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Sample records for light microscopic analysis

  1. Automated dimensional analysis using a light-sectioning microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, J.; Lightman, A.; Poe, A.; Caldwell, R.

    1988-12-31

    A computer vision system has been integrated with a modified light-sectioning microscope for quality control and inspection of a machined part whose critical dimensions are 30 to 300 {mu}m. Height measurements were determined by analysis of the projected light-section line. Transverse measurements were made using the microscope in a traditional configuration with illumination from selected elements of an external LED ring array. The light section irradiance was under computer control to accommodate the spatial variations in surface reflectance whose dynamic range exceeded that of the vision system. Part features are located by the vision system. Edges and line centers are then measured to sub-pixel resolution with a gray-level analysis algorithm. This paper describes the design and operation of this system. Details of the measurement process and analysis algorithms are provided.

  2. Light microscopic hair shaft analysis in ectodermal dysplasia syndromes.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Stefanie A; Mason, Ashley R; Salkey, Kimberly; Williams, Judith V; Pariser, David M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to catalog hair shaft abnormalities in individuals with ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndromes using light microscopy and to compare findings with those in unaffected controls. Light microscopy was performed in a nonblinded manner on hair shafts from 65 participants with seven types of ED (hypohidrotic ED, ED-ectrodactyly-cleft lip or palate, ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip and palate, Clouston syndrome, Goltz syndrome, Schopf-Schulz Passarge syndrome, and oculodentodigital dysplasia) and 41 unaffected controls. Hair donations were collected at the 28th Annual National Family Conference held by the National Foundation for Ectodermal Dysplasia. Control participants were recruited from a private dermatology practice and an academic children's hospital outpatient dermatology clinic. Sixty-five affected participants and 41 unaffected controls were included in the analysis. We assessed the hair shafts of ED and control participants for abnormalities visible using LM. Light microscopy identified various pathologic hair shaft abnormalities in each type of ED, although none of the findings were statistically significantly different from those of the control group. Light microscopy is a poor adjuvant tool in the diagnosis of ED syndromes. Most findings are nonspecific and not sufficiently sensitive. PMID:22084904

  3. Enumeration of islets by nuclei counting and light microscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Pisania, Anna; Papas, Klearchos K; Powers, Daryl E; Rappel, Michael J; Omer, Abdulkadir; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Weir, Gordon C; Colton, Clark K

    2010-11-01

    Islet enumeration in impure preparations by conventional dithizone staining and visual counting is inaccurate and operator dependent. We examined nuclei counting for measuring the total number of cells in islet preparations, and we combined it with morphological analysis by light microscopy (LM) for estimating the volume fraction of islets in impure preparations. Cells and islets were disrupted with lysis solution and shear, and accuracy of counting successively diluted nuclei suspensions was verified with (1) visual counting in a hemocytometer after staining with crystal violet, and automatic counting by (2) aperture electrical resistance measurement and (3) flow cytometer measurement after staining with 7-aminoactinomycin-D. DNA content averaged 6.5 and 6.9 pg of DNA per cell for rat and human islets, respectively, in agreement with literature estimates. With pure rat islet preparations, precision improved with increasing counts, and samples with about ≥160 islets provided a coefficient of variation of about 6%. Aliquots of human islet preparations were processed for LM analysis by stereological point counting. Total nuclei counts and islet volume fraction from LM analysis were combined to obtain the number of islet equivalents (IEs). Total number of IE by the standard method of dithizone staining/manual counting was overestimated by about 90% compared with LM/nuclei counting for 12 freshly isolated human islet research preparations. Nuclei counting combined with islet volume fraction measurements from LM is a novel method for achieving accurate islet enumeration. PMID:20697375

  4. Microscopic vision modeling method by direct mapping analysis for micro-gripping system with stereo light microscope.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuezong; Zhao, Zhizhong; Wang, Junshuai

    2016-04-01

    We present a novel and high-precision microscopic vision modeling method, which can be used for 3D data reconstruction in micro-gripping system with stereo light microscope. This method consists of four parts: image distortion correction, disparity distortion correction, initial vision model and residual compensation model. First, the method of image distortion correction is proposed. Image data required by image distortion correction comes from stereo images of calibration sample. The geometric features of image distortions can be predicted though the shape deformation of lines constructed by grid points in stereo images. Linear and polynomial fitting methods are applied to correct image distortions. Second, shape deformation features of disparity distribution are discussed. The method of disparity distortion correction is proposed. Polynomial fitting method is applied to correct disparity distortion. Third, a microscopic vision model is derived, which consists of two models, i.e., initial vision model and residual compensation model. We derive initial vision model by the analysis of direct mapping relationship between object and image points. Residual compensation model is derived based on the residual analysis of initial vision model. The results show that with maximum reconstruction distance of 4.1mm in X direction, 2.9mm in Y direction and 2.25mm in Z direction, our model achieves a precision of 0.01mm in X and Y directions and 0.015mm in Z direction. Comparison of our model with traditional pinhole camera model shows that two kinds of models have a similar reconstruction precision of X coordinates. However, traditional pinhole camera model has a lower precision of Y and Z coordinates than our model. The method proposed in this paper is very helpful for the micro-gripping system based on SLM microscopic vision. PMID:26924646

  5. Tissue slides analysis using red, green, and blue LEDs as microscope light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Navascues, Felipe F.; de Souza, Larissa M.; Rosa, Ramon G. T.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2016-03-01

    The optical microscopy is one of the most powerful tool in the analysis of biological systems. The usual transmitted light microscope uses a white light lamp as source, what sometimes does not bring optimal results, making it necessary to introduce filters to change some illumination properties like the color temperature or the color itself. There is, of course, an intrinsic limitation on the use of filters that is the lack of an analogical control on the illumination properties and a practical limitation that depends on the number of available filters. To address this need, we developed an illumination system based on (Red, Green and Blue) RGB LEDs, were the microscope operator can control the intensity of each one independently and manually. This paper details the developed system and describes the methods used to compare quantitatively the images acquired while using the standard white light illumination and the images obtained with the developed system. To quantify the contrast, we calculated the relative population standard deviation for the intensities of each channel of the RGB image. This procedure allowed us to compare and understand the major advantages of the developed illumination system. All analysis methods have shown that a contrast enhancement can be obtained under the RGB LEDs light. The presented illumination allowed us to visualize the structures in different samples with a better contrast without the need of any additional optical filters.

  6. The Light Microscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, W. L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the function of the various parts of the microscope and their integration in the formation of an optical image. Presents a procedure for setting up a microscope to obtain maximum resolution and contrast for each objective lens at all magnifications. (JRH)

  7. Light microscopic image analysis system to quantify immunoreactive terminal area apposed to nerve cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L. C.; D'Amelio, F.; Fox, R. A.; Polyakov, I.; Daunton, N. G.

    1997-01-01

    The present report describes a desktop computer-based method for the quantitative assessment of the area occupied by immunoreactive terminals in close apposition to nerve cells in relation to the perimeter of the cell soma. This method is based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) routines incorporated in NIH-Image public domain software. Pyramidal cells of layer V of the somatosensory cortex outlined by GABA immunolabeled terminals were chosen for our analysis. A Leitz Diaplan light microscope was employed for the visualization of the sections. A Sierra Scientific Model 4030 CCD camera was used to capture the images into a Macintosh Centris 650 computer. After preprocessing, filtering was performed on the power spectrum in the frequency domain produced by the FFT operation. An inverse FFT with filter procedure was employed to restore the images to the spatial domain. Pasting of the original image to the transformed one using a Boolean logic operation called 'AND'ing produced an image with the terminals enhanced. This procedure allowed the creation of a binary image using a well-defined threshold of 128. Thus, the terminal area appears in black against a white background. This methodology provides an objective means of measurement of area by counting the total number of pixels occupied by immunoreactive terminals in light microscopic sections in which the difficulties of labeling intensity, size, shape and numerical density of terminals are avoided.

  8. Semi-automated 3D Leaf Reconstruction and Analysis of Trichome Patterning from Light Microscopic Images

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Andrea; Hülskamp, Martin; Tresch, Achim

    2013-01-01

    Trichomes are leaf hairs that are formed by single cells on the leaf surface. They are known to be involved in pathogen resistance. Their patterning is considered to emerge from a field of initially equivalent cells through the action of a gene regulatory network involving trichome fate promoting and inhibiting factors. For a quantitative analysis of single and double mutants or the phenotypic variation of patterns in different ecotypes, it is imperative to statistically evaluate the pattern reliably on a large number of leaves. Here we present a method that enables the analysis of trichome patterns at early developmental leaf stages and the automatic analysis of various spatial parameters. We focus on the most challenging young leaf stages that require the analysis in three dimensions, as the leaves are typically not flat. Our software TrichEratops reconstructs 3D surface models from 2D stacks of conventional light-microscope pictures. It allows the GUI-based annotation of different stages of trichome development, which can be analyzed with respect to their spatial distribution to capture trichome patterning events. We show that 3D modeling removes biases of simpler 2D models and that novel trichome patterning features increase the sensitivity for inter-accession comparisons. PMID:23637587

  9. A light- and electron microscopic analysis of meiotic prophase in female mice.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, A J; Mulder, R J

    1983-01-01

    In the paper we describe meiotic prophase of female mice on successive days of embryonic and early postnatal development. For this purpose we used three different techniques on ovarian material, i.e., Giemsa staining for the light microscopic study of chromatin, silver staining for the light microscopic study of the synaptonemal complex (SC), and agar filtration followed by uranyl acetate staining for the electron microscopic study of the SC. In all types of preparation it was impossible to distinguish leptotene stages, and we conclude that if leptotene really exists, it is of very short duration.--Two types of zygotene stages were found: the "normal" one, resembling zygotene stages in male mice, and a second type that has never been described in males and is characterized by, probably stable, unpaired regions together with totally unpaired axial elements of the SC.--The duration of pachytene was found to be 3-4 days, which is considerably shorter than in males. During early diplotene despiralization of the chromatin and disintegration of the axes of the SC were usually found together with desynapsis.--A considerable variation in distribution of meiotic stages was found between different litters in the same day of gestation. Fetuses in the same litter showed no significant variation. However, the oocytes in an ovary did not pass through meiosis synchronously, with differences up several days. The appearance of chromosomes in a highly contracted state could not be interpreted as a preleptotene condensation stage but probably is a mitotic phenomenon. PMID:6197255

  10. Multiparameter breast cancer cell image analysis for objective estimation of nuclear grade: comparison with light microscopic observational data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzins, Juris; Sneiders, Uldis; Plegere, Daina; Freivalds, Talivaldis; Grigalinovica, Romalda

    2000-04-01

    We performed a multi parameter image analysis assessment of breast cancer cell population nuclear grade (NG), which is regarded as one of the main prognostic factors for treatment efficacy and survival of the patients and compared it with light microscopic estimation of NG. Cytological imprint slides from 20 ductal carcinomas were stained according to Leischmann-AzureII-eosine method, and NG was estimated by light microscopic observation according to Black in Fisher's modification. Simultaneously, using specially elaborated software, in each patient 100 cancer cells were analyzed for nuclear perimeter, diameter, area, nucleolar area, and average intensity of staining. The chromatin structure was assessed using mean diameter of chromatin grains and relatively chromatic are within the nucleus. Light microscopic estimation revealed 4/15 grade 2 and 7/15 grade 3 tumors out of 15 filtrating ductal carcinomas, with 4/15 classified as intermediate between grade 2-3. Multifactoral linear correlation coefficient r equals 0.39, p < 0.001 for ductal cancer, higher NG comes with increasing nucleolar area, nuclear roundness factor, nuclear are, and chromatin area within the cell nucleus. Image analysis may yield precise information on NG as a prognostic factor in breast cancer patients.

  11. Collagen and Elastic Fibers in Odontogenic Entities: Analysis Using Light and Confocal Laser Microscopic Methods

    PubMed Central

    Moure, Sabrina P; Carrard, Vinicius C; Lauxen, Isabel S; Manso, Pedro Paulo A; Oliveira, Marcia G; Martins, Manoela D; Sant´Ana Filho, Manoel

    2011-01-01

    Dentigerous cyst (DC) and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KOT) are odontogenic lesions arising from epithelial elements, such as those observed in dental follicles (DF), that have been part of the tooth forming apparatus. These lesions show different clinical and histological characteristics, as well as distinct biological behavior. This study aimed to qualify and quantify collagen and elastic fibers by means of histochemical techniques with light and confocal laser microscopic methods in three odontogenic entities. Eleven DF, 13 DC (n=10 with inflammation, n=3 without inflammation) and 13 KOT were processed to the following techniques: Hematoxylin and Eosin, Masson’s Trichrome, Picrosirius, Direct Blue, and Orcein. DF and DC without inflammation exhibited collagen with similar characteristics: no parallel pattern of fiber orientation, thick fibers with dense arrangement, and absence of distinct layers. A comparison between DC with inflammation and KOT revealed similar collagen organization, showing distinct layers: thin collagen fibers with loose arrangement near the epithelium and thick fibers with dense arrangement in distant areas. The only difference found was that KOT exhibited a parallel collagen orientation in relation to the odontogenic epithelia. It may be suggested that the connective tissue of DC is a reactive tissue, inducing an expansive growth associated with fluid accumulation and inflammatory process, which in turn may be present as part of the lesion itself. In KOT, loosely arranged collagen may be associated with the behavior of the neoplastic epithelium. PMID:21760864

  12. A light and electron microscopic quantitative analysis of the innervation of axillary lymph nodes in juvenile and old rats.

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, G E; Schöttelndreier, A; Heuer, T

    1993-01-01

    The innervation of axillary lymph nodes from 20 juvenile rats (aged < 6 wk) was compared with that of 20 old rats (aged > 2 y). One half of each group was investigated by light microscopy on silver-impregnated paraffin sections, the other half by electron microscopy. The lymph nodes of the old animals were larger than those of juvenile animals, as derived from the volumes analysed by light microscopy. By both light and electron microscopy, the nerves were found to be confined almost exclusively to the medulla and were frequently associated with groups of plasma cells. Nerves identified as cortical in location were consistently found only in cortical areas adjacent to the medulla. In the old animals the nerves were thicker and more prominent in the light microscopic preparations. No such differences were noted at the ultrastructural level. Myelinated nerves were found in all lymph nodes, except in a single old animal. Quantitative analysis of the nerves revealed a significant increase in the density of innervation of the medulla in the old animals both by light and electron microscopy. By light microscopy there also appeared to be a significant increase in the innervation density of the cortex, but these nerves were considered to be mislocalized because of difficulty in precise localisation at this level of magnification. On light microscopy, a significant increase in the incidence of nerve branching was found in the nodes of the old animals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 PMID:8270476

  13. Light-Fueled Microscopic Walkers.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hao; Wasylczyk, Piotr; Parmeggiani, Camilla; Martella, Daniele; Burresi, Matteo; Wiersma, Diederik Sybolt

    2015-07-01

    The first microscopic artificial walker equipped with liquid-crystalline elastomer muscle is reported. The walker is fabricated by direct laser writing, is smaller than any known living terrestrial creatures, and is capable of several autonomous locomotions on different surfaces. PMID:26033690

  14. Shear Brillouin light scattering microscope.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moonseok; Besner, Sebastien; Ramier, Antoine; Kwok, Sheldon J J; An, Jeesoo; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2016-01-11

    Brillouin spectroscopy has been used to characterize shear acoustic phonons in materials. However, conventional instruments had slow acquisition times over 10 min per 1 mW of input optical power, and they required two objective lenses to form a 90° scattering geometry necessary for polarization coupling by shear phonons. Here, we demonstrate a confocal Brillouin microscope capable of detecting both shear and longitudinal phonons with improved speeds and with a single objective lens. Brillouin scattering spectra were measured from polycarbonate, fused quartz, and borosilicate in 1-10 s at an optical power level of 10 mW. The elastic constants, phonon mean free path and the ratio of the Pockels coefficients were determined at microscopic resolution. PMID:26832263

  15. Light and electron microscopic analysis of tattoos treated by Q-switched ruby laser

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.R.; Anderson, R.R.; Gange, R.W.; Michaud, N.A.; Flotte, T.J. )

    1991-07-01

    Short-pulse laser exposures can be used to alter pigmented structures in tissue by selective photothermolysis. Potential mechanisms of human tattoo pigment lightening with Q-switched ruby laser were explored by light and electron microscopy. Significant variation existed between and within tattoos. Electron microscopy of untreated tattoos revealed membrane-bound pigment granules, predominantly within fibroblasts and macrophages, and occasionally in mast cells. These granules contained pigment particles ranging from 2-in diameter. Immediately after exposure, dose-related injury was observed in cells containing pigment. Some pigment particles were smaller and lamellated. At fluences greater than or equal to 3 J/cm2, dermal vacuoles and homogenization of collagen bundles immediately adjacent to extracellular pigment were occasionally observed. A brisk neutrophilic infiltrate was apparent by 24 h. Eleven days later, the pigment was again intracellular. Half of the biopsies at 150 d revealed a mild persistent lymphocytic infiltrate. There was no fibrosis except for one case of clinical scarring. These findings confirm that short-pulse radiation can be used to selectively disrupt cells containing tattoo pigments. The physial alteration of pigment granules, redistribution, and elimination appear to account for clinical lightening of the tattoos.

  16. Desmosomes: A light microscopic and ultrastructural analysis of desmosomes in odontogenic cysts

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Pratima; Wadhwan, Vijay; Chaudhary, Minal S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Desmosomes together with adherens junctions represent the major adhesive cell–cell junctions of epithelial cells. Any damage to these junctions leads to loss of structural balance. Aim: The present study was designed to analyze the desmosomal junctions in different odontogenic cysts and compare them with their corresponding hematoxylin and eosin (H and E)   stained sections. Materials and Methods: Ten cases each of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), dentigerous cysts (DCs), radicular cysts (RCs) and normal mucosa were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the sections was then carried out of all the sections. The area of interest on H and E stained section was marked and this marking was later superimposed onto the corresponding unstained sections and were subjected to SEM analysis. Results and Observations: OKC at ×1000 magnification showed many prominent desmosomes. However, an increase in the intercellular space was also noted. SEM analysis demonstrated similar findings with the presence of many desmosomes, though they were seen to be damaged and fragile. H and E stained DC under oil immersion did not show any prominent desmosomes. SEM analysis of the same confirmed the observation and very minimal number were seen with a very condense arrangement of the epithelial cells. RC at ×1000 magnification revealed plenty of desmosomes, which were again confirmed by SEM. Conclusion: The number and quality of desmosomal junctions in all the cysts has a role in the clinical behavior of the cyst. PMID:25948985

  17. Light microscopic and electron microscopic histopathology of an iris microhaemangioma.

    PubMed Central

    Meades, K V; Francis, I C; Kappagoda, M B; Filipic, M

    1986-01-01

    A patient who had been observed to have an iris microhaemangioma (capillary haemangioma), confirmed on fluorescein iris angiography, came to cataract surgery. The lesion was excised at the time of surgery and submitted to light and electron microscopic study. It had the features of a hamartoma of the capillary haemangioma type, with its characteristics being specific for vessels seen in iris tissue. Images PMID:3964627

  18. Microscope spectrometer for light scattering investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Barbara, Aude; Lopez-Rios, Tomas; Dumont, Sylvain; Gay, Frederic; Quemerais, Pascal

    2010-08-01

    We describe a setup including a microscope to study volumes of a few {mu}m{sup 3} by static and dynamic light scattering (DLS) in a backscattering configuration. Light scattered by individual objects of micrometric size can be analyzed in the 400-800 nm spectral range. This setup can also be employed to study both diluted and concentrated colloidal solutions by DLS measurements. For diluted solutions we found evidence of the fluctuations of the number of particles in a confocal volume. We discuss their contribution to the autocorrelation function of the scattered intensity measured as a function of time.

  19. Compressive microscopic imaging with "positive-negative" light modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wen-Kai; Yao, Xu-Ri; Liu, Xue-Feng; Lan, Ruo-Ming; Wu, Ling-An; Zhai, Guang-Jie; Zhao, Qing

    2016-07-01

    An experiment on compressive microscopic imaging with single-pixel detector and single-arm has been performed on the basis of "positive-negative" (differential) light modulation of a digital micromirror device (DMD). A magnified image of micron-sized objects illuminated by the microscope's own incandescent lamp has been successfully acquired. The image quality is improved by one more orders of magnitude compared with that obtained by conventional single-pixel imaging scheme with normal modulation using the same sampling rate, and moreover, the system is robust against the instability of light source and may be applied to very weak light condition. Its nature and the analysis of noise sources is discussed deeply. The realization of this technique represents a big step to the practical applications of compressive microscopic imaging in the fields of biology and materials science.

  20. Analysis of signal processing in vestibular circuits with a novel light-emitting diodes-based fluorescence microscope.

    PubMed

    Direnberger, Stephan; Banchi, Roberto; Brosel, Sonja; Seebacher, Christian; Laimgruber, Stefan; Uhl, Rainer; Felmy, Felix; Straka, Hans; Kunz, Lars

    2015-05-01

    Optical visualization of neural network activity is limited by imaging system-dependent technical tradeoffs. To overcome these constraints, we have developed a powerful low-cost and flexible imaging system with high spectral variability and unique spatio-temporal precision for simultaneous optical recording and manipulation of neural activity of large cell groups. The system comprises eight high-power light-emitting diodes, a camera with a large metal-oxide-semiconductor sensor and a high numerical aperture water-dipping objective. It allows fast and precise control of excitation and simultaneous low noise imaging at high resolution. Adjustable apertures generated two independent areas of variable size and position for simultaneous optical activation and image capture. The experimental applicability of this system was explored in semi-isolated preparations of larval axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) with intact inner ear organs and central nervous circuits. Cyclic galvanic stimulation of semicircular canals together with glutamate- and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-uncaging caused a corresponding modulation of Ca(2+) transients in central vestibular neurons. These experiments revealed specific cellular properties as well as synaptic interactions between excitatory and inhibitory inputs, responsible for spatio-temporal-specific sensory signal processing. Location-specific GABA-uncaging revealed a potent inhibitory shunt of vestibular nerve afferent input in the predominating population of tonic vestibular neurons, indicating a considerable impact of local and commissural inhibitory circuits on the processing of head/body motion-related signals. The discovery of these previously unknown properties of vestibular computations demonstrates the merits of our novel microscope system for experimental applications in the field of neurobiology. PMID:25847143

  1. Optical Analysis of Microscope Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biles, Jonathan R.

    Microscope images were analyzed with coherent and incoherent light using analog optical techniques. These techniques were found to be useful for analyzing large numbers of nonsymbolic, statistical microscope images. In the first part phase coherent transparencies having 20-100 human multiple myeloma nuclei were simultaneously photographed at 100 power magnification using high resolution holographic film developed to high contrast. An optical transform was obtained by focussing the laser onto each nuclear image and allowing the diffracted light to propagate onto a one dimensional photosensor array. This method reduced the data to the position of the first two intensity minima and the intensity of successive maxima. These values were utilized to estimate the four most important cancer detection clues of nuclear size, shape, darkness, and chromatin texture. In the second part, the geometric and holographic methods of phase incoherent optical processing were investigated for pattern recognition of real-time, diffuse microscope images. The theory and implementation of these processors was discussed in view of their mutual problems of dimness, image bias, and detector resolution. The dimness problem was solved by either using a holographic correlator or a speckle free laser microscope. The latter was built using a spinning tilted mirror which caused the speckle to change so quickly that it averaged out during the exposure. To solve the bias problem low image bias templates were generated by four techniques: microphotography of samples, creation of typical shapes by computer graphics editor, transmission holography of photoplates of samples, and by spatially coherent color image bias removal. The first of these templates was used to perform correlations with bacteria images. The aperture bias was successfully removed from the correlation with a video frame subtractor. To overcome the limited detector resolution it is necessary to discover some analog nonlinear intensity

  2. Analysis of proton scattering of stable and exotic light nuclei using an energy-dependent microscopic optical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maridi, H. M.; Farag, M. Y. H.; Esmael, E. H.

    2016-01-01

    The proton elastic scattering off the 9,10,11,12Be isotopes at a wide energy range from 3 to 200 MeV/nucleon is analyzed using the optical model with the partial-wave expansion method. The microscopic optical potential (OP) is taken within the single-folding model. The density- and isospin-dependent M3YParis nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction is used for the real part and the NN-scattering amplitude of the highenergy approximation for the imaginary one. The cross-section data are reproduced well at energies up to 100 MeV/nucleon by use of the partial-wave expansion. For higher energies, the eikonal approximation is successfully used. The volume integrals of the OP parts have systematic energy dependencies and they can be parameterized as functions of energy. From these parametrization, an energy-dependent OP can be obtained.

  3. Light and electron microscopic study of mature spermatozoa from White Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos): an ultrastructural and molecular analysis.

    PubMed

    Majhi, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Ashutosh; Yadav, Manoj; Kumar, Pradeep; Maity, Apratim; Giri, Sunil C; Goswami, Chandan

    2016-03-01

    The morphology, ultrastructure, and functions of mature avian spermatozoa have been of immense commercial and scientific interest for several reasons. This is mainly important in case of birds in poultry production, conservation, and in the use of sperm morphometry as phylogenetic evidence. Avian spermatozoa share complex or no correlation of sperm morphometry with respect to testis and/or body size as described before. In this work, we have isolated mature spermatozoa from White Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos) by non-invasive methods and performed several immunostaining analysis as well as cytochemical analysis using electron and light microscopes. Here, we report the presence of different post-translationally modified tubulin such as tyrosinated-, detyrosinated-, acetylated-, polyglutamylated-, and glycylated-tubulin in specific regions of the mature spermatozoa. By using field-emission scanning electron microscope, we confirm the presence of acrosome-like structure at the tip of the sperm head. However, this structure remains non-reactive to common lectins such as Peanut Agglutinin (PNA) and cholesterol-sensitive dyes such as Filipin. We report that this acrosomal structure is primarily made of lipid-based structures and is resistant to 0.1% Triton X100. Confocal microscopy and super resolution structured illumination microscopy study indicates that the nucleus is bifurcated at the tip region. By using specific markers, we report that the perforatorium structure present at the tip of the spermatozoa head contains specialized organelles that is similar to atypical mitochondria. We propose that these ultrastructural and molecular parameters can be used as species-specific features. The bifurcated nucleus and presence of atypical mitochondria within this structure may be relevant for the complex mitochondrial inheritance and mitochondrial heteroplasmy observed in case of avian population. PMID:26824840

  4. Novel 3D light microscopic analysis of IUGR placentas points to a morphological correlate of compensated ischemic placental disease in humans

    PubMed Central

    Haeussner, Eva; Schmitz, Christoph; Frank, Hans-Georg; Edler von Koch, Franz

    2016-01-01

    The villous tree of the human placenta is a complex three-dimensional (3D) structure with branches and nodes at the feto-maternal border in the key area of gas and nutrient exchange. Recently we introduced a novel, computer-assisted 3D light microscopic method that enables 3D topological analysis of branching patterns of the human placental villous tree. In the present study we applied this novel method to the 3D architecture of peripheral villous trees of placentas from patients with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR placentas), a severe obstetric syndrome. We found that the mean branching angle of branches in terminal positions of the villous trees was significantly different statistically between IUGR placentas and clinically normal placentas. Furthermore, the mean tortuosity of branches of villous trees in directly preterminal positions was significantly different statistically between IUGR placentas and clinically normal placentas. We show that these differences can be interpreted as consequences of morphological adaptation of villous trees between IUGR placentas and clinically normal placentas, and may have important consequences for the understanding of the morphological correlates of the efficiency of the placental villous tree and their influence on fetal development. PMID:27045698

  5. Novel 3D light microscopic analysis of IUGR placentas points to a morphological correlate of compensated ischemic placental disease in humans.

    PubMed

    Haeussner, Eva; Schmitz, Christoph; Frank, Hans-Georg; Edler von Koch, Franz

    2016-01-01

    The villous tree of the human placenta is a complex three-dimensional (3D) structure with branches and nodes at the feto-maternal border in the key area of gas and nutrient exchange. Recently we introduced a novel, computer-assisted 3D light microscopic method that enables 3D topological analysis of branching patterns of the human placental villous tree. In the present study we applied this novel method to the 3D architecture of peripheral villous trees of placentas from patients with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR placentas), a severe obstetric syndrome. We found that the mean branching angle of branches in terminal positions of the villous trees was significantly different statistically between IUGR placentas and clinically normal placentas. Furthermore, the mean tortuosity of branches of villous trees in directly preterminal positions was significantly different statistically between IUGR placentas and clinically normal placentas. We show that these differences can be interpreted as consequences of morphological adaptation of villous trees between IUGR placentas and clinically normal placentas, and may have important consequences for the understanding of the morphological correlates of the efficiency of the placental villous tree and their influence on fetal development. PMID:27045698

  6. Microscopic Analysis of Activated Sludge. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual presents material on the use of a compound microscope to analyze microscope communities, present in wastewater treatment processes, for operational control. Course topics include: sampling techniques, sample handling, laboratory analysis, identification of organisms, data interpretation, and use of the compound microscope.…

  7. Microscopic Imaging and Spectroscopy with Scattered Light

    PubMed Central

    Boustany, Nada N.; Boppart, Stephen A.; Backman, Vadim

    2012-01-01

    Optical contrast based on elastic scattering interactions between light and matter can be used to probe cellular structure and dynamics, and image tissue architecture. The quantitative nature and high sensitivity of light scattering signals to subtle alterations in tissue morphology, as well as the ability to visualize unstained tissue in vivo, has recently generated significant interest in optical scatter based biosensing and imaging. Here we review the fundamental methodologies used to acquire and interpret optical scatter data. We report on recent findings in this field and present current advances in optical scatter techniques and computational methods. Cellular and tissue data enabled by current advances in optical scatter spectroscopy and imaging stand to impact a variety of biomedical applications including clinical tissue diagnosis, in vivo imaging, drug discovery and basic cell biology. PMID:20617940

  8. Mapping brain circuitry with a light microscope

    PubMed Central

    Osten, Pavel; Margrie, Troy W.

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of the 21st century has seen a renaissance in light microscopy and anatomical tract tracing that together are rapidly advancing our understanding of the form and function of neuronal circuits. The introduction of instruments for automated imaging of whole mouse brains, new cell type-specific and transsynaptic tracers, and computational methods for handling the whole-brain datasets has opened the door to neuroanatomical studies at an unprecedented scale. We present an overview of the state of play and future opportunities in charting long-range and local connectivity in the entire mouse brain and in linking brain circuits to function. PMID:23722211

  9. Incidence, risk factors, and morphology in operating microscope light retinopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Khwarg, S.G.; Linstone, F.A.; Daniels, S.A.; Isenberg, S.J.; Hanscom, T.A.; Geoghegan, M.; Straatsma, B.R.

    1987-03-15

    A review of 135 consecutive cataract operations identified ten cases (7.4%) of operating microscope light retinopathy. Ophthalmoscopically, these light retinopathy lesions appeared as a focal pigment epithelial change with varying degrees of pigment clumping in the center. Fluorescein angiography accentuated the lesion by demonstrating a sharply demarcated transmission defect, occasionally with multiple satellite lesions. The shape of the lesion matched the shape of the illuminating source of the particular operating microscope used during the surgery. The most significant risk factor associated with the production of these light retinopathy lesions was prolonged operating time. Mean total operating time for the ten patients with light retinopathy was 51 minutes longer than for those without (P less than .0001). Other significant associated factors were the presence of diabetes mellitus (P less than .03), younger age (P less than .05), and the use of hydrochlorothiazide (P less than .04).

  10. Long working-distance, incoherent light interference microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B.; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Corwin, Alex David

    2005-06-01

    We describe the design and operation of a long-working-distance, incoherent light interference microscope that has been developed to address the growing demand for new microsystem characterization tools. The design of the new microscope is similar to that of a Linnik interference microscope and thus preserves the full working distance of the long-working-distance objectives utilized. However, in contrast to a traditional Linnik microscope, the new microscope does not rely on the use of matched objectives in the sample and the reference arms of the interferometer. An adjustable optical configuration has been devised that allows the total optical path length, wavefront curvature, and dispersion of the reference arm to be matched to the sample arm of the interferometer. The reference arm configuration can be adjusted to provide matching for 5x, 10x, and 20x long-working-distance objectives in the sample arm. In addition to retaining the full working distance of the sample arm objectives, the new design allows interference images to be acquired in situations in which intervening windows are necessary, such as occur with packaged microsystems, microfluidic devices, and cryogenic, vacuum, or environmental chamber studies of microsystem performance. The interference microscope is compatible with phase-shifting interferometry, vertical scanning interferometry, and stroboscopic measurement of dynamic processes.

  11. Long-working-distance incoherent-light interference microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; de Boer, Maarten P.; Corwin, Alex D.

    2005-12-01

    We describe the design and operation of a long-working-distance, incoherent light interference microscope that has been developed to address the growing demand for new microsystem characterization tools. The design of the new microscope is similar to that of a Linnik interference microscope and thus preserves the full working distance of the long-working-distance objectives utilized. However, in contrast to a traditional Linnik microscope, the new microscope does not rely on the use of matched objectives in the sample and the reference arms of the interferometer. An adjustable optical configuration has been devised that allows the total optical path length, wavefront curvature, and dispersion of the reference arm to be matched to the sample arm of the interferometer. The reference arm configuration can be adjusted to provide matching for 5×, 10×, and 20× long-working-distance objectives in the sample arm. In addition to retaining the full working distance of the sample arm objectives, the new design allows interference images to be acquired in situations in which intervening windows are necessary, such as occur with packaged microsystems, microfluidic devices, and cryogenic, vacuum, or environmental chamber studies of microsystem performance. The interference microscope is compatible with phase-shifting interferometry, vertical scanning interferometry, and stroboscopic measurement of dynamic processes.

  12. Teaching Optics to Biology Students Through Constructing a Light Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    The microscope is familiar to many disciplines, including physics, materials science, chemistry, and the life sciences. It demonstrates fundamental aspects of ray and wave optics, making it an ideal system to help educate students in the basic concepts of optics and in measurement principles and techniques. We present an experimental system developed to teach students the basics of ray and wave optics. The students design, build, and test a light microscope made from optics components. We describe the equipment and the basic measurements that students can perform to develop experimental techniques to understand optics principles. Students measure the magnification and test the resolution of the microscope. The system is open and versatile to allow advanced projects such as epi-fluorescence, total internal reflection fluorescence, and optical trapping. We have used this equipment in an optics course, an advanced laboratory course, and graduate-level training modules.

  13. An auto-focusing system for white light microscopic measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ming; Deka, Juti Rani; Chen, Pei Jung; Chen, Yu Kuan; Cui, Changcai

    2008-12-01

    With the rapid development of semiconductor technology the demand for high resolution measuring system is evolving at an ever-increasing pace. Microscope was initially used to detect the defect by connecting charge couple device (CCD) as an auxiliary device. In general, for microscopic measurement human eyes are used to focus on the sample. The adjustment depends on the operator's astute measurement ability, which affected the repeatability and accuracy of the readings. There is a need of high-speed microscope auto focusing system for industrial applications. The present investigation describes about the development of an autofocus system to carry out microscopic measurement more precisely and accurately with less time. The measurement system consists of a light source, two beam splitters, a movable sample stage and a Mirau's interferometer, a photo-detector and 8051 microcontroller (MCU89C51). The light reflected from the sample surface interferes with the light reflected from the reference and produce an interference pattern, which is imaged onto a CCD array. In the setup developed for the autofocus one extra beam splitter is placed in the path of interfered beam to the CCD. The beam splitter is placed at equal distances from the CCD and the photodetector. The focus position is determined from the voltage developed in the photo-detector due to the movement of sample stage of the microscope. The maximum voltage that obtained at the focus position is confirmed with the CCD image. Microcontroller is used to stop the controller at the focus position immediately once the sample stage reaches it. Software is developed to locate the maximum intensity position. The design may autofocus the interferometer within 4mm distance in 1 second. The auto-focusing not only provides enhanced repeatability and accuracy of the results at a faster rate but also minimizes operator involvement.

  14. Achondrogenesis type I: light and electron-microscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Molz, G; Spycher, M A

    1980-06-01

    The light- and electron-microscopic structure of articular and costal cartilage in a case of achondrogenesis type I has been described. The most characteristic ultrastructural change in the chondrocytes was conspicuous dilatation of the rough endoplasmatic reticulum (RER) which contained amorphous electronopaque material. This change in the RER was accompanied by marked hypertrophy of the Golgi apparatus; the matrix was basically unchanged. PMID:6250850

  15. Versatile multispectral microscope based on light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brydegaard, Mikkel; Merdasa, Aboma; Jayaweera, Hiran; Ålebring, Jens; Svanberg, Sune

    2011-12-01

    We describe the development of a novel multispectral microscope, based on light-emitting diodes, capable of acquiring megapixel images in thirteen spectral bands from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. The system captures images and spectra in transmittance, reflectance, and scattering modes. We present as examples of applications ground truth measurements for remote sensing and parasitology diagnostics. The system is a general purpose scientific instrument that could be used to develop dedicated simplified instruments with optimal bands and mode selection.

  16. Light microscopic analysis of the three-dimensional structure of higher plant chloroplasts. Position of starch grains and probable spiral arrangement of stroma lamellae and grana

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, S.G.; Jope, C.A.; Atchison, B.A.

    1980-03-01

    Light microscopic observations of grana-containing chloroplasts in living cells of leaves of numerous species of plants, including both monocotyledons and dicotyledons, have allowed specification of numerous parameters of chloroplast structure. Chloroplasts are thin and saucer-shaped, with the convex surface facing the cell wall and the concave surface facing the vacuole. The thickness of the grana-containing and starch-containing region of chloroplasts does not exceed 2 ..mu..m although the length may reach more than 15 ..mu..m in chloroplasts containing 150 grana. The grana do not overlap each other and are in a plane of focus above that of the starch grains. The grana are tilted with respect to each other and are located at varying levels with respect to the convex surface of the chloroplast. In slightly disrupted, isolated chloroplasts, the grana are sometimes arranged in rows and serially connected to each other by a fine thread. In living cells, some chloroplasts exhibit a distinct spiral arrangement of the grana. Using these observations and the dimensions derived from them, a new conception of the three-dimensional structure of the grana-containing region of the chloroplast has been obtained. In this conception, the grana are uniformly thin, nonoverlapping cylinders, connected in a single series as in a string of beads and wound into a slightly raised spiral (a helix). Starch grains, when present, are located in the concavity of the helix. The length of the string of grana determines the area of the grana-containing region of a chloroplast.

  17. White light differential interference contrast microscope with a Sagnac interferometer.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sanjib; Pavan Kumar, Y

    2014-01-10

    A new technique for producing a white light differential interference contrast (DIC) image using a lateral shearing, rotation phase shifting Sagnac interferometer (SI) is proposed. The SI, placed in the image space after the tube lens of a microscope system with spatially coherent white light Kohler illumination, splits the image forming beam into coherent components with small lateral shear. Phase shifts, between the interfering components, which can be considered as biased phase difference (BPD), are introduced by applying small angular rotation of the SI in its own plane. This variable BPD between the interfering white light components produces a uniform intensity colored background. The object related phase shift, due to the height difference between two close points on the object surface with separation on the order of least resolvable separation of the microscope objective, in addition to the BPD would produce a change in intensity/hue/color against a uniform background due to the BPD. Thus a DIC image is formed and the variable BPD provides an excellent means of improving the contrast of the image. PMID:24514064

  18. Light- and electron-microscopic histochemistry of Fabry's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Faraggiana, T.; Churg, J.; Grishman, E.; Strauss, L.; Prado, A.; Bishop, D. F.; Schuchman, E.; Desnick, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    A histochemical study was performed on light- and electron-microscopic level in a case of Fabry's disease. The patient underwent kidney transplantation for renal failure and died of heart failure 6 months later. Patient's tissues were studied at the light- and electron-microscopic levels with various embedding and staining techniques for lipids and carbohydrates. Two peroxidase-labeled lectins (from Ricinus communis and from Bandeiraea simplicifolia) known to have affinity for alpha- and beta-D-galactose, were strongly reactive with the storage material on frozen sections. The ultrahistochemical and extraction tests showed that the typical granules had a variable reactivity and morphologic characteristics in different cells, probably reflecting different composition. A small number of typical deposits were also observed in the transplanted kidney. This is the first reported case of recurrence of the storage disease in the allograft. Of interest was also the fact that the patient's blood inhibited normal alpha-galactosidase activity, suggesting a possible inhibitor-related mechanism in the pathogenesis of the recurrence. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 PMID:6786101

  19. LIGHT MICROSCOPICAL AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPICAL COMPARISONS OF NORMAL HEPATOCYTES OF WELL-DIFFERENTIATED HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMAS IN A TELEOST FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC's) induced in the sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variagatus) with N-nitrosodiethylamine, permitted light microscopical and ultrastructural comparisons of normal hepatocytes and adjacent HCC cells. ormal hepatocytes contained typic...

  20. Morphological abnormalities of rabbit spermatozoa studied by scanning electron microscope and quantified by light microscope.

    PubMed

    Kuzminsky, G; Fausto, A M; Morera, P

    1996-01-01

    Rabbit spermatozoa morphological abnormalities were examined to establish criteria for judging the quality of ejaculates. Ten New Zealand White bucks, aged 9 months and weighing 4.3 +/- 0.2 kg, were placed in a climatic chamber for 3 weeks at +20 degrees C and 70% RH. Sperm was collected three times a week using an artificial vagina. The use of a scanning electron microscope (from x 2000 to x 15,000) in this study produced an illustrated guide for the classification of abnormalities. Mean percentage quantitative values studied by light microscope (x 400) observation were: 18.2% total abnormalities, 2.9% head abnormalities, 13.6% tail abnormalities and 1.7% broken spermatozoa. Variability was very high (CV 35.7, 54.0, 45.3 and 32.5%, respectively); consequently, each ejaculate should be analysed before use for artificial insemination. Among the different tail abnormalities observed, the most frequent were coiled tails, 9.1%, cytoplasmic droplets, 2.4%, bent tails, 1.3% and swollen tails, 0.5%. PMID:8987108

  1. Adding an Extra Dimension to What Students See through the Light Microscope: A Lab Exercise Demonstrating Critical Analysis for Microscopy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrill, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an undergraduate lab exercise that demonstrates the importance of students thinking critically about what they see through a microscope. The students are given growth data from tip-growing organisms that suggest the cells grow in a pulsatile manner. The students then critique this data in several exercises that incorporate…

  2. Light and electron microscopic analysis of enkephalin-like immunoreactivity in the basolateral amygdala, including evidence for convergence of enkephalin-containing axon terminals and norepinephrine transporter-containing axon terminals onto common targets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyi; McDonald, Alexander J

    2016-04-01

    Modulatory interactions of opioids and norepinephrine (NE) in the anterior subdivision of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLa) are critical for the consolidation of memories of emotionally arousing experiences. Although there have been several studies of the noradrenergic system in the amygdalar basolateral nuclear complex (BLC), little is known about the chemical neuroanatomy of opioid systems in this region. To address this knowledge gap the present study first examined the distribution of met-enkephalin-like immunoreactivity (ENK-ir) in the BLC at the light microscopic level, and then utilized dual-labeling immunocytochemistry combined with electron microscopy to investigate the extent of convergence of NE and ENK terminals onto common structures in the BLa. Antibodies to ENK and the norepinephrine transporter (NET) were used in these studies. Light microscopic examination revealed that a subpopulation of small nonpyramidal neurons expressed ENK-ir in all nuclei of the BLC. In addition, the somata of some pyramidal cells exhibited light to moderate ENK-ir. ENK+ axon terminals were also observed. Ultrastructural analysis confined to the BLa revealed that most ENK+ axon terminals formed asymmetrical synapses that mainly contacted spines and shafts of thin dendrites. ENK+ terminals forming symmetrical synapses mainly contacted dendritic shafts. Approximately 20% of NET+ terminals contacted a structure that was also contacted by an ENK+ terminal and 6% of NET+ terminals contacted an ENK+ terminal. These findings suggest that ENK and NE terminals in the BLa may interact by targeting common dendrites and by direct interactions between the two types of terminals. PMID:26835559

  3. Microcircuit failure analysis using the SEM. [Scanning Electron Microscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolas, D. P.

    1974-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope adds a new dimension to the knowledge that can be obtained from a failed microcircuit. When used with conventional techniques, SEM assists and clarifies the analysis, but it does not replace light microscopy. The most advantageous features for microcircuit analysis are long working distances and great depth of field. Manufacturer related failure modes of microcircuits are metallization defects, poor bonding, surface and particle contamination, and design and fabrication faults. User related failure modes are caused by abuse, such as overstress. The Physics of Failure Procedure followed by the Astrionics Laboratory in failure analysis is described, which is designed to obtain maximum information available from each step.

  4. The scanning transmission microscope at the NSLS (National Synchrotron Light Source)

    SciTech Connect

    Rarback, H.; Buckley, C.; Goncz, K.; Ade, H.; Anderson, E.; Attwood, D.; Batson, P.; Hellman, S.; Jacobsen, C.; Kern, D.; Kirz, J.; Lindaas, S.; McNulty,I.; Oversluizen, M.; Rivers, M.; Rothman, S.; Shu, D.; Tang, Eshang; State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY . Dept. of Physics; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA; State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY . Dep

    1989-01-01

    The scanning transmission soft x-ray microscope (STXM), that has been under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source has been substantially upgraded for operation with the X1 undulator. The principal new features are: optical prefocusing, using a visible light interferometer, a dedicated VAXstation 3200 with a more user friendly and flexible software system for image acquisition and analysis, a flow cell that makes it possible not only to keep the specimen wet during exposure, but to change the fluid around the specimen as well, and a more compact proportional counter that is capable of counting rates of several MHz. In conjunction with new zone plates of better resolution and higher efficiency, the microscope is ready for a period of extended use in biological imaging. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Quantitative analysis of digital microscope images.

    PubMed

    Wolf, David E; Samarasekera, Champika; Swedlow, Jason R

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses quantitative analysis of digital microscope images and presents several exercises to provide examples to explain the concept. This chapter also presents the basic concepts in quantitative analysis for imaging, but these concepts rest on a well-established foundation of signal theory and quantitative data analysis. This chapter presents several examples for understanding the imaging process as a transformation from sample to image and the limits and considerations of quantitative analysis. This chapter introduces to the concept of digitally correcting the images and also focuses on some of the more critical types of data transformation and some of the frequently encountered issues in quantization. Image processing represents a form of data processing. There are many examples of data processing such as fitting the data to a theoretical curve. In all these cases, it is critical that care is taken during all steps of transformation, processing, and quantization. PMID:23931513

  6. Light Microsopy Module, International Space Station Premier Automated Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald J.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Brown, Daniel F.; O'Toole, Martin A.; Foster, William M.; Motil, Brian J.; Abbot-Hearn, Amber Ashley; Atherton, Arthur Johnson; Beltram, Alexander; Bozioney, Christopher M.; Brinkman, John Michael; Chestney, Louis S.; Czernec, Richard P.; Dial, William B.; Dombrosky, Deena M.; Eustace, John G.; Reid, Ryan James; Reinke, Sharon A.; Rogers, Christopher R.; Samrani, Joseph T.; Shumway, Steven Scott; Smith, Teresa Ann; Stroh, James R.; Storck, Jennifer L.; Werner, Christopher Raymond; Wilkinson, Myron A.; Zoldak, John T.; Grant, Nechelle M.; Loucks, Brian C.; Plastow, Richard A.; Pestak, Mark W.; Fletcher, William A.

    2015-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2009 and began science operations in 2010. It continues to support Physical and Biological scientific research on ISS. During 2015, if all goes as planned, five experiments will be completed: [1] Advanced Colloids Experiments with a manual sample base -3 (ACE-M-3), [2] the Advanced Colloids Experiment with a Heated Base -1 (ACE-H-1), [3] (ACE-H-2), [4] the Advanced Plant Experiment -03 (APEX-03), and [5] the Microchannel Diffusion Experiment (MDE). Preliminary results, along with an overview of present and future LMM capabilities will be presented; this includes details on the planned data imaging processing and storage system, along with the confocal upgrade to the core microscope. [1] New York University: Paul Chaikin, Andrew Hollingsworth, and Stefano Sacanna, [2] University of Pennsylvania: Arjun Yodh and Matthew Gratale, [3] a consortium of universities from the State of Kentucky working through the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR): Stuart Williams, Gerold Willing, Hemali Rathnayake, et al., [4] from the University of Florida and CASIS: Anna-Lisa Paul and Rob Ferl, and [5] from the Methodist Hospital Research Institute from CASIS: Alessandro Grattoni and Giancarlo Canavese.

  7. Microscopic fluorescence spectral analysis of basal cell carcinomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qingli; Lui, Harvey; Zloty, David; Cowan, Bryce; Warshawski, Larry; McLean, David I.; Zeng, Haishan

    2007-05-01

    Background and Objectives. Laser-induced autofluorescence (LIAF) is a promising tool for cancer diagnosis. This method is based on the differences in autofluorescence spectra between normal and cancerous tissues, but the underlined mechanisms are not well understood. The objective of this research is to study the microscopic origins and intrinsic fluorescence properties of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) for better understanding of the mechanism of in vivo fluorescence detection and margin delineation of BCCs on skin patients. A home-made micro- spectrophotometer (MSP) system was used to image the fluorophore distribution and to measure the fluorescence spectra of various microscopic structures and regions on frozen tissue sections. Materials and Methods. BCC tissue samples were obtained from 14 patients undergoing surgical resections. After surgical removal, each tissue sample was immediately embedded in OCT medium and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen. The frozen tissue block was then cut into 16-μm thickness sections using a cryostat microtome and placed on microscopic glass slides. The sections for fluorescence study were kept unstained and unfixed, and then analyzed by the MSP system. The adjacent tissue sections were H&E stained for histopathological examination and also served to help identify various microstructures on the adjacent unstained sections. The MSP system has all the functions of a conventional microscope, plus the ability of performing spectral analysis on selected micro-areas of a microscopic sample. For tissue fluorescence analysis, 442nm He-Cd laser light is used to illuminate and excite the unstained tissue sections. A 473-nm long pass filter was inserted behind the microscope objective to block the transmitted laser light while passing longer wavelength fluorescence signal. The fluorescence image of the sample can be viewed through the eyepieces and also recorded by a CCD camera. An optical fiber is mounted onto the image plane of the photograph

  8. Analysis of mammalian scrapie protein by novel monoclonal antibodies recognizing distinct prion protein glycoforms: an immunoblot and immunohistochemical study at the light and electron microscopic levels.

    PubMed

    Matucci, Andrea; Zanusso, Gianluigi; Gelati, Matteo; Farinazzo, Alessia; Fiorini, Michele; Ferrari, Sergio; Andrighetto, Giancarlo; Cestari, Tiziana; Caramelli, Maria; Negro, Alessandro; Morbin, Michela; Chiesa, Roberto; Monaco, Salvatore; Tridente, Giuseppe

    2005-03-15

    The availability of specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing the aberrant form (PrP(Sc)) of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) in different mammalian species is important for molecular diagnostics, PrP(Sc) typing and future immunotherapy. We obtained a panel of anti-PrP monoclonal antibodies in PrP(0/0) knock-out mice immunized with recombinant human PrP(23-231). Two mAbs, recognizing PrP epitopes in the alpha-helix 1 (mAb SA65) and alpha-helix 2 (mAb SA21) regions, immunoreacted with PrP(C) and PrP(Sc) and its proteolytic product, PrP27-30, from human, murine, bovine, caprine and ovine brains by Western blot. Remarkably, mAb SA21 recognized unglycosylated and monoglycosylated PrP with the second site occupied by glycan moieties, but not monoglycosylated PrP with the first consensus site occupied or highly glycosylated species. Immunoblots with mAb SA21 disclosed that PrP glycosylated at the second site accounted for the slower migrating form of the customary monoglycosylated PrP doublet. mAb SA65 immunolabelled all PrP glycoforms by Western blot and was highly efficient in detecting tissue PrP by immunohistochemistry in light microscopy and in immunoelectron microscopy. These novel anti-PrP mAbs provide tools to investigate the subcellular site of PrP deposition in mammalian prion diseases and may also contribute to assess the role of different PrP glycoforms in human and animal prion diseases. PMID:15763182

  9. X ray microscope assembly and alignment support and advanced x ray microscope design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, David L.

    1991-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been devoted recently to the design, analysis, fabrication, and testing of spherical Schwarzschild microscopes for soft x ray application in microscopy and projection lithography. The spherical Schwarzschild microscope consists of two concentric spherical mirrors configured such that the third order spherical aberration and coma are zero. Since multilayers are used on the mirror substrates for x ray applications, it is desirable to have only two reflecting surfaces in a microscope. In order to reduce microscope aberrations and increase the field of view, generalized mirror surface profiles have been considered in this investigation. Based on incoherent and sine wave modulation transfer function (MTF) calculations, the object plane resolution of a microscope has been analyzed as a function of the object height and numerical aperture (NA) of the primary for several spherical Schwarzschild, conic, and aspherical head reflecting two mirror microscope configurations.

  10. Dome lighting for insect imaging under a microscope

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most basic element of photography is the interaction of light on the subject being imaged. In cases where magnification and clarity is of great importance, such as the imaging of insects for scientific illustration, controlling light can be especially challenging. The intense light needed to v...

  11. Using a university characterization facility to educate the public about microscopes: light microscopes to SEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, Nancy; Henderson, Walter

    2015-10-01

    The National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (NNIN)1is an integrated partnership of 14 universities across the US funded by NSF to support nanoscale researchers. The NNIN education office is located at the Institute of Electronics and Nanotechnology at the Georgia Institute of Technology. At Georgia Tech we offer programs that integrate the facility and its resources to educate the public about nanotechnology. One event that has proved highly successful involves using microscopes in our characterization suite to educate a diverse audience about a variety of imaging instruments. As part of the annual Atlanta Science Festival (ATLSF)2 we provided an event entitled: "What's all the Buzz about Nanotechnology?" which was open to the public and advertised through a variety of methods by the ATLSF. During the event, we provided hands-on demos, cleanroom tours, and activities with three of our microscopes in our recently opened Imaging and Characterization Facility: 1. Keyence VHX-600 Digital Microscope; 2. Hitachi SU823 FE-SEM; and 3. Hitachi TM 3000. During the two hour event we had approximately 150 visitors including many families with school-aged children. Visitors were invited to bring a sample for scanning with the TM-3000. This paper will discuss how to do such an event, lessons learned, and visitor survey results.

  12. Enhancing the performance of the light field microscope using wavefront coding.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Noy; Yang, Samuel; Andalman, Aaron; Broxton, Michael; Grosenick, Logan; Deisseroth, Karl; Horowitz, Mark; Levoy, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Light field microscopy has been proposed as a new high-speed volumetric computational imaging method that enables reconstruction of 3-D volumes from captured projections of the 4-D light field. Recently, a detailed physical optics model of the light field microscope has been derived, which led to the development of a deconvolution algorithm that reconstructs 3-D volumes with high spatial resolution. However, the spatial resolution of the reconstructions has been shown to be non-uniform across depth, with some z planes showing high resolution and others, particularly at the center of the imaged volume, showing very low resolution. In this paper, we enhance the performance of the light field microscope using wavefront coding techniques. By including phase masks in the optical path of the microscope we are able to address this non-uniform resolution limitation. We have also found that superior control over the performance of the light field microscope can be achieved by using two phase masks rather than one, placed at the objective's back focal plane and at the microscope's native image plane. We present an extended optical model for our wavefront coded light field microscope and develop a performance metric based on Fisher information, which we use to choose adequate phase masks parameters. We validate our approach using both simulated data and experimental resolution measurements of a USAF 1951 resolution target; and demonstrate the utility for biological applications with in vivo volumetric calcium imaging of larval zebrafish brain. PMID:25322056

  13. Shaping light: MOEMS deformable mirrors for microscopes and telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bifano, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Micromachined deformable mirrors (DMs) have enabled rapid advances in applications ranging from large telescope astronomy and free space laser communication to biological microscopy and retinal imaging over the past decade. In this talk I describe our efforts at Boston University and at Boston Micromachines Corporation to design, fabricate, and control MOEMS DMs for adaptive optics (AO) applications. Integration of the DMs in AO systems is described, along with results demonstrating unprecedented advances in resolution and contrast in microscopes and telescopes challenged by unavoidable wavefront aberrations. MEMS-DM research offers the rare opportunity to introduce technology that is both more economical and more capable than the state-of-the-art.

  14. A compact Airy beam light sheet microscope with a tilted cylindrical lens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhengyi; Prokopas, Martynas; Nylk, Jonathan; Coll-Lladó, Clara; Gunn-Moore, Frank J; Ferrier, David E K; Vettenburg, Tom; Dholakia, Kishan

    2014-10-01

    Light-sheet imaging is rapidly gaining importance for imaging intact biological specimens. Many of the latest innovations rely on the propagation-invariant Bessel or Airy beams to form an extended light sheet to provide high resolution across a large field of view. Shaping light to realize propagation-invariant beams often relies on complex programming of spatial light modulators or specialized, custom made, optical elements. Here we present a straightforward and low-cost modification to the traditional light-sheet setup, based on the open-access light-sheet microscope OpenSPIM, to achieve Airy light-sheet illumination. This brings wide field single-photon light-sheet imaging to a broader range of endusers. Fluorescent microspheres embedded in agarose and a zebrafish larva were imaged to demonstrate how such a microscope can have a minimal footprint and cost without compromising on imaging quality. PMID:25360362

  15. A compact Airy beam light sheet microscope with a tilted cylindrical lens

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhengyi; Prokopas, Martynas; Nylk, Jonathan; Coll-Lladó, Clara; Gunn-Moore, Frank J.; Ferrier, David E. K.; Vettenburg, Tom; Dholakia, Kishan

    2014-01-01

    Light-sheet imaging is rapidly gaining importance for imaging intact biological specimens. Many of the latest innovations rely on the propagation-invariant Bessel or Airy beams to form an extended light sheet to provide high resolution across a large field of view. Shaping light to realize propagation-invariant beams often relies on complex programming of spatial light modulators or specialized, custom made, optical elements. Here we present a straightforward and low-cost modification to the traditional light-sheet setup, based on the open-access light-sheet microscope OpenSPIM, to achieve Airy light-sheet illumination. This brings wide field single-photon light-sheet imaging to a broader range of endusers. Fluorescent microspheres embedded in agarose and a zebrafish larva were imaged to demonstrate how such a microscope can have a minimal footprint and cost without compromising on imaging quality. PMID:25360362

  16. Microscopic analysis of fusion hindrance in heavy nuclear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washiyama, Kouhei

    2015-06-01

    Background: Heavy-ion fusion reactions involving heavy nuclei at energies around the Coulomb barrier exhibit fusion hindrance, where the probability of compound nucleus formation is strongly hindered compared with that in light- and medium-mass systems. The origin of this fusion hindrance has not been well understood from a microscopic point of view. Purpose: I analyze the fusion dynamics in heavy systems by a microscopic reaction model in order to understand the origin of the fusion hindrance. Method: I employ the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory as a microscopic reaction model. I extract the nucleus-nucleus potential and energy dissipation by the method combining TDHF dynamics of the entrance channel of fusion reactions with a one-dimensional Newton equation including a dissipation term. Then, I analyze the origin of the fusion hindrance using the properties of the extracted potential and energy dissipation. Results: I obtain finite extra-push energies for heavy systems from TDHF simulations, which agree with experimental observations. Extracted nucleus-nucleus potentials show monotonic increase as the relative distance of two nuclei decreases, which induces the disappearance of an ordinary barrier structure of the nucleus-nucleus potential. This property is different from those in light- and medium-mass systems and from density-constraint TDHF calculations. Extracted friction coefficients show sizable energy dependence and universal value of their magnitude, which are rather similar to those in light- and medium-mass systems. Using these properties, I analyze the origin of the fusion hindrance and find that contribution of the increase in potential to the extra-push energy is larger than that of the accumulated dissipation energy in most systems studied in this article. Conclusions: I find that the nucleus-nucleus potentials extracted in heavy systems show a specific property, which is not observed in light- and medium-mass systems. By the analysis of

  17. Pigmentosis tubae, a new entity: light and electron microscopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, G.A.; Reimann, B.E.; Greenberg, H.L.; Miles, P.A.

    1983-03-01

    The authors noted an unusual finding in the fallopian tubes of a 31-year-old woman who had received external and internal whole pelvis radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Aggregates of macrophages containing pigment, identified in a subepithelial location, were reminiscent of melanosis coli, which is caused by abuse of anthracene-containing laxatives. Electron microscopic examination of the pigment revealed cytoplasmic material with the appearance of lipofuscin, identical to the pigment described in cases of colonic melanosis. After a careful study of possible etiologic agents, it was concluded that the pigment most likely resulted from cellular damage caused by radiotherapy. The authors are not aware of any other reported case of this entity, which will be called pigmentosis tubae.

  18. Enhancing the performance of the light field microscope using wavefront coding

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Noy; Yang, Samuel; Andalman, Aaron; Broxton, Michael; Grosenick, Logan; Deisseroth, Karl; Horowitz, Mark; Levoy, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Light field microscopy has been proposed as a new high-speed volumetric computational imaging method that enables reconstruction of 3-D volumes from captured projections of the 4-D light field. Recently, a detailed physical optics model of the light field microscope has been derived, which led to the development of a deconvolution algorithm that reconstructs 3-D volumes with high spatial resolution. However, the spatial resolution of the reconstructions has been shown to be non-uniform across depth, with some z planes showing high resolution and others, particularly at the center of the imaged volume, showing very low resolution. In this paper, we enhance the performance of the light field microscope using wavefront coding techniques. By including phase masks in the optical path of the microscope we are able to address this non-uniform resolution limitation. We have also found that superior control over the performance of the light field microscope can be achieved by using two phase masks rather than one, placed at the objective’s back focal plane and at the microscope’s native image plane. We present an extended optical model for our wavefront coded light field microscope and develop a performance metric based on Fisher information, which we use to choose adequate phase masks parameters. We validate our approach using both simulated data and experimental resolution measurements of a USAF 1951 resolution target; and demonstrate the utility for biological applications with in vivo volumetric calcium imaging of larval zebrafish brain. PMID:25322056

  19. How a lesson on microscopes supports learning about light in elementary schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Joyce; Healy, Nancy

    2015-10-01

    One of the goals of the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (NNIN) is workforce development. If K-12 students are to be ready for the jobs of the 21st century they must be able to work with tools such as microscopes. This study was conducted to determine if the NNIN lesson Taking a Closer Look at Objects helped grades K-5 students connect what they were learning about light and its uses, to how microscopes work. The results of this study indicate that the lesson not only helped students improve their knowledge of how light is used but also helped them become more knowledgeable about how microscopes work. Students learning how light is used to form an image in an optical microscope, lays the foundation for them to learn how other microscopes such as the Scanning Electron Microscope and Atomic Force Microscope are used to form images. This knowledge is important in supporting the continued research and development in the field of nanoscale science and engineering.

  20. A Microscopic Information System (MIS) to assist in petrographic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarquini, S.; Favalli, M.

    2009-04-01

    Rock texture results from all the petrological processes that have affected the rock system. The interpretation of a rock texture relies on the analysis of the morphometric parameters of the constituting components (e.g. crystals or grains). A consistent and statistically sound quantification of components size and shape is crucial to adequately unravel the petrology of a rock, but the gathering of these measurements may be time-consuming or difficult to achieve using low-cost facilities. The basic technique for texture analysis of rocks is the observation of thin sections in transmitted light by using a petrographic microscope. To automate and speed-up textural measurements from thin section in transmitted light, several image processing procedures have been published in the last two decades. Nevertheless, the complexity of the optical properties of crystals hampered the determination of a method that is completely satisfactory, especially for complex polymineralic plutonic rocks. This work provides a contribution to solve this problem. We present a novel composite procedure based on four approaches: i) the use of a slide scanner to acquire the input imagery in transmitted light from thin sections without using the petrographic microscope; ii) the storage of the resulting images in a GIS-like database structure that is extremely useful to retrieve, browse and analyze a large archive of images from a high number of thin sections; iii) the application of a custom image analysis procedure based on two region growing functions; iv) the refinement of the regions after raster to vector conversion using GIS software. We call the obtained analysis system a Microscopic Information System (MIS), because it relies on GIS software but it is not a geographic system. In this study we apply this technique to analyze 137 thin sections obtained from 49 samples of 8 different granitoid rocks that are commonly used in the decorative stone industry. For each thin section 5 collimated

  1. Design and analysis of multilayer x ray/XUV microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, David L.

    1990-01-01

    The design and analysis of a large number of normal incidence multilayer x ray microscopes based on the spherical mirror Schwarzschild configuration is examined. Design equations for the spherical mirror Schwarzschild microscopes are summarized and used to evaluate mirror parameters for microscopes with magnifications ranging from 2 to 50x. Ray tracing and diffraction analyses are carried out for many microscope configurations to determine image resolution as a function of system parameters. The results are summarized in three publication included herein. A preliminary study of advanced reflecting microscope configurations, where aspherics are used in place of the spherical microscope mirror elements, has indicated that the aspherical elements will improve off-axis image resolution and increase the effective field of view.

  2. Microscopic analysis of pear-shaped nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, K.

    2015-10-01

    We analyze the quadrupole-octupole collective states based on the microscopic energy density functional framework. By mapping the deformation constrained self-consistent axially symmetric mean-field energy surfaces onto the equivalent Hamiltonian of the sd f interacting boson model (IBM), that is, onto the energy expectation value in the boson coherent state, the Hamiltonian parameters are determined. The resulting IBM Hamiltonian is used to calculate excitation spectra and transition rates for the positive- and negative-parity collective states in nuclei characteristic for octupole deformation and collectivity. Consistently with the empirical trend, the microscopic calculation based on the systematics of β2 - β3 energy maps, the resulting low-lying negative-parity bands and transition rates show evidence of a shape transition between stable octupole deformation and octupole vibrations characteristic for β3-soft potentials.

  3. Study of filtered light on potential retinal photic hazards with operation microscopes used for ocular surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Robert J.; Miller, Sharon A.; Byrnes, Gordon A.

    2002-02-01

    There have been numerous reports of retinal photic injury from operation microscopes used during cataract surgery. The risk of injury has been associated with the intensity of the light directed into the eye, short-wavelength emission, user technique, exposure time, and direct axial lighting. We evaluated use of light transmission filters to modify a tungsten-halogen light source spectrum to reduce the risk of retinal photic injury. A two-light source filter combination was found with a color profile acceptable for intraocular surgery that reduces the risk of retinal photic injury by a factor of approximately 2.5.

  4. Real-time restoration of white-light confocal microscope optical sections

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Madhusudhanan; Iyengar, S. Sitharama; Beuerman, Roger W.; Reynaud, Juan; Wolenski, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Confocal microscopes (CM) are routinely used for building 3-D images of microscopic structures. Nonideal imaging conditions in a white-light CM introduce additive noise and blur. The optical section images need to be restored prior to quantitative analysis. We present an adaptive noise filtering technique using Karhunen–Loéve expansion (KLE) by the method of snapshots and a ringing metric to quantify the ringing artifacts introduced in the images restored at various iterations of iterative Lucy–Richardson deconvolution algorithm. The KLE provides a set of basis functions that comprise the optimal linear basis for an ensemble of empirical observations. We show that most of the noise in the scene can be removed by reconstructing the images using the KLE basis vector with the largest eigenvalue. The prefiltering scheme presented is faster and does not require prior knowledge about image noise. Optical sections processed using the KLE prefilter can be restored using a simple inverse restoration algorithm; thus, the methodology is suitable for real-time image restoration applications. The KLE image prefilter outperforms the temporal-average prefilter in restoring CM optical sections. The ringing metric developed uses simple binary morphological operations to quantify the ringing artifacts and confirms with the visual observation of ringing artifacts in the restored images. PMID:20186290

  5. Microscopic quantum coherence in a photosynthetic-light-harvesting antenna.

    PubMed

    Dawlaty, Jahan M; Ishizaki, Akihito; De, Arijit K; Fleming, Graham R

    2012-08-13

    We briefly review the coherent quantum beats observed in recent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy experiments in a photosynthetic-light-harvesting antenna. We emphasize that the decay of the quantum beats in these experiments is limited by ensemble averaging. The in vivo dynamics of energy transport depends upon the local fluctuations of a single photosynthetic complex during the energy transfer time (a few picoseconds). Recent analyses suggest that it remains possible that the quantum-coherent motion may be robust under individual realizations of the environment-induced fluctuations contrary to intuition obtained from condensed phase spectroscopic measurements and reduced density matrices. This result indicates that the decay of the observed quantum coherence can be understood as ensemble dephasing. We propose a fluorescence-detected single-molecule experiment with phase-locked excitation pulses to investigate the coherent dynamics at the level of a single molecule without hindrance by ensemble averaging. We discuss the advantages and limitations of this method. We report our initial results on bulk fluorescence-detected coherent spectroscopy of the Fenna-Mathews-Olson complex. PMID:22753820

  6. Atomic force microscope, molecular imaging, and analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-wen W; Teulon, Jean-Marie; Godon, Christian; Pellequer, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Image visibility is a central issue in analyzing all kinds of microscopic images. An increase of intensity contrast helps to raise the image visibility, thereby to reveal fine image features. Accordingly, a proper evaluation of results with current imaging parameters can be used for feedback on future imaging experiments. In this work, we have applied the Laplacian function of image intensity as either an additive component (Laplacian mask) or a multiplying factor (Laplacian weight) for enhancing image contrast of high-resolution AFM images of two molecular systems, an unknown protein imaged in air, provided by AFM COST Action TD1002 (http://www.afm4nanomedbio.eu/), and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) particles imaged in liquid. Based on both visual inspection and quantitative representation of contrast measurements, we found that the Laplacian weight is more effective than the Laplacian mask for the unknown protein, whereas for the TMV system the strengthened Laplacian mask is superior to the Laplacian weight. The present results indicate that a mathematical function, as exemplified by the Laplacian function, may yield varied processing effects with different operations. To interpret the diversity of molecular structure and topology in images, an explicit expression for processing procedures should be included in scientific reports alongside instrumental setups. PMID:26224520

  7. Aging rat vestibular ganglion: I. Quantitative light microscopic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Alidina, A; Lyon, M J

    1990-01-01

    This study was undertaken to quantify age-related changes in the rat vestibular ganglion. Cell number, diameter, and proximal-distal distribution based on size were evaluated. Serial 5-microns plastic sections of the vestibular ganglion from 15 female Wistar rats were examined. Rats were divided into three age groups: young (Y, 3 to 5 months, n = 5), old (0, 24 to 26 months, n = 3), and very old (VO, 28 to 31 months, n = 7). Quantitative analysis indicated no significant differences (P less than .05) in the estimated number of ganglion cells (mean: Y = 1,690, 0 = 2,257, VO = 1,678), ganglion cell profile diameters (mean: Y = 22.5 microns, n = 2,886; O = 23.7 microns, n = 2,313; VO = 22.8 microns, n = 4,061), or proximal-distal localization (proximal: 22.3 microns, 24.4 microns, 22.7 microns; middle: 22.6 microns, 23.1 microns, 22.4 microns; distal: 23.3 microns, 23.4 microns, 23.7 microns; Y, O, and VO, respectively). When pooled, the old animals tended to have slightly larger cell profiles than the other groups. We noted a dramatic age-related increase of aging pigment within the ganglion cell profiles, making the old and very old animals easily distinguishable from the young. In most of the cell profiles, the aging pigment was more or less uniformly distributed throughout the cytoplasm. However, in some, aging pigment was accumulated at one pole of the cell profile. While no typical degenerating cellular profiles were found in any of the sections, several of the ganglion cell profiles from the old animals revealed dense cytoplasm, possibly indicating an early stage of degeneration. PMID:2382785

  8. Minimizing inter-microscope variability in dental microwear texture analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arman, Samuel D.; Ungar, Peter S.; Brown, Christopher A.; DeSantis, Larisa R. G.; Schmidt, Christopher; Prideaux, Gavin J.

    2016-06-01

    A common approach to dental microwear texture analysis (DMTA) uses confocal profilometry in concert with scale-sensitive fractal analysis to help understand the diets of extinct mammals. One of the main benefits of DMTA over other methods is the repeatable, objective manner of data collection. This repeatability, however, is threatened by variation in results of DMTA of the same dental surfaces yielded by different microscopes. Here we compare DMTA data of five species of kangaroos measured on seven profilers of varying specifications. Comparison between microscopes confirms that inter-microscope differences are present, but we show that deployment of a number of automated treatments to remove measurement noise can help minimize inter-microscope differences. Applying these same treatments to a published hominin DMTA dataset shows that they alter some significant differences between dietary groups. Minimising microscope variability while maintaining interspecific dietary differences requires then that these factors are balanced in determining appropriate treatments. The process outlined here offers a solution for allowing comparison of data between microscopes, which is essential for ongoing DMTA research. In addition, the process undertaken, including considerations of other elements of DMTA protocols also promises to streamline methodology, remove measurement noise and in doing so, optimize recovery of a reliable dietary signature.

  9. From Animaculum to single molecules: 300 years of the light microscope

    PubMed Central

    Wollman, Adam J. M.; Nudd, Richard; Hedlund, Erik G.; Leake, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    Although not laying claim to being the inventor of the light microscope, Antonj van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723) was arguably the first person to bring this new technological wonder of the age properly to the attention of natural scientists interested in the study of living things (people we might now term ‘biologists’). He was a Dutch draper with no formal scientific training. From using magnifying glasses to observe threads in cloth, he went on to develop over 500 simple single lens microscopes (Baker & Leeuwenhoek 1739 Phil. Trans. 41, 503–519. (doi:10.1098/rstl.1739.0085)) which he used to observe many different biological samples. He communicated his finding to the Royal Society in a series of letters (Leeuwenhoek 1800 The select works of Antony Van Leeuwenhoek, containing his microscopical discoveries in many of the works of nature, vol. 1) including the one republished in this edition of Open Biology. Our review here begins with the work of van Leeuwenhoek before summarizing the key developments over the last ca 300 years, which has seen the light microscope evolve from a simple single lens device of van Leeuwenhoek's day into an instrument capable of observing the dynamics of single biological molecules inside living cells, and to tracking every cell nucleus in the development of whole embryos and plants. PMID:25924631

  10. From Animaculum to single molecules: 300 years of the light microscope.

    PubMed

    Wollman, Adam J M; Nudd, Richard; Hedlund, Erik G; Leake, Mark C

    2015-04-01

    Although not laying claim to being the inventor of the light microscope, Antonj van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) was arguably the first person to bring this new technological wonder of the age properly to the attention of natural scientists interested in the study of living things (people we might now term 'biologists'). He was a Dutch draper with no formal scientific training. From using magnifying glasses to observe threads in cloth, he went on to develop over 500 simple single lens microscopes (Baker & Leeuwenhoek 1739 Phil. Trans. 41, 503-519. (doi:10.1098/rstl.1739.0085)) which he used to observe many different biological samples. He communicated his finding to the Royal Society in a series of letters (Leeuwenhoek 1800 The select works of Antony Van Leeuwenhoek, containing his microscopical discoveries in many of the works of nature, vol. 1) including the one republished in this edition of Open Biology. Our review here begins with the work of van Leeuwenhoek before summarizing the key developments over the last ca 300 years, which has seen the light microscope evolve from a simple single lens device of van Leeuwenhoek's day into an instrument capable of observing the dynamics of single biological molecules inside living cells, and to tracking every cell nucleus in the development of whole embryos and plants. PMID:25924631

  11. 3D scanning of internal structure in gel engineering materials with visual scanning microscopic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yosuke; Gong, Jing; Masato, Makino; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2014-04-01

    The 3D printing technology, causing much attention from the beginning of 2013, will be possibly an alternative method to fabricate the biological soft tissues. Recently our group of Yamagata University has developed the world-first 3D Gel Printer to fabricate the complicated gel-materials with high-strength and biocompatibility. However, there are no 3D scanners that collect the data from the internal structure of complicated gel objects such as eye lens. It means that a new system for scanning the internal structure is needed now. In this study, firstly, we have tried to investigate the gel network of synthetic and biological gel with scanning microscopic light scattering (SMILS). We calculated the Young's modulus of synthetic gels with the SMILS and with the tensile test, and precisely compared the results between them. The temperature dependences of the inside structure and the transparency are observed in the pig crystalline lens. The quantitative analysis indicates the importance of the internal structure of real object. Secondary, we show the new system named Gel-scanner that can provide the 2-dimentional data of the internal structure. From examining our findings, the scanning of internal structure will enable us to expect physical properties of the real object. We convince that the gelscanner will play major role in the various fields.

  12. Scanning tunneling microscope light emission: Effect of the strong dc field on junction plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalathingal, Vijith; Dawson, Paul; Mitra, J.

    2016-07-01

    The observed energies of the localized surface plasmons (LSPs) excited at the tip-sample junction of a scanning tunneling microscope, as identified by spectral peaks in the light output, are very significantly redshifted with respect to calculations that use standard optical data for the tip and sample material, gold in this case. We argue that this anomaly depends on the extreme field in the sub-nm tunneling proximity of the tip and the sample, across which a dc bias (1-2 V) is applied. Finite element modeling analysis is presented of a gold nanosphere-plane (NS-P) combination in tunneling proximity and, crucially, in the presence of a high static electric field (˜109V /m ). It is argued that the strong dc field induces nonlinear corrections to the dielectric function of the gold via the effect of a large background polarizability through the nonlinear, χ(3 ) susceptibility contribution. When fed into the model system the modified optical data alters the LSP cavity modes of the NS-P system to indeed reveal a large redshift in energy compared to those of the virgin gold NS-P system. The net outcome may be regarded as equivalent to lowering the bulk plasmon energy, the physical interpretation being that the intense field of the tunneling environment leads to surface charge screening, effectively reducing the density of free electrons available to participate in the plasmon oscillations.

  13. A Simple low-cost device enables four epi-illumination techniques on standard light microscopes

    PubMed Central

    Ishmukhametov, Robert R.; Russell, Aidan N.; Wheeler, Richard J.; Nord, Ashley L.; Berry, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Back-scattering darkfield (BSDF), epi-fluorescence (EF), interference reflection contrast (IRC), and darkfield surface reflection (DFSR) are advanced but expensive light microscopy techniques with limited availability. Here we show a simple optical design that combines these four techniques in a simple low-cost miniature epi-illuminator, which inserts into the differential interference-contrast (DIC) slider bay of a commercial microscope, without further additions required. We demonstrate with this device: 1) BSDF-based detection of Malarial parasites inside unstained human erythrocytes; 2) EF imaging with and without dichroic components, including detection of DAPI-stained Leishmania parasite without using excitation or emission filters; 3) RIC of black lipid membranes and other thin films, and 4) DFSR of patterned opaque and transparent surfaces. We believe that our design can expand the functionality of commercial bright field microscopes, provide easy field detection of parasites and be of interest to many users of light microscopy. PMID:26853732

  14. A Simple low-cost device enables four epi-illumination techniques on standard light microscopes.

    PubMed

    Ishmukhametov, Robert R; Russell, Aidan N; Wheeler, Richard J; Nord, Ashley L; Berry, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Back-scattering darkfield (BSDF), epi-fluorescence (EF), interference reflection contrast (IRC), and darkfield surface reflection (DFSR) are advanced but expensive light microscopy techniques with limited availability. Here we show a simple optical design that combines these four techniques in a simple low-cost miniature epi-illuminator, which inserts into the differential interference-contrast (DIC) slider bay of a commercial microscope, without further additions required. We demonstrate with this device: 1) BSDF-based detection of Malarial parasites inside unstained human erythrocytes; 2) EF imaging with and without dichroic components, including detection of DAPI-stained Leishmania parasite without using excitation or emission filters; 3) RIC of black lipid membranes and other thin films, and 4) DFSR of patterned opaque and transparent surfaces. We believe that our design can expand the functionality of commercial bright field microscopes, provide easy field detection of parasites and be of interest to many users of light microscopy. PMID:26853732

  15. A Simple low-cost device enables four epi-illumination techniques on standard light microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishmukhametov, Robert R.; Russell, Aidan N.; Wheeler, Richard J.; Nord, Ashley L.; Berry, Richard M.

    2016-02-01

    Back-scattering darkfield (BSDF), epi-fluorescence (EF), interference reflection contrast (IRC), and darkfield surface reflection (DFSR) are advanced but expensive light microscopy techniques with limited availability. Here we show a simple optical design that combines these four techniques in a simple low-cost miniature epi-illuminator, which inserts into the differential interference-contrast (DIC) slider bay of a commercial microscope, without further additions required. We demonstrate with this device: 1) BSDF-based detection of Malarial parasites inside unstained human erythrocytes; 2) EF imaging with and without dichroic components, including detection of DAPI-stained Leishmania parasite without using excitation or emission filters; 3) RIC of black lipid membranes and other thin films, and 4) DFSR of patterned opaque and transparent surfaces. We believe that our design can expand the functionality of commercial bright field microscopes, provide easy field detection of parasites and be of interest to many users of light microscopy.

  16. A combined light sheet fluorescence and differential interference contrast microscope for live imaging of multicellular specimens.

    PubMed

    Baker, R P; Taormina, M J; Jemielita, M; Parthasarathy, R

    2015-05-01

    We describe a microscope capable of both light sheet fluorescence microscopy and differential interference contrast microscopy (DICM). The two imaging modes, which to the best of our knowledge have not previously been combined, are complementary: light sheet fluorescence microscopy provides three-dimensional imaging of fluorescently labelled components of multicellular systems with high speed, large fields of view, and low phototoxicity, whereas differential interference contrast microscopy reveals the unlabelled neighbourhood of tissues, organs, and other structures with high contrast and inherent optical sectioning. Use of a single Nomarski prism for differential interference contrast microscopy and a shared detection path for both imaging modes enables simple integration of the two techniques in one custom microscope. We provide several examples of the utility of the resulting instrument, focusing especially on the digestive tract of the larval zebrafish, revealing in this complex and heterogeneous environment anatomical features, the behaviour of commensal microbes, immune cell motions, and more. PMID:25611324

  17. Advanced water window x-ray microscope design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, D. L.; Wang, C.; Jiang, W.; Lin, J.

    1992-01-01

    The project was focused on the design and analysis of an advanced water window soft-x-ray microscope. The activities were accomplished by completing three tasks contained in the statement of work of this contract. The new results confirm that in order to achieve resolutions greater than three times the wavelength of the incident radiation, it will be necessary to use aspherical mirror surfaces and to use graded multilayer coatings on the secondary (to accommodate the large variations of the angle of incidence over the secondary when operating the microscope at numerical apertures of 0.35 or greater). The results are included in a manuscript which is enclosed in the Appendix.

  18. The Light Microscopy Module: An On-Orbit Multi-User Microscope Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Susan M.; Snead, John H.

    2002-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) is planned as a remotely controllable on-orbit microscope subrack facility, allowing flexible scheduling and operation of fluids and biology experiments within the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) on the International Space Station (ISS). The LMM will be the first integrated payload with the FIR to conduct four fluid physics experiments. A description of the LMM diagnostic capabilities, including video microscopy, interferometry, laser tweezers, confocal, and spectrophotometry, will be provided.

  19. Automatic analysis for neuron by confocal laser scanning microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satou, Kouhei; Aoki, Yoshimitsu; Mataga, Nobuko; Hensh, Takao K.; Taki, Katuhiko

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a system that recognizes both the macro- and microscopic configurations of nerve cells and automatically performs the necessary 3-D measurements and functional classification of spines. The acquisition of 3-D images of cranial nerves has been enabled by the use of a confocal laser scanning microscope, although the highly accurate 3-D measurements of the microscopic structures of cranial nerves and their classification based on their configurations have not yet been accomplished. In this study, in order to obtain highly accurate measurements of the microscopic structures of cranial nerves, existing positions of spines were predicted by the 2-D image processing of tomographic images. Next, based on the positions that were predicted on the 2-D images, the positions and configurations of the spines were determined more accurately by 3-D image processing of the volume data. We report the successful construction of an automatic analysis system that uses a coarse-to-fine technique to analyze the microscopic structures of cranial nerves with high speed and accuracy by combining 2-D and 3-D image analyses.

  20. Quantitative evaluation of a handheld light microscope for field diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infection.

    PubMed

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Andrews, Jason R; Speich, Benjamin; Ame, Shaali M; Ali, Said M; Stothard, J Russell; Utzinger, Jürg; Keiser, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the Newton Nm1, a commercially available handheld light microscope and compared it with conventional light microscopy for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth infections. A total of 91 Kato-Katz thick smears were examined by experienced microscopists and helminth eggs were counted and expressed as eggs per gram of stool (EPG). Mean egg counts were significantly higher with the conventional light microscope (5,190 EPG versus 2,386 EPG for Ascaris lumbricoides; 826 versus 456 for Trichuris trichiura; both P < 0.05). Using regression coefficients and accounting for intensity of infection, we found that the agreement between the two devices was excellent for both species (κ = 0.90, 95% confidence interval = 0.82-0.99 for A. lumbricoides and κ = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.91-1.00 for T. trichiura). The Newton Nm1 microscope may be a useful tool for the detection and quantification of soil-transmitted helminth infection in clinical, epidemiologic, and public health settings. PMID:25246697

  1. [Intracytoplasmic lumina of benign and malignant breast diseases--a light and electron microscopic study].

    PubMed

    Gu, C M

    1990-07-01

    Intracytoplasmic lumina (ICLs) of 70 cases with breast carcinoma and 29 cases with benign breast diseases were observed by light and electron microscopy. ICLs were morphologically divided into two types. Type A was characterized by the presence of secretory materials stained with eosin in the lumen and Type B by the cytoplasmic vacuoles under light microscope. Electron microscopic observation on Type A ICLs showed numerous filiform microvilli projecting towards the lumen and various amounts of secretory materials in the lumen. Type B of ICLs only had scanty and short microvilli and rarely secretory materials in the lumen. The results indicated that: 1. The frequency of ICLs in breast cancer was significantly higher than that in benign breast disease (P less than 0.01). 2. The frequency of ICLs in breast cancer showed strong negative correlation with its histological grades but not with its histological types. 3. ICLs had similar frequency under both light and electron microscopes. As a relatively specific structure in breast carcinoma cells, ICLs may be helpful in the diagnosis of breast carcinoma and establishment of the breast origin for metastatic carcinoma. PMID:2176965

  2. NASA Lighting Research, Test, & Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Toni

    2015-01-01

    The Habitability and Human Factors Branch, at Johnson Space Center, in Houston, TX, provides technical guidance for the development of spaceflight lighting requirements, verification of light system performance, analysis of integrated environmental lighting systems, and research of lighting-related human performance issues. The Habitability & Human Factors Lighting Team maintains two physical facilities that are integrated to provide support. The Lighting Environment Test Facility (LETF) provides a controlled darkroom environment for physical verification of lighting systems with photometric and spetrographic measurement systems. The Graphics Research & Analysis Facility (GRAF) maintains the capability for computer-based analysis of operational lighting environments. The combined capabilities of the Lighting Team at Johnson Space Center have been used for a wide range of lighting-related issues.

  3. Coherent Scattering of Near-Resonant Light by a Dense Microscopic Cold Atomic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennewein, S.; Besbes, M.; Schilder, N. J.; Jenkins, S. D.; Sauvan, C.; Ruostekoski, J.; Greffet, J.-J.; Sortais, Y. R. P.; Browaeys, A.

    2016-06-01

    We measure the coherent scattering of light by a cloud of laser-cooled atoms with a size comparable to the wavelength of light. By interfering a laser beam tuned near an atomic resonance with the field scattered by the atoms, we observe a resonance with a redshift, a broadening, and a saturation of the extinction for increasing atom numbers. We attribute these features to enhanced light-induced dipole-dipole interactions in a cold, dense atomic ensemble that result in a failure of standard predictions such as the "cooperative Lamb shift". The description of the atomic cloud by a mean-field model based on the Lorentz-Lorenz formula that ignores scattering events where light is scattered recurrently by the same atom and by a microscopic discrete dipole model that incorporates these effects lead to progressively closer agreement with the observations, despite remaining differences.

  4. Coherent Scattering of Near-Resonant Light by a Dense Microscopic Cold Atomic Cloud.

    PubMed

    Jennewein, S; Besbes, M; Schilder, N J; Jenkins, S D; Sauvan, C; Ruostekoski, J; Greffet, J-J; Sortais, Y R P; Browaeys, A

    2016-06-10

    We measure the coherent scattering of light by a cloud of laser-cooled atoms with a size comparable to the wavelength of light. By interfering a laser beam tuned near an atomic resonance with the field scattered by the atoms, we observe a resonance with a redshift, a broadening, and a saturation of the extinction for increasing atom numbers. We attribute these features to enhanced light-induced dipole-dipole interactions in a cold, dense atomic ensemble that result in a failure of standard predictions such as the "cooperative Lamb shift". The description of the atomic cloud by a mean-field model based on the Lorentz-Lorenz formula that ignores scattering events where light is scattered recurrently by the same atom and by a microscopic discrete dipole model that incorporates these effects lead to progressively closer agreement with the observations, despite remaining differences. PMID:27341230

  5. Development of a hybrid atomic force microscopic measurement system combined with white light scanning interferometry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tong; Wang, Siming; Dorantes-Gonzalez, Dante J; Chen, Jinping; Fu, Xing; Hu, Xiaotang

    2012-01-01

    A hybrid atomic force microscopic (AFM) measurement system combined with white light scanning interferometry for micro/nanometer dimensional measurement is developed. The system is based on a high precision large-range positioning platform with nanometer accuracy on which a white light scanning interferometric module and an AFM head are built. A compact AFM head is developed using a self-sensing tuning fork probe. The head need no external optical sensors to detect the deflection of the cantilever, which saves room on the head, and it can be directly fixed under an optical microscopic interferometric system. To enhance the system's dynamic response, the frequency modulation (FM) mode is adopted for the AFM head. The measuring data can be traceable through three laser interferometers in the system. The lateral scanning range can reach 25 mm × 25 mm by using a large-range positioning platform. A hybrid method combining AFM and white light scanning interferometry is proposed to improve the AFM measurement efficiency. In this method, the sample is measured firstly by white light scanning interferometry to get an overall coarse morphology, and then, further measured with higher resolution by AFM. Several measuring experiments on standard samples demonstrate the system's good measurement performance and feasibility of the hybrid measurement method. PMID:22368463

  6. Development of a Hybrid Atomic Force Microscopic Measurement System Combined with White Light Scanning Interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tong; Wang, Siming; Dorantes-Gonzalez, Dante J.; Chen, Jinping; Fu, Xing; Hu, Xiaotang

    2012-01-01

    A hybrid atomic force microscopic (AFM) measurement system combined with white light scanning interferometry for micro/nanometer dimensional measurement is developed. The system is based on a high precision large-range positioning platform with nanometer accuracy on which a white light scanning interferometric module and an AFM head are built. A compact AFM head is developed using a self-sensing tuning fork probe. The head need no external optical sensors to detect the deflection of the cantilever, which saves room on the head, and it can be directly fixed under an optical microscopic interferometric system. To enhance the system’s dynamic response, the frequency modulation (FM) mode is adopted for the AFM head. The measuring data can be traceable through three laser interferometers in the system. The lateral scanning range can reach 25 mm × 25 mm by using a large-range positioning platform. A hybrid method combining AFM and white light scanning interferometry is proposed to improve the AFM measurement efficiency. In this method, the sample is measured firstly by white light scanning interferometry to get an overall coarse morphology, and then, further measured with higher resolution by AFM. Several measuring experiments on standard samples demonstrate the system’s good measurement performance and feasibility of the hybrid measurement method. PMID:22368463

  7. Light microscopic hair abnormalities in children: retrospective review of 119 cases in a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Shao, Lei; Newell, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Abnormalities in the hair can be congenital or acquired conditions. Examples of genetic disorders with associated hair abnormalities include Menkes syndrome, Netherton syndrome, uncombable hair syndrome, trichothiodystrophy, and loose anagen hair syndrome. Acquired hair abnormalities can be associated with grooming or use of various hair products. There are many patterns of hair abnormalities that can be readily identified under a light microscope. We performed a retrospective review of 129 hair mount samples from 119 patients submitted to the pathology department for microscopic examination over a 10-year span (from January 2002 to December 2011). Of the 119 patients, 63 (53%) had morphologic changes in the hair samples. Thirty-seven patients (31%) showed morphologic changes compatible with specific diagnoses of various genetic conditions, including 25 cases of loose anagen hair syndrome, 6 cases of uncombable hair syndrome, 2 cases of Netherton syndrome, 3 cases of Menkes syndrome, and 1 case of trichothiodystrophy. The other changes were considered nonspecific or nondiagnostic, with trichorrhexis nodosa in 13 patients, presence of loose anagen hairs in 12 patients, and pili torti in 1 patient. We describe the light microscopic patterns of hair abnormalities, clinical findings, and molecular defects related to those genetic conditions. Our study indicates that hair examination can be a 1st-line investigation on various pediatric conditions. PMID:24251687

  8. A line scanned light-sheet microscope with phase shaped self-reconstructing beams.

    PubMed

    Fahrbach, Florian O; Rohrbach, Alexander

    2010-11-01

    We recently demonstrated that Microscopy with Self-Reconstructing Beams (MISERB) increases both image quality and penetration depth of illumination beams in strongly scattering media. Based on the concept of line scanned light-sheet microscopy, we present an add-on module to a standard inverted microscope using a scanned beam that is shaped in phase and amplitude by a spatial light modulator. We explain technical details of the setup as well as of the holograms for the creation, positioning and scaling of static light-sheets, Gaussian beams and Bessel beams. The comparison of images from identical sample areas illuminated by different beams allows a precise assessment of the interconnection between beam shape and image quality. The superior propagation ability of Bessel beams through inhomogeneous media is demonstrated by measurements on various scattering media. PMID:21164769

  9. A compact light-sheet microscope for the study of the mammalian central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhengyi; Haslehurst, Peter; Scott, Suzanne; Emptage, Nigel; Dholakia, Kishan

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of the transient processes integral to neuronal function demands rapid and high-resolution imaging techniques over a large field of view, which cannot be achieved with conventional scanning microscopes. Here we describe a compact light sheet fluorescence microscope, featuring a 45° inverted geometry and an integrated photolysis laser, that is optimized for applications in neuroscience, in particular fast imaging of sub-neuronal structures in mammalian brain slices. We demonstrate the utility of this design for three-dimensional morphological reconstruction, activation of a single synapse with localized photolysis, and fast imaging of neuronal Ca2+ signalling across a large field of view. The developed system opens up a host of novel applications for the neuroscience community. PMID:27215692

  10. A compact light-sheet microscope for the study of the mammalian central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhengyi; Haslehurst, Peter; Scott, Suzanne; Emptage, Nigel; Dholakia, Kishan

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of the transient processes integral to neuronal function demands rapid and high-resolution imaging techniques over a large field of view, which cannot be achieved with conventional scanning microscopes. Here we describe a compact light sheet fluorescence microscope, featuring a 45° inverted geometry and an integrated photolysis laser, that is optimized for applications in neuroscience, in particular fast imaging of sub-neuronal structures in mammalian brain slices. We demonstrate the utility of this design for three-dimensional morphological reconstruction, activation of a single synapse with localized photolysis, and fast imaging of neuronal Ca(2+) signalling across a large field of view. The developed system opens up a host of novel applications for the neuroscience community. PMID:27215692

  11. A compact light-sheet microscope for the study of the mammalian central nervous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhengyi; Haslehurst, Peter; Scott, Suzanne; Emptage, Nigel; Dholakia, Kishan

    2016-05-01

    Investigation of the transient processes integral to neuronal function demands rapid and high-resolution imaging techniques over a large field of view, which cannot be achieved with conventional scanning microscopes. Here we describe a compact light sheet fluorescence microscope, featuring a 45° inverted geometry and an integrated photolysis laser, that is optimized for applications in neuroscience, in particular fast imaging of sub-neuronal structures in mammalian brain slices. We demonstrate the utility of this design for three-dimensional morphological reconstruction, activation of a single synapse with localized photolysis, and fast imaging of neuronal Ca2+ signalling across a large field of view. The developed system opens up a host of novel applications for the neuroscience community.

  12. A Combined Light Sheet Fluorescence and Differential Interference Contrast Microscope for Live Imaging of Multicellular Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Ryan P.; Taormina, Michael J.; Jemielita, Matthew; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2014-01-01

    We describe a microscope capable of both light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) and differential interference contrast microscopy (DICM). The two imaging modes, which to the best of our knowledge have not previously been combined, are complementary: LSFM provides three-dimensional imaging of fluorescently labeled components of multicellular systems with high speed, large fields of view, and low phototoxicity, while DICM reveals the unlabeled neighborhood of tissues, organs, and other structures with high contrast and inherent optical sectioning. Use of a single Nomarski prism for DICM and a shared detection path for both imaging modes enables simple integration of the two techniques in one custom microscope. We provide several examples of the utility of the resulting instrument, focusing especially on the digestive tract of the larval zebrafish, revealing in this complex and heterogeneous environment anatomical features, the behavior of commensal microbes, immune cell motions, and more. PMID:25611324

  13. Sub-diffuse structured light imaging provides macroscopic maps of microscopic tissue structure (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanick, Stephen C.

    2016-03-01

    The onset and progression of cancer introduces changes to the intra-cellular ultrastructural components and to the morphology of the extracellular matrix. While previous work has shown that localized scatter imaging is sensitive to pathology-induced differences in these aspects of tissue microstructure, wide adaptation this knowledge for surgical guidance is limited by two factors. First, the time required to image with confocal-level localization of the remission signal can be substantial. Second, localized (i.e. sub-diffuse) scatter remission intensity is influenced interchangeably by parameters that define scattering frequency and anisotropy. This similarity relationship must be carefully considered in order to obtain unique estimates of biomarkers that define either the scatter density or features that describe the distribution (e.g. shape, size, and orientation) of scatterers. This study presents a novel approach that uses structured light imaging to address both of these limitations. Monte Carlo data were used to model the reflectance intensity over a wide range of spatial frequencies, reduced scattering coefficients, absorption coefficients, and a metric of the scattering phase function that directly maps to the fractal dimension of scatter sizes. The approach is validated in tissue-simulating phantoms constructed with user-tuned scattering phase functions. The validation analysis shows that the phase function can be described in the presence of different scatter densities or background absorptions. Preliminary data from clinical tissue specimens show quantitative images of both the scatter density and the tissue fractal dimension for various tissue types and pathologies. These data represent a novel wide-field quantitative approach to mapping microscopic structural biomarkers that cannot be obtained with standard diffuse imaging. Implications for the use of this approach to assess surgical margins will be discussed.

  14. Hyperspectral microscopic analysis of normal, benign and carcinoma microarray tissue sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggioni, Mauro; Davis, Gustave L.; Warner, Frederick J.; Geshwind, Frank B.; Coppi, Andreas C.; DeVerse, Richard A.; Coifman, Ronald R.

    2006-02-01

    We apply a unique micro-optoelectromechanical tuned light source and new algorithms to the hyper-spectral microscopic analysis of human colon biopsies. The tuned light prototype (Plain Sight Systems Inc.) transmits any combination of light frequencies, range 440nm 700nm, trans-illuminating H and E stained tissue sections of normal (N), benign adenoma (B) and malignant carcinoma (M) colon biopsies, through a Nikon Biophot microscope. Hyper-spectral photomicrographs, randomly collected 400X magnication, are obtained with a CCD camera (Sensovation) from 59 different patient biopsies (20 N, 19 B, 20 M) mounted as a microarray on a single glass slide. The spectra of each pixel are normalized and analyzed to discriminate among tissue features: gland nuclei, gland cytoplasm and lamina propria/lumens. Spectral features permit the automatic extraction of 3298 nuclei with classification as N, B or M. When nuclei are extracted from each of the 59 biopsies the average classification among N, B and M nuclei is 97.1%; classification of the biopsies, based on the average nuclei classification, is 100%. However, when the nuclei are extracted from a subset of biopsies, and the prediction is made on nuclei in the remaining biopsies, there is a marked decrement in performance to 60% across the 3 classes. Similarly the biopsy classification drops to 54%. In spite of these classification differences, which we believe are due to instrument and biopsy normalization issues, hyper-spectral analysis has the potential to achieve diagnostic efficiency needed for objective microscopic diagnosis.

  15. UV-visible microscope spectrophotometric polarization and dichroism with increased discrimination power in forensic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, Dale Kevin

    Microanalysis of transfer (Trace) evidence is the application of a microscope and microscopical techniques for the collection, observation, documentation, examination, identification, and discrimination of micrometer sized particles or domains. Microscope spectrophotometry is the union of microscopy and spectroscopy for microanalysis. Analytical microspectroscopy is the science of studying the emission, reflection, transmission, and absorption of electromagnetic radiation to determine the structure or chemical composition of microscopic-size materials. Microscope spectrophotometry instrument designs have evolved from monochromatic illumination which transmitted through the microscope and sample and then is detected by a photometer detector (photomultiplier tube) to systems in which broad-band (white light) illumination falls incident upon a sample followed by a non-scanning grating spectrometer equipped with a solid-state multi-element detector. Most of these small modern spectrometers are configured with either silicon based charged-couple device detectors (200-950 nm) or InGaAs based diode array detectors (850-2300 nm) with computerized data acquisition and signal processing being common. A focus of this research was to evaluate the performance characteristics of various modern forensic (UV-Vis) microscope photometer systems as well as review early model instrumental designs. An important focus of this research was to efficiently measure ultraviolet-visible spectra of microscopically small specimens for classification, differentiation, and possibly individualization. The first stage of the project consisted of the preparation of microscope slides containing neutral density filter reference materials, molecular fluorescence reference materials, and dichroic reference materials. Upon completion of these standard slide preparations analysis began with measurements in order to evaluate figures of merit for comparison of the instruments investigated. The figures of

  16. Optical imaging analysis of microscopic radiation dose gradients in Gafchromic EBT film using a digital microscope.

    PubMed

    Keller, Brian M; Peressotti, Chris; Pignol, Jean-Philippe

    2008-08-01

    By providing superior localization and immobilization, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is capable of delivering millimeter spheres of dose to intracranial targets with submillimeter precision. Several authors have proposed new SRS solutions to dramatically reduce beam penumbra to hundreds of microns. These solutions require new quality assurance methods capable of penumbra measurement at the micron scale. This article examines the capability of a digital microscope, with translation stage and associated software, to resolve dose gradients in Gafchromic EBT film at this level. To produce very steep penumbra, films were irradiated in phantom beneath pinhole collimators using lower energy x rays (100 kVp, 300 kVp, and Iridium-192) and minimal geometric penumbra contribution. For film analysis, a method was developed which improved the signal to noise ratio by finding the center of the irradiation spot, generating several radial dose profiles and averaging these to obtain the final off-axis dose profile. Optical density was converted to dose using a calibration curve. The experimentally determined off-axis dose profiles were compared with MCNP Monte Carlo simulations which replicated the irradiation geometry and served to validate our measured data. The measured 80%-20% penumbral widths were 46 microm +/- 26 microm (100 kVp, 2 mm field size), 69 microm +/- m 27 microm (300 kVp, 2 mm field size), and 241 microm +/-31 microm (Ir-192, 1 mm field size). These penumbral widths agreed with Monte Carlo simulations within experimental uncertainty. Our findings suggest that reading Gafchromic EBT films using a digital microscope with translation stage is suitable for the quality assurance of very sharp penumbra able to resolve gradients to within at least 30 microm. PMID:18777933

  17. Optical imaging analysis of microscopic radiation dose gradients in Gafchromic EBT film using a digital microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Brian M.; Peressotti, Chris; Pignol, Jean-Philippe

    2008-08-15

    By providing superior localization and immobilization, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is capable of delivering millimeter spheres of dose to intracranial targets with submillimeter precision. Several authors have proposed new SRS solutions to dramatically reduce beam penumbra to hundreds of microns. These solutions require new quality assurance methods capable of penumbra measurement at the micron scale. This article examines the capability of a digital microscope, with translation stage and associated software, to resolve dose gradients in Gafchromic EBT film at this level. To produce very steep penumbra, films were irradiated in phantom beneath pinhole collimators using lower energy x rays (100 kVp, 300 kVp, and Iridium-192) and minimal geometric penumbra contribution. For film analysis, a method was developed which improved the signal to noise ratio by finding the center of the irradiation spot, generating several radial dose profiles and averaging these to obtain the final off-axis dose profile. Optical density was converted to dose using a calibration curve. The experimentally determined off-axis dose profiles were compared with MCNP Monte Carlo simulations which replicated the irradiation geometry and served to validate our measured data. The measured 80%-20% penumbral widths were 46 {mu}m{+-}26 {mu}m (100 kVp, 2 mm field size), 69 {mu}m{+-}27 {mu}m (300 kVp, 2 mm field size), and 241 {mu}m{+-}31 {mu}m (Ir-192, 1 mm field size). These penumbral widths agreed with Monte Carlo simulations within experimental uncertainty. Our findings suggest that reading Gafchromic EBT films using a digital microscope with translation stage is suitable for the quality assurance of very sharp penumbra able to resolve gradients to within at least 30 {mu}m.

  18. Real-time whole slide mosaicing for non-automated microscopes in histopathology analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gherardi, Alessandro; Bevilacqua, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Context: Mosaics of Whole Slides (WS) are a valuable resource for pathologists to have the whole sample available at high resolution. The WS mosaic provides pathologists with an overview of the whole sample at a glance, helping them to make a reliable diagnosis. Despite recent solutions exist for creating WS mosaics based, for instance, on automated microscopes with motorized stages or WS scanner, most of the histopathology analysis are still performed in laboratories endowed with standard manual stage microscopes. Nowadays, there are lots of dedicated devices and hardware to achieve WS automatically and in batch, but only few of them are conceived to work tightly connected with a microscope and none of them is capable of working in real-time with common light microscopes. However, there is a need of having low-cost yet effective mosaicing applications even in small laboratories to improve routine histopathological analyses or to perform remote diagnoses. Aims: The purpose of this work is to study and develop a real-time mosaicing algorithm working even using non-automated microscopes, to enable pathologists to achieve WS while moving the holder manually, without exploiting any dedicated device. This choice enables pathologists to build WS in real-time, while browsing the sample as they are accustomed to, helping them to identify, locate, and digitally annotate lesions fast. Materials and Methods: Our method exploits fast feature tracker and frame to frame registration that we implemented on common graphics processing unit cards. The system work with common light microscopes endowed with a digital camera and connected to a commodity personal computer. Result and Conclusion: The system has been tested on several histological samples to test the effectiveness of the algorithm to work with mosaicing having different appearances as far as brightness, contrast, texture, and detail levels are concerned, attaining sub-pixel registration accuracy at real-time interactive

  19. Optical sectioning microscopes with no moving parts using a micro-stripe array light emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Poher, V; Zhang, H X; Kennedy, G T; Griffin, C; Oddos, S; Gu, E; Elson, D S; Girkin, M; French, P M W; Dawson, M D; Neil, M A

    2007-09-01

    We describe an optical sectioning microscopy system with no moving parts based on a micro-structured stripe-array light emitting diode (LED). By projecting arbitrary line or grid patterns onto the object, we are able to implement a variety of optical sectioning microscopy techniques such as grid-projection structured illumination and line scanning confocal microscopy, switching from one imaging technique to another without modifying the microscope setup. The micro-structured LED and driver are detailed and depth discrimination capabilities are measured and calculated. PMID:19547474

  20. The variable refractive index correction algorithm based on a stereo light microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, W.; Zhu, Y. Y.

    2010-02-01

    Refraction occurs at least twice on both the top and the bottom surfaces of the plastic plate covering the micro channel in a microfluidic chip. The refraction and the nonlinear model of a stereo light microscope (SLM) may severely affect measurement accuracy. In this paper, we study the correlation between optical paths of the SLM and present an algorithm to adjust the refractive index based on the SLM. Our algorithm quantizes the influence of cover plate and double optical paths on the measurement accuracy, and realizes non-destructive, non-contact and precise 3D measurement of a hyaloid and closed container.

  1. Analysis of scanning probe microscope images using wavelets.

    PubMed

    Gackenheimer, C; Cayon, L; Reifenberger, R

    2006-03-01

    The utility of wavelet transforms for analysis of scanning probe images is investigated. Simulated scanning probe images are analyzed using wavelet transforms and compared to a parallel analysis using more conventional Fourier transform techniques. The wavelet method introduced in this paper is particularly useful as an image recognition algorithm to enhance nanoscale objects of a specific scale that may be present in scanning probe images. In its present form, the applied wavelet is optimal for detecting objects with rotational symmetry. The wavelet scheme is applied to the analysis of scanning probe data to better illustrate the advantages that this new analysis tool offers. The wavelet algorithm developed for analysis of scanning probe microscope (SPM) images has been incorporated into the WSxM software which is a versatile freeware SPM analysis package. PMID:16439061

  2. Stray Light Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Based on a Small Business Innovation Research contract from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, TracePro is state-of-the-art interactive software created by Lambda Research Corporation to detect stray light in optical systems. An image can be ruined by incidental light in an optical system. To maintain image excellence from an optical system, stray light must be detected and eliminated. TracePro accounts for absorption, specular reflection and refraction, scattering and aperture diffraction of light. Output from the software consists of spatial irradiance plots and angular radiance plots. Results can be viewed as contour maps or as ray histories in tabular form. TracePro is adept at modeling solids such as lenses, baffles, light pipes, integrating spheres, non-imaging concentrators, and complete illumination systems. The firm's customer base includes Lockheed Martin, Samsung Electronics and other manufacturing, optical, aerospace, and educational companies worldwide.

  3. A light sheet confocal microscope for image cytometry with a variable linear slit detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutcheson, Joshua A.; Khan, Foysal Z.; Powless, Amy J.; Benson, Devin; Hunter, Courtney; Fritsch, Ingrid; Muldoon, Timothy J.

    2016-03-01

    We present a light sheet confocal microscope (LSCM) capable of high-resolution imaging of cell suspensions in a microfluidic environment. In lieu of conventional pressure-driven flow or mechanical translation of the samples, we have employed a novel method of fluid transport, redox-magnetohydrodynamics (redox-MHD). This method achieves fluid motion by inducing a small current into the suspension in the presence of a magnetic field via electrodes patterned onto a silicon chip. This on-chip transportation requires no moving parts, and is coupled to the remainder of the imaging system. The microscopy system comprises a 450 nm diode 20 mW laser coupled to a single mode fiber and a cylindrical lens that converges the light sheet into the back aperture of a 10x, 0.3 NA objective lens in an epi-illumination configuration. The emission pathway contains a 150 mm tube lens that focuses the light onto the linear sensor at the conjugate image plane. The linear sensor (ELiiXA+ 8k/4k) has three lateral binning modes which enables variable detection aperture widths between 5, 10, or 20 μm, which can be used to vary axial resolution. We have demonstrated redox-MHD-enabled light sheet microscopy in suspension of fluorescent polystyrene beads. This approach has potential as a high-throughput image cytometer with myriad cellular diagnostic applications.

  4. SIRTF stray light analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, David G.; Dinger, Ann S.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is a 1-meter cryogenic infrared telescope. Stray light is kept below the natural background by restrictions on sun, Earth, and moon off-axis angles; by conservative baffle design; by the use of advanced diffuse black coatings; and by superfluid helium cooling. The aperture stop is located at the primary mirror rather than at the secondary mirror to increase the aperture and reduce the central obscuration. Stray light from off-axis sources is greater with the aperture stop at the primary than with the aperture stop at the secondary, but the modulation of the signal produced by tilting of the secondary mirror for chopping is less. Stray light from telescope thermal emission is lower with the aperture stop at the primary.

  5. Microscopic analysis of Hopper flow with ellipsoidal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sida; Zhou, Zongyan; Zou, Ruiping; Pinson, David; Yu, Aibing

    2013-06-01

    Hoppers are widely used in process industries. With such widespread application, difficulties in achieving desired operational behaviors have led to extensive experimental and mathematical studies in the past decades. Particularly, the discrete element method has become one of the most important simulation tools for design and analysis. So far, most studies are on spherical particles for computational convenience. In this work, ellipsoidal particles are used as they can represent a large variation of particle shapes. Hopper flow with ellipsoidal particles is presented highlighting the effect of particle shape on the microscopic properties.

  6. The Columbia Debris Loan Program; Examples of Microscopic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Rick; Thurston, Scott; Smith, Stephen; Marder, Arnold; Steckel, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Following the tragic loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia NASA formed The Columbia Recovery Office (CRO). The CRO was initially formed at the Johnson Space Center after the conclusion of recovery operations on May 1,2003 and then transferred .to the Kennedy Space Center on October 6,2003 and renamed The Columbia Recovery Office and Preservation. An integral part of the preservation project was the development of a process to loan Columbia debris to qualified researchers and technical educators. The purposes of this program include aiding in the advancement of advanced spacecraft design and flight safety development, the advancement of the study of hypersonic re-entry to enhance ground safety, to train and instruct accident investigators and to establish an enduring legacy for Space Shuttle Columbia and her crew. Along with a summary of the debris loan process examples of microscopic analysis of Columbia debris items will be presented. The first example will be from the reconstruction following the STS- 107 accident and how the Materials and Proessteesa m used microscopic analysis to confirm the accident scenario. Additionally, three examples of microstructural results from the debris loan process from NASA internal, academia and private industry will be presented.

  7. Vertical scanning white light interfering profilometer based on Linnik interference microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuzhen; Xie, Tiebang; Chang, Suping

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we provide a vertical scanning white light interfering profilometer based on Linnik type interference microscope. A vertical scanning system with coarse-fine dual-stage actuators is developed, in which the coarse positioning is performed by inclined sliding guides, AC servo motor, ballscrew and the fine positioning is performed by parallel board flexure hinge and piezoelectric ceramic, respectively. The displacement range of the vertical scanning system is 0~2mm and 0.4nm theoretical motion resolution can be achieved. The whole interference microscope of the profilometer is driven by the vertical scanning system, which will eliminate the movement coupling error of vertical direction caused by horizontal movement of 2D precision stage. The interference fringes or the focal plane can be automatically located by moving the vertical scanning system. To eliminate the measurement errors of the profilometer caused by incorrect positioning of the vertical scanning system, its displacement is measured in real-time by a laser interferometer with theoretical resolution of 0.01nm. A single groove specimen with the depth of 1.26μm calibrated by National Institute of Metrology P.R.China, MEMS device and textured steel sheet was measured to illustrate the capabilities of the profilometer.

  8. Light microscopic and three-dimensional morphology of the human muscular sarcocyst.

    PubMed

    Wong, K T; Clarke, G; Pathmanathan, R; Hamilton, P W

    1994-01-01

    Established criteria for morphological typing of sarcocysts was applied to a large series of cases of human skeletal muscle sarcocystosis in Malaysia to determine the type of sarcocyst present. We also wanted to test the general usefulness of this classification and to determine if there are any new cyst types. Three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction was done to see if the sarcocyst has a distinct 3-D morphology. A total of 66 sarcocysts from 21 cases of human muscle sarcocystosis obtained from a previous prevalence study were examined. Tissue sections (5 microns thick) were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and studied under the light microscope. For 3-D reconstruction, an image analyser was used to align and reconstruct the sarcocyst after microscopic images had been captured with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. All the cysts best fit into the type 4 category. This classification is generally useful, although cyst wall characteristics and zoite size appear to be the most reliable criteria for classification. The cyst width averaged 77 microns (range, 30-137.5 microns). Cyst walls were smooth, had no cytophaneres and were less than 1 micron thick. No secondary cyst wall or surrounding inflammation was evident. Numerous cyst merozoites with diameters averaging 1 micron filled the cyst lumen. Although septa were not apparent, in many cysts, zoites were arranged in a unique, curvilinear fashion that suggested their presence. 3-D reconstruction showed the sarcocyst to be a long, tortuous "cylinder" with no branching or other distinguishing feature. PMID:8202453

  9. Affine calibration based on invariable extrinsic parameters for stereo light microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weixian; Wei, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Guangjun

    2014-10-01

    The stereo light microscope (SLM) plays an important role in the measurement of three-dimensional geometry on the microscopic scale. We propose a fast and precise affine calibration algorithm based on the invariable extrinsic parameters for the SLM. This calibration algorithm with a free planar reference consists of three steps: first, derive the extrinsic parameters based on their invariable definition in the pinhole and affine models; second, calculate the intrinsic parameters through homography matrix; finally, refine all the model parameters by global optimization with the previous closed-form solutions as the initial values. The effectiveness of assuming a noncoaxial optical system as an affine camera is also verified to affinely model all types of SLMs. The calibration experiments show that the affine calibration is preferable for multicriteria including running time, relative positioning precision, and absolute positioning precision. With PlanApo S 1.5× and a total magnification of 3.024×, the proposed affine calibration algorithm achieves a distance error of 0.423 μm and a positioning error of 0.195 mm within 10.6 s.

  10. A Combined Light Sheet Fluorescence and Differential Interference Contrast Microscope for Live Imaging of Multicellular Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Ryan; Taormina, Michael; Jemielita, Matthew; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2015-03-01

    We present a microscope capable of both light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) and differential interference contrast microscopy (DICM). The two imaging modes, which to the best of our knowledge have not previously been combined, are complementary: LSFM provides high speed three-dimensional imaging of fluorescently labeled components of multicellular systems, large fields of view, and low phototoxicity, while DICM reveals the unlabeled neighborhood of tissues, organs, and other structures with high contrast and inherent optical sectioning. Use of a shared detection path for both imaging modes enables simple integration of the two techniques in one microscope. To demonstrate the instrument's utility, we provide several examples which focus on the digestive tract of the larval zebrafish. We show that DICM can sometimes circumvent the need for fluorescent based techniques, augmenting the number of parameters obtainable per experiment when used alongside LSFM, and that DICM can be used to augment each experiment by imaging complementary features, such as non-fluorescent local environments near fluorescent samples (e.g. fluorescent enteric neurons imaged alongside the non-fluorescent gut wall), interactions between fluorescent and non-fluorescent samples (e.g. bacteria), and more. NSF Award 0922951, NIH Award 1P50 GM098911

  11. Selective scanning tunneling microscope light emission from rutile phase of VO2.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Joe; Kuwahara, Masashi; Hotsuki, Masaki; Katano, Satoshi; Uehara, Yoichi

    2016-09-28

    We observed scanning tunneling microscope light emission (STM-LE) induced by a tunneling current at the gap between an Ag tip and a VO2 thin film, in parallel to scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) profiles. The 34 nm thick VO2 film grown on a rutile TiO2 (0 0 1) substrate consisted of both rutile (R)- and monoclinic (M)-structure phases of a few 10 nm-sized domains at room temperature. We found that STM-LE with a certain photon energy of 2.0 eV occurs selectively from R-phase domains of VO2, while no STM-LE was observed from M-phase. The mechanism of STM-LE from R-phase VO2 was determined to be an interband transition process rather than inverse photoemission or inelastic tunneling processes. PMID:27460183

  12. A depth estimation method based on geometric transformation for stereo light microscope.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shengli; Yu, Mei; Wang, Yigang; Jiang, Gangyi

    2014-01-01

    Stereo light microscopes (SLM) with narrow vision and shallow depth of field are widely used in micro-domain research. In this paper, we propose a depth estimation method of micro objects based on geometric transformation. By analyzing the optical imaging geometry, the definition of geometric transformation distance is given and the depth-distance relation express is obtained. The parameters of geometric transformation and express are calibrated with calibration board images captured in aid of precise motorized stage. The depth of micro object can be estimated by calculating the geometric transformation distance. The proposed depth-distance relation express is verified using an experiment in which the depth map of an Olanzapine tablet surface is reconstructed. PMID:25226979

  13. An aberration corrected photoemission electron microscope at the advanced light source

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.; MacDowell, A.A.; Duarte, R.; Doran, A.; Forest, E.; Kelez, N.; Marcus, M.; Munson, D.; Padmore, H.; Petermann, K.; Raoux, S.; Robin, D.; Scholl, A.; Schlueter, R.; Schmid, P.; Stohr, J.; Wan, W.; Wei, D.H.; Wu, Y.

    2003-11-01

    Design of a new aberration corrected Photoemission electron microscope PEEM3 at the Advanced Light Source is outlined. PEEM3 will be installed on an elliptically polarized undulator beamline and will be used for the study of complex materials at high spatial and spectral resolution. The critical components of PEEM3 are the electron mirror aberration corrector and aberration-free magnetic beam separator. The models to calculate the optical properties of the electron mirror are discussed. The goal of the PEEM3 project is to achieve the highest possible transmission of the system at resolutions comparable to our present PEEM2 system (50 nm) and to enable significantly higher resolution, albeit at the sacrifice of intensity. We have left open the possibility to add an energy filter at a later date, if it becomes necessary driven by scientific need to improve the resolution further.

  14. A wide field fluorescence lifetime imaging system using a light sheet microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, Phil M.; Moore, Lamar; Li, Xiaofei; Phillips, Roger; Young, Rupert; Chatwin, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) has allowed scientists to discern information about the chemical properties of biological processes and has become a vital tool in the life sciences and medical research communities. Measuring the spatial lifetime distribution of the fluorophores as well as the intensity distribution enables users to discern vital information about the chemical environment. It however, remains challenging and often involves slow scanning. We present a new microscope system based on light sheet illumination that uses a micro channel plate (MCP) device called a Capacitive Division Imaging Readout (CDIR) which has been developed by Photek Ltd. The device uses an array of capacitors to move the charge site from the MCP to four pre-amplifiers and time-over-threshold discriminators. This camera has the ability to image photons as well as measure the arrival time, enabling high speed FLIM imaging of biological samples.

  15. Selective scanning tunneling microscope light emission from rutile phase of VO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Joe; Kuwahara, Masashi; Hotsuki, Masaki; Katano, Satoshi; Uehara, Yoichi

    2016-09-01

    We observed scanning tunneling microscope light emission (STM-LE) induced by a tunneling current at the gap between an Ag tip and a VO2 thin film, in parallel to scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) profiles. The 34 nm thick VO2 film grown on a rutile TiO2 (0 0 1) substrate consisted of both rutile (R)- and monoclinic (M)-structure phases of a few 10 nm-sized domains at room temperature. We found that STM-LE with a certain photon energy of 2.0 eV occurs selectively from R-phase domains of VO2, while no STM-LE was observed from M-phase. The mechanism of STM-LE from R-phase VO2 was determined to be an interband transition process rather than inverse photoemission or inelastic tunneling processes.

  16. Biochemical and microscopic analysis of sperm in copper deficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, J.; Jackson, P.; Allison, S.

    1986-03-01

    The Mottle Brindle Mouse Syndrome is a disease in mice which mimics Menkes Syndrome in humans. Treatment of affected male mice has led to varying survival rates in mice and few attempts have led to the development of virile male offsprings in mice and none in humans. In this study the authors examined sperm produced by Brindle mice in an attempt to ascertain reasons for the observed failure of the Brindle mice to reproduce. Microscopic analysis revealed that sperm counts in these mice are higher than sperm counts of the C57/BL or the C57/6J (normal) mice. Microscopically, sperm from Brindle mice showed changes in the acrosomal and flagellum regions. Motility of these sperm were 10% to 50% that of sperm from normal mice. Biochemically, cytochrome oxidase activity was 10% to 50% of the activity seen in normal mice. Hexokinase activity and pyruvate dehydrogenase activity was equal to that observed in normal mice. These observations suggest that infertility in Brindle male mice is due to an impairment of testicular copper transport which leads to a decline in copper dependent processes.

  17. Neutron scattering analysis with microscopic optical model potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, L.F.

    1991-09-03

    A review of microscopic optical model potentials used in the analysis of neutron scattering and analyzing power data below 100 MeV (5 {le}E{sub n}{le}100 MeV) is presented. The quality of the fits to the data over a wide massd ({sup 6}Li-{sup 239}Pu) and energy range is discussed. It is shown that reasonably good agreement with the data is obtained with only three parameters, {lambda}{sub V}, {lambda}{sub W}, and {lambda}{sub SO}, which show a smooth mass and energy dependence. These parameters are normalizing constants to the real (V), and imaginary (W) central potentials and the real spin-orbit (V{sub SO}) potential. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Microscopic analysis of currency and stock exchange markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kador, L.

    1999-08-01

    Recently it was shown that distributions of short-term price fluctuations in foreign-currency exchange exhibit striking similarities to those of velocity differences in turbulent flows. Similar profiles represent the spectral-diffusion behavior of impurity molecules in disordered solids at low temperatures. It is demonstrated that a microscopic statistical theory of the spectroscopic line shapes can be applied to the other two phenomena. The theory interprets the financial data in terms of information which becomes available to the traders and their reactions as a function of time. The analysis shows that there is no characteristic time scale in financial markets, but that instead stretched-exponential or algebraic memory functions yield good agreement with the price data. For an algebraic function, the theory yields truncated Lévy distributions which are often observed in stock exchange markets.

  19. Light intensity strain analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A process is described for the analysis of the strain field of structures subjected to large deformations involving a low modulus substrate having a high modulus, relatively thin coating. The optical properties of transmittance and reflectance are measured for the coated substrate while stressed and unstressed to indicate the strain field for the coated substrate.

  20. Automated pollen identification using microscopic imaging and texture analysis.

    PubMed

    Marcos, J Víctor; Nava, Rodrigo; Cristóbal, Gabriel; Redondo, Rafael; Escalante-Ramírez, Boris; Bueno, Gloria; Déniz, Óscar; González-Porto, Amelia; Pardo, Cristina; Chung, François; Rodríguez, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Pollen identification is required in different scenarios such as prevention of allergic reactions, climate analysis or apiculture. However, it is a time-consuming task since experts are required to recognize each pollen grain through the microscope. In this study, we performed an exhaustive assessment on the utility of texture analysis for automated characterisation of pollen samples. A database composed of 1800 brightfield microscopy images of pollen grains from 15 different taxa was used for this purpose. A pattern recognition-based methodology was adopted to perform pollen classification. Four different methods were evaluated for texture feature extraction from the pollen image: Haralick's gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM), log-Gabor filters (LGF), local binary patterns (LBP) and discrete Tchebichef moments (DTM). Fisher's discriminant analysis and k-nearest neighbour were subsequently applied to perform dimensionality reduction and multivariate classification, respectively. Our results reveal that LGF and DTM, which are based on the spectral properties of the image, outperformed GLCM and LBP in the proposed classification problem. Furthermore, we found that the combination of all the texture features resulted in the highest performance, yielding an accuracy of 95%. Therefore, thorough texture characterisation could be considered in further implementations of automatic pollen recognition systems based on image processing techniques. PMID:25259684

  1. Classical microscopic theory of dispersion, emission and absorption of light in dielectrics. Classical microscopic theory of dielectric susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carati, Andrea; Galgani, Luigi

    2014-10-01

    This paper is a continuation of a recent one in which, apparently for the first time, the existence of polaritons in ionic crystals was proven in a microscopic electrodynamic theory. This was obtained through an explicit computation of the dispersion curves. Here the main further contribution consists in studying electric susceptibility, from which the spectrum can be inferred. We show how susceptibility is obtained by the Green-Kubo methods of Hamiltonian statistical mechanics, and give for it a concrete expression in terms of time-correlation functions. As in the previous paper, here too we work in a completely classical framework, in which the electrodynamic forces acting on the charges are all taken into account, both the retarded forces and the radiation reaction ones. So, in order to apply the methods of statistical mechanics, the system has to be previously reduced to a Hamiltonian one. This is made possible in virtue of two global properties of classical electrodynamics, namely, the Wheeler-Feynman identity and the Ewald resummation properties, the proofs of which were already given for ordered system. The second contribution consists in formulating the theory in a completely general way, so that in principle it applies also to disordered systems such as glasses, or liquids or gases, provided the two general properties mentioned above continue to hold. A first step in this direction is made here by providing a completely general proof of the Wheeler-Feynman identity, which is shown to be the counterpart of a general causality property of classical electrodynamics. Finally it is shown how a line spectrum can appear at all in classical systems, as a counterpart of suitable stability properties of the motions, with a broadening due to a coexistence of chaoticity. The relevance of some recent results of the theory of dynamical systems in this connection is also pointed out.

  2. Microscopic analysis of an opacified OFT CRYL® hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Bruna Vieira; MacLean, Kyle Douglas; Lira, Wagner; Oliveira, Daniele Mendes de; Ventura, Camila Vieira; Werner, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    A 51-year-old patient underwent posterior vitrectomy with perfluoropropane gas injection, phacoemulsification, and implantation of an Oft Cryl® hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) because of traumatic retinal detachment and cataract in the right eye. On the first postoperative day, gas was filling the anterior chamber because of patient's non-compliance in terms of head positioning, and was reabsorbed within one week. Eight months later, the patient returned complaining of a significant decrease in vision. IOL opacification was noticed by slit-lamp examination. The lens was explanted to undergo gross and light microscopic analysis. The lens was also stained with the alizarin red method for calcium identification. Light microscopic analysis confirmed the presence of granular deposits, densely distributed in an overall circular pattern in the central part of the lens optic. The granules stained positive for calcium. This is the first case of the opacification of this type of hydrophilic lens. Surgeons should be aware of this potential postoperative complication, and the use of hydrophilic IOLs should be avoided in procedures involving intracameral gas because of the risk of IOL opacification. PMID:27626152

  3. Novel cuticular morphology using LTSEM and Light Microscopic Modifications in some bacterial-feeding and plant-parasitic nematodes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microscopic techniques used only exceptionally within nematology can reveal new and unexpected morphological features not visible with standard light and scanning electron microscopy. Among nematodes, SEM face views are of special importance in diagnosis of Panagrolaimus spp. Low Temperature (LT) S...

  4. Light and electron microscopic studies of the Gerbillus tarabuli (Thomas, 1902) Harderian gland.

    PubMed

    Saadi-Brenkia, Ouanassa; Haniche, Nadia; Bendjelloul, Mounira

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the morphological aspects of the Harderian gland in Gerbillus tarabuli. Tissues were obtained from both male and female adult Gerbillus tarabuli and processed for light and electron microscopy. The Harderian gland in gerbil is large and well developed, covered by a thin capsule, from which thin septae extend, subdividing the gland into lobes and lobules. The endpieces of the gland are tubuloalveolar, which produce a secretion of lipid character. The glandular epithelium is pseudostratified with two types of secretory cells, the type C cells are columnar in shape with large lipid vacuoles, and type P cells pyramidal and serous, they are basally located with no luminal aspect. The epithelium possesses well-developed myoepithelial cells. The wide lumina are filled with lipid vacuoles, cellular debris, and porphyrins. The Harderian gland of the gerbil has no morphologically distinct duct system; a single extraglandular excretory duct is detected. Electron microscopic examination revealed that type C cells contain large electron-light lipid vacuoles, a well and extensive reticulum endoplasmic and a large number of mitochondria. The pyramidal cells are characterized by a small number of PAS-positive granules at the basal region; these cells exhibit one or two round nuclei, many electron-dense granules, crystalloid bodies, abundant mitochondria and many ribosomes in their cytoplasm. The three mechanism of secretion are seen in the Harderian gland of Gerbillus tarabuli. In its overall characteristics, the Harderian gland of Gerbillus tarabuli conforms to the general pattern observed in rodents. However, further research will be needed to correlate the presence of cytoplasmic slashes, crystalloids bodies and glycoproteins in epithelial cells with the biology of these animals and to their functional significance. PMID:23317366

  5. Equine phacoclastic uveitis: the clinical manifestations, light microscopic findings, and therapy of 7 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Grahn, B H; Cullen, C L

    2000-01-01

    This retrospective clinical study describes the clinical manifestations, light microscopic findings, and diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic lens rupture in the horse. Rupture of the lens capsule in the horse usually results in a chronic, blinding inflammation (phacoclastic uveitis) unless prompt surgical and medical therapies are implemented. The clinical manifestations of acute lens capsule rupture included: cataract; intralenticular displacement of iridal pigment; lens cortical fragments attached to the perforated lens capsule, iris, and corneal endothelium; miosis; aqueous flare; and usually a corneal or scleral perforation with ulceration or focal full thickness corneal edema and scarring. The clinical signs of chronic phacoclastic uveitis include blindness, phthisis bulbi, and generalized corneal opacification related to scarring, vascularization, pigmentation, and edema. In one horse, acute phacoclastic uveitis was successfully treated with phacoemulsification to remove the ruptured lens and medical therapy to control the accompanying inflammation. The affected eyes of the horses with chronic phacoclastic uveitis were enucleated because of persistent clinical signs of nonulcerative keratitis and uveitis, despite long-term medical management. The clinical manifestations and lack of improvement with medical therapy are similar in the horse, dog, cat, and rabbit. However, the histologic findings in equine phacoclastic uveitis differ significantly from those in the dog, and rabbit. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. PMID:10816830

  6. Light and electron microscope observations on Nephroselmis gaoae sp. nov. (Prasinophyceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, C. K.; Jiao-Fen, Chen; Zhe-Fu, Zhang; Hui-Qi, Zhang

    1994-09-01

    Nephroselmis gaoae sp. nov. is described on the basis of light and electron microscope observations of cultured material originally collected and isolated from seawater of Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao, China. The periplasts on the cell body and flagella are covered by five types of scales, two types on the flagella and three on the body. Among these, the morphology and the number of spines of large stellate body scales differ remarkably from those of previously described species of Nephroselmis. Apart from these, the unusual fine structure of the eyespot (stigma) is very characteristic. As in the other species of Nephroselmis, the eyespot lies immediately under the two-membraned chloroplast envelope; unlike the others, however, it is not composed of a number of osmiophilic globules, but consists of about 14 curved rod-shaped osmiophilic bodies arranged loosely and randomly. This feature distinguishes the present new species not only from the other species of Nephroselmis but also from the other motile algal species, the eyespots structure of which had been previously described.

  7. Central nervous system changes in mitochondrial encephalomyopathy: light and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, K; Sasaki, M; Suzuki, T; Shiraishi, H; Koizumi, J; Ohkoshi, N; Ogata, T; Mori, N; Ban, S; Kosaka, K

    1992-01-01

    An autopsy case of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is reported. It presented with generalized muscle atrophy, stroke-like episodes, schizophrenia-like mental disorder and progressive dementia. Serum lactate and pyruvate levels were high. In the biopsied muscles, ragged-red fibers were observed by light microscopy and aggregation of abnormal mitochondria with paracrystaline formation by electron microscopy. The most characteristic neuropathological findings were infarct-like lesions widespread in the cerebral cortex. In addition, this case showed some unusual pathological features: (1) diffuse moderate fibrillary gliosis in the whole cerebral and cerebellar white matter, which might have been due to metabolic disturbances; (2) several focal lesions with demyelination and numerous spheroids in the pontocerebellar fibers; and (3) marked degeneration of the posterior columns and spinocerebellar tracts. Electron microscopic examination revealed that abnormal mitochondria were markedly aggregated in smooth muscle cells and endothelium of the cerebral and cerebellar blood vessels. These fine structural findings suggest a "mitochondrial angiopathy". PMID:1575024

  8. Light microscopic studies of the stomach of the lesser mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus).

    PubMed

    Agungpriyono, S; Yamada, J; Kitamura, N; Sigit, K; Yamamoto, Y; Winarto, A; Yamashita, T

    1995-01-01

    The stomach of the lesser mouse deer was studied at the light microscopic level using histological and immunohistochemical methods. The stomach was clearly differentiated into rumen, reticulum including reticular groove, a small transition zone and abomasum. The mucosal surface of the rumen, reticulum and transition zone was lined with a stratified squamous epithelium and that of the abomasum with a simple columnar type. The epithelial keratinization was weak in the rumen, floor of the reticular groove and transition zone, while it was strong in the reticulum, especially on the tip of the reticulum papillae. Large sinusoidal capillaries were often present in the ruminal papillae. In the ruminal mucosa, a thin layer of alpha-smooth muscle actin immunoreactive cells was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. The muscularis mucosae of the reticulum was continuous and well-developed. The transition zone appeared as a nonglandular area having many low mucosal folds and two layers of tunica muscularis. The abomasal mucosa consisted of cardiac, proper gastric and pyloric glands. Cells immunoreactive for bovine pepsinogen and bovine prochymosin antisera were demonstrated in the abomasum. It is suggested that the characteristic features observed might be adaptations to a relatively rapid passage and rapid absorption of the fermentation products. There is some evidence that the transition zone is not a part of either the floor of the reticular groove or the abomasum, suggesting a possible reevaluation of the term used for the reticulo-abomasal orifice in the mouse deer. PMID:7536016

  9. [The alimentary canal of the Siberian chipmunk (Eutamias sibiricus, Laxm. 1769): macroscopic and light microscopic examination].

    PubMed

    Nieters, M; Schnorr, B; Kressin, M

    2003-06-01

    The canalis alimentarius of the Burunduk (Eutamias sibiricus), a rodent belonging to the family Sciuridae, were examined macroscopically (12 animals) and light microscopically (three animals). The esophagus is lined with a stratified non-keratinized squamous epithelium. The one-chambered stomach is of a simple type covered with a glandular mucous membrane. When empty and moderately filled, the stomach looks like a curved sack and lies intrathoracally. The filled stomach extends to the left and ventrally into the regio abdominis media. The greater omentum covers incompletely ventrally and in a part laterally the intestinal mass. The intestinal canal averages about 780 mm in length, that is 6.5 as long as the whole body. The relative length of the small intestine compared with the large intestine is 36-64%. The U-shaped Duodenum is composed of a Pars cranialis, descendens and ascendens and possesses a Plica duodenocolica as well as a Plica duodenocolica accessoria. The Jejunum averages about 420 mm length and is mainly located in the right and ventral part of the regio abdominis media. As in other rodents, the cecum is well developed. The length of the ascending colon averages about the body length and forms an Ansa proximalis and two parallel loops, Ansa media and Ansa distalis coli, both lying in the right Cavum abdominis. Peculiar for the colon are Noduli lymphatici solitarii surrounding cavities lined by a surface epithelium. According to the anatomical structure of the gut and based on physiological diet facts the Burunduk is not a mere herbivore but has to be classified as an omnivore depending upon uptake of animal food protein. PMID:12823102

  10. Acquisition of a High Resolution Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope for the Analysis of Returned Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nittler, Larry R.

    2003-01-01

    This grant furnished funds to purchase a state-of-the-art scanning electron microscope (SEM) to support our analytical facilities for extraterrestrial samples. After evaluating several instruments, we purchased a JEOL 6500F thermal field emission SEM with the following analytical accessories: EDAX energy-dispersive x-ray analysis system with fully automated control of instrument and sample stage; EDAX LEXS wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectrometer for high sensitivity light-element analysis; EDAX/TSL electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) system with software for phase identification and crystal orientation mapping; Robinson backscatter electron detector; and an in situ micro-manipulator (Kleindiek). The total price was $550,000 (with $150,000 of the purchase supported by Carnegie institution matching funds). The microscope was delivered in October 2002, and most of the analytical accessories were installed by January 2003. With the exception of the wavelength spectrometer (which has been undergoing design changes) everything is working well and the SEM is in routine use in our laboratory.

  11. FT-IR microscopical analysis with synchrotron radiation: The microscope optics and system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Reffner, J.A.; Martoglio, P.A.; Williams, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    When a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectrometer was first interfaced with the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in September 1993, there was an instant realization that the performance at the diffraction limit had increased 40-100 times. The synchrotron source transformed the IR microspectrometer into a true IR microprobe, providing high-quality IR spectra for probe diameters at the diffraction limit. The combination of IR microspectroscopy and synchrotron radiation provides a powerful new tool for molecular spectroscopy. The ability to perform IR microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation is still under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory, but several initial studies have been completed that demonstrate the broad-ranging applications of this technology and its potential for materials characterization.

  12. Special pattern of endochondral ossification in human laryngeal cartilages: X-ray and light-microscopic studies on thyroid cartilage.

    PubMed

    Claassen, Horst; Schicht, Martin; Sel, Saadettin; Paulsen, Friedrich

    2014-04-01

    Endochondral ossification is a process that also occurs in the skeleton of the larynx. Differences in the ossification mechanism in comparison to growth plates are not understood until now. To get deeper insights into this process, human thyroid cartilage was investigated by the use of X-rays and a series of light-microscopic stainings. A statistical analysis of mineralization was done by scanning areas of mineralized cartilage and of ossification. We detected a special mode of endochondral ossification which differs from the processes in growth plates. Thyroid cartilage ossifies very slowly and in a gender-specific manner. Compared with age-matched women, bone formation in thyroid cartilage of men is significantly higher in the age group 41-60 years. Endochondral ossification is prepared by internal changes of extracellular matrix leading to areas of asbestoid fibers with ingrowing cartilage canals. In contrast to growth plates, bone is deposited on large areas of mineralized cartilage, which appear at the rims of cartilage canals. Furthermore, primary parallel fibered bone was observed which was deposited on woven bone. The predominant bone type is cancellous bone with trabeculae, whereas compact bone with Haversian systems was seldom found. Trabeculae contain a great number of reversal and arresting lines meaning that the former were often reconstructed and that bone formation was arrested and resumed again with advancing age. It is hypothesized that throughout life trabeculae of ossified thyroid cartilage undergo adaptation to different loads due to the use of voice. PMID:24496984

  13. Compact, Light-weight and Cost-effective Microscope based on Lensless Incoherent Holography for Telemedicine Applications

    PubMed Central

    Mudanyali, Onur; Tseng, Derek; Oh, Chulwoo; Isikman, Serhan O.; Sencan, Ikbal; Bishara, Waheb; Oztoprak, Cetin; Seo, Sungkyu; Khademhosseini, Bahar; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2010-01-01

    Despite the rapid progress in optical imaging, most of the advanced microscopy modalities still require complex and costly set-ups that unfortunately limit their use beyond well equipped laboratories. In the meantime, microscopy in resource-limited settings has requirements significantly different from those encountered in advanced laboratories, and such imaging devices should be cost-effective, compact, light-weight and appropriately accurate and simple to be usable by minimally trained personnel. Furthermore, these portable microscopes should ideally be digitally integrated as part of a telemedicine network that connects various mobile health-care providers to a central laboratory or hospital. Toward this end, here we demonstrate a lensless on-chip microscope weighing ~46 grams with dimensions smaller than 4.2cm × 4.2cm × 5.8cm that achieves sub-cellular resolution over a large field of view of ~24 mm2. This compact and light-weight microscope is based on digital in-line holography and does not need any lenses, bulky optical/mechanical components or coherent sources such as lasers. Instead, it utilizes a simple light-emitting-diode (LED) and a compact opto-electronic sensor-array to record lensless holograms of the objects, which then permits rapid digital reconstruction of regular transmission or differential interference contrast (DIC) images of the objects. Because this lensless incoherent holographic microscope has orders-of-magnitude improved light collection efficiency and is very robust to mechanical misalignments it may offer a cost-effective tool especially for telemedicine applications involving various global health problems in resource limited settings. PMID:20401422

  14. Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications.

    PubMed

    Mudanyali, Onur; Tseng, Derek; Oh, Chulwoo; Isikman, Serhan O; Sencan, Ikbal; Bishara, Waheb; Oztoprak, Cetin; Seo, Sungkyu; Khademhosseini, Bahar; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2010-06-01

    Despite the rapid progress in optical imaging, most of the advanced microscopy modalities still require complex and costly set-ups that unfortunately limit their use beyond well equipped laboratories. In the meantime, microscopy in resource-limited settings has requirements significantly different from those encountered in advanced laboratories, and such imaging devices should be cost-effective, compact, light-weight and appropriately accurate and simple to be usable by minimally trained personnel. Furthermore, these portable microscopes should ideally be digitally integrated as part of a telemedicine network that connects various mobile health-care providers to a central laboratory or hospital. Toward this end, here we demonstrate a lensless on-chip microscope weighing approximately 46 grams with dimensions smaller than 4.2 cm x 4.2 cm x 5.8 cm that achieves sub-cellular resolution over a large field of view of approximately 24 mm(2). This compact and light-weight microscope is based on digital in-line holography and does not need any lenses, bulky optical/mechanical components or coherent sources such as lasers. Instead, it utilizes a simple light-emitting-diode (LED) and a compact opto-electronic sensor-array to record lensless holograms of the objects, which then permits rapid digital reconstruction of regular transmission or differential interference contrast (DIC) images of the objects. Because this lensless incoherent holographic microscope has orders-of-magnitude improved light collection efficiency and is very robust to mechanical misalignments it may offer a cost-effective tool especially for telemedicine applications involving various global health problems in resource limited settings. PMID:20401422

  15. Microscopic Analysis of Plankton, Periphyton, and Activated Sludge. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This manual is intended for professional personnel in the fields of water pollution control, limnology, water supply and waste treatment. Primary emphasis is given to practice in the identification and enumeration of microscopic organisms which may be encountered in water and activated sludge. Methods for the chemical and instrumental evaluation…

  16. Analysis of Exoplanet Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, A.; Budding, E.; Rhodes, M. D.; Püsküllü, Ç.; Soydugan, F.; Soydugan, E.; Tüysüz, M.; Demircan, O.

    2015-07-01

    We have applied the close binary system analysis package WINFITTER to a variety of exoplanet transiting light curves taken both from the NASA Exoplanet Archive and our own ground-based observations. WINFitter has parameter options for a realistic physical model, including gravity brightening and structural parameters derived from Kopal's applications of the relevant Radau equation, and it includes appropriate tests for determinacy and adequacy of its best fitting parameter sets. We discuss a number of issues related to empirical checking of models for stellar limb darkening, surface maculation, Doppler beaming, microvariability, and transit time variation (TTV) effects. The Radau coefficients used in the light curve modeling, in principle, allow structural models of the component stars to be tested.

  17. Engineering the emission of light from a scanning tunneling microscope using the plasmonic modes of a nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Moal, Eric; Marguet, Sylvie; Canneson, Damien; Rogez, Benoît; Boer-Duchemin, Elizabeth; Dujardin, Gérald; Teperik, Tatiana V.; Marinica, Dana-Codruta; Borisov, Andrey G.

    2016-01-01

    The inelastic tunnel current in the junction formed between the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and the sample can electrically generate optical signals. This phenomenon is potentially of great importance for nano-optoelectronic devices. In practice, however, the properties of the emitted light are difficult to control because of the strong influence of the STM tip. In this work, we show both theoretically and experimentally that the sought-after, well-controlled emission of light from an STM tunnel junction may be achieved using a nonplasmonic STM tip and a plasmonic nanoparticle on a transparent substrate. We demonstrate that the native plasmon modes of the nanoparticle may be used to engineer the light emitted in the substrate. Both the angular distribution and intensity of the emitted light may be varied in a predictable way by choosing the excitation position of the STM tip on the particle.

  18. Real-Time and Post-Reaction Microscopic Structural Analysis of Biomass Undergoing Pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, T. J.; Nimlos, M. R.; Donohoe, B. S.

    2009-01-01

    The structural complexity of unprocessed plant tissues used for thermochemical conversion of biomass to fuels and energy impedes heat and mass transfer and may increase the occurrence of tar-forming secondary chemical reactions. At industrial scales, gas and liquid products trapped within large biomass particles may reduce net fuel yields and increase tars, impacting industrial operations and increasing overall costs. Real-time microscopic analysis of poplar (Populus sp.) wood samples undergoing anoxic, pyrolytic heat treatment has revealed a pattern of tissue and macropore expansion and collapse. Post-reaction structural analyses of biomass char (biochar) by light and transmission electron microscopy have provided direct structural evidence of pyrolysis product mass-transfer issues, including trapped pyrolysis products and cell wall compression, and have demonstrated the impact of heat-transfer problems on biomass particles. Finally, microscopic imaging has revealed that pyrolyzed/gasified biochars recovered from a fluidized bed reactor retain a similar pre-reaction basic plant tissue structure as the samples used in this study, suggesting that the phenomena observed here are representative of those that occur in larger scale reactors.

  19. Performance analysis of an inexpensive Direct Imaging Transmission Ion Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Patrick; Pallone, Arthur

    2013-03-01

    A direct imaging transmission ion microscope (DITIM) is built from a modified webcam and a commercially available polonium-210 antistatic device mounted on an optics rail. The performance of the DITIM in radiographic mode is analyzed in terms of the line spread function (LSF) and modulation transfer function (MTF) for an opaque edge. Limitations of, potential uses for, and suggested improvements to the DITIM are also discussed. Faculty sponsor

  20. Light and electron microscopic analyses of Vasa expression in adult germ cells of the fish medaka.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yongming; Li, Mingyou; Hong, Yunhan

    2014-07-15

    Germ cells of diverse animal species have a unique membrane-less organelle called germ plasm (GP). GP is usually associated with mitochondria and contains RNA binding proteins and mRNAs of germ genes such as vasa. GP has been described as the mitochondrial cloud (MC), intermitochondrial cement (IC) and chromatoid body (CB). The mechanism underlying varying GP structures has remained incompletely understood. Here we report the analysis of GP through light and electron microscopy by using Vasa as a marker in adult male germ cells of the fish medaka (Oryzias latipes). Immunofluorescence light microscopy revealed germ cell-specific Vasa expression. Vasa is the most abundant in mitotic germ cells (oogonia and spermatogonia) and reduced in meiotic germ cells. Vasa in round spermatids exist as a spherical structure reminiscent of CB. Nanogold immunoelectron microscopy revealed subcellular Vasa redistribution in male germ cells. Vasa in spermatogonia concentrates in small areas of the cytoplasm and is surrounded by mitochondria, which is reminiscent of MC. Vasa is intermixed with mitochondria to form IC in primary spermatocytes, appears as the free cement (FC) via separation from mitochondria in secondary spermatocyte and becomes condensed in CB at the caudal pole of round spermatids. During spermatid morphogenesis, Vasa redistributes and forms a second CB that is a ring-like structure surrounding the dense fiber of the flagellum in the midpiece. These structures resemble those described for GP in various species. Thus, Vasa identifies GP and adopts varying structures via dynamic reorganization at different stages of germ cell development. PMID:24814190

  1. Microscopic Analysis of Bacterial Motility at High Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Sowa, Yoshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial flagellar motor is a molecular machine that converts an ion flux to the rotation of a helical flagellar filament. Counterclockwise rotation of the filaments allows them to join in a bundle and propel the cell forward. Loss of motility can be caused by environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and solvation. Hydrostatic pressure is also a physical inhibitor of bacterial motility, but the detailed mechanism of this inhibition is still unknown. Here, we developed a high-pressure microscope that enables us to acquire high-resolution microscopic images, regardless of applied pressures. We also characterized the pressure dependence of the motility of swimming Escherichia coli cells and the rotation of single flagellar motors. The fraction and speed of swimming cells decreased with increased pressure. At 80 MPa, all cells stopped swimming and simply diffused in solution. After the release of pressure, most cells immediately recovered their initial motility. Direct observation of the motility of single flagellar motors revealed that at 80 MPa, the motors generate torque that should be sufficient to join rotating filaments in a bundle. The discrepancy in the behavior of free swimming cells and individual motors could be due to the applied pressure inhibiting the formation of rotating filament bundles that can propel the cell body in an aqueous environment. PMID:22768943

  2. Microscopic analysis of bacterial motility at high pressure.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Sowa, Yoshiyuki

    2012-04-18

    The bacterial flagellar motor is a molecular machine that converts an ion flux to the rotation of a helical flagellar filament. Counterclockwise rotation of the filaments allows them to join in a bundle and propel the cell forward. Loss of motility can be caused by environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and solvation. Hydrostatic pressure is also a physical inhibitor of bacterial motility, but the detailed mechanism of this inhibition is still unknown. Here, we developed a high-pressure microscope that enables us to acquire high-resolution microscopic images, regardless of applied pressures. We also characterized the pressure dependence of the motility of swimming Escherichia coli cells and the rotation of single flagellar motors. The fraction and speed of swimming cells decreased with increased pressure. At 80 MPa, all cells stopped swimming and simply diffused in solution. After the release of pressure, most cells immediately recovered their initial motility. Direct observation of the motility of single flagellar motors revealed that at 80 MPa, the motors generate torque that should be sufficient to join rotating filaments in a bundle. The discrepancy in the behavior of free swimming cells and individual motors could be due to the applied pressure inhibiting the formation of rotating filament bundles that can propel the cell body in an aqueous environment. PMID:22768943

  3. X-RAY, MICROSCOPE, AND WET CHEMICAL TECHNIQUES: COMPLEMENTARY TEAM FOR DEPOSIT ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Commonly used techniques for the analysis of potable water scale and corrosion deposits do not provide equivalent information about the chemical nature and significance of the deposits. ptical examination, with unaided eye and with microscopes, provides some useful information. -...

  4. Assembly of ovarian follicles in the caecilians Ichthyophis tricolor and Gegeneophis ramaswamii: light and transmission electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Beyo, R S; Sreejith, P; Divya, L; Oommen, O V; Akbarsha, M A

    2007-08-01

    Though much is known about various aspects of reproductive biology of amphibia, there is little information on the cellular and mechanistic basis of assembly of ovarian follicles in this group. This is especially true of the caecilians. Therefore, taking advantage of the abundant distribution of caecilians in the Western Ghats of India, two species of caecilians, Ichthyophis tricolor and Gegeneophis ramaswamii, were subjected to light and transmission electron microscopic analysis to trace the sequential changes during the assembly of ovarian follicles. The paired ovaries of these caecilians are elongated sac-like structures each including numerous vitellogenic follicles. The follicles are connected by a connective tissue stroma. This stroma contains nests of oogonia, primary oocytes and pregranulosa cells as spatially separated nests. During assembly of follicles the oocytes increase in size and enter the meiotic prophase when the number of nucleoli in the nucleus increases. The mitochondrial cloud or Balbiani vitelline body, initially localized at one pole of the nucleus, disperses through out the cytoplasm subsequently. Synaptonemal complexes are prominent in the pachytene stage oocytes. The pregranulosa cells migrate through the connective tissue fibrils of the stroma and arrive at the vicinity of the meiotic prophase oocytes. On contacting the oocyte, the pregranulosa cells become cuboidal in shape, wrap the diplotene stage oocyte as a discontinuous layer and increase the content of cytoplasmic organelles and inclusions. The oocytes increase in size and are arrested in diplotene when the granulosa cells become flat and form a continuous layer. Soon a perivitelline space appears between the oolemma and granulosa cells, completing the process of assembly of follicles. Thus, the events in the establishment of follicles in the caecilian ovary are described. PMID:17637101

  5. Imaging spectroscopic analysis at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    MacDowell, A. A.; Warwick, T.; Anders, S.; Lamble, G.M.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.; Padmore, H.A.

    1999-05-12

    One of the major advances at the high brightness third generation synchrotrons is the dramatic improvement of imaging capability. There is a large multi-disciplinary effort underway at the ALS to develop imaging X-ray, UV and Infra-red spectroscopic analysis on a spatial scale from. a few microns to 10nm. These developments make use of light that varies in energy from 6meV to 15KeV. Imaging and spectroscopy are finding applications in surface science, bulk materials analysis, semiconductor structures, particulate contaminants, magnetic thin films, biology and environmental science. This article is an overview and status report from the developers of some of these techniques at the ALS. The following table lists all the currently available microscopes at the. ALS. This article will describe some of the microscopes and some of the early applications.

  6. Novel failure analysis techniques using photon probing with a scanning optical microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.I. Jr.; Soden, J.M.; Rife, J.L.; Barton, D.L.; Henderson, C.L.

    1993-12-31

    Three new failure analysis techniques for integrated circuits (ICs) have been developed using localized photon probing with a scanning optical microscope (SOM). The first two are light-induced voltage alteration (LIVA) imaging techniques that (1) localize open-circuited and damaged junctions and (2) image transistor logic states. The third technique uses the SOM to control logic states optically from the IC backside. LIVA images are produced by monitoring the voltage fluctuations of a constant current power supply as a laser beam is scanned over the IC. High selectivity for localizing defects has been demonstrated using the LIVA approach. Logic state mapping results, similar to previous work using biased optical beam induced current (OBIC) and laser probing approaches have also been produced using LIVA. Application of the two LIVA based techniques to backside failure analysis has been demonstrated using an infrared laser source. Optical logic state control is based upon earlier work examining transistor response to photon injection. The physics of each method and their applications for failure analysis are described.

  7. Analysis of Zebrafish Kidney Development with Time-lapse Imaging Using a Dissecting Microscope Equipped for Optical Sectioning.

    PubMed

    Perner, Birgit; Schnerwitzki, Danny; Graf, Michael; Englert, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand organogenesis, the spatial and temporal alterations that occur during development of tissues need to be recorded. The method described here allows time-lapse analysis of normal and impaired kidney development in zebrafish embryos by using a fluorescence dissecting microscope equipped for structured illumination and z-stack acquisition. To visualize nephrogenesis, transgenic zebrafish (Tg(wt1b:GFP)) with fluorescently labeled kidney structures were used. Renal defects were triggered by injection of an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide against the Wilms tumor gene wt1a, a factor known to be crucial for kidney development. The advantage of the experimental setup is the combination of a zoom microscope with simple strategies for re-adjusting movements in x, y or z direction without additional equipment. To circumvent focal drift that is induced by temperature variations and mechanical vibrations, an autofocus strategy was applied instead of utilizing a usually required environmental chamber. In order to re-adjust the positional changes due to a xy-drift, imaging chambers with imprinted relocation grids were employed. In comparison to more complex setups for time-lapse recording with optical sectioning such as confocal laser scanning or light sheet microscopes, a zoom microscope is easy to handle. Besides, it offers dissecting microscope-specific benefits such as high depth of field and an extended working distance. The method to study organogenesis presented here can also be used with fluorescence stereo microscopes not capable of optical sectioning. Although limited for high-throughput, this technique offers an alternative to more complex equipment that is normally used for time-lapse recording of developing tissues and organ dynamics. PMID:27078207

  8. Analysis of Zebrafish Kidney Development with Time-lapse Imaging Using a Dissecting Microscope Equipped for Optical Sectioning

    PubMed Central

    Perner, Birgit; Schnerwitzki, Danny; Graf, Michael; Englert, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand organogenesis, the spatial and temporal alterations that occur during development of tissues need to be recorded. The method described here allows time-lapse analysis of normal and impaired kidney development in zebrafish embryos by using a fluorescence dissecting microscope equipped for structured illumination and z-stack acquisition. To visualize nephrogenesis, transgenic zebrafish (Tg(wt1b:GFP)) with fluorescently labeled kidney structures were used. Renal defects were triggered by injection of an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide against the Wilms tumor gene wt1a, a factor known to be crucial for kidney development. The advantage of the experimental setup is the combination of a zoom microscope with simple strategies for re-adjusting movements in x, y or z direction without additional equipment. To circumvent focal drift that is induced by temperature variations and mechanical vibrations, an autofocus strategy was applied instead of utilizing a usually required environmental chamber. In order to re-adjust the positional changes due to a xy-drift, imaging chambers with imprinted relocation grids were employed. In comparison to more complex setups for time-lapse recording with optical sectioning such as confocal laser scanning or light sheet microscopes, a zoom microscope is easy to handle. Besides, it offers dissecting microscope-specific benefits such as high depth of field and an extended working distance. The method to study organogenesis presented here can also be used with fluorescence stereo microscopes not capable of optical sectioning. Although limited for high-throughput, this technique offers an alternative to more complex equipment that is normally used for time-lapse recording of developing tissues and organ dynamics. PMID:27078207

  9. Thermal effects of white light illumination during microsurgery: clinical pilot study on the application safety of surgical microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibst, Raimund; Saal, David; Russ, Detlef; Kunzi-Rapp, Karin; Kienle, Alwin; Stock, Karl

    2010-07-01

    Modern operating microscopes offer high power illumination to ensure optimal visualization, but can also cause thermal damage. The aim of our study is to quantify the thermal effects in vivo and discuss conditions for safe use. In a pilot study on volunteers, we measured the temperature at the skin surface during microscope illumination, including the influence of anaesthesia and the effects of staining, draping, or moistening of the skin. Irradiation within the limit given by safety regulations (200 mW/cm2) results in skin surface temperature of 43 °C. Higher intensities (forearm 335 mW/cm2, back 250 mW/cm2) are tolerated, resulting in reversible hyperaemia. At a very high illumination intensity (750 mW/cm2), pain occurs within 30 s at temperatures of 46 °C+/-1 °C (hand and forearm), and 43 °C+/-2 °C (back), respectively. Anaesthesia has no distinct effect on the temperature, whereas staining and drapes result in much higher temperatures (>100 °C). Moistening at practicable flow rates can reduce temperature efficiently when combined with a light absorbing and water absorbent drape. In conclusion, surgeons must be aware that surgical microscope illumination without protective means can cause skin temperatures to rise much above pain threshold, which in our study serves as a (conservative) benchmark for potential damage.

  10. HSI colour-coded analysis of scattered light of single plasmonic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Lei, Gang; Zheng, Lin Ling; Gao, Peng Fei; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-06-01

    Single plasmonic nanoparticles (PNPs) analysis with dark-field microscopic imaging (iDFM) has attracted much attention in recent years. The ability for quantitative analysis of iDFM is critical, but cumbersome, for characterizing and analyzing the scattered light of single PNPs. Here, a simple automatic HSI colour coding method is established for coding dark-field microscopic (DFM) images of single PNPs with localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) scattered light, showing that hue value in the HSI system can realize accurate quantitative analysis of iDFM and providing a novel approach for quantitative chemical and biochemical imaging at the single nanoparticle level. PMID:27194457

  11. Diffuse light scattering from a dense and cold microscopic 87Rb sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Kasie; Roof, S. J.; Havey, M. D.; Sokolov, I. M.; Kupriyanov, D. V.

    2015-05-01

    We report investigation of near-resonance light scattering from a cold atomic sample of 87Rb. Measurements are made on the F = 2 -->F' = 3 nearly closed hyperfine transition for atomic densities ranging from ~1010 to ~1013 atoms/cm3. The sample, initially prepared in a magneto-optical trap, is loaded into a far-off-resonance trap (FORT) in which the ensemble has a temperature ~100 μK and initial Gaussian radii of ~3 μm and ~280 μm in the transverse and longitudinal directions, respectively. The experimental geometry consists of projecting a near-resonance collimated laser beam onto the entire volume of the FORT and detecting the diffusely scattered light. The measured scattered light intensity as a function of detuning, atomic density, and sample size suggests that collective light scattering plays an important role in the experimental results. This research is supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant No. NSF-PHY-1068159).

  12. Design and analysis of a fast, two-mirror soft-x-ray microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, D. L.; Wang, C.; Jiang, W.; Jin, L.; Hoover, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    During the past several years, a number of investigators have addressed the design, analysis, fabrication, and testing of spherical Schwarzschild microscopes for soft-x-ray applications using multilayer coatings. Some of these systems have demonstrated diffraction limited resolution for small numerical apertures. Rigorously aplanatic, two-aspherical mirror Head microscopes can provide near diffraction limited resolution for very large numerical apertures. The relationships between the numerical aperture, mirror radii and diameters, magnifications, and total system length for Schwarzschild microscope configurations are summarized. Also, an analysis of the characteristics of the Head-Schwarzschild surfaces will be reported. The numerical surface data predicted by the Head equations were fit by a variety of functions and analyzed by conventional optical design codes. Efforts have been made to determine whether current optical substrate and multilayer coating technologies will permit construction of a very fast Head microscope which can provide resolution approaching that of the wavelength of the incident radiation.

  13. Wave optics theory and 3-D deconvolution for the light field microscope

    PubMed Central

    Broxton, Michael; Grosenick, Logan; Yang, Samuel; Cohen, Noy; Andalman, Aaron; Deisseroth, Karl; Levoy, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Light field microscopy is a new technique for high-speed volumetric imaging of weakly scattering or fluorescent specimens. It employs an array of microlenses to trade off spatial resolution against angular resolution, thereby allowing a 4-D light field to be captured using a single photographic exposure without the need for scanning. The recorded light field can then be used to computationally reconstruct a full volume. In this paper, we present an optical model for light field microscopy based on wave optics, instead of previously reported ray optics models. We also present a 3-D deconvolution method for light field microscopy that is able to reconstruct volumes at higher spatial resolution, and with better optical sectioning, than previously reported. To accomplish this, we take advantage of the dense spatio-angular sampling provided by a microlens array at axial positions away from the native object plane. This dense sampling permits us to decode aliasing present in the light field to reconstruct high-frequency information. We formulate our method as an inverse problem for reconstructing the 3-D volume, which we solve using a GPU-accelerated iterative algorithm. Theoretical limits on the depth-dependent lateral resolution of the reconstructed volumes are derived. We show that these limits are in good agreement with experimental results on a standard USAF 1951 resolution target. Finally, we present 3-D reconstructions of pollen grains that demonstrate the improvements in fidelity made possible by our method. PMID:24150383

  14. Age-related intra-axonal accumulation of neurofilaments in the dorsal column nuclei of the cat brainstem: a light and electron microscopic immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J H; Sampogna, S; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

    1998-06-29

    In the present study, we examined the age-related intra-axonal accumulation of neurofilaments in the dorsal column nuclei of the cat by using immunohistochemical techniques combined with light and electron microscopy. Light microscopic analysis revealed oval or circular immunostained structures in the dorsal column nuclei of old cats. These immunostained structures were not observed in the material obtained from adult controls. Under the electron microscope, it was discovered that the immunostained structures were greatly enlarged axons with disrupted myelin sheaths. These enlarged axons contained massive accumulations of neurofilaments, some mitochondria, vacuoles and dense granules. The abnormalities of the myelin sheaths included the breaking of myelin at several locations, a splitting and ballooning in the myelin lamellae of the sheath and a distended periaxonal space between the axon and myelin sheaths. These ultrastructural changes resembled the degenerative alterations that have been observed in the axons of human and animals suffering from a number of pathological conditions, including giant axonal neuropathy and toxic neuropathy. Therefore, severely altered axons with intra-axonal accumulation of neurofilaments appear to reflect chronic degenerative changes that are a component of the aging process. PMID:9666164

  15. Light Microscopy Module: An On-Orbit Microscope Planned for the Fluids and Combustion Facility on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.; Motil, Susan M.; Snead, John H.; Griffin, DeVon W.

    2001-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) is planned as a fully remotely controllable on-orbit microscope subrack facility, allowing flexible scheduling and control of fluids and biology experiments within NASA Glenn Research Center's Fluids and Combustion Facility on the International Space Station. Within the Fluids and Combustion Facility, four fluids physics experiments will utilize an instrument built around a light microscope. These experiments are the Constrained Vapor Bubble experiment (Peter C. Wayner of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute), the Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment-2 (Paul M. Chaikin of Princeton University), the Physics of Colloids in Space-2 experiment (David A. Weitz of Harvard University), and the Low Volume Fraction Colloidal Assembly experiment (Arjun G. Yodh of the University of Pennsylvania). The first experiment investigates heat conductance in microgravity as a function of liquid volume and heat flow rate to determine, in detail, the transport process characteristics in a curved liquid film. The other three experiments investigate various complementary aspects of the nucleation, growth, structure, and properties of colloidal crystals in microgravity and the effects of micromanipulation upon their properties. Key diagnostic capabilities for meeting the science requirements of the four experiments include video microscopy to observe sample features including basic structures and dynamics, interferometry to measure vapor bubble thin film thickness, laser tweezers for colloidal particle manipulation and patterning, confocal microscopy to provide enhanced three-dimensional visualization of colloidal structures, and spectrophotometry to measure colloidal crystal photonic properties.

  16. Per-Pixel Lighting Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Inanici, Mehlika

    2005-08-01

    This report presents a framework for per-pixel analysis of the qualitative and quantitative aspects of luminous environments. Recognizing the need for better lighting analysis capabilities and appreciating the new measurement abilities developed within the LBNL Lighting Measurement and Simulation Toolbox, ''Per-pixel Lighting Data Analysis'' project demonstrates several techniques for analyzing luminance distribution patterns, luminance ratios, adaptation luminance and glare assessment. The techniques are the syntheses of the current practices in lighting design and the unique practices that can be done with per-pixel data availability. Demonstrated analysis techniques are applicable to both computer-generated and digitally captured images (physically-based renderings and High Dynamic Range photographs).

  17. iFit and Light Dilution: Ultraviolet volcanic SO2 measurements under the microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, Michael; Sawyer, Georgina

    2013-04-01

    Volcanic SO2 flux measurement systems are a staple of volcano monitoring networks, as this volcanic gas flux reflects the magma input rate into the volcano's feeding system. SO2 flux monitoring has been used since the seventies, with some notable successes at Pinatubo, Mt. St. Helens, Montserrat and Italian volcanoes. However, there are some subtle aspects of the atmospheric radiative transfer processed inherent in the technique which have been ignored for many years; or perhaps better, they have been forgotten, as these subtleties were clearly spelt out in early COSPEC papers by Millán and co-workers. Recent work by Kern et al. (2010, 2012) has re-focussed attention on the light dilution effect during SO2 plume measurements. This occurs when solar radiation is scattered into the slant column observed by a UV spectrometer or imaging system below the height of the volcanic plume, such that it has not passed through the plume. This below-plume light dilutes the SO2 absorption produced by light passing through the plume from above, apparently reducing the amount of SO2 present. Fortunately, the light dilution process leaves a signature in the shape of the SO2 absorption spectrum, due to the non-linear behaviour of absorption lines with respect to gas amount, following the Beer-Lamber law. This signature can be used to quantify the magnitude of the light dilution in real field spectra. We developed a new intensity spectrum UV fitting code called iFit that allows fitting of the light dilution signature, and applied this to examples from Stromboli and Etna. here we summarise the results from these studies and highlight the importance of this previously ignored process for quantify SO2 gas emissions from volcanoes.

  18. Qualitative Analysis of Collagen Fibers in Oral Submucous Fibrosis using Picrosirius Red Stain and Polarising Microscope

    PubMed Central

    Sekaran, Preethi; Narasimhan, Malathi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) is an oral potentially malignant condition caused predominantly by areca nut chewing. Early recognition with accurate staging of the disease and appropriate treatment planning is of utmost importance to prevent the malignant transformation and to improve the quality of life of the patient. Picrosirius red stain is specific for collagen and enhances its birefringence under polarising light producing different colours in different stages of the disease. Aim To compare the clinical and functional staging with histopathologic staging methods used to assess the severity of OSMF and to perform a qualitative analysis of the collagen fibres in various histopathologic stages of OSMF using picrosirius red stain and polarising microscope. Materials and Methods It is a retrospective study done on archival samples. The study sample included a total of 30 cases which was divided into two groups. Group I comprised of 20 OSMF samples and Group II comprised of 10 normal tissue samples. Clinical, functional and histopathological staging was performed for all OSMF samples. Comparative analysis between clinical and functional stages with the histopathological staging was done using chi square test. Picrosirius red- stained sections of OSMF were analysed using polarising microscopy to evaluate the qualitative changes in the collagen fibers. Statistical Analysis Used Descriptive data which includes frequency and percentages were calculated for each group. Categorical data were analysed by chi-square test. A p-value of 0.05 or less was considered statistically significant. Results Comparative analysis between clinical and functional stages with the histopathological staging revealed a significant correlation (p < 0.05) between the functional and histopathological stage. Enhanced birefringence of the collagen fibers due to picrosirius red stain yielded characteristic prominent polarising colours in different stages of OSMF. Conclusion Comparison

  19. Automatic analysis of microscopic images of red blood cell aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menichini, Pablo A.; Larese, Mónica G.; Riquelme, Bibiana D.

    2015-06-01

    Red blood cell aggregation is one of the most important factors in blood viscosity at stasis or at very low rates of flow. The basic structure of aggregates is a linear array of cell commonly termed as rouleaux. Enhanced or abnormal aggregation is seen in clinical conditions, such as diabetes and hypertension, producing alterations in the microcirculation, some of which can be analyzed through the characterization of aggregated cells. Frequently, image processing and analysis for the characterization of RBC aggregation were done manually or semi-automatically using interactive tools. We propose a system that processes images of RBC aggregation and automatically obtains the characterization and quantification of the different types of RBC aggregates. Present technique could be interesting to perform the adaptation as a routine used in hemorheological and Clinical Biochemistry Laboratories because this automatic method is rapid, efficient and economical, and at the same time independent of the user performing the analysis (repeatability of the analysis).

  20. A Customized Light Sheet Microscope to Measure Spatio-Temporal Protein Dynamics in Small Model Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Rieckher, Matthias; Kourmoulakis, Georgios; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Ripoll, Jorge; Zacharakis, Giannis

    2015-01-01

    We describe a customizable and cost-effective light sheet microscopy (LSM) platform for rapid three-dimensional imaging of protein dynamics in small model organisms. The system is designed for high acquisition speeds and enables extended time-lapse in vivo experiments when using fluorescently labeled specimens. We demonstrate the capability of the setup to monitor gene expression and protein localization during ageing and upon starvation stress in longitudinal studies in individual or small groups of adult Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes. The system is equipped to readily perform fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), which allows monitoring protein recovery and distribution under low photobleaching conditions. Our imaging platform is designed to easily switch between light sheet microscopy and optical projection tomography (OPT) modalities. The setup permits monitoring of spatio-temporal expression and localization of ageing biomarkers of subcellular size and can be conveniently adapted to image a wide range of small model organisms and tissue samples. PMID:26000610

  1. An ultrastructural and light microscopic study of the synovium in ochronotic arthropathy.

    PubMed

    Gaines, J J; Tom, G D; Khankhanian, N

    1987-11-01

    The synovium in two well-documented cases of alkaptonuric ochronosis was studied by transmission electron and light microscopy. A feature of alkaptonuria previously unreported in the English-language literature was the presence of phagocytosis of large collagen fibrils by synovial macrophages in both cases. The origin of these fibrils appeared to have been shards of ochronotic cartilage and areas of metaplastic cartilage. This finding suggests that active remodeling of the synovial tissues occurs in advanced ochronotic arthropathy. Numerous shards of ochronotic cartilage were embedded in the synovium. In addition, small aggregates of large collagen fibrils encrusted with apparent ochronotic pigment were occasionally noted in the interstitium. These aggregates of ochronotic collagen are best described as microshards, and they have not generally been recognized in the literature. What appeared by light microscopy to represent ochronotic pigment deposition in interstitial collagen actually represented embedded microshards of ochronotic cartilage in the interstitium. Slender and elongated microshards were most likely to be confused by light microscopy as ochronotic interstitial collagen. PMID:3679190

  2. Free-form Light Actuators — Fabrication and Control of Actuation in Microscopic Scale

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hao; Wasylczyk, Piotr; Parmeggiani, Camilla; Martella, Daniele; Wiersma, Diederik Sybolt

    2016-01-01

    Liquid crystalline elastomers (LCEs) are smart materials capable of reversible shape-change in response to external stimuli, and have attracted researchers' attention in many fields. Most of the studies focused on macroscopic LCE structures (films, fibers) and their miniaturization is still in its infancy. Recently developed lithography techniques, e.g., mask exposure and replica molding, only allow for creating 2D structures on LCE thin films. Direct laser writing (DLW) opens access to truly 3D fabrication in the microscopic scale. However, controlling the actuation topology and dynamics at the same length scale remains a challenge. In this paper we report on a method to control the liquid crystal (LC) molecular alignment in the LCE microstructures of arbitrary three-dimensional shape. This was made possible by a combination of direct laser writing for both the LCE structures as well as for micrograting patterns inducing local LC alignment. Several types of grating patterns were used to introduce different LC alignments, which can be subsequently patterned into the LCE structures. This protocol allows one to obtain LCE microstructures with engineered alignments able to perform multiple opto-mechanical actuation, thus being capable of multiple functionalities. Applications can be foreseen in the fields of tunable photonics, micro-robotics, lab-on-chip technology and others. PMID:27285398

  3. Free-form Light Actuators - Fabrication and Control of Actuation in Microscopic Scale.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hao; Wasylczyk, Piotr; Parmeggiani, Camilla; Martella, Daniele; Wiersma, Diederik Sybolt

    2016-01-01

    Liquid crystalline elastomers (LCEs) are smart materials capable of reversible shape-change in response to external stimuli, and have attracted researchers' attention in many fields. Most of the studies focused on macroscopic LCE structures (films, fibers) and their miniaturization is still in its infancy. Recently developed lithography techniques, e.g., mask exposure and replica molding, only allow for creating 2D structures on LCE thin films. Direct laser writing (DLW) opens access to truly 3D fabrication in the microscopic scale. However, controlling the actuation topology and dynamics at the same length scale remains a challenge. In this paper we report on a method to control the liquid crystal (LC) molecular alignment in the LCE microstructures of arbitrary three-dimensional shape. This was made possible by a combination of direct laser writing for both the LCE structures as well as for micrograting patterns inducing local LC alignment. Several types of grating patterns were used to introduce different LC alignments, which can be subsequently patterned into the LCE structures. This protocol allows one to obtain LCE microstructures with engineered alignments able to perform multiple opto-mechanical actuation, thus being capable of multiple functionalities. Applications can be foreseen in the fields of tunable photonics, micro-robotics, lab-on-chip technology and others. PMID:27285398

  4. Finite element microscopic stress analysis of cracked composite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, W. L.

    1978-01-01

    This paper considers the stress concentration problems of two types of cracked composite systems: (1) a composite system with a broken fiber (a penny-shaped crack problem), and (2) a composite system with a cracked matrix (an annular crack problem). The cracked composite systems are modeled with triangular and trapezoidal ring finite elements. Using NASTRAN (NASA Structural Analysis) finite element computer program, the stress and deformation fields in the cracked composite systems are calculated. The effect of fiber-matrix material combination on the stress concentrations and on the crack opening displacements is studied.

  5. A rare case of a multicentric peripheral ameloblastoma of the gingiva. A light and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, G; Sanchez, G; Caballero, T; Moskow, B S

    1992-04-01

    A rare case of a multicentric peripheral ameloblastoma of the gingiva in a 54-year-old male patient is described along with a light and electron microscopic study of the excised tumors. The peripheral ameloblastoma is considered to be the gingival counterpart of the more common intraosseous ameloblastoma. Although both tumors have similar histomorphologic characteristics, their clinical appearance and behavior are completely different. The peripheral ameloblastoma is slow growing and non-invasive, and recurrence is uncommon following excision. The more common central ameloblastoma, is locally invasive and can destroy large segments of the jaw. The histogenesis of the peripheral ameloblastoma and several other odontogenic tumors of the gingiva serves to illustrate the proliferative potential of the basal cell layer of gingival epithelium. PMID:1569230

  6. A compact, sample-in-atmospheric-pressure soft x-ray microscope developed at Pohang Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jun; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Chae, Keun Hwa; Hwang, Chan-Cuk; Hwang, Han-Na; Hong, Chung Ki

    2010-06-01

    A full-field transmission soft x-ray microscope (TXM) was developed at the Pohang Light Source. With a 2 mm diameter condenser zone plate and a 40 nm outermost-zone-width objective zone plate, the TXM's achieved spatial resolution is better than 50 nm at the photon energy of 500 eV (wavelength: 2.49 nm). The TXM is portable and mounted in tandem with a 7B1 spectroscopy end station. The sample position is outside the vacuum, allowing for quick sample changes and enhanced in situ experimental capability. In addition, the TXM is pinhole-free and easy to align, having commercial mounts located outside the vacuum components.

  7. A compact, sample-in-atmospheric-pressure soft x-ray microscope developed at Pohang Light Source.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jun; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Chae, Keun Hwa; Hwang, Chan-Cuk; Hwang, Han-Na; Hong, Chung Ki

    2010-06-01

    A full-field transmission soft x-ray microscope (TXM) was developed at the Pohang Light Source. With a 2 mm diameter condenser zone plate and a 40 nm outermost-zone-width objective zone plate, the TXM's achieved spatial resolution is better than 50 nm at the photon energy of 500 eV (wavelength: 2.49 nm). The TXM is portable and mounted in tandem with a 7B1 spectroscopy end station. The sample position is outside the vacuum, allowing for quick sample changes and enhanced in situ experimental capability. In addition, the TXM is pinhole-free and easy to align, having commercial mounts located outside the vacuum components. PMID:20590241

  8. Transmission electron microscope observation of organic-inorganic hybrid thin active layers of light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jitsui, Yusuke; Ohtani, Naoki

    2012-10-01

    We performed transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation of organic-inorganic hybrid thin films fabricated by the sol-gel reaction and used as the active layers of organic light-emitting diodes. The cross-sectional TEM images show that the films consist of a triple-layer structure. To evaluate the composition of these layers, the distribution of atoms in them was measured by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. As a result, most of the organic emissive material, poly(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene-co- N-4-butylphenyl-diphenylamine (TFB), was found to be distributed in the middle layer sandwiched by SiO and SiO2 layers. The surface SiO layer was fabricated due to the lack of oxygen. This means that the best sol-gel condition was changed due to the TFB doping; thus, the novel best condition should be found.

  9. Transmission electron microscope observation of organic-inorganic hybrid thin active layers of light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Jitsui, Yusuke; Ohtani, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    We performed transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation of organic-inorganic hybrid thin films fabricated by the sol-gel reaction and used as the active layers of organic light-emitting diodes. The cross-sectional TEM images show that the films consist of a triple-layer structure. To evaluate the composition of these layers, the distribution of atoms in them was measured by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. As a result, most of the organic emissive material, poly(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene-co-N-4-butylphenyl-diphenylamine (TFB), was found to be distributed in the middle layer sandwiched by SiO and SiO2 layers. The surface SiO layer was fabricated due to the lack of oxygen. This means that the best sol-gel condition was changed due to the TFB doping; thus, the novel best condition should be found. PMID:23095451

  10. A compact, sample-in-atmospheric-pressure soft x-ray microscope developed at Pohang Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Jun; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Chae, Keun Hwa; Hwang, Chan-Cuk; Hwang, Han-Na; Hong, Chung Ki

    2010-06-15

    A full-field transmission soft x-ray microscope (TXM) was developed at the Pohang Light Source. With a 2 mm diameter condenser zone plate and a 40 nm outermost-zone-width objective zone plate, the TXM's achieved spatial resolution is better than 50 nm at the photon energy of 500 eV (wavelength: 2.49 nm). The TXM is portable and mounted in tandem with a 7B1 spectroscopy end station. The sample position is outside the vacuum, allowing for quick sample changes and enhanced in situ experimental capability. In addition, the TXM is pinhole-free and easy to align, having commercial mounts located outside the vacuum components.

  11. A light-sheet microscope compatible with mobile devices for label-free intracellular imaging and biosensing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tsung-Feng; Yen, Tony Minghung; Han, Yuanyuan; Chiu, Yu-Jui; Lin, Eason Y-S; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2014-09-01

    The inner structure, especially the nuclear structure, of cells carries valuable information about disease and health conditions of a person. Here we demonstrate a label-free technique to enable direct observations and measurements of the size, shape and morphology of the cell nucleus. With a microfabricated lens and a commercial CMOS imager, we form a scanning light-sheet microscope to produce a dark-field optical scattering image of the cell nucleus that overlays with the bright-field image produced in a separate regime of the same CMOS sensor. We have used the device to detect nuclear features that characterize the life cycle of cells and have used the nucleus volume as a new parameter for cell classification. The device can be developed into a portable, low-cost, point-of-care device leveraging the capabilities of the CMOS imagers to be pervasive in mobile electronics. PMID:24989638

  12. Polarized light microscopic examination of human bile in the diagnosis of microlithiasis of the gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Gogna, A; Kar, P; Acharya, N R; Anand, V J; Kapoor, R

    1989-01-01

    Of the 20 cases with biliary colics who had normal OCG and ultrasound, 11 (55%) showed microlithiasis in the form of cholesterol monohydrate crystals and/or calcium bilirubinate granules on polarized light microscopy of the duodenal bile. Microlithiasis was noted in gallbladder bile of all (100%) the cases with proven gallstones but in none of the duodenal bile samples from healthy subjects. This study suggests that polarized microscopy may be a useful method to detect microlithiasis in patients with repeated biliary colics who have normal OCG and ultrasound examination. PMID:2815325

  13. Toxic effect of formaldehyde on the respiratory organs of rabbits: a light and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Neelam; Uppal, Varinder; Pathak, Devendra

    2011-07-01

    In this study, the effect of direct exposure of formaldehyde in different concentration was observed in 14 rabbits aged 3-6 months and weighing 1100-1200 g. The animals were divided into two groups with six animals in each group, and two animals were kept as control. The animals of group I were exposed to 10% formalin for 12 weeks and those of group II to 40% formalin solution for 6 weeks. After completion of the experimental periods, the animals were killed and the tissue samples were collected from the nasal cavity, trachea and lungs in 10% neutral buffered formalin and Karnovsky's fixative to examine the histological and electron microscopic changes in the organs. The mucosal cells of nasal cavity showed loss of cilia and epithelial metaplasia was observed in places. There was vascular congestion and mild subepithelial odema. The tracheal epithelium was organized with hyperchromatic nuclei. There was subepithelial odema along with lymphomononuclear cellular infiltration. There was marked emphysema evident as bulla formation of air spaces due to rupture of interalveolar septum. An increased cellularity of alveolar wall was observed, resulting in its thickening. The epithelial lining of bronchioles showed loss of mucosal folds and hyperplasia of cells along with peribronchial lymphomononuclear cellular infiltration. Thickening of wall of blood vessels was evident. Congestion and haemorrhages were observed in places. It is concluded that the histopathological changes were more remarkable in the animals exposed to 40% formaldehyde for short duration than the animals exposed to 10% formaldehyde for longer duration with a more severe effect on the upper part of the respiratory tract than the lower one. PMID:21343228

  14. Light and electron microscopic study of stress-shielding effects on rat patellar tendon.

    PubMed

    Muellner, T; Kwasny, O; Loehnert, V; Mallinger, R; Unfried, G; Schabus, R; Plenk, H

    2001-11-01

    In this second part of our study, the histomorphologic changes occurring in the patellar tendon (PT) of rats after sole stress-shielding were evaluated. In seven adult albino rats, both PTs were exposed by straight skin incision and then stress-shielded on one side by a cerclage, while the contralateral PT served as the sham-operated control. One animal died after the operation and was used as a negative control. After 10 weeks of otherwise unrestricted motion, the rats were killed, and the histomorphology of all PT specimen pairs compared by light and transmission electron microscopy. Light microscopy showed mid-portion thickening and irregularity of collagen bundles in the stress-shielded tendons. Intense remodelling was demonstrated by increased cellularity and vascularity, as well as by enrichment in acidic proteoglycans. Ultrastructural evaluation and morphometry revealed a predominance of large diameter (peak between 180 and 260 nm) collagen fibrils in the sham-operated controls, while in the stress-shielded tendons the number of apparently new, small-diameter (peak between 40 and 60 nm) collagen fibrils increased (up to 77% per cross-sectional field of view). The difference in peak diameters was statistically significant (p < 0.0005). This rat model demonstrated that sole stress-shielding not only causes biomechanical alterations, but also intense tissue remodelling and significant morphological changes in the collagen fibrils in the patellar tendon, comparable to so-called 'ligamentization' in experimental and clinical patellar tendon grafts for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. PMID:11768636

  15. HSI colour-coded analysis of scattered light of single plasmonic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jun; Lei, Gang; Zheng, Lin Ling; Gao, Peng Fei; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-06-01

    Single plasmonic nanoparticles (PNPs) analysis with dark-field microscopic imaging (iDFM) has attracted much attention in recent years. The ability for quantitative analysis of iDFM is critical, but cumbersome, for characterizing and analyzing the scattered light of single PNPs. Here, a simple automatic HSI colour coding method is established for coding dark-field microscopic (DFM) images of single PNPs with localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) scattered light, showing that hue value in the HSI system can realize accurate quantitative analysis of iDFM and providing a novel approach for quantitative chemical and biochemical imaging at the single nanoparticle level.Single plasmonic nanoparticles (PNPs) analysis with dark-field microscopic imaging (iDFM) has attracted much attention in recent years. The ability for quantitative analysis of iDFM is critical, but cumbersome, for characterizing and analyzing the scattered light of single PNPs. Here, a simple automatic HSI colour coding method is established for coding dark-field microscopic (DFM) images of single PNPs with localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) scattered light, showing that hue value in the HSI system can realize accurate quantitative analysis of iDFM and providing a novel approach for quantitative chemical and biochemical imaging at the single nanoparticle level. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section and additional figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01089j

  16. Light microscopic distribution of some cholinergic markers in the rat and rabbit locus coeruleus and the nucleus angularis grisea periventricularis of the domestic pig (Sus scrofa): a correlative electron microscopic investigation of cholinergic receptor proteins in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Caffé, A R

    1994-10-15

    Cholinergic modulation of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons evokes a variety of neuronal and behavioural effects. In an attempt to understand the LC cholinergic circuit, several markers has been investigated and compared. (Immuno)-histochemical and autoradiographic methods have been used on rat, rabbit, and pig tissue. To identify the boundaries of the LC in each of these species, sections through the entire brainstem have been stained for tyrosine hydroxylase. The results indicate that the pig does not possess a LC proper that conforms to the accepted features of this cell group. However, in this location fusiform cells reminiscent of LC interneurons are still present. This group of fusiform neurons has been named the nucleus angularis grisea periventricularis (NAGP). LC cells of the rat and rabbit show strong acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. In the pig the NAGP is markedly free from AChE staining. Muscarinic binding sites are densely distributed over the rabbit LC and adjacent region. The rat and rabbit LC neurons synthesise both muscarinic (mAChR) and nicotinic receptor protein (nAChR). In the pig NAGP region mAChR and nAChR positive cell bodies are almost absent, while some nAChR immunoreactive dendrites are present. The light microscopic data in the rabbit have been confirmed by electron microscopic analysis. It is concluded that the general concept of a noradrenergic LC that is present throughout mammals is questionable. At present, choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive terminals that closely correspond to the other cholinergic components in the rat or rabbit LC have not been observed. However, in these species the cholinergic sensitivity of LC cells is mediated via both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors on somata and dendrites. PMID:7849322

  17. Osteopetrosis Complicated by Osteomyelitis of the Maxilla and Mandible: Light and Electron Microscopic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Michel Campos; Sverzut, Cassio Edvard; Bonucci, Ermanno; Nanci, Antonio; de Oliveira, Paulo Tambasco

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a case of osteopetrosis in a 25-year-old male, which was complicated by the development of osteomyelitis in the maxilla and mandible following traumatic injury and tooth extractions. The osteomyelitis in the mandible was refractory to marginal resection and antibiotic therapy. Partial resection with mandible reconstruction was then carried out. Light and backscattered electron scanning microscopy revealed sclerosis of spongy bone and variations in mineral density of the bone matrix. There was also a prominent periosteal bone formation in regions affected by osteomyelitis. An 18-month follow-up showed absence of active infections in the face and oral structures, with a focal area of bone exposure in the right parasymphysis. However, development of anemia and bone marrow deficiency will likely affect prognosis. The importance of preventive oral health care and dental/periodontal managements in osteopetrosis is emphasized. PMID:20596853

  18. Light and Electron Microscopic Studies of Microorganisms Growing in Rotating Biological Contactor Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Kinner, Nancy E.; Balkwill, David L.; Bishop, Paul L.

    1983-01-01

    The biofilms growing in the first compartments of two rotating biological contactors used to treat municipal wastewater were examined by light and electron microscopy. The biofilms were found to contain a complex and varied microbial community that included filamentous and unicellular bacteria, protozoa, metazoa, and (possibly) bacteriophage. The predominant microorganism among these appeared to be a filamentous bacterium that was identical to Sphaerotilus in both morphological and ultrastructural characteristics. It was possible to isolate a Sphaerotilus-like bacterium from each contactor. Both the Sphaerotilus filaments and the wide variety of unicellular bacteria present tended to contain poly-β-hydroxybutyrate inclusions, a probable indication that these organisms were removing carbon from the wastewater and storing it. The microbial population of the biofilms appeared to be metabolically active, as evidenced by the presence of microcolonies and dividing cells. Images PMID:16346299

  19. Consistent and efficient delineation of reference spaces for light microscopical stereology using a laser microbeam system.

    PubMed

    Hunziker, E B; Cruz-Orive, L M

    1986-04-01

    A serious problem in stereology is to ensure a consistent definition of reference spaces at different levels of magnification whenever the boundaries of such reference spaces are either fuzzy or non-existent, and hence they have to be defined artificially. (It is well known that inconsistent definitions of the reference space leads to unknown amounts of bias in stereological results.) In this paper a new application is found for the laser microbeam system used in microdissection, whereby the required boundaries can be easily and neatly traced (in fact, cut) directly onto uncovered sections for light microscopy. The dangers of bias inherent from inconsistencies of definition are thereby eliminated completely, and alternative, very expensive procedures requiring direct marking of paper prints with a pen are no longer necessary. PMID:3712424

  20. Ioxaglate-induced light and electron microscopic alterations in the renal proximal tubular epithelium of rats.

    PubMed

    Battenfeld, R; Khater A el-R; Drommer, W; Guenzel, P; Kaup, F J

    1991-01-01

    Vacuolization of the proximal tubular epithelial cells was produced in rats by the intravenous administration of the radiographic contrast medium ioxaglate at high multiples of the human diagnostic dose. Samples of the renal cortex and outer zone of the medulla were examined by light and electron microscopy. We observed enlargement, confluence, and migration of vacuoles containing pleomorphic dense material and distinct inclusion bodies. With time, vacuolization disappeared, though single vacuoles partly engaged in extruding their contents into the tubular lumen were still visible. We concluded that radiographic contrast medium at high dose levels can produce a reversible disturbance in the transport vesicular system of the proximal tubular epithelial cells without affecting the specific cell organelles. PMID:2022451

  1. Microscopic analysis of irradiated AGR-1 coated particle fuel compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Ploger; Paul Demkowicz; John Hunn; Robert Morris

    2012-10-01

    The AGR-1 experiment involved irradiation of 72 TRISO-coated particle fuel compacts to a peak burnup of 19.5% FIMA with no in-pile failures observed out of 3×105 total particles. Irradiated AGR-1 fuel compacts have been cross-sectioned and analyzed with optical microscopy to characterize kernel, buffer, and coating behavior. Five compacts have been examined so far, spanning a range of irradiation conditions (burnup, fast fluence, and irradiation temperature) and including all four TRISO coating variations irradiated in the AGR-1 experiment. The cylindrical specimens were sectioned both transversely and longitudinally, then polished to expose between approximately 40-80 individual particles on each mount. The analysis focused primarily on kernel swelling and porosity, buffer densification and fracturing, buffer-IPyC debonding, and fractures in the IPyC and SiC layers. Characteristic morphologies have been identified, over 800 particles have been classified, and spatial distributions of particle types have been mapped. No significant spatial patterns were discovered in these cross sections. However, some trends were found between morphological types and certain behavioral aspects. Buffer fractures were found in approximately 23% of the particles, and these fractures often resulted in unconstrained kernel swelling into the open cavities. Fractured buffers and buffers that stayed bonded to IPyC layers appear related to larger pore size in kernels. Buffer-IPyC interface integrity evidently factored into initiation of rare IPyC fractures. Fractures through part of the SiC layer were found in only three particles, all in conjunction with IPyC-SiC debonding. Compiled results suggest that the deliberate coating fabrication variations influenced the frequencies of IPyC fractures, IPyC-SiC debonds, and SiC fractures.

  2. Microscopic analysis of irradiated AGR-1 coated particle fuel compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Scott A. Ploger; Paul A. Demkowicz; John D. Hunn; Jay S. Kehn

    2014-05-01

    The AGR-1 experiment involved irradiation of 72 TRISO-coated particle fuel compacts to a peak compact-average burnup of 19.5% FIMA with no in-pile failures observed out of 3 x 105 total particles. Irradiated AGR-1 fuel compacts have been cross-sectioned and analyzed with optical microscopy to characterize kernel, buffer, and coating behavior. Six compacts have been examined, spanning a range of irradiation conditions (burnup, fast fluence, and irradiation temperature) and including all four TRISO coating variations irradiated in the AGR-1 experiment. The cylindrical specimens were sectioned both transversely and longitudinally, then polished to expose from 36 to 79 individual particles near midplane on each mount. The analysis focused primarily on kernel swelling and porosity, buffer densification and fracturing, buffer–IPyC debonding, and fractures in the IPyC and SiC layers. Characteristic morphologies have been identified, 981 particles have been classified, and spatial distributions of particle types have been mapped. No significant spatial patterns were discovered in these cross sections. However, some trends were found between morphological types and certain behavioral aspects. Buffer fractures were found in 23% of the particles, and these fractures often resulted in unconstrained kernel protrusion into the open cavities. Fractured buffers and buffers that stayed bonded to IPyC layers appear related to larger pore size in kernels. Buffer–IPyC interface integrity evidently factored into initiation of rare IPyC fractures. Fractures through part of the SiC layer were found in only four classified particles, all in conjunction with IPyC–SiC debonding. Compiled results suggest that the deliberate coating fabrication variations influenced the frequencies of IPyC fractures and IPyC–SiC debonds.

  3. Scanning electron and light microscopic study of microbial succession on bethlehem st. Nectaire cheese.

    PubMed

    Marcellino, S N; Benson, D R

    1992-11-01

    St. Nectaire cheese is a semisoft cheese of French origin that, along with Brie and Camembert cheeses, belongs to the class of surface mold-ripened cheese. The surface microorganisms that develop on the cheese rind during ripening impart a distinctive aroma and flavor to this class of cheese. We have documented the sequential appearance of microorganisms on the cheese rind and in the curd over a 60-day ripening period. Scanning electron microscopy was used to visualize the development of surface fungi and bacteria. Light microscopy of stained paraffin sections was used to study cross sections through the rind. We also monitored the development of bacterial and yeast populations in and the pH of the curd and rind. The earliest stage of ripening (0 to 2 days) is dominated by the lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus cremoris and multilateral budding yeasts, primarily Debaryomyces and Torulopsis species. Geotrichum candidum follows closely, and then zygomycetes of the genus Mucor develop at day 4 of ripening. At day 20, the deuteromycete Trichothecium roseum appears. From day 20 until the end of the ripening process, coryneforms of the genera Brevibacterium and Arthrobacter can be seen near the surface of the cheese rind among fungal hyphae and yeast cells. PMID:16348797

  4. Evolution of foam cells in subcutaneous rabbit carrageenan granulomas: I. Light-microscopic and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, C. J.; Ghidoni, J. J.; Kelley, J. L.; Sprague, E. A.; Valente, A. J.; Suenram, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    With an increasing interest in the role of the monocyte-macrophage in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and as a progenitor of plaque intimal foam cells, a model for the study of foam-cell differentiation in an extravascular environment has been developed. Granulomas were induced in 25 normocholesterolemic (NC) and 28 hypercholesterolemic (HC) rabbits by the subcutaneous injection of 15 ml of 1% carrageenan. Granuloma tissue was harvested at 4, 7, 14, and 28 days and studied by light and transmission electron microscopy. Macrophages and foam cells were isolated by enzymic dispersion with collagenase and cultured for further characterization by scanning electron microscopy, nonspecific esterase (NSE), and oil red O (ORO) staining. Granuloma macrophages from NC rabbits were consistently ORO-negative, contrasting with those from HC rabbits which were strongly ORO-positive, even at 4 and 7 days. With an increasing duration of exposure to hypercholesterolemia, macrophages accumulated increasing amounts of stainable lipid, and in the 28-day HC granulomas, large foam cells distended by lipid inclusions accounted for 70% of the cells present. This model has established that NSE-positive macrophages in HC granulomas accumulate lipid and assume the morphologic characteristics of atheromatous intimal foam cells. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 PMID:3966533

  5. Light microscopic characterization of glycoconjugates in secretory cells of the carp (Cyprinus carpio) gill epithelium.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, J; Velasco, A; Sánchez Aguayo, I; Amores, P

    1987-01-01

    Secretory products of granular and mucous cells in the gill epithelium of the carp, Cyprinus carpio, were distinguished by their cytochemical reactions with peroxidase-labelled lectins and with the galactose oxidase (GO)-Schiff reagents. Secretory products of granular cells reacted with lectins from Triticum vulgaris (WGA), Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Dolichos biflorus (DBA), Glycine max (SAB), and Lotus tetragonolobus (LTA). They also reacted with GO-Schiff reagents. After sialic acid cleavage with HCl, new binding sites for DBA and SBA appeared, suggesting the terminal sequence sialic acid-N-acetylgalactosamine (SA-GalNAc) for the secretion of this cell type. In mucous cells, binding sites for WGA, DBA, and SBA and, after acid hydrolysis, binding sites for PNA and a positive GO-Schiff reaction were detected. The terminal trisaccharide sialic acid-galactose (beta 1-3)-N-acetylgalactosamine (SA-Gal-GalNAc) is proposed for the secretion of mucous cells. These cytochemical differences are discussed in light of the involvement of both cell types in fish mucus elaboration. PMID:2449406

  6. Light and electron microscopic observations of the reproductive swarmer cells of nassellarian and spumellarian polycystines (Radiolaria).

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Tomoko; Takahashi, Osamu

    2016-06-01

    We observed reproductive swarmer cells of the nassellarian and spumellarian polycystine radiolarians Didymocyrtis ceratospyris, Pterocanium praetextum, Tetrapyle sp., and Triastrum aurivillii using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The swarmer cells had subspherical to ovoid or spindle shapes with two unequal flagella tapered to whip-like ends. The cell size was approximately 2.5-5.5μm long and 1.6-2.2μm wide, which is significantly smaller than that of the collodarian (colonial or naked) polycystine radiolarians. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the swarmer cells possessed a nucleus, mitochondria with tubular cristae, Golgi body, and small lipid droplets in the cytoplasm; they also had a large vacuole in which a single crystalline inclusion (approx. 1.0-1.5μm) that was probably celestite (SrSO4) was enclosed. The swarmer cells were released directly from the parent cells. At that time, morphological change such as encystment was not observed in the parent cells, and the axopodia remained extended in a period of swarmer reproduction for floating existence. This may have prevented the polycystine swarmers from rapidly sinking down to great depths. Thus, we concluded that the polycystine radiolarians release the swarmer cells into the photic layer in the same way as the symbiotic acantharians. PMID:27023270

  7. Histogenesis of the stomach of the pre-hatching quail: a light microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Soha A; Ahmed, Yasser A; Abdelsabour-Khalaf, Mohammed

    2016-09-01

    The current study conducted a careful description of the histological events during the embryonic development of quail stomach. Daily histological specimens from the quail stomach from day 4 to day 17 post incubation were examined by light microscopy. The primitive gut tube of the embryonic quail appeared at day 4 post incubation. The gut tube consisted of an endodermal epithelium of pseudostratified type, surrounded by splanchnic mesenchyme. The prospective glandular epithelium invaginated at day 5 in the proventriculus and gradually developed to prospective proventricular glands. The muscular coat became distinguished at day 7 and day 8 in the proventriculus and gizzard, respectively. Transformation into simple columnar epithelium occurred in both proventriculus and the gizzard at day 12. The gizzard epithelium gave rise to tubular invaginations also at day 12. Canalization of the gizzard tubular glands was recognized at day 14. By day 15, the proventricular surface epithelium invaginated in a concentric manner around a central cavity to form immature secretory units that contained inactive oxyntico-peptic cells. The mucosal folding in the gizzard appeared at day 15 to form plicae and sulci. The wall of the proventriculus and gizzard at day 17 acquired histological features of post-hatching birds. PMID:26643380

  8. Influence of the atomic force microscope tip on the multifractal analysis of rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Klapetek, Petr; Ohlídal, Ivan; Bílek, Jindrich

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, the influence of atomic force microscope tip on the multifractal analysis of rough surfaces is discussed. This analysis is based on two methods, i.e. on the correlation function method and the wavelet transform modulus maxima method. The principles of both methods are briefly described. Both methods are applied to simulated rough surfaces (simulation is performed by the spectral synthesis method). It is shown that the finite dimensions of the microscope tip misrepresent the values of the quantities expressing the multifractal analysis of rough surfaces within both the methods. Thus, it was concretely shown that the influence of the finite dimensions of the microscope tip changed mono-fractal properties of simulated rough surface to multifractal ones. Further, it is shown that a surface reconstruction method developed for removing the negative influence of the microscope tip does not improve the results obtained in a substantial way. The theoretical procedures concerning both the methods, i.e. the correlation function method and the wavelet transform modulus maxima method, are illustrated for the multifractal analysis of randomly rough gallium arsenide surfaces prepared by means of the thermal oxidation of smooth gallium arsenide surfaces and subsequent dissolution of the oxide films. PMID:15556700

  9. Real-time scattered light dark-field microscopic imaging of the dynamic degradation process of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Gang; Gao, Peng Fei; Liu, Hui; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Single nanoparticle analysis (SNA) technique with the aid of a dark-field microscopic imaging (iDFM) technique has attracted wide attention owing to its high sensitivity. Considering that the degradation of pesticides can bring about serious problems in food and the environment, and that the real-time monitoring of the dynamic degradation process of pesticides can help understand and define their degradation mechanisms, herein we real-time monitored the decomposition dynamics of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate (NaDDC) under neutral and alkaline conditions by imaging single silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under a dark-field microscope (DFM); the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) scattering signals were measured at a single nanoparticle level. As a result, the chemical mechanism of the degradation of NaDDC under neutral and alkaline conditions was proposed, and the inhibition effects of metal ions including Zn(ii) and Cu(ii) were investigated in order to understand the decomposition process in different environments. It was found that Cu(ii) forms the most stable complex with NaDDC with a stoichiometric ratio of 1 : 2, which greatly reduces the toxicity.Single nanoparticle analysis (SNA) technique with the aid of a dark-field microscopic imaging (iDFM) technique has attracted wide attention owing to its high sensitivity. Considering that the degradation of pesticides can bring about serious problems in food and the environment, and that the real-time monitoring of the dynamic degradation process of pesticides can help understand and define their degradation mechanisms, herein we real-time monitored the decomposition dynamics of sodium dimethyldithiocarbamate (NaDDC) under neutral and alkaline conditions by imaging single silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under a dark-field microscope (DFM); the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) scattering signals were measured at a single nanoparticle level. As a result, the chemical mechanism of the degradation of Na

  10. The aminergic innervation of the human bronchus: a light and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Pack, R J; Richardson, P S

    1984-01-01

    Portions of bronchial wall, free of neoplasm, were obtained from human lung resected for nearby tumour. The bronchial tissue was freeze dried, fixed in formaldehyde vapour and sections examined by fluorescence microscopy. Wispy green fibres with the appearance of amine-containing nerves were seen associated with the gland acini. Fluorescent cells were also found at this location and infrequently in the epithelium. Fluorescence was blocked by pretreatment of the sections with sodium borohydride; it faded in ultraviolet light and was enhanced by incubation of the tissue with L-dopa. All these features are characteristic of specific formaldehyde-induced fluorescence of biogenic amines. Fluorescent fibres were not identified either in the smooth muscle of the airway or associated with the epithelium, although background fluorescence may have masked them at these sites. Observations by electron microscopy of human bronchial wall showed that, close to gland acini, there were nerves containing large dense-cored vesicles suggesting that they were sympathetic. After incubation of the tissue with 5-hydroxydopamine, nerves containing labelled vesicles were seen as close as 1 micron to the gland acini, though none were seen to run between the acinar cells. It is argued that these were sympathetic nerves and were close enough to the gland acini to influence their secretions. Nerves containing vesicles labelled with 5-hydroxydopamine were also seen in close association with smooth muscle cells indicating a direct sympathetic innervation of the bronchial smooth muscle. These observations are contrary to recent suggestions that the sympathetic nervous system acts only indirectly in the lungs. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6735911

  11. Light and scanning electron microscopic study on the blood vascular system of the donkey placenta.

    PubMed

    Saber, A; Abd-Elnaeim, M; Hembes, T; Pfarrer, C; Salim, A; Leiser, R

    2008-04-01

    The donkey placenta is diffuse and epitheliochorial with numerous microplacentomes consisting of a fetal microcotyledonary and a maternal microcaruncular part. The microplacentomal vasculature during the last third of pregnancy has been investigated by light microscopy in comparison to scanning electron microscopy of the materno-fetal contact surface and corrosion casts of blood vessels after plastic instillation from either the microcotyledonary or the microcaruncular side, and, for the first time in a perissodactyle, from both sides. Morphological data were semiquantitatively evaluated. The supplying parts of both, the microcotyledonary and the microcaruncular vascular system are strictly proximo-distally oriented, thus reaching the capillary systems or working parts in the shortest way possible. The straight course of the vasculature, particularly on the fetal side, suggests the occurrence of venulo-arteriolar back diffusion. The fetal capillary system consists of convolutes confronting the maternal septal capillary complexes in a countercurrent way. This materno-fetal blood flow interrelationship is highly efficient in terms of placental exchange, which is further supported (1) by dilations and increasing coiling of the fetal venular capillary limbs in particular and (2) by a decrease in the interhaemal distance from 12.5 to 7.2 microm between the two capillary systems. Besides the countercurrent blood flow interrelationship, some maternal branch arterioles reach the septal capillary system from the maternally oriented pole of the microplacentome or microcaruncle, respectively, resulting in the less efficient crosscurrent blood flow. Hence, in the donkey placenta fetal and maternal blood vessels meet in a mix of countercurrent and crosscurrent flow patterns. PMID:18067487

  12. Type II pneumocytes in mixed cell culture of human lung: a light and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Bingle, L; Bull, T B; Fox, B; Guz, A; Richards, R J; Tetley, T D

    1990-01-01

    Alveolar Type II epithelial cells dedifferentiate rapidly in vitro. Studies with animal tissue suggest that cell-cell and extracellular matrix-cell interactions are important in the retention of Type II cell morphology in vitro. Thus, in this study with human tissue, alveolar Type II cells, alveolar macrophages, and spindle cells were prepared from the same sample of lung (obtained following lobectomy for cancer, n = 3), cocultured on glass cover slips or tissue culture plastic, and studied by light microscopy with scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy for 8 days. The primary cell isolates contained approximately 45% Type II cells; the remainder were macrophages or unidentifiable cells. Clusters, made up of a single layer of cuboidal Type II cells around a central core of connective tissue (largely collagen and some elastic tissue), formed above a monolayer of spindle cells. The Type II cells were morphologically similar to those seen in vivo. The cells were still cuboidal at 8 days but had lost their lamellar bodies, which were released into the medium via the apical surface. The clusters increased in size with time (area, microns 2: day 1, 29(5-143) x 10(2); day 8, 63(10-311) x 10(2); mean(range); p less than 0.02) without changing in number per culture, suggesting Type II cell proliferation. This may have been due to factors produced by the other cells and adherence to the extracellular matrix (ECM); (free collagen fibers, present in the original preparation, spindle cells, and/or Type II cells could be responsible for presence of ECM). We propose this as a useful model for the study of human Type II epithelial cells in vitro. Images FIGURE 1. a FIGURE 1. b FIGURE 1. c FIGURE 1. d FIGURE 1. e FIGURE 1. f FIGURE 2. a FIGURE 2. b FIGURE 2. c FIGURE 2. d FIGURE 2. e FIGURE 2. f FIGURE 2. g FIGURE 3. PMID:2384069

  13. [Light- and electron-microscopical study of Pelomyxa flava sp. n. (archamoebae, pelobiontida)].

    PubMed

    Frolov, A O; Chistiakova, L V; Malysheva, M N

    2010-01-01

    Using light and electron microscopy, the morphology of a new species of pelobionts Pelomyxa flava was studied. The coverings of P. flava are represented by plasma membrane bearing the thick layer of weakly structured glycocalyx on its outer surface. Numerous flagella are often located on the tops of short conical pseudopodia. Kinetosomes of flagella reach a length of 0.9 microm and are hollow with a pronounced central filament. Rootlet system is represented by three groups of microtubules: the radial, basal and microtubules of lateral root. The transition zone is short and does not exceed the level of cell surface; the axoneme is characterized by an unstable set of microtubules. Trophic stages of P. flava life cycle are presented by binuclear cells; plasmotomy is performed at the tetranuclear stage. Nuclei have a granular structure. Fibrillar nuclear bodies were revealed in karyoplasm. The nuclei shell has a complex organization. On its surface, the outer membrane has a layer of electron-dense material which contacts with short microtubules, located in a row at the surface of the nuclear envelope. The bubbles and cisterns of endoplasmic reticulum, which are the derivatives of the nuclear envelope, are located outward from the microtubules. The presence of structural and digestive vacuoles and grains of glycogen was noticed in P. flava endoplasm. Three types of prokaryotic cytobionts were revealed. Large multi-membranous organelles reaching 5 pm in diameter were described for the first time. We discuss morphology and biology features of P. flava in comparison with the previously studied Pelomyxa species. PMID:21105367

  14. Light and Electron Microscopic Studies on Prenatal Differentiation of Exocrine Pancreas in Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Divya; Uppal, Varinder; Bansal, Neelam; Gupta, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted on pancreas of 24 buffalo fetuses collected from abattoir and Veterinary clinics, GADVASU, Ludhiana. The buffalo fetuses were divided into three groups after measuring their CVRL, namely, group I (CVRL between 0 and 20 cm), group II (CVRL above 20 cm and up to 40 cm), and group III (CVRL above 40 cm) and their approximate age was calculated. The tissues were processed for light and ultrastructural studies. In group I, at 1.2 cm CVRL (34 days), the pancreas comprised tubules and solid nest of undifferentiated epithelial cells. At 7.5 cm CVRL (63 days) acinar cells with zymogen granules were observed. These acinar cells varied in shape from columnar to pyramidal. At 12.8 cm CVRL (86 days), parenchyma began to organize into lobes and lobules. The centroacinar cells were observed at 12.8 cm CVRL (86 days). In group II, at 28.3 cm CVRL (137 days), there was extensive branching of tubules that resulted in highly branched ductal tree connecting exocrine secretary units to the duct system. The interlobular and intralobular ducts were well observed at this age yet the intercalated ducts were not completely developed. In group III, exocrine pancreas showed a massive growth at 48 cm CVRL (182 days) with distinct pancreatic lobes and lobules. At 54 cm CVRL (195 days), well developed pancreatic architecture was seen with the presence of extensive development of exocrine part organized in lobes and lobules with interlobular and intralobular ducts whereas the intercalated ducts were observed in 80 cm CVRL (254 days). PMID:26981314

  15. EFFICACY OF FLUORIDE MOUTHRINSE CONTAINING TRICALCIUM PHOSPHATE ON PRIMARY ENAMEL LESIONS: A POLARIZED LIGHT MICROSCOPIC STUDY.

    PubMed

    Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Vongsavan, Kadkao; Saengsirinavin, Chavengkiat; Phuekcharoen, Pimonchat

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fluoride mouthrinse containing tricalcium phosphate (TCP) on remineralization of primary teeth enamel lesions compared with fluoride mouthrinse alone to determine if the addition of TCP gives additional benefit. Thirty-six sound primary incisors were immersed in a demineralizing solution (pH 4.4) for 96 hours at 37°C to create demineralized lesions. After artificial caries formation, the specimens were randomly assigned to one of three groups (n = 12): Group A: deionized water; Group B: 0.05% sodium fluoride (NaF) plus 20 ppm tricalcium phosphate mouthrinse and Group C: 0.05% sodium fluoride (NaF) only mouthrinse. A pH-cycling process was carried out for 7 days at 37°C. During pH-cycing, all the specimens were immersed for 1 minute; 3 times a day, in the respective mouthrinse. The specimens were then evaluated by polarized light microscopy with the computerized Image Pro Plus program. Data were analyzed using paired-t, one-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparison tests at a 95% level of confidence. The depth of the lesions were significantly different between pre- and post-treatment for all groups (p = 0.00). The lesion depth in the Group A (control) increased by 102% (±15), in Group B by 34% (±12) and Group C by 36% (±9). The lesion depths differed significantly between the control (Group A) and treatment groups (Group B,C) (p < 0.05). Group A had a significantly greater increase in lesion depth compared to the other groups. There was no significant difference in the percent change in lesion depths between Groups B and C. We concluded that the fluoride mouthrinse containing tricalcium phosphate provides no additional benefit over the mouthrinse containing fluoride alone. PMID:26513918

  16. Diagnosis of breast cancer in light microscopic and mammographic images textures using relative entropy via kernel estimation.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Sevcan Aytac; Korkmaz, Mehmet Fatih; Poyraz, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this article was to provide early detection of breast cancer by using both mammography and histopathology images of the same patient. When the studies in the literature are examined, it is seen that the mammography and histopathology images of the same patient are not used together for early diagnosis of breast cancer. Mammographic and microscopic images can be limited when using only one of them for the early detection of the breast cancer. Therefore, multi-modality solutions that give more accuracy results than single solutions have been realized in this paper. 3 × 50 microscopic (histopathology) and 3 × 50 mammography image sets have been taken from Firat University Medicine Faculty Pathology and Radiology Laboratories, respectively. Optimum feature space has been obtained by minimum redundancy and maximum relevance via mutual information method applying to the 3 × 50 microscopic and mammography images. Then, probabilistic values of suspicious lesions in the image for selected features have been found by exponential curve fitting. Jensen Shannon, Hellinger, and Triangle measurements have been used for the diagnosis of breast cancer. It has been proved that these measures have been related to each other. Weight values for selected each feature have been found using these measures. These weight values have been used in object function. Afterward, histopathology and mammography images have been classified as normal, malign, and benign utilizing object function. In the result of this classifier, the accuracy of diagnosis of breast cancer has been estimated probabilistically. Furthermore, classifications have been probabilistically visualized on a pie chart. Consequently, the performances of Jensen Shannon, Hellinger, and Triangle measures have been compared with ROC analysis using histopathology and mammography test images. It has been observed that Jensen Shannon measure has higher performance than Hellinger and Triangle measures. Accuracy rates of

  17. Orexin (hypocretin)-like immunoreactivity in the cat hypothalamus: a light and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J H; Sampogna, S; Morales, F R; Chase, M H

    2001-02-01

    Orexin-A-like immunoreactive (OrA-ir) neurons and terminals in the cat hypothalamus were examined using immunohistochemical techniques. OrA-ir neurons were found principally in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) at the level of the tuberal cinereum and in the dorsal and posterior hypothalamic areas. In the LHA the majority of the neurons were located dorsal and lateral to the fornix; a small number of OrA-ir neurons were also present in other regions of the hypothalamus. OrA-ir fibers with varicose terminals were detected in almost all hypothalamic regions. The high density of fibers was located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the infundibular nucleus (INF), the tuberomamillary nucleus (TM) and the supra- and pre-mamillary nuclei. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that OrA-ir neurons in the LHA receive abundant input from non-immunoreactive terminals. These terminals, which contained many small, clear, round vesicles with a few large, dense core vesicles, made asymmetrical synaptic contacts with OrA-ir dendrites, indicating that the activity of orexin neurons is under excitatory control. On the other hand, the terminals of OrA-ir neurons also made asymmetrical synaptic contact with dendrites in the LHA, the INF and the TM. The dendrites in the LHA were both non-immunoreactive and OrA-ir; conversely, the dendrites in the INF and the TM were non-immunoreactive. In these regions, OrA-ir terminals contained many small, clear, round vesicles with few large, dense core vesicles, suggesting that orexinergic neurons also provide excitatory input to other neurons in these regions. PMID:11204055

  18. Ultra-high resolution water window x ray microscope optics design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, David L.; Wang, C.

    1993-01-01

    This project has been focused on the design and analysis of an ultra-high resolution water window soft-x-ray microscope. These activities have been accomplished by completing two tasks contained in the statement of work of this contract. The new results from this work confirm: (1) that in order to achieve resolutions greater than three times the wavelength of the incident radiation, it will be necessary to use spherical mirror surfaces and to use graded multilayer coatings on the secondary in order to accommodate the large variations of the angle of incidence over the secondary when operating the microscope at numerical apertures of 0.35 or greater; (2) that surface contour errors will have a significant effect on the optical performance of the microscope and must be controlled to a peak-to-valley variation of 50-100 A and a frequency of 8 periods over the surface of a mirror; and (3) that tolerance analysis of the spherical Schwarzschild microscope has been shown that the water window operations will require 2-3 times tighter tolerances to achieve a similar performance of operations with 130 A radiation. These results have been included in a manuscript included in the appendix.

  19. First-order optical analysis of a quasi-microscope for planetary landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, F. O.; Sinclair, A. R.; Burcher, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    A first-order geometrical optics analysis of a facsimile camera augmented with an auxiliary lens as magnifier is presented. This concept, called quasi-microscope, bridges the gap between surface resolutions of the order of 1 to 10 mm which can be obtained directly with planetary lander cameras and resolutions of the order of 0.2 to 10 microns which can be obtained only with relatively complex microscopes. A facsimile camera was considered in the analysis; however, the analytical results can also be applied to television and film cameras. It was found that quasi-microscope resolutions in the range from 10 to 100 microns are obtainable with current state-of-the-art lander facsimile cameras. For the Viking lander camera having an angular resolution of 0.04 deg, which was considered as a specific example, the best achievable resolution would be about 20 microns. The preferred approach to increase the resolution of the quasi-microscope would be, if possible, through an increase in angular resolution of the camera. A twofold to threefold improvement in resolution could also be achieved with a special camera focus position, but this approach tends to require larger and heavier auxiliary optics.

  20. Modulation of the pupil function of microscope objective lens for multifocal multi-photon microscopy using a spatial light modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Naoya; Okazaki, Shigetoshi; Takamoto, Hisayoshi; Inoue, Takashi; Terakawa, Susumu

    2014-02-01

    We propose a method for high precision modulation of the pupil function of a microscope objective lens to improve the performance of multifocal multi-photon microscopy (MMM). To modulate the pupil function, we adopt a spatial light modulator (SLM) and place it at the conjugate position of the objective lens. The SLM can generate an arbitrary number of spots to excite the multiple fluorescence spots (MFS) at the desired positions and intensities by applying an appropriate computer-generated hologram (CGH). This flexibility allows us to control the MFS according to the photobleaching level of a fluorescent protein and phototoxicity of a specimen. However, when a large number of excitation spots are generated, the intensity distribution of the MFS is significantly different from the one originally designed due to misalignment of the optical setup and characteristics of the SLM. As a result, the image of a specimen obtained using laser scanning for the MFS has block noise segments because the SLM could not generate a uniform MFS. To improve the intensity distribution of the MFS, we adaptively redesigned the CGH based on the observed MFS. We experimentally demonstrate an improvement in the uniformity of a 10 × 10 MFS grid using a dye solution. The simplicity of the proposed method will allow it to be applied for calibration of MMM before observing living tissue. After the MMM calibration, we performed laser scanning with two-photon excitation to observe a real specimen without detecting block noise segments.

  1. The Natural History of Uterine Leiomyomas: Light and Electron Microscopic Studies of Fibroid Phases, Interstitial Ischemia, Inanosis, and Reclamation

    PubMed Central

    Flake, Gordon P.; Moore, Alicia B.; Sutton, Deloris; Kissling, Grace E.; Horton, John; Wicker, Benita; Walmer, David; Robboy, Stanley J.; Dixon, Darlene

    2013-01-01

    We propose, and offer evidence to support, the concept that many uterine leiomyomas pursue a self-limited life cycle. This cycle can be arbitrarily divided on the basis of morphologic assessment of the collagen content into 4 phases: (1) proliferation, (2) proliferation and synthesis of collagen, (3) proliferation, synthesis of collagen, and early senescence, and (4) involution. Involution occurs as a result of both vascular and interstitial ischemia. Interstitial ischemia is the consequence of the excessive elaboration of collagen, resulting in reduced microvascular density, increased distance between myocytes and capillaries, nutritional deprivation, and myocyte atrophy. The end stage of this process is an involuted tumor with a predominance of collagen, little to no proliferative activity, myocyte atrophy, and myocyte cell death. Since many of the dying cells exhibit light microscopic and ultrastructural features that appear distinct from either necrosis or apoptosis, we refer to this process as inanosis, because it appears that nutritional deprivation, or inanition, is the underlying cause of cell death. The disposal of myocytes dying by inanosis also differs in that there is no phagocytic reaction, but rather an apparent dissolution of the cell, which might be viewed as a process of reclamation as the molecular contents are reclaimed and recycled. PMID:24348569

  2. The Temperature Gradient-Forming Device, an Accessory Unit for Normal Light Microscopes To Study the Biology of Hyperthermophilic Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Maximilian; Bellack, Annett; Ugele, Matthias; Hopf, Johann

    2014-01-01

    To date, the behavior of hyperthermophilic microorganisms in their biotope has been studied only to a limited degree; this is especially true for motility. One reason for this lack of knowledge is the requirement for high-temperature microscopy—combined, in most cases, with the need for observations under strictly anaerobic conditions—for such studies. We have developed a custom-made, low-budget device that, for the first time, allows analyses in temperature gradients up to 40°C over a distance of just 2 cm (a biotope-relevant distance) with heating rates up to ∼5°C/s. Our temperature gradient-forming device can convert any upright light microscope into one that works at temperatures as high as 110°C. Data obtained by use of this apparatus show how very well hyperthermophiles are adapted to their biotope: they can react within seconds to elevated temperatures by starting motility—even after 9 months of storage in the cold. Using the temperature gradient-forming device, we determined the temperature ranges for swimming, and the swimming speeds, of 15 selected species of the genus Thermococcus within a few months, related these findings to the presence of cell surface appendages, and obtained the first evidence for thermotaxis in Archaea. PMID:24858087

  3. Monocytes become macrophages; they do not become microglia: a light and electron microscopic autoradiographic study using 125-iododeoxyuridine

    SciTech Connect

    Schelper, R.L.; Adrian, E.K. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This light and electron microscopic autoradiographic study of stab injuries in the spinal cord of mice evaluated the ultrastructural characteristics of cells labeled by incorporation of the thymidine analogue /sup 125/I-5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (I-UdR), injected one day prior to injury. I-UdR was used instead of tritiated thymidine (H-TdR) because H-TdR can be reutilized and is therefore not a suitable pulse label for long-term studies of cell migration. Using serial thick and thin sections for autoradiography 614 labeled cells were identified. Labeled cells included 545 monocytes/macrophages, 50 lymphocytes, 17 pericytes, one endothelial cell, and one arachnoid cell. No labeled cell had the morphology of microglia. We concluded that macrophages in stab injuries of the spinal cord of mice are derived from blood monocytes. Blood-derived lymphocytes are also involved in the reaction to spinal cord stab injury. Microglia are not blood-derived and are not seen as a transitional form in the differentiation of monocytes to macrophages.

  4. Microscopic silicon-based lateral high-aspect-ratio structures for thin film conformality analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Feng; Arpiainen, Sanna; Puurunen, Riikka L.

    2015-01-15

    Film conformality is one of the major drivers for the interest in atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes. This work presents new silicon-based microscopic lateral high-aspect-ratio (LHAR) test structures for the analysis of the conformality of thin films deposited by ALD and by other chemical vapor deposition means. The microscopic LHAR structures consist of a lateral cavity inside silicon with a roof supported by pillars. The cavity length (e.g., 20–5000 μm) and cavity height (e.g., 200–1000 nm) can be varied, giving aspect ratios of, e.g., 20:1 to 25 000:1. Film conformality can be analyzed with the microscopic LHAR by several means, as demonstrated for the ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} processes from Me{sub 3}Al/H{sub 2}O and TiCl{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O. The microscopic LHAR test structures introduced in this work expose a new parameter space for thin film conformality investigations expected to prove useful in the development, tuning and modeling of ALD and other chemical vapor deposition processes.

  5. Analytical evaluation of describing functions arising from harmonic balance analysis of tapping mode atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Mamedov, B A

    2008-05-01

    A new algorithm of harmonic balance analysis of tapping mode atomic force microscopes has been developed. The new algorithm is applicable to analytical evaluation of a large class of common tip-sample interaction potentials. The extensive test calculations show that the proposed algorithm in this work is the efficient one in practical computations. The comparative values presented in tables are acceptable and have the excellent agreement with the numerical results. PMID:18513097

  6. Functional thermal lens microscopes for ultrasensitive analysis of non-fluorescent molecules and microchip chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawatari, Kazuma; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2006-09-01

    Thermal lens microscope (TLM) is a kind of absorption spectrophotometry based on photothermal phenomena of non-fluorescent molecules. TLM has high sensitivity (single molecule concentration in fL detection volume) and wide applicability (non-fluorescent molecules). TLM was successfully applied to detection on microchip in clinical diagnosis, environmental analysis, single cell analysis and so on. The basic function of TLM is concentration determination in microspace. In addition, we have realized various functions on TLM for sensitive chiral analysis, individual nanoparticle counting and in situ flow sensing. In this presentation, we explain these functional TLMs for microchip chemistry.

  7. Design and analysis of a water window imaging x-ray microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Baker, Phillip C.; Shealy, David L.; Brinkley, B. R.; Walker, Arthur B.; Barbee, Troy W.

    1991-06-01

    The authors have theoretically designed and analyzed the optical components and mechanical structures for an imaging x-ray microscope which will be configured to operate in the water window. This instrument affords new and noninvasive strategies for examining living tumor cells without the use of dyes, stains or other exogenous chemicals, which can produce limiting artifacts. The Water Window Imaging X-Ray Microscope is based on doubly reflecting, normal incidence multilayer optical technology, such as has been previously employed in telescopes for high resolution x-ray imaging of the sun. Multilayer coatings have now been fabricated with near theoretical reflectivities and perfect bandpass matching for the new rocket-borne solar observatory, the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA). These telescopes employ multilayer mirror substrates with sub-angstrom (rms) smoothness which are made possible by Advanced Flow Polishing. Recent developments in multilayer coating technology and Advanced Flow Polishing methods used with Zerodur and Hemlite grade sapphire have paved the way for the development of the Water Window Imaging X-Ray Microscope. In this narrow water window wavelength regime of the x-ray spectrum, which lies between the K absorption edges of oxygen (23.3 $ANS) and of carbon (43.62 $ANS), water is relatively highly transmissive and carbon is highly absorptive. This principle allows the Water Window Imaging X-Ray Microscope to delineate, with high resolution and high contrast, carbon-based structures in the aqueous physiological environments found within living cells. The theoretical design and analysis of the microscope optical and mechanical components are described and the fabrication effort underway for the development of this new optical instrument, which should improve diagnosis and greatly benefit experimental studies of tumor cell biology, is discussed.

  8. Development of the Heart Endocardium at an Early Stage of Chick Embryos Evaluated at Light- and Electron-Microscopic Levels.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yaiko; Wake, Kenjiro; Inoue, Kouji; Kuroda, Noriyuki; Sato, Akie; Inamatsu, Mutsumi; Tateno, Chise; Sato, Tetsuji

    2016-08-01

    Development of the endocardium in the heart of 4 to 4·1/2-day-incubated chick embryos was observed light and electron microscopically, and these results were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for desmin, FLK1 (VEGFR-2) or CD31, and by in situ hybridization assays for flk1-mRNA expression. At this developmental stage, the atrium and the ventricle were already discriminated by formation of the atrio-ventricular junction. The cardiac wall consisted of three layers; the inner endocardium, the middle myocardium, and the outer epicardium. The developing endocardium was seen as a chain of single-layered endocardial cells. Along its inner surface, numerous clusters of blood corpuscles were distributed, which seemed to contain some undifferentiated endocardial cells estimated from their characteristic ultrastructure and histological topography. Several blood corpuscles were in directly contact with the myocardium at the missing portions of the developing endocardial cell-chains. Differentiating endocardial cells individually showed roundish, small and large crescent, or flat in shapes. Such a prominent change of cell shapes appeared to be in parallel with their secretory activity during the transformation from the undifferentiated cells to the endocardial cells. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry for FLK1 or CD31, and in situ hybridization assays for flk1-mRNA labeled the cells composing developing endocardial cell-chains. Though these expressional analyses could not document clearly the transition of precursor cells into endocardial cells, the present study provided for the first time some important information regarding the morphological transition process toward endocardial cells at ultrastructural levels. Anat Rec, 299:1080-1089, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27178481

  9. Immature sinus histiocytosis. Light- and electron-microscopic features, immunologic phenotype, and relationship with marginal zone lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    van den Oord, J. J.; de Wolf-Peeters, C.; De Vos, R.; Desmet, V. J.

    1985-01-01

    The light-microscopic, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical features of immature sinus histiocytosis were studied in 10 lymph nodes with the histologic picture of toxoplasmic lymphadenitis and compared with the features of lymphoid cells present in the marginal zone of the splenic white pulp. Areas of immature sinus histiocytosis consisted largely of medium-sized lymphoid cells with markedly irregular nuclei and abundant pale cytoplasm. Using a panel of monoclonal antibodies, the predominating lymphoid cells were found to carry the B-cell phenotype B1+Ba1-sIgM+sIgD-OKIa1+. Admixed were variable numbers of larger, blastic lymphoid cells, small lymphocytes, histiocytic elements, and polymorphonuclear granulocytes. The marginal zone of the splenic white pulp was composed of a similar mixture of cells, and marginal-zone lymphocytes demonstrated an analogous immunohistochemical phenotype. Our results indicate that immature sinus histiocytes are B-lymphoid cells that are closely related to marginal zone lymphocytes. As such, immature sinus histiocytes may have a role similar to that of marginal-zone lymphocytes, which have been claimed to transport antigens or immune complexes toward the follicular center or to serve as precursors of plasma cells. We suggest that immature sinus histiocytosis represents an abnormal expansion of the marginal zone, normally present at the sinusoidal pole of lymphoid follicles. The reason for this marginal-zone hyperplasia, recognized as immature sinus histiocytosis in a variety of reactive lymph node conditions, may be a maturation arrest in the normal development of immature sinus histiocytes into small, sIgM+ sIgD+ lymphocytes. Images Figure 3 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:3970140

  10. Sertoli cells in the testis of caecilians, Ichthyophis tricolor and Uraeotyphlus cf. narayani (Amphibia: Gymnophiona): light and electron microscopic perspective.

    PubMed

    Smita, Mathew; Oommen, Oommen V; George, Jancy M; Akbarsha, M A

    2003-12-01

    The caecilians have evolved a unique pattern of cystic spermatogenesis in which cysts representing different stages in spermatogenesis coexist in a testis lobule. We examined unsettled issues relating to the organization of the caecilian testis lobules, including the occurrence of a fatty matrix, the possibility of both peripheral and central Sertoli cells, the origin of Sertoli cells from follicular cells, and the disengagement of older Sertoli cells to become loose central Sertoli cells. We subjected the testis of Ichthyophis tricolor (Ichthyophiidae) and Uraeotyphlus cf. narayani (Uraeotyphliidae) from the Western Ghats of Kerala, India, to light and transmission electron microscopic studies. Irrespective of the functional state of the testis, whether active or regressed, Sertoli cells constitute a permanent feature of the lobules. The tall Sertoli cells adherent to the basal lamina with basally located pleomorphic nuclei extend deeper into the lobule to meet at the core. There they provide for association of germ cells at different stages of differentiation, an aspect that has earlier been misconceived as the fatty matrix. Germ cells up to the 4-cell stage remain in the intercalating region of the Sertoli cells and they are located at the apices of the Sertoli cells from the 8-cell stage onwards. The developing germ cells are intimately associated with the Sertoli cell adherent to the basal lamina until spermiation. There are ameboid cells in the core of the lobules that appear to interact with the germ cells at the face opposite to their attachment with the Sertoli cells. Adherence of the Sertoli cells to the basal lamina is a permanent feature of the caecilian testicular lobules. The ameboid cells in the core are neither Sertoli cells nor their degeneration products. PMID:14584033

  11. Feedback and injection locking instabilities in quantum-dot lasers: a microscopically based bifurcation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingnau, Benjamin; Chow, Weng W.; Schöll, Eckehard; Lüdge, Kathy

    2013-09-01

    We employ a nonequilibrium energy balance and carrier rate equation model based on microscopic semiconductor theory to describe the quantum-dot (QD) laser dynamics under optical injection and time-delayed feedback. The model goes beyond typical phenomenological approximations of rate equations, such as the α-factor, yet allows for a thorough numerical bifurcation analysis, which would not be possible with the computationally demanding microscopic equations. We find that with QD lasers, independent amplitude and phase dynamics may lead to less complicated scenarios under optical perturbations than predicted by conventional models using the α-factor to describe the carrier-induced refractive index change. For instance, in the short external cavity feedback regime, higher critical feedback strength is actually required to induce instabilities. Generally, the α-factor should only be used when the carrier distribution can follow the QD laser dynamics adiabatically.

  12. Simulation and signal analysis of Akiyama probe applied to atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Longlong; Lu, Mingzhen; Guo, Tong; Gao, Sitian; Zhang, Huakun

    2013-10-01

    Atomic force microscope is one of indispensable measurement tools in nano/micronano precision manufacture and critical dimension measurement. To expand its industry application, a novel head and system are newly designed combined with Nanosensors cooperation's patented probe — Akiyama probe, which is a self-sensing probe. The modal analysis and resonance frequency are obtained by finite element(FE) simulations. Using the Locked-in amplifier, the effective and available signal can be abtained. Through the experiment analysis, the retracting and extending curve reflects the tip and sample interaction. Furthermore, the measurement on the calibrated position system demonstrates that the whole system resolution can reach the nanometer scale.

  13. Comparison between laser terahertz emission microscope and conventional methods for analysis of polycrystalline silicon solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanishi, Hidetoshi Ito, Akira; Takayama, Kazuhisa Kawayama, Iwao Murakami, Hironaru Tonouchi, Masayoshi

    2015-11-15

    A laser terahertz emission microscope (LTEM) can be used for noncontact inspection to detect the waveforms of photoinduced terahertz emissions from material devices. In this study, we experimentally compared the performance of LTEM with conventional analysis methods, e.g., electroluminescence (EL), photoluminescence (PL), and laser beam induced current (LBIC), as an inspection method for solar cells. The results showed that LTEM was more sensitive to the characteristics of the depletion layer of the polycrystalline solar cell compared with EL, PL, and LBIC and that it could be used as a complementary tool to the conventional analysis methods for a solar cell.

  14. Laser apparatus and method for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells

    DOEpatents

    Gourley, P.L.; Gourley, M.F.

    1997-03-04

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells. The apparatus comprises a laser having an analysis region within the laser cavity for containing one or more biological cells to be analyzed. The presence of a cell within the analysis region in superposition with an activated portion of a gain medium of the laser acts to encode information about the cell upon the laser beam, the cell information being recoverable by an analysis means that preferably includes an array photodetector such as a CCD camera and a spectrometer. The apparatus and method may be used to analyze biomedical cells including blood cells and the like, and may include processing means for manipulating, sorting, or eradicating cells after analysis. 20 figs.

  15. Laser apparatus and method for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells

    DOEpatents

    Gourley, Paul L.; Gourley, Mark F.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells. The apparatus comprises a laser having an analysis region within the laser cavity for containing one or more biological cells to be analyzed. The presence of a cell within the analysis region in superposition with an activated portion of a gain medium of the laser acts to encode information about the cell upon the laser beam, the cell information being recoverable by an analysis means that preferably includes an array photodetector such as a CCD camera and a spectrometer. The apparatus and method may be used to analyze biomedical cells including blood cells and the like, and may include processing means for manipulating, sorting, or eradicating cells after analysis thereof.

  16. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of incinerated teeth: An aid to forensic identification

    PubMed Central

    Pol, Chetan A; Gosavi, Suchitra R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Forensic dental identification of victims involved in fire accidents is often a complex and challenging endeavor. Knowledge of the charred human dentition and residues of restorative material can help in the recognition of bodies burned beyond recognition. Aim: To observe the effects of predetermined temperatures on healthy unrestored teeth and different restorative materials in restored teeth, by scanning electron microscope, for the purpose of identification. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 135 extracted teeth, which were divided into four groups. Group 1-healthy unrestored teeth, group 2-teeth restored with all ceramic crowns, group 3-teeth restored with class I composite resin and group 4-teeth restored with class I glass ionomer cement (GIC). Results: The scanning electron microscope is useful in the analysis of burned teeth, as it gives fine structural details, requires only a small sample and does not destroy the already fragile specimen. Conclusion: Scanning electron microscope can be a useful tool for the characterization and study of severely burnt teeth for victim identification. PMID:24959034

  17. Peranso - Light curve and period analysis software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paunzen, E.; Vanmunster, T.

    2016-03-01

    A time series is a sample of observations of well-defined data points obtained through repeated measurements over a certain time range. The analysis of such data samples has become increasingly important not only in natural science but also in many other fields of research. Peranso offers a complete set of powerful light curve and period analysis functions to work with large astronomical data sets. Substantial attention has been given to ease-of-use and data accuracy, making it one of the most productive time series analysis software available. In this paper, we give an introduction to Peranso and its functionality.

  18. Microcomputer digitizing system for dual use in applications of remote sensing and microscopic image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    McHone, J.G.

    1988-08-01

    A new image-analysis laboratory is being developed with equipment that has dual use for the interpretation and classification of satellite and air-photo images, and also for classification and automated measurement of minerals and textures in thin sections of rocks. Digitizing techniques for all the applications utilize input from a nine-track tape drive or from monochromatic television cameras on a microscope and a camera stand. The microcomputer contains a TV frame grabber and a graphics board that develops 512 by 512 by 32 bit images on a high-resolution color monitor. Output devices include the tape and disk drives, a color ink-jet printer, and a photographic film copier. A large digitizing board, a large-screen monitor, and a plotter are attached for computer-aided drafting. Several software packages are being integrated and modified for the analysis work. The software routines for image enhancement, annotation, measurement of areas, and classification by pixel characteristics are common to both remote sensing and microscopic analysis. The system is a cost-effective way to combine studies of tectonic patterns, structural surface features, and rock and vegetation types using remote images, with grain size, shape, identification, and porosity measurements of the rocks themselves.

  19. Analysis of light curve of LP Camelopardalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudil, Z.; Skarka, M.; Zejda, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present photometric analysis of the RRab type pulsating star LP Cam. The star was observed at Brno Observatory and Planetarium during nine nights. Measurements were calibrated to the Johnson photometric system. Four captured and thirteen previously published maxima timings allowed us to refine the pulsation period and the zero epoch. The light curve was Fourier decomposed to estimate physical parameters using empirical relations. Our results suggest that LP Cam is a common RR Lyrae star with high, almost solar metallicity.

  20. 3-dimensional microscope analysis of bone and tooth surface modifications: comparisons of fossil specimens and replicas.

    PubMed

    Bello, Silvia M; Verveniotou, Efstratia; Cornish, Lorraine; Parfitt, Simon A

    2011-01-01

    Cut-marks on fossil bones and teeth are an important source of evidence in the reconstruction of ancient butchery practices. The analysis of butchery marks has allowed archaeologists to interpret aspects of past subsistence strategies and the behavior of early humans. Recent advances in optical scanning microscopy allow detailed measurements of cut-mark morphology to be undertaken. An example of this technology is the Alicona 3D InfiniteFocus imaging microscope, which has been applied recently to the study of surface modifications on bones and teeth. Three-dimensional models generated by the Alicona microscope have been used to identify cross-sectional features of experimental cut-marks that are characteristic for specific cutting actions (e.g., slicing, chopping, scraping) and different tool types (e.g., metal versus stone tools). More recently, this technology has been applied successfully to the analysis of ∼500,000 year-old cut-marked animal bones from Boxgrove (U.K.), as well as cannibalized 14,700 cal BP year-old human bones from Gough's Cave (U.K.). This article describes molding methods used to replicate fragile prehistoric bones and teeth, where image quality was adversely affected by specimen translucency and reflectivity. Alicona images generated from molds and casts are often of better quality than those of the original specimen. PMID:21660994

  1. Methyl green and nitrotetrazolium blue chloride co-expression in colon tissue: A hyperspectral microscopic imaging analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingli; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Yiting; Sun, Zhen; Guo, Fangmin; Zhu, Jianzhong

    2014-12-01

    Histological observation of dual-stained colon sections is usually performed by visual observation under a light microscope, or by viewing on a computer screen with the assistance of image processing software in both research and clinical settings. These traditional methods are usually not sufficient to reliably differentiate spatially overlapping chromogens generated by different dyes. Hyperspectral microscopic imaging technology offers a solution for these constraints as the hyperspectral microscopic images contain information that allows differentiation between spatially co-located chromogens with similar but different spectra. In this paper, a hyperspectral microscopic imaging (HMI) system is used to identify methyl green and nitrotetrazolium blue chloride in dual-stained colon sections. Hyperspectral microscopic images are captured and the normalized score algorithm is proposed to identify the stains and generate the co-expression results. Experimental results show that the proposed normalized score algorithm can generate more accurate co-localization results than the spectral angle mapper algorithm. The hyperspectral microscopic imaging technology can enhance the visualization of dual-stained colon sections, improve the contrast and legibility of each stain using their spectral signatures, which is helpful for pathologist performing histological analyses.

  2. Microscopic basis for kinetic gating in Cytochrome c oxidase: insights from QM/MM analysis

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Puja; Yang, Shuo; Cui, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of vectorial proton pumping in biomolecules requires establishing the microscopic basis for the regulation of both thermodynamic and kinetic features of the relevant proton transfer steps. For the proton pump cytochrome c oxidase, while the regulation of thermodynamic driving force for key proton transfers has been discussed in great detail, the microscopic basis for the control of proton transfer kinetics has been poorly understood. Here we carry out extensive QM/MM free energy simulations to probe the kinetics of relevant proton transfer steps and analyze the effects of local structure and hydration level. We show that protonation of the proton loading site (PLS, taken to be a propionate of heme a3) requires a concerted process in which a key glutamic acid (Glu286H) delivers the proton to the PLS while being reprotonated by an excess proton coming from the D-channel. The concerted nature of the mechanism is a crucial feature that enables the loading of the PLS before the cavity containing Glu286 is better hydrated to lower its pKa to experimentally measured range; the charged rather than dipolar nature of the process also ensures a tight coupling with heme a reduction, as emphasized by Siegbahn and Blomberg. In addition, we find that rotational flexibility of the PLS allows its protonation before that of the binuclear center (the site where oxygen gets reduced to water). Together with our recent study (P. Goyal, et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 110:18886-18891, 2013) that focused on the modulation of Glu286 pKa, the current work suggests a mechanism that builds in a natural sequence for the protonation of the PLS prior to that of the binuclear center. This provides microscopic support to the kinetic constraints revealed by kinetic network analysis as essential elements that ensure an efficient vectorial proton transport in cytochrome c oxidase. PMID:25678950

  3. Scanning Electron Microscope-Cathodoluminescence Analysis of Rare-Earth Elements in Magnets.

    PubMed

    Imashuku, Susumu; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki; Kawai, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Scanning electron microscope-cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) analysis was performed for neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) and samarium-cobalt (Sm-Co) magnets to analyze the rare-earth elements present in the magnets. We examined the advantages of SEM-CL analysis over conventional analytical methods such as SEM-energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and SEM-wavelength-dispersive X-ray (WDX) spectroscopy for elemental analysis of rare-earth elements in NdFeB magnets. Luminescence spectra of chloride compounds of elements in the magnets were measured by the SEM-CL method. Chloride compounds were obtained by the dropwise addition of hydrochloric acid on the magnets followed by drying in vacuum. Neodymium, praseodymium, terbium, and dysprosium were separately detected in the NdFeB magnets, and samarium was detected in the Sm-Co magnet by the SEM-CL method. In contrast, it was difficult to distinguish terbium and dysprosium in the NdFeB magnet with a dysprosium concentration of 1.05 wt% by conventional SEM-EDX analysis. Terbium with a concentration of 0.02 wt% in an NdFeB magnet was detected by SEM-CL analysis, but not by conventional SEM-WDX analysis. SEM-CL analysis is advantageous over conventional SEM-EDX and SEM-WDX analyses for detecting trace rare-earth elements in NdFeB magnets, particularly dysprosium and terbium. PMID:26739864

  4. Sensitivity Analysis of X-ray Spectra from Scanning Electron Microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Patton, Bruce W.; Weber, Charles F.; Bekar, Kursat B.

    2014-10-01

    The primary goal of this project is to evaluate x-ray spectra generated within a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine elemental composition of small samples. This will be accomplished by performing Monte Carlo simulations of the electron and photon interactions in the sample and in the x-ray detector. The elemental inventories will be determined by an inverse process that progressively reduces the difference between the measured and simulated x-ray spectra by iteratively adjusting composition and geometric variables in the computational model. The intended benefit of this work will be to develop a method to perform quantitative analysis on substandard samples (heterogeneous phases, rough surfaces, small sizes, etc.) without involving standard elemental samples or empirical matrix corrections (i.e., true standardless quantitative analysis).

  5. Germination, growth rates, and electron microscope analysis of tomato seeds flown on the LDEF

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, E.C. Jr.; Bridgers, K.; Brown, C.W.

    1995-02-01

    The tomato seeds were flown in orbit aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) for nearly six years. During this time, the tomato seeds received an abundant exposure to cosmic radiation and solar wind. Upon the return of the LDEF to earth, the seeds were distributed throughout the United States and 30 foreign countries for analysis. The purpose of the experiment was to determine the long term effect of cosmic rays on living tissue. Our university analysis included germination and growth rates as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray analysis of the control as well as Space-exposed tomato seeds. In analyzing the seeds under the Electron Microscope, usual observations were performed on the nutritional and epidermis layer of the seed. These layers appeared to be more porous in the Space-exposed seeds than on the Earth-based control seeds. This unusual characteristic may explain the increases in the space seeds growth pattern. (Several test results show that the Space-exposed seeds germinate sooner than the Earth-Based seeds. Also, the Space-exposed seeds grew at a faster rate). The porous nutritional region may allow the seeds to receive necessary nutrients and liquids more readily, thus enabling the plant to grow at a faster rate. Roots, leaves and stems were cut into small sections and mounted. After sputter coating the specimens with Argon/Gold Palladium Plasma, they were ready to be viewed under the Electron Microscope. Many micrographs were taken. The X-ray analysis displayed possible identifications of calcium, potassium, chlorine, copper, aluminum, silicon, phosphate, carbon, and sometimes sulfur and iron. The highest concentrations were shown in potassium and calcium. The Space-exposed specimens displayed a high concentration of copper and calcium in the two specimens. There was a significantly high concentration of copper in the Earth-based specimens, whereas there was no copper in the Space-exposed specimens.

  6. Germination, growth rates, and electron microscope analysis of tomato seeds flown on the LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Bridgers, Kevin; Brown, Cecelia Wright

    1995-01-01

    The tomato seeds were flown in orbit aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) for nearly six years. During this time, the tomato seeds received an abundant exposure to cosmic radiation and solar wind. Upon the return of the LDEF to earth, the seeds were distributed throughout the United States and 30 foreign countries for analysis. The purpose of the experiment was to determine the long term effect of cosmic rays on living tissue. Our university analysis included germination and growth rates as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray analysis of the control as well as Space-exposed tomato seeds. In analyzing the seeds under the Electron Microscope, usual observations were performed on the nutritional and epidermis layer of the seed. These layers appeared to be more porous in the Space-exposed seeds than on the Earth-based control seeds. This unusual characteristic may explain the increases in the space seeds growth pattern. (Several test results show that the Space-exposed seeds germinate sooner than the Earth-Based seeds. Also, the Space-exposed seeds grew at a faster rate). The porous nutritional region may allow the seeds to receive necessary nutrients and liquids more readily, thus enabling the plant to grow at a faster rate. Roots, leaves and stems were cut into small sections and mounted. After sputter coating the specimens with Argon/Gold Palladium Plasma, they were ready to be viewed under the Electron Microscope. Many micrographs were taken. The X-ray analysis displayed possible identifications of calcium, potassium, chlorine, copper, aluminum, silicon, phosphate, carbon, and sometimes sulfur and iron. The highest concentrations were shown in potassium and calcium. The Space-exposed specimens displayed a high concentration of copper and calcium in the two specimens. There was a significantly high concentration of copper in the Earth-based specimens, whereas there was no copper in the Space-exposed specimens.

  7. Design and analysis of x-ray microscope of four mirrors working at grazing incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jiasheng; Zhao, Lingling; Li, Xiang

    2006-01-01

    In the latest 20 years, x-ray imaging technology has developed fast in order to meet the need of x-ray photo-etching, spatial exploration technology, high-energy physics, procedure diagnosis of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) etc. But, Since refractive index of materials in the x-ray region is lower than 1, and x-ray is strongly absorbed by the materials, it is very difficult to image objects in the x ray region. Conventional imaging methods are hardly suitable to x-ray range. Generally, grazing reflective imaging and coding aperture imaging methods have been adopted more and more. In this paper, non-coaxial grazing reflective imaging KB and KBA microscope systems are discussed in detail, and an x-ray microscope consisting of four mirrors working at grazing incidence is designed. It is an anastigmatic system, and the oblique angle of the image is evidently decreased. The resolution of 5-7 can be obtained within 2 field of view. And finally we also make analysis of the key problems that are met in the processing of manufacturing this system are analyzed.

  8. Nanometer scale elemental analysis in the helium ion microscope using time of flight spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Klingner, N; Heller, R; Hlawacek, G; von Borany, J; Notte, J; Huang, J; Facsko, S

    2016-03-01

    Time of flight backscattering spectrometry (ToF-BS) was successfully implemented in a helium ion microscope (HIM). Its integration introduces the ability to perform laterally resolved elemental analysis as well as elemental depth profiling on the nm scale. A lateral resolution of ≤54nm and a time resolution of Δt≤17ns(Δt/t≤5.4%) are achieved. By using the energy of the backscattered particles for contrast generation, we introduce a new imaging method to the HIM allowing direct elemental mapping as well as local spectrometry. In addition laterally resolved time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) can be performed with the same setup. Time of flight is implemented by pulsing the primary ion beam. This is achieved in a cost effective and minimal invasive way that does not influence the high resolution capabilities of the microscope when operating in standard secondary electron (SE) imaging mode. This technique can thus be easily adapted to existing devices. The particular implementation of ToF-BS and ToF-SIMS techniques are described, results are presented and advantages, difficulties and limitations of this new techniques are discussed. PMID:26725148

  9. Colocalization of gamma-aminobutyric acid and acetylcholine in neurons in the laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei in the cat: a light and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hong-Ge; Yamuy, Jack; Sampogna, Sharon; Morales, Francisco R; Chase, Michael H

    2003-12-01

    Cholinergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) mechanisms in the dorsolateral pontomesencephalic tegmentum have been implicated in the control of active (REM) sleep and wakefulness. To determine the relationships between neurons that contain these neurotransmitters in this region of the brainstem in adult cats, combined light and electron microscopic immunocytochemical procedures were employed. Light microscopic analyses revealed that choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and GABA immunoreactive neurons were distributed throughout the laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei (LDT and PPT). Surprisingly, approximately 50% of the ChAT immunoreactive neurons in these nuclei also contained GABA. Using electron microscopic pre-embedding immunocytochemistry, GABA immunoreactivity was observed in somas, dendrites and axon terminals in both the LDT and PPT. Most of the GABA immunoreactive terminals formed symmetrical synapses with non-immunolabeled dendrites. Electron microscopic double-immunolabeling techniques revealed that ChAT and GABA were colocalized in axon terminals in the LDT/PPT. Approximately 30% of the ChAT immunoreactive terminals were also GABA immunoreactive, whereas only 6-8% of the GABA immunoreactive terminals were ChAT immunoreactive. Most of the ChAT/GABA immunoreactive terminals formed symmetrical synapses with non-immunolabeled dendrites; however, ChAT/GABA immunoreactive terminals were also observed that contacted ChAT immunoreactive dendrites. With respect to ChAT immunoreactive postsynaptic profiles, approximately 40% of the somas and 50% of the dendrites received synaptic contact from GABA immunoreactive terminals in both the LDT and PPT. These findings (a) indicate that there are fundamental interactions between cholinergic and GABAergic neurons within the LDT/PPT that play an important role in the control of active sleep and wakefulness and (b) provide an anatomical basis for the intriguing possibility that a mechanism of acetylcholine and

  10. Structural analysis of light aircraft using NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, M. T.; Bruce, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    An application of NASTRAN to the structural analysis of light aircraft was conducted to determine the cost effectiveness. A model of the Baby Ace D model homebuilt aircraft was used. The NASTRAN model of the aircraft consists of 193 grid points connected by 352 structural members. All members are either rod or beam elements, including bending of unsymmetrical cross sections and torsion of noncircular cross sections. The aerodynamic loads applied to the aircraft were in accordance with FAA regulations governing the utility category aircraft.

  11. Automated system for characterization and classification of malaria-infected stages using light microscopic images of thin blood smears.

    PubMed

    Das, D K; Maiti, A K; Chakraborty, C

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a comprehensive image characterization cum classification framework for malaria-infected stage detection using microscopic images of thin blood smears. The methodology mainly includes microscopic imaging of Leishman stained blood slides, noise reduction and illumination correction, erythrocyte segmentation, feature selection followed by machine classification. Amongst three-image segmentation algorithms (namely, rule-based, Chan-Vese-based and marker-controlled watershed methods), marker-controlled watershed technique provides better boundary detection of erythrocytes specially in overlapping situations. Microscopic features at intensity, texture and morphology levels are extracted to discriminate infected and noninfected erythrocytes. In order to achieve subgroup of potential features, feature selection techniques, namely, F-statistic and information gain criteria are considered here for ranking. Finally, five different classifiers, namely, Naive Bayes, multilayer perceptron neural network, logistic regression, classification and regression tree (CART), RBF neural network have been trained and tested by 888 erythrocytes (infected and noninfected) for each features' subset. Performance evaluation of the proposed methodology shows that multilayer perceptron network provides higher accuracy for malaria-infected erythrocytes recognition and infected stage classification. Results show that top 90 features ranked by F-statistic (specificity: 98.64%, sensitivity: 100%, PPV: 99.73% and overall accuracy: 96.84%) and top 60 features ranked by information gain provides better results (specificity: 97.29%, sensitivity: 100%, PPV: 99.46% and overall accuracy: 96.73%) for malaria-infected stage classification. PMID:25523795

  12. Maximum probability domains for the analysis of the microscopic structure of liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Agostini, Federica; Ciccotti, Giovanni; Savin, Andreas; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe

    2015-02-14

    We introduce the concept of maximum probability domains (MPDs), developed in the context of the analysis of electronic densities, in the study of the microscopic spatial structures of liquids. The idea of locating a particle in a three dimensional region, by determining the domain where the probability of finding that, and only that, particle is maximum, gives an interesting characterization of the local structure of the liquid. The optimization procedure, required for the search of the domain of maximum probability, is carried out by the implementation of the level set method. Results for a couple of case studies are presented, to illustrate the structure of liquid water at ambient conditions and upon increasing pressure from the point of view of MPDs and to compare the information encoded in the solvation shells of sodium in water with, once again, that extracted from the MPDs.

  13. Maximum probability domains for the analysis of the microscopic structure of liquids.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Federica; Ciccotti, Giovanni; Savin, Andreas; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe

    2015-02-14

    We introduce the concept of maximum probability domains (MPDs), developed in the context of the analysis of electronic densities, in the study of the microscopic spatial structures of liquids. The idea of locating a particle in a three dimensional region, by determining the domain where the probability of finding that, and only that, particle is maximum, gives an interesting characterization of the local structure of the liquid. The optimization procedure, required for the search of the domain of maximum probability, is carried out by the implementation of the level set method. Results for a couple of case studies are presented, to illustrate the structure of liquid water at ambient conditions and upon increasing pressure from the point of view of MPDs and to compare the information encoded in the solvation shells of sodium in water with, once again, that extracted from the MPDs. PMID:25681897

  14. Raman spectroscopic and scanning electron microscopic analysis of a novel biological colonisation of volcanic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorge Villar, Susana E.; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Benning, Liane G.

    2006-09-01

    A novel type of colonisation of a basaltic rock, collected on the Arctic island of Svalbard, Norway, during the AMASE expedition in 2004, was characterised using Raman spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The sample contains two different types of extremophile communities, one occurring behind a radial white crystallisation and the other occurring inside a dark vacuole. Several types of minerals and microbial colonies have been identified by both Raman spectroscopy and SEM analyses. It is the first time that photosynthetic communities have been documented to colonise the inside of dark basaltic rocks. Our discovery has important implications for planetary exploration because it extends the analytical capability and our understanding of microbial rock colonisations to subaerial volcanic outcrops and has wide implications towards the search for life in extraterrestrial planets. In this work we also demonstrate that the use of different laser wavelengths for Raman spectroscopic studies and complementary microscopic analysis are critical for a comprehensive organic and inorganic compound identification.

  15. A comparison of microscopic and spectroscopic identification methods for analysis of microplastics in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Kyoung; Hong, Sang Hee; Jang, Mi; Han, Gi Myung; Rani, Manviri; Lee, Jongmyoung; Shim, Won Joon

    2015-04-15

    The analysis of microplastics in various environmental samples requires the identification of microplastics from natural materials. The identification technique lacks a standardized protocol. Herein, stereomicroscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FT-IR) identification methods for microplastics (<1mm) were compared using the same samples from the sea surface microlayer (SML) and beach sand. Fragmented microplastics were significantly (p<0.05) underestimated and fiber was significantly overestimated using the stereomicroscope both in the SML and beach samples. The total abundance by FT-IR was higher than by microscope both in the SML and beach samples, but they were not significantly (p>0.05) different. Depending on the number of samples and the microplastic size range of interest, the appropriate identification method should be determined; selecting a suitable identification method for microplastics is crucial for evaluating microplastic pollution. PMID:25682567

  16. Maximum probability domains for the analysis of the microscopic structure of liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, Federica; Ciccotti, Giovanni; Savin, Andreas; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe

    2015-02-01

    We introduce the concept of maximum probability domains (MPDs), developed in the context of the analysis of electronic densities, in the study of the microscopic spatial structures of liquids. The idea of locating a particle in a three dimensional region, by determining the domain where the probability of finding that, and only that, particle is maximum, gives an interesting characterization of the local structure of the liquid. The optimization procedure, required for the search of the domain of maximum probability, is carried out by the implementation of the level set method. Results for a couple of case studies are presented, to illustrate the structure of liquid water at ambient conditions and upon increasing pressure from the point of view of MPDs and to compare the information encoded in the solvation shells of sodium in water with, once again, that extracted from the MPDs.

  17. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Forman, Steven E.; Caunt, James W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

  18. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

    1985-02-26

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

  19. Microscopic droplet formation and energy transport analysis of condensation on scalable superhydrophobic nanostructured copper oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, GuanQiu; Alhosani, Mohamed H; Yuan, ShaoJun; Liu, HaoRan; Ghaferi, Amal Al; Zhang, TieJun

    2014-12-01

    Utilization of nanotechnologies in condensation has been recognized as one opportunity to improve the efficiency of large-scale thermal power and desalination systems. High-performance and stable dropwise condensation in widely-used copper heat exchangers is appealing for energy and water industries. In this work, a scalable and low-cost nanofabrication approach was developed to fabricate superhydrophobic copper oxide (CuO) nanoneedle surfaces to promote dropwise condensation and even jumping-droplet condensation. By conducting systematic surface characterization and in situ environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) condensation experiments, we were able to probe the microscopic formation physics of droplets on irregular nanostructured surfaces. At the early stages of condensation process, the interfacial surface tensions at the edge of CuO nanoneedles were found to influence both the local energy barriers for microdroplet growth and the advancing contact angles when droplets undergo depinning. Local surface roughness also has a significant impact on the volume of the condensate within the nanostructures and overall heat transfer from the vapor to substrate. Both our theoretical analysis and in situ ESEM experiments have revealed that the liquid condensate within the nanostructures determines the amount of the work of adhesion and kinetic energy associated with droplet coalescence and jumping. Local and global droplet growth models were also proposed to predict how the microdroplet morphology within nanostructures affects the heat transfer performance of early-stage condensation. Our quantitative analysis of microdroplet formation and growth within irregular nanostructures provides the insight to guide the anodization-based nanofabrication for enhancing dropwise and jumping-droplet condensation performance. PMID:25419845

  20. Macroscopic and microscopic analysis of the tongue of the common opossum (Didelphis marsupialis).

    PubMed

    Mançanares, Celina A F; Santos, Amilton C; Piemonte, Maria V; Vasconcelos, Bruno G; Carvalho, Ana F; Miglino, Maria A; Ambrósio, Carlos E; Assis Neto, Antônio C

    2012-10-01

    We performed a macroscopic and microscopic study of the tongues of common opossums, Didelphis marsupialis, from South America. We studied two males and two females. We collected morphometric data on the tongue with precision calipers. For the light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses, we fixed tissue fragments in 10% formaldehyde and 2.5% glutaraldehyde, respectively. The opossum tongues averaged 5.87 ± 0.20 cm in length, 3.27 ± 0.15 cm in width at the lingual body, and 3.82 ± 0.15 cm in width at the root. The mean thickness of the lingual body was 1.8 ± 0.1 cm, and the thickness of the root was 3.82 ± 0.15 cm. Sharp filiform papillae were scattered across the entire tongue; conical filiform papillae occurred on the lingual body and tongue tip; fungiform papillae were scattered among the filiform papillae on the lingual body and tongue tip; and there were three vallate papillae at the root of the tongue. We found two strands of papillary projections in the tongue root. Despite the low variability observed in the lingual papillae, the morphological data obtained in this study may be related to the opossum's diverse food habits and the extensive geographic distribution of the species throughout America. PMID:22581756

  1. Compact plane illumination plugin device to enable light sheet fluorescence imaging of multi-cellular organisms on an inverted wide-field microscope

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zeyi; Lee, Juhyun; Jiang, Hao; Dong, Siyan; Jen, Nelson; Hsiai, Tzung; Ho, Chih-Ming; Fei, Peng

    2015-01-01

    We developed a compact plane illumination plugin (PIP) device which enabled plane illumination and light sheet fluorescence imaging on a conventional inverted microscope. The PIP device allowed the integration of microscope with tunable laser sheet profile, fast image acquisition, and 3-D scanning. The device is both compact, measuring approximately 15 by 5 by 5 cm, and cost-effective, since we employed consumer electronics and an inexpensive device molding method. We demonstrated that PIP provided significant contrast and resolution enhancement to conventional microscopy through imaging different multi-cellular fluorescent structures, including 3-D branched cells in vitro and live zebrafish embryos. Imaging with the integration of PIP greatly reduced out-of-focus contamination and generated sharper contrast in acquired 2-D plane images when compared with the stand-alone inverted microscope. As a result, the dynamic fluid domain of the beating zebrafish heart was clearly segmented and the functional monitoring of the heart was achieved. Furthermore, the enhanced axial resolution established by thin plane illumination of PIP enabled the 3-D reconstruction of the branched cellular structures, which leads to the improvement on the functionality of the wide field microscopy. PMID:26819828

  2. Design and analysis of aspherical multilayer imaging X-ray microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, David L.; Jiang, WU; Hoover, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    Spherical Schwarzschild microscopes for soft X-ray applications in microscopy and projection lithography employ two concentric spherical mirrors that are configured such that the third-order spherical aberration and coma are zero. Based on incoherent, sine-wave MTF calculations, the object-plane resolution of a magnification-factor-20 microscope is presently analyzed as a function of object height and numerical aperture of the primary for several spherical Schwarzschild, conic, and aspherical two-mirror microscope configurations.

  3. Light-curve Analysis of Neon Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachisu, Izumi; Kato, Mariko

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed light curves of five neon novae, QU Vul, V351 Pup, V382 Vel, V693 CrA, and V1974 Cyg, and determined their white dwarf (WD) masses and distance moduli on the basis of theoretical light curves composed of free-free and photospheric emission. For QU Vul, we obtained a distance of d ˜ 2.4 kpc, reddening of E(B - V) ˜ 0.55, and WD mass of MWD = 0.82-0.96 {M}⊙ . This suggests that an oxygen-neon WD lost a mass of more than ˜ 0.1 {M}⊙ since its birth. For V351 Pup, we obtained d˜ 5.5 {{kpc}}, E(B-V)˜ 0.45, and {M}{{WD}}=0.98-1.1 {M}⊙ . For V382 Vel, we obtained d˜ 1.6 {{kpc}}, E(B-V)˜ 0.15, and {M}{{WD}}=1.13-1.28 {M}⊙ . For V693 CrA, we obtained d˜ 7.1 {{kpc}}, E(B-V)˜ 0.05, and {M}{{WD}}=1.15-1.25 {M}⊙ . For V1974 Cyg, we obtained d˜ 1.8 {{kpc}}, E(B-V)˜ 0.30, and {M}{{WD}}=0.95-1.1 {M}⊙ . For comparison, we added the carbon-oxygen nova V1668 Cyg to our analysis and obtained d˜ 5.4 {{kpc}}, E(B-V)˜ 0.30, and {M}{{WD}}=0.98-1.1 {M}⊙ . In QU Vul, photospheric emission contributes 0.4-0.8 mag at most to the optical light curve compared with free-free emission only. In V351 Pup and V1974 Cyg, photospheric emission contributes very little (0.2-0.4 mag at most) to the optical light curve. In V382 Vel and V693 CrA, free-free emission dominates the continuum spectra, and photospheric emission does not contribute to the optical magnitudes. We also discuss the maximum magnitude versus rate of decline relation for these novae based on the universal decline law.

  4. Light water reactor lower head failure analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, J.L.; Chavez, S.A.; Thinnes, G.L.

    1993-10-01

    This document presents the results from a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission-sponsored research program to investigate the mode and timing of vessel lower head failure. Major objectives of the analysis were to identify plausible failure mechanisms and to develop a method for determining which failure mode would occur first in different light water reactor designs and accident conditions. Failure mechanisms, such as tube ejection, tube rupture, global vessel failure, and localized vessel creep rupture, were studied. Newly developed models and existing models were applied to predict which failure mechanism would occur first in various severe accident scenarios. So that a broader range of conditions could be considered simultaneously, calculations relied heavily on models with closed-form or simplified numerical solution techniques. Finite element techniques-were employed for analytical model verification and examining more detailed phenomena. High-temperature creep and tensile data were obtained for predicting vessel and penetration structural response.

  5. A Polarized Light Microscopic Study to Comparatively evaluate Four Remineralizing Agents on Enamel viz CPP-ACPF, ReminPro, SHY-NM and Colgate Strong Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ramesh; Bhaskaran, Bibin; Kumar, Suresh V

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To compare and evaluate the remineralizing potential of four commercially available products namely SHY-NM, GC Tooth Mousse Plus, ReminPro and Colgate strong teeth on demineralized human teeth. Materials and methods: The study included 50 extracted premolars having 3 × 3 mm window prepared on the middle third of the tooth, which was then subjected to demineralization for 48 hours at 37°C. Teeth were randomly selected and grouped into five study groups of 10 teeth in each. Each group was treated with respective remineralizing agent and sectioned using hard-tissue microtome. Each section obtained was visualized under polarized light microscope and analyzed using Image J software. Results: The statistically evaluated results revealed that SHY-NM has the most remineralizing potential followed by ReminPro, GC Tooth Mousse Plus and fluoridated toothpaste. Conclusion: Based on the study, the SHY-NM was superior to the GC Tooth Mousse Plus, ReminPro and Colgate strong teeth on demineralized human teeth. How to cite this article: Rajan R, Krishnan R, Bhaskaran B, Kumar SV. A Polarized Light Microscopic Study to Comparatively evaluate Four Remineralizing Agents on Enamel viz CPP-ACPF, ReminPro, SHY-NM and Colgate Strong Teeth. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):42-47. PMID:26124580

  6. Miniature Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope for In-Situ Imaging and Chemical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica A.; Jerman, Gregory; Gregory, Don; Sampson, Allen R.

    2012-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is leading an effort to develop a Miniaturized Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope (MVP-SEM) for in-situ imaging and chemical analysis of uncoated samples. This instrument development will be geared towards operation on Mars and builds on a previous MSFC design of a mini-SEM for the moon (funded through the NASA Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program). Because Mars has a dramatically different environment than the moon, modifications to the MSFC lunar mini-SEM are necessary. Mainly, the higher atmospheric pressure calls for the use of an electron gun that can operate at High Vacuum, rather than Ultra-High Vacuum. The presence of a CO2-rich atmosphere also allows for the incorporation of a variable pressure system that enables the in-situ analysis of nonconductive geological specimens. Preliminary testing of Mars meteorites in a commercial Environmental SEM(Tradmark) (FEI) confirms the usefulness of lowcurrent/low-accelerating voltage imaging and highlights the advantages of using the Mars atmosphere for environmental imaging. The unique capabilities of the MVP-SEM make it an ideal tool for pursuing key scientific goals of NASA's Flagship Mission Max-C; to perform in-situ science and collect and cache samples in preparation for sample return from Mars.

  7. Automated Analysis and Classification of Histological Tissue Features by Multi-Dimensional Microscopic Molecular Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Riordan, Daniel P.; Varma, Sushama; West, Robert B.; Brown, Patrick O.

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of the molecular attributes and spatial arrangements of cells and features within complex human tissues provides a critical basis for understanding processes involved in development and disease. Moreover, the ability to automate steps in the analysis and interpretation of histological images that currently require manual inspection by pathologists could revolutionize medical diagnostics. Toward this end, we developed a new imaging approach called multidimensional microscopic molecular profiling (MMMP) that can measure several independent molecular properties in situ at subcellular resolution for the same tissue specimen. MMMP involves repeated cycles of antibody or histochemical staining, imaging, and signal removal, which ultimately can generate information analogous to a multidimensional flow cytometry analysis on intact tissue sections. We performed a MMMP analysis on a tissue microarray containing a diverse set of 102 human tissues using a panel of 15 informative antibody and 5 histochemical stains plus DAPI. Large-scale unsupervised analysis of MMMP data, and visualization of the resulting classifications, identified molecular profiles that were associated with functional tissue features. We then directly annotated H&E images from this MMMP series such that canonical histological features of interest (e.g. blood vessels, epithelium, red blood cells) were individually labeled. By integrating image annotation data, we identified molecular signatures that were associated with specific histological annotations and we developed statistical models for automatically classifying these features. The classification accuracy for automated histology labeling was objectively evaluated using a cross-validation strategy, and significant accuracy (with a median per-pixel rate of 77% per feature from 15 annotated samples) for de novo feature prediction was obtained. These results suggest that high-dimensional profiling may advance the development of computer

  8. LED intense headband light source for fingerprint analysis

    DOEpatents

    Villa-Aleman, Eliel

    2005-03-08

    A portable, lightweight and high-intensity light source for detecting and analyzing fingerprints during field investigation. On-site field analysis requires long hours of mobile analysis. In one embodiment, the present invention comprises a plurality of light emitting diodes; a power source; and a personal attachment means; wherein the light emitting diodes are powered by the power source, and wherein the power source and the light emitting diodes are attached to the personal attachment means to produce a personal light source for on-site analysis of latent fingerprints. The present invention is available for other applications as well.

  9. Testing the Equivalence Principle in space with MICROSCOPE: the data analysis challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergé, Joel; Baghi, Quentin; Pires, Sandrine

    2014-05-01

    Theories beyond the Standard Model and General Relativity predict a violation of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) just below the current best experimental upper limits. MICROSCOPE (Micro-Satellite à traînée Compensée pour l'Observation du Principe d'Equivalence) will allow us to lower them by two orders of magnitude, and maybe to detect a WEP violation. However, analyzing the MICROSCOPE data will be challenging, mostly because of missing data and a colored noise burrying the signal of interest. In this communication, we apply an inpainting technique to simulated MICROSCOPE data and show that inpainting will help detect a WEP violation signal.

  10. Image formation and system analysis of a scanning tomographic acoustic microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Samuel Davis, III

    This dissertation focuses on research that has been conducted to implement an automated Scanning Tomographic Acoustic Microscope (STAM), and research that has been performed to increase the understanding of the performance characteristics of the STAM. STAM technology permits high resolution microscopy which yields important information on the internal structure and acoustic properties of thick specimens, provided that technology is utilized in a cohesive manner. Prior to the research conducted for this dissertation, only a proof-of-concept STAM had been developed; actual STAM imaging was difficult and impractical. This dissertation describes the hardware and software development that has led to the first automated STAM. It focuses on significant problems that were encountered and their solutions. Specifically, accurate data acquisition necessitated the development of special-purpose data acquisition hardware, rotational controls, frequency controls, and automation controls. Inaccuracies in the laser scanning hardware were identified as a significant source of reconstruction error. This error was removed by estimation and correction algorithms. Rotation of the specimen for multiple-angle tomography required the development of a noise-tolerant projection-pose estimation algorithm. An iterative technique for image enhancement is also presented. The resulting STAM system is evaluated to determine its performance characteristics. A component-wise resolution analysis is presented that specifies the resolution-limit in both range and cross-range. The dependency of reconstruction quality on accurate representation of the magnitude and phase of the detected wave fields is also provided.