncommutative inspired black hole corresponds to a modified temperature which involves the effect of noncommutativity. However, the angular momentum of the tunneling particle has no influence on the radiation temperature. Moreover, we analyze the entropy spectrum and verify that its quantization is modified neither by the noncommutativity of spacetime nor by the quantum correction of wave functions.

  15. High-performance mussel-inspired adhesives of reduced complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, B. Kollbe; Das, Saurabh; Linstadt, Roscoe; Kaufman, Yair; Martinez-Rodriguez, Nadine R.; Mirshafian, Razieh; Kesselman, Ellina; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Lipshutz, Bruce H.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Waite, J. Herbert

    2015-10-01

    Despite the recent progress in and demand for wet adhesives, practical underwater adhesion remains limited or non-existent for diverse applications. Translation of mussel-inspired wet adhesion typically entails catechol functionalization of polymers and/or polyelectrolytes, and solution processing of many complex components and steps that require optimization and stabilization. Here we reduced the complexity of a wet adhesive primer to synthetic low-molecular-weight catecholic zwitterionic surfactants that show very strong adhesion (~50 mJ m-2) and retain the ability to coacervate. This catecholic zwitterion adheres to diverse surfaces and self-assembles into a molecularly smooth, thin (<4 nm) and strong glue layer. The catecholic zwitterion holds particular promise as an adhesive for nanofabrication. This study significantly simplifies bio-inspired themes for wet adhesion by combining catechol with hydrophobic and electrostatic functional groups in a small molecule.

  16. A metamaterial-inspired combined inductive-capacitive sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Jiang; Wang, Bingnan

    2014-05-01

    This paper reports a metamaterial inspired combined inductive-capacitive sensing method for detecting and distinguishing metallic and non-metallic objects. Metallic and non-metallic objects can be distinguished by measuring both of their inductive and capacitive responses based on the fact that they respond differently to inductive and capacitive sensing. The proposed method is inspired by metamaterial structures. Both inductive and capacitive sensing are simultaneously realized when the sensor is operating at off-resonant frequencies. The proposed method is demonstrated with typical printed circuit board (PCB) technology. The designed sensor can distinguish the metallic and dielectric objects with a sensing range about 10 mm, showing a competitive performance compared with commercially available proximity sensors.

  17. Moral rules, moral ideals, and use-inspired research.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    2007-06-01

    Moral rules provide the baseline for ethics, proscribing unacceptable behavior; moral ideals inspire us to act in ways that improve the human condition. Whatever the moral ideals for pure research, science has a practical side so it is important to find a moral ideal to give guidance to more applied research. This article presents a moral ideal for use-inspired research based on Norman Care's idea of shared-fate individualism This ideal reflects the observation that all human lives, both present and future are tightly coupled and, as a result, research projects should be chosen, where possible, with the goal of service to others. Together with the ideals of the habit of truth and the gift economy, shared-fate individualism provides the basis for a humane ethics of science. PMID:17717730

  18. A test bed for insect-inspired robotic control.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Michael B; Dickinson, Michael H

    2003-10-15

    Flying insects are remarkable examples of sophisticated sensory-motor control systems. Insects have solved the fundamental challenge facing the field of mobile robots: robust sensory-motor mapping. Control models based on insects can contribute much to the design of robotic control systems. We present our work on a preliminary robotic control system inspired by current behavioural and physiological models of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. We designed a five-degrees-of-freedom robotic system that serves as a novel simulation/mobile robot hybrid. This design has allowed us to implement a fly-inspired control system that uses visual and mechanosensory feedback. Our results suggest that a simple control scheme can yield surprisingly robust fly-like robotic behaviour. PMID:14599319

  19. A Biologically Inspired Self-Adaptation of Replica Density Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Tomoko; Izumi, Taisuke; Ooshita, Fukuhito; Kakugawa, Hirotsugu; Masuzawa, Toshimitsu

    Biologically-inspired approaches are one of the most promising approaches to realize highly-adaptive distributed systems. Biological systems inherently have self-* properties, such as self-stabilization, self-adaptation, self-configuration, self-optimization and self-healing. Thus, the application of biological systems into distributed systems has attracted a lot of attention recently. In this paper, we present one successful result of bio-inspired approach: we propose distributed algorithms for resource replication inspired by the single species population model. Resource replication is a crucial technique for improving system performance of distributed applications with shared resources. In systems using resource replication, generally, a larger number of replicas lead to shorter time to reach a replica of a requested resource but consume more storage of the hosts. Therefore, it is indispensable to adjust the number of replicas appropriately for the resource sharing application. This paper considers the problem for controlling the densities of replicas adaptively in dynamic networks and proposes two bio-inspired distributed algorithms for the problem. In the first algorithm, we try to control the replica density for a single resource. However, in a system where multiple resources coexist, the algorithm needs high network cost and the exact knowledge at each node about all resources in the network. In the second algorithm, the densities of all resources are controlled by the single algorithm without high network cost and the exact knowledge about all resources. This paper shows by simulations that these two algorithms realize self-adaptation of the replica density in dynamic networks.

  20. Inspiration and application in the evolution of biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Huebsch, Nathaniel; Mooney, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Biomaterials, traditionally defined as materials used in medical devices, have been used since antiquity, but recently their degree of sophistication has increased significantly. Biomaterials made today are routinely information rich and incorporate biologically active components derived from nature. In the future, biomaterials will assume an even greater role in medicine and will find use in a wide variety of non-medical applications through biologically inspired design and incorporation of dynamic behaviour. PMID:19940912

  1. Swarm intelligence inspired shills and the evolution of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Duan, Haibin; Sun, Changhao

    2014-01-01

    Many hostile scenarios exist in real-life situations, where cooperation is disfavored and the collective behavior needs intervention for system efficiency improvement. Towards this end, the framework of soft control provides a powerful tool by introducing controllable agents called shills, who are allowed to follow well-designed updating rules for varying missions. Inspired by swarm intelligence emerging from flocks of birds, we explore here the dependence of the evolution of cooperation on soft control by an evolutionary iterated prisoner's dilemma (IPD) game staged on square lattices, where the shills adopt a particle swarm optimization (PSO) mechanism for strategy updating. We demonstrate that not only can cooperation be promoted by shills effectively seeking for potentially better strategies and spreading them to others, but also the frequency of cooperation could be arbitrarily controlled by choosing appropriate parameter settings. Moreover, we show that adding more shills does not contribute to further cooperation promotion, while assigning higher weights to the collective knowledge for strategy updating proves a efficient way to induce cooperative behavior. Our research provides insights into cooperation evolution in the presence of PSO-inspired shills and we hope it will be inspirational for future studies focusing on swarm intelligence based soft control. PMID:24909519

  2. Inspiration is the major regulator of human CSF flow.

    PubMed

    Dreha-Kulaczewski, Steffi; Joseph, Arun A; Merboldt, Klaus-Dietmar; Ludwig, Hans-Christoph; Gärtner, Jutta; Frahm, Jens

    2015-02-11

    The mechanisms behind CSF flow in humans are still not fully known. CSF circulates from its primary production sites at the choroid plexus through the brain ventricles to reach the outer surface of the brain in the subarachnoid spaces from where it drains into venous bloodstream and cervical lymphatics. According to a recent concept of brain fluid transport, established in rodents, CSF from the brain surface also enters the brain tissue along para-arterial routes and exits through paravenous spaces again into subarachnoid compartments. This unidirectional flow is mainly driven by arterial pulsation. To investigate how CSF flow is regulated in humans, we applied a novel real-time magnetic resonance imaging technique at high spatial (0.75 mm) and temporal (50 ms) resolution in healthy human subjects. We observed significant CSF flow exclusively with inspiration. In particular, during forced breathing, high CSF flow was elicited during every inspiration, whereas breath holding suppressed it. Only a minor flow component could be ascribed to cardiac pulsation. The present results unambiguously identify inspiration as the most important driving force for CSF flow in humans. Inspiratory thoracic pressure reduction is expected to directly modulate the hydrostatic pressure conditions for the low-resistance paravenous, venous, and lymphatic clearance routes of CSF. Furthermore, the experimental approach opens new clinical opportunities to study the pathophysiology of various forms of hydrocephalus and to design therapeutic strategies in relation to CSF flow alterations. PMID:25673843

  3. Origami-Inspired Folding of Thick, Rigid Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trease, Brian P.; Thomson, Mark W.; Sigel, Deborah A.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Zirbel, Shannon; Howell, Larry; Lang, Robert

    2014-01-01

    To achieve power of 250 kW or greater, a large compression ratio of stowed-to-deployed area is needed. Origami folding patterns were used to inspire the folding of a solar array to achieve synchronous deployment; however, origami models are generally created for near-zero-thickness material. Panel thickness is one of the main challenges of origami-inspired design. Three origami-inspired folding techniques (flasher, square twist, and map fold) were created with rigid panels and hinges. Hinge components are added to the model to enable folding of thick, rigid materials. Origami models are created assuming zero (or near zero) thickness. When a material with finite thickness is used, the panels are required to bend around an increasingly thick fold as they move away from the center of the model. The two approaches for dealing with material thickness are to use membrane hinges to connect the panels, or to add panel hinges, or hinges of the same thickness, at an appropriate width to enable folding.

  4. Swarm intelligence inspired shills and the evolution of cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Haibin; Sun, Changhao

    2014-01-01

    Many hostile scenarios exist in real-life situations, where cooperation is disfavored and the collective behavior needs intervention for system efficiency improvement. Towards this end, the framework of soft control provides a powerful tool by introducing controllable agents called shills, who are allowed to follow well-designed updating rules for varying missions. Inspired by swarm intelligence emerging from flocks of birds, we explore here the dependence of the evolution of cooperation on soft control by an evolutionary iterated prisoner's dilemma (IPD) game staged on square lattices, where the shills adopt a particle swarm optimization (PSO) mechanism for strategy updating. We demonstrate that not only can cooperation be promoted by shills effectively seeking for potentially better strategies and spreading them to others, but also the frequency of cooperation could be arbitrarily controlled by choosing appropriate parameter settings. Moreover, we show that adding more shills does not contribute to further cooperation promotion, while assigning higher weights to the collective knowledge for strategy updating proves a efficient way to induce cooperative behavior. Our research provides insights into cooperation evolution in the presence of PSO-inspired shills and we hope it will be inspirational for future studies focusing on swarm intelligence based soft control. PMID:24909519

  5. Distance Learning Programs to Inspire Students in the Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, Ian; Durham, Alyson

    2000-04-01

    Inspiring students to enter the sciences, in particular more traditional hard sciences and certain engineering disciplines, has become a greater challenge in the days of high tech computer jobs that pay far higher wages. In addition maintaining student interest in the classroom has also become more difficult with the increasing complexity and sophistication of home computer technology. Often students have better technology at home than they have in school. There is no substitute for actually being in an exciting location, but the cost of such elaborate field trips often outweighs the learning advantage. By developing state-of-the-art and inexpensive distance learning tools based on existing technology, Durham Research is bringing remote and exciting places and experiences live into the classroom as a way of inspiring students to eventually enter the sciences. In this presentation we will speak about our cornerstone distance learning program, the Space Experiment Education Kit, and how we hope it helps to inspire a future generation of scientists and people who appreciate science. We will also briefly talk about some of our other related programs. All programs are geared toward all grade levels from elementary through graduate school.

  6. INSPIRE: Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Donna M.; McNeal, K. S.; Bruce, L. M.; Harpole, S. H.; Schmitz, D. W.

    2010-10-01

    INSPIRE, Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education, is a partnership between Mississippi State University and three school districts in Mississippi's Golden Triangle (Starkville, Columbus, West Point). This program recruits ten graduate fellows each year from geosciences, physics, astronomy, and engineering and pairs them with a participating middle school or high school teacher. The graduate fellows provide technology-supported inquiry-based learning in the earth and space sciences by incorporating their research into classroom instruction and using multiple resources such as Google Earth, geographic information systems (GIS), Celestia, and others. In addition to strengthening the communication skills of the graduate fellows, INSPIRE will increase the content knowledge of participating teachers, provide high-quality instruction using multiple technologies, promote higher education to area high-school students, and provide fellows and teachers with international research experience through our partners in Australia, The Bahamas, England, and Poland. INSPIRE is funded by the Graduate STEM Fellows in K-12 Education Program (GK-12; Award No. DGE-0947419), which is part of the Division for Graduate Education of the National Science Foundation.

  7. Expanding Earth and Space Science through the Initiating New Science Partnerships In Rural Education (INSPIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radencic, S.; McNeal, K. S.; Pierce, D.; Hare, D.

    2010-12-01

    school year aided in fostering a community atmosphere to ensure successful classroom experiences. Including stakeholders in the progress of lesson plan product development during a workshop luncheon was another key part to building a community of support for INSPIRE. These planning components are essential to the success of the project and are recommended to similar projects. The INSPIRE project external evaluation includes: (i) interviews of participants and K-12 students involved in INSPIRE, (ii) pre-post technology and teaching attitude surveys of graduate students and teachers, (iii) thematic analysis of daily feedback forms from the workshop, (iv) summary of end of workshop evaluations, and (v) constant surveying of program progress towards meeting its goals. Internal evaluation includes: (i) classroom observations of graduate student interactions with students (ii) bi-weekly journal entries from both teachers and graduate students, and (iii) weekly feedback from graduate students. Preliminary evaluation of the workshop daily feedback forms indicate a high level of approval for the technology and inquiry activities modeled. Journal entries indicate that the majority of Fellow-teacher teams experience positive interactions in the classroom.

  8. Electrowetting-Controlled and Electrically-Tunable Bio-Inspired Micro/Nanostructures and Optofluidic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manakasettharn, Supone

    Many man-made structures and devices have been inspired by the ingenious structures, mechanisms, properties, and functions of plants and animals. This work has been inspired by a number of unique properties, which biological organisms possess such as dynamic tunable iridescence, self-cleaning properties, and brilliant structural color. The objective of this work is to model, design, fabricate, and characterize novel bio-inspired micro-/nanostructures and optofluidic devices. To conceptually mimic the iridescence of cephalopods, microflowers have been modeled and designed based on elasto-capillary bending, which is the interplay between the elastic energy of petals and the capillary energy of a liquid droplet, which is used to actuate petal movement. After microfabrication of the polycrystalline Si microflowers, two methods of petal actuation have been demonstrated---one by volume change of the water droplet and the other by change of water contact angle on the petals using the electrowetting process. The experimental results are in good agreement with a theoretical model. By taking into account the self-cleaning properties of lotus leaves, transparent Ta2O5 nanostructured thin films have been fabricated using a multi-step anodization process of sputter-deposited Al-Ta bilayers on a quartz substrate. The films then have been made superhydrophobic by using a combination of nanostructures, called nanograss, along with the deposition of hydrophobic coatings. The films also have been characterized by measuring water contact angles and by obtaining optical transmittance spectra and SEM micrographs. The measured contact angles and transmittance spectra are in good agreement with theoretical calculations. Inspired by biological nanostructured surfaces possessing structural color and wettability control, reflective Ta2O5 nanostructured thin films have been fabricated using the multi-step anodization process of sputter-deposited Al-Ta bilayers on a Si substrate. The films

  9. Ligand-field theory applied to diatomic transition metals. Results for the dA9dB9σ2 states of Ni2, the dNi9dCu10σ2 states of NiCu, and the dNi8(3F)dCu10σ2σ*1 excited states of NiCu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spain, Eileen M.; Morse, Michael D.

    1992-10-01

    A ligand-field theory has been developed for transition-metal diatomics having electronic configurations of dA9dB10σ2, dA9dB9σ2, and dA8(3F)dB10σ2σ*1. The theory treats each atom as a point charge and includes spin-orbit interactions. No contributions due to d-orbital chemical bonding are included. Since the d orbitals are quite small compared to the bond lengths in these molecules, the only inputs to the theory are the ligand charges (ZA and ZB), the radial expectation values ligand-field model has some validity for metal molecules containing nickel, primarily because of the compact nature of the 3d orbitals in this element. Similar calculations of the dA9dB9σ2 manifold of states in Pt2 and the dNi9dPt9σ2 manifold of states in NiPt are presented for comparison to future ab initio or experimental measurements, although the possibility of d-orbital contributions to the bonding in these species makes the ligand-field model less favorable in these examples. The dNi8(3F)dCu10σ2σ*1 excited electronic states of NiCu, which are well known from resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy, are also investigated in the ligand-field model. As a final example, the dNi8(3F)σ2σ*1 excited electronic states of NiH are also examined using the same treatment as that employed for the dNi8(3F)dCu10σ2σ*1 excited manifold of NiCu.

  10. A bio-inspired aquatic flow sensor using an artificial cell membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Preston A.; Garrison, Kevin; Leo, Donald J.; Sarles, Stephen A.

    2012-04-01

    Receptors known as hair cells give many animals this ability to sense a wide range of stimuli, such as sound, orientation, vibration, and flow. Previous researchers have mimicked natural hair cells by building electromechanical sensor systems that produce an electric response due to the bending of artificial hairs. Inspired by the roles of sensory hairs in fish, this work builds on previous research by investigating the flow dependent electrical response of a 'skin'-encapsulated artificial hair cell in an aqueous flow. This study presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a flow sensor that will help close the loop between the sensing mechanisms and control strategies that aquatic organisms employ for functions such as locomotion regulation, prey capture, and particulate capture. The system is fabricated with a durable, artificial bilayer that forms at the interface between lipid-encased aqueous volumes contained in a flexible encapsulated polyurethane substrate. Flow experiments are conducted by placing the bio-inspired sensor in a flow chamber and subjecting it to pulse-like flows. Specifically, through temporal responses of the measured current and power spectral density (PSD) analysis, our results show that the amplitude and frequency of the current response are related to the flow over the hair. This preliminary study demonstrates that the encapsulated artificial hair cell flow sensor is capable of sensing changes in flow through a mechanoelectrical response and that its sensing capabilities may be altered by varying its surface morphology.

  11. Searching for features of a string-inspired inflationary model with cosmological observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yi-Fu; Ferreira, Elisa G. M.; Hu, Bin; Quintin, Jerome

    2015-12-01

    The latest Planck results show a power deficit in the temperature anisotropies near ℓ≈20 in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This observation can hardly be explained within the standard inflationary Λ -cold-dark-matter (Λ CDM ) scenario. In this paper we consider a string theory inspired inflationary model (axion monodromy inflation) with a step-like modulation in the potential which gives rise to observable signatures in the primordial perturbations. One interesting phenomenon is that the primordial scalar modes experience a sudden suppression at a critical scale when the modulation occurs. By fitting to the CMB data, we find that the model can nicely explain the ℓ≈20 power deficit anomaly as well as predict specific patterns in the temperature-polarization correlation and polarization autocorrelation spectra. Though the significance of the result is not sufficient to claim a detection, our analysis reveals that fundamental physics at extremely high energy scales, namely, some effects inspired by string theory, may be observationally testable in forthcoming cosmological experiments.

  12. A new approach to tackle noise issue in miniature directional microphones: bio-inspired mechanical coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haijun; Yu, Miao

    2010-04-01

    When using microphone array for sound source localization, the most fundamental step is to estimate the time difference of arrival (TDOA) between different microphones. Since TDOA is proportional to the microphone separation, the localization performance degrades with decreasing size relative to the sound wavelength. To address the size constraint of conventional directional microphones, a new approach is sought by utilizing the mechanical coupling mechanism found in the superacute ears of the parasitic fly Ormia ochracea. Previously, we have presented a novel bio-inspired directional microphone consisting of two circular clamped membranes structurally coupled by a center pivoted bridge, and demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally that the fly ear mechanism is replicable in a man-made structure. The emphasis of this article is on theoretical analysis of the thermal noise floor of the bio-inspired directional microphones. Using an equivalent two degrees-of-freedom model, the mechanical-thermal noise limit of the structurally coupled microphone is estimated and compared with those obtained for a single omni-directional microphone and a conventional microphone pair. Parametric studies are also conducted to investigate the effects of key normalized parameters on the noise floor and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

  13. Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity: Phenomenology of nonlinear gravity-matter coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, Paolo; Delsate, Térence; Cardoso, Vitor

    2012-04-01

    Viable corrections to the matter sector of Poisson’s equation may result in qualitatively different astrophysical phenomenology, for example, the gravitational collapse and the properties of compact objects can change drastically. We discuss a class of modified nonrelativistic theories and focus on a relativistic completion, Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity. This recently proposed theory is equivalent to General Relativity in vacuum, but its nontrivial coupling to matter prevents singularities in early cosmology and in the nonrelativistic collapse of noninteracting particles. We extend our previous analysis, discussing further developments. We present a full numerical study of spherically symmetric nonrelativistic gravitational collapse of dust. For any positive coupling, the final state of the collapse is a regular pressureless star rather than a singularity. We also argue that there is no Chandrasekhar limit for the mass of a nonrelativistic white dwarf in this theory. Finally, we extend our previous results in the fully relativistic theory by constructing static and slowly rotating compact stars governed by nuclear-physics inspired equations of state. In the relativistic theory, there exists an upper bound on the mass of compact objects, suggesting that black holes can still be formed in the relativistic collapse.

  14. Wide-frequency-bandwidth whisker-inspired MEMS vector hydrophone encapsulated with parylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Renxin; Liu, Yuan; Bai, Bing; Guo, Nan; Guo, Jing; Wang, Xubo; Liu, Mengran; Zhang, Guojun; Zhang, Binzhen; Xue, Chenyang; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Wendong

    2016-02-01

    In order to eliminate polyurethane hat resonance frequency intervention and reduce fluid influence, a whisker-inspired MEMS vector hydrophone (WIVH) encapsulated with parylene is proposed to broaden frequency bandwidth and improve sensitivity-frequency response performance, compared to the lateral line-inspired MEMS vector hydrophone (LLIVH). Parylene that is conformally deposited on the device surface replaces polyurethane encapsulating hat and silicone oil existing in current encapsulation technology. The main advantage of WIVH as demonstrated by modelling and characterization is the enhanced bandwidth response, which is the critical factor in hydrophone design. Acoustic pressure gradient properties of the WIVH and LLIVH are analyzed to demonstrate the influence of the polyurethane hat. The interactions of the parylene membrane with fluid and the influences on vibrating performance are also investigated. Resonance measurement and sensitivity-frequency response analysis demonstrate the frequency bandwidth of the WIVH could be extended twice compared to that of the LLIVH. Moreover, the WIVH is proved to act as a typical pressure gradient hydrophone with an increment of 6 dB per octave in the linear region.

  15. Binary black hole late inspiral: Simulations for gravitational wave observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, John G.; McWilliams, Sean T.; van Meter, James R.; Centrella, Joan; Choi, Dae-Il; Kelly, Bernard J.; Koppitz, Michael

    2007-06-01

    Coalescing binary black hole mergers are expected to be the strongest gravitational wave sources for ground-based interferometers, such as the LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based interferometer LISA. Until recently it has been impossible to reliably derive the predictions of general relativity for the final merger stage, which takes place in the strong-field regime. Recent progress in numerical relativity simulations is, however, revolutionizing our understanding of these systems. We examine here the specific case of merging equal-mass Schwarzschild black holes in detail, presenting new simulations in which the black holes start in the late-inspiral stage on orbits with very low eccentricity and evolve for ˜1200M through ˜7 orbits before merging. We study the accuracy and consistency of our simulations and the resulting gravitational waveforms, which encompass ˜14cycle before merger, and highlight the importance of using frequency (rather than time) to set the physical reference when comparing models. Matching our results to post-Newtonian (PN) calculations for the earlier parts of the inspiral provides a combined waveform with less than one cycle of accumulated phase error through the entire coalescence. Using this waveform, we calculate signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for iLIGO, adLIGO, and LISA, highlighting the contributions from the late-inspiral and merger-ringdown parts of the waveform, which can now be simulated numerically. Contour plots of SNR as a function of z and M show that adLIGO can achieve SNR≳10 for some intermediate mass binary black holes (IMBBHs) out to z˜1, and that LISA can see massive binary black holes (MBBHs) in the range 3×104≲M/M⊙≲107 at SNR>100 out to the earliest epochs of structure formation at z>15.

  16. Binary Black Hole Late Inspiral: Simulations for Gravitational Wave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John G.; vanMeter, James R.; Centrella, Joan; Choi, Dae-Il; Kelly, Bernard J.; Koppitz, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Coalescing binary black hole mergers are expected to be the strongest gravitational wave sources for ground-based interferometers, such as the LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the spacebased interferometer LISA. Until recently it has been impossible to reliably derive the predictions of General Relativity for the final merger stage, which takes place in the strong-field regime. Recent progress in numerical relativity simulations is, however, revolutionizing our understanding of these systems. We examine here the specific case of merging equal-mass Schwarzschild black holes in detail, presenting new simulations in which the black holes start in the late inspiral stage on orbits with very low eccentricity and evolve for approximately 1200M through approximately 7 orbits before merging. We study the accuracy and consistency of our simulations and the resulting gravitational waveforms, which encompass approximately 14 cycles before merger, and highlight the importance of using frequency (rather than time) to set the physical reference when comparing models. Matching our results to PN calculations for the earlier parts of the inspiral provides a combined waveform with less than half a cycle of accumulated phase error through the entire coalescence. Using this waveform, we calculate signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for iLIGO, adLIGO, and LISA, highlighting the contributions from the late-inspiral and merger-ringdown parts of the waveform which can now be simulated numerically. Contour plots of SNR as a function of z and M show that adLIGO can achieve SNR 2 10 for some IMBBHs out to z approximately equals 1, and that LISA can see MBBHs in the range 3 x 10(exp 4) approximately < M/Mo approximately < 10(exp 7) at SNR > 100 out to the earliest epochs of structure formation at z > 15.

  17. Spectral indices in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Inyong; Gong, Jinn-Ouk

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the scalar and tensor spectral indices of the quadratic inflation model in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) gravity. We find that the EiBI corrections to the spectral indices are of second and first order in the slow-roll approximation for the scalar and tensor perturbations, respectively. This is very promising since the quadratic inflation model in general relativity provides a very nice fit for the spectral indices. Together with the suppression of the tensor-to-scalar ratio, EiBI inflation is agrees well with the observational data.

  18. Signal Processing For Chemical Sensing: Statistics or Biological Inspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, Santiago

    2011-09-01

    Current analytical instrumentation and continuous sensing can provide huge amounts of data. Automatic signal processing and information evaluation is needed to overcome drowning in data. Today, statistical techniques are typically used to analyse and extract information from continuous signals. However, it is very interesting to note that biology (insects and vertebrates) has found alternative solutions for chemical sensing and information processing. This is a brief introduction to the developments in the European Project: Bio-ICT NEUROCHEM: Biologically Inspired Computation for Chemical Sensing (grant no. 216916) Fp7 project devoted to biomimetic olfactory systems.

  19. Universe Awareness: Inspiring young children around the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ödman, Carolina J.

    2011-06-01

    Universe Awareness (UNAWE) has over three years of experience enthusing young children with the scale and beauty of the Universe. UNAWE is an outreach programme with a strong social vision aiming at broadening children's minds, awakening their curiosity in science and stimulating global citizenship. UNAWE uses the inspirational aspects of astronomy to instil a culture of peace and tolerance. We present the main principles of the programme, describe how it functions as a community-driven organisation and share some of the UNAWE experience. We describe projects and opportunities for IYA2009 and the future of the global programme.

  20. Biologically inspired robots elicit a robust fear response in zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladu, Fabrizio; Bartolini, Tiziana; Panitz, Sarah G.; Butail, Sachit; Macrı, Simone; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the behavioral response of zebrafish to three fear-evoking stimuli. In a binary choice test, zebrafish are exposed to a live allopatric predator, a biologically-inspired robot, and a computer-animated image of the live predator. A target tracking algorithm is developed to score zebrafish behavior. Unlike computer-animated images, the robotic and live predator elicit a robust avoidance response. Importantly, the robotic stimulus elicits more consistent inter-individual responses than the live predator. Results from this effort are expected to aid in hypothesis-driven studies on zebrafish fear response, by offering a valuable approach to maximize data-throughput and minimize animal subjects.

  1. Modulating material interfaces through biologically-inspired intermediates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazar, Melis; Steward, Robert L.; Chang, Chia-Jung; Orndoff, Cynthia J.; Zeng, Yukai; Ho, Mon-Shu; LeDuc, Philip R.; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2011-12-01

    This letter describes the control of molecular filament organization through biologically inspired intermediates, enabling us to obtain large-area regular nanopatterns. We first studied cultured single filamentous actins on an unmodified glass surface (hydrophilic surface) and introduced myosin-II to modify the control. We then utilized an inorganic salt crystallization approach on the response of these two proteins, actin filament and myosin-II, to analyze the resultant spatially localized patterns. Through the utilization of myosin-II and the salt crystallization approach, we were able to induce the filament orientation of 63°; while without myosin-II, we induced an orientation of 90°.

  2. Spin-qubit inspired architectures for superconducting quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Yun-Pil; Tahan, Charles

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, the superconducting qubit community has achieved single and two-qubit benchmarked gate fidelities approaching 99.9%, fast readout with novel superconducting amplifiers, distributed entanglement, and other milestones on the road to fault-tolerant quantum information processing. Obviously, this is a field that could use some help from the semiconductor qubit community! Here we present theoretical work on superconducting qubit systems inspired by our experience with semiconductor qubits. We discuss initialization, single- and two-qubit gate operations, and measurement schemes for an encoded qubit in a two-dimensional architecture. Our results motivate new ways of designing or operating superconducting quantum information processors.

  3. Inert scalar dark matter in an extra dimension inspired model

    SciTech Connect

    Lineros, R.A.; Santos, F.A. Pereira dos E-mail: fabio.alex@fis.puc-rio.br

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we analyze a dark matter model inspired by theories with extra dimensions. The dark matter candidate corresponds to the first Kaluza–Klein mode of an real scalar added to the Standard Model. The tower of new particles enriches the calculation of the relic abundance. For large mass splitting, the model converges to the predictions of the inert singlet dark matter model. For nearly degenerate mass spectrum, coannihilations increase the cross-sections used for direct and indirect dark matter searches. Moreover, the Kaluza–Klein zero mode can mix with the SM higgs and further constraints can be applied.

  4. Naturally Inspired Firefly Controller For Stabilization Of Double Inverted Pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikanth, Kavirayani; Nagesh, Gundavarapu

    2015-12-01

    A double inverted pendulum plant as an established model that is analyzed as part of this work was tested under the influence of time delay, where the controller was fine tuned using a firefly algorithm taking into considering the fitness function of variation of the cart position and to minimize the cart position displacement and still stabilize it effectively. The naturally inspired algorithm which imitates the fireflies definitely is an energy efficient method owing to the inherent logic of the way the fireflies respond collectively and has shown that critical time delays makes the system healthy.

  5. Gravitational radiation reaction and inspiral waveforms in the adiabatic limit.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Scott A; Drasco, Steve; Flanagan, Eanna E; Franklin, Joel

    2005-06-10

    We describe progress evolving an important limit of binaries in general relativity: stellar mass compact objects spiraling into much larger black holes. Such systems are of great observational interest. We have developed tools to compute for the first time the radiation from generic orbits. Using global conservation laws, we find the orbital evolution and waveforms for special cases. For generic orbits, inspirals and waveforms can be found by augmenting our approach with an adiabatic self-force rule due to Mino. Such waveforms should be accurate enough for gravitational-wave searches. PMID:16090377

  6. Surface singularities in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity.

    PubMed

    Pani, Paolo; Sotiriou, Thomas P

    2012-12-21

    Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity was recently proposed as an alternative to general relativity that offers a resolution of spacetime singularities. The theory differs from Einstein's gravity only inside matter due to nondynamical degrees of freedom, and it is compatible with all current observations. We show that the theory is reminiscent of Palatini f(R) gravity and that it shares the same pathologies, such as curvature singularities at the surface of polytropic stars and unacceptable Newtonian limit. This casts serious doubt on its viability. PMID:23368444

  7. Biology-inspired acoustic sensors for sound source localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haijun; Chen, Zhong; Yu, Miao

    2008-03-01

    In this article, the design of a biology-inspired miniature directional microphone is presented. This microphone consists of two clamped circular diaphragms, which are mechanically coupled by a connecting bridge that is pivoted at its center. A theoretical model is constructed to determine the microphone response to sound incident from an arbitrary direction. Both the simulation and preliminary experimental results show that the proposed microphone provides a remarkable amplification of the time delay associated with the sound induced diaphragm responses. This study should be relevant to various sound source localization applications.

  8. Saddle point inflation in string-inspired theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2015-09-01

    The observed value of the Higgs mass indicates the possibility that there is no supersymmetry below the Planck scale and that the Higgs can play the role of the inflaton. We examine the general structure of saddle point inflation in string-inspired theory without supersymmetry. We point out that the string scale is fixed to be around the GUT scale {˜ }10^{16} GeV in order to realize successful inflation. We find that the inflaton can be naturally identified with the Higgs field.

  9. Wormhole geometries in Eddington-Inspired Born-Infeld gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Mak, M. K.; Sushkov, Sergey V.

    2015-10-01

    Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld (EiBI) gravity is a recently proposed modified theory of gravity, based on the classic work of Eddington and Born-Infeld nonlinear electrodynamics. In this paper, we consider the possibility that wormhole geometries are sustained in EiBI gravity. We present the gravitational field equations for an anisotropic stress-energy tensor and consider the generic conditions, for the auxiliary metric, at the wormhole throat. In addition to this, we obtain an exact solution for an asymptotically flat wormhole.

  10. Mussel-inspired surface chemistry for multifunctional coatings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haeshin; Dellatore, Shara M; Miller, William M; Messersmith, Phillip B

    2007-10-19

    We report a method to form multifunctional polymer coatings through simple dip-coating of objects in an aqueous solution of dopamine. Inspired by the composition of adhesive proteins in mussels, we used dopamine self-polymerization to form thin, surface-adherent polydopamine films onto a wide range of inorganic and organic materials, including noble metals, oxides, polymers, semiconductors, and ceramics. Secondary reactions can be used to create a variety of ad-layers, including self-assembled monolayers through deposition of long-chain molecular building blocks, metal films by electroless metallization, and bioinert and bioactive surfaces via grafting of macromolecules. PMID:17947576

  11. A plane mirror experiment inspired by a comic strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lúcio Prados Ribeiro, Jair

    2016-01-01

    A comic strip about a plane mirror was used in a high school optics test, and it was perceived that a large portion of the students believed that the mirror should be larger than the object so the virtual image could be entirely visible. Inspired on the comic strip, an experimental demonstration with flat mirrors was developed, in order to readdress this topic learning. Students were encouraged to create their own investigation of the phenomenon with a simple instrumental apparatus and also suggest different experimental approaches.

  12. Bio-inspired robotic legs drive viscous recirculating flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Daisuke; Hayashi, Rintaro

    2015-11-01

    Crustaceans actuate multiple legs in a well-coordinated sequence to generate suitable flow for feeding and swimming. Inspired by tiny crustacean larvae operating at low Reynolds number, we study a scaled-up model in which slender rods oscillate independently in a bath of glycerol. Experiments reveal qualitatively different flow patterns depending on the phase and orientation of actuated rods. The observations are analyzed in the framework of slender-body theory for Stokes flow. This study shows that simple oscillatory motion of multiple legs can produce complex recirculating flows, with potential applications for mixing and pumping.

  13. Mobile robots for localizing gas emission sources on landfill sites: is bio-inspiration the way to go?

    PubMed

    Hernandez Bennetts, Victor; Lilienthal, Achim J; Neumann, Patrick P; Trincavelli, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Roboticists often take inspiration from animals for designing sensors, actuators, or algorithms that control the behavior of robots. Bio-inspiration is motivated with the uncanny ability of animals to solve complex tasks like recognizing and manipulating objects, walking on uneven terrains, or navigating to the source of an odor plume. In particular the task of tracking an odor plume up to its source has nearly exclusively been addressed using biologically inspired algorithms and robots have been developed, for example, to mimic the behavior of moths, dung beetles, or lobsters. In this paper we argue that biomimetic approaches to gas source localization are of limited use, primarily because animals differ fundamentally in their sensing and actuation capabilities from state-of-the-art gas-sensitive mobile robots. To support our claim, we compare actuation and chemical sensing available to mobile robots to the corresponding capabilities of moths. We further characterize airflow and chemosensor measurements obtained with three different robot platforms (two wheeled robots and one flying micro-drone) in four prototypical environments and show that the assumption of a constant and unidirectional airflow, which is the basis of many gas source localization approaches, is usually far from being valid. This analysis should help to identify how underlying principles, which govern the gas source tracking behavior of animals, can be usefully "translated" into gas source localization approaches that fully take into account the capabilities of mobile robots. We also describe the requirements for a reference application, monitoring of gas emissions at landfill sites with mobile robots, and discuss an engineered gas source localization approach based on statistics as an alternative to biologically inspired algorithms. PMID:22319493

  14. Mobile Robots for Localizing Gas Emission Sources on Landfill Sites: Is Bio-Inspiration the Way to Go?

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez Bennetts, Victor; Lilienthal, Achim J.; Neumann, Patrick P.; Trincavelli, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Roboticists often take inspiration from animals for designing sensors, actuators, or algorithms that control the behavior of robots. Bio-inspiration is motivated with the uncanny ability of animals to solve complex tasks like recognizing and manipulating objects, walking on uneven terrains, or navigating to the source of an odor plume. In particular the task of tracking an odor plume up to its source has nearly exclusively been addressed using biologically inspired algorithms and robots have been developed, for example, to mimic the behavior of moths, dung beetles, or lobsters. In this paper we argue that biomimetic approaches to gas source localization are of limited use, primarily because animals differ fundamentally in their sensing and actuation capabilities from state-of-the-art gas-sensitive mobile robots. To support our claim, we compare actuation and chemical sensing available to mobile robots to the corresponding capabilities of moths. We further characterize airflow and chemosensor measurements obtained with three different robot platforms (two wheeled robots and one flying micro-drone) in four prototypical environments and show that the assumption of a constant and unidirectional airflow, which is the basis of many gas source localization approaches, is usually far from being valid. This analysis should help to identify how underlying principles, which govern the gas source tracking behavior of animals, can be usefully “translated” into gas source localization approaches that fully take into account the capabilities of mobile robots. We also describe the requirements for a reference application, monitoring of gas emissions at landfill sites with mobile robots, and discuss an engineered gas source localization approach based on statistics as an alternative to biologically inspired algorithms. PMID:22319493

  15. Cytocompatibility of bio-inspired silicon carbide ceramics.

    PubMed

    López-Alvarez, M; de Carlos, A; González, P; Serra, J; León, B

    2010-10-01

    Due to its good mechanical and biochemical properties and, also, because of its unique interconnected porosity, bio-inspired silicon carbide (bioSiC) can be considered as a promising material for biomedical applications, including controlled drug delivery devices and tissue engineering scaffolds. This innovative material is produced by molten-Si infiltration of carbon templates, obtained by controlled pyrolysis of vegetable precursors. The final SiC ceramic presents a porous-interconnected microstructure that mimics the natural hierarchical structure of bone tissue and allows the internal growth of tissue, as well as favors angiogenesis. In the present work, the in vitro cytocompatibility of the bio-inspired SiC ceramics obtained, in this case, from the tree sapelli (Entandrophragma cylindricum) was evaluated. The attachment, spreading, cytoskeleton organization, proliferation, and mineralization of the preosteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 were analyzed for up to 28 days of incubation by scanning electron microscopy, interferometric profilometry, confocal laser scanning microscopy, MTT assay, as well as red alizarin staining and quantification. Cells seeded onto these ceramics were able to attach, spread, and proliferate properly with the maintenance of the typical preosteoblastic morphology throughout the time of culture. A certain level of mineralization on the surface of the sapelli-based SiC ceramics is observed. These results demonstrated the cytocompatibility of this porous and hierarchical material. PMID:20737554

  16. Minimally disruptive needle insertion: a biologically inspired solution.

    PubMed

    Leibinger, Alexander; Oldfield, Matthew J; Rodriguez Y Baena, Ferdinando

    2016-06-01

    The mobility of soft tissue can cause inaccurate needle insertions. Particularly in steering applications that employ thin and flexible needles, large deviations can occur between pre-operative images of the patient, from which a procedure is planned, and the intra-operative scene, where a procedure is executed. Although many approaches for reducing tissue motion focus on external constraining or manipulation, little attention has been paid to the way the needle is inserted and actuated within soft tissue. Using our biologically inspired steerable needle, we present a method of reducing the disruptiveness of insertions by mimicking the burrowing mechanism of ovipositing wasps. Internal displacements and strains in three dimensions within a soft tissue phantom are measured at the needle interface, using a scanning laser-based image correlation technique. Compared to a conventional insertion method with an equally sized needle, overall displacements and strains in the needle vicinity are reduced by 30% and 41%, respectively. The results show that, for a given net speed, needle insertion can be made significantly less disruptive with respect to its surroundings by employing our biologically inspired solution. This will have significant impact on both the safety and targeting accuracy of percutaneous interventions along both straight and curved trajectories. PMID:27274797

  17. Miniaturized unified imaging system using bio-inspired fluidic lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Frank S.; Cho, Sung Hwan; Qiao, Wen; Kim, Nam-Hyong; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2008-08-01

    Miniaturized imaging systems have become ubiquitous as they are found in an ever-increasing number of devices, such as cellular phones, personal digital assistants, and web cameras. Until now, the design and fabrication methodology of such systems have not been significantly different from conventional cameras. The only established method to achieve focusing is by varying the lens distance. On the other hand, the variable-shape crystalline lens found in animal eyes offers inspiration for a more natural way of achieving an optical system with high functionality. Learning from the working concepts of the optics in the animal kingdom, we developed bio-inspired fluidic lenses for a miniature universal imager with auto-focusing, macro, and super-macro capabilities. Because of the enormous dynamic range of fluidic lenses, the miniature camera can even function as a microscope. To compensate for the image quality difference between the central vision and peripheral vision and the shape difference between a solid-state image sensor and a curved retina, we adopted a hybrid design consisting of fluidic lenses for tunability and fixed lenses for aberration and color dispersion correction. A design of the world's smallest surgical camera with 3X optical zoom capabilities is also demonstrated using the approach of hybrid lenses.

  18. Heterogeneous sensor networks: a bio-inspired overlay architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burman, Jerry; Hespanha, Joao; Madhow, Upamanyu; Klein, Daniel; Isaacs, Jason; Venkateswaran, Sriram; Pham, Tien

    2010-04-01

    Teledyne Scientific Company, the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) and the Army Research Lab are developing technologies for automated data exfiltration from heterogeneous sensor networks through the Institute for Collaborative Biotechnologies (ICB). Unmanned air vehicles (UAV) provide an effective means to autonomously collect data from unattended ground sensors (UGSs) that cannot communicate with each other. UAVs are used to reduce the system reaction time by generating autonomous data-driven collection routes. Bio-inspired techniques for search provide a novel strategy to detect, capture and fuse data across heterogeneous sensors. A fast and accurate method has been developed for routing UAVs and localizing an event by fusing data from a sparse number of UGSs; it leverages a bio-inspired technique based on chemotaxis or the motion of bacteria seeking nutrients in their environment. The system was implemented and successfully tested using a high level simulation environment using a flight simulator to emulate a UAV. A field test was also conducted in November 2009 at Camp Roberts, CA using a UAV provided by AeroMech Engineering. The field test results showed that the system can detect and locate the source of an acoustic event with an accuracy of about 3 meters average circular error.

  19. Bio-inspired nano-sensor-enhanced CNN visual computer.

    PubMed

    Porod, Wolfgang; Werblin, Frank; Chua, Leon O; Roska, Tamas; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Angel; Roska, Botond; Fay, Patrick; Bernstein, Gary H; Huang, Yih-Fang; Csurgay, Arpad I

    2004-05-01

    Nanotechnology opens new ways to utilize recent discoveries in biological image processing by translating the underlying functional concepts into the design of CNN (cellular neural/nonlinear network)-based systems incorporating nanoelectronic devices. There is a natural intersection joining studies of retinal processing, spatio-temporal nonlinear dynamics embodied in CNN, and the possibility of miniaturizing the technology through nanotechnology. This intersection serves as the springboard for our multidisciplinary project. Biological feature and motion detectors map directly into the spatio-temporal dynamics of CNN for target recognition, image stabilization, and tracking. The neural interactions underlying color processing will drive the development of nanoscale multispectral sensor arrays for image fusion. Implementing such nanoscale sensors on a CNN platform will allow the implementation of device feedback control, a hallmark of biological sensory systems. These biologically inspired CNN subroutines are incorporated into the new world of analog-and-logic algorithms and software, containing also many other active-wave computing mechanisms, including nature-inspired (physics and chemistry) as well as PDE-based sophisticated spatio-temporal algorithms. Our goal is to design and develop several miniature prototype devices for target detection, navigation, tracking, and robotics. This paper presents an example illustrating the synergies emerging from the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, and information and cognitive science. PMID:15194609

  20. Biomimetics inspired surfaces for drag reduction and oleophobicity/philicity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Summary The emerging field of biomimetics allows one to mimic biology or nature to develop nanomaterials, nanodevices, and processes which provide desirable properties. Hierarchical structures with dimensions of features ranging from the macroscale to the nanoscale are extremely common in nature and possess properties of interest. There are a large number of objects including bacteria, plants, land and aquatic animals, and seashells with properties of commercial interest. Certain plant leaves, such as lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) leaves, are known to be superhydrophobic and self-cleaning due to the hierarchical surface roughness and presence of a wax layer. In addition to a self-cleaning effect, these surfaces with a high contact angle and low contact angle hysteresis also exhibit low adhesion and drag reduction for fluid flow. An aquatic animal, such as a shark, is another model from nature for the reduction of drag in fluid flow. The artificial surfaces inspired from the shark skin and lotus leaf have been created, and in this article the influence of structure on drag reduction efficiency is reviewed. Biomimetic-inspired oleophobic surfaces can be used to prevent contamination of the underwater parts of ships by biological and organic contaminants, including oil. The article also reviews the wetting behavior of oil droplets on various superoleophobic surfaces created in the lab. PMID:21977417

  1. Biomimetics inspired surfaces for drag reduction and oleophobicity/philicity.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2011-01-01

    The emerging field of biomimetics allows one to mimic biology or nature to develop nanomaterials, nanodevices, and processes which provide desirable properties. Hierarchical structures with dimensions of features ranging from the macroscale to the nanoscale are extremely common in nature and possess properties of interest. There are a large number of objects including bacteria, plants, land and aquatic animals, and seashells with properties of commercial interest. Certain plant leaves, such as lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) leaves, are known to be superhydrophobic and self-cleaning due to the hierarchical surface roughness and presence of a wax layer. In addition to a self-cleaning effect, these surfaces with a high contact angle and low contact angle hysteresis also exhibit low adhesion and drag reduction for fluid flow. An aquatic animal, such as a shark, is another model from nature for the reduction of drag in fluid flow. The artificial surfaces inspired from the shark skin and lotus leaf have been created, and in this article the influence of structure on drag reduction efficiency is reviewed. Biomimetic-inspired oleophobic surfaces can be used to prevent contamination of the underwater parts of ships by biological and organic contaminants, including oil. The article also reviews the wetting behavior of oil droplets on various superoleophobic surfaces created in the lab. PMID:21977417

  2. Bio-inspired Fabrication of Complex Hierarchical Structure in Silicon.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Peng, Zhengchun; Shi, Tielin; Tan, Xianhua; Zhang, Deqin; Huang, Qiang; Zou, Chuanping; Liao, Guanglan

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we developed a top-down method to fabricate complex three dimensional silicon structure, which was inspired by the hierarchical micro/nanostructure of the Morpho butterfly scales. The fabrication procedure includes photolithography, metal masking, and both dry and wet etching techniques. First, microscale photoresist grating pattern was formed on the silicon (111) wafer. Trenches with controllable rippled structures on the sidewalls were etched by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching Bosch process. Then, Cr film was angled deposited on the bottom of the ripples by electron beam evaporation, followed by anisotropic wet etching of the silicon. The simple fabrication method results in large scale hierarchical structure on a silicon wafer. The fabricated Si structure has multiple layers with uniform thickness of hundreds nanometers. We conducted both light reflection and heat transfer experiments on this structure. They exhibited excellent antireflection performance for polarized ultraviolet, visible and near infrared wavelengths. And the heat flux of the structure was significantly enhanced. As such, we believe that these bio-inspired hierarchical silicon structure will have promising applications in photovoltaics, sensor technology and photonic crystal devices. PMID:26369172

  3. Multi-objective optimization of aerostructures inspired by nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, Adam C.

    The focus of this doctoral work is on the optimization of aircraft wing structures. The optimization was performed against the shape, size and topology of simple aircraft wing designs. A simple morphing wing actuator optimization is performed as well as a wing panel buckling topology optimization. This is done with biologically-inspired mathematical systems including a map L-system, a multi-objective genetic algorithm, and cellular structures represented by Voronoi diagrams. As with most aircraft optimizations, both studies aim to minimize the total weight of a wing while simultaneously meeting stiffness and strength requirements. Optimization is performed with the scripts developed in MATLAB as well as through the use of finite element codes, NASTRAN and LS-Dyna. The intent of this methodology is to develop unique designs inspired by nature and optimized through natural selection. The optimal designs are those with minimal weight as well as additional requirements specific to the problems. The designs and methodology have the potential to be of use in determining minimum weight designs in aircraft structures. A literature review of optimization techniques, methodology and method validation, and optimization comparisons is presented. The buckling panel optimization considered here also includes composite buckling failure and manufacturing assumptions for composite panels. The panels are optimized for mass and strength by controlling the laminate stacking sequence, stiffener size, and topology. The morphing wing is optimized for actuator loading and redundancy.

  4. Electronic and optoelectronic materials and devices inspired by nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, P.; Bettinger, C. J.; Irimia-Vladu, M.; Mostert, A. B.; Schwenn, P. E.

    2013-03-01

    Inorganic semiconductors permeate virtually every sphere of modern human existence. Micro-fabricated memory elements, processors, sensors, circuit elements, lasers, displays, detectors, etc are ubiquitous. However, the dawn of the 21st century has brought with it immense new challenges, and indeed opportunities—some of which require a paradigm shift in the way we think about resource use and disposal, which in turn directly impacts our ongoing relationship with inorganic semiconductors such as silicon and gallium arsenide. Furthermore, advances in fields such as nano-medicine and bioelectronics, and the impending revolution of the ‘ubiquitous sensor network’, all require new functional materials which are bio-compatible, cheap, have minimal embedded manufacturing energy plus extremely low power consumption, and are mechanically robust and flexible for integration with tissues, building structures, fabrics and all manner of hosts. In this short review article we summarize current progress in creating materials with such properties. We focus primarily on organic and bio-organic electronic and optoelectronic systems derived from or inspired by nature, and outline the complex charge transport and photo-physics which control their behaviour. We also introduce the concept of electrical devices based upon ion or proton flow (‘ionics and protonics’) and focus particularly on their role as a signal interface with biological systems. Finally, we highlight recent advances in creating working devices, some of which have bio-inspired architectures, and summarize the current issues, challenges and potential solutions. This is a rich new playground for the modern materials physicist.

  5. Bio-inspired magnetic swimming microrobots for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyer, Kathrin E.; Zhang, Li; Nelson, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Microrobots have been proposed for future biomedical applications in which they are able to navigate in viscous fluidic environments. Nature has inspired numerous microrobotic locomotion designs, which are suitable for propulsion generation at low Reynolds numbers. This article reviews the various swimming methods with particular focus on helical propulsion inspired by E. coli bacteria. There are various magnetic actuation methods for biomimetic and non-biomimetic microrobots, such as rotating fields, oscillating fields, or field gradients. They can be categorized into force-driven or torque-driven actuation methods. Both approaches are reviewed and a previous publication has shown that torque-driven actuation scales better to the micro- and nano-scale than force-driven actuation. Finally, the implementation of swarm or multi-agent control is discussed. The use of multiple microrobots may be beneficial for in vivo as well as in vitro applications. Thus, the frequency-dependent behavior of helical microrobots is discussed and preliminary experimental results are presented showing the decoupling of an individual agent within a group of three microrobots.

  6. Bio-inspired strategies for anti-icing.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jianyong; Song, Yanlin; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Jianjun

    2014-04-22

    Undesired ice accumulation leads to severe economic issues and, in some cases, loss of lives. Although research on anti-icing has been carried out for decades, environmentally harmless, economical, and efficient strategies for anti-icing remain to be developed. Recent researches have provided new insights into the icing phenomenon and shed light on some promising bio-inspired anti-icing strategies. The present review critically categorizes and discusses recent developments. Effectively trapping air in surface textures of superhydrophobic surfaces weakens the interaction of the surfaces with liquid water, which enables timely removal of impacting and condensed water droplets before freezing occurs. When ice already forms, ice adhesion can be significantly reduced if liquid is trapped in surface textures as a lubricating layer. As such, ice could be shed off by an action of wind or its gravity. In addition, bio-inspired anti-icing strategies via trapping or introducing other media, such as phase change materials and antifreeze proteins, are discussed. PMID:24592934

  7. Flectofin: a hingeless flapping mechanism inspired by nature.

    PubMed

    Lienhard, J; Schleicher, S; Poppinga, S; Masselter, T; Milwich, M; Speck, T; Knippers, J

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a novel biomimetic approach to the kinematics of deployable systems for architectural purposes. Elastic deformation of the entire structure replaces the need for local hinges. This change becomes possible by using fibre-reinforced polymers (FRP) such as glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) that can combine high tensile strength with low bending stiffness, thus offering a large range of calibrated elastic deformations. The employment of elasticity within a structure facilitates not only the generation of complex geometries, but also takes the design space a step further by creating elastic kinetic structures, here referred to as pliable structures. In this paper, the authors give an insight into the abstraction strategies used to derive elastic kinetics from plants, which show a clear interrelation of form, actuation and kinematics. Thereby, the focus will be on form-finding and simulation methods which have been adopted to generate a biomimetic principle which is patented under the name Flectofin®. This bio inspired hingeless flapping device is inspired by the valvular pollination mechanism that was derived and abstracted from the kinematics found in the Bird-Of-Paradise flower (Strelitzia reginae, Strelitziaceae). PMID:22126741

  8. Bio-inspired magnetic swimming microrobots for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Peyer, Kathrin E; Zhang, Li; Nelson, Bradley J

    2013-02-21

    Microrobots have been proposed for future biomedical applications in which they are able to navigate in viscous fluidic environments. Nature has inspired numerous microrobotic locomotion designs, which are suitable for propulsion generation at low Reynolds numbers. This article reviews the various swimming methods with particular focus on helical propulsion inspired by E. coli bacteria. There are various magnetic actuation methods for biomimetic and non-biomimetic microrobots, such as rotating fields, oscillating fields, or field gradients. They can be categorized into force-driven or torque-driven actuation methods. Both approaches are reviewed and a previous publication has shown that torque-driven actuation scales better to the micro- and nano-scale than force-driven actuation. Finally, the implementation of swarm or multi-agent control is discussed. The use of multiple microrobots may be beneficial for in vivo as well as in vitro applications. Thus, the frequency-dependent behavior of helical microrobots is discussed and preliminary experimental results are presented showing the decoupling of an individual agent within a group of three microrobots. PMID:23165991

  9. Advances in biologically inspired on/near sensor processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarley, Paul L.

    1999-07-01

    As electro-optic sensors increase in size and frame rate, the data transfer and digital processing resource requirements also increase. In many missions, the spatial area of interest is but a small fraction of the available field of view. Choosing the right region of interest, however, is a challenge and still requires an enormous amount of downstream digital processing resources. In order to filter this ever-increasing amount of data, we look at how nature solves the problem. The Advanced Guidance Division of the Munitions Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory at Elgin AFB, Florida, has been pursuing research in the are of advanced sensor and image processing concepts based on biologically inspired sensory information processing. A summary of two 'neuromorphic' processing efforts will be presented along with a seeker system concept utilizing this innovative technology. The Neuroseek program is developing a 256 X 256 2-color dual band IRFPA coupled to an optimized silicon CMOS read-out and processing integrated circuit that provides simultaneous full-frame imaging in MWIR/LWIR wavebands along with built-in biologically inspired sensor image processing functions. Concepts and requirements for future such efforts will also be discussed.

  10. Biomimetic and bio-inspired uses of mollusc shells.

    PubMed

    Morris, J P; Wang, Y; Backeljau, T; Chapelle, G

    2016-06-01

    Climate change and ocean acidification are likely to have a profound effect on marine molluscs, which are of great ecological and economic importance. One process particularly sensitive to climate change is the formation of biominerals in mollusc shells. Fundamental research is broadening our understanding of the biomineralization process, as well as providing more informed predictions on the effects of climate change on marine molluscs. Such studies are important in their own right, but their value also extends to applied sciences. Biominerals, organic/inorganic hybrid materials with many remarkable physical and chemical properties, have been studied for decades, and the possibilities for future improved use of such materials for society are widely recognised. This article highlights the potential use of our understanding of the shell biomineralization process in novel bio-inspired and biomimetic applications. It also highlights the potential for the valorisation of shells produced as a by-product of the aquaculture industry. Studying shells and the formation of biominerals will inspire novel functional hybrid materials. It may also provide sustainable, ecologically- and economically-viable solutions to some of the problems created by current human resource exploitation. PMID:27083864

  11. Digital cameras with designs inspired by the arthropod eye.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Min; Xie, Yizhu; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Xiao, Jianliang; Jung, Inhwa; Choi, Ki-Joong; Liu, Zhuangjian; Park, Hyunsung; Lu, Chaofeng; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Li, Rui; Crozier, Kenneth B; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2013-05-01

    In arthropods, evolution has created a remarkably sophisticated class of imaging systems, with a wide-angle field of view, low aberrations, high acuity to motion and an infinite depth of field. A challenge in building digital cameras with the hemispherical, compound apposition layouts of arthropod eyes is that essential design requirements cannot be met with existing planar sensor technologies or conventional optics. Here we present materials, mechanics and integration schemes that afford scalable pathways to working, arthropod-inspired cameras with nearly full hemispherical shapes (about 160 degrees). Their surfaces are densely populated by imaging elements (artificial ommatidia), which are comparable in number (180) to those of the eyes of fire ants (Solenopsis fugax) and bark beetles (Hylastes nigrinus). The devices combine elastomeric compound optical elements with deformable arrays of thin silicon photodetectors into integrated sheets that can be elastically transformed from the planar geometries in which they are fabricated to hemispherical shapes for integration into apposition cameras. Our imaging results and quantitative ray-tracing-based simulations illustrate key features of operation. These general strategies seem to be applicable to other compound eye devices, such as those inspired by moths and lacewings (refracting superposition eyes), lobster and shrimp (reflecting superposition eyes), and houseflies (neural superposition eyes). PMID:23636401

  12. Bio-Inspired Cyber Security for Smart Grid Deployments

    SciTech Connect

    McKinnon, Archibald D.; Thompson, Seth R.; Doroshchuk, Ruslan A.; Fink, Glenn A.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2013-05-01

    mart grid technologies are transforming the electric power grid into a grid with bi-directional flows of both power and information. Operating millions of new smart meters and smart appliances will significantly impact electric distribution systems resulting in greater efficiency. However, the scale of the grid and the new types of information transmitted will potentially introduce several security risks that cannot be addressed by traditional, centralized security techniques. We propose a new bio-inspired cyber security approach. Social insects, such as ants and bees, have developed complex-adaptive systems that emerge from the collective application of simple, light-weight behaviors. The Digital Ants framework is a bio-inspired framework that uses mobile light-weight agents. Sensors within the framework use digital pheromones to communicate with each other and to alert each other of possible cyber security issues. All communication and coordination is both localized and decentralized thereby allowing the framework to scale across the large numbers of devices that will exist in the smart grid. Furthermore, the sensors are light-weight and therefore suitable for implementation on devices with limited computational resources. This paper will provide a brief overview of the Digital Ants framework and then present results from test bed-based demonstrations that show that Digital Ants can identify a cyber attack scenario against smart meter deployments.

  13. Progress in Insect-Inspired Optical Navigation Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita; Chahl, Javaan; Zometzer, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Progress has been made in continuing efforts to develop optical flight-control and navigation sensors for miniature robotic aircraft. The designs of these sensors are inspired by the designs and functions of the vision systems and brains of insects. Two types of sensors of particular interest are polarization compasses and ocellar horizon sensors. The basic principle of polarization compasses was described (but without using the term "polarization compass") in "Insect-Inspired Flight Control for Small Flying Robots" (NPO-30545), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 1 (January 2005), page 61. To recapitulate: Bees use sky polarization patterns in ultraviolet (UV) light, caused by Rayleigh scattering of sunlight by atmospheric gas molecules, as direction references relative to the apparent position of the Sun. A robotic direction-finding technique based on this concept would be more robust in comparison with a technique based on the direction to the visible Sun because the UV polarization pattern is distributed across the entire sky and, hence, is redundant and can be extrapolated from a small region of clear sky in an elsewhere cloudy sky that hides the Sun.

  14. Insect-Inspired Optical-Flow Navigation Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita; Morookian, John M.; Chahl, Javan; Soccol, Dean; Hines, Butler; Zornetzer, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Integrated circuits that exploit optical flow to sense motions of computer mice on or near surfaces ( optical mouse chips ) are used as navigation sensors in a class of small flying robots now undergoing development for potential use in such applications as exploration, search, and surveillance. The basic principles of these robots were described briefly in Insect-Inspired Flight Control for Small Flying Robots (NPO-30545), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 1 (January 2005), page 61. To recapitulate from the cited prior article: The concept of optical flow can be defined, loosely, as the use of texture in images as a source of motion cues. The flight-control and navigation systems of these robots are inspired largely by the designs and functions of the vision systems and brains of insects, which have been demonstrated to utilize optical flow (as detected by their eyes and brains) resulting from their own motions in the environment. Optical flow has been shown to be very effective as a means of avoiding obstacles and controlling speeds and altitudes in robotic navigation. Prior systems used in experiments on navigating by means of optical flow have involved the use of panoramic optics, high-resolution image sensors, and programmable imagedata- processing computers.

  15. Dry friction of microstructured polymer surfaces inspired by snake skin

    PubMed Central

    Heepe, Lars; Fadeeva, Elena; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-01-01

    Summary The microstructure investigated in this study was inspired by the anisotropic microornamentation of scales from the ventral body side of the California King Snake (Lampropeltis getula californiae). Frictional properties of snake-inspired microstructured polymer surface (SIMPS) made of epoxy resin were characterised in contact with a smooth glass ball by a microtribometer in two perpendicular directions. The SIMPS exhibited a considerable frictional anisotropy: Frictional coefficients measured along the microstructure were about 33% lower than those measured in the opposite direction. Frictional coefficients were compared to those obtained on other types of surface microstructure: (i) smooth ones, (ii) rough ones, and (iii) ones with periodic groove-like microstructures of different dimensions. The results demonstrate the existence of a common pattern of interaction between two general effects that influence friction: (1) molecular interaction depending on real contact area and (2) the mechanical interlocking of both contacting surfaces. The strongest reduction of the frictional coefficient, compared to the smooth reference surface, was observed at a medium range of surface structure dimensions suggesting a trade-off between these two effects. PMID:25161844

  16. Effects of flexibility on bio-inspired aquatic propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, Peter; Boschitsch, Birgitt; Smits, Alexander

    2012-11-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation aimed at understanding the role that flexibility plays in bio-inspired aquatic propulsion. A rectangular pitching panel apparatus, where both the flexibility and aspect ratio can be systematically varied, is utilized as a simplified model for bio-inspired propulsion in water at a Reynolds number of 7200. It is found that, when optimized, flexibility can double the thrust produced and propulsive efficiency achieved in comparison to a rigid panel. There is a notable thrust enhancement when the flexible panels are operating near resonance; however, it is found that resonance is not the primary mechanism governing efficient propulsion. Peaks in propulsive efficiency are found below, at, and above the resonant frequency depending on the flexibility of the panel. Finally, a scaling law is derived that is shown to collapse the thrust production, power consumption, and propulsive efficiency data across all panels examined. The authors would like to acknowledge the generous support from the Office of Naval Research under Program Director Dr. Bob Brizzolara, MURI grant number N00014-08-1-0642.

  17. Autonomous UAV persistent surveillance using bio-inspired strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burman, Jerry; Hespanha, Joao; Madhow, Upamanyu; Isaacs, Jason; Venkateswaran, Sriram; Pham, Tien

    2012-06-01

    A team consisting of Teledyne Scientific Company, the University of California at Santa Barbara, the Army Research Laboratory, the Engineer Research and Development Center, and IBM UK is developing technologies in support of automated data exfiltration from heterogeneous battlefield sensor networks to enhance situational awareness for dismounts and command echelons. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provide an effective means to autonomously collect data from a sparse network of unattended ground sensors (UGSs) that cannot communicate with each other. UAVs are used to reduce the system reaction time by generating autonomous collection routes that are data-driven. Bioinspired techniques for autonomous search provide a novel strategy to detect, capture and fuse data from heterogeneous sensor networks. The bio-inspired algorithm is based on chemotaxis or the motion of bacteria seeking nutrients in their environment. Field tests of a bio-inspired system that routed UAVs were conducted in June 2011 at Camp Roberts, CA. The field test results showed that such a system can autonomously detect and locate the source of terrestrial events with very high accuracy and visually verify the event. In June 2011, field tests of the system were completed and include the use of multiple autonomously controlled UAVs, detection and disambiguation of multiple acoustic events occurring in short time frames, optimal sensor placement based on local phenomenology and the use of the International Technology Alliance (ITA) Sensor Network Fabric. The system demonstrated TRL 6 performance in the field at Camp Roberts.

  18. Variability of inspired oxygen concentration with nasal cannulas.

    PubMed Central

    Bazuaye, E A; Stone, T N; Corris, P A; Gibson, G J

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The likely values of inspired oxygen concentration (FIO2) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease breathing via nasal cannulas have not been assessed previously. METHODS: Seven patients with chronic obstructive lung disease and seven healthy subjects were studied while breathing oxygen via nasal cannulas or fixed performance (Venturi) or uncontrolled (MC) oxygen masks. Breath to breath values of FIO2 were calculated by extrapolation from expired oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations on the basis of the oxygen-carbon dioxide relationship and on the assumption of a respiratory exchange ratio (R) of 0.8. RESULTS: In both groups of subjects the average values of FIO2 with nasal cannulas at 1 and 2 l min-1 were of a similar order to those achieved with 24.5% and 28% Venturi masks, but variations within and between subjects in both groups breathing via nasal cannulas were considerable and similar to those found with MC masks. In the seven patients with chronic obstructive lung disease breathing via nasal cannulas at 2 l min-1 the average FIO2 varied from 23.7% to 34.9%. CONCLUSIONS: "Typical" values of FIO2 quoted with nasal cannulas can mislead. The results confirm that this mode of oxygen delivery is unsatisfactory if precise control of inspired oxygen is desired. PMID:1412117

  19. Bio-inspired antireflective hetero-nanojunctions with enhanced photoactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Dianpeng; Zheng, Liyan; Cao, Xuebo; Jiang, Yueyue; Xu, Hongbo; Zhang, Yanyan; Yang, Bingjie; Sun, Yinghui; Hng, Huey Hoon; Lu, Nan; Chi, Lifeng; Chen, Xiaodong

    2013-11-01

    A bio-inspired antireflective hetero-nanojunction structure has been fabricated by the hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods on silicon micro-pyramids. It has been shown that this structure suppresses light reflection more effectively resulting in a high photocurrent response and good charge separation simultaneously. The strategy provides a means to enhance solar energy conversion.A bio-inspired antireflective hetero-nanojunction structure has been fabricated by the hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods on silicon micro-pyramids. It has been shown that this structure suppresses light reflection more effectively resulting in a high photocurrent response and good charge separation simultaneously. The strategy provides a means to enhance solar energy conversion. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: HRTEM image and XRD pattern of a ZnO nanorod; schematic representation of the photoanode behavior, as well as the concentration change of rhodamine 6G through the photodegradation process over many repeats. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04011a

  20. The NASA Education Enterprise: Inspiring the Next Generation of Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    On April 12, 2002, NASA Administrator Sean O Keefe opened a new window to the future of space exploration with these words in his Pioneering the Future address. Thus began the conceptual framework for structuring the new Education Enterprise. The Agency s mission is to understand and protect our home planet; to explore the universe in search for life; and to inspire the next generation of explorers as only NASA can. In adopting this mission, education became a core element and is now a vital part of every major NASA research and development mission. NASA s call to inspire the next generation of explorers is now resounding throughout the NASA community and schools of all levels all around the country. The goal is to capture student interest, nurture their natural curiosities, and intrigue their minds with new and exciting scientific research; as well as to provide educators with the creative tools they need to improve America s scientific literacy. The future of NASA begins with America s youngest scholars. According to Administrator O Keefe s address, if NASA does not motivate the youngest generation now, there is little prospect this generation will choose to pursue scientific disciplines later. Since embracing Administrator O Keefe s educational mandate over a year ago, NASA has been fully devoted to broadening its roadmap to motivation. The efforts have generated a whole new showcase of thoughtprovoking and fun learning opportunities, through printed material, Web sites and Webcasts, robotics, rocketry, aerospace design contests, and various other resources as only NASA can.

  1. Innovation Inspired by Nature: Capabilities, Potentials and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2012-01-01

    Through evolution, nature came up with many effective solutions to its challenges and continually improving them. By mimicking, coping and being inspired, humans have been using Nature's solutions to address their own challenges. In recent years, the implementation of nature's capabilities has intensified with our growing understanding of the various biological and nastic mechanisms and processes. Successes include even the making of humanlike robots that perform such lifelike tasks as walking, talking, making eye-contact, interpreting speech and facial expressions, as well as many other humanlike functions. Generally, once humans are able to implement a function then, thru rapid advances in technology, capabilities are developed that can significantly exceed the original source of inspiration in Nature. Examples include flight where there is no species that can fly as high, carry so much mass, has so large dimensions and fly so fast, and operate at as such extreme conditions as our aircraft and other aerospace systems. However, using the capabilities of today's technology, there are many challenges that are not feasible to address in mimicking characteristics of species and plants. In this manuscript, state-of-the-art of biomimetic capabilities, potentials and challenges are reviewed.

  2. The Mars imperative: Species survival and inspiring a globalized culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Donald C.

    2015-02-01

    Humanity has crossed a unique technological threshold enabling self-guided survival, a first in the history of life on Earth. From a human perspective the Earth may be considered as a single interconnected ecosystem, and given our tenuous understanding and control over the environment as well as our own behaviors, ever-looming specters of social collapse or even extinction dictate enacting immediate off-world diversification and self-preservation efforts. Herein, Mars is touted as the most tenable and sustainable location in which to initiate such permanent diversification. Scientific curiosity alone cannot initiate nor drive such off-world settlement and concerted impetus and public support for such an endeavor is shown to be constrained by human attention span. Lastly, the initial act of settlement uniquely serves as humanities greatest globally inspiring self-initiated endeavor, a tangible benefit capable of inspiring generations, connecting cultures and motivating college enrollments and career path choices in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) in a manner similar to the dawn of human space exploration.

  3. Code lists for interoperability - Principles and best practices in INSPIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, M.; Portele, C.; Cox, S.; Murray, K.

    2012-04-01

    Using free text for attribute values when exchanging geoscience data can lead to a number of problems, e.g. because different data providers and consumers use different languages, terminology or spellings. To overcome these issues, well-defined schemes of codes or concepts, known as code lists1, are preferred to free text in defining the value domain of an attribute. The "code list" concept is well established in geospatial modelling standards (e.g. ISO 191032), however, it has been used in many different ways. Here we present some considerations relating to code lists and related interoperability requirements in spatial data infrastructures (SDIs), in particular as discussed in the INSPIRE3 data specifications working groups. These will form the basis for the specification of code list requirements in the INSPIRE Implementing Rules on interoperability of spatial data sets and services4, which provide binding legal obligations for EU Member States for the interoperable provision of data related to the environment. Requirements or recommendations for code lists should address the following aspects: Governance: When modeling an application domain, for each feature attribute whose value is a 'term', should we re-use an existing code list or specify a new code list for the SDI initiative? Use of existing code lists is likely to maximize cross-initiative interoperability. Level of obligation: For each use of a code list, what is the level of obligation? Is use of a specified code list(s) mandatory or just recommended? This is particularly important where the specifications carry a legal mandate (as in the case of INSPIRE). Extensibility: Must data providers use only the specified values or may they extend the code list? Are arbitrary extensions allowed or do additional values have to be specialisations of existing values? Specifying values: For each code list, the allowed values have to be specified, either directly in the specification, or by reference to an existing

  4. Controlling protein translocation through nanopores with bio-inspired fluid walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusko, Erik C.; Johnson, Jay M.; Majd, Sheereen; Prangkio, Panchika; Rollings, Ryan C.; Li, Jiali; Yang, Jerry; Mayer, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Synthetic nanopores have been used to study individual biomolecules in high throughput, but their performance as sensors does not match that of biological ion channels. Challenges include control of nanopore diameters and surface chemistry, modification of the translocation times of single-molecule analytes through nanopores, and prevention of non-specific interactions with pore walls. Here, inspired by the olfactory sensilla of insect antennae, we show that coating nanopores with a fluid lipid bilayer tailors their surface chemistry and allows fine-tuning and dynamic variation of pore diameters in subnanometre increments. Incorporation of mobile ligands in the lipid bilayer conferred specificity and slowed the translocation of targeted proteins sufficiently to time-resolve translocation events of individual proteins. Lipid coatings also prevented pores from clogging, eliminated non-specific binding and enabled the translocation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) oligomers and fibrils. Through combined analysis of their translocation time, volume, charge, shape and ligand affinity, different proteins were identified.

  5. Synthesis and Evaluation of a 2,11‐Cembranoid‐Inspired Library

    PubMed Central

    Welford, Amanda J; Liu, Manjuan; Richards, Meirion; Brown, Nathan; Lomas, Cara; Tizzard, Graham J.; Pitak, Mateusz B.; Coles, Simon J.; Eccles, Suzanne A.; Raynaud, Florence I.; Collins, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The 2,11‐cembranoid family of natural products has been used as inspiration for the synthesis of a structurally simplified, functionally diverse library of octahydroisobenzofuran‐based compounds designed to augment a typical medicinal chemistry library screen. Ring‐closing metathesis, lactonisation and SmI2‐mediated methods were exemplified and applied to the installation of a third ring to mimic the nine‐membered ring of the 2,11‐cembranoids. The library was assessed for aqueous solubility and permeability, with a chemical‐space analysis performed for comparison to the family of cembranoid natural products and a sample set of a screening library. Preliminary investigations in cancer cells showed that the simpler scaffolds could recapitulate the reported anti‐migratory activity of the natural products. PMID:26929153

  6. Merger of Ayurveda and Tissue Culture-Based Functional Genomics: Inspirations from Systems Biology

    PubMed Central

    Deocaris, Custer C; Widodo, Nashi; Wadhwa, Renu; Kaul, Sunil C

    2008-01-01

    Ayurveda is one of the ancient systems of health care of Indian origin. Roughly translated into "Knowledge of life", it is based on the use of natural herbs and herb products for therapeutic measures to boost physical, mental, social and spiritual harmony and improve quality of life. Although sheltered with long history and high trust, ayurveda principles have not entered laboratories and only a handful of studies have identified pure components and molecular pathways for its life-enhancing effects. In the post-genomic era, genome-wide functional screenings for targets for diseases is the most recent and practical approach. We illustrate here the merger of ayurveda and functional genomics in a systems biology scenario that reveals the pathway analysis of crude and active components and inspire ayurveda practice for health benefits, disease prevention and therapeutics. PMID:18348714

  7. Insect-inspired high-speed motion vision system for robot control.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiyan; Zou, Ke; Zhang, Tianguang; Borst, Alexander; Kühnlenz, Kolja

    2012-10-01

    The mechanism for motion detection in a fly's vision system, known as the Reichardt correlator, suffers from a main shortcoming as a velocity estimator: low accuracy. To enable accurate velocity estimation, responses of the Reichardt correlator to image sequences are analyzed in this paper. An elaborated model with additional preprocessing modules is proposed. The relative error of velocity estimation is significantly reduced by establishing a real-time response-velocity lookup table based on the power spectrum analysis of the input signal. By exploiting the improved velocity estimation accuracy and the simple structure of the Reichardt correlator, a high-speed vision system of 1 kHz is designed and applied for robot yaw-angle control in real-time experiments. The experimental results demonstrate the potential and feasibility of applying insect-inspired motion detection to robot control. PMID:22864467

  8. Parameter estimation for compact binary inspirals with a simple noise realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeongcho; Kim, Chunglee; Lee, Hyung Won

    2016-05-01

    In the context of parameter estimation of gravitational waves (GWs), detector noise is assumed to be Gaussian and stationary. In reality, many electric glitches, which are neither Gaussian nor stationary, were observed and reported in publications by the LSC-Virgo collabotation. Proper noise reduction is important in GW data analysis, as these glitches would limit, if not downgrade, the quality of parameter estimation. In this work, we investigate the accuracy of results obtained by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) parameter estimation for compact binary inspirals with the LIGO-Virgo network when non-Gaussian, stationary noise is remained in data of each interferometer. Spiky, delta function-like glitches, which are stationary, do not affect correlations between parameters. However, most likely values of chirp mass and distance seem to be shifted by the specific frequencies and amplitudes of glitches.

  9. An Approach of Bio-inspired Hybrid Model for Financial Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simić, Dragan; Gajić, Vladeta; Simić, Svetlana

    Biological systems are inspiration for the design of optimisation and classification models. Applying various forms of bio-inspired algorithms may be a very high-complex system. Modelling of financial markets is challenging for several reasons, because many plausible factors impact on it. An automated trading on financial market is not a new phenomenon. The model of bio-inspired hybrid adaptive trading system based on technical indicators usage by grammatical evolution and moving window is presented in this paper. The proposed system is just one of possible bio-inspired system which can be used in financial forecast, corporate failure prediction or bond rating company.

  10. Gecko-Inspired, Controlled Adhesion and Its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menguc, Yigit

    This thesis work is primarily concerned with taking inspiration from the principles of gecko-adhesion in order to control the attachment of synthetic structured adhesives. We present gecko-inspired angled elastomer micropillars with flat or round tip endings as compliant pick-and-place micromanipulators. The pillars are 35 mum in diameter, 90 mum tall, and angled at an inclination of 20°. By gently pressing the tip of a pillar to a part, the pillar adheres to it through intermolecular forces. Next, by retracting quickly, the part is picked from a given donor substrate. During transferring, the adhesion between the pillar and the part is high enough to withstand disturbances due to external forces or the weight of the part. During release of the part onto a receiver substrate, the contact area of the pillar to the part is drastically reduced by controlled vertical or shear displacement, which results in reduced adhesive forces. The maximum repeatable ratio of pick-to-release adhesive forces was measured as 39 to 1. We find that a flat tip shape and shear displacement control provide a higher pick-to-release adhesion ratio than a round tip and vertical displacement control, respectively. We present a model of forces to serve as a framework for the operation of this micromanipulator. Finally, demonstrations of pick-and-place manipulation of mum-scale silicon microplatelets and a cm-scale glass cover slip serve as proofs of concept. The compliant polymer micropillars are safe for use with fragile parts, and, due to exploiting intermolecular forces, could be effective on most materials and in air, vacuum, and liquid environments. We present a study of the self-cleaning and contamination resistance phenomena of synthetic gecko-inspired adhesives made from elastomeric polyurethane. The phenomenon of self-cleaning makes the adhesive foot of the gecko robust against dirt, and makes it effectively sticky throughout the lifetime of the material (within the molting cycles

  11. Kirigami artificial muscles with complex biologically inspired morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sareh, Sina; Rossiter, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present bio-inspired smart structures which exploit the actuation of flexible ionic polymer composites and the kirigami design principle. Kirigami design is used to convert planar actuators into active 3D structures capable of large out-of-plane displacement and that replicate biological mechanisms. Here we present the burstbot, a fluid control and propulsion mechanism based on the atrioventricular cuspid valve, and the vortibot, a spiral actuator based on Vorticella campanula, a ciliate protozoa. Models derived from biological counterparts are used as a platform for design optimization and actuator performance measurement. The symmetric and asymmetric fluid interactions of the burstbot are investigated and the effectiveness in fluid transport applications is demonstrated. The vortibot actuator is geometrically optimized as a camera positioner capable of 360° scanning. Experimental results for a one-turn spiral actuator show complex actuation derived from a single degree of freedom control signal.

  12. Cicada-inspired cell-instructive nanopatterned arrays.

    PubMed

    Diu, Ting; Faruqui, Nilofar; Sjöström, Terje; Lamarre, Baptiste; Jenkinson, Howard F; Su, Bo; Ryadnov, Maxim G

    2014-01-01

    Biocompatible surfaces hold key to a variety of biomedical problems that are directly related to the competition between host-tissue cell integration and bacterial colonisation. A saving solution to this is seen in the ability of cells to uniquely respond to physical cues on such surfaces thus prompting the search for cell-instructive nanoscale patterns. Here we introduce a generic rationale engineered into biocompatible, titanium, substrates to differentiate cell responses. The rationale is inspired by cicada wing surfaces that display bactericidal nanopillar patterns. The surfaces engineered in this study are titania (TiO2) nanowire arrays that are selectively bactericidal against motile bacteria, while capable of guiding mammalian cell proliferation according to the type of the array. The concept holds promise for clinically relevant materials capable of differential physico-mechanical responses to cellular adhesion. PMID:25409910

  13. Wireless synapses in bio-inspired neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Degrood, Kevin

    2009-05-01

    Wireless (virtual) synapses represent a novel approach to bio-inspired neural networks that follow the infrastructure of the biological brain, except that biological (physical) synapses are replaced by virtual ones based on cellular telephony modeling. Such synapses are of two types: intracluster synapses are based on IR wireless ones, while intercluster synapses are based on RF wireless ones. Such synapses have three unique features, atypical of conventional artificial ones: very high parallelism (close to that of the human brain), very high reconfigurability (easy to kill and to create), and very high plasticity (easy to modify or upgrade). In this paper we analyze the general concept of wireless synapses with special emphasis on RF wireless synapses. Also, biological mammalian (vertebrate) neural models are discussed for comparison, and a novel neural lensing effect is discussed in detail.

  14. Inspiring STEM undergraduates to tackle the AMR crisis.

    PubMed

    Hoskisson, Paul A; Aldridge, Philip; Bowater, Laura

    2015-09-01

    To address the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), it is necessary to invest in, inspire and attract future generations of scientists to this research area. Undergraduate education should be a focus for attention and efforts should be made to ensure that students are afforded opportunities to actively engage with AMR. We illustrate how as a topic AMR provides opportunities to deliver effective research-led teaching in addition to traditional teaching methods. We have used a selection of case studies to illustrate how students can be engaged with AMR using a variety of research-led approaches to develop the required skills for biology-centric students. In addition, we indicate how these skills map to the UK Quality Assurance Framework and the Vision and Change report developed by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. PMID:26337152

  15. Gecko inspired carbon nanotube based thermal gap pads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethi, Sunny; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2012-02-01

    Thermal management has become a critical factor in designing the next generation of microprocessors. The bottleneck in design of material for efficient heat transfer from electronic units to heat sinks is to enhance heat flow across interface between two dissimilar, rough surfaces. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been shown to be promising candidates for thermal transport. However, the heat transport across the interface continues to be a challenging hurdle. In the current work we designed free standing thermal pads based on gecko-inspired carbon nanotube adhesives. The pads were made of metallic carbon nanotubes and the structure was designed such that it would allow large area of intimate contact. We showed that these adhesive pads can be used as electrical and thermal interconnects.

  16. Invariant facial feature extraction using biologically inspired strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Xing; Gong, Weiguo

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a feature extraction model for face recognition is proposed. This model is constructed by implementing three biologically inspired strategies, namely a hierarchical network, a learning mechanism of the V1 simple cells, and a data-driven attention mechanism. The hierarchical network emulates the functions of the V1 cortex to progressively extract facial features invariant to illumination, expression, slight pose change, and variations caused by local transformation of facial parts. In the network, filters that account for the local structures of the face are derived through the learning mechanism and used for the invariant feature extraction. The attention mechanism computes a saliency map for the face, and enhances the salient regions of the invariant features to further improve the performance. Experiments on the FERET and AR face databases show that the proposed model boosts the recognition accuracy effectively.

  17. Systematic parameter errors in inspiraling neutron star binaries.

    PubMed

    Favata, Marc

    2014-03-14

    The coalescence of two neutron stars is an important gravitational wave source for LIGO and other detectors. Numerous studies have considered the precision with which binary parameters (masses, spins, Love numbers) can be measured. Here I consider the accuracy with which these parameters can be determined in the presence of systematic errors due to waveform approximations. These approximations include truncation of the post-Newtonian (PN) series and neglect of neutron star (NS) spin, tidal deformation, or orbital eccentricity. All of these effects can yield systematic errors that exceed statistical errors for plausible parameter values. In particular, neglecting spin, eccentricity, or high-order PN terms causes a significant bias in the NS Love number. Tidal effects will not be measurable with PN inspiral waveforms if these systematic errors are not controlled. PMID:24679276

  18. Human opinion dynamics: An inspiration to solve complex optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Rishemjit; Kumar, Ritesh; Bhondekar, Amol P.; Kapur, Pawan

    2013-10-01

    Human interactions give rise to the formation of different kinds of opinions in a society. The study of formations and dynamics of opinions has been one of the most important areas in social physics. The opinion dynamics and associated social structure leads to decision making or so called opinion consensus. Opinion formation is a process of collective intelligence evolving from the integrative tendencies of social influence with the disintegrative effects of individualisation, and therefore could be exploited for developing search strategies. Here, we demonstrate that human opinion dynamics can be utilised to solve complex mathematical optimization problems. The results have been compared with a standard algorithm inspired from bird flocking behaviour and the comparison proves the efficacy of the proposed approach in general. Our investigation may open new avenues towards understanding the collective decision making.

  19. Efficient Biologically Inspired Photocell Enhanced by Delocalized Quantum States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creatore, C.; Parker, M. A.; Emmott, S.; Chin, A. W.

    2013-12-01

    Artificially implementing the biological light reactions responsible for the remarkably efficient photon-to-charge conversion in photosynthetic complexes represents a new direction for the future development of photovoltaic devices. Here, we develop such a paradigm and present a model photocell based on the nanoscale architecture and molecular elements of photosynthetic reaction centers. Quantum interference of photon absorption and emission induced by the dipole-dipole interaction between molecular excited states guarantees an enhanced light-to-current conversion and power generation for a wide range of electronic, thermal, and optical parameters for optimized dipolar geometries. This result opens a promising new route for designing artificial light-harvesting devices inspired by biological photosynthesis and quantum technologies.

  20. Biologically inspired optics: analog semiconductor model of the beetle exoskeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhl, Kaia; Roth, Zachary; Srinivasan, Pradeep; Rumpf, Raymond; Johnson, Eric

    2008-08-01

    Evolution in nature has produced through adaptation a wide variety of distinctive optical structures in many life forms. For example, pigment differs greatly from the observed color of most beetles because their exoskeletons contain multilayer coatings. The green beetle is disguised in a surrounding leaf by having a comparable reflection spectrum as the leaves. The Manuka and June beetle have a concave structure where light incident at any angle on the concave structures produce matching reflection spectra. In this work, semiconductor processing methods were used to duplicate the structure of the beetle exoskeleton. This was achieved by combining analog lithography with a multilayer deposition process. The artificial exoskeleton, 3D concave multilayer structure, demonstrates a wide field of view with a unique spectral response. Studying and replicating these biologically inspired nanostructures may lead to new knowledge for fabrication and design of new and novel nano-photonic devices, as well as provide valuable insight to how such phenomenon is exploited.

  1. Design of structurally distinct proteins using strategies inspired by evolution.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, T M; Williams, B; Williams, T; Xu, X; Eletsky, A; Federizon, J F; Szyperski, T; Kuhlman, B

    2016-05-01

    Natural recombination combines pieces of preexisting proteins to create new tertiary structures and functions. We describe a computational protocol, called SEWING, which is inspired by this process and builds new proteins from connected or disconnected pieces of existing structures. Helical proteins designed with SEWING contain structural features absent from other de novo designed proteins and, in some cases, remain folded at more than 100°C. High-resolution structures of the designed proteins CA01 and DA05R1 were solved by x-ray crystallography (2.2 angstrom resolution) and nuclear magnetic resonance, respectively, and there was excellent agreement with the design models. This method provides a new strategy to rapidly create large numbers of diverse and designable protein scaffolds. PMID:27151863

  2. Enabling, empowering, inspiring: research and mentorship through the years*

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Sherrilynne S.

    2000-01-01

    The interrelationship between research and mentorship in an association such as the Medical Library Association (MLA) is revealed through the contributions of individuals and significant association activities in support of research. Research is vital to the well-being and ultimate survival of health sciences librarianship and is not an ivory tower academic activity. Mentorship plays a critical role in setting a standard and model for those individuals who want to be involved in research and, ultimately, for the preparation of the next generation of health sciences librarians. Research and mentorship are discussed in the context of personal experiences, scholarship, and problem solving in a practice environment. Through research and mentorship, we are enabled to enhance our services and programs, empowered to look beyond our own operations for information puzzles to be solved, and inspired to serve society by improving health. PMID:10658958

  3. Bio-inspired artificial cilia with magnetic dynamic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Leilei; Zheng, Yongmei

    2015-04-01

    Inspired by the structure and properties of natural cilia, we focused on a facile template-free approach to prepare magnetic artificial cilia grown on the substrate (glass, PDMS, or others). In an applied magnetic field, the cilia formed spontaneously and immediately from magnetic nanoparticles and elastomeric polymer in a liquid solvent by bottom-up self-assembly. The length of prepared cilia could be in the scale of millimeter and reach a high aspect ratio of even over 100. We studied the effect of the magnetic strength applied and the size of nanoparticles to get tunable scale of cilia. The cilia show reversibly bending in an external magnetic field and this bending actuation gave some important functions: to transport macroscopic nonmagnetic materials on the cilia and to mix liquids.

  4. Supramolecular polymer adhesives: advanced materials inspired by nature.

    PubMed

    Heinzmann, Christian; Weder, Christoph; de Espinosa, Lucas Montero

    2016-01-21

    Due to their dynamic, stimuli-responsive nature, non-covalent interactions represent versatile design elements that can be found in nature in many molecular processes or materials, where adaptive behavior or reversible connectivity is required. Examples include molecular recognition processes, which trigger biological responses or cell-adhesion to surfaces, and a broad range of animal secreted adhesives with environment-dependent properties. Such advanced functionalities have inspired researchers to employ similar design approaches for the development of synthetic polymers with stimuli-responsive properties. The utilization of non-covalent interactions for the design of adhesives with advanced functionalities such as stimuli responsiveness, bonding and debonding on demand capability, surface selectivity or recyclability is a rapidly emerging subset of this field, which is summarized in this review. PMID:26203784

  5. An Epigenetics-Inspired DNA-Based Data Storage System.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Clemens; McInroy, Gordon R; Murat, Pierre; Van Delft, Pieter; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2016-09-01

    Biopolymers are an attractive alternative to store and circulate information. DNA, for example, combines remarkable longevity with high data storage densities and has been demonstrated as a means for preserving digital information. Inspired by the dynamic, biological regulation of (epi)genetic information, we herein present how binary data can undergo controlled changes when encoded in synthetic DNA strands. By exploiting differential kinetics of hydrolytic deamination reactions of cytosine and its naturally occurring derivatives, we demonstrate how multiple layers of information can be stored in a single DNA template. Moreover, we show that controlled redox reactions allow for interconversion of these DNA-encoded layers of information. Overall, such interlacing of multiple messages on synthetic DNA libraries showcases the potential of chemical reactions to manipulate digital information on (bio)polymers. PMID:27440712

  6. A Swarm-Based Learning Method Inspired by Social Insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaoxian; Zhu, Yunlong; Hu, Kunyuan; Niu, Ben

    Inspired by cooperative transport behaviors of ants, on the basis of Q-learning, a new learning method, Neighbor-Information-Reference (NIR) learning method, is present in the paper. This is a swarm-based learning method, in which principles of swarm intelligence are strictly complied with. In NIR learning, the i-interval neighbor's information, namely its discounted reward, is referenced when an individual selects the next state, so that it can make the best decision in a computable local neighborhood. In application, different policies of NIR learning are recommended by controlling the parameters according to time-relativity of concrete tasks. NIR learning can remarkably improve individual efficiency, and make swarm more "intelligent".

  7. Modified Chaplygin gas inspired inflationary model in braneworld scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawad, Abdul; Rani, Shamaila; Mohsaneen, Sidra

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the modified Chaplygin gas inspired inflationary regime in the brane-world framework in the presence of standard and tachyon scalar fields. We consider the intermediate inflationary scenario and construct the slow-roll parameters, e-folding numbers, spectral index, scalar and tensor power spectra, tensor to scalar ratio for both scalar field models. We develop the ns - N and r - N planes and concluded that ns˜eq96^{+0.5}_{-0.5} and r≤0.0016 for N˜eq60^{+5}_{-5} in both cases of scalar field models as well as for all values of m. These constraints are consistent with observational data such as WMAP7, WMAP9 and Planck data.

  8. Cicada-inspired cell-instructive nanopatterned arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diu, Ting; Faruqui, Nilofar; Sjöström, Terje; Lamarre, Baptiste; Jenkinson, Howard F.; Su, Bo; Ryadnov, Maxim G.

    2014-11-01

    Biocompatible surfaces hold key to a variety of biomedical problems that are directly related to the competition between host-tissue cell integration and bacterial colonisation. A saving solution to this is seen in the ability of cells to uniquely respond to physical cues on such surfaces thus prompting the search for cell-instructive nanoscale patterns. Here we introduce a generic rationale engineered into biocompatible, titanium, substrates to differentiate cell responses. The rationale is inspired by cicada wing surfaces that display bactericidal nanopillar patterns. The surfaces engineered in this study are titania (TiO2) nanowire arrays that are selectively bactericidal against motile bacteria, while capable of guiding mammalian cell proliferation according to the type of the array. The concept holds promise for clinically relevant materials capable of differential physico-mechanical responses to cellular adhesion.

  9. Systematic Parameter Errors in Inspiraling Neutron Star Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favata, Marc

    2014-03-01

    The coalescence of two neutron stars is an important gravitational wave source for LIGO and other detectors. Numerous studies have considered the precision with which binary parameters (masses, spins, Love numbers) can be measured. Here I consider the accuracy with which these parameters can be determined in the presence of systematic errors due to waveform approximations. These approximations include truncation of the post-Newtonian (PN) series and neglect of neutron star (NS) spin, tidal deformation, or orbital eccentricity. All of these effects can yield systematic errors that exceed statistical errors for plausible parameter values. In particular, neglecting spin, eccentricity, or high-order PN terms causes a significant bias in the NS Love number. Tidal effects will not be measurable with PN inspiral waveforms if these systematic errors are not controlled.

  10. Mechanization and Control Concepts for Biologically Inspired Micro Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Slominski, Eric C.

    2003-01-01

    It is possible that MAV designs of the future will exploit flapping flight in order to perform missions that require extreme agility, such as rapid flight beneath a forest canopy or within the confines of a building. Many of nature's most agile flyers generate flapping motions through resonant excitation of an aeroelastically tailored structure: muscle tissue is used to excite a vibratory mode of their flexible wing structure that creates propulsion and lift. A number of MAV concepts have been proposed that would operate in a similar fashion. This paper describes an ongoing research activity in which mechanization and control concepts with application to resonant flapping MAVs are being explored. Structural approaches, mechanical design, sensing and wingbeat control concepts inspired by hummingbirds, bats and insects are examined. Experimental results from a testbed capable of generating vibratory wingbeat patterns that approximately match those exhibited by hummingbirds in hover, cruise, and reverse flight are presented.

  11. A biologically inspired immunization strategy for network epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Deng, Yong; Jusup, Marko; Wang, Zhen

    2016-07-01

    Well-known immunization strategies, based on degree centrality, betweenness centrality, or closeness centrality, either neglect the structural significance of a node or require global information about the network. We propose a biologically inspired immunization strategy that circumvents both of these problems by considering the number of links of a focal node and the way the neighbors are connected among themselves. The strategy thus measures the dependence of the neighbors on the focal node, identifying the ability of this node to spread the disease. Nodes with the highest ability in the network are the first to be immunized. To test the performance of our method, we conduct numerical simulations on several computer-generated and empirical networks, using the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model. The results show that the proposed strategy largely outperforms the existing well-known strategies. PMID:27113785

  12. Bio-inspired artificial iriodphores based on capillary origami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manakasettharn, Supone; Taylor, J. Ashley; Krupenkin, Tom

    2011-03-01

    Many marine organisms have evolved complex optical mechanisms of dynamic skin color control that allow them to drastically change their visual appearance. In particular, cephalopods have developed especially effective dynamic color control mechanism based on the mechanical actuation of the micro-scale optical structures, which produce either variable degrees of area coverage by a given color (chromatophores) or variations in spatial orientation of the reflective and diffractive surfaces (iridophores). In this work we describe bio-inspired artificial iridophores based on electrowetting-controlled capillary origami. We describe the developed microfabrication approach, characterize mechanical and optical properties of the obtained microstructures and discuss their electrowetting-based actuation. The obtained experimental results are in good agreement with a simple theoretical model based on electrocapillarity and elasticity theory. The results of the work can enable a broad range of novel optical devices.

  13. Charles Hard Townes: Remarkable Scientist and Inspiring Teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, P. F.

    2016-05-01

    Charles Townes is renowned for his work elucidating the structure of molecules through microwave spectroscopy and for his invention of the maser and the laser. He also had a lifelong interest in astronomy, and in the later portion of his remarkable and long career devoted himself to astronomical research, pioneering the study of molecules in interstellar space and the development of infrared spectroscopy, first from the ground and then from airborne facilities. His interest in high angular resolution, as well as high spectral resolution observations, led to development of the first infrared spatial interferometer employing coherent signal processing techniques. In this short review I will only touch on some of Townes' many scientific contributions, concentrating on astronomy, and will also give some personal thoughts about how he inspired students in their research, helping to make the "Townes Group" at the University of California, Berkeley, an ideal environment in which to start a career in research.

  14. A Bio-Inspired Electromechanical System: Artificial Hair Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Kang-Hun

    Inspired by recent biophysical study on the auditory sensory organs, we study electromechanical system which functions similar to the hair cell of the ear. One of the important mechanisms of hair cells, adaptation, is mimicked by an electromechanical feedback loop. The proposed artificial hair cell functions similar to a living sensory organ in the sense that it senses input force signal in spite of the relatively strong noise. Numerical simulation of the proposed system shows otoacoustic sound emission, which was observed in the experiments on the hair cells of the bullfrog. This spontaneous motion is noise-induced periodic motion which is controlled by the time scale of adaptation process and the mechanical damping.

  15. A Forgotten Small Telescope that Inspired the Discovery of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, J. W.

    2013-04-01

    A 6-inch Clark refractor was built in 1884 for the University of the Pacific. A young instructor came with no prior training in astronomy, but left inspired to return to graduate school in astronomy at the University of Virginia. This was Heber D. Curtis, who became one of the great astronomers of the 20th century and famous for his early recognition of the true nature of galaxies. Donald E. Osterbrock was aware of the telescope and hoped to examine it, but it remained in obscure storage for decades with a missing objective lens. The original lens to this unusually beautiful and historic instrument recently has been discovered in Texas and now has potential to be re-united with the surviving tube and mounting.

  16. Mechanically robust, negative-swelling, mussel-inspired tissue adhesives.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Devin G; Bushnell, Grace G; Messersmith, Phillip B

    2013-05-01

    Most synthetic polymer hydrogel tissue adhesives and sealants swell considerably in physiologic conditions, which can result in mechanical weakening and adverse medical complications. This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of mechanically tough zero- or negative-swelling mussel-inspired surgical adhesives based on catechol-modified amphiphilic poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymers. The formation, swelling, bulk mechanical, and tissue adhesive properties of the resulting thermosensitive gels were characterized. Catechol oxidation at or below room temperature rapidly resulted in a chemically cross-linked network, with subsequent warming to physiological temperature inducing a thermal hydrophobic transition in the PPO domains and providing a mechanism for volumetric reduction and mechanical toughening. The described approach can be easily adapted for other thermally sensitive block copolymers and cross-linking strategies, representing a general approach that can be employed to control swelling and enhance mechanical properties of polymer hydrogels used in a medical context. PMID:23184616

  17. Human opinion dynamics: An inspiration to solve complex optimization problems

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Rishemjit; Kumar, Ritesh; Bhondekar, Amol P.; Kapur, Pawan

    2013-01-01

    Human interactions give rise to the formation of different kinds of opinions in a society. The study of formations and dynamics of opinions has been one of the most important areas in social physics. The opinion dynamics and associated social structure leads to decision making or so called opinion consensus. Opinion formation is a process of collective intelligence evolving from the integrative tendencies of social influence with the disintegrative effects of individualisation, and therefore could be exploited for developing search strategies. Here, we demonstrate that human opinion dynamics can be utilised to solve complex mathematical optimization problems. The results have been compared with a standard algorithm inspired from bird flocking behaviour and the comparison proves the efficacy of the proposed approach in general. Our investigation may open new avenues towards understanding the collective decision making. PMID:24141795

  18. Aquariums Inspiring Hope and Action Against Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernon, C. L.

    2010-12-01

    The mission of the Monterey Bay Aquarium is to “inspire conservation of the oceans.” We do this by connecting people emotionally with the animals, plants, and habitats of Monterey Bay and beyond, and by giving them tools and encouragement to act on behalf of ocean health. Because of our mission, it would seem natural to talk with visitors about the greatest threat to our ocean: global climate change. But does interpreting climate change conflict with the expectations of most visitors to spend a fun, social time with their friends and family? How do informal science education venues, which are seen as trusted sources of information about natural history and conservation, most effectively convey information that is at best distressing and at worst, downright depressing? This presentation will highlight ways that the Monterey Bay Aquarium is meeting the challenge of engaging and educating visitors about climate change and the ocean through exhibits, auditorium programs, humorous video, musical theater, and conversations.

  19. Neutralinos in E 6 inspired supersymmetric U(1)' models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesselbach, S.; Franke, F.; Fraas, H.

    2002-03-01

    The neutralino sector in E_6 inspired supersymmetric models with extra neutral gauge bosons and singlet Higgs fields contains additional gaugino and singlino states compared to the MSSM. We discuss the neutralino mixing in rank-5 and rank-6 models and analyze the supersymmetric parameter space where the light neutralinos have mainly singlino or MSSM character. The neutralino character, resonance effects of the new gauge bosons and, assuming mSUGRA-type RGEs, different selectron masses lead to significant differences between the MSSM and the extended models in neutralino production at an e^+e^- linear collider. Beam polarization may improve the signatures to distinguish between the models. In an appendix, we present the mass terms of the gauge bosons, charginos and sfermions which show a significant different mass spectrum than in the MSSM and give all relevant neutralino couplings.

  20. Fast Radio Bursts from the Inspiral of Double Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie-Shuang; Yang, Yuan-Pei; Wu, Xue-Feng; Dai, Zi-Gao; Wang, Fa-Yin

    2016-05-01

    In this Letter, we propose that a fast radio burst (FRB) could originate from the magnetic interaction between double neutron stars (NSs) during their final inspiral within the framework of a unipolar inductor model. In this model, an electromotive force is induced on one NS to accelerate electrons to an ultra-relativistic speed instantaneously. We show that coherent curvature radiation from these electrons moving along magnetic field lines in the magnetosphere of the other NS is responsible for the observed FRB signal, that is, the characteristic emission frequency, luminosity, duration, and event rate of FRBs can be well understood. In addition, we discuss several implications of this model, including double-peaked FRBs and possible associations of FRBs with short-duration gamma-ray bursts and gravitational-wave events.

  1. A biomimetic accelerometer inspired by the cricket's clavate hair

    PubMed Central

    Droogendijk, H.; de Boer, M. J.; Sanders, R. G. P.; Krijnen, G. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Crickets use so-called clavate hairs to sense (gravitational) acceleration to obtain information on their orientation. Inspired by this clavate hair system, a one-axis biomimetic accelerometer has been developed and fabricated using surface micromachining and SU-8 lithography. An analytical model is presented for the design of the accelerometer, and guidelines are derived to reduce responsivity due to flow-induced contributions to the accelerometer's output. Measurements show that this microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) hair-based accelerometer has a resonance frequency of 320 Hz, a detection threshold of 0.10 ms−2 and a dynamic range of more than 35 dB. The accelerometer exhibits a clear directional response to external accelerations and a low responsivity to airflow. Further, the accelerometer's physical limits with respect to noise levels are addressed and the possibility for short-term adaptation of the sensor to the environment is discussed. PMID:24920115

  2. Particle Swarm Inspired Underwater Sensor Self-Deployment

    PubMed Central

    Du, Huazheng; Xia, Na; Zheng, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) can be applied in sea resource reconnaissance, pollution monitoring and assistant navigation, etc., and have become a hot research field in wireless sensor networks. In open and complicated underwater environments, targets (events) tend to be highly dynamic and uncertain. It is important to deploy sensors to cover potential events in an optimal manner. In this paper, the underwater sensor deployment problem and its performance evaluation metrics are introduced. Furthermore, a particle swarm inspired sensor self-deployment algorithm is presented. By simulating the flying behavior of particles and introducing crowd control, the proposed algorithm can drive sensors to cover almost all the events, and make the distribution of sensors match that of events. Through extensive simulations, we demonstrate that it can solve the underwater sensor deployment problem effectively, with fast convergence rate, and amiable to distributed implementation. PMID:25195852

  3. Particle swarm inspired underwater sensor self-deployment.

    PubMed

    Du, Huazheng; Xia, Na; Zheng, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) can be applied in sea resource reconnaissance, pollution monitoring and assistant navigation, etc., and have become a hot research field in wireless sensor networks. In open and complicated underwater environments, targets (events) tend to be highly dynamic and uncertain. It is important to deploy sensors to cover potential events in an optimal manner. In this paper, the underwater sensor deployment problem and its performance evaluation metrics are introduced. Furthermore, a particle swarm inspired sensor self-deployment algorithm is presented. By simulating the flying behavior of particles and introducing crowd control, the proposed algorithm can drive sensors to cover almost all the events, and make the distribution of sensors match that of events. Through extensive simulations, we demonstrate that it can solve the underwater sensor deployment problem effectively, with fast convergence rate, and amiable to distributed implementation. PMID:25195852

  4. Inspiring pupils in STEM through Tim Peake's Principia Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    This poster looks at a particular case study of how a science programme with a lot of media attention can be embedded into schools to inspire pupils in STEM subjects. In this case, the UK has become very excited about their first publicly funded British astronaut, Tim Peake, visiting the International Space Station between December 2015 and June 2016. Tim is particularly keen to dedicate a lot of his time to education initiatives including undertaking a live radio contact with a handful of UK schools so that pupils can ask him their questions. A group of schools in Norfolk have won this opportunity and will host a live radio contact in February 2015. As part of this initiative, local schools (primary and secondary) are being encouraged to embed the mission into their curriculum in various ways using many excellent resources developed by a number of agencies. The range of these and our proposed methods for judging their efficacies are explored in this poster.

  5. Mussel-inspired dendritic polymers as universal multifunctional coatings.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qiang; Achazi, Katharina; Liebe, Hendrik; Schulz, Andrea; Noeske, Paul-Ludwig Michael; Grunwald, Ingo; Haag, Rainer

    2014-10-20

    A rapid and universal approach for multifunctional material coatings was developed based on a mussel-inspired dendritic polymer. This new kind of polymer mimics not only the functional groups of mussel foot proteins (mfps) but also their molecular weight and molecular structure. The large number of catechol and amine groups set the basis for heteromultivalent anchoring and crosslinking. The molecular weight reaches 10 kDa, which is similar to the most adhesive mussel foot protein mfp-5. Also, the dendritic structure exposes its functional groups on the surface like the folded proteins. As a result, a very stable coating can be prepared on virtually any type of material surface within 10 min by a simple dip-coating method, which is as fast as the formation of mussel byssal threads in nature. PMID:25200129

  6. Dreaming as inspiration evidence from religion, philosophy, literature, and film.

    PubMed

    Bulkeley, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents evidence from the history of religion, philosophy, literature, and film to suggest that dreaming is a primal wellspring of creative inspiration. Powerful, reality-bending dreams have motivated the cultural creativity of people all over the world and throughout history. Examples include the dream revelations of Egyptian Pharaohs, the philosophical insights of Socrates, the dark literary themes of Fyodor Dostoevsky, and the cinematic artistry of Akira Kurusawa. Although the conclusions that can be drawn from these sources are limited by several methodological factors, the evidence gives contemporary researchers good reasons to explore the creative potentials of dreaming and the impact on waking life behavior of certain types of extraordinary dream experience. PMID:20870061

  7. Note on identities inspired by new soft theorems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Junjie; Feng, Bo

    2016-04-01

    The new soft theorems, for both gravity and gauge amplitudes, have inspired a number of works, including the discovery of new identities related to amplitudes. In this note, we present the proof and discussion for two sets of identities. The first set includes an identity involving the half-soft function which had been used in the soft theorem for one-loop rational gravity amplitudes, and another simpler identity as its byproduct. The second set includes two identities involving the KLT momentum kernel, as the consistency conditions of the KLT relation plus soft theorems for both gravity and gauge amplitudes. We use the CHY formulation to prove the first identity, and transform the second one into a convenient form for future discussion.

  8. Three-Dimensional-Printing of Bio-Inspired Composites.

    PubMed

    Xiang Gu, Grace; Su, Isabelle; Sharma, Shruti; Voros, Jamie L; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J

    2016-02-01

    Optimized for millions of years, natural materials often outperform synthetic materials due to their hierarchical structures and multifunctional abilities. They usually feature a complex architecture that consists of simple building blocks. Indeed, many natural materials such as bone, nacre, hair, and spider silk, have outstanding material properties, making them applicable to engineering applications that may require both mechanical resilience and environmental compatibility. However, such natural materials are very difficult to harvest in bulk, and may be toxic in the way they occur naturally, and therefore, it is critical to use alternative methods to fabricate materials that have material functions similar to material function as their natural counterparts for large-scale applications. Recent progress in additive manufacturing, especially the ability to print multiple materials at upper micrometer resolution, has given researchers an excellent instrument to design and reconstruct natural-inspired materials. The most advanced 3D-printer can now be used to manufacture samples to emulate their geometry and material composition with high fidelity. Its capabilities, in combination with computational modeling, have provided us even more opportunities for designing, optimizing, and testing the function of composite materials, in order to achieve composites of high mechanical resilience and reliability. In this review article, we focus on the advanced material properties of several multifunctional biological materials and discuss how the advanced 3D-printing techniques can be used to mimic their architectures and functions. Lastly, we discuss the limitations of 3D-printing, suggest possible future developments, and discuss applications using bio-inspired materials as a tool in bioengineering and other fields. PMID:26747791

  9. Cellular automaton model of crowd evacuation inspired by slime mould

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogeiton, V. S.; Papadopoulos, D. P.; Georgilas, I. P.; Sirakoulis, G. Ch.; Adamatzky, A. I.

    2015-04-01

    In all the living organisms, the self-preservation behaviour is almost universal. Even the most simple of living organisms, like slime mould, is typically under intense selective pressure to evolve a response to ensure their evolution and safety in the best possible way. On the other hand, evacuation of a place can be easily characterized as one of the most stressful situations for the individuals taking part on it. Taking inspiration from the slime mould behaviour, we are introducing a computational bio-inspired model crowd evacuation model. Cellular Automata (CA) were selected as a fully parallel advanced computation tool able to mimic the Physarum's behaviour. In particular, the proposed CA model takes into account while mimicking the Physarum foraging process, the food diffusion, the organism's growth, the creation of tubes for each organism, the selection of optimum tube for each human in correspondence to the crowd evacuation under study and finally, the movement of all humans at each time step towards near exit. To test the model's efficiency and robustness, several simulation scenarios were proposed both in virtual and real-life indoor environments (namely, the first floor of office building B of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Democritus University of Thrace). The proposed model is further evaluated in a purely quantitative way by comparing the simulation results with the corresponding ones from the bibliography taken by real data. The examined fundamental diagrams of velocity-density and flow-density are found in full agreement with many of the already published corresponding results proving the adequacy, the fitness and the resulting dynamics of the model. Finally, several real Physarum experiments were conducted in an archetype of the aforementioned real-life environment proving at last that the proposed model succeeded in reproducing sufficiently the Physarum's recorded behaviour derived from observation of the aforementioned

  10. Development of a bio-inspired transformable robotic fin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yikun; Xia, Yu; Qin, Fenghua; Xu, Min; Li, Weihua; Zhang, Shiwu

    2016-01-01

    Fish swim by oscillating their pectoral fins forwards and backwards in a cyclic motion such that their geometric parameters and aspect ratios change according to how fast or slow a fish wants to swim; these complex motions result in a complicated hydrodynamic response. This paper focuses on the dynamic change in the shape of a fin to improve the underwater propulsion of bio-inspired mechanism. To do this, a novel transformable robotic fin has been developed to investigate how this change in shape affects the hydrodynamic forces acting on the fin. This robotic fin has a multi-link frame and a flexible surface skin where changes in shape are activated by a purpose designed multi-link mechanism driven by a transformation motor. A drag platform has been designed to study the performance of this variable robotic fin. Numerous experiments were carried out to determine how various controlling modes affect the thrust capability of this fin. The kinematic parameters associated with this robotic fin include the oscillating frequency and amplitude, and the drag velocity. The fin has four modes to control the cyclic motion; these were also investigated in combination with the variable kinematic parameters. The results will help us understand the locomotion performance of this transformable robotic fin. Note that different controlling modes influence the propulsive performance of this robotic fin, which means its propulsive performance can be optimized in a changing environment by adapting its shape. This study facilitates the development of bio-inspired unmanned underwater vehicles with a very high swimming performance. PMID:27580003

  11. Numerical simulations of odorant detection by biologically inspired sensor arrays.

    PubMed

    Schuech, R; Stacey, M T; Barad, M F; Koehl, M A R

    2012-03-01

    The antennules of many marine crustaceans enable them to rapidly locate sources of odorant in turbulent environmental flows and may provide biological inspiration for engineered plume sampling systems. A substantial gap in knowledge concerns how the physical interaction between a sensing device and the chemical filaments forming a turbulent plume affects odorant detection and filters the information content of the plume. We modeled biological arrays of chemosensory hairs as infinite arrays of odorant flux-detecting cylinders and simulated the fluid flow around and odorant flux into the hair-like sensors as they intercepted a single odorant filament. As array geometry and sampling kinematics were varied, we quantified distortion of the flux time series relative to the spatial shape of the original odorant filament as well as flux metrics that may be important to both organisms and engineered systems attempting to measure plume structure and/or identify chemical composition. The most important predictor of signal distortion is the ratio of sensor diameter to odorant filament width. Achieving high peak properties (e.g. sharpness) of the flux time series and maximizing the total number of odorant molecules detected appear to be mutually exclusive design goals. Sensor arrays inspired specifically by the spiny lobster Panulirus argus and mantis shrimp Gonodactylaceus falcatus introduce little signal distortion but these species' neural systems may not be able to resolve plume structure at the level of individual filaments via temporal properties of the odorant flux. Current chemical sensors are similarly constrained. Our results suggest either that the spatial distribution of flux across the aesthetasc array is utilized by P. argus and G. falcatus, or that such high spatiotemporal resolution is unnecessary for effective plume tracking. PMID:22155966

  12. Gecko-Inspired, Controlled Adhesion and Its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menguc, Yigit

    This thesis work is primarily concerned with taking inspiration from the principles of gecko-adhesion in order to control the attachment of synthetic structured adhesives. We present gecko-inspired angled elastomer micropillars with flat or round tip endings as compliant pick-and-place micromanipulators. The pillars are 35 mum in diameter, 90 mum tall, and angled at an inclination of 20°. By gently pressing the tip of a pillar to a part, the pillar adheres to it through intermolecular forces. Next, by retracting quickly, the part is picked from a given donor substrate. During transferring, the adhesion between the pillar and the part is high enough to withstand disturbances due to external forces or the weight of the part. During release of the part onto a receiver substrate, the contact area of the pillar to the part is drastically reduced by controlled vertical or shear displacement, which results in reduced adhesive forces. The maximum repeatable ratio of pick-to-release adhesive forces was measured as 39 to 1. We find that a flat tip shape and shear displacement control provide a higher pick-to-release adhesion ratio than a round tip and vertical displacement control, respectively. We present a model of forces to serve as a framework for the operation of this micromanipulator. Finally, demonstrations of pick-and-place manipulation of mum-scale silicon microplatelets and a cm-scale glass cover slip serve as proofs of concept. The compliant polymer micropillars are safe for use with fragile parts, and, due to exploiting intermolecular forces, could be effective on most materials and in air, vacuum, and liquid environments. We present a study of the self-cleaning and contamination resistance phenomena of synthetic gecko-inspired adhesives made from elastomeric polyurethane. The phenomenon of self-cleaning makes the adhesive foot of the gecko robust against dirt, and makes it effectively sticky throughout the lifetime of the material (within the molting cycles

  13. An efficient numerical calculation of gravitational waves from extreme mass ratio inspirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Ryuichi; Hikida, Wataru; Tagoshi, Hideyuki

    2009-03-01

    Gravitational waves from extreme mass ratio inspirals are one of the important sources of LISA. We should calculate these waves so accurately that we can extract physical information of source by data analysis. Recently, we developed an efficient numerical method to compute gravitational waves from binary systems in which a point particle moves in circular orbits on the equatorial plane of the black hole. In this paper, we apply this method to compute gravitational waves from binary systems in which a point particle moves in general bound geodesic orbits of the black hole. We check the accuracy of our code using spherical symmetry of Schwarzschild black hole such that energy flux radiated by a point particle is independent of the inclination angle from the equatorial plane of black hole. We find that the accuracy of our code may be limited only by truncation of l, k and n -modes, where l is the degree of the spin-weighted spheroidal harmonics, and k and n are harmonics of the polar and radial motion, respectively. Then we evaluate the rate of change of three constants of motion, energy, angular momentum and the Carter constant, due to the emission of gravitational waves from a particle around Kerr black hole. This is the first time to compute the rate of change of the Carter constant using the adiabatic approximation. We also show that we can calculate gravitational waves accurately even in the case of high eccentric orbits. In this work, we truncate l mode up to 20 and estimated that relative accuracy of our numerical results are better than 10-5 even in the high eccentric case, e = 0.9. Our numerical code may be useful to make templates of extreme mass ratio inspirals.

  14. Transportation network with fluctuating input/output designed by the bio-inspired Physarum algorithm.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shin; Takamatsu, Atsuko

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose designing transportation network topology and traffic distribution under fluctuating conditions using a bio-inspired algorithm. The algorithm is inspired by the adaptive behavior observed in an amoeba-like organism, plasmodial slime mold, more formally known as plasmodium of Physarum plycephalum. This organism forms a transportation network to distribute its protoplasm, the fluidic contents of its cell, throughout its large cell body. In this process, the diameter of the transportation tubes adapts to the flux of the protoplasm. The Physarum algorithm, which mimics this adaptive behavior, has been widely applied to complex problems, such as maze solving and designing the topology of railroad grids, under static conditions. However, in most situations, environmental conditions fluctuate; for example, in power grids, the consumption of electric power shows daily, weekly, and annual periodicity depending on the lifestyles or the business needs of the individual consumers. This paper studies the design of network topology and traffic distribution with oscillatory input and output traffic flows. The network topology proposed by the Physarum algorithm is controlled by a parameter of the adaptation process of the tubes. We observe various rich topologies such as complete mesh, partial mesh, Y-shaped, and V-shaped networks depending on this adaptation parameter and evaluate them on the basis of three performance functions: loss, cost, and vulnerability. Our results indicate that consideration of the oscillatory conditions and the phase-lags in the multiple outputs of the network is important: The building and/or maintenance cost of the network can be reduced by introducing the oscillating condition, and when the phase-lag among the outputs is large, the transportation loss can also be reduced. We use stability analysis to reveal how the system exhibits various topologies depending on the parameter. PMID:24586616

  15. Introducing Students to Bio-Inspiration and Biomimetic Design: A Workshop Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santulli, Carlo; Langella, Carla

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, bio-inspired approach to design has gained considerable interest between designers, engineers and end-users. However, there are difficulties in introducing bio-inspiration concepts in the university curriculum in that they involve multi-disciplinary work, which can only possibly be successfully delivered by a team with integrated…

  16. Fish-inspired robots: design, sensing, actuation, and autonomy--a review of research.

    PubMed

    Raj, Aditi; Thakur, Atul

    2016-06-01

    Underwater robot designs inspired by the behavior, physiology, and anatomy of fishes can provide enhanced maneuverability, stealth, and energy efficiency. Over the last two decades, robotics researchers have developed and reported a large variety of fish-inspired robot designs. The purpose of this review is to report different types of fish-inspired robot designs based upon their intended locomotion patterns. We present a detailed comparison of various design features like sensing, actuation, autonomy, waterproofing, and morphological structure of fish-inspired robots reported in the past decade. We believe that by studying the existing robots, future designers will be able to create new designs by adopting features from the successful robots. The review also summarizes the open research issues that need to be taken up for the further advancement of the field and also for the deployment of fish-inspired robots in practice. PMID:27073001

  17. Inspired Teachers, Inspired Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Last November, more than 700 school leaders, educators, and reporters gathered in Washington, D.C., to celebrate the promise of innovative teaching and project learning to change global future. The event was the Microsoft Partners in Learning Global Forum, and its purpose was for educators worldwide to connect, learn, and collaborate on some of…

  18. A bio-inspired shape memory alloy composite (BISMAC) actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, A. A.; Joshi, K. B.; Blottman, J. B.; Priya, S.

    2010-02-01

    A beam-shape composite actuator using shape memory alloy (SMA) wires as the active component, termed a Bio-Inspired Shape Memory Alloy Composite (BISMAC), was designed to provide a large deformation profile. The BISMAC design was inspired by contraction of a jellyfish bell, utilizing the rowing mechanism for locomotion. Characterization of maximum deformation in underwater conditions was performed for different actuator configurations to analyze the effect of different design parameters, including silicone thickness, flexible steel thickness and distance between the SMA and flexible steel. A constant cross-section (CC)-BISMAC of length 16 cm was found to achieve deformation with a radius of curvature of 3.5 cm. Under equilibrium conditions, the CC-BISMAC was found to achieve 80% of maximum deformation, consuming 7.9 J/cycle driven at 16.2 V/0.98 A and a frequency of 0.25 Hz. A detailed analytical model was developed using the transfer matrix method and a 1D finite beam element (FE) model to simulate the behavior of the BISMAC incorporating gravity, buoyancy and SMA parameters. The FE and transfer matrix models had a maximum deformation error norm of 1.505 and 1.917 cm in comparison with experimentally observed beam deformation in the CC-BISMAC. The mean curvatures predicted by the FE and transfer matrix methods were 0.292 cm-1 and 0.295 cm-1 compared to a mean experimental curvature of 0.294 cm-1, a percentage error of -5.4% and 2.77%, respectively. Using the developed analytical model, an actuator design was fabricated mimicking the maximum deformation profile of jellyfish of the species Aurelia aurita (AA). The designed AA-BISMAC achieved a maximum curvature of 0.428 cm-1 as compared to 0.438 cm-1 for A. aurita with an average square root error of 0.043 cm-1, 10.2% of maximum A. aurita curvature.

  19. Insect-Inspired Flight Control for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita; Stange, G.; Srinivasan, M.; Chahl, Javaan; Hine, Butler; Zornetzer, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Flight-control and navigation systems inspired by the structure and function of the visual system and brain of insects have been proposed for a class of developmental miniature robotic aircraft called "biomorphic flyers" described earlier in "Development of Biomorphic Flyers" (NPO-30554), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 54. These form a subset of biomorphic explorers, which, as reported in several articles in past issues of NASA Tech Briefs ["Biomorphic Explorers" (NPO-20142), Vol. 22, No. 9 (September 1998), page 71; "Bio-Inspired Engineering of Exploration Systems" (NPO-21142), Vol. 27, No. 5 (May 2003), page 54; and "Cooperative Lander-Surface/Aerial Microflyer Missions for Mars Exploration" (NPO-30286), Vol. 28, No. 5 (May 2004), page 36], are proposed small robots, equipped with microsensors and communication systems, that would incorporate crucial functions of mobility, adaptability, and even cooperative behavior. These functions are inherent to biological organisms but are challenging frontiers for technical systems. Biomorphic flyers could be used on Earth or remote planets to explore otherwise difficult or impossible to reach sites. An example of an exploratory task of search/surveillance functions currently being tested is to obtain high-resolution aerial imagery, using a variety of miniaturized electronic cameras. The control functions to be implemented by the systems in development include holding altitude, avoiding hazards, following terrain, navigation by reference to recognizable terrain features, stabilization of flight, and smooth landing. Flying insects perform these and other functions remarkably well, even though insect brains contains fewer than 10(exp -4) as many neurons as does the human brain. Although most insects have immobile, fixed-focus eyes and lack stereoscopy (and hence cannot perceive depth directly), they utilize a number of ingenious strategies for perceiving, and navigating in, three dimensions. Despite

  20. Bio-inspired routes for synthesizing efficient nanoscale platinum electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Jennifer N.; Wang, Joseph

    2014-08-31

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to use fundamental advances in bionanotechnology to design powerful platinum nanocrystal electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications. The new economically-viable, environmentally-friendly, bottom-up biochemical synthetic strategy will produce platinum nanocrystals with tailored size, shape and crystal orientation, hence leading to a maximum electrochemical reactivity. There are five specific aims to the proposed bio-inspired strategy for synthesizing efficient electrocatalytic platinum nanocrystals: (1) isolate peptides that both selectively bind particular crystal faces of platinum and promote the nucleation and growth of particular nanocrystal morphologies, (2) pattern nanoscale 2-dimensional arrays of platinum nucleating peptides from DNA scaffolds, (3) investigate the combined use of substrate patterned peptides and soluble peptides on nanocrystal morphology and growth (4) synthesize platinum crystals on planar and large-area carbon electrode supports, and (5) perform detailed characterization of the electrocatalytic behavior as a function of catalyst size, shape and morphology. Project Description and Impact: This bio-inspired collaborative research effort will address key challenges in designing powerful electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications by employing nucleic acid scaffolds in combination with peptides to perform specific, environmentally-friendly, simultaneous bottom-up biochemical synthesis and patterned assembly of highly uniform and efficient platinum nanocrystal catalysts. Bulk synthesis of nanoparticles usually produces a range of sizes, accessible catalytic sites, crystal morphologies, and orientations, all of which lead to inconsistent catalytic activities. In contrast, biological systems routinely demonstrate exquisite control over inorganic syntheses at neutral pH and ambient temperature and pressures. Because the orientation and arrangement of the templating biomolecules can be precisely

  1. Earth Science community support in the EGI-Inspire Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwichtenberg, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Earth Science Grid community is following its strategy of propagating Grid technology to the ES disciplines, setting up interactive collaboration among the members of the community and stimulating the interest of stakeholders on the political level since ten years already. This strategy was described in a roadmap published in an Earth Science Informatics journal. It was applied through different European Grid projects and led to a large Grid Earth Science VRC that covers a variety of ES disciplines; in the end, all of them were facing the same kind of ICT problems. .. The penetration of Grid in the ES community is indicated by the variety of applications, the number of countries in which ES applications are ported, the number of papers in international journals and the number of related PhDs. Among the six virtual organisations belonging to ES, one, ESR, is generic. Three others -env.see-grid-sci.eu, meteo.see-grid-sci.eu and seismo.see-grid-sci.eu- are thematic and regional (South Eastern Europe) for environment, meteorology and seismology. The sixth VO, EGEODE, is for the users of the Geocluster software. There are also ES users in national VOs or VOs related to projects. The services for the ES task in EGI-Inspire concerns the data that are a key part of any ES application. The ES community requires several interfaces to access data and metadata outside of the EGI infrastructure, e.g. by using grid-enabled database interfaces. The data centres have also developed service tools for basic research activities such as searching, browsing and downloading these datasets, but these are not accessible from applications executed on the Grid. The ES task in EGI-Inspire aims to make these tools accessible from the Grid. In collaboration with GENESI-DR (Ground European Network for Earth Science Interoperations - Digital Repositories) this task is maintaining and evolving an interface in response to new requirements that will allow data in the GENESI-DR infrastructure to

  2. 42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and... carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable limits. (a) Open-circuit apparatus. (1) The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in open-circuit apparatus...

  3. 42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and... carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable limits. (a) Open-circuit apparatus. (1) The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in open-circuit apparatus...

  4. 42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and... carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable limits. (a) Open-circuit apparatus. (1) The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in open-circuit apparatus...

  5. 42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and... carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable limits. (a) Open-circuit apparatus. (1) The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in open-circuit apparatus...

  6. 42 CFR 84.97 - Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Test for carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and... carbon dioxide in inspired gas; open- and closed-circuit apparatus; maximum allowable limits. (a) Open-circuit apparatus. (1) The concentration of carbon dioxide in inspired gas in open-circuit apparatus...

  7. Sundew-Inspired Adhesive Hydrogels Combined with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Leming; Huang, Yujian; Bian, Zehua; Petrosino, Jennifer; Fan, Zhen; Wang, Yongzhong; Park, Ki Ho; Yue, Tao; Schmidt, Michael; Galster, Scott; Ma, Jianjie; Zhu, Hua; Zhang, Mingjun

    2016-01-27

    The potential to harness the unique physical, chemical, and biological properties of the sundew (Drosera) plant's adhesive hydrogels has long intrigued researchers searching for novel wound-healing applications. However, the ability to collect sufficient quantities of the sundew plant's adhesive hydrogels is problematic and has eclipsed their therapeutic promise. Inspired by these natural hydrogels, we asked if sundew-inspired adhesive hydrogels could overcome the drawbacks associated with natural sundew hydrogels and be used in combination with stem-cell-based therapy to enhance wound-healing therapeutics. Using a bioinspired approach, we synthesized adhesive hydrogels comprised of sodium alginate, gum arabic, and calcium ions to mimic the properties of the natural sundew-derived adhesive hydrogels. We then characterized and showed that these sundew-inspired hydrogels promote wound healing through their superior adhesive strength, nanostructure, and resistance to shearing when compared to other hydrogels in vitro. In vivo, sundew-inspired hydrogels promoted a "suturing" effect to wound sites, which was demonstrated by enhanced wound closure following topical application of the hydrogels. In combination with mouse adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and compared to other therapeutic biomaterials, the sundew-inspired hydrogels demonstrated superior wound-healing capabilities. Collectively, our studies show that sundew-inspired hydrogels contain ideal properties that promote wound healing and suggest that sundew-inspired-ADSCs combination therapy is an efficacious approach for treating wounds without eliciting noticeable toxicity or inflammation. PMID:26731614

  8. Training mechanical engineering students to utilize biological inspiration during product development.

    PubMed

    Bruck, Hugh A; Gershon, Alan L; Golden, Ira; Gupta, Satyandra K; Gyger, Lawrence S; Magrab, Edward B; Spranklin, Brent W

    2007-12-01

    The use of bio-inspiration for the development of new products and devices requires new educational tools for students consisting of appropriate design and manufacturing technologies, as well as curriculum. At the University of Maryland, new educational tools have been developed that introduce bio-inspired product realization to undergraduate mechanical engineering students. These tools include the development of a bio-inspired design repository, a concurrent fabrication and assembly manufacturing technology, a series of undergraduate curriculum modules and a new senior elective in the bio-inspired robotics area. This paper first presents an overview of the two new design and manufacturing technologies that enable students to realize bio-inspired products, and describes how these technologies are integrated into the undergraduate educational experience. Then, the undergraduate curriculum modules are presented, which provide students with the fundamental design and manufacturing principles needed to support bio-inspired product and device development. Finally, an elective bio-inspired robotics project course is present, which provides undergraduates with the opportunity to demonstrate the application of the knowledge acquired through the curriculum modules in their senior year using the new design and manufacturing technologies. PMID:18037728

  9. Active Osmotic Exchanger for Efficient Nanofiltration Inspired by the Kidney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marbach, Sophie; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the physical mechanisms underlying one of the most efficient filtration devices: the kidney. Building on a minimal model of the Henle loop—the central part of the kidney filtration—we investigate theoretically the detailed out-of-equilibrium fluxes in this separation process in order to obtain absolute theoretical bounds for its efficiency in terms of separation ability and energy consumption. We demonstrate that this separation process operates at a remarkably small energy cost as compared to traditional sieving processes while working at much smaller pressures. This unique energetic efficiency originates in the double-loop geometry of the nephron, which operates as an active osmotic exchanger. The principles for an artificial-kidney-inspired filtration device could be readily mimicked based on existing soft technologies to build compact and low-energy artificial dialytic devices. Such a "kidney on a chip" also points to new avenues for advanced water recycling, targeting, in particular, sea-water pretreatment for decontamination and hardness reduction.

  10. Flavour changing Z ' signals in a 6D inspired model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frère, Jean-Marie; Libanov, Maxim; Mollet, Simon; Troitsky, Sergey

    2016-06-01

    We consider the phenomenology of new neutral gauge bosons with flavour non-diagonal couplings to fermions, inherent in 6D models explaining successfully the hierarchy of masses as well as the mixing for quarks, charged leptons and neutrinos (this model can in particular be credited with the correct prediction of the neutrino mixing angle θ 13). We present a general relation between masses of new gauge bosons and their couplings to fermions. We show that in the current realization of the model, the new heavy bosons are unreachable at LHC but argue why the constraint could be relaxed in the context of a different realization. In view of a more systematic study, we use an effective model inspired by the above to relate directly rare meson decays to possible LHC observations. In terms of effective Lagrangians, this can be seen as the introduction in the model of only one overall scaling parameter to extend our approach without modifying the 4D (gauge) structure.

  11. Modeling and control of a jellyfish-inspired AUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, Cassio T.; Priya, Shashank; Inman, Daniel J.

    2013-04-01

    Current autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) designs have a serious deficiency in autonomy time due to its ballistic type of construction: a cylindrical body propelled by a rear engine. This type of design does not take complete advantage of the fluid that has to be displaced to move the vehicle forward, reducing the overall system efficiency and consequently its operation time. In order to overcome this limitation, research has focused on understanding of the propulsive mechanisms employed by the natural organisms. Jellyfish is one of the simplest and most relevant model systems as it exhibits one of the lowest cost-of-transport among all the known creatures. The learning and implementation of jellyfish-inspired vehicle design requires an evaluation of the current mathematical modeling approaches in order to adequately describe the dynamics of such a vehicle. This paper develops a time-varying rigid body model for the kinematics and dynamics of an AUV based on jellyfish rowing propulsion. A nonlinear sliding mode controller is also proposed to drive the system.

  12. Bio-inspired heterogeneous composites for broadband vibration mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanyu; Wang, Lifeng

    2015-12-01

    Structural biological materials have developed heterogeneous and hierarchical architectures that are responsible for the outstanding performance to provide protection against environmental threats including static and dynamic loading. Inspired by this observation, this research aims to develop new material and structural concepts for broadband vibration mitigation. The proposed composite materials possess a two-layered heterogeneous architecture where both layers consist of high-volume platelet-shape reinforcements and low-volume matrix, similar to the well-known “brick and mortar” microstructure of biological composites. Using finite element method, we numerically demonstrated that broadband wave attenuation zones can be achieved by tailoring the geometric features of the heterogeneous architecture. We reveal that the resulting broadband attenuation zones are gained by directly superimposing the attenuation zones in each constituent layer. This mechanism is further confirmed by the investigation into the phonon dispersion relation of each layer. Importantly, the broadband wave attenuation capability will be maintained when the mineral platelet orientation is locally manipulated, yet a contrast between the mineral platelet concentrations of the two constituent layers is essential. The findings of this work will provide new opportunities to design heterogeneous composites for broadband vibration mitigation and impact resistance under mechanically challenging environmental conditions.

  13. Bio-inspired heterogeneous composites for broadband vibration mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanyu; Wang, Lifeng

    2015-01-01

    Structural biological materials have developed heterogeneous and hierarchical architectures that are responsible for the outstanding performance to provide protection against environmental threats including static and dynamic loading. Inspired by this observation, this research aims to develop new material and structural concepts for broadband vibration mitigation. The proposed composite materials possess a two-layered heterogeneous architecture where both layers consist of high-volume platelet-shape reinforcements and low-volume matrix, similar to the well-known “brick and mortar” microstructure of biological composites. Using finite element method, we numerically demonstrated that broadband wave attenuation zones can be achieved by tailoring the geometric features of the heterogeneous architecture. We reveal that the resulting broadband attenuation zones are gained by directly superimposing the attenuation zones in each constituent layer. This mechanism is further confirmed by the investigation into the phonon dispersion relation of each layer. Importantly, the broadband wave attenuation capability will be maintained when the mineral platelet orientation is locally manipulated, yet a contrast between the mineral platelet concentrations of the two constituent layers is essential. The findings of this work will provide new opportunities to design heterogeneous composites for broadband vibration mitigation and impact resistance under mechanically challenging environmental conditions. PMID:26642932

  14. A microfabricated gecko-inspired controllable and reusable dry adhesive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chary, Sathya; Tamelier, John; Turner, Kimberly

    2013-02-01

    Geckos utilize a robust reversible adhesive to repeatedly attach and detach from a variety of vertical and inverted surfaces, using structurally anisotropic micro- and nano-scale fibrillar structures. These fibers, when suitably articulated, are able to control the real area of contact and thereby generate high-to-low van der Waals forces. Key characteristics of the natural system include highly anisotropic adhesion and shear forces for controllable attachment, a high adhesion to initial preload force ratio (μ‧) of 8-16, lack of inter-fiber self-adhesion, and operation over more than 30 000 cycles without loss of adhesion performance. A highly reusable synthetic adhesive has been developed using tilted polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) half-cylinder micron-scale fibers, retaining up to 77% of the initial value over 10 000 repeated test cycles against a flat glass puck. In comparison with other gecko-inspired adhesives tested over 10 000 cycles or more thus far, this paper reports the highest value of μ‧, along with a large shear force of ˜78 kPa, approaching the 88-226 kPa range of gecko toes. The anisotropic adhesion forces are close to theoretical estimates from the Kendall peel model, quantitatively showing how lateral shearing articulation in a manner similar to the gecko may be used to obtain adhesion anisotropy with synthetic fibers using a combination of tilt angle and anisotropic fiber geometry.

  15. Honey Bees Inspired Optimization Method: The Bees Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Yuce, Baris; Packianather, Michael S; Mastrocinque, Ernesto; Pham, Duc Truong; Lambiase, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Optimization algorithms are search methods where the goal is to find an optimal solution to a problem, in order to satisfy one or more objective functions, possibly subject to a set of constraints. Studies of social animals and social insects have resulted in a number of computational models of swarm intelligence. Within these swarms their collective behavior is usually very complex. The collective behavior of a swarm of social organisms emerges from the behaviors of the individuals of that swarm. Researchers have developed computational optimization methods based on biology such as Genetic Algorithms, Particle Swarm Optimization, and Ant Colony. The aim of this paper is to describe an optimization algorithm called the Bees Algorithm, inspired from the natural foraging behavior of honey bees, to find the optimal solution. The algorithm performs both an exploitative neighborhood search combined with random explorative search. In this paper, after an explanation of the natural foraging behavior of honey bees, the basic Bees Algorithm and its improved versions are described and are implemented in order to optimize several benchmark functions, and the results are compared with those obtained with different optimization algorithms. The results show that the Bees Algorithm offering some advantage over other optimization methods according to the nature of the problem. PMID:26462528

  16. Ayurnutrigenomics: Ayurveda-inspired personalized nutrition from inception to evidence

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Subhadip; Debnath, Parikshit; Debnath, Pratip Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Ayurveda proclaims food and drugs are intersecting concepts that are vital for human survival and for the prevention and mitigation of diseases. Food interferes with the molecular mechanisms of an organism's “physiome”. It is consumed in large amounts compared to any drug. Hence, research on its effect and interaction with genome is highly relevant toward understanding diseases and their therapies. Ayurgenomics presents a personalized approach in the predictive, preventive, and curative aspects of stratified medicine with molecular variability, which embodies the study of interindividual variability due to genetic variability in humans for assessing susceptibility, and establishing diagnosis and prognosis, mainly on the basis of the constitution type of a person's Prakriti. Ayurnutrigenomics is an emerging field of interest pervading Ayurveda systems biology, where the selection of a suitable dietary, therapeutic, and lifestyle regime is made on the basis of clinical assessment of an individual maintaining one's Prakriti. This Ayurveda-inspired concept of personalized nutrition is a novel concept of nutrigenomic research for developing personalized functional foods and nutraceuticals suitable for one's genetic makeup with the help of Ayurveda. Here, we propose and present this novel concept of Ayurnutrigenomics and its emerging areas of research, which may unfold future possibilities toward smart yet safe therapeutics. PMID:26587393

  17. Optical properties of bio-inspired peptide nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handelman, Amir; Apter, Boris; Rosenman, Gil

    2016-04-01

    Supramolecular self-assembled bio-inspired peptide nanostructures are favorable to be implemented in diverse nanophotonics applications due to their superior physical properties such as wideband optical transparency, high second-order nonlinear response, waveguiding properties and more. Here, we focus on the optical properties found in di-phenylalanine peptide nano-architectures, with special emphasize on their linear and nonlinear optical waveguiding effects. Using both simulation and experiments, we show their ability to passively guide light at both fundamental and second-harmonic frequencies. In addition, we show that at elevated temperatures, 140-180°C, these native supramolecular structures undergo irreversible thermally induced transformation via re-assembling into completely new thermodynamically stable phase having nanofiber morphology similar to those of amyloid fibrils. In this new phase, the peptide nanofibers lose their second-order nonlinear response, while exhibit profound modification of optoelectronic properties followed by the appearance of visible (blue and green) photoluminescence (PL). Our study propose a new generation of multifunctional optical waveguides with variety of characteristics, which self-assembled into 1D-elongated nanostructures and could be used as building blocks of many integrated photonic devices.

  18. Approximate methods for building extreme mass ratio inspiral waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Scott

    2007-04-01

    The ``extreme mass ratio inspiral'' (or EMRI) problem has captured much attention in recent years. This is due to its relevance at describing a potentially important gravitational-wave source, and to the elegance of techniques which are being developed to solve it. A complete, self-consistent solution to this problem will require detailed knowledge of the self-interaction of a small body orbiting a Kerr black hole, taken (at least in part) to second order. This challenge will consume much time and effort. In the meantime, there is an exigent need for waveforms which, though not correct in all details, are sufficiently reliable that they can be used to understand how to measure these waves with space-based gravitational-wave antennae. I will describe in this talk results from a crude but surprisingly effective ``kludge'' approximation. The kludge produces waves which match well with available strong-field results, requiring only a fraction of the computational effort. Motivated by how the kludge operates, I will argue that a good medium between the kludge and the full solution is a ``hybrid'' approach to waveform generation. This hybrid combines the best features of both time and frequency domain approaches to black hole perturbation theory, using them to make EMRI waves that are as accurate as is possible without incorporating self-force information.

  19. Dielectric elastomer actuators for octopus inspired suction cups.

    PubMed

    Follador, M; Tramacere, F; Mazzolai, B

    2014-01-01

    Suction cups are often found in nature as attachment strategy in water. Nevertheless, the application of the artificial counterpart is limited by the dimension of the actuators and their usability in wet conditions. A novel design for the development of a suction cup inspired by octopus suckers is presented. The main focus of this research was on the modelling and characterization of the actuation unit, and a first prototype of the suction cup was realized as a proof of concept. The actuation of the suction cup is based on dielectric elastomer actuators. The presented device works in a wet environment, has an integrated actuation system, and is soft. The dimensions of the artificial suction cups are comparable to proximal octopus suckers, and the attachment mechanism is similar to the biological counterpart. The design approach proposed for the actuator allows the definition of the parameters for its development and for obtaining a desired pressure in water. The fabricated actuator is able to produce up to 6 kPa of pressure in water, reaching the maximum pressure in less than 300 ms. PMID:25253019

  20. Biologically-inspired adaptive obstacle negotiation behavior of hexapod robots.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS) and a late, reflex signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS), both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully transferred to a real hexapod robot, called AMOS II. The results show that the robot can efficiently negotiate obstacles with a height up to 85% of the robot's leg length in simulation and 75% in a real environment. PMID:24523694

  1. Amoeba-inspired nanoarchitectonic computing implemented using electrical Brownian ratchets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aono, M.; Kasai, S.; Kim, S.-J.; Wakabayashi, M.; Miwa, H.; Naruse, M.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we extracted the essential spatiotemporal dynamics that allow an amoeboid organism to solve a computationally demanding problem and adapt to its environment, thereby proposing a nature-inspired nanoarchitectonic computing system, which we implemented using a network of nanowire devices called ‘electrical Brownian ratchets (EBRs)’. By utilizing the fluctuations generated from thermal energy in nanowire devices, we used our system to solve the satisfiability problem, which is a highly complex combinatorial problem related to a wide variety of practical applications. We evaluated the dependency of the solution search speed on its exploration parameter, which characterizes the fluctuation intensity of EBRs, using a simulation model of our system called ‘AmoebaSAT-Brownian’. We found that AmoebaSAT-Brownian enhanced the solution searching speed dramatically when we imposed some constraints on the fluctuations in its time series and it outperformed a well-known stochastic local search method. These results suggest a new computing paradigm, which may allow high-speed problem solving to be implemented by interacting nanoscale devices with low power consumption.

  2. Adaptive optoelectronic camouflage systems with designs inspired by cephalopod skins.

    PubMed

    Yu, Cunjiang; Li, Yuhang; Zhang, Xun; Huang, Xian; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Wang, Shuodao; Shi, Yan; Gao, Li; Su, Yewang; Zhang, Yihui; Xu, Hangxun; Hanlon, Roger T; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2014-09-01

    Octopus, squid, cuttlefish, and other cephalopods exhibit exceptional capabilities for visually adapting to or differentiating from the coloration and texture of their surroundings, for the purpose of concealment, communication, predation, and reproduction. Long-standing interest in and emerging understanding of the underlying ultrastructure, physiological control, and photonic interactions has recently led to efforts in the construction of artificial systems that have key attributes found in the skins of these organisms. Despite several promising options in active materials for mimicking biological color tuning, existing routes to integrated systems do not include critical capabilities in distributed sensing and actuation. Research described here represents progress in this direction, demonstrated through the construction, experimental study, and computational modeling of materials, device elements, and integration schemes for cephalopod-inspired flexible sheets that can autonomously sense and adapt to the coloration of their surroundings. These systems combine high-performance, multiplexed arrays of actuators and photodetectors in laminated, multilayer configurations on flexible substrates, with overlaid arrangements of pixelated, color-changing elements. The concepts provide realistic routes to thin sheets that can be conformally wrapped onto solid objects to modulate their visual appearance, with potential relevance to consumer, industrial, and military applications. PMID:25136094

  3. Toward autonomous avian-inspired grasping for micro aerial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Justin; Loianno, Giuseppe; Polin, Joseph; Sreenath, Koushil; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-06-01

    Micro aerial vehicles, particularly quadrotors, have been used in a wide range of applications. However, the literature on aerial manipulation and grasping is limited and the work is based on quasi-static models. In this paper, we draw inspiration from agile, fast-moving birds such as raptors, that are able to capture moving prey on the ground or in water, and develop similar capabilities for quadrotors. We address dynamic grasping, an approach to prehensile grasping in which the dynamics of the robot and its gripper are significant and must be explicitly modeled and controlled for successful execution. Dynamic grasping is relevant for fast pick-and-place operations, transportation and delivery of objects, and placing or retrieving sensors. We show how this capability can be realized (a) using a motion capture system and (b) without external sensors relying only on onboard sensors. In both cases we describe the dynamic model, and trajectory planning and control algorithms. In particular, we present a methodology for flying and grasping a cylindrical object using feedback from a monocular camera and an inertial measurement unit onboard the aerial robot. This is accomplished by mapping the dynamics of the quadrotor to a level virtual image plane, which in turn enables dynamically-feasible trajectory planning for image features in the image space, and a vision-based controller with guaranteed convergence properties. We also present experimental results obtained with a quadrotor equipped with an articulated gripper to illustrate both approaches. PMID:24852023

  4. Adaptive optoelectronic camouflage systems with designs inspired by cephalopod skins

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cunjiang; Li, Yuhang; Zhang, Xun; Huang, Xian; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Wang, Shuodao; Shi, Yan; Gao, Li; Su, Yewang; Zhang, Yihui; Xu, Hangxun; Hanlon, Roger T.; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Octopus, squid, cuttlefish, and other cephalopods exhibit exceptional capabilities for visually adapting to or differentiating from the coloration and texture of their surroundings, for the purpose of concealment, communication, predation, and reproduction. Long-standing interest in and emerging understanding of the underlying ultrastructure, physiological control, and photonic interactions has recently led to efforts in the construction of artificial systems that have key attributes found in the skins of these organisms. Despite several promising options in active materials for mimicking biological color tuning, existing routes to integrated systems do not include critical capabilities in distributed sensing and actuation. Research described here represents progress in this direction, demonstrated through the construction, experimental study, and computational modeling of materials, device elements, and integration schemes for cephalopod-inspired flexible sheets that can autonomously sense and adapt to the coloration of their surroundings. These systems combine high-performance, multiplexed arrays of actuators and photodetectors in laminated, multilayer configurations on flexible substrates, with overlaid arrangements of pixelated, color-changing elements. The concepts provide realistic routes to thin sheets that can be conformally wrapped onto solid objects to modulate their visual appearance, with potential relevance to consumer, industrial, and military applications. PMID:25136094

  5. Biomechanics and biomimetics in insect-inspired flight systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Ravi, Sridhar; Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Tanaka, Hiroto

    2016-09-26

    Insect- and bird-size drones-micro air vehicles (MAV) that can perform autonomous flight in natural and man-made environments are now an active and well-integrated research area. MAVs normally operate at a low speed in a Reynolds number regime of 10(4)-10(5) or lower, in which most flying animals of insects, birds and bats fly, and encounter unconventional challenges in generating sufficient aerodynamic forces to stay airborne and in controlling flight autonomy to achieve complex manoeuvres. Flying insects that power and control flight by flapping wings are capable of sophisticated aerodynamic force production and precise, agile manoeuvring, through an integrated system consisting of wings to generate aerodynamic force, muscles to move the wings and a control system to modulate power output from the muscles. In this article, we give a selective review on the state of the art of biomechanics in bioinspired flight systems in terms of flapping and flexible wing aerodynamics, flight dynamics and stability, passive and active mechanisms in stabilization and control, as well as flapping flight in unsteady environments. We further highlight recent advances in biomimetics of flapping-wing MAVs with a specific focus on insect-inspired wing design and fabrication, as well as sensing systems.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. PMID:27528780

  6. Biologically Inspired Object Tracking Using Center-Surround Saliency Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Vijay; Vasconcelos, Nuno

    2013-03-01

    A biologically inspired discriminant object tracker is proposed. It is argued that discriminant tracking is a consequence of top-down tuning of the saliency mechanisms that guide the deployment of visual attention. The principle of discriminant saliency is then used to derive a tracker that implements a combination of center-surround saliency, a spatial spotlight of attention, and feature-based attention. In this framework, the tracking problem is formulated as one of continuous target-background classification, implemented in two stages. The first, or learning stage, combines a focus of attention (FoA) mechanism, and bottom-up saliency to identify a maximally discriminant set of features for target detection. The second, or detection stage, uses a feature-based attention mechanism and a target-tuned top-down discriminant saliency detector to detect the target. Overall, the tracker iterates between learning discriminant features from the target location in a video frame and detecting the location of the target in the next. The statistics of natural images are exploited to derive an implementation which is conceptually simple and computationally efficient. The saliency formulation is also shown to establish a unified framework for classifier design, target detection, automatic tracker initialization, and scale adaptation. Experimental results show that the proposed discriminant saliency tracker outperforms a number of state-of-the-art trackers in the literature. PMID:22529325

  7. A Retina Inspired Model for Enhancing Visibility of Hazy Images

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xian-Shi; Gao, Shao-Bing; Li, Chao-Yi; Li, Yong-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian retina seems far smarter than scientists have believed so far. Inspired by the visual processing mechanisms in the retina, from the layer of photoreceptors to the layer of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), we propose a computational model for haze removal from a single input image, which is an important issue in the field of image enhancement. In particular, the bipolar cells serve to roughly remove the low-frequency of haze, and the amacrine cells modulate the output of cone bipolar cells to compensate the loss of details by increasing the image contrast. Then the RGCs with disinhibitory receptive field surround refine the local haze removal as well as the image detail enhancement. Results on a variety of real-world and synthetic hazy images show that the proposed model yields results comparative to or even better than the state-of-the-art methods, having the advantage of simultaneous dehazing and enhancing of single hazy image with simple and straightforward implementation. PMID:26733857

  8. Bio-inspired strategies for designing antifouling biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Damodaran, Vinod B; Murthy, N Sanjeeva

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of biomedical devices in a biological medium, biofouling, is a major cause of infection and is entirely avoidable. This mini-review will coherently present the broad range of antifouling strategies, germicidal, preventive and cleaning using one or more of biological, chemical and physical techniques. These techniques will be discussed from the point of view of their ability to inhibit protein adsorption, usually the first step that eventually leads to fouling. Many of these approaches draw their inspiration from nature, such as emulating the nitric oxide production in endothelium, use of peptoids that mimic protein repellant peptides, zwitterionic functionalities found in membrane structures, and catechol functionalities used by mussel to immobilize poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). More intriguing are the physical modifications, creation of micropatterns on the surface to control the hydration layer, making them either superhydrophobic or superhydrophilic. This has led to technologies that emulate the texture of shark skin, and the superhyprophobicity of self-cleaning textures found in lotus leaves. The mechanism of antifouling in each of these methods is described, and implementation of these ideas is illustrated with examples in a way that could be adapted to prevent infection in medical devices. PMID:27326371

  9. EOS ART: Six Artistic Projects Inspired by Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerlow, Isaac

    2015-04-01

    The six projects produced under the artists' residencies at the Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS) were inspired by Earth science and by the human experience in naturally hazardous regions. These contemporary artworks were created within an interdisciplinary framework that fostered collaborations between artists and scientists. EOS ART was a pilot program that also facilitated the active engagement of regional artists with issues related to Earth science, sustainable societies, and innovative methods for science outreach. An interdisciplinary jury of art critics, curators and Earth scientists selected art projects proposed by regional artists, and funds were awarded to develop and realize the projects. The artworks-including installations, photographs, and video art-were showcased in the "Unearthed" public exhibit at the Singapore Art Museum from March to July of 2014. A 92-page catalog accompanied the show and public seminars about interdisciplinary connections complemented the event. This was a unique example of collaboration between scientific and artistic institutions in Southeast Asia. The paper provides an overview of the motivations, process and accomplished results. The art projects include "Coastline" by Zhang Xiao (China), "Lupang" by Clara Balaguer and Carlos Casas (Philippines and Spain), "Sound of the Earth" by Chen Sai Hua Kuan (Singapore), "Sudden Nature" by Isaac Kerlow (Mexico/USA), "The Possibility of Knowing" by Robert Zhao Renhui (Singapore), and "When Need Moves the Earth" by Sutthirat Supaparinya (Thailand).

  10. Novel Magnetic Nanomaterials Inspired by Magnetotactic Baterial: Topical Review

    SciTech Connect

    Prozorov, Tanya; Bazylinki, Dennis A.; Mallapragada, Surya K.; Prozorov, Ruslan

    2013-05-14

    Magnetotactic bacteria, known to produce magnetic nanocrystals with uniform shapes and sizes at physiological conditions, serve as an inspiration and source of a number of biological macromolecules used for the biomimetic synthesis of a variety of magnetic nanomaterials. This review discusses the current state of understanding of magnetosome biomineralization in magnetotactic bacteria, as well as the ways in which iron biomineralization processes can be utilized for tailored in vivo formation of complex magnetic nanomaterials, not occurring in magnetotactic bacteria naturally. The review assesses the current efforts on in vitro synthesis of a variety of magnetic nanoparticles using bioinspired approaches by utilizing mineralization proteins from magnetotactic bacteria, and surveys biomimetic strategies for the rational synthesis of various magnetic nanomaterials under ambient conditions. Finally, this review presents magnetic characterization of nanoparticles, highlighting differences in magnetic behavior between magnetic nanoparticles produced using bioinspired in vivo and in vitro strategies, compared to those produced using conventional methods. This in turn impacts their utility in a wide range of applications for magnetic nanoparticles, which are examined in detail, where bioinspired synthesis methods have potentially provided added advantages.

  11. Breathable and Stretchable Temperature Sensors Inspired by Skin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Lu, Bingwei; Chen, Yihao; Feng, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Flexible electronics attached to skin for healthcare, such as epidermal electronics, has to struggle with biocompatibility and adapt to specified environment of skin with respect to breath and perspiration. Here, we report a strategy for biocompatible flexible temperature sensors, inspired by skin, possessing the excellent permeability of air and high quality of water-proof by using semipermeable film with porous structures as substrate. We attach such temperature sensors to underarm and forearm to measure the axillary temperature and body surface temperature respectively. The volunteer wears such sensors for 24 hours with two times of shower and the in vitro test shows no sign of maceration or stimulation to the skin. Especially, precise temperature changes on skin surface caused by flowing air and water dropping are also measured to validate the accuracy and dynamical response. The results show that the biocompatible temperature sensor is soft and breathable on the human skin and has the excellent accuracy compared to mercury thermometer. This demonstrates the possibility and feasibility of fully using the sensors in long term body temperature sensing for medical use as well as sensing function of artificial skin for robots or prosthesis. PMID:26095941

  12. Breathable and Stretchable Temperature Sensors Inspired by Skin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Lu, Bingwei; Chen, Yihao; Feng, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Flexible electronics attached to skin for healthcare, such as epidermal electronics, has to struggle with biocompatibility and adapt to specified environment of skin with respect to breath and perspiration. Here, we report a strategy for biocompatible flexible temperature sensors, inspired by skin, possessing the excellent permeability of air and high quality of water-proof by using semipermeable film with porous structures as substrate. We attach such temperature sensors to underarm and forearm to measure the axillary temperature and body surface temperature respectively. The volunteer wears such sensors for 24 hours with two times of shower and the in vitro test shows no sign of maceration or stimulation to the skin. Especially, precise temperature changes on skin surface caused by flowing air and water dropping are also measured to validate the accuracy and dynamical response. The results show that the biocompatible temperature sensor is soft and breathable on the human skin and has the excellent accuracy compared to mercury thermometer. This demonstrates the possibility and feasibility of fully using the sensors in long term body temperature sensing for medical use as well as sensing function of artificial skin for robots or prosthesis. PMID:26095941

  13. Colloidal-based additive manufacturing of bio-inspired composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studart, Andre R.

    Composite materials in nature exhibit heterogeneous architectures that are tuned to fulfill the functional demands of the surrounding environment. Examples range from the cellulose-based organic structure of plants to highly mineralized collagen-based skeletal parts like bone and teeth. Because they are often utilized to combine opposing properties such as strength and low-density or stiffness and wear resistance, the heterogeneous architecture of natural materials can potentially address several of the technical limitations of artificial homogeneous composites. However, current man-made manufacturing technologies do not allow for the level of composition and fiber orientation control found in natural heterogeneous systems. In this talk, I will present two additive manufacturing technologies recently developed in our group to build composites with exquisite architectures only rivaled by structures made by living organisms in nature. Since the proposed techniques utilize colloidal suspensions as feedstock, understanding the physics underlying the stability, assembly and rheology of the printing inks is key to predict and control the architecture of manufactured parts. Our results will show that additive manufacturing routes offer a new exciting pathway for the fabrication of biologically-inspired composite materials with unprecedented architectures and functionalities.

  14. Simulations of the Inspiral and Merger of Magnetized Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motl, Patrick M.; Anderson, M.; Hirschman, E. W.; Lehner, L.; Liebling, S. L.; Neilsen, D.; Palenzuela, C.; Tohline, J. E.

    2008-05-01

    We present simulations of the inspiral, merger and eventual collapse of neutron star binaries calculated in full general relativity. The Einstein equations are solved in a first order reduction of the general harmonic formulation while the matter is evolved in the MHD approximation. Each binary component initially has a dipole magnetic field perpendicular to the orbital plane. We use the adaptive mesh refinement package HAD to resolve the disparate length scales in the problem ranging from the radiation zone down to the internal dynamics of the neutron stars. For aligned fields and our chosen field strength, we find that magnetic effects delay the merger somewhat - thus boosting the gravitational wave signal from the binary. As we will discuss, the magnetic field significantly impacts the distribution of matter and angular momentum in the super-massive, merged object after merger. This work has been supported in part by NSF grants AST 04-07070 and PHY 03-26311, and in part through NASA's ATP program grants NAG5-8497, NAG5-13430 and NNX07AG84G. The computations were performed on computer facilities provided through the Teragrid, LONI, LSU and BYU.

  15. Biomimetic water-collecting materials inspired by nature.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hai; Guo, Zhiguang; Liu, Weimin

    2016-03-11

    Nowadays, water shortage is a severe issue all over the world, especially in some arid and undeveloped areas. Interestingly, a variety of natural creatures can collect water from fog, which can provide a source of inspiration to develop novel and functional water-collecting materials. Recently, as an increasingly hot research topic, bioinspired materials with the water collection ability have captured vast scientific attention in both practical applications and fundamental research studies. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms of water collection in various natural creatures and present the fabrications, functions, applications, and new developments of bioinspired materials in recent years. The theoretical basis related to the phenomenon of water collection containing wetting behaviors and water droplet transportations is described in the beginning, i.e., the Young's equation, Wenzel model, Cassie model, surface energy gradient model and Laplace pressure equation. Then, the water collection mechanisms of three typical and widely researched natural animals and plants are discussed and their corresponding bioinspired materials are simultaneously detailed, which are cactus, spider, and desert beetles, respectively. This is followed by introducing another eight animals and plants (butterfly, shore birds, wheat awns, green bristlegrass, the Cotula fallax plant, Namib grass, green tree frogs and Australian desert lizards) that are rarely reported, exhibiting water collection properties or similar water droplet transportation. Finally, conclusions and outlook concerning the future development of bioinspired fog-collecting materials are presented. PMID:26898232

  16. Novel approaches for inspiring students and electrifying the public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidström, Suzy; Read, Alex; Parke, Stephen; Allen, Roland; Goldfarb, Steven; Mehlhase, Sascha; Ekelöf, Tord; Walker, Alan

    2014-03-01

    We will briefly summarize a wide variety of innovative approaches for inspiring students and stimulating broad public interest in fundamental physics research, as exemplified by recent activities related to the Higgs boson discovery and Higgs-Englert Nobel Prize on behalf of the Swedish Academy, CERN, Fermilab, and the Niels Bohr Institute. Personal interactions with the scientists themselves can be particularly electrifying, and these were encouraged by the wearing of ``Higgs Boson? Ask Me!'' badges, which will be made available to those attending this talk. At CERN, activities include Virtual Visits, (Google) Hangout with CERN, initiatives to grab attention (LEGO models, music videos, art programs, pins, etc.), substantive communication (lab visits and events, museum exhibits, traveling exhibits, local visits, Masterclasses, etc.), and educational activities (summer student programs, semester abroad programs, internships, graduate programs, etc.). For serious students and their teachers, or scientists in other areas, tutorial articles are appropriate. These are most effective if they also incorporate innovative approaches - for example, attractive figures that immediately illustrate the concepts, analogies that will resonate with the reader, and a broadening of perspective. Physica Scripta, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

  17. Arthropod eye-inspired digital camera with unique imaging characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jianliang; Song, Young Min; Xie, Yizhu; Malyarchuk, Viktor; Jung, Inhwa; Choi, Ki-Joong; Liu, Zhuangjian; Park, Hyunsung; Lu, Chaofeng; Kim, Rak-Hwan; Li, Rui; Crozier, Kenneth B.; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2014-06-01

    In nature, arthropods have a remarkably sophisticated class of imaging systems, with a hemispherical geometry, a wideangle field of view, low aberrations, high acuity to motion and an infinite depth of field. There are great interests in building systems with similar geometries and properties due to numerous potential applications. However, the established semiconductor sensor technologies and optics are essentially planar, which experience great challenges in building such systems with hemispherical, compound apposition layouts. With the recent advancement of stretchable optoelectronics, we have successfully developed strategies to build a fully functional artificial apposition compound eye camera by combining optics, materials and mechanics principles. The strategies start with fabricating stretchable arrays of thin silicon photodetectors and elastomeric optical elements in planar geometries, which are then precisely aligned and integrated, and elastically transformed to hemispherical shapes. This imaging device demonstrates nearly full hemispherical shape (about 160 degrees), with densely packed artificial ommatidia. The number of ommatidia (180) is comparable to those of the eyes of fire ants and bark beetles. We have illustrated key features of operation of compound eyes through experimental imaging results and quantitative ray-tracing-based simulations. The general strategies shown in this development could be applicable to other compound eye devices, such as those inspired by moths and lacewings (refracting superposition eyes), lobster and shrimp (reflecting superposition eyes), and houseflies (neural superposition eyes).

  18. Proton stability and light Z' inspired by string derived models

    SciTech Connect

    Faraggi, Alon E.; Mehta, Viraf M.

    2011-10-15

    Proton stability is one of the most perplexing puzzles in particle physics. While the renormalizable standard model forbids proton decay mediating operators due to accidental global symmetries, many of its extensions introduce such dimension four, five and six operators. Furthermore, it is, in general, expected that quantum gravity only respects local gauge, or discreet, symmetries. String theory provides the arena to study particle physics in a consistent framework of perturbative quantum gravity. An appealing proposition, in this context, is that the dangerous operators are suppressed by an Abelian gauge symmetry, which is broken near the TeV scale. A viable U(1) symmetry should also be anomaly free, be family universal, and allow the generation of fermion masses via the Higgs mechanism. We discuss such U(1) symmetries that arise in quasirealistic free fermionic heterotic-string derived models. Ensuring that the U(1) symmetry is anomaly free at the low scale requires that the standard model spectrum is augmented by additional states that are compatible with the charge assignments in the string models. We construct such string-inspired models and discuss some of their phenomenological implications.

  19. Biomimetic autonomous robot inspired by the Cyanea capillata (Cyro).

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Alex A; Marut, Kenneth J; Michael, Tyler; Priya, Shashank

    2013-12-01

    A biomimetic robot inspired by Cyanea capillata, termed as 'Cyro', was developed to meet the functional demands of underwater surveillance in defense and civilian applications. The vehicle was designed to mimic the morphology and swimming mechanism of the natural counterpart. The body of the vehicle consists of a rigid support structure with linear DC motors which actuate eight mechanical arms. The mechanical arms in conjunction with artificial mesoglea create the hydrodynamic force required for propulsion. The full vehicle measures 170 cm in diameter and has a total mass of 76 kg. An analytical model of the mechanical arm kinematics was developed. The analytical and experimental bell kinematics were analyzed and compared to the C. capillata. Cyro was found to reach the water surface untethered and autonomously from a depth of 182 cm in five actuation cycles. It achieved an average velocity of 8.47 cm s(-1) while consuming an average power of 70 W. A two-axis thrust stand was developed to calculate the thrust directly from a single bell segment yielding an average thrust of 27.9 N for the whole vehicle. Steady state velocity during Cyro's swimming test was not reached but the measured performance during its last swim cycle resulted in a cost of transport of 10.9 J (kg ⋅ m)(-1) and total efficiency of 0.03. PMID:24166747

  20. A bio-inspired memory model for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Zhu, Yong

    2009-04-01

    Long-term structural health monitoring (SHM) systems need intelligent management of the monitoring data. By analogy with the way the human brain processes memories, we present a bio-inspired memory model (BIMM) that does not require prior knowledge of the structure parameters. The model contains three time-domain areas: a sensory memory area, a short-term memory area and a long-term memory area. First, the initial parameters of the structural state are specified to establish safety criteria. Then the large amount of monitoring data that falls within the safety limits is filtered while the data outside the safety limits are captured instantly in the sensory memory area. Second, disturbance signals are distinguished from danger signals in the short-term memory area. Finally, the stable data of the structural balance state are preserved in the long-term memory area. A strategy for priority scheduling via fuzzy c-means for the proposed model is then introduced. An experiment on bridge tower deformation demonstrates that the proposed model can be applied for real-time acquisition, limited-space storage and intelligent mining of the monitoring data in a long-term SHM system.

  1. Do good actions inspire good actions in others?

    PubMed Central

    Capraro, Valerio; Marcelletti, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Actions such as sharing food and cooperating to reach a common goal have played a fundamental role in the evolution of human societies. Despite the importance of such good actions, little is known about if and how they can spread from person to person to person. For instance, does being recipient of an altruistic act increase your probability of being cooperative with a third party? We have conducted an experiment on Amazon Mechanical Turk to test this mechanism using economic games. We have measured willingness to be cooperative through a standard Prisoner's dilemma and willingness to act altruistically using a binary Dictator game. In the baseline treatments, the endowments needed to play were given by the experimenters, as usual; in the control treatments, they came from a good action made by someone else. Across four different comparisons and a total of 572 subjects, we have never found a significant increase of cooperation or altruism when the endowment came from a good action. We conclude that good actions do not necessarily inspire good actions in others. While this is consistent with the theoretical prediction, it challenges the majority of other experimental studies. PMID:25502617

  2. Identification of the connections in biologically inspired neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuth, H.; Leung, K.; Beale, M.; Hicklin, J.

    1990-01-01

    We developed an identification method to find the strength of the connections between neurons from their behavior in small biologically-inspired artificial neural networks. That is, given the network external inputs and the temporal firing pattern of the neurons, we can calculate a solution for the strengths of the connections between neurons and the initial neuron activations if a solution exists. The method determines directly if there is a solution to a particular neural network problem. No training of the network is required. It should be noted that this is a first pass at the solution of a difficult problem. The neuron and network models chosen are related to biology but do not contain all of its complexities, some of which we hope to add to the model in future work. A variety of new results have been obtained. First, the method has been tailored to produce connection weight matrix solutions for networks with important features of biological neural (bioneural) networks. Second, a computationally efficient method of finding a robust central solution has been developed. This later method also enables us to find the most consistent solution in the presence of noisy data. Prospects of applying our method to identify bioneural network connections are exciting because such connections are almost impossible to measure in the laboratory. Knowledge of such connections would facilitate an understanding of bioneural networks and would allow the construction of the electronic counterparts of bioneural networks on very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits.

  3. Electrowetting-controlled bio-inspired artificial iridophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manakasettharn, Supone; Taylor, J. Ashley; Krupenkin, Tom

    2011-10-01

    Many marine organisms have evolved complex optical mechanisms of dynamic skin color control that allow them to drastically change their visual appearance. In particular, cephalopods have developed especially effective dynamic color control mechanism based on the mechanical actuation of the micro-scale optical structures, which produce either variable degrees of area coverage by a given color (chromatophores) or variations in spatial orientation of the reflective and diffractive surfaces (iridophores). In this work we describe the design, fabrication and characterization of electrowetting-controlled bio-inspired artificial iridophores. The developed iridophores geometrically resemble microflowers with flexible reflective petals. The microflowers are fabricated on a silicon substrate using surface micromachining techniques. After fabrication a small droplet of conductive liquid is deposited at the center of each microflower. This causes the flower petals to partially wrap around the droplet forming a structure similar to capillary origami. The dynamic control over the degree of wrapping is achieved by applying a voltage differential between the conductive core of the petals and the droplet. The applied voltage causes dynamic contact angle change between the droplet and each of the petals due to the electrowetting effect. We have characterized mechanical and optical properties of the microstructures and discuss their electrowetting-based actuation. These experimental results are in good agreement with a 3D theoretical model based on electrocapillarity and elasticity theory. This work forms the basis for a broad range of novel optical devices.

  4. Human climbing with efficiently scaled gecko-inspired dry adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Elliot W.; Eason, Eric V.; Christensen, David L.; Cutkosky, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of the mechanism of adhesion in geckos, many synthetic dry adhesives have been developed with desirable gecko-like properties such as reusability, directionality, self-cleaning ability, rough surface adhesion and high adhesive stress. However, fully exploiting these adhesives in practical applications at different length scales requires efficient scaling (i.e. with little loss in adhesion as area grows). Just as natural gecko adhesives have been used as a benchmark for synthetic materials, so can gecko adhesion systems provide a baseline for scaling efficiency. In the tokay gecko (Gekko gecko), a scaling power law has been reported relating the maximum shear stress σmax to the area A: σmax ∝ A−1/4. We present a mechanical concept which improves upon the gecko's non-uniform load-sharing and results in a nearly even load distribution over multiple patches of gecko-inspired adhesive. We created a synthetic adhesion system incorporating this concept which shows efficient scaling across four orders of magnitude of area, yielding an improved scaling power law: σmax ∝ A−1/50. Furthermore, we found that the synthetic adhesion system does not fail catastrophically when a simulated failure is induced on a portion of the adhesive. In a practical demonstration, the synthetic adhesion system enabled a 70 kg human to climb vertical glass with 140 cm2 of adhesive per hand. PMID:25411404

  5. Biomimetic and bio-inspired robotics in electric fish research.

    PubMed

    Neveln, Izaak D; Bai, Yang; Snyder, James B; Solberg, James R; Curet, Oscar M; Lynch, Kevin M; MacIver, Malcolm A

    2013-07-01

    Weakly electric knifefish have intrigued both biologists and engineers for decades with their unique electrosensory system and agile swimming mechanics. Study of these fish has resulted in models that illuminate the principles behind their electrosensory system and unique swimming abilities. These models have uncovered the mechanisms by which knifefish generate thrust for swimming forward and backward, hovering, and heaving dorsally using a ventral elongated median fin. Engineered active electrosensory models inspired by electric fish allow for close-range sensing in turbid waters where other sensing modalities fail. Artificial electrosense is capable of aiding navigation, detection and discrimination of objects, and mapping the environment, all tasks for which the fish use electrosense extensively. While robotic ribbon fin and artificial electrosense research has been pursued separately to reduce complications that arise when they are combined, electric fish have succeeded in their ecological niche through close coupling of their sensing and mechanical systems. Future integration of electrosense and ribbon fin technology into a knifefish robot should likewise result in a vehicle capable of navigating complex 3D geometries unreachable with current underwater vehicles, as well as provide insights into how to design mobile robots that integrate high bandwidth sensing with highly responsive multidirectional movement. PMID:23761475

  6. A dragline-forming mobile robot inspired by spiders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liyu; Culha, Utku; Iida, Fumiya

    2014-03-01

    Mobility of wheeled or legged machines can be significantly increased if they are able to move from a solid surface into a three-dimensional space. Although that may be achieved by addition of flying mechanisms, the payload fraction will be the limiting factor in such hybrid mobile machines for many applications. Inspired by spiders producing draglines to assist locomotion, the paper proposes an alternative mobile technology where a robot achieves locomotion from a solid surface into a free space. The technology resembles the dragline production pathway in spiders to a technically feasible degree and enables robots to move with thermoplastic spinning of draglines. As an implementation, a mobile robot has been prototyped with thermoplastic adhesives as source material of the draglines. Experimental results show that a dragline diameter range of 1.17-5.27 mm was achievable by the 185 g mobile robot in descending locomotion from the solid surface of a hanging structure with a power consumption of 4.8 W and an average speed of 5.13 cm min(-1). With an open-loop controller consisting of sequences of discrete events, the robot has demonstrated repeatable dragline formation with a relative deviation within -4% and a length close to the metre scale. PMID:24434546

  7. A microstructurally inspired damage model for early venous thrombus.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Manuel K; Humphrey, Jay D

    2015-03-01

    Accumulative damage may be an important contributor to many cases of thrombotic disease progression. Thus, a complete understanding of the pathological role of thrombus requires an understanding of its mechanics and in particular mechanical consequences of damage. In the current study, we introduce a novel microstructurally inspired constitutive model for thrombus that considers a non-uniform distribution of microstructural fibers at various crimp levels and employs one of the distribution parameters to incorporate stretch-driven damage on the microscopic level. To demonstrate its ability to represent the mechanical behavior of thrombus, including a recently reported Mullins type damage phenomenon, we fit our model to uniaxial tensile test data of early venous thrombus. Our model shows an agreement with these data comparable to previous models for damage in elastomers with the added advantages of a microstructural basis and fewer model parameters. We submit that our novel approach marks another important step toward modeling the evolving mechanics of intraluminal thrombus, specifically its damage, and hope it will aid in the study of physiological and pathological thrombotic events. PMID:26523784

  8. Regular black holes and noncommutative geometry inspired fuzzy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Shinpei

    2016-05-01

    We investigated regular black holes with fuzzy sources in three and four dimensions. The density distributions of such fuzzy sources are inspired by noncommutative geometry and given by Gaussian or generalized Gaussian functions. We utilized mass functions to give a physical interpretation of the horizon formation condition for the black holes. In particular, we investigated three-dimensional BTZ-like black holes and four-dimensional Schwarzschild-like black holes in detail, and found that the number of horizons is related to the space-time dimensions, and the existence of a void in the vicinity of the center of the space-time is significant, rather than noncommutativity. As an application, we considered a three-dimensional black hole with the fuzzy disc which is a disc-shaped region known in the context of noncommutative geometry as a source. We also analyzed a four-dimensional black hole with a source whose density distribution is an extension of the fuzzy disc, and investigated the horizon formation condition for it.

  9. Bio-Inspired Stretchable Absolute Pressure Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yue; Li, Yu-Hung; Guo, Zhiqiang; Kim, Kyunglok; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Wang, Shan X.

    2016-01-01

    A bio-inspired absolute pressure sensor network has been developed. Absolute pressure sensors, distributed on multiple silicon islands, are connected as a network by stretchable polyimide wires. This sensor network, made on a 4’’ wafer, has 77 nodes and can be mounted on various curved surfaces to cover an area up to 0.64 m × 0.64 m, which is 100 times larger than its original size. Due to Micro Electro-Mechanical system (MEMS) surface micromachining technology, ultrathin sensing nodes can be realized with thicknesses of less than 100 µm. Additionally, good linearity and high sensitivity (~14 mV/V/bar) have been achieved. Since the MEMS sensor process has also been well integrated with a flexible polymer substrate process, the entire sensor network can be fabricated in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. Moreover, an accurate pressure contour can be obtained from the sensor network. Therefore, this absolute pressure sensor network holds significant promise for smart vehicle applications, especially for unmanned aerial vehicles. PMID:26729134

  10. Flow through flexible cylinders inspired by the endothelial glycocalyx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Lauren; Fovargue, Daniel; Miller, Laura

    2009-11-01

    Inspired by the recent shift in hypertension research, we present a new computational model to better examine blood flow induced shear stress in the endothelial surface layer (ESL). The ESL is the luminal side barrier between blood and the endothelial cells that line the vessel wall and has been of interest due to its function as a mechanotransducer.footnotetextSquire, J. M., Chew, M., Nneji, G., Neal, C., Barry, J. & Michel, C. C., 2001. Quasi-periodic substructure in the microvessel endothelial glycocalyx: a possible explanation for molecular filtering? J. Struct. Bio. 136, 239-255. Further, it is believed that shear stress seen by the ESL, induced by blood flow, is converted to chemical responses such as blood pressure regulation. We utilize the Immersed Boundary method to simulate blood flow through a vessel and examine the shear stress at the ESL over different heights and flexibilities. We compare our results in the Reynolds number regime of a canine capillary with previous computational modelsfootnotetextWeinbaum, S., Tarbell, J., Damiano, E., 2000. The Structure and Function of the Endothelial Glycocalyx Layer. Pfl"ugers Arch. -- Eur. J. Physiol. 440, 653--666. and experimental results.

  11. Stochastic Synapses Enable Efficient Brain-Inspired Learning Machines.

    PubMed

    Neftci, Emre O; Pedroni, Bruno U; Joshi, Siddharth; Al-Shedivat, Maruan; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that synaptic unreliability is a robust and sufficient mechanism for inducing the stochasticity observed in cortex. Here, we introduce Synaptic Sampling Machines (S2Ms), a class of neural network models that uses synaptic stochasticity as a means to Monte Carlo sampling and unsupervised learning. Similar to the original formulation of Boltzmann machines, these models can be viewed as a stochastic counterpart of Hopfield networks, but where stochasticity is induced by a random mask over the connections. Synaptic stochasticity plays the dual role of an efficient mechanism for sampling, and a regularizer during learning akin to DropConnect. A local synaptic plasticity rule implementing an event-driven form of contrastive divergence enables the learning of generative models in an on-line fashion. S2Ms perform equally well using discrete-timed artificial units (as in Hopfield networks) or continuous-timed leaky integrate and fire neurons. The learned representations are remarkably sparse and robust to reductions in bit precision and synapse pruning: removal of more than 75% of the weakest connections followed by cursory re-learning causes a negligible performance loss on benchmark classification tasks. The spiking neuron-based S2Ms outperform existing spike-based unsupervised learners, while potentially offering substantial advantages in terms of power and complexity, and are thus promising models for on-line learning in brain-inspired hardware. PMID:27445650

  12. Stiffness Enhancement in Nacre-Inspired Nanocomposites due to Nanoconfinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Chen; Keten, Sinan

    2015-11-01

    Layered assemblies of polymers and graphene derivatives employ nacre’s tested strategy of intercalating soft organic layers with hard crystalline domains. These layered systems commonly display elastic properties that exceed simple mixture rule predictions, but the molecular origins of this phenomenon are not well understood. Here we address this issue by quantifying the elastic behavior of nanoconfined polymer layers on a model layered graphene-polymer nanocomposite. Using a novel, validated coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation approach, here we clearly show that the elastic properties of layered nanocomposites cannot be described by volume fraction considerations alone and depend strongly on both interfacial energy and nanostructure. We quantify the relative importance of polymer nanoconfinement and interfacial energy on polymer structure and elasticity, and illustrate the validity of our model for two polymers with different intrinsic elastic properties. Our theoretical model culminates in phase diagrams that accurately predict the elastic response of nacre-inspired nanocomposites by accounting for all material design parameters. Our findings provide widely applicable prescriptive guidelines for utilizing nanoconfinement to improve the mechanical properties of layer-by-layer nanocomposites. Our findings also serve to explain why the elastic properties of organic layers in nacre exhibit multifold differences from the native and extracted states.

  13. Breathable and Stretchable Temperature Sensors Inspired by Skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Lu, Bingwei; Chen, Yihao; Feng, Xue

    2015-06-01

    Flexible electronics attached to skin for healthcare, such as epidermal electronics, has to struggle with biocompatibility and adapt to specified environment of skin with respect to breath and perspiration. Here, we report a strategy for biocompatible flexible temperature sensors, inspired by skin, possessing the excellent permeability of air and high quality of water-proof by using semipermeable film with porous structures as substrate. We attach such temperature sensors to underarm and forearm to measure the axillary temperature and body surface temperature respectively. The volunteer wears such sensors for 24 hours with two times of shower and the in vitro test shows no sign of maceration or stimulation to the skin. Especially, precise temperature changes on skin surface caused by flowing air and water dropping are also measured to validate the accuracy and dynamical response. The results show that the biocompatible temperature sensor is soft and breathable on the human skin and has the excellent accuracy compared to mercury thermometer. This demonstrates the possibility and feasibility of fully using the sensors in long term body temperature sensing for medical use as well as sensing function of artificial skin for robots or prosthesis.

  14. Biologically inspired collision avoidance system for unmanned vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Fernando E.; Graham, Brett; Spagnoli, Kyle; Kelmelis, Eric J.

    2009-05-01

    In this project, we collaborate with researchers in the neuroscience department at the University of Delaware to develop an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based embedded computer, inspired by the brains of small vertebrates (fish). The mechanisms of object detection and avoidance in fish have been extensively studied by our Delaware collaborators. The midbrain optic tectum is a biological multimodal navigation controller capable of processing input from all senses that convey spatial information, including vision, audition, touch, and lateral-line (water current sensing in fish). Unfortunately, computational complexity makes these models too slow for use in real-time applications. These simulations are run offline on state-of-the-art desktop computers, presenting a gap between the application and the target platform: a low-power embedded device. EM Photonics has expertise in developing of high-performance computers based on commodity platforms such as graphic cards (GPUs) and FPGAs. FPGAs offer (1) high computational power, low power consumption and small footprint (in line with typical autonomous vehicle constraints), and (2) the ability to implement massively-parallel computational architectures, which can be leveraged to closely emulate biological systems. Combining UD's brain modeling algorithms and the power of FPGAs, this computer enables autonomous navigation in complex environments, and further types of onboard neural processing in future applications.

  15. Cosmological tests of an axiverse-inspired quintessence field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, Razieh; Grin, Daniel; Pradler, Josef; Raccanelli, Alvise; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2016-06-01

    Inspired by the string axiverse idea, it has been suggested that the recent transition from decelerated to accelerated cosmic expansion is driven by an axion-like quintessence field with a sub-Planckian decay constant. The scenario requires that the axion field be rather near the maximum of its potential but is less finely tuned than other explanations of cosmic acceleration. The model is parametrized by an axion decay constant f , the axion mass m , and an initial misalignment angle |θi| which is close to π . In order to determine the m and θi values consistent with observations, these parameters are mapped onto observables: the Hubble parameter H (z ) at an angular-diameter distance dA(z ) to redshift z =0.57 , as well as the angular sound horizon of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Measurements of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) scale at z ≃0.57 by the BOSS survey and Planck measurements of CMB temperature anisotropies are then used to probe the {m ,f ,θi} parameter space. With current data, CMB constraints are the most powerful, allowing a fraction of only ˜0.2 of the parameter-space volume. Measurements of the BAO scale made using the SPHEREx or SKA experiments could go further, observationally distinguishing all but ˜10-2 or ˜10-5 of the parameter-space volume (allowed by simple priors) from the Λ CDM model.

  16. Bio-inspired color sketch for eco-friendly printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, Ilia V.; Tolstaya, Ekaterina V.; Rychagov, Michael N.; Lee, Hokeun; Kim, Sang Ho; Choi, Donchul

    2012-01-01

    Saving of toner/ink consumption is an important task in modern printing devices. It has a positive ecological and social impact. We propose technique for converting print-job pictures to a recognizable and pleasant color sketches. Drawing a "pencil sketch" from a photo relates to a special area in image processing and computer graphics - non-photorealistic rendering. We describe a new approach for automatic sketch generation which allows to create well-recognizable sketches and to preserve partly colors of the initial picture. Our sketches contain significantly less color dots then initial images and this helps to save toner/ink. Our bio-inspired approach is based on sophisticated edge detection technique for a mask creation and multiplication of source image with increased contrast by this mask. To construct the mask we use DoG edge detection, which is a result of blending of initial image with its blurred copy through the alpha-channel, which is created from Saliency Map according to Pre-attentive Human Vision model. Measurement of percentage of saved toner and user study proves effectiveness of proposed technique for toner saving in eco-friendly printing mode.

  17. Biologically-inspired adaptive obstacle negotiation behavior of hexapod robots

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS) and a late, reflex signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS), both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully transferred to a real hexapod robot, called AMOS II. The results show that the robot can efficiently negotiate obstacles with a height up to 85% of the robot's leg length in simulation and 75% in a real environment. PMID:24523694

  18. A Bio-Inspired Herbal Tea Flavour Assessment Technique

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Nur Zawatil Isqi; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md

    2014-01-01

    Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers' performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied. PMID:25010697

  19. A bio-inspired herbal tea flavour assessment technique.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Nur Zawatil Isqi; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md

    2014-01-01

    Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers' performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied. PMID:25010697

  20. Nanophotonics of Chloroplasts for Bio-Inspired Solar Energy Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourley, Paul L.; Gourley, Cheryl R.

    2011-03-01

    In the search for new energy sources, lessons can be learned from chloroplast photonics. The nano-architecture of chloroplasts is remarkably well-adapted to mediate sunlight interactions for efficient energy conversion. We carried out experiments with chloroplasts isolated from spinach and leaf lettuce to elucidate the relationship between nano-architecture, biomolecular composition and photonic properties. We obtained high-resolution microscopic images of single chloroplasts to identify geometries of chloroplasts and interior grana. We performed micro-spectroscopy to identify strengths of absorption and fluorescence transitions and related them to broadband reflectance and transmittance spectra of whole leaf structures. Finally, the nonlinear optical properties were investigated with nanolaser spectroscopy by placing chloroplasts into micro-resonators and optically pumping. These spectra reveal chloroplast photonic modes and allow measurement of single chloroplast light scattering cross section, polarizability, and refractive index. The nanolaser spectra recorded at increasing pump powers enabled us to observe non-linear optics, photon dynamics, and stimulated emission from single chloroplasts. All of these experiments provide insight into plant photonics and inspiration of paradigms for synthetic biomaterials to harness sunlight in new ways.