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Sample records for light microscopic analysis

  1. Automated dimensional analysis using a light-sectioning microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, J.; Lightman, A.; Poe, A.; Caldwell, R.

    1988-12-31

    A computer vision system has been integrated with a modified light-sectioning microscope for quality control and inspection of a machined part whose critical dimensions are 30 to 300 {mu}m. Height measurements were determined by analysis of the projected light-section line. Transverse measurements were made using the microscope in a traditional configuration with illumination from selected elements of an external LED ring array. The light section irradiance was under computer control to accommodate the spatial variations in surface reflectance whose dynamic range exceeded that of the vision system. Part features are located by the vision system. Edges and line centers are then measured to sub-pixel resolution with a gray-level analysis algorithm. This paper describes the design and operation of this system. Details of the measurement process and analysis algorithms are provided.

  2. Light microscopic hair shaft analysis in ectodermal dysplasia syndromes.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Stefanie A; Mason, Ashley R; Salkey, Kimberly; Williams, Judith V; Pariser, David M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to catalog hair shaft abnormalities in individuals with ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndromes using light microscopy and to compare findings with those in unaffected controls. Light microscopy was performed in a nonblinded manner on hair shafts from 65 participants with seven types of ED (hypohidrotic ED, ED-ectrodactyly-cleft lip or palate, ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip and palate, Clouston syndrome, Goltz syndrome, Schopf-Schulz Passarge syndrome, and oculodentodigital dysplasia) and 41 unaffected controls. Hair donations were collected at the 28th Annual National Family Conference held by the National Foundation for Ectodermal Dysplasia. Control participants were recruited from a private dermatology practice and an academic children's hospital outpatient dermatology clinic. Sixty-five affected participants and 41 unaffected controls were included in the analysis. We assessed the hair shafts of ED and control participants for abnormalities visible using LM. Light microscopy identified various pathologic hair shaft abnormalities in each type of ED, although none of the findings were statistically significantly different from those of the control group. Light microscopy is a poor adjuvant tool in the diagnosis of ED syndromes. Most findings are nonspecific and not sufficiently sensitive. PMID:22084904

  3. Enumeration of islets by nuclei counting and light microscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Pisania, Anna; Papas, Klearchos K; Powers, Daryl E; Rappel, Michael J; Omer, Abdulkadir; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Weir, Gordon C; Colton, Clark K

    2010-11-01

    Islet enumeration in impure preparations by conventional dithizone staining and visual counting is inaccurate and operator dependent. We examined nuclei counting for measuring the total number of cells in islet preparations, and we combined it with morphological analysis by light microscopy (LM) for estimating the volume fraction of islets in impure preparations. Cells and islets were disrupted with lysis solution and shear, and accuracy of counting successively diluted nuclei suspensions was verified with (1) visual counting in a hemocytometer after staining with crystal violet, and automatic counting by (2) aperture electrical resistance measurement and (3) flow cytometer measurement after staining with 7-aminoactinomycin-D. DNA content averaged 6.5 and 6.9 pg of DNA per cell for rat and human islets, respectively, in agreement with literature estimates. With pure rat islet preparations, precision improved with increasing counts, and samples with about ≥160 islets provided a coefficient of variation of about 6%. Aliquots of human islet preparations were processed for LM analysis by stereological point counting. Total nuclei counts and islet volume fraction from LM analysis were combined to obtain the number of islet equivalents (IEs). Total number of IE by the standard method of dithizone staining/manual counting was overestimated by about 90% compared with LM/nuclei counting for 12 freshly isolated human islet research preparations. Nuclei counting combined with islet volume fraction measurements from LM is a novel method for achieving accurate islet enumeration. PMID:20697375

  4. Microscopic vision modeling method by direct mapping analysis for micro-gripping system with stereo light microscope.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuezong; Zhao, Zhizhong; Wang, Junshuai

    2016-04-01

    We present a novel and high-precision microscopic vision modeling method, which can be used for 3D data reconstruction in micro-gripping system with stereo light microscope. This method consists of four parts: image distortion correction, disparity distortion correction, initial vision model and residual compensation model. First, the method of image distortion correction is proposed. Image data required by image distortion correction comes from stereo images of calibration sample. The geometric features of image distortions can be predicted though the shape deformation of lines constructed by grid points in stereo images. Linear and polynomial fitting methods are applied to correct image distortions. Second, shape deformation features of disparity distribution are discussed. The method of disparity distortion correction is proposed. Polynomial fitting method is applied to correct disparity distortion. Third, a microscopic vision model is derived, which consists of two models, i.e., initial vision model and residual compensation model. We derive initial vision model by the analysis of direct mapping relationship between object and image points. Residual compensation model is derived based on the residual analysis of initial vision model. The results show that with maximum reconstruction distance of 4.1mm in X direction, 2.9mm in Y direction and 2.25mm in Z direction, our model achieves a precision of 0.01mm in X and Y directions and 0.015mm in Z direction. Comparison of our model with traditional pinhole camera model shows that two kinds of models have a similar reconstruction precision of X coordinates. However, traditional pinhole camera model has a lower precision of Y and Z coordinates than our model. The method proposed in this paper is very helpful for the micro-gripping system based on SLM microscopic vision. PMID:26924646

  5. Tissue slides analysis using red, green, and blue LEDs as microscope light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Navascues, Felipe F.; de Souza, Larissa M.; Rosa, Ramon G. T.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2016-03-01

    The optical microscopy is one of the most powerful tool in the analysis of biological systems. The usual transmitted light microscope uses a white light lamp as source, what sometimes does not bring optimal results, making it necessary to introduce filters to change some illumination properties like the color temperature or the color itself. There is, of course, an intrinsic limitation on the use of filters that is the lack of an analogical control on the illumination properties and a practical limitation that depends on the number of available filters. To address this need, we developed an illumination system based on (Red, Green and Blue) RGB LEDs, were the microscope operator can control the intensity of each one independently and manually. This paper details the developed system and describes the methods used to compare quantitatively the images acquired while using the standard white light illumination and the images obtained with the developed system. To quantify the contrast, we calculated the relative population standard deviation for the intensities of each channel of the RGB image. This procedure allowed us to compare and understand the major advantages of the developed illumination system. All analysis methods have shown that a contrast enhancement can be obtained under the RGB LEDs light. The presented illumination allowed us to visualize the structures in different samples with a better contrast without the need of any additional optical filters.

  6. The Light Microscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, W. L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the function of the various parts of the microscope and their integration in the formation of an optical image. Presents a procedure for setting up a microscope to obtain maximum resolution and contrast for each objective lens at all magnifications. (JRH)

  7. Light microscopic image analysis system to quantify immunoreactive terminal area apposed to nerve cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L. C.; D'Amelio, F.; Fox, R. A.; Polyakov, I.; Daunton, N. G.

    1997-01-01

    The present report describes a desktop computer-based method for the quantitative assessment of the area occupied by immunoreactive terminals in close apposition to nerve cells in relation to the perimeter of the cell soma. This method is based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) routines incorporated in NIH-Image public domain software. Pyramidal cells of layer V of the somatosensory cortex outlined by GABA immunolabeled terminals were chosen for our analysis. A Leitz Diaplan light microscope was employed for the visualization of the sections. A Sierra Scientific Model 4030 CCD camera was used to capture the images into a Macintosh Centris 650 computer. After preprocessing, filtering was performed on the power spectrum in the frequency domain produced by the FFT operation. An inverse FFT with filter procedure was employed to restore the images to the spatial domain. Pasting of the original image to the transformed one using a Boolean logic operation called 'AND'ing produced an image with the terminals enhanced. This procedure allowed the creation of a binary image using a well-defined threshold of 128. Thus, the terminal area appears in black against a white background. This methodology provides an objective means of measurement of area by counting the total number of pixels occupied by immunoreactive terminals in light microscopic sections in which the difficulties of labeling intensity, size, shape and numerical density of terminals are avoided.

  8. Semi-automated 3D Leaf Reconstruction and Analysis of Trichome Patterning from Light Microscopic Images

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Andrea; Hülskamp, Martin; Tresch, Achim

    2013-01-01

    Trichomes are leaf hairs that are formed by single cells on the leaf surface. They are known to be involved in pathogen resistance. Their patterning is considered to emerge from a field of initially equivalent cells through the action of a gene regulatory network involving trichome fate promoting and inhibiting factors. For a quantitative analysis of single and double mutants or the phenotypic variation of patterns in different ecotypes, it is imperative to statistically evaluate the pattern reliably on a large number of leaves. Here we present a method that enables the analysis of trichome patterns at early developmental leaf stages and the automatic analysis of various spatial parameters. We focus on the most challenging young leaf stages that require the analysis in three dimensions, as the leaves are typically not flat. Our software TrichEratops reconstructs 3D surface models from 2D stacks of conventional light-microscope pictures. It allows the GUI-based annotation of different stages of trichome development, which can be analyzed with respect to their spatial distribution to capture trichome patterning events. We show that 3D modeling removes biases of simpler 2D models and that novel trichome patterning features increase the sensitivity for inter-accession comparisons. PMID:23637587

  9. A light- and electron microscopic analysis of meiotic prophase in female mice.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, A J; Mulder, R J

    1983-01-01

    In the paper we describe meiotic prophase of female mice on successive days of embryonic and early postnatal development. For this purpose we used three different techniques on ovarian material, i.e., Giemsa staining for the light microscopic study of chromatin, silver staining for the light microscopic study of the synaptonemal complex (SC), and agar filtration followed by uranyl acetate staining for the electron microscopic study of the SC. In all types of preparation it was impossible to distinguish leptotene stages, and we conclude that if leptotene really exists, it is of very short duration.--Two types of zygotene stages were found: the "normal" one, resembling zygotene stages in male mice, and a second type that has never been described in males and is characterized by, probably stable, unpaired regions together with totally unpaired axial elements of the SC.--The duration of pachytene was found to be 3-4 days, which is considerably shorter than in males. During early diplotene despiralization of the chromatin and disintegration of the axes of the SC were usually found together with desynapsis.--A considerable variation in distribution of meiotic stages was found between different litters in the same day of gestation. Fetuses in the same litter showed no significant variation. However, the oocytes in an ovary did not pass through meiosis synchronously, with differences up several days. The appearance of chromosomes in a highly contracted state could not be interpreted as a preleptotene condensation stage but probably is a mitotic phenomenon. PMID:6197255

  10. Multiparameter breast cancer cell image analysis for objective estimation of nuclear grade: comparison with light microscopic observational data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzins, Juris; Sneiders, Uldis; Plegere, Daina; Freivalds, Talivaldis; Grigalinovica, Romalda

    2000-04-01

    We performed a multi parameter image analysis assessment of breast cancer cell population nuclear grade (NG), which is regarded as one of the main prognostic factors for treatment efficacy and survival of the patients and compared it with light microscopic estimation of NG. Cytological imprint slides from 20 ductal carcinomas were stained according to Leischmann-AzureII-eosine method, and NG was estimated by light microscopic observation according to Black in Fisher's modification. Simultaneously, using specially elaborated software, in each patient 100 cancer cells were analyzed for nuclear perimeter, diameter, area, nucleolar area, and average intensity of staining. The chromatin structure was assessed using mean diameter of chromatin grains and relatively chromatic are within the nucleus. Light microscopic estimation revealed 4/15 grade 2 and 7/15 grade 3 tumors out of 15 filtrating ductal carcinomas, with 4/15 classified as intermediate between grade 2-3. Multifactoral linear correlation coefficient r equals 0.39, p < 0.001 for ductal cancer, higher NG comes with increasing nucleolar area, nuclear roundness factor, nuclear are, and chromatin area within the cell nucleus. Image analysis may yield precise information on NG as a prognostic factor in breast cancer patients.

  11. Collagen and Elastic Fibers in Odontogenic Entities: Analysis Using Light and Confocal Laser Microscopic Methods

    PubMed Central

    Moure, Sabrina P; Carrard, Vinicius C; Lauxen, Isabel S; Manso, Pedro Paulo A; Oliveira, Marcia G; Martins, Manoela D; Sant´Ana Filho, Manoel

    2011-01-01

    Dentigerous cyst (DC) and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KOT) are odontogenic lesions arising from epithelial elements, such as those observed in dental follicles (DF), that have been part of the tooth forming apparatus. These lesions show different clinical and histological characteristics, as well as distinct biological behavior. This study aimed to qualify and quantify collagen and elastic fibers by means of histochemical techniques with light and confocal laser microscopic methods in three odontogenic entities. Eleven DF, 13 DC (n=10 with inflammation, n=3 without inflammation) and 13 KOT were processed to the following techniques: Hematoxylin and Eosin, Masson’s Trichrome, Picrosirius, Direct Blue, and Orcein. DF and DC without inflammation exhibited collagen with similar characteristics: no parallel pattern of fiber orientation, thick fibers with dense arrangement, and absence of distinct layers. A comparison between DC with inflammation and KOT revealed similar collagen organization, showing distinct layers: thin collagen fibers with loose arrangement near the epithelium and thick fibers with dense arrangement in distant areas. The only difference found was that KOT exhibited a parallel collagen orientation in relation to the odontogenic epithelia. It may be suggested that the connective tissue of DC is a reactive tissue, inducing an expansive growth associated with fluid accumulation and inflammatory process, which in turn may be present as part of the lesion itself. In KOT, loosely arranged collagen may be associated with the behavior of the neoplastic epithelium. PMID:21760864

  12. A light and electron microscopic quantitative analysis of the innervation of axillary lymph nodes in juvenile and old rats.

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, G E; Schöttelndreier, A; Heuer, T

    1993-01-01

    The innervation of axillary lymph nodes from 20 juvenile rats (aged < 6 wk) was compared with that of 20 old rats (aged > 2 y). One half of each group was investigated by light microscopy on silver-impregnated paraffin sections, the other half by electron microscopy. The lymph nodes of the old animals were larger than those of juvenile animals, as derived from the volumes analysed by light microscopy. By both light and electron microscopy, the nerves were found to be confined almost exclusively to the medulla and were frequently associated with groups of plasma cells. Nerves identified as cortical in location were consistently found only in cortical areas adjacent to the medulla. In the old animals the nerves were thicker and more prominent in the light microscopic preparations. No such differences were noted at the ultrastructural level. Myelinated nerves were found in all lymph nodes, except in a single old animal. Quantitative analysis of the nerves revealed a significant increase in the density of innervation of the medulla in the old animals both by light and electron microscopy. By light microscopy there also appeared to be a significant increase in the innervation density of the cortex, but these nerves were considered to be mislocalized because of difficulty in precise localisation at this level of magnification. On light microscopy, a significant increase in the incidence of nerve branching was found in the nodes of the old animals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:8270476

  13. Light-Fueled Microscopic Walkers.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hao; Wasylczyk, Piotr; Parmeggiani, Camilla; Martella, Daniele; Burresi, Matteo; Wiersma, Diederik Sybolt

    2015-07-01

    The first microscopic artificial walker equipped with liquid-crystalline elastomer muscle is reported. The walker is fabricated by direct laser writing, is smaller than any known living terrestrial creatures, and is capable of several autonomous locomotions on different surfaces. PMID:26033690

  14. Shear Brillouin light scattering microscope.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moonseok; Besner, Sebastien; Ramier, Antoine; Kwok, Sheldon J J; An, Jeesoo; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2016-01-11

    Brillouin spectroscopy has been used to characterize shear acoustic phonons in materials. However, conventional instruments had slow acquisition times over 10 min per 1 mW of input optical power, and they required two objective lenses to form a 90° scattering geometry necessary for polarization coupling by shear phonons. Here, we demonstrate a confocal Brillouin microscope capable of detecting both shear and longitudinal phonons with improved speeds and with a single objective lens. Brillouin scattering spectra were measured from polycarbonate, fused quartz, and borosilicate in 1-10 s at an optical power level of 10 mW. The elastic constants, phonon mean free path and the ratio of the Pockels coefficients were determined at microscopic resolution. PMID:26832263

  15. Light and electron microscopic analysis of tattoos treated by Q-switched ruby laser

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.R.; Anderson, R.R.; Gange, R.W.; Michaud, N.A.; Flotte, T.J. )

    1991-07-01

    Short-pulse laser exposures can be used to alter pigmented structures in tissue by selective photothermolysis. Potential mechanisms of human tattoo pigment lightening with Q-switched ruby laser were explored by light and electron microscopy. Significant variation existed between and within tattoos. Electron microscopy of untreated tattoos revealed membrane-bound pigment granules, predominantly within fibroblasts and macrophages, and occasionally in mast cells. These granules contained pigment particles ranging from 2-in diameter. Immediately after exposure, dose-related injury was observed in cells containing pigment. Some pigment particles were smaller and lamellated. At fluences greater than or equal to 3 J/cm2, dermal vacuoles and homogenization of collagen bundles immediately adjacent to extracellular pigment were occasionally observed. A brisk neutrophilic infiltrate was apparent by 24 h. Eleven days later, the pigment was again intracellular. Half of the biopsies at 150 d revealed a mild persistent lymphocytic infiltrate. There was no fibrosis except for one case of clinical scarring. These findings confirm that short-pulse radiation can be used to selectively disrupt cells containing tattoo pigments. The physial alteration of pigment granules, redistribution, and elimination appear to account for clinical lightening of the tattoos.

  16. Desmosomes: A light microscopic and ultrastructural analysis of desmosomes in odontogenic cysts

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Pratima; Wadhwan, Vijay; Chaudhary, Minal S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Desmosomes together with adherens junctions represent the major adhesive cell–cell junctions of epithelial cells. Any damage to these junctions leads to loss of structural balance. Aim: The present study was designed to analyze the desmosomal junctions in different odontogenic cysts and compare them with their corresponding hematoxylin and eosin (H and E)   stained sections. Materials and Methods: Ten cases each of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), dentigerous cysts (DCs), radicular cysts (RCs) and normal mucosa were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the sections was then carried out of all the sections. The area of interest on H and E stained section was marked and this marking was later superimposed onto the corresponding unstained sections and were subjected to SEM analysis. Results and Observations: OKC at ×1000 magnification showed many prominent desmosomes. However, an increase in the intercellular space was also noted. SEM analysis demonstrated similar findings with the presence of many desmosomes, though they were seen to be damaged and fragile. H and E stained DC under oil immersion did not show any prominent desmosomes. SEM analysis of the same confirmed the observation and very minimal number were seen with a very condense arrangement of the epithelial cells. RC at ×1000 magnification revealed plenty of desmosomes, which were again confirmed by SEM. Conclusion: The number and quality of desmosomal junctions in all the cysts has a role in the clinical behavior of the cyst. PMID:25948985

  17. Light microscopic and electron microscopic histopathology of an iris microhaemangioma.

    PubMed Central

    Meades, K V; Francis, I C; Kappagoda, M B; Filipic, M

    1986-01-01

    A patient who had been observed to have an iris microhaemangioma (capillary haemangioma), confirmed on fluorescein iris angiography, came to cataract surgery. The lesion was excised at the time of surgery and submitted to light and electron microscopic study. It had the features of a hamartoma of the capillary haemangioma type, with its characteristics being specific for vessels seen in iris tissue. Images PMID:3964627

  18. Microscope spectrometer for light scattering investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Barbara, Aude; Lopez-Rios, Tomas; Dumont, Sylvain; Gay, Frederic; Quemerais, Pascal

    2010-08-01

    We describe a setup including a microscope to study volumes of a few {mu}m{sup 3} by static and dynamic light scattering (DLS) in a backscattering configuration. Light scattered by individual objects of micrometric size can be analyzed in the 400-800 nm spectral range. This setup can also be employed to study both diluted and concentrated colloidal solutions by DLS measurements. For diluted solutions we found evidence of the fluctuations of the number of particles in a confocal volume. We discuss their contribution to the autocorrelation function of the scattered intensity measured as a function of time.

  19. Compressive microscopic imaging with "positive-negative" light modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wen-Kai; Yao, Xu-Ri; Liu, Xue-Feng; Lan, Ruo-Ming; Wu, Ling-An; Zhai, Guang-Jie; Zhao, Qing

    2016-07-01

    An experiment on compressive microscopic imaging with single-pixel detector and single-arm has been performed on the basis of "positive-negative" (differential) light modulation of a digital micromirror device (DMD). A magnified image of micron-sized objects illuminated by the microscope's own incandescent lamp has been successfully acquired. The image quality is improved by one more orders of magnitude compared with that obtained by conventional single-pixel imaging scheme with normal modulation using the same sampling rate, and moreover, the system is robust against the instability of light source and may be applied to very weak light condition. Its nature and the analysis of noise sources is discussed deeply. The realization of this technique represents a big step to the practical applications of compressive microscopic imaging in the fields of biology and materials science.

  20. Analysis of signal processing in vestibular circuits with a novel light-emitting diodes-based fluorescence microscope.

    PubMed

    Direnberger, Stephan; Banchi, Roberto; Brosel, Sonja; Seebacher, Christian; Laimgruber, Stefan; Uhl, Rainer; Felmy, Felix; Straka, Hans; Kunz, Lars

    2015-05-01

    Optical visualization of neural network activity is limited by imaging system-dependent technical tradeoffs. To overcome these constraints, we have developed a powerful low-cost and flexible imaging system with high spectral variability and unique spatio-temporal precision for simultaneous optical recording and manipulation of neural activity of large cell groups. The system comprises eight high-power light-emitting diodes, a camera with a large metal-oxide-semiconductor sensor and a high numerical aperture water-dipping objective. It allows fast and precise control of excitation and simultaneous low noise imaging at high resolution. Adjustable apertures generated two independent areas of variable size and position for simultaneous optical activation and image capture. The experimental applicability of this system was explored in semi-isolated preparations of larval axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) with intact inner ear organs and central nervous circuits. Cyclic galvanic stimulation of semicircular canals together with glutamate- and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-uncaging caused a corresponding modulation of Ca(2+) transients in central vestibular neurons. These experiments revealed specific cellular properties as well as synaptic interactions between excitatory and inhibitory inputs, responsible for spatio-temporal-specific sensory signal processing. Location-specific GABA-uncaging revealed a potent inhibitory shunt of vestibular nerve afferent input in the predominating population of tonic vestibular neurons, indicating a considerable impact of local and commissural inhibitory circuits on the processing of head/body motion-related signals. The discovery of these previously unknown properties of vestibular computations demonstrates the merits of our novel microscope system for experimental applications in the field of neurobiology. PMID:25847143

  1. Optical Analysis of Microscope Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biles, Jonathan R.

    Microscope images were analyzed with coherent and incoherent light using analog optical techniques. These techniques were found to be useful for analyzing large numbers of nonsymbolic, statistical microscope images. In the first part phase coherent transparencies having 20-100 human multiple myeloma nuclei were simultaneously photographed at 100 power magnification using high resolution holographic film developed to high contrast. An optical transform was obtained by focussing the laser onto each nuclear image and allowing the diffracted light to propagate onto a one dimensional photosensor array. This method reduced the data to the position of the first two intensity minima and the intensity of successive maxima. These values were utilized to estimate the four most important cancer detection clues of nuclear size, shape, darkness, and chromatin texture. In the second part, the geometric and holographic methods of phase incoherent optical processing were investigated for pattern recognition of real-time, diffuse microscope images. The theory and implementation of these processors was discussed in view of their mutual problems of dimness, image bias, and detector resolution. The dimness problem was solved by either using a holographic correlator or a speckle free laser microscope. The latter was built using a spinning tilted mirror which caused the speckle to change so quickly that it averaged out during the exposure. To solve the bias problem low image bias templates were generated by four techniques: microphotography of samples, creation of typical shapes by computer graphics editor, transmission holography of photoplates of samples, and by spatially coherent color image bias removal. The first of these templates was used to perform correlations with bacteria images. The aperture bias was successfully removed from the correlation with a video frame subtractor. To overcome the limited detector resolution it is necessary to discover some analog nonlinear intensity

  2. Analysis of proton scattering of stable and exotic light nuclei using an energy-dependent microscopic optical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maridi, H. M.; Farag, M. Y. H.; Esmael, E. H.

    2016-01-01

    The proton elastic scattering off the 9,10,11,12Be isotopes at a wide energy range from 3 to 200 MeV/nucleon is analyzed using the optical model with the partial-wave expansion method. The microscopic optical potential (OP) is taken within the single-folding model. The density- and isospin-dependent M3YParis nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction is used for the real part and the NN-scattering amplitude of the highenergy approximation for the imaginary one. The cross-section data are reproduced well at energies up to 100 MeV/nucleon by use of the partial-wave expansion. For higher energies, the eikonal approximation is successfully used. The volume integrals of the OP parts have systematic energy dependencies and they can be parameterized as functions of energy. From these parametrization, an energy-dependent OP can be obtained.

  3. Light and electron microscopic study of mature spermatozoa from White Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos): an ultrastructural and molecular analysis.

    PubMed

    Majhi, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Ashutosh; Yadav, Manoj; Kumar, Pradeep; Maity, Apratim; Giri, Sunil C; Goswami, Chandan

    2016-03-01

    The morphology, ultrastructure, and functions of mature avian spermatozoa have been of immense commercial and scientific interest for several reasons. This is mainly important in case of birds in poultry production, conservation, and in the use of sperm morphometry as phylogenetic evidence. Avian spermatozoa share complex or no correlation of sperm morphometry with respect to testis and/or body size as described before. In this work, we have isolated mature spermatozoa from White Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos) by non-invasive methods and performed several immunostaining analysis as well as cytochemical analysis using electron and light microscopes. Here, we report the presence of different post-translationally modified tubulin such as tyrosinated-, detyrosinated-, acetylated-, polyglutamylated-, and glycylated-tubulin in specific regions of the mature spermatozoa. By using field-emission scanning electron microscope, we confirm the presence of acrosome-like structure at the tip of the sperm head. However, this structure remains non-reactive to common lectins such as Peanut Agglutinin (PNA) and cholesterol-sensitive dyes such as Filipin. We report that this acrosomal structure is primarily made of lipid-based structures and is resistant to 0.1% Triton X100. Confocal microscopy and super resolution structured illumination microscopy study indicates that the nucleus is bifurcated at the tip region. By using specific markers, we report that the perforatorium structure present at the tip of the spermatozoa head contains specialized organelles that is similar to atypical mitochondria. We propose that these ultrastructural and molecular parameters can be used as species-specific features. The bifurcated nucleus and presence of atypical mitochondria within this structure may be relevant for the complex mitochondrial inheritance and mitochondrial heteroplasmy observed in case of avian population. PMID:26824840

  4. Novel 3D light microscopic analysis of IUGR placentas points to a morphological correlate of compensated ischemic placental disease in humans

    PubMed Central

    Haeussner, Eva; Schmitz, Christoph; Frank, Hans-Georg; Edler von Koch, Franz

    2016-01-01

    The villous tree of the human placenta is a complex three-dimensional (3D) structure with branches and nodes at the feto-maternal border in the key area of gas and nutrient exchange. Recently we introduced a novel, computer-assisted 3D light microscopic method that enables 3D topological analysis of branching patterns of the human placental villous tree. In the present study we applied this novel method to the 3D architecture of peripheral villous trees of placentas from patients with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR placentas), a severe obstetric syndrome. We found that the mean branching angle of branches in terminal positions of the villous trees was significantly different statistically between IUGR placentas and clinically normal placentas. Furthermore, the mean tortuosity of branches of villous trees in directly preterminal positions was significantly different statistically between IUGR placentas and clinically normal placentas. We show that these differences can be interpreted as consequences of morphological adaptation of villous trees between IUGR placentas and clinically normal placentas, and may have important consequences for the understanding of the morphological correlates of the efficiency of the placental villous tree and their influence on fetal development. PMID:27045698

  5. Novel 3D light microscopic analysis of IUGR placentas points to a morphological correlate of compensated ischemic placental disease in humans.

    PubMed

    Haeussner, Eva; Schmitz, Christoph; Frank, Hans-Georg; Edler von Koch, Franz

    2016-01-01

    The villous tree of the human placenta is a complex three-dimensional (3D) structure with branches and nodes at the feto-maternal border in the key area of gas and nutrient exchange. Recently we introduced a novel, computer-assisted 3D light microscopic method that enables 3D topological analysis of branching patterns of the human placental villous tree. In the present study we applied this novel method to the 3D architecture of peripheral villous trees of placentas from patients with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR placentas), a severe obstetric syndrome. We found that the mean branching angle of branches in terminal positions of the villous trees was significantly different statistically between IUGR placentas and clinically normal placentas. Furthermore, the mean tortuosity of branches of villous trees in directly preterminal positions was significantly different statistically between IUGR placentas and clinically normal placentas. We show that these differences can be interpreted as consequences of morphological adaptation of villous trees between IUGR placentas and clinically normal placentas, and may have important consequences for the understanding of the morphological correlates of the efficiency of the placental villous tree and their influence on fetal development. PMID:27045698

  6. Microscopic Analysis of Activated Sludge. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on the use of a compound microscope to analyze microscope communities, present in wastewater treatment processes, for operational control. Course topics include: sampling techniques, sample handling, laboratory analysis, identification of organisms, data interpretation, and use of the compound microscope.…

  7. Microscopic Imaging and Spectroscopy with Scattered Light

    PubMed Central

    Boustany, Nada N.; Boppart, Stephen A.; Backman, Vadim

    2012-01-01

    Optical contrast based on elastic scattering interactions between light and matter can be used to probe cellular structure and dynamics, and image tissue architecture. The quantitative nature and high sensitivity of light scattering signals to subtle alterations in tissue morphology, as well as the ability to visualize unstained tissue in vivo, has recently generated significant interest in optical scatter based biosensing and imaging. Here we review the fundamental methodologies used to acquire and interpret optical scatter data. We report on recent findings in this field and present current advances in optical scatter techniques and computational methods. Cellular and tissue data enabled by current advances in optical scatter spectroscopy and imaging stand to impact a variety of biomedical applications including clinical tissue diagnosis, in vivo imaging, drug discovery and basic cell biology. PMID:20617940

  8. Mapping brain circuitry with a light microscope

    PubMed Central

    Osten, Pavel; Margrie, Troy W.

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of the 21st century has seen a renaissance in light microscopy and anatomical tract tracing that together are rapidly advancing our understanding of the form and function of neuronal circuits. The introduction of instruments for automated imaging of whole mouse brains, new cell type-specific and transsynaptic tracers, and computational methods for handling the whole-brain datasets has opened the door to neuroanatomical studies at an unprecedented scale. We present an overview of the state of play and future opportunities in charting long-range and local connectivity in the entire mouse brain and in linking brain circuits to function. PMID:23722211

  9. Incidence, risk factors, and morphology in operating microscope light retinopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Khwarg, S.G.; Linstone, F.A.; Daniels, S.A.; Isenberg, S.J.; Hanscom, T.A.; Geoghegan, M.; Straatsma, B.R.

    1987-03-15

    A review of 135 consecutive cataract operations identified ten cases (7.4%) of operating microscope light retinopathy. Ophthalmoscopically, these light retinopathy lesions appeared as a focal pigment epithelial change with varying degrees of pigment clumping in the center. Fluorescein angiography accentuated the lesion by demonstrating a sharply demarcated transmission defect, occasionally with multiple satellite lesions. The shape of the lesion matched the shape of the illuminating source of the particular operating microscope used during the surgery. The most significant risk factor associated with the production of these light retinopathy lesions was prolonged operating time. Mean total operating time for the ten patients with light retinopathy was 51 minutes longer than for those without (P less than .0001). Other significant associated factors were the presence of diabetes mellitus (P less than .03), younger age (P less than .05), and the use of hydrochlorothiazide (P less than .04).

  10. Long working-distance, incoherent light interference microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B.; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Corwin, Alex David

    2005-06-01

    We describe the design and operation of a long-working-distance, incoherent light interference microscope that has been developed to address the growing demand for new microsystem characterization tools. The design of the new microscope is similar to that of a Linnik interference microscope and thus preserves the full working distance of the long-working-distance objectives utilized. However, in contrast to a traditional Linnik microscope, the new microscope does not rely on the use of matched objectives in the sample and the reference arms of the interferometer. An adjustable optical configuration has been devised that allows the total optical path length, wavefront curvature, and dispersion of the reference arm to be matched to the sample arm of the interferometer. The reference arm configuration can be adjusted to provide matching for 5x, 10x, and 20x long-working-distance objectives in the sample arm. In addition to retaining the full working distance of the sample arm objectives, the new design allows interference images to be acquired in situations in which intervening windows are necessary, such as occur with packaged microsystems, microfluidic devices, and cryogenic, vacuum, or environmental chamber studies of microsystem performance. The interference microscope is compatible with phase-shifting interferometry, vertical scanning interferometry, and stroboscopic measurement of dynamic processes.

  11. Long-working-distance incoherent-light interference microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; de Boer, Maarten P.; Corwin, Alex D.

    2005-12-01

    We describe the design and operation of a long-working-distance, incoherent light interference microscope that has been developed to address the growing demand for new microsystem characterization tools. The design of the new microscope is similar to that of a Linnik interference microscope and thus preserves the full working distance of the long-working-distance objectives utilized. However, in contrast to a traditional Linnik microscope, the new microscope does not rely on the use of matched objectives in the sample and the reference arms of the interferometer. An adjustable optical configuration has been devised that allows the total optical path length, wavefront curvature, and dispersion of the reference arm to be matched to the sample arm of the interferometer. The reference arm configuration can be adjusted to provide matching for 5×, 10×, and 20× long-working-distance objectives in the sample arm. In addition to retaining the full working distance of the sample arm objectives, the new design allows interference images to be acquired in situations in which intervening windows are necessary, such as occur with packaged microsystems, microfluidic devices, and cryogenic, vacuum, or environmental chamber studies of microsystem performance. The interference microscope is compatible with phase-shifting interferometry, vertical scanning interferometry, and stroboscopic measurement of dynamic processes.

  12. Teaching Optics to Biology Students Through Constructing a Light Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    The microscope is familiar to many disciplines, including physics, materials science, chemistry, and the life sciences. It demonstrates fundamental aspects of ray and wave optics, making it an ideal system to help educate students in the basic concepts of optics and in measurement principles and techniques. We present an experimental system developed to teach students the basics of ray and wave optics. The students design, build, and test a light microscope made from optics components. We describe the equipment and the basic measurements that students can perform to develop experimental techniques to understand optics principles. Students measure the magnification and test the resolution of the microscope. The system is open and versatile to allow advanced projects such as epi-fluorescence, total internal reflection fluorescence, and optical trapping. We have used this equipment in an optics course, an advanced laboratory course, and graduate-level training modules.

  13. An auto-focusing system for white light microscopic measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ming; Deka, Juti Rani; Chen, Pei Jung; Chen, Yu Kuan; Cui, Changcai

    2008-12-01

    With the rapid development of semiconductor technology the demand for high resolution measuring system is evolving at an ever-increasing pace. Microscope was initially used to detect the defect by connecting charge couple device (CCD) as an auxiliary device. In general, for microscopic measurement human eyes are used to focus on the sample. The adjustment depends on the operator's astute measurement ability, which affected the repeatability and accuracy of the readings. There is a need of high-speed microscope auto focusing system for industrial applications. The present investigation describes about the development of an autofocus system to carry out microscopic measurement more precisely and accurately with less time. The measurement system consists of a light source, two beam splitters, a movable sample stage and a Mirau's interferometer, a photo-detector and 8051 microcontroller (MCU89C51). The light reflected from the sample surface interferes with the light reflected from the reference and produce an interference pattern, which is imaged onto a CCD array. In the setup developed for the autofocus one extra beam splitter is placed in the path of interfered beam to the CCD. The beam splitter is placed at equal distances from the CCD and the photodetector. The focus position is determined from the voltage developed in the photo-detector due to the movement of sample stage of the microscope. The maximum voltage that obtained at the focus position is confirmed with the CCD image. Microcontroller is used to stop the controller at the focus position immediately once the sample stage reaches it. Software is developed to locate the maximum intensity position. The design may autofocus the interferometer within 4mm distance in 1 second. The auto-focusing not only provides enhanced repeatability and accuracy of the results at a faster rate but also minimizes operator involvement.

  14. Achondrogenesis type I: light and electron-microscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Molz, G; Spycher, M A

    1980-06-01

    The light- and electron-microscopic structure of articular and costal cartilage in a case of achondrogenesis type I has been described. The most characteristic ultrastructural change in the chondrocytes was conspicuous dilatation of the rough endoplasmatic reticulum (RER) which contained amorphous electronopaque material. This change in the RER was accompanied by marked hypertrophy of the Golgi apparatus; the matrix was basically unchanged. PMID:6250850

  15. Versatile multispectral microscope based on light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brydegaard, Mikkel; Merdasa, Aboma; Jayaweera, Hiran; Ålebring, Jens; Svanberg, Sune

    2011-12-01

    We describe the development of a novel multispectral microscope, based on light-emitting diodes, capable of acquiring megapixel images in thirteen spectral bands from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. The system captures images and spectra in transmittance, reflectance, and scattering modes. We present as examples of applications ground truth measurements for remote sensing and parasitology diagnostics. The system is a general purpose scientific instrument that could be used to develop dedicated simplified instruments with optimal bands and mode selection.

  16. Light microscopic analysis of the three-dimensional structure of higher plant chloroplasts. Position of starch grains and probable spiral arrangement of stroma lamellae and grana

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, S.G.; Jope, C.A.; Atchison, B.A.

    1980-03-01

    Light microscopic observations of grana-containing chloroplasts in living cells of leaves of numerous species of plants, including both monocotyledons and dicotyledons, have allowed specification of numerous parameters of chloroplast structure. Chloroplasts are thin and saucer-shaped, with the convex surface facing the cell wall and the concave surface facing the vacuole. The thickness of the grana-containing and starch-containing region of chloroplasts does not exceed 2 ..mu..m although the length may reach more than 15 ..mu..m in chloroplasts containing 150 grana. The grana do not overlap each other and are in a plane of focus above that of the starch grains. The grana are tilted with respect to each other and are located at varying levels with respect to the convex surface of the chloroplast. In slightly disrupted, isolated chloroplasts, the grana are sometimes arranged in rows and serially connected to each other by a fine thread. In living cells, some chloroplasts exhibit a distinct spiral arrangement of the grana. Using these observations and the dimensions derived from them, a new conception of the three-dimensional structure of the grana-containing region of the chloroplast has been obtained. In this conception, the grana are uniformly thin, nonoverlapping cylinders, connected in a single series as in a string of beads and wound into a slightly raised spiral (a helix). Starch grains, when present, are located in the concavity of the helix. The length of the string of grana determines the area of the grana-containing region of a chloroplast.

  17. White light differential interference contrast microscope with a Sagnac interferometer.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sanjib; Pavan Kumar, Y

    2014-01-10

    A new technique for producing a white light differential interference contrast (DIC) image using a lateral shearing, rotation phase shifting Sagnac interferometer (SI) is proposed. The SI, placed in the image space after the tube lens of a microscope system with spatially coherent white light Kohler illumination, splits the image forming beam into coherent components with small lateral shear. Phase shifts, between the interfering components, which can be considered as biased phase difference (BPD), are introduced by applying small angular rotation of the SI in its own plane. This variable BPD between the interfering white light components produces a uniform intensity colored background. The object related phase shift, due to the height difference between two close points on the object surface with separation on the order of least resolvable separation of the microscope objective, in addition to the BPD would produce a change in intensity/hue/color against a uniform background due to the BPD. Thus a DIC image is formed and the variable BPD provides an excellent means of improving the contrast of the image. PMID:24514064

  18. Light- and electron-microscopic histochemistry of Fabry's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Faraggiana, T.; Churg, J.; Grishman, E.; Strauss, L.; Prado, A.; Bishop, D. F.; Schuchman, E.; Desnick, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    A histochemical study was performed on light- and electron-microscopic level in a case of Fabry's disease. The patient underwent kidney transplantation for renal failure and died of heart failure 6 months later. Patient's tissues were studied at the light- and electron-microscopic levels with various embedding and staining techniques for lipids and carbohydrates. Two peroxidase-labeled lectins (from Ricinus communis and from Bandeiraea simplicifolia) known to have affinity for alpha- and beta-D-galactose, were strongly reactive with the storage material on frozen sections. The ultrahistochemical and extraction tests showed that the typical granules had a variable reactivity and morphologic characteristics in different cells, probably reflecting different composition. A small number of typical deposits were also observed in the transplanted kidney. This is the first reported case of recurrence of the storage disease in the allograft. Of interest was also the fact that the patient's blood inhibited normal alpha-galactosidase activity, suggesting a possible inhibitor-related mechanism in the pathogenesis of the recurrence. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 PMID:6786101

  19. LIGHT MICROSCOPICAL AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPICAL COMPARISONS OF NORMAL HEPATOCYTES OF WELL-DIFFERENTIATED HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMAS IN A TELEOST FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC's) induced in the sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variagatus) with N-nitrosodiethylamine, permitted light microscopical and ultrastructural comparisons of normal hepatocytes and adjacent HCC cells. ormal hepatocytes contained typic...

  20. Morphological abnormalities of rabbit spermatozoa studied by scanning electron microscope and quantified by light microscope.

    PubMed

    Kuzminsky, G; Fausto, A M; Morera, P

    1996-01-01

    Rabbit spermatozoa morphological abnormalities were examined to establish criteria for judging the quality of ejaculates. Ten New Zealand White bucks, aged 9 months and weighing 4.3 +/- 0.2 kg, were placed in a climatic chamber for 3 weeks at +20 degrees C and 70% RH. Sperm was collected three times a week using an artificial vagina. The use of a scanning electron microscope (from x 2000 to x 15,000) in this study produced an illustrated guide for the classification of abnormalities. Mean percentage quantitative values studied by light microscope (x 400) observation were: 18.2% total abnormalities, 2.9% head abnormalities, 13.6% tail abnormalities and 1.7% broken spermatozoa. Variability was very high (CV 35.7, 54.0, 45.3 and 32.5%, respectively); consequently, each ejaculate should be analysed before use for artificial insemination. Among the different tail abnormalities observed, the most frequent were coiled tails, 9.1%, cytoplasmic droplets, 2.4%, bent tails, 1.3% and swollen tails, 0.5%. PMID:8987108

  1. Adding an Extra Dimension to What Students See through the Light Microscope: A Lab Exercise Demonstrating Critical Analysis for Microscopy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrill, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an undergraduate lab exercise that demonstrates the importance of students thinking critically about what they see through a microscope. The students are given growth data from tip-growing organisms that suggest the cells grow in a pulsatile manner. The students then critique this data in several exercises that incorporate…

  2. Light and electron microscopic analysis of enkephalin-like immunoreactivity in the basolateral amygdala, including evidence for convergence of enkephalin-containing axon terminals and norepinephrine transporter-containing axon terminals onto common targets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyi; McDonald, Alexander J

    2016-04-01

    Modulatory interactions of opioids and norepinephrine (NE) in the anterior subdivision of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLa) are critical for the consolidation of memories of emotionally arousing experiences. Although there have been several studies of the noradrenergic system in the amygdalar basolateral nuclear complex (BLC), little is known about the chemical neuroanatomy of opioid systems in this region. To address this knowledge gap the present study first examined the distribution of met-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity (ENK-ir) in the BLC at the light microscopic level, and then utilized dual-labeling immunocytochemistry combined with electron microscopy to investigate the extent of convergence of NE and ENK terminals onto common structures in the BLa. Antibodies to ENK and the norepinephrine transporter (NET) were used in these studies. Light microscopic examination revealed that a subpopulation of small nonpyramidal neurons expressed ENK-ir in all nuclei of the BLC. In addition, the somata of some pyramidal cells exhibited light to moderate ENK-ir. ENK+ axon terminals were also observed. Ultrastructural analysis confined to the BLa revealed that most ENK+ axon terminals formed asymmetrical synapses that mainly contacted spines and shafts of thin dendrites. ENK+ terminals forming symmetrical synapses mainly contacted dendritic shafts. Approximately 20% of NET+ terminals contacted a structure that was also contacted by an ENK+ terminal and 6% of NET+ terminals contacted an ENK+ terminal. These findings suggest that ENK and NE terminals in the BLa may interact by targeting common dendrites and by direct interactions between the two types of terminals. PMID:26835559

  3. Microcircuit failure analysis using the SEM. [Scanning Electron Microscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolas, D. P.

    1974-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope adds a new dimension to the knowledge that can be obtained from a failed microcircuit. When used with conventional techniques, SEM assists and clarifies the analysis, but it does not replace light microscopy. The most advantageous features for microcircuit analysis are long working distances and great depth of field. Manufacturer related failure modes of microcircuits are metallization defects, poor bonding, surface and particle contamination, and design and fabrication faults. User related failure modes are caused by abuse, such as overstress. The Physics of Failure Procedure followed by the Astrionics Laboratory in failure analysis is described, which is designed to obtain maximum information available from each step.

  4. The scanning transmission microscope at the NSLS (National Synchrotron Light Source)

    SciTech Connect

    Rarback, H.; Buckley, C.; Goncz, K.; Ade, H.; Anderson, E.; Attwood, D.; Batson, P.; Hellman, S.; Jacobsen, C.; Kern, D.; Kirz, J.; Lindaas, S.; McNulty,I.; Oversluizen, M.; Rivers, M.; Rothman, S.; Shu, D.; Tang, Eshang; State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY . Dept. of Physics; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA; State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY . Dep

    1989-01-01

    The scanning transmission soft x-ray microscope (STXM), that has been under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source has been substantially upgraded for operation with the X1 undulator. The principal new features are: optical prefocusing, using a visible light interferometer, a dedicated VAXstation 3200 with a more user friendly and flexible software system for image acquisition and analysis, a flow cell that makes it possible not only to keep the specimen wet during exposure, but to change the fluid around the specimen as well, and a more compact proportional counter that is capable of counting rates of several MHz. In conjunction with new zone plates of better resolution and higher efficiency, the microscope is ready for a period of extended use in biological imaging. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Quantitative analysis of digital microscope images.

    PubMed

    Wolf, David E; Samarasekera, Champika; Swedlow, Jason R

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses quantitative analysis of digital microscope images and presents several exercises to provide examples to explain the concept. This chapter also presents the basic concepts in quantitative analysis for imaging, but these concepts rest on a well-established foundation of signal theory and quantitative data analysis. This chapter presents several examples for understanding the imaging process as a transformation from sample to image and the limits and considerations of quantitative analysis. This chapter introduces to the concept of digitally correcting the images and also focuses on some of the more critical types of data transformation and some of the frequently encountered issues in quantization. Image processing represents a form of data processing. There are many examples of data processing such as fitting the data to a theoretical curve. In all these cases, it is critical that care is taken during all steps of transformation, processing, and quantization. PMID:23931513

  6. Light Microsopy Module, International Space Station Premier Automated Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald J.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Brown, Daniel F.; O'Toole, Martin A.; Foster, William M.; Motil, Brian J.; Abbot-Hearn, Amber Ashley; Atherton, Arthur Johnson; Beltram, Alexander; Bozioney, Christopher M.; Brinkman, John Michael; Chestney, Louis S.; Czernec, Richard P.; Dial, William B.; Dombrosky, Deena M.; Eustace, John G.; Reid, Ryan James; Reinke, Sharon A.; Rogers, Christopher R.; Samrani, Joseph T.; Shumway, Steven Scott; Smith, Teresa Ann; Stroh, James R.; Storck, Jennifer L.; Werner, Christopher Raymond; Wilkinson, Myron A.; Zoldak, John T.; Grant, Nechelle M.; Loucks, Brian C.; Plastow, Richard A.; Pestak, Mark W.; Fletcher, William A.

    2015-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2009 and began science operations in 2010. It continues to support Physical and Biological scientific research on ISS. During 2015, if all goes as planned, five experiments will be completed: [1] Advanced Colloids Experiments with a manual sample base -3 (ACE-M-3), [2] the Advanced Colloids Experiment with a Heated Base -1 (ACE-H-1), [3] (ACE-H-2), [4] the Advanced Plant Experiment -03 (APEX-03), and [5] the Microchannel Diffusion Experiment (MDE). Preliminary results, along with an overview of present and future LMM capabilities will be presented; this includes details on the planned data imaging processing and storage system, along with the confocal upgrade to the core microscope. [1] New York University: Paul Chaikin, Andrew Hollingsworth, and Stefano Sacanna, [2] University of Pennsylvania: Arjun Yodh and Matthew Gratale, [3] a consortium of universities from the State of Kentucky working through the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR): Stuart Williams, Gerold Willing, Hemali Rathnayake, et al., [4] from the University of Florida and CASIS: Anna-Lisa Paul and Rob Ferl, and [5] from the Methodist Hospital Research Institute from CASIS: Alessandro Grattoni and Giancarlo Canavese.

  7. Microscopic fluorescence spectral analysis of basal cell carcinomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qingli; Lui, Harvey; Zloty, David; Cowan, Bryce; Warshawski, Larry; McLean, David I.; Zeng, Haishan

    2007-05-01

    Background and Objectives. Laser-induced autofluorescence (LIAF) is a promising tool for cancer diagnosis. This method is based on the differences in autofluorescence spectra between normal and cancerous tissues, but the underlined mechanisms are not well understood. The objective of this research is to study the microscopic origins and intrinsic fluorescence properties of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) for better understanding of the mechanism of in vivo fluorescence detection and margin delineation of BCCs on skin patients. A home-made micro- spectrophotometer (MSP) system was used to image the fluorophore distribution and to measure the fluorescence spectra of various microscopic structures and regions on frozen tissue sections. Materials and Methods. BCC tissue samples were obtained from 14 patients undergoing surgical resections. After surgical removal, each tissue sample was immediately embedded in OCT medium and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen. The frozen tissue block was then cut into 16-μm thickness sections using a cryostat microtome and placed on microscopic glass slides. The sections for fluorescence study were kept unstained and unfixed, and then analyzed by the MSP system. The adjacent tissue sections were H&E stained for histopathological examination and also served to help identify various microstructures on the adjacent unstained sections. The MSP system has all the functions of a conventional microscope, plus the ability of performing spectral analysis on selected micro-areas of a microscopic sample. For tissue fluorescence analysis, 442nm He-Cd laser light is used to illuminate and excite the unstained tissue sections. A 473-nm long pass filter was inserted behind the microscope objective to block the transmitted laser light while passing longer wavelength fluorescence signal. The fluorescence image of the sample can be viewed through the eyepieces and also recorded by a CCD camera. An optical fiber is mounted onto the image plane of the photograph

  8. Analysis of mammalian scrapie protein by novel monoclonal antibodies recognizing distinct prion protein glycoforms: an immunoblot and immunohistochemical study at the light and electron microscopic levels.

    PubMed

    Matucci, Andrea; Zanusso, Gianluigi; Gelati, Matteo; Farinazzo, Alessia; Fiorini, Michele; Ferrari, Sergio; Andrighetto, Giancarlo; Cestari, Tiziana; Caramelli, Maria; Negro, Alessandro; Morbin, Michela; Chiesa, Roberto; Monaco, Salvatore; Tridente, Giuseppe

    2005-03-15

    The availability of specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing the aberrant form (PrP(Sc)) of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) in different mammalian species is important for molecular diagnostics, PrP(Sc) typing and future immunotherapy. We obtained a panel of anti-PrP monoclonal antibodies in PrP(0/0) knock-out mice immunized with recombinant human PrP(23-231). Two mAbs, recognizing PrP epitopes in the alpha-helix 1 (mAb SA65) and alpha-helix 2 (mAb SA21) regions, immunoreacted with PrP(C) and PrP(Sc) and its proteolytic product, PrP27-30, from human, murine, bovine, caprine and ovine brains by Western blot. Remarkably, mAb SA21 recognized unglycosylated and monoglycosylated PrP with the second site occupied by glycan moieties, but not monoglycosylated PrP with the first consensus site occupied or highly glycosylated species. Immunoblots with mAb SA21 disclosed that PrP glycosylated at the second site accounted for the slower migrating form of the customary monoglycosylated PrP doublet. mAb SA65 immunolabelled all PrP glycoforms by Western blot and was highly efficient in detecting tissue PrP by immunohistochemistry in light microscopy and in immunoelectron microscopy. These novel anti-PrP mAbs provide tools to investigate the subcellular site of PrP deposition in mammalian prion diseases and may also contribute to assess the role of different PrP glycoforms in human and animal prion diseases. PMID:15763182

  9. X ray microscope assembly and alignment support and advanced x ray microscope design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, David L.

    1991-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been devoted recently to the design, analysis, fabrication, and testing of spherical Schwarzschild microscopes for soft x ray application in microscopy and projection lithography. The spherical Schwarzschild microscope consists of two concentric spherical mirrors configured such that the third order spherical aberration and coma are zero. Since multilayers are used on the mirror substrates for x ray applications, it is desirable to have only two reflecting surfaces in a microscope. In order to reduce microscope aberrations and increase the field of view, generalized mirror surface profiles have been considered in this investigation. Based on incoherent and sine wave modulation transfer function (MTF) calculations, the object plane resolution of a microscope has been analyzed as a function of the object height and numerical aperture (NA) of the primary for several spherical Schwarzschild, conic, and aspherical head reflecting two mirror microscope configurations.

  10. Dome lighting for insect imaging under a microscope

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most basic element of photography is the interaction of light on the subject being imaged. In cases where magnification and clarity is of great importance, such as the imaging of insects for scientific illustration, controlling light can be especially challenging. The intense light needed to v...

  11. Using a university characterization facility to educate the public about microscopes: light microscopes to SEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, Nancy; Henderson, Walter

    2015-10-01

    The National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (NNIN)1is an integrated partnership of 14 universities across the US funded by NSF to support nanoscale researchers. The NNIN education office is located at the Institute of Electronics and Nanotechnology at the Georgia Institute of Technology. At Georgia Tech we offer programs that integrate the facility and its resources to educate the public about nanotechnology. One event that has proved highly successful involves using microscopes in our characterization suite to educate a diverse audience about a variety of imaging instruments. As part of the annual Atlanta Science Festival (ATLSF)2 we provided an event entitled: "What's all the Buzz about Nanotechnology?" which was open to the public and advertised through a variety of methods by the ATLSF. During the event, we provided hands-on demos, cleanroom tours, and activities with three of our microscopes in our recently opened Imaging and Characterization Facility: 1. Keyence VHX-600 Digital Microscope; 2. Hitachi SU823 FE-SEM; and 3. Hitachi TM 3000. During the two hour event we had approximately 150 visitors including many families with school-aged children. Visitors were invited to bring a sample for scanning with the TM-3000. This paper will discuss how to do such an event, lessons learned, and visitor survey results.

  12. Enhancing the performance of the light field microscope using wavefront coding.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Noy; Yang, Samuel; Andalman, Aaron; Broxton, Michael; Grosenick, Logan; Deisseroth, Karl; Horowitz, Mark; Levoy, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Light field microscopy has been proposed as a new high-speed volumetric computational imaging method that enables reconstruction of 3-D volumes from captured projections of the 4-D light field. Recently, a detailed physical optics model of the light field microscope has been derived, which led to the development of a deconvolution algorithm that reconstructs 3-D volumes with high spatial resolution. However, the spatial resolution of the reconstructions has been shown to be non-uniform across depth, with some z planes showing high resolution and others, particularly at the center of the imaged volume, showing very low resolution. In this paper, we enhance the performance of the light field microscope using wavefront coding techniques. By including phase masks in the optical path of the microscope we are able to address this non-uniform resolution limitation. We have also found that superior control over the performance of the light field microscope can be achieved by using two phase masks rather than one, placed at the objective's back focal plane and at the microscope's native image plane. We present an extended optical model for our wavefront coded light field microscope and develop a performance metric based on Fisher information, which we use to choose adequate phase masks parameters. We validate our approach using both simulated data and experimental resolution measurements of a USAF 1951 resolution target; and demonstrate the utility for biological applications with in vivo volumetric calcium imaging of larval zebrafish brain. PMID:25322056

  13. Shaping light: MOEMS deformable mirrors for microscopes and telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bifano, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Micromachined deformable mirrors (DMs) have enabled rapid advances in applications ranging from large telescope astronomy and free space laser communication to biological microscopy and retinal imaging over the past decade. In this talk I describe our efforts at Boston University and at Boston Micromachines Corporation to design, fabricate, and control MOEMS DMs for adaptive optics (AO) applications. Integration of the DMs in AO systems is described, along with results demonstrating unprecedented advances in resolution and contrast in microscopes and telescopes challenged by unavoidable wavefront aberrations. MEMS-DM research offers the rare opportunity to introduce technology that is both more economical and more capable than the state-of-the-art.

  14. A compact Airy beam light sheet microscope with a tilted cylindrical lens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhengyi; Prokopas, Martynas; Nylk, Jonathan; Coll-Lladó, Clara; Gunn-Moore, Frank J; Ferrier, David E K; Vettenburg, Tom; Dholakia, Kishan

    2014-10-01

    Light-sheet imaging is rapidly gaining importance for imaging intact biological specimens. Many of the latest innovations rely on the propagation-invariant Bessel or Airy beams to form an extended light sheet to provide high resolution across a large field of view. Shaping light to realize propagation-invariant beams often relies on complex programming of spatial light modulators or specialized, custom made, optical elements. Here we present a straightforward and low-cost modification to the traditional light-sheet setup, based on the open-access light-sheet microscope OpenSPIM, to achieve Airy light-sheet illumination. This brings wide field single-photon light-sheet imaging to a broader range of endusers. Fluorescent microspheres embedded in agarose and a zebrafish larva were imaged to demonstrate how such a microscope can have a minimal footprint and cost without compromising on imaging quality. PMID:25360362

  15. A compact Airy beam light sheet microscope with a tilted cylindrical lens

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhengyi; Prokopas, Martynas; Nylk, Jonathan; Coll-Lladó, Clara; Gunn-Moore, Frank J.; Ferrier, David E. K.; Vettenburg, Tom; Dholakia, Kishan

    2014-01-01

    Light-sheet imaging is rapidly gaining importance for imaging intact biological specimens. Many of the latest innovations rely on the propagation-invariant Bessel or Airy beams to form an extended light sheet to provide high resolution across a large field of view. Shaping light to realize propagation-invariant beams often relies on complex programming of spatial light modulators or specialized, custom made, optical elements. Here we present a straightforward and low-cost modification to the traditional light-sheet setup, based on the open-access light-sheet microscope OpenSPIM, to achieve Airy light-sheet illumination. This brings wide field single-photon light-sheet imaging to a broader range of endusers. Fluorescent microspheres embedded in agarose and a zebrafish larva were imaged to demonstrate how such a microscope can have a minimal footprint and cost without compromising on imaging quality. PMID:25360362

  16. Microscopic analysis of fusion hindrance in heavy nuclear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washiyama, Kouhei

    2015-06-01

    Background: Heavy-ion fusion reactions involving heavy nuclei at energies around the Coulomb barrier exhibit fusion hindrance, where the probability of compound nucleus formation is strongly hindered compared with that in light- and medium-mass systems. The origin of this fusion hindrance has not been well understood from a microscopic point of view. Purpose: I analyze the fusion dynamics in heavy systems by a microscopic reaction model in order to understand the origin of the fusion hindrance. Method: I employ the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory as a microscopic reaction model. I extract the nucleus-nucleus potential and energy dissipation by the method combining TDHF dynamics of the entrance channel of fusion reactions with a one-dimensional Newton equation including a dissipation term. Then, I analyze the origin of the fusion hindrance using the properties of the extracted potential and energy dissipation. Results: I obtain finite extra-push energies for heavy systems from TDHF simulations, which agree with experimental observations. Extracted nucleus-nucleus potentials show monotonic increase as the relative distance of two nuclei decreases, which induces the disappearance of an ordinary barrier structure of the nucleus-nucleus potential. This property is different from those in light- and medium-mass systems and from density-constraint TDHF calculations. Extracted friction coefficients show sizable energy dependence and universal value of their magnitude, which are rather similar to those in light- and medium-mass systems. Using these properties, I analyze the origin of the fusion hindrance and find that contribution of the increase in potential to the extra-push energy is larger than that of the accumulated dissipation energy in most systems studied in this article. Conclusions: I find that the nucleus-nucleus potentials extracted in heavy systems show a specific property, which is not observed in light- and medium-mass systems. By the analysis of

  17. Pigmentosis tubae, a new entity: light and electron microscopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, G.A.; Reimann, B.E.; Greenberg, H.L.; Miles, P.A.

    1983-03-01

    The authors noted an unusual finding in the fallopian tubes of a 31-year-old woman who had received external and internal whole pelvis radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Aggregates of macrophages containing pigment, identified in a subepithelial location, were reminiscent of melanosis coli, which is caused by abuse of anthracene-containing laxatives. Electron microscopic examination of the pigment revealed cytoplasmic material with the appearance of lipofuscin, identical to the pigment described in cases of colonic melanosis. After a careful study of possible etiologic agents, it was concluded that the pigment most likely resulted from cellular damage caused by radiotherapy. The authors are not aware of any other reported case of this entity, which will be called pigmentosis tubae.

  18. Enhancing the performance of the light field microscope using wavefront coding

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Noy; Yang, Samuel; Andalman, Aaron; Broxton, Michael; Grosenick, Logan; Deisseroth, Karl; Horowitz, Mark; Levoy, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Light field microscopy has been proposed as a new high-speed volumetric computational imaging method that enables reconstruction of 3-D volumes from captured projections of the 4-D light field. Recently, a detailed physical optics model of the light field microscope has been derived, which led to the development of a deconvolution algorithm that reconstructs 3-D volumes with high spatial resolution. However, the spatial resolution of the reconstructions has been shown to be non-uniform across depth, with some z planes showing high resolution and others, particularly at the center of the imaged volume, showing very low resolution. In this paper, we enhance the performance of the light field microscope using wavefront coding techniques. By including phase masks in the optical path of the microscope we are able to address this non-uniform resolution limitation. We have also found that superior control over the performance of the light field microscope can be achieved by using two phase masks rather than one, placed at the objective’s back focal plane and at the microscope’s native image plane. We present an extended optical model for our wavefront coded light field microscope and develop a performance metric based on Fisher information, which we use to choose adequate phase masks parameters. We validate our approach using both simulated data and experimental resolution measurements of a USAF 1951 resolution target; and demonstrate the utility for biological applications with in vivo volumetric calcium imaging of larval zebrafish brain. PMID:25322056

  19. How a lesson on microscopes supports learning about light in elementary schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Joyce; Healy, Nancy

    2015-10-01

    One of the goals of the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (NNIN) is workforce development. If K-12 students are to be ready for the jobs of the 21st century they must be able to work with tools such as microscopes. This study was conducted to determine if the NNIN lesson Taking a Closer Look at Objects helped grades K-5 students connect what they were learning about light and its uses, to how microscopes work. The results of this study indicate that the lesson not only helped students improve their knowledge of how light is used but also helped them become more knowledgeable about how microscopes work. Students learning how light is used to form an image in an optical microscope, lays the foundation for them to learn how other microscopes such as the Scanning Electron Microscope and Atomic Force Microscope are used to form images. This knowledge is important in supporting the continued research and development in the field of nanoscale science and engineering.

  20. A Microscopic Information System (MIS) to assist in petrographic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarquini, S.; Favalli, M.

    2009-04-01

    Rock texture results from all the petrological processes that have affected the rock system. The interpretation of a rock texture relies on the analysis of the morphometric parameters of the constituting components (e.g. crystals or grains). A consistent and statistically sound quantification of components size and shape is crucial to adequately unravel the petrology of a rock, but the gathering of these measurements may be time-consuming or difficult to achieve using low-cost facilities. The basic technique for texture analysis of rocks is the observation of thin sections in transmitted light by using a petrographic microscope. To automate and speed-up textural measurements from thin section in transmitted light, several image processing procedures have been published in the last two decades. Nevertheless, the complexity of the optical properties of crystals hampered the determination of a method that is completely satisfactory, especially for complex polymineralic plutonic rocks. This work provides a contribution to solve this problem. We present a novel composite procedure based on four approaches: i) the use of a slide scanner to acquire the input imagery in transmitted light from thin sections without using the petrographic microscope; ii) the storage of the resulting images in a GIS-like database structure that is extremely useful to retrieve, browse and analyze a large archive of images from a high number of thin sections; iii) the application of a custom image analysis procedure based on two region growing functions; iv) the refinement of the regions after raster to vector conversion using GIS software. We call the obtained analysis system a Microscopic Information System (MIS), because it relies on GIS software but it is not a geographic system. In this study we apply this technique to analyze 137 thin sections obtained from 49 samples of 8 different granitoid rocks that are commonly used in the decorative stone industry. For each thin section 5 collimated

  1. Design and analysis of multilayer x ray/XUV microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, David L.

    1990-01-01

    The design and analysis of a large number of normal incidence multilayer x ray microscopes based on the spherical mirror Schwarzschild configuration is examined. Design equations for the spherical mirror Schwarzschild microscopes are summarized and used to evaluate mirror parameters for microscopes with magnifications ranging from 2 to 50x. Ray tracing and diffraction analyses are carried out for many microscope configurations to determine image resolution as a function of system parameters. The results are summarized in three publication included herein. A preliminary study of advanced reflecting microscope configurations, where aspherics are used in place of the spherical microscope mirror elements, has indicated that the aspherical elements will improve off-axis image resolution and increase the effective field of view.

  2. Microscopic analysis of pear-shaped nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, K.

    2015-10-01

    We analyze the quadrupole-octupole collective states based on the microscopic energy density functional framework. By mapping the deformation constrained self-consistent axially symmetric mean-field energy surfaces onto the equivalent Hamiltonian of the sd f interacting boson model (IBM), that is, onto the energy expectation value in the boson coherent state, the Hamiltonian parameters are determined. The resulting IBM Hamiltonian is used to calculate excitation spectra and transition rates for the positive- and negative-parity collective states in nuclei characteristic for octupole deformation and collectivity. Consistently with the empirical trend, the microscopic calculation based on the systematics of β2 - β3 energy maps, the resulting low-lying negative-parity bands and transition rates show evidence of a shape transition between stable octupole deformation and octupole vibrations characteristic for β3-soft potentials.

  3. Study of filtered light on potential retinal photic hazards with operation microscopes used for ocular surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Robert J.; Miller, Sharon A.; Byrnes, Gordon A.

    2002-02-01

    There have been numerous reports of retinal photic injury from operation microscopes used during cataract surgery. The risk of injury has been associated with the intensity of the light directed into the eye, short-wavelength emission, user technique, exposure time, and direct axial lighting. We evaluated use of light transmission filters to modify a tungsten-halogen light source spectrum to reduce the risk of retinal photic injury. A two-light source filter combination was found with a color profile acceptable for intraocular surgery that reduces the risk of retinal photic injury by a factor of approximately 2.5.

  4. Real-time restoration of white-light confocal microscope optical sections

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Madhusudhanan; Iyengar, S. Sitharama; Beuerman, Roger W.; Reynaud, Juan; Wolenski, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Confocal microscopes (CM) are routinely used for building 3-D images of microscopic structures. Nonideal imaging conditions in a white-light CM introduce additive noise and blur. The optical section images need to be restored prior to quantitative analysis. We present an adaptive noise filtering technique using Karhunen–Loéve expansion (KLE) by the method of snapshots and a ringing metric to quantify the ringing artifacts introduced in the images restored at various iterations of iterative Lucy–Richardson deconvolution algorithm. The KLE provides a set of basis functions that comprise the optimal linear basis for an ensemble of empirical observations. We show that most of the noise in the scene can be removed by reconstructing the images using the KLE basis vector with the largest eigenvalue. The prefiltering scheme presented is faster and does not require prior knowledge about image noise. Optical sections processed using the KLE prefilter can be restored using a simple inverse restoration algorithm; thus, the methodology is suitable for real-time image restoration applications. The KLE image prefilter outperforms the temporal-average prefilter in restoring CM optical sections. The ringing metric developed uses simple binary morphological operations to quantify the ringing artifacts and confirms with the visual observation of ringing artifacts in the restored images. PMID:20186290

  5. Microscopic quantum coherence in a photosynthetic-light-harvesting antenna.

    PubMed

    Dawlaty, Jahan M; Ishizaki, Akihito; De, Arijit K; Fleming, Graham R

    2012-08-13

    We briefly review the coherent quantum beats observed in recent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy experiments in a photosynthetic-light-harvesting antenna. We emphasize that the decay of the quantum beats in these experiments is limited by ensemble averaging. The in vivo dynamics of energy transport depends upon the local fluctuations of a single photosynthetic complex during the energy transfer time (a few picoseconds). Recent analyses suggest that it remains possible that the quantum-coherent motion may be robust under individual realizations of the environment-induced fluctuations contrary to intuition obtained from condensed phase spectroscopic measurements and reduced density matrices. This result indicates that the decay of the observed quantum coherence can be understood as ensemble dephasing. We propose a fluorescence-detected single-molecule experiment with phase-locked excitation pulses to investigate the coherent dynamics at the level of a single molecule without hindrance by ensemble averaging. We discuss the advantages and limitations of this method. We report our initial results on bulk fluorescence-detected coherent spectroscopy of the Fenna-Mathews-Olson complex. PMID:22753820

  6. Atomic force microscope, molecular imaging, and analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-wen W; Teulon, Jean-Marie; Godon, Christian; Pellequer, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Image visibility is a central issue in analyzing all kinds of microscopic images. An increase of intensity contrast helps to raise the image visibility, thereby to reveal fine image features. Accordingly, a proper evaluation of results with current imaging parameters can be used for feedback on future imaging experiments. In this work, we have applied the Laplacian function of image intensity as either an additive component (Laplacian mask) or a multiplying factor (Laplacian weight) for enhancing image contrast of high-resolution AFM images of two molecular systems, an unknown protein imaged in air, provided by AFM COST Action TD1002 (http://www.afm4nanomedbio.eu/), and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) particles imaged in liquid. Based on both visual inspection and quantitative representation of contrast measurements, we found that the Laplacian weight is more effective than the Laplacian mask for the unknown protein, whereas for the TMV system the strengthened Laplacian mask is superior to the Laplacian weight. The present results indicate that a mathematical function, as exemplified by the Laplacian function, may yield varied processing effects with different operations. To interpret the diversity of molecular structure and topology in images, an explicit expression for processing procedures should be included in scientific reports alongside instrumental setups. PMID:26224520

  7. Aging rat vestibular ganglion: I. Quantitative light microscopic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Alidina, A; Lyon, M J

    1990-01-01

    This study was undertaken to quantify age-related changes in the rat vestibular ganglion. Cell number, diameter, and proximal-distal distribution based on size were evaluated. Serial 5-microns plastic sections of the vestibular ganglion from 15 female Wistar rats were examined. Rats were divided into three age groups: young (Y, 3 to 5 months, n = 5), old (0, 24 to 26 months, n = 3), and very old (VO, 28 to 31 months, n = 7). Quantitative analysis indicated no significant differences (P less than .05) in the estimated number of ganglion cells (mean: Y = 1,690, 0 = 2,257, VO = 1,678), ganglion cell profile diameters (mean: Y = 22.5 microns, n = 2,886; O = 23.7 microns, n = 2,313; VO = 22.8 microns, n = 4,061), or proximal-distal localization (proximal: 22.3 microns, 24.4 microns, 22.7 microns; middle: 22.6 microns, 23.1 microns, 22.4 microns; distal: 23.3 microns, 23.4 microns, 23.7 microns; Y, O, and VO, respectively). When pooled, the old animals tended to have slightly larger cell profiles than the other groups. We noted a dramatic age-related increase of aging pigment within the ganglion cell profiles, making the old and very old animals easily distinguishable from the young. In most of the cell profiles, the aging pigment was more or less uniformly distributed throughout the cytoplasm. However, in some, aging pigment was accumulated at one pole of the cell profile. While no typical degenerating cellular profiles were found in any of the sections, several of the ganglion cell profiles from the old animals revealed dense cytoplasm, possibly indicating an early stage of degeneration. PMID:2382785

  8. Minimizing inter-microscope variability in dental microwear texture analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arman, Samuel D.; Ungar, Peter S.; Brown, Christopher A.; DeSantis, Larisa R. G.; Schmidt, Christopher; Prideaux, Gavin J.

    2016-06-01

    A common approach to dental microwear texture analysis (DMTA) uses confocal profilometry in concert with scale-sensitive fractal analysis to help understand the diets of extinct mammals. One of the main benefits of DMTA over other methods is the repeatable, objective manner of data collection. This repeatability, however, is threatened by variation in results of DMTA of the same dental surfaces yielded by different microscopes. Here we compare DMTA data of five species of kangaroos measured on seven profilers of varying specifications. Comparison between microscopes confirms that inter-microscope differences are present, but we show that deployment of a number of automated treatments to remove measurement noise can help minimize inter-microscope differences. Applying these same treatments to a published hominin DMTA dataset shows that they alter some significant differences between dietary groups. Minimising microscope variability while maintaining interspecific dietary differences requires then that these factors are balanced in determining appropriate treatments. The process outlined here offers a solution for allowing comparison of data between microscopes, which is essential for ongoing DMTA research. In addition, the process undertaken, including considerations of other elements of DMTA protocols also promises to streamline methodology, remove measurement noise and in doing so, optimize recovery of a reliable dietary signature.

  9. From Animaculum to single molecules: 300 years of the light microscope.

    PubMed

    Wollman, Adam J M; Nudd, Richard; Hedlund, Erik G; Leake, Mark C

    2015-04-01

    Although not laying claim to being the inventor of the light microscope, Antonj van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) was arguably the first person to bring this new technological wonder of the age properly to the attention of natural scientists interested in the study of living things (people we might now term 'biologists'). He was a Dutch draper with no formal scientific training. From using magnifying glasses to observe threads in cloth, he went on to develop over 500 simple single lens microscopes (Baker & Leeuwenhoek 1739 Phil. Trans. 41, 503-519. (doi:10.1098/rstl.1739.0085)) which he used to observe many different biological samples. He communicated his finding to the Royal Society in a series of letters (Leeuwenhoek 1800 The select works of Antony Van Leeuwenhoek, containing his microscopical discoveries in many of the works of nature, vol. 1) including the one republished in this edition of Open Biology. Our review here begins with the work of van Leeuwenhoek before summarizing the key developments over the last ca 300 years, which has seen the light microscope evolve from a simple single lens device of van Leeuwenhoek's day into an instrument capable of observing the dynamics of single biological molecules inside living cells, and to tracking every cell nucleus in the development of whole embryos and plants. PMID:25924631

  10. From Animaculum to single molecules: 300 years of the light microscope

    PubMed Central

    Wollman, Adam J. M.; Nudd, Richard; Hedlund, Erik G.; Leake, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    Although not laying claim to being the inventor of the light microscope, Antonj van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723) was arguably the first person to bring this new technological wonder of the age properly to the attention of natural scientists interested in the study of living things (people we might now term ‘biologists’). He was a Dutch draper with no formal scientific training. From using magnifying glasses to observe threads in cloth, he went on to develop over 500 simple single lens microscopes (Baker & Leeuwenhoek 1739 Phil. Trans. 41, 503–519. (doi:10.1098/rstl.1739.0085)) which he used to observe many different biological samples. He communicated his finding to the Royal Society in a series of letters (Leeuwenhoek 1800 The select works of Antony Van Leeuwenhoek, containing his microscopical discoveries in many of the works of nature, vol. 1) including the one republished in this edition of Open Biology. Our review here begins with the work of van Leeuwenhoek before summarizing the key developments over the last ca 300 years, which has seen the light microscope evolve from a simple single lens device of van Leeuwenhoek's day into an instrument capable of observing the dynamics of single biological molecules inside living cells, and to tracking every cell nucleus in the development of whole embryos and plants. PMID:25924631

  11. Scanning tunneling microscope light emission: Effect of the strong dc field on junction plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalathingal, Vijith; Dawson, Paul; Mitra, J.

    2016-07-01

    The observed energies of the localized surface plasmons (LSPs) excited at the tip-sample junction of a scanning tunneling microscope, as identified by spectral peaks in the light output, are very significantly redshifted with respect to calculations that use standard optical data for the tip and sample material, gold in this case. We argue that this anomaly depends on the extreme field in the sub-nm tunneling proximity of the tip and the sample, across which a dc bias (1-2 V) is applied. Finite element modeling analysis is presented of a gold nanosphere-plane (NS-P) combination in tunneling proximity and, crucially, in the presence of a high static electric field (˜109V /m ). It is argued that the strong dc field induces nonlinear corrections to the dielectric function of the gold via the effect of a large background polarizability through the nonlinear, χ(3 ) susceptibility contribution. When fed into the model system the modified optical data alters the LSP cavity modes of the NS-P system to indeed reveal a large redshift in energy compared to those of the virgin gold NS-P system. The net outcome may be regarded as equivalent to lowering the bulk plasmon energy, the physical interpretation being that the intense field of the tunneling environment leads to surface charge screening, effectively reducing the density of free electrons available to participate in the plasmon oscillations.

  12. 3D scanning of internal structure in gel engineering materials with visual scanning microscopic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yosuke; Gong, Jing; Masato, Makino; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2014-04-01

    The 3D printing technology, causing much attention from the beginning of 2013, will be possibly an alternative method to fabricate the biological soft tissues. Recently our group of Yamagata University has developed the world-first 3D Gel Printer to fabricate the complicated gel-materials with high-strength and biocompatibility. However, there are no 3D scanners that collect the data from the internal structure of complicated gel objects such as eye lens. It means that a new system for scanning the internal structure is needed now. In this study, firstly, we have tried to investigate the gel network of synthetic and biological gel with scanning microscopic light scattering (SMILS). We calculated the Young's modulus of synthetic gels with the SMILS and with the tensile test, and precisely compared the results between them. The temperature dependences of the inside structure and the transparency are observed in the pig crystalline lens. The quantitative analysis indicates the importance of the internal structure of real object. Secondary, we show the new system named Gel-scanner that can provide the 2-dimentional data of the internal structure. From examining our findings, the scanning of internal structure will enable us to expect physical properties of the real object. We convince that the gelscanner will play major role in the various fields.

  13. A Simple low-cost device enables four epi-illumination techniques on standard light microscopes.

    PubMed

    Ishmukhametov, Robert R; Russell, Aidan N; Wheeler, Richard J; Nord, Ashley L; Berry, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Back-scattering darkfield (BSDF), epi-fluorescence (EF), interference reflection contrast (IRC), and darkfield surface reflection (DFSR) are advanced but expensive light microscopy techniques with limited availability. Here we show a simple optical design that combines these four techniques in a simple low-cost miniature epi-illuminator, which inserts into the differential interference-contrast (DIC) slider bay of a commercial microscope, without further additions required. We demonstrate with this device: 1) BSDF-based detection of Malarial parasites inside unstained human erythrocytes; 2) EF imaging with and without dichroic components, including detection of DAPI-stained Leishmania parasite without using excitation or emission filters; 3) RIC of black lipid membranes and other thin films, and 4) DFSR of patterned opaque and transparent surfaces. We believe that our design can expand the functionality of commercial bright field microscopes, provide easy field detection of parasites and be of interest to many users of light microscopy. PMID:26853732

  14. A Simple low-cost device enables four epi-illumination techniques on standard light microscopes

    PubMed Central

    Ishmukhametov, Robert R.; Russell, Aidan N.; Wheeler, Richard J.; Nord, Ashley L.; Berry, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Back-scattering darkfield (BSDF), epi-fluorescence (EF), interference reflection contrast (IRC), and darkfield surface reflection (DFSR) are advanced but expensive light microscopy techniques with limited availability. Here we show a simple optical design that combines these four techniques in a simple low-cost miniature epi-illuminator, which inserts into the differential interference-contrast (DIC) slider bay of a commercial microscope, without further additions required. We demonstrate with this device: 1) BSDF-based detection of Malarial parasites inside unstained human erythrocytes; 2) EF imaging with and without dichroic components, including detection of DAPI-stained Leishmania parasite without using excitation or emission filters; 3) RIC of black lipid membranes and other thin films, and 4) DFSR of patterned opaque and transparent surfaces. We believe that our design can expand the functionality of commercial bright field microscopes, provide easy field detection of parasites and be of interest to many users of light microscopy. PMID:26853732

  15. A combined light sheet fluorescence and differential interference contrast microscope for live imaging of multicellular specimens.

    PubMed

    Baker, R P; Taormina, M J; Jemielita, M; Parthasarathy, R

    2015-05-01

    We describe a microscope capable of both light sheet fluorescence microscopy and differential interference contrast microscopy (DICM). The two imaging modes, which to the best of our knowledge have not previously been combined, are complementary: light sheet fluorescence microscopy provides three-dimensional imaging of fluorescently labelled components of multicellular systems with high speed, large fields of view, and low phototoxicity, whereas differential interference contrast microscopy reveals the unlabelled neighbourhood of tissues, organs, and other structures with high contrast and inherent optical sectioning. Use of a single Nomarski prism for differential interference contrast microscopy and a shared detection path for both imaging modes enables simple integration of the two techniques in one custom microscope. We provide several examples of the utility of the resulting instrument, focusing especially on the digestive tract of the larval zebrafish, revealing in this complex and heterogeneous environment anatomical features, the behaviour of commensal microbes, immune cell motions, and more. PMID:25611324

  16. A Simple low-cost device enables four epi-illumination techniques on standard light microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishmukhametov, Robert R.; Russell, Aidan N.; Wheeler, Richard J.; Nord, Ashley L.; Berry, Richard M.

    2016-02-01

    Back-scattering darkfield (BSDF), epi-fluorescence (EF), interference reflection contrast (IRC), and darkfield surface reflection (DFSR) are advanced but expensive light microscopy techniques with limited availability. Here we show a simple optical design that combines these four techniques in a simple low-cost miniature epi-illuminator, which inserts into the differential interference-contrast (DIC) slider bay of a commercial microscope, without further additions required. We demonstrate with this device: 1) BSDF-based detection of Malarial parasites inside unstained human erythrocytes; 2) EF imaging with and without dichroic components, including detection of DAPI-stained Leishmania parasite without using excitation or emission filters; 3) RIC of black lipid membranes and other thin films, and 4) DFSR of patterned opaque and transparent surfaces. We believe that our design can expand the functionality of commercial bright field microscopes, provide easy field detection of parasites and be of interest to many users of light microscopy.

  17. The Light Microscopy Module: An On-Orbit Multi-User Microscope Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Susan M.; Snead, John H.

    2002-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) is planned as a remotely controllable on-orbit microscope subrack facility, allowing flexible scheduling and operation of fluids and biology experiments within the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) on the International Space Station (ISS). The LMM will be the first integrated payload with the FIR to conduct four fluid physics experiments. A description of the LMM diagnostic capabilities, including video microscopy, interferometry, laser tweezers, confocal, and spectrophotometry, will be provided.

  18. Advanced water window x-ray microscope design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, D. L.; Wang, C.; Jiang, W.; Lin, J.

    1992-01-01

    The project was focused on the design and analysis of an advanced water window soft-x-ray microscope. The activities were accomplished by completing three tasks contained in the statement of work of this contract. The new results confirm that in order to achieve resolutions greater than three times the wavelength of the incident radiation, it will be necessary to use aspherical mirror surfaces and to use graded multilayer coatings on the secondary (to accommodate the large variations of the angle of incidence over the secondary when operating the microscope at numerical apertures of 0.35 or greater). The results are included in a manuscript which is enclosed in the Appendix.

  19. Quantitative evaluation of a handheld light microscope for field diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infection.

    PubMed

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Andrews, Jason R; Speich, Benjamin; Ame, Shaali M; Ali, Said M; Stothard, J Russell; Utzinger, Jürg; Keiser, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the Newton Nm1, a commercially available handheld light microscope and compared it with conventional light microscopy for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections. A total of 91 Kato-Katz thick smears were examined by experienced microscopists and helminth eggs were counted and expressed as eggs per gram of stool (EPG). Mean egg counts were significantly higher with the conventional light microscope (5,190 EPG versus 2,386 EPG for Ascaris lumbricoides; 826 versus 456 for Trichuris trichiura; both P < 0.05). Using regression coefficients and accounting for intensity of infection, we found that the agreement between the two devices was excellent for both species (κ = 0.90, 95% confidence interval = 0.82-0.99 for A. lumbricoides and κ = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.91-1.00 for T. trichiura). The Newton Nm1 microscope may be a useful tool for the detection and quantification of soil-transmitted helminth infection in clinical, epidemiologic, and public health settings. PMID:25246697

  20. [Intracytoplasmic lumina of benign and malignant breast diseases--a light and electron microscopic study].

    PubMed

    Gu, C M

    1990-07-01

    Intracytoplasmic lumina (ICLs) of 70 cases with breast carcinoma and 29 cases with benign breast diseases were observed by light and electron microscopy. ICLs were morphologically divided into two types. Type A was characterized by the presence of secretory materials stained with eosin in the lumen and Type B by the cytoplasmic vacuoles under light microscope. Electron microscopic observation on Type A ICLs showed numerous filiform microvilli projecting towards the lumen and various amounts of secretory materials in the lumen. Type B of ICLs only had scanty and short microvilli and rarely secretory materials in the lumen. The results indicated that: 1. The frequency of ICLs in breast cancer was significantly higher than that in benign breast disease (P less than 0.01). 2. The frequency of ICLs in breast cancer showed strong negative correlation with its histological grades but not with its histological types. 3. ICLs had similar frequency under both light and electron microscopes. As a relatively specific structure in breast carcinoma cells, ICLs may be helpful in the diagnosis of breast carcinoma and establishment of the breast origin for metastatic carcinoma. PMID:2176965

  1. Automatic analysis for neuron by confocal laser scanning microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satou, Kouhei; Aoki, Yoshimitsu; Mataga, Nobuko; Hensh, Takao K.; Taki, Katuhiko

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a system that recognizes both the macro- and microscopic configurations of nerve cells and automatically performs the necessary 3-D measurements and functional classification of spines. The acquisition of 3-D images of cranial nerves has been enabled by the use of a confocal laser scanning microscope, although the highly accurate 3-D measurements of the microscopic structures of cranial nerves and their classification based on their configurations have not yet been accomplished. In this study, in order to obtain highly accurate measurements of the microscopic structures of cranial nerves, existing positions of spines were predicted by the 2-D image processing of tomographic images. Next, based on the positions that were predicted on the 2-D images, the positions and configurations of the spines were determined more accurately by 3-D image processing of the volume data. We report the successful construction of an automatic analysis system that uses a coarse-to-fine technique to analyze the microscopic structures of cranial nerves with high speed and accuracy by combining 2-D and 3-D image analyses.

  2. NASA Lighting Research, Test, & Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Toni

    2015-01-01

    The Habitability and Human Factors Branch, at Johnson Space Center, in Houston, TX, provides technical guidance for the development of spaceflight lighting requirements, verification of light system performance, analysis of integrated environmental lighting systems, and research of lighting-related human performance issues. The Habitability & Human Factors Lighting Team maintains two physical facilities that are integrated to provide support. The Lighting Environment Test Facility (LETF) provides a controlled darkroom environment for physical verification of lighting systems with photometric and spetrographic measurement systems. The Graphics Research & Analysis Facility (GRAF) maintains the capability for computer-based analysis of operational lighting environments. The combined capabilities of the Lighting Team at Johnson Space Center have been used for a wide range of lighting-related issues.

  3. Coherent Scattering of Near-Resonant Light by a Dense Microscopic Cold Atomic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennewein, S.; Besbes, M.; Schilder, N. J.; Jenkins, S. D.; Sauvan, C.; Ruostekoski, J.; Greffet, J.-J.; Sortais, Y. R. P.; Browaeys, A.

    2016-06-01

    We measure the coherent scattering of light by a cloud of laser-cooled atoms with a size comparable to the wavelength of light. By interfering a laser beam tuned near an atomic resonance with the field scattered by the atoms, we observe a resonance with a redshift, a broadening, and a saturation of the extinction for increasing atom numbers. We attribute these features to enhanced light-induced dipole-dipole interactions in a cold, dense atomic ensemble that result in a failure of standard predictions such as the "cooperative Lamb shift". The description of the atomic cloud by a mean-field model based on the Lorentz-Lorenz formula that ignores scattering events where light is scattered recurrently by the same atom and by a microscopic discrete dipole model that incorporates these effects lead to progressively closer agreement with the observations, despite remaining differences.

  4. Coherent Scattering of Near-Resonant Light by a Dense Microscopic Cold Atomic Cloud.

    PubMed

    Jennewein, S; Besbes, M; Schilder, N J; Jenkins, S D; Sauvan, C; Ruostekoski, J; Greffet, J-J; Sortais, Y R P; Browaeys, A

    2016-06-10

    We measure the coherent scattering of light by a cloud of laser-cooled atoms with a size comparable to the wavelength of light. By interfering a laser beam tuned near an atomic resonance with the field scattered by the atoms, we observe a resonance with a redshift, a broadening, and a saturation of the extinction for increasing atom numbers. We attribute these features to enhanced light-induced dipole-dipole interactions in a cold, dense atomic ensemble that result in a failure of standard predictions such as the "cooperative Lamb shift". The description of the atomic cloud by a mean-field model based on the Lorentz-Lorenz formula that ignores scattering events where light is scattered recurrently by the same atom and by a microscopic discrete dipole model that incorporates these effects lead to progressively closer agreement with the observations, despite remaining differences. PMID:27341230

  5. Development of a Hybrid Atomic Force Microscopic Measurement System Combined with White Light Scanning Interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tong; Wang, Siming; Dorantes-Gonzalez, Dante J.; Chen, Jinping; Fu, Xing; Hu, Xiaotang

    2012-01-01

    A hybrid atomic force microscopic (AFM) measurement system combined with white light scanning interferometry for micro/nanometer dimensional measurement is developed. The system is based on a high precision large-range positioning platform with nanometer accuracy on which a white light scanning interferometric module and an AFM head are built. A compact AFM head is developed using a self-sensing tuning fork probe. The head need no external optical sensors to detect the deflection of the cantilever, which saves room on the head, and it can be directly fixed under an optical microscopic interferometric system. To enhance the system’s dynamic response, the frequency modulation (FM) mode is adopted for the AFM head. The measuring data can be traceable through three laser interferometers in the system. The lateral scanning range can reach 25 mm × 25 mm by using a large-range positioning platform. A hybrid method combining AFM and white light scanning interferometry is proposed to improve the AFM measurement efficiency. In this method, the sample is measured firstly by white light scanning interferometry to get an overall coarse morphology, and then, further measured with higher resolution by AFM. Several measuring experiments on standard samples demonstrate the system’s good measurement performance and feasibility of the hybrid measurement method. PMID:22368463

  6. Development of a hybrid atomic force microscopic measurement system combined with white light scanning interferometry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tong; Wang, Siming; Dorantes-Gonzalez, Dante J; Chen, Jinping; Fu, Xing; Hu, Xiaotang

    2012-01-01

    A hybrid atomic force microscopic (AFM) measurement system combined with white light scanning interferometry for micro/nanometer dimensional measurement is developed. The system is based on a high precision large-range positioning platform with nanometer accuracy on which a white light scanning interferometric module and an AFM head are built. A compact AFM head is developed using a self-sensing tuning fork probe. The head need no external optical sensors to detect the deflection of the cantilever, which saves room on the head, and it can be directly fixed under an optical microscopic interferometric system. To enhance the system's dynamic response, the frequency modulation (FM) mode is adopted for the AFM head. The measuring data can be traceable through three laser interferometers in the system. The lateral scanning range can reach 25 mm × 25 mm by using a large-range positioning platform. A hybrid method combining AFM and white light scanning interferometry is proposed to improve the AFM measurement efficiency. In this method, the sample is measured firstly by white light scanning interferometry to get an overall coarse morphology, and then, further measured with higher resolution by AFM. Several measuring experiments on standard samples demonstrate the system's good measurement performance and feasibility of the hybrid measurement method. PMID:22368463

  7. Light microscopic hair abnormalities in children: retrospective review of 119 cases in a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Shao, Lei; Newell, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities in the hair can be congenital or acquired conditions. Examples of genetic disorders with associated hair abnormalities include Menkes syndrome, Netherton syndrome, uncombable hair syndrome, trichothiodystrophy, and loose anagen hair syndrome. Acquired hair abnormalities can be associated with grooming or use of various hair products. There are many patterns of hair abnormalities that can be readily identified under a light microscope. We performed a retrospective review of 129 hair mount samples from 119 patients submitted to the pathology department for microscopic examination over a 10-year span (from January 2002 to December 2011). Of the 119 patients, 63 (53%) had morphologic changes in the hair samples. Thirty-seven patients (31%) showed morphologic changes compatible with specific diagnoses of various genetic conditions, including 25 cases of loose anagen hair syndrome, 6 cases of uncombable hair syndrome, 2 cases of Netherton syndrome, 3 cases of Menkes syndrome, and 1 case of trichothiodystrophy. The other changes were considered nonspecific or nondiagnostic, with trichorrhexis nodosa in 13 patients, presence of loose anagen hairs in 12 patients, and pili torti in 1 patient. We describe the light microscopic patterns of hair abnormalities, clinical findings, and molecular defects related to those genetic conditions. Our study indicates that hair examination can be a 1st-line investigation on various pediatric conditions. PMID:24251687

  8. A line scanned light-sheet microscope with phase shaped self-reconstructing beams.

    PubMed

    Fahrbach, Florian O; Rohrbach, Alexander

    2010-11-01

    We recently demonstrated that Microscopy with Self-Reconstructing Beams (MISERB) increases both image quality and penetration depth of illumination beams in strongly scattering media. Based on the concept of line scanned light-sheet microscopy, we present an add-on module to a standard inverted microscope using a scanned beam that is shaped in phase and amplitude by a spatial light modulator. We explain technical details of the setup as well as of the holograms for the creation, positioning and scaling of static light-sheets, Gaussian beams and Bessel beams. The comparison of images from identical sample areas illuminated by different beams allows a precise assessment of the interconnection between beam shape and image quality. The superior propagation ability of Bessel beams through inhomogeneous media is demonstrated by measurements on various scattering media. PMID:21164769

  9. A compact light-sheet microscope for the study of the mammalian central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhengyi; Haslehurst, Peter; Scott, Suzanne; Emptage, Nigel; Dholakia, Kishan

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of the transient processes integral to neuronal function demands rapid and high-resolution imaging techniques over a large field of view, which cannot be achieved with conventional scanning microscopes. Here we describe a compact light sheet fluorescence microscope, featuring a 45° inverted geometry and an integrated photolysis laser, that is optimized for applications in neuroscience, in particular fast imaging of sub-neuronal structures in mammalian brain slices. We demonstrate the utility of this design for three-dimensional morphological reconstruction, activation of a single synapse with localized photolysis, and fast imaging of neuronal Ca2+ signalling across a large field of view. The developed system opens up a host of novel applications for the neuroscience community. PMID:27215692

  10. A compact light-sheet microscope for the study of the mammalian central nervous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhengyi; Haslehurst, Peter; Scott, Suzanne; Emptage, Nigel; Dholakia, Kishan

    2016-05-01

    Investigation of the transient processes integral to neuronal function demands rapid and high-resolution imaging techniques over a large field of view, which cannot be achieved with conventional scanning microscopes. Here we describe a compact light sheet fluorescence microscope, featuring a 45° inverted geometry and an integrated photolysis laser, that is optimized for applications in neuroscience, in particular fast imaging of sub-neuronal structures in mammalian brain slices. We demonstrate the utility of this design for three-dimensional morphological reconstruction, activation of a single synapse with localized photolysis, and fast imaging of neuronal Ca2+ signalling across a large field of view. The developed system opens up a host of novel applications for the neuroscience community.

  11. A Combined Light Sheet Fluorescence and Differential Interference Contrast Microscope for Live Imaging of Multicellular Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Ryan P.; Taormina, Michael J.; Jemielita, Matthew; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2014-01-01

    We describe a microscope capable of both light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) and differential interference contrast microscopy (DICM). The two imaging modes, which to the best of our knowledge have not previously been combined, are complementary: LSFM provides three-dimensional imaging of fluorescently labeled components of multicellular systems with high speed, large fields of view, and low phototoxicity, while DICM reveals the unlabeled neighborhood of tissues, organs, and other structures with high contrast and inherent optical sectioning. Use of a single Nomarski prism for DICM and a shared detection path for both imaging modes enables simple integration of the two techniques in one custom microscope. We provide several examples of the utility of the resulting instrument, focusing especially on the digestive tract of the larval zebrafish, revealing in this complex and heterogeneous environment anatomical features, the behavior of commensal microbes, immune cell motions, and more. PMID:25611324

  12. A compact light-sheet microscope for the study of the mammalian central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhengyi; Haslehurst, Peter; Scott, Suzanne; Emptage, Nigel; Dholakia, Kishan

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of the transient processes integral to neuronal function demands rapid and high-resolution imaging techniques over a large field of view, which cannot be achieved with conventional scanning microscopes. Here we describe a compact light sheet fluorescence microscope, featuring a 45° inverted geometry and an integrated photolysis laser, that is optimized for applications in neuroscience, in particular fast imaging of sub-neuronal structures in mammalian brain slices. We demonstrate the utility of this design for three-dimensional morphological reconstruction, activation of a single synapse with localized photolysis, and fast imaging of neuronal Ca(2+) signalling across a large field of view. The developed system opens up a host of novel applications for the neuroscience community. PMID:27215692

  13. Sub-diffuse structured light imaging provides macroscopic maps of microscopic tissue structure (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanick, Stephen C.

    2016-03-01

    The onset and progression of cancer introduces changes to the intra-cellular ultrastructural components and to the morphology of the extracellular matrix. While previous work has shown that localized scatter imaging is sensitive to pathology-induced differences in these aspects of tissue microstructure, wide adaptation this knowledge for surgical guidance is limited by two factors. First, the time required to image with confocal-level localization of the remission signal can be substantial. Second, localized (i.e. sub-diffuse) scatter remission intensity is influenced interchangeably by parameters that define scattering frequency and anisotropy. This similarity relationship must be carefully considered in order to obtain unique estimates of biomarkers that define either the scatter density or features that describe the distribution (e.g. shape, size, and orientation) of scatterers. This study presents a novel approach that uses structured light imaging to address both of these limitations. Monte Carlo data were used to model the reflectance intensity over a wide range of spatial frequencies, reduced scattering coefficients, absorption coefficients, and a metric of the scattering phase function that directly maps to the fractal dimension of scatter sizes. The approach is validated in tissue-simulating phantoms constructed with user-tuned scattering phase functions. The validation analysis shows that the phase function can be described in the presence of different scatter densities or background absorptions. Preliminary data from clinical tissue specimens show quantitative images of both the scatter density and the tissue fractal dimension for various tissue types and pathologies. These data represent a novel wide-field quantitative approach to mapping microscopic structural biomarkers that cannot be obtained with standard diffuse imaging. Implications for the use of this approach to assess surgical margins will be discussed.

  14. Hyperspectral microscopic analysis of normal, benign and carcinoma microarray tissue sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggioni, Mauro; Davis, Gustave L.; Warner, Frederick J.; Geshwind, Frank B.; Coppi, Andreas C.; DeVerse, Richard A.; Coifman, Ronald R.

    2006-02-01

    We apply a unique micro-optoelectromechanical tuned light source and new algorithms to the hyper-spectral microscopic analysis of human colon biopsies. The tuned light prototype (Plain Sight Systems Inc.) transmits any combination of light frequencies, range 440nm 700nm, trans-illuminating H and E stained tissue sections of normal (N), benign adenoma (B) and malignant carcinoma (M) colon biopsies, through a Nikon Biophot microscope. Hyper-spectral photomicrographs, randomly collected 400X magnication, are obtained with a CCD camera (Sensovation) from 59 different patient biopsies (20 N, 19 B, 20 M) mounted as a microarray on a single glass slide. The spectra of each pixel are normalized and analyzed to discriminate among tissue features: gland nuclei, gland cytoplasm and lamina propria/lumens. Spectral features permit the automatic extraction of 3298 nuclei with classification as N, B or M. When nuclei are extracted from each of the 59 biopsies the average classification among N, B and M nuclei is 97.1%; classification of the biopsies, based on the average nuclei classification, is 100%. However, when the nuclei are extracted from a subset of biopsies, and the prediction is made on nuclei in the remaining biopsies, there is a marked decrement in performance to 60% across the 3 classes. Similarly the biopsy classification drops to 54%. In spite of these classification differences, which we believe are due to instrument and biopsy normalization issues, hyper-spectral analysis has the potential to achieve diagnostic efficiency needed for objective microscopic diagnosis.

  15. UV-visible microscope spectrophotometric polarization and dichroism with increased discrimination power in forensic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, Dale Kevin

    Microanalysis of transfer (Trace) evidence is the application of a microscope and microscopical techniques for the collection, observation, documentation, examination, identification, and discrimination of micrometer sized particles or domains. Microscope spectrophotometry is the union of microscopy and spectroscopy for microanalysis. Analytical microspectroscopy is the science of studying the emission, reflection, transmission, and absorption of electromagnetic radiation to determine the structure or chemical composition of microscopic-size materials. Microscope spectrophotometry instrument designs have evolved from monochromatic illumination which transmitted through the microscope and sample and then is detected by a photometer detector (photomultiplier tube) to systems in which broad-band (white light) illumination falls incident upon a sample followed by a non-scanning grating spectrometer equipped with a solid-state multi-element detector. Most of these small modern spectrometers are configured with either silicon based charged-couple device detectors (200-950 nm) or InGaAs based diode array detectors (850-2300 nm) with computerized data acquisition and signal processing being common. A focus of this research was to evaluate the performance characteristics of various modern forensic (UV-Vis) microscope photometer systems as well as review early model instrumental designs. An important focus of this research was to efficiently measure ultraviolet-visible spectra of microscopically small specimens for classification, differentiation, and possibly individualization. The first stage of the project consisted of the preparation of microscope slides containing neutral density filter reference materials, molecular fluorescence reference materials, and dichroic reference materials. Upon completion of these standard slide preparations analysis began with measurements in order to evaluate figures of merit for comparison of the instruments investigated. The figures of

  16. Optical imaging analysis of microscopic radiation dose gradients in Gafchromic EBT film using a digital microscope.

    PubMed

    Keller, Brian M; Peressotti, Chris; Pignol, Jean-Philippe

    2008-08-01

    By providing superior localization and immobilization, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is capable of delivering millimeter spheres of dose to intracranial targets with submillimeter precision. Several authors have proposed new SRS solutions to dramatically reduce beam penumbra to hundreds of microns. These solutions require new quality assurance methods capable of penumbra measurement at the micron scale. This article examines the capability of a digital microscope, with translation stage and associated software, to resolve dose gradients in Gafchromic EBT film at this level. To produce very steep penumbra, films were irradiated in phantom beneath pinhole collimators using lower energy x rays (100 kVp, 300 kVp, and Iridium-192) and minimal geometric penumbra contribution. For film analysis, a method was developed which improved the signal to noise ratio by finding the center of the irradiation spot, generating several radial dose profiles and averaging these to obtain the final off-axis dose profile. Optical density was converted to dose using a calibration curve. The experimentally determined off-axis dose profiles were compared with MCNP Monte Carlo simulations which replicated the irradiation geometry and served to validate our measured data. The measured 80%-20% penumbral widths were 46 microm +/- 26 microm (100 kVp, 2 mm field size), 69 microm +/- m 27 microm (300 kVp, 2 mm field size), and 241 microm +/-31 microm (Ir-192, 1 mm field size). These penumbral widths agreed with Monte Carlo simulations within experimental uncertainty. Our findings suggest that reading Gafchromic EBT films using a digital microscope with translation stage is suitable for the quality assurance of very sharp penumbra able to resolve gradients to within at least 30 microm. PMID:18777933

  17. Optical imaging analysis of microscopic radiation dose gradients in Gafchromic EBT film using a digital microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Brian M.; Peressotti, Chris; Pignol, Jean-Philippe

    2008-08-15

    By providing superior localization and immobilization, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is capable of delivering millimeter spheres of dose to intracranial targets with submillimeter precision. Several authors have proposed new SRS solutions to dramatically reduce beam penumbra to hundreds of microns. These solutions require new quality assurance methods capable of penumbra measurement at the micron scale. This article examines the capability of a digital microscope, with translation stage and associated software, to resolve dose gradients in Gafchromic EBT film at this level. To produce very steep penumbra, films were irradiated in phantom beneath pinhole collimators using lower energy x rays (100 kVp, 300 kVp, and Iridium-192) and minimal geometric penumbra contribution. For film analysis, a method was developed which improved the signal to noise ratio by finding the center of the irradiation spot, generating several radial dose profiles and averaging these to obtain the final off-axis dose profile. Optical density was converted to dose using a calibration curve. The experimentally determined off-axis dose profiles were compared with MCNP Monte Carlo simulations which replicated the irradiation geometry and served to validate our measured data. The measured 80%-20% penumbral widths were 46 {mu}m{+-}26 {mu}m (100 kVp, 2 mm field size), 69 {mu}m{+-}27 {mu}m (300 kVp, 2 mm field size), and 241 {mu}m{+-}31 {mu}m (Ir-192, 1 mm field size). These penumbral widths agreed with Monte Carlo simulations within experimental uncertainty. Our findings suggest that reading Gafchromic EBT films using a digital microscope with translation stage is suitable for the quality assurance of very sharp penumbra able to resolve gradients to within at least 30 {mu}m.

  18. Real-time whole slide mosaicing for non-automated microscopes in histopathology analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gherardi, Alessandro; Bevilacqua, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Context: Mosaics of Whole Slides (WS) are a valuable resource for pathologists to have the whole sample available at high resolution. The WS mosaic provides pathologists with an overview of the whole sample at a glance, helping them to make a reliable diagnosis. Despite recent solutions exist for creating WS mosaics based, for instance, on automated microscopes with motorized stages or WS scanner, most of the histopathology analysis are still performed in laboratories endowed with standard manual stage microscopes. Nowadays, there are lots of dedicated devices and hardware to achieve WS automatically and in batch, but only few of them are conceived to work tightly connected with a microscope and none of them is capable of working in real-time with common light microscopes. However, there is a need of having low-cost yet effective mosaicing applications even in small laboratories to improve routine histopathological analyses or to perform remote diagnoses. Aims: The purpose of this work is to study and develop a real-time mosaicing algorithm working even using non-automated microscopes, to enable pathologists to achieve WS while moving the holder manually, without exploiting any dedicated device. This choice enables pathologists to build WS in real-time, while browsing the sample as they are accustomed to, helping them to identify, locate, and digitally annotate lesions fast. Materials and Methods: Our method exploits fast feature tracker and frame to frame registration that we implemented on common graphics processing unit cards. The system work with common light microscopes endowed with a digital camera and connected to a commodity personal computer. Result and Conclusion: The system has been tested on several histological samples to test the effectiveness of the algorithm to work with mosaicing having different appearances as far as brightness, contrast, texture, and detail levels are concerned, attaining sub-pixel registration accuracy at real-time interactive

  19. Optical sectioning microscopes with no moving parts using a micro-stripe array light emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Poher, V; Zhang, H X; Kennedy, G T; Griffin, C; Oddos, S; Gu, E; Elson, D S; Girkin, M; French, P M W; Dawson, M D; Neil, M A

    2007-09-01

    We describe an optical sectioning microscopy system with no moving parts based on a micro-structured stripe-array light emitting diode (LED). By projecting arbitrary line or grid patterns onto the object, we are able to implement a variety of optical sectioning microscopy techniques such as grid-projection structured illumination and line scanning confocal microscopy, switching from one imaging technique to another without modifying the microscope setup. The micro-structured LED and driver are detailed and depth discrimination capabilities are measured and calculated. PMID:19547474

  20. The variable refractive index correction algorithm based on a stereo light microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, W.; Zhu, Y. Y.

    2010-02-01

    Refraction occurs at least twice on both the top and the bottom surfaces of the plastic plate covering the micro channel in a microfluidic chip. The refraction and the nonlinear model of a stereo light microscope (SLM) may severely affect measurement accuracy. In this paper, we study the correlation between optical paths of the SLM and present an algorithm to adjust the refractive index based on the SLM. Our algorithm quantizes the influence of cover plate and double optical paths on the measurement accuracy, and realizes non-destructive, non-contact and precise 3D measurement of a hyaloid and closed container.

  1. Stray Light Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Based on a Small Business Innovation Research contract from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, TracePro is state-of-the-art interactive software created by Lambda Research Corporation to detect stray light in optical systems. An image can be ruined by incidental light in an optical system. To maintain image excellence from an optical system, stray light must be detected and eliminated. TracePro accounts for absorption, specular reflection and refraction, scattering and aperture diffraction of light. Output from the software consists of spatial irradiance plots and angular radiance plots. Results can be viewed as contour maps or as ray histories in tabular form. TracePro is adept at modeling solids such as lenses, baffles, light pipes, integrating spheres, non-imaging concentrators, and complete illumination systems. The firm's customer base includes Lockheed Martin, Samsung Electronics and other manufacturing, optical, aerospace, and educational companies worldwide.

  2. Analysis of scanning probe microscope images using wavelets.

    PubMed

    Gackenheimer, C; Cayon, L; Reifenberger, R

    2006-03-01

    The utility of wavelet transforms for analysis of scanning probe images is investigated. Simulated scanning probe images are analyzed using wavelet transforms and compared to a parallel analysis using more conventional Fourier transform techniques. The wavelet method introduced in this paper is particularly useful as an image recognition algorithm to enhance nanoscale objects of a specific scale that may be present in scanning probe images. In its present form, the applied wavelet is optimal for detecting objects with rotational symmetry. The wavelet scheme is applied to the analysis of scanning probe data to better illustrate the advantages that this new analysis tool offers. The wavelet algorithm developed for analysis of scanning probe microscope (SPM) images has been incorporated into the WSxM software which is a versatile freeware SPM analysis package. PMID:16439061

  3. SIRTF stray light analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, David G.; Dinger, Ann S.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is a 1-meter cryogenic infrared telescope. Stray light is kept below the natural background by restrictions on sun, Earth, and moon off-axis angles; by conservative baffle design; by the use of advanced diffuse black coatings; and by superfluid helium cooling. The aperture stop is located at the primary mirror rather than at the secondary mirror to increase the aperture and reduce the central obscuration. Stray light from off-axis sources is greater with the aperture stop at the primary than with the aperture stop at the secondary, but the modulation of the signal produced by tilting of the secondary mirror for chopping is less. Stray light from telescope thermal emission is lower with the aperture stop at the primary.

  4. A light sheet confocal microscope for image cytometry with a variable linear slit detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutcheson, Joshua A.; Khan, Foysal Z.; Powless, Amy J.; Benson, Devin; Hunter, Courtney; Fritsch, Ingrid; Muldoon, Timothy J.

    2016-03-01

    We present a light sheet confocal microscope (LSCM) capable of high-resolution imaging of cell suspensions in a microfluidic environment. In lieu of conventional pressure-driven flow or mechanical translation of the samples, we have employed a novel method of fluid transport, redox-magnetohydrodynamics (redox-MHD). This method achieves fluid motion by inducing a small current into the suspension in the presence of a magnetic field via electrodes patterned onto a silicon chip. This on-chip transportation requires no moving parts, and is coupled to the remainder of the imaging system. The microscopy system comprises a 450 nm diode 20 mW laser coupled to a single mode fiber and a cylindrical lens that converges the light sheet into the back aperture of a 10x, 0.3 NA objective lens in an epi-illumination configuration. The emission pathway contains a 150 mm tube lens that focuses the light onto the linear sensor at the conjugate image plane. The linear sensor (ELiiXA+ 8k/4k) has three lateral binning modes which enables variable detection aperture widths between 5, 10, or 20 μm, which can be used to vary axial resolution. We have demonstrated redox-MHD-enabled light sheet microscopy in suspension of fluorescent polystyrene beads. This approach has potential as a high-throughput image cytometer with myriad cellular diagnostic applications.

  5. Microscopic analysis of Hopper flow with ellipsoidal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sida; Zhou, Zongyan; Zou, Ruiping; Pinson, David; Yu, Aibing

    2013-06-01

    Hoppers are widely used in process industries. With such widespread application, difficulties in achieving desired operational behaviors have led to extensive experimental and mathematical studies in the past decades. Particularly, the discrete element method has become one of the most important simulation tools for design and analysis. So far, most studies are on spherical particles for computational convenience. In this work, ellipsoidal particles are used as they can represent a large variation of particle shapes. Hopper flow with ellipsoidal particles is presented highlighting the effect of particle shape on the microscopic properties.

  6. The Columbia Debris Loan Program; Examples of Microscopic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Rick; Thurston, Scott; Smith, Stephen; Marder, Arnold; Steckel, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Following the tragic loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia NASA formed The Columbia Recovery Office (CRO). The CRO was initially formed at the Johnson Space Center after the conclusion of recovery operations on May 1,2003 and then transferred .to the Kennedy Space Center on October 6,2003 and renamed The Columbia Recovery Office and Preservation. An integral part of the preservation project was the development of a process to loan Columbia debris to qualified researchers and technical educators. The purposes of this program include aiding in the advancement of advanced spacecraft design and flight safety development, the advancement of the study of hypersonic re-entry to enhance ground safety, to train and instruct accident investigators and to establish an enduring legacy for Space Shuttle Columbia and her crew. Along with a summary of the debris loan process examples of microscopic analysis of Columbia debris items will be presented. The first example will be from the reconstruction following the STS- 107 accident and how the Materials and Proessteesa m used microscopic analysis to confirm the accident scenario. Additionally, three examples of microstructural results from the debris loan process from NASA internal, academia and private industry will be presented.

  7. Light microscopic and three-dimensional morphology of the human muscular sarcocyst.

    PubMed

    Wong, K T; Clarke, G; Pathmanathan, R; Hamilton, P W

    1994-01-01

    Established criteria for morphological typing of sarcocysts was applied to a large series of cases of human skeletal muscle sarcocystosis in Malaysia to determine the type of sarcocyst present. We also wanted to test the general usefulness of this classification and to determine if there are any new cyst types. Three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction was done to see if the sarcocyst has a distinct 3-D morphology. A total of 66 sarcocysts from 21 cases of human muscle sarcocystosis obtained from a previous prevalence study were examined. Tissue sections (5 microns thick) were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and studied under the light microscope. For 3-D reconstruction, an image analyser was used to align and reconstruct the sarcocyst after microscopic images had been captured with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. All the cysts best fit into the type 4 category. This classification is generally useful, although cyst wall characteristics and zoite size appear to be the most reliable criteria for classification. The cyst width averaged 77 microns (range, 30-137.5 microns). Cyst walls were smooth, had no cytophaneres and were less than 1 micron thick. No secondary cyst wall or surrounding inflammation was evident. Numerous cyst merozoites with diameters averaging 1 micron filled the cyst lumen. Although septa were not apparent, in many cysts, zoites were arranged in a unique, curvilinear fashion that suggested their presence. 3-D reconstruction showed the sarcocyst to be a long, tortuous "cylinder" with no branching or other distinguishing feature. PMID:8202453

  8. Vertical scanning white light interfering profilometer based on Linnik interference microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuzhen; Xie, Tiebang; Chang, Suping

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we provide a vertical scanning white light interfering profilometer based on Linnik type interference microscope. A vertical scanning system with coarse-fine dual-stage actuators is developed, in which the coarse positioning is performed by inclined sliding guides, AC servo motor, ballscrew and the fine positioning is performed by parallel board flexure hinge and piezoelectric ceramic, respectively. The displacement range of the vertical scanning system is 0~2mm and 0.4nm theoretical motion resolution can be achieved. The whole interference microscope of the profilometer is driven by the vertical scanning system, which will eliminate the movement coupling error of vertical direction caused by horizontal movement of 2D precision stage. The interference fringes or the focal plane can be automatically located by moving the vertical scanning system. To eliminate the measurement errors of the profilometer caused by incorrect positioning of the vertical scanning system, its displacement is measured in real-time by a laser interferometer with theoretical resolution of 0.01nm. A single groove specimen with the depth of 1.26μm calibrated by National Institute of Metrology P.R.China, MEMS device and textured steel sheet was measured to illustrate the capabilities of the profilometer.

  9. A Combined Light Sheet Fluorescence and Differential Interference Contrast Microscope for Live Imaging of Multicellular Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Ryan; Taormina, Michael; Jemielita, Matthew; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2015-03-01

    We present a microscope capable of both light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) and differential interference contrast microscopy (DICM). The two imaging modes, which to the best of our knowledge have not previously been combined, are complementary: LSFM provides high speed three-dimensional imaging of fluorescently labeled components of multicellular systems, large fields of view, and low phototoxicity, while DICM reveals the unlabeled neighborhood of tissues, organs, and other structures with high contrast and inherent optical sectioning. Use of a shared detection path for both imaging modes enables simple integration of the two techniques in one microscope. To demonstrate the instrument's utility, we provide several examples which focus on the digestive tract of the larval zebrafish. We show that DICM can sometimes circumvent the need for fluorescent based techniques, augmenting the number of parameters obtainable per experiment when used alongside LSFM, and that DICM can be used to augment each experiment by imaging complementary features, such as non-fluorescent local environments near fluorescent samples (e.g. fluorescent enteric neurons imaged alongside the non-fluorescent gut wall), interactions between fluorescent and non-fluorescent samples (e.g. bacteria), and more. NSF Award 0922951, NIH Award 1P50 GM098911

  10. Affine calibration based on invariable extrinsic parameters for stereo light microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weixian; Wei, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Guangjun

    2014-10-01

    The stereo light microscope (SLM) plays an important role in the measurement of three-dimensional geometry on the microscopic scale. We propose a fast and precise affine calibration algorithm based on the invariable extrinsic parameters for the SLM. This calibration algorithm with a free planar reference consists of three steps: first, derive the extrinsic parameters based on their invariable definition in the pinhole and affine models; second, calculate the intrinsic parameters through homography matrix; finally, refine all the model parameters by global optimization with the previous closed-form solutions as the initial values. The effectiveness of assuming a noncoaxial optical system as an affine camera is also verified to affinely model all types of SLMs. The calibration experiments show that the affine calibration is preferable for multicriteria including running time, relative positioning precision, and absolute positioning precision. With PlanApo S 1.5× and a total magnification of 3.024×, the proposed affine calibration algorithm achieves a distance error of 0.423 μm and a positioning error of 0.195 mm within 10.6 s.

  11. An aberration corrected photoemission electron microscope at the advanced light source

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.; MacDowell, A.A.; Duarte, R.; Doran, A.; Forest, E.; Kelez, N.; Marcus, M.; Munson, D.; Padmore, H.; Petermann, K.; Raoux, S.; Robin, D.; Scholl, A.; Schlueter, R.; Schmid, P.; Stohr, J.; Wan, W.; Wei, D.H.; Wu, Y.

    2003-11-01

    Design of a new aberration corrected Photoemission electron microscope PEEM3 at the Advanced Light Source is outlined. PEEM3 will be installed on an elliptically polarized undulator beamline and will be used for the study of complex materials at high spatial and spectral resolution. The critical components of PEEM3 are the electron mirror aberration corrector and aberration-free magnetic beam separator. The models to calculate the optical properties of the electron mirror are discussed. The goal of the PEEM3 project is to achieve the highest possible transmission of the system at resolutions comparable to our present PEEM2 system (50 nm) and to enable significantly higher resolution, albeit at the sacrifice of intensity. We have left open the possibility to add an energy filter at a later date, if it becomes necessary driven by scientific need to improve the resolution further.

  12. A wide field fluorescence lifetime imaging system using a light sheet microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, Phil M.; Moore, Lamar; Li, Xiaofei; Phillips, Roger; Young, Rupert; Chatwin, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) has allowed scientists to discern information about the chemical properties of biological processes and has become a vital tool in the life sciences and medical research communities. Measuring the spatial lifetime distribution of the fluorophores as well as the intensity distribution enables users to discern vital information about the chemical environment. It however, remains challenging and often involves slow scanning. We present a new microscope system based on light sheet illumination that uses a micro channel plate (MCP) device called a Capacitive Division Imaging Readout (CDIR) which has been developed by Photek Ltd. The device uses an array of capacitors to move the charge site from the MCP to four pre-amplifiers and time-over-threshold discriminators. This camera has the ability to image photons as well as measure the arrival time, enabling high speed FLIM imaging of biological samples.

  13. Selective scanning tunneling microscope light emission from rutile phase of VO2.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Joe; Kuwahara, Masashi; Hotsuki, Masaki; Katano, Satoshi; Uehara, Yoichi

    2016-09-28

    We observed scanning tunneling microscope light emission (STM-LE) induced by a tunneling current at the gap between an Ag tip and a VO2 thin film, in parallel to scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) profiles. The 34 nm thick VO2 film grown on a rutile TiO2 (0 0 1) substrate consisted of both rutile (R)- and monoclinic (M)-structure phases of a few 10 nm-sized domains at room temperature. We found that STM-LE with a certain photon energy of 2.0 eV occurs selectively from R-phase domains of VO2, while no STM-LE was observed from M-phase. The mechanism of STM-LE from R-phase VO2 was determined to be an interband transition process rather than inverse photoemission or inelastic tunneling processes. PMID:27460183

  14. A depth estimation method based on geometric transformation for stereo light microscope.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shengli; Yu, Mei; Wang, Yigang; Jiang, Gangyi

    2014-01-01

    Stereo light microscopes (SLM) with narrow vision and shallow depth of field are widely used in micro-domain research. In this paper, we propose a depth estimation method of micro objects based on geometric transformation. By analyzing the optical imaging geometry, the definition of geometric transformation distance is given and the depth-distance relation express is obtained. The parameters of geometric transformation and express are calibrated with calibration board images captured in aid of precise motorized stage. The depth of micro object can be estimated by calculating the geometric transformation distance. The proposed depth-distance relation express is verified using an experiment in which the depth map of an Olanzapine tablet surface is reconstructed. PMID:25226979

  15. Selective scanning tunneling microscope light emission from rutile phase of VO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Joe; Kuwahara, Masashi; Hotsuki, Masaki; Katano, Satoshi; Uehara, Yoichi

    2016-09-01

    We observed scanning tunneling microscope light emission (STM-LE) induced by a tunneling current at the gap between an Ag tip and a VO2 thin film, in parallel to scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) profiles. The 34 nm thick VO2 film grown on a rutile TiO2 (0 0 1) substrate consisted of both rutile (R)- and monoclinic (M)-structure phases of a few 10 nm-sized domains at room temperature. We found that STM-LE with a certain photon energy of 2.0 eV occurs selectively from R-phase domains of VO2, while no STM-LE was observed from M-phase. The mechanism of STM-LE from R-phase VO2 was determined to be an interband transition process rather than inverse photoemission or inelastic tunneling processes.

  16. Biochemical and microscopic analysis of sperm in copper deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, J.; Jackson, P.; Allison, S.

    1986-03-01

    The Mottle Brindle Mouse Syndrome is a disease in mice which mimics Menkes Syndrome in humans. Treatment of affected male mice has led to varying survival rates in mice and few attempts have led to the development of virile male offsprings in mice and none in humans. In this study the authors examined sperm produced by Brindle mice in an attempt to ascertain reasons for the observed failure of the Brindle mice to reproduce. Microscopic analysis revealed that sperm counts in these mice are higher than sperm counts of the C57/BL or the C57/6J (normal) mice. Microscopically, sperm from Brindle mice showed changes in the acrosomal and flagellum regions. Motility of these sperm were 10% to 50% that of sperm from normal mice. Biochemically, cytochrome oxidase activity was 10% to 50% of the activity seen in normal mice. Hexokinase activity and pyruvate dehydrogenase activity was equal to that observed in normal mice. These observations suggest that infertility in Brindle male mice is due to an impairment of testicular copper transport which leads to a decline in copper dependent processes.

  17. Light intensity strain analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A process is described for the analysis of the strain field of structures subjected to large deformations involving a low modulus substrate having a high modulus, relatively thin coating. The optical properties of transmittance and reflectance are measured for the coated substrate while stressed and unstressed to indicate the strain field for the coated substrate.

  18. Neutron scattering analysis with microscopic optical model potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, L.F.

    1991-09-03

    A review of microscopic optical model potentials used in the analysis of neutron scattering and analyzing power data below 100 MeV (5 {le}E{sub n}{le}100 MeV) is presented. The quality of the fits to the data over a wide massd ({sup 6}Li-{sup 239}Pu) and energy range is discussed. It is shown that reasonably good agreement with the data is obtained with only three parameters, {lambda}{sub V}, {lambda}{sub W}, and {lambda}{sub SO}, which show a smooth mass and energy dependence. These parameters are normalizing constants to the real (V), and imaginary (W) central potentials and the real spin-orbit (V{sub SO}) potential. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Microscopic analysis of currency and stock exchange markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kador, L.

    1999-08-01

    Recently it was shown that distributions of short-term price fluctuations in foreign-currency exchange exhibit striking similarities to those of velocity differences in turbulent flows. Similar profiles represent the spectral-diffusion behavior of impurity molecules in disordered solids at low temperatures. It is demonstrated that a microscopic statistical theory of the spectroscopic line shapes can be applied to the other two phenomena. The theory interprets the financial data in terms of information which becomes available to the traders and their reactions as a function of time. The analysis shows that there is no characteristic time scale in financial markets, but that instead stretched-exponential or algebraic memory functions yield good agreement with the price data. For an algebraic function, the theory yields truncated Lévy distributions which are often observed in stock exchange markets.

  20. Automated pollen identification using microscopic imaging and texture analysis.

    PubMed

    Marcos, J Víctor; Nava, Rodrigo; Cristóbal, Gabriel; Redondo, Rafael; Escalante-Ramírez, Boris; Bueno, Gloria; Déniz, Óscar; González-Porto, Amelia; Pardo, Cristina; Chung, François; Rodríguez, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Pollen identification is required in different scenarios such as prevention of allergic reactions, climate analysis or apiculture. However, it is a time-consuming task since experts are required to recognize each pollen grain through the microscope. In this study, we performed an exhaustive assessment on the utility of texture analysis for automated characterisation of pollen samples. A database composed of 1800 brightfield microscopy images of pollen grains from 15 different taxa was used for this purpose. A pattern recognition-based methodology was adopted to perform pollen classification. Four different methods were evaluated for texture feature extraction from the pollen image: Haralick's gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM), log-Gabor filters (LGF), local binary patterns (LBP) and discrete Tchebichef moments (DTM). Fisher's discriminant analysis and k-nearest neighbour were subsequently applied to perform dimensionality reduction and multivariate classification, respectively. Our results reveal that LGF and DTM, which are based on the spectral properties of the image, outperformed GLCM and LBP in the proposed classification problem. Furthermore, we found that the combination of all the texture features resulted in the highest performance, yielding an accuracy of 95%. Therefore, thorough texture characterisation could be considered in further implementations of automatic pollen recognition systems based on image processing techniques. PMID:25259684

  1. Classical microscopic theory of dispersion, emission and absorption of light in dielectrics. Classical microscopic theory of dielectric susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carati, Andrea; Galgani, Luigi

    2014-10-01

    This paper is a continuation of a recent one in which, apparently for the first time, the existence of polaritons in ionic crystals was proven in a microscopic electrodynamic theory. This was obtained through an explicit computation of the dispersion curves. Here the main further contribution consists in studying electric susceptibility, from which the spectrum can be inferred. We show how susceptibility is obtained by the Green-Kubo methods of Hamiltonian statistical mechanics, and give for it a concrete expression in terms of time-correlation functions. As in the previous paper, here too we work in a completely classical framework, in which the electrodynamic forces acting on the charges are all taken into account, both the retarded forces and the radiation reaction ones. So, in order to apply the methods of statistical mechanics, the system has to be previously reduced to a Hamiltonian one. This is made possible in virtue of two global properties of classical electrodynamics, namely, the Wheeler-Feynman identity and the Ewald resummation properties, the proofs of which were already given for ordered system. The second contribution consists in formulating the theory in a completely general way, so that in principle it applies also to disordered systems such as glasses, or liquids or gases, provided the two general properties mentioned above continue to hold. A first step in this direction is made here by providing a completely general proof of the Wheeler-Feynman identity, which is shown to be the counterpart of a general causality property of classical electrodynamics. Finally it is shown how a line spectrum can appear at all in classical systems, as a counterpart of suitable stability properties of the motions, with a broadening due to a coexistence of chaoticity. The relevance of some recent results of the theory of dynamical systems in this connection is also pointed out.

  2. Microscopic analysis of an opacified OFT CRYL® hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Bruna Vieira; MacLean, Kyle Douglas; Lira, Wagner; Oliveira, Daniele Mendes de; Ventura, Camila Vieira; Werner, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    A 51-year-old patient underwent posterior vitrectomy with perfluoropropane gas injection, phacoemulsification, and implantation of an Oft Cryl® hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) because of traumatic retinal detachment and cataract in the right eye. On the first postoperative day, gas was filling the anterior chamber because of patient's non-compliance in terms of head positioning, and was reabsorbed within one week. Eight months later, the patient returned complaining of a significant decrease in vision. IOL opacification was noticed by slit-lamp examination. The lens was explanted to undergo gross and light microscopic analysis. The lens was also stained with the alizarin red method for calcium identification. Light microscopic analysis confirmed the presence of granular deposits, densely distributed in an overall circular pattern in the central part of the lens optic. The granules stained positive for calcium. This is the first case of the opacification of this type of hydrophilic lens. Surgeons should be aware of this potential postoperative complication, and the use of hydrophilic IOLs should be avoided in procedures involving intracameral gas because of the risk of IOL opacification. PMID:27626152

  3. Novel cuticular morphology using LTSEM and Light Microscopic Modifications in some bacterial-feeding and plant-parasitic nematodes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microscopic techniques used only exceptionally within nematology can reveal new and unexpected morphological features not visible with standard light and scanning electron microscopy. Among nematodes, SEM face views are of special importance in diagnosis of Panagrolaimus spp. Low Temperature (LT) S...

  4. Light and electron microscopic studies of the Gerbillus tarabuli (Thomas, 1902) Harderian gland.

    PubMed

    Saadi-Brenkia, Ouanassa; Haniche, Nadia; Bendjelloul, Mounira

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the morphological aspects of the Harderian gland in Gerbillus tarabuli. Tissues were obtained from both male and female adult Gerbillus tarabuli and processed for light and electron microscopy. The Harderian gland in gerbil is large and well developed, covered by a thin capsule, from which thin septae extend, subdividing the gland into lobes and lobules. The endpieces of the gland are tubuloalveolar, which produce a secretion of lipid character. The glandular epithelium is pseudostratified with two types of secretory cells, the type C cells are columnar in shape with large lipid vacuoles, and type P cells pyramidal and serous, they are basally located with no luminal aspect. The epithelium possesses well-developed myoepithelial cells. The wide lumina are filled with lipid vacuoles, cellular debris, and porphyrins. The Harderian gland of the gerbil has no morphologically distinct duct system; a single extraglandular excretory duct is detected. Electron microscopic examination revealed that type C cells contain large electron-light lipid vacuoles, a well and extensive reticulum endoplasmic and a large number of mitochondria. The pyramidal cells are characterized by a small number of PAS-positive granules at the basal region; these cells exhibit one or two round nuclei, many electron-dense granules, crystalloid bodies, abundant mitochondria and many ribosomes in their cytoplasm. The three mechanism of secretion are seen in the Harderian gland of Gerbillus tarabuli. In its overall characteristics, the Harderian gland of Gerbillus tarabuli conforms to the general pattern observed in rodents. However, further research will be needed to correlate the presence of cytoplasmic slashes, crystalloids bodies and glycoproteins in epithelial cells with the biology of these animals and to their functional significance. PMID:23317366

  5. Equine phacoclastic uveitis: the clinical manifestations, light microscopic findings, and therapy of 7 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Grahn, B H; Cullen, C L

    2000-01-01

    This retrospective clinical study describes the clinical manifestations, light microscopic findings, and diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic lens rupture in the horse. Rupture of the lens capsule in the horse usually results in a chronic, blinding inflammation (phacoclastic uveitis) unless prompt surgical and medical therapies are implemented. The clinical manifestations of acute lens capsule rupture included: cataract; intralenticular displacement of iridal pigment; lens cortical fragments attached to the perforated lens capsule, iris, and corneal endothelium; miosis; aqueous flare; and usually a corneal or scleral perforation with ulceration or focal full thickness corneal edema and scarring. The clinical signs of chronic phacoclastic uveitis include blindness, phthisis bulbi, and generalized corneal opacification related to scarring, vascularization, pigmentation, and edema. In one horse, acute phacoclastic uveitis was successfully treated with phacoemulsification to remove the ruptured lens and medical therapy to control the accompanying inflammation. The affected eyes of the horses with chronic phacoclastic uveitis were enucleated because of persistent clinical signs of nonulcerative keratitis and uveitis, despite long-term medical management. The clinical manifestations and lack of improvement with medical therapy are similar in the horse, dog, cat, and rabbit. However, the histologic findings in equine phacoclastic uveitis differ significantly from those in the dog, and rabbit. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. PMID:10816830

  6. Light microscopic studies of the stomach of the lesser mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus).

    PubMed

    Agungpriyono, S; Yamada, J; Kitamura, N; Sigit, K; Yamamoto, Y; Winarto, A; Yamashita, T

    1995-01-01

    The stomach of the lesser mouse deer was studied at the light microscopic level using histological and immunohistochemical methods. The stomach was clearly differentiated into rumen, reticulum including reticular groove, a small transition zone and abomasum. The mucosal surface of the rumen, reticulum and transition zone was lined with a stratified squamous epithelium and that of the abomasum with a simple columnar type. The epithelial keratinization was weak in the rumen, floor of the reticular groove and transition zone, while it was strong in the reticulum, especially on the tip of the reticulum papillae. Large sinusoidal capillaries were often present in the ruminal papillae. In the ruminal mucosa, a thin layer of alpha-smooth muscle actin immunoreactive cells was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. The muscularis mucosae of the reticulum was continuous and well-developed. The transition zone appeared as a nonglandular area having many low mucosal folds and two layers of tunica muscularis. The abomasal mucosa consisted of cardiac, proper gastric and pyloric glands. Cells immunoreactive for bovine pepsinogen and bovine prochymosin antisera were demonstrated in the abomasum. It is suggested that the characteristic features observed might be adaptations to a relatively rapid passage and rapid absorption of the fermentation products. There is some evidence that the transition zone is not a part of either the floor of the reticular groove or the abomasum, suggesting a possible reevaluation of the term used for the reticulo-abomasal orifice in the mouse deer. PMID:7536016

  7. Light and electron microscope observations on Nephroselmis gaoae sp. nov. (Prasinophyceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, C. K.; Jiao-Fen, Chen; Zhe-Fu, Zhang; Hui-Qi, Zhang

    1994-09-01

    Nephroselmis gaoae sp. nov. is described on the basis of light and electron microscope observations of cultured material originally collected and isolated from seawater of Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao, China. The periplasts on the cell body and flagella are covered by five types of scales, two types on the flagella and three on the body. Among these, the morphology and the number of spines of large stellate body scales differ remarkably from those of previously described species of Nephroselmis. Apart from these, the unusual fine structure of the eyespot (stigma) is very characteristic. As in the other species of Nephroselmis, the eyespot lies immediately under the two-membraned chloroplast envelope; unlike the others, however, it is not composed of a number of osmiophilic globules, but consists of about 14 curved rod-shaped osmiophilic bodies arranged loosely and randomly. This feature distinguishes the present new species not only from the other species of Nephroselmis but also from the other motile algal species, the eyespots structure of which had been previously described.

  8. Central nervous system changes in mitochondrial encephalomyopathy: light and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, K; Sasaki, M; Suzuki, T; Shiraishi, H; Koizumi, J; Ohkoshi, N; Ogata, T; Mori, N; Ban, S; Kosaka, K

    1992-01-01

    An autopsy case of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is reported. It presented with generalized muscle atrophy, stroke-like episodes, schizophrenia-like mental disorder and progressive dementia. Serum lactate and pyruvate levels were high. In the biopsied muscles, ragged-red fibers were observed by light microscopy and aggregation of abnormal mitochondria with paracrystaline formation by electron microscopy. The most characteristic neuropathological findings were infarct-like lesions widespread in the cerebral cortex. In addition, this case showed some unusual pathological features: (1) diffuse moderate fibrillary gliosis in the whole cerebral and cerebellar white matter, which might have been due to metabolic disturbances; (2) several focal lesions with demyelination and numerous spheroids in the pontocerebellar fibers; and (3) marked degeneration of the posterior columns and spinocerebellar tracts. Electron microscopic examination revealed that abnormal mitochondria were markedly aggregated in smooth muscle cells and endothelium of the cerebral and cerebellar blood vessels. These fine structural findings suggest a "mitochondrial angiopathy". PMID:1575024

  9. [The alimentary canal of the Siberian chipmunk (Eutamias sibiricus, Laxm. 1769): macroscopic and light microscopic examination].

    PubMed

    Nieters, M; Schnorr, B; Kressin, M

    2003-06-01

    The canalis alimentarius of the Burunduk (Eutamias sibiricus), a rodent belonging to the family Sciuridae, were examined macroscopically (12 animals) and light microscopically (three animals). The esophagus is lined with a stratified non-keratinized squamous epithelium. The one-chambered stomach is of a simple type covered with a glandular mucous membrane. When empty and moderately filled, the stomach looks like a curved sack and lies intrathoracally. The filled stomach extends to the left and ventrally into the regio abdominis media. The greater omentum covers incompletely ventrally and in a part laterally the intestinal mass. The intestinal canal averages about 780 mm in length, that is 6.5 as long as the whole body. The relative length of the small intestine compared with the large intestine is 36-64%. The U-shaped Duodenum is composed of a Pars cranialis, descendens and ascendens and possesses a Plica duodenocolica as well as a Plica duodenocolica accessoria. The Jejunum averages about 420 mm length and is mainly located in the right and ventral part of the regio abdominis media. As in other rodents, the cecum is well developed. The length of the ascending colon averages about the body length and forms an Ansa proximalis and two parallel loops, Ansa media and Ansa distalis coli, both lying in the right Cavum abdominis. Peculiar for the colon are Noduli lymphatici solitarii surrounding cavities lined by a surface epithelium. According to the anatomical structure of the gut and based on physiological diet facts the Burunduk is not a mere herbivore but has to be classified as an omnivore depending upon uptake of animal food protein. PMID:12823102

  10. Acquisition of a High Resolution Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope for the Analysis of Returned Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nittler, Larry R.

    2003-01-01

    This grant furnished funds to purchase a state-of-the-art scanning electron microscope (SEM) to support our analytical facilities for extraterrestrial samples. After evaluating several instruments, we purchased a JEOL 6500F thermal field emission SEM with the following analytical accessories: EDAX energy-dispersive x-ray analysis system with fully automated control of instrument and sample stage; EDAX LEXS wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectrometer for high sensitivity light-element analysis; EDAX/TSL electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) system with software for phase identification and crystal orientation mapping; Robinson backscatter electron detector; and an in situ micro-manipulator (Kleindiek). The total price was $550,000 (with $150,000 of the purchase supported by Carnegie institution matching funds). The microscope was delivered in October 2002, and most of the analytical accessories were installed by January 2003. With the exception of the wavelength spectrometer (which has been undergoing design changes) everything is working well and the SEM is in routine use in our laboratory.

  11. FT-IR microscopical analysis with synchrotron radiation: The microscope optics and system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Reffner, J.A.; Martoglio, P.A.; Williams, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    When a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectrometer was first interfaced with the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in September 1993, there was an instant realization that the performance at the diffraction limit had increased 40-100 times. The synchrotron source transformed the IR microspectrometer into a true IR microprobe, providing high-quality IR spectra for probe diameters at the diffraction limit. The combination of IR microspectroscopy and synchrotron radiation provides a powerful new tool for molecular spectroscopy. The ability to perform IR microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation is still under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory, but several initial studies have been completed that demonstrate the broad-ranging applications of this technology and its potential for materials characterization.

  12. Special pattern of endochondral ossification in human laryngeal cartilages: X-ray and light-microscopic studies on thyroid cartilage.

    PubMed

    Claassen, Horst; Schicht, Martin; Sel, Saadettin; Paulsen, Friedrich

    2014-04-01

    Endochondral ossification is a process that also occurs in the skeleton of the larynx. Differences in the ossification mechanism in comparison to growth plates are not understood until now. To get deeper insights into this process, human thyroid cartilage was investigated by the use of X-rays and a series of light-microscopic stainings. A statistical analysis of mineralization was done by scanning areas of mineralized cartilage and of ossification. We detected a special mode of endochondral ossification which differs from the processes in growth plates. Thyroid cartilage ossifies very slowly and in a gender-specific manner. Compared with age-matched women, bone formation in thyroid cartilage of men is significantly higher in the age group 41-60 years. Endochondral ossification is prepared by internal changes of extracellular matrix leading to areas of asbestoid fibers with ingrowing cartilage canals. In contrast to growth plates, bone is deposited on large areas of mineralized cartilage, which appear at the rims of cartilage canals. Furthermore, primary parallel fibered bone was observed which was deposited on woven bone. The predominant bone type is cancellous bone with trabeculae, whereas compact bone with Haversian systems was seldom found. Trabeculae contain a great number of reversal and arresting lines meaning that the former were often reconstructed and that bone formation was arrested and resumed again with advancing age. It is hypothesized that throughout life trabeculae of ossified thyroid cartilage undergo adaptation to different loads due to the use of voice. PMID:24496984

  13. Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications.

    PubMed

    Mudanyali, Onur; Tseng, Derek; Oh, Chulwoo; Isikman, Serhan O; Sencan, Ikbal; Bishara, Waheb; Oztoprak, Cetin; Seo, Sungkyu; Khademhosseini, Bahar; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2010-06-01

    Despite the rapid progress in optical imaging, most of the advanced microscopy modalities still require complex and costly set-ups that unfortunately limit their use beyond well equipped laboratories. In the meantime, microscopy in resource-limited settings has requirements significantly different from those encountered in advanced laboratories, and such imaging devices should be cost-effective, compact, light-weight and appropriately accurate and simple to be usable by minimally trained personnel. Furthermore, these portable microscopes should ideally be digitally integrated as part of a telemedicine network that connects various mobile health-care providers to a central laboratory or hospital. Toward this end, here we demonstrate a lensless on-chip microscope weighing approximately 46 grams with dimensions smaller than 4.2 cm x 4.2 cm x 5.8 cm that achieves sub-cellular resolution over a large field of view of approximately 24 mm(2). This compact and light-weight microscope is based on digital in-line holography and does not need any lenses, bulky optical/mechanical components or coherent sources such as lasers. Instead, it utilizes a simple light-emitting-diode (LED) and a compact opto-electronic sensor-array to record lensless holograms of the objects, which then permits rapid digital reconstruction of regular transmission or differential interference contrast (DIC) images of the objects. Because this lensless incoherent holographic microscope has orders-of-magnitude improved light collection efficiency and is very robust to mechanical misalignments it may offer a cost-effective tool especially for telemedicine applications involving various global health problems in resource limited settings. PMID:20401422

  14. Compact, Light-weight and Cost-effective Microscope based on Lensless Incoherent Holography for Telemedicine Applications

    PubMed Central

    Mudanyali, Onur; Tseng, Derek; Oh, Chulwoo; Isikman, Serhan O.; Sencan, Ikbal; Bishara, Waheb; Oztoprak, Cetin; Seo, Sungkyu; Khademhosseini, Bahar; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2010-01-01

    Despite the rapid progress in optical imaging, most of the advanced microscopy modalities still require complex and costly set-ups that unfortunately limit their use beyond well equipped laboratories. In the meantime, microscopy in resource-limited settings has requirements significantly different from those encountered in advanced laboratories, and such imaging devices should be cost-effective, compact, light-weight and appropriately accurate and simple to be usable by minimally trained personnel. Furthermore, these portable microscopes should ideally be digitally integrated as part of a telemedicine network that connects various mobile health-care providers to a central laboratory or hospital. Toward this end, here we demonstrate a lensless on-chip microscope weighing ~46 grams with dimensions smaller than 4.2cm × 4.2cm × 5.8cm that achieves sub-cellular resolution over a large field of view of ~24 mm2. This compact and light-weight microscope is based on digital in-line holography and does not need any lenses, bulky optical/mechanical components or coherent sources such as lasers. Instead, it utilizes a simple light-emitting-diode (LED) and a compact opto-electronic sensor-array to record lensless holograms of the objects, which then permits rapid digital reconstruction of regular transmission or differential interference contrast (DIC) images of the objects. Because this lensless incoherent holographic microscope has orders-of-magnitude improved light collection efficiency and is very robust to mechanical misalignments it may offer a cost-effective tool especially for telemedicine applications involving various global health problems in resource limited settings. PMID:20401422

  15. Microscopic Analysis of Plankton, Periphyton, and Activated Sludge. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This manual is intended for professional personnel in the fields of water pollution control, limnology, water supply and waste treatment. Primary emphasis is given to practice in the identification and enumeration of microscopic organisms which may be encountered in water and activated sludge. Methods for the chemical and instrumental evaluation…

  16. Analysis of Exoplanet Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, A.; Budding, E.; Rhodes, M. D.; Püsküllü, Ç.; Soydugan, F.; Soydugan, E.; Tüysüz, M.; Demircan, O.

    2015-07-01

    We have applied the close binary system analysis package WINFITTER to a variety of exoplanet transiting light curves taken both from the NASA Exoplanet Archive and our own ground-based observations. WINFitter has parameter options for a realistic physical model, including gravity brightening and structural parameters derived from Kopal's applications of the relevant Radau equation, and it includes appropriate tests for determinacy and adequacy of its best fitting parameter sets. We discuss a number of issues related to empirical checking of models for stellar limb darkening, surface maculation, Doppler beaming, microvariability, and transit time variation (TTV) effects. The Radau coefficients used in the light curve modeling, in principle, allow structural models of the component stars to be tested.

  17. Engineering the emission of light from a scanning tunneling microscope using the plasmonic modes of a nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Moal, Eric; Marguet, Sylvie; Canneson, Damien; Rogez, Benoît; Boer-Duchemin, Elizabeth; Dujardin, Gérald; Teperik, Tatiana V.; Marinica, Dana-Codruta; Borisov, Andrey G.

    2016-01-01

    The inelastic tunnel current in the junction formed between the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and the sample can electrically generate optical signals. This phenomenon is potentially of great importance for nano-optoelectronic devices. In practice, however, the properties of the emitted light are difficult to control because of the strong influence of the STM tip. In this work, we show both theoretically and experimentally that the sought-after, well-controlled emission of light from an STM tunnel junction may be achieved using a nonplasmonic STM tip and a plasmonic nanoparticle on a transparent substrate. We demonstrate that the native plasmon modes of the nanoparticle may be used to engineer the light emitted in the substrate. Both the angular distribution and intensity of the emitted light may be varied in a predictable way by choosing the excitation position of the STM tip on the particle.

  18. Real-Time and Post-Reaction Microscopic Structural Analysis of Biomass Undergoing Pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, T. J.; Nimlos, M. R.; Donohoe, B. S.

    2009-01-01

    The structural complexity of unprocessed plant tissues used for thermochemical conversion of biomass to fuels and energy impedes heat and mass transfer and may increase the occurrence of tar-forming secondary chemical reactions. At industrial scales, gas and liquid products trapped within large biomass particles may reduce net fuel yields and increase tars, impacting industrial operations and increasing overall costs. Real-time microscopic analysis of poplar (Populus sp.) wood samples undergoing anoxic, pyrolytic heat treatment has revealed a pattern of tissue and macropore expansion and collapse. Post-reaction structural analyses of biomass char (biochar) by light and transmission electron microscopy have provided direct structural evidence of pyrolysis product mass-transfer issues, including trapped pyrolysis products and cell wall compression, and have demonstrated the impact of heat-transfer problems on biomass particles. Finally, microscopic imaging has revealed that pyrolyzed/gasified biochars recovered from a fluidized bed reactor retain a similar pre-reaction basic plant tissue structure as the samples used in this study, suggesting that the phenomena observed here are representative of those that occur in larger scale reactors.

  19. Performance analysis of an inexpensive Direct Imaging Transmission Ion Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Patrick; Pallone, Arthur

    2013-03-01

    A direct imaging transmission ion microscope (DITIM) is built from a modified webcam and a commercially available polonium-210 antistatic device mounted on an optics rail. The performance of the DITIM in radiographic mode is analyzed in terms of the line spread function (LSF) and modulation transfer function (MTF) for an opaque edge. Limitations of, potential uses for, and suggested improvements to the DITIM are also discussed. Faculty sponsor

  20. Light and electron microscopic analyses of Vasa expression in adult germ cells of the fish medaka.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yongming; Li, Mingyou; Hong, Yunhan

    2014-07-15

    Germ cells of diverse animal species have a unique membrane-less organelle called germ plasm (GP). GP is usually associated with mitochondria and contains RNA binding proteins and mRNAs of germ genes such as vasa. GP has been described as the mitochondrial cloud (MC), intermitochondrial cement (IC) and chromatoid body (CB). The mechanism underlying varying GP structures has remained incompletely understood. Here we report the analysis of GP through light and electron microscopy by using Vasa as a marker in adult male germ cells of the fish medaka (Oryzias latipes). Immunofluorescence light microscopy revealed germ cell-specific Vasa expression. Vasa is the most abundant in mitotic germ cells (oogonia and spermatogonia) and reduced in meiotic germ cells. Vasa in round spermatids exist as a spherical structure reminiscent of CB. Nanogold immunoelectron microscopy revealed subcellular Vasa redistribution in male germ cells. Vasa in spermatogonia concentrates in small areas of the cytoplasm and is surrounded by mitochondria, which is reminiscent of MC. Vasa is intermixed with mitochondria to form IC in primary spermatocytes, appears as the free cement (FC) via separation from mitochondria in secondary spermatocyte and becomes condensed in CB at the caudal pole of round spermatids. During spermatid morphogenesis, Vasa redistributes and forms a second CB that is a ring-like structure surrounding the dense fiber of the flagellum in the midpiece. These structures resemble those described for GP in various species. Thus, Vasa identifies GP and adopts varying structures via dynamic reorganization at different stages of germ cell development. PMID:24814190

  1. Microscopic Analysis of Bacterial Motility at High Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Sowa, Yoshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial flagellar motor is a molecular machine that converts an ion flux to the rotation of a helical flagellar filament. Counterclockwise rotation of the filaments allows them to join in a bundle and propel the cell forward. Loss of motility can be caused by environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and solvation. Hydrostatic pressure is also a physical inhibitor of bacterial motility, but the detailed mechanism of this inhibition is still unknown. Here, we developed a high-pressure microscope that enables us to acquire high-resolution microscopic images, regardless of applied pressures. We also characterized the pressure dependence of the motility of swimming Escherichia coli cells and the rotation of single flagellar motors. The fraction and speed of swimming cells decreased with increased pressure. At 80 MPa, all cells stopped swimming and simply diffused in solution. After the release of pressure, most cells immediately recovered their initial motility. Direct observation of the motility of single flagellar motors revealed that at 80 MPa, the motors generate torque that should be sufficient to join rotating filaments in a bundle. The discrepancy in the behavior of free swimming cells and individual motors could be due to the applied pressure inhibiting the formation of rotating filament bundles that can propel the cell body in an aqueous environment. PMID:22768943

  2. Microscopic analysis of bacterial motility at high pressure.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Sowa, Yoshiyuki

    2012-04-18

    The bacterial flagellar motor is a molecular machine that converts an ion flux to the rotation of a helical flagellar filament. Counterclockwise rotation of the filaments allows them to join in a bundle and propel the cell forward. Loss of motility can be caused by environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and solvation. Hydrostatic pressure is also a physical inhibitor of bacterial motility, but the detailed mechanism of this inhibition is still unknown. Here, we developed a high-pressure microscope that enables us to acquire high-resolution microscopic images, regardless of applied pressures. We also characterized the pressure dependence of the motility of swimming Escherichia coli cells and the rotation of single flagellar motors. The fraction and speed of swimming cells decreased with increased pressure. At 80 MPa, all cells stopped swimming and simply diffused in solution. After the release of pressure, most cells immediately recovered their initial motility. Direct observation of the motility of single flagellar motors revealed that at 80 MPa, the motors generate torque that should be sufficient to join rotating filaments in a bundle. The discrepancy in the behavior of free swimming cells and individual motors could be due to the applied pressure inhibiting the formation of rotating filament bundles that can propel the cell body in an aqueous environment. PMID:22768943

  3. X-RAY, MICROSCOPE, AND WET CHEMICAL TECHNIQUES: COMPLEMENTARY TEAM FOR DEPOSIT ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Commonly used techniques for the analysis of potable water scale and corrosion deposits do not provide equivalent information about the chemical nature and significance of the deposits. ptical examination, with unaided eye and with microscopes, provides some useful information. -...

  4. Assembly of ovarian follicles in the caecilians Ichthyophis tricolor and Gegeneophis ramaswamii: light and transmission electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Beyo, R S; Sreejith, P; Divya, L; Oommen, O V; Akbarsha, M A

    2007-08-01

    Though much is known about various aspects of reproductive biology of amphibia, there is little information on the cellular and mechanistic basis of assembly of ovarian follicles in this group. This is especially true of the caecilians. Therefore, taking advantage of the abundant distribution of caecilians in the Western Ghats of India, two species of caecilians, Ichthyophis tricolor and Gegeneophis ramaswamii, were subjected to light and transmission electron microscopic analysis to trace the sequential changes during the assembly of ovarian follicles. The paired ovaries of these caecilians are elongated sac-like structures each including numerous vitellogenic follicles. The follicles are connected by a connective tissue stroma. This stroma contains nests of oogonia, primary oocytes and pregranulosa cells as spatially separated nests. During assembly of follicles the oocytes increase in size and enter the meiotic prophase when the number of nucleoli in the nucleus increases. The mitochondrial cloud or Balbiani vitelline body, initially localized at one pole of the nucleus, disperses through out the cytoplasm subsequently. Synaptonemal complexes are prominent in the pachytene stage oocytes. The pregranulosa cells migrate through the connective tissue fibrils of the stroma and arrive at the vicinity of the meiotic prophase oocytes. On contacting the oocyte, the pregranulosa cells become cuboidal in shape, wrap the diplotene stage oocyte as a discontinuous layer and increase the content of cytoplasmic organelles and inclusions. The oocytes increase in size and are arrested in diplotene when the granulosa cells become flat and form a continuous layer. Soon a perivitelline space appears between the oolemma and granulosa cells, completing the process of assembly of follicles. Thus, the events in the establishment of follicles in the caecilian ovary are described. PMID:17637101

  5. Imaging spectroscopic analysis at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    MacDowell, A. A.; Warwick, T.; Anders, S.; Lamble, G.M.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.; Padmore, H.A.

    1999-05-12

    One of the major advances at the high brightness third generation synchrotrons is the dramatic improvement of imaging capability. There is a large multi-disciplinary effort underway at the ALS to develop imaging X-ray, UV and Infra-red spectroscopic analysis on a spatial scale from. a few microns to 10nm. These developments make use of light that varies in energy from 6meV to 15KeV. Imaging and spectroscopy are finding applications in surface science, bulk materials analysis, semiconductor structures, particulate contaminants, magnetic thin films, biology and environmental science. This article is an overview and status report from the developers of some of these techniques at the ALS. The following table lists all the currently available microscopes at the. ALS. This article will describe some of the microscopes and some of the early applications.

  6. Novel failure analysis techniques using photon probing with a scanning optical microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.I. Jr.; Soden, J.M.; Rife, J.L.; Barton, D.L.; Henderson, C.L.

    1993-12-31

    Three new failure analysis techniques for integrated circuits (ICs) have been developed using localized photon probing with a scanning optical microscope (SOM). The first two are light-induced voltage alteration (LIVA) imaging techniques that (1) localize open-circuited and damaged junctions and (2) image transistor logic states. The third technique uses the SOM to control logic states optically from the IC backside. LIVA images are produced by monitoring the voltage fluctuations of a constant current power supply as a laser beam is scanned over the IC. High selectivity for localizing defects has been demonstrated using the LIVA approach. Logic state mapping results, similar to previous work using biased optical beam induced current (OBIC) and laser probing approaches have also been produced using LIVA. Application of the two LIVA based techniques to backside failure analysis has been demonstrated using an infrared laser source. Optical logic state control is based upon earlier work examining transistor response to photon injection. The physics of each method and their applications for failure analysis are described.

  7. Analysis of Zebrafish Kidney Development with Time-lapse Imaging Using a Dissecting Microscope Equipped for Optical Sectioning

    PubMed Central

    Perner, Birgit; Schnerwitzki, Danny; Graf, Michael; Englert, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand organogenesis, the spatial and temporal alterations that occur during development of tissues need to be recorded. The method described here allows time-lapse analysis of normal and impaired kidney development in zebrafish embryos by using a fluorescence dissecting microscope equipped for structured illumination and z-stack acquisition. To visualize nephrogenesis, transgenic zebrafish (Tg(wt1b:GFP)) with fluorescently labeled kidney structures were used. Renal defects were triggered by injection of an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide against the Wilms tumor gene wt1a, a factor known to be crucial for kidney development. The advantage of the experimental setup is the combination of a zoom microscope with simple strategies for re-adjusting movements in x, y or z direction without additional equipment. To circumvent focal drift that is induced by temperature variations and mechanical vibrations, an autofocus strategy was applied instead of utilizing a usually required environmental chamber. In order to re-adjust the positional changes due to a xy-drift, imaging chambers with imprinted relocation grids were employed. In comparison to more complex setups for time-lapse recording with optical sectioning such as confocal laser scanning or light sheet microscopes, a zoom microscope is easy to handle. Besides, it offers dissecting microscope-specific benefits such as high depth of field and an extended working distance. The method to study organogenesis presented here can also be used with fluorescence stereo microscopes not capable of optical sectioning. Although limited for high-throughput, this technique offers an alternative to more complex equipment that is normally used for time-lapse recording of developing tissues and organ dynamics. PMID:27078207

  8. Analysis of Zebrafish Kidney Development with Time-lapse Imaging Using a Dissecting Microscope Equipped for Optical Sectioning.

    PubMed

    Perner, Birgit; Schnerwitzki, Danny; Graf, Michael; Englert, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand organogenesis, the spatial and temporal alterations that occur during development of tissues need to be recorded. The method described here allows time-lapse analysis of normal and impaired kidney development in zebrafish embryos by using a fluorescence dissecting microscope equipped for structured illumination and z-stack acquisition. To visualize nephrogenesis, transgenic zebrafish (Tg(wt1b:GFP)) with fluorescently labeled kidney structures were used. Renal defects were triggered by injection of an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide against the Wilms tumor gene wt1a, a factor known to be crucial for kidney development. The advantage of the experimental setup is the combination of a zoom microscope with simple strategies for re-adjusting movements in x, y or z direction without additional equipment. To circumvent focal drift that is induced by temperature variations and mechanical vibrations, an autofocus strategy was applied instead of utilizing a usually required environmental chamber. In order to re-adjust the positional changes due to a xy-drift, imaging chambers with imprinted relocation grids were employed. In comparison to more complex setups for time-lapse recording with optical sectioning such as confocal laser scanning or light sheet microscopes, a zoom microscope is easy to handle. Besides, it offers dissecting microscope-specific benefits such as high depth of field and an extended working distance. The method to study organogenesis presented here can also be used with fluorescence stereo microscopes not capable of optical sectioning. Although limited for high-throughput, this technique offers an alternative to more complex equipment that is normally used for time-lapse recording of developing tissues and organ dynamics. PMID:27078207

  9. Thermal effects of white light illumination during microsurgery: clinical pilot study on the application safety of surgical microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibst, Raimund; Saal, David; Russ, Detlef; Kunzi-Rapp, Karin; Kienle, Alwin; Stock, Karl

    2010-07-01

    Modern operating microscopes offer high power illumination to ensure optimal visualization, but can also cause thermal damage. The aim of our study is to quantify the thermal effects in vivo and discuss conditions for safe use. In a pilot study on volunteers, we measured the temperature at the skin surface during microscope illumination, including the influence of anaesthesia and the effects of staining, draping, or moistening of the skin. Irradiation within the limit given by safety regulations (200 mW/cm2) results in skin surface temperature of 43 °C. Higher intensities (forearm 335 mW/cm2, back 250 mW/cm2) are tolerated, resulting in reversible hyperaemia. At a very high illumination intensity (750 mW/cm2), pain occurs within 30 s at temperatures of 46 °C+/-1 °C (hand and forearm), and 43 °C+/-2 °C (back), respectively. Anaesthesia has no distinct effect on the temperature, whereas staining and drapes result in much higher temperatures (>100 °C). Moistening at practicable flow rates can reduce temperature efficiently when combined with a light absorbing and water absorbent drape. In conclusion, surgeons must be aware that surgical microscope illumination without protective means can cause skin temperatures to rise much above pain threshold, which in our study serves as a (conservative) benchmark for potential damage.

  10. HSI colour-coded analysis of scattered light of single plasmonic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Lei, Gang; Zheng, Lin Ling; Gao, Peng Fei; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-06-01

    Single plasmonic nanoparticles (PNPs) analysis with dark-field microscopic imaging (iDFM) has attracted much attention in recent years. The ability for quantitative analysis of iDFM is critical, but cumbersome, for characterizing and analyzing the scattered light of single PNPs. Here, a simple automatic HSI colour coding method is established for coding dark-field microscopic (DFM) images of single PNPs with localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) scattered light, showing that hue value in the HSI system can realize accurate quantitative analysis of iDFM and providing a novel approach for quantitative chemical and biochemical imaging at the single nanoparticle level. PMID:27194457

  11. Diffuse light scattering from a dense and cold microscopic 87Rb sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Kasie; Roof, S. J.; Havey, M. D.; Sokolov, I. M.; Kupriyanov, D. V.

    2015-05-01

    We report investigation of near-resonance light scattering from a cold atomic sample of 87Rb. Measurements are made on the F = 2 -->F' = 3 nearly closed hyperfine transition for atomic densities ranging from ~1010 to ~1013 atoms/cm3. The sample, initially prepared in a magneto-optical trap, is loaded into a far-off-resonance trap (FORT) in which the ensemble has a temperature ~100 μK and initial Gaussian radii of ~3 μm and ~280 μm in the transverse and longitudinal directions, respectively. The experimental geometry consists of projecting a near-resonance collimated laser beam onto the entire volume of the FORT and detecting the diffusely scattered light. The measured scattered light intensity as a function of detuning, atomic density, and sample size suggests that collective light scattering plays an important role in the experimental results. This research is supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant No. NSF-PHY-1068159).

  12. Wave optics theory and 3-D deconvolution for the light field microscope

    PubMed Central

    Broxton, Michael; Grosenick, Logan; Yang, Samuel; Cohen, Noy; Andalman, Aaron; Deisseroth, Karl; Levoy, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Light field microscopy is a new technique for high-speed volumetric imaging of weakly scattering or fluorescent specimens. It employs an array of microlenses to trade off spatial resolution against angular resolution, thereby allowing a 4-D light field to be captured using a single photographic exposure without the need for scanning. The recorded light field can then be used to computationally reconstruct a full volume. In this paper, we present an optical model for light field microscopy based on wave optics, instead of previously reported ray optics models. We also present a 3-D deconvolution method for light field microscopy that is able to reconstruct volumes at higher spatial resolution, and with better optical sectioning, than previously reported. To accomplish this, we take advantage of the dense spatio-angular sampling provided by a microlens array at axial positions away from the native object plane. This dense sampling permits us to decode aliasing present in the light field to reconstruct high-frequency information. We formulate our method as an inverse problem for reconstructing the 3-D volume, which we solve using a GPU-accelerated iterative algorithm. Theoretical limits on the depth-dependent lateral resolution of the reconstructed volumes are derived. We show that these limits are in good agreement with experimental results on a standard USAF 1951 resolution target. Finally, we present 3-D reconstructions of pollen grains that demonstrate the improvements in fidelity made possible by our method. PMID:24150383

  13. Design and analysis of a fast, two-mirror soft-x-ray microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, D. L.; Wang, C.; Jiang, W.; Jin, L.; Hoover, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    During the past several years, a number of investigators have addressed the design, analysis, fabrication, and testing of spherical Schwarzschild microscopes for soft-x-ray applications using multilayer coatings. Some of these systems have demonstrated diffraction limited resolution for small numerical apertures. Rigorously aplanatic, two-aspherical mirror Head microscopes can provide near diffraction limited resolution for very large numerical apertures. The relationships between the numerical aperture, mirror radii and diameters, magnifications, and total system length for Schwarzschild microscope configurations are summarized. Also, an analysis of the characteristics of the Head-Schwarzschild surfaces will be reported. The numerical surface data predicted by the Head equations were fit by a variety of functions and analyzed by conventional optical design codes. Efforts have been made to determine whether current optical substrate and multilayer coating technologies will permit construction of a very fast Head microscope which can provide resolution approaching that of the wavelength of the incident radiation.

  14. Age-related intra-axonal accumulation of neurofilaments in the dorsal column nuclei of the cat brainstem: a light and electron microscopic immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J H; Sampogna, S; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

    1998-06-29

    In the present study, we examined the age-related intra-axonal accumulation of neurofilaments in the dorsal column nuclei of the cat by using immunohistochemical techniques combined with light and electron microscopy. Light microscopic analysis revealed oval or circular immunostained structures in the dorsal column nuclei of old cats. These immunostained structures were not observed in the material obtained from adult controls. Under the electron microscope, it was discovered that the immunostained structures were greatly enlarged axons with disrupted myelin sheaths. These enlarged axons contained massive accumulations of neurofilaments, some mitochondria, vacuoles and dense granules. The abnormalities of the myelin sheaths included the breaking of myelin at several locations, a splitting and ballooning in the myelin lamellae of the sheath and a distended periaxonal space between the axon and myelin sheaths. These ultrastructural changes resembled the degenerative alterations that have been observed in the axons of human and animals suffering from a number of pathological conditions, including giant axonal neuropathy and toxic neuropathy. Therefore, severely altered axons with intra-axonal accumulation of neurofilaments appear to reflect chronic degenerative changes that are a component of the aging process. PMID:9666164

  15. Light Microscopy Module: An On-Orbit Microscope Planned for the Fluids and Combustion Facility on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.; Motil, Susan M.; Snead, John H.; Griffin, DeVon W.

    2001-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) is planned as a fully remotely controllable on-orbit microscope subrack facility, allowing flexible scheduling and control of fluids and biology experiments within NASA Glenn Research Center's Fluids and Combustion Facility on the International Space Station. Within the Fluids and Combustion Facility, four fluids physics experiments will utilize an instrument built around a light microscope. These experiments are the Constrained Vapor Bubble experiment (Peter C. Wayner of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute), the Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment-2 (Paul M. Chaikin of Princeton University), the Physics of Colloids in Space-2 experiment (David A. Weitz of Harvard University), and the Low Volume Fraction Colloidal Assembly experiment (Arjun G. Yodh of the University of Pennsylvania). The first experiment investigates heat conductance in microgravity as a function of liquid volume and heat flow rate to determine, in detail, the transport process characteristics in a curved liquid film. The other three experiments investigate various complementary aspects of the nucleation, growth, structure, and properties of colloidal crystals in microgravity and the effects of micromanipulation upon their properties. Key diagnostic capabilities for meeting the science requirements of the four experiments include video microscopy to observe sample features including basic structures and dynamics, interferometry to measure vapor bubble thin film thickness, laser tweezers for colloidal particle manipulation and patterning, confocal microscopy to provide enhanced three-dimensional visualization of colloidal structures, and spectrophotometry to measure colloidal crystal photonic properties.

  16. Per-Pixel Lighting Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Inanici, Mehlika

    2005-08-01

    This report presents a framework for per-pixel analysis of the qualitative and quantitative aspects of luminous environments. Recognizing the need for better lighting analysis capabilities and appreciating the new measurement abilities developed within the LBNL Lighting Measurement and Simulation Toolbox, ''Per-pixel Lighting Data Analysis'' project demonstrates several techniques for analyzing luminance distribution patterns, luminance ratios, adaptation luminance and glare assessment. The techniques are the syntheses of the current practices in lighting design and the unique practices that can be done with per-pixel data availability. Demonstrated analysis techniques are applicable to both computer-generated and digitally captured images (physically-based renderings and High Dynamic Range photographs).

  17. iFit and Light Dilution: Ultraviolet volcanic SO2 measurements under the microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Michael; Sawyer, Georgina

    2013-04-01

    Volcanic SO2 flux measurement systems are a staple of volcano monitoring networks, as this volcanic gas flux reflects the magma input rate into the volcano's feeding system. SO2 flux monitoring has been used since the seventies, with some notable successes at Pinatubo, Mt. St. Helens, Montserrat and Italian volcanoes. However, there are some subtle aspects of the atmospheric radiative transfer processed inherent in the technique which have been ignored for many years; or perhaps better, they have been forgotten, as these subtleties were clearly spelt out in early COSPEC papers by Millán and co-workers. Recent work by Kern et al. (2010, 2012) has re-focussed attention on the light dilution effect during SO2 plume measurements. This occurs when solar radiation is scattered into the slant column observed by a UV spectrometer or imaging system below the height of the volcanic plume, such that it has not passed through the plume. This below-plume light dilutes the SO2 absorption produced by light passing through the plume from above, apparently reducing the amount of SO2 present. Fortunately, the light dilution process leaves a signature in the shape of the SO2 absorption spectrum, due to the non-linear behaviour of absorption lines with respect to gas amount, following the Beer-Lamber law. This signature can be used to quantify the magnitude of the light dilution in real field spectra. We developed a new intensity spectrum UV fitting code called iFit that allows fitting of the light dilution signature, and applied this to examples from Stromboli and Etna. here we summarise the results from these studies and highlight the importance of this previously ignored process for quantify SO2 gas emissions from volcanoes.

  18. Qualitative Analysis of Collagen Fibers in Oral Submucous Fibrosis using Picrosirius Red Stain and Polarising Microscope

    PubMed Central

    Sekaran, Preethi; Narasimhan, Malathi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) is an oral potentially malignant condition caused predominantly by areca nut chewing. Early recognition with accurate staging of the disease and appropriate treatment planning is of utmost importance to prevent the malignant transformation and to improve the quality of life of the patient. Picrosirius red stain is specific for collagen and enhances its birefringence under polarising light producing different colours in different stages of the disease. Aim To compare the clinical and functional staging with histopathologic staging methods used to assess the severity of OSMF and to perform a qualitative analysis of the collagen fibres in various histopathologic stages of OSMF using picrosirius red stain and polarising microscope. Materials and Methods It is a retrospective study done on archival samples. The study sample included a total of 30 cases which was divided into two groups. Group I comprised of 20 OSMF samples and Group II comprised of 10 normal tissue samples. Clinical, functional and histopathological staging was performed for all OSMF samples. Comparative analysis between clinical and functional stages with the histopathological staging was done using chi square test. Picrosirius red- stained sections of OSMF were analysed using polarising microscopy to evaluate the qualitative changes in the collagen fibers. Statistical Analysis Used Descriptive data which includes frequency and percentages were calculated for each group. Categorical data were analysed by chi-square test. A p-value of 0.05 or less was considered statistically significant. Results Comparative analysis between clinical and functional stages with the histopathological staging revealed a significant correlation (p < 0.05) between the functional and histopathological stage. Enhanced birefringence of the collagen fibers due to picrosirius red stain yielded characteristic prominent polarising colours in different stages of OSMF. Conclusion Comparison

  19. Automatic analysis of microscopic images of red blood cell aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menichini, Pablo A.; Larese, Mónica G.; Riquelme, Bibiana D.

    2015-06-01

    Red blood cell aggregation is one of the most important factors in blood viscosity at stasis or at very low rates of flow. The basic structure of aggregates is a linear array of cell commonly termed as rouleaux. Enhanced or abnormal aggregation is seen in clinical conditions, such as diabetes and hypertension, producing alterations in the microcirculation, some of which can be analyzed through the characterization of aggregated cells. Frequently, image processing and analysis for the characterization of RBC aggregation were done manually or semi-automatically using interactive tools. We propose a system that processes images of RBC aggregation and automatically obtains the characterization and quantification of the different types of RBC aggregates. Present technique could be interesting to perform the adaptation as a routine used in hemorheological and Clinical Biochemistry Laboratories because this automatic method is rapid, efficient and economical, and at the same time independent of the user performing the analysis (repeatability of the analysis).

  20. A Customized Light Sheet Microscope to Measure Spatio-Temporal Protein Dynamics in Small Model Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Rieckher, Matthias; Kourmoulakis, Georgios; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Ripoll, Jorge; Zacharakis, Giannis

    2015-01-01

    We describe a customizable and cost-effective light sheet microscopy (LSM) platform for rapid three-dimensional imaging of protein dynamics in small model organisms. The system is designed for high acquisition speeds and enables extended time-lapse in vivo experiments when using fluorescently labeled specimens. We demonstrate the capability of the setup to monitor gene expression and protein localization during ageing and upon starvation stress in longitudinal studies in individual or small groups of adult Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes. The system is equipped to readily perform fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), which allows monitoring protein recovery and distribution under low photobleaching conditions. Our imaging platform is designed to easily switch between light sheet microscopy and optical projection tomography (OPT) modalities. The setup permits monitoring of spatio-temporal expression and localization of ageing biomarkers of subcellular size and can be conveniently adapted to image a wide range of small model organisms and tissue samples. PMID:26000610

  1. An ultrastructural and light microscopic study of the synovium in ochronotic arthropathy.

    PubMed

    Gaines, J J; Tom, G D; Khankhanian, N

    1987-11-01

    The synovium in two well-documented cases of alkaptonuric ochronosis was studied by transmission electron and light microscopy. A feature of alkaptonuria previously unreported in the English-language literature was the presence of phagocytosis of large collagen fibrils by synovial macrophages in both cases. The origin of these fibrils appeared to have been shards of ochronotic cartilage and areas of metaplastic cartilage. This finding suggests that active remodeling of the synovial tissues occurs in advanced ochronotic arthropathy. Numerous shards of ochronotic cartilage were embedded in the synovium. In addition, small aggregates of large collagen fibrils encrusted with apparent ochronotic pigment were occasionally noted in the interstitium. These aggregates of ochronotic collagen are best described as microshards, and they have not generally been recognized in the literature. What appeared by light microscopy to represent ochronotic pigment deposition in interstitial collagen actually represented embedded microshards of ochronotic cartilage in the interstitium. Slender and elongated microshards were most likely to be confused by light microscopy as ochronotic interstitial collagen. PMID:3679190

  2. Free-form Light Actuators — Fabrication and Control of Actuation in Microscopic Scale

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hao; Wasylczyk, Piotr; Parmeggiani, Camilla; Martella, Daniele; Wiersma, Diederik Sybolt

    2016-01-01

    Liquid crystalline elastomers (LCEs) are smart materials capable of reversible shape-change in response to external stimuli, and have attracted researchers' attention in many fields. Most of the studies focused on macroscopic LCE structures (films, fibers) and their miniaturization is still in its infancy. Recently developed lithography techniques, e.g., mask exposure and replica molding, only allow for creating 2D structures on LCE thin films. Direct laser writing (DLW) opens access to truly 3D fabrication in the microscopic scale. However, controlling the actuation topology and dynamics at the same length scale remains a challenge. In this paper we report on a method to control the liquid crystal (LC) molecular alignment in the LCE microstructures of arbitrary three-dimensional shape. This was made possible by a combination of direct laser writing for both the LCE structures as well as for micrograting patterns inducing local LC alignment. Several types of grating patterns were used to introduce different LC alignments, which can be subsequently patterned into the LCE structures. This protocol allows one to obtain LCE microstructures with engineered alignments able to perform multiple opto-mechanical actuation, thus being capable of multiple functionalities. Applications can be foreseen in the fields of tunable photonics, micro-robotics, lab-on-chip technology and others. PMID:27285398

  3. Free-form Light Actuators - Fabrication and Control of Actuation in Microscopic Scale.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hao; Wasylczyk, Piotr; Parmeggiani, Camilla; Martella, Daniele; Wiersma, Diederik Sybolt

    2016-01-01

    Liquid crystalline elastomers (LCEs) are smart materials capable of reversible shape-change in response to external stimuli, and have attracted researchers' attention in many fields. Most of the studies focused on macroscopic LCE structures (films, fibers) and their miniaturization is still in its infancy. Recently developed lithography techniques, e.g., mask exposure and replica molding, only allow for creating 2D structures on LCE thin films. Direct laser writing (DLW) opens access to truly 3D fabrication in the microscopic scale. However, controlling the actuation topology and dynamics at the same length scale remains a challenge. In this paper we report on a method to control the liquid crystal (LC) molecular alignment in the LCE microstructures of arbitrary three-dimensional shape. This was made possible by a combination of direct laser writing for both the LCE structures as well as for micrograting patterns inducing local LC alignment. Several types of grating patterns were used to introduce different LC alignments, which can be subsequently patterned into the LCE structures. This protocol allows one to obtain LCE microstructures with engineered alignments able to perform multiple opto-mechanical actuation, thus being capable of multiple functionalities. Applications can be foreseen in the fields of tunable photonics, micro-robotics, lab-on-chip technology and others. PMID:27285398

  4. Polarized light microscopic examination of human bile in the diagnosis of microlithiasis of the gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Gogna, A; Kar, P; Acharya, N R; Anand, V J; Kapoor, R

    1989-01-01

    Of the 20 cases with biliary colics who had normal OCG and ultrasound, 11 (55%) showed microlithiasis in the form of cholesterol monohydrate crystals and/or calcium bilirubinate granules on polarized light microscopy of the duodenal bile. Microlithiasis was noted in gallbladder bile of all (100%) the cases with proven gallstones but in none of the duodenal bile samples from healthy subjects. This study suggests that polarized microscopy may be a useful method to detect microlithiasis in patients with repeated biliary colics who have normal OCG and ultrasound examination. PMID:2815325

  5. Toxic effect of formaldehyde on the respiratory organs of rabbits: a light and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Neelam; Uppal, Varinder; Pathak, Devendra

    2011-07-01

    In this study, the effect of direct exposure of formaldehyde in different concentration was observed in 14 rabbits aged 3-6 months and weighing 1100-1200 g. The animals were divided into two groups with six animals in each group, and two animals were kept as control. The animals of group I were exposed to 10% formalin for 12 weeks and those of group II to 40% formalin solution for 6 weeks. After completion of the experimental periods, the animals were killed and the tissue samples were collected from the nasal cavity, trachea and lungs in 10% neutral buffered formalin and Karnovsky's fixative to examine the histological and electron microscopic changes in the organs. The mucosal cells of nasal cavity showed loss of cilia and epithelial metaplasia was observed in places. There was vascular congestion and mild subepithelial odema. The tracheal epithelium was organized with hyperchromatic nuclei. There was subepithelial odema along with lymphomononuclear cellular infiltration. There was marked emphysema evident as bulla formation of air spaces due to rupture of interalveolar septum. An increased cellularity of alveolar wall was observed, resulting in its thickening. The epithelial lining of bronchioles showed loss of mucosal folds and hyperplasia of cells along with peribronchial lymphomononuclear cellular infiltration. Thickening of wall of blood vessels was evident. Congestion and haemorrhages were observed in places. It is concluded that the histopathological changes were more remarkable in the animals exposed to 40% formaldehyde for short duration than the animals exposed to 10% formaldehyde for longer duration with a more severe effect on the upper part of the respiratory tract than the lower one. PMID:21343228

  6. A compact, sample-in-atmospheric-pressure soft x-ray microscope developed at Pohang Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jun; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Chae, Keun Hwa; Hwang, Chan-Cuk; Hwang, Han-Na; Hong, Chung Ki

    2010-06-01

    A full-field transmission soft x-ray microscope (TXM) was developed at the Pohang Light Source. With a 2 mm diameter condenser zone plate and a 40 nm outermost-zone-width objective zone plate, the TXM's achieved spatial resolution is better than 50 nm at the photon energy of 500 eV (wavelength: 2.49 nm). The TXM is portable and mounted in tandem with a 7B1 spectroscopy end station. The sample position is outside the vacuum, allowing for quick sample changes and enhanced in situ experimental capability. In addition, the TXM is pinhole-free and easy to align, having commercial mounts located outside the vacuum components.

  7. A compact, sample-in-atmospheric-pressure soft x-ray microscope developed at Pohang Light Source.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jun; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Chae, Keun Hwa; Hwang, Chan-Cuk; Hwang, Han-Na; Hong, Chung Ki

    2010-06-01

    A full-field transmission soft x-ray microscope (TXM) was developed at the Pohang Light Source. With a 2 mm diameter condenser zone plate and a 40 nm outermost-zone-width objective zone plate, the TXM's achieved spatial resolution is better than 50 nm at the photon energy of 500 eV (wavelength: 2.49 nm). The TXM is portable and mounted in tandem with a 7B1 spectroscopy end station. The sample position is outside the vacuum, allowing for quick sample changes and enhanced in situ experimental capability. In addition, the TXM is pinhole-free and easy to align, having commercial mounts located outside the vacuum components. PMID:20590241

  8. Transmission electron microscope observation of organic-inorganic hybrid thin active layers of light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jitsui, Yusuke; Ohtani, Naoki

    2012-10-01

    We performed transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation of organic-inorganic hybrid thin films fabricated by the sol-gel reaction and used as the active layers of organic light-emitting diodes. The cross-sectional TEM images show that the films consist of a triple-layer structure. To evaluate the composition of these layers, the distribution of atoms in them was measured by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. As a result, most of the organic emissive material, poly(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene-co- N-4-butylphenyl-diphenylamine (TFB), was found to be distributed in the middle layer sandwiched by SiO and SiO2 layers. The surface SiO layer was fabricated due to the lack of oxygen. This means that the best sol-gel condition was changed due to the TFB doping; thus, the novel best condition should be found.

  9. Transmission electron microscope observation of organic-inorganic hybrid thin active layers of light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Jitsui, Yusuke; Ohtani, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    We performed transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation of organic-inorganic hybrid thin films fabricated by the sol-gel reaction and used as the active layers of organic light-emitting diodes. The cross-sectional TEM images show that the films consist of a triple-layer structure. To evaluate the composition of these layers, the distribution of atoms in them was measured by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. As a result, most of the organic emissive material, poly(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene-co-N-4-butylphenyl-diphenylamine (TFB), was found to be distributed in the middle layer sandwiched by SiO and SiO2 layers. The surface SiO layer was fabricated due to the lack of oxygen. This means that the best sol-gel condition was changed due to the TFB doping; thus, the novel best condition should be found. PMID:23095451

  10. A compact, sample-in-atmospheric-pressure soft x-ray microscope developed at Pohang Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Jun; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Chae, Keun Hwa; Hwang, Chan-Cuk; Hwang, Han-Na; Hong, Chung Ki

    2010-06-15

    A full-field transmission soft x-ray microscope (TXM) was developed at the Pohang Light Source. With a 2 mm diameter condenser zone plate and a 40 nm outermost-zone-width objective zone plate, the TXM's achieved spatial resolution is better than 50 nm at the photon energy of 500 eV (wavelength: 2.49 nm). The TXM is portable and mounted in tandem with a 7B1 spectroscopy end station. The sample position is outside the vacuum, allowing for quick sample changes and enhanced in situ experimental capability. In addition, the TXM is pinhole-free and easy to align, having commercial mounts located outside the vacuum components.

  11. A rare case of a multicentric peripheral ameloblastoma of the gingiva. A light and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, G; Sanchez, G; Caballero, T; Moskow, B S

    1992-04-01

    A rare case of a multicentric peripheral ameloblastoma of the gingiva in a 54-year-old male patient is described along with a light and electron microscopic study of the excised tumors. The peripheral ameloblastoma is considered to be the gingival counterpart of the more common intraosseous ameloblastoma. Although both tumors have similar histomorphologic characteristics, their clinical appearance and behavior are completely different. The peripheral ameloblastoma is slow growing and non-invasive, and recurrence is uncommon following excision. The more common central ameloblastoma, is locally invasive and can destroy large segments of the jaw. The histogenesis of the peripheral ameloblastoma and several other odontogenic tumors of the gingiva serves to illustrate the proliferative potential of the basal cell layer of gingival epithelium. PMID:1569230

  12. A light-sheet microscope compatible with mobile devices for label-free intracellular imaging and biosensing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tsung-Feng; Yen, Tony Minghung; Han, Yuanyuan; Chiu, Yu-Jui; Lin, Eason Y-S; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2014-09-01

    The inner structure, especially the nuclear structure, of cells carries valuable information about disease and health conditions of a person. Here we demonstrate a label-free technique to enable direct observations and measurements of the size, shape and morphology of the cell nucleus. With a microfabricated lens and a commercial CMOS imager, we form a scanning light-sheet microscope to produce a dark-field optical scattering image of the cell nucleus that overlays with the bright-field image produced in a separate regime of the same CMOS sensor. We have used the device to detect nuclear features that characterize the life cycle of cells and have used the nucleus volume as a new parameter for cell classification. The device can be developed into a portable, low-cost, point-of-care device leveraging the capabilities of the CMOS imagers to be pervasive in mobile electronics. PMID:24989638

  13. Finite element microscopic stress analysis of cracked composite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, W. L.

    1978-01-01

    This paper considers the stress concentration problems of two types of cracked composite systems: (1) a composite system with a broken fiber (a penny-shaped crack problem), and (2) a composite system with a cracked matrix (an annular crack problem). The cracked composite systems are modeled with triangular and trapezoidal ring finite elements. Using NASTRAN (NASA Structural Analysis) finite element computer program, the stress and deformation fields in the cracked composite systems are calculated. The effect of fiber-matrix material combination on the stress concentrations and on the crack opening displacements is studied.

  14. Light and electron microscopic study of stress-shielding effects on rat patellar tendon.

    PubMed

    Muellner, T; Kwasny, O; Loehnert, V; Mallinger, R; Unfried, G; Schabus, R; Plenk, H

    2001-11-01

    In this second part of our study, the histomorphologic changes occurring in the patellar tendon (PT) of rats after sole stress-shielding were evaluated. In seven adult albino rats, both PTs were exposed by straight skin incision and then stress-shielded on one side by a cerclage, while the contralateral PT served as the sham-operated control. One animal died after the operation and was used as a negative control. After 10 weeks of otherwise unrestricted motion, the rats were killed, and the histomorphology of all PT specimen pairs compared by light and transmission electron microscopy. Light microscopy showed mid-portion thickening and irregularity of collagen bundles in the stress-shielded tendons. Intense remodelling was demonstrated by increased cellularity and vascularity, as well as by enrichment in acidic proteoglycans. Ultrastructural evaluation and morphometry revealed a predominance of large diameter (peak between 180 and 260 nm) collagen fibrils in the sham-operated controls, while in the stress-shielded tendons the number of apparently new, small-diameter (peak between 40 and 60 nm) collagen fibrils increased (up to 77% per cross-sectional field of view). The difference in peak diameters was statistically significant (p < 0.0005). This rat model demonstrated that sole stress-shielding not only causes biomechanical alterations, but also intense tissue remodelling and significant morphological changes in the collagen fibrils in the patellar tendon, comparable to so-called 'ligamentization' in experimental and clinical patellar tendon grafts for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. PMID:11768636

  15. HSI colour-coded analysis of scattered light of single plasmonic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jun; Lei, Gang; Zheng, Lin Ling; Gao, Peng Fei; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-06-01

    Single plasmonic nanoparticles (PNPs) analysis with dark-field microscopic imaging (iDFM) has attracted much attention in recent years. The ability for quantitative analysis of iDFM is critical, but cumbersome, for characterizing and analyzing the scattered light of single PNPs. Here, a simple automatic HSI colour coding method is established for coding dark-field microscopic (DFM) images of single PNPs with localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) scattered light, showing that hue value in the HSI system can realize accurate quantitative analysis of iDFM and providing a novel approach for quantitative chemical and biochemical imaging at the single nanoparticle level.Single plasmonic nanoparticles (PNPs) analysis with dark-field microscopic imaging (iDFM) has attracted much attention in recent years. The ability for quantitative analysis of iDFM is critical, but cumbersome, for characterizing and analyzing the scattered light of single PNPs. Here, a simple automatic HSI colour coding method is established for coding dark-field microscopic (DFM) images of single PNPs with localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) scattered light, showing that hue value in the HSI system can realize accurate quantitative analysis of iDFM and providing a novel approach for quantitative chemical and biochemical imaging at the single nanoparticle level. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section and additional figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01089j

  16. Light microscopic distribution of some cholinergic markers in the rat and rabbit locus coeruleus and the nucleus angularis grisea periventricularis of the domestic pig (Sus scrofa): a correlative electron microscopic investigation of cholinergic receptor proteins in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Caffé, A R

    1994-10-15

    Cholinergic modulation of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons evokes a variety of neuronal and behavioural effects. In an attempt to understand the LC cholinergic circuit, several markers has been investigated and compared. (Immuno)-histochemical and autoradiographic methods have been used on rat, rabbit, and pig tissue. To identify the boundaries of the LC in each of these species, sections through the entire brainstem have been stained for tyrosine hydroxylase. The results indicate that the pig does not possess a LC proper that conforms to the accepted features of this cell group. However, in this location fusiform cells reminiscent of LC interneurons are still present. This group of fusiform neurons has been named the nucleus angularis grisea periventricularis (NAGP). LC cells of the rat and rabbit show strong acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. In the pig the NAGP is markedly free from AChE staining. Muscarinic binding sites are densely distributed over the rabbit LC and adjacent region. The rat and rabbit LC neurons synthesise both muscarinic (mAChR) and nicotinic receptor protein (nAChR). In the pig NAGP region mAChR and nAChR positive cell bodies are almost absent, while some nAChR immunoreactive dendrites are present. The light microscopic data in the rabbit have been confirmed by electron microscopic analysis. It is concluded that the general concept of a noradrenergic LC that is present throughout mammals is questionable. At present, choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive terminals that closely correspond to the other cholinergic components in the rat or rabbit LC have not been observed. However, in these species the cholinergic sensitivity of LC cells is mediated via both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors on somata and dendrites. PMID:7849322

  17. Light and Electron Microscopic Studies of Microorganisms Growing in Rotating Biological Contactor Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Kinner, Nancy E.; Balkwill, David L.; Bishop, Paul L.

    1983-01-01

    The biofilms growing in the first compartments of two rotating biological contactors used to treat municipal wastewater were examined by light and electron microscopy. The biofilms were found to contain a complex and varied microbial community that included filamentous and unicellular bacteria, protozoa, metazoa, and (possibly) bacteriophage. The predominant microorganism among these appeared to be a filamentous bacterium that was identical to Sphaerotilus in both morphological and ultrastructural characteristics. It was possible to isolate a Sphaerotilus-like bacterium from each contactor. Both the Sphaerotilus filaments and the wide variety of unicellular bacteria present tended to contain poly-β-hydroxybutyrate inclusions, a probable indication that these organisms were removing carbon from the wastewater and storing it. The microbial population of the biofilms appeared to be metabolically active, as evidenced by the presence of microcolonies and dividing cells. Images PMID:16346299

  18. Consistent and efficient delineation of reference spaces for light microscopical stereology using a laser microbeam system.

    PubMed

    Hunziker, E B; Cruz-Orive, L M

    1986-04-01

    A serious problem in stereology is to ensure a consistent definition of reference spaces at different levels of magnification whenever the boundaries of such reference spaces are either fuzzy or non-existent, and hence they have to be defined artificially. (It is well known that inconsistent definitions of the reference space leads to unknown amounts of bias in stereological results.) In this paper a new application is found for the laser microbeam system used in microdissection, whereby the required boundaries can be easily and neatly traced (in fact, cut) directly onto uncovered sections for light microscopy. The dangers of bias inherent from inconsistencies of definition are thereby eliminated completely, and alternative, very expensive procedures requiring direct marking of paper prints with a pen are no longer necessary. PMID:3712424

  19. Osteopetrosis Complicated by Osteomyelitis of the Maxilla and Mandible: Light and Electron Microscopic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Michel Campos; Sverzut, Cassio Edvard; Bonucci, Ermanno; Nanci, Antonio; de Oliveira, Paulo Tambasco

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a case of osteopetrosis in a 25-year-old male, which was complicated by the development of osteomyelitis in the maxilla and mandible following traumatic injury and tooth extractions. The osteomyelitis in the mandible was refractory to marginal resection and antibiotic therapy. Partial resection with mandible reconstruction was then carried out. Light and backscattered electron scanning microscopy revealed sclerosis of spongy bone and variations in mineral density of the bone matrix. There was also a prominent periosteal bone formation in regions affected by osteomyelitis. An 18-month follow-up showed absence of active infections in the face and oral structures, with a focal area of bone exposure in the right parasymphysis. However, development of anemia and bone marrow deficiency will likely affect prognosis. The importance of preventive oral health care and dental/periodontal managements in osteopetrosis is emphasized. PMID:20596853

  20. Ioxaglate-induced light and electron microscopic alterations in the renal proximal tubular epithelium of rats.

    PubMed

    Battenfeld, R; Khater A el-R; Drommer, W; Guenzel, P; Kaup, F J

    1991-01-01

    Vacuolization of the proximal tubular epithelial cells was produced in rats by the intravenous administration of the radiographic contrast medium ioxaglate at high multiples of the human diagnostic dose. Samples of the renal cortex and outer zone of the medulla were examined by light and electron microscopy. We observed enlargement, confluence, and migration of vacuoles containing pleomorphic dense material and distinct inclusion bodies. With time, vacuolization disappeared, though single vacuoles partly engaged in extruding their contents into the tubular lumen were still visible. We concluded that radiographic contrast medium at high dose levels can produce a reversible disturbance in the transport vesicular system of the proximal tubular epithelial cells without affecting the specific cell organelles. PMID:2022451

  1. Microscopic analysis of irradiated AGR-1 coated particle fuel compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Ploger; Paul Demkowicz; John Hunn; Robert Morris

    2012-10-01

    The AGR-1 experiment involved irradiation of 72 TRISO-coated particle fuel compacts to a peak burnup of 19.5% FIMA with no in-pile failures observed out of 3×105 total particles. Irradiated AGR-1 fuel compacts have been cross-sectioned and analyzed with optical microscopy to characterize kernel, buffer, and coating behavior. Five compacts have been examined so far, spanning a range of irradiation conditions (burnup, fast fluence, and irradiation temperature) and including all four TRISO coating variations irradiated in the AGR-1 experiment. The cylindrical specimens were sectioned both transversely and longitudinally, then polished to expose between approximately 40-80 individual particles on each mount. The analysis focused primarily on kernel swelling and porosity, buffer densification and fracturing, buffer-IPyC debonding, and fractures in the IPyC and SiC layers. Characteristic morphologies have been identified, over 800 particles have been classified, and spatial distributions of particle types have been mapped. No significant spatial patterns were discovered in these cross sections. However, some trends were found between morphological types and certain behavioral aspects. Buffer fractures were found in approximately 23% of the particles, and these fractures often resulted in unconstrained kernel swelling into the open cavities. Fractured buffers and buffers that stayed bonded to IPyC layers appear related to larger pore size in kernels. Buffer-IPyC interface integrity evidently factored into initiation of rare IPyC fractures. Fractures through part of the SiC layer were found in only three particles, all in conjunction with IPyC-SiC debonding. Compiled results suggest that the deliberate coating fabrication variations influenced the frequencies of IPyC fractures, IPyC-SiC debonds, and SiC fractures.

  2. Microscopic analysis of irradiated AGR-1 coated particle fuel compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Scott A. Ploger; Paul A. Demkowicz; John D. Hunn; Jay S. Kehn

    2014-05-01

    The AGR-1 experiment involved irradiation of 72 TRISO-coated particle fuel compacts to a peak compact-average burnup of 19.5% FIMA with no in-pile failures observed out of 3 x 105 total particles. Irradiated AGR-1 fuel compacts have been cross-sectioned and analyzed with optical microscopy to characterize kernel, buffer, and coating behavior. Six compacts have been examined, spanning a range of irradiation conditions (burnup, fast fluence, and irradiation temperature) and including all four TRISO coating variations irradiated in the AGR-1 experiment. The cylindrical specimens were sectioned both transversely and longitudinally, then polished to expose from 36 to 79 individual particles near midplane on each mount. The analysis focused primarily on kernel swelling and porosity, buffer densification and fracturing, buffer–IPyC debonding, and fractures in the IPyC and SiC layers. Characteristic morphologies have been identified, 981 particles have been classified, and spatial distributions of particle types have been mapped. No significant spatial patterns were discovered in these cross sections. However, some trends were found between morphological types and certain behavioral aspects. Buffer fractures were found in 23% of the particles, and these fractures often resulted in unconstrained kernel protrusion into the open cavities. Fractured buffers and buffers that stayed bonded to IPyC layers appear related to larger pore size in kernels. Buffer–IPyC interface integrity evidently factored into initiation of rare IPyC fractures. Fractures through part of the SiC layer were found in only four classified particles, all in conjunction with IPyC–SiC debonding. Compiled results suggest that the deliberate coating fabrication variations influenced the frequencies of IPyC fractures and IPyC–SiC debonds.

  3. Evolution of foam cells in subcutaneous rabbit carrageenan granulomas: I. Light-microscopic and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, C. J.; Ghidoni, J. J.; Kelley, J. L.; Sprague, E. A.; Valente, A. J.; Suenram, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    With an increasing interest in the role of the monocyte-macrophage in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and as a progenitor of plaque intimal foam cells, a model for the study of foam-cell differentiation in an extravascular environment has been developed. Granulomas were induced in 25 normocholesterolemic (NC) and 28 hypercholesterolemic (HC) rabbits by the subcutaneous injection of 15 ml of 1% carrageenan. Granuloma tissue was harvested at 4, 7, 14, and 28 days and studied by light and transmission electron microscopy. Macrophages and foam cells were isolated by enzymic dispersion with collagenase and cultured for further characterization by scanning electron microscopy, nonspecific esterase (NSE), and oil red O (ORO) staining. Granuloma macrophages from NC rabbits were consistently ORO-negative, contrasting with those from HC rabbits which were strongly ORO-positive, even at 4 and 7 days. With an increasing duration of exposure to hypercholesterolemia, macrophages accumulated increasing amounts of stainable lipid, and in the 28-day HC granulomas, large foam cells distended by lipid inclusions accounted for 70% of the cells present. This model has established that NSE-positive macrophages in HC granulomas accumulate lipid and assume the morphologic characteristics of atheromatous intimal foam cells. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 PMID:3966533

  4. Light microscopic characterization of glycoconjugates in secretory cells of the carp (Cyprinus carpio) gill epithelium.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, J; Velasco, A; Sánchez Aguayo, I; Amores, P

    1987-01-01

    Secretory products of granular and mucous cells in the gill epithelium of the carp, Cyprinus carpio, were distinguished by their cytochemical reactions with peroxidase-labelled lectins and with the galactose oxidase (GO)-Schiff reagents. Secretory products of granular cells reacted with lectins from Triticum vulgaris (WGA), Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Dolichos biflorus (DBA), Glycine max (SAB), and Lotus tetragonolobus (LTA). They also reacted with GO-Schiff reagents. After sialic acid cleavage with HCl, new binding sites for DBA and SBA appeared, suggesting the terminal sequence sialic acid-N-acetylgalactosamine (SA-GalNAc) for the secretion of this cell type. In mucous cells, binding sites for WGA, DBA, and SBA and, after acid hydrolysis, binding sites for PNA and a positive GO-Schiff reaction were detected. The terminal trisaccharide sialic acid-galactose (beta 1-3)-N-acetylgalactosamine (SA-Gal-GalNAc) is proposed for the secretion of mucous cells. These cytochemical differences are discussed in light of the involvement of both cell types in fish mucus elaboration. PMID:2449406

  5. Light and electron microscopic observations of the reproductive swarmer cells of nassellarian and spumellarian polycystines (Radiolaria).

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Tomoko; Takahashi, Osamu

    2016-06-01

    We observed reproductive swarmer cells of the nassellarian and spumellarian polycystine radiolarians Didymocyrtis ceratospyris, Pterocanium praetextum, Tetrapyle sp., and Triastrum aurivillii using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The swarmer cells had subspherical to ovoid or spindle shapes with two unequal flagella tapered to whip-like ends. The cell size was approximately 2.5-5.5μm long and 1.6-2.2μm wide, which is significantly smaller than that of the collodarian (colonial or naked) polycystine radiolarians. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the swarmer cells possessed a nucleus, mitochondria with tubular cristae, Golgi body, and small lipid droplets in the cytoplasm; they also had a large vacuole in which a single crystalline inclusion (approx. 1.0-1.5μm) that was probably celestite (SrSO4) was enclosed. The swarmer cells were released directly from the parent cells. At that time, morphological change such as encystment was not observed in the parent cells, and the axopodia remained extended in a period of swarmer reproduction for floating existence. This may have prevented the polycystine swarmers from rapidly sinking down to great depths. Thus, we concluded that the polycystine radiolarians release the swarmer cells into the photic layer in the same way as the symbiotic acantharians. PMID:27023270

  6. Scanning electron and light microscopic study of microbial succession on bethlehem st. Nectaire cheese.

    PubMed

    Marcellino, S N; Benson, D R

    1992-11-01

    St. Nectaire cheese is a semisoft cheese of French origin that, along with Brie and Camembert cheeses, belongs to the class of surface mold-ripened cheese. The surface microorganisms that develop on the cheese rind during ripening impart a distinctive aroma and flavor to this class of cheese. We have documented the sequential appearance of microorganisms on the cheese rind and in the curd over a 60-day ripening period. Scanning electron microscopy was used to visualize the development of surface fungi and bacteria. Light microscopy of stained paraffin sections was used to study cross sections through the rind. We also monitored the development of bacterial and yeast populations in and the pH of the curd and rind. The earliest stage of ripening (0 to 2 days) is dominated by the lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus cremoris and multilateral budding yeasts, primarily Debaryomyces and Torulopsis species. Geotrichum candidum follows closely, and then zygomycetes of the genus Mucor develop at day 4 of ripening. At day 20, the deuteromycete Trichothecium roseum appears. From day 20 until the end of the ripening process, coryneforms of the genera Brevibacterium and Arthrobacter can be seen near the surface of the cheese rind among fungal hyphae and yeast cells. PMID:16348797

  7. Histogenesis of the stomach of the pre-hatching quail: a light microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Soha A; Ahmed, Yasser A; Abdelsabour-Khalaf, Mohammed

    2016-09-01

    The current study conducted a careful description of the histological events during the embryonic development of quail stomach. Daily histological specimens from the quail stomach from day 4 to day 17 post incubation were examined by light microscopy. The primitive gut tube of the embryonic quail appeared at day 4 post incubation. The gut tube consisted of an endodermal epithelium of pseudostratified type, surrounded by splanchnic mesenchyme. The prospective glandular epithelium invaginated at day 5 in the proventriculus and gradually developed to prospective proventricular glands. The muscular coat became distinguished at day 7 and day 8 in the proventriculus and gizzard, respectively. Transformation into simple columnar epithelium occurred in both proventriculus and the gizzard at day 12. The gizzard epithelium gave rise to tubular invaginations also at day 12. Canalization of the gizzard tubular glands was recognized at day 14. By day 15, the proventricular surface epithelium invaginated in a concentric manner around a central cavity to form immature secretory units that contained inactive oxyntico-peptic cells. The mucosal folding in the gizzard appeared at day 15 to form plicae and sulci. The wall of the proventriculus and gizzard at day 17 acquired histological features of post-hatching birds. PMID:26643380

  8. Influence of the atomic force microscope tip on the multifractal analysis of rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Klapetek, Petr; Ohlídal, Ivan; Bílek, Jindrich

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, the influence of atomic force microscope tip on the multifractal analysis of rough surfaces is discussed. This analysis is based on two methods, i.e. on the correlation function method and the wavelet transform modulus maxima method. The principles of both methods are briefly described. Both methods are applied to simulated rough surfaces (simulation is performed by the spectral synthesis method). It is shown that the finite dimensions of the microscope tip misrepresent the values of the quantities expressing the multifractal analysis of rough surfaces within both the methods. Thus, it was concretely shown that the influence of the finite dimensions of the microscope tip changed mono-fractal properties of simulated rough surface to multifractal ones. Further, it is shown that a surface reconstruction method developed for removing the negative influence of the microscope tip does not improve the results obtained in a substantial way. The theoretical procedures concerning both the methods, i.e. the correlation function method and the wavelet transform modulus maxima method, are illustrated for the multifractal analysis of randomly rough gallium arsenide surfaces prepared by means of the thermal oxidation of smooth gallium arsenide surfaces and subsequent dissolution of the oxide films. PMID:15556700

  9. Real-time scattered light dark-field microscopic imaging of the dynamic degradation process of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Gang; Gao, Peng Fei; Liu, Hui; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Single nanoparticle analysis (SNA) technique with the aid of a dark-field microscopic imaging (iDFM) technique has attracted wide attention owing to its high sensitivity. Considering that the degradation of pesticides can bring about serious problems in food and the environment, and that the real-time monitoring of the dynamic degradation process of pesticides can help understand and define their degradation mechanisms, herein we real-time monitored the decomposition dynamics of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate (NaDDC) under neutral and alkaline conditions by imaging single silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under a dark-field microscope (DFM); the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) scattering signals were measured at a single nanoparticle level. As a result, the chemical mechanism of the degradation of NaDDC under neutral and alkaline conditions was proposed, and the inhibition effects of metal ions including Zn(ii) and Cu(ii) were investigated in order to understand the decomposition process in different environments. It was found that Cu(ii) forms the most stable complex with NaDDC with a stoichiometric ratio of 1 : 2, which greatly reduces the toxicity.Single nanoparticle analysis (SNA) technique with the aid of a dark-field microscopic imaging (iDFM) technique has attracted wide attention owing to its high sensitivity. Considering that the degradation of pesticides can bring about serious problems in food and the environment, and that the real-time monitoring of the dynamic degradation process of pesticides can help understand and define their degradation mechanisms, herein we real-time monitored the decomposition dynamics of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate (NaDDC) under neutral and alkaline conditions by imaging single silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under a dark-field microscope (DFM); the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) scattering signals were measured at a single nanoparticle level. As a result, the chemical mechanism of the degradation of Na

  10. Light and Electron Microscopic Studies on Prenatal Differentiation of Exocrine Pancreas in Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Divya; Uppal, Varinder; Bansal, Neelam; Gupta, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted on pancreas of 24 buffalo fetuses collected from abattoir and Veterinary clinics, GADVASU, Ludhiana. The buffalo fetuses were divided into three groups after measuring their CVRL, namely, group I (CVRL between 0 and 20 cm), group II (CVRL above 20 cm and up to 40 cm), and group III (CVRL above 40 cm) and their approximate age was calculated. The tissues were processed for light and ultrastructural studies. In group I, at 1.2 cm CVRL (34 days), the pancreas comprised tubules and solid nest of undifferentiated epithelial cells. At 7.5 cm CVRL (63 days) acinar cells with zymogen granules were observed. These acinar cells varied in shape from columnar to pyramidal. At 12.8 cm CVRL (86 days), parenchyma began to organize into lobes and lobules. The centroacinar cells were observed at 12.8 cm CVRL (86 days). In group II, at 28.3 cm CVRL (137 days), there was extensive branching of tubules that resulted in highly branched ductal tree connecting exocrine secretary units to the duct system. The interlobular and intralobular ducts were well observed at this age yet the intercalated ducts were not completely developed. In group III, exocrine pancreas showed a massive growth at 48 cm CVRL (182 days) with distinct pancreatic lobes and lobules. At 54 cm CVRL (195 days), well developed pancreatic architecture was seen with the presence of extensive development of exocrine part organized in lobes and lobules with interlobular and intralobular ducts whereas the intercalated ducts were observed in 80 cm CVRL (254 days). PMID:26981314

  11. EFFICACY OF FLUORIDE MOUTHRINSE CONTAINING TRICALCIUM PHOSPHATE ON PRIMARY ENAMEL LESIONS: A POLARIZED LIGHT MICROSCOPIC STUDY.

    PubMed

    Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Vongsavan, Kadkao; Saengsirinavin, Chavengkiat; Phuekcharoen, Pimonchat

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fluoride mouthrinse containing tricalcium phosphate (TCP) on remineralization of primary teeth enamel lesions compared with fluoride mouthrinse alone to determine if the addition of TCP gives additional benefit. Thirty-six sound primary incisors were immersed in a demineralizing solution (pH 4.4) for 96 hours at 37°C to create demineralized lesions. After artificial caries formation, the specimens were randomly assigned to one of three groups (n = 12): Group A: deionized water; Group B: 0.05% sodium fluoride (NaF) plus 20 ppm tricalcium phosphate mouthrinse and Group C: 0.05% sodium fluoride (NaF) only mouthrinse. A pH-cycling process was carried out for 7 days at 37°C. During pH-cycing, all the specimens were immersed for 1 minute; 3 times a day, in the respective mouthrinse. The specimens were then evaluated by polarized light microscopy with the computerized Image Pro Plus program. Data were analyzed using paired-t, one-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparison tests at a 95% level of confidence. The depth of the lesions were significantly different between pre- and post-treatment for all groups (p = 0.00). The lesion depth in the Group A (control) increased by 102% (±15), in Group B by 34% (±12) and Group C by 36% (±9). The lesion depths differed significantly between the control (Group A) and treatment groups (Group B,C) (p < 0.05). Group A had a significantly greater increase in lesion depth compared to the other groups. There was no significant difference in the percent change in lesion depths between Groups B and C. We concluded that the fluoride mouthrinse containing tricalcium phosphate provides no additional benefit over the mouthrinse containing fluoride alone. PMID:26513918

  12. Type II pneumocytes in mixed cell culture of human lung: a light and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Bingle, L; Bull, T B; Fox, B; Guz, A; Richards, R J; Tetley, T D

    1990-01-01

    Alveolar Type II epithelial cells dedifferentiate rapidly in vitro. Studies with animal tissue suggest that cell-cell and extracellular matrix-cell interactions are important in the retention of Type II cell morphology in vitro. Thus, in this study with human tissue, alveolar Type II cells, alveolar macrophages, and spindle cells were prepared from the same sample of lung (obtained following lobectomy for cancer, n = 3), cocultured on glass cover slips or tissue culture plastic, and studied by light microscopy with scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy for 8 days. The primary cell isolates contained approximately 45% Type II cells; the remainder were macrophages or unidentifiable cells. Clusters, made up of a single layer of cuboidal Type II cells around a central core of connective tissue (largely collagen and some elastic tissue), formed above a monolayer of spindle cells. The Type II cells were morphologically similar to those seen in vivo. The cells were still cuboidal at 8 days but had lost their lamellar bodies, which were released into the medium via the apical surface. The clusters increased in size with time (area, microns 2: day 1, 29(5-143) x 10(2); day 8, 63(10-311) x 10(2); mean(range); p less than 0.02) without changing in number per culture, suggesting Type II cell proliferation. This may have been due to factors produced by the other cells and adherence to the extracellular matrix (ECM); (free collagen fibers, present in the original preparation, spindle cells, and/or Type II cells could be responsible for presence of ECM). We propose this as a useful model for the study of human Type II epithelial cells in vitro. Images FIGURE 1. a FIGURE 1. b FIGURE 1. c FIGURE 1. d FIGURE 1. e FIGURE 1. f FIGURE 2. a FIGURE 2. b FIGURE 2. c FIGURE 2. d FIGURE 2. e FIGURE 2. f FIGURE 2. g FIGURE 3. PMID:2384069

  13. [Light- and electron-microscopical study of Pelomyxa flava sp. n. (archamoebae, pelobiontida)].

    PubMed

    Frolov, A O; Chistiakova, L V; Malysheva, M N

    2010-01-01

    Using light and electron microscopy, the morphology of a new species of pelobionts Pelomyxa flava was studied. The coverings of P. flava are represented by plasma membrane bearing the thick layer of weakly structured glycocalyx on its outer surface. Numerous flagella are often located on the tops of short conical pseudopodia. Kinetosomes of flagella reach a length of 0.9 microm and are hollow with a pronounced central filament. Rootlet system is represented by three groups of microtubules: the radial, basal and microtubules of lateral root. The transition zone is short and does not exceed the level of cell surface; the axoneme is characterized by an unstable set of microtubules. Trophic stages of P. flava life cycle are presented by binuclear cells; plasmotomy is performed at the tetranuclear stage. Nuclei have a granular structure. Fibrillar nuclear bodies were revealed in karyoplasm. The nuclei shell has a complex organization. On its surface, the outer membrane has a layer of electron-dense material which contacts with short microtubules, located in a row at the surface of the nuclear envelope. The bubbles and cisterns of endoplasmic reticulum, which are the derivatives of the nuclear envelope, are located outward from the microtubules. The presence of structural and digestive vacuoles and grains of glycogen was noticed in P. flava endoplasm. Three types of prokaryotic cytobionts were revealed. Large multi-membranous organelles reaching 5 pm in diameter were described for the first time. We discuss morphology and biology features of P. flava in comparison with the previously studied Pelomyxa species. PMID:21105367

  14. The aminergic innervation of the human bronchus: a light and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Pack, R J; Richardson, P S

    1984-01-01

    Portions of bronchial wall, free of neoplasm, were obtained from human lung resected for nearby tumour. The bronchial tissue was freeze dried, fixed in formaldehyde vapour and sections examined by fluorescence microscopy. Wispy green fibres with the appearance of amine-containing nerves were seen associated with the gland acini. Fluorescent cells were also found at this location and infrequently in the epithelium. Fluorescence was blocked by pretreatment of the sections with sodium borohydride; it faded in ultraviolet light and was enhanced by incubation of the tissue with L-dopa. All these features are characteristic of specific formaldehyde-induced fluorescence of biogenic amines. Fluorescent fibres were not identified either in the smooth muscle of the airway or associated with the epithelium, although background fluorescence may have masked them at these sites. Observations by electron microscopy of human bronchial wall showed that, close to gland acini, there were nerves containing large dense-cored vesicles suggesting that they were sympathetic. After incubation of the tissue with 5-hydroxydopamine, nerves containing labelled vesicles were seen as close as 1 micron to the gland acini, though none were seen to run between the acinar cells. It is argued that these were sympathetic nerves and were close enough to the gland acini to influence their secretions. Nerves containing vesicles labelled with 5-hydroxydopamine were also seen in close association with smooth muscle cells indicating a direct sympathetic innervation of the bronchial smooth muscle. These observations are contrary to recent suggestions that the sympathetic nervous system acts only indirectly in the lungs. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6735911

  15. Light and scanning electron microscopic study on the blood vascular system of the donkey placenta.

    PubMed

    Saber, A; Abd-Elnaeim, M; Hembes, T; Pfarrer, C; Salim, A; Leiser, R

    2008-04-01

    The donkey placenta is diffuse and epitheliochorial with numerous microplacentomes consisting of a fetal microcotyledonary and a maternal microcaruncular part. The microplacentomal vasculature during the last third of pregnancy has been investigated by light microscopy in comparison to scanning electron microscopy of the materno-fetal contact surface and corrosion casts of blood vessels after plastic instillation from either the microcotyledonary or the microcaruncular side, and, for the first time in a perissodactyle, from both sides. Morphological data were semiquantitatively evaluated. The supplying parts of both, the microcotyledonary and the microcaruncular vascular system are strictly proximo-distally oriented, thus reaching the capillary systems or working parts in the shortest way possible. The straight course of the vasculature, particularly on the fetal side, suggests the occurrence of venulo-arteriolar back diffusion. The fetal capillary system consists of convolutes confronting the maternal septal capillary complexes in a countercurrent way. This materno-fetal blood flow interrelationship is highly efficient in terms of placental exchange, which is further supported (1) by dilations and increasing coiling of the fetal venular capillary limbs in particular and (2) by a decrease in the interhaemal distance from 12.5 to 7.2 microm between the two capillary systems. Besides the countercurrent blood flow interrelationship, some maternal branch arterioles reach the septal capillary system from the maternally oriented pole of the microplacentome or microcaruncle, respectively, resulting in the less efficient crosscurrent blood flow. Hence, in the donkey placenta fetal and maternal blood vessels meet in a mix of countercurrent and crosscurrent flow patterns. PMID:18067487

  16. Diagnosis of breast cancer in light microscopic and mammographic images textures using relative entropy via kernel estimation.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Sevcan Aytac; Korkmaz, Mehmet Fatih; Poyraz, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this article was to provide early detection of breast cancer by using both mammography and histopathology images of the same patient. When the studies in the literature are examined, it is seen that the mammography and histopathology images of the same patient are not used together for early diagnosis of breast cancer. Mammographic and microscopic images can be limited when using only one of them for the early detection of the breast cancer. Therefore, multi-modality solutions that give more accuracy results than single solutions have been realized in this paper. 3 × 50 microscopic (histopathology) and 3 × 50 mammography image sets have been taken from Firat University Medicine Faculty Pathology and Radiology Laboratories, respectively. Optimum feature space has been obtained by minimum redundancy and maximum relevance via mutual information method applying to the 3 × 50 microscopic and mammography images. Then, probabilistic values of suspicious lesions in the image for selected features have been found by exponential curve fitting. Jensen Shannon, Hellinger, and Triangle measurements have been used for the diagnosis of breast cancer. It has been proved that these measures have been related to each other. Weight values for selected each feature have been found using these measures. These weight values have been used in object function. Afterward, histopathology and mammography images have been classified as normal, malign, and benign utilizing object function. In the result of this classifier, the accuracy of diagnosis of breast cancer has been estimated probabilistically. Furthermore, classifications have been probabilistically visualized on a pie chart. Consequently, the performances of Jensen Shannon, Hellinger, and Triangle measures have been compared with ROC analysis using histopathology and mammography test images. It has been observed that Jensen Shannon measure has higher performance than Hellinger and Triangle measures. Accuracy rates of

  17. Orexin (hypocretin)-like immunoreactivity in the cat hypothalamus: a light and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J H; Sampogna, S; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

    2001-02-01

    Orexin-A-like immunoreactive (OrA-ir) neurons and terminals in the cat hypothalamus were examined using immunohistochemical techniques. OrA-ir neurons were found principally in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) at the level of the tuberal cinereum and in the dorsal and posterior hypothalamic areas. In the LHA the majority of the neurons were located dorsal and lateral to the fornix; a small number of OrA-ir neurons were also present in other regions of the hypothalamus. OrA-ir fibers with varicose terminals were detected in almost all hypothalamic regions. The high density of fibers was located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the infundibular nucleus (INF), the tuberomamillary nucleus (TM) and the supra- and pre-mamillary nuclei. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that OrA-ir neurons in the LHA receive abundant input from non-immunoreactive terminals. These terminals, which contained many small, clear, round vesicles with a few large, dense core vesicles, made asymmetrical synaptic contacts with OrA-ir dendrites, indicating that the activity of orexin neurons is under excitatory control. On the other hand, the terminals of OrA-ir neurons also made asymmetrical synaptic contact with dendrites in the LHA, the INF and the TM. The dendrites in the LHA were both non-immunoreactive and OrA-ir; conversely, the dendrites in the INF and the TM were non-immunoreactive. In these regions, OrA-ir terminals contained many small, clear, round vesicles with few large, dense core vesicles, suggesting that orexinergic neurons also provide excitatory input to other neurons in these regions. PMID:11204055

  18. First-order optical analysis of a quasi-microscope for planetary landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Sinclair, A. R.; Burcher, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    A first-order geometrical optics analysis of a facsimile camera augmented with an auxiliary lens as magnifier is presented. This concept, called quasi-microscope, bridges the gap between surface resolutions of the order of 1 to 10 mm which can be obtained directly with planetary lander cameras and resolutions of the order of 0.2 to 10 microns which can be obtained only with relatively complex microscopes. A facsimile camera was considered in the analysis; however, the analytical results can also be applied to television and film cameras. It was found that quasi-microscope resolutions in the range from 10 to 100 microns are obtainable with current state-of-the-art lander facsimile cameras. For the Viking lander camera having an angular resolution of 0.04 deg, which was considered as a specific example, the best achievable resolution would be about 20 microns. The preferred approach to increase the resolution of the quasi-microscope would be, if possible, through an increase in angular resolution of the camera. A twofold to threefold improvement in resolution could also be achieved with a special camera focus position, but this approach tends to require larger and heavier auxiliary optics.

  19. Ultra-high resolution water window x ray microscope optics design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, David L.; Wang, C.

    1993-01-01

    This project has been focused on the design and analysis of an ultra-high resolution water window soft-x-ray microscope. These activities have been accomplished by completing two tasks contained in the statement of work of this contract. The new results from this work confirm: (1) that in order to achieve resolutions greater than three times the wavelength of the incident radiation, it will be necessary to use spherical mirror surfaces and to use graded multilayer coatings on the secondary in order to accommodate the large variations of the angle of incidence over the secondary when operating the microscope at numerical apertures of 0.35 or greater; (2) that surface contour errors will have a significant effect on the optical performance of the microscope and must be controlled to a peak-to-valley variation of 50-100 A and a frequency of 8 periods over the surface of a mirror; and (3) that tolerance analysis of the spherical Schwarzschild microscope has been shown that the water window operations will require 2-3 times tighter tolerances to achieve a similar performance of operations with 130 A radiation. These results have been included in a manuscript included in the appendix.

  20. The Natural History of Uterine Leiomyomas: Light and Electron Microscopic Studies of Fibroid Phases, Interstitial Ischemia, Inanosis, and Reclamation

    PubMed Central

    Flake, Gordon P.; Moore, Alicia B.; Sutton, Deloris; Kissling, Grace E.; Horton, John; Wicker, Benita; Walmer, David; Robboy, Stanley J.; Dixon, Darlene

    2013-01-01

    We propose, and offer evidence to support, the concept that many uterine leiomyomas pursue a self-limited life cycle. This cycle can be arbitrarily divided on the basis of morphologic assessment of the collagen content into 4 phases: (1) proliferation, (2) proliferation and synthesis of collagen, (3) proliferation, synthesis of collagen, and early senescence, and (4) involution. Involution occurs as a result of both vascular and interstitial ischemia. Interstitial ischemia is the consequence of the excessive elaboration of collagen, resulting in reduced microvascular density, increased distance between myocytes and capillaries, nutritional deprivation, and myocyte atrophy. The end stage of this process is an involuted tumor with a predominance of collagen, little to no proliferative activity, myocyte atrophy, and myocyte cell death. Since many of the dying cells exhibit light microscopic and ultrastructural features that appear distinct from either necrosis or apoptosis, we refer to this process as inanosis, because it appears that nutritional deprivation, or inanition, is the underlying cause of cell death. The disposal of myocytes dying by inanosis also differs in that there is no phagocytic reaction, but rather an apparent dissolution of the cell, which might be viewed as a process of reclamation as the molecular contents are reclaimed and recycled. PMID:24348569

  1. The Temperature Gradient-Forming Device, an Accessory Unit for Normal Light Microscopes To Study the Biology of Hyperthermophilic Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Maximilian; Bellack, Annett; Ugele, Matthias; Hopf, Johann

    2014-01-01

    To date, the behavior of hyperthermophilic microorganisms in their biotope has been studied only to a limited degree; this is especially true for motility. One reason for this lack of knowledge is the requirement for high-temperature microscopy—combined, in most cases, with the need for observations under strictly anaerobic conditions—for such studies. We have developed a custom-made, low-budget device that, for the first time, allows analyses in temperature gradients up to 40°C over a distance of just 2 cm (a biotope-relevant distance) with heating rates up to ∼5°C/s. Our temperature gradient-forming device can convert any upright light microscope into one that works at temperatures as high as 110°C. Data obtained by use of this apparatus show how very well hyperthermophiles are adapted to their biotope: they can react within seconds to elevated temperatures by starting motility—even after 9 months of storage in the cold. Using the temperature gradient-forming device, we determined the temperature ranges for swimming, and the swimming speeds, of 15 selected species of the genus Thermococcus within a few months, related these findings to the presence of cell surface appendages, and obtained the first evidence for thermotaxis in Archaea. PMID:24858087

  2. Modulation of the pupil function of microscope objective lens for multifocal multi-photon microscopy using a spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Naoya; Okazaki, Shigetoshi; Takamoto, Hisayoshi; Inoue, Takashi; Terakawa, Susumu

    2014-02-01

    We propose a method for high precision modulation of the pupil function of a microscope objective lens to improve the performance of multifocal multi-photon microscopy (MMM). To modulate the pupil function, we adopt a spatial light modulator (SLM) and place it at the conjugate position of the objective lens. The SLM can generate an arbitrary number of spots to excite the multiple fluorescence spots (MFS) at the desired positions and intensities by applying an appropriate computer-generated hologram (CGH). This flexibility allows us to control the MFS according to the photobleaching level of a fluorescent protein and phototoxicity of a specimen. However, when a large number of excitation spots are generated, the intensity distribution of the MFS is significantly different from the one originally designed due to misalignment of the optical setup and characteristics of the SLM. As a result, the image of a specimen obtained using laser scanning for the MFS has block noise segments because the SLM could not generate a uniform MFS. To improve the intensity distribution of the MFS, we adaptively redesigned the CGH based on the observed MFS. We experimentally demonstrate an improvement in the uniformity of a 10 × 10 MFS grid using a dye solution. The simplicity of the proposed method will allow it to be applied for calibration of MMM before observing living tissue. After the MMM calibration, we performed laser scanning with two-photon excitation to observe a real specimen without detecting block noise segments.

  3. Monocytes become macrophages; they do not become microglia: a light and electron microscopic autoradiographic study using 125-iododeoxyuridine

    SciTech Connect

    Schelper, R.L.; Adrian, E.K. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This light and electron microscopic autoradiographic study of stab injuries in the spinal cord of mice evaluated the ultrastructural characteristics of cells labeled by incorporation of the thymidine analogue /sup 125/I-5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (I-UdR), injected one day prior to injury. I-UdR was used instead of tritiated thymidine (H-TdR) because H-TdR can be reutilized and is therefore not a suitable pulse label for long-term studies of cell migration. Using serial thick and thin sections for autoradiography 614 labeled cells were identified. Labeled cells included 545 monocytes/macrophages, 50 lymphocytes, 17 pericytes, one endothelial cell, and one arachnoid cell. No labeled cell had the morphology of microglia. We concluded that macrophages in stab injuries of the spinal cord of mice are derived from blood monocytes. Blood-derived lymphocytes are also involved in the reaction to spinal cord stab injury. Microglia are not blood-derived and are not seen as a transitional form in the differentiation of monocytes to macrophages.

  4. Microscopic silicon-based lateral high-aspect-ratio structures for thin film conformality analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Feng; Arpiainen, Sanna; Puurunen, Riikka L.

    2015-01-15

    Film conformality is one of the major drivers for the interest in atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes. This work presents new silicon-based microscopic lateral high-aspect-ratio (LHAR) test structures for the analysis of the conformality of thin films deposited by ALD and by other chemical vapor deposition means. The microscopic LHAR structures consist of a lateral cavity inside silicon with a roof supported by pillars. The cavity length (e.g., 20–5000 μm) and cavity height (e.g., 200–1000 nm) can be varied, giving aspect ratios of, e.g., 20:1 to 25 000:1. Film conformality can be analyzed with the microscopic LHAR by several means, as demonstrated for the ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} processes from Me{sub 3}Al/H{sub 2}O and TiCl{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O. The microscopic LHAR test structures introduced in this work expose a new parameter space for thin film conformality investigations expected to prove useful in the development, tuning and modeling of ALD and other chemical vapor deposition processes.

  5. Analytical evaluation of describing functions arising from harmonic balance analysis of tapping mode atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Mamedov, B A

    2008-05-01

    A new algorithm of harmonic balance analysis of tapping mode atomic force microscopes has been developed. The new algorithm is applicable to analytical evaluation of a large class of common tip-sample interaction potentials. The extensive test calculations show that the proposed algorithm in this work is the efficient one in practical computations. The comparative values presented in tables are acceptable and have the excellent agreement with the numerical results. PMID:18513097

  6. Functional thermal lens microscopes for ultrasensitive analysis of non-fluorescent molecules and microchip chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawatari, Kazuma; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2006-09-01

    Thermal lens microscope (TLM) is a kind of absorption spectrophotometry based on photothermal phenomena of non-fluorescent molecules. TLM has high sensitivity (single molecule concentration in fL detection volume) and wide applicability (non-fluorescent molecules). TLM was successfully applied to detection on microchip in clinical diagnosis, environmental analysis, single cell analysis and so on. The basic function of TLM is concentration determination in microspace. In addition, we have realized various functions on TLM for sensitive chiral analysis, individual nanoparticle counting and in situ flow sensing. In this presentation, we explain these functional TLMs for microchip chemistry.

  7. Design and analysis of a water window imaging x-ray microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Baker, Phillip C.; Shealy, David L.; Brinkley, B. R.; Walker, Arthur B.; Barbee, Troy W.

    1991-06-01

    The authors have theoretically designed and analyzed the optical components and mechanical structures for an imaging x-ray microscope which will be configured to operate in the water window. This instrument affords new and noninvasive strategies for examining living tumor cells without the use of dyes, stains or other exogenous chemicals, which can produce limiting artifacts. The Water Window Imaging X-Ray Microscope is based on doubly reflecting, normal incidence multilayer optical technology, such as has been previously employed in telescopes for high resolution x-ray imaging of the sun. Multilayer coatings have now been fabricated with near theoretical reflectivities and perfect bandpass matching for the new rocket-borne solar observatory, the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA). These telescopes employ multilayer mirror substrates with sub-angstrom (rms) smoothness which are made possible by Advanced Flow Polishing. Recent developments in multilayer coating technology and Advanced Flow Polishing methods used with Zerodur and Hemlite grade sapphire have paved the way for the development of the Water Window Imaging X-Ray Microscope. In this narrow water window wavelength regime of the x-ray spectrum, which lies between the K absorption edges of oxygen (23.3 $ANS) and of carbon (43.62 $ANS), water is relatively highly transmissive and carbon is highly absorptive. This principle allows the Water Window Imaging X-Ray Microscope to delineate, with high resolution and high contrast, carbon-based structures in the aqueous physiological environments found within living cells. The theoretical design and analysis of the microscope optical and mechanical components are described and the fabrication effort underway for the development of this new optical instrument, which should improve diagnosis and greatly benefit experimental studies of tumor cell biology, is discussed.

  8. Development of the Heart Endocardium at an Early Stage of Chick Embryos Evaluated at Light- and Electron-Microscopic Levels.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yaiko; Wake, Kenjiro; Inoue, Kouji; Kuroda, Noriyuki; Sato, Akie; Inamatsu, Mutsumi; Tateno, Chise; Sato, Tetsuji

    2016-08-01

    Development of the endocardium in the heart of 4 to 4·1/2-day-incubated chick embryos was observed light and electron microscopically, and these results were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for desmin, FLK1 (VEGFR-2) or CD31, and by in situ hybridization assays for flk1-mRNA expression. At this developmental stage, the atrium and the ventricle were already discriminated by formation of the atrio-ventricular junction. The cardiac wall consisted of three layers; the inner endocardium, the middle myocardium, and the outer epicardium. The developing endocardium was seen as a chain of single-layered endocardial cells. Along its inner surface, numerous clusters of blood corpuscles were distributed, which seemed to contain some undifferentiated endocardial cells estimated from their characteristic ultrastructure and histological topography. Several blood corpuscles were in directly contact with the myocardium at the missing portions of the developing endocardial cell-chains. Differentiating endocardial cells individually showed roundish, small and large crescent, or flat in shapes. Such a prominent change of cell shapes appeared to be in parallel with their secretory activity during the transformation from the undifferentiated cells to the endocardial cells. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry for FLK1 or CD31, and in situ hybridization assays for flk1-mRNA labeled the cells composing developing endocardial cell-chains. Though these expressional analyses could not document clearly the transition of precursor cells into endocardial cells, the present study provided for the first time some important information regarding the morphological transition process toward endocardial cells at ultrastructural levels. Anat Rec, 299:1080-1089, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27178481

  9. Immature sinus histiocytosis. Light- and electron-microscopic features, immunologic phenotype, and relationship with marginal zone lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    van den Oord, J. J.; de Wolf-Peeters, C.; De Vos, R.; Desmet, V. J.

    1985-01-01

    The light-microscopic, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical features of immature sinus histiocytosis were studied in 10 lymph nodes with the histologic picture of toxoplasmic lymphadenitis and compared with the features of lymphoid cells present in the marginal zone of the splenic white pulp. Areas of immature sinus histiocytosis consisted largely of medium-sized lymphoid cells with markedly irregular nuclei and abundant pale cytoplasm. Using a panel of monoclonal antibodies, the predominating lymphoid cells were found to carry the B-cell phenotype B1+Ba1-sIgM+sIgD-OKIa1+. Admixed were variable numbers of larger, blastic lymphoid cells, small lymphocytes, histiocytic elements, and polymorphonuclear granulocytes. The marginal zone of the splenic white pulp was composed of a similar mixture of cells, and marginal-zone lymphocytes demonstrated an analogous immunohistochemical phenotype. Our results indicate that immature sinus histiocytes are B-lymphoid cells that are closely related to marginal zone lymphocytes. As such, immature sinus histiocytes may have a role similar to that of marginal-zone lymphocytes, which have been claimed to transport antigens or immune complexes toward the follicular center or to serve as precursors of plasma cells. We suggest that immature sinus histiocytosis represents an abnormal expansion of the marginal zone, normally present at the sinusoidal pole of lymphoid follicles. The reason for this marginal-zone hyperplasia, recognized as immature sinus histiocytosis in a variety of reactive lymph node conditions, may be a maturation arrest in the normal development of immature sinus histiocytes into small, sIgM+ sIgD+ lymphocytes. Images Figure 3 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:3970140

  10. Sertoli cells in the testis of caecilians, Ichthyophis tricolor and Uraeotyphlus cf. narayani (Amphibia: Gymnophiona): light and electron microscopic perspective.

    PubMed

    Smita, Mathew; Oommen, Oommen V; George, Jancy M; Akbarsha, M A

    2003-12-01

    The caecilians have evolved a unique pattern of cystic spermatogenesis in which cysts representing different stages in spermatogenesis coexist in a testis lobule. We examined unsettled issues relating to the organization of the caecilian testis lobules, including the occurrence of a fatty matrix, the possibility of both peripheral and central Sertoli cells, the origin of Sertoli cells from follicular cells, and the disengagement of older Sertoli cells to become loose central Sertoli cells. We subjected the testis of Ichthyophis tricolor (Ichthyophiidae) and Uraeotyphlus cf. narayani (Uraeotyphliidae) from the Western Ghats of Kerala, India, to light and transmission electron microscopic studies. Irrespective of the functional state of the testis, whether active or regressed, Sertoli cells constitute a permanent feature of the lobules. The tall Sertoli cells adherent to the basal lamina with basally located pleomorphic nuclei extend deeper into the lobule to meet at the core. There they provide for association of germ cells at different stages of differentiation, an aspect that has earlier been misconceived as the fatty matrix. Germ cells up to the 4-cell stage remain in the intercalating region of the Sertoli cells and they are located at the apices of the Sertoli cells from the 8-cell stage onwards. The developing germ cells are intimately associated with the Sertoli cell adherent to the basal lamina until spermiation. There are ameboid cells in the core of the lobules that appear to interact with the germ cells at the face opposite to their attachment with the Sertoli cells. Adherence of the Sertoli cells to the basal lamina is a permanent feature of the caecilian testicular lobules. The ameboid cells in the core are neither Sertoli cells nor their degeneration products. PMID:14584033

  11. Feedback and injection locking instabilities in quantum-dot lasers: a microscopically based bifurcation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingnau, Benjamin; Chow, Weng W.; Schöll, Eckehard; Lüdge, Kathy

    2013-09-01

    We employ a nonequilibrium energy balance and carrier rate equation model based on microscopic semiconductor theory to describe the quantum-dot (QD) laser dynamics under optical injection and time-delayed feedback. The model goes beyond typical phenomenological approximations of rate equations, such as the α-factor, yet allows for a thorough numerical bifurcation analysis, which would not be possible with the computationally demanding microscopic equations. We find that with QD lasers, independent amplitude and phase dynamics may lead to less complicated scenarios under optical perturbations than predicted by conventional models using the α-factor to describe the carrier-induced refractive index change. For instance, in the short external cavity feedback regime, higher critical feedback strength is actually required to induce instabilities. Generally, the α-factor should only be used when the carrier distribution can follow the QD laser dynamics adiabatically.

  12. Simulation and signal analysis of Akiyama probe applied to atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Longlong; Lu, Mingzhen; Guo, Tong; Gao, Sitian; Zhang, Huakun

    2013-10-01

    Atomic force microscope is one of indispensable measurement tools in nano/micronano precision manufacture and critical dimension measurement. To expand its industry application, a novel head and system are newly designed combined with Nanosensors cooperation's patented probe — Akiyama probe, which is a self-sensing probe. The modal analysis and resonance frequency are obtained by finite element(FE) simulations. Using the Locked-in amplifier, the effective and available signal can be abtained. Through the experiment analysis, the retracting and extending curve reflects the tip and sample interaction. Furthermore, the measurement on the calibrated position system demonstrates that the whole system resolution can reach the nanometer scale.

  13. Comparison between laser terahertz emission microscope and conventional methods for analysis of polycrystalline silicon solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, Hidetoshi Ito, Akira; Takayama, Kazuhisa Kawayama, Iwao Murakami, Hironaru Tonouchi, Masayoshi

    2015-11-15

    A laser terahertz emission microscope (LTEM) can be used for noncontact inspection to detect the waveforms of photoinduced terahertz emissions from material devices. In this study, we experimentally compared the performance of LTEM with conventional analysis methods, e.g., electroluminescence (EL), photoluminescence (PL), and laser beam induced current (LBIC), as an inspection method for solar cells. The results showed that LTEM was more sensitive to the characteristics of the depletion layer of the polycrystalline solar cell compared with EL, PL, and LBIC and that it could be used as a complementary tool to the conventional analysis methods for a solar cell.

  14. Laser apparatus and method for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells

    DOEpatents

    Gourley, P.L.; Gourley, M.F.

    1997-03-04

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells. The apparatus comprises a laser having an analysis region within the laser cavity for containing one or more biological cells to be analyzed. The presence of a cell within the analysis region in superposition with an activated portion of a gain medium of the laser acts to encode information about the cell upon the laser beam, the cell information being recoverable by an analysis means that preferably includes an array photodetector such as a CCD camera and a spectrometer. The apparatus and method may be used to analyze biomedical cells including blood cells and the like, and may include processing means for manipulating, sorting, or eradicating cells after analysis. 20 figs.

  15. Laser apparatus and method for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells

    DOEpatents

    Gourley, Paul L.; Gourley, Mark F.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells. The apparatus comprises a laser having an analysis region within the laser cavity for containing one or more biological cells to be analyzed. The presence of a cell within the analysis region in superposition with an activated portion of a gain medium of the laser acts to encode information about the cell upon the laser beam, the cell information being recoverable by an analysis means that preferably includes an array photodetector such as a CCD camera and a spectrometer. The apparatus and method may be used to analyze biomedical cells including blood cells and the like, and may include processing means for manipulating, sorting, or eradicating cells after analysis thereof.

  16. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of incinerated teeth: An aid to forensic identification

    PubMed Central

    Pol, Chetan A; Gosavi, Suchitra R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Forensic dental identification of victims involved in fire accidents is often a complex and challenging endeavor. Knowledge of the charred human dentition and residues of restorative material can help in the recognition of bodies burned beyond recognition. Aim: To observe the effects of predetermined temperatures on healthy unrestored teeth and different restorative materials in restored teeth, by scanning electron microscope, for the purpose of identification. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 135 extracted teeth, which were divided into four groups. Group 1-healthy unrestored teeth, group 2-teeth restored with all ceramic crowns, group 3-teeth restored with class I composite resin and group 4-teeth restored with class I glass ionomer cement (GIC). Results: The scanning electron microscope is useful in the analysis of burned teeth, as it gives fine structural details, requires only a small sample and does not destroy the already fragile specimen. Conclusion: Scanning electron microscope can be a useful tool for the characterization and study of severely burnt teeth for victim identification. PMID:24959034

  17. Peranso - Light curve and period analysis software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paunzen, E.; Vanmunster, T.

    2016-03-01

    A time series is a sample of observations of well-defined data points obtained through repeated measurements over a certain time range. The analysis of such data samples has become increasingly important not only in natural science but also in many other fields of research. Peranso offers a complete set of powerful light curve and period analysis functions to work with large astronomical data sets. Substantial attention has been given to ease-of-use and data accuracy, making it one of the most productive time series analysis software available. In this paper, we give an introduction to Peranso and its functionality.

  18. Microcomputer digitizing system for dual use in applications of remote sensing and microscopic image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    McHone, J.G.

    1988-08-01

    A new image-analysis laboratory is being developed with equipment that has dual use for the interpretation and classification of satellite and air-photo images, and also for classification and automated measurement of minerals and textures in thin sections of rocks. Digitizing techniques for all the applications utilize input from a nine-track tape drive or from monochromatic television cameras on a microscope and a camera stand. The microcomputer contains a TV frame grabber and a graphics board that develops 512 by 512 by 32 bit images on a high-resolution color monitor. Output devices include the tape and disk drives, a color ink-jet printer, and a photographic film copier. A large digitizing board, a large-screen monitor, and a plotter are attached for computer-aided drafting. Several software packages are being integrated and modified for the analysis work. The software routines for image enhancement, annotation, measurement of areas, and classification by pixel characteristics are common to both remote sensing and microscopic analysis. The system is a cost-effective way to combine studies of tectonic patterns, structural surface features, and rock and vegetation types using remote images, with grain size, shape, identification, and porosity measurements of the rocks themselves.

  19. Analysis of light curve of LP Camelopardalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudil, Z.; Skarka, M.; Zejda, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present photometric analysis of the RRab type pulsating star LP Cam. The star was observed at Brno Observatory and Planetarium during nine nights. Measurements were calibrated to the Johnson photometric system. Four captured and thirteen previously published maxima timings allowed us to refine the pulsation period and the zero epoch. The light curve was Fourier decomposed to estimate physical parameters using empirical relations. Our results suggest that LP Cam is a common RR Lyrae star with high, almost solar metallicity.

  20. 3-dimensional microscope analysis of bone and tooth surface modifications: comparisons of fossil specimens and replicas.

    PubMed

    Bello, Silvia M; Verveniotou, Efstratia; Cornish, Lorraine; Parfitt, Simon A

    2011-01-01

    Cut-marks on fossil bones and teeth are an important source of evidence in the reconstruction of ancient butchery practices. The analysis of butchery marks has allowed archaeologists to interpret aspects of past subsistence strategies and the behavior of early humans. Recent advances in optical scanning microscopy allow detailed measurements of cut-mark morphology to be undertaken. An example of this technology is the Alicona 3D InfiniteFocus imaging microscope, which has been applied recently to the study of surface modifications on bones and teeth. Three-dimensional models generated by the Alicona microscope have been used to identify cross-sectional features of experimental cut-marks that are characteristic for specific cutting actions (e.g., slicing, chopping, scraping) and different tool types (e.g., metal versus stone tools). More recently, this technology has been applied successfully to the analysis of ∼500,000 year-old cut-marked animal bones from Boxgrove (U.K.), as well as cannibalized 14,700 cal BP year-old human bones from Gough's Cave (U.K.). This article describes molding methods used to replicate fragile prehistoric bones and teeth, where image quality was adversely affected by specimen translucency and reflectivity. Alicona images generated from molds and casts are often of better quality than those of the original specimen. PMID:21660994

  1. Methyl green and nitrotetrazolium blue chloride co-expression in colon tissue: A hyperspectral microscopic imaging analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingli; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Yiting; Sun, Zhen; Guo, Fangmin; Zhu, Jianzhong

    2014-12-01

    Histological observation of dual-stained colon sections is usually performed by visual observation under a light microscope, or by viewing on a computer screen with the assistance of image processing software in both research and clinical settings. These traditional methods are usually not sufficient to reliably differentiate spatially overlapping chromogens generated by different dyes. Hyperspectral microscopic imaging technology offers a solution for these constraints as the hyperspectral microscopic images contain information that allows differentiation between spatially co-located chromogens with similar but different spectra. In this paper, a hyperspectral microscopic imaging (HMI) system is used to identify methyl green and nitrotetrazolium blue chloride in dual-stained colon sections. Hyperspectral microscopic images are captured and the normalized score algorithm is proposed to identify the stains and generate the co-expression results. Experimental results show that the proposed normalized score algorithm can generate more accurate co-localization results than the spectral angle mapper algorithm. The hyperspectral microscopic imaging technology can enhance the visualization of dual-stained colon sections, improve the contrast and legibility of each stain using their spectral signatures, which is helpful for pathologist performing histological analyses.

  2. Microscopic basis for kinetic gating in Cytochrome c oxidase: insights from QM/MM analysis

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Puja; Yang, Shuo; Cui, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of vectorial proton pumping in biomolecules requires establishing the microscopic basis for the regulation of both thermodynamic and kinetic features of the relevant proton transfer steps. For the proton pump cytochrome c oxidase, while the regulation of thermodynamic driving force for key proton transfers has been discussed in great detail, the microscopic basis for the control of proton transfer kinetics has been poorly understood. Here we carry out extensive QM/MM free energy simulations to probe the kinetics of relevant proton transfer steps and analyze the effects of local structure and hydration level. We show that protonation of the proton loading site (PLS, taken to be a propionate of heme a3) requires a concerted process in which a key glutamic acid (Glu286H) delivers the proton to the PLS while being reprotonated by an excess proton coming from the D-channel. The concerted nature of the mechanism is a crucial feature that enables the loading of the PLS before the cavity containing Glu286 is better hydrated to lower its pKa to experimentally measured range; the charged rather than dipolar nature of the process also ensures a tight coupling with heme a reduction, as emphasized by Siegbahn and Blomberg. In addition, we find that rotational flexibility of the PLS allows its protonation before that of the binuclear center (the site where oxygen gets reduced to water). Together with our recent study (P. Goyal, et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 110:18886-18891, 2013) that focused on the modulation of Glu286 pKa, the current work suggests a mechanism that builds in a natural sequence for the protonation of the PLS prior to that of the binuclear center. This provides microscopic support to the kinetic constraints revealed by kinetic network analysis as essential elements that ensure an efficient vectorial proton transport in cytochrome c oxidase. PMID:25678950

  3. Scanning Electron Microscope-Cathodoluminescence Analysis of Rare-Earth Elements in Magnets.

    PubMed

    Imashuku, Susumu; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki; Kawai, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Scanning electron microscope-cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) analysis was performed for neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) and samarium-cobalt (Sm-Co) magnets to analyze the rare-earth elements present in the magnets. We examined the advantages of SEM-CL analysis over conventional analytical methods such as SEM-energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and SEM-wavelength-dispersive X-ray (WDX) spectroscopy for elemental analysis of rare-earth elements in NdFeB magnets. Luminescence spectra of chloride compounds of elements in the magnets were measured by the SEM-CL method. Chloride compounds were obtained by the dropwise addition of hydrochloric acid on the magnets followed by drying in vacuum. Neodymium, praseodymium, terbium, and dysprosium were separately detected in the NdFeB magnets, and samarium was detected in the Sm-Co magnet by the SEM-CL method. In contrast, it was difficult to distinguish terbium and dysprosium in the NdFeB magnet with a dysprosium concentration of 1.05 wt% by conventional SEM-EDX analysis. Terbium with a concentration of 0.02 wt% in an NdFeB magnet was detected by SEM-CL analysis, but not by conventional SEM-WDX analysis. SEM-CL analysis is advantageous over conventional SEM-EDX and SEM-WDX analyses for detecting trace rare-earth elements in NdFeB magnets, particularly dysprosium and terbium. PMID:26739864

  4. Sensitivity Analysis of X-ray Spectra from Scanning Electron Microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Patton, Bruce W.; Weber, Charles F.; Bekar, Kursat B.

    2014-10-01

    The primary goal of this project is to evaluate x-ray spectra generated within a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine elemental composition of small samples. This will be accomplished by performing Monte Carlo simulations of the electron and photon interactions in the sample and in the x-ray detector. The elemental inventories will be determined by an inverse process that progressively reduces the difference between the measured and simulated x-ray spectra by iteratively adjusting composition and geometric variables in the computational model. The intended benefit of this work will be to develop a method to perform quantitative analysis on substandard samples (heterogeneous phases, rough surfaces, small sizes, etc.) without involving standard elemental samples or empirical matrix corrections (i.e., true standardless quantitative analysis).

  5. Germination, growth rates, and electron microscope analysis of tomato seeds flown on the LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Bridgers, Kevin; Brown, Cecelia Wright

    1995-01-01

    The tomato seeds were flown in orbit aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) for nearly six years. During this time, the tomato seeds received an abundant exposure to cosmic radiation and solar wind. Upon the return of the LDEF to earth, the seeds were distributed throughout the United States and 30 foreign countries for analysis. The purpose of the experiment was to determine the long term effect of cosmic rays on living tissue. Our university analysis included germination and growth rates as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray analysis of the control as well as Space-exposed tomato seeds. In analyzing the seeds under the Electron Microscope, usual observations were performed on the nutritional and epidermis layer of the seed. These layers appeared to be more porous in the Space-exposed seeds than on the Earth-based control seeds. This unusual characteristic may explain the increases in the space seeds growth pattern. (Several test results show that the Space-exposed seeds germinate sooner than the Earth-Based seeds. Also, the Space-exposed seeds grew at a faster rate). The porous nutritional region may allow the seeds to receive necessary nutrients and liquids more readily, thus enabling the plant to grow at a faster rate. Roots, leaves and stems were cut into small sections and mounted. After sputter coating the specimens with Argon/Gold Palladium Plasma, they were ready to be viewed under the Electron Microscope. Many micrographs were taken. The X-ray analysis displayed possible identifications of calcium, potassium, chlorine, copper, aluminum, silicon, phosphate, carbon, and sometimes sulfur and iron. The highest concentrations were shown in potassium and calcium. The Space-exposed specimens displayed a high concentration of copper and calcium in the two specimens. There was a significantly high concentration of copper in the Earth-based specimens, whereas there was no copper in the Space-exposed specimens.

  6. Germination, growth rates, and electron microscope analysis of tomato seeds flown on the LDEF

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, E.C. Jr.; Bridgers, K.; Brown, C.W.

    1995-02-01

    The tomato seeds were flown in orbit aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) for nearly six years. During this time, the tomato seeds received an abundant exposure to cosmic radiation and solar wind. Upon the return of the LDEF to earth, the seeds were distributed throughout the United States and 30 foreign countries for analysis. The purpose of the experiment was to determine the long term effect of cosmic rays on living tissue. Our university analysis included germination and growth rates as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray analysis of the control as well as Space-exposed tomato seeds. In analyzing the seeds under the Electron Microscope, usual observations were performed on the nutritional and epidermis layer of the seed. These layers appeared to be more porous in the Space-exposed seeds than on the Earth-based control seeds. This unusual characteristic may explain the increases in the space seeds growth pattern. (Several test results show that the Space-exposed seeds germinate sooner than the Earth-Based seeds. Also, the Space-exposed seeds grew at a faster rate). The porous nutritional region may allow the seeds to receive necessary nutrients and liquids more readily, thus enabling the plant to grow at a faster rate. Roots, leaves and stems were cut into small sections and mounted. After sputter coating the specimens with Argon/Gold Palladium Plasma, they were ready to be viewed under the Electron Microscope. Many micrographs were taken. The X-ray analysis displayed possible identifications of calcium, potassium, chlorine, copper, aluminum, silicon, phosphate, carbon, and sometimes sulfur and iron. The highest concentrations were shown in potassium and calcium. The Space-exposed specimens displayed a high concentration of copper and calcium in the two specimens. There was a significantly high concentration of copper in the Earth-based specimens, whereas there was no copper in the Space-exposed specimens.

  7. Nanometer scale elemental analysis in the helium ion microscope using time of flight spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Klingner, N; Heller, R; Hlawacek, G; von Borany, J; Notte, J; Huang, J; Facsko, S

    2016-03-01

    Time of flight backscattering spectrometry (ToF-BS) was successfully implemented in a helium ion microscope (HIM). Its integration introduces the ability to perform laterally resolved elemental analysis as well as elemental depth profiling on the nm scale. A lateral resolution of ≤54nm and a time resolution of Δt≤17ns(Δt/t≤5.4%) are achieved. By using the energy of the backscattered particles for contrast generation, we introduce a new imaging method to the HIM allowing direct elemental mapping as well as local spectrometry. In addition laterally resolved time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) can be performed with the same setup. Time of flight is implemented by pulsing the primary ion beam. This is achieved in a cost effective and minimal invasive way that does not influence the high resolution capabilities of the microscope when operating in standard secondary electron (SE) imaging mode. This technique can thus be easily adapted to existing devices. The particular implementation of ToF-BS and ToF-SIMS techniques are described, results are presented and advantages, difficulties and limitations of this new techniques are discussed. PMID:26725148

  8. Design and analysis of x-ray microscope of four mirrors working at grazing incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jiasheng; Zhao, Lingling; Li, Xiang

    2006-01-01

    In the latest 20 years, x-ray imaging technology has developed fast in order to meet the need of x-ray photo-etching, spatial exploration technology, high-energy physics, procedure diagnosis of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) etc. But, Since refractive index of materials in the x-ray region is lower than 1, and x-ray is strongly absorbed by the materials, it is very difficult to image objects in the x ray region. Conventional imaging methods are hardly suitable to x-ray range. Generally, grazing reflective imaging and coding aperture imaging methods have been adopted more and more. In this paper, non-coaxial grazing reflective imaging KB and KBA microscope systems are discussed in detail, and an x-ray microscope consisting of four mirrors working at grazing incidence is designed. It is an anastigmatic system, and the oblique angle of the image is evidently decreased. The resolution of 5-7 can be obtained within 2 field of view. And finally we also make analysis of the key problems that are met in the processing of manufacturing this system are analyzed.

  9. Colocalization of gamma-aminobutyric acid and acetylcholine in neurons in the laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei in the cat: a light and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hong-Ge; Yamuy, Jack; Sampogna, Sharon; Morales, Francisco R; Chase, Michael H

    2003-12-01

    Cholinergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) mechanisms in the dorsolateral pontomesencephalic tegmentum have been implicated in the control of active (REM) sleep and wakefulness. To determine the relationships between neurons that contain these neurotransmitters in this region of the brainstem in adult cats, combined light and electron microscopic immunocytochemical procedures were employed. Light microscopic analyses revealed that choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and GABA immunoreactive neurons were distributed throughout the laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei (LDT and PPT). Surprisingly, approximately 50% of the ChAT immunoreactive neurons in these nuclei also contained GABA. Using electron microscopic pre-embedding immunocytochemistry, GABA immunoreactivity was observed in somas, dendrites and axon terminals in both the LDT and PPT. Most of the GABA immunoreactive terminals formed symmetrical synapses with non-immunolabeled dendrites. Electron microscopic double-immunolabeling techniques revealed that ChAT and GABA were colocalized in axon terminals in the LDT/PPT. Approximately 30% of the ChAT immunoreactive terminals were also GABA immunoreactive, whereas only 6-8% of the GABA immunoreactive terminals were ChAT immunoreactive. Most of the ChAT/GABA immunoreactive terminals formed symmetrical synapses with non-immunolabeled dendrites; however, ChAT/GABA immunoreactive terminals were also observed that contacted ChAT immunoreactive dendrites. With respect to ChAT immunoreactive postsynaptic profiles, approximately 40% of the somas and 50% of the dendrites received synaptic contact from GABA immunoreactive terminals in both the LDT and PPT. These findings (a) indicate that there are fundamental interactions between cholinergic and GABAergic neurons within the LDT/PPT that play an important role in the control of active sleep and wakefulness and (b) provide an anatomical basis for the intriguing possibility that a mechanism of acetylcholine and

  10. Structural analysis of light aircraft using NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, M. T.; Bruce, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    An application of NASTRAN to the structural analysis of light aircraft was conducted to determine the cost effectiveness. A model of the Baby Ace D model homebuilt aircraft was used. The NASTRAN model of the aircraft consists of 193 grid points connected by 352 structural members. All members are either rod or beam elements, including bending of unsymmetrical cross sections and torsion of noncircular cross sections. The aerodynamic loads applied to the aircraft were in accordance with FAA regulations governing the utility category aircraft.

  11. Automated system for characterization and classification of malaria-infected stages using light microscopic images of thin blood smears.

    PubMed

    Das, D K; Maiti, A K; Chakraborty, C

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a comprehensive image characterization cum classification framework for malaria-infected stage detection using microscopic images of thin blood smears. The methodology mainly includes microscopic imaging of Leishman stained blood slides, noise reduction and illumination correction, erythrocyte segmentation, feature selection followed by machine classification. Amongst three-image segmentation algorithms (namely, rule-based, Chan-Vese-based and marker-controlled watershed methods), marker-controlled watershed technique provides better boundary detection of erythrocytes specially in overlapping situations. Microscopic features at intensity, texture and morphology levels are extracted to discriminate infected and noninfected erythrocytes. In order to achieve subgroup of potential features, feature selection techniques, namely, F-statistic and information gain criteria are considered here for ranking. Finally, five different classifiers, namely, Naive Bayes, multilayer perceptron neural network, logistic regression, classification and regression tree (CART), RBF neural network have been trained and tested by 888 erythrocytes (infected and noninfected) for each features' subset. Performance evaluation of the proposed methodology shows that multilayer perceptron network provides higher accuracy for malaria-infected erythrocytes recognition and infected stage classification. Results show that top 90 features ranked by F-statistic (specificity: 98.64%, sensitivity: 100%, PPV: 99.73% and overall accuracy: 96.84%) and top 60 features ranked by information gain provides better results (specificity: 97.29%, sensitivity: 100%, PPV: 99.46% and overall accuracy: 96.73%) for malaria-infected stage classification. PMID:25523795

  12. Maximum probability domains for the analysis of the microscopic structure of liquids.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Federica; Ciccotti, Giovanni; Savin, Andreas; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe

    2015-02-14

    We introduce the concept of maximum probability domains (MPDs), developed in the context of the analysis of electronic densities, in the study of the microscopic spatial structures of liquids. The idea of locating a particle in a three dimensional region, by determining the domain where the probability of finding that, and only that, particle is maximum, gives an interesting characterization of the local structure of the liquid. The optimization procedure, required for the search of the domain of maximum probability, is carried out by the implementation of the level set method. Results for a couple of case studies are presented, to illustrate the structure of liquid water at ambient conditions and upon increasing pressure from the point of view of MPDs and to compare the information encoded in the solvation shells of sodium in water with, once again, that extracted from the MPDs. PMID:25681897

  13. Maximum probability domains for the analysis of the microscopic structure of liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Agostini, Federica; Ciccotti, Giovanni; Savin, Andreas; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe

    2015-02-14

    We introduce the concept of maximum probability domains (MPDs), developed in the context of the analysis of electronic densities, in the study of the microscopic spatial structures of liquids. The idea of locating a particle in a three dimensional region, by determining the domain where the probability of finding that, and only that, particle is maximum, gives an interesting characterization of the local structure of the liquid. The optimization procedure, required for the search of the domain of maximum probability, is carried out by the implementation of the level set method. Results for a couple of case studies are presented, to illustrate the structure of liquid water at ambient conditions and upon increasing pressure from the point of view of MPDs and to compare the information encoded in the solvation shells of sodium in water with, once again, that extracted from the MPDs.

  14. A comparison of microscopic and spectroscopic identification methods for analysis of microplastics in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Kyoung; Hong, Sang Hee; Jang, Mi; Han, Gi Myung; Rani, Manviri; Lee, Jongmyoung; Shim, Won Joon

    2015-04-15

    The analysis of microplastics in various environmental samples requires the identification of microplastics from natural materials. The identification technique lacks a standardized protocol. Herein, stereomicroscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FT-IR) identification methods for microplastics (<1mm) were compared using the same samples from the sea surface microlayer (SML) and beach sand. Fragmented microplastics were significantly (p<0.05) underestimated and fiber was significantly overestimated using the stereomicroscope both in the SML and beach samples. The total abundance by FT-IR was higher than by microscope both in the SML and beach samples, but they were not significantly (p>0.05) different. Depending on the number of samples and the microplastic size range of interest, the appropriate identification method should be determined; selecting a suitable identification method for microplastics is crucial for evaluating microplastic pollution. PMID:25682567

  15. Maximum probability domains for the analysis of the microscopic structure of liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, Federica; Ciccotti, Giovanni; Savin, Andreas; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe

    2015-02-01

    We introduce the concept of maximum probability domains (MPDs), developed in the context of the analysis of electronic densities, in the study of the microscopic spatial structures of liquids. The idea of locating a particle in a three dimensional region, by determining the domain where the probability of finding that, and only that, particle is maximum, gives an interesting characterization of the local structure of the liquid. The optimization procedure, required for the search of the domain of maximum probability, is carried out by the implementation of the level set method. Results for a couple of case studies are presented, to illustrate the structure of liquid water at ambient conditions and upon increasing pressure from the point of view of MPDs and to compare the information encoded in the solvation shells of sodium in water with, once again, that extracted from the MPDs.

  16. Raman spectroscopic and scanning electron microscopic analysis of a novel biological colonisation of volcanic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorge Villar, Susana E.; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Benning, Liane G.

    2006-09-01

    A novel type of colonisation of a basaltic rock, collected on the Arctic island of Svalbard, Norway, during the AMASE expedition in 2004, was characterised using Raman spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The sample contains two different types of extremophile communities, one occurring behind a radial white crystallisation and the other occurring inside a dark vacuole. Several types of minerals and microbial colonies have been identified by both Raman spectroscopy and SEM analyses. It is the first time that photosynthetic communities have been documented to colonise the inside of dark basaltic rocks. Our discovery has important implications for planetary exploration because it extends the analytical capability and our understanding of microbial rock colonisations to subaerial volcanic outcrops and has wide implications towards the search for life in extraterrestrial planets. In this work we also demonstrate that the use of different laser wavelengths for Raman spectroscopic studies and complementary microscopic analysis are critical for a comprehensive organic and inorganic compound identification.

  17. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Forman, Steven E.; Caunt, James W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

  18. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

  19. Microscopic droplet formation and energy transport analysis of condensation on scalable superhydrophobic nanostructured copper oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, GuanQiu; Alhosani, Mohamed H; Yuan, ShaoJun; Liu, HaoRan; Ghaferi, Amal Al; Zhang, TieJun

    2014-12-01

    Utilization of nanotechnologies in condensation has been recognized as one opportunity to improve the efficiency of large-scale thermal power and desalination systems. High-performance and stable dropwise condensation in widely-used copper heat exchangers is appealing for energy and water industries. In this work, a scalable and low-cost nanofabrication approach was developed to fabricate superhydrophobic copper oxide (CuO) nanoneedle surfaces to promote dropwise condensation and even jumping-droplet condensation. By conducting systematic surface characterization and in situ environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) condensation experiments, we were able to probe the microscopic formation physics of droplets on irregular nanostructured surfaces. At the early stages of condensation process, the interfacial surface tensions at the edge of CuO nanoneedles were found to influence both the local energy barriers for microdroplet growth and the advancing contact angles when droplets undergo depinning. Local surface roughness also has a significant impact on the volume of the condensate within the nanostructures and overall heat transfer from the vapor to substrate. Both our theoretical analysis and in situ ESEM experiments have revealed that the liquid condensate within the nanostructures determines the amount of the work of adhesion and kinetic energy associated with droplet coalescence and jumping. Local and global droplet growth models were also proposed to predict how the microdroplet morphology within nanostructures affects the heat transfer performance of early-stage condensation. Our quantitative analysis of microdroplet formation and growth within irregular nanostructures provides the insight to guide the anodization-based nanofabrication for enhancing dropwise and jumping-droplet condensation performance. PMID:25419845

  20. Macroscopic and microscopic analysis of the tongue of the common opossum (Didelphis marsupialis).

    PubMed

    Mançanares, Celina A F; Santos, Amilton C; Piemonte, Maria V; Vasconcelos, Bruno G; Carvalho, Ana F; Miglino, Maria A; Ambrósio, Carlos E; Assis Neto, Antônio C

    2012-10-01

    We performed a macroscopic and microscopic study of the tongues of common opossums, Didelphis marsupialis, from South America. We studied two males and two females. We collected morphometric data on the tongue with precision calipers. For the light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses, we fixed tissue fragments in 10% formaldehyde and 2.5% glutaraldehyde, respectively. The opossum tongues averaged 5.87 ± 0.20 cm in length, 3.27 ± 0.15 cm in width at the lingual body, and 3.82 ± 0.15 cm in width at the root. The mean thickness of the lingual body was 1.8 ± 0.1 cm, and the thickness of the root was 3.82 ± 0.15 cm. Sharp filiform papillae were scattered across the entire tongue; conical filiform papillae occurred on the lingual body and tongue tip; fungiform papillae were scattered among the filiform papillae on the lingual body and tongue tip; and there were three vallate papillae at the root of the tongue. We found two strands of papillary projections in the tongue root. Despite the low variability observed in the lingual papillae, the morphological data obtained in this study may be related to the opossum's diverse food habits and the extensive geographic distribution of the species throughout America. PMID:22581756

  1. Compact plane illumination plugin device to enable light sheet fluorescence imaging of multi-cellular organisms on an inverted wide-field microscope

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zeyi; Lee, Juhyun; Jiang, Hao; Dong, Siyan; Jen, Nelson; Hsiai, Tzung; Ho, Chih-Ming; Fei, Peng

    2015-01-01

    We developed a compact plane illumination plugin (PIP) device which enabled plane illumination and light sheet fluorescence imaging on a conventional inverted microscope. The PIP device allowed the integration of microscope with tunable laser sheet profile, fast image acquisition, and 3-D scanning. The device is both compact, measuring approximately 15 by 5 by 5 cm, and cost-effective, since we employed consumer electronics and an inexpensive device molding method. We demonstrated that PIP provided significant contrast and resolution enhancement to conventional microscopy through imaging different multi-cellular fluorescent structures, including 3-D branched cells in vitro and live zebrafish embryos. Imaging with the integration of PIP greatly reduced out-of-focus contamination and generated sharper contrast in acquired 2-D plane images when compared with the stand-alone inverted microscope. As a result, the dynamic fluid domain of the beating zebrafish heart was clearly segmented and the functional monitoring of the heart was achieved. Furthermore, the enhanced axial resolution established by thin plane illumination of PIP enabled the 3-D reconstruction of the branched cellular structures, which leads to the improvement on the functionality of the wide field microscopy. PMID:26819828

  2. Design and analysis of aspherical multilayer imaging X-ray microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, David L.; Jiang, WU; Hoover, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    Spherical Schwarzschild microscopes for soft X-ray applications in microscopy and projection lithography employ two concentric spherical mirrors that are configured such that the third-order spherical aberration and coma are zero. Based on incoherent, sine-wave MTF calculations, the object-plane resolution of a magnification-factor-20 microscope is presently analyzed as a function of object height and numerical aperture of the primary for several spherical Schwarzschild, conic, and aspherical two-mirror microscope configurations.

  3. Light-curve Analysis of Neon Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachisu, Izumi; Kato, Mariko

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed light curves of five neon novae, QU Vul, V351 Pup, V382 Vel, V693 CrA, and V1974 Cyg, and determined their white dwarf (WD) masses and distance moduli on the basis of theoretical light curves composed of free-free and photospheric emission. For QU Vul, we obtained a distance of d ˜ 2.4 kpc, reddening of E(B - V) ˜ 0.55, and WD mass of MWD = 0.82-0.96 {M}⊙ . This suggests that an oxygen-neon WD lost a mass of more than ˜ 0.1 {M}⊙ since its birth. For V351 Pup, we obtained d˜ 5.5 {{kpc}}, E(B-V)˜ 0.45, and {M}{{WD}}=0.98-1.1 {M}⊙ . For V382 Vel, we obtained d˜ 1.6 {{kpc}}, E(B-V)˜ 0.15, and {M}{{WD}}=1.13-1.28 {M}⊙ . For V693 CrA, we obtained d˜ 7.1 {{kpc}}, E(B-V)˜ 0.05, and {M}{{WD}}=1.15-1.25 {M}⊙ . For V1974 Cyg, we obtained d˜ 1.8 {{kpc}}, E(B-V)˜ 0.30, and {M}{{WD}}=0.95-1.1 {M}⊙ . For comparison, we added the carbon-oxygen nova V1668 Cyg to our analysis and obtained d˜ 5.4 {{kpc}}, E(B-V)˜ 0.30, and {M}{{WD}}=0.98-1.1 {M}⊙ . In QU Vul, photospheric emission contributes 0.4-0.8 mag at most to the optical light curve compared with free-free emission only. In V351 Pup and V1974 Cyg, photospheric emission contributes very little (0.2-0.4 mag at most) to the optical light curve. In V382 Vel and V693 CrA, free-free emission dominates the continuum spectra, and photospheric emission does not contribute to the optical magnitudes. We also discuss the maximum magnitude versus rate of decline relation for these novae based on the universal decline law.

  4. Light water reactor lower head failure analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, J.L.; Chavez, S.A.; Thinnes, G.L.

    1993-10-01

    This document presents the results from a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission-sponsored research program to investigate the mode and timing of vessel lower head failure. Major objectives of the analysis were to identify plausible failure mechanisms and to develop a method for determining which failure mode would occur first in different light water reactor designs and accident conditions. Failure mechanisms, such as tube ejection, tube rupture, global vessel failure, and localized vessel creep rupture, were studied. Newly developed models and existing models were applied to predict which failure mechanism would occur first in various severe accident scenarios. So that a broader range of conditions could be considered simultaneously, calculations relied heavily on models with closed-form or simplified numerical solution techniques. Finite element techniques-were employed for analytical model verification and examining more detailed phenomena. High-temperature creep and tensile data were obtained for predicting vessel and penetration structural response.

  5. A Polarized Light Microscopic Study to Comparatively evaluate Four Remineralizing Agents on Enamel viz CPP-ACPF, ReminPro, SHY-NM and Colgate Strong Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ramesh; Bhaskaran, Bibin; Kumar, Suresh V

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To compare and evaluate the remineralizing potential of four commercially available products namely SHY-NM, GC Tooth Mousse Plus, ReminPro and Colgate strong teeth on demineralized human teeth. Materials and methods: The study included 50 extracted premolars having 3 × 3 mm window prepared on the middle third of the tooth, which was then subjected to demineralization for 48 hours at 37°C. Teeth were randomly selected and grouped into five study groups of 10 teeth in each. Each group was treated with respective remineralizing agent and sectioned using hard-tissue microtome. Each section obtained was visualized under polarized light microscope and analyzed using Image J software. Results: The statistically evaluated results revealed that SHY-NM has the most remineralizing potential followed by ReminPro, GC Tooth Mousse Plus and fluoridated toothpaste. Conclusion: Based on the study, the SHY-NM was superior to the GC Tooth Mousse Plus, ReminPro and Colgate strong teeth on demineralized human teeth. How to cite this article: Rajan R, Krishnan R, Bhaskaran B, Kumar SV. A Polarized Light Microscopic Study to Comparatively evaluate Four Remineralizing Agents on Enamel viz CPP-ACPF, ReminPro, SHY-NM and Colgate Strong Teeth. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):42-47. PMID:26124580

  6. Miniature Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope for In-Situ Imaging and Chemical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica A.; Jerman, Gregory; Gregory, Don; Sampson, Allen R.

    2012-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is leading an effort to develop a Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope (MVP-SEM) for in-situ imaging and chemical analysis of uncoated samples. This instrument development will be geared towards operation on Mars and builds on a previous MSFC design of a mini-SEM for the moon (funded through the NASA Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program). Because Mars has a dramatically different environment than the moon, modifications to the MSFC lunar mini-SEM are necessary. Mainly, the higher atmospheric pressure calls for the use of an electron gun that can operate at High Vacuum, rather than Ultra-High Vacuum. The presence of a CO2-rich atmosphere also allows for the incorporation of a variable pressure system that enables the in-situ analysis of nonconductive geological specimens. Preliminary testing of Mars meteorites in a commercial Environmental SEM(Tradmark) (FEI) confirms the usefulness of lowcurrent/low-accelerating voltage imaging and highlights the advantages of using the Mars atmosphere for environmental imaging. The unique capabilities of the MVP-SEM make it an ideal tool for pursuing key scientific goals of NASA's Flagship Mission Max-C; to perform in-situ science and collect and cache samples in preparation for sample return from Mars.

  7. Automated Analysis and Classification of Histological Tissue Features by Multi-Dimensional Microscopic Molecular Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Riordan, Daniel P.; Varma, Sushama; West, Robert B.; Brown, Patrick O.

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of the molecular attributes and spatial arrangements of cells and features within complex human tissues provides a critical basis for understanding processes involved in development and disease. Moreover, the ability to automate steps in the analysis and interpretation of histological images that currently require manual inspection by pathologists could revolutionize medical diagnostics. Toward this end, we developed a new imaging approach called multidimensional microscopic molecular profiling (MMMP) that can measure several independent molecular properties in situ at subcellular resolution for the same tissue specimen. MMMP involves repeated cycles of antibody or histochemical staining, imaging, and signal removal, which ultimately can generate information analogous to a multidimensional flow cytometry analysis on intact tissue sections. We performed a MMMP analysis on a tissue microarray containing a diverse set of 102 human tissues using a panel of 15 informative antibody and 5 histochemical stains plus DAPI. Large-scale unsupervised analysis of MMMP data, and visualization of the resulting classifications, identified molecular profiles that were associated with functional tissue features. We then directly annotated H&E images from this MMMP series such that canonical histological features of interest (e.g. blood vessels, epithelium, red blood cells) were individually labeled. By integrating image annotation data, we identified molecular signatures that were associated with specific histological annotations and we developed statistical models for automatically classifying these features. The classification accuracy for automated histology labeling was objectively evaluated using a cross-validation strategy, and significant accuracy (with a median per-pixel rate of 77% per feature from 15 annotated samples) for de novo feature prediction was obtained. These results suggest that high-dimensional profiling may advance the development of computer

  8. LED intense headband light source for fingerprint analysis

    DOEpatents

    Villa-Aleman, Eliel

    2005-03-08

    A portable, lightweight and high-intensity light source for detecting and analyzing fingerprints during field investigation. On-site field analysis requires long hours of mobile analysis. In one embodiment, the present invention comprises a plurality of light emitting diodes; a power source; and a personal attachment means; wherein the light emitting diodes are powered by the power source, and wherein the power source and the light emitting diodes are attached to the personal attachment means to produce a personal light source for on-site analysis of latent fingerprints. The present invention is available for other applications as well.

  9. Testing the Equivalence Principle in space with MICROSCOPE: the data analysis challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergé, Joel; Baghi, Quentin; Pires, Sandrine

    2014-05-01

    Theories beyond the Standard Model and General Relativity predict a violation of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) just below the current best experimental upper limits. MICROSCOPE (Micro-Satellite à traînée Compensée pour l'Observation du Principe d'Equivalence) will allow us to lower them by two orders of magnitude, and maybe to detect a WEP violation. However, analyzing the MICROSCOPE data will be challenging, mostly because of missing data and a colored noise burrying the signal of interest. In this communication, we apply an inpainting technique to simulated MICROSCOPE data and show that inpainting will help detect a WEP violation signal.

  10. Image formation and system analysis of a scanning tomographic acoustic microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Samuel Davis, III

    This dissertation focuses on research that has been conducted to implement an automated Scanning Tomographic Acoustic Microscope (STAM), and research that has been performed to increase the understanding of the performance characteristics of the STAM. STAM technology permits high resolution microscopy which yields important information on the internal structure and acoustic properties of thick specimens, provided that technology is utilized in a cohesive manner. Prior to the research conducted for this dissertation, only a proof-of-concept STAM had been developed; actual STAM imaging was difficult and impractical. This dissertation describes the hardware and software development that has led to the first automated STAM. It focuses on significant problems that were encountered and their solutions. Specifically, accurate data acquisition necessitated the development of special-purpose data acquisition hardware, rotational controls, frequency controls, and automation controls. Inaccuracies in the laser scanning hardware were identified as a significant source of reconstruction error. This error was removed by estimation and correction algorithms. Rotation of the specimen for multiple-angle tomography required the development of a noise-tolerant projection-pose estimation algorithm. An iterative technique for image enhancement is also presented. The resulting STAM system is evaluated to determine its performance characteristics. A component-wise resolution analysis is presented that specifies the resolution-limit in both range and cross-range. The dependency of reconstruction quality on accurate representation of the magnitude and phase of the detected wave fields is also provided.

  11. Analysis of biological time-lapse microscopic experiment from the point of view of the information theory.

    PubMed

    Štys, Dalibor; Urban, Jan; Vaněk, Jan; Císař, Petr

    2011-06-01

    We report objective analysis of information in the microscopic image of the cell monolayer. The process of transfer of information about the cell by the microscope is analyzed in terms of the classical Shannon information transfer scheme. The information source is the biological object, the information transfer channel is the whole microscope including the camera chip. The destination is the model of biological system. The information contribution is analyzed as information carried by a point to overall information in the image. Subsequently we obtain information reflection of the biological object. This is transformed in the biological model which, in information terminology, is the destination. This, we propose, should be constructed as state transitions in individual cells modulated by information bonds between the cells. We show examples of detected cell states in multidimensional state space. This space is reflected as colour channel intensity phenomenological state space. We have also observed information bonds and show examples of them. PMID:25478628

  12. Analysis of biological time-lapse microscopic experiment from the point of view of the information theory.

    PubMed

    Stys, Dalibor; Urban, Jan; Vanek, Jan; Císar, Petr

    2010-07-01

    We report objective analysis of information in the microscopic image of the cell monolayer. The process of transfer of information about the cell by the microscope is analyzed in terms of the classical Shannon information transfer scheme. The information source is the biological object, the information transfer channel is the whole microscope including the camera chip. The destination is the model of biological system. The information contribution is analyzed as information carried by a point to overall information in the image. Subsequently we obtain information reflection of the biological object. This is transformed in the biological model which, in information terminology, is the destination. This, we propose, should be constructed as state transitions in individual cells modulated by information bonds between the cells. We show examples of detected cell states in multidimensional state space reflected in space an colour channel intensity phenomenological state space. We have also observed information bonds and show examples of them. PMID:20194026

  13. Aq Psc Analysis of New Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, Atsuma

    2005-04-01

    New BV light curves of the A-type W UMa star AQ Psc (P = 0.476d) have been observed and are described. A few times of minimum light are obtained and the ephemeris is improved. The light curves are analyzed for the binary parameters with a light curve synthesis method. Combining the results with Lu and Rucinski’s spectroscopic mass ratio we determined the masses and radii of the components: M 1 = 1.69M ⊙, M 2 = 0.38M ⊙, R 1 = 1.77R ⊙, and R 2 = 0.89R ⊙.

  14. Clinicopathologic Analysis of Microscopic Extension in Lung Adenocarcinoma: Defining Clinical Target Volume for Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Grills, Inga S.; Fitch, Dwight L.; Goldstein, Neal S.; Yan Di; Chmielewski, Gary W.; Welsh, Robert J.; Kestin, Larry L.

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the gross tumor volume (GTV) to clinical target volume margin for non-small-cell lung cancer treatment planning. Methods: A total of 35 patients with Stage T1N0 adenocarcinoma underwent wedge resection plus immediate lobectomy. The gross tumor size and microscopic extension distance beyond the gross tumor were measured. The nuclear grade and percentage of bronchoalveolar features were analyzed for association with microscopic extension. The gross tumor dimensions were measured on a computed tomography (CT) scan (lung and mediastinal windows) and compared with the pathologic dimensions. The potential coverage of microscopic extension for two different lung stereotactic radiotherapy regimens was evaluated. Results: The mean microscopic extension distance beyond the gross tumor was 7.2 mm and varied according to grade (10.1, 7.0, and 3.5 mm for Grade 1 to 3, respectively, p < 0.01). The 90th percentile for microscopic extension was 12.0 mm (13.0, 9.7, and 4.4 mm for Grade 1 to 3, respectively). The CT lung windows correlated better with the pathologic size than did the mediastinal windows (gross pathologic size overestimated by a mean of 5.8 mm; composite size [gross plus microscopic extension] underestimated by a mean of 1.2 mm). For a GTV contoured on the CT lung windows, the margin required to cover microscopic extension for 90% of the cases would be 9 mm (9, 7, and 4 mm for Grade 1 to 3, respectively). The potential microscopic extension dosimetric coverage (55 Gy) varied substantially between the stereotactic radiotherapy schedules. Conclusion: For lung adenocarcinomas, the GTV should be contoured using CT lung windows. Although a GTV based on the CT lung windows would underestimate the gross tumor size plus microscopic extension by only 1.2 mm for the average case, the clinical target volume expansion required to cover the microscopic extension in 90% of cases could be as large as 9 mm, although considerably smaller for high-grade tumors

  15. Lobular and cellular patterns of early hepatic glycogen deposition in the rat as observed by light and electron microscopic radioautography after injection of /sup 3/H-galactose

    SciTech Connect

    Michaels, J.E.; Hung, J.T.; Garfield, S.A.; Cardell, R.R. Jr.

    1984-05-01

    Very low hepatic glycogen levels are achieved by overnight fasting of adrenalectomized (ADX) rats. Subsequent injection of dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid, stimulates marked increases in glycogen synthesis. Using this system and injecting /sup 3/H-galactose as a glycogen precursor 1 hr prior to sacrifice, the intralobular and intracellular patterns of labeled glycogen deposition were studied by light (LM) and electron (EM) microscopic radioautography. LM radioautography revealed that 1 hr after DEX treatment, labeling patterns for both periportal and centrilobular hepatocytes resembled those in rats with no DEX treatment: 18% of the hepatocytes were unlabeled, and 82% showed light labeling. Two hours after treatment with DEX, 14% of the hepatocytes remained unlabeled, and 78% were lightly labeled; however, 8% of the cells, located randomly throughout the lobule, were intensely labeled. An increased number of heavily labeled cells (26%) appeared 3 hr after DEX treatment; and by 5 hr 91% of the hepatocytes were intensely labeled. Label over the periportal cells at this time was aggregated, whereas centrilobular cells displayed dispersed label. EM radioautographs showed that 2 to 3 hr after DEX injection initial labeling of hepatocytes, regardless of their intralobular location, occurred over foci of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) and small electron-dense particles of presumptive glycogen, and in areas of SER and distinct glycogen particles. After 5 hrs of treatment with DEX, the intracellular distribution of label reflected the glycogen patterns characteristic of periportal or centrilobular regions.

  16. Light and scanning electron microscope investigations comparing calculus removal using an Er:YAG laser and a frequency-doubled alexandrite laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechmann, Peter; Hennig, Thomas; Sadegh, Hamid M. M.; Goldin, Dan S.

    1997-05-01

    With respect to lasers emitting within the mid-IR spectral domain fiber applicators are being developed. Intended is the use of these lasers in periodontal therapy and their application inside the gingival pocket. Aim of the study presented here is to compare the effect of an Er:YAG laser on dental calculus with the results following irradiation with a frequency doubled Alexandrite laser. The surface of freshly extracted wisdom teeth and of extracted teeth suffering from severe periodontitis were irradiated with both laser wavelengths using a standardized application protocol. Calculus on the enamel surface, at the enamel cementum junction and on the root surface was irradiated. For light microscope investigations undecalcified histological sections were prepared after treatment. For the scanning electron microscope teeth were dried in alcohol and sputtered with gold. Investigations revealed that with both laser systems calculus can be removed. Using the frequency doubled Alexandrite laser selective removal of calculus is possible while engaging the Er:YAG laser even at lowest energies necessary for calculus removal healthy cementum is ablated without control.

  17. The histological investigation of gingiva from patients with chronic renal failure, renal transplants, and periodontitis: a light and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Yamalik, N; Delilbasi, L; Gülay, H; Cağlayan, F; Haberal, M; Cağlayan, G

    1991-12-01

    The clinical and histological appearance of gingiva was evaluated in renal transplant recipients (RTR) receiving immunosuppressive drugs, in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) undergoing hemodialysis, and systemically healthy individuals with periodontitis. Although the amount of bacterial plaque accumulation was similar among the groups (P greater than 0.05), the gingival inflammation was significantly less in RTR when compared to the other 2 groups (P less than 0.05). In light microscopic investigation the overall appearance of the connective tissue was similar in all of the groups. A mononuclear cell infiltration was present in all of the specimens; however, the number of inflammatory cells in patients with periodontitis was significantly higher than the other 2 groups (P less than 0.05). Prominent epithelial changes in the superficial layers of the oral epithelium; i.e., areas showing desquamation-like appearance, were noticed in patients with CRF. In electron microscopic investigation, fibroblasts and plasma cells with well-developed granular endoplasmic reticulum were found in connective tissue in RTR patients. In patients with CRF, epithelial cells presented swollen granular endoplasmic reticulum cisternae resembling vacuoles, indicating the presence of degeneration. It was suggested that with the use of immunosuppressive drugs the response to bacterial plaque did not diminish completely. PMID:1765936

  18. Anisotropic organization and microscopic manipulation of self-assembling synthetic porphyrin microrods that mimic chlorosomes: bacterial light-harvesting systems.

    PubMed

    Chappaz-Gillot, Cyril; Marek, Peter L; Blaive, Bruno J; Canard, Gabriel; Bürck, Jochen; Garab, Gyozo; Hahn, Horst; Jávorfi, Tamás; Kelemen, Loránd; Krupke, Ralph; Mössinger, Dennis; Ormos, Pál; Reddy, Chilla Malla; Roussel, Christian; Steinbach, Gábor; Szabó, Milán; Ulrich, Anne S; Vanthuyne, Nicolas; Vijayaraghavan, Aravind; Zupcanova, Anita; Balaban, Teodor Silviu

    2012-01-18

    Being able to control in time and space the positioning, orientation, movement, and sense of rotation of nano- to microscale objects is currently an active research area in nanoscience, having diverse nanotechnological applications. In this paper, we demonstrate unprecedented control and maneuvering of rod-shaped or tubular nanostructures with high aspect ratios which are formed by self-assembling synthetic porphyrins. The self-assembly algorithm, encoded by appended chemical-recognition groups on the periphery of these porphyrins, is the same as the one operating for chlorosomal bacteriochlorophylls (BChl's). Chlorosomes, rod-shaped organelles with relatively long-range molecular order, are the most efficient naturally occurring light-harvesting systems. They are used by green photosynthetic bacteria to trap visible and infrared light of minute intensities even at great depths, e.g., 100 m below water surface or in volcanic vents in the absence of solar radiation. In contrast to most other natural light-harvesting systems, the chlorosomal antennae are devoid of a protein scaffold to orient the BChl's; thus, they are an attractive goal for mimicry by synthetic chemists, who are able to engineer more robust chromophores to self-assemble. Functional devices with environmentally friendly chromophores-which should be able to act as photosensitizers within hybrid solar cells, leading to high photon-to-current conversion efficiencies even under low illumination conditions-have yet to be fabricated. The orderly manner in which the BChl's and their synthetic counterparts self-assemble imparts strong diamagnetic and optical anisotropies and flow/shear characteristics to their nanostructured assemblies, allowing them to be manipulated by electrical, magnetic, or tribomechanical forces. PMID:22148684

  19. Transcranial light-tissue interaction analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulakh, Kavleen; Zakaib, Scott; Willmore, William G.; Ye, Winnie N.

    2016-03-01

    The penetration depth of light plays a crucial role in therapeutic medical applications. In order to design effective medical photonic devices, an in-depth understanding of light's ability to penetrate tissues (including bone, skin, and fat) is necessary. The amount of light energy absorbed or scattered by tissues affects the intensity of light reaching an intended target in vivo. In this study, we examine the transmittance of light through a variety of cranial tissues for the purpose of determining the efficacy of neuro stimulation using a transcranial laser. Tissue samples collected from a pig were irradiated with a pulsed laser. We first determine the optimal irradiation wavelength of the laser to be 808nm. With varying peak and average power of the laser, we found an inverse and logarithmic relationship between the penetration depth and the intensity of the light. After penetrating the skin and skull of the pig, the light decreases in intensity at a rate of approximately 90.8 (+/-0.4) percent for every 5 mm of brain tissue penetrated. We also found the correlation between the irradiation time and dosage, using three different lasers (with peak power of 500, 1000, and 1500mW respectively). These data will help deduce what laser power is required to achieve a clinically-realistic model for a given irradiation time. This work is fundamental and the experimental data can be used to supplement existing and future research on the effects of laser light on brain tissue for the design of medical devices.

  20. Distributions of /sup 35/S-sulfate and /sup 3/H-glucosamine in the angular region of the hamster: light and electron microscopic autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnishi, Y.; Taniguchi, Y.

    1983-06-01

    The distribution of /sup 35/S-sulfate and /sup 3/H-glucosamine in the angular region of the hamster was studied by light and electron microscopic autoradiography following intraperitoneal injection of these compounds to hamsters. Exposed silver grains of /sup 35/S-sulfate were concentrated in the trabecular meshwork, sclera, and cornea, and grains of /sup 3/H-glucosamine were localized in the trabecular region. The radioactivity of both isotopes was observed in the Golgi apparatuses of the endothelial cells of the angular aqueous plexus and the trabecular meshwork. The grains were noted over the entire cytoplasm, except for the nucleus, and then were incorporated into the amorphous substance and collagen fibers in the region adjacent to the angular aqueous sinus. These results suggest that endothelial cells in the angular region synthesize and secrete the sulfated glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid.

  1. Analysis of amyloplast dynamics involved in gravity sensing using a novel centrifuge microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyota, Masatsugu; Tasaka, Masao; Morita, Miyo T.

    Plants sense gravity and change their growth orientation, a phenomenon known as gravitropism. According to the starch-statolith hypothesis, sedimentation of high-density starch-filled plastids (amyloplasts) within endodermal cells appears to be involved in gravity sensing of Arabidop-sis shoots. Recent studies suggest, however, that amyloplasts are never static but continu-ously show dynamic and complicated movements due to interaction with vacuole/cytoskeleton. Therefore, it remains unclear what movement/state of amyloplasts is required for gravity sens-ing. To address this critical issue, we analyzed gravitropism and amyloplast dynamics under hypergravity condition where sedimentation by gravity is more dominant than other movements. Segments of Arabidopsis inflorescence stem showed a gravitropism in response to hypergrav-ity (10g) that had been applied perpendicularly to the growth axis for 30 s in a conventional centrifuge, suggesting that amyloplast dynamics during this short time period is involved in gravity sensing. Real-time imaging of amyloplasts during the 10g stimulation was performed using a novel centrifuge microscope (NSK Ltd, Japan): all optical devices including objective lens, light source (LED) and CCD camera are mounted on an AC motor, enabling bright-field imaging with a temporal resolution of 30 frames/sec during rotation. Almost all amyloplasts started to move toward 10g and some reached the one side of endodermal cell within 30 s. These results clearly support the starch-statolith hypothesis that redistribution of amyloplasts to gravity is important for gravity sensing. Furthermore, we analyzed the shoot gravitropic mutant, sgr2, that has non-sedimentable amyloplasts and shows little gravitropism at 1g. An obvious gravitropism was induced by 30g for 5 min where amyloplasts were moved to the hyper-gravity but not by 10g where amyloplasts were not moved. These results not only suggest that gravity sensing of Arabidopsis inflorescence stems is

  2. Light and electron microscopical observations on the Leydig cells of the scrotal and abdominal testes of naturally unilateral cryptorchid West African dwarf goats.

    PubMed Central

    Ezeasor, D N

    1985-01-01

    The structure of interstitial cells of Leydig in the scrotal and abdominal testes of adult West African dwarf goats was studied utilising light and electron microscopy. The Leydig cells in both testes were scattered singly, in cords or clusters in the intertubular connective tissue in close proximity to vascular elements. The intertubular connective tissue in the abdominal testes was however much wider because of the hypoplasia of the seminiferous tubules. While the cells of the scrotal testes exhibited non-granular, pale staining cytoplasm, those of the abdominal testes were darkly staining and the majority contained coarse intracytoplasmic osmiophilic granules Interspersed amongst these cells were adipose cells occasionally distributed overall. With the electron microscope, it was found that agranular endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and mitochondria were more prominently developed in the scrotal testes. In marked contrast, there were numerous lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of the Leydig cells in the abdominal testes. Furthermore, the cytoplasm of several of these cells showed evidence of degeneration. It is concluded that, contrary to observations in the experimentally induced condition, abdominal retention of testes in natural unilateral cryptorchidism induces alterations in the light microscopical and ultrastructural features of the Leydig cells of West African dwarf goats, changes which possibly can be ascribed to the chronic decline in testicular blood flow and the elevated temperature of the abdominal environment. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2867081

  3. Early prognosis of metastasis risk in inflammatory breast cancer by texture analysis of tumour microscopic images.

    PubMed

    Kolarevic, Daniela; Tomasevic, Zorica; Dzodic, Radan; Kanjer, Ksenija; Vukosavljevic, Dragica Nikolic; Radulovic, Marko

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive type of locally advanced breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the value of microscopic tumour histomorphology texture for prognosis of local and systemic recurrence at the time of initial IBC diagnosis. This retrospective study included a group of 52 patients selected on the basis of non-metastatic IBC diagnosis, stage IIIB. Gray-Level-Co-Occurrence-Matrix (GLCM) texture analysis was performed on digital images of primary tumour tissue sections stained with haematoxylin/eosin. Obtained values were categorized by use of both data- and outcome-based methods. All five acquired GLCM texture features significantly associated with metastasis outcome. By accuracies of 69-81% and AUCs of 0.71-0.81, prognostic performance of GLCM parameters exceeded that of standard major IBC clinical prognosticators such as tumour grade and response to induction chemotherapy. Furthermore, a composite score consisting of tumour grade, contrast and correlation as independent features resulted in further enhancement of prognostic performance by accuracy of 89%, discrimination efficiency by AUC of 0.93 and an outstanding hazard ratio of 71.6 (95%CI, 41.7-148.4). Internal validation was successfully performed by bootstrap and split-sample cross-validation, suggesting that the model is generalizable. This study indicates for the first time the potential use of primary breast tumour histology texture as a highly accurate, simple and cost-effective prognostic indicator of metastasis risk in IBC. Clinical relevance of the obtained results rests on the role of prognosis in decisions on induction chemotherapy and the resulting impact on quality of life and survival. PMID:26286863

  4. Atomic Force Microscopic Analysis of the Effect of Lipid Composition on Liposome Membrane Rigidity.

    PubMed

    Takechi-Haraya, Yuki; Sakai-Kato, Kumiko; Abe, Yasuhiro; Kawanishi, Toru; Okuda, Haruhiro; Goda, Yukihiro

    2016-06-21

    Mechanical rigidity of the liposome membrane is often defined by the membrane bending modulus and is one of the determinants of liposome stability, but the quantitative experimental data are still limited to a few kinds of liposomes. Here, we used atomic force microscopy to investigate the membrane bending moduli of liposomes by immobilizing them on bovine serum albumin-coated glass in aqueous medium. The following lipids were used for liposome preparation: egg yolk phosphatidylcholine, dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane, cholesterol, and N-(carbonylmethoxypoly(ethylene glycol) 2000)-1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine. By using liposomes of various compositions, we showed that the thermodynamic phase state of the membrane rather than the electric potential or liposome surface modification with poly(ethylene glycol) is the predominant determinant of the bending modulus, which decreased in the following order: solid ordered > liquid ordered > liquid disordered. By using the generalized polarization value of the Laurdan fluorescent probe, we investigated membrane rigidity in terms of membrane fluidity. Atomic force microscopic analysis was superior to the Laurdan method, especially in evaluating the membrane rigidity of liposomes containing hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. Positively charged liposomes with a large bending modulus were taken up by cells more efficiently than those with a small bending modulus. These findings offer a quantitative method of analyzing the membrane rigidity of nanosized liposomes with different lipid compositions and will contribute to the control of liposome stability and cellular uptake efficiency of liposomal formulations intended for clinical use. PMID:27232007

  5. Light Microscopy Module: On-Orbit Microscope Planned for the Fluids Integrated Rack on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Susan M.

    2002-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) is planned as a remotely controllable, automated, on-orbit facility, allowing flexible scheduling and control of physical science and biological science experiments within the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) on the International Space Station. Initially four fluid physics experiments in the FIR will use the LMM the Constrained Vapor Bubble, the Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment-2, Physics of Colloids in Space-2, and Low Volume Fraction Entropically Driven Colloidal Assembly. The first experiment will investigate heat conductance in microgravity as a function of liquid volume and heat flow rate to determine, in detail, the transport process characteristics in a curved liquid film. The other three experiments will investigate various complementary aspects of the nucleation, growth, structure, and properties of colloidal crystals in microgravity and the effects of micromanipulation upon their properties.

  6. Theoretical analysis of a rotating-disk partially confocal scanning microscope.

    PubMed

    Conchello, J A; Lichtman, J W

    1994-02-01

    Confocal scanning microscopy is widely used for three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of fixed specimens but has found only a limited 3-D reconstruction application for living specimens because the high intensity of the excitation often damages the specimen or causes the fluorescent dye to bleach. Computational optical-sectioning microscopy also suffers from drawbacks because nonconfocal 3-D imaging is fundamentally constrained by an artifactual elongation in the optical axis imposed by the so-called missing cone. We investigate the imaging properties of a new rotating-disk partially confocal scanning microscope (PCSM) that greatly reduces collection time by using multiple apertures for both excitation and detection, effectively working as many confocal microscopes in parallel. We show that this PCSM behaves as a hybrid microscope; near the in-focus plane it behaves near the theoretical optimum for confocal microscopy, and away from this plane its behavior approaches that of a nonconfocal microscope. We also show that the rotating-disk PCSM does not suffer from a missing cone. In fact, the optical transfer function of the theoretically optimal confocal microscope and the rotating-disk PCSM have practically the same bandpass in the spatial-frequency domain. PMID:20862053

  7. Characterization and FDTD simulation analysis on light trapping structures of amorphous silicon thin films by laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lu; Jin, Jing; Yuan, Zhijun; Yang, Weiguang; Wang, Linjun; Shi, Weimin; Zhou, Jun; Lou, Qihong

    2016-05-01

    The effect of laser energy density on the light-trapping structures of amorphous silicon (α-Si) thin films is studied both theoretically and experimentally. The thin films are irradiated by a frequency-doubled (λ = 532 nm) Nd:YAG pulsed nanosecond laser. An effective finite difference time domain (FDTD) model is built to find the optimized laser energy density (EL) for the light trapping structures of α-Si. Based on the simulation analysis, it shows the variation of reflection spectra with laser energy density. The optimized reflection spectra at EL = 1000 mJ/cm2 measured by UV-visible spectroscopy confirms to agree well with that corresponding to the depth to diameter ratio (h/D) in the FDTD simulation. The surface morphology characterization by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) accords fairly well to of light-trapping modeling in the simulation.

  8. Microscopic colitis.

    PubMed

    Pardi, Darrell S

    2014-02-01

    Microscopic colitis is a frequent cause of chronic watery diarrhea, especially in older persons. Common associated symptoms include abdominal pain, arthralgias, and weight loss. The incidence of microscopic colitis had been increasing, although more recent studies have shown a stabilization of incidence rates. The diagnosis is based on characteristic histologic findings in a patient with diarrhea. Microscopic colitis can occur at any age, including in children, but it is primarily seen in the elderly. Several treatment options exist to treat the symptoms of microscopic colitis, although only budesonide has been well studied in randomized clinical trials. PMID:24267602

  9. Kinetic analysis reveals the diversity of microscopic mechanisms through which molecular chaperones suppress amyloid formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arosio, Paolo; Michaels, Thomas C. T.; Linse, Sara; Månsson, Cecilia; Emanuelsson, Cecilia; Presto, Jenny; Johansson, Jan; Vendruscolo, Michele; Dobson, Christopher M.; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.

    2016-03-01

    It is increasingly recognized that molecular chaperones play a key role in modulating the formation of amyloid fibrils, a process associated with a wide range of human disorders. Understanding the detailed mechanisms by which they perform this function, however, has been challenging because of the great complexity of the protein aggregation process itself. In this work, we build on a previous kinetic approach and develop a model that considers pairwise interactions between molecular chaperones and different protein species to identify the protein components targeted by the chaperones and the corresponding microscopic reaction steps that are inhibited. We show that these interactions conserve the topology of the unperturbed reaction network but modify the connectivity weights between the different microscopic steps. Moreover, by analysing several protein-molecular chaperone systems, we reveal the striking diversity in the microscopic mechanisms by which molecular chaperones act to suppress amyloid formation.

  10. Kinetic analysis reveals the diversity of microscopic mechanisms through which molecular chaperones suppress amyloid formation

    PubMed Central

    Arosio, Paolo; Michaels, Thomas C. T.; Linse, Sara; Månsson, Cecilia; Emanuelsson, Cecilia; Presto, Jenny; Johansson, Jan; Vendruscolo, Michele; Dobson, Christopher M.; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.

    2016-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that molecular chaperones play a key role in modulating the formation of amyloid fibrils, a process associated with a wide range of human disorders. Understanding the detailed mechanisms by which they perform this function, however, has been challenging because of the great complexity of the protein aggregation process itself. In this work, we build on a previous kinetic approach and develop a model that considers pairwise interactions between molecular chaperones and different protein species to identify the protein components targeted by the chaperones and the corresponding microscopic reaction steps that are inhibited. We show that these interactions conserve the topology of the unperturbed reaction network but modify the connectivity weights between the different microscopic steps. Moreover, by analysing several protein-molecular chaperone systems, we reveal the striking diversity in the microscopic mechanisms by which molecular chaperones act to suppress amyloid formation. PMID:27009901

  11. Modern contaminants affecting microscopic residue analysis on stone tools: A word of caution.

    PubMed

    Pedergnana, A; Asryan, L; Fernández-Marchena, J L; Ollé, A

    2016-07-01

    Residue analysis is a method frequently used to infer the function of stone tools and it is very often applied in combination with use-wear analysis. Beyond its undeniable potential, the method itself has several intrinsic constraints. Apart from the exceptional circumstances necessary for residues to survive, the correct identification of the residue type is a very debatable topic. Before attempting to recognise ancient residues, a proper method should allow analysts to identify possible modern contaminants and exclude them from the final interpretation. Therefore, analysts should not underestimate the presence of modern contaminants and might learn how to discriminate the background noise due to handling. The main aim of this research is to provide some methodological improvements to residue analysis through the characterisation of some modern residues often present on the surface of stone tools (e.g. skin flakes, modelling clay). This characterisation was done by using both optical light microscopy (OLM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finally, a special care in the post-excavation treatment of stone tools is claimed in order to avoid major contamination of the samples. PMID:27113340

  12. Daylighting and Electric Lighting Analysis for Complex Spaces

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-06-07

    SUPERLITE is a powerful lighting analysis program designed to accurately predict interior illuminance in complex building spaces due to daylight and electric lighting systems. The program enables users to model interior daylight levels for any sun and sky condition in spaces having windows, skylights or other standard fenestration systems. SUPERLITE Version 2.0 includes the capability to calculate electric lighting levels in addition to the daylighting prediction, allowing lighting performance simulation for integrated lighting systems. Themore » program calculates lighting levels on all interior surfaces, as well as on planes that can be arbitrarily positioned to represent work surfaces or other locations of interest. SUPERLITE is intended to be used by researchers and lighting designers who require detailed analysis of the illuminance distribution in architecturally complex spaces.« less

  13. Microscopic analysis of (p, n) and (p, p) scattering on the tin isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Ning Pingzhi

    1987-07-01

    Microscopic calculations are performed for the (p, n) charge-exchange reaction and (p, p) elastic scattering on WSn and SUSn at a proton energy of 24.5 MeV. The optical potentials and the isospin-coupling potential are generated from a density-dependent complex effective nucleon-nucleon interaction and the nucleon density distributions of the target nucleus. The (p, n) and (p, p) differential cross sections are calculated simultaneously by solving the coupled Lane equations exactly. The results of these microscopic calculations yield reasonable agreement with the measured values, even though they contain no adjustable parameters.

  14. Investigations of magnetic micrometeorites in sediments by thermomagnetic and microscopic analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzina, Diliara; Nurgaliev, Danis; Pechersky, Diamar; Tsel'movich, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    The thermomagnetic and microprobe analyses were done for sedimentary samples from the highland Darhad Basin located in northern Mongolia; from the southwest of the Baikal Rift Zone and sedimentary samples from DSDP 386, 387, 391A, and 391C boreholes in the northwestern Atlantic; sediments from the lower section of the borehole BDP-98 drilled at the bottom on the Akademichesky Ridge of Lake Baikal. All sediment has different sedimentation rates from 1-2 cm/kyr to 47 m/myr. The thermomagnetic analysis (TMA) measurements were made using the Curie express balance, constructed by Burov et.al. The TMA included measuring the specific magnetization of the samples in the magnetic field up to 500 mT at room temperature and recording the temperature dependence of magnetization. The heating rate is 100°C/min. The resulting thermomagnetic curves were used for identifying the Curie points of the magnetic minerals present in the sample and for establishing the character of the heating related mineral alterations, which can often be treated as the diagnostic signs of certain minerals. More interesting particles for us - native iron are identified from Curie points Tc = 710-770 °C. For some samples which contain minerals with the temperatures higher than 710 °C were made magnetic extraction. Magnetic extracts investigated on electron microscope. This analysis have done for determine the origin (cosmic or terrestrial) of native iron. The concentrations of native iron are bimodal everywhere with the zero mode necessarily present it testifies to the predominantly cosmic origin of the native iron. It is shown that quantity of cosmic dust depends on sedimentation rate and if it is slow, we have more particles if the speed is high more difficult to determine native iron. The work was carried out according to the Russian Government's Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University, supported by the grant provided to the Kazan State University for performing the state program

  15. Light and electron microscopic study of autologous implants of dental roots in the subcutaneous tissue of rats.

    PubMed

    Cerri, P S; Freymüller, E; Katchburian, E

    1997-05-01

    Maxillary first molars of rats were extracted. The roots were separated and subsequently implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of the same animal. In Experiment 1, the roots were implanted immediately after removal; in Experiment 2, the roots were subjected to freeze-thawing (devitalized) before implantation. After 4, 8, and 15 weeks of implantation, the roots were removed and processed for light and transmission electron microscopy. Roots of Experiment 1 showed an amorphous clear material filling depressions on the irregular surface of the cementum. This material consisted predominantly of collagen fibrils. Cells adjacent to the amorphous clear material exhibited numerous cytoplasmic processes surrounded by collagen fibrils. Globular structures with an electron-opacity similar to that of neighbouring cementum were observed within the bundles of collagen fibrils. Multinucleated cells with features of osteo/odontoclasts were often closely apposed to deep depressions of the cementum. In Experiment 2, only large multinucleated giant cells appeared around the surfaces of the roots. It seems therefore that, in Experiment 1, precementum formation and osteo/odontoclast mediated destruction occurred. It is likely that these activities may have originated from periodontal ligament cells carried to the implantation site. This conclusion is supported by the observation that such activities were absent in Experiment 2. Devitalized roots were unable to form precementum and were surrounded by foreign body giant cells. PMID:9566128

  16. Effects of 8-methoxypsoralen plus 365 nm UVA light on Candida albicans cells. An electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Scherwitz, C; Rassner, G; Martin, R

    1978-09-28

    Candida (C) albicans cells were exposed to 8-Methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) concentrations of 1.0 microgram/ml and 10.0 microgram/ml medium and irradiated with 365 nm light. The amount of energy emitted was 4.8 J/cm2. Two divergent types of cell damage occured concerning yeast cell cytoplasm and cell wall. Two hours after exposure cytoplasmic changes involving mitochondria, which showed irregularities in shape, blurred appearance or loss of mitochondrial cristae and outer membrane were seen. The number of vacuoles was increased. The cytoplasm showed large electron transparent areas, the cytoplasmic membrane disappeared in some areas completely. Nucleus and nuclear envelope usually remained intact in early stages. 24h after exposure conspicuous cell wall alterations were observed in addition to cytoplasmic changes. Newly produced cell wall material formed ball-like protrusions or was adherent sickle-shaped to the cell wall. The investigations strongly suggest that the results found after 8-MOP-UVA treatment of C. albicans cells can not be interpreted in the sense of a general cytotoxic effect. Apparently it takes the form of a combination of events involving regressive and progressive alterations. PMID:363068

  17. Effects of 8-methoxypsoralen plus 365 nm UVA light on Candida albicans cells. An electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Scherwitz, C; Rassner, G; Martin, R

    1978-01-01

    Candida (C.) albicans cells were exposed to 8-Methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) concentrations of 1.0 microgram/ml and 10.0 micrograms/ml medium and irradiated with 365 nm light. The amount of energy emitted was 4.8 J/cm2. Two divergent types of cell damage occured concerning yeast cell cytoplasm and cell wall. Two hours after exposure cytoplasmic changes involving mitochondria, which showed irregularities in shape, blurred appearance or loss of mitochondrial cristae and outer membrane were seen. The number of vacuoles was increased. The cytoplasm showed large electron transparent areas, the cytoplasmic membrane disappeared in some areas completely. Nucleus and nuclear envelope usually remained intact in early stages. 24 h after exposure conspicuous cell wall alterations were observed in addition to cytoplasmic changes. Newly produced cell wall material formed ball-like protrusions or was adherent sickle-shaped to the cell wall. The investigations strongly suggest that the results found after 8-MOP-UVA treatment of C. albicans cells can not be interpreted in the sense of a general cytotoxic effect. Apparently it takes the form of a combination of events involving regressive and progressive alterations. PMID:394689

  18. Kinetic cavity preparation effects on secondary caries formation around resin restorations: a polarized light microscopic in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hicks, M J; Parkins, F M; Flaitz, C M

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the effect of conventional handpiece and kinetic cavity preparation (KCP, air abrasion) techniques of cavity preparation on caries-like enamel lesion formation. After a fluoride-free prophylaxis, twelve human molars were examined macroscopically to ensure that buccal and lingual surfaces were caries-free. Unfilled cavities were prepared in mesiobuccal (conventional [CU]) and mesiolingual (air abrasion [AU]) enamel surfaces. Cavities were prepared in distobuccal (conventional [CF]) and distolingual (air abrasion [AF]) enamel surfaces and restored with composite resin following placement of a bonding agent. Acid-etching of cavity walls was performed only with the conventionally prepared cavities restored with resin. Air abrasion (KCP) prepared cavities were restored without acid-etching of the cavity walls. Teeth were thermocycled (500 cycles, 5 degrees to 50 degrees C, 500 cycles) and exposed to an artificial caries medium for caries initiation and progression. After caries formation, two longitudinal sections were taken from unfilled and filled cavity preparations and examined by polarized light microscopy for wall lesion presence and mean surface lesion depth. Surface lesion depths were similar among groups after the caries initiation period (CU = 225 microns; AU = 237 microns; CF = 241 microns; AF = 251 [p > .05, ANOVA, DMR]), and progression (CU = 437 microns; AU = 415 microns; CF = 405 microns; AF = 429 um [p > 0.05, ANOVA, DMR]). Extensive wall lesions were present in all CU and AU; while small wedge-shaped wall lesions were significantly (p < .05, ANOVA, DMR) fewer in CF (19 percent & 21 percent) and AF (17 percent & 21 percent) following caries initiation and progression compared with unfilled controls. Resin restorations placed in cavities prepared by air abrasion (KCP) and conventional handpiece techniques provided similar degrees of protection against a secondary caries-like challenge. PMID:11475686

  19. Analysis of frequency dependent pump light absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlmuth, Matthias; Pflaum, Christoph

    2011-03-01

    Simulations have to accurately model thermal lensing in order to help improving resonator design of diode pumped solid state lasers. To this end, a precise description of the pump light absorption is an important prerequisite. In this paper, we discuss the frequency dependency of the pump light absorption in the laser crystal and its influence on the simulated laser performance. The results show that the pump light absorption has to include the spectral overlap of the emitting pump source and the absorbing laser material. This information can either be used for a fully frequency dependent absorption model or, at least in the shown examples, to compute an effective value for an exponential Beer-Lambert law of absorption. This is particularly significant at pump wavelengths coinciding with a peak of absorption. Consequences for laser stability and performance are analyzed for different pump wavelengths in a Nd:YAG laser.

  20. Rapid and early detection of salmonella serotypes with hyperspectral microscope and multivariate data analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to evaluate hyperspectral microscope images for early and rapid detection of Salmonella serotypes: S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg, S. Infantis, S. Kentucky, and S. Typhimurium at incubation times of 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 hours. Images were collected by an acousto-optical tunab...

  1. Imaging arrangement and microscope

    DOEpatents

    Pertsinidis, Alexandros; Chu, Steven

    2015-12-15

    An embodiment of the present invention is an imaging arrangement that includes imaging optics, a fiducial light source, and a control system. In operation, the imaging optics separate light into first and second tight by wavelength and project the first and second light onto first and second areas within first and second detector regions, respectively. The imaging optics separate fiducial light from the fiducial light source into first and second fiducial light and project the first and second fiducial light onto third and fourth areas within the first and second detector regions, respectively. The control system adjusts alignment of the imaging optics so that the first and second fiducial light projected onto the first and second detector regions maintain relatively constant positions within the first and second detector regions, respectively. Another embodiment of the present invention is a microscope that includes the imaging arrangement.

  2. Characterisation of the weapon used in a patricide by SEM/EDS analysis of a microscopic trace from the object.

    PubMed

    Muccino, Enrico; Giovanetti, Giulio Federico; Crudele, Graziano Domenico Luigi; Gentile, Guendalina; Marchesi, Matteo; Rancati, Alessandra; Zoja, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    This article presents a case of patricide. The murder was characterised by multiple blunt traumas and asphyxia. A mass of contused wounds was localised to the head and neck, and included the complete avulsion of the left eye (by an unknown tool), which was recovered near the cadaver. This case is of interest due to the possibility of identifying microscopic traces of the object that was used for the homicide by examining the skin margins around the ocular injury. The analysis was conducted using scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX). Analysis of the skin margins allowed microscopic inorganic traces to be detected, which were identified as ceramic material. This result focused the attention of the investigation on a small fish-shaped statue that had been previously found by the police when examining the crime scene. The use of SEM/EDX was therefore essential in determining a match between the microscopic traces detected on the perilesional skin and the composition of the statue. This led to the suspicion that the statue was the murder weapon. PMID:26700496

  3. Optical analysis of a compound quasi-microscope for planetary landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, S. D.; Burcher, E. E.; Huck, F. O.

    1974-01-01

    A quasi-microscope concept, consisting of facsimile camera augmented with an auxiliary lens as a magnifier, was introduced and analyzed. The performance achievable with this concept was primarily limited by a trade-off between resolution and object field; this approach leads to a limiting resolution of 20 microns when used with the Viking lander camera (which has an angular resolution of 0.04 deg). An optical system is analyzed which includes a field lens between camera and auxiliary lens to overcome this limitation. It is found that this system, referred to as a compound quasi-microscope, can provide improved resolution (to about 2 microns ) and a larger object field. However, this improvement is at the expense of increased complexity, special camera design requirements, and tighter tolerances on the distances between optical components.

  4. Light beam deflector performance: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Zook, J D

    1974-04-01

    The performance of various types of analog light beam deflectors is summarized, and their relative positions in a deflector hierarchy are defined. The three types of deflectors considered are (1) mechanical (galvanometer) mirror deflectors, (2) acoustooptic deflectors, and (3) analog electrooptic deflectors. Material figures of merit are defined and compared, and the theoretical trade-off between speed and resolution is given for each type of deflector. PMID:20126095

  5. Novel 3D Microscopic Analysis of Human Placental Villous Trees Reveals Unexpected Significance of Branching Angles

    PubMed Central

    Haeussner, Eva; Buehlmeyer, Antonia; Schmitz, Christoph; von Koch, Franz Edler; Frank, Hans-Georg

    2014-01-01

    The villous trees of human placentas delineate the fetomaternal border and are complex three-dimensional (3D) structures. Thus far, they have primarily been analyzed as thin, two-dimensional (2D) histological sections. However, 2D sections cannot provide access to key aspects such as branching nodes and branch order. Using samples taken from 50 normal human placentas at birth, in the present study we show that analysis procedures for 3D reconstruction of neuronal dendritic trees can also be used for analyzing trees of human placentas. Nodes and their branches (e.g., branching hierarchy, branching angles, diameters, and lengths of branches) can be efficiently measured in whole-mount preparations of isolated villous trees using high-end light microscopy. Such data differ qualitatively from the data obtainable from histological sections and go substantially beyond the morphological horizon of such histological data. Unexpectedly, branching angles of terminal branches of villous trees varied inversely with the fetoplacental weight ratio, a widely used clinical parameter. Since branching angles have never before been determined in the human placenta, this result requires further detailed studies in order to fully understand its impact. PMID:25155961

  6. Quantitative bloodstain analysis: differentiation of contact transfer patterns versus spatter patterns on fabric via microscopic inspection.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yuen; Springer, Faye; Tulleners, Frederic A; Ristenpart, William D

    2015-04-01

    In crime scene reconstruction, it is often necessary to differentiate "contact transfer" and "spatter" bloodstain patterns found on clothing. Current methodologies, however, are qualitative and prone to context bias. In this work, we demonstrate that microscopic inspection of the stain orientations provides a quantitative differentiation of bloodstains resulting from spatter versus contact transfer. Specifically, common knitted fabrics are comprised of parallel rows of left loop legs, in an upward diagonal orientation (/), and right loop legs in a downward diagonal orientation (\\). Our microscopic examination of more than 65,000 individual stained loop legs shows that spatter stains are approximately evenly distributed between left and right loop legs, but contact transfer stains are unevenly distributed: depending on the type of surface contacted, as many as 82% of the stains were preferentially located on the left loop legs. We further show that in these fabrics the left loop legs protrude further out than the right loop legs by approximately 50 μm, indicating that the observation of left loop legs preferentially stained over right loop legs is associated with the topography of the fabric. These findings suggest that microscopic quantification of the relative loop leg stain distributions could provide an objective means of differentiating contact transfer versus spatter patterns in crime scene reconstruction. PMID:25723999

  7. 2D light scattering static cytometry for label-free single cell analysis with submicron resolution.

    PubMed

    Xie, Linyan; Yang, Yan; Sun, Xuming; Qiao, Xu; Liu, Qiao; Song, Kun; Kong, Beihua; Su, Xuantao

    2015-11-01

    Conventional optical cytometric techniques usually measure fluorescence or scattering signals at fixed angles from flowing cells in a liquid stream. Here we develop a novel cytometer that employs a scanning optical fiber to illuminate single static cells on a glass slide, which requires neither microfluidic fabrication nor flow control. This static cytometric technique measures two dimensional (2D) light scattering patterns via a small numerical aperture (0.25) microscope objective for label-free single cell analysis. Good agreement is obtained between the yeast cell experimental and Mie theory simulated patterns. It is demonstrated that the static cytometer with a microscope objective of a low resolution around 1.30 μm has the potential to perform high resolution analysis on yeast cells with distributed sizes. The capability of the static cytometer for size determination with submicron resolution is validated via measurements on standard microspheres with mean diameters of 3.87 and 4.19 μm. Our 2D light scattering static cytometric technique may provide an easy-to-use, label-free, and flow-free method for single cell diagnostics. PMID:26115102

  8. Lighting Condition Analysis for Mars Moon Phobos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zu Qun; Crues, Edwin Z.; Bielski, Paul; De Carufel, Guy

    2016-01-01

    A manned mission to Phobos may be an important precursor and catalyst for the human exploration of Mars, as it will fully demonstrate the technologies for a successful Mars mission. A comprehensive understanding of Phobos' environment such as lighting condition and gravitational acceleration are essential to the mission success. The lighting condition is one of many critical factors for landing zone selection, vehicle power subsystem design, and surface mobility vehicle path planning. Due to the orbital characteristic of Phobos, the lighting condition will change dramatically from one Martian season to another. This study uses high fidelity computer simulation to investigate the lighting conditions, specifically the solar radiation flux over the surface, on Phobos. Ephemeris data from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) DE405 model was used to model the state of the Sun, the Earth, and Mars. An occultation model was developed to simulate Phobos' self-shadowing and its solar eclipses by Mars. The propagated Phobos' state was compared with data from JPL's Horizon system to ensure the accuracy of the result. Results for Phobos lighting condition over one Martian year are presented in this paper, which include length of solar eclipse, average solar radiation intensity, surface exposure time, total maximum solar energy, and total surface solar energy (constrained by incident angle). The results show that Phobos' solar eclipse time changes throughout the Martian year with the maximum eclipse time occurring during the Martian spring and fall equinox and no solar eclipse during the Martian summer and winter solstice. Solar radiation intensity is close to minimum at the summer solstice and close to maximum at the winter solstice. Total surface exposure time is longer near the north pole and around the anti- Mars point. Total maximum solar energy is larger around the anti-Mars point. Total surface solar energy is higher around the anti-Mars point near the equator. The

  9. Microscopic Polyangiitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... include purplish bumps and spots pictured below (palpable purpura). These areas range in size from several millimeters ... Syndrome (EGPA) Cryoglobulinemia Giant Cell Arteritis Henoch-Schönlein Purpura Microscopic Polyangiitis Polyarteritis Nodosa Rheumatoid Vasculitis Takayasu’s Arteritis ...

  10. Effects of Photodynamic Therapy on Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacterial Biofilms by Bioluminescence Imaging and Scanning Electron Microscopic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Núñez, Silvia C.; Azambuja, Nilton; Fregnani, Eduardo R.; Rodriguez, Helena M.H.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Suzuki, Hideo; Ribeiro, Martha S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to test photodynamic therapy (PDT) as an alternative approach to biofilm disruption on dental hard tissue, We evaluated the effect of methylene blue and a 660 nm diode laser on the viability and architecture of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial biofilms. Materials and methods: Ten human teeth were inoculated with bioluminescent Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Enterococcus faecalis to form 3 day biofilms in prepared root canals. Bioluminescence imaging was used to serially quantify and evaluate the bacterial viability, and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) imaging was used to assess architecture and morphology of bacterial biofilm before and after PDT employing methylene blue and 40 mW, 660 nm diode laser light delivered into the root canal via a 300 μm fiber for 240 sec, resulting in a total energy of 9.6 J. The data were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey test. Results: The bacterial reduction showed a dose dependence; as the light energy increased, the bioluminescence decreased in both planktonic suspension and in biofilms. The SEM analysis showed a significant reduction of biofilm on the surface. PDT promoted disruption of the biofilm and the number of adherent bacteria was reduced. Conclusions: The photodynamic effect seems to disrupt the biofilm by acting both on bacterial cells and on the extracellular matrix. PMID:23822168

  11. Light and electron microscopic studies of the intestinal epithelium in Notoplana humilis (Platyhelminthes, Polycladida): the contribution of mesodermal/gastrodermal neoblasts to intestinal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Okano, Daisuke; Ishida, Sachiko; Ishiguro, Sei-ichi; Kobayashi, Kazuya

    2015-12-01

    Some free-living flatworms in the phylum Platyhelminthes possess strong regenerative capability that depends on putative pluripotent stem cells known as neoblasts. These neoblasts are defined based on several criteria, including their proliferative capacity and the presence of cellular components known as chromatoid bodies. Polyclads, which are marine flatworms, have the potential to be a good model system for stem cell research, yet little information is available regarding neoblasts and regeneration. In this study, transmission electron microscopy and immunostaining analyses, using antibodies against phospho-histone H3 and BrdU, were used to identify two populations of neoblasts in the polyclad Notoplana humilis: mesodermal neoblasts (located in the mesenchymal space) and gastrodermal neoblasts (located within the intestine, where granular club cells and phagocytic cells are also located). Light and electron microscopic analyses also suggested that phagocytic cells and mesodermal/gastrodermal neoblasts, but not granular club cells, migrated into blastemas and remodeled the intestine during regeneration. Therefore, we suggest that, in polyclads, intestinal regeneration is accomplished by mechanisms underlying both morphallaxis (remodeling of pre-existing tissues) and epimorphosis (de novo tissue formation derived from mesodermal/gastrodermal neoblasts). Based on the assumption that gastrodermal neoblasts, which are derived from mesodermal neoblasts, are intestinal stem cells, we propose a model to study intestinal regeneration. PMID:26104134

  12. Stray light analysis of the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birge, Thomas A.

    1987-01-01

    The stray light analysis performance of the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES), which is to be flown on NASA's Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite, was evaluated using the APART/PADE code, and the results are reported. The analysis, together with Brassboard measurements, confirm that the data to be collected by CLAES should not be significantly degraded by stray light resulting from scattering within the system. It is also verified that diffraction effects are successfully controlled by the cascaded stop configuration.

  13. Lighting Condition Analysis for Mars' Moon Phobos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zu Qun; de Carufel, Guy; Crues, Edwin Z.; Bielski, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study used high fidelity computer simulation to investigate the lighting conditions, specifically the solar radiation flux over the surface, on Phobos. Ephemeris data from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) DE405 model was used to model the state of the Sun, Earth, Moon, and Mars. An occultation model was developed to simulate Phobos' self-shadowing and its solar eclipses by Mars. The propagated Phobos state was compared with data from JPL's Horizon system to ensure the accuracy of the result. Results for Phobos lighting conditions over one Martian year are presented, which include the duration of solar eclipses, average solar radiation intensity, surface exposure time, available energy per unit area for sun tracking arrays, and available energy per unit area for fixed arrays (constrained by incident angle). The results show that: Phobos' solar eclipse time varies throughout the Martian year, with longer eclipse durations during the Martian spring and fall seasons and no eclipses during the Martian summer and winter seasons; solar radiation intensity is close to minimum at the summer solstice and close to maximum at the winter solstice; exposure time per orbit is relatively constant over the surface during the spring and fall but varies with latitude during the summer and winter; and Sun tracking solar arrays generate more energy than a fixed solar array. A usage example of the result is also present in this paper to demonstrate the utility.

  14. Lighting Condition Analysis for Mars' Moon Phobos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zu Qun; de Carufel, Guy; Crues, Edwin Z.; Bielski, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study used high fidelity computer simulation to investigate the lighting conditions, specifically the solar radiation flux over the surface, on Phobos. Ephemeris data from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) DE405 model was used to model the state of the Sun, Earth, Moon, and Mars. An occultation model was developed to simulate Phobos' self-shadowing and its solar eclipses by Mars. The propagated Phobos state was compared with data from JPL's Horizon system to ensure the accuracy of the result. Results for Phobos lighting conditions over one Martian year are presented, which include the duration of solar eclipses, average solar radiation intensity, surface exposure time, and radiant exposure for both sun tracking and fixed solar arrays. The results show that: Phobos' solar eclipse time varies throughout the Martian year, with longer eclipse durations during the Martian northern spring and fall seasons and no eclipses during the Martian northern summer and winter seasons; solar radiation intensity is close to minimum in late spring and close to maximum in late fall; exposure time per orbit is relatively constant over the surface during the spring and fall but varies with latitude during the summer and winter; and Sun tracking solar arrays generate more energy than a fixed solar array. A usage example of the result is also present in this paper to demonstrate the utility.

  15. Study of erythrocyte membrane fluctuation using light scattering analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hoyoon; Lee, Sangyun; Park, YongKeun; Shin, Sehyun

    2016-03-01

    It is commonly known that alteration of erythrocyte deformability lead to serious microcirculatory diseases such as retinopathy, nephropathy, etc. Various methods and technologies have been developed to diagnose such membrane properties of erythrocytes. In this study, we developed an innovative method to measure hemorheological characteristics of the erythrocyte membrane using a light scattering analysis with simplified optic setting and multi-cell analysis as well. Light scattering intensity through multiple erythrocytes and its power density spectrum were obtained. The results of light scattering analyses were compared in healthy control and artificially hardened sample which was treated with glutaraldehyde. These results were further compared with conventional assays to measure deformable property in hemorheology. We found that light scattering information would reflect the disturbance of membrane fluctuation in artificially damaged erythrocytes. Therefore, measuring fluctuation of erythrocyte membrane using light scattering signal could facilitate simple and precise diagnose of pathological state on erythrocyte as well as related complications.

  16. SEM analysis of ionizing radiation effects in linear integrated circuits. [Scanning Electron Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Gauthier, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    A successful diagnostic technique was developed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) as a precision tool to determine ionization effects in integrated circuits. Previous SEM methods radiated the entire semiconductor chip or major areas. The large area exposure methods do not reveal the exact components which are sensitive to radiation. To locate these sensitive components a new method was developed, which consisted in successively irradiating selected components on the device chip with equal doses of electrons /10 to the 6th rad (Si)/, while the whole device was subjected to representative bias conditions. A suitable device parameter was measured in situ after each successive irradiation with the beam off.

  17. Analysis with electron microscope of multielement samples using pure element standards

    DOEpatents

    King, Wayne E.

    1987-01-01

    A method and modified analytical electron microscope for determining the concentration of elements in a multielement sample by exposing samples with differing thicknesses for each element to a beam of electrons, simultaneously measuring the electron dosage and x-ray intensities for each sample of element to determine a "K.sub.AB " value to be used in the equation ##EQU1## where I is intensity and C is concentration for elements A and B, and exposing the multielement sample to determine the concentrations of the elements in the sample.

  18. The morphometric analysis and recognition an amyloid plaque in microscope images by computer image processing.

    PubMed

    Grams, A; Liberski, P P; Sobów, T; Napieralska, M; Zubert, M; Napieralski, A

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an approach of the two-dimensional image processing application in recognition of amyloid plaque in microscope images of the brain tissues. The authors propose to create universal amyloid plaque computer pattern and special multivariate image segmentation techniques based on collected images and statistical information. This recognition image procedure is divided into 3-dimensional statistical colour and morphological shape identifications. The developed computer system will collect and store image data and exchange them by network with other collaborated systems. PMID:11693723

  19. Microscopic analysis of non-equilibrium dynamics in the semiconductor-laser gain medium

    SciTech Connect

    Hader, J.; Moloney, J. V.; Koch, S. W.

    2014-04-14

    Fully microscopic many-body calculations are used to analyze the carrier dynamics in situations where a strong sub-picosecond pulse interacts with an inverted semiconductor quantum well. Electron-electron and electron-phonon scatterings are calculated on a second Born-Markov level. Intra-subband scatterings on a scale of tens of femtoseconds are shown to quickly re-fill the kinetic holes created in the carrier distributions during the pulse amplification. Even for sub-100 fs pulses, this significantly influences the pulse amplification as well as its spectral dependence. Interband scatterings on a few picosecond timescale limit the possibly achievable repetition rate in pulsed semiconductor lasers.

  20. Analysis with electron microscope of multielement samples using pure element standards

    DOEpatents

    King, W.E.

    1986-01-06

    This disclosure describes a method and modified analytical electron microscope for determining the concentration of elements in a multielement sample by exposing samples with differing thicknesses for each element to a beam of electrons. Simultaneously the electron dosage and x-ray intensities are measured for each sample of element to determine a ''K/sub AB/'' value to be used in the equation (I/sub A/I/sub B/) = K/sub AB/ (C/sub A//C/sub B/), where I is intensity and C is concentration for elements A and B. The multielement sample is exposed to determine the concentrations of the elements in the sample.

  1. Atmospheric particulate analysis using angular light scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, M. Z.

    1980-01-01

    Using the light scattering matrix elements measured by a polar nephelometer, a procedure for estimating the characteristics of atmospheric particulates was developed. A theoretical library data set of scattering matrices derived from Mie theory was tabulated for a range of values of the size parameter and refractive index typical of atmospheric particles. Integration over the size parameter yielded the scattering matrix elements for a variety of hypothesized particulate size distributions. A least squares curve fitting technique was used to find a best fit from the library data for the experimental measurements. This was used as a first guess for a nonlinear iterative inversion of the size distributions. A real index of 1.50 and an imaginary index of -0.005 are representative of the smoothed inversion results for the near ground level atmospheric aerosol in Tucson.

  2. Scanning electron microscope analysis of gunshot defects to bone: an underutilized source of information on ballistic trauma.

    PubMed

    Rickman, John M; Smith, Martin J

    2014-11-01

    Recent years have seen increasing involvement by forensic anthropologists in the interpretation of skeletal trauma. With regard to ballistic injuries, there is now a large literature detailing gross features of such trauma; however, less attention has been given to microscopic characteristics. This article presents analysis of experimentally induced gunshot trauma in animal bone (Bos taurus scapulae) using full metal jacket (FMJ), soft point (SP), and captive bolt projectiles. The results were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additional analysis was conducted on a purported parietal gunshot lesion in a human cranial specimen. A range of features was observed in these samples suggesting that fibrolamellar bone response to projectile impact is analogous to that observed in synthetic composite laminates. The results indicate that direction of bullet travel can be discerned microscopically even when it is ambiguous on gross examination. It was also possible to distinguish SP from FMJ lesions. SEM analysis is therefore recommended as a previously underexploited tool in the analysis of ballistic trauma. PMID:25040555

  3. Miniaturized 3D microscope imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yung-Sung; Chang, Chir-Weei; Sung, Hsin-Yueh; Wang, Yen-Chang; Chang, Cheng-Yi

    2015-05-01

    We designed and assembled a portable 3-D miniature microscopic image system with the size of 35x35x105 mm3 . By integrating a microlens array (MLA) into the optical train of a handheld microscope, the biological specimen's image will be captured for ease of use in a single shot. With the light field raw data and program, the focal plane can be changed digitally and the 3-D image can be reconstructed after the image was taken. To localize an object in a 3-D volume, an automated data analysis algorithm to precisely distinguish profundity position is needed. The ability to create focal stacks from a single image allows moving or specimens to be recorded. Applying light field microscope algorithm to these focal stacks, a set of cross sections will be produced, which can be visualized using 3-D rendering. Furthermore, we have developed a series of design rules in order to enhance the pixel using efficiency and reduce the crosstalk between each microlens for obtain good image quality. In this paper, we demonstrate a handheld light field microscope (HLFM) to distinguish two different color fluorescence particles separated by a cover glass in a 600um range, show its focal stacks, and 3-D position.

  4. Microscopic Polyangiitis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sharon A.; Seo, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis In 1923, Friedrich Wohlwill described two patients with a “microscopic form of periarteritis nodosa”, which was distinct from classical polyarteritis nodosa. This disease, now known as microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), is a primary systemic vasculitis characterized by inflammation of the small-caliber blood vessels and the presence of circulating antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). Typically, microscopic polyangiitis presents with glomerulonephritis and pulmonary capillaritis, although involvement of the skin, nerves, and gastrointestinal tract is not uncommon. Treatment of MPA generally requires use of a cytotoxic agent (such as cyclophosphamide) in addition to high-dose glucocorticoids. Recent research has focused on identifying alternate treatment strategies that minimize or eliminate exposure to cytotoxic agents. This article will review the history, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and treatment of MPA. PMID:20688249

  5. Innovative parameters obtained for digital analysis of microscopic images to evaluate in vitro hemorheological action of anesthetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alet, Analía. I.; Basso, Sabrina; Delannoy, Marcela; Alet, Nicolás. A.; D'Arrigo, Mabel; Castellini, Horacio V.; Riquelme, Bibiana D.

    2015-06-01

    Drugs used during anesthesia could enhance microvascular flow disturbance, not only for their systemic cardiovascular actions but also by a direct effect on the microcirculation and in particular on hemorheology. This is particularly important in high-risk surgical patients such as those with vascular disease (diabetes, hypertension, etc.). Therefore, in this work we propose a set of innovative parameters obtained by digital analysis of microscopic images to study the in vitro hemorheological effect of propofol and vecuronium on red blood cell from type 2 diabetic patients compared to healthy donors. Obtained innovative parameters allow quantifying alterations in erythrocyte aggregation, which can increase the in vivo risk of microcapillary obstruction.

  6. Martian Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The microscopic imager (circular device in center) is in clear view above the surface at Meridiani Planum, Mars, in this approximate true-color image taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The image was taken on the 9th sol of the rover's journey. The microscopic imager is located on the rover's instrument deployment device, or arm. The arrow is pointing to the lens of the instrument. Note the dust cover, which flips out to the left of the lens, is open. This approximated color image was created using the camera's violet and infrared filters as blue and red.

  7. Multispectral Video-Microscope Modified for Skin Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubins, U.; Zaharans, J.; Ļihačova, I.; Spigulis, J.

    2014-12-01

    Commercial DinoLite AD413 digital microscope was modified for skin diagnostics purposes. The original LED ring (4 white and 4 ultraviolet light emitters) of microscope was replaced by a custom-designed 16-LED ring module consisting of four LED groups (450, 545, 660 and 940 nm), and an onboard LED controller with USB hub was added. The video acquisition and LED switching are performed using custom-designed Matlab software which provides real-time spectral analysis of multi-spectral images and calculation of skin chromophore optical density. The developed multispectral video-microscope is mainly meant for diagnostics of skin malformations, e.g. skin cancerous lesions.

  8. Proper alignment of the microscope.

    PubMed

    Rottenfusser, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    The light microscope is merely the first element of an imaging system in a research facility. Such a system may include high-speed and/or high-resolution image acquisition capabilities, confocal technologies, and super-resolution methods of various types. Yet more than ever, the proverb "garbage in-garbage out" remains a fact. Image manipulations may be used to conceal a suboptimal microscope setup, but an artifact-free image can only be obtained when the microscope is optimally aligned, both mechanically and optically. Something else is often overlooked in the quest to get the best image out of the microscope: Proper sample preparation! The microscope optics can only do its job when its design criteria are matched to the specimen or vice versa. The specimen itself, the mounting medium, the cover slip, and the type of immersion medium (if applicable) are all part of the total optical makeup. To get the best results out of a microscope, understanding the functions of all of its variable components is important. Only then one knows how to optimize these components for the intended application. Different approaches might be chosen to discuss all of the microscope's components. We decided to follow the light path which starts with the light source and ends at the camera or the eyepieces. To add more transparency to this sequence, the section up to the microscope stage was called the "Illuminating Section", to be followed by the "Imaging Section" which starts with the microscope objective. After understanding the various components, we can start "working with the microscope." To get the best resolution and contrast from the microscope, the practice of "Koehler Illumination" should be understood and followed by every serious microscopist. Step-by-step instructions as well as illustrations of the beam path in an upright and inverted microscope are included in this chapter. A few practical considerations are listed in Section 3. PMID:23931502

  9. Rapid Nondestructive Analysis of Threading Dislocations in Wurtzite Materials Using the Scanning Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naresh-Kumar, G.; Hourahine, B.; Edwards, P. R.; Day, A. P.; Winkelmann, A.; Wilkinson, A. J.; Parbrook, P. J.; England, G.; Trager-Cowan, C.

    2012-03-01

    We describe the use of electron channeling contrast imaging in the scanning electron microscope to rapidly and reliably image and identify threading dislocations (TDs) in materials with the wurtzite crystal structure. In electron channeling contrast imaging, vertical TDs are revealed as spots with black-white contrast. We have developed a simple geometric procedure which exploits the differences observed in the direction of this black-white contrast for screw, edge, and mixed dislocations for two electron channeling contrast images acquired from two symmetrically equivalent crystal planes whose g vectors are at 120° to each other. Our approach allows unambiguous identification of all TDs without the need to compare results with dynamical simulations of channeling contrast.

  10. Revealing the temperature history in concrete after fire exposure by microscopic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Annerel, E.; Taerwe, L.

    2009-12-15

    Concrete structures behave in most cases very well during a fire, after which it is often possible to repair or strengthen the structure to a certain level. This could result in important economic benefits, as costs for demolition and rebuilding can be avoided and the building can be reused faster. In this paper three methods for determining the maximum temperature to which a concrete structure was submitted during a fire are studied. Knowledge of the temperature distribution is necessary to assess the overall damage of a concrete structure. First, the physico-chemical transformations of heated concrete are investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Secondly, the features visible under the polarising and fluorescent microscope (PFM) are discussed. And third, the influence of heat on the colour of the aggregates is analysed.

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of quantum light amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukobza, E.; Tannor, D. J.

    2006-12-01

    Thermodynamics of a three-level maser was studied in the pioneering work of Scovil and Schulz-DuBois [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2, 262 (1959)]. In this work we consider the same three-level model, but treat both the matter and the light quantum mechanically. Specifically, we analyze an extended (three-level) dissipative (ED) Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) within the framework of a quantum heat engine, using formulas for heat flux and power in bipartite systems introduced in our previous work [E. Boukobza and D. J. Tannor Phys. Rev. A 74, 063823 (2006)] Amplification of the selected cavity mode occurs even in this simple model, as seen by a positive steady state power. However, initial field coherence is lost, as seen by the decaying off-diagonal field density matrix elements, and by the Husimi-Kano Q function. We show that after an initial transient time the field’s entropy rises linearly during the operation of the engine, which we attribute to the dissipative nature of the evolution and not to matter-field entanglement. We show that the second law of thermodynamics is satisfied in two formulations (Clausius, Carnot) and that the efficiency of the ED JCM heat engine agrees with that defined intuitively by Scovil and Schulz-DuBois. Finally, we compare the steady state heat flux and power of the fully quantum model with the semiclassical counterpart of the ED JCM, and derive the engine efficiency formula of Scovil and Schulz-DuBois analytically from fundamental thermodynamic fluxes.

  12. Near field light intensity distribution analysis in bimodal polymer waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, T.; Gut, K.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents analysis of light intensity distribution and sensitivity in differential interferometer based on bimodal polymer waveguide. Key part is analysis of optimal waveguide layer thickness in structure SiO2/SU-8/H2O for maximum bulk refractive index sensitivity. The paper presents new approach to detecting phase difference between modes through registrations only part of energy propagating in the waveguide. Additionally in this paper the analysis of changes in light distribution when energy in modes is not equal were performed.

  13. Localization by immunofluorescence and by light- and electron-microscopic immunoperoxidase techniques of Tamm–Horsfall glycoprotein in adult hamster kidney

    PubMed Central

    Sikri, Krishan L.; Foster, Charles L.; Bloomfield, Frederick J.; Marshall, R. Derek

    1979-01-01

    1. Tamm–Horsfall glycoprotein was isolated from hamster urine and antiserum against it was produced in rabbits. Immunoglobulin G was isolated from the antiserum. 2. Indirect methods of immunofluorescence staining were applied to kidney sections previously fixed by both perfusion and immersion methods. Tamm–Horsfall glycoprotein was identified associated with only the cells of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle and the distal convoluted tubule. Maculae densae were free of the glycoprotein. 3. Indirect immunoperoxidase procedures with light microscopy were applied to kidney sections. The results extended those found by immunofluorescence by showing that the glycoprotein is largely associated with the plasma membrane of the cells. Macula densa cells were shown to be free of the glycoprotein, although the luminal surface of the remaining cells in the transverse section of the nephron at that region was shown to contain it. 4. A variety of immuno-electron-microscopic techniques were applied to sections previously fixed in a number of ways. Providing periodate/lysine/paraformaldehyde was used as the fixative, the glycoprotein was often seen to be present not only on the luminal surface of the cells of the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle and of the distal convoluted tubule, but also on the basal plasma membrane, including the infoldings. 5. It is generally accepted that the hyperosmolarity in the medulla of the kidney results from passage of Cl− ions with their accompanying Na+ ions across the single cell layer of the lumen of the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle, a region of the nephron with relatively high impermeability to water. We suggest that Tamm–Horsfall glycoprotein operates as a barrier to decrease the passage of water molecules by trapping the latter at the membrane of the cells. Our hypothesis requires the glycoprotein on the basal plasma membrane also. ImagesFig. 1.PLATE 4PLATE 1PLATE 3PLATE 2PLATE 6PLATE 5 PMID:391220

  14. Epidermal changes in heat and electrically injured pig skin. A light microscopic study of the influence of heat energy intensity and electrical current frequency.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, H K; Danielsen, L; Nielsen, O; Aalund, O; Nielsen, K G; Karlsmark, T; Genefke, I K; Christoffersen, P

    1983-09-01

    Pigs were exposed to heat of low and high temperature and electricity of various frequences. Comparable amounts of energy were transferred in all experiments. In lesions induced by heat of low temperature granularity and/or fibrillarity of the cytoplasm were present in the epidermal cells. Lesions induced by heat of high temperature had a similar appearance, but occasionally "white necrosis", defects in the epithelium and light yellow material in stratum corneum were present. Lesions induced by 100.000 hz alternating current were segmental but otherwise microscopically often indistinguishable from lesions produced via transfer of heat of low temperature. Lesions induced by 8000 hz and 59 hz alternating current were segmental. Vesicular nuclei, "white necrosis" and yellow, clumped keratin were present in most lesions. Anode areas in direct current induced lesions showed a shrunken epidermis. The cytoplasm of the epidermal cells were often eosinophilic and homogeneous, and the nuclei were small with condensed chromatin. Occasionally, "empty" nuclei were noted. Yellow, clumped keratin was presented in all lesions. In cathode areas epidermis was of varying thickness and "white necrosis" and vesicular nuclei were present. The pathogenesis of the individual morphological features is discussed based upon theoretical concepts and the difference in morphology of the various lesions encountered in the present study as well as in other studies in this series of experiments. It is concluded that except for lesions produced via transfer of high frequency alternating current the morphology of electrical lesions is specific. Further, an alleged torture instrument was able to produce lesions similar to those observed in the experimental studies. PMID:6193680

  15. Evaluating the effect of low-level laser therapy on healing of tentomized Achilles tendon in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by light microscopical and gene expression examinations.

    PubMed

    Aliodoust, Morteza; Bayat, Mohammad; Jalili, Mohammad Reza; Sharifian, Zainalabedin; Dadpay, Masoomeh; Akbari, Mohammad; Bayat, Mehrnoush; Khoshvaghti, Amir; Bayat, Homa

    2014-07-01

    Tendon healing is impaired in individuals diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM). According to research, there is considerable improvement in the healing of surgically tenotomized Achilles tendons following low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in non-diabetic, healthy animals. This study uses light microscopic (LM) and semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analyses to evaluate the ability of LLLT in healing Achilles tendons from streptozotocin-induced diabetic (STZ-D) rats. A total of 88 rats were randomly divided into two groups, non-diabetic and diabetic. DM was induced in the rats by injections of STZ. The right Achilles tendons of all rats were tenotomized 1 month after administration of STZ. Laser-treated rats were treated with a helium-neon (He-Ne) laser that had a 632.8-nm wavelength and 7.2-mW average power. Experimental group rats received a daily dose of 0.014 J (energy density, 2.9 J/cm(2)). Control rats did not receive LLLT. Animals were sacrificed on days 5, 10, and 15 post-operatively for semi-quantitative LM and semi-quantitative RT-PCR examinations of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) gene expression. The chi-square test showed that LLLT significantly reduced inflammation in non-diabetic rats compared with their non-diabetic controls (p = 0.02). LLLT significantly decreased inflammation in diabetic rats on days 5 (p = 0.03) and 10 (p = 0.02) compared to the corresponding control diabetic rats. According to the student's t test, LLLT significantly increased TGF-β1 gene expression in healthy (p = 0.000) and diabetic (p = 0.000) rats compared to their relevant controls. The He-Ne laser was effective in altering the inflammatory reaction and increasing TGF-β1 gene production. PMID:24622817

  16. White light phase shifting interferometry and color fringe analysis for the detection of contaminants in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Vishesh; Singh, Veena; Ahmad, Azeem; Singh, Gyanendra; Mehta, Dalip Singh

    2016-03-01

    We report white light phase shifting interferometry in conjunction with color fringe analysis for the detection of contaminants in water such as Escherichia coli (E.coli), Campylobacter coli and Bacillus cereus. The experimental setup is based on a common path interferometer using Mirau interferometric objective lens. White light interferograms are recorded using a 3-chip color CCD camera based on prism technology. The 3-chip color camera have lesser color cross talk and better spatial resolution in comparison to single chip CCD camera. A piezo-electric transducer (PZT) phase shifter is fixed with the Mirau objective and they are attached with a conventional microscope. Five phase shifted white light interferograms are recorded by the 3-chip color CCD camera and each phase shifted interferogram is decomposed into the red, green and blue constituent colors, thus making three sets of five phase shifted intererograms for three different colors from a single set of white light interferogram. This makes the system less time consuming and have lesser effect due to surrounding environment. Initially 3D phase maps of the bacteria are reconstructed for red, green and blue wavelengths from these interferograms using MATLAB, from these phase maps we determines the refractive index (RI) of the bacteria. Experimental results of 3D shape measurement and RI at multiple wavelengths will be presented. These results might find applications for detection of contaminants in water without using any chemical processing and fluorescent dyes.

  17. Integrated elastic microscope device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. M.; Wright, D.; Watkins, R.; Cen, Zi

    2015-03-01

    The growing power of imaging and computing power of smartphones is creating the possibility of converting your smartphone into a high power pocket microscopy system. High quality miniature microscopy lenses attached to smartphone are typically made with glass or plastics that can only be produce at low cost with high volume. To revise the paradigm of microscope lenses, we devised a simple droplet lens fabrication technique that which produces low cost and high performance lens. Each lens is integrated into thin 3-D printed holder with complimentary light emitted diode (LEDs) that clips onto majority of smartphones. The integrated device converts a smartphone into a high power optical microscope/dermatoscope at around $2. This low cost device has wide application in a multitude of practical uses such as material inspection, dermascope and educational microscope.

  18. Light curve demography via Bayesian functional data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loredo, Thomas; Budavari, Tamas; Hendry, Martin A.; Kowal, Daniel; Ruppert, David

    2015-08-01

    Synoptic time-domain surveys provide astronomers, not simply more data, but a different kind of data: large ensembles of multivariate, irregularly and asynchronously sampled light curves. We describe a statistical framework for light curve demography—optimal accumulation and extraction of information, not only along individual light curves as conventional methods do, but also across large ensembles of related light curves. We build the framework using tools from functional data analysis (FDA), a rapidly growing area of statistics that addresses inference from datasets that sample ensembles of related functions. Our Bayesian FDA framework builds hierarchical models that describe light curve ensembles using multiple levels of randomness: upper levels describe the source population, and lower levels describe the observation process, including measurement errors and selection effects. Schematically, a particular object's light curve is modeled as the sum of a parameterized template component (modeling population-averaged behavior) and a peculiar component (modeling variability across the population), subsequently subjected to an observation model. A functional shrinkage adjustment to individual light curves emerges—an adaptive, functional generalization of the kind of adjustments made for Eddington or Malmquist bias in single-epoch photometric surveys. We are applying the framework to a variety of problems in synoptic time-domain survey astronomy, including optimal detection of weak sources in multi-epoch data, and improved estimation of Cepheid variable star luminosities from detailed demographic modeling of ensembles of Cepheid light curves.

  19. Improvements to a Grating-Based Spectral Imaging Microscope and Its Application to Reflectance Analysis of Blue Pen Inks.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Leilani C; Miller, Kathleen P; Webb, Michael R

    2015-08-01

    A modified design of a chromatically resolved optical microscope (CROMoscope), a grating-based spectral imaging microscope, is described. By altering the geometry and adding a beam splitter, a twisting aberration that was present in the first version of the CROMoscope has been removed. Wavelength adjustment has been automated to decrease analysis time. Performance of the new design in transmission-absorption spectroscopy has been evaluated and found to be generally similar to the performance of the previous design. Spectral bandpass was found to be dependent on the sizes of apertures, and the smallest measured spectral bandpass was 1.8 nm with 1.0 mm diameter apertures. Wavelength was found to be very linear with the sine of the grating angle (R(2) = 0.9999995), and wavelength repeatability was found to be much better than the spectral bandpass. Reflectance spectral imaging with a CROMoscope is reported for the first time, and this reflectance spectral imaging was applied to blue ink samples on white paper. As a proof of concept, linear discriminant analysis was used to classify the inks by brand. In a leave-one-out cross-validation, 97.6% of samples were correctly classified. PMID:26162719

  20. Lighting.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-09-01

    Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.

  1. Computerized Measuring Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonmaker, Thomas D.

    1980-05-01

    In the manufacturing of printed circuit boards, microscopic analysis is an essential process control activity. An inspector microscopically analyzes board samples to deter-mine board lot quality and process conditions. Prior to computerizing, this sustained measurement-taking involved the tedious process of recording raw data, converting microscope filar readings, calculating averages, logging information in a job notebook, and completing detailed final lab reports. It is evident from this brief task description that this time-consuming repetitious data recording routine was an added burden to the already fatiguing visual inspection method and therefore was a prime candidate for automatic data capture and printout. Secondly, the creation of a permanent and easily accessible data base would improve process feedback and provide for a system with quick identification of any suspect boards if further assembly/testing exhibited board-related failures. This paper describes the evolution and implementation of a computer-aided microscopic inspection operation.

  2. Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software - Light

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-06-14

    GADRAS is used to analyze gamma-ray spectra, which may be augmented by neutron count rate information. The fundamental capabilities of GADRAS are imparted by physics-based detector response functions for a variety of gamma ray and neufron detectors. The software has provisions for characterizing detector response parameters so that specta can be computed accurately over the range 30keV key to II MeV. Associated neutron detector count rates can also be computed for characterized detectors. GADRAS incorporatesmore » a variety of analysis algorithms that utilize the computed spectra. The full version of GADRAS incorporates support for computation of radiation leakages from complex source models, but this capability is not supported by GADRAS-LT. GADRAS has been and will continue to be disseminated free of charge to government agencies and National Laboratories as OUO software. GADRAS-LT is a limited software version that was prepared for exclusive use of our Technology Transfer parnter Thermo Electron (TE). TE will use the software to characterize and test radiation detectors that are fabricated under the terms of our partnership. The development of these sensors has been defined as a National Security priority by our sponsor, NNSA/NA-20, by DHS/S&T, and by SNL president Paul Robinson. Although GADRAS-LT is OUO, features that are not essential to the detector development have been removed. TE will not be licensed to commercialize GADRAS-LT or to distribute it to third parties.« less

  3. Spontaneous oscillation of tension and sarcomere length in skeletal myofibrils. Microscopic measurement and analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Anazawa, T; Yasuda, K; Ishiwata, S

    1992-01-01

    We have devised a simple method for measuring tension development of single myofibrils by micromanipulation with a pair of glass micro-needles. The tension was estimated from the deflection of a flexible needle under an inverted phase-contrast microscope equipped with an image processor, so that the tension development is always accompanied by the shortening of the myofibril (auxotonic condition) in the present setup. The advantage of this method is that the measurement of tension (1/30 s for time resolution and about 0.05 micrograms for accuracy of tension measurement; 0.05 microns as a spatial resolution for displacement of the micro-needle) and the observation of sarcomere structure are possible at the same time, and the technique to hold myofibrils, even single myofibrils, is very simple. This method has been applied to study the tension development of glycerinated skeletal myofibrils under the condition where spontaneous oscillation of sarcomeres is induced, i.e., the coexistence of MgATP, MgADP and inorganic phosphate without free Ca2+. Under this condition, we found that the tension of myofibrils spontaneously oscillates accompanied by the oscillation of sarcomere length with a main period of a few seconds; the period was lengthened and shortened with stretch and release of myofibrils. A possible mechanism of the oscillation is discussed. Images FIGURE 4 PMID:1600075

  4. Massively parallel haplotyping on microscopic beads for the high-throughput phase analysis of single molecules.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, Jérôme; Muresan, Leila; Tiemann-Boege, Irene

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the many advances in haplotyping methods, it is still very difficult to characterize rare haplotypes in tissues and different environmental samples or to accurately assess the haplotype diversity in large mixtures. This would require a haplotyping method capable of analyzing the phase of single molecules with an unprecedented throughput. Here we describe such a haplotyping method capable of analyzing in parallel hundreds of thousands single molecules in one experiment. In this method, multiple PCR reactions amplify different polymorphic regions of a single DNA molecule on a magnetic bead compartmentalized in an emulsion drop. The allelic states of the amplified polymorphisms are identified with fluorescently labeled probes that are then decoded from images taken of the arrayed beads by a microscope. This method can evaluate the phase of up to 3 polymorphisms separated by up to 5 kilobases in hundreds of thousands single molecules. We tested the sensitivity of the method by measuring the number of mutant haplotypes synthesized by four different commercially available enzymes: Phusion, Platinum Taq, Titanium Taq, and Phire. The digital nature of the method makes it highly sensitive to detecting haplotype ratios of less than 1:10,000. We also accurately quantified chimera formation during the exponential phase of PCR by different DNA polymerases. PMID:22558329

  5. Evaluation of the presence of Enterococcus Faecalis in root cementum: A confocal laser scanning microscope analysis

    PubMed Central

    Halkai, Rahul; Hegde, Mithra N; Halkai, Kiran

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to address the cause of persistent infection of root cementum by Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: A sample of 60 human single-rooted teeth were divided into three groups. Group I (control group) had no access opening and one-third of the apical root cementum was sealed using varnish. Group II had no preparation of teeth samples. In group III, apical root cementum was exposed to organic acid and roughened using diamond point to mimic apical resorption. After access opening in groups II and III, all teeth samples were sterilized using gamma irradiation (25 kGy). E. faecalis broth was placed in the root canal and apical one-third of the tooth was immersed in the broth for 8 weeks with alternate day refreshment followed by biomechanical preparation, obturation and coronal seal. Apical one-third of all teeth samples were again immersed in the broth for 8 weeks with alternate day refreshment to mimic secondary infection. The samples were observed under a confocal microscope after splitting the teeth into two halves. Results: E. faecalis penetrated 160 μm deep into the root cementum in group III samples and only showed adhesion in group II samples. Conclusion: Penetration and survival of E. faecalis deep inside the cementum in extreme conditions could be the reason for persistent infection. PMID:24778505

  6. Comprehensive Study of Hydrated IDPs: X-Ray Diffraction, IR Spectroscopy and Electron Microscopic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, K.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura, T.; Noguchi, T.; Nozaki, W.; Tomeoka, K.

    2003-01-01

    Chondritic hydrated interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) comprise up to 50% of all IDPs collected in the stratosphere(1). Although much is known about the mineralogy, chemistry and carbon abundance of hydrated IDPs (2-4) controversies still exist regarding their formation, history, and relationship to other primitive solar system materials. Hydrated IDPs are generally believed to be derived from asteroidal sources that have undergone some degree of aqueous alteration. However, the high C contents of hydrated IDPs (by 2 to 6X CI levels (3,4) indicate that they are probably not derived from the same parent bodies sampled by the known chondritic meteorites. We report the comprehensive study of individual hydrated IDPs. The strong depletion in Ca (I) has been used as a diagnostic feature of hydrated IDPs. The particles are embedded in elemental sulfur or low viscosity epoxy and ultramicrotomed thin sections are observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray detector (EDX) followed by other measurements including: 1) FTIR microspectroscopy to understand the significant constraints on the organic functionality and the nature of the C-bearing phases and 2) powder X-ray difiaction using a synchrotron X-ray source to understand the bulk mineralogy of the particles.

  7. Iron, copper, zinc and bromine mapping in cirrhotic liver slices from patients with hemochromatosis studied by microscopic synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis in continuous scanning mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterode, W.; Falkenberg, G.; Höftberger, R.; Wrba, F.

    2007-07-01

    Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) are essential metals in physiological cell metabolism. While Fe is easy to determine biochemically in histological slices, Cu and zinc (Zn) distribution is frequently critical in confirming the presence of an overload in disturbed Fe/Cu metabolism. To analyze Fe, Cu and Zn in a near histological resolution, energy dispersive microscopic synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence was applied. In normal liver tissue, after fixation and imbedding in paraffin, mean Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations were 152 ± 54, 20.1 ± 4.3 and 88.919.5 μg/g sample weight, respectively. No substantial, characteristic differences in their distribution were found in the two-dimensional scans. In slices from patients with hemochromatosis mean Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations were 1102 ± 539, 35.9 ± 14.6 and 27.2 ± 6.7 μg/g sample weight, respectively. Additionally, a significant decrease in phosphorus and sulphur concentrations existed. An increased Cu around cirrhotic regenerations nodules is mostly associated with a lymphocytic infiltration in this region. Analyzing concentrations of Fe in different regions of the samples show a clear negative dependency between Fe and Cu, Cu and Zn, but a positive one between Fe and Zn. Conclusion: With a focal beam size of 15 μm in diameter a resolution of the elemental distribution was achieved which is widely comparable with stained histological slices (20× light microscope). The analysis of simultaneous determined elements reveals metabolic differences between Fe, Cu and Zn in liver tissue from patients with hemochromatosis.

  8. Light-induced voltage alteration for integrated circuit analysis

    DOEpatents

    Cole, Jr., Edward I.; Soden, Jerry M.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described for analyzing an integrated circuit (IC), The invention uses a focused light beam that is scanned over a surface of the IC to generate a light-induced voltage alteration (LIVA) signal for analysis of the IC, The LIVA signal may be used to generate an image of the IC showing the location of any defects in the IC; and it may be further used to image and control the logic states of the IC. The invention has uses for IC failure analysis, for the development of ICs, for production-line inspection of ICs, and for qualification of ICs.

  9. Light-induced voltage alteration for integrated circuit analysis

    DOEpatents

    Cole, E.I. Jr.; Soden, J.M.

    1995-07-04

    An apparatus and method are described for analyzing an integrated circuit (IC). The invention uses a focused light beam that is scanned over a surface of the IC to generate a light-induced voltage alteration (LIVA) signal for analysis of the IC. The LIVA signal may be used to generate an image of the IC showing the location of any defects in the IC; and it may be further used to image and control the logic states of the IC. The invention has uses for IC failure analysis, for the development of ICs, for production-line inspection of ICs, and for qualification of ICs. 18 figs.

  10. Cepheid light curve demography via Bayesian functional data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loredo, Thomas J.; Hendry, Martin; Kowal, Daniel; Ruppert, David

    2016-01-01

    Synoptic time-domain surveys provide astronomers, not simply more data, but a different kind of data: large ensembles of multivariate, irregularly and asynchronously sampled light curves. We describe a statistical framework for light curve demography—optimal accumulation and extraction of information, not only along individual light curves as conventional methods do, but also across large ensembles of related light curves. We build the framework using tools from functional data analysis (FDA), a rapidly growing area of statistics that addresses inference from datasets that sample ensembles of related functions. Our Bayesian FDA framework builds hierarchical models that describe light curve ensembles using multiple levels of randomness: upper levels describe the source population, and lower levels describe the observation process, including measurement errors and selection effects. Roughly speaking, a particular object's light curve is modeled as the sum of a parameterized template component (modeling population-averaged behavior) and a peculiar component (modeling variability across the population), subsequently subjected to an observation model. A functional shrinkage adjustment to individual light curves emerges—an adaptive, functional generalization of the kind of adjustments made for Eddington or Malmquist bias in single-epoch photometric surveys. We describe ongoing work applying the framework to improved estimation of Cepheid variable star luminosities via FDA-based refinement and generalization of the Cepheid period-luminosity relation.

  11. Teaching meta-analysis using MetaLight

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Meta-analysis is a statistical method for combining the results of primary studies. It is often used in systematic reviews and is increasingly a method and topic that appears in student dissertations. MetaLight is a freely available software application that runs simple meta-analyses and contains specific functionality to facilitate the teaching and learning of meta-analysis. While there are many courses and resources for meta-analysis available and numerous software applications to run meta-analyses, there are few pieces of software which are aimed specifically at helping those teaching and learning meta-analysis. Valuable teaching time can be spent learning the mechanics of a new software application, rather than on the principles and practices of meta-analysis. Findings We discuss ways in which the MetaLight tool can be used to present some of the main issues involved in undertaking and interpreting a meta-analysis. Conclusions While there are many software tools available for conducting meta-analysis, in the context of a teaching programme such software can require expenditure both in terms of money and in terms of the time it takes to learn how to use it. MetaLight was developed specifically as a tool to facilitate the teaching and learning of meta-analysis and we have presented here some of the ways it might be used in a training situation. PMID:23078762

  12. Stray-light analysis of the SABER telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauder, John; Esplin, Roy W.; Zollinger, Lorin; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Russell, James M.; Gordley, Larry L.; Marshall, Tom

    1995-09-01

    The stray light analysis of the sounding of the atmosphere using broadband emission radiometry (SABER) instrument on the thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere energetics and dynamics (TIMED) mission is discussed. Relevant mission objectives and operating conditions are stated to define the stray light problem. Since SABER is an earth limb viewing sensor, the telescope must be designed for large off-axis rejection. Described are the key design features which make the instrument well suited for its mission. Representative point source transmittance (PST) curves computed using the commercial stray light program APART are presented. Nonrejected radiance (NRR) values computed using APART generated PST curves and LINEPACK generated curves for the total radiance from the earth and the atmosphere are given. A method for computing NRR from the earth and the atmosphere using line-of-sight radiance profiles versus tangent height is described. Computed NRR values demonstrate that the effect of stray light on SABER's measurement capability is negligible.

  13. Experimental Study of Membrane Fouling during Crossflow Microfiltration of Yeast and Bacteria Suspensions: Towards an Analysis at the Microscopic Level

    PubMed Central

    Ben Hassan, Ines; Ennouri, Monia; Lafforgue, Christine; Schmitz, Philippe; Ayadi, Abdelmoneim

    2013-01-01

    Microfiltration of model cell suspensions combining macroscopic and microscopic approaches was studied in order to better understand microbial membrane fouling mechanisms. The respective impact of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and Escherichia coli bacteria on crossflow microfiltration performances was investigated using a multichannel ceramic 0.2 µm membrane. Pure yeast suspensions (5 µm ovoid cells) and mixtures of yeast and bacteria (1 to 2.5 µm rod shape cells) were considered in order to analyse the effect of interaction between these two microorganisms on fouling reversibility. The resistances varied significantly with the concentration and characteristics of the microorganisms. Membrane fouling with pure yeast suspension was mainly reversible. For yeast and bacteria mixed suspensions (6 g L−1 yeast concentration) the increase in bacteria from 0.15 to 0.30 g L−1 increased the percentage of normalized reversible resistance. At 10 g L−1 yeast concentration, the addition of bacteria tends to increase the percentage of normalized irreversible resistance. For the objective of performing local analysis of fouling, an original filtration chamber allowing direct in situ observation of the cake by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was designed, developed and validated. This device will be used in future studies to characterize cake structure at the microscopic scale. PMID:24958619

  14. Shape quantification of single red blood cells based on their scattering patterns from microscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Gert; Artmann, Gerhard

    1995-02-01

    The differentiation between discocytic and stomatocytic red blood cell (RBC) shape using conventional microscopic imaging and image analysis tools is still on a very poor level. A procedure to differentiate the degree of stomatocytic shape changes was developed. We obtained multiple microscopic images of the same RBCs settled on a human albumin coated cover slip. The images were acquired when the microscope objective was subsequently focused through the cell layer. At equidistant horizontal planes (z-axis) below, within, and above the microscopic focal plane the light intensity distribution was considered. Using a model based on light refraction, we calculated the intensity distribution of the planes which are out of focus. Using this tool we are able to differentiate RBC shapes precisely. On the other hand, using this model from and the light intensity distributions of different focal planes, we are able to reconstruct the shape of one single RBC located in the optical axis of the microscope.

  15. Ultrastructural Analysis of Incinerated Teeth by Scanning Electron Microscope – A Short Study

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, Sugunakar Raju Godishala; Muddana, Keerthi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In forensic context precise knowledge on physical and histological changes of teeth subjected to high temperatures is of great importance. Preserving fragile incinerated teeth for physical, histological and ultra structural examinations is essential in fire investigations involving the origin of fire, its cause as well as the identification of victims which relies on a thorough understanding of the structural changes in dental tissues subjected to heat. Aim The study was conducted to evaluate the physical and ultrastructural changes seen in freshly extracted teeth when subjected to gradual heating at different temperatures using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Settings and Design Freshly extracted teeth collected from subjects of different age groups were subjected to different temperatures using laboratory furnace and findings were correlated to the temperature. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on 60 healthy freshly extracted teeth belonging to age group between 20-30 years. Group A comprised of control group which included teeth that were not subjected to heat whereas Group B, C and D comprised of teeth that were subjected to different temperatures i.e., 100oC, 300oC and 600oC respectively for a time of fifteen minutes in laboratory furnace, after which they were processed for SEM examination. Each group included 15 teeth; 5 anteriors, 5 premolars and 5 molars. Results Examination under SEM revealed definite ultra structural changes which were explicitly seen at particular temperatures (100oC, 300oC and 600oC). The samples showed cracks and charring of the tooth structure with ultra structural findings such as pebbles, granules, dots on enamel surface; and soap bubble pattern, honey comb pattern and snail track pattern on cementum surface. Conclusion Because of the consistency of morphological changes and the ultra structural patterns at various temperatures, evaluation of incinerated dental remains using SEM can provide additional

  16. Propolis as storage media for avulsed teeth: microscopic and morphometric analysis in rats.

    PubMed

    Mori, Graziela Garrido; Nunes, Daniele Clapes; Castilho, Lithiene Ribeiro; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes; Poi, Wilson Roberto

    2010-02-01

    The maintenance of the avulsed teeth in appropriate media for preserving the cellular viability has been important for repairing the periodontal ligament and preventing the root resorption after tooth reimplantation. Propolis is a substance capable of preserving cellular viability. This study aimed to analyze the propolis substance as a storage media for maintaining the avulsed teeth, besides to determine the ideal time period for keeping the tooth inside it. Thus, 60 maxillary right central incisors of rats were extracted and divided into five groups. In groups I and II, teeth were kept in propolis for 60 min and 6 h, respectively; in group III, teeth were kept in milk for 6 h; in group IV, teeth were kept dry for 60 min; and in group V, they were immediately reimplanted. All teeth had their root canals filled with calcium hydroxide paste. Following, teeth were reimplanted in their sockets. After 15 and 60 days, animals were killed and the obtained samples were processed in laboratory for microscopic and morphometric analyzing. The results showed that the occurrence of inflammatory resorption, dental ankylosis and the formation of the connective tissue parallel to the root surface were similar among groups. It could be verified a greater occurrence of replacement resorption in group IV when comparing to other groups. In groups I and IV, the presence of periodontal ligament-like connective tissue was substantially smaller than the other groups. Regarding to the cementum amount over the root, it could be observed that this was present in smaller amount in groups I and IV. Group II was similar to groups III and IV. Therefore, according to the results of this study, the use of propolis as a storage media for maintaining avulsed teeth could be highlighted, and the 6-h period was more appropriate than the 60-min period. PMID:20089064

  17. Automatic vision system for analysis of microscopic behavior of flow and transport in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Rashidi, M.; Dehmeshid, J.; Dickenson, E.; Daemi, F.

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes the development of a novel automated and efficient vision system to obtain velocity and concentration measurements within a porous medium. An aqueous fluid laced with a fluorescent dye or microspheres flows through a transparent, reflective-index-matched column packed with a transparent crystals. For illumination purposes, a planar sheet of lasers passes through the column as a CCD camera records all the laser illuminated planes. Detailed microscopic velocity and concentration fluids have been computed within a 3D volume of the column. For measuring velocities, while the aqueous fluid, laced with fluorescent microspheres, flows though the transparent medium, a CCD camera records the motions of the fluorescing particles by a video cassette recorder.The recorder images are acquired frame by frame and transferred to the computer foe processing by using a frame grabber and written relevant algorithms through an RD-232 interface. Since the grabbed image is poor in this stage, some preprocessings are used to enhance particles within images. Finally, these measurement, while the aqueous fluid, laced with a fluorescent organic dye, flows through the transparent medium, a CCD camera sweeps back and forth across the column and records concentration slices on the planes illuminated by the laser beam traveling simultaneously with the camera. Subsequently, these recorded images are transferred to the computer for processing in similar fashion to the velocity measurement. In order to have a fully automatic vision system, several detailed image processing techniques are developed to match exact imaged (at difference times during the experiments) that have different intensities values but the same topological characteristics. This results in normalized interstitial chemical concentration as a function of time within the porous column.

  18. Dynamic deformation analysis of light-weight mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yingtao; Cao, Xuedong; Kuang, Long; Yang, Wei

    2012-10-01

    In the process of optical dynamic target work, under the effort of the arm of dynamic target, the mirror needs to do circular motion, additional accelerated motion and uniform motion. The maximum acceleration is 10°/s2 and the maximum velocity is 30°/s. In this paper, we mostly analyze the dynamic deformation of a 600 mm honeycomb light-weight mirror of a certain dynamic target. Using the FEA (finite element analysis) method, first of all, we analyze the deformation of the light-weight mirror induced in gravity at different position; later, the dynamic deformation of light-weight mirror is analyzed in detailed. The analysis results indicate that, when the maximum acceleration is 10°/s2 and the maximum velocity is 30°/s, the centripetal force is 5% of the gravity at the equal mass, and the dynamic deformation of the mirror is 6.1% of the deformation induced by gravity.

  19. Energy Star Lighting Verification Program (Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting)

    SciTech Connect

    Conan O'Rourke; Yutao Zhou

    2006-03-01

    The Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting (PEARL) is a watchdog program. It was created in response to complaints received by utility program managers about the performance of certain Energy Star lighting products being promoted within their service territories and the lack of a self-policing mechanism within the lighting industry that would ensure the reliability of these products and their compliance with ENERGY STAR specifications. To remedy these problems, PEARL purchases and tests products that are available to the consumers in the marketplace. The Lighting Research Center (LRC) tests the selected products against the corresponding Energy Star specifications. This report includes the experimental procedure and data results of Cycle Three of PEARL program during the period of October 2002 to April 2003, along with the description of apparatus used, equipment calibration process, experimental methodology, and research findings from the testing. The products tested are 20 models of screw-based compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) of various types and various wattages made or marketed by 12 different manufacturers, and ten models of residential lighting fixtures from eight different manufacturers.

  20. Analysis of optically variable devices using a photometric light-field approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukup, Daniel; Å tolc, Svorad; Huber-Mörk, Reinhold

    2015-03-01

    Diffractive Optically Variable Image Devices (DOVIDs), sometimes loosely referred to as holograms, are popular security features for protecting banknotes, ID cards, or other security documents. Inspection, authentication, as well as forensic analysis of these security features are still demanding tasks requiring special hardware tools and expert knowledge. Existing equipment for such analyses is based either on a microscopic analysis of the grating structure or a point-wise projection and recording of the diffraction patterns. We investigated approaches for an examination of DOVID security features based on sampling the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of DOVIDs using photometric stereo- and light-field-based methods. Our approach is demonstrated on the practical task of automated discrimination between genuine and counterfeited DOVIDs on banknotes. For this purpose, we propose a tailored feature descriptor which is robust against several expected sources of inaccuracy but still specific enough for the given task. The suggested approach is analyzed from both theoretical as well as practical viewpoints and w.r.t. analysis based on photometric stereo and light fields. We show that especially the photometric method provides a reliable and robust tool for revealing DOVID behavior and authenticity.

  1. Corneal endothelial cell analysis using two non-contact specular microscopes in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Garza-Leon, Manuel

    2016-08-01

    To compare specular microscopy values obtained using the Perseus (CSO, Italy) and the Nidek CEM-530 (NIDEK Co., Ltd. Japan) specular microscopes. This prospective study used specular microscopy to examine sixty eyes from thirty healthy subjects (29.83 ± 9.41 years; range 18-79 years). This was done with both the Nidek CEM-530 and the Perseus on three occasions and results were evaluated by one independent observer. Measurement differences between instruments and agreement between devices were determined. The endothelial cell sample was larger with the Perseus than with the CEM-530 (235.92 ± 38.26 vs. 184.38 ± 43.88, respectively) with a statistically significant difference (P = 0.001). Mean endothelial cell density (ECD) with the Perseus and CEM-530 was 2692.75 ± 306.66 and 2556.47 ± 257.38 cells/mm(2) (P = 0.001), respectively; mean coefficient of variation (CV) was 33.43 ± 4.29 and 28.70 ± 3.82 (P = 0.001), respectively, and hexagonality 56.66 ± 6.19 % and 68.50 ± 3.64 (P = 0.001), respectively. The mean of the differences (Perseus minus CEM-530) for ECD was 136.27 ± 106.16 cells/mm(2) (95 % CI 108.85-163.70 cells/mm(2)); 4.73 ± 2.70 % (95 % CI 4.03-5.41) in CV; and -11.83 ± 5.05 for percentage of hexagonal cells. Both instruments showed significant differences in the measurement of all cell forms, predominantly higher values were found with the Perseus vs the CEM-530, except 4-sided cells. Endothelial cell density, coefficient of variation, and percentage of hexagonal cells between the Perseus and CEM-530 differ statistically. This shows that these instruments should not be used interchangeably. PMID:26438632

  2. X-ray microanalysis in the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM): Small size particles analysis limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khouchaf, L.; Verstraete, J.

    2002-07-01

    In this work we will present a study of the effects of some parameters such as pressure and data acquisition duration in EDS microanalysis results. The chamber pressure has been increased from 1Torr (133Pa) to 15 Torr (1995 Pa). Measurements with times of measurement varying between 180 seconds and 1800 seconds were carried out. Small size particles of iron and silicon are analyzed. The results show that at 1Torr (133Pa), the primary electron beam can move if the time of measurement is long, which introduces some mistakes in the microananlysis results. Moreover an increase in the chamber pressure induces an amplification of the skirt beam phenomena up to 160 microns. This fact adds some noise coming from the environment around the analyzed particle. We showed that, the displacement of the electron beam during measurement caused a decrease in the iron concentration versus the time of measurment which reachs approximately 15% when the time of measurement is 1800seconds. Dans cette étude nous présenterons les effets de certains paramètres tels que la durée d'acquisition et la pression dans la chambre du microscope électronique à balayage environnemental sur les résultats de la microanalyse X. La pression dans la chambre a été augmentée de 1 Torr (133 Pa) à 15 Torr (1995 Pa). Des mesures avec des durées d'acquisition entre 180 secondes et 1800 secondes ont été effectuées. Des particules de fer et de silicium de petites tailles sont analysées. Les résultats ont montré qu'à 1 Torr (133 Pa), le faisceau d'électrons primaire peut fluctuer si la durée d'acquisition est longue, ce qui induit quelques erreurs dans les résultats obtenus. Une augmentation de la pression dans la chambre induit une amplification des phénomènes de diffusion du faisceau d'électrons jusqu'à 160 microns. Ce fait, ajoute un certain bruit venant de l'environnement autour de la particule analysée. Nous avons ensuite montré que le déplacement du faisceau d'électrons pendant

  3. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive x ray analysis of impact residues in LDEF tray clamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Durin, Christian; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed optical scanning of tray clamps is being conducted in the Facility for the Optical Inspection of Large Surfaces at JSC to locate and document impacts as small as 40 microns in diameter. Residues from selected impacts are then being characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis at CNES. Results from this analysis will be the initial step to classifying projectile residues into specific sources.

  4. Solubility, inhibition of crystallization and microscopic analysis of calcium oxalate crystals in the presence of fractions from Humulus lupulus L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frąckowiak, Anna; Koźlecki, Tomasz; Skibiński, PrzemysŁaw; GaweŁ, WiesŁaw; Zaczyńska, Ewa; Czarny, Anna; Piekarska, Katarzyna; Gancarz, Roman

    2010-11-01

    Procedures for obtaining noncytotoxic and nonmutagenic extracts from Humulus lupulus L. of high potency for inhibition and dissolving of model (calcium oxalate crystals) and real kidney stones, obtained from patients after surgery, are presented. Multistep extraction procedures were performed in order to obtain the preparations with the highest calcium complexing properties. The composition of obtained active fractions was analyzed by GC/MS and NMR methods. The influence of preparations on inhibition of formation and dissolution of model and real kidney stones were evaluated based on conductrometric titration, flame photometry and microscopic analysis. The "fraction soluble in methanol" obtained from water-alkaline extracts contains sugar alcohols and organic acids, and is effective in dissolving the kidney stones. The "fraction insoluble in methanol" contains only sugar derivatives and it changes the morphology of the crystals, making them "jelly-like". Both fractions are potentially effective in kidney stone therapy.

  5. Morphology and chemical composition analysis of inorganic nanosheets by the field-emission scanning electron microscope system.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinghui; Ono, Yuki; Homma, Yoshikazu; Nakai, Izumi; Fukuda, Katsutoshi; Sasaki, Takayoshi; Tanaka, Keiichi; Nakayama, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    Nanosheets can be used as building blocks to fabricate versatile nanostructured materials. In this paper, morphology of the Cs(4)W(11)O(36) and Nb(3)O(8) and TaO(3) sheets with different layers are analyzed by different field-emission scanning electron microscopes (FE-SEMs). Chemical composition of the single-layered Cs(4)W(11)O(36) with thickness of about 2 nm, and multilayered Nb(3)O(8) nanosheets with thickness of less than 14 nm are analyzed by both the Si(Li) solid-state detector and transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter, successfully. The effects of energy resolution, accelerating voltage and substrate on the quantitative analysis are discussed briefly. PMID:19150970

  6. Sensitivity analysis of rectangular atomic force microscope cantilevers immersed in liquids based on the modified couple stress theory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haw-Long; Chang, Win-Jin

    2016-01-01

    The modified couple stress theory is adopted to study the sensitivity of a rectangular atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever immersed in acetone, water, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and 1-butanol. The theory contains a material length scale parameter and considers the size effect in the analysis. However, this parameter is difficult to obtain via experimental measurements. In this study, a conjugate gradient method for the parameter estimation of the frequency equation is presented. The optimal method provides a quantitative approach for estimating the material length scale parameter based on the modified couple stress theory. The results show that the material length scale parameter of the AFM cantilever immersed in acetone, CCl4, water, and 1-butanol is 0, 25, 116.3, and 471 nm, respectively. In addition, the vibration sensitivities of the AFM cantilever immersed in these liquids are investigated. The results are useful for the design of AFM cantilevers immersed in liquids. PMID:26402914

  7. Diagnostics of hemangioma by the methods of correlation and fractal analysis of laser microscopic images of blood plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boychuk, T. M.; Bodnar, B. M.; Vatamanesku, L. I.

    2012-01-01

    For the first time the complex correlation and fractal analysis was used for the investigation of microscopic images of both tissue images and hemangioma liquids. It was proposed a physical model of description of phase distributions formation of coherent radiation, which was transformed by optical anisotropic biological structures. The phase maps of laser radiation in the boundary diffraction zone were used as the main information parameter. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of correlation (correlation area, asymmetry coefficient and autocorrelation function excess) and fractal (dispersion of logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of phase shifts in the points of laser images of histological sections of hemangioma, hemangioma blood smears and blood plasma with vascular system pathologies. The diagnostic criteria of hemangioma nascency are determined.

  8. Diagnostics of hemangioma by the methods of correlation and fractal analysis of laser microscopic images of blood plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boychuk, T. M.; Bodnar, B. M.; Vatamanesku, L. I.

    2011-09-01

    For the first time the complex correlation and fractal analysis was used for the investigation of microscopic images of both tissue images and hemangioma liquids. It was proposed a physical model of description of phase distributions formation of coherent radiation, which was transformed by optical anisotropic biological structures. The phase maps of laser radiation in the boundary diffraction zone were used as the main information parameter. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of correlation (correlation area, asymmetry coefficient and autocorrelation function excess) and fractal (dispersion of logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of phase shifts in the points of laser images of histological sections of hemangioma, hemangioma blood smears and blood plasma with vascular system pathologies. The diagnostic criteria of hemangioma nascency are determined.

  9. Live imaging and quantitative analysis of gastrulation in mouse embryos using light-sheet microscopy and 3D tracking tools.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Takehiko; Nakazato, Kenichi; Keller, Philipp J; Kajiura-Kobayashi, Hiroko; Stelzer, Ernst H K; Mochizuki, Atsushi; Nonaka, Shigenori

    2014-03-01

    This protocol describes how to observe gastrulation in living mouse embryos by using light-sheet microscopy and computational tools to analyze the resulting image data at the single-cell level. We describe a series of techniques needed to image the embryos under physiological conditions, including how to hold mouse embryos without agarose embedding, how to transfer embryos without air exposure and how to construct environmental chambers for live imaging by digital scanned light-sheet microscopy (DSLM). Computational tools include manual and semiautomatic tracking programs that are developed for analyzing the large 4D data sets acquired with this system. Note that this protocol does not include details of how to build the light-sheet microscope itself. Time-lapse imaging ends within 12 h, with subsequent tracking analysis requiring 3-6 d. Other than some mouse-handling skills, this protocol requires no advanced skills or knowledge. Light-sheet microscopes are becoming more widely available, and thus the techniques outlined in this paper should be helpful for investigating mouse embryogenesis. PMID:24525751

  10. Automated Classification Of Scanning Electron Microscope Particle Images Using Morphological Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamarche, B. L.; Lewis, R. R.; Girvin, D. C.; McKinley, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    We are developing a software tool that can automatically classify anthropogenic and natural aerosol particulates using morphological analysis. Our method was developed using SEM (background and secondary electron) images of single particles. Particle silhouettes are detected and converted into polygons using Intel's OpenCV image processing library. Our analysis then proceeds independently for the two kinds of images. Analysis of secondary images concerns itself solely with the silhouette and seeks to quantify its shape and roughness. Traversing the polygon with spline interpolation, we uniformly sample k(s), the signed curvature of the silhouette's path as a function of distance along the perimeter s. k(s) is invariant under rotation and translation. The power spectrum of k(s) qualitatively shows both shape and roughness: more power at low frequencies indicates variation in shape; more power at higher frequencies indicates a rougher silhouette. We present a series of filters (low-, band-, and high-pass) which we convolve with k(s) to yield a set of parameters that characterize the shape and roughness numerically. Analysis of backscatter images focuses on the (visual) texture, which is the result of both composition and geometry. Using the silhouette as a boundary, we compute the variogram, a statistical measure of inter-pixel covariance as a function of distance. Variograms take on characteristic curves, which we fit with a heuristic, asymptotic function that uses a small set of parameters. The combination of silhouette and variogram fit parameters forms the basis of a multidimensional classification space whose dimensionality we may reduce by principal component analysis and whose region boundaries allow us to classify new particles. This analysis is performed without a priori knowledge of other physical, chemical, or climatic properties. The method will be adapted to multi-particulate images.

  11. Scanning tunneling microscopic analysis of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} epitaxial layers

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, Marie A.; Hebert, Damon; Rockett, Angus A.; Ruppalt, Laura B.; Lyding, Joseph

    2010-02-15

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements have been made on single-crystal epitaxial layers of CuInSe{sub 2} grown on GaAs substrates. Results were obtained for as-grown, air-exposed, and cleaned surfaces; in situ cleaved surfaces; surfaces sputtered and annealed in the STM system; and samples prepared by a light chemical etch. Conventional constant-current topographs, current-voltage curves, and current imaging tunneling spectroscopy (CITS) scans were obtained. Topographic images show that the surfaces appear rough on the atomic scale and often exhibit regular features consistent with a previously proposed surface ad-dimer reconstruction. CITS scans show a spatially varying energy gap consistent with band-edge fluctuations on a scale of a few atomic spacings. Energy variations were observed in both band edges. Although quantitative description of the magnitude of these fluctuations is difficult, the fluctuations on the atomic scale appear much larger than observed by methods such as photoluminescence, which average over larger volumes.

  12. Energy Star Lighting Verification Program (Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting)

    SciTech Connect

    Conan O'Rourke; Yutao Zhou

    2006-05-01

    The Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting (PEARL) is a watchdog program. It was created in response to complaints received by utility program managers about the performance of certain Energy Star lighting products being promoted within their service territories and the lack of a self-policing mechanism within the lighting industry that would ensure the reliability of these products and their compliance with ENERGY STAR specifications. To remedy these problems, PEARL purchases and tests products that are available to the consumers in the marketplace. The Lighting Research Center (LRC) tests the selected products against the corresponding Energy Star specifications. This report includes the experimental procedure of Cycle 7 of PEARL program during the period of October 2005 to March 2006, along with the description of apparatus used, equipment calibration process, experimental methodology, and research findings from the testing. LRC administered the purchasing of CFL samples to test in Cycle 7, performed 100-hour seasoning for most of the CFL samples received by March 2006, and performed sphere testing for some of the CFL samples at 100 hours of life (initial measurement).

  13. Energy Star Lighting Verification Program (Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting)

    SciTech Connect

    Conan O'Rourke; Yutao Zhou

    2006-03-01

    The Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting (PEARL) is a watchdog program. It was created in response to complaints received by utility program managers about the performance of certain Energy Star lighting products being promoted within their service territories and the lack of a self-policing mechanism within the lighting industry that would ensure the reliability of these products and their compliance with ENERGY STAR specifications. To remedy these problems, PEARL purchases and tests products that are available to the consumers in the marketplace. The Lighting Research Center (LRC) tests the selected products against the corresponding Energy Star specifications. This report includes the experimental procedure and data results of Cycle Six of PEARL program during the period of October 2004 to April 2005, along with the description of apparatus used, equipment calibration process, experimental methodology, and research findings from the testing. The parameters tested for CFL models in Cycle Six are 1000-hour Lumen Maintenance, Lumen Maintenance at 40% Rated Life, and Interim Life Test, along with a series of parameters verified, such as ballast electrical parameters and Energy Star label.

  14. Energy Star Lighting Verification Program (Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting)

    SciTech Connect

    Conan O'Rourke; Yutao Zhou

    2006-03-01

    The Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting (PEARL) is a watchdog program. It was created in response to complaints received by utility program managers about the performance of certain Energy Star lighting products being promoted within their service territories and the lack of a self-policing mechanism within the lighting industry that would ensure the reliability of these products and their compliance with ENERGY STAR specifications. To remedy these problems, PEARL purchases and tests products that are available to the consumers in the marketplace. The Lighting Research Center (LRC) tests the selected products against the corresponding Energy Star specifications. This report includes the experimental procedure and data results of Cycle Four and Cycle Five of PEARL program during the period of October 2003 to April 2004, along with the description of apparatus used, equipment calibration process, experimental methodology, and research findings from the testing. The parameter tested for Cycle Four is lumen maintenance at 40% rated life, and parameters tested for Cycle Five are all parameters required in Energy Star specifications except lumen maintenance at 40% rated life.

  15. Energy Star Lighting Verification Program (Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting)

    SciTech Connect

    Conan O'Rourke; Yutao Zhou

    2006-03-01

    The Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting (PEARL) is a watchdog program. It was created in response to complaints received by utility program managers about the performance of certain Energy Star lighting products being promoted within their service territories and the lack of a self-policing mechanism within the lighting industry that would ensure the reliability of these products and their compliance with ENERGY STAR specifications. To remedy these problems, PEARL purchases and tests products that are available to the consumers in the marketplace. The Lighting Research Center (LRC) tests the selected products against the corresponding Energy Star specifications. This report includes the experimental procedure and data results of Cycle Five and Cycle Six of PEARL program during the period of April 2004 to October 2004, along with the description of apparatus used, equipment calibration process, experimental methodology, and research findings from the testing. The parameter tested for Cycle Five is lumen maintenance at 40% rated life, and parameters tested for Cycle Six are Efficacy, CCT, CRI, Power Factor, Start Time, Warm-up Time, and Rapid Cycle Stress Test for CFLs.

  16. Energy Star Lighting Verification Program (Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting)

    SciTech Connect

    Conan O'Rourke; Yutao Zhou

    2006-03-01

    The Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting (PEARL) is a watchdog program. It was created in response to complaints received by utility program managers about the performance of certain Energy Star lighting products being promoted within their service territories and the lack of a self-policing mechanism within the lighting industry that would ensure the reliability of these products and their compliance with ENERGY STAR specifications. To remedy these problems, PEARL purchases and tests products that are available to the consumers in the marketplace. The Lighting Research Center (LRC) tests the selected products against the corresponding Energy Star specifications. This report includes the experimental procedure and data results of Cycle Three and Cycle Four of PEARL program during the period of April 2003 to October 2003, along with the description of apparatus used, equipment calibration process, experimental methodology, and research findings from the testing. The parameter tested for Cycle three is lumen maintenance at 40% rated life, and parameters tested for Cycle Four are all parameters required in Energy Star specifications except lumen maintenance at 40% rated life.

  17. Energy Star Lighting Verification Program (Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting)

    SciTech Connect

    Conan O'Rourke; Yutao Zhou

    2006-03-01

    The Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting (PEARL) is a watchdog program. It was created in response to complaints received by utility program managers about the performance of certain Energy Star lighting products being promoted within their service territories and the lack of a self-policing mechanism within the lighting industry that would ensure the reliability of these products and their compliance with ENERGY STAR specifications. To remedy these problems, PEARL purchases and tests products that are available to the consumers in the marketplace. The Lighting Research Center (LRC) tests the selected products against the corresponding Energy Star specifications. This report includes the experimental procedure and data results of Cycle 6 and Reflector CFL In-situ Testing of PEARL program during the period of April 2005 to October 2005, along with the description of apparatus used, equipment calibration process, experimental methodology, and research findings from the testing. LRC performed testing for the fixture samples in Cycle 6 against Energy Star residential fixture specifications during this period of time. LRC subcontracted the Reflector CFL In-situ Testing to Luminaire Testing Laboratories located at Allentown PA, and supervised this test.

  18. Multifractal analysis of tumour microscopic images in the prediction of breast cancer chemotherapy response.

    PubMed

    Vasiljevic, Jelena; Pribic, Jelena; Kanjer, Ksenija; Jonakowski, Wojtek; Sopta, Jelena; Nikolic-Vukosavljevic, Dragica; Radulovic, Marko

    2015-10-01

    Due to the individual heterogeneity, highly accurate predictors of chemotherapy response in invasive breast cancer are needed for effective chemotherapeutic management. However, predictive molecular determinants for conventional chemotherapy are only emerging and still incorporate a high degree of predictive variability. Based on such pressing need for predictive performance improvement, we explored the value of pre-therapy tumour histology image analysis to predict chemotherapy response. Fractal analysis was applied to hematoxylin/eosin stained archival tissue of diagnostic biopsies derived from 106 patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. The tissue was obtained prior to neoadjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy and patients were subsequently divided into three groups according to their actual chemotherapy response: partial pathological response (pPR), pathological complete response (pCR) and progressive/stable disease (PD/SD). It was shown that multifractal analysis of breast tumour tissue prior to chemotherapy indeed has the capacity to distinguish between histological images of the different chemotherapy responder groups with accuracies of 91.4% for pPR, 82.9% for pCR and 82.1% for PD/SD. F(α)max was identified as the most important predictive parameter. It represents the maximum of multifractal spectrum f(α), where α is the Hölder's exponent. This is the first study investigating the predictive value of multifractal analysis as a simple and cost-effective tool to predict the chemotherapy response. Improvements in chemotherapy prediction provide clinical benefit by enabling more optimal chemotherapy decisions, thus directly affecting the quality of life and survival. PMID:26303582

  19. Analysis of microscopic infrared spectra of individual dried and live human cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, Melissa; Matthaus, Christian; Miljkovic, Milos; Boydston-White, Susie; Diem, Max

    2004-07-01

    The ability of infrared (IR) spectroscopy to distinguish and map cancerous and non-cancerous tissue has opened the question of the origin of spectral differences between normal and cancerous cells. In this contribution, we report IR spectral maps of individual dried cancer cells, some of them in the process of cell division (mitosis), IR spectra of cells suspended in growth medium, and preliminary results of a statistical analysis of thousands of individual dried cancer cells.

  20. Improved micro x-ray fluorescence spectrometer for light element analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smolek, Stephan; Streli, Christina; Zoeger, Norbert; Wobrauschek, Peter

    2010-05-15

    Since most available micro x-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) spectrometers operate in air, which does not allow the analysis of low-Z elements (Z{<=}14), a special micro-XRF spectrometer has been designed to extend the analytical range down to light elements (Z{>=}6). It offers improved excitation and detection conditions necessary for light element analysis. To eliminate absorption of the exciting and fluorescent radiation, the system operates under vacuum condition. Sample mapping is automated and controlled by specialized computer software developed for this spectrometer. Several different samples were measured to test and characterize the spectrometer. The spot size has been determined by scans across a 10 {mu}m Cu wire which resulted in a full width at half maximum of 31 {mu}m for Mo K{alpha} line (17.44 keV) and 44 {mu}m effective beam size for the Cu K edge and 71 {mu}m effective beam size for the Cu L edge. Lower limits of detection in the picogram range for each spot (or {mu}g/cm{sup 2}) were obtained by measuring various thin metal foils under different conditions. Furthermore, detection limits in the parts per million range were found measuring NIST621 standard reference material. Area scans of a microscopic laser print and NaF droplet were performed to show mapping capabilities.

  1. Correlative light and electron microscopy analysis of the centrosome: A step-by-step protocol.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dong; Loncarek, Jadranka

    2015-01-01

    Correlative light and electron microscopy harnesses the best from each of the two modalities of microscopy it utilizes; while light microscopy provides information about the dynamic properties of the cellular structure or fluorescently labeled protein, electron microscopy provides ultrastructural information in an unsurpassed resolution. However, tracing a particular cell and its rare and small structures such as centrosomes throughout numerous steps of the experiment is not a trivial task. In this chapter, we present the experimental workflow for combining live-cell fluorescence microscopy analysis with classical transmission electron microscopy, adapted for the studies of the centrosomes and basal bodies. We describe, in a step-by-step manner, an approach that can be affordably and successfully employed in any typical cell biology laboratory. The article details all key phases of the analysis starting from cell culture, live-cell microscopy, and sample fixation, through the steps of sample preparation for electron microscopy, to the identification of the target cell on the electron microscope. PMID:26175430

  2. A pressure gauge based on gas density measurement from analysis of the thermal noise of an atomic force microscope cantilever

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Dongjin; Ducker, William A.; Paul, Mark R.

    2012-05-15

    We describe a gas-density gauge based on the analysis of the thermally-driven fluctuations of an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever. The fluctuations are modeled as a ring-down of a simple harmonic oscillator, which allows fitting of the resonance frequency and damping of the cantilever, which in turn yields the gas density. The pressure is obtained from the density using the known equation of state. In the range 10-220 kPa, the pressure readings from the cantilever gauge deviate by an average of only about 5% from pressure readings on a commercial gauge. The theoretical description we use to determine the pressure from the cantilever motion is based upon the continuum hypothesis, which sets a minimum pressure for our analysis. It is anticipated that the cantilever gauge could be extended to measure lower pressures given a molecular theoretical description. Alternatively, the gauge could be calibrated for use in the non-continuum range. Our measurement technique is similar to previous AFM cantilever measurements, but the analysis produces improved accuracy.

  3. Automated detection and analysis of fluorescent in situ hybridization spots depicted in digital microscopic images of Pap-smear specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Zhang, Roy; Mulvihill, John J.; Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong

    2009-03-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology has been widely recognized as a promising molecular and biomedical optical imaging tool to screen and diagnose cervical cancer. However, manual FISH analysis is time-consuming and may introduce large inter-reader variability. In this study, a computerized scheme is developed and tested. It automatically detects and analyzes FISH spots depicted on microscopic fluorescence images. The scheme includes two stages: (1) a feature-based classification rule to detect useful interphase cells, and (2) a knowledge-based expert classifier to identify splitting FISH spots and improve the accuracy of counting independent FISH spots. The scheme then classifies detected analyzable cells as normal or abnormal. In this study, 150 FISH images were acquired from Pap-smear specimens and examined by both an experienced cytogeneticist and the scheme. The results showed that (1) the agreement between the cytogeneticist and the scheme was 96.9% in classifying between analyzable and unanalyzable cells (Kappa=0.917), and (2) agreements in detecting normal and abnormal cells based on FISH spots were 90.5% and 95.8% with Kappa=0.867. This study demonstrated the feasibility of automated FISH analysis, which may potentially improve detection efficiency and produce more accurate and consistent results than manual FISH analysis.

  4. Characterizing primary refractory neuroblastoma: prediction of outcome by microscopic image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niazi, M. Khalid Khan; Weiser, Daniel A.; Pawel, Bruce R.; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2015-03-01

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood cancer that starts in very early forms of nerve cells found in an embryo or fetus. It is a highly lethal cancer of sympathetic nervous system that commonly affects children of age five or younger. It accounts for a disproportionate number of childhood cancer deaths and remains a difficult cancer to eradicate despite intensive treatment that includes chemotherapy, surgery, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, radiation therapy and immunotherapy. A poorly characterized group of patients are the 15% with primary refractory neuroblastoma (PRN) which is uniformly lethal due to de novo chemotherapy resistance. The lack of response to therapy is currently assessed after multiple months of cytotoxic therapy, driving the critical need to develop pretreatment clinic-biological biomarkers that can guide precise and effective therapeutic strategies. Therefore, our guiding hypothesis is that PRN has distinct biological features present at diagnosis that can be identified for prediction modeling. During a visual analysis of PRN slides, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, we observed that patients who survived for less than three years contained large eosin-stained structures as compared to those who survived for greater than three years. So, our hypothesis is that the size of eosin stained structures can be used as a differentiating feature to characterize recurrence in neuroblastoma. To test this hypothesis, we developed an image analysis method that performs stain separation, followed by the detection of large structures stained with Eosin. On a set of 21 PRN slides, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, our image analysis method predicted the outcome with 85.7% accuracy.

  5. Labor Economists Get Their Microscope: Big Data and Labor Market Analysis.

    PubMed

    Horton, John J; Tambe, Prasanna

    2015-09-01

    This article describes how the fine-grained data being collected by Internet labor market intermediaries, such as employment websites, online labor markets, and knowledge discussion boards, are providing new research opportunities and directions for the empirical analysis of labor market activity. After discussing these data sources, we examine some of the research opportunities they have created, highlight some examples of existing work that already use these new data sources, and enumerate the challenges associated with the use of these corporate data sources. PMID:27442956

  6. Medicinal plants in the healing of dry socket in rats: microbiological and microscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    de Melo Júnior, E J M; Raposo, M J; Lisboa Neto, J A; Diniz, M F A; Marcelino Júnior, C A C; Sant'Ana, A E G

    2002-03-01

    The effectiveness of medicinal herbs as antimicrobial agents was tested on isolated microorganisms from an induced alveolitis and on alveolitis in rats. Sixteen ethanolic extracts from plants were prepared and tested. The plant materials were selected from ethnobotanic data and the best result was obtained with Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. The activity on Enterococcus, Bacillus corineforme, Streptococcus viridans and S. beta-hemolytic was better than the one presented by the antibiotic currently used for the treatment of alveolitis. The extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi has shown good wound-healing activity by histological analysis. PMID:11995943

  7. HIGH TEMPERATURE MICROSCOPE AND FURNACE

    DOEpatents

    Olson, D.M.

    1961-01-31

    A high-temperature microscope is offered. It has a reflecting optic situated above a molten specimen in a furnace and reflecting the image of the same downward through an inert optic member in the floor of the furnace, a plurality of spaced reflecting plane mirrors defining a reflecting path around the furnace, a standard microscope supported in the path of and forming the end terminus of the light path.

  8. Intercellular fluorescence background on microscope slides: some problems and solutions for automatic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piper, Jim; Sudar, Damir; Peters, Don; Pinkel, Daniel

    1994-05-01

    Although high contrast between signal and the dark background is often claimed as a major advantage of fluorescence staining in cytology and cytogenetics, in practice this is not always the case and in some circumstances the inter-cellular or, in the case of metaphase preparations, the inter-chromosome background can be both brightly fluorescent and vary substantially across the slide or even across a single metaphase. Bright background results in low image contrast, making automatic detection of metaphase cells more difficult. The background correction strategy employed in automatic search must both cope with variable background and be computationally efficient. The method employed in a fluorescence metaphase finder is presented, and the compromises involved are discussed. A different set of problems arise when the analysis is aimed at accurate quantification of the fluorescence signal. Some insight into the nature of the background in the case of comparative genomic hybridization is obtained by image analysis of data obtained from experiments using cell lines with known abnormal copy numbers of particular chromosome types.

  9. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic analysis of ampullary segment of oviduct during estrous cycle in caprines.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R K; Singh, R; Bhardwaj, J K

    2015-01-01

    The ampullary segment of the mammalian oviduct provides suitable milieu for fertilization and development of zygote before implantation into uterus. It is, therefore, in the present study, the cyclic changes in the morphology of ampullary segment of goat oviduct were studied during follicular and luteal phases using scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques. Topographical analysis revealed the presence of uniformly ciliated ampullary epithelia, concealing apical processes of non-ciliated cells along with bulbous secretory cells during follicular phase. The luteal phase was marked with decline in number of ciliated cells with increased occurrence of secretory cells. The ultrastructure analysis has demonstrated the presence of indented nuclear membrane, supranuclear cytoplasm, secretory granules, rough endoplasmic reticulum, large lipid droplets, apically located glycogen masses, oval shaped mitochondria in the secretory cells. The ciliated cells were characterized by the presence of elongated nuclei, abundant smooth endoplasmic reticulum, oval or spherical shaped mitochondria with crecentric cristae during follicular phase. However, in the luteal phase, secretory cells were possessing highly indented nucleus with diffused electron dense chromatin, hyaline nucleosol, increased number of lipid droplets. The ciliated cells had numerous fibrous granules and basal bodies. The parallel use of scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques has enabled us to examine the cyclic and hormone dependent changes occurring in the topography and fine structure of epithelium of ampullary segment and its cells during different reproductive phases that will be great help in understanding major bottle neck that limits success rate in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer technology. PMID:25491952

  10. Transmission electron microscopic analysis of malathion-induced cytotoxicity in granulosa cells of caprine antral follicles.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Jitender Kumar; Saraf, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Malathion, one of the most abundantly used organophosphate pesticides, has immoderate potency as a cytotoxic and genotoxic compound that induces toxicity in granulosa cells, resulting in its apoptosis. Thus, the present study aims to employ ultrastructural analysis for assessing the cytotoxicity of malathion at nanomolar concentrations (1 nM and 10 nM) in granulosa cells of caprine antral follicles at different exposure durations. Transmission electron microscopy revealed diminished cell-cell contact and cellular integrity, presence of crescent-shaped nucleus, chromatin condensation, and pyknosis with nuclear membrane folding, accumulation of lipid droplets with occurrence of cytoplasmic protrusions in granulosa cells treated with 1 nM malathion, whereas at 10 nM concentration, along with apoptotic attributes, prominent association of nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and lipid droplets, nucleus invagination into lipid droplets, apical localization of lipid bodies, and occurrence of autophagic body were observed as compared to healthy granulosa cells in control with normal intact cellular integrity, well-developed cellular association, and doubled membrane nuclear lamina with homogenously dispersed chromatin surrounded by intact mitochondria with well-developed cristae. Thus, the results of ultrastructural analysis clearly suggest that nanomolar concentration of malathion induces apoptotic hallmarks within the granulosa cells of antral follicles that play a consequential role in increasing the incidence of follicular atresia, thereby affecting the overall fertility. PMID:26513701

  11. Analysis of Video-Based Microscopic Particle Trajectories Using Kalman Filtering

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pei-Hsun; Agarwal, Ashutosh; Hess, Henry; Khargonekar, Pramod P.; Tseng, Yiider

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The fidelity of the trajectories obtained from video-based particle tracking determines the success of a variety of biophysical techniques, including in situ single cell particle tracking and in vitro motility assays. However, the image acquisition process is complicated by system noise, which causes positioning error in the trajectories derived from image analysis. Here, we explore the possibility of reducing the positioning error by the application of a Kalman filter, a powerful algorithm to estimate the state of a linear dynamic system from noisy measurements. We show that the optimal Kalman filter parameters can be determined in an appropriate experimental setting, and that the Kalman filter can markedly reduce the positioning error while retaining the intrinsic fluctuations of the dynamic process. We believe the Kalman filter can potentially serve as a powerful tool to infer a trajectory of ultra-high fidelity from noisy images, revealing the details of dynamic cellular processes. PMID:20550894

  12. Microscopic analysis of nuclear quantum phase transitions in the N{approx_equal}90 region

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z. P.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Meng, J.; Lalazissis, G. A.; Ring, P.

    2009-05-15

    The analysis of shape transitions in Nd isotopes, based on the framework of relativistic energy-density functionals and restricted to axially symmetric shapes in T. Niksic, D. Vretenar, G. A. Lalazissis, and P. Ring [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 092502 (2007)], is extended to the region Z=60,62,64 with N{approx_equal}90 and includes both {beta} and {gamma} deformations. Collective excitation spectra and transition probabilities are calculated starting from a five-dimensional Hamiltonian for quadrupole vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom, with parameters determined by constrained self-consistent relativistic mean-field calculations for triaxial shapes. The results reproduce available data and show that there is an abrupt change of structure at N=90 that can be approximately characterized by the X(5) analytic solution at the critical point of the first-order quantum phase transition between spherical and axially deformed shapes.

  13. Classification and recognition of texture collagen obtaining by multiphoton microscope with neural network analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shulian; Peng, Yuanyuan; Hu, Liangjun; Zhang, Xiaoman; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Second harmonic generation microscopy (SHGM) was used to monitor the process of chronological aging skin in vivo. The collagen structures of mice model with different ages were obtained using SHGM. Then, texture feature with contrast, correlation and entropy were extracted and analysed using the grey level co-occurrence matrix. At last, the neural network tool of Matlab was applied to train the texture of collagen in different statues during the aging process. And the simulation of mice collagen texture was carried out. The results indicated that the classification accuracy reach 85%. Results demonstrated that the proposed approach effectively detected the target object in the collagen texture image during the chronological aging process and the analysis tool based on neural network applied the skin of classification and feature extraction method is feasible.

  14. Scanning Miniature Microscopes without Lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yu

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts some alternative designs of proposed compact, lightweight optoelectronic microscopes that would contain no lenses and would generate magnified video images of specimens. Microscopes of this type were described previously in Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO - 20218), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 22, No. 8 (August 1998), page 43 and Reflective Variants of Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO 20610), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 9 (September 1999), page 6a. To recapitulate: In the design and construction of a microscope of this type, the focusing optics of a conventional microscope are replaced by a combination of a microchannel filter and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector. Elimination of focusing optics reduces the size and weight of the instrument and eliminates the need for the time-consuming focusing operation. The microscopes described in the cited prior articles contained two-dimensional CCDs registered with two-dimensional arrays of microchannels and, as such, were designed to produce full two-dimensional images, without need for scanning. The microscopes of the present proposal would contain one-dimensional (line image) CCDs registered with linear arrays of microchannels. In the operation of such a microscope, one would scan a specimen along a line perpendicular to the array axis (in other words, one would scan in pushbroom fashion). One could then synthesize a full two-dimensional image of the specimen from the line-image data acquired at one-pixel increments of position along the scan. In one of the proposed microscopes, a beam of unpolarized light for illuminating the specimen would enter from the side. This light would be reflected down onto the specimen by a nonpolarizing beam splitter attached to the microchannels at their lower ends. A portion of the light incident on the specimen would be reflected upward, through the beam splitter and along the microchannels, to form an image on the CCD. If the

  15. Microscopic and spectroscopic analysis of tungsten trioxide and titanium-doped tungsten trioxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Young Taek

    Tungsten oxide (WO3) has been a subject of high interest for its unique properties, and recently for its importance in different types of industrial applications which ranges from non-emissive displays, optical, microelectronic, catalytic/photocatalytic, humidity, temperature, gas, and biosensor devices. In this study, WO3 and Ti doped thin films were prepared using radio frequency magnetron reactive sputtering at different substrate temperatures ranging from room temperature to 500 °C in increments of 100 °C. After forming a hypothesis based on knowledge of established WO3 properties, we attempt in this work to investigate how the doping influences the roughness and the mean grain size of the nanoparticles on the surface layer of the thin films, its structure, and crystallinity. Therefore we pursued analysis by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy, using a comparative approach. The outcomes of these analyses demonstrate that higher temperatures are necessary for growing crystalline material if doping is used. Also, smaller nanoparticles are obtained when a small amount of dopant, e.g. 5% Ti, is incorporated. Both XRD and Raman measurement indicate morphological changes of the doped material. Finally, annealing of the amorphous doped samples at temperatures of 600 °C and 900 °C did not contribute significantly to material properties improvement.

  16. Methods for microscopic characterization of oral biofilms: analysis of colonization, microstructure, and molecular transport phenomena.

    PubMed

    Singleton, S; Treloar, R; Warren, P; Watson, G K; Hodgson, R; Allison, C

    1997-04-01

    Assessment of the role of biofilm microstructure in biofilm-specific activities requires non-destructive measurement techniques for parameterization of structural characteristics in parallel with relevant biochemical and physiological data. This paper briefly reviews some current methods for biofilm structural analysis, with emphasis on new developments in optical imaging and mathematical modeling methods. Fluorescence imaging studies of bacterial colonization events occurring on exposed model tooth surfaces indicated that bacterial adhesion to sessile organisms was of central importance to the early colonization process and that this occurred in a non-random manner. Structural studies of mature biofilms by confocal microscopy demonstrated the spatial distribution of individual species using fluorescent antibodies. Biofilms grown under different physiological conditions exhibited differences in structure, and methods were developed for parameterizing the spatial orientations of the bacteria. Diffusive processes within biofilm microstructures were studied using a random walk model in both 2-D and 3-D. Modeling of convective flow within biofilm microstructures was achieved by application of lattice Boltzmann methodology. PMID:9524450

  17. Microfluidic Flow Injection Analysis with Thermal Lens Microscopic Detection for Determination of NGAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radovanović, Tatjana; Liu, Mingqiang; Likar, Polona; Klemenc, Matjaž; Franko, Mladen

    2015-06-01

    A combined microfluidic flow injection analysis-thermal lens microscopy (FIA-TLM) system was applied for determination of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)—a biomarker of acute kidney injury. NGAL was determined following a commercial ELISA assay and transfer of the resulting solution into the FIA-TLM system with a 100 m deep microchannel. At an excitation power of 100 mW, the FIA-TLM provided about seven times lower limits of detection (1.5 pg as compared to a conventional ELISA test, and a sample throughput of six samples per minute, which compares favorably with sample throughput of the microtiter plate reader, which reads 96 wells in about 30 min. Comparison of results for NGAL in plasma samples from healthy individuals and for NGAL dynamics in patients undergoing coronary angiography measured with transmission mode spectrometry on a microtiter plate reader and with FIA-TLM showed good agreement. In addition to improved LOD, the high sensitivity of FIA-TLM offers possibilities of a further reduction of the total reaction time of the NGAL ELISA test by sacrificing some of the sensitivity while reducing the duration of individual incubation steps.

  18. Analysis of the swimming activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by using photonic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Chia-Han; Chang, Bo-Jui; Huang, Ying-Jung; Fan, Chia-Chieh; Peng, Hwei-Ling; Chi, Sien; Hsu, Long

    2005-08-01

    Swimming activity of flagella is a main factor of the motility of bacteria. Flagella expressed on the surface of bacterial species serve as a primary means of motility including swimming. We propose to use optical tweezers to analyze the swimming activity of bacteria. The sample bacteria in the work is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and it is a gram-negative bacterium and often causes leading to burn wound infections, urinary-tract infections, and pneumonia. The single polar flagellum of P. aeruginosa has been demonstrated to be important virulence and colonization factor of this opportunistic pathogen. We demonstrate a gene to regulate the bacterial swimming activity in P. aeruginosa PAO1 by biological method. However, the change of flagellar morphology was not observed by electron microscopy analysis, suggesting that the gene regulates the flagellar rotation that could not be detected by biological method. PFM exhibits a spatial resolution of a few nanometers to detect the relative position of the probe at an acquisition rate over 1 MHz. By binding a probe such as a bead or a quantum dot on the flagella, we expect the rotation of the probe due to the flagella could be detected. It is expected that the study of the swimming activity of P. aeruginosa provide potent method for the pathogenic role of the flagella in P. aeruginosa.

  19. Microbialites on Mars: a fractal analysis of the Athena's microscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianciardi, G.; Rizzo, V.; Cantasano, N.

    2015-10-01

    The Mars Exploration Rovers investigated Martian plains where laminated sedimentary rocks are present. The Athena morphological investigation [1] showed microstructures organized in intertwined filaments of microspherules: a texture we have also found on samples of terrestrial (biogenic) stromatolites and other microbialites and not on pseudo-abiogenicstromatolites. We performed a quantitative image analysis in order to compare 50 microbialites images with 50 rovers (Opportunity and Spirit) ones (approximately 30,000/30,000 microstructures). Contours were extracted and morphometric indexes obtained: geometric and algorithmic complexities, entropy, tortuosity, minimum and maximum diameters. Terrestrial and Martian textures resulted multifractals. Mean values and confidence intervals from the Martian images overlapped perfectly with those from terrestrial samples. The probability of this occurring by chance was less than 1/28, p<0.004. Our work show the evidence of a widespread presence of microbialites in the Martian outcroppings: i.e., the presence of unicellular life on the ancient Mars, when without any doubt, liquid water flowed on the Red Planet.

  20. Scanning Tranmission X-ray Microscopic Analysis of Purifed Melanosomes of the Mouse Iris

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson,M.; Haraszti, T.; Peterson, G.; Wirick, S.; Jacobsen, C.; John, S.; Grunze, M.

    2006-01-01

    Melanosomes are specialized intracellular membrane bound organelles that produce and store melanin pigment. The composition of melanin and distribution of melanosomes determine the color of many mammalian tissues, including the hair, skin, and iris. However, the presence of melanosomes within a tissue carries potentially detrimental risks related to the cytotoxic indole-quinone intermediates produced during melanin synthesis. In order to study melanosomal molecules, including melanin and melanin-related intermediates, we have refined methods allowing spectromicroscopic analysis of purified melanosomes using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. Here, we present for the first time absorption data for melanosomes at the carbon absorption edge ranging from 284 to 290 eV. High-resolution images of melanosomes at discrete energies demonstrate that fully melanized mature melanosomes are internally non-homogeneous, suggesting the presence of an organized internal sub-structure. Spectra of purified melanosomes are complex, partially described by a predominating absorption band at 288.4 eV with additional contributions from several minor bands. Differences in these spectra were detectable between samples from two strains of inbred mice known to harbor genetically determined melanosomal differences, DBA/2J and C57BL/6J, and are likely to represent signatures arising from biologically relevant and tractable phenomena.

  1. A variation of transmission electron microscope sample preparation for VLSI analysis.

    PubMed

    Madden, M C; Crafard, P

    1989-02-01

    Sample preparation for VLSI analysis is often slow due to long ion milling time and because the location of the thin area of the sample is difficult to control. By modifying the standard techniques used with a VCR Group (and perhaps other) mechanical dimpler, the ion milling time can be reduced to less than 30 min. and the location on the thinned area reasonably controlled. These modifications involve the use of a radiused edge on the dimpling tool, a rubber O-ring on the polishing tool, and not rotating the sample platen during polishing. The modifications to the dimpling and polishing tools allow more control of the geometry of the dimple, while not rotating the sample platen allows a thinner sample to be produced and permits the use of the sample translation micrometers to shift the location of the thinned area during polishing. The quality of samples produced using this modified procedure is equivalent to that obtained with the more standard methods. PMID:2709134

  2. Electron Microscopic Analysis of Silicate and Calcium Particles in Cigarette Smoke Tar

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, R. Steven; Halstead, Mary M.; Watson, Clifford H.

    2016-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) supplies information that is complementary to those data traditionally obtained using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for analysis of inorganic tobacco and tobacco smoke constituents. The SEM-EDS approach was used to identify select inorganic constituents of mainstream cigarette smoke “tar.” The nature of SEM-EDS instrumentation makes it an ideal choice for microstructural analyses as it provides information relevant to inorganic constituents that could result from exposure to combusted tobacco products. Our analyses show that aluminum silicates, silica, and calcium compounds were common constituents of cigarette mainstream smoke “tar.” Identifying inorganic tobacco smoke constituents is important because inhalation of fine inorganic particles could lead to inflammatory responses in the lung and systemic inflammatory responses. As cigarette smoking causes chronic inflammation in the respiratory tract, information on inorganic particulate in mainstream smoke informs efforts to determine causative agents associated with increased morbidity and mortality from tobacco use. PMID:27158665

  3. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive x ray analysis of impact residues on LDEF tray clamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Durin, Christian; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1992-01-01

    To better understand the nature of particulates in low-Earth orbit (LEO), and their effects on spacecraft hardware, we are analyzing residues found in impacts on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) tray clamps. LDEF experiment trays were held in place by 6 to 8 chromic-anodized aluminum (6061-T6) clamps that were fastened to the spacecraft frame using three stainless steel hex bolts. Each clamp exposed an area of approximately 58 sq cm (4.8 cm x 12.7 cm x .45 cm, minus the bolt coverage). Some 337 out of 774 LDEF tray clamps were archived at JSC and are available through the Meteoroid & Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG). Optical scanning of clamps, starting with Bay/Row A01 and working toward H25, is being conducted at JSC to locate and document impacts as small as 40 microns. These impacts are then inspected by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (SEM/EDXA) to select those features which contain appreciable impact residue material. Based upon the composition of projectile remnants, and using criteria developed at JSC, we have made a preliminary discrimination between micrometeoroid and space debris residue-containing impact features. Presently, 13 impacts containing significant amounts of unmelted and semi-melted micrometeoritic residues were forwarded to Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France. At the CNES facilities, the upgraded impacts were analyzed using a JEOL T330A SEM equipped with a NORAN Instruments, Voyager X-ray Analyzer. All residues were quantitatively characterized by composition (including oxygen and carbon) to help understand interplanetary dust as possibly being derived from comets and asteroids.

  4. Fractal analysis for assessing tumour grade in microscopic images of breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tambasco, Mauro; Costello, Meghan; Newcomb, Chris; Magliocco, Anthony M.

    2007-03-01

    In 2006, breast cancer is expected to continue as the leading form of cancer diagnosed in women, and the second leading cause of cancer mortality in this group. A method that has proven useful for guiding the choice of treatment strategy is the assessment of histological tumor grade. The grading is based upon the mitosis count, nuclear pleomorphism, and tubular formation, and is known to be subject to inter-observer variability. Since cancer grade is one of the most significant predictors of prognosis, errors in grading can affect patient management and outcome. Hence, there is a need to develop a breast cancer-grading tool that is minimally operator dependent to reduce variability associated with the current grading system, and thereby reduce uncertainty that may impact patient outcome. In this work, we explored the potential of a computer-based approach using fractal analysis as a quantitative measure of cancer grade for breast specimens. More specifically, we developed and optimized computational tools to compute the fractal dimension of low- versus high-grade breast sections and found them to be significantly different, 1.3+/-0.10 versus 1.49+/-0.10, respectively (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, p<0.001). These results indicate that fractal dimension (a measure of morphologic complexity) may be a useful tool for demarcating low- versus high-grade cancer specimens, and has potential as an objective measure of breast cancer grade. Such prognostic value could provide more sensitive and specific information that would reduce inter-observer variability by aiding the pathologist in grading cancers.

  5. Numerical analysis of acoustic impedance microscope utilizing acoustic lens transducer to examine cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Gunawan, Agus Indra; Hozumi, Naohiro; Takahashi, Kenta; Yoshida, Sachiko; Saijo, Yoshifumi; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yamamoto, Seiji

    2015-12-01

    A new technique is proposed for non-contact quantitative cell observation using focused ultrasonic waves. This technique interprets acoustic reflection intensity into the characteristic acoustic impedance of the biological cell. The cells are cultured on a plastic film substrate. A focused acoustic beam is transmitted through the substrate to its interface with the cell. A two-dimensional (2-D) reflection intensity profile is obtained by scanning the focal point along the interface. A reference substance is observed under the same conditions. These two reflections are compared and interpreted into the characteristic acoustic impedance of the cell based on a calibration curve that was created prior to the observation. To create the calibration curve, a numerical analysis of the sound field is performed using Fourier Transforms and is verified using several saline solutions. Because the cells are suspended by two plastic films, no contamination is introduced during the observation. In a practical observation, a sapphire lens transducer with a center frequency of 300 MHz was employed using ZnO thin film. The objects studied were co-cultured rat-derived glial (astrocyte) cells and glioma cells. The result was the clear observation of the internal structure of the cells. The acoustic impedance of the cells was spreading between 1.62 and 1.72 MNs/m(3). Cytoskeleton was indicated by high acoustic impedance. The introduction of cytochalasin-B led to a significant reduction in the acoustic impedance of the glioma cells; its effect on the glial cells was less significant. It is believed that this non-contact observation method will be useful for continuous cell inspections. PMID:26163739

  6. Brain-Wide Mapping of Axonal Connections: Workflow for Automated Detection and Spatial Analysis of Labeling in Microscopic Sections

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Eszter A.; Leergaard, Trygve B.; Csucs, Gergely; Bjaalie, Jan G.

    2016-01-01

    Axonal tracing techniques are powerful tools for exploring the structural organization of neuronal connections. Tracers such as biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) and Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (Pha-L) allow brain-wide mapping of connections through analysis of large series of histological section images. We present a workflow for efficient collection and analysis of tract-tracing datasets with a focus on newly developed modules for image processing and assignment of anatomical location to tracing data. New functionality includes automatic detection of neuronal labeling in large image series, alignment of images to a volumetric brain atlas, and analytical tools for measuring the position and extent of labeling. To evaluate the workflow, we used high-resolution microscopic images from axonal tracing experiments in which different parts of the rat primary somatosensory cortex had been injected with BDA or Pha-L. Parameters from a set of representative images were used to automate detection of labeling in image series covering the entire brain, resulting in binary maps of the distribution of labeling. For high to medium labeling densities, automatic detection was found to provide reliable results when compared to manual analysis, whereas weak labeling required manual curation for optimal detection. To identify brain regions corresponding to labeled areas, section images were aligned to the Waxholm Space (WHS) atlas of the Sprague Dawley rat brain (v2) by custom-angle slicing of the MRI template to match individual sections. Based on the alignment, WHS coordinates were obtained for labeled elements and transformed to stereotaxic coordinates. The new workflow modules increase the efficiency and reliability of labeling detection in large series of images from histological sections, and enable anchoring to anatomical atlases for further spatial analysis and comparison with other data. PMID:27148038

  7. Brain-Wide Mapping of Axonal Connections: Workflow for Automated Detection and Spatial Analysis of Labeling in Microscopic Sections.

    PubMed

    Papp, Eszter A; Leergaard, Trygve B; Csucs, Gergely; Bjaalie, Jan G

    2016-01-01

    Axonal tracing techniques are powerful tools for exploring the structural organization of neuronal connections. Tracers such as biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) and Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (Pha-L) allow brain-wide mapping of connections through analysis of large series of histological section images. We present a workflow for efficient collection and analysis of tract-tracing datasets with a focus on newly developed modules for image processing and assignment of anatomical location to tracing data. New functionality includes automatic detection of neuronal labeling in large image series, alignment of images to a volumetric brain atlas, and analytical tools for measuring the position and extent of labeling. To evaluate the workflow, we used high-resolution microscopic images from axonal tracing experiments in which different parts of the rat primary somatosensory cortex had been injected with BDA or Pha-L. Parameters from a set of representative images were used to automate detection of labeling in image series covering the entire brain, resulting in binary maps of the distribution of labeling. For high to medium labeling densities, automatic detection was found to provide reliable results when compared to manual analysis, whereas weak labeling required manual curation for optimal detection. To identify brain regions corresponding to labeled areas, section images were aligned to the Waxholm Space (WHS) atlas of the Sprague Dawley rat brain (v2) by custom-angle slicing of the MRI template to match individual sections. Based on the alignment, WHS coordinates were obtained for labeled elements and transformed to stereotaxic coordinates. The new workflow modules increase the efficiency and reliability of labeling detection in large series of images from histological sections, and enable anchoring to anatomical atlases for further spatial analysis and comparison with other data. PMID:27148038

  8. Development of an image-analysis light-scattering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algarni, Saad; Kashuri, Hektor; Iannacchione, Germano

    2013-03-01

    We describe the progress in developing a versatile image-analysis approach for a light-scattering experiment. Recent advances in image analysis algorithms, computational power, and CCD image capture has allowed for the complete digital recording of the scattering of coherent laser light by a wide variety of samples. This digital record can then yield both static and dynamic information about the scattering events. Our approach is described using a very simple and in-expensive experimental arrangement for liquid samples. Calibration experiments were performed on aqueous suspensions of latex spheres having 0.5 and 1.0 micrometer diameter for three concentrations of 2 X 10-6, 1 X 10-6, and 5 X 10-7 % w/w at room temperature. The resulting data span a wave-vector range of q = 102 to 105 cm-1 and time averages over 0.05 to 1200 sec. The static analysis yield particle sizes in good agreement with expectations and a simple dynamic analysis yields an estimate of the characteristic time scale of the particle dynamics. Further developments in image corrections (laser stability, vibration, curvature, etc.) as well as time auto-correlation analysis will also be discussed.

  9. Light extraction analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface texture and/or patterned substrate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsung-Xian; Gao, Ko-Fon; Chien, Wei-Ting; Sun, Ching-Cherng

    2007-05-28

    Light extraction analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with Monte Carlo ray tracing is presented. To obtain high light extraction efficiency, periodic structures introduced on the top surface and/or on the substrate of various types of LED are simulated, including wire bonding, flip chip and Thin GaN. Micro pyramid array with an apex angle from 20o to 70o is shown to effectively improve the light extraction efficiency. In addition, for an LED encapsulated within an epoxy lens, the patterned substrate with pyramid array is found to be a more effective way to increase light extraction efficiency than the surface texture. PMID:19546977

  10. Laser light scan analysis of the “anticonvulsant face”

    PubMed Central

    Orup, H. Ivan; Deutsch, Curtis K.; Holmes, Lewis B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The “anticonvulsant face”, comprised of a short nose, low nasal bridge, epicanthal folds, and wide mouth, was suggested in the 1970s to indicate teratogenesis caused by the anticonvulsant drugs phenytoin and phenobarbital. However, these were based on subjective clinical observations. In the present study we have applied objective and reliable quantitative measures to the operational definitions of craniofacial features in anticonvulant-exposed cases. We have adopted anthropometric analysis based on image analysis of laser light scans. Using morphometric methods, we established the positions of physical features and objectively determined the changes in the size and shape of affected soft tissues of the faces of children exposed to those anticonvulsant drugs during pregnancy. METHODS Thirteen individuals, exposed throughout pregnancy to phenytoin as either monotherapy or polytherapy, were identified in a previous analysis as having significant changes in their craniofacial features based on measurements of cephalometric radiographs, changes associated with “the anticonvulsant face”.. The soft tissues of their faces were imaged by 3D laser (structured light) scanning. RESULTS The notable changes in soft tissues identified by laser light scans were a wide philtrum (between the left and right cristae philtri), narrow mouth (between the left and right cheilions), short nasal bridge (between nasale and pronasale), short nose height (between the nasale and subnasale), and flat orbits (based on the orbital protrusion index). CONCLUSIONS This analysis of phenytoin-exposed individuals is the first anthropometric analysis of the craniofacial surface, designed to render the identification of abnormal features both objective and realiable. These analyses demonstrated that there were several significant changes in the soft tissue of the face, corroborating earlier studies of alterations of the craniofacial skeleton in the anticonvulsant face. Two of the

  11. DETECTION OF K-RAS AND P53 MUTATIONS IN SPUTUM SAMPLES OF LUNG CANCER PATIENTS USING LASER CAPTURE MICRODISSECTION MICROSCOPE AND MUTATION ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of K-ras and p53 Mutations in Sputum Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Using Laser Capture Microdissection Microscope and Mutation Analysis

    Phouthone Keohavong a,*, Wei-Min Gao a, Kui-Cheng Zheng a, Hussam Mady b, Qing Lan c, Mona Melhem b, and Judy Mumford d.
    <...

  12. Photography with a Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rost, Fred; Oldfield, Ron

    2000-03-01

    This beautifully illustrated book describes the methods used to record images viewed through a microscope. The text describes the principles and practices of photomicrography, and is written for all who take photomicrographs, beginners and/or experienced practitioners. The authors describe techniques that may be applied to many disciplines for teaching, research, archives, or pleasure. The book includes chapters on standard photography, modern digital techniques, methods for improving contrast, and a short chapter on drawing. In addition to its value as a work of reference, the authors' clear, didactic style makes this book suitable as a textbook for courses in photomicrography and/or elementary light microscopy.

  13. Solid state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  14. Solid state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, I.T.

    1983-08-09

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal. 2 figs.

  15. Economic Analysis of Greenhouse Lighting: Light Emitting Diodes vs. High Intensity Discharge Fixtures

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jacob A.; Bugbee, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Lighting technologies for plant growth are improving rapidly, providing numerous options for supplemental lighting in greenhouses. Here we report the photosynthetic (400–700 nm) photon efficiency and photon distribution pattern of two double-ended HPS fixtures, five mogul-base HPS fixtures, ten LED fixtures, three ceramic metal halide fixtures, and two fluorescent fixtures. The two most efficient LED and the two most efficient double-ended HPS fixtures had nearly identical efficiencies at 1.66 to 1.70 micromoles per joule. These four fixtures represent a dramatic improvement over the 1.02 micromoles per joule efficiency of the mogul-base HPS fixtures that are in common use. The best ceramic metal halide and fluorescent fixtures had efficiencies of 1.46 and 0.95 micromoles per joule, respectively. We also calculated the initial capital cost of fixtures per photon delivered and determined that LED fixtures cost five to ten times more than HPS fixtures. The five-year electric plus fixture cost per mole of photons is thus 2.3 times higher for LED fixtures, due to high capital costs. Compared to electric costs, our analysis indicates that the long-term maintenance costs are small for both technologies. If widely spaced benches are a necessary part of a production system, the unique ability of LED fixtures to efficiently focus photons on specific areas can be used to improve the photon capture by plant canopies. Our analysis demonstrates, however, that the cost per photon delivered is higher in these systems, regardless of fixture category. The lowest lighting system costs are realized when an efficient fixture is coupled with effective canopy photon capture. PMID:24905835

  16. Development of High-Speed Copper Chemical Mechanical Polishing Slurry for Through Silicon Via Application Based on Friction Analysis Using Atomic Force Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amanokura, Jin; Ono, Hiroshi; Hombo, Kyoko

    2011-05-01

    In order to obtain a high-speed copper chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process for through silicon vias (TSV) application, we developed a new Cu CMP slurry through friction analysis of Cu reaction layer by an atomic force microscope (AFM) technique. A lateral modulation friction force microscope (LM-FFM) is able to measure the friction value properly giving a vibration to the layer. We evaluated the torsional displacement between the probe of the LM-FFM and the Cu reaction layer under a 5 nm vibration to cancel the shape effect of the Cu reaction layer. The developed Cu CMP slurry forms a frictionally easy-removable Cu reaction layer.

  17. Analysis of microscopic magnitudes of radiative blast waves launched in xenon clusters with collisional-radiative steady-state simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, R.; Espinosa, G.; Gil, J. M.; Florido, R.; Rubiano, J. G.; Mendoza, M. A.; Martel, P.; Minguez, E.; Symes, D. R.; Hohenberger, M.; Smith, R. A.

    2013-08-01

    Radiative shock waves play a pivotal role in the transport energy into the stellar medium. This fact has led to many efforts to scale the astrophysical phenomena to accessible laboratory conditions and their study has been highlighted as an area requiring further experimental investigations. Low density material with high atomic mass is suitable to achieve radiative regime, and, therefore, low density xenon gas is commonly used for the medium in which the radiative shocks such as radiative blast waves propagate. In this work, by means of collisional-radiative steady-state calculations, a characterization and an analysis of microscopic magnitudes of laboratory blast waves launched in xenon clusters are made. Thus, for example, the average ionization, the charge state distribution, the cooling time or photon mean free paths are studied. Furthermore, for a particular experiment, the effects of the self-absorption and self-emission in the specific intensity emitted by the shock front and that is going through the radiative precursor are investigated. Finally, for that experiment, since the electron temperature is not measured experimentally, an estimation of this magnitude is made both for the shock shell and the radiative precursor.

  18. Electron microscopic single particle analysis of a tetrameric RuvA/RuvB/Holliday junction DNA complex

    SciTech Connect

    Mayanagi, Kouta Fujiwara, Yoshie; Miyata, Tomoko; Morikawa, Kosuke

    2008-01-11

    During the late stage of homologous recombination in prokaryotes, RuvA binds to the Holliday junction intermediate and executes branch migration in association with RuvB. The RuvA subunits form two distinct complexes with the Holliday junction: complex I with the single RuvA tetramer on one side of the four way junction DNA, and complex II with two tetramers on both sides. To investigate the functional roles of complexes I and II, we mutated two residues of RuvA (L125D and E126K) to prevent octamer formation. An electron microscopic analysis indicated that the mutant RuvA/RuvB/Holliday junction DNA complex formed the characteristic tripartite structure, with only one RuvA tetramer bound to one side of the Holliday junction, demonstrating the unexpected stability of this complex. The novel bent images of the complex revealed an intriguing morphological similarity to the structure of SV40 large T antigen, which belongs to the same AAA+ family as RuvB.

  19. iSpectra: An Open Source Toolbox For The Analysis of Spectral Images Recorded on Scanning Electron Microscopes.

    PubMed

    Liebske, Christian

    2015-08-01

    iSpectra is an open source and system-independent toolbox for the analysis of spectral images (SIs) recorded on energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) systems attached to scanning electron microscopes (SEMs). The aim of iSpectra is to assign pixels with similar spectral content to phases, accompanied by cumulative phase spectra with superior counting statistics for quantification. Pixel-to-phase assignment starts with a threshold-based pre-sorting of spectra to create groups of pixels with identical elemental budgets, similar to a method described by van Hoek (2014). Subsequent merging of groups and re-assignments of pixels using elemental or principle component histogram plots enables the user to generate chemically and texturally plausible phase maps. A variety of standard image processing algorithms can be applied to groups of pixels to optimize pixel-to-phase assignments, such as morphology operations to account for overlapping excitation volumes over pixels located at phase boundaries. iSpectra supports batch processing and allows pixel-to-phase assignments to be applied to an unlimited amount of SIs, thus enabling phase mapping of large area samples like petrographic thin sections. PMID:26165853

  20. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy using incoherent light: theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Turner, Daniel B; Howey, Dylan J; Sutor, Erika J; Hendrickson, Rebecca A; Gealy, M W; Ulness, Darin J

    2013-07-25

    Electronic energy transfer in photosynthesis occurs over a range of time scales and under a variety of intermolecular coupling conditions. Recent work has shown that electronic coupling between chromophores can lead to coherent oscillations in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements of pigment-protein complexes measured with femtosecond laser pulses. A persistent issue in the field is to reconcile the results of measurements performed using femtosecond laser pulses with physiological illumination conditions. Noisy-light spectroscopy can begin to address this question. In this work we present the theoretical analysis of incoherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, I((4)) 2D ES. Simulations reveal diagonal peaks, cross peaks, and coherent oscillations similar to those observed in femtosecond two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy experiments. The results also expose fundamental differences between the femtosecond-pulse and noisy-light techniques; the differences lead to new challenges and new opportunities. PMID:23176195

  1. Multi-wavelength analysis of Ellerman Bomb Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herlender, M.; Berlicki, A.

    We present the results of a multi-wavelength photometric analysis of Ellerman Bomb (EB) observations obtained from the Dutch Open Telescope. In our data we have found 6 EBs located in the super-penumbra of the main spot in the active region NOAA 10781. We present light curves of EB observed in the Hα line centre and wing +0.7 Å, in the Ca II H line centre and wing~+2.35 Å, in the G-band and in the TRACE 1600 Å filter. We have shown that EBs were visible in the G-band and moreover, there was a good correlation between the light curves in the G-band and in the Hα line wings. We also found quasi-periodic oscillations of EBs brightness in the G-band, CaII H line and TRACE 1600 Å filter.

  2. Introducing phase analysis light scattering for dielectric characterization: measurement of traveling-wave pumping.

    PubMed Central

    Gimsa, J; Eppmann, P; Prüger, B

    1997-01-01

    Phase analysis light scattering (PALS) was applied to characterize a high-frequency traveling-wave (TW) micropump. Field strength and frequency characteristics were measured for aqueous solutions up to 40 MHz and conductivities of 16 mS/m. The TW field was generated by an ultramicroelectrode array of intercastellated electrodes, which were driven by square-topped signals. Pumping exhibited one major relaxation peak, which strongly increased for conductivities above 4 mS/m. The conductivity dependence of the peak frequency showed an unexpected nonlinear behavior. Around 20 MHz an additional peak caused by electronic resonance was found. Additional coils or capacitors shifted the resonance peak and allowed us to determine the electronic properties of the array. Analysis of distortions in the pump spectra caused by the harmonic content of the driving signals showed that the pump direction is determined by the traveling direction of the field. For measurement of AC-field-induced particle translations, the advantage of PALS over the commonly used microscopic analysis is that it offers an objective method for statistically significant, computerized registration of extremely slow motions. Thus, for dielectric characterization, low field strengths can be used, which is advantageous not only for analyzing liquid pumping, but also for measuring particle translations induced by dielectrophoresis or TW dielectrophoresis. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 7 PMID:9414241

  3. Analysis of beam interference reflected from atomic force microscope tip and periodic silicon surface under various humidity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Hans P.; Weerasinghe, Asanka T.; Lyuksyutov, Sergei F.

    2012-10-01

    Dynamical sensing based on combination of classical optical effects and atomic force microscopy (AFM) presents challenge for analysis of the forces at the nanoscale and beyond. An interference effect between light reflected from an AFM cantilever and highly reflective silicon surface of the calibration grating was studied for relative humidity (RH) varied between 9 and 60%. Force-distance analysis indicates on separation of capillary, van der Waals, adhesion, and electrostatic forces. The measurements performed in contact AFM mode suggest that the period of interference pattern observed in displacement curves is a function of humidity and varies between 293 nm at RH = 9% and 335 nm at RH > 50% with standard deviation less than 8 nm. Clear change of the interference period suggests that other than hardwarerelated factors may be involved in the formation of the interference in force-distance curves.

  4. Scanning-electron-microscope image processing for accurate analysis of line-edge and line-width roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Nishida, Akio

    2012-03-01

    The control of line-edge or line-width roughness (LER/LWR) is a challenge especially for future devices that are fabricated using extreme-ultraviolet lithography. Accurate analysis of the LER/LWR plays an essential role in this challenge and requires the noise involved in scanning-electron-microscope (SEM) images to be reduced by appropriate image processing prior to analyses. In order to achieve this, the authors simulated SEM images using the Monte-Carlo method and detected line edges in experimental and these theoretical images after noise filtering using new imageanalysis software. The validity of these simulation and software was confirmed by a good agreement between the experimental and theoretical results. In the case when the image pixels aligned perpendicular (crosswise) to line edges were averaged, the variance var(φ) that was additionally induced by the image noise decreased with the number NPIX,X of averaged pixels but turned to increase for relatively large NPIX,X's. Real LER/LWR, however, remained unaffected. On the other hand, averaging image pixels aligned parallel (longitudinal) to line edges not only reduced var(φ) but smoothed the real LER/LWR. As a result, the nominal variance of the real LWR, obtained using simple arithmetic, monotonically decreased with the number NPIX,L of averaged pixels. Artifactual oscillations were additionally observed in power spectral densities. var(φ) in this case decreased in an inverse proportion to the square root of NPIX,L according to the statistical mechanism clarified here. In this way, image processing has a marked effect on the LER/LWR analysis and needs to be much more cared and appropriately applied. All the aforementioned results not only constitute a solid basis of but improve previous empirical instructions for accurate analyses. The most important instruction is to avoid the longitudinal averaging and to crosswise average an optimized number of image pixels consulting the equation derived in this

  5. Mechanism of Wiggly Compaction Band Formation in High-porosity Sandstone: Field Observation, Microscopic Analysis and Numerical Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Pollard, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    Field data and microscopic analysis are combined with numerical simulation to investigate the mechanism of wiggly compaction band formation in the high-porosity aeolian Aztec sandstone, Valley of Fire, Nevada. Field data show that the segments of wiggly compaction bands have similar orientations to preexisting shear-enhanced compaction bands, H1 and H2. The wiggly bands are inferred to propagate and periodically switch orientations between H1 and H2. The direction of greatest compression (σ3) is interpreted as perpendicular to the overall strike of wiggly compaction bands, and the band segments that are perpendicular to σ3 are pure compaction bands. Analysis of micropores shows that pure compaction bands have the greatest porosity, and may have a different failure mechanism. In discrete element modelling, a particle is used to represent a pore structure surrounded by several grains. Similar to actual pore structure, the breakable particle is compacted when the resultant force acting on the particle exceeds the yielding cap determined by the failure force (Ff) and aspect ratio of the cap ellipse (k). The discrete element model, built up of many breakable particles, is compressed to simulate the formation of compaction bands. The direction of propagation of compacted zones is determined by the cap aspect ratio (k). When k=0.5, compacted zones tend to propagate perpendicular to σ3, which corresponds to pure compaction bands. When k=2, two 45-degree directions are the predominant directions of compacted zones. The local stress state around a band tip is changed when it propagates, and the segment switches to the other direction when it reaches a critical length. As a result the wiggly compaction band takes on a wiggly pattern.

  6. Light stable isotope analysis of meteorites by ion microprobe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The main goal was to develop the necessary secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS) techniques to use a Cameca ims-4f ion microprobe to measure light stable isotope ratios (H, C, O and S) in situ and in non-conducting mineral phases. The intended application of these techniques was the analysis of meteorite samples, although the techniques that have been developed are equally applicable to the investigation of terrestrial samples. The first year established techniques for the analysis of O isotope ratios (delta O-18 and delta O-17) in conducting mineral phases and the measurement of S isotope ratios (delta S-34) in a variety of sulphide phases. In addition, a technique was developed to measure delta S-34 values in sulphates, which are insulators. Other research undertaken in the first year resulted in SIMS techniques for the measurement of wide variety of trace elements in carbonate minerals, with the aim of understanding the nature of alteration fluids in carbonaceous chondrites. In the second year we developed techniques for analyzing O isotope ratios in nonconducting mineral phases. These methods are potentially applicable to the measurement of other light stable isotopes such as H, C and S in insulators. Also, we have further explored the analytical techniques used for the analysis of S isotopes in sulphides by analyzing troilite in a number of L and H ordinary chondrites. This was done to see if there was any systematic differences with petrological type.

  7. Issues affecting advanced passive light-water reactor safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beelman, R.J.; Fletcher, C.D.; Modro, S.M.

    1992-08-01

    Next generation commercial reactor designs emphasize enhanced safety through improved safety system reliability and performance by means of system simplification and reliance on immutable natural forces for system operation. Simulating the performance of these safety systems will be central to analytical safety evaluation of advanced passive reactor designs. Yet the characteristically small driving forces of these safety systems pose challenging computational problems to current thermal-hydraulic systems analysis codes. Additionally, the safety systems generally interact closely with one another, requiring accurate, integrated simulation of the nuclear steam supply system, engineered safeguards and containment. Furthermore, numerical safety analysis of these advanced passive reactor designs wig necessitate simulation of long-duration, slowly-developing transients compared with current reactor designs. The composite effects of small computational inaccuracies on induced system interactions and perturbations over long periods may well lead to predicted results which are significantly different than would otherwise be expected or might actually occur. Comparisons between the engineered safety features of competing US advanced light water reactor designs and analogous present day reactor designs are examined relative to the adequacy of existing thermal-hydraulic safety codes in predicting the mechanisms of passive safety. Areas where existing codes might require modification, extension or assessment relative to passive safety designs are identified. Conclusions concerning the applicability of these codes to advanced passive light water reactor safety analysis are presented.

  8. Issues affecting advanced passive light-water reactor safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beelman, R.J.; Fletcher, C.D.; Modro, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    Next generation commercial reactor designs emphasize enhanced safety through improved safety system reliability and performance by means of system simplification and reliance on immutable natural forces for system operation. Simulating the performance of these safety systems will be central to analytical safety evaluation of advanced passive reactor designs. Yet the characteristically small driving forces of these safety systems pose challenging computational problems to current thermal-hydraulic systems analysis codes. Additionally, the safety systems generally interact closely with one another, requiring accurate, integrated simulation of the nuclear steam supply system, engineered safeguards and containment. Furthermore, numerical safety analysis of these advanced passive reactor designs wig necessitate simulation of long-duration, slowly-developing transients compared with current reactor designs. The composite effects of small computational inaccuracies on induced system interactions and perturbations over long periods may well lead to predicted results which are significantly different than would otherwise be expected or might actually occur. Comparisons between the engineered safety features of competing US advanced light water reactor designs and analogous present day reactor designs are examined relative to the adequacy of existing thermal-hydraulic safety codes in predicting the mechanisms of passive safety. Areas where existing codes might require modification, extension or assessment relative to passive safety designs are identified. Conclusions concerning the applicability of these codes to advanced passive light water reactor safety analysis are presented.

  9. Miniature self-contained vacuum compatible electronic imaging microscope

    DOEpatents

    Naulleau, Patrick P.; Batson, Phillip J.; Denham, Paul E.; Jones, Michael S.

    2001-01-01

    A vacuum compatible CCD-based microscopic camera with an integrated illuminator. The camera can provide video or still feed from the microscope contained within a vacuum chamber. Activation of an optional integral illuminator can provide light to illuminate the microscope subject. The microscope camera comprises a housing with a objective port, modified objective, beam-splitter, CCD camera, and LED illuminator.

  10. Performance Analysis of Visible Light Communication Using CMOS Sensors.

    PubMed

    Do, Trong-Hop; Yoo, Myungsik

    2016-01-01

    This paper elucidates the fundamentals of visible light communication systems that use the rolling shutter mechanism of CMOS sensors. All related information involving different subjects, such as photometry, camera operation, photography and image processing, are studied in tandem to explain the system. Then, the system performance is analyzed with respect to signal quality and data rate. To this end, a measure of signal quality, the signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR), is formulated. Finally, a simulation is conducted to verify the analysis. PMID:26938535

  11. Performance Analysis of Visible Light Communication Using CMOS Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Do, Trong-Hop; Yoo, Myungsik

    2016-01-01

    This paper elucidates the fundamentals of visible light communication systems that use the rolling shutter mechanism of CMOS sensors. All related information involving different subjects, such as photometry, camera operation, photography and image processing, are studied in tandem to explain the system. Then, the system performance is analyzed with respect to signal quality and data rate. To this end, a measure of signal quality, the signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR), is formulated. Finally, a simulation is conducted to verify the analysis. PMID:26938535

  12. A new approach to the analysis of Mira light curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennessier, M. O.; Barthes, D.; Mattei, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    Two different but complementary methods for predicting Mira luminosities are presented. One method is derived from a Fourier analysis, it requires performing deconvolution, and its results are not certain due to the inherent instability of deconvolution problems. The other method is a learning method utilizing artificial intelligence techniques where a light curve is presented as an ordered sequence of pseudocycles, and rules are learned by linking the characteristics of several consecutive pseudocycles to one characteristic of the future cycle. It is observed that agreement between these methods is obtainable when it is possible to eliminate similar false frequencies from the preliminary power spectrum and to improve the degree of confidence in the rules.

  13. Fibrin Architecture in Clots: A Quantitative Polarized Light Microscopy Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, Peter; Przyklenk, Karin

    2009-01-01

    Fibrin plays a vital structural role in thrombus integrity. Thus, the ability to assess fibrin architecture has potential to provide insight into thrombosis and thrombolysis. Fibrin has an anisotropic molecular structure, which enables it to be seen with polarized light. Therefore, we aimed to determine if automated polarized light microscopy methods of quantifying two structural parameters; fibrin fiber bundle orientation and fibrin's optical retardation (OR: a measure of molecular anisotropy) could be used to assess thrombi. To compare fibrin fiber bundle orientation we analyzed picrosirius red-stained sections obtained from clots formed: (A) in vitro, (B) in injured and stenotic coronary arteries, and (C) in surgically created aortic aneurysms (n = 6 for each group). To assess potential changes in OR, we examined fibrin in picrosirius red-stained clots formed after ischemic preconditioning (10 minutes ischemia + 10 minutes reflow; a circumstance shown to enhance lysability) and in control clots (n = 8 each group). The degree of fibrin organization differed significantly according to the location of clot formation; fibrin was most aligned in the aneurysms and least aligned in vitro whereas fibrin in the coronary clots had an intermediate organization. The OR of fibrin in the clots formed after ischemic preconditioning was lower than that in controls (2.9 ± 0.5 nm versus 5.4 ± 1.0 nm, P < 0.05). The automated polarized light analysis methods not only enabled fibrin architecture to be assessed, but also revealed structural differences in clots formed under different circumstances. PMID:19054699

  14. Noise filtering of scanning-electron-microscope images for accurate analysis of line-edge and line-width roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Nishida, Akio

    2012-10-01

    The control of line-edge or line-width roughness (LER/LWR) is a challenge, especially for future devices that are fabricated using extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. Accurate analysis of the LER/LWR plays an essential role in this challenge and requires the noise involved in scanning-electron-microscope (SEM) images to be reduced by appropriate noise filtering prior to analysis. To achieve this, we simulated the SEM images using a Monte Carlo method, and detected line edges in both experimental and theoretical images after noise filtering using new image-analysis software. The validity of this software and these simulations was confirmed by a good agreement between the experimental and theoretical results. In the case when the image pixels aligned perpendicular (crosswise) to line edges were averaged, the variance var(φ) that was additionally induced by the image noise decreased with a number N of averaged pixels, with exceptions when N was relatively large, whereupon the variance increased. The optimal N to minimize var(φ) was formulated based on a statistical mechanism of this change. LER/LWR statistics estimated using the crosswise filtering remained unaffected when N was smaller than the aforementioned optimal value, but monotonically changed when N was larger contrary to expectations. This change was possibly caused by an asymmetric scan-signal profile at edges. On the other hand, averaging image pixels aligned parallel (longitudinal) to line edges not only reduced var(φ) but smoothed real LER/LWR. As a result, the nominal variance of real LWR, obtained using simple arithmetic, monotonically decreased with a number N of averaged pixels. Artifactual oscillations were additionally observed in power spectral densities. Var(φ) in this case decreased in inverse proportion to the square root of N according to the statistical mechanism clarified here. In this way, the noise filtering has a marked effect on the LER/LWR analysis and needs to be appropriately

  15. Energy Star Lighting Verification Program (Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting)

    SciTech Connect

    Conan O'Rourke; Yutao Zhou

    2007-12-31

    The Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting (PEARL) is a watchdog program. It was created in response to complaints received by utility program managers about the performance of certain Energy Star lighting products being promoted within their service territories and the lack of a self-policing mechanism within the lighting industry that would ensure the reliability of these products and their compliance with ENERGY STAR specifications. To remedy these problems, PEARL purchases and tests products that are available to the consumers in the marketplace. The Lighting Research Center (LRC) tests the selected products against the corresponding Energy Star specifications. This final report summarizes the experimental procedure and results of all cycles (Cycles 1 through 8) of PEARL program from the beginning of year 2000 to the end of 2007, along with the description of apparatus used, equipment calibration process, experimental methodology, and research findings from the testing. In each cycle of PEARL program, PEARL Board selects a list of Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) and Residential Lighting Fixture (RLF) models that are Energy Star qualified. In Cycle 5, Cycle 7, and Cycle 8, no fixture models were selected. After that PEARL sponsors procure product samples for each selected model from different stores and locations in the retail market and send them to LRC for testing. LRC then receive and select the samples, and test them against Energy Star specifications. After the testing LRC analyze and report the results to PEARL Board. Totally 185 models of CFL and 52 models of RLF were tested in PEARL program. Along with the evolution of the Energy Star specifications from year 2000 to 2003, parameters that were required by Energy Star changed during the eight years of PEARL program. The testing parameters and number of samples tested in PEARL program also changed during this time. For example, in Cycle 1, three samples of each models were tested

  16. High resolution multimode light microscopy of cell migration: long-term imaging and analysis.

    PubMed

    Wöllert, Torsten; Langford, George M

    2009-01-01

    Cell migration is a multi-step process that involves sequential changes in the cytoskeleton, cell-substrate adhesion and components of the extracellular matrix. In multicellular organisms, directional cell migration is important for normal development, wound healing and immune responses and contributes to disease states such as tumor formation and metastasis. Many cells such as fibroblasts migrate as individuals while others, such as keratinocytes, move as groups or sheets of cells.In this chapter, we use human oral keratinocytes (OKF6/TERT-2) to illustrate the complex patterns of cell migration and its regulation. In culture, sheets of keratinocytes migrate and respond to human pathogens such as Candida albicans. The dynamic changes of the cytoskeleton, cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions that change during an infection for example require observation over long periods of time in order to identify the spatio-temporal coordinated regulation of the cytoskeleton and its associated components as well as the signaling pathways that control them.Microscopic techniques for long-term live cell observation and analysis of cell migration require high-resolution imaging systems that maintain perfect focus and optimal growth conditions (temperature, CO(2)) for cells. We describe two multimode digital imaging systems (VEC-DIC and BioStation IM), both with wide-field epifluorescence and transmitted light objectives for long-term time-lapse imaging and motion analysis. PMID:19768422

  17. Toolmaker's Microscope With Video Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, Arif S.

    1988-01-01

    Display accessories increase resolution and flexibility of use. Toolmaker's microscope equipped with video monitor, auxiliary lighting, and high-resolution readout devices enables noncontacting measurements of tiny slots, indentations, and similar features on parts. Measures places difficult or impossible to reach by mechanical means.

  18. Gene Expression and Microscopic Analysis of Arabidopsis Exposed to Chloroacetanilide Herbicides and Explosive Compounds. A Phytoremediation Approach1

    PubMed Central

    Mezzari, Melissa P.; Walters, Katherine; Jelínkova, Marcela; Shih, Ming-Che; Just, Craig L.; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the function of detoxifying enzymes in plants toward xenobiotics is of major importance for phytoremediation applications. In this work, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana; ecotype Columbia) seedlings were exposed to 0.6 mm acetochlor (AOC), 2 mm metolachlor (MOC), 0.6 mm 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and 0.3 mm hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). In vivo glutathione (GSH) conjugation reactions of AOC, MOC, RDX, and TNT were studied in root cells using a multiphoton microscope. In situ labeling with monochlorobimane, used as a competitive compound for conjugation reactions with GSH, confirmed that AOC and MOC are conjugated in Arabidopsis cells. Reverse transcription-PCR established the expression profile of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and nitroreductases enzymes. Genes selected for this study were AtGSTF2, AtGSTU1, AtGSTU24, and two isoforms of 12-oxophytodienoate reductase (OPR1 and OPR2). The five transcripts tested were induced by all treatments, but RDX resulted in low induction. The mRNA level of AtGSTU24 showed substantial increase for all chemicals (23-fold induction for AOC, 18-fold for MOC, 5-fold for RDX, and 40-fold for TNT). It appears that GSTs are also involved in the conjugation reactions with metabolites of TNT, and to a lesser extent with RDX. Results indicate that OPR2 is involved in plant metabolism of TNT (11-fold induction), and in oxidative stress when exposed to AOC (7-fold), MOC (9-fold), and RDX (2-fold). This study comprises gene expression analysis of Arabidopsis exposed to RDX and AOC, which are considered significant environmental contaminants, and demonstrates the importance of microscopy methods for phytoremediation investigations. PMID:15923336

  19. Microscopical and chemical surface characterization of CAD/CAM zircona abutments after different cleaning procedures. A qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To describe and characterize the surface topography and cleanliness of CAD/CAM manufactured zirconia abutments after steaming and ultrasonic cleaning. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 12 ceramic CAD/CAM implant abutments of various manufacturers were produced and randomly divided into two groups of six samples each (control and test group). Four two-piece hybrid abutments and two one-piece abutments made of zirconium-dioxide were assessed per each group. In the control group, cleaning by steam was performed. The test group underwent an ultrasonic cleaning procedure with acetone, ethyl alcohol and antibacterial solution. Groups were subjected to scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to verify and characterize contaminant chemical characterization non-quantitatively. RESULTS All zirconia CAD/CAM abutments in the present study displayed production-induced wear particles, debris as well as organic and inorganic contaminants. The abutments of the test group showed reduction of surface contamination after undergoing an ultrasonic cleaning procedure. However, an absolute removal of pollutants could not be achieved. CONCLUSION The presence of debris on the transmucosal surface of CAD/CAM zirconia abutments of various manufacturers was confirmed. Within the limits of the study design, the results suggest that a defined ultrasonic cleaning process can be advantageously employed to reduce such debris, thus, supposedly enhancing soft tissue healing. Although the adverse long-term influence of abutment contamination on the biological stability of peri-implant tissues has been evidenced, a standardized and validated polishing and cleaning protocol still has to be implemented. PMID:25932314

  20. Fish scale deformation analysis using scanning electron microscope: New potential biomarker in aquatic environmental monitoring of aluminum and iron contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Hidayati, Dewi; Sulaiman, Norela; Othman, Shuhaimi; Ismail, B. S.

    2013-11-27

    Fish scale has the potential to be a rapid biomarker due to its structure and high possibility to come into contact with any pollutant in the aquatic environment. The scale structure consists of osteoblastic cells and other bone materials such as collagen where it is possible to form a molecular complex with heavy metals such as aluminum and iron. Hence, aluminum and iron in water could possibly destroy the scale material and marked as a scale deformation that quantitatively could be analyzed by comparing it to the normal scale structure. Water sampling and fish cage experiment were performed between June and July 2011 in Porong river which represented the water body that has high aluminum and iron contamination. The filtered water samples were preserved and extracted using the acid-mixture procedure prior to measurement of the aluminum and iron concentrations using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), while samples for total suspended solid (TSS) analysis were kept at 4 °C in cool-boxes. The scales were cleaned with sterile water, then dehydrated in 30, 50, 70, and 90% ethanol and dried on filter papers. They were then mounted on an aluminum stub and coated with gold in a sputter coater prior to Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) observation. According to the SEM analysis, it was found that there were several deformations on the scale samples taken from sites that have high concentrations of aluminum and iron i.e. the increasing number of pits, deformation and decreasing number of spherules and ridges while the control scale exhibited the normal features. However, the site with higher TSS and pH indicated lower aluminum effect. A moderate correlation was found between the number of pits with aluminum (r=0.43) and iron (r=0.41) concentrations. Fish scale deformation using SEM analysis can potentially be a rapid biomarker in aquatic monitoring of aluminum and iron contamination. However, the measurement must be accompanied by pH and

  1. Fish scale deformation analysis using scanning electron microscope: New potential biomarker in aquatic environmental monitoring of aluminum and iron contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayati, Dewi; Sulaiman, Norela; Othman, Shuhaimi; Ismail, B. S.

    2013-11-01

    Fish scale has the potential to be a rapid biomarker due to its structure and high possibility to come into contact with any pollutant in the aquatic environment. The scale structure consists of osteoblastic cells and other bone materials such as collagen where it is possible to form a molecular complex with heavy metals such as aluminum and iron. Hence, aluminum and iron in water could possibly destroy the scale material and marked as a scale deformation that quantitatively could be analyzed by comparing it to the normal scale structure. Water sampling and fish cage experiment were performed between June and July 2011 in Porong river which represented the water body that has high aluminum and iron contamination. The filtered water samples were preserved and extracted using the acid-mixture procedure prior to measurement of the aluminum and iron concentrations using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), while samples for total suspended solid (TSS) analysis were kept at 4 °C in cool-boxes. The scales were cleaned with sterile water, then dehydrated in 30, 50, 70, and 90% ethanol and dried on filter papers. They were then mounted on an aluminum stub and coated with gold in a sputter coater prior to Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) observation. According to the SEM analysis, it was found that there were several deformations on the scale samples taken from sites that have high concentrations of aluminum and iron i.e. the increasing number of pits, deformation and decreasing number of spherules and ridges while the control scale exhibited the normal features. However, the site with higher TSS and pH indicated lower aluminum effect. A moderate correlation was found between the number of pits with aluminum (r=0.43) and iron (r=0.41) concentrations. Fish scale deformation using SEM analysis can potentially be a rapid biomarker in aquatic monitoring of aluminum and iron contamination. However, the measurement must be accompanied by pH and

  2. Comparison of Blue Light-Filtering IOLs and UV Light-Filtering IOLs for Cataract Surgery: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao-feng; Zou, Hai-dong; Yu, Yong-fu; Sun, Qian; Zhao, Nai-qing

    2012-01-01

    Background A number of published randomized controlled trials have been conducted to evaluate visual performance of blue light-filtering intraocular lenses (IOL) and UV light-filtering intraocular lenses (IOL) after cataract phacoemulsification surgery. However, results have not always been consistent. Therefore, we carried out a meta-analysis to compare the effectiveness of blue light-filtering IOLs versus UV light-filtering IOLs in cataract surgery. Methods and Findings Comprehensive searches of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and the Chinese BioMedical literature databases were performed using web-based search engines. Fifteen trials (1690 eyes) were included for systematic review, and 11 of 15 studies were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that there were no significant differences in postoperative mean best corrected visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, overall color vision, or in the blue light spectrum under photopic light conditions between blue light-filtering IOLs and UV light-filtering IOLs [WMD = −0.01, 95%CI (−0.03, 0.01), P = 0.46; WMD = 0.07, 95%CI (−0.04, 0.19), P = 0.20; SMD = 0.14, 95%CI (−0.33, 0.60), P = 0.566; SMD = 0.20, 95%CI (−0.04, 0.43), P = 0.099]. However, color vision with blue light-filtering IOLs was significantly reduced in the blue light spectrum under mesopic light conditions [SMD = 0.74, 95%CI (0.29, 1.18), P = 0.001]. Conclusion This meta-analysis demonstrates that postoperative visual performance with blue light-filtering IOLs is approximately equal to that of UV light-filtering IOLs after cataract surgery, but color vision with blue light-filtering IOLs demonstrated some compromise in the blue light spectrum under mesopic light conditions. PMID:22412976

  3. Ion photon emission microscope

    DOEpatents

    Doyle, Barney L.

    2003-04-22

    An ion beam analysis system that creates microscopic multidimensional image maps of the effects of high energy ions from an unfocussed source upon a sample by correlating the exact entry point of an ion into a sample by projection imaging of the ion-induced photons emitted at that point with a signal from a detector that measures the interaction of that ion within the sample. The emitted photons are collected in the lens system of a conventional optical microscope, and projected on the image plane of a high resolution single photon position sensitive detector. Position signals from this photon detector are then correlated in time with electrical effects, including the malfunction of digital circuits, detected within the sample that were caused by the individual ion that created these photons initially.

  4. Structural model of porcine factor VIII and factor VIIIa molecules based on scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) images and STEM mass analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Mosesson, M W; Fass, D N; Lollar, P; DiOrio, J P; Parker, C G; Knutson, G J; Hainfeld, J F; Wall, J S

    1990-01-01

    Porcine plasma factor VIII (fVIII) molecules are heterodimers composed of a 76,000-mol wt light chain (-A3-C1-C2) and a heavy chain ranging in molecular weight from 82,000 (A1-A2) to 166,000 (A1-A2-B). Proteolytic activation of fVIII by thrombin results in fVIIIa heterotrimers lacking B domains (A1, A2, A3-C1-C2). In this study, immunoaffinity purified fVIII was further fractionated by mono S or mono Q chromatography to prepare heterodimers containing a light chain and an A1-A2-B heavy chain (fVIII 166/76) or an A1-A2 heavy chain (fVIII 82/76). Mass analysis of scanning transmission electron microscopic (STEM) images of fVIII 166/76 indicated that heterodimers (mass 237 +/- 20 kD) had irregularly globular core structures 10-12 nm across, and frequently displayed a diffuse, occasionally globular to ovoid satellite structure extending 5-14 nm from the core, and attached to it by a thin stalk. Factor VIII 82/76 molecules (mass 176 +/- 20 kD) had the same core structures as fVIII 166/76 molecules, but lacked the satellite structure. These findings indicate that A1-A2 domains of heavy chains and the light chains of the fVIII procofactor molecule are closely associated and constitute the globular core structure, whereas the B domainal portion of heavy chains comprises the peripheral satellite appendage. Factor VIII core structures commonly displayed a finger-like projection near the origin of the B domainal stalk that was also a consistent feature of the free heavy chains (mass 128-162 kD) found in fVIII 166/76 preparations. Factor VIII light chain monomers (mass, 76 +/- 16 kD) were globular to c-shaped particles 6-8 nm across. These chains commonly possessed a v-shaped projection originating from its middle region, that could also be observed at the periphery of fVIII core molecules. Factor VIIIa preparations contained heterotrimers (mass 162 +/- 13 kD) that had the same dimensions as fVIII core structures, lacked the B domainal appendage, and sometimes possessed the

  5. New York State Code Adoption Analysis: Lighting Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, Eric E.

    2004-10-20

    The adoption of the IECC 2003 Energy code will include a set of Lighting Power Density (LPD) values that are effectively a subset of the values in Addendum g to the ASHRAE/IESNA/ANSI 90.1-2001 Standard which will soon be printed as part of the 90.1-2004 version. An analysis of the effectiveness of this adoption for New York State can be provided by a direct comparison of these values with existing LPD levels represented in the current IECC 2000 code, which are themselves a subset of the current ASHRAE/IESNA/ANSI 90.1-2001 Standard (without addenda). Because the complete ASHRAE 2001 and 2004 sets of LPDs are supported by a set of detailed models, they are best suited to provide the basis for an analysis comparison of the two code levels of lighting power density stringency. It is important to note that this kind of analysis is a point-to-point comparison where a fixed level of real world activity is assumed. It is understood that buildings are not built precisely to code levels and that actual percentage of compliance above and below codes will vary among individual buildings and building types. However, without specific knowledge of this real world activity for all buildings in existence and in the future (post-code adoption) it is not possible to analyze actual effects of code adoption. However, it is possible to compare code levels and determine the potential effect of changes from one code requirement level to another. This is the comparison and effectiveness assessment

  6. Henneguya collaris sp. nov., (Myxosporidia), parasite of the Greenband Parrotfish Scarus collana Rüppell, 1835 (Actinopterygii, Scaridae) from the Red Sea, Egypt. A light and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Kareem; Semmler, Margit; Al-Olayan, Ebtsam; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2016-06-01

    The phylum Myxozoa comprises more than 2180 species, almost all of which are considered to be obligate parasites of aquatic fishes. In the present study, Henneguya collaris sp. nov. is the first described histozoic myxozoan species of the genus Henneguya infecting the kidney of the greenband parrotfish Scarus collana (Actinopterygii, Scaridae). One hundred and eighty specimens of fish were collected randomly during the period from September 2014 to October 2015 from boat landing sites and the market places at Hurghada City along the Red Sea in Egypt. Of these, 90 (50 %) specimens were infected. Light microscopic examination showed that the infection was detected as mature spores with two polar capsules regularly arranged at the anterior pole of each spore and extruded polar filaments free in the kidney tissue. The spore body was oval in shape, measured 7.1 ± 0.2 (6.2-8.4) μm in length and 6.3 ± 0.2 (5.8-7.0) μm in width, with a bifurcated caudal process of equal length, reaching 6.3 ± 0.2 (5.8-7.0) μm in length. Polar capsules were 3.4 ± 0.2 (3.0-4.2) μm in length and 1.9 ± 0.2 (1.6-2.4) μm in width with 6-8 (10) turns of polar filaments. Ultrastructural analysis showed that the spore development was asynchronous. Sporogenesis, capsulogensis, valvogenesis, and spore maturation of the present parasite were also described. The present species was compared morphologically with the spore characteristics of the most similar species of Henneguya spp. recorded previously from different geographical areas taking into account the stage and dimensions of the spore body, tails, and polar filament coils, including their number and the most important characteristic features that distinguish them from the present species. Considering the data obtained, the material described herein represents a new species and the name Henneguya collaris sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:27055534

  7. Getting the Most out of the Microscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Fred W.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses some of the misconceptions that students and instructors have regarding the microscope and provides stepwise instructions to enable the biology student to acquire a sound scientific technique for setting up and using the light microscope with minimal expenditure of time and effort. (JR)

  8. DNA replication in Physarum polycephalum: electron microscopic and autoradiographic analysis of replicating DNA from defined stages of the S-period.

    PubMed Central

    Funderud, S; Andreassen, R; Haugli, F

    1979-01-01

    Electron microscopic and autoradiographic analysis of replicating DNA from Physarum showed that replication occurs at a rate of 0.4 micron/min/per replicon and that replicons of size 10--15 mu occur in temporal clusters with an average of about 4 replicons per cluster. These results are compared with previous hydrodynamic measurements and with those obtained in other organisms. Images PMID:450701

  9. Lineshape analysis of coherent multidimensional optical spectroscopy using incoherent light

    SciTech Connect

    Ulness, Darin J.; Turner, Daniel B.

    2015-06-07

    Coherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy using incoherent (noisy) light, I{sup (4)} 2D ES, holds intriguing challenges and opportunities. One challenge is to determine how I{sup (4)} 2D ES compares to femtosecond 2D ES. Here, we merge the sophisticated energy-gap Hamiltonian formalism that is often used to model femtosecond 2D ES with the factorized time-correlation formalism that is needed to describe I{sup (4)} 2D ES. The analysis reveals that in certain cases the energy-gap Hamiltonian is insufficient to model the spectroscopic technique correctly. The results using a modified energy-gap Hamiltonian show that I{sup (4)} 2D ES can reveal detailed lineshape information, but, contrary to prior reports, does not reveal dynamics during the waiting time.

  10. WTF- and A- Stars: Spectroscopic Analysis of Kepler Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grae Short, Miona; Soderblom, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of Kepler data in 2012 found that in a sample of about 2000 A- and F- stars, 1% of them seemed to exhibit white light flares. However, such stars are not thought to have the convective envelopes needed to produce the magnetic dynamos that yield flares. We use the same Kepler data but examine the flaring stars more comprehensively by analyzing the pixel data in order to predict whether this flare-like behavior may be caused by smaller, less luminous M dwarfs exhibiting genuine flares in the line of sight of the A- and F-stars. The implications of finding verifiable flare activity in a subset of these stars would be enough to incite further investigation of the physical processes that allow this to take place. Yet, if that were not the case, this project would further be able to demonstrate the steps necessary to correct for false-positives in finding flares in A- and F- stars.

  11. Structural Analysis of Crystalline R(+)-α-Lipoic Acid-α-cyclodextrin Complex Based on Microscopic and Spectroscopic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ikuta, Naoko; Endo, Takatsugu; Hosomi, Shota; Setou, Keita; Tanaka, Shiori; Ogawa, Noriko; Yamamoto, Hiromitsu; Mizukami, Tomoyuki; Arai, Shoji; Okuno, Masayuki; Takahashi, Kenji; Terao, Keiji; Matsugo, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    R(+)-α-lipoic acid (RALA) is a naturally-occurring substance, and its protein-bound form plays significant role in the energy metabolism in the mitochondria. RALA is vulnerable to a variety of physical stimuli, including heat and UV light, which prompted us to study the stability of its complexes with cyclodextrins (CDs). In this study, we have prepared and purified a crystalline RALA-αCD complex and evaluated its properties in the solid state. The results of 1H NMR and PXRD analyses indicated that the crystalline RALA-αCD complex is a channel type complex with a molar ratio of 2:3 (RALA:α-CD). Attenuated total reflection/Fourier transform infrared analysis of the complex showed the shift of the C=O stretching vibration of RALA due to the formation of the RALA-αCD complex. Raman spectroscopic analysis revealed the significant weakness of the S–S and C–S stretching vibrations of RALA in the RALA-αCD complex implying that the dithiolane ring of RALA is almost enclosed in glucose ring of α-CD. Extent of this effect was dependent on the direction of the excitation laser to the hexagonal morphology of the crystal. Solid-state NMR analysis allowed for the chemical shift of the C=O peak to be precisely determined. These results suggested that RALA was positioned in the α-CD cavity with its 1,2-dithiolane ring orientated perpendicular to the plane of the α-CD ring. PMID:26501268

  12. Light scattering Q-space analysis of irregularly shaped particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinson, Yuli W.; Maughan, Justin B.; Heinson, William R.; Chakrabarti, Amitabha; Sorensen, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    We report Q-space analysis of light scattering phase function data for irregularly shaped dust particles and of theoretical model output to describe them. This analysis involves plotting the scattered intensity versus the magnitude of the scattering wave vector q = (4π/λ)sin(θ/2), where λ is the optical wavelength and θ is the scattering angle, on a double-logarithmic plot. In q-space all the particle shapes studied display a scattering pattern which includes a q-independent forward scattering regime; a crossover, Guinier regime when q is near the inverse size; a power law regime; and an enhanced backscattering regime. Power law exponents show a quasi-universal functionality with the internal coupling parameter ρ'. The absolute value of the exponents start from 4 when ρ' < 1, the diffraction limit, and decreases as ρ' increases until a constant 1.75 ± 0.25 when ρ' ≳ 10. The diffraction limit exponent implies that despite their irregular structures, all the particles studied have mass and surface scaling dimensions of Dm = 3 and Ds = 2, respectively. This is different from fractal aggregates that have a power law equal to the fractal dimension Df because Df = Dm = Ds < 3. Spheres have Dm = 3 and Ds = 2 but do not show a single power law nor the same functionality with ρ'. The results presented here imply that Q-space analysis can differentiate between spheres and these two types of irregularly shaped particles. Furthermore, they are applicable to analysis of the contribution of aerosol radiative forcing to climate change and of aerosol remote sensing data.

  13. Analysis of the accuracy of the inverse problem solution for a differential heterodyne microscope as applied to rectangular plasmonic waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmedzhanov, I. M.; Baranov, D. V.; Zolotov, E. M.

    2016-06-01

    The existence, uniqueness, and stability of the inverse problem solution for a scanning differential heterodyne microscope as applied to rectangular plasmonic waveguides have been analyzed. The consideration is based on an algorithm using a trial-and-error method that we proposed previously to characterize plasmonic waveguides with a triangular profile. The error of the inverse problem (IP) solution is calculated as dependent on the initial data and with allowance for their errors. Instability domains are found for the IP solution, where the solution error sharply increases. It is shown that the instability domains can be eliminated and the accuracy of the IP solution can be significantly improved in the entire range of initial data by taking initial data in the form of two phase responses of the microscope at different wavelengths.

  14. Foldscope: Origami-Based Paper Microscope

    PubMed Central

    Cybulski, James S.; Clements, James; Prakash, Manu

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe an ultra-low-cost origami-based approach for large-scale manufacturing of microscopes, specifically demonstrating brightfield, darkfield, and fluorescence microscopes. Merging principles of optical design with origami enables high-volume fabrication of microscopes from 2D media. Flexure mechanisms created via folding enable a flat compact design. Structural loops in folded paper provide kinematic constraints as a means for passive self-alignment. This light, rugged instrument can survive harsh field conditions while providing a diversity of imaging capabilities, thus serving wide-ranging applications for cost-effective, portable microscopes in science and education. PMID:24940755

  15. Elemental analysis with a full-field X-ray fluorescence microscope and a CCD photon-counting system.

    PubMed

    Ohigashi, Takuji; Watanabe, Norio; Yokosuka, Hiroki; Aota, Tatsuya; Takano, Hidekazu; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Aoki, Sadao

    2002-05-01

    The first result is presented of an X-ray fluorescence microscope with a Wolter mirror in combination with a CCD camera used as an energy-resolved two-dimensional detector in photon-counting mode. Two-dimensional elemental maps of metallic wires, such as Fe, Co, Ni and Cu, and inclusions of a synthesized diamond could be obtained with an energy resolution of 350 eV. PMID:11972365

  16. Compact Video Microscope Imaging System Implemented in Colloid Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowell, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Long description Photographs showing fiber-optic light source, microscope and charge-coupled discharge (CCD) camera head connected to camera body, CCD camera body feeding data to image acquisition board in PC, and Cartesian robot controlled via PC board. The Compact Microscope Imaging System (CMIS) is a diagnostic tool with intelligent controls for use in space, industrial, medical, and security applications. CMIS can be used in situ with a minimum amount of user intervention. This system can scan, find areas of interest in, focus on, and acquire images automatically. Many multiple-cell experiments require microscopy for in situ observations; this is feasible only with compact microscope systems. CMIS is a miniature machine vision system that combines intelligent image processing with remote control. The software also has a user-friendly interface, which can be used independently of the hardware for further post-experiment analysis. CMIS has been successfully developed in the SML Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center and adapted for use for colloid studies and is available for telescience experiments. The main innovations this year are an improved interface, optimized algorithms, and the ability to control conventional full-sized microscopes in addition to compact microscopes. The CMIS software-hardware interface is being integrated into our SML Analysis package, which will be a robust general-purpose image-processing package that can handle over 100 space and industrial applications.

  17. Multispectral light scattering imaging and multivariate analysis of airborne particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holler, Stephen; Skelsey, Charles R.; Fuerstenau, Stephen D.

    2005-05-01

    Light scattering patterns from non-spherical particles and aggregates exhibit complex structure that is only revealed when observing in two angular dimensions. However, due to the varied shape and packing of such aerosols, the rich structure in the two-dimensional angular optical scattering (TAOS) pattern varies from particle to particle. We examine two-dimensional light scattering patterns obtained at multiple wavelengths using a single CCD camera with minimal cross talk between channels. The integration of the approach with a single CCD camera assures that data is acquired within the same solid angle and orientation. Since the optical size of the scattering particle is inversely proportional to the illuminating wavelength, the spectrally resolved scattering information provides characteristic information about the airborne particles simultaneously in two different scaling regimes. The simultaneous acquisition of data from airborne particulate matter at two different wavelengths allows for additional degrees of freedom in the analysis and characterization of the aerosols. Whereas our previous multivariate analyses of aerosol particles has relied solely on spatial frequency components, our present approach attempts to incorporate the relative symmetry of the particledetector system while extracting information content from both spectral channels. In addition to single channel data, this current approach also examines relative metrics. Consequently, we have begun to employ multivariate techniques based on novel morphological descriptors in order to classify "unknown" particles within a database of TAOS patterns from known aerosols utilizing both spectral and spatial information acquired. A comparison is made among several different classification metrics, all of which show improved classification capabilities relative to our previous approaches.

  18. Dynamics of neuroepithelial body (NEB) formation in developing hamster lung: Light microscopic autoradiography after sup 3 H-thymidine labeling in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyt, R.F. Jr.; McNelly, N.A.; Sorokin, S.P. )

    1990-07-01

    Autoradiographs were prepared from lungs of a newborn Syrian golden hamster exposed continuously to 3H-thymidine for the final 4.5 days of a normal 16 day gestation. Silver grains were counted over nuclei of 1,298 small-granule endocrine cells in 165 neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) in the right upper lobe and along the left axial bronchus, where nodal NEBs occurred at branch points and internodal NEBs in the airway between them. Nuclei of 1,005 nonendocrine airway epithelial cells were counted next to the NEBs. Label was distributed differently in the two populations: All nonendocrine cells were labeled, whereas many endocrine cells were not. In NEBs of the right upper lobe, total label (net grains/nuclear profile) averaged only 23% of that in nonendocrine cells. Along the left axial bronchus, mean label in nonendocrine cells and internodal NEBs rose 10-fold between the hilum and the periphery. Increases for both populations were linear and parallel, but total label in the NEBs was consistently lower than that in the surrounding epithelium by 15 grains/nuclear profile. Nodal NEBs were more lightly labeled than those of the internodes, consistent with their earlier formation. A few very heavily labeled small-granule cells (0.9%) occurred singly in the periphery of large, otherwise lightly labeled NEBs. In contrast to NEBs, neurons in 10 bronchial ganglia of the right lung were virtually unlabeled. These arise from vagal neural crest and seem to comprise an entirely distinct population. We conclude that NEBs belong intrinsically to pulmonary endoderm, not neural crest. During fetal life each develops from a cell or cells programmed to stop dividing well ahead of other elements in the epithelium. Their formation is linked closely to early proliferation of the bronchial tree and is an integral part of growth and differentiation of the airway lining.

  19. Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Audin, L.

    1994-12-31

    EPAct covers a vast territory beyond lighting and, like all legislation, also contains numerous {open_quotes}favors,{close_quotes} compromises, and even some sleight-of-hand. Tucked away under Title XIX, for example, is an increase from 20% to 28% tax on gambling winnings, effective January 1, 1993 - apparently as a way to help pay for new spending listed elsewhere in the bill. Overall, it is a landmark piece of legislation, about a decade overdue. It remains to be seen how the Federal Government will enforce upgrading of state (or even their own) energy codes. There is no mention of funding for {open_quotes}energy police{close_quotes} in EPAct. Merely creating such a national standard, however, provides a target for those who sincerely wish to create an energy-efficient future.

  20. Anti-methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Compound Isolation from Halophilic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MHB1 and Determination of Its Mode of Action Using Electron Microscope and Flow Cytometry Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jeyanthi, Venkadapathi; Velusamy, Palaniyandi

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to purify, characterize and evaluate the antibacterial activity of bioactive compound against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The anti-MRSA compound was produced by a halophilic bacterial strain designated as MHB1. The MHB1 strain exhibited 99 % similarity to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on 16S rRNA gene analysis. The culture conditions of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MHB1 were optimized using nutritional and environmental parameters for enhanced anti-MRSA compound production. The pure bioactive compound was isolated using silica gel column chromatography and Semi-preparative High-performance liquid chromatography (Semi-preparative HPLC). The Thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and proton NMR ((1)H NMR) analysis indicated the phenolic nature of the compound. The molecular mass of the purified compound was 507 Da as revealed by Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The compound inhibited the growth of MRSA with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 62.5 µg mL(-1). MRSA bacteria exposed to 4× MIC of the compound and the cell viability was determined using flow cytometric analysis. Scanning electron microscope and Transmission electron microscope analysis was used to determine the ultrastructural changes in bacteria. This is the first report on isolation of anti-MRSA compound from halophilic B. amyloliquefaciens MHB1 and could act as a promising biocontrol agent. PMID:27570306

  1. Hymenoscyphus fraxineus vs. Hymenoscyphus albidus – A comparative light microscopic study on the causal agent of European ash dieback and related foliicolous, stroma-forming species

    PubMed Central

    Baral, Hans-Otto; Bemmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    in combination with molecular work. Hy. fraxineus was described from Europe as a cryptic species that differed from Hy. albidus by molecular data alone. However, the Hy. albidus/Hy. fraxineus species complex represents one of many examples within the ascomycetes in which subtle microscopic differences between closely related species, in this case the presence or absence of croziers at the ascus base, are strictly correlated with molecular characteristics. Two species that closely resemble Hy. albidus and Hy. fraxineus form pseudosclerotia in Aesculus leaves and again differ from each other mainly in the ascus base: Hymenoscyphus aesculi on Aesculus hippocastanum from Europe lacks croziers, whereas Hymenoscyphus honshuanus from Japan on Aesculus turbinata possesses croziers. Other taxa treated here include Hymenoscyphus vacini, a European species growing on stromatized net veins of skeletonized leaves of Acer, and Hymenoscyphus torquatus, a Chinese species on unidentified herbaceous stems. An equivalent stroma-forming North American species on leaves of Fraxinus, Rutstroemia longipes (Rutstroemiaceae), is discussed and compared. A key to the Hymenoscyphus species that form a dark stroma on leaves of Acer, Aesculus, Fraxinus, and Picrasma is provided. PMID:25544935

  2. Phase unwrapping method for three-dimensional stress analysis by scattered-light photoelasticity with unpolarized light.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Toshiki

    2006-12-10

    In scattered-light photoelasticity with unpolarized light, the secondary principal stress direction psi and the relative phase retardation rho in a three-dimensional stressed model with rotation of the principal stress axes can be obtained by use of Stokes parameters. For completely automated stress analysis, measurements of the total relative phase retardation and the secondary principal stress direction over the entire field are required, and it is necessary to unwrap psi and rho. A phase unwrapping method is thus proposed for the determination of these values based on scattered-light photoelasticity. The values are easily obtained via an arctangent function, overcoming the error associated with the quarter-wave plate by employing an incident light of different wavelengths. The proposed technique provides automated and nondestructive determination of the total relative phase retardation and the secondary principal stress direction in a model exhibiting rotation of the principal stress axes. PMID:17119582

  3. Production of otoconia in the endolymphatic sac in the Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster: light and transmission electron microscopic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, W.; Wiederhold, M. L.; Hejl, R.

    1998-01-01

    The formation of otoconia in the endolymphatic sac (ES) of the larval newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster, has been studied by light and transmission electron microscopy. Some of the epithelial cells of the ES contain an abundance of swollen vesicles, Golgi complexes, rough endoplasmic reticula and ribosomes at the late larval stages 50 and 51, approximately 26-30 days after eggs are laid. Five days later, at stage 52, crystals are present in the vacuoles between the epithelial cells. Serial sections indicate that these vacuoles actually form small canals which lie in the wall and join the lumen of the ES. Reconstruction of the ES shows that several canals are contained in the ES wall. At stage 56, about 72 days after eggs are laid, a large number of otoconia are present in the ES lumen, while the otoconia disappear from the canals. It appears that the otoconia are first produced in the canals and then released to the lumen. Some epithelial cells of the ES are thought to expel the organic and inorganic material to the canals to form the otoconia in situ. The process of formation of the otoconia in the ES is discussed.

  4. Optical investigation of microscopic defect distribution in semi-polar (1-101 and 11-22) InGaN light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz, Shopan; Andrade, Nicolas; Monavarian, Morteza; Izyumskaya, Natalia; Das, Saikat; Zhang, Fan; Avrutin, Vitaliy; Morkoç, Hadis; Özgür, Ümit

    2016-02-01

    Near-field scanning optical microscopy was applied to investigate the spatial variations of extended defects and their effects on the optical quality for semi-polar (1-101) and (11-22) InGaN light emitting diodes (LEDs). (1-101) and (11-22) oriented InGaN LEDs emitting at 450-470 nm were grown on patterned Si (001) 7° offcut substrates and m-sapphire substrates by means of nano-epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO), respectively. For (1-101) structures, the photoluminescence (PL) at 85 K from the near surface c+ wings was found to be relatively uniform and strong across the sample. However, emission from the c- wings was substantially weaker due to the presence of high density of threading dislocations (TDs) and basal plane stacking faults (BSFs) as revealed from the local PL spectra. In case of (11-22) LED structures, near-field PL intensity correlated with the surface features and the striations along the direction parallel to the c-axis projection exposed facets where the Indium content was higher as deduced from shift in the PL peak energy.

  5. Light and scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in the estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis van Bénéden, 1864).

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Juliana Plácido; Mari, Renata de Britto; Marigo, Juliana; Rosas, Fernando César Weber; Watanabe, Ii-Sei

    2011-08-01

    The importance of the tongue during feeding, and the limited information on the tongue of most aquatic mammals led us to investigate its morphological aspects in sexually immature and mature Sotalia guianensis. Six tongues were measured and photo-documented after their removal from the oral cavity. The samples were divided into rostral, middle, and caudal regions, and examined using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (S.E.M.). Sotalia guianensis tongue presented lateral grooves from the apex to the middle portion, while the anterolateral region presented marginal papillae. Histological characteristics revealed the presence of a keratinized stratified epithelium, salivary glands in the middle and caudal portions of the tongue, and filiform papillae in the caudal region. S.E.M. images revealed the presence of filiform papillae and ducts of salivary glands in the middle and caudal portions of the tongue. We can conclude that the characteristics found in this study may reflect an adaptation to changes in diet after weaning. PMID:21801004

  6. Immunolocalization of thymosin alpha 1, thymopoietin and thymulin in mouse thymic epithelial cells at different stages of culture: a light and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Fabien, N; Auger, C; Monier, J C

    1988-01-01

    The secretory evolution of the thymic hormones (thymulin, thymosin alpha 1 and thymopoietin) in cultured thymic reticuloepithelial cells (TREC) was studied by immunocytochemical techniques using monoclonal anti-thymulin or anti-thymosin alpha 1 and polyclonal anti-thymopoietin antibodies (Ab). The culture of TREC was performed with a medium where L-valine was replaced by D-valine, thus ensuring rapid and selective development of these cells. The number of thymulin, thymosin alpha 1 or thymopoietin-containing cells increased progressively from Day 6 to Day 12 of the culture. The localization of the three thymic hormones within the TREC also varied according to the age of the culture. By light microscopy the staining of the three hormones was localized in some cytoplasmic granules at the beginning of the culture and at Day 90, while at Day 12 it was throughout the cytoplasm. In electron microscopy these localizations corresponded respectively to vacuoles of different sizes and to cytosol. All these results show that the synthesis and excretion of thymulin, thymosin alpha 1 and thymopoietin evolve during the development of TREC in culture. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3284819

  7. A scanning electron microscope study of the pecten oculi of the black kite (Milvus migrans): possible involvement of melanosomes in protecting the pecten against damage by ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Kiama, S G; Bhattacharjee, J; Maina, J N; Weyrauch, K D

    1994-12-01

    The pecten oculi of the black kite (Milvus migrans), a diurnally active bird of prey, has been examined by scanning electron microscopy. In this species the pecten consists of 12 highly vascularised pleats, held together apically by a heavily pigmented 'bridge' and projects freely into the vitreous body in the ventral part of the eye cup. Ascending and descending blood vessels of varying calibre, together with a profuse network of capillaries, essentially constitute the vascular framework of the pecten. A distinct distribution of melanosomes is discernible on the pecten, the concentration being highest at its apical end, moderate at the crest of the pleats and least at the basal and lateral margins. Overlying and within the vascular network, a close association between blood vessels and melanocytes is evident. It is conjectured that such an association may have evolved to augment the structural reinforcement of this nutritive organ in order to keep it firmly erectile within the gel-like vitreous. Such erectility may be an essential prerequisite for its optimal functioning, as well as in its overt use as a protective shield against the effects of ultraviolet light, which otherwise might lead to damage of the pectineal vessels. PMID:7649799

  8. Impact of inflow transport approximation on light water reactor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sooyoung; Smith, Kord; Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Deokjung

    2015-10-01

    The impact of the inflow transport approximation on light water reactor analysis is investigated, and it is verified that the inflow transport approximation significantly improves the accuracy of the transport and transport/diffusion solutions. A methodology for an inflow transport approximation is implemented in order to generate an accurate transport cross section. The inflow transport approximation is compared to the conventional methods, which are the consistent-PN and the outflow transport approximations. The three transport approximations are implemented in the lattice physics code STREAM, and verification is performed for various verification problems in order to investigate their effects and accuracy. From the verification, it is noted that the consistent-PN and the outflow transport approximations cause significant error in calculating the eigenvalue and the power distribution. The inflow transport approximation shows very accurate and precise results for the verification problems. The inflow transport approximation shows significant improvements not only for the high leakage problem but also for practical large core problem analyses.

  9. Mitochondrial analysis sheds light on the origin of hair sheep.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, I; Capote, J; Traoré, A; Fonseca, N; Pérez, K; Cuervo, M; Fernández, I; Goyache, F

    2013-06-01

    A total of 180 mtDNA sequences from hair Caribbean (93), West African (73) and Canarian-wooled (14) sheep were analysed to shed light on the origin of hair sheep. A comparison of 360 Iberian sheep sequences retrieved from GenBank was performed to assess a possible European origin of the Caribbean hair sheep. These 180 sequences gave 48 different haplotypes (16 in Caribbean sheep). All Caribbean and Canarian-wooled sequences and 91.8% of the West African samples belonged to haplogroup B. The sheep analysed showed wide haplotypic identity. Caribbean sheep shared roughly two-thirds of their samples with Canarian-wooled and West African samples, respectively. Principal component analysis showed that the Caribbean and the Canarian-wooled sheep clustered together. Additional analyses showed that hair and Iberian sheep had wide genetic identity. It was not possible to ascertain a single Canarian, African or European origin of the Caribbean hair sheep using mtDNA markers only. European, African and Caribbean hair sheep maternal genetic backgrounds likely result from related domestication events. PMID:23020288

  10. Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeley, R. H.

    1983-03-01

    The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

  11. Techniques of advanced light microscopy and their applications to morphological analysis of human extra-embryonic membranes.

    PubMed

    Ockleford, C D; Mongan, L C; Hubbard, A R

    The science of light microscopy has advanced dramatically in recent years through the introduction of new technology. A brief description of scanning light microscopes, laser illumination, the confocal principle, digital imaging, and image processing reveals a number of theoretical advantages which are particularly useful in improving epifluorescence microscope images. Examples of results from several studies of human extra-embryonic membranes conducted in our laboratory show how the application of these techniques has been used to describe structures such as microtrabeculae and rivets for the first time, to map the microscopic distribution of a wide range of proteins, and to observe the activity of placental villi at the microscopic level in an environmentally controlled microscope stage. High-sensitivity detectors have permitted the "super-resolution" detection of structures smaller than the theoretically calculated limits of light microscope resolution. Rendering images in false colour is demonstrably useful in detecting subtle variations in fluorescence intensity at different intracellular sites and at different sites within tissues of fetal membranes. Processing stacks of digital images using appropriate software allows the 3-D reconstruction of suitably sized extra-embryonic membrane components. These digital images created from optical sections through the tissue are obtained non-destructively, and the relationships in space of the components are well preserved. PMID:9260846

  12. Problems in thin film thickness measurement resolved: improvements of the fast Fourier transform analysis and consideration of the numerical aperture of microscope headers and collimators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinten, M.; Houta, F.; Fries, T.

    2015-06-01

    Thin film thickness determination with a reflectometer suffers from two problems. One problem is the leakage in the Fast Fourier Transform caused by the fact that the two variables wavenumber 1/λ and optical thickness nṡd are not really independent, since the refractive index n of the film material itself depends upon the wavenumber. This causes uncertainties in the thickness determination in the order of up to 5% for highly refractive materials like semiconductors. We present a simple but effective improvement of this contribution of the leakage that reduces the uncertainty to less than 2% for highly refractive materials. Another problem that mainly affects thin films below about 2 μm arises if one uses measuring heads collimators or even microscope headers to obtain high lateral resolutions in the thickness determination. The use of a header introduces angles of incidence different from the default angle α = 0° in reflectometry. Then, the measured reflectance becomes polarization-dependent and the angle must be explicitly considered in the evaluation algorithm. For a microscope header however, all angles between 0° and the angle of aperture must be considered. We will present a solution that allows to reduce the work for each header on taking into account the polarization of the reflected light and a corresponding effective angle αeff.

  13. Development of the areola in the early placenta of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius): a light, scanning and transmission electron microscopical study.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elnaeim, M M M; Saber, A; Hassan, A; Abou-Elmagd, A; Klisch, K; Jones, C J P; Leiser, R

    2003-12-01

    This study aimed to elucidate development of the areola in the early dromedary placenta in comparison with that of the pig and mare. Placental tissues from 25 pregnant camels were obtained from Cairo abattoir and prepared for light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy by routine methods. Vascular casts were made by injection of 4 : 1 liquid plastic mixture of mercox and methylmethacrylate. Areolar formation was first observed at 4.5 cm curved-crown-rump CVR length, while by 5-9 cm CVR length, the endometrial surface was uneven and studded with numerous uterine gland openings, where corresponding foetal areolae were barely detectable and the foetal areolar cells were of variable appearance and covered with long microvilli. At 10-13 cm CVR length the uterine gland openings developed irregular folds and the maternal areolar cells showed numerous apical blebs. At 14-29 cm CVR length the foetal areolae showed a great increase in height at the expense of their width. At 30-34 cm (CVR) length the maternal areolae appeared discoid and sharply demarcated from the surrounding inter-areolar tissues and the foetal areolae were rounded to irregular in shape with well-developed areolar rims. The vascular casts showed a widely meshed capillary network on the maternal areola, connecting with the pre- and post-capillary vessels, whereas the foetal side showed a relatively dense capillary meshwork. These studies indicate that the areola in the placenta of the one-humped camel is of the regular type like in the pig, and is poorly vascularized. PMID:14651479

  14. Fetomaternal attachment and anchorage in the early diffuse epitheliochorial placenta of the camel (Camelus dromedarius). Light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elnaeim, M M; Pfarrer, C; Saber, A S; Abou-Elmagd, A; Jones, C J; Leiser, R

    1999-01-01

    Placentae of 22 one-humped camel concepti with crown-rump lengths (CRL) ranging from 2.5 to 26 cm were studied. The placentae were processed for light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy of exposed surfaces and microvascular corrosion casts. In very early stages of pregnancy (2.5-4.5 cm CRL) three froms of fetomaternal interrelationship are described. (1) Precontact, where the mononuclear trophoblast cells are still separated from the uterine epithelium by a gap containing interareolar histotroph. Both fetal and maternal epithelia develop apical ectoplasmic pads in this location. (2) Apposition, where microvilli of the apical cell membrane of the trophoblast contact the uterine epithelium focally. Multinuclear trophoblast giant cells develop beside the population of already present mononuclear trophoblast cells. Uterine ectoplasmic pads can be observed. (3) Adhesion occurs when apical cell membranes of fetal and maternal epithelia adhere to each other closely, thus forming a 'normal' intercellular space of 20 nm width, without any intervening uterine luminal space. Microvillous interdigitation in this location varies from a non-microvillous 'smooth adhesion', to a distinctly villiform 'rough adhesion', and a 'semismooth adhesion' is achieved when trophoblastic microvilli make intimate contact with the non-microvillous uterine apical cell membranes of ectoplasmic pads. This fetomaternal attachment process is sufficient until the conceptus reaches approximately 9 cm CRL. Then, from 10 to 13 cm CRL, additional anchorage of the placenta to the endometrium is accomplished by the growth of temporary grooves and ridges of the allantochorion and the endometrium, which indent each other in a complementary fashion. The height of these groove-ridge structures increases gradually in 14 to 18 cm CRL fetuses, and they also widen at about 25 cm CRL, thus forming globular fetal troughs and irregular, thick maternal ridges. These together create units responsible for

  15. UTILITY OF LIGHT SCATTER IN THE MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF SPERM

    EPA Science Inventory

    By using an Ortho flow cytometer to detect the forward light scatter from a red (helium-neon) laser, we were able to differentiate the morphologically diverse sperm nuclei of four animal species. ytograms composed of the axial light loss and forward red scatter signals revealed u...

  16. Utility of light scatter in the morphological analysis of sperm

    EPA Science Inventory

    We were able to differentiate the morphologically diverse sperm nuclei of four animal species by using an Ortho flow cytometer to detect the forward light scatter from a red (helium-neon) laser. Cytograms depicting the axial light loss and forward red scatter signals revealed uni...

  17. Scanning light spot analysis of faulty solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehovec, K.; Fedotowsky, A.

    1980-06-01

    Current output patterns of a solar cell panel exposed to a scanning light spot are computed for fault-free and for faulty cell containing either cracks with leakage conductances across the exposed junction at the crack, or point shorts in series with various spreading resistances. Low light level, uniform attenuation length, and an external panel termination of low impedance are assumed. It is shown that various boundary conditions can be satisfied by appropriate imaging techniques. A general equivalency theorem for the cell output of an illuminated point with that of an illuminated line through that point parallel to the finger electrode is derived and utilized. The preferred attenuation length of about half the finger electrode spacing can be achieved by modulating the light beam at an appropriate frequency which is typically in the low MHz range. Output patterns generated by a modulated light beam are compared with those obtained by unmodulated light.

  18. The Scanning Optical Microscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, C. J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the principle of the scanning optical microscope and explains its advantages over the conventional microscope in the improvement of resolution and contrast, as well as the possibility of producing a picture from optical harmonies generated within the specimen.

  19. Two-photon light-sheet nanoscopy by fluorescence fluctuation correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuanze; Zong, Weijian; Li, Rongqin; Zeng, Zhiping; Zhao, Jia; Xi, Peng; Chen, Liangyi; Sun, Yujie

    2016-05-01

    Advances in light-sheet microscopy have enabled the fast three-dimensional (3D) imaging of live cells and bulk specimens with low photodamage and phototoxicity. Combining light-sheet illumination with super-resolution imaging is expected to resolve subcellular structures. Actually, such kind of super-resolution light-sheet microscopy was recently demonstrated using a single-molecule localization algorithm. However, the imaging depth and temporal resolution of this method are limited owing to the requirements of precise single molecule localization and reconstruction. In this work, we present two-photon super-resolution light-sheet imaging via stochastic optical fluctuation imaging (2PLS-SOFI), which acquires high spatiotemporal resolution and excellent optical sectioning ability. 2PLS-SOFI is based on non-linear excitation of fluctuation/blinking probes using our recently developed fast two-photon three-axis digital scanned light-sheet microscope (2P3A-DSLM), which enables both deep penetration and thin sheet of light. Overall, 2PLS-SOFI demonstrates up to 3-fold spatial resolution enhancement compared with conventional two-photon light-sheet (2PLS) microscopy and about 40-fold temporal resolution enhancement compared with individual molecule localization-selective plane illumination microscopy (IML-SPIM). Therefore, 2PLS-SOFI is promising for 3D long-term, deep-tissue imaging with high spatiotemporal resolution.

  20. Two-photon light-sheet nanoscopy by fluorescence fluctuation correlation analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuanze; Zong, Weijian; Li, Rongqin; Zeng, Zhiping; Zhao, Jia; Xi, Peng; Chen, Liangyi; Sun, Yujie

    2016-05-21

    Advances in light-sheet microscopy have enabled the fast three-dimensional (3D) imaging of live cells and bulk specimens with low photodamage and phototoxicity. Combining light-sheet illumination with super-resolution imaging is expected to resolve subcellular structures. Actually, such kind of super-resolution light-sheet microscopy was recently demonstrated using a single-molecule localization algorithm. However, the imaging depth and temporal resolution of this method are limited owing to the requirements of precise single molecule localization and reconstruction. In this work, we present two-photon super-resolution light-sheet imaging via stochastic optical fluctuation imaging (2PLS-SOFI), which acquires high spatiotemporal resolution and excellent optical sectioning ability. 2PLS-SOFI is based on non-linear excitation of fluctuation/blinking probes using our recently developed fast two-photon three-axis digital scanned light-sheet microscope (2P3A-DSLM), which enables both deep penetration and thin sheet of light. Overall, 2PLS-SOFI demonstrates up to 3-fold spatial resolution enhancement compared with conventional two-photon light-sheet (2PLS) microscopy and about 40-fold temporal resolution enhancement compared with individual molecule localization-selective plane illumination microscopy (IML-SPIM). Therefore, 2PLS-SOFI is promising for 3D long-term, deep-tissue imaging with high spatiotemporal resolution. PMID:27121341

  1. Light and scanning electron microscopic study on the lingual papillae and their connective tissue cores of the Cape hyrax Procavia capensis

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Ken; Hama, Natsuki; Shindo, Junji; Kobayashi, Kan; Kageyama, Ikuo

    2008-01-01

    We examined the epithelial surface and connective tissue cores (CTCs) of each lingual papilla on the Paenungulata, Cape hyrax (Procavia capensis), by scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. The tongue consisted of a lingual apex, lingual body and lingual root. Filiform, fungiform and foliate papillae were observed on the dorsal surface of the tongue; however, fungiform papillae were quite diminished on the lingual prominence. Moreover, no clearly distinguishable vallate papillae were found on the tongue. Instead of vallate papillae, numerous dome-like large fungiform papillae were arranged in a row just in front of the rather large foliate papillae. Foliate papillae were situated in the one-third postero-lateral margin of the lingual body. The epithelium of filiform papillae was covered by a keratinized layer with kerato-hyaline granules, whereas weak keratinization was observed on the interpapillary epithelium. The external surface of the filiform papillae was conical in shape. CTCs of the filiform papillae were seen as a hood-like core with a semicircular concavity in the anterior portion of each core. Large filiform papillae were distributed on the lingual prominence. The CTCs of large filiform papillae after exfoliation of their epithelium consisted of a concave primary core and were associated with several small protrusions. The surface of fungiform papillae was smooth and dome-like. After removal of the epithelium, CTCs appeared as a flower bud-like primary core and were associated with several protrusions that were arranged on the rim of the primary core. Several taste buds were found on the top of the dorsal part of the epithelium of both fungiform and large fungiform papillae. Well-developed foliate papillae were seen and numerous taste buds could be observed in the lateral wall of the epithelium in a slit-like groove. The morphological characteristics of the tongue of the Cape hyrax had similarities with other Paenungulata such as Sirenia

  2. THz wave emission microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Tao

    Sensing and imaging using Terahertz (THz) radiation has attracted more and more interest in the last two decades thanks to the abundant material 'finger prints' in the THz frequency range. The low photon energy also makes THz radiation an attractive tool for nondestructive evaluation of materials and devices, biomedical applications, security checks and explosive screening. Due to the long wavelength, the far-field THz wave optical systems have relatively low spatial resolution. This physical limitation confines THz wave sensing and imaging to mostly macro-size samples. To investigate local material properties or micro-size structures and devices, near-field technology has to be employed. In this dissertation, the Electro-Optical THz wave emission microscope is investigated. The basic principle is to focus the femtosecond laser to a tight spot on a thin THz emitter layer to produce a THz wave source with a similar size as the focus spot. The apparatus provides a method for placing a THz source with sub-wavelength dimension in the near-field range of the investigated sample. Spatial resolution to the order of one tenth of the THz wavelength is demonstrated by this method. The properties of some widely used THz wave emission materials under tight focused pump light are studied. As an important branch of THz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), THz wave emission spectroscopy has been widely used as a tool to investigate the material physics, such as energy band structure, carrier dynamics, material nonlinear properties and dynamics. As the main work of this dissertation, we propose to combine the THz wave emission spectroscopy with scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to build a tip-assisted THz wave emission microscope (TATEM), which is a valuable extension to current SPM science and technology. Illuminated by a femtosecond laser, the biased SPM tip forms a THz wave source inside the sample beneath the tip. The source size is proportional to the apex size of the tip so

  3. TEAM Electron Microscope Animation

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    The TEAM Electron Microscope, a device that enables atomic-scale imaging in 3-D, has a rotating stage that can hold and position samples inside electron microscopes with unprecedented stability, position-control accuracy, and range of motion.The TEAM Stage makes one of the world's most powerful electron microscopes even better, and enables previously impossible experiments.

  4. Feature extraction and fusion for protein structure identification in cryo-electron microscopic images using independent component analysis and the projection-slice synthetic filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riasati, Vahid R.; Braunreiter, Dennis

    2006-04-01

    In this paper we utilize the Projection-Slice Synthetic Discriminant Function Filters, PSDF, in concert with an Independent Component Analysis technique to simultaneously reduce the data set that represents each of the training images and to emphasize subtle differences in each of the training images. These differences are encoded into the PSDF in order to improve the filter sensitivity for the recognition and identification of protein images formed from a cryo-electron microscopic imaging process. The PSDF and Independent Component Analysis provide a premise not only for the identification of the class of structures under consideration, but also for detecting the orientation of the structures in these images. The protein structures found in cryo-electron microscopic imaging represent a class of objects that have low resolution and contrast and subtle variation. This poses a challenge in design of filters to recognize these structures due to false targets that often have similar characteristics as the protein structures. The incorporation of a component analysis and eigen values conditioning in forming the filter provides an enhanced approach of de-correlating images prior to their incorporation into the filter. We present our method of filter synthesis and the results of the application of this modified filter to a protein structure recognition problem.

  5. Analysis of selected Kepler Mission planetary light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, M. D.; Budding, E.

    2014-06-01

    We have modified the graphical user interfaced close binary system analysis program CurveFit to the form WinKepler and applied it to 16 representative planetary candidate light curves found in the NASA Exoplanet Archive (NEA) at the Caltech website http://exoplanetarchive.ipac.caltech.edu, with an aim to compare different analytical approaches. WinKepler has parameter options for a realistic physical model, including gravity-brightening and structural parameters derived from the relevant Radau equation. We tested our best-fitting parameter-sets for formal determinacy and adequacy. A primary aim is to compare our parameters with those listed in the NEA. Although there are trends of agreement, small differences in the main parameter values are found in some cases, and there may be some relative bias towards a 90∘ value for the NEA inclinations. These are assessed against realistic error estimates. Photometric variability from causes other than planetary transits affects at least 6 of the data-sets studied; with small pulsational behaviour found in 3 of those. For the false positive KOI 4.01, we found that the eclipses could be modelled by a faint background classical Algol as effectively as by a transiting exoplanet. Our empirical checks of limb-darkening, in the cases of KOI 1.01 and 12.01, revealed that the assigned stellar temperatures are probably incorrect. For KOI 13.01, our empirical mass-ratio differs by about 7 % from that of Mislis and Hodgkin (Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 422:1512, 2012), who neglected structural effects and higher order terms in the tidal distortion. Such detailed parameter evaluation, additional to the usual main geometric ones, provides an additional objective for this work.

  6. Clinical microscopic analysis of ProTaper retreatment system efficacy considering root canal thirds using three endodontic sealers.

    PubMed

    Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis; De Figueiredo, Jose Antônio Poli; Freitas Fachin, Elaine Vianna; Húngaro Duarte, Marco Antônio; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Da Rosa, Ricardo Abreu

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of ProTaper Universal rotary retreatment system and the influence of sealer type on the presence of filling debris in the reinstrumented canals viewed in an operative clinical microscope. Forty-five palatal root canals of first molars were filled with gutta-percha and one of the following sealers: G1, EndoFill; G2, AH Plus; G3, Sealapex. The canals were then reinstrumented with ProTaper Universal rotary system. Roots were longitudinally sectioned and examined under an operative clinical microscope (10×), and the amount of filling debris on canal walls was analyzed using the AutoCAD 2004 software. A single operator used a specific software tool to outline the canal area and the filling debris area in each third (cervical, middle, and apical), as well as the total canal area. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test and Tukey test at P < 0.05. Sealapex demonstrated significant differences in the average of filling debris area/canal among the 3 thirds. This group revealed that apical third showed more debris than the both cervical and middle third (P < 0.0001). Endofill presented significantly more filling debris than Sealapex in the cervical third (P < 0.05). In the middle (P = 0.12) and apical third (P = 0.10), there were no differences amongst groups. Debris was left in all canal thirds, regardless of the retreatment technique. The greatest differences between techniques and sealers were found in the cervical third. PMID:22496039

  7. Analysis of the effect of mechanical strength of the resist film on pattern collapse behavior using atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamada, Osamu; Goto, Tomohiro; Sanada, Masakazu; Moriuchi, Takahiro; Niiyama, Takayoshi; Kawai, Akira

    2006-03-01

    Recently, pattern collapse is becoming one of the critical issues in semiconductor manufacturing and many works have been done to solve this issue1) 2). Since pattern collapse occurs when outer force onto the resist pattern such as surface tension, impact of rinse solution, etc. surpasses the resistance of the resist pattern such as mechanical strength, adhesion force between resist and substrate, it is considered effective for improvement of pattern collapse to control resist film properties by track process, i.e., optimization of the mechanical properties of the resist film and enhancement of the adhesion force between resist and substrate 3) -5). In this study, we focused on the mechanical strength of the resist film and examined how post applied bake (PAB) condition affects the pattern collapse behavior. From ellipsometry measurement, it was found that increasing PAB time and temperature resulted in thickness reduction and refractive index increase, which suggested that the density of the resist film became high. Then we analyzed the mechanical strength of the resist film with the tip indentation method using atomic force microscope. It was found that the hardness of the resist film was affected by PAB conditions and regardless of PAB condition, hardened layer existed beneath the film surface. Finally, we carried out the measurements of loads to collapse 180nm resist dot patterns using the direct peeling with atomic force microscope tip (DPAT) method. Loads ranged from 600 to 2000nN overall and essentially increased as seen for indentation measurements when PAB temperature or time was increased, except some critical conditions. Through these evaluations using AFM, we succeeded in quantitatively evaluate the mechanical properties of the resist films processed with various PAB conditions. It was found that PAB condition obviously impacts on the hardness of the resist film and it is closely related to pattern collapse load.

  8. Spectroscopic Analysis of Today's Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluhar, Edward

    2012-03-01

    In today's consumer market, there are many different light bulbs that claim to produce `natural' light. In my research, I both quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed this claim. First, utilizing a spectroscope, I compared the spectra emitted by different brands and types of compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs to the spectra emitted by the Sun. Once the bulbs were quantitatively analyzed, I proceeded to qualitatively analyze them by exposing subjects to the different bulbs. The subjects were asked to rate the quality of color in different pictures illuminated by each type of CFL. From these tests, I was able to determine the ``best'' CFL bulbs, and conclude whether the health risks associated with CFL bulbs outweigh the cost savings, longevity of the bulbs, and/or quality of light benefits.

  9. Light and electron microscopic study of the eyelids, conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue and lacrimal gland in Bilgorajska Goose (Anser anser).

    PubMed

    Klećkowska-Nawrot, Joanna; Nowaczyk, Renata; Goździewska-Harłajczuk, Karolina; Barszcz, Karolina; Kowalczyk, Artur; Łukaszewicz, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Normal structure of the accessory organs of the eye is essential for normal eye physiology. Among the most important accessory organs of the eye are the eyelids, the conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT) and the lacrimal gland (LG). The aim of this study was to demonstrate the histological structure of the eyelids and LG by histochemical and ultrastructural analysis. The study was performed on 13 adult female Bilgorajska geese. Eyelid samples were stained with the Alcian blue (AB pH 2.5) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) methods. Staining methods used for LG were AB pH 2.5, aldehyde fuchsin (AF), PAS and Hale's dialysed iron (HDI). Within the connective tissue of the eyelids, well-developed, diffuse, CALT follicles were observed, mostly under the conjunctival epithelium. Numerous lymphocytes were present within loose connective tissue. Staining of the eyelids with the PAS method demonstrated the presence of goblet cells of a mucous nature, and AB pH 2.5 staining indicated the presence of sulfated acid mucopolysaccharides. PAS staining of LG revealed the presence of secretory cells containing weakly PAS-positive granules. All epithelial cells of the corpus glandulae and the duct systems reacted positively to AB pH 2.5. HDI staining detected the presence of carboxylated acid mucopolysaccharides. Transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed two types of secretory epithelial cells in LG. Both types of LG cells contained drop-like secretory vesicles of different sizes with low or high electron density in cytoplasm, as well as small and large lipid vacuoles, and numerous small primary lysosomes. PMID:25673221

  10. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptors. Localization by light microscopic autoradiography in rat brain using (/sup 3/H)(3-Me-His/sub 2/)TRH as the radioligand

    SciTech Connect

    Mantyh, P.W.; Hunt, S.P.

    1985-02-01

    Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) is a putative neurotransmitter in both the central and peripheral nervous system. In the present report, we have used autoradiography coupled with densitometric analysis of tritium-sensitive film to investigate the distribution of (/sup 3/H)(3-Me-His2)TRH ((/sup 3/H)MeTRH)-binding sizes in the rat brain. Previous pharmacological reports have established that many of these (/sup 3/H)MeTRH-binding sites have a structure-activity profile consistent with being a physiological TRH receptor. A high level of TRH receptors were observed in the accessory olfactory bulb, lateral nucleus of the amygdala, dentate gyrus, and entorhinal cortex. Moderate levels of TRH receptors were observed in the rhinal cortex, hypothalamus, superior colliculus, several brainstem motor nuclei, and lamina I of the spinal trigeminal nucleus pars candalis, while low concentrations of receptors are present in the cerebral cortex, striatum and ventral horn of the spinal cord. Very low levels of receptors were observed in the globus pallidus and in most nuclei of the dorsal thalamus. Comparisons of the distribution of TRH receptors to TRH-immunoreactive content indicates that, while in some areas of the brain there is a rough correlation between levels of TRH peptide and its receptor, in most brain areas there is little obvious correlation between the two. While such a discrepancy has been observed for other peptides and their receptors, the extensive distribution of TRH receptors in the central nervous system does provide an explanation for the variety of behavioral effects observed when TRH is infused into the central nervous system.

  11. Astronomical Implications from an Analysis of the Spectra of LEDs Used in Street Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Delp, B.

    2013-01-01

    Using a Czerny-Turner spectrometer, 45 different types of outdoor lights were categorized. These spectra were used to determine how useful the light is to human eyes and how dark skies friendly these lights are. Dark skies friendly lighting means that little to no light shines above a right angle to the light, and should emit as little as possible below 500nm (green) wavelengths. The short wavelengths present a problem to astronomers in the form of Rayleigh scattering. The following criterion were used in selecting the best source for urban and rural lighting: color rendition measured by color rendering index (CRI), percentage of light scattered because it is emitted under 500 nm, and efficiency (lumens/watt). Analysis determined that the best option currently available is to add a 495-500 nm filter to existing and future white LEDs in cities.

  12. Provenance study through analysis of microstructural characteristics using an optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy for Goryeo celadon excavated from the seabed.

    PubMed

    Min-su, Han

    2013-08-01

    This paper aims at identifying the provenance of Goryeo celadons by understanding its microstructural characteristics, such as particles, blisters, forms and amount of pores, and the presence of crystal formation, bodies, and glazes and its boundary, using an optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analysis of the reproduced samples shows that the glazed layer of the sherd fired at higher temperatures has lower viscosity and therefore it encourages the blisters to be combined together and the layer to become more transparent. In addition, the result showed that the vitrification and melting process of clay minerals such as feldspars and quartzs on the bodies was accelerated for those samples. To factor such characteristics of the microstructure and apply it to the sherds, the samples could be divided into six categories based on status, such as small particles with many small pores or mainly large and small circular pores in the bodies, only a limited number of varied sized blisters in the glazes, and a few blisters and needle-shaped crystals on the boundary surface. In conclusion, the analysis of the microstructural characteristics using an optical microscope and SEM have proven to be useful as a categorizing reference factor in a provenance study on Goryeo celadons. PMID:23920196

  13. Evaluation of Lighting Environment Using Conjoint Analysis (Part 1)—for the Case of Office—

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Rikuo; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    In this study, evaluation of the lighting environment in offices, which consists of various attributes that are trade-offs, is conducted using the Conjoint Analysis, common in the field of marketing research. The attributes are illuminance, lighting distribution, glare, design, cost, usage of daylight, and recycling (229 subjects participated.) As a result, preferences of office lighting were quantitatively externalized. In other words, partworth utilities and importance levels of attributes for office lighting displayed general characteristics of all subjects. Moreover, a method of research by grouping the subjects according to the importance levels of attributes or according to their characteristics is proved to be valuable for better understanding the preferences of office lighting.

  14. Imaging Schwarzschild multilayer X-ray microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Baker, Phillip C.; Shealy, David L.; Core, David B.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Kerstetter, Ted

    1993-01-01

    We have designed, analyzed, fabricated, and tested Schwarzschild multilayer X-ray microscopes. These instruments use flow-polished Zerodur mirror substrates which have been coated with multilayers optimized for maximum reflectivity at normal incidence at 135 A. They are being developed as prototypes for the Water Window Imaging X-Ray Microscope. Ultrasmooth mirror sets of hemlite grade sapphire have been fabricated and they are now being coated with multilayers to reflect soft X-rays at 38 A, within the biologically important 'water window'. In this paper, we discuss the fabrication of the microscope optics and structural components as well as the mounting of the optics and assembly of the microscopes. We also describe the optical alignment, interferometric and visible light testing of the microscopes, present interferometrically measured performance data, and provide the first results of optical imaging tests.

  15. Scanning Microscopes Using X Rays and Microchannels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yu

    2003-01-01

    Scanning microscopes that would be based on microchannel filters and advanced electronic image sensors and that utilize x-ray illumination have been proposed. Because the finest resolution attainable in a microscope is determined by the wavelength of the illumination, the xray illumination in the proposed microscopes would make it possible, in principle, to achieve resolutions of the order of nanometers about a thousand times as fine as the resolution of a visible-light microscope. Heretofore, it has been necessary to use scanning electron microscopes to obtain such fine resolution. In comparison with scanning electron microscopes, the proposed microscopes would likely be smaller, less massive, and less expensive. Moreover, unlike in scanning electron microscopes, it would not be necessary to place specimens under vacuum. The proposed microscopes are closely related to the ones described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles; namely, Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO-20218), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 22, No. 8 (August 1998), page 43; and Reflective Variants of Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO-20610), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 9 (September 2002) page 6a. In all of these microscopes, the basic principle of design and operation is the same: The focusing optics of a conventional visible-light microscope are replaced by a combination of a microchannel filter and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector. A microchannel plate containing parallel, microscopic-cross-section holes much longer than they are wide is placed between a specimen and an image sensor, which is typically the CCD. The microchannel plate must be made of a material that absorbs the illuminating radiation reflected or scattered from the specimen. The microchannels must be positioned and dimensioned so that each one is registered with a pixel on the image sensor. Because most of the radiation incident on the microchannel walls becomes absorbed, the radiation that reaches the

  16. An analysis of scattered light in low dispersion IUE spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basri, G.; Clarke, J. T.; Haisch, B. M.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed numerical simulation of light scattering from the low-resolution grating in the short wavelength spectrograph of the IUE Observatory was developed, in order to quantitatively analyze the effects of scattering on both continuum and line emission spectra. It is found that: (1) the redistribution of light by grating scattering did not appreciably alter either the shape or the absolute flux level of continuum spectra for A-F stars; (2) late-type stellar continua showed a tendency to flatten when observed in scattered light toward the shorter wavelengths; and (3) the effect of grating scattering on emission lines is to decrease measured line intensities by an increasing percentage toward the shorter wavelengths. The spectra obtained from scattering experiments for solar-type and late type stars are reproduced in graphic form.

  17. Observations on the morphology at the transition between the peripheral and the central nervous system in the cat. V. A light microscopical and histochemical study of S1 dorsal rootlets in developing kittens.

    PubMed

    Berthold, C H; Carlstedt, T

    1977-01-01

    The postnatal development of the transitional region (TR) i.e. the proximal free part of a spinal rootlet that contains both PNS and CNS tissue, was studied light-microscopically in semi-thin sections and after histochemical staining according to the Marchi and OTAN methods for the demonstration of degenerating myelin and according to the Gomori method for the demonstration of acid phosphatase activity. In the newborn kitten the PNS tissue extended well up to the spinal cord surface and the rootlets lacked a transitional region. The CNS tissue entered the root during the second postnatal week, and a trasitional region was fully established at the beginning of the second month. The degree of myelination in the group of large fibres differed on the two sides of the PNS-CNS borderline: well myelinated PNS fibres were transformed into poorly myelinated or apparently unmyelinated CNS-fibres. PNS and CNS myelin sheaths of large fibres appeared to be of equal thickness in the 4 week old kitten. During the first postnatal month large amounts of Marchi positive material and a high acid phosphatase activity occurred in complex paranodes and very short internodes in the PNS compartment just distally to the PNS-CNS borderline. In the adult cat Marchi positive bodies were numerous in the CNS compartment just proximally to the PNS-CNS borderline. The results are discussed against previous studies on focal demyelination as found during the normal development of the feline peripheral nervous system. PMID:70155

  18. The first light curve analysis of eclipsing binary NR Cam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakkoli, F.; Hasanzadeh, A.; Poro, A.

    2015-05-01

    New observations of the eclipsing binary system NR Cam were carried out using a CCD in B, V, and R filters and new times of light minimum and new ephemeris were obtained. The B, V, and R light curves were analyzed using both the Binary Maker 3.0 and PHOEBE 0.31 programs to determine some geometrical and physical parameters of the system. These results show that NR Cam is an overcontact binary and that both components are Main Sequence stars. The O'Connell effect on NR Cam was studied and some variations in spot parameters were obtained over the different years.

  19. Power analysis of light source in laser projector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jingyuan; Shi, Ancun; Zhang, Yunfang; Fang, Qing; Liu, Yuliang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we design a high power and small volume laser projector using the red laser diode, green laser diode, blue laser diode and green fluorescence as light source, which could improve the performance of the projector significantly with longer lifetime than lamps, higher reliability, and larger color gamut. According to the requirement of CIE Standard Illuminant D65 and light output, the power of red laser diode, green laser diode, blue laser diode and green fluorescence were calculated. The energy efficiency of four base-color optical path was also analyzed. It could be concluded that the blue laser and red laser have higher power requirements.

  20. Analysis and Design of Phase Change Thermal Control for Light Emitting Diode (LED) Spacesuit Helmet Lights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant C.; Nguyen, Hiep X.; Keller, John R.

    2010-01-01

    LED Helmet Extravehicular Activity Helmet Interchangeable Portable (LEHIP) lights for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) have been built and tested and are currently being used on the International Space Station. A design is presented of the passive thermal control system consisting of a chamber filled with aluminum foam and wax. A thermal math model of LEHIP was built and correlated by test to show that the thermal design maintains electronic components within hot and cold limits for a 7 hour spacewalk in the most extreme EVA average environments, and do not pose a hazard to the crew or to components of the EMU.

  1. Measurement of the modulation transfer function of an X-ray microscope based on multiple Fourier orders analysis of a Siemens star.

    PubMed

    Otón, Joaquín; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S; Marabini, Roberto; Pereiro, Eva; Carazo, Jose M

    2015-04-20

    Soft X-ray tomography (SXT) is becoming a powerful imaging technique to analyze eukaryotic whole cells close to their native state. Central to the analysis of the quality of SXT 3D reconstruction is the estimation of the spatial resolution and Depth of Field of the X-ray microscope. In turn, the characterization of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) of the optical system is key to calculate both parameters. Consequently, in this work we introduce a fully automated technique to accurately estimate the transfer function of such an optical system. Our proposal is based on the preprocessing of the experimental images to obtain an estimate of the input pattern, followed by the analysis in Fourier space of multiple orders of a Siemens Star test sample, extending in this way its measured frequency range. PMID:25968993

  2. Microscopic out-of-equilibrium analysis of the zero-bias conductance peak in a one-dimensional topological superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Nayana

    2014-10-15

    Recently there has been a lot of excitement generated by the possibility of realizing and detecting Majorana fermions within the arena of condensed matter physics and its potential implication for topological quantum computing. In the pursuit of identifying and understanding the signatures of Majorana fermions in realistic systems, we go beyond the low-energy effective-model descriptions of Majorana bound states to derive non-equilibrium transport properties of a topological superconducting wire in the presence of arbitrarily large applied voltages. By virtue of a microscopic calculation we are able to model the tunnel coupling between the superconducting wire and the metallic leads realistically, study the role of high-energy non-topological excitations, predict how the behavior compares for an increasing number of odd versus even number of sites, and study the evolution across the topological quantum phase transition. We consider the Kitaev model as well as its specific realization in terms of a semiconductor-superconductor hybrid structures. Our results have concrete implications for the experimental search and study of Majorana fermions. Here I provide a brief selected summary of the talk presented during the fourth conference on Nuclei and Mesoscopic Physics (NMP14) which took place during May 5th-9th, 2014 at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), on the campus of Michigan State University, in East Lansing, Michigan.

  3. Viscoelastic properties of single polysaccharide molecules determined by analysis of thermally driven oscillations of an atomic force microscope cantilever.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Masaru; Byrne, Katherine; Khatri, Bhavin; McLeish, Tom C B; Radford, Sheena E; Smith, D Alastair

    2004-10-12

    We report on single molecule measurements of the viscoelastic properties of the polysaccharide dextran using a new approach which involves acquiring the power spectral density of the thermal noise of an atomic force microscope cantilever while holding the single molecule of interest under force-clamp conditions. The attractiveness of this approach when compared with techniques which use forced oscillations under constant loading rate conditions is that it is a near-equilibrium measure of mechanical response which provides a more relevant probe of thermally driven biomolecular dynamics. Using a simple harmonic oscillator model of the cantilever-molecule system and by subtracting the response of the free cantilever taking into account hydrodynamic effects, the effective damping zetamol and elastic constant kmol of a single molecule are obtained. The molecular elasticity measured by this new technique shows a dependence on applied force that reflects the chair-boat conformational transition of the pyranose rings of the dextran molecule which is in good agreement with values obtained directly from the gradient of a conventional constant loading rate force-extension curve. The molecular damping is also seen to follow a nontrivial dependence on loading which we suggest indicates that it is internal friction and not work done on the solvent that is the dominant dissipative process. PMID:15461521

  4. Microscopic out-of-equilibrium analysis of the zero-bias conductance peak in a one-dimensional topological superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Nayana

    2014-10-01

    Recently there has been a lot of excitement generated by the possibility of realizing and detecting Majorana fermions within the arena of condensed matter physics and its potential implication for topological quantum computing. In the pursuit of identifying and understanding the signatures of Majorana fermions in realistic systems, we go beyond the low-energy effective-model descriptions of Majorana bound states to derive non-equilibrium transport properties of a topological superconducting wire in the presence of arbitrarily large applied voltages. By virtue of a microscopic calculation we are able to model the tunnel coupling between the superconducting wire and the metallic leads realistically, study the role of high-energy non-topological excitations, predict how the behavior compares for an increasing number of odd versus even number of sites, and study the evolution across the topological quantum phase transition. We consider the Kitaev model as well as its specific realization in terms of a semiconductor-superconductor hybrid structures. Our results have concrete implications for the experimental search and study of Majorana fermions. Here I provide a brief selected summary of the talk presented during the fourth conference on Nuclei and Mesoscopic Physics (NMP14) which took place during May 5th-9th, 2014 at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), on the campus of Michigan State University, in East Lansing, Michigan.

  5. Numerical analysis of ion-funnel transmission efficiency in an API-MS system with a continuum/microscopic approach.

    PubMed

    Gimelshein, Sergey; Lilly, Taylor; Moskovets, Eugene

    2015-11-01

    A multi-step numerical approach is used to analyze the efficiency of an ion-funnel to transport ions over a wide range of m/z. A continuum approach based on the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations is applied to model the gas flow through a capillary connecting the atmospheric and subatmospheric sections of a mass spectrometer. A microscopic, fully kinetic approach based on the solution of the Boltzmann equation is used to examine the ion and gas transport through an ion-funnel kept at a 0.1-3 Torr pressure to the quadrupole section kept at a 0.01 Torr pressure. In addition to aerodynamic drag, the developed approach takes into account the combined effect of the DC field driving the ions downstream toward the funnel exit, the rf field confining the ions in radial direction, and the space charge causing ion repulsion. The sensitivity of the ion transmission to the gas pressure in the ion-funnel, the rf, and the total ion current injected to the funnel from capillary nozzle is shown. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:26242805

  6. A Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope (MVP-SEM) for In-Situ Mars Surface Sample Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, J.; Gaskin, J. A.; Jerman, G. A.; Harvey, R. P.; Doloboff, I. J.; Neidholdt, E. L.

    2016-01-01

    The Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope (MVP-SEM) project, funded by the NASA Planetary Instrument Concepts for the Advancement of Solar System Observations (PICASSO) Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES), will build upon previous miniaturized SEM designs and recent advancements in variable pressure SEM's to design and build a SEM to complete analyses of samples on the surface of Mars using the atmosphere as an imaging medium. This project is a collaboration between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), electron gun and optics manufacturer Applied Physics Technologies, and small vacuum system manufacturer Creare. Dr. Ralph Harvery and environmental SEM (ESEM) inventor Dr. Gerry Danilatos serve as advisors to the team. Variable pressure SEMs allow for fine (nm-scale) resolution imaging and micron-scale chemical study of materials without sample preparation (e.g., carbon or gold coating). Charging of a sample is reduced or eliminated by the gas surrounding the sample. It is this property of ESEMs that make them ideal for locations where sample preparation is not yet feasible, such as the surface of Mars. In addition, the lack of sample preparation needed here will simplify the sample acquisition process and allow caching of the samples for future complementary payload use.

  7. Numerical Analysis of Ion-Funnel Transmission Efficiency in an API-MS System with a Continuum/Microscopic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimelshein, Sergey; Lilly, Taylor; Moskovets, Eugene

    2015-11-01

    A multi-step numerical approach is used to analyze the efficiency of an ion-funnel to transport ions over a wide range of m/z. A continuum approach based on the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations is applied to model the gas flow through a capillary connecting the atmospheric and subatmospheric sections of a mass spectrometer. A microscopic, fully kinetic approach based on the solution of the Boltzmann equation is used to examine the ion and gas transport through an ion-funnel kept at a 0.1-3 Torr pressure to the quadrupole section kept at a 0.01 Torr pressure. In addition to aerodynamic drag, the developed approach takes into account the combined effect of the DC field driving the ions downstream toward the funnel exit, the rf field confining the ions in radial direction, and the space charge causing ion repulsion. The sensitivity of the ion transmission to the gas pressure in the ion-funnel, the rf, and the total ion current injected to the funnel from capillary nozzle is shown.

  8. Analysis and protection of stray light for the space camera at geosynchronous orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiaorui; Lin, Li

    2012-11-01

    Stray light is the general term for all non-normal transmission of light in the optical system. The influence of stray light is different according to optical system's structure. Large area array camera at geosynchronous orbit is facing more serious influence of stray light, especially for the small incident angle of sunlight on the system. It is in dire need of a detailed analysis of stray light of the basic shape of the optical system .In the paper, the influence on the camera used in space from stray light and the necessity to eliminate stray light are presented. The definition of the stray light coefficient and PST(point source transmittance) is briefed. In Tracepro, analysis of the impact of sunlight incident was made at different angles on the space camera, in the case of stray light factor for the quantitative evaluation. The design principle of the inside and outside hood is presented for the R-C (Ritchey Chretien) optical system. On this basis, in order to reduce stray light interference for the space camera, the primary and secondary mirror's hoods were designed. Finally, when the incidence angle of sunlight is more than 3° incidence on the space camera, the coefficient of stray light is less than 2%. It meets the engineering requirements.

  9. The microscopes of Antoni van Leeuwenhoek.

    PubMed

    van Zuylen, J

    1981-03-01

    The seventeenth-century Dutch microscopist, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, was the first man to make a protracted study of microscopical objects, and, unlike his contemporary Robert Hooke, he viewed by transmitted light. Leeuwenhoek made over 500 of his own, curious, simple microscopes, but now only nine are known to exist. The exact nature of the lenses Leeuwenhoek made, has for long been a puzzle. The existing microscopes have now been examined in detail, and their optical characteristics measured and tabulated. It is proposed that the lens of highest magnification, x 266, was made using a special blown bubble technique. PMID:7012367

  10. UNSUPERVISED TRANSIENT LIGHT CURVE ANALYSIS VIA HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN INFERENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Betancourt, M.

    2015-02-10

    Historically, light curve studies of supernovae (SNe) and other transient classes have focused on individual objects with copious and high signal-to-noise observations. In the nascent era of wide field transient searches, objects with detailed observations are decreasing as a fraction of the overall known SN population, and this strategy sacrifices the majority of the information contained in the data about the underlying population of transients. A population level modeling approach, simultaneously fitting all available observations of objects in a transient sub-class of interest, fully mines the data to infer the properties of the population and avoids certain systematic biases. We present a novel hierarchical Bayesian statistical model for population level modeling of transient light curves, and discuss its implementation using an efficient Hamiltonian Monte Carlo technique. As a test case, we apply this model to the Type IIP SN sample from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey, consisting of 18,837 photometric observations of 76 SNe, corresponding to a joint posterior distribution with 9176 parameters under our model. Our hierarchical model fits provide improved constraints on light curve parameters relevant to the physical properties of their progenitor stars relative to modeling individual light curves alone. Moreover, we directly evaluate the probability for occurrence rates of unseen light curve characteristics from the model hyperparameters, addressing observational biases in survey methodology. We view this modeling framework as an unsupervised machine learning technique with the ability to maximize scientific returns from data to be collected by future wide field transient searches like LSST.

  11. Unsupervised Transient Light Curve Analysis via Hierarchical Bayesian Inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, N. E.; Betancourt, M.; Soderberg, A. M.

    2015-02-01

    Historically, light curve studies of supernovae (SNe) and other transient classes have focused on individual objects with copious and high signal-to-noise observations. In the nascent era of wide field transient searches, objects with detailed observations are decreasing as a fraction of the overall known SN population, and this strategy sacrifices the majority of the information contained in the data about the underlying population of transients. A population level modeling approach, simultaneously fitting all available observations of objects in a transient sub-class of interest, fully mines the data to infer the properties of the population and avoids certain systematic biases. We present a novel hierarchical Bayesian statistical model for population level modeling of transient light curves, and discuss its implementation using an efficient Hamiltonian Monte Carlo technique. As a test case, we apply this model to the Type IIP SN sample from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey, consisting of 18,837 photometric observations of 76 SNe, corresponding to a joint posterior distribution with 9176 parameters under our model. Our hierarchical model fits provide improved constraints on light curve parameters relevant to the physical properties of their progenitor stars relative to modeling individual light curves alone. Moreover, we directly evaluate the probability for occurrence rates of unseen light curve characteristics from the model hyperparameters, addressing observational biases in survey methodology. We view this modeling framework as an unsupervised machine learning technique with the ability to maximize scientific returns from data to be collected by future wide field transient searches like LSST.

  12. Computer-enhanced video microscopy: digitally processed microscope images can be produced in real time.

    PubMed Central

    Walter, R J; Berns, M W

    1981-01-01

    Digital processing techniques can be used to greatly enhance the available information in an optical image. Although this technology has been routinely used in many fields for a number of years, little application of digital image-processing techniques have been made toward analysis and enhancement of the types of images seen most often by the research biologist. We describe here a computer-based video microscope system that is capable of performing extensive manipulation and enhancement of microscope images in real time. The types of manipulations possible with these techniques greatly surpass the enhancement capabilities of photographic or video techniques alone. The speed and flexibility of this system enables experimental manipulation of the microscopic specimen based on its live processed image. These features greatly extend the power and versatility of the light microscope. Images PMID:6947267

  13. Cryogenic immersion microscope

    DOEpatents

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-12-14

    A cryogenic immersion microscope whose objective lens is at least partially in contact with a liquid reservoir of a cryogenic liquid, in which reservoir a sample of interest is immersed is disclosed. When the cryogenic liquid has an index of refraction that reduces refraction at interfaces between the lens and the sample, overall resolution and image quality are improved. A combination of an immersion microscope and x-ray microscope, suitable for imaging at cryogenic temperatures is also disclosed.

  14. Environmental, scanning electron and optical microscope image analysis software for determining volume and occupied area of solid-state fermentation fungal cultures.

    PubMed

    Osma, Johann F; Toca-Herrera, José L; Rodríguez-Couto, Susana

    2011-01-01

    Here we propose a software for the estimation of the occupied area and volume of fungal cultures. This software was developed using a Matlab platform and allows analysis of high-definition images from optical, electronic or atomic force microscopes. In a first step, a single hypha grown on potato dextrose agar was monitored using optical microscopy to estimate the change in occupied area and volume. Weight measurements were carried out to compare them with the estimated volume, revealing a slight difference of less than 1.5%. Similarly, samples from two different solid-state fermentation cultures were analyzed using images from a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an environmental SEM (ESEM). Occupied area and volume were calculated for both samples, and the results obtained were correlated with the dry weight of the cultures. The difference between the estimated volume ratio and the dry weight ratio of the two cultures showed a difference of 10%. Therefore, this software is a promising non-invasive technique to determine fungal biomass in solid-state cultures. PMID:21154435

  15. The myocardial microangiopathy in human and experimental diabetes mellitus. (A microscopic, ultrastructural, morphometric and computer-assisted symbolic-logic analysis).

    PubMed

    Taşcă, C; Stefăneanu, L; Vasilescu, C

    1986-01-01

    The following microscopical aspects were found in the small intramural arteries in the myocardium of 30 diabetic patients: endothelial proliferations with focal protuberances leading to partial narrowing of the lumen, increased thickness of the arterial wall due to fibrosis and accumulations of neutral mucopolysaccharides: alteration of elastic fibres. Morphometrically, the arterial wall thickness and the arterial diameter were increased whereas the arterial density decreased in the diabetic heart. In 25 rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes the small intramyocardial arteries were investigated at 11 to 40 weeks of diabetic state. Using morphometrical analysis a constant increase of arterial wall thickness paralleling the diabetes duration was found. Microscopically, the lesions consist in endothelial proliferation with bridging across the vascular lumen and slight perivascular and diffuse fibrosis. Ultrastructurally, the capillary basal lamina was thickened in the diabetic myocardium. In order to investigate the morphometrical data we used symbolic-logic as a decision method, by applying an original computer program based on the Quine-McCluskey algorithm. All our results together with the final symbolic-logic expression suggest that damage of the small intramyocardial arteries plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:3738404

  16. Molecular and Microscopic Analysis of Bacteria and Viruses in Exhaled Breath Collected Using a Simple Impaction and Condensing Method

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhenqiang; Shen, Fangxia; Li, Xiaoguang; Wu, Yan; Chen, Qi; Jie, Xu; Yao, Maosheng

    2012-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is increasingly being used as a non-invasive method for disease diagnosis and environmental exposure assessment. By using hydrophobic surface, ice, and droplet scavenging, a simple impaction and condensing based collection method is reported here. Human subjects were recruited to exhale toward the device for 1, 2, 3, and 4 min. The exhaled breath quickly formed into tiny droplets on the hydrophobic surface, which were subsequently scavenged into a 10 µL rolling deionized water droplet. The collected EBC was further analyzed using culturing, DNA stain, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and colorimetry (VITEK 2) for bacteria and viruses. Experimental data revealed that bacteria and viruses in EBC can be rapidly collected using the method developed here, with an observed efficiency of 100 µL EBC within 1 min. Culturing, DNA stain, SEM, and qPCR methods all detected high bacterial concentrations up to 7000 CFU/m3 in exhaled breath, including both viable and dead cells of various types. Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Kocuria variants were found dominant in EBC samples using VITEK 2 system. SEM images revealed that most bacteria in exhaled breath are detected in the size range of 0.5–1.0 µm, which is able to enable them to remain airborne for a longer time, thus presenting a risk for airborne transmission of potential diseases. Using qPCR, influenza A H3N2 viruses were also detected in one EBC sample. Different from other devices restricted solely to condensation, the developed method can be easily achieved both by impaction and condensation in a laboratory and could impact current practice of EBC collection. Nonetheless, the reported work is a proof-of-concept demonstration, and its performance in non-invasive disease diagnosis such as bacterimia and virus infections needs to be further validated including effects of its influencing matrix. PMID:22848436

  17. Thermal-Wave Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert E.; Kramarchuk, Ihor; Williams, Wallace D.; Pouch, John J.; Gilbert, Percy

    1989-01-01

    Computer-controlled thermal-wave microscope developed to investigate III-V compound semiconductor devices and materials. Is nondestructive technique providing information on subsurface thermal features of solid samples. Furthermore, because this is subsurface technique, three-dimensional imaging also possible. Microscope uses intensity-modulated electron beam of modified scanning electron microscope to generate thermal waves in sample. Acoustic waves generated by thermal waves received by transducer and processed in computer to form images displayed on video display of microscope or recorded on magnetic disk.

  18. Recurrence tracking microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Saif, Farhan

    2006-03-15

    In order to probe nanostructures on a surface we present a microscope based on the quantum recurrence phenomena. A cloud of atoms bounces off an atomic mirror connected to a cantilever and exhibits quantum recurrences. The times at which the recurrences occur depend on the initial height of the bouncing atoms above the atomic mirror, and vary following the structures on the surface under investigation. The microscope has inherent advantages over existing techniques of scanning tunneling microscope and atomic force microscope. Presently available experimental technology makes it possible to develop the device in the laboratory.

  19. Advancing lighting and daylighting simulation: The transition from analysis to design aid tools

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchcock, R.J.

    1995-05-01

    This paper explores three significant software development requirements for making the transition from stand-alone lighting simulation/analysis tools to simulation-based design aid tools. These requirements include specialized lighting simulation engines, facilitated methods for creating detailed simulatable building descriptions, an automated techniques for providing lighting design guidance. Initial computer implementations meant to address each of these requirements are discussed to further elaborate these requirements and to illustrate work-in-progress.

  20. Performance analysis on terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer with assist light injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Wu, Jian; Lin, Jintong

    2005-12-01

    Operating characteristics of terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD), under gain and transparent region assist light injection, are investigated in theory. We have analyzed the demultiplexing performance for three OTDM systems: 10, 40, 100 Gb/s. Though the switching window is distorted, the resilience to timing jitter is improved under transparent light injection. In practical application, counter-propagating configuration should be taken. Gain region assist light should not be used in TOAD. Some key parameters are given through numerical analysis and simulations.