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Sample records for light long-term inhibition

  1. Silica Nanopollens Enhance Adhesion for Long-Term Bacterial Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Song, Hao; Ahmad Nor, Yusilawati; Yu, Meihua; Yang, Yannan; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Hongwei; Xu, Chun; Mitter, Neena; Yu, Chengzhong

    2016-05-25

    Nature's creations with spiky topological features typically exhibit intriguing surface adhesive properties. From micrometer-sized pollen grains that can easily stick to hairy insects for pollination to nanoscale virus particles that are highly infectious toward host cells, multivalent interactions are formed taking advantage of rough surfaces. Herein, this nature-inspired concept is employed to develop novel drug delivery nanocarriers for antimicrobial applications. A facile new approach is developed to fabricate silica nanopollens (mesoporous silica nanospheres with rough surfaces), which show enhanced adhesion toward bacteria surfaces compared to their counterparts with smooth surfaces. Lysozyme, a natural antimicrobial enzyme, is loaded into silica nanopollens and shows sustained release behavior, potent antimicrobial activity, and long-term total bacterial inhibition up to 3 days toward Escherichia coli. The potent antibacterial activity of lysozyme-loaded silica nanopollens is further demonstrated ex vivo by using a small-intestine infection model. Our strategy provides a novel pathway in the rational design of nanocarriers for efficient drug delivery. PMID:27139159

  2. Long-term Blue Light Effects on the Histology of Lettuce and Soybean Leaves and Stems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougher, Tracy A. O.; Bugbee, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Blue light (320 to 496 nm) alters hypocotyl and stem elongation and leaf expansion in short-term, cell-level experiments, but histological effects of blue light in long-term studies of whole plants have not been described. We measured cell size and number in stems of soybean (Glycine max L.) and leaves of soybean and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), at two blue light fractions. Short-term studies have shown that cell expansion in stems is rapidly inhibited when etiolated tissue is exposed to blue light. However, under long-term light exposure, an increase in the blue light fraction from less than 0.1% to 26% decreased internode length, specifically by inhibiting soybean cell division in stems. In contrast, an increase in blue light fraction from 6% to 26% reduced soybean leaf area by decreasing cell expansion. Surprisingly, lettuce leaf area increased with increasing blue light fraction (0% to 6%), which was attributed to a 3.1-fold increase in cell expansion and a 1.6-fold increase in cell division.

  3. Long-term removal of unwanted hair using light.

    PubMed

    Zandi, Soodabeh; Lui, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    Laser (or light) hair removal, also referred to as photoepilation, is the most commonly used laser or light-based cosmetic medical procedure. The extended theory of selective photothermolysis is the basic principle for destruction of hair follicles using light. In this type of laser application the chromophore is follicular melanin. Several types of lasers and light sources have been effective for hair reduction, including the ruby, alexandrite, diode, and neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet lasers and broadband, intense pulsed light sources. This article provides a broad overview of how hair can be removed using light, with an emphasis on practical considerations. PMID:23159187

  4. Automatic lighting controls demonstration: Long-term results

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, F. )

    1991-10-18

    An advanced electronically ballasted lighting control system was installed in a portion of an office building to measure the energy and demand savings. The lighting control system used an integrated lighting control scenario that included daylight following, lumen depreciation correction, and scheduling. The system reduced lighting energy on weekdays by 62% and 51% in the north and south daylit zones, respectively, compared to a reference zone that did not have controls. During the summer, over 75% energy savings were achieved on weekdays in the north daylit zone. Even in the south interior zone, which benefitted lime from daylight, correction strategies and adjustment of the aisleway lights to a low level resulted in energy use of only half that of the reference zone. Although, in general, the savings varied over the year due to changing daylight conditions, the energy reduction achieved with controls could be fit using a simple analytical model. Significant savings also occurred during core operating hours when it is more expensive to supply and use energy. Compared to the usage in the reference zone, energy reductions of 49%, 44%, and 62% were measured in the south daylight, south interior, and north daylight zones, respectively, during core operating hours throughout the year. Lighting energy usage on weekends decreased dramatically in the zones with controls, with the usage in the north daylit zone only 10% that of the reference zone. A simple survey developed to assess occupant response to the lighting control system showed that the occupants were satisfied with the light levels provided.

  5. Post-Training Intrahippocampal Inhibition of Class I Histone Deacetylases Enhances Long-Term Object-Location Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, Joshua D.; Florian, Cedrick; Abel, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Long-term memory formation involves covalent modification of the histone proteins that package DNA. Reducing histone acetylation by mutating histone acetyltransferases impairs long-term memory, and enhancing histone acetylation by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs) improves long-term memory. Previous studies using HDAC inhibitors to enhance…

  6. Long-term (6-wk) hindlimb suspension inhibits spermatogenesis in adult male rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tash, Joseph S.; Johnson, Donald C.; Enders, George C.

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station will allow extended habitation in space and long-term exposure to microgravity (microG). A concern is the impact of long-term microG exposure on the ability of species to reproduce. The model often used to simulate microG is rat hindlimb suspension (HLS), where the hindlimbs are elevated above the cage floor with a tail harness. Experiments described here are the first to examine the effect of long-term HLS on testicular function in adult male rats. Free-roaming (controls), animals with only the tail harnessed but hindlimbs in contact with the cage floor (TO), and HLS animals were tested for 6 wk. Cryptorchidism was prevented in TO and HLS animals by partial constriction of the inguinal canal with sutures. All parameters were compared at the end of the 6-wk experiment. Testicular weights and spermatogenesis were significantly reduced by HLS, such that no spermatogenic cells beyond round spermatids were present and epididymides were devoid of mature sperm. In many tubules, loss of all germ cells, except a few spermatogonia, resulting in histopathology similar to the Sertoli cell, was observed. Spermatogenesis appeared unaffected in control and TO animals. Sertoli and Leydig cell appearance, testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and epididymal and seminal vesicle weight were unchanged by HLS. Cortisone was not elevated by HLS; thus stress may not be a factor. These results demonstrate that spermatogenesis is severely inhibited by long-term HLS, whereas testicular androgen production is not. These results have significant implications regarding serious effects of long-term exposure to microG on the reproductive capability of scrotal mammals, including humans.

  7. Ubiquitin-Proteasome System Inhibition Promotes Long-Term Depression and Synaptic Tagging/Capture.

    PubMed

    Li, Qin; Korte, Martin; Sajikumar, Sreedharan

    2016-06-01

    A balance of protein synthesis and degradation is critical for the dynamic regulation and implementation of long-term memory storage. The role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in regulating the plasticity at potentiated synapses is well studied, but its roles in depressed synaptic populations remain elusive. In this study, we probed the possibility of regulating the UPS by inhibiting the proteasome function during the induction of protein synthesis-independent form of hippocampal long-term depression (early-LTD), an important component of synaptic plasticity. Here, we show that protein degradation is involved in early-LTD induction and interfering with this process facilitates early-LTD to late-LTD. We provide evidence here that under the circumstances of proteasome inhibition brain-derived neurotrophic factor is accumulated as plasticity-related protein and it drives the weakly depressed or potentiated synapses to associativity. Thus, UPS inhibition promotes LTD and establishes associativity between weakly depressed or potentiated synapses through the mechanisms of synaptic tagging/capture or cross-capture. PMID:25924950

  8. Forest herb layer response to long-term light deficit along a forest developmental series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plue, J.; Van Gils, B.; De Schrijver, A.; Peppler-Lisbach, C.; Verheyen, K.; Hermy, M.

    2013-11-01

    Temperate deciduous forest communities are slow-changing systems, with herbaceous understorey communities displaying a delayed response to overstorey canopy and light dynamics. While light availability constrains herbaceous understorey diversity and composition in space and time, its response in the long-term absence of light has seldom been quantified, particularly as it is often confounded by covariation in soil conditions. We studied a developmental high-forest series in two widespread NW-European temperate deciduous forest communities with different dominant canopy tree species: Stellario-Carpinetum (Oak-hornbeam canopy) and Milio-Fagetum (Beech canopy). All plots had soil conditions which were not significantly different, enabling investigation into the direct effects of the long-term absence of light on the herbaceous understorey, disentangled from the confounding effects of soil variation. Plant species richness measures declined with canopy cover continuity in the herb layer of the oak-hornbeam stands, whereas richness in the herb layer of the beech stands displayed a unimodal response. Nonetheless, in both plant communities, species richness and closed-forest species richness were negatively affected by the extended absence of light in stands with the longest period of continuous canopy cover. The long-term limitation or decline in quantitative and qualitative light availability as a result of extended periods of canopy cover was shown to be the primary driver behind losses in alpha-diversity, community composition turn-over and individual species dynamics. Heliophilous species were lost from both communities, while closed-forest species also declined, as a direct consequence of the prolonged period without ample light on the forest floor. This study demonstrates how the herb layer is affected by the absence of light on the forest floor mediated by long periods of continuous canopy cover. Despite different temporal responses in herb layer richness and

  9. Application of Geodetic VLBI Data to Obtaining Long-Term Light Curves for Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kijima, Masachika

    2010-01-01

    The long-term light curve is important to research on binary black holes and disk instability in AGNs. The light curves have been drawn mainly using single dish data provided by the University of Michigan Radio Observatory and the Metsahovi Radio Observatory. Hence, thus far, we have to research on limited sources. I attempt to draw light curves using VLBI data for those sources that have not been monitored by any observatories with single dish. I developed software, analyzed all geodetic VLBI data available at the IVS Data Centers, and drew the light curves at 8 GHz. In this report, I show the tentative results for two AGNs. I compared two light curves of 4C39.25, which were drawn based on single dish data and on VLBI data. I confirmed that the two light curves were consistent. Furthermore, I succeeded in drawing the light curve of 0454-234 with VLBI data, which has not been monitored by any observatory with single dish. In this report, I suggest that the geodetic VLBI archive data is useful to obtain the long-term light curves at radio bands for astrophysics.

  10. Inhibition of long-term memory formation by anti-ependymin antisera after active shock-avoidance learning in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Piront, M L; Schmidt, R

    1988-02-23

    Ependymins are acidic glycoprotein constituents of goldfish brain cytoplasm and extracellular fluid which are known to participate in biochemical reactions of long-term memory formation. In earlier experiments, anti-ependymin antisera were found to cause amnesia when injected into goldfish brain ventricles after the acquisition of a vestibulomotoric training task. To investigate whether they also inhibit memory consolidation after other learning events the anti-ependymin antisera were injected after an active shock-avoidance learning paradigm, as follows: goldfish were trained in a shuttle-box to cross a barrier in order to avoid electric shocks (unconditioned stimulus) applied shortly after a light signal (conditioned stimulus). Anti-ependymin antisera blocked retention of the learned avoidance when injected 0.5, 4.5 or 24 h after acquisition of the new behavior. They had no effect, however, when injected 72 h after learning. Apparently, long-term memory was already consolidated at this point. Antisera injected 0.5 or 72 h prior to training, also did not influence learning or memory. Thirteen percent of the goldfish fled the light stimulus spontaneously. These fish therefore did not experience the unconditioned stimulus and thus were unable to learn the task. When they were treated with the anti-ependymin antisera and tested 3 days later, the spontaneous escape reaction was not affected (active control group). The ability of anti-ependymin antisera to inhibit memory consolidation and their efficacy after administration at specific time intervals are very similar for the active shock-avoidance learning and for the vestibulomotoric training. We conclude that ependymins are not task-specific, but serve a general function in biochemical reactions essential for long-term memory formation. PMID:3359256

  11. The Long-term Light Variation of BL Lac Object 1ES 1959+650

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yu-hai; Liu, Fu-qing

    2014-07-01

    According to the data of optical observations of the Tuorla Observatory in Finland, using the power spectrum method, DCF (Discrete Correlation Function) method, and Jurkevich method, respectively, we analyzed the periodicity of the long-term light variation of the BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650, and obtained its light period to be P =1.4±0.3 yr. Assuming that the origin of the periodicity is concerned with the accretion disk, we obtained the region where the instability of this source occurs being R =9.65 Rg, here Rg represents the Schwarzschild radius.

  12. Multitargeting activity of miR-24 inhibits long-term melatonin anticancer effects

    PubMed Central

    Sacconi, Andrea; Goeman, Frauke; Pallocca, Matteo; Pulito, Claudio; Korita, Etleva; Fanciulli, Maurizio; Muti, Paola; Blandino, Giovanni; Strano, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that melatonin exerts tumor suppressor activities by inducing the p38-p53 axis. This occurred within a few hours while no data are available on how melatonin pathway can be sustained on the long term. Here we show that miR-24, which has been demonstrated to target genes involved in the DNA repair process, targets p38, p53, PML and H2AX simultaneously. We show that long-term treatment with melatonin can decrease miR-24 levels post-transcriptionally, which pairs with a long-wave regulation of genes involved in cell proliferation, DNA damage, RNA metabolism and cell shape and transformation. Moreover, we show that melatonin can inhibit cell proliferation and migration, at least in part, by downregulating miR-24. Furthermore, we propose the involvement of hnRNP A1, which is downregulated by melatonin and involved in miRNA processing, in the regulation of miR-24 levels by melatonin. We conclude showing that miR-24 is upregulated in colon, breast and head and neck datasets and its levels negatively correlate with overall survival. PMID:26967561

  13. Long-term effects of chronic light pollution on seasonal functions of European blackbirds (Turdus merula).

    PubMed

    Dominoni, Davide M; Quetting, Michael; Partecke, Jesko

    2013-01-01

    Light pollution is known to affect important biological functions of wild animals, including daily and annual cycles. However, knowledge about long-term effects of chronic exposure to artificial light at night is still very limited. Here we present data on reproductive physiology, molt and locomotor activity during two-year cycles of European blackbirds (Turdus merula) exposed to either dark nights or 0.3 lux at night. As expected, control birds kept under dark nights exhibited two regular testicular and testosterone cycles during the two-year experiment. Control urban birds developed testes faster than their control rural conspecifics. Conversely, while in the first year blackbirds exposed to light at night showed a normal but earlier gonadal cycle compared to control birds, during the second year the reproductive system did not develop at all: both testicular size and testosterone concentration were at baseline levels in all birds. In addition, molt sequence in light-treated birds was more irregular than in control birds in both years. Analysis of locomotor activity showed that birds were still synchronized to the underlying light-dark cycle. We suggest that the lack of reproductive activity and irregular molt progression were possibly the results of i) birds being stuck in a photorefractory state and/or ii) chronic stress. Our data show that chronic low intensities of light at night can dramatically affect the reproductive system. Future studies are needed in order to investigate if and how urban animals avoid such negative impact and to elucidate the physiological mechanisms behind these profound long-term effects of artificial light at night. Finally we call for collaboration between scientists and policy makers to limit the impact of light pollution on animals and ecosystems. PMID:24376865

  14. Light Enhances Survival of Dinoroseobacter shibae during Long-Term Starvation

    PubMed Central

    Soora, Maya; Cypionka, Heribert

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAPs) as being photoheterotrophs require organic substrates for growth and use light as a supplementary energy source under oxic conditions. We hypothesized that AAPs benefit from light particularly under carbon and electron donor limitation. The effect of light was determined in long-term starvation experiments with Dinoroseobacter shibae DFL 12T in both complex marine broth and defined minimal medium with succinate as the sole carbon source. The cells were starved over six months under three conditions: continuous darkness (DD), continuous light (LL), and light/dark cycle (LD, 12 h/12 h, 12 µmol photons m−2 s−1). LD starvation at low light intensity resulted in 10-fold higher total cell and viable counts, and higher bacteriochlorophyll a and polyhydroxyalkanoate contents. This coincided with better physiological fitness as determined by respiration rates, proton translocation and ATP concentrations. In contrast, LD starvation at high light intensity (>22 µmol photons m−2 s−1, LD conditions) resulted in decreasing cell survival rates but increasing carotenoid concentrations, indicating a photo-protective response. Cells grown in complex medium survived longer starvation (more than 20 weeks) than those grown in minimal medium. Our experiments show that D. shibae benefits from the light and dark cycle, particularly during starvation. PMID:24386315

  15. Inhibition of TRPV1 channels enables long-term potentiation in the entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Banke, Tue G

    2016-04-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel is a non-selective cation channel that is mainly found in nociceptive neurons of the peripheral nervous system; however, these channels have also been located within the CNS, including the entorhinal cortex. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of principal entorhinal cortex (EC) layers II/III neurons revealed that evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents were depressed by application of the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (CAP), accompanied by a change in the pair-pulse ratio (PPR). In addition, recordings of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) revealed that inter-event intervals but not amplitude were decreased in wild-type (WT) after application of CAP. This suggests that TRPV1 channels are functional in the entorhinal cortex and are located on inhibitory neurons with their axonal arborization within layers II/III. In order to study TRPV1 channels and their involvement in long-term potentiation (LTP) induction in a more intact circuit, extracellular field potential recordings were performed in EC layers II/III. It was found that activated TRPV1 channels preclude induction of long-term potentiation. In sharp contrast, clear LTP was observed when antagonizing TRPV1 channels or recording from TRPV1 knock-out mice. Thus, these results suggests that signaling through activating inhibitory presynaptic TRPV1 channels represents a novel mechanism by which a shift in feed-forward inhibition of layers II/III cortical principal neurons prompt changes in synaptic strength and thereby contribute to a change of information storage within the brain. PMID:26729265

  16. Midazolam inhibits long-term potentiation through modulation of GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Evans, M S; Viola-McCabe, K E

    1996-03-01

    Benzodiazepine drugs (BZ) are used for anxiety, insomnia, and seizures. They worsen memory, especially in large doses, but the mechanism of this action is uncertain. In micromolar concentrations, benzodiazepines have been shown to reduce long-term potentiation (LTP), which could be a cellular basis for their amnesic action. We have found that the LTP-inhibiting effects of BZ occur in the nanomolar concentrations attained in humans, and that this effect occurs through modulation of GABAA receptor function. We recorded extracellular synaptic input/output (I/O) curves for population spikes (PS) and EPSPs in rat hippocampal slices before and after induction of LTP. LTP increased maximal PS and EPSPs and shifted I/O curves for PS and EPSPs to the left, reflecting increased synaptic responsiveness after LTP. Curves relating EPSPs to PS were also shifted, so that after LTP larger PS were elicited for the same size EPSP (E-S potentiation). Midazolam (0.5 microM) markedly inhibited the left-shift in PS I/O curves due to E-S potentiation but did not significantly affect other parameters. 8-Phenyltheophylline (10 microM), an adenosine receptor antagonist, did not prevent midazolam inhibition of LTP. Bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, caused a dose-dependent antagonism of midazolam's LTP inhibition. Our results suggest that benzodiazepines reduce LTP primarily through reduction of E-S potentiation, and that this effect occurs through modulation of GABAA receptor function. This could in part account for the ability of benzodiazepines to disturb new memory formation. PMID:8783210

  17. Inhibition of pyrite oxidation by surface coating: a long-term field study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chan-Ung; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Park, Seong-Sook; Kang, Jin-Soo; Kim, Kang-Ho; Kim, Dong-Kwan; Choi, Ui-Kyu; Kim, Sun-Joon

    2016-10-01

    Pyrite and other iron sulfides are readily oxidized by dissolved oxygen in aqueous phase, producing acidity and Fe(2+), which causes significant environmental problems. Applications of surface coating agents (Na2SiO3 and KH2PO4) were conducted at Boeun (Chungbuk, South Korea) outcrop site, and their efficiencies to inhibit the oxidation of sulfide minerals were monitored for a long-term period (449 days). The rock sample showed positive Net Acid Production Potential (NAPP = 20.23) and low Net Acid Generation pH (NAGpH = 2.42) values, suggesting that the rock sample was categorized in the potential acid-forming group. For the monitored time period (449 days), field study results showed that the application of Na2SiO3 effectively inhibited the pyrite oxidation as compared to KH2PO4. Na2SiO3 as a surface coating agent maintained pH 5-6 and reduced oxidation of pyrite surface up to 99.95 and 97.70 % indicated by Fe(2+) and SO4 (2-) release, respectively. The scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer analysis indicated that the morphology of rock surface was completely changed attributable to formation of iron silicate coating. The experimental results suggested that the treatment with Na2SiO3 was highly effective and it might be applicable on field for inhibition of iron sulfide oxidation. PMID:26493832

  18. Urethane inhibits genioglossal long-term facilitation in un-paralyzed anesthetized rats

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ying; Ling, Liming

    2010-01-01

    For ~3 decades, urethane has been (partially or solely) used as a successful anesthetic in numerous respiratory long-term facilitation (LTF) studies, which were performed on anesthetized, paralyzed, vagotomized and artificially ventilated animals of several different species. However, things become complicated when LTF of muscle activity is studied in un-paralyzed animals. For example, a commonly used acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) protocol failed to induce muscle LTF in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats. But muscle LTF could be induced when hypoxic episode number was increased and/or anesthetics other than urethane were used. In these studies however, neither anesthetic nor paralysis was mentioned as a potential factor influencing AIH-induced muscle LTF. This study tested whether urethane inhibits AIH-induced genioglossal LTF (gLTF) in un-paralyzed ventilated rats, and if so, determined whether reducing urethane dose reverses this inhibition. Three groups of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized (Group 1: ~1.6 g·kg−1 urethane; Group 2: 50 mg·kg−1 α-chloralose + 0.9–1.2 g·kg−1 urethane; Group 3: 0.9 g·kg−1 urethane + 200–400 µg·kg−1·min−1 alphaxalone), vagotomized and mechanically ventilated. Integrated genioglossus activity was measured before, during and after AIH (5 episodes of 3-min isocapnic 12% O2, separated by 3-min hyperoxic intervals). The AIH-induced gLTF was absent in Group 1 rats (success rate was only ~1/7), but was present in Group 2 (in 10/12 rats) and Group 3 (in 11/11 rats) rats. The genioglossal response to hypoxia was not significantly different among the 3 groups. Collectively, these data suggest that urethane dose-dependently inhibits gLTF in un-paralyzed anesthetized rats. PMID:20433898

  19. High resolution multimode light microscopy of cell migration: long-term imaging and analysis.

    PubMed

    Wöllert, Torsten; Langford, George M

    2009-01-01

    Cell migration is a multi-step process that involves sequential changes in the cytoskeleton, cell-substrate adhesion and components of the extracellular matrix. In multicellular organisms, directional cell migration is important for normal development, wound healing and immune responses and contributes to disease states such as tumor formation and metastasis. Many cells such as fibroblasts migrate as individuals while others, such as keratinocytes, move as groups or sheets of cells.In this chapter, we use human oral keratinocytes (OKF6/TERT-2) to illustrate the complex patterns of cell migration and its regulation. In culture, sheets of keratinocytes migrate and respond to human pathogens such as Candida albicans. The dynamic changes of the cytoskeleton, cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions that change during an infection for example require observation over long periods of time in order to identify the spatio-temporal coordinated regulation of the cytoskeleton and its associated components as well as the signaling pathways that control them.Microscopic techniques for long-term live cell observation and analysis of cell migration require high-resolution imaging systems that maintain perfect focus and optimal growth conditions (temperature, CO(2)) for cells. We describe two multimode digital imaging systems (VEC-DIC and BioStation IM), both with wide-field epifluorescence and transmitted light objectives for long-term time-lapse imaging and motion analysis. PMID:19768422

  20. Long-term storage life of light source modules by temperature cycling accelerated life test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ningning, Sun; Manqing, Tan; Ping, Li; Jian, Jiao; Xiaofeng, Guo; Wentao, Guo

    2014-05-01

    Light source modules are the most crucial and fragile devices that affect the life and reliability of the interferometric fiber optic gyroscope (IFOG). While the light emitting chips were stable in most cases, the module packaging proved to be less satisfactory. In long-term storage or the working environment, the ambient temperature changes constantly and thus the packaging and coupling performance of light source modules are more likely to degrade slowly due to different materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion in the bonding interface. A constant temperature accelerated life test cannot evaluate the impact of temperature variation on the performance of a module package, so the temperature cycling accelerated life test was studied. The main failure mechanism affecting light source modules is package failure due to solder fatigue failure including a fiber coupling shift, loss of cooling efficiency and thermal resistor degradation, so the Norris-Landzberg model was used to model solder fatigue life and determine the activation energy related to solder fatigue failure mechanism. By analyzing the test data, activation energy was determined and then the mean life of light source modules in different storage environments with a continuously changing temperature was simulated, which has provided direct reference data for the storage life prediction of IFOG.

  1. Isolated Primary Blast Inhibits Long-Term Potentiation in Organotypic Hippocampal Slice Cultures.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Edward W; Effgen, Gwen B; Patel, Tapan P; Meaney, David F; Bass, Cameron R Dale; Morrison, Barclay

    2016-04-01

    Over the last 13 years, traumatic brain injury (TBI) has affected over 230,000 U.S. service members through the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, mostly as a result of exposure to blast events. Blast-induced TBI (bTBI) is multi-phasic, with the penetrating and inertia-driven phases having been extensively studied. The effects of primary blast injury, caused by the shockwave interacting with the brain, remain unclear. Earlier in vivo studies in mice and rats have reported mixed results for primary blast effects on behavior and memory. Using a previously developed shock tube and in vitro sample receiver, we investigated the effect of isolated primary blast on the electrophysiological function of rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC). We found that pure primary blast exposure inhibited long-term potentiation (LTP), the electrophysiological correlate of memory, with a threshold between 9 and 39 kPa·ms impulse. This deficit occurred well below a previously identified threshold for cell death (184 kPa·ms), supporting our previously published finding that primary blast can cause changes in brain function in the absence of cell death. Other functional measures such as spontaneous activity, network synchronization, stimulus-response curves, and paired-pulse ratios (PPRs) were less affected by primary blast exposure, as compared with LTP. This is the first study to identify a tissue-level tolerance threshold for electrophysiological changes in neuronal function to isolated primary blast. PMID:26414012

  2. Long-term cortisol treatment inhibits pubertal development in male common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Consten, D; Bogerd, J; Komen, J; Lambert, J G; Goos, H J

    2001-04-01

    The onset and regulation of puberty is determined by functional development of the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis. Stress has been shown to interfere with reproduction and the functioning of the BPG axis. The response to chronic and severe stress may require much energy and force the organism to make adaptive choices. Energy that is normally available for processes like growth, immune response, or reproduction will be channeled into restoration of the disturbed homeostasis. Cortisol plays a key role in the homeostatic adaptation during or after stress. In the present study, immature common carp were fed with cortisol-containing food pellets covering the pubertal period. We showed that cortisol caused an inhibition of pubertal development, by affecting directly or indirectly all components of the BPG axis. The salmon GnRH content of the brain was decreased. Luteinizing hormone- and FSH-encoding mRNA levels in the pituitary and LH plasma levels were diminished by long-term cortisol treatment, as was the testicular androgen secretion. Testicular development, reflected by gonadosomatic index and the first wave of spermatogenesis, was retarded. PMID:11259251

  3. Antidepressants that inhibit both serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake impair long-term potentiation in hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Jennifer D.; Cavender, Hannah M.; Lima, Hope K.; Grover, Lawrence M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Monoamine reuptake inhibitors can stimulate expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and alter long-term potentiation (LTP), a widely used model for the synaptic mechanisms that underlie memory formation. BDNF expression is up-regulated during LTP, and BDNF in turn positively modulates LTP. Previously, we found that treatment with venlafaxine, a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), but not citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) reduced LTP in hippocampal area CA1 without changing hippocampal BDNF protein expression. Objectives We tested the hypothesis that combined serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition is necessary for LTP impairment, and we reexamined the potential role of BNDF by testing for region-specific changes in areas CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus. We also tested whether early events in the LTP signaling pathway were altered to impair LTP. Methods Animals were treated for 21 days with venlafaxine, imipramine, fluoxetine, or maprotiline. In vitro hippocampal slices were used for electrophysiological measurements. Protein expression was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blotting. Results LTP was impaired only following treatment with combined serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (venlafaxine, imipramine) but not with selective serotonin (fluoxetine) or norepinephrine (maprotiline) reuptake inhibitors. BDNF protein expression was not altered by venlafaxine or imipramine treatment, nor were postsynaptic depolarization during LTP inducing stimulation or synaptic membrane NMDA receptor subunit expression affected. Conclusions LTP is impaired by chronic treatment with antidepressant that inhibit both serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake; this impairment results from changes that are downstream of postsynaptic depolarization and calcium-influx. PMID:24781518

  4. Manipulation of long-term dynamics in a colloidal active matter system using speckle light fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pince, Ercag; Velu, Sabareesh K. P.; Callegari, Agnese; Elahi, Parviz; Gigan, Sylvain; Volpe, Giovanni; Volpe, Giorgio

    Particles undergoing a stochastic motion within a disordered medium is a ubiquitous physical and biological phenomena. Examples can be given from organelles performing tasks in the cytoplasm to large animals moving in patchy environment. Here, we use speckle light fields to study the anomalous diffusion in an active matter system consisting of micron-sized silica particles(diameter 5 μm) and motile bacterial cells (E. coli). The speckle light fields are generated by mode mixing inside a multimode optical fiber where a small amount of incident laser power is needed to obtain an effective disordered optical landscape for the purpose of optical manipulation. We experimentally show how complex potentials contribute to the long-term dynamics of the active matter system and observed an enhanced diffusion of particles interacting with the active bacterial bath in the speckle light fields. We showed that this effect can be tuned and controlled by varying the intensity and the statistical properties of the speckle pattern. Potentially, these results could be of interest for many technological applications, such as the manipulation of microparticles inside optically disordered media of biological interest.

  5. Orexin A induces bidirectional modulation of synaptic plasticity: Inhibiting long-term potentiation and preventing depotentiation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guan-Ling; Lee, Chia-Hsu; Chiou, Lih-Chu

    2016-08-01

    The orexin system consists of two peptides, orexin A and B and two receptors, OX1R and OX2R. It is implicated in learning and memory regulation while controversy remains on its role in modulating hippocampal synaptic plasticity in vivo and in vitro. Here, we investigated effects of orexin A on two forms of synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP) and depotentiation of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs), at the Schaffer Collateral-CA1 synapse of mouse hippocampal slices. Orexin A (≧30 nM) attenuated LTP induced by theta burst stimulation (TBS) in a manner antagonized by an OX1R (SB-334867), but not OX2R (EMPA), antagonist. Conversely, at 1 pM, co-application of orexin A prevented the induction of depotentiation induced by low frequency stimulation (LFS), i.e. restoring LTP. This re-potentiation effect of sub-nanomolar orexin A occurred at LFS of 1 Hz, but not 2 Hz, and with LTP induced by either TBS or tetanic stimulation. It was significantly antagonized by SB-334867, EMPA and TCS-1102, selective OX1R, OX2R and dual OXR antagonists, respectively, and prevented by D609, SQ22536 and H89, inhibitors of phospholipase C (PLC), adenylyl cyclase (AC) and protein kinase A (PKA), respectively. LFS-induced depotentiation was antagonized by blockers of NMDA, A1-adenosine and type 1/5 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu1/5) receptors, respectively. However, orexin A (1 pM) did not affect chemical-induced depotentiation by agonists of these receptors. These results suggest that orexin A bidirectionally modulates hippocampal CA1 synaptic plasticity, inhibiting LTP via OX1Rs at moderate concentrations while inducing re-potentiation via OX1Rs and OX2Rs, possibly through PLC and AC-PKA signaling at sub-nanomolar concentrations. PMID:26965217

  6. GABA-Mediated Presynaptic Inhibition Is Required for Precision of Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Patrick K.; Dulka, Brooke N.; Ortiz, Samantha; Riccio, David C.; Jasnow, Aaron M.

    2014-01-01

    Though much attention has been given to the neural structures that underlie the long-term consolidation of contextual memories, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of memory precision. Here, we demonstrate a rapid time-dependent decline in memory precision in GABA [subscript B(1a)] receptor knockout mice. First, we…

  7. Intrahippocampal Glutamine Administration Inhibits mTORC1 Signaling and Impairs Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozas, Natalia S.; Redell, John B.; Pita-Almenar, Juan D.; McKenna, James, III.; Moore, Anthony N.; Gambello, Michael J.; Dash, Pramod K.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1), a key regulator of protein synthesis and cellular growth, is also required for long-term memory formation. Stimulation of mTORC1 signaling is known to be dependent on the availability of energy and growth factors, as well as the presence of amino acids. In vitro studies using serum- and amino…

  8. Historic Light Curve and Long-Term Optical Variation of BL Lacertae 2200+420

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J. H.; Xie, G. Z.; Pecontal, E.; Pecontal, A.; Copin, Y.

    1998-11-01

    In this paper, historical optical (UBVRI) data and newly observed data from the Yunnan Observatory of China (over ~100 yr) are presented for BL Lacertae. Large variations of ΔU = 5.12 mag, ΔB = 5.31 mag, ΔV = 4.73 mag, ΔR = 2.59 mag, and ΔI = 2.54 mag, and color indices of U-B = -0.11 +/- 0.20, B-V = 1.0 +/- 0.11, V-R = 0.73 +/- 0.19, V-I = 1.42 +/- 0.25, R-I = 0.82 +/- 0.11, and B-I = 2.44 +/- 0.29 have been obtained from the literature. The Jurkevich method is used to investigate the existence of periods in the B-band light curve, and a long-term period of 14 yr is found. The 0.6 and 0.88 yr periods reported by Webb et al. are confirmed. In addition, a close relation between B-I and B is found, suggesting that the spectrum flattens when the source brightens.

  9. Rapid decrease in tumor perfusion following VEGF blockade predicts long-term tumor growth inhibition in preclinical tumor models.

    PubMed

    Eichten, Alexandra; Adler, Alexander P; Cooper, Blerta; Griffith, Jennifer; Wei, Yi; Yancopoulos, George D; Lin, Hsin Chieh; Thurston, Gavin

    2013-04-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key upstream mediator of tumor angiogenesis, and blockade of VEGF can inhibit tumor angiogenesis and decrease tumor growth. However, not all tumors respond well to anti-VEGF therapy. Despite much effort, identification of early response biomarkers that correlate with long-term efficacy of anti-VEGF therapy has been difficult. These difficulties arise in part because the functional effects of VEGF inhibition on tumor vessels are still unclear. We therefore assessed rapid molecular, morphologic and functional vascular responses following treatment with aflibercept (also known as VEGF Trap or ziv-aflibercept in the United States) in preclinical tumor models with a range of responses to anti-VEGF therapy, including Colo205 human colorectal carcinoma (highly sensitive), C6 rat glioblastoma (moderately sensitive), and HT1080 human fibrosarcoma (resistant), and correlated these changes to long-term tumor growth inhibition. We found that an overall decrease in tumor vessel perfusion, assessed by dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US), and increases in tumor hypoxia correlated well with long-term tumor growth inhibition, whereas changes in vascular gene expression and microvessel density did not. Our findings support previous clinical studies showing that decreased tumor perfusion after anti-VEGF therapy (measured by DCE-US) correlated with response. Thus, measuring tumor perfusion changes shortly after treatment with VEGF inhibitors, or possibly other anti-angiogenic therapies, may be useful to predict treatment efficacy. PMID:23238831

  10. [Long-Term Inhibition of FNA on Aerobic Phosphate Uptake and Variation of Phosphorus Uptake Properties of the Sludge].

    PubMed

    Ma, Juan; Li, Lu; Yu, Xiao-jun; Sun, Lei-jun; Sun, Hong-wei; Chen, Yong-zhi

    2015-10-01

    An alternating anaerobic/oxic ( An/O) sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was employed to investigate the long-term inhibitory effect of free nitrous acid (FNA) on aerobic phosphorus uptake performance and variation of phosphorus uptake properties of the sludge by adding nitrite. The reactor was started up under the condition of 21-23 degrees C. The results showed that FNA had no impact on phosphate release and uptake capacities of the sludge. However, the specific phosphate release/uptake rates was found to be higher. As FNA concentration (measure by HNO2-N) was lower than 0.53 x 10(-3) mg x L(-1), phosphorus removal efficiency of the system was higher than 96.9%. When the FNA concentration was increased to 0.99 x 10(-3) mg x L(-1), 1.46 x 10(-3) mg x L(-1) and 1.94 x 10(-3) mg x L(-1), the phosphorus removal performance deteriorated rapidly. The phosphorus removal efficiency was recovered to 64.42%, 67.33% and 44.14% after 50, 12 and 30 days, respectively, which implied the deterioration of phosphorus removal performance caused by FNA inhibition could be recovered and long-term acclimation could shorten the recovery process. Notably, increasing nitrite consumption appeared during aerobic phase with the concentration of FNA below 1.46 x 10(-3) mg x L(-1). It was also observed that the phosphorus uptake properties of the sludge varied after long-term inhibition. Nitrate and nitrite type anoxic phosphorus uptake capacity was increased by 3.35 and 3.86 times, respectively, suggesting long-term dosing FNA may facilitate the denitrifying of polyphosphate in organisms utilizing nitrite as electron acceptor. Moreover, long-term acclimation favored sludge settling. PMID:26841613

  11. Intrahippocampal glutamine administration inhibits mTORC1 signaling and impairs long-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Rozas, Natalia S.; Redell, John B.; Pita-Almenar, Juan D.; Mckenna, James; Moore, Anthony N.; Gambello, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1), a key regulator of protein synthesis and cellular growth, is also required for long-term memory formation. Stimulation of mTORC1 signaling is known to be dependent on the availability of energy and growth factors, as well as the presence of amino acids. In vitro studies using serum- and amino acid-starved cells have reported that glutamine addition can either stimulate or repress mTORC1 activity, depending on the particular experimental system that was used. However, these experiments do not directly address the effect of glutamine on mTORC1 activity under physiological conditions in nondeprived cells in vivo. We present experimental results indicating that intrahippocampal administration of glutamine to rats reduces mTORC1 activity. Moreover, post-training administration of glutamine impairs long-term spatial memory formation, while coadministration of glutamine with leucine had no influence on memory. Intracellular recordings in hippocampal slices showed that glutamine did not alter either excitatory or inhibitory synaptic activity, suggesting that the observed memory impairments may not result from conversion of glutamine to either glutamate or GABA. Taken together, these findings indicate that glutamine can decrease mTORC1 activity in the brain and may have implications for treatments of neurological diseases associated with high mTORC1 signaling. PMID:25878136

  12. Long term outcomes of cardiac transplant for immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis: The Mayo Clinic experience

    PubMed Central

    Grogan, Martha; Gertz, Morie; McCurdy, Arleigh; Roeker, Lindsey; Kyle, Robert; Kushwaha, Sudhir; Daly, Richard; Dearani, Joseph; Rodeheffer, Richard; Frantz, Robert; Lacy, Martha; Hayman, Suzanne; McGregor, Christopher; Edwards, Brooks; Dispenzieri, Angela

    2016-01-01

    rejection at a median of 1.8 mo post OHT (range 0.4 to 4.9 mo); only one patient died of rejection. Median survival of seven patients who achieved a complete hematologic response to either chemotherapy or autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was 10.8 years. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that long term survival after heart transplant is feasible in AL patients with limited extra-cardiac involvement who achieve complete hematologic response. PMID:27358783

  13. Research on reduction of long-term distortions and suppression of light intensity fluctuations in a TDLAS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Guo-jie; Wang, Yu; Dong, Feng-zhong; Xia, Hua; Pang, Tao; Zhang, Zhi-rong; Wu, Bian

    2011-11-01

    For any tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) system, its performance is often degraded by long-term distortion and fluctuations of light intensity. The source of long-term distortion and the corresponding proposal are discussed at first in this paper. It is proved that the long-term distortion of the system is mainly induced by the change of wavelength dependent transfer function. A balanced optical path can be used to reduce it effectively. In order to decrease the disturbance of intensity fluctuation, a novel method for online correction is presented. It is developed according to the linear relation between the peaks of harmonic power spectra and the incident light intensity. It is demonstrated by the experiments and explained as residual sum frequency and difference frequency power of signal and reference after the lock-in amplifier. This method could achieve real-time light intensity correction with only little calculation. By using a 17.5m multi-pass cell, the experiments show that the system can achieve about 20ppmv stability for long-term continual monitoring. Allan variance indicates that the detection limit for short-term measurement is between 0.3ppmv and 1.5ppmv depending on the response time allowed by the instrument.

  14. The long-term effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on response inhibition: an fMRI study of young adults.

    PubMed

    Longo, Carmelinda A; Fried, Peter A; Cameron, Ian; Smith, Andra M

    2013-01-01

    The long-term effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on response inhibition were investigated in young adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were members of the Ottawa Prenatal Prospective Study, a longitudinal study that collected a unique body of information on participants from infancy to young adulthood, which allowed for the measurement of an unprecedented number of potentially confounding drug exposure variables including: prenatal marijuana and alcohol exposure and current marijuana, nicotine and alcohol use. Twelve young adults with prenatal nicotine exposure and 13 non-exposed controls performed a Go/No-Go task while fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent responses were examined. Despite similar task performance, participants prenatally exposed to nicotine demonstrated significantly greater activity in several regions of the brain that typically subserve response inhibition including the inferior frontal gyrus, the inferior parietal lobe, the thalamus and the basal ganglia. In addition, prenatally exposed participants showed greater activity in relatively large posterior regions of the cerebellum. These results suggest that prenatal nicotine exposure leads to altered neural functioning during response inhibition that continues into adulthood. This alteration is compensated for by recruitment of greater neural resources within regions of the brain that subserve response inhibition and the recruitment of additional brain regions to successfully perform the task. Response inhibition is an important executive functioning skill and impairments can impede functioning in much of everyday life. Thus, awareness of the continued long-term neural physiological effects of prenatal nicotine exposure is critical. PMID:23743331

  15. Predicting ecosystem carbon balance in a warming Arctic: the importance of long-term thermal acclimation potential and inhibitory effects of light on respiration.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Blair C; Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Rastetter, Edward B; Griffin, Kevin L

    2014-06-01

    The carbon balance of Arctic ecosystems is particularly sensitive to global environmental change. Leaf respiration (R), a temperature-dependent key process in determining the carbon balance, is not well-understood in Arctic plants. The potential for plants to acclimate to warmer conditions could strongly impact future global carbon balance. Two key unanswered questions are (1) whether short-term temperature responses can predict long-term respiratory responses to growth in elevated temperatures and (2) to what extent the constant daylight conditions of the Arctic growing season inhibit leaf respiration. In two dominant Arctic species Eriophorum vaginatum (tussock grass) and Betula nana (woody shrub), we assessed the extent of respiratory inhibition in the light (RL/RD), respiratory response to short-term temperature change, and respiratory acclimation to long-term warming treatments. We found that R of both species is strongly inhibited by light (averaging 35% across all measurement temperatures). In E. vaginatum both RL and RD acclimated to the long-term warming treatment, reducing the magnitude of respiratory response relative to the short-term response to temperature increase. In B. nana, both RL and RD responded to short-term temperature increase but showed no acclimation to the long-term warming. The ability to predict plant respiratory response to global warming with short-term temperature responses will depend on species-specific acclimation potential and the differential response of RL and RD to temperature. With projected woody shrub encroachment in Arctic tundra and continued warming, changing species dominance between these two functional groups, may impact ecosystem respiratory response and carbon balance. PMID:24677488

  16. Short-term and long-term ethanol administration inhibits the placental uptake and transport of valine in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Patwardhan, R.V.; Schenker, S.; Henderson, G.I.; Abou-Mourad, N.N.; Hoyumpa, A.M. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    Ethanol ingestion during pregnancy causes a pattern of fetal/neonatal dysfunction called the FAS. The effects of short- and long-term ethanol ingestion on the placental uptake and maternal-fetal transfer of valine were studied in rats. The in vivo placental uptake and fetal uptake were estimated after injection of 0.04 micromol of /sub 14/C-valine intravenously on day 20 of gestation in Sprague-Dawley rats. Short-term ethanol ingestion (4 gm/kg) caused a significant reduction in the placental uptake of /sub 14/C-valine by 33%, 60%, and 30%, and 31% at 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 min after valine administration, respectively (p less than 0.01), and a similar significant reduction occurred in the fetal uptake of /sub 14/C-valine (p less than 0.01). Long-term ethanol ingestion prior to and throughout gestation resulted in a 47% reduction in placental valine uptake (p less than 0.01) and a 46% reduction in fetal valine uptake (p less than 0.01). Long-term ethanol feeding from day 4 to day 20 of gestation caused a 32% reduction in placental valine uptake (p less than 0.01) and a 26% reduction in fetal valine uptake (p less than 0.01). We conclude that both short- and long-term ingestion of ethanol inhibit the placental uptake and maternal-fetal transfer of an essential amino acid--valine. An alteration of placental function may contribute to the pathogenesis of the FAS.

  17. The Long-term Light Variation of BL Lac Object 1ES 1959+650

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Y. H.; Liu, F. Q.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, the long-term observations of Tuorla Observatory in Finland are collected. The power spectrum, the DCF (Discrete Correlation Function) method, and the Jurkevich method are used to analyze the periodicity. The results show that the periodicity of BL Lac Object 1ES 1959+650 is P=1.4±0.3 yr. Considering that there is a relation between the origin of periodicity and accretion disk, we use this periodicity to obtain the unstable region lying at R=9.65R_{g}}, where R_{g} represents the Schwarzschild radius.

  18. Dual SMAD Signaling Inhibition Enables Long-Term Expansion of Diverse Epithelial Basal Cells.

    PubMed

    Mou, Hongmei; Vinarsky, Vladimir; Tata, Purushothama Rao; Brazauskas, Karissa; Choi, Soon H; Crooke, Adrianne K; Zhang, Bing; Solomon, George M; Turner, Brett; Bihler, Hermann; Harrington, Jan; Lapey, Allen; Channick, Colleen; Keyes, Colleen; Freund, Adam; Artandi, Steven; Mense, Martin; Rowe, Steven; Engelhardt, John F; Hsu, Ya-Chieh; Rajagopal, Jayaraj

    2016-08-01

    Functional modeling of many adult epithelia is limited by the difficulty in maintaining relevant stem cell populations in culture. Here, we show that dual inhibition of SMAD signaling pathways enables robust expansion of primary epithelial basal cell populations. We find that TGFβ/BMP/SMAD pathway signaling is strongly activated in luminal and suprabasal cells of several epithelia, but suppressed in p63+ basal cells. In airway epithelium, SMAD signaling promotes differentiation, and its inhibition leads to stem cell hyperplasia. Using dual SMAD signaling inhibition in a feeder-free culture system, we have been able to expand airway basal stem cells from multiple species. Expanded cells can produce functional airway epithelium physiologically responsive to clinically relevant drugs, such as CFTR modulators. This approach is effective for the clonal expansion of single human cells and for basal cell populations from epithelial tissues from all three germ layers and therefore may be broadly applicable for modeling of epithelia. PMID:27320041

  19. Small interfering RNA targeting m2 gene induces effective and long term inhibition of influenza A virus replication.

    PubMed

    Sui, Hong-Yan; Zhao, Guang-Yu; Huang, Jian-Dong; Jin, Dong-Yan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Zheng, Bo-Jian

    2009-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) provides a powerful new means to inhibit viral infection specifically. However, the selection of siRNA-resistant viruses is a major concern in the use of RNAi as antiviral therapeutics. In this study, we conducted a lentiviral vector with a H1-short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression cassette to deliver small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) into mammalian cells. Using this vector that also expresses enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) as surrogate marker, stable shRNA-expressing cell lines were successfully established and the inhibition efficiencies of rationally designed siRNAs targeting to conserved regions of influenza A virus genome were assessed. The results showed that a siRNA targeting influenza M2 gene (siM2) potently inhibited viral replication. The siM2 was not only effective for H1N1 virus but also for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1. In addition to its M2 inhibition, the siM2 also inhibited NP mRNA accumulation and protein expression. A long term inhibition effect of the siM2 was demonstrated and the emergence of siRNA-resistant mutants in influenza quasispecies was not observed. Taken together, our study suggested that M2 gene might be an optimal RNAi target for antiviral therapy. These findings provide useful information for the development of RNAi-based prophylaxis and therapy for human influenza virus infection. PMID:19479060

  20. Long-Term Exposure to High Altitude Affects Response Inhibition in the Conflict-monitoring Stage

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hailin; Wang, Yan; Wu, Jianhui; Luo, Ping; Han, Buxin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of high-altitude exposure on response inhibition, event-related potential (ERP) components N2 and P3 were measured in Go/NoGo task. The participants included an ‘immigrant’ high-altitude group (who had lived at high altitude for three years but born at low altitude) and a low-altitude group (living in low altitude only). Although the behavioural data showed no significant differences between the two groups, a delayed latency of NoGo-N2 was found in the high-altitude group compared to the low-altitude group. Moreover, larger N2 and smaller P3 amplitudes were found in the high-altitude group compared to the low-altitude group, for both the Go and NoGo conditions. These findings suggest that high-altitude exposure affects response inhibition with regard to processing speed during the conflict monitoring stage. In addition, high altitude generally increases the neural activity in the matching step of information processing and attentional resources. These results may provide some insights into the neurocognitive basis of the effects on high-altitude exposure on response inhibition. PMID:26324166

  1. Long-Term Changes in Light Scattering in Chesapeake Bay Inferred from Secchi Depth, Light Attenuation, and Remote Sensing Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallegos, Charles L.; Werdell, P. Jeremy; McClain, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between the Secchi depth (Z(sub SD)) and the diffuse attenuation coefficient for photosynthetically active radiation (K(sub d)(PAR)), and in particular the product of the two, Z(sub SD) X K(sub d)(PAR), is governed primarily by the ratio of light scattering to absorption. We analyzed measurements of Z(sub SD) and K(sub d)(PAR) at main stem stations in Chesapeake Bay and found that the Z(sub SD) X K(sub d)(PAR) product has declined at rates varying from 0.020 to 0.033 /yr over the 17 to 25 years of measurement, implying that there has been a long -term increase in the scattering-to-absorption ratio. Remote sensing reflectance at the green wavelength most relevant to Z(sub SD) and K(sub d)(PAR) in these waters, R(sub rs)(555), did not exhibit an increasing trend over the 10 years of available measurements. To reconcile the observations we constructed a bio-optical model to calculate Z(sub SD), K(sub d)(PAR), Z(sub SD) X K(sub d)(PAR), and R(sub rs)(555) as a function of light attenuating substances and their mass-specific absorption and scattering coefficients. When simulations were based exclusively on changes in concentrations of light attenuating substances, a declining trend in Z(sub SD) E K(sub d) entailed an increasing trend in R(sub rs)(555), contrary to observations. To simulate both decreasing Z(sub SD) X K(sub d)(PAR) and stationary R(sub rs)(555), it was necessary to allow for a declining trend in the ratio of backscattering to total scattering. Within our simulations, this was accomplished by increasing the relative proportion of organic detritus with high mass-specific scattering and low backscattering ratio. An alternative explanation not explicitly modeled is an increasing tendency for the particulate matter to occur in large aggregates. Data to discriminate between these alternatives are not available.

  2. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-06-15

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25862230

  3. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread

    PubMed Central

    Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25862230

  4. Light exposure induces short- and long-term changes in the excitability of retinorecipient neurons in suprachiasmatic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    LeSauter, Joseph; Cloues, Robin; Witkovsky, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the locus of a hypothalamic circadian clock that synchronizes physiological and behavioral responses to the daily light-dark cycle. The nucleus is composed of functionally and peptidergically diverse populations of cells for which distinct electrochemical properties are largely unstudied. SCN neurons containing gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receive direct retinal input via the retinohypothalamic tract. We targeted GRP neurons with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) marker for whole cell patch-clamping. In these neurons, we studied short (0.5–1.5 h)- and long-term (2–6 h) effects of a 1-h light pulse (LP) given 2 h after lights off [Zeitgeber time (ZT) 14:00–15:00] on membrane potential and spike firing. In brain slices taken from light-exposed animals, cells were depolarized, and spike firing rate increased between ZT 15:30 and 16:30. During a subsequent 4-h period beginning around ZT 17:00, GRP neurons from light-exposed animals were hyperpolarized by ∼15 mV. None of these effects was observed in GRP neurons from animals not exposed to light or in immediately adjacent non-GRP neurons whether or not exposed to light. Depolarization of GRP neurons was associated with a reduction in GABAA-dependent synaptic noise, whereas hyperpolarization was accompanied both by a loss of GABAA drive and suppression of a TTX-resistant leakage current carried primarily by Na. This suggests that, in the SCN, exposure to light may induce a short-term increase in GRP neuron excitability mediated by retinal neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, followed by long-term membrane hyperpolarization resulting from suppression of a leakage current, possibly resulting from genomic signals. PMID:21593396

  5. Automatic lighting controls demonstration: Long-term results. Final report, July 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, F.

    1991-10-18

    An advanced electronically ballasted lighting control system was installed in a portion of an office building to measure the energy and demand savings. The lighting control system used an integrated lighting control scenario that included daylight following, lumen depreciation correction, and scheduling. The system reduced lighting energy on weekdays by 62% and 51% in the north and south daylit zones, respectively, compared to a reference zone that did not have controls. During the summer, over 75% energy savings were achieved on weekdays in the north daylit zone. Even in the south interior zone, which benefitted lime from daylight, correction strategies and adjustment of the aisleway lights to a low level resulted in energy use of only half that of the reference zone. Although, in general, the savings varied over the year due to changing daylight conditions, the energy reduction achieved with controls could be fit using a simple analytical model. Significant savings also occurred during core operating hours when it is more expensive to supply and use energy. Compared to the usage in the reference zone, energy reductions of 49%, 44%, and 62% were measured in the south daylight, south interior, and north daylight zones, respectively, during core operating hours throughout the year. Lighting energy usage on weekends decreased dramatically in the zones with controls, with the usage in the north daylit zone only 10% that of the reference zone. A simple survey developed to assess occupant response to the lighting control system showed that the occupants were satisfied with the light levels provided.

  6. Vesicular zinc promotes presynaptic and inhibits postsynaptic long term potentiation of mossy fiber-CA3 synapse

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Enhui; Zhang, Xiao-an; Huang, Zhen; Krezel, Artur; Zhao, Min; Tin-berg, Christine E.; Lippard, Stephen J.; McNamara, James O.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of zinc in glutamatergic synaptic vesicles of excitatory neurons of mammalian cerebral cortex suggests that zinc might regulate plasticity of synapses formed by these neurons. Long term potentiation (LTP) is a form of synaptic plasticity that may underlie learning and memory. We tested the hypothesis that zinc within vesicles of mossy fibers (mf) contributes to mf-LTP, a classical form of presynaptic LTP. We synthesized an extracellular zinc chelator with selectivity and kinetic properties suitable for study of the large transient of zinc in the synaptic cleft induced by mf stimulation. We found that vesicular zinc is required for presynaptic mf-LTP. Unexpectedly, vesicular zinc also inhibits a novel form of postsynaptic mf-LTP. Because the mf-CA3 synapse provides a major source of excitatory input to the hippocampus, regulating its efficacy by these dual actions of vesicular zinc is critical to proper function of hippocampal circuitry in health and disease. PMID:21943607

  7. Survival of some photoreceptor cells in albino rats following long-term exposure to continuous light.

    PubMed

    La Vail, M M

    1976-01-01

    Fischer albino rats, seven weeks of age, were exposed to continuous light at 65 foot-candle incident illuminance for up to 264 days. Other Fischer rats, seven months of age, were exposed to continuous light at 140 foot-candle incident illuminance for up to 147 days. In all cases, a small percentage of the photoreceptors survived. The identification of the surviving cells as photoreceptors was made by light microscopy on the basis of nuclear heterochromatin pattern and staining and by electron microscopy by the presence of ribbon synapses and ciliary basal bodies with ciliary filaments. No outer segment membranes were observed. The percentage of cones progressively increased from the normal 1.5 per cent to about 60 per cent with increasing exposure time, indicating that cone cells are more resistant than rods to destruction by constant light. PMID:1245384

  8. Light Absorption of Stratospheric Aerosols: Long-Term Trend and Contribution by Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel , R. F.; Gore, Waren J. Y. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of aerosol light-absorption coefficients are useful for studies of radiative transfer and heating rates. Ogren appears to have published the first light- absorption coefficients in the stratosphere in 1981, followed by Clarke in 1983 and Pueschel in 1992. Because most stratospheric soot appears to be due to aircraft operations, application of an aircraft soot aerosol emission index to projected fuel consumption suggests a threefold increase of soot loading and light absorption by 2025. Together, those four data sets indicate an increase in mid-visible light extinction at a rate of 6 % per year. This trend is similar to the increase per year of sulfuric acid aerosol and of commercial fleet size. The proportionality between stepped-up aircraft operations above the tropopause and increases in stratospheric soot and sulfuric acid aerosol implicate aircraft as a source of stratospheric pollution. Because the strongly light-absorbing soot and the predominantly light-scattering sulfuric acid aerosol increase at similar rates, however, the mid-visible stratospheric aerosol single scatter albedo is expected to remain constant and not approach a critical value of 0.98 at which stratospheric cooling could change to warming.

  9. Light intensity-associated eye lesions of Fischer 344 rats in long-term studies.

    PubMed

    Rao, G N

    1991-01-01

    Albino rats and mice are sensitive to light and the recommended illumination of animal rooms (75-125 ft-candles) is known to cause retinal damage. When a room is illuminated by ceiling lights, animals in the cages of the top row and, to some extent, in the side columns of cage racks will be exposed to higher light intensity than those in the other cages of the rack. In 2-yr chemical carcinogenicity studies of the National Toxicology Program (previously the Carcinogenicity Bioassay Program of the National Cancer Institute), Fischer 344 rats were group-housed in hanging drawer-type clear polycarbonate cages. During the course of the chronic studies, a number of rats developed opacity of the eye. Ocular examination indicated chronic uveitis, deep interstitial keratitis, cataract formation leading to panophthalmitis, and in severe cases, phthisis bulbi. Histologic examination showed cataract and retinal degeneration. Incidences of these lesions were highest (greater than 55%) in the rats of the top rows and lowest in those of the bottom rows (less than 10%) of cages with no relation to chemical treatment, indicating an association with light intensity. The incidence of these eye lesions was markedly decreased (less than 15%) by decreasing the light intensity of the animal room to less than 50 ft-candles at 5 ft from the floor and rotating the cages in each column of a rack from top to bottom when cages or racks were changed. PMID:1663269

  10. Long term outcome and quality of life after open incisional hernia repair - light versus heavy weight meshes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mesh repair of incisional hernia is superior to the conventional technique. From all available materials for open surgery polypropylene (PP) is the most widely used. Development resulted in meshes with larger pore size, decreased mesh surface and lower weight. The aim of this retrospective non randomized study was to compare the quality of life in the long term follow up (> 72 month) after incisional hernia repair with "light weight"(LW) and "heavy weight"(HW) PP meshes. Methods 12 patients who underwent midline open incisional hernia repair with a HW-PP mesh (Prolene® 109 g/m2 pore size 1.6 mm) between January 1996 and December 1997 were compared with 12 consecutive patients who underwent the same procedure with a LW-PP mesh (Vypro® 54 g/m2, pore size 4-5 mm) from January 1998. The standard technique was the sublay mesh-plasty with the retromuscular positioning of the mesh. The two groups were equal in BMI, age, gender and hernia size. Patients were routinely seen back in the clinic. Results In the long term run (mean follow up 112 ± 22 months) patients of the HW mesh group revealed no significant difference in the SF-36 Health Survey domains compared to the LW group (mean follow up 75 ± 16 months). Conclusions In this study the health related quality of life based on the SF 36 survey after open incisional hernia repair with light or heavy weight meshes is not related to the mesh type in the long term follow up. PMID:21917180

  11. Long-Term Reduction in Infrared Autofluorescence Caused by Infrared Light Below the Maximum Permissible Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Masella, Benjamin D.; Williams, David R.; Fischer, William S.; Rossi, Ethan A.; Hunter, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Many retinal imaging instruments use infrared wavelengths to reduce the risk of light damage. However, we have discovered that exposure to infrared illumination causes a long-lasting reduction in infrared autofluorescence (IRAF). We have characterized the dependence of this effect on radiant exposure and investigated its origin. Methods. A scanning laser ophthalmoscope was used to obtain IRAF images from two macaques before and after exposure to 790-nm light (15-450 J/cm2). Exposures were performed with either raster-scanning or uniform illumination. Infrared autofluorescence images also were obtained in two humans exposed to 790-nm light in a separate study. Humans were assessed with direct ophthalmoscopy, Goldmann visual fields, multifocal ERG, and photopic microperimetry to determine whether these measures revealed any effects in the exposed locations. Results. A significant decrease in IRAF after exposure to infrared light was seen in both monkeys and humans. In monkeys, the magnitude of this reduction increased with retinal radiant exposure. Partial recovery was seen at 1 month, with full recovery within 21 months. Consistent with a photochemical origin, IRAF decreases caused by either raster-scanning or uniform illumination were not significantly different. We were unable to detect any effect of the light exposure with any measure other than IRAF imaging. We cannot exclude the possibility that changes could be detected with more sensitive tests or longer follow-up. Conclusions. This long-lasting effect of infrared illumination in both humans and monkeys occurs at exposure levels four to five times below current safety limits. The photochemical basis for this phenomenon remains unknown. PMID:24845640

  12. Individual rain events decrease long-term boreal peatland net CO2 uptake through reduced light availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijp, Jelmer; Limpens, Juul; Metselaar, Klaas; Peichl, Matthias; Nilsson, Mats B.; van der Zee, Sjoerd; Berendse, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Northern peatlands sequester enormous quantities of carbon, suggesting these wetland ecosystems are of fundamental importance for the global carbon cycle. The long-term carbon storage of these wetland ecosystems depends on wet surface conditions, and is prone to drought. Future climate predictions indicate that most of the northern hemisphere is projected to become wetter, but that precipitation will fall in less frequent but more intense events. How such fine-scale climatic changes will affect long-term future net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of northern peatlands remains unknown. In this study we explored the short-term peatland NEE response to day time rain events during the growing season, how timing and characteristics of individual events and environmental conditions modify this response, and the impact of NEE responses to individual rain events for the longer-term (annual) carbon uptake. We used an 11-year time series of half-hourly eddy covariance and meteorological measurements from Degerö Stormyr, a peatland in northern Sweden. Our study shows daytime precipitation events systematically decreased the sink strength for atmospheric CO2. An individual daytime precipitation event reduced net ecosystem CO2 uptake by 0.23-0.54 gC m-2 on average. This reduction was best explained by the reduction in light associated with precipitation events, rather than by precipitation characteristics, timing of events, or drought length. On an annual basis, this reduction of net CO2 uptake corresponds to 24% of the annual net CO2 uptake (NEE) of the study site, equivalent to a 4.4% reduction of gross primary production (GPP) during the growing season. We conclude that accounting for the short-term response of NEE to individual rain events is crucial in determining climate change impacts on long-term sink strength of peatlands to atmospheric CO2. Moreover, reduced light availability associated with rain events is more important in explaining the NEE response to rain events than

  13. In vitro Protease Inhibition and Cytotoxicity of Aspergillus fumigatus Biomolecules Secreted under Long-Term Aerated Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Arsic Arsenijevic, Valentina S.; Pekmezovic, Marina G.; Rajkovic, Katarina M.; Vekic, Berislav P.; Barac, Aleksandra M.; Tasic-Otasevic, Suzana; Petkovic, Ljubica Dj.

    2014-01-01

    The fatality rate of invasive aspergillosis (IA) is still very high, especially in prolonged and untreated pulmonary cases. Aspergillus fumigatus is the main causative agent of IA and investigation of its metabolites could provide valuable insight into virulence factor(s) associated with this organism. We evaluated the A. fumigatus culture filtrate (CF) products generated during short- and long-term aerated and non-aerated conditions and tested for (i) inhibition of cysteine or serine proteases and (ii) cytotoxicity. In addition, the mathematical model was determined using response surface methodology (RSM) to estimate the influence of different fermentation conditions on A. fumigatus CF characteristics, predict enzyme inhibition and make possible correlations with in vivo conditions. Biosynthesis of A. fumigatus low molecular weight proteinaceous products (from 6.4 to 15.4 kDa) was observed after 6 days of growth under aerated and alkaline conditions. Also, only these CFs showed significant reduction in cell lines survival (Caco-2 and WISH 35.6% and 54.6%, respectively). Obtained results provide solid starting point for further studies that would include: (i) detailed chemical characterization of A. fumigatus CF, (ii) activity relationships and in vivo correlation with pathogenicity of prolonged pulmonary IA and (iii) possible use of biomolecules as diagnostic or therapeutic markers. PMID:25170296

  14. Characterizing quasar ionization echoes - towards long-term AGN light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirmer, Mischa; Davies, Rebecca; Keel, William; Turner, James; Nagao, Tohru; Fu, Hai; Levenson, Nancy; Diaz, Ruben

    2014-08-01

    Green Bean galaxies (GBs) are rare type-2 quasars featuring ultra-luminous emission line regions extending over 20-40 kpc. Due to different light travel times from the AGN into the ionized gas, the latter retains a memory of the AGN's X-ray luminosity over the past several 10,000 years. Evidence from X-ray, optical and mid-IR data shows that the nuclear energy output in GBs must have dropped recently by several orders of magnitude. We are witnessing the final stages in the lives of the most luminous type-2 quasars. The ionization echoes allow us to study SMBH growth, massive outflows, and the co-evolution of the host galaxies from a new perspective. Using GMOS-N/S, we want to complete our imaging survey of all 17 known GBs, obtain a shallow IFU survey, and study one particularly exciting galaxy in greater depth. For the latter, we want to demonstrate that individual AGN light curves, extending over several 10,000 years, can be reconstructed from GBs. Hence this study is complementary to classical monitoring and reverberation mapping.

  15. Quasi-Periodic Long-Term Quadrature Light Variability in Early Type Interacting Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geraldine Joan

    2015-08-01

    Four years of Kepler observations have revealed a class of Algol-type binaries in which the relative brightness of the quadrature light varies from > 1 to <1 on a time scale of about 100-400 days. The behavior pattern is quasi-periodic. We call these systems L/T (leading hemisphere/ trailing hemisphere) variables. Although L/T inequality in eclipsing binaries has been noted from ground-based photometry by several observers since the early 1950s, the regular or quasi-regular switching between maxima is new. Twenty L/T systems have so far been found in the Kepler database and at least three classes of L/T behavior have been identified. In this presentation I will give an update on the L/T phenomenon gleaned from the Kepler and K2 databases. The Kepler and K2 light curves are being analyzed with the 2015 version of the Wilson-Devinney (WD) program that includes major improvements in modeling star spots (i.e. spot motions due to drift and stellar rotation and spot growth and decay). The prototype L/T variable is WX Draconis (A8V + K0IV, P=1.80 d) which shows L/ T light variations of 2-3%. The primary is a delta Scuti star with a dominant pulsation period of 41 m. Preliminary analysis of the WX Dra data suggests that the L/T variability can be fit with either an accretion hot spot on the primary (T = 2.3 Tphot) that jumps in longitude or a magnetic cool spotted region on the secondary. If the latter model is correct the dark region must occupy at least 20% of the surface of the facing hemisphere of the secondary if it is completely black, or a larger area if not completely black. In both hot and cool spot scenarios magnetic fields must play a role in the activity. Support from NASA grants NNX11AC78G and NNX12AE44G and USC’s Women in Science and Engineering (WiSE) program is greatly appreciated.

  16. The long-term light curve of the cataclysmic variable V794 Aquilae

    SciTech Connect

    Honeycutt, R. K.; Kafka, S.; Robertson, J. W. E-mail: skafka@aip.org

    2014-01-01

    The 1990-2012 light curve of the nova-like (NL) cataclysmic variable V794 Aql is studied in order to characterize and better understand the transitions to and from the faint state, and the variations within the bright state. Investigations of earlier portions of this data had concluded that the transitions to the low state were much slower than the rapid recovery, giving a sawtoothed appearance to the light curve. This behavior differs from that of most other VY Scl stars, which led to an interpretation of the large amplitude sawtooths as being due to an accretion disk (AD) instability. However, more recent photometry strongly suggests that the bright state itself has transitions of 1-1.5 mag, and that earlier studies had intermixed these bright state variations with the transitions to the low state. These newly recognized variations within the bright state sometimes appear as small outbursts (OBs) with typical amplitudes of 0.5-1.5 mag and spacings of ∼15-50 days. The rise times of the OBs are 2-3 times faster than the decline times. We argue that the V794 Aql bright state variations are due to AD behavior similar to that seen in dwarf novae, but with varying degrees of stability. Similar regular small OBs have also been reported in other NL CVs, which we compare with V794 Aql. The true deep low states in V794 Aql appear to be normal, having transition speeds and shapes very similar to the transitions in other VY Scl stars.

  17. The Long-term Light Curves of X-ray Binaries Contain Simultaneous Periodic and Random Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor); Boyd, Patricia T.; Smale, Alan P.

    2002-01-01

    LMC X-3 and Cyg X-2 show large amplitude X-ray fluctuations that have been attributed to a warped accretion disk. Cyg X-3 displays high amplitude, apparently non-periodic oscillations. We reanalyze these systems using RXTE ASM data and time-frequency decomposition techniques. We find that the long-term variations in Cyg X-2 can be completely characterized by excursions whose durations are integer multiples of the orbital period, including one essentially identical to the reported "period" of 78 days. Cyg X-3 can be characterized in terms of integer multiples of a 71-day fundamental period unrelated to the 4.8 day orbital period, but suggestively close to the approximately equal to greater than 60 day reported precession period of the relativistic jet inferred from recent radio observations. The long-term excursions of LMC X-3 are related to each other by rational fractions, suggesting the characteristic time scale is 10.594 days, shorter than any observed excursion to date. We explore the phase space evolution of the light curves using a natural embedding and find that all three systems possess two rotation centers that organize the phase space trajectories, one of low luminosity and the other of high luminosity. The implications of this repeatable behavior on generic models of accretion disk dynamics and mass transfer variability are explored.

  18. Antigen targeting to dendritic cells combined with transient regulatory T cell inhibition results in long-term tumor regression

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Wendy WJ; Mayer, Christian T; Engels, Steef; Hesse, Christina; Perdicchio, Maurizio; Puttur, Franz; Streng-Ouwehand, Ingeborg; Litjens, Manja; Kalay, Hakan; Berod, Luciana; Sparwasser, Tim; van Kooyk, Yvette

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccinations against cancer are still largely ineffective. Major caveats are inefficient delivery of tumor antigens to dendritic cells (DCs) and excessive immune suppression by Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), resulting in defective T cell priming and failure to induce tumor regression. To circumvent these problems we evaluated a novel combinatorial therapeutic strategy. We show that tumor antigen targeting to DC-SIGN in humanized hSIGN mice via glycans or specific antibodies induces superior T cell priming. Next, this targeted therapy was combined with transient Foxp3+ Treg depletion employing hSIGNxDEREG mice. While Treg depletion alone slightly delayed B16-OVA melanoma growth, only the combination therapy instigated long-term tumor regression in a substantial fraction of mice. This novel strategy resulted in optimal generation of antigen-specific activated CD8+ T cells which accumulated in regressing tumors. Notably, Treg depletion also allowed the local appearance of effector T cells specific for endogenous B16 antigens. This indicates that antitumor immune responses can be broadened by therapies aimed at controlling Tregs in tumor environments. Thus, transient inhibition of Treg-mediated immune suppression potentiates DC targeted antigen vaccination and tumor-specific immunity. PMID:26405564

  19. Long-term moderate calorie restriction inhibits inflammation without impairing cell-mediated immunity: a randomized controlled trial in non obese humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calorie restriction (CR) inhibits inflammation and slows aging in many animal species, but in rodents housed in pathogen-free facilities, CR impairs immunity against certain pathogens. However, little is known about the effects of long-term moderate CR on immune function in humans. In this multi-cen...

  20. Effect of photosynthetic light dosage on carbon isotope composition in the coral skeleton: Long-term culture of Porites spp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omata, Tamano; Suzuki, Atsushi; Sato, Takanori; Minoshima, Kayo; Nomaru, Eriko; Murakami, Akio; Murayama, Shohei; Kawahata, Hodaka; Maruyama, Tadashi

    2008-06-01

    Whereas the oxygen isotope ratio of the coral skeleton is used for reconstruction of past information on seawater, the carbon isotope ratio is considered a proxy for physiological processes, principally photosynthesis and respiration. However, the fractionation of carbon isotopes in biogenic carbonate such as coral skeleton is still unclear. We conducted a long-term culture experiment of Porites spp. corals at different light dosages (light intensity, 100, 300, or 500 μmol m-2 s-1; daily light period, 10 or 12 h) at 25 ± 0.6°C to examine the contribution of photosynthetic activity to skeletal carbon isotope composition. Corals were grown in sand-filtered seawater and not fed; thus, they subsisted from photosynthesis of symbiotic algae. As the daily dose of photosynthetically active radiation increased, the rate of annual extension also increased. Mean isotope compositions shifted; the carbon isotope compositions (δ13C) became heavier and the oxygen isotope compositions (δ18O) became lighter at higher radiation dose. Skeletal δ18O decrease coincided with increasing skeletal growth rate, indicating the influence of so-called kinetic isotope effects. The observed δ13C increase should be subject to both kinetic and metabolic isotope effects, with the latter reflecting skeletal δ13C enrichment due to photosynthesis by symbiotic algae. Using a vector approach in the δ13C-δ18O plane, we discriminated between kinetic and metabolic isotope effects on δ13C. The calculated δ13C changes from metabolic isotope effects were light dose dependent. The δ13C fractionation curve related to metabolic isotope effects is very similar to the photosynthesis-irradiance curve, indicating the direct contribution of photosynthetic activity to metabolic isotope effects. In contrast, δ13C fractionation related to kinetic isotope effects gradually increased as the growth rate increased. Our experiment demonstrated that the kinetic and metabolic isotope effects in coral skeleton

  1. Dynamic Aims: The Use of Long-Term Projects in Early Childhood Classrooms in Light of Dewey's Educational Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Michael; Whaley, Kimberlee

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the use of the long-term project as an educational tool in early childhood classrooms. In particular, it focuses on the way in which long-term projects can reflect John Dewey's notion of the "dynamic aim" as a primary force in education. In "Democracy and Education," Dewey suggests that when teaching is dominated by specific…

  2. Reduced flight-to-light behaviour of moth populations exposed to long-term urban light pollution.

    PubMed

    Altermatt, Florian; Ebert, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    The globally increasing light pollution is a well-recognized threat to ecosystems, with negative effects on human, animal and plant wellbeing. The most well-known and widely documented consequence of light pollution is the generally fatal attraction of nocturnal insects to artificial light sources. However, the evolutionary consequences are unknown. Here we report that moth populations from urban areas with high, globally relevant levels of light pollution over several decades show a significantly reduced flight-to-light behaviour compared with populations of the same species from pristine dark-sky habitats. Using a common garden setting, we reared moths from 10 different populations from early-instar larvae and experimentally compared their flight-to-light behaviour under standardized conditions. Moths from urban populations had a significant reduction in the flight-to-light behaviour compared with pristine populations. The reduced attraction to light sources of 'city moths' may directly increase these individuals' survival and reproduction. We anticipate that it comes with a reduced mobility, which negatively affects foraging as well as colonization ability. As nocturnal insects are of eminent significance as pollinators and the primary food source of many vertebrates, an evolutionary change of the flight-to-light behaviour thereby potentially cascades across species interaction networks. PMID:27072407

  3. Adenosine 2A Receptor Inhibition Enhances Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Diaphragm but Not Intercostal Long-Term Facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Navarrete-Opazo, Angela A.; Vinit, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) elicits diaphragm (Dia) and second external intercostal (T2 EIC) long-term facilitation (LTF) in normal unanesthetized rats. Although AIH-induced phrenic LTF is serotonin dependent, adenosine constrained in anesthetized rats, this has not been tested in unanesthetized animals. Cervical (C2) spinal hemisection (C2HS) abolishes phrenic LTF because of loss of serotonergic inputs 2 weeks post-injury, but LTF returns 8 weeks post-injury. We tested three hypotheses in unanesthetized rats: (1) systemic adenosine 2aA (A2A) receptor inhibition with intraperitoneal (IP) KW6002 enhances Dia and T2 EIC LTF in normal rats; (2) Dia and T2 EIC LTF are expressed after chronic (8 weeks), but not acute (1 week) C2HS; and (3) KW6002 enhances Dia and T2 EIC LTF after chronic (not acute) C2HS. Electromyography radiotelemetry was used to record Dia and T2 EIC activity during normoxia (21% O2), before and after AIH (10, 5-min 10.5% O2, 5-min intervals). In normal rats, KW6002 enhanced DiaLTF versus AIH alone (33.1±4.6% vs. 22.1±6.4% baseline, respectively; p<0.001), but had no effect on T2 EIC LTF (p>0.05). Although Dia and T2 EIC LTF were not observed 2 weeks post-C2HS, LTF was observed in contralateral (uninjured) Dia and T2 EIC 8 weeks post-C2HS (18.7±2.7% and 34.9±4.9% baseline, respectively; p<0.05), with variable ipsilateral expression. KW6002 had no significant effects on contralateral Dia (p=0.447) or T2 EIC LTF (p=0.796). We conclude that moderate AIH induces Dia and T2 EIC LTF after chronic, but not acute cervical spinal injuries. A single A2A receptor antagonist dose enhances AIH-induced Dia LTF in normal rats, but this effect is not significant in chronic (8 weeks) C2HS unanesthetized rats. PMID:25003645

  4. Oxaliplatin Plus Dual Inhibition of Thymidilate Synthase During Preoperative Pelvic Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Carcinoma: Long-Term Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Avallone, Antonio; Delrio, Paolo; Pecori, Biagio; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Petrillo, Antonella; Scott, Nigel; Marone, Pietro; Aloi, Luigi; Sandomenico, Claudia; Lastoria, Secondo; Iaffaioli, Vincenzo Rosario; Scala, Dario; Iodice, Giovanni; Budillon, Alfredo; Comella, Pasquale

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the safety and efficacy of oxaliplatin (OXA) plus dual inhibition of thymidilate synthase during preoperative pelvic radiotherapy (RT) in patients with poor prognosis for rectal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Sixty-three patients with the following characteristics, a clinical (c) stage T4, cN1-2, or cT3N0 of {<=}5 cm from the anal verge and/or with a circumferential resection margin (CRM) of {<=}5 mm (by magnetic resonance imaging), received three biweekly courses of chemotherapy with OXA, 100 mg/m{sup 2}; raltitrexed (RTX), 2.5 mg/m{sup 2} on day 1, and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), 900 mg/m{sup 2} (31 patients) or 800 mg/m{sup 2} (32 patients); levo-folinic acid (LFA), 250 mg/m{sup 2} on day 2, during pelvic RT (45 Gy). Pathologic response was defined as complete pathological response (ypCR), major (tumor regression grade(TRG) 2 to 3, with ypCRM-ve and ypN-ve) or minor or no response (TRG4 to -5, or ypCRM+ve, or ypN+ve). Adjuvant 5-FU/LFA regimen was given in cases of cT4, ypN+ve, or ypCRM+ve. Results: Overall, neutropenia (40%) and diarrhea (13%) were the most common grade {>=}3 toxicities, and tolerability was better with a 5-FU dose reduction. No significant difference in pathologic response was seen according 5-FU dosage: overall, a ypCR was obtained in 24 (39%) patients, and a major response in 20 (32%) patients. The 5-year probability of freedom from recurrence was 80% (95% confidence interval, 68%-92%); it was 56% for the minor/no response group, while it was around 90% for both the ypCR and the major response group. Conclusions: OXA, RTX, and 5-FU/LFA administered during pelvic RT produced promising early and long-term results in rectal carcinoma patients with poor prognosis. The postoperative treatment strategy applied in our study supports the risk-adapted approach in postoperative management.

  5. HDAC Inhibition Modulates Hippocampus-Dependent Long-Term Memory for Object Location in a CBP-Dependent Manner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haettig, Jakob; Stefanko, Daniel P.; Multani, Monica L.; Figueroa, Dario X.; McQuown, Susan C.; Wood, Marcelo A.

    2011-01-01

    Transcription of genes required for long-term memory not only involves transcription factors, but also enzymatic protein complexes that modify chromatin structure. Chromatin-modifying enzymes, such as the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) CREB (cyclic-AMP response element binding) binding protein (CBP), are pivotal for the transcriptional regulation…

  6. Proteasome Inhibition Enhances the Induction and Impairs the Maintenance of Late-Phase Long-Term Potentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Chenghai; Upadhya, Sudarshan C.; Ding, Lan; Smith, Thuy K.; Hegde, Ashok N.

    2008-01-01

    Protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays important roles in synaptic plasticity, but the molecular mechanisms by which proteolysis regulates synaptic strength are not well understood. We investigated the role of the proteasome in hippocampal late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP), a model for enduring synaptic plasticity.…

  7. Cadmium-induced inhibition of photosynthesis and long-term acclimation to cadmium stress in the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens.

    PubMed

    Küpper, Hendrik; Parameswaran, Aravind; Leitenmaier, Barbara; Trtílek, Martin; Setlík, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    Acclimation of hyperaccumulators to heavy metal-induced stress is crucial for phytoremediation and was investigated using the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens and the nonaccumulators T. fendleri and T. ochroleucum. Spatially and spectrally resolved kinetics of in vivo absorbance and fluorescence were measured with a novel fluorescence kinetic microscope. At the beginning of growth on cadmium (Cd), all species suffered from toxicity, but T. caerulescens subsequently recovered completely. During stress, a few mesophyll cells in T. caerulescens became more inhibited and accumulated more Cd than the majority; this heterogeneity disappeared during acclimation. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters related to photochemistry were more strongly affected by Cd stress than nonphotochemical parameters, and only photochemistry showed acclimation. Cd acclimation in T. caerulescens shows that part of its Cd tolerance is inducible and involves transient physiological heterogeneity as an emergency defence mechanism. Differential effects of Cd stress on photochemical vs nonphotochemical parameters indicate that Cd inhibits the photosynthetic light reactions more than the Calvin-Benson cycle. Differential spectral distribution of Cd effects on photochemical vs nonphotochemical quenching shows that Cd inhibits at least two different targets in/around photosystem II (PSII). Spectrally homogeneous maximal PSII efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) suggests that in healthy T. caerulescens all chlorophylls fluorescing at room temperature are PSII-associated. PMID:17688582

  8. DOE-NE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program and EPRI Long-Term Operations Program. Joint Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Don

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear power has contributed almost 20% of the total amount of electricity generated in the United States over the past two decades. High capacity factors and low operating costs make nuclear power plants (NPPs) some of the most economical power generators available. Further, nuclear power remains the single largest contributor (nearly 70%) of non-greenhouse gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Even when major refurbishments are performed to extend operating life, these plants continue to represent cost-effective, low-carbon assets to the nation’s electrical generation capability. By the end of 2014, about one-third of the existing domestic fleet will have passed their 40th anniversary of power operations, and about one-half of the fleet will reach the same 40-year mark within this decade. Recognizing the challenges associated with pursuing extended service life of commercial nuclear power plants, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have established separate but complementary research and development programs (DOE-NE’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability [LWRS] Program and EPRI’s Long-Term Operations [LTO] Program) to address these challenges. To ensure that a proper linkage is maintained between the programs, DOE-NE and EPRI executed a memorandum of understanding in late 2010 to “establish guiding principles under which research activities (between LWRS and LTO) could be coordinated to the benefit of both parties.” This document represents the third annual revision to the initial version (March 2011) of the plan as called for in the memorandum of understanding.

  9. Chronic constant light-induced hippocampal late-phase long-term potentiation impairment in vitro is attenuated by antagonist of D1/D5 receptors.

    PubMed

    Chai, An-Ping; Ma, Wen-Pei; Wang, Li-Ping; Cao, Jun; Xu, Lin; Yang, Yue-Xiong; Mao, Rong-Rong

    2015-10-01

    Previous study reported that chronic constant light exposure caused hippocampus-dependent long-term memory deficit. However, the underlying cellular mechanism of this impairment is still unclear. Multiple lines of evidence indicated that long-term potentiation (LTP) is a cellular model for memory formation. Here we found that, by recording of field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) in vitro, chronic constant light (CCL, 3 weeks) exposure impaired the late long-term potentiation (L-LTP), but not early long-term potentiation (E-LTP) and basal transmission in Schaffer collateral (SC)-CA1 synapses of hippocampal slices from rats. Because L-LTP depends on D1/D5 receptors, we examined whether interference of D1/D5 receptors can modulate L-LTP of CCL rats. Bath application of D1/D5 receptors antagonist SCH23390 (1μM) blocked L-LTP in control rats and attenuated the impaired L-LTP in CCL rats. In contrast, pre-incubation of D1/D5 receptors agonist SKF38393 (25μM) occluded further L-LTP in control rats while exacerbated the L-LTP impairment in CCL rats. These results suggested that CCL-induced L-LTP impairment can be modulated by D1/D5 receptors. Our findings may contribute to the further understanding of synaptic plasticity mechanism underlying hippocampal long-term memory impairment induced by circadian rhythm disruption. PMID:26115584

  10. Long-Term Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Long-Term Care What Is Long-Term Care? Long-term care involves a variety of services ... the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) Most Care Provided at Home Long-term care is provided ...

  11. Coprecipitated arsenate inhibits thermal transformation of 2-line ferrihydrite: implications for long-term stability of ferrihydrite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaohui; Xiao, Dongxue; Bush, Richard T; Liu, Jianshe

    2015-03-01

    2-line ferrihydrite, a ubiquitous iron oxy-hydroxide found in natural and engineered systems, is an efficient sink for the toxic metalloids such as arsenic. While much is known of the excellent capacity of ferrihydrite to coprecipitate arsenate, there is little information concerning the long-term stability of arsenate-accumulated ferrihydrite. By thermal treatment methodology, the expedited transformation of ferrihydrite in the presence of coprecipitated arsenate was studied at varying As/Fe ratios (0-0.5) and different heating temperature (40, 300, 450, 600°C). Pure and transformed minerals were characterized by thermogravimetry (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Arsenate was found to retard the thermal transformation of ferrihydrite. The extents of ferrihydrite transformation to hematite decreased with increasing As/Fe ratios, but increased at a higher heating temperature. It is predicted that the coprecipitated arsenate can stabilize the amorphous iron oxides against the transformation to more crystalline solids. Arsenate concentration appears to play an important role in this predicted long-term stability. PMID:25433978

  12. Utilization of agro-wastes to inhibit aflatoxins synthesis by Aspergillus parasiticus: A biotreatment of three cereals for safe long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Sultana, B; Naseer, R; Nigam, Poonam

    2015-12-01

    The growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and aflatoxins production were inhibited during storage of three important cereals (wheat, maize and rice) using leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica) and kikar (Acacia nilotica). Cereals were inoculated with mould spores and stabilized by neem and kikar leaves-powder. Test samples with moisture levels of 21% were stored at 30°C for a period of 9months. Aflatoxins were quantified at different time intervals in stored cereals. Neem leaves fully inhibited all types of aflatoxins synthesis for 4months in wheat and for 2months in maize while in rice inhibited synthesis of only B2, G1 and G2 aflatoxin for 3months. Kikar leaves fully inhibited aflatoxin B2, G1 and G2 for 3months in wheat, and for 2months in maize. Among two investigated plants, neem leaves were found more effective for preventing the production of all types of aflatoxins in cereals' long-term storage. PMID:26356116

  13. The efficient long-term inhibition of forsterite dissolution by common soil bacteria and fungi at Earth surface conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelkers, Eric H.; Benning, Liane G.; Lutz, Stefanie; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Pearce, Christopher R.; Plümper, Oliver

    2015-11-01

    San Carlos forsterite was dissolved in initially pure H2O in a batch reactor in contact with the atmosphere for 5 years. The reactive fluid aqueous pH remained relatively stable at pH 6.7 throughout the experiment. Aqueous Mg concentration maximized after approximately 2 years time at 3 × 10-5 mol/kg, whereas aqueous Si concentrations increased continuously with time, reaching 2 × 10-5 mol/kg after 5 years. Element release rates closely matched those determined on this same forsterite sample during short-term abiotic open system experiments for the first 10 days, then slowed substantially such that the Mg and Si release rates are approximately an order of magnitude slower than that calculated from the short-term abiotic experiments. Post-experiment analysis reveals that secondary hematite, a substantial biotic community, and minor amorphous silica formed on the dissolving forsterite during the experiment. The biotic community included bacteria, dominated by Rhizobiales (Alphaproteobacteria), and fungi, dominated by Trichocomaceae, that grew in a carbon and nutrient-limited media on the dissolving forsterite. The Mg isotope composition of the reactive fluid was near constant after 2 years but 0.25‰ heavier in δ26Mg than the dissolving forsterite. Together these results suggest long-term forsterite dissolution in natural Earth surface systems maybe substantially slower than that estimated from short-term abiotic experiments due to the growth of biotic communities on their surfaces.

  14. Nitrate inhibition of legume nodule growth and activity. I. Long term studies with a continuous supply of nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Streeter, J.G.

    1985-02-01

    The synthesis and accumulation of nitrite has been suggested as a causative factor in the inhibition of legume nodules supplied with nitrate. Plants were grown in sand culture with a moderate level of nitrate (2.1 to 6.4 millimolar) supplied continuously from seed germination to 30 to 50 days after planting. In a comparison of nitrate treatments, a highly significant negative correlation between nitrite concentration in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) nodules and nodule fresh weight per shoot dry weight was found even when bacteroids lacked nitrate reductase (NR). However, in a comparison of two Rhizobium japonicum strains, there was only 12% as much nitrite in nodules formed by NR/sup -/ R. japonicum as in nodules formed by NR/sup +/ R. japonicum, and growth and acetylene reduction activity of both types of nodules was about equally inhibited. The very small concentration of nitrite found in P. vulgaris nodules was probably below that required for the inhibition of nitrogenase based on published in vitro experiments, and yet the specific acetylene reduction activity was inhibited 83% by nitrate. The overall results do not support the idea that nitrite plays a role in the inhibition of nodule growth and nitrogenase activity by nitrate.

  15. Long-term moderate calorie restriction inhibits inflammation without impairing cell-mediated immunity: a randomized controlled trial in non-obese humans

    PubMed Central

    Meydani, Simin N.; Das, Sai K.; Pieper, Carl F.; Lewis, Michael R.; Klein, Sam; Dixit, Vishwa D.; Gupta, Alok K.; Villareal, Dennis T.; Bhapkar, Manjushri; Huang, Megan; Fuss, Paul J.; Roberts, Susan B.; Holloszy, John O.; Fontana, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) inhibits inflammation and slows aging in many animal species, but in rodents housed in pathogen-free facilities, CR impairs immunity against certain pathogens. However, little is known about the effects of long-term moderate CR on immune function in humans. In this multi-center, randomized clinical trial to determine CR's effect on inflammation and cell-mediated immunity, 218 healthy non-obese adults (20-50 y), were assigned 25% CR (n=143) or an ad-libitum (AL) diet (n=75), and outcomes tested at baseline, 12, and 24 months of CR. CR induced a 10.4% weight loss over the 2-y period. Relative to AL group, CR reduced circulating inflammatory markers, including total WBC and lymphocyte counts, ICAM-1 and leptin. Serum CRP and TNF-α concentrations were about 40% and 50% lower in CR group, respectively. CR had no effect on the delayed-type hypersensitivity skin response or antibody response to vaccines, nor did it cause difference in clinically significant infections. In conclusion, long-term moderate CR without malnutrition induces a significant and persistent inhibition of inflammation without impairing key in vivo indicators of cell-mediated immunity. Given the established role of these pro-inflammatory molecules in the pathogenesis of multiple chronic diseases, these CR-induced adaptations suggest a shift toward a healthy phenotype. PMID:27410480

  16. Inhibition of the Motor Protein Eg5/Kinesin-5 in Amyloid β-Mediated Impairment of Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation and Dendritic Spine Loss.

    PubMed

    Freund, Ronald K; Gibson, Emily S; Potter, Huntington; Dell'Acqua, Mark L

    2016-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neurofibrillary tangles, amyloid plaques, and neurodegeneration. However, this pathology is preceded by increased soluble amyloid beta (Aβ) 1-42 oligomers that interfere with the glutamatergic synaptic plasticity required for learning and memory, includingN-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP). In particular, soluble Aβ(1-42) acutely inhibits LTP and chronically causes synapse loss. Many mechanisms have been proposed for Aβ-induced synaptic dysfunction, but we recently found that Aβ(1-42) inhibits the microtubule motor protein Eg5/kinesin-5. Here we compared the impacts of Aβ(1-42) and monastrol, a small-molecule Eg5 inhibitor, on LTP in hippocampal slices and synapse loss in neuronal cultures. Acute (20-minute) treatment with monastrol, like Aβ, completely inhibited LTP at doses >100 nM. In addition, 1 nM Aβ(1-42) or 50 nM monastrol inhibited LTP #x223c;50%, and when applied together caused complete LTP inhibition. At concentrations that impaired LTP, neither Aβ(1-42) nor monastrol inhibited NMDAR synaptic responses until #x223c;60 minutes, when only #x223c;25% inhibition was seen for monastrol, indicating that NMDAR inhibition was not responsible for LTP inhibition by either agent when applied for only 20 minutes. Finally, 48 hours of treatment with either 0.5-1.0μM Aβ(1-42) or 1-5μM monastrol reduced the dendritic spine/synapse density in hippocampal cultures up to a maximum of #x223c;40%, and when applied together at maximal concentrations, no additional spine loss resulted. Thus, monastrol can mimic and in some cases occlude the impact of Aβon LTP and synapse loss, suggesting that Aβinduces acute and chronic synaptic dysfunction in part through inhibiting Eg5. PMID:26957206

  17. Inhibition of the group I mGluRs reduces acute brain damage and improves long-term histological outcomes after photothrombosis-induced ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hailong; Zhang, Nannan; Sun, Grace; Ding, Shinghua

    2013-01-01

    Group I mGluRs (metabotropic glutamate receptors), including mGluR1 and mGluR5, are GPCRs (G-protein coupled receptors) and play important roles in physiology and pathology. Studies on their role in cerebral ischaemia have provided controversial results. In this study, we used a PT (photothrombosis)-induced ischaemia model to investigate whether antagonists to the group I mGluRs may offer acute and long-term protective effects in adult mice. Our results demonstrated that administration with mGluR5 antagonist MPEP [2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine] or mGluR1 antagonist LY367385 by intraperitoneal injection at 3 h after PT decreased brain infarct volume evaluated one day after ischaemia. Additive effects on infarct volume were observed upon co-injection with MPEP and LY367385. These antagonists also significantly alleviated neurodegeneration and apoptosis in the penumbra. In addition, when evaluated 2 weeks after PT, they reduced infarct volume and tissue loss, attenuated glial scar formation, and inhibited cell proliferation in the penumbra. Importantly, co-injection with MPEP and LY367385 reduced the expression levels of calpain, a Ca2+-activated protease known to mediate ischaemia-induced neuronal death. Injection of calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor, could inhibit neuronal death and brain damage after PT but injection of calpeptin together with MPEP and LY367385 did not further improve the protective effects mediated by MPEP and LY367385. These results suggest that inhibition of group I mGluRs is sufficient to protect ischaemic damage through the calpain pathway. Taken together, our results demonstrate that inhibition of group I mGluRs can mitigate PT-induced brain damage through attenuating the effects of calpain, and improve long-term histological outcomes. PMID:23772679

  18. Tetanus toxin induces long-term changes in excitation and inhibition in the rat hippocampal CA1 area.

    PubMed

    Vreugdenhil, M; Hack, S P; Draguhn, A; Jefferys, J G R

    2002-01-01

    Intrahippocampal tetanus toxin induces a period of chronic recurrent limbic seizures in adult rats, associated with a failure of inhibition in the hippocampus. The rats normally gain remission from their seizures after 6-8 weeks, but show persistent cognitive impairment. In this study we assessed which changes in cellular and network properties could account for the enduring changes in this model, using intracellular and extracellular field recordings in hippocampal slices from rats injected with tetanus toxin or vehicle, 5 months previously. In CA1 pyramidal neurones from toxin-injected rats, the slope of the action potential upstroke was reduced by 32%, the fast afterhyperpolarisation by 32% and the slow afterhyperpolarisation by 54%, suggesting changes in voltage-dependent conductances. The excitatory postsynaptic potential slope was reduced by 60% and the population synaptic potential slope was reduced at all stimulus intensities, suggesting a reduced afferent input in CA1. Paired-pulse stimulation showed an increase of the excitability ratio and an increase of cellular excitability only for the second pulse, suggesting a reduced inhibition. The polysynaptic inhibitory postsynaptic potential was reduced by 34%, whereas neither the inhibitory postsynaptic potential at subthreshold stimulus intensities,nor the pharmacologically isolated monosynaptic inhibitory postsynaptic potential were different in toxin-injected rats, suggesting a reduced synaptic excitation of interneurones. Stratum radiatum stimuli in toxin-injected rats, and not in controls, evoked antidromic activation of CA1 neurones, demonstrating axonal sprouting into areas normally devoid of CA1 pyramidal cell axons.We conclude that this combination of enduring changes in cellular and network properties, both pro-epileptic (increased recurrent excitatory connectivity, reduced recurrent inhibition and reduced afterhyperpolarisations) and anti-epileptic (impaired firing and reduced excitation), reaches a

  19. Parishin C's prevention of Aβ1–42-induced inhibition of long-term potentiation is related to NMDA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhihui; Wang, Weiping; Feng, Nan; Wang, Ling; Shi, Jiangong; Wang, Xiaoliang

    2016-01-01

    The rhizome of Gastrodia elata (GE), a herb medicine, has been used for treatment of neuronal disorders in Eastern Asia for hundreds of years. Parishin C is a major ingredient of GE. In this study, the i.c.v. injection of soluble Aβ1–42 oligomers model of LTP injury was used. We investigated the effects of parishin C on the improvement of LTP in soluble Aβ1–42 oligomer–injected rats and the underlying electrophysiological mechanisms. Parishin C (i.p. or i.c.v.) significantly ameliorated LTP impairment induced by i.c.v. injection of soluble Aβ1–42 oligomers. In cultured hippocampal neurons, soluble Aβ1–42 oligomers significantly inhibited NMDAR currents while not affecting AMPAR currents and voltage-dependent currents. Pretreatment with parishin C protected NMDA receptor currents from the damage induced by Aβ. In summary, parishin C improved LTP deficits induced by soluble Aβ1–42 oligomers. The protection by parishin C against Aβ-induced LTP damage might be related to NMDA receptors. PMID:27175329

  20. Parishin C's prevention of Aβ 1-42-induced inhibition of long-term potentiation is related to NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihui; Wang, Weiping; Feng, Nan; Wang, Ling; Shi, Jiangong; Wang, Xiaoliang

    2016-05-01

    The rhizome of Gastrodia elata (GE), a herb medicine, has been used for treatment of neuronal disorders in Eastern Asia for hundreds of years. Parishin C is a major ingredient of GE. In this study, the i.c.v. injection of soluble Aβ 1-42 oligomers model of LTP injury was used. We investigated the effects of parishin C on the improvement of LTP in soluble Aβ 1-42 oligomer-injected rats and the underlying electrophysiological mechanisms. Parishin C (i.p. or i.c.v.) significantly ameliorated LTP impairment induced by i.c.v. injection of soluble Aβ 1-42 oligomers. In cultured hippocampal neurons, soluble Aβ 1-42 oligomers significantly inhibited NMDAR currents while not affecting AMPAR currents and voltage-dependent currents. Pretreatment with parishin C protected NMDA receptor currents from the damage induced by Aβ. In summary, parishin C improved LTP deficits induced by soluble Aβ 1-42 oligomers. The protection by parishin C against Aβ-induced LTP damage might be related to NMDA receptors. PMID:27175329

  1. K6PC-5, a novel sphingosine kinase activator, improves long-term ultraviolet light-exposed aged murine skin.

    PubMed

    Park, Hwa-young; Youm, Jong-Kyung; Kwon, Mi Jung; Park, Byeong Deog; Lee, Seung Hun; Choi, Eung Ho

    2008-10-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which is formed by phosphorylation of sphingosine through a process catalysed by sphingosine kinase (SK), is a multifunctional mediator of a variety of cellular responses including proliferation, differentiation, motility, and survival. K6PC-5, which was recently synthesized as a novel SK activator, is expected to increase S1P levels. Indeed studies have already demonstrated that K6PC-5 exhibits anti-aging effects on intrinsic aged murine skin by increasing fibroblasts, collagen synthesis, dermal thickness, and epidermal differentiation. However, photoaging and intrinsic aging have highly different clinical and histopathological properties. In this study, we developed a photoaged murine model by exposing mice that were 56 weeks old to ultraviolet (UV)B and UVA radiation for 8 weeks. We then investigated whether K6PC-5, as an SK activator, had anti-aging effects on photoaged murine skin in addition to its effects on intrinsic aged murine skin and determined the mechanism. K6PC-5 increased dermal collagen density in photoaged skin through increases in fibroblasts and collagen production. Photoaged murine skin treated with K6PC-5 showed an increase in stratum corneum (SC) integrity with increased corneodesmosome density and an improvement in barrier recovery rate. Matrix metalloproteinase 13 remained unchanged. These results indicate that topical application of K6PC-5 improves photoaged skin by improving skin barrier and increasing fibroblast count and function. In conclusion, K6PC-5, as an S1P activator, improves long-term UV-exposed aged skin as well as intrinsic aged skin. PMID:18341573

  2. LONG-TERM TRANSIT TIMING MONITORING AND REFINED LIGHT CURVE PARAMETERS OF HAT-P-13b

    SciTech Connect

    Fulton, Benjamin J.; Shporer, Avi; Winn, Joshua N.; Holman, Matthew J.; Pal, Andras; Zachary Gazak, J.

    2011-09-15

    We present 10 new transit light curves of the transiting hot Jupiter HAT-P-13b, obtained during two observational seasons by three different telescopes. When combined with 12 previously published light curves, we have a sample consisting of 22 transit light curves, spanning 1041 days across four observational seasons. We use this sample to examine the recently observed large-amplitude transit timing variations (TTVs) by Pal et al. and give refined system parameters. We find that the transit times are consistent with a linear ephemeris, with the exception of a single transit time, from UT 2009 November 5, for which the measured mid-transit time significantly deviates from our linear ephemeris. The nature of this deviation is not clear, and the rest of the data do not show any significant TTVs.

  3. Long-term improvements in sensory inhibition with gestational choline supplementation linked to α7 nicotinic receptors through studies in Chrna7 null mutation mice.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Karen E; Choo, Kevin S; Stitzel, Jerry A; Marks, Michael J; Adams, Catherine E

    2014-03-13

    Perinatal choline supplementation has produced several benefits in rodent models, from improved learning and memory to protection from the behavioral effects of fetal alcohol exposure. We have shown that supplemented choline through gestation and lactation produces long-term improvement in deficient sensory inhibition in DBA/2 mice which models a similar deficit in schizophrenia patients. The present study extends that research by feeding normal or supplemented choline diets to DBA/2 mice carrying the null mutation for the α7 nicotinic receptor gene (Chrna7). DBA/2 mice heterozygotic for Chrna7 were bred together. Dams were placed on supplemented (5 gm/kg diet) or normal (1.1 gm/kg diet) choline at mating and remained on the specific diet until offspring weaning. Thereafter, offspring were fed standard rodent chow. Adult offspring were assessed for sensory inhibition. Brains were obtained to ascertain hippocampal α7 nicotinic receptor levels. Choline-supplemented mice heterozygotic or null-mutant for Chrna7 failed to show improvement in sensory inhibition. Only wildtype choline-supplemented mice showed improvement with the effect solely through a decrease in test amplitude. This supports the hypothesis that gestational-choline supplementation is acting through the α7 nicotinic receptor to improve sensory inhibition. Although there was a significant gene-dose-related change in hippocampal α7 receptor numbers, binding studies did not reveal any choline-dose-related change in binding in any hippocampal region, the interaction being driven by a significant genotype main effect (wildtype>heterozygote>null mutant). These data parallel a human study wherein the offspring of pregnant women receiving choline supplementation during gestation, showed better sensory inhibition than offspring of women on placebo. PMID:24462939

  4. Laser Doppler monitoring of alterations of blood-flow parameters in fish embryos in response to light irradiation: study of long-term and short-term reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, Natalia B.; Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Revutsky, Pavel V.; Levenko, Borislav A.

    1997-05-01

    In this paper new experimental results on monitoring of alterations of blood flow parameters in growing fish embryos under laser and non-laser light irradiation are discussed. The measurements were performed by means of laser Doppler technique with high temporal and spatial resolution. Two parameters of blood flows were mostly measured: average velocity and frequency of velocity pulsations. These parameters were shown to be an adequate characteristics of nonstationary blood flows in fishes. The problem of noninvasivity of such experiments is discussed. For this purpose absorption spectra of fish embryos were measured. The quantitative response of blood flows to irradiation at different light wavelengths was recorded. Different species of fishes were used to compare the responses. Different effects were recorded which depend upon the doze and the wavelength of irradiation, and upon the stage of the embryo development at which the irradiation had taken place. Among those effects long-term and short-term reactions can be distinguished.

  5. Facilitating and inhibiting factors for long-term involvement of patients at outcome conferences—lessons learnt from a decade of collaboration in OMERACT: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Maarten; Abma, Tineke; Koelewijn-Van Loon, Marije; Collins, Sarah; Kirwan, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective Several studies have provided insights into the conditions for successful patient involvement in health research. We recently demonstrated that long-term engagement with people with rheumatic conditions in international outcome research led to significant changes in the research agenda in the field of rheumatology. This article explores facilitating and inhibiting factors for long-term involvement of patients as collaborative partners at five Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) conferences. Design Responsive evaluation, starting with a thematic document analysis of conference proceedings and the grey literature, followed by 38 qualitative interviews. Interview transcripts were subjected to inductive content analysis. Setting 5 international OMERACT conferences between 2002 and 2012. Participants Patient delegates (n=16) and professional delegates representing researchers (n=14), pharmaceutical industry and regulators (n=2). Results Combined review of the document analysis and interview data revealed five main facilitators and three main barriers. Patient engagement as full participants at OMERACT conferences was enhanced by: strong leadership commitment and the presence of change agents, a clear selection procedure, an inclusive consensus-based conference design, individualised and self-organised support, an interactive and encouraging moderation style during discussion groups. Barriers were related to the intensity of the conference programme, scepticism among researchers and doubts about the representativeness of the patient group. Conclusions This study concludes that developing a sustainable structure for funding, selection and support of patient delegates, as well as adjusting conference design and moderation style, contributes not only towards facilitating direct dialogue between all stakeholders but also towards enhancing mutual understanding and the successful incorporation of the patient perspective in an outcome conference such as OMERACT

  6. LightForce Photon-pressure Collision Avoidance: Efficiency Analysis in the Current Debris Environment and Long-Term Simulation Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Fan Y.; Nelson, Bron; Carlino, Roberto; Perez, Andres D.; Faber, Nicolas; Henze, Chris; Karacahoglu, Arif G.; O'Toole, Conor; Swenson, Jason; Stupl, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This work provides an efficiency analysis of the LightForce space debris collision avoidance scheme in the current debris environment and describes a simulation approach to assess its impact on the long-term evolution of the space debris environment. LightForce aims to provide just-in-time collision avoidance by utilizing photon pressure from ground-based industrial lasers. These ground stations impart minimal accelerations to increase the miss distance for a predicted conjunction between two objects. In the first part of this paper we will present research that investigates the short-term effect of a few systems consisting of 10kW class lasers directed by 1.5 m diameter telescopes using adaptive optics. The results found such a network of ground stations to mitigate more than 85 percent of conjunctions and could lower the expected number of collisions in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by an order of magnitude. While these are impressive numbers that indicate LightForce's utility in the short-term, the remaining 15 percent of possible collisions contain (among others) conjunctions between two massive objects that would add large amount of debris if they collide. Still, conjunctions between massive objects and smaller objects can be mitigated. Hence we choose to expand the capabilities of the simulation software to investigate the overall effect of a network of LightForce stations on the long-term debris evolution. In the second part of this paper, we will present the planed simulation approach for that effort.

  7. Human-In-The-Loop Simulation in Support of Long-Term Sustainability of Light Water Reactors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hallbert, Bruce P

    2015-01-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration. The NPP owners and operators realize that this analog technology represents a significant challenge to sustaining the operation of the current fleet of NPPs. Beyond control systems, new technologies are neededmore » to monitor and characterize the effects of aging and degradation in critical areas of key structures, systems, and components. The objective of the efforts sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy is to develop, demonstrate, and deploy new digital technologies for II&C architectures and provide monitoring capabilities to ensure the continued safe, reliable, and economic operation of the nation’s NPPs.« less

  8. Human-In-The-Loop Simulation in Support of Long-Term Sustainability of Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hallbert, Bruce P

    2015-01-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration. The NPP owners and operators realize that this analog technology represents a significant challenge to sustaining the operation of the current fleet of NPPs. Beyond control systems, new technologies are needed to monitor and characterize the effects of aging and degradation in critical areas of key structures, systems, and components. The objective of the efforts sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy is to develop, demonstrate, and deploy new digital technologies for II&C architectures and provide monitoring capabilities to ensure the continued safe, reliable, and economic operation of the nation’s NPPs.

  9. The effect of long-term fertilizer application on the group and fractional composition of humus in a soddy-podzolic light loamy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapa, V. V.; Seraya, T. M.; Bogatyreva, E. N.; Biryukova, O. M.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of lime and organic and mineral fertilizers on the fractional and group composition of the humus in a light loamy soddy-podzolic soil was studied in a long-term experiment. The application of lime increased the content of the agronomically valuable fraction of humic acids (HA-2) by 2.6 times on the average. The application of mineral fertilizers at the rate of N83P61K112 (kg/ha per year) increased the mobility of the humic substances; the application of farmyard manure (12.5 t/ha per) has an opposite effect. In general, various fertilizer systems exerted a favorable effect on the qualitative composition of the humus with an increase in the percentage of humic acids, though the humate-fulvate type of humus was preserved in all the variants of the experiment.

  10. LightForce photon-pressure collision avoidance: Efficiency analysis in the current debris environment and long-term simulation perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang Yang, Fan; Nelson, Bron; Aziz, Jonathan; Carlino, Roberto; Dono Perez, Andres; Faber, Nicolas; Foster, Cyrus; Frost, Chad; Henze, Chris; Karacalıoğlu, Arif Göktuğ; Levit, Creon; Marshall, William; Mason, James; O'Toole, Conor; Swenson, Jason; Worden, Simon P.; Stupl, Jan

    2016-09-01

    This work provides an efficiency analysis of the LightForce space debris collision avoidance scheme in the current debris environment and describes a simulation approach to assess its impact on the long-term evolution of the space debris environment. LightForce aims to provide just-in-time collision avoidance by utilizing photon pressure from ground-based industrial lasers. These ground stations impart minimal accelerations to increase the miss distance for a predicted conjunction between two objects. In the first part of this paper we will present research that investigates the short-term effect of a few systems consisting of 20 kW class lasers directed by 1.5 m diameter telescopes using adaptive optics. The results found such a network of ground stations to mitigate more than 85 percent of conjunctions and could lower the expected number of collisions in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by an order of magnitude. While these are impressive numbers that indicate LightForce's utility in the short-term, the remaining 15 % of possible collisions contain (among others) conjunctions between two massive objects that would add large amount of debris if they collide. Still, conjunctions between massive objects and smaller objects can be mitigated. Hence, we choose to expand the capabilities of the simulation software to investigate the overall effect of a network of LightForce stations on the long-term debris evolution. In the second part of this paper, we will present the planned simulation approach for that effort. For the efficiency analysis of collision avoidance in the current debris environment, we utilize a simulation approach that uses the entire Two Line Element (TLE) catalog in LEO for a given day as initial input. These objects are propagated for one year and an all-on-all conjunction analysis is performed. For conjunctions that fall below a range threshold, we calculate the probability of collision and record those values. To assess efficiency, we compare a baseline

  11. Long-term Expression of Apolipoprotein B mRNA-specific Hammerhead Ribozyme via scAAV8.2 Vector Inhibits Atherosclerosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nischal, Hersharan; Sun, Hua; Wang, Yuchun; Ford, David A; Cao, Ying; Wei, Peng; Teng, Ba-Bie

    2013-01-01

    Target substrate-specific hammerhead ribozyme cleaves the specific mRNA efficiently and results in the inhibition of gene expression. In humans, overproduction of apolipoprotein B (apoB) is positively associated with premature coronary artery diseases. The goal of this study is to demonstrate that long-term reduction of apoB gene expression using hammerhead ribozyme would result in inhibition of atherosclerosis development. We designed two hammerhead ribozymes targeted at the nucleotides of apoB mRNA GUC2326 (designated RB1) and GUA6679 (designated RB15), and we used self-complementary adeno-associated virus 8.2 (scAAV8.2) vector to deliver these active ribozymes of RB1, RB15, combination of RB1/RB15, and an inactive hammerhead ribozyme RB15 mutant to atherosclerosis-prone LDb mice (Ldlr−/−Apobec1−/−). LDb mice lack both low density lipoproteins (LDL) receptor (Ldlr−/−) and apoB mRNA editing enzyme (Apobec1−/−) genes and develop atherosclerosis spontaneously. After the RB1, RB15, or combination of RB1/RB15 ribozymes treatment, the LDb mice had significantly decreased plasma triglyceride and apoB levels, resulting in markedly decreased of atherosclerotic lesions, Furthermore, the active ribozymes treatment decreased the levels of diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (Dgat1) mRNA and the levels of multiple diacylglycerol (DAG) molecular species. These results provide the first evidence that decreased apoB levels results to reduction of Dgat1 expression and triglyceride levels (TAG), which had a significant impact on the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:24084845

  12. Photodynamic dose does not correlate with long-term tumor response to mTHPC-PDT performed at several drug-light intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Mitra, Soumya; Foster, Thomas H.

    2008-08-15

    Meso-tetra-hydroxyphenyl-chlorin (mTHPC, Foscan registered ), a promising photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT), is approved in Europe for the palliative treatment of head and neck cancer. Based on work in mice that investigated optimal tumor accumulation, clinical protocols with Foscan registered typically employ an interval of 96 h between systemic sensitizer administration and irradiation. However, recent studies in mouse tumor models have demonstrated significantly improved long-term tumor response when irradiation is performed at shorter drug-light intervals of 3 and 6 h. Using a previously published theoretical model of microscopic PDT dosimetry and informed by experimentally determined photophysical properties and intratumor sensitizer concentrations and distributions, we calculated photodynamic dose depositions following mTHPC-PDT for drug-light intervals of 3, 6, 24, and 96 h. Our results demonstrate that the singlet oxygen dose to the tumor volume does not track even qualitatively with tumor responses for these four drug-light intervals. Further, microscopic analysis of simulated singlet oxygen deposition shows that in no case do any subpopulations of tumor cells receive a threshold dose. Indeed, under the conditions of these simulations more than 90% of the tumor volume receives a dose that is approximately 20-fold lower than the threshold dose for mTHPC. Thus, in this evaluation of mTHPC-PDT at various drug-light intervals, any PDT dose metric that is proportional to singlet oxygen creation and/or deposition would fail to predict the tumor response. In situations like this one, other reporters of biological response to therapy would be necessary.

  13. Effects of tillage on contents of organic carbon, nitrogen, water-stable aggregates and light fraction for four different long-term trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andruschkewitsch, R.; Geisseler, D.; Koch, H.-J.; Ludwig, B.

    2012-04-01

    Despite increasing interest in tillage techniques as a factor affecting organic carbon (Corg) dynamics and stabilization mechanisms little is known about the underlying processes. Our objectives were (i) to quantify the impact of different tillage treatments on the amount and distribution of of labile Corg pools, on the water-stable macro-aggregate (>250 µm) contents and on organic carbon (Corg) storage and (ii) to quantify the ability of soils under different tillage treatments, light fraction (LF) inputs and clay contents in macro-aggregate formation. Therefore four long-term tillage trials on loess soil in Germany with regular conventional tillage (CT, to 30 cm), mulch tillage (MT, to 10 cm), and no-tillage (NT) treatments. Samples were taken in 0-5 cm, 5-25 cm and 25-40 cm depth after 18-25 years of different tillage treatments and investigated on free and occluded LF (fLF and oLF, respectively) and on macro-aggregate contents. Furthermore an incubation experiment for the quantifcation of macro-aggregate formation was conducted. Macro-aggregates in soils from CT and NT treatments (0-5 and 5-25 cm soil depth) were destroyed and different amounts of light fraction (LF) and clay were applied. The four long-term tillage trials, differing in texture and climatic conditions, revealed consistent results in Corg storage among each other. Based on the equivalent soil mass approach (CT: 0-40, MT: 0-38, NT: 0-36 cm) the Corg stocks in the sampled profile were significantly higher for the MT treatment than for the CT and NT treatments. Significantly lower Corg, fLF, oLF, and macro-aggregate contents for the soils under CT treatment in comparison with the soils under NT and MT treatments were restricted on the top 5 cm. The correlation of the macro-aggregate content against the fLF and oLF contents suggested that the macro-aggregate content is influenced to a lesser extent directly by the physical impact of the different tillage treatments but by the contents of available

  14. A REMARKABLE LONG-TERM LIGHT CURVE AND DEEP, LOW-STATE SPECTROSCOPY: SWIFT AND XMM-NEWTON MONITORING OF THE NLS1 GALAXY Mkn 335

    SciTech Connect

    Grupe, Dirk; Komossa, S.; Longinotti, Anna Lia; Fabian, Andrew C.; Pradhan, Anil K.; Xu Dawei E-mail: stefanie.komossa@gmx.de E-mail: pradhan@astronomy.ohio-state.edu

    2012-04-01

    The narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLS1) Mkn 335 is remarkable because it has repeatedly shown deep, long X-ray low states that show pronounced spectral structure. It has become one of the prototype active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in deep minimum X-ray states. Here we report on the continuation of our ongoing monitoring campaign with Swift and the examination of the low-state X-ray spectra based on a 200 ks triggered observation with XMM-Newton in 2009 June. Swift has continuously monitored Mkn 335 since 2007 May typically on a monthly basis. This is one of the longest simultaneous UV/X-ray light curves so far obtained for an AGN. Mkn 335 has shown strong X-ray variability even on timescales of hours. In the UV, it turns out to be one of the most variable among NLS1s. Long-term Swift monitoring allows us to examine correlations between the UV, X-rays, and X-ray hardness ratios. We find no significant correlation or lag between the UV and X-ray variability; however, we do find distinct trends in the behavior of the hardness ratio variability. The hardness ratio and count rate are correlated in the low-flux state, but no correlation is seen in the high state. The X-ray low-state spectra of the 2007 and 2009 XMM-Newton observations display significant spectral variability. We fit the X-ray spectra with a suite of phenomenological models in order to characterize the data. The broadband CCD spectrum can be fitted equally well with partial absorption and blurred reflection models. These more complicated models are explored in further detail in upcoming work.

  15. Differential light effects on the dark motility rhythm in Euglena gracilis by series of short light pulses: Induction of long-term fluctuations and holding of the circadian oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzer, Ivonne; Hardeland, Rüdiger

    1991-12-01

    Dark motility was measured by means of an infrared beam in stationary, 8- to 10-months-old autotrophic cultures of Euglena gracilis, strain Z. Controls in constant darkness exhibited circadian rhythms for several weeks. Cells were subjected to series of short light pulses of 800 lx covering, in most of the experiments, not more than 1/240 of the intermittent dark periods. When the overall amount of light per day was kept constant, the results of the light treatment strongly depended on the frequency of the light pulses. In light/dard cycles of more than 1 h, the circadian rhythmicity persited, whereas the oscillator was affected by cycles of 40 min or less. Such treatment by a high-frequency series of light pulses led to long-term fluctuations lasting for several days and a subsequent holding of the oscillator. The temporal position of extreme values of the fluctuations correlated with the frequency of the light pulses. The potency of light to suppress rhythmicity, as known from fading-out phenomena in constant illumination, is not restricted to the continuous presence of light, but is also immanent in the Zeitgeber signals of dark/light transitions. Hence, the results reflect differential effects in the action of light.

  16. Long-term testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferber, M.; Graves, G. A., Jr.

    Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000-10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

  17. Long-term testing

    SciTech Connect

    Ferber, M.; Graves, G.A. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000--10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

  18. Long-term Multiwavelength Observations of Polars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, Joshua; Mason, Paul A.

    2016-06-01

    Polars are cataclysmic variables with the highest magnetic field strengths (10-250 MG). Matter is accreted after being funneled by the strong magnetic field of the white dwarf. We perform a meta-study of multi-wavelength data of polars. Many polars have been observed in surveys, such as SDSS, 2MASS, ROSAT, just to name a few. Some polars have now been detected by the JVLA, part of an expanding class of radio CVs. A large subset of polars have long-term optical light curves from CRTS and AAVSO. We suggest that the long term light curves of polars display a variety of signature behaviors and may be grouped accordingly. Additional characteristics such a binary period, magnetic field strengths, X-ray properties, and distance estimates are examined in context with long-term observations.

  19. Long-term environmental stewardship.

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Michael David

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this Supplemental Information Source Document is to effectively describe Long-Term Environmental Stewardship (LTES) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). More specifically, this document describes the LTES and Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Programs, distinguishes between the LTES and LTS Programs, and summarizes the current status of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project.

  20. Presynaptic long-term plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying; Calakos, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Long-term synaptic plasticity is a major cellular substrate for learning, memory, and behavioral adaptation. Although early examples of long-term synaptic plasticity described a mechanism by which postsynaptic signal transduction was potentiated, it is now apparent that there is a vast array of mechanisms for long-term synaptic plasticity that involve modifications to either or both the presynaptic terminal and postsynaptic site. In this article, we discuss current and evolving approaches to identify presynaptic mechanisms as well as discuss their limitations. We next provide examples of the diverse circuits in which presynaptic forms of long-term synaptic plasticity have been described and discuss the potential contribution this form of plasticity might add to circuit function. Finally, we examine the present evidence for the molecular pathways and cellular events underlying presynaptic long-term synaptic plasticity. PMID:24146648

  1. Usefulness of plasma renin activity in predicting haemodynamic and clinical responses and survival during long term converting enzyme inhibition in severe chronic heart failure. Experience in 100 consecutive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Packer, M; Medina, N; Yushak, M; Lee, W H

    1985-01-01

    The relation between plasma renin activity before treatment and the haemodynamic and clinical responses to converting enzyme inhibition was determined in 100 consecutive patients with severe chronic heart failure who were treated with captopril or enalapril. Initial doses of captopril produced significant increases in cardiac index and decreases in left ventricular filling pressure, mean arterial pressure, mean right atrial pressure, heart rate, and systemic vascular resistance that varied linearly with the pretreatment value for plasma renin activity. In contrast, there was no relation between the pretreatment activity and the magnitude of haemodynamic improvement after 1-3 months of treatment with the converting enzyme inhibitors, and, consequently, a similar proportion of patients with a high (greater than 6 ng/ml/h; greater than 4.62 mmol/l/h), intermediate (2-6 ng/ml/h; 1.54-4.62 mmol/l/h), and low (less than 2 ng/ml/h; less than 1.54 mmol/l/h) pretreatment value improved clinically during long term treatment (64%, 60%, and 64% respectively). Long term survival after one, two, and three years was similar in the three groups. Estimating the degree of activation of the renin-angiotensin system by measuring pretreatment plasma renin activity fails to predict the long term haemodynamic or clinical responses to converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with severe chronic heart failure, and thus appears to be of limited value in selecting those patients likely to benefit from treatment with these drugs. PMID:2994697

  2. Long-term exposure to high levels of decabrominated diphenyl ether inhibits CD4 T-cell functions in C57Bl/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Zeng, Weihong; Wang, Ying; Shen, Hao; Wang, Yan

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, the adverse health effects of decabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-209) have raised more concerns as a growing number of studies reported its persistence in the environment and abundance in the human population, especially in occupational environmental compartments and exposed personnel. This study applies our previous animal model simulating occupational exposure to BDE-209 to investigate its potential adverse effects on CD4 T cells. Female C57Bl/6 mice were orally gavaged with BDE-209 at a dose of 800 mg kg(-1) every 2 days for 10 months and the blood of each mouse was collected for analysis. Kinetic changes of the peripheral immune system were investigated from 1 to 5 months of exposure. The chronic effects on cytokine production, proliferation and the antigen-specific responses of CD4 T cells were evaluated at 7, 9 and 10 months, respectively. The results have shown that impaired proliferation and cytokine (IFN-γ, IL-2 or TNF-α) production of CD4 T cells were observed in BDE-209-exposed mice, accompanied by increased T regulatory cells in the blood. BDE-209 exposure in vitro also suppressed the reactivity of CD4 T cells at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 μM. Furthermore, we observed weaker antigen-specific CD4 T-cell responses to Listeria monocytogenes infection in the mice exposed to BDE-209, suggesting decreased resistance to exogenous pathogens. Taken together, these observations indicate an impaired cellular immunity after long-term and relative high-dose exposure to BDE-209 in adult mice. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26682527

  3. Outgrowth of drug-resistant carcinomas expressing markers of tumor aggression after long term TβRI/II kinase inhibition with LY2109761

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Erin C.; Saunier, Elise F.; Quigley, David; Luu, Minh Thu; Sapio, Angela De; Hann, Byron; Yingling, Jonathan M.; Akhurst, Rosemary J.

    2011-01-01

    Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β) is produced excessively by many solid tumors and can drive malignant progression through multiple effects on the tumor cell and microenvironment. TGF-β signaling pathway inhibitors have shown efficacy in pre-clinical models of metastatic cancer. Here we investigated the effect of systemic LY2109761, a type I /II receptor (TβRI/TβRII) kinase inhibitor, in both a tumor allograft model and in the mouse skin model of de novo chemically-induced carcinogenesis in vivo. Systemic LY2109761 administration disrupted tumor vascular architecture and reduced myofibroblast differentiation of E4 skin carcinoma cells in a tumor allograft. In the 7,12 dimethyl-benzanthracene plus phorbol-myristate-acetate -induced skin chemical carcinogenesis model, acute dosing of established naïve primary carcinomas with LY2109761 (100mg/Kg) every eight hours for ten days (100mg/kg) diminished P-Smad2 levels and marginally decreased the expression of inflammatory and invasive markers. Sustained exposure to LY2109761 (100mg/kg/day) throughout the tumor outgrowth phase had no effect on carcinoma latency or incidence. However, molecular analysis of resultant carcinomas by microarray gene expression, Western blot and immunohistochemistry suggests that long term LY2109761 exposure leads to the outgrowth of carcinomas with elevated P-Smad2 levels that do not respond to drug. This is the first description of acquired resistance to a small molecule inhibitor of the TGF-βRI/II kinase. Resultant carcinomas were more aggressive and inflammatory in nature, with delocalized E-Cadherin and elevated expression of Il23a, laminin V and MMPs. Therefore, TGF-β inhibitors might be clinically useful for applications requiring acute administration, but chronic patient exposure to such drugs should be undertaken with caution. PMID:21282335

  4. Process stability and the recovery control associated with inhibition factors in a UASB-anammox reactor with a long-term operation.

    PubMed

    Niu, Qigui; He, Shilong; Zhang, Yanlong; Ma, Haiyuan; Liu, Yuan; Li, Yu-You

    2016-03-01

    A UASB-anammox reactor was operated for 900 days to study its process stability. The negative effects of free ammonia (FA) and free nitrous acid (FNA) were investigated over three separate inhibitions and recoveries. The IC10, IC50 and IC90 (inhibitory concentration/a 10%, 50% and 90% activity loss) of FNA and FA responding to the NH4(+)-N, NO2(-)-N and TN removal efficiency were evaluated. In the 1st inhibition, the average FNA-IC10 observed was 0.67 μg L(-1) and the FA-IC10 for TN removal was 4.85 mg L(-1). In the 2nd inhibition, an FNA-IC10 of 0.44μ g L(-1) and an FA-IC10 of 3.56 were found. In the 3rd inhibition, however, both the FNA-IC10 and FA-IC10 were found to have increased, with values of 0.50 μg L(-1) and 4.42 mg L(-1), respectively. A clear control region was established for multiple inhibitions and the recoveries, which followed (pH 7.5-8.5, FA below 10mg/100mg NH4(+)-N and an FNA below 0.005 mg/100 mg NO2(-)-N) for the purpose of optimizing the operation conditions of the UASB-anammox reactor. PMID:26722813

  5. Long term complications of diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000327.htm Long term complications of diabetes To use the sharing ... sores and infections. If it goes on too long, your toes, foot, or leg may need to ...

  6. Abdominal Pain, Long-Term

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Abdominal Pain, Long-term See complete list of charts. Ongoing or recurrent abdominal pain, also called chronic pain, may be difficult to diagnose, causing frustration for ...

  7. Telechelic Poly(2-oxazoline)s with a biocidal and a polymerizable terminal as collagenase inhibiting additive for long-term active antimicrobial dental materials

    PubMed Central

    Fik, Christoph P.; Konieczny, Stefan; Pashley, David H.; Waschinski, Christian J.; Ladisch, Reinhild S.; Salz, Ulrich; Bock, Thorsten; Tiller, Joerg C.

    2015-01-01

    Although modern dental repair materials show excellent mechanical and adhesion properties, they still face two major problems: First, any microbes that remain alive below the composite fillings actively decompose dentin and thus, subsequently cause secondary caries. Second, even if those microbes are killed, the extracellular proteases such as MMP, remain active and can still degrade collagenousdental tissue. In order to address both problems, a poly(2-methyloxazoline) with a biocidal quaternary ammonium and a polymerizable methacrylate terminal was explored as additive for a commercial dental adhesive. It could be demonstrated that the adhesive rendered the adhesive contact-active antimicrobial against S. mutans at a concentration of only 2.5 wt% and even constant washing with water for 101 days did not diminish this effect. Increasing the amount of the additive to 5 wt% allowed killing S. mutans cells in the tubuli of bovinedentin upon application of the adhesive. Further, the additive fully inhibited bacterial collagenase at a concentration of 0.5 wt% and reduced human recombinant collagenase MMP-9 to 13% of its original activity at that concentration. Human MMPs naturally bound to dentin were inhibited by more than 96% in a medium containing 5 wt% of the additive. Moreover, no adverse effect on the enamel/dentine shear bond strength was detected in combination with a dental composite. PMID:25130877

  8. Tailored lighting intervention improves measures of sleep, depression, and agitation in persons with Alzheimer’s disease and related dementia living in long-term care facilities

    PubMed Central

    Figueiro, Mariana G; Plitnick, Barbara A; Lok, Anna; Jones, Geoffrey E; Higgins, Patricia; Hornick, Thomas R; Rea, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    Background Light therapy has shown great promise as a nonpharmacological method to improve symptoms associated with Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD), with preliminary studies demonstrating that appropriately timed light exposure can improve nighttime sleep efficiency, reduce nocturnal wandering, and alleviate evening agitation. Since the human circadian system is maximally sensitive to short-wavelength (blue) light, lower, more targeted lighting interventions for therapeutic purposes, can be used. Methods The present study investigated the effectiveness of a tailored lighting intervention for individuals with ADRD living in nursing homes. Low-level “bluish-white” lighting designed to deliver high circadian stimulation during the daytime was installed in 14 nursing home resident rooms for a period of 4 weeks. Light–dark and rest–activity patterns were collected using a Daysimeter. Sleep time and sleep efficiency measures were obtained using the rest–activity data. Measures of sleep quality, depression, and agitation were collected using standardized questionnaires, at baseline, at the end of the 4-week lighting intervention, and 4 weeks after the lighting intervention was removed. Results The lighting intervention significantly (P<0.05) decreased global sleep scores from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and increased total sleep time and sleep efficiency. The lighting intervention also increased phasor magnitude, a measure of the 24-hour resonance between light–dark and rest–activity patterns, suggesting an increase in circadian entrainment. The lighting intervention significantly (P<0.05) reduced depression scores from the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia and agitation scores from the Cohen–Mansfield Agitation Inventory. Conclusion A lighting intervention, tailored to increase daytime circadian stimulation, can be used to increase sleep quality and improve behavior in patients with ADRD. The present field study, while

  9. Inositol-deficient food augments a behavioral effect of long-term lithium treatment mediated by inositol monophosphatase inhibition: an animal model with relevance for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Shtein, Liza; Agam, Galila; Belmaker, R H; Bersudsky, Yuly

    2015-04-01

    Lithium treatment in rodents markedly enhances cholinergic agonists such as pilocarpine. This effect can be reversed in a stereospecific manner by administration of inositol, suggesting that the effect of lithium is caused by inositol monophosphatase inhibition and consequent inositol depletion. If so, inositol-deficient food would be expected to enhance lithium effects. Inositol-deficient food was prepared from inositol-free ingredients. Mice with a homozygote knockout of the inositol monophosphatase 1 gene unable to synthesize inositol endogenously and mimicking lithium-treated animals were fed this diet or a control diet. Lithium-treated wild-type animals were also treated with the inositol-deficient diet or control diet. Pilocarpine was administered after 1 week of treatment, and behavior including seizures was assessed using rating scale. Inositol-deficient food-treated animals, both lithium treated and with inositol monophosphatase 1 knockout, had significantly elevated cholinergic behavior rating and significantly increased or earlier seizures compared with the controls. The effect of inositol-deficient food supports the role of inositol depletion in the effects of lithium on pilocarpine-induced behavior. However, the relevance of this behavior to other more mood-related effects of lithium is not clear. PMID:25679134

  10. Preventive effect of long-term aldose reductase inhibition (ponalrestat) on nerve conduction and sural nerve structure in the spontaneously diabetic Bio-Breeding rat.

    PubMed Central

    Sima, A A; Prashar, A; Zhang, W X; Chakrabarti, S; Greene, D A

    1990-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that aldose reductase inhibition may prevent or delay the development of functional and structural neuropathy in the insulin-deficient diabetic Bio-Breeding rat (BB-rat), hyperglycemic rats were begun on the aldose reductase inhibitor (ARI) ponalrestat 25 mg/kg body wt soon after the onset of diabetes and followed for 4 or 6 mo. Ponalrestat treatment completely prevented the characteristic nerve conduction slowing and structural abnormalities of the node of Ranvier for 4 mo despite only partial preservation of axonal integrity. Ponalrestat treatment for 6 mo achieved a partial but significant prevention of nerve conduction slowing, axoglial dysjunction, and axonal degenerative changes. This incomplete but significant prevention of neuropathy by ponalrestat suggests that additional mechanisms besides polyol-pathway activation may be of importance in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Alternatively, the dosage used in the present study may not have been sufficient to achieve a complete prevention. Despite the only partial protective effect of ARI treatment on degenerative peripheral nerve changes in hyperglycemic BB-rats, 6 mo of treatment resulted in a more than threefold increase in regenerating nerve fibers. These data suggest that prophylactic ARI treatment may be efficacious in delaying the development of diabetic neuropathy. Images PMID:2110189

  11. Inhibition of Mas G-protein signaling improves coronary blood flow, reduces myocardial infarct size, and provides long-term cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Li, Zhuangjie; Dang, Huong; Chen, Ruoping; Liaw, Chen; Tran, Thuy-Anh; Boatman, P Douglas; Connolly, Daniel T; Adams, John W

    2012-01-01

    The Mas receptor is a class I G-protein-coupled receptor that is expressed in brain, testis, heart, and kidney. The intracellular signaling pathways activated downstream of Mas are still largely unknown. In the present study, we examined the expression pattern and signaling of Mas in the heart and assessed the participation of Mas in cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. Mas mRNA and protein were present in all chambers of human hearts, with cardiomyocytes and coronary arteries being sites of enriched expression. Expression of Mas in either HEK293 cells or cardiac myocytes resulted in constitutive coupling to the G(q) protein, which in turn activated phospholipase C and caused inositol phosphate accumulation. To generate chemical tools for use in probing the function of Mas, we performed a library screen and chemistry optimization program to identify potent and selective nonpeptide agonists and inverse agonists. Mas agonists activated G(q) signaling in a dose-dependent manner and reduced coronary blood flow in isolated mouse and rat hearts. Conversely, treatment of isolated rat hearts with Mas inverse agonists improved coronary flow, reduced arrhythmias, and provided cardioprotection from ischemia-reperfusion injury, an effect that was due, at least in part, to decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Participation of Mas in ischemia-reperfusion injury was confirmed in Mas knockout mice, which had reduced infarct size relative to mice with normal Mas expression. These results suggest that activation of Mas during myocardial infarction contributes to ischemia-reperfusion injury and further suggest that inhibition of Mas-G(q) signaling may provide a new therapeutic strategy directed at cardioprotection. PMID:22003054

  12. Long-term angiotensin II AT1 receptor inhibition produces adipose tissue hypotrophy accompanied by increased expression of adiponectin and PPARgamma.

    PubMed

    Zorad, Stefan; Dou, Jing-tao; Benicky, Julius; Hutanu, Daniel; Tybitanclova, Katarina; Zhou, Jin; Saavedra, Juan M

    2006-12-15

    To clarify the mechanism of the effects of angiotensin II AT(1) receptor antagonists on adipose tissue, we treated 8 week-old male Wistar Kyoto rats with the angiotensin II AT(1) receptor antagonist Candesartan cilexetil (10 mg/kg/day) for 18 weeks. Candesartan cilexetil reduced body weight gain, decreased fat tissue mass due to hypotrophy of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue and decreased adipocyte size without changing the number of adipocytes. Candesartan cilexetil decreased serum leptin levels and epididymal leptin mRNA, increased serum adiponectin levels and epididymal adiponectin mRNA, decreased epididymal tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) mRNA, and increased fatty acid synthase mRNA. Considered free of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonist activity, Candesartan cilexetil increased epididymal expression of PPARgamma mRNA. The effects of Candesartan cilexetil on adipokine production and release may be attributable to PPARgamma activation and/or decrease in adipocyte cell size. In addition, Candesartan cilexetil treatment increased the expression of epididymal angiotensin II AT(2) receptor mRNA and protein and decreased the expression of renin receptor mRNA. These results suggest that Candesartan cilexetil influences lipid metabolism in adipose tissue by promoting adipose tissue rearrangement and modulating adipokine expression and release. These effects are probably consequences of local angiotensin II AT(1) receptor inhibition, angiotensin II AT(2) receptor stimulation, and perhaps additional angiotensin II-independent mechanisms. Our results indicate that the activity of local renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in adipose tissue metabolism. The decrease in the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFalpha and the increase in the anti-inflammatory adipokine adiponectin indicate that Candesartan cilexetil may exert significant anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:17064684

  13. Long-term channel block is required to inhibit cellular transformation by human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG1) potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Pier, David M; Shehatou, George S G; Giblett, Susan; Pullar, Christine E; Trezise, Derek J; Pritchard, Catrin A; Challiss, R A John; Mitcheson, John S

    2014-08-01

    Both human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG1) and the closely related human ether-à-go-go (hEAG1) channel are aberrantly expressed in a large proportion of human cancers. In the present study, we demonstrate that transfection of hERG1 into mouse fibroblasts is sufficient to induce many features characteristic of malignant transformation. An important finding of this work is that this transformation could be reversed by chronic incubation (for 2-3 weeks) with the hERG channel blocker dofetilide (100 nM), whereas more acute applications (for 1-2 days) were ineffective. The hERG1 expression resulted in a profound loss of cell contact inhibition, multiple layers of overgrowing cells, and high saturation densities. Cells also changed from fibroblast-like to a more spindle-shaped morphology, which was associated with a smaller cell size, a dramatic increase in cell polarization, a reduction in the number of actin stress fibers, and less punctate labeling of focal adhesions. Analysis of single-cell migration and scratch-wound closure clearly demonstrated that hERG1-expressing cells migrated more rapidly than vector-transfected control cells. In contrast to previous studies on hEAG1, there were no increases in rates of proliferation, or loss of growth factor dependency; however, hERG1-expressing cells were capable of substrate-independent growth. Allogeneic transplantation of hERG1-expressing cells into nude mice resulted in an increased incidence of tumors. In contrast to hEAG1, the mechanism of cellular transformation is dependent on ion conduction. Trafficking-deficient and conduction-deficient hERG1 mutants also prevented cellular transformation. These results provide evidence that hERG1 expression is sufficient to induce cellular transformation by a mechanism distinct from hEAG1. The most important conclusion of this study is that selective hERG1 channel blockers have therapeutic potential in the treatment of hERG1-expressing cancers. PMID:24830940

  14. Long Term Illness and Wages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandy, Robert; Elliott, Robert R.

    2005-01-01

    Long-term illness (LTI) is a more prevalent workplace risk than fatal accidents but there is virtually no evidence for compensating differentials for a broad measure of LTI. In 1990 almost 3.4 percent of the U.K. adult population suffered from a LTI caused solely by their working conditions. This paper provides the first estimates of compensating…

  15. Light Chain Deposition Disease in an Older Adult Patient Successfully Treated with Long-term Administration of Bortezomib, Melphalan and Prednisone.

    PubMed

    Hiyamuta, Hiroto; Yamada, Shunsuke; Matsukuma, Yuta; Tsuchimoto, Akihiro; Nakano, Toshiaki; Taniguchi, Masatomo; Masutani, Kosuke; Yoshimoto, Goichi; Muta, Tsuyoshi; Akashi, Koichi; Kitazono, Takanari; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    A 70-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of fatigue and renal dysfunction and was diagnosed with light chain deposition disease (LCDD) with multiple organ involvement (kidney, thyroid gland, heart and eyes). After chemotherapy with bortezomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone, hepatobiliary enzyme levels increased abruptly. A liver biopsy showed light chain deposition in Disse spaces. After two years of treatment with bortezomib, melphalan and prednisone (VMP) administered at shorter intervals relative to regular cycles, the patient showed a hematological and organ response. This case indicates that a relatively low dose intensity VMP regimen is preferable for elderly patients with LCDD with multiple organ involvement. PMID:27181540

  16. Long-term data archiving

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven

    2009-01-01

    Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web

  17. A new astronomical method for determining the brightness of the night sky and its application to study long-term changes in the level of light pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ściężor, T.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, I present a new method that has been developed for determining the brightness of a cloudless night sky, on the basis of widely available amateur observations of comets. The tests show the correctness of the method, which makes it possible to determine the level of light pollution, defined as the brightness of the artificial sky glow, through the use of the archival observations of comets. The use of data bases of comet observations in Poland in the period 1994-2009 has led to a positive verification of the known model map of the brightness of the night sky. Also, it has been possible to find changes in the level of light pollution in this period, at the selected observation sites.

  18. Possible effects of UO/sub 2/ oxidation on light water reactor spent fuel performance in long-term geologic disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Almassy, M.Y.; Woodley, R.E.

    1982-08-01

    Disposal of spent nuclear fuel in a conventionally mined geologic formation is the nearest-term option for permanently isolating radionuclides from the biosphere. Because irradiated uranium dioxide (UO/sub 2/) fuel pellets retain 95 to 99% of the radionuclides generated during normal light water reactor operation, they may represent a significant barrier to radionuclide release. This document presents a technical assessment of published literature representing the current level of understanding of spent fuel characteristics and conditions that may degrade pellet integrity during a geologic disposal sequence. A significant deterioration mechanism is spent UO/sub 2/ oxidation with possible consequences identified as fission gas release, rod diameter increases, cladding breach extension, and release of solid fuel particles containing radionuclides. Areas requiring further study to support development of a comprehensive spent fuel performance prediction model are highlighted. A program and preliminary schedule to obtain the information needed to develop model correlations are also presented.

  19. Voltage balancing: Long-term experience with the 250 V supercapacitor module of the hybrid fuel cell vehicle HY-LIGHT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kötz, R.; Sauter, J.-C.; Ruch, P.; Dietrich, P.; Büchi, F. N.; Magne, P. A.; Varenne, P.

    On the occasion of the "Challenge Bibendum" 2004 in Shanghai, the hybrid fuel cell-supercapacitor vehicle HY-LIGHT, a joint project of Conception et Développement Michelin and the Paul Scherrer Institut, was presented to the public. The drive train of this vehicle comprises a 30 kW polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) and a 250 V supercapacitor (SC) module for energy recuperation and boost power during short acceleration and start-up processes. The supercapacitor module was deliberately constructed without continuous voltage balancing units. The performance of the supercapacitor module was monitored over the 2 years of operation particularly with respect to voltage balancing of the large number of SC cells connected in series. During the investigated period of 19 months and about 7000 km driving, the voltage imbalance within the supercapacitor module proved negligible. The maximum deviation between best and worst SC was always below 120 mV and the capacitor with the highest voltage never exceeded the nominal voltage by more than 40 mV.

  20. Gross primary production and light response parameters of four Southern Plains ecosystems estimated using long-term CO2-flux tower measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmanov, Tagir G.; Verma, Shashi B.; Sims, Phillip L.; Meyers, Tilden P.; Bradford, James A.; Burba, George G.; Suyker, Andrew E.

    2003-06-01

    Gross primary production (GPP) is one of the most important characteristics of an ecosystem. At present, no empirically based method to estimate GPP is available, other than measurements of net CO2 exchange and calculations of respiration. Data sets from continuous CO2 flux measurements in a number of ecosystems (Ameriflux, AgriFlux, etc.) for the first time provide an opportunity to obtain empirically based estimates of GPP. In this paper, using the results of CO2 flux tower measurements during the 1997 season at four sites in Oklahoma (tallgrass prairie, mixed prairie, pasture, and winter wheat crop), we describe a method to evaluate the average daytime rate of ecosystem respiration, Rd, by estimation of the respiration term of the nonrectangular hyperbolic model of the ecosystem-scale light-response curve. Comparison of these predicted daytime respiration rates with directly measured corresponding nighttime values, Rn, after appropriate length of the night and temperature correction, demonstrated close linear relationship, with 0.82 ≤ R2 ≤ 0.98 for weekly averaged fluxes. Daily gross primary productivity, Pg, can be calculated as Pg = Pd + Rd, where Pd is the daytime integral of the net ecosystem CO2 exchange, obtained directly from measurements. Annual GPP for the sites, obtained as the sum of Pg over the whole period with Pg > 0 were: tallgrass prairie, 5223 g CO2 m-2; winter wheat, 2853 g CO2 m-2; mixed prairie, 3037 g CO2 m-2; and pasture, 2333 g CO2 m-2. These values are in agreement with published GPP estimates for nonforest terrestrial ecosystems.

  1. Space ventures and society long-term perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    A futuristic evaluation of mankind's potential long term future in space is presented. Progress in space will not be inhibited by shortages of the Earth's physical resources, since long term economic growth will be focused on ways to constrain industrial productivity by changing social values, management styles, or government competence. Future technological progress is likely to accelerate with an emphasis on international cooperation, making possible such large joint projects as lunar colonies or space stations on Mars. The long term future in space looks exceedingly bright even in relatively pessimistic scenarios. The principal driving forces will be technological progress, commercial and public-oriented satellites, space industrialization, space travel, and eventually space colonization.

  2. Distribution variation of a metabolic uncoupler, 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP) in long-term sludge culture and their effects on sludge reduction and biological inhibition.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Di; Li, Zhipeng; Cui, Yanni

    2013-01-01

    Distribution variation of a metabolic uncoupler, 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP), in long-term sludge culture was studied, and the effects on sludge reduction and biological inhibition of this chemical during the 90-day operation were established. The extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix functioned as a protective barrier for the bacteria inside sludge flocs to 2,6-DCP, resulting in the transfer of 2,6-DCP from the liquid phase to the activated sludge fraction. Significant sludge reduction (about 40%) was observed after the addition of 2,6-DCP in the first 40 days, while the ineffective function of 2,6-DCP in sludge reduction (days 70-90) might be correlated to the EPS protection mechanism. The inhibitory effect of 2,6-DCP on the COD removal was extremely lower than on the nitrification performance due to the fact that 2,6-DCP was much more toxic to autotrophic microorganisms than heterotrophic microorganisms. Moreover, both of them recovered to a higher level again with the transfer potential of 2,6-DCP to sludge. Thus, the application of metabolic uncoupler for excess sludge reduction should be cautious. PMID:23123050

  3. Stapedectomy - long-term report.

    PubMed

    Shea, J J

    1982-01-01

    The long-term results with large fenestra stapedectomy with vein graft and Teflon piston are compared with results with the small fenestra stapedectomy with teflon piston directly into the vestibule. There were 1,943 operations in the former group and 2,155 in the latter when compared in 1970. One hundred consecutive patients from the beginning of each group with follow-up to present were compared. Results were generally the same with no great change in 15 and 20 years as compared to those at 5 years. The complication of perilymph fistula was caused by creating an opening in the footplate much larger than the prosthesis and was eliminated by interposing a living oval window seal if the opening was much larger than the prosthesis and a flap of lining membrane from the promontory when it was not. Other factors that influence a good result are discussed, including the type and the diameter of the piston used, the type of living oval window seal and the method of attachment to the incus. The small fenestra operation was found to be superior to the large, not only for the hearing gain achieved, but the case of performance and the freedom from complications due to migration of the prosthesis and/or the oval window seal. At present we have done about all that can be done for the conductive components. What remains is the sensorineural component which our studies indicate may be due to an autoimmune response. PMID:6897157

  4. Long Term Surface Salinity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Raymond W.; Brown, Neil L.

    2005-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to establish a reliable system for monitoring surface salinity around the global ocean. Salinity is a strong indicator of the freshwater cycle and has a great influence on upper ocean stratification. Global salinity measurements have potential to improve climate forecasts if an observation system can be developed. This project is developing a new internal field conductivity cell that can be protected from biological fouling for two years. Combined with a temperature sensor, this foul-proof cell can be deployed widely on surface drifters. A reliable in-situ network of surface salinity sensors will be an important adjunct to the salinity sensing satellite AQUARIUS to be deployed by NASA in 2009. A new internal-field conductivity cell has been developed by N Brown, along with new electronics. This sensor system has been combined with a temperature sensor to make a conductivity - temperature (UT) sensor suitable for deployment on drifters. The basic sensor concepts have been proven on a high resolution CTD. A simpler (lower cost) circuit has been built for this application. A protection mechanism for the conductivity cell that includes antifouling protection has also been designed and built. Mr. A.Walsh of our commercial partner E-Paint has designed and delivered time-release formulations of antifoulants for our application. Mr. G. Williams of partner Clearwater Instrumentation advised on power and communication issues and supplied surface drifters for testing.

  5. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition. PMID:23986109

  6. Long-term solar-terrestrial observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The results of an 18-month study of the requirements for long-term monitoring and archiving of solar-terrestrial data is presented. The value of long-term solar-terrestrial observations is discussed together with parameters, associated measurements, and observational problem areas in each of the solar-terrestrial links (the sun, the interplanetary medium, the magnetosphere, and the thermosphere-ionosphere). Some recommendations are offered for coordinated planning for long-term solar-terrestrial observations.

  7. Long-term preservation of Anammox bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deposit of useful microorganisms in culture collections requires long-term preservation and successful reactivation techniques. The goal of this study was to develop a simple preservation protocol for the long-term storage and reactivation of the anammox biomass. To achieve this, anammox biomass w...

  8. Long Term Preservation of Digital Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorie, Raymond A.

    The preservation of digital data for the long term presents a variety of challenges from technical to social and organizational. The technical challenge is to ensure that the information, generated today, can survive long term changes in storage media, devices, and data formats. This paper presents a novel approach to the problem. It distinguishes…

  9. Virtual Models of Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phenice, Lillian A.; Griffore, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home-care organizations, use web sites to describe their services to potential consumers. This virtual ethnographic study developed models representing how potential consumers may understand this information using data from web sites of 69 long-term-care providers. The content of long-term-care web…

  10. Paying for long-term care.

    PubMed Central

    Estes, C L; Bodenheimer, T

    1994-01-01

    Everyone agrees that insurance for long-term care is inadequate in the United States. Disagreement exists, however, on whether such insurance should be provided through the private or public sector. Private insurance generally uses the experience-rating principle that persons with higher risk of illness are charged higher premiums. For private insurance for long-term care, this principle creates a dilemma. Most policies will be purchased by the elderly; yet, because the elderly have a high risk of needing long-term care, only about 20% of them can afford the cost of premiums. A public-private partnership by which the government partially subsidizes private long-term-care insurance is unlikely to resolve this dilemma. Only a social insurance program for long-term care can provide universal, affordable, and equitable coverage. PMID:8128712

  11. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light

  12. Long-term use of indomethacin leads to poor prognoses through promoting the expression of PD-1 and PD-L2 via TRIF/NF-κB pathway and JAK/STAT3 pathway to inhibit TNF-α and IFN-γ in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pingbo; Sun, Zhirong; Wang, Yun; Miao, Changhong

    2015-09-10

    HCC still has a poor prognosis in clinical due to high recurrence and metastasis rates worldwide nowadays. Indomethacin pretreatment is used as a potential chemopreventive agent in cancers for it could assist in anti-tumor functions of other agents and exert anti-tumor effect. Our study aims to discuss the effects and mechanisms of long-term use of indomethacin in HCC. The HepA mouse models were used to observe tumor recurrence, intrahepatic metastasis and remote metastasis. NK cell, αβ T cell and γδ T cell were used to explore the underlying mechanisms for anti-tumor effect of indomethacin. The results showed that long-term use of indomethacin facilitated intrahepatic recurrence, intrahepatic dissemination and lung metastasis, and indomethacin inhibits TNF-α and IFN-γ in vivo and in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, long-term use of indomethacin increased the expression of PD-1 and PD-L2 in programmed death-1 pathway. Blockade of PD-1 and PD-L2 reversed the reduced production of TNF-α and IFN-γ induced by indomethacin in γδ T cells. In addition, long-term use of indomethacin activates TRIF/NF-κB and JAK/STAT3 pathways, and indomethacin promotes the expression of PD-1 and PD-L2 via TRIF/NF-κB pathway and JAK/STAT3 pathway respectively in γδ T cells. Given these findings, we drew a conclusion that long-term use of indomethacin leads to poor prognoses through promoting the expression of PD-1 and PD-L2 via TRIF/NF-κB pathway and JAK/STAT3 pathway to inhibit TNF-α and IFN-γ in HCC. PMID:26162855

  13. Long-Term Photometric Monitoring of Two Redback Pulsar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Rodrigo Alberto; Roberts, Mallory; Russell, Dave

    2016-06-01

    Redback systems consist of an eclipsing millisecond pulsar in a short period orbit (< 1 day) around a non-degenerate companion. These systems can potentially transition from their current state where they are ablating their companion to an accreting state. How such a transition can take place is poorly understood. Long-term monitoring of their optical orbital light-curves are important to answer questions about their evolution as well as to catch transitions between states. The orbital light curves can be used to infer the systems’ inclination angle, necessary to measure component masses, the effects of the pulsar heating on the atmosphere of the companion, and long term trends in the light curve may give some clue to the mechanism by which they transition. In this poster we present preliminary photometric light-curves of two binary, redback pulsar systems: PSR J2215+5135 and PSR J1628-3205. These data were taken in 2015 and 2016 with the 1m telescopes of the LCOGT observatory in several standard SDSS filter bands. We will compare the resulting light-curves with previous work on these systems to refine models of the light curves and to look for any long term trends in the optical emission such has been seen in the redback system PSR J2129-0429.

  14. Long Term Effects of Food Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... develop chronic arthritis. Brain and nerve damage A Listeria infection can lead to meningitis, an inflammation of ... brain. If a newborn infant is infected with Listeria , long-term consequences may include mental retardation, seizures, ...

  15. Mental Health in Long Term Care Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Herbert

    1978-01-01

    There are many ways in which long-term care facilities attempt to cope with the mental health problems of the elderly. The author reviews five factors crucial to effective care for the aged in these facilities. (Author/RK)

  16. Asthma Medicines: Long-Term Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Asthma Medicines: Long-term Control Page Content Article Body Corticosteroids Synthetic ... and sprinkle forms are available for young children. Long-Acting Beta2-Agonists Medications in the beta 2 - ...

  17. Experiences of the Long Term Stability at SLS

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, F. Q.

    2007-01-19

    The long term stability on the scale from days to a year, besides the short term stability, is one of key performance indicators of a light source. The Swiss Light Source (SLS) was installed and commissioned in 2000. It has successfully worked for more than 5 years without re-alignment of the machine. Hydrostatic Leveling System (HLS) and Horizontal Position System (HPS) have been added at supports of the storage ring (48 girders). They made evidence that the position of SLS Storage Ring (SR) is very stable on the time scale of a day, a week, a month and a year. The evidence for the long term stability is also provided by frequency of the RF cavity. The HLS is a powerful tool. The analysis of the HLS data shows that the vertical displacements, which are adjusted to correct average orbit deviations, of the SLS storage ring foundation and of the girder supports were in the range of 0.15 mm in 2003. The site, the building foundation, the mechanical supports and the temperature control are important pre-conditions to get the good long term stability. The experience gained with the long term stability at SLS is presented.

  18. Phosphatidic acid inhibits blue light-induced stomatal opening via inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 [corrected].

    PubMed

    Takemiya, Atsushi; Shimazaki, Ken-ichiro

    2010-08-01

    Stomata open in response to blue light under a background of red light. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) inhibits blue light-dependent stomatal opening, an effect essential for promoting stomatal closure in the daytime to prevent water loss. However, the mechanisms and molecular targets of this inhibition in the blue light signaling pathway remain unknown. Here, we report that phosphatidic acid (PA), a phospholipid second messenger produced by ABA in guard cells, inhibits protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), a positive regulator of blue light signaling, and PA plays a role in stimulating stomatal closure in Vicia faba. Biochemical analysis revealed that PA directly inhibited the phosphatase activity of the catalytic subunit of V. faba PP1 (PP1c) in vitro. PA inhibited blue light-dependent stomatal opening but did not affect red light- or fusicoccin-induced stomatal opening. PA also inhibited blue light-dependent H(+) pumping and phosphorylation of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. However, PA did not inhibit the autophosphorylation of phototropins, blue light receptors for stomatal opening. Furthermore, 1-butanol, a selective inhibitor of phospholipase D, which produces PA via hydrolysis of phospholipids, diminished the ABA-induced inhibition of blue light-dependent stomatal opening and H(+) pumping. We also show that hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide, which are intermediates in ABA signaling, inhibited the blue light responses of stomata and that 1-butanol diminished these inhibitions. From these results, we conclude that PA inhibits blue light signaling in guard cells by PP1c inhibition, accelerating stomatal closure, and that PP1 is a cross talk point between blue light and ABA signaling pathways in guard cells. PMID:20498335

  19. Long-term variability of dMe stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, M. J.; Hartmann, L.

    1978-01-01

    Photographic B magnitudes of the four spot stars BY Dra (dM0e), CC Eri (K7 Ve), AU Mic (dM2.5e), and YZ CMi (dM4.5e) are reported which considerably extend the time baseline of the photoelectric data on these stars. The long-term variation of the stars in yearly mean light is investigated. It is found that both BY Dra and CC Eri exhibit long-term B-magnitude variations with amplitudes of about 0.3 to 0.4 magnitude and times between maximum and minimum light near 30 yr. No apparent variability is observed for AU Mic and YZ CMi. The possibility is discussed that the variability of BY Dra and CC Eri is connected with a starspot cycle, for which the period would be around 60 yr.

  20. Long Term Treatment Concepts and Proactive Therapy for Atopic Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Ehmann, Laura Maximiliane

    2012-01-01

    Atopic eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is a frequent, highly pruritic, chronic skin disease, which is typically running in flares. The traditional treatment mainly consists of the reactive application of topical anti-inflammatory agents such as topical corticosteroids and topical calcineurin inhibitors. The short term benefit of this approach is well known, but long term remission between flares is difficult to achieve. Therefore, innovative long-term treatment strategies targeting flare prevention and skin barrier stabilization are needed. We and others have shown that normal looking, non-lesional skin of atopic dermatitis patients is immunobiologially not normal but characterized by an invisible inflammation and barrier defect. This has led to the novel concept of proactive therapy, which is defined as long-term, low-dose intermittent application of anti-inflammatory therapy to the previously affected skin, together with an ongoing emollient treatment of unaffected skin. This review article describes the most important long-term treatment options for atopic dermatitis, which includes emollient therapy, the novel concept of proactive treatment, the different ultraviolet light modalities and a selection of systemic immunosuppressive drugs and biologics. Current trial data, licensed indications, off-label use and relevant side effects of the different treatment modalities are summarized. PMID:22879707

  1. Scenarios for long-term analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wolbers, Stephen; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    Data Preservation and Long-Term Analysis of High Energy Physics (HEP) Experiments data is described and summarized in this talk. The summary covers information presented at the First Workshop on Data Preservation and Long-Term Analysis. Experiments representing e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions (LEP, B Factories and CLEO), ep collisions (H1 and ZEUS), p{bar p} collisions (CDF and D0) and others presented interesting information related to utilizing the large datasets collected over many years at these HEP facilities. Many questions and issues remain to be explored.

  2. Long-Term Use of Benzodiazepines

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Nicholas L.S.; Krishnan, K. Ranga R.

    1992-01-01

    Problems associated with physical dependence and abuse of benzodiazepines by a small percentage of patients have reduced their popularity from the most commonly prescribed psychoactive drug in the 1970s to being prescribed for mainly short periods. Patients who benefit from long-term benzodiazepine use are nearly ignored by the medical community as a whole. This article details what patient population can improve from long-term benzodiazepine therapy, the risks and benefits of treatment, and how to select appropriate candidates. PMID:21229127

  3. Long-term Outcomes after Severe Shock

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Cristina M.; Hirshberg, Eliotte L.; Jones, Jason P.; Kuttler, Kathryn G.; Lanspa, Michael J.; Wilson, Emily L.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Brown, Samuel M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe shock is a life-threatening condition with very high short-term mortality. Whether the long-term outcomes among survivors of severe shock are similar to long-term outcomes of other critical illness survivors is unknown. We therefore sought to assess long-term survival and functional outcomes among 90-day survivors of severe shock and determine whether clinical predictors were associated with outcomes. Methods Seventy-six patients who were alive 90 days after severe shock (received ≥1 mcg/kg/min of norepinephrine equivalent) were eligible for the study. We measured three-year survival and long-term functional outcomes using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the EuroQOL 5-D-3L, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and an employment instrument. We also assessed the relationship between in-hospital predictors and long-term outcomes. Results The mean long-term survival was 5.1 years: 82% (62/76) of patients survived, of whom 49 were eligible for follow-up. Patients who died were older than patients who survived. Thirty-six patients completed a telephone interview a mean of five years after hospital admission. The patients’ Physical Functioning scores were below US population norms (p<0.001), whereas mental health scores were similar to population norms. Nineteen percent of the patients had symptoms of depression, 39% had symptoms of anxiety and 8% had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Thirty-six percent were disabled, and 17% were working full time. Conclusions Early survivors of severe shock had a high three-year survival rate. Patients’ long term physical and psychological outcomes were similar to those reported for cohorts of less severely ill ICU survivors. Anxiety and depression were relatively common, but only a few patients had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This study supports the observation that acute illness severity does not determine long-term

  4. LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LTHIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...

  5. Long Term Care Aide. Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbee, Judy

    This course outline is intended to assist the instructor in the development of a curriculum for a long-term care aide program by specifying one component of the curriculum--the objectives. These objectives, or competencies expected as outcomes for student performance on completion of the program, describe the capabilities an individual must…

  6. Who Recommends Long-Term Care Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert L.; Bershadsky, Boris; Bershadsky, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Making good consumer decisions requires having good information. This study compared long-term-care recommendations among various types of health professionals. Design and Methods: We gave randomly varied scenarios to a convenience national sample of 211 professionals from varying disciplines and work locations. For each scenario, we…

  7. Long-term fixed income market structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilli, Luca

    2004-02-01

    Long-term fixed income market securities present a strong positive correlation in daily returns. By using a metrical approach and considering “modified” time series, I show how it is possible to show a more complex structure which depends strictly on the maturity date.

  8. Professionalism in Long-Term Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubinski, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists who serve elders in a variety of long-term care settings have a variety of professional skills and responsibilities. Fundamental to quality service is knowledge of aging and communication changes and disorders associated with this process, institutional alternatives, and the changing nature of today's elders in…

  9. NATIONAL LONG TERM CARE SURVEY (NLTCS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Long Term Care Surveys (NLTCS) are surveys of the entire aged population with a particular emphasis on the functionally impaired. Longitudinal study of the health and well-being of elderly Americans. Information about the population of chronically disabled elderly person...

  10. Long-Term Memory and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, John

    2011-01-01

    The English National Curriculum Programmes of Study emphasise the importance of knowledge, understanding and skills, and teachers are well versed in structuring learning in those terms. Research outcomes into how long-term memory is stored and retrieved provide support for structuring learning in this way. Four further messages are added to the…

  11. Long-Term Stability of Social Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyyppa, Markku T.; Maki, Juhani; Alanen, Erkki; Impivaara, Olli; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-01-01

    The long-term stability of social participation was investigated in a representative urban population of 415 men and 579 women who had taken part in the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey in the years 1978-1980 and were re-examined 20 years later. Stability was assessed by means of the following tracking coefficients: kappa, proportion of…

  12. Is Current Hydrogeologic Research Addressing Long-TermPredictions?

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2004-09-10

    Hydrogeology is a field closely related to the needs of society. Many problems of current national and local interest require predictions of hydrogeological system behavior, and, in a number of important cases, the period of prediction is tens to hundreds of thousands of years. It is argued that the demand for such long-term hydrogeological predictions casts a new light on the future needs of hydrogeological research. Key scientific issues are no longer concerned only with simple processes or narrowly focused modeling or testing methods, but also with assessment of prediction uncertainties and confidence, couplings among multiple physico-chemical processes occurring simultaneously at a site, and the interplay between site characterization and predictive modeling. These considerations also have significant implications for hydrogeological education. With this view, it is asserted that hydrogeological directions and education need to be reexamined and possibly refocused to address specific needs for long-term predictions.

  13. On long-term ozone trends at Hohenpeissenberg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claude, H.; Vandersee, W.; Wege, K.

    1994-01-01

    More than 2000 ozone soundings and a large number of Dobson observations have been performed since 1967 in a unique procedure. The achieved very homogeneous data sets were used to evaluate significant long-term trends both in the troposphere and the stratosphere. The trend amounts to about plus 2 percent per year in the troposphere and to about minus 0.5 percent per year in the stratosphere. Extremely low ozone records obtained during winter 1991/92 are discussed in the light of the long term series. The winter mean of the ozone column is the lowest one of the series. The ozone deficit occurred mainly in the lower stratosphere. One cause may be the Pinatubo cloud. Even compared with the extreme winter mean following the El Chichon eruption the ozone content was lower. Additionally ozone was reduced by dynamical effects due to unusual weather situations.

  14. Long term mortality in burned children

    PubMed Central

    Stamboulian, Daniel; Lede, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Studies about risk factors for mortality in burn children are scarce and are even less in the follow up of this population across time. Usually, after complete event attendance, children are not follow-up as risk patients, burn injury affects all facets of life. Integration of professionals from different disciplines has enabled burn centers to develop collaborative methods of assessing the quality of care delivered to patients with burns. In this editorial we comment the paper of Duke et al. The authors highlight the importance of maintaining a long-term monitoring of children who suffered burns. The importance of this original study is to promote the reconsideration of clinical guides of long-term follow-up of burn patients. PMID:26835375

  15. Long term mortality in burned children.

    PubMed

    Rosanova, María Teresa; Stamboulian, Daniel; Lede, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Studies about risk factors for mortality in burn children are scarce and are even less in the follow up of this population across time. Usually, after complete event attendance, children are not follow-up as risk patients, burn injury affects all facets of life. Integration of professionals from different disciplines has enabled burn centers to develop collaborative methods of assessing the quality of care delivered to patients with burns. In this editorial we comment the paper of Duke et al. The authors highlight the importance of maintaining a long-term monitoring of children who suffered burns. The importance of this original study is to promote the reconsideration of clinical guides of long-term follow-up of burn patients. PMID:26835375

  16. Long-term safety of retinoid therapy.

    PubMed

    Vahlquist, A

    1992-12-01

    The concern about long-term toxicity of oral synthetic retinoids has developed because many patients, especially those with genodermatoses, require lifelong therapy. Several organ systems are at risk, especially the hepatic, skeletal, and cardiovascular systems. Although acute hepatotoxicity is a rare side effect of etretinate and acitretin therapy, prospective studies have not demonstrated chronic liver toxicity. The frequency of bone changes induced by retinoids is difficult to estimate, because this adverse effect is usually asymptomatic and requires x-ray or scintigraphic examination for detection. Atherosclerosis develops in many patients who receive long-term retinoid therapy, but the extent to which the process is aggravated by drug-induced hyperlipidemia is not known. Many patients have now been treated with either etretinate or isotretinoin continuously for as many as 15 years and have not developed any signs of severe chronic toxicity. However, continued intense surveillance is recommended for patients expected to require lifelong therapy. PMID:1460122

  17. [Taiwan long-term care insurance and the evolution of long-term care in Japan].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Wen; Liu, Shu-Hui; Pai, Yu-Chu

    2010-08-01

    The proportion of elderly (65 years of age and older) in Taiwan has exceeded 10% since 2008. With more elderly, the number of patients suffering from dementia and disabilities has also been rapidly increasing. Japan also has been facing increasing demand for long-term care due to an aging society. Prior to 2000, social welfare programs in Japan, working to cope with changing needs, typically provided insufficient services, and geriatric patients were hospitalized unnecessarily, wasting medical resources and causing undue patient hardship. In response, Japan launched its long-term care insurance program in April 2000. Under the program, city, town and village-based organizations should take responsibility for providing care to the elderly in their place of residence. The program significantly improved previous financial shortfalls and long-term care supply and demand has been met by existing social welfare organization resources. In Taiwan, the provision of long-term care by county / city authorities has proven inconsistent, with performance deemed poor after its first decade of long-term care operations. Service was found to be affected by differences in available resources and insufficient long-term care administration. The cultures of Taiwan and Japan are similar. The authors visited the Japan Long-Term Care Insurance Institute in August 2009. Main issues involved in the implementation and evolution of the Japan long-term Care Insurance are reported on in this paper. We hope such may be useful information to those working to develop long-term care programs in Taiwan. PMID:20661859

  18. Long-term orbital lifetime predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreher, P. E.; Lyons, A. T.

    1990-10-01

    Long-term orbital lifetime predictions are analyzed. Predictions were made for three satellites: the Solar Max Mission (SMM), the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), and the Pegasus Boiler Plate (BP). A technique is discussed for determining an appropriate ballistic coefficient to use in the lifetime prediction. The orbital decay rate should be monitored regularly. Ballistic coefficient updates should be done whenever there is a significant change in the actual decay rate or in the solar activity prediction.

  19. Long-term sequelae of electrical injury

    PubMed Central

    Wesner, Marni L.; Hickie, John

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize the current evidence-based knowledge about the long-term sequelae of injuries from electrical current. Quality of evidence MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published in the past 20 years using the following search terms: electrical, injuries, wound, trauma, accident, sequelae, long-term, follow-up, and aftereffects. For obvious reasons, it is unethical to randomly study electrical injury in controlled clinical trials. By necessity, this topic is addressed in less-rigorous observational and retrospective work and case studies. Therefore, the strength of the literature pertaining to the long-term sequelae of electrical injury is impaired by the necessity of retrospective methods and case studies that typically describe small cohorts. Main message There are 2 possible consequences of electrical injury: the person either survives or dies. For those who survive electrical injury, the immediate consequences are usually obvious and often require extensive medical intervention. The long-term sequelae of the electrical injury might be more subtle, pervasive, and less well defined, but can include neurologic, psychological, and physical symptoms. In the field of compensation medicine, determining causation and attributing outcome to an injury that might not result in objective clinical findings becomes a considerable challenge. Conclusion The appearance of these consequences of electrical injury might be substantially delayed, with onset 1 to 5 or more years after the electrical injury. This poses a problem for patients and health care workers, making it hard to ascribe symptoms to a remote injury when they might not arise until well after the incident event. PMID:24029506

  20. Long-term home hemodialysis in children

    PubMed Central

    Borra, Sonia; Kaye, Michael

    1971-01-01

    Experience with chronic hemodialysis as a definitive form of therapy is described for six children aged 11 to 15 years at the onset. Duration on dialysis in the home has been between one and 4½ years. All patients are alive and rehabilitated without serious complications. It is concluded that although transplantation is the most desirable form of treatment for children, long-term hemodialysis is an alternative acceptable second choice. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:5150193

  1. Long-term Variation of AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J. H.; Xie, G. Z.; Adam, G.; Copin, Y.; Lin, R. G.; Bai, J. M.; Quin, Y. P.

    In this paper we will present the long-term variation in the optical and the infrared bands for some selected AGNs. 1. Some new optical data observed by us have been presented for BL Lacertae (1995-1996) and OJ 287 (1994-1995), and new infrared data are presented for OJ 287 (Nov=2E 1995), which corresponds to the second optical peak (Sillanpaa et al. 1996; Takalo et al. 1996) and during last outburst. 2. For objects with long term observations, the Jurkevich's method has been used to analyses the long-term variation period. It is interesting that the reported periods of AGNs are of the similar value of about 10 years: 3C 345 11.4 years (Webb et al. 1988), 3C 120 15 years (Belokon et al. 1987; Hagen-Thorn et al. 1997), ON 231 13.6 years (Liu et al. 1995), OJ 287 12 years (Sillanpaa et al. 1988; Kidger et al. 1992), PKS 0735+178 14 years (Fan et al. 1997), NGC 4151 15 years (Fan et al. 1998a), BL Lacertae 14.0 years (Fan et al. 1998b). Is the mechanism for the long-term variation the same for different AGNs? 3. The DCF method has been adopted to analysis the variation correlation in the optical and infrared bands for BL Lac object OJ 287, the results show that these two bands are strongly correlated, which suggest that the emission mechanism in the two bands is the same. 4. For the optical and infrared bands, the maximum variations are correlated.

  2. Long-term consequences of anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Meczekalski, Blazej; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Katulski, Krzysztof

    2013-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs mainly in female adolescents and young women. The obsessive fear of weight gain, critically limited food intake and neuroendocrine aberrations characteristic of AN have both short- and long-term consequences for the reproductive, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and skeletal systems. Neuroendocrine changes include impairment of gonadotropin releasing-hormone (GnRH) pulsatile secretion and changes in neuropeptide activity at the hypothalamic level, which cause profound hypoestrogenism. AN is related to a decrease in bone mass density, which can lead to osteopenia and osteoporosis and a significant increase in fracture risk in later life. Rates of birth complications and low birth weight may be higher in women with previous AN. The condition is associated with fertility problems, unplanned pregnancies and generally negative attitudes to pregnancy. During pregnancy, women with the condition have higher rates of hyperemesis gravidarum, anaemia and obstetric complications, as well as impaired weight gain and compromised intrauterine foetal growth. It is reported that 80% of AN patients are affected by a cardiac complications such as sinus bradycardia, a prolonged QT interval on electrocardiography, arrythmias, myocardial mass modification and hypotension. A decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the most important medical consequences of AN. Reduced BMD may subsequently lead to a three- to seven-fold increased risk of spontaneous fractures. Untreated AN is associated with a significant increase in the risk of death. Better detection and sophisticated therapy should prevent the long-term consequences of this disorder. The aims of treatment are not only recovery but also prophylaxis and relief of the long-term effects of this disorder. Further investigations of the long-term disease risk are needed. PMID:23706279

  3. Titanium for long-term tritium storage

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.

    1994-12-01

    Due to the reduction of nuclear weapon stockpile, there will be an excess of tritium returned from the field. The excess tritium needs to be stored for future use, which might be several years away. A safe and cost effective means for long term storage of tritium is needed. Storing tritium in a solid metal tritide is preferred to storing tritium as a gas, because a metal tritide can store tritium in a compact form and the stored tritium will not be released until heat is applied to increase its temperature to several hundred degrees centigrade. Storing tritium as a tritide is safer and more cost effective than as a gas. Several candidate metal hydride materials have been evaluated for long term tritium storage. They include uranium, La-Ni-Al alloys, zirconium and titanium. The criteria used include material cost, radioactivity, stability to air, storage capacity, storage pressure, loading and unloading conditions, and helium retention. Titanium has the best combination of properties and is recommended for long term tritium storage.

  4. [Long-term survival after severe trauma].

    PubMed

    Mutschler, W; Mutschler, M; Graw, M; Lefering, R

    2016-07-01

    Long-term survival after severe trauma is rarely addressed in German trauma journals although knowledge of life expectancy and identification of factors contributing to increased mortality are important for lifetime care management, development of service models, and targeting health promotion and prevention interventions. As reliable data in Germany are lacking, we compiled data mainly from the USA and Australia to describe life expectancy, risk factors, and predictors of outcome in patients experiencing traumatic spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and polytrauma. Two years after trauma, life expectancy in all three categories was significantly lower than that of the general population. It depends strongly on severity of disability, age, and gender and is quantifiable. Whereas improvements in medical care have led to a marked decline in short-term mortality, surprisingly long-term survival in severe trauma has not changed over the past 30 years. Therefore, there is need to intensify long-term trauma patient care and to find new strategies to limit primary damage. PMID:27342106

  5. Blue light inhibits proliferation of melanoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Anja; Distler, Elisabeth; Klapczynski, Anna; Arpino, Fabiola; Kuch, Natalia; Simon-Keller, Katja; Sticht, Carsten; van Abeelen, Frank A.; Gretz, Norbert; Oversluizen, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    Photobiomodulation with blue light is used for several treatment paradigms such as neonatal jaundice, psoriasis and back pain. However, little is known about possible side effects concerning melanoma cells in the skin. The aim of this study was to assess the safety of blue LED irradiation with respect to proliferation of melanoma cells. For that purpose we used the human malignant melanoma cell line SK-MEL28. Cell proliferation was decreased in blue light irradiated cells where the effect size depended on light irradiation dosage. Furthermore, with a repeated irradiation of the melanoma cells on two consecutive days the effect could be intensified. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting with Annexin V and Propidium iodide labeling did not show a higher number of dead cells after blue light irradiation compared to non-irradiated cells. Gene expression analysis revealed down-regulated genes in pathways connected to anti-inflammatory response, like B cell signaling and phagosome. Most prominent pathways with up-regulation of genes were cytochrome P450, steroid hormone biosynthesis. Furthermore, even though cells showed a decrease in proliferation, genes connected to the cell cycle were up-regulated after 24h. This result is concordant with XTT test 48h after irradiation, where irradiated cells showed the same proliferation as the no light negative control. In summary, proliferation of melanoma cells can be decreased using blue light irradiation. Nevertheless, the gene expression analysis has to be further evaluated and more studies, such as in-vivo experiments, are warranted to further assess the safety of blue light treatment.

  6. Relational sustainability: environments for long-term critical care patients.

    PubMed

    Mammen, Jens; Laude, Cum; Costello, Brenna

    2014-01-01

    Patients undergoing bone marrow transplant, using spinal cord services, and with traumatic brain injury represent a relatively new patient type, requiring both intense care and long-term care in the same facility. As medical advances allow these patients the opportunity to recover from their critical illnesses or injuries, designers and caregivers must give increased attention to the long-term critical care environment. Designing for this type of care requires an understanding of new technologies and the potential for the built environment to address the wide range of physical, sensory, and psychological issues long-term inpatients face. Recent work by SmithGroupJJR has provided valuable insights into the ways in which lighting, patient room and unit layouts, spatial volumes, and other design elements can contribute to the recovery of patients who must spend weeks or months in a critical care environment. This knowledge was gained through an approach that allows design professionals to immerse themselves in a health care institution's values, culture, and work processes. By mapping both operational flow and patients' experiences, project teams can develop design solutions that sustain the well-being of higher-acuity patients and their family members and caregivers. PMID:24309460

  7. [Long-term treatment with amiodarone].

    PubMed

    Baedeker, W; Goedel-Meinen, L; Schmidt, G; Hofmann, M; Barthel, P; Blömer, H

    1991-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and the side effects of a long-term treatment with amiodarone. We analyzed the data of 41 patients in whom amiodarone therapy had been initiated between 1974 and 1984. Twenty-one patients had dilative cardiomyopathy, 14 patients had chronic myocardial infarction, four patients suffered from WPW syndrome with intermittent atrial fibrillation, one patient had aortic valve surgery, whereas in one patient there was no clinical evidence of a heart disease. All patients had salvos of ventricular extrasystoles, ventricular tachycardia or documented intermittent ventricular fibrillation. There have been seven drop-outs up to the present time. In each patient, the lowest antiarrhythmically effective dose was applied, which was generally higher in patients with low ejection fraction. Effective treatment of the ventricular tachycardia was achieved in 55-92% of patients and did not depend on the duration of treatment. In 10 patients in whom amiodarone therapy had to be stopped for various reasons. Sudden cardiac death was slightly more frequent than in the 24 patients treated with amiodarone, though the difference was not significant. In cases with a history of syncope the prognosis was poor, even with amiodarone therapy. Due to side effects, a dosage reduction or discontinuation of amiodarone treatment became necessary in 14 patients. Amiodarone proved to be an effective drug also for the long-term treatment of ventricular tachycardia, and possibly for the prevention of sudden cardiac death. With the exception of blue skin color, there was no accumulation of side effects, even during long-term treatment of several years. PMID:1711739

  8. Long-term EARLINET dust observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, Lucia; Amiridis, Vassilis; Amodeo, Aldo; Binietoglou, Ioannis; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Schwarz, Anja; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Papayannis, Alexandros; Sicard, Michael; Comeron, Adolfo; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2015-04-01

    Systematic observations of Saharan dust events over Europe are performed from May 2000 by EARLINET, the European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork. EARLINET is a coordinated network of stations that make use of advanced lidar methods for the vertical profiling of aerosols. The backbone of EARLINET network is a common schedule for performing the measurements and the quality assurance of instruments/data. Particular attention is paid to monitoring the Saharan dust intrusions over the European continent. The geographical distribution of the EARLINET stations is particularly appealing for the dust observation, with stations located all around the Mediterranean and in the center of the Mediterranean (Italian stations) where dust intrusions are frequent, and with several stations in the central Europe where dust penetrates occasionally. All aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles related to observations collected during these alerts are grouped in the devoted "Saharan dust" category of the EARLINET database. This category consists of about 4700 files (as of December 2013). Case studies involving several stations around Europe selected from this long-term database have been provided the opportunity to investigate dust modification processes during transport over the continent. More important, the long term EARLINET dust monitoring allows the investigation of the horizontal and vertical extent of dust outbreaks over Europe and the climatological analysis of dust optical intensive and extensive properties at continental scale. This long-term database is also a unique tool for a systematic comparison with dust model outputs and satellite-derived dust products. Because of the relevance for both dust modeling and satellite retrievals improvement, results about desert dust layers extensive properties as a function of season and source regions are investigated and will be presented at the conference. First comparisons with models outputs and CALIPSO dust products will be

  9. Timber beams subjected to long - term loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sógel, K.

    2010-09-01

    Wood is a significant structural material, which is often used for timber bearing structures. Elements of timber structures must especially satisfy safety requirements, which are expressed by the ultimate limit states in the established standards. The structure must also satisfy the serviceability limit states. Local and global deformations make it impossible for the structure to serve the purpose it was designed for. It is important to take the deflections and their possible increase into account in the design to provide a structure which can be used during the whole period of service. Based on earlier examinations, it is known that a timber element over the course of long-term loading shows creep behavior. The structure of wood is able to adapt to the conditions of the surrounding environment. The properties of wood are especially affected by the relative humidity of the air and then by the type, intensity and duration of the loading. The most important factors affecting the serviceability of timber structures are volume changes caused by humidity and additional deflections caused by the effects of long-term loading. These phenomena emphasize the importance of serviceability limit states for timber structures. The paper deals with a long-term experimental investigation of timber girders that are currently often used. The aim was to obtain the deflection curves and mark the time dependence and the final deflections. The paper will also define the approximations for simulating the time-dependent deflections and obtain the creep coefficients for calculating the final deflections of the girders investigated.

  10. Long-Term Wind Power Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y. H.

    2012-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory started collecting wind power data from large commercial wind power plants (WPPs) in southwest Minnesota with dedicated dataloggers and communication links in the spring of 2000. Over the years, additional WPPs in other areas were added to and removed from the data collection effort. The longest data stream of actual wind plant output is more than 10 years. The resulting data have been used to analyze wind power fluctuations, frequency distribution of changes, the effects of spatial diversity, and wind power ancillary services. This report uses the multi-year wind power data to examine long-term wind power variability.

  11. Long-term outcomes in multiple gestations.

    PubMed

    Rand, Larry; Eddleman, Keith A; Stone, Joanne

    2005-06-01

    Children born from a multiple gestation are at increased risk for cerebral palsy, learning disability, and language and neurobehavioral deficits. With the increased incidence of multiple pregnancies and use of assisted reproductive technology (ART), these issues are more commonly affecting parents. Long-term outcomes are a critical part of preconceptual and early pregnancy counseling for parents faced with a multiple gestation or considering ART, and the provider should be well versed on issues surrounding zygosity, gestational age, higher-order multiples, and the effects of options such as multifetal pregnancy reduction. PMID:15922795

  12. Long-Term Solar Irradiance Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of the solar energy throughout the solar spectrum and understanding its variability provide important information about the physical processes and structural changes in the solar interior and in the solar atmosphere...The aim of this paper is to discuss the solar-cycle-related long-term changes in solar total and UV irradiances. The spaceborne irradiance observations are compared to ground-based indices of solar magnetic activity, such as the Photometric Sunspot Index, full disk magnetic flux, and the Mt. Wilson Magnetic Plage Strength Index.

  13. Long Term Archiving and CCSDS Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucon, Danièle

    This article presents some conceptual and implementation CCSDS -Consultative Committee for Space Data Systemsstandards for long term archiving. It focuses on the most recent one, the Producer Archive Interface Specification (PAIS) standard. This standard, currently available as a draft on the CCSDS web site, will be published by the beginning of 2014. It will enable the Producer to share with the Archive a sufficiently precise and unambiguous formal definition of the Digital Objects to be produced and transferred, by means of a model. It will also enable a precise definition of the packaging of these objects in the form of Submission Information Packages (SIPs), including the order in which they should be transferred.

  14. Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

  15. Performance considerations in long-term spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, F. R.

    1979-01-01

    Maintenance of skilled performance during extended space flight is of critical importance to both the health and safety of crew members and to the overall success of mission goals. An examination of long term effects and performance requirements is therefore a factor of immense importance to the planning of future missions. Factors that were investigated include: definition of performance categories to be investigated; methods for assessing and predicting performance levels; in-flight factors which can affect performance; and factors pertinent to the maintenance of skilled performance.

  16. 47 CFR 54.303 - Long term support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Long term support. 54.303 Section 54.303... SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas § 54.303 Long term support. (a) Beginning January 1... shall receive Long Term Support. Beginning July 1, 2004, no carrier shall receive Long Term Support....

  17. 47 CFR 54.303 - Long term support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Long term support. 54.303 Section 54.303... SERVICE Universal Service Support for High Cost Areas § 54.303 Long term support. (a) Beginning January 1... shall receive Long Term Support. Beginning July 1, 2004, no carrier shall receive Long Term Support....

  18. Long term perfusion system supporting adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Rosalyn D.; Raja, Waseem K.; Wang, Rebecca Y.; Stinson, Jordan A.; Glettig, Dean L.; Burke, Kelly A.; Kaplan, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue engineered models are needed to enhance our understanding of disease mechanisms and for soft tissue regenerative strategies. Perfusion systems generate more physiologically relevant and sustainable adipose tissue models, however adipocytes have unique properties that make culturing them in a perfusion environment challenging. In this paper we describe the methods involved in the development of two perfusion culture systems (2D and 3D) to test their applicability for long term in vitro adipogenic cultures. It was hypothesized that a silk protein biomaterial scaffold would provide a 3D framework, in combination with perfusion flow, to generate a more physiologically relevant sustainable adipose tissue engineered model than 2D cell culture. Consistent with other studies evaluating 2D and 3D culture systems for adipogenesis we found that both systems successfully model adipogensis, however 3D culture systems were more robust, providing the mechanical structure required to contain the large, fragile adipocytes that were lost in 2D perfused culture systems. 3D perfusion also stimulated greater lipogenesis and lipolysis and resulted in decreased secretion of LDH compared to 2D perfusion. Regardless of culture configuration (2D or 3D) greater glycerol was secreted with the increased nutritional supply provided by perfusion of fresh media. These results are promising for adipose tissue engineering applications including long term cultures for studying disease mechanisms and regenerative approaches, where both acute (days to weeks) and chronic (weeks to months) cultivation are critical for useful insight. PMID:25843606

  19. Long-term intracranial pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    de Jong, D A; Maas, A I; den Ouden, A H; de Lange, S A

    Continuous or intermittent measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) is important in patients at risk for raised ICP. Indications exist for short- and long-term measurements. The various methods used for short-term monitoring are discussed with their relative advantages and disadvantages. For long-term measurements of ICP use of a completely implantable telemetric epidural pressure transducer is indicated. No such device is commercially available. We have developed an inexpensive passive telemetric transducer for this purpose. Results obtained up till now have demonstrated its reliability for measurements of two to three months duration. The life span of the device is limited by degrading of the epoxy utilized for sealing of the titanium pressure sensing part to the radiolucent ceramic cap of the transducer, causing leakage of water into the transducer and false low measurements. Because of these problems new hermetic sealing techniques were tested. Both active metal brazing and glass bonding yielded good results and hermetic sealing could be obtained. The metal to ceramic bonding presented is generally applicable within the design of implants. Besides the technical progress reported, the experience with clinical use in 12 patients is presented. PMID:6674738

  20. Long-Term Care Policy: Singapore's Experience.

    PubMed

    Chin, Chee Wei Winston; Phua, Kai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Singapore, like many developed countries, is facing the challenge of a rapidly aging population and the increasing need to provide long-term care (LTC) services for elderly in the community. The Singapore government's philosophy on care for the elderly is that the family should be the first line of support, and it has relied on voluntary welfare organizations (VWOs) or charities for the bulk of LTC service provision. For LTC financing, it has emphasized the principles of co-payment and targeting of state support to the low-income population through means-tested government subsidies. It has also instituted ElderShield, a national severe disability insurance scheme. This paper discusses some of the challenges facing LTC policy in Singapore, particularly the presence of perverse financial incentives for hospitalization, the pitfalls of over-reliance on VWOs, and the challenges facing informal family caregivers. It discusses the role of private LTC insurance in LTC financing, bearing in mind demand- and supply-side failures that have plagued the private LTC insurance market. It suggests the need for more standardized needs assessment and portable LTC benefits, with reference to the Japanese Long-Term Care Insurance program, and also discusses the need to provide more support to informal family caregivers. PMID:26808468

  1. Long Term Changes in the Polar Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2016-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented. The unusual meteorological conditions of the 2015 south polar vortex and the 2010/11 and 2015/16 north polar vortices will be compared to other recent years.

  2. Long term changes in the polar vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2015-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented.

  3. Long term differential consequences of miglustat therapy on intestinal disaccharidases.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Mahdi; Naim, Hassan Y

    2014-11-01

    Miglustat is an oral medication for treatment of lysosomal storage diseases such as Gaucher disease type I and Niemann Pick disease type C. In many cases application of Miglustat is associated with symptoms similar to those observed in intestinal carbohydrate malabsorption. Previously, we have demonstrated that intestinal disaccharidases are inhibited immediately by Miglustat in the intestinal lumen. Nevertheless, the multiple functions of Miglustat hypothesize long term effects of Miglustat on intracellular mechanisms, including glycosylation, maturation and trafficking of the intestinal disaccharidases. Our data show that a major long term effect of Miglustat is its interference with N-glycosylation of the proteins in the ER leading to a delay in the trafficking of sucrase-isomaltase. Also association with lipid rafts and plausibly apical targeting of this protein is partly affected in the presence of Miglustat. More drastic is the effect of Miglustat on lactase-phlorizin hydrolase which is partially blocked intracellularly. The de novo synthesized SI and LPH in the presence of Miglustat show reduced functional efficiencies according to altered posttranslational processing of these proteins. However, at physiological concentrations of Miglustat (≤50 μM) a major part of the activity of these disaccharidases is found to be still preserved, which puts the charge of the observed carbohydrate maldigestion mostly on the direct inhibition of disaccharidases in the intestinal lumen by Miglustat as the immediate side effect. PMID:24863482

  4. Spine expansion and stabilization associated with long-term potentiation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunlei; Wang, Xiao-bin; Frerking, Matthew; Zhou, Qiang

    2008-05-28

    Stable expression of long-term synaptic plasticity is critical for the developmental refinement of neural circuits and for some forms of learning and memory. Although structural remodeling of dendritic spines is associated with the stable expression of long-term potentiation (LTP), the relationship between structural and physiological plasticity remains unclear. To define whether these two processes are related or distinct, we simultaneously monitored EPSPs and dendritic spines, using combined patch-clamp recording and two-photon time-lapse imaging in the same CA1 pyramidal neurons in acute hippocampal slices. We found that theta burst stimulation paired with postsynaptic spiking, which reliably induced LTP, also induced a rapid and persistent expansion of dendritic spines. Like LTP, this expansion was NMDA receptor dependent. Spine expansion occurred even when LTP was inhibited by postsynaptic inhibition of exocytosis or PKA (protein kinase A); however, under these conditions, the spine expansion was unstable and collapsed spontaneously. Furthermore, similar changes in LTP and spine expansion were observed when hippocampal neurons were treated with protein synthesis inhibitors. Like LTP, spine expansion was reversed by low-frequency stimulation (LFS) via a phosphatase-dependent mechanism, but only if the LFS was applied in a critical time window after induction. These results indicate that the initial expression of LTP and spine expansion is dissociable, but there is a high degree of mechanistic overlap between the stabilization of structural plasticity and LTP. PMID:18509035

  5. Managing soils for long-term productivity

    PubMed Central

    Syers, J. K.

    1997-01-01

    Meeting the goal of long-term agricultural productivity requires that soil degradation be halted and reversed. Soil fertility decline is a key factor in soil degradation and is probably the major cause of declining crop yields. There is evidence that the contribution of declining soil fertility to soil degradation has been underestimated.
    Sensitivity to soil degradation is implicit in the assessment of the sustainability of land management practices, with wide recognition of the fact that soils vary in their ability to resist change and recover subsequent to stress. The concept of resilience in relation to sustainability requires further elaboration and evaluation.
    In the context of soil degradation, a decline in soil fertility is primarily interpreted as the depletion of organic matter and plant nutrients. Despite a higher turnover rate of organic matter in the tropics there is no intrinsic difference between the organic matter content of soils from tropical and temperate regions. The level of organic matter in a soil is closely related to the above and below ground inputs. In the absence of adequate organic material inputs and where cultivation is continuous, soil organic matter declines progressively. Maintaining the quantity and quality of soil organic matter should be a guiding principle in developing management practices.
    Soil microbial biomass serves as an important reservoir of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S), and regulates the cycling of organic matter and nutrients. Because of its high turnover rate, microbial biomass reacts quickly to changes in management and is a sensitive indicator for monitoring and predicting changes in soil organic matter. Modelling techniques have been reasonably successful in predicting changes in soil organic matter with different organic material inputs, but there is little information from the tropics.
    Nutrient depletion through harvested crop components and residue removal, and by leaching and soil

  6. Advanced long term cryogenic storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Norman S.

    1987-01-01

    Long term, cryogenic fluid storage facilities will be required to support future space programs such as the space-based Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), Telescopes, and Laser Systems. An orbital liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen storage system with an initial capacity of approximately 200,000 lb will be required. The storage facility tank design must have the capability of fluid acquisition in microgravity and limit cryogen boiloff due to environmental heating. Cryogenic boiloff management features, minimizing Earth-to-orbit transportation costs, will include advanced thick multilayer insulation/integrated vapor cooled shield concepts, low conductance support structures, and refrigeration/reliquefaction systems. Contracted study efforts are under way to develop storage system designs, technology plans, test article hardware designs, and develop plans for ground/flight testing.

  7. Long term performance of radon mitigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-03-01

    Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes.

  8. Long-term U. S. energy outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, G.

    1984-01-01

    Each year Chase Econometrics offers its clients a brief summary of the assumptions underlying the long-term energy forecast for the U.S. To illustrate the uncertainty involved in forecasting for the period to the year 2000, they choose to compare forecasts with some recent projections prepared by the Department of Energy's Office of Policy, Planning and Analysis for the annual National Energy Policy Plan supplement. Particular emphasis is placed on Scenario B, which is the mid-range reference case. As the introduction to the supplement emphasizes, the NEPP projections should not be considered a statement of the policy goals of the Reagan Administration. They represent an analysis of the possible evolution of U.S. energy markets, given current information and existing policies. The purpose of providing Scenario B as a reference case as well as Scenarios A and C as alternate cases is to show the sensitivity of oil price projections to small swings in energy demand.

  9. Long-term control of root growth

    DOEpatents

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene

    1992-05-26

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin.

  10. Long-term control of root growth

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.

    1992-05-26

    A method and system for long-term control of root growth without killing the plants bearing those roots involves incorporating a 2,6-dinitroaniline in a polymer and disposing the polymer in an area in which root control is desired. This results in controlled release of the substituted aniline herbicide over a period of many years. Herbicides of this class have the property of preventing root elongation without translocating into other parts of the plant. The herbicide may be encapsulated in the polymer or mixed with it. The polymer-herbicide mixture may be formed into pellets, sheets, pipe gaskets, pipes for carrying water, or various other forms. The invention may be applied to other protection of buried hazardous wastes, protection of underground pipes, prevention of root intrusion beneath slabs, the dwarfing of trees or shrubs and other applications. The preferred herbicide is 4-difluoromethyl-N,N-dipropyl-2,6-dinitro-aniline, commonly known as trifluralin. 7 figs.

  11. Withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Petursson, H; Lader, M H

    1981-01-01

    Long-term, normal-dose benzodiazepine treatment was discontinued in 16 patients who were suspected of being dependent on their medication. The withdrawal was gradual, placebo-controlled, and double-blind. All the patients experienced some form of withdrawal reaction, which ranged from anxiety and dysphoria to moderate affective and perceptual changes. Symptom ratings rose as the drugs were discontinued, but usually subsided to prewithdrawal levels over the next two to four weeks. Other features of the withdrawal included disturbance of sleep and appetite and noticeable weight loss. Electroencephalography showed appreciable reduction in fast-wave activity as the drugs were withdrawn, and an improvement in psychological performance was recorded by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Because of the risk of dependence on benzodiazepines these agents should probably not be given as regular daily treatment for chronic anxiety. PMID:6114776

  12. Long term thermoelectric module testing system.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Jonathan; Hogan, Timothy

    2009-10-01

    Thermoelectric generators can be used for converting waste heat into electric power. Significant interest in developing new materials in recent years has led to the discovery of several promising thermoelectrics, however, there can be considerable challenges in developing the materials into working devices. Testing and feedback is needed at each step to gain valuable information for identification of difficulties, quality of the materials and modules, repeatability in fabrication, and longevity of the devices. This paper describes a long-term module testing system for monitoring the output power of a module over extended testing times. To evaluate the system, we have tested commercially available thermoelectric modules over a one month time period. PMID:19895086

  13. Managing Records for the Long Term - 12363

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, John V.; Gueretta, Jeanie

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing vast amounts of information documenting historical and current operations. This information is critical to the operations of the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Managing legacy records and information is challenging in terms of accessibility and changing technology. The Office of Legacy Management is meeting these challenges by making records and information management an organizational priority. The Office of Legacy Management mission is to manage DOE post-closure responsibilities at former Cold War weapons sites to ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. These responsibilities include environmental stewardship and long-term preservation and management of operational and environmental cleanup records associated with each site. A primary organizational goal for the Office of Legacy Management is to 'Preserve, Protect, and Share Records and Information'. Managing records for long-term preservation is an important responsibility. Adequate and dedicated resources and management support are required to perform this responsibility successfully. Records tell the story of an organization and may be required to defend an organization in court, provide historical information, identify lessons learned, or provide valuable information for researchers. Loss of records or the inability to retrieve records because of poor records management processes can have serious consequences and even lead to an organisation's downfall. Organizations must invest time and resources to establish a good records management program because of its significance to the organization as a whole. The Office of Legacy Management will continue to research and apply innovative ways of doing business to ensure that the organization stays at the forefront of effective records and information management. DOE is committed to preserving records that document our nation's Cold War legacy, and the Office of Legacy

  14. Long-term dynamics of Typha populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, J.B.; Wetzel, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The zonation of Typha populations in an experimental pond in Michigan was re-examined 15 years after the original sampling to gain insight into the long-term dynamics. Current distributions of Typha populations were also examined in additional experimental ponds at the site that have been maintained for 23 years. The zonation between T. latifolia and T. angustifolia in the previously studied pond 15 years after the initial sampling revealed that the density and distribution of shoots had not changed significantly. Thus, it appears that previously reported results (based on 7- year old populations) have remained consistent over time. Additional insight into the interaction between these two taxa was sought by comparing mixed and monoculture stands in five experimental ponds that have remained undisturbed for their 23-year history. The maximum depth of T. latifolia, the shallow- water species, was not significantly reduced when growing in the presence of the more flood tolerant T. angustifolia. In contrast, the minimum depth of T. angustifolia was reduced from 0 to 37 cm when in the presence of T. latifolia. When total populations were compared between monoculture and mixed stands, the average density of T. angustifolia shoots was 59.4 percent lower in mixed stands while the density of T. latifolia was 32 percent lower, with T. angustifolia most affected at shallow depths (reduced by 92 percent) and T. latifolia most affected at the deepest depths (reduced by 60 percent). These long-term observations indicate that competitive displacement between Typha taxa has remained stable over time.

  15. THERMOREGULATORY EFFECTS OF CHLORPYRIFOS IN THE RAT: LONG-TERM CHANGES IN CHOLINERGIC AND NORADRENERGIC SENSITIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Subcutaneous injection of a sublethal dose of chlorpyrifos (CHLP), an organophosphate (OP) pesticide, causes long-term inhibition in cholinesterase activity (ChE) of brain, blood, and other tissues. uch prolonged inhibition in ChE should lead to marked behavioral and autonomic th...

  16. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, Timothy V.P.; Cooke, Sam F

    2011-01-01

    Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke. PMID:21779718

  17. Effects of long-term atorvastatin treatment on cardiac aging

    PubMed Central

    HAN, LEI; LI, MINGGAO; LIU, XIN

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have reported that atorvastatin (AVT) may have an important role in the delay of cardiac aging. However, the mechanism by which AVT affects cardiac aging has not been established. In this study, a series of experiments were performed to investigate the effects of AVT treatment on the cardiovascular system and the associated mechanism. Wistar rats were administered AVT or saline for 4 months. Age-related changes in the hearts were measured at the end of the experiment. The results showed that compared with young rats, the aged rats had significant changes indicative of myocardial aging, including increased blood lipid 1evelss, increased body weight, cardiac hypertrophy, larger myocardial cells, irregular muscle fibers, fewer deeply stained nuclei, smaller intercellular spaces, a larger number of apoptotic cells and increased levels of lipofuscin in myocardial tissue. However, long-term AVT treatment was able to significantly delay or even reverse these aging-related changes. In addition, these effects showed a certain dose-dependence. In general, long-term AVT treatment reduces blood lipids, inhibits cardiac hypertrophy, suppresses cardiomyocyte apoptosis and lowers the level of oxidative stress to protect the heart from aging. PMID:24137254

  18. Texture-Independent Long-Term Tracking Using Virtual Corners.

    PubMed

    Lebeda, Karel; Hadfield, Simon; Matas, Jiri; Bowden, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Long-term tracking of an object, given only a single instance in an initial frame, remains an open problem. We propose a visual tracking algorithm, robust to many of the difficulties that often occur in real-world scenes. Correspondences of edge-based features are used, to overcome the reliance on the texture of the tracked object and improve invariance to lighting. Furthermore, we address long-term stability, enabling the tracker to recover from drift and to provide redetection following object disappearance or occlusion. The two-module principle is similar to the successful state-of-the-art long-term TLD tracker; however, our approach offers better performance in benchmarks and extends to cases of low-textured objects. This becomes obvious in cases of plain objects with no texture at all, where the edge-based approach proves the most beneficial. We perform several different experiments to validate the proposed method. First, results on short-term sequences show the performance of tracking challenging (low textured and/or transparent) objects that represent failure cases for competing the state-of-the-art approaches. Second, long sequences are tracked, including one of almost 30 000 frames, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the longest tracking sequence reported to date. This tests the redetection and drift resistance properties of the tracker. Finally, we report the results of the proposed tracker on the VOT Challenge 2013 and 2014 data sets as well as on the VTB1.0 benchmark, and we show relative performance of the tracker compared with its competitors. All the results are comparable with the state of the art on sequences with textured objects and superior on non-textured objects. The new annotated sequences are made publicly available. PMID:26552087

  19. LONG-TERM MONITORING SENSOR NETWORK

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen P. Farrington; John W. Haas; Neal Van Wyck

    2003-10-16

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) associated with subsurface contamination sites is a key element of Long Term Stewardship and Legacy Management across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, both within the DOE and elsewhere, LTM is an expensive endeavor, often exceeding the costs of the remediation phase of a clean-up project. The primary contributors to LTM costs are associated with labor. Sample collection, storage, preparation, analysis, and reporting can add a significant financial burden to project expense when extended over many years. Development of unattended, in situ monitoring networks capable of providing quantitative data satisfactory to regulatory concerns has the potential to significantly reduce LTM costs. But survival and dependable operation in a difficult environment is a common obstacle to widespread use across the DOE complex or elsewhere. Deploying almost any sensor in the subsurface for extended periods of time will expose it to chemical and microbial degradation. Over the time-scales required for in situ LTM, even the most advanced sensor systems may be rendered useless. Frequent replacement or servicing (cleaning) of sensors is expensive and labor intensive, offsetting most, if not all, of the cost savings realized with unattended, in situ sensors. To enable facile, remote monitoring of contaminants and other subsurface parameters over prolonged periods, Applied Research Associates, Inc has been working to develop an advanced LTM sensor network consisting of three key elements: (1) an anti-fouling sensor chamber that can accommodate a variety of chemical and physical measurement devices based on electrochemical, optical and other techniques; (2) two rapid, cost effective, and gentle means of emplacing sensor packages either at precise locations directly in the subsurface or in pre-existing monitoring wells; and (3) a web browser-based data acquisition and control system (WebDACS) utilizing field-networked microprocessor-controlled smart

  20. Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Shahin, Sarkis; Duran, Celso

    2002-07-01

    While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of contaminated sites with multiple contaminants released from multiple sources where contaminants have transported and commingled. The U.S. government and U.S. industry are responsible for most of the contamination and are landowners of many of these contaminated properties. These sites must be surveyed periodically for various criteria including structural deterioration, water intrusion, integrity of storage containers, atmospheric conditions, and hazardous substance release. The surveys, however, are intrusive, time-consuming, and expensive and expose survey personnel to radioactive contamination. In long-term monitoring, there's a need for an automated system that will gather and report data from sensors without costly human labor. In most cases, a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) unit is used to collect and report data from a remote location. A SCADA unit consists of an embedded computer with data acquisition capabilities. The unit can be configured with various sensors placed in different areas of the site to be monitored. A system of this type is static, i.e., the sensors, once placed, cannot be moved to other locations within the site. For those applications where the number of sampling locations would require too many sensors, or where exact location of future problems is unknown, a mobile sensing platform is an ideal solution. In many facilities that undergo regular inspections, the number of video cameras and air monitors required to eliminate the need for human inspections is very large and far too costly. HCET's remote harsh

  1. Treatment for childhood cancer -- long-term risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000849.htm Treatment for childhood cancer - long-term risks To use the sharing features on ... has. Being aware of your child's risk of long-term health problems can help you follow-up ...

  2. Long-term antihypertensive treatment inhibiting progression of diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Mogensen, C E

    1982-01-01

    Six men aged 26-35 years with proteinuria due to insulindependent juvenile-onset diabetes were treated for moderate hypertension (mean blood pressure 162/103 mm Hg) and studied for a mean of 73 months for the effect on the progression of nephropathy. All patients were of normal weight. During a mean control period of 28 months before treatment the mean glomerular filtration rate (three or four measurements) was 86·1 ml/min and mean 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (also three or four measurements) 3·9 g (range 0·5-8·8 g). During antihypertensive treatment the mean systolic blood pressure fell to 144 mm Hg and mean diastolic pressure to 95 mm Hg. In the control period five patients had shown a mean monthly decline in glomerular filtration rate of 1·23 ml/min; with antihypertensive treatment, however, this decline fell to 0·49 ml/min (2p=0·042). In the remaining patient the glomerular filtration rate was 137 ml/min before treatment and 135 ml/min at the end of the treatment period. In all patients the mean yearly increase in albumin clearance (expressed as a percentage of the glomerular filtration rate) fell from 107% before treatment to 5% during treatment (2p=0·0099). This small study indicates that antihypertensive treatment slows the decline in renal function in diabetic nephropathy. Clinical trials beginning treatment in the incipient phase of diabetic nephropathy will define the optimal modality of treatment in this large patient population. PMID:6809187

  3. Long-term adequacy of metal resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Although the earth's crust contains vast quantities of metals, extraction technologies and associated costs are inextricably bound to three fundamental geological factors - the amount of metal available in the earth's crust in each range of grades, the mineralogical form and chemical state of the metal, and the spatial distribution of the metal. The energy required to recover a given amount of metal increases substantially as grade declines. Most metal is produced from sulphide or oxide minerals, whereas most metal in the crust may be locked in the structures of the more refractory silicates. Recovery from silicate minerals could require orders of magnitude more energy than that used at present as also could exploitation of small, widely scattered or thin, deeply buried deposits. Although specific information on the fundamental factors is not available, each factor must in turn tend to further restrict exploitation. Independence of average grade and tonnage for many deposit types further reduces the availability of rock as a source of metal. In the long term, effects of these factors will be large increases in price for many metals. ?? 1977.

  4. Long-term outcome in aqueductal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Villani, R; Tomei, G; Gaini, S M; Grimoldi, N; Spagnoli, D; Bello, L

    1995-03-01

    In this study, 78 patients with aqueductal stenosis were submitted to detailed neurodevelopmental assessment with a follow-up of 5-25 years. Sixty-eight percent of patients were categorized as normal; they either attended normal school courses or had regular jobs. Among these, 34% had some motor abnormalities (ataxia, mild hemiparesis, visual disturbances). Twenty-four percent (19 cases) were moderately disabled (trainable retardation) and 8% (6 cases) were severely handicapped. Epilepsy was observed in 13% of the cases. Incidence of recurrent and generalized seizures paralleled neurodevelopmental outcome (5% in normal, 16% in moderately disabled and 50% in severely disabled patients). Endocrine dysfunctions were evident in 28% of the cases and were characterized by precocious or delayed puberty, amenorrhea and somatic underdevelopment. No patient with ventricular enlargement and a cortical mantle width below 20 mm showed a good outcome. Large ventricles were compatible with normal mental development when compensated with a corresponding cranial vault enlargement. In patients with normal mental status and motor abnormalities, long-term CT scan findings revealed the presence of focal brain abnormalities (poroencephaly, brain atrophy, calcifications, extracerebral collections). PMID:7773981

  5. Alpine Soils as long-term Bioindicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestroy, O.

    2009-04-01

    Alpine soils as long-term bioindicators The introductory words concern the definitions and peculiarities of alpine soils and their position in the Austrian Soil Classification 2000 in comparison with the World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2006. The important parameters for genesis and threats for these soils in steep and high positions are discussed. It must be emphasized that the main threats are the very different kinds of erosion e.g. by water, wind and snow, and also by skiing (end of season) as well as and mountain-biking (mainly summer-sport). Due the very slow regeneration and - in this connection - due to the very slow changes of the soil entities, these soils give an utmost importance as a long-time bioindicator. With regard to the climate change one can assume an increase in the content of organic matter on site, but also an increase of erosion and mass movement on the other site, e. g. in kind of "plaiken" (soil slide) as result of an increasing intensity of rainfall. It lies partly in our hands to diminish the number and the intensity of the threats, we can influence the soil development, but the result to reach a new ecological equilibrium is very long - in case of alpine soil more than two generations.

  6. Neurological long term consequences of deep diving.

    PubMed Central

    Todnem, K; Nyland, H; Skeidsvoll, H; Svihus, R; Rinck, P; Kambestad, B K; Riise, T; Aarli, J A

    1991-01-01

    Forty commercial saturation divers, mean age 34.9 (range 24-49) years, were examined one to seven years after their last deep dive (190-500 metres of seawater). Four had by then lost their divers' licence because of neurological problems. Twenty seven (68%) had been selected by neurological examination and electroencephalography before the deep dives. The control group consisted of 100 men, mean age 34.0 (range 22-48) years. The divers reported significantly more symptoms from the nervous system. Concentration difficulties and paraesthesia in feet and hands were common. They had more abnormal neurological findings by neurological examination compatible with dysfunction in the lumbar spinal cord or roots. They also had a larger proportion of abnormal electroencephalograms than the controls. The neurological symptoms and findings were highly significantly correlated with exposure to deep diving (depth included), but even more significantly correlated to air and saturation diving and prevalence of decompression sickness. Visual evoked potentials, brainstem auditory evoked potentials, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain did not show more abnormal findings in the divers. Four (10%) divers had had episodes of cerebral dysfunction during or after the dives; two had had seizures, one had had transitory cerebral ischaemia and one had had transitory global amnesia. It is concluded that deep diving may have a long term effect on the nervous system of the divers. PMID:2025592

  7. Long term prediction of flood occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Cristina; Montanari, Alberto; José Polo, María

    2016-05-01

    How long a river remembers its past is still an open question. Perturbations occurring in large catchments may impact the flow regime for several weeks and months, therefore providing a physical explanation for the occasional tendency of floods to occur in clusters. The research question explored in this paper may be stated as follows: can higher than usual river discharges in the low flow season be associated to a higher probability of floods in the subsequent high flow season? The physical explanation for such association may be related to the presence of higher soil moisture storage at the beginning of the high flow season, which may induce lower infiltration rates and therefore higher river runoff. Another possible explanation is persistence of climate, due to presence of long-term properties in atmospheric circulation. We focus on the Po River at Pontelagoscuro, whose catchment area amounts to 71 000 km2. We look at the stochastic connection between average river flows in the pre-flood season and the peak flows in the flood season by using a bivariate probability distribution. We found that the shape of the flood frequency distribution is significantly impacted by the river flow regime in the low flow season. The proposed technique, which can be classified as a data assimilation approach, may allow one to reduce the uncertainty associated to the estimation of the flood probability.

  8. Long-term corrosion testing pan.

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R.

    2008-08-01

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing needs. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to meet all future testing needs, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2007-7027 to address DOE comments and add a series of tests to address NWTRB recommendations.

  9. Long-term corrosion testing plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R.

    2009-02-01

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing program. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to accommodate all future testing, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2008-4922 to address DOE comments.

  10. Transuranic waste: long-term planning

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.C.

    1985-07-01

    Societal concerns for the safe handling and disposal of toxic waste are behind many of the regulations and the control measures in effect today. Transuranic waste, a specific category of toxic (radioactive) waste, serves as a good example of how regulations and controls impact changes in waste processing - and vice versa. As problems would arise with waste processing, changes would be instituted. These changes improved techniques for handling and disposal of transuranic waste, reduced the risk of breached containment, and were usually linked with regulatory changes. Today, however, we face a greater public awareness of and concern for toxic waste control; thus, we must anticipate potential problems and work on resolving them before they can become real problems. System safety analyses are valuable aids in long-term planning for operations involving transuranic as well as other toxic materials. Examples of specific system safety analytical methods demonstrate how problems can be anticipated and resolution initiated in a timely manner having minimal impacts upon allocation of resource and operational goals. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., {open_quotes}natural analogues{close_quotes}) provide perhaps the only means of partial {open_quotes}validation,{close_quotes} as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (10{sup 3}-10{sup 8} years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the {open_quotes}validation{close_quotes} of performance assessments.

  12. [Long term adherence to HAART in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Bastard, M; Fall, M Basty Koita

    2014-10-01

    Adherence is one of the main predictors of antiretroviral treatment success. A governmental initiative was launched in 1998 for HIV-infected patients in Senegal to provide access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Adherence measurements, defined as pills taken/pills prescribed, were assessed between November 1999 and June 2010 using a pill count along with a questionnaire for 330 patients. Predictors of adherence and identification of adherence trajectories were explored through latent class mixed model. We also performed a survival analysis using Cox proportional hazard model. Three adherence behaviours were revealed as well as a better adherence for women. A third of patients had a high adherence trajectory over time and a third had an intermediate one. Male gender and low adherence behaviour over time were independently associated with a higher mortality rate. This study shows that an overall good adherence can be obtained in the long term in Senegal, suggests a better adherence for women and points out a large subsample of patients with intermediate level of adherence behaviour who are at risk for developing resistance to antiretroviral drugs. PMID:24615434

  13. Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.

    PubMed

    Sykes, L R

    1996-04-30

    Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study. PMID:11607658

  14. Intermediate- and long-term earthquake prediction.

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, L R

    1996-01-01

    Progress in long- and intermediate-term earthquake prediction is reviewed emphasizing results from California. Earthquake prediction as a scientific discipline is still in its infancy. Probabilistic estimates that segments of several faults in California will be the sites of large shocks in the next 30 years are now generally accepted and widely used. Several examples are presented of changes in rates of moderate-size earthquakes and seismic moment release on time scales of a few to 30 years that occurred prior to large shocks. A distinction is made between large earthquakes that rupture the entire downdip width of the outer brittle part of the earth's crust and small shocks that do not. Large events occur quasi-periodically in time along a fault segment and happen much more often than predicted from the rates of small shocks along that segment. I am moderately optimistic about improving predictions of large events for time scales of a few to 30 years although little work of that type is currently underway in the United States. Precursory effects, like the changes in stress they reflect, should be examined from a tensorial rather than a scalar perspective. A broad pattern of increased numbers of moderate-size shocks in southern California since 1986 resembles the pattern in the 25 years before the great 1906 earthquake. Since it may be a long-term precursor to a great event on the southern San Andreas fault, that area deserves detailed intensified study. Images Fig. 1 PMID:11607658

  15. Long Term Storage of Lyophilized Liposomal Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Payton, N.M.; Wempe, M.F.; Xu, Y.; Anchordoquy, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Because aqueous liposomal formulations containing multiply unsaturated lipids are susceptible to chemical degradation, these formulations are often lyophilized. Despite their limited chemical stability, interest in the use of multiply unsaturated lipids to promote intracellular delivery has increased considerably in recent years. The goal of the current study was to examine the long term storage stability of lyophilized formulations containing lipids with increasing levels of unsaturation, and various strategies which can be employed to improve stability. Aqueous lipid-trehalose formulations containing 1,2-dilinolenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC), 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLinPC) or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) were lyophilized and stored at temperatures ranging from 4°C to 60°C. We observed that the lipid degradation rate increased as the storage temperature and unsaturation level were increased. Even the cleanest sugars which are available commercially contain iron contaminants, and it was observed that the chelation of these iron contaminants significantly improved the stability of DLPC during storage. However, the glass transition temperature of the sugar which was included in the formulation, the reduction of the oxygen in the aqueous sample prior to lyophilization, the inclusion of helper lipids (i.e., cholesterol), and the rate of freezing did not significantly improve stability. PMID:25308534

  16. Long-term intraperitoneal insulin delivery.

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, H A; Saudek, C D; Zacur, H A

    1992-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, 21 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus have been managed at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions with variable rate, remotely controlled implanted insulin pumps. To date, nearly 70 patient-years of experience has been gained with intraperitoneal delivery of a new U-400 insulin with a surfactant. All 21 patients are alive after a mean of 39.3 months (range, 10 to 65 months) after insulin pump implantation. Nineteen of the 21 patients remain on intraperitoneal insulin, for a 5-year actuarial system survival of 90%. Glucose control was improved, especially during the first 16 months after pump implantation, without an increased incidence of severe hypoglycemia. Catheter blockage has been a significant problem, occurring in nine of the 21 patients (43%). Catheter occlusion has been successfully managed, however, with laparoscopic repair in seven of 10 attempts or with catheter change in four of five patients. Nevertheless, quality of life and patient acceptance remain excellent. Moreover, pre-existing nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy have been surprisingly stable. With an aggressive policy of catheter change or laparoscopic clearance of catheter blockage, long-term intraperitoneal insulin delivery is now a safe and effective treatment for type I diabetics. PMID:1417197

  17. The long-term variability of Vega

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butkovskaya, V.; Plachinda, S.; Valyavin, G.; Baklanova, D.; Lee, B.-C.

    2011-12-01

    Over the time of 60 years Vega (α Lyrae = HD 172167, A0V) has been generally accepted as a standard star in the near-infrared, optical, and ultraviolet regions. But is the spectrophotometric standard Vega really non-variable star? Researchers give very different answers to this question. We aim to search a periodicity in our results of spectropolarimetric study of Vega, namely periodic variations in equivalent width of the spectral lines and longitudinal magnetic field measurements. High-accuracy spectropolarimetric observations of Vega have been performed during 26 nights from 1997 to 2010 using the Coudé spectrograph of the 2.6-m Shain reflector at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO, Ukraine) and during 4 nights in 2007 and 2008 using the echelle spectrograph BOES at the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (BOAO, South Korea). The long-term (year-to-year) variability of Vega was confirmed. It was concluded that this variability does not have magnetic nature. The paper is dedicated to the memory of V.P. Merezhin.

  18. 22 CFR 228.12 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.12 Section 228.12 Foreign... Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.12 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease..., a long-term lease is defined as a single lease of more than 180 days, or repetitive or...

  19. 22 CFR 228.12 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.12 Section 228.12 Foreign... Transactions for USAID Financing § 228.12 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease..., a long-term lease is defined as a single lease of more than 180 days, or repetitive or...

  20. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Long-term contracts. 1.460-1 Section 1.460-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-1 Long-term... the manufacture, building, installation, or construction of property is a long-term contract...

  1. 22 CFR 228.18 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.18 Section 228.18 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES FOR PROCUREMENT OF COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY... USAID Financing § 228.18 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease agreement...

  2. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Long-term contracts. 1.460-1 Section 1.460-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-1 Long-term... the manufacture, building, installation, or construction of property is a long-term contract...

  3. 22 CFR 228.18 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.18 Section 228.18 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES FOR PROCUREMENT OF COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY... USAID Financing § 228.18 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease agreement...

  4. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Long-term contracts. 1.460-1 Section 1.460-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-1 Long-term... the manufacture, building, installation, or construction of property is a long-term contract...

  5. 17 CFR 256.224 - Other long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other long-term debt. 256.224 Section 256.224 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) UNIFORM... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 6. Long-Term Debt § 256.224 Other long-term debt. This account shall include all...

  6. 17 CFR 256.224 - Other long-term debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other long-term debt. 256.224 Section 256.224 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) UNIFORM... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 6. Long-Term Debt § 256.224 Other long-term debt. This account shall include all...

  7. 22 CFR 228.18 - Long-term leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Long-term leases. 228.18 Section 228.18 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES FOR PROCUREMENT OF COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY... USAID Financing § 228.18 Long-term leases. Any commodity obtained under a long-term lease agreement...

  8. 3 CFR - Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Long-Term Gulf Coast Restoration Support Plan Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of June 30, 2010 Long-Term Gulf Coast... help the Gulf Coast and its people recover from this tragedy. A long-term plan to restore the...

  9. 78 FR 36449 - State Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration on Aging 45 CFR Parts 1321 and 1327 RIN 0985-AA08 State Long-Term Care... request for comments, to implement provisions of the Older Americans Act, the State Long-Term Care... determining State compliance in carrying out the Long-Term Care Ombudsman program functions. This...

  10. Methylation Alterations at Imprinted Genes Detected Among Long Term Shiftworkers

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Daniel I.; Hansen, Johnni; Fu, Alan; Stevens, Richard G.; Tjonneland, Anne; Vogel, Ulla B.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to light at night through shiftwork has been linked to alterations in DNA methylation and increased risk of cancer development. Using an Illumina Infinium Methylation Assay, we analyzed methylation levels of 397 CpG sites in the promoter regions of 56 normally imprinted genes to investigate whether shiftwork is associated with alteration of methylation patterns. Methylation was significantly higher at 20 CpG sites and significantly lower at 30 CpG sites (P < 0.05) in 10 female long-term shiftworkers as compared to 10 female age- and folate intake-matched day workers. The strongest evidence for altered methylation patterns in shiftworkers was observed for DLX5, IGF2AS, and TP73 based on the magnitude of methylation change and consistency in the direction of change across multiple CpG sites, and consistent results were observed using quantitative DNA methylation analysis. We conclude that long-term shiftwork may alter methylation patterns at imprinted genes, which may be an important mechanism by which shiftwork has carcinogenic potential and warrants further investigation. PMID:23193016

  11. Long term consequences of the female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill

    2013-06-01

    In the past 40 years, female sports participation, particularly at the high school level, has significantly increased. Physical activity in females has numerous positive benefits, including improved body image and overall health. Unfortunately, a select population of exercising females may experience symptoms related to the female athlete triad, which refers to the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density. Clinically, these conditions can manifest as disordered eating behaviors, menstrual irregularity, and stress fractures. Triad symptoms are distributed along a spectrum between optimal health and disease; all of the components of the triad may not be affected simultaneously. The female athlete triad was first identified in 1992. Since that time, a vast amount of research related to the identification, management and prevention of this condition has been published. More recently, research related to the long term effects of triad components has come into light. Women who were diagnosed with female athlete triad syndrome as adolescents and young adults in the 1990s are now in their 30s and 40s; negative long term effects of the female athlete triad, such as low bone mineral density, are now starting to manifest. Women of all ages should be assessed for triad components during routine annual physical examinations; appropriate measures to treat any current triad components should be implemented. In addition, women in their 30s, 40s and early 50s should be screened for a history of the female athlete triad. Multidisciplinary management of these conditions is strongly recommended. PMID:23541905

  12. [Long-term care services in Spain: an overview].

    PubMed

    Casado-Marín, David

    2006-03-01

    To date, both in Spain and virtually all the other European Union (EU) countries, dependency has been seen to be a fundamentally private problem to be dealt with by the family concerned. In this way, whether through informal carers or contracted professionals, in the domestic environment or in care homes, it is the dependent person themselves and their families who currently bear the majority of the costs. In light of this, current concern lies in the social change that is coming on, mainly the accelerated aging process and the increased participation of middle-aged women in the labour market, which heighten the need for collective organisation of that which until now has been resolved within family circles. In this context, at the same time that the Government announces to issue a <Long Term Care Law> by the end of 2005, our paper briefly analyzes what we consider the four crucial issues in this area: the current scope of dependency problems and its possible future evolution, the characteristics of the current spanish long-term care system and its main problems; the role that health services should have in the dependency issue; and finally, the benefits and drawbacks of the main alternatives that the Administration could manage in case it intends to increase its involvement in this field. PMID:16539976

  13. Propofol effects on cerebellar long-term depression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwan Young; Kim, Young Im; Kim, Se Hoon; Park, Hyung Seo; Park, Youn Joon; Ha, Myung Sook; Jin, Yunju; Kim, Dong Kwan

    2015-11-16

    Propofol is an intravenously administered anesthetic that induces γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated inhibition in the central nervous system. It has been implicated in prolonged movement disorders. Since the cerebellum is important for motor coordination and learning, we investigated the potential effects of propofol on cerebellar circuitry. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique in Wister rat cerebellar slices, we demonstrated that propofol administration impaired long-term depression from the parallel fiber (PF) to Purkinje cell (PC) synapses (PF-LTD). Also, propofol reduced metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1)-mediated and group I mGluR agonist-induced slow currents in PCs. These results suggest that the propofol-induced PF-LTD impairment may be related to an alteration in mGluR1 signaling, which is essential to motor learning. PMID:26455962

  14. Light-induced inhibition of laccase in Pycnoporus sanguineus.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Christian A; Perroni, Yareni; Pérez, José Antonio García; Rivera, Beatriz Gutiérrez; Alarcón, Enrique

    2016-03-01

    The aim was to determine which specific regions of the visible light spectrum were responsible for the induction or inhibition of laccase in Pycnoporus sanguineus. Cultures were exposed to various bandwidth lights: blue (460 nm), green (525 nm), white (a combination of 460 and 560 nm), red (660 nm), and darkness. The results indicate that short wavelengths strongly inhibit the production of laccase: green (3.76 ± 1.12 U/L), blue (1.94 ± 0.36 U/L), and white (1.05 ± 0.21 U/L) in proportions of 85.8, 92.6, and 96.0%, respectively; whereas long wavelengths inhibit laccase production only partially i.e., red light (14.05 ± 4.79 U/L) in a proportion of 46.8%. Maximum activity was induced in absence of visible light (30 °C, darkness), i.e., 30.76 ± 4.0 U/L. It is concluded that the production of laccase in P. sanguineus responds to light stimuli [measured as wavelengths and lx] and that it does so inversely. This can be explained as an ecological mechanism of environmental recognition, given that P. sanguineus develops inside lignocellulose structures in conditions of darkness. The presence of short wavelength light (460-510 nm) would indicate that the organism finds itself in an external environment, unprovided of lignin, and that it is therefore unnecessary to secrete laccase. This possible new regulation in the laccase production in P. sanguineus has important biotechnological implications, for it would be possible to control the production of laccase using light stimuli. PMID:26233233

  15. Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosz, J.

    2001-12-01

    The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine, coastal, and continental regions, the full range of climatic gradients existing in North America, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats in a range of ecosystem types. The combination of common core areas and long-term research and monitoring in many habitats have allowed unprecedented abilities to understand and compare complex temporal and spatial dynamics associated with issues like climate change, effects of pollution, biodiversity and landuse. For example, McMurdo Dry Valley in the Antarctic has demonstrated an increase in glacier mass since 1993 which coincides with a period of cooler than normal summers and more than average snowfall. In contrast, the Bonanza Creek and Toolik Lake sites in Alaska have recorded a warming period unprecedented in the past 200 years. Nitrogen deposition effects have been identified through long-term watershed studies on biogeochemical cycles, especially at Coweeta Hydrological Lab, Harvard Forest, and the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. In aquatic systems, such as the Northern Temperate Lakes site, long-term data revealed time lags in effects of invaders and disturbance on lake communities. Biological recovery from an effect such as lake acidification was shown to lag behind chemical recovery. The long-term changes documented over 2 decades have been instrumental in influencing management practices in many of the LTER areas. In Puerto Rico, the Luquillo LTER demonstrated that dams obstruct migrations of fish and freshwater shrimp and water abstraction at low flows can completely obliterate downstream migration of juveniles and damage

  16. A new long-term care manifesto.

    PubMed

    Kane, Robert L

    2015-04-01

    This article argues for a fresh look at how we provide long-term care (LTC) for older persons. Essentially, LTC offers a compensatory service that responds to frailty. Policy debate around LTC centers on costs, but we are paying for something we really don't want. Building societal enthusiasm (or even support) for LTC will require re-inventing and re-branding. LTC has three basic components: personal care, housing, and health care (primarily chronic disease management). They can be delivered in a variety of settings. It is rare to find all three done well simultaneously. Personal care (PC) needs to be both competent and compassionate. Housing must provide at least minimal amenities and foster autonomy; when travel time for PC raises costs dramatically, some form of clustered housing may be needed. Health care must be proactive, aimed at preventing exacerbations of chronic disease and resultant hospitalizations. Enhancing preferences means allowing taking informed risks. Payment incentives should reward both quality of care and quality of life, but positive outcomes must be defined as slowing decline. Paying for services but not for housing under Medicaid would automatically level the playing field between nursing homes (NH) and community-based services. Regulations should achieve greater parity between NH and community care and include both positive and negative feedback. Providing post-acute care should be separate from LTC. Using the tripartite LTC framework, we can create innovative flexible approaches to providing needed services for frail older persons in formats that are both desirable and affordable. Such care will be more socially desirable and hence worth paying for. PMID:26035606

  17. Long-term Behavior of DNAPL Residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Illangasekare, T.; Kitanidis, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding and being able to predict the long-term behavior of DNAPL (i.e., TCE) residuals in the source zone are significant in the evaluation of plume spreading. We apply both theoretical analysis and pore-scale simulations to investigate the mass transfer and the effect of reductive dechlorination, in which the contaminant behaves as electron acceptor. At the upfront of the source zone, where the boundary layer has not fully developed, the mass transfer increases as a power-law function of the Peclet number, and is enhanced by biodegradation. These results are consistent with past findings. Under certain conditions, further downstream inside the source zone, the rate of dissolution is slower due to the diluted mass from upstream. Widely applied first-order biodegradation implicitly assumes that the reaction solely depends on the concentration of the contaminant. However, in the slow dilution region, the limitation of electron donor on biodegradation is not negligible. For the reaction between an electron donor and an electron acceptor with intrinsic second-order kinetics, the late-time bio-reaction demonstrates a first-order decay macroscopically with respect to the mass of electron donor, not with respect to that of the contaminant. The late-time decay rate only depends on the intrinsic rate and the solubility of the contaminant. During the intermediate time, affecting by both the concentrations of electron donor and electron acceptor, the first-order decay is not valid. We show that the electron donor decays as exp(-t^2), instead of exp(-t). Moreover, the intermediate-time decay rate is a function of the spatial distribution of DNAPL residuals and the initial conditions.he relationship of the Sherwood number and Peclet number (Comparison of pore-scale simulations and best-fitting curve) he decay of electron donor as a function of t^2

  18. LONG TERM IN SITU DISPOSAL ENGINEERING STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS; CARLSON; BROCKMAN

    2003-07-23

    Patent application pulled per Ken Norris (FH General Counsel). The objective of this study is to devise methods, produce conceptual designs, examine and select alternatives, and estimate costs for the demonstration of long-term (300-year) in situ disposal of an existing waste disposal site. The demonstration site selected is the 216-A-24 Crib near the 200 East Area. The site contains a fission product inventory and has experienced plant, animal, and inadvertent than intrusion. Of the potential intrusive events and transport pathways at the site, potential human intrusion has been given primary consideration in barrier design. Intrusion by wind, plants, and animals has been given secondary consideration. Groundwater modeling for a number of barrier configurations has been carried out to help select a barrier that will minimize water infiltration and waste/water contact time. The estimated effective lifetime and cost of 20 barrier schemes, using a variety of materials, have been evaluated. The schemes studied include single component surface barriers, multicomponent barriers, and massively injected grout barriers. Five barriers with high estimated effective lifetimes and relatively low costs have been selected for detailed evaluation. They are basalt riprap barriers, massive soil barriers, salt basin barriers, multi-component fine/coarse barriers, and cemented basalt barriers. A variety of materials and configurations for marking the site have also been considered. A decision analysis was completed to select a barrier scheme for demonstration. The analysis indicated that the basalt riprap alternative would be the preferred choice for a full-scale demonstration. The recommended approach is to demonstrate the basalt riprap barrier at the 216-A-24 Crib as soon as possible. Methods and costs of assessing effectiveness of the demonstration are also described. Preliminary design modifications and costs for applying the five selected barrier schemes to other site types are

  19. Modeling Maintenance of Long-Term Potentiation in Clustered Synapses: Long-Term Memory without Bistability

    PubMed Central

    Smolen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Memories are stored, at least partly, as patterns of strong synapses. Given molecular turnover, how can synapses maintain strong for the years that memories can persist? Some models postulate that biochemical bistability maintains strong synapses. However, bistability should give a bimodal distribution of synaptic strength or weight, whereas current data show unimodal distributions for weights and for a correlated variable, dendritic spine volume. Thus it is important for models to simulate both unimodal distributions and long-term memory persistence. Here a model is developed that connects ongoing, competing processes of synaptic growth and weakening to stochastic processes of receptor insertion and removal in dendritic spines. The model simulates long-term (>1 yr) persistence of groups of strong synapses. A unimodal weight distribution results. For stability of this distribution it proved essential to incorporate resource competition between synapses organized into small clusters. With competition, these clusters are stable for years. These simulations concur with recent data to support the “clustered plasticity hypothesis” which suggests clusters, rather than single synaptic contacts, may be a fundamental unit for storage of long-term memory. The model makes empirical predictions and may provide a framework to investigate mechanisms maintaining the balance between synaptic plasticity and stability of memory. PMID:25945261

  20. Hypomagnesaemia associated with long-term use of proton pump inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Toh, James Wei Tatt; Ong, Evonne; Wilson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Hypomagnesaemia and associated hypocalcaemia and hypoparathyroidism have been increasingly recognised as rare long-term side-effects of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). The PPIs may inhibit active magnesium (Mg) absorption by interfering with transcellular transient receptor potential melastatin-6 and -7 (TRPM 6 and 7) channels. More recent cell culture studies have suggested concomitant inhibition of passive Mg absorption by omeprazole. After being treated with a range of PPIs, the four patients in our case series developed hypomagnesaemia, which responded to withdrawal of therapy and initiation of Mg replacement. Their clinical course and management demonstrate key aspects of hypomagnesaemia associated with long-term use of PPIs. PMID:25138239

  1. On the long-term behavior of SS Cygni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannizzo, John K.; Mattei, Janet A.

    1992-01-01

    The complete historical light curve of the dwarf nova SS Cygni taken by the American Association of Variable Star Observers from September 27, 1896 to April 7, 1992 is examined. The data consist of 29,387 daily means based on 180,233 individual observations. The statistical properties of the outburst durations, quiescence intervals, and cycle times associated with the 705 outbursts which occurred during this time are investigated. No significant difference is found between the correlations of the duration of a burst with the length of the following cycle time and the duration of a burst with the length of the preceding cycle time. On the basis of long-term moving averages, the inverse relation between cycle time and quiescent magnitude pointed out by Warner (1987, 1988) is confirmed.

  2. Long-term monitoring of OJ287: new data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Hudec, L.; Sillanpää, A.; Takalo, L.; Kroll, P.

    2001-09-01

    The blazar OJ287 has been monitored very intensively during recent years but elder data are relatively rare. On the other hand, these data are of great scientific value since there are hints for periodicity in the historical light curve of the object, which could definitely confirm the binary black hole nature of the central object for the first time. We present preliminary results of the analyses of the long-term optical behavior of the object based on Sonneberg Sky Patrol plates. The magnitude of the object has been measured on nearly 400 plates covering the time period 1928 to 1980. These results confirm the importance of scientific results for blazars and other high energy sources, which can be drawn from astronomical plate archives.

  3. A Long-Term View on Perovskite Optoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Docampo, Pablo; Bein, Thomas

    2016-02-16

    Recently, metal halide perovskite materials have become an exciting topic of research for scientists of a wide variety of backgrounds. Perovskites have found application in many fields, starting from photovoltaics and now also making an impact in light-emitting applications. This new class of materials has proven so interesting since it can be easily solution processed while exhibiting materials properties approaching the best inorganic optoelectronic materials such as GaAs and Si. In photovoltaics, in only 3 years, efficiencies have rapidly increased from an initial value of 3.8% to over 20% in recent reports for the commonly employed methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI) perovskite. The first light emitting diodes and light-emitting electrochemical cells have been developed already exhibiting internal quantum efficiencies exceeding 15% for the former and tunable light emission spectra. Despite their processing advantages, perovskite optoelectronic materials suffer from several drawbacks that need to be overcome before the technology becomes industrially relevant and hence achieve long-term application. Chief among these are the sensitivity of the structure toward moisture and crystal phase transitions in the device operation regime, unreliable device performance dictated by the operation history of the device, that is, hysteresis, the inherent toxicity of the structure, and the high cost of the employed charge selective contacts. In this Account, we highlight recent advances toward the long-term viability of perovskite photovoltaics. We identify material decomposition routes and suggest strategies to prevent damage to the structure. In particular, we focus on the effect of moisture upon the structure and stabilization of the material to avoid phase transitions in the solar cell operating range. Furthermore, we show strategies to achieve low-cost chemistries for the development of hole transporters for perovskite solar cells, necessary to be able to compete with other

  4. Long-Term Space Astrophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowark, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report for our Long-Term Space Astrophysics Program (NRA 94-OSS-12) grant NAG 5-3225. The proposal is entitled 'Spectral and Temporal Properties of Black Hole Candidates', and began funding in May 1995, and ran through 31 Aug 2000. The project summary from the original proposal was as follows: 'We will study the spectral and temporal properties of black hole candidates (BHC) by using data from archival sources (e.g., EXOSAT, Ginga, ROSAT) and proposed follow-up observations with modern instruments (e.g., ASCA, XTE). Our spectral studies will focus on identifying the basic characteristics and luminosities of the emission components in the various 'states' of BHC. We hope to understand and quantify the global energetics of these states. Our temporal studies will focus on expanding and classifying our knowledge of BHC variability properties in each state. We will explore the nature of quasi-periodic oscillations in BHC. We will combine our spectral and temporal studies by analyzing time lags and variability coherence between energy channels. In addition, we will investigate ways of correlating observed variability behavior with specific emission components.' We have accomplished many of these goals laid out within the original proposal. As originally proposed, we have utilized both archival and proprietary satellite data. In terms of archival data, we have utilized data from the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), ROSAT, and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). We also obtained proprietary data from ASCA, RXTE, and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). In terms of sources, we have examined a wide variety of both galactic black hole candidates and extra-galactic black holes. For the galactic black holes we have observed and analyzed both the low/hard state and the high/soft state. We have performed both spectral and timing analyses on all of these objects. In addition, we have also examined a number of neutron stars or

  5. Long term property prediction of polyethylene nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaito, Ali Al-Abed

    properties of the nanocomposites was analyzed by examining tensile and creep-recovery behavior of the films at temperatures in the range of 25 to -100°C. Within the measured temperature range, the materials showed a nonlinear temperature dependent response. The time-temperature superposition principle was successfully used to predict the long term behavior of LLDPE nanocomposites.

  6. LOP- LONG-TERM ORBIT PREDICTOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Long-Term Orbit Predictor (LOP) trajectory propagation program is a useful tool in lifetime analysis of orbiting spacecraft. LOP is suitable for studying planetary orbit missions with reconnaissance (flyby) and exploratory (mapping) trajectories. Sample data is included for a geosynchronous station drift cycle study, a Venus radar mapping strategy, a frozen orbit about Mars, and a repeat ground trace orbit. LOP uses the variation-of-parameters method in formulating the equations of motion. Terms involving the mean anomaly are removed from numerical integrations so that large step sizes, on the order of days, are possible. Consequently, LOP executes much faster than programs based on Cowell's method, such as the companion program ASAP (the Artificial Satellite Analysis Program, NPO-17522, also available through COSMIC). The program uses a force model with a gravity field of up to 21 by 21, lunisolar perturbation, drag, and solar radiation pressure. The input includes classical orbital elements (either mean or oscillating), orbital elements of the sun relative to the planet, reference time and dates, drag coefficients, gravitational constants, planet radius, rotation rate. The printed output contains the classical elements for each time step or event step, and additional orbital data such as true anomaly, eccentric anomaly, latitude, longitude, periapsis altitude, and the rate of change per day of certain elements. Selected output is additionally written to a plot file for postprocessing by the user. LOP is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution on IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS with a minimum of 256K RAM. Recompiling the source requires the Lahey F77 v2.2 compiler. The LOP package includes examples that use LOTUS 1-2-3 for graphical displays, but any graphics software package should be able to handle the ASCII plot file. The program is available on two 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskettes. The program was written in 1986 and last updated in 1989. LOP is

  7. Long term prognosis of reactive salmonella arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Leirisalo-Repo, M; Helenius, P; Hannu, T; Lehtinen, A; Kreula, J; Taavitsainen, M; Koskimies, S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Reactive joint complications triggered by salmonella gastroenteritis are increasingly reported, but the outcome and long term prognosis of the patients is incompletely known. This study looked at the prognosis of salmonella arthritis in patients hospitalised in 1970-1986.
METHODS—Hospital records from two hospitals in southern Finland were screened for patients with the discharge diagnosis of salmonellosis or reactive, postinfectious arthritis or Reiter's disease. For the patients with confirmed diagnosis of reactive salmonella arthritis, data about the acute disease were collected from the hospital records. A follow up study was performed.
RESULTS—There were 63 patients (28 women, 35 men, mean age 36.5 years) with salmonella arthritis. Urethritis occurred in 27%, eye inflammation in 13%, and low back pain in 44% of the patients. HLA-B27 was present in 88%. More men than women were HLA-B27 positive. HLA-B27 positive patients had higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (mean 80.9 v 46.5 mm 1st h, p = 0.0180). Also, extra-articular features and radiological sacroiliitis were seen only in HLA-B27 positive patients. A follow up study was performed on 50 patients mean 11.0 (range 5-22 years) later. Twenty patients had recovered completely. Ten patients had mild joint symptoms, 11 patients had had a new acute transient arthritis, and five acute iritis. Eight patients had developed chronic spondyloarthropathy. Radiological sacroiliitis was seen in six of 44 patients, more frequently in male than in female patients (32% v 0%; p = 0.0289). Recurrent or chronic arthritis, iritis or radiological sacroiliitis developed only in HLA-B27 positive patients.
CONCLUSION—Joint symptoms are common after reactive salmonella arthritis. HLA-B27 contributes to the severity of acute disease and to the late prognosis.

 PMID:9370874

  8. Long-term evolution is surprisingly predictable in lattice proteins

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Michael E.; Moudgil, Arnav; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2013-01-01

    It has long been debated whether natural selection acts primarily upon individual organisms, or whether it also commonly acts upon higher-level entities such as lineages. Two arguments against the effectiveness of long-term selection on lineages have been (i) that long-term evolutionary outcomes will not be sufficiently predictable to support a meaningful long-term fitness and (ii) that short-term selection on organisms will almost always overpower long-term selection. Here, we use a computational model of protein folding and binding called ‘lattice proteins’. We quantify the long-term evolutionary success of lineages with two metrics called the k-fitness and k-survivability. We show that long-term outcomes are surprisingly predictable in this model: only a small fraction of the possible outcomes are ever realized in multiple replicates. Furthermore, the long-term fitness of a lineage depends only partly on its short-term fitness; other factors are also important, including the ‘evolvability’ of a lineage—its capacity to produce adaptive variation. In a system with a distinct short-term and long-term fitness, evolution need not be ‘short-sighted’: lineages may be selected for their long-term properties, sometimes in opposition to short-term selection. Similar evolutionary basins of attraction have been observed in vivo, suggesting that natural biological lineages will also have a predictive long-term fitness. PMID:23466559

  9. Long-term outcome of abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Chevignard, Mathilde P; Lind, Katia

    2014-12-01

    Abusive head trauma is a severe inflicted traumatic brain injury, occurring under the age of 2 years, defined by an acute brain injury (mostly subdural or subarachnoidal haemorrhage), where no history or no compatible history with the clinical presentation is given. The mortality rate is estimated at 20-25% and outcome is extremely poor. High rates of impairments are reported in a number of domains, such as delayed psychomotor development; motor deficits (spastic hemiplegia or quadriplegia in 15-64%); epilepsy, often intractable (11-32%); microcephaly with corticosubcortical atrophy (61-100%); visual impairment (18-48%); language disorders (37-64%), and cognitive, behavioral and sleep disorders, including intellectual deficits, agitation, aggression, tantrums, attention deficits, memory, inhibition or initiation deficits (23-59%). Those combined deficits have obvious consequences on academic achievement, with high rates of special education in the long term. Factors associated with worse outcome include demographic factors (lower parental socioeconomic status), initial severe presentation (e.g., presence of a coma, seizures, extent of retinal hemorrhages, presence of an associated cranial fracture, extent of brain lesions, cerebral oedema and atrophy). Given the high risk of severe outcome, long-term comprehensive follow-up should be systematically performed to monitor development, detect any problem and implement timely adequate rehabilitation interventions, special education and/or support when necessary. Interventions should focus on children as well as families, providing help in dealing with the child's impairment and support with psychosocial issues. Unfortunately, follow-up of children with abusive head trauma has repeatedly been reported to be challenging, with very high attrition rates. PMID:25501726

  10. Long-term ozone monitoring from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S.; Johnson, J.; Serafino, G.; McPeters, R.

    Ultraviolet Spectrometer (SBUV), are archived at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the public. Standard products from TOMS include daily global total ozone and effective UV reflectivity of the earth-atmosphere system. Data products from future upper atmospheric research missions, e.g., the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) aboard Aura, will also be archived at the Goddard DAAC. For ozone trend analysis, a long-term data set consisting of over twenty years of ozone measurements from space and some value added research products have been produced by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center scientists (Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch/ Code 916) and are made available to the research community (http://code916.gsfc.nasa.gov). Examples of some of these research products are:1) daily erythermal UV exposure -estimates of harmful UV-B radiation at the surface, 2) an index to track the global transport of ash and sulfur dioxide resulting from volcanic eruptions, 3) another index to track smoke emanating from large fires and dust plumes originating from desert regions, 4) aerosol optical depth, 5) tropospheric ozone obtained from cloud-slicing techniques, and 6) a merged total ozone data product consisting of monthly mean ozone merged from six satellite instruments. The Upper Atmospheric Data Support Team has been providing science and data support to assist users in accessing and using the upper atmospheric data products. A number of tools for data access, subsetting, reprojection and mapping of orbital (Level-2) products, visualization of global gridded (Level-3) products, and data analysis have been developed at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the data user (http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov) This presentation will provide highlights of the standard and value-added ozone and ancillary products, and the data services provided by the DAAC Upper Atmosphere Data Support Team.