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Sample records for light-chain amyloidosis al

  1. A patient with AL amyloidosis with negative free light chain results.

    PubMed

    Milani, Paolo; Valentini, Veronica; Ferraro, Giovanni; Basset, Marco; Russo, Francesca; Foli, Andrea; Palladini, Giovanni; Merlini, Giampaolo

    2016-06-01

    The detection and quantification of amyloidogenic monoclonal light chains are necessary for the diagnosis and evaluation of response to treatment in AL amyloidosis. However, the amyloid clone is often small and difficult to detect. We report the case of a 68-year-old man who was referred to our Center in April 2013 after syncope and the identification of left ventricular hypertrophy at echocardiography, suspected for amyloidosis. A commercial agarose gel electrophoresis immunofixation (IFE) did not reveal monoclonal components in serum and urine. The κ serum free light chain (FLC) concentration was 21.5 mg/L, λ 33 mg/L (κ/λ ratio 0.65), NT-proBNP 9074 ng/L (u.r.l. <332 ng/L) and an echocardiogram confirmed characteristic features of amyloidosis. The abdominal fat aspiration was positive and the amyloid typing by immune-electron microscopy revealed λ light chains deposits. A high-resolution (hr) IFE of serum and urine showed a faint monoclonal λ component in the urine. A bone marrow biopsy showed 8% plasma cells (BMPC) and a kappa/lambda light-chain restriction with λ light chain on immunofluorescence. The diagnosis of AL (λ) amyloidosis with cardiac involvement was made. In May 2013, patient was started on cyclophosphamide, bortezomib and dexamethasone. After six cycles, serum and urine hr-IFE were negative, the bone marrow biopsy showed 3% BMPC without light chain restriction by immunofluorescence, and a decrease of NT-proBNP was observed (5802 ng/L).Thus, treatment was discontinued. In this patient the amyloid clone could be detected only by in house hr-IFE of urine and bone marrow examination. The detection of the small dangerous amyloidogenic clone should be pursued with a combination of high-sensitivity techniques, including assessment of BMPC clonality. Studies of novel tools, such as mass spectrometry on serum and next-generation flow cytometry analysis of the bone marrow, for detecting plasma cell clones in AL amyloidosis and other monoclonal light chain-related disorders are warranted. PMID:26677890

  2. Multiple qualitative and quantitative methods for free light chain analysis are necessary as first line tests for AL amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Sečník, Peter; Honsová, Eva; Jabor, Antonín; Lavríková, Petra; Franeková, Janka

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the necessity of using different methods for amyloidogenic light chain detection. Serum and urine agarose gel electrophoresis and immunofixation, as well as serum free light chain (FLC) immunoassay measurements, were evaluated in a patient with verified multiple myeloma and consequent AL amyloidosis confirmed by Congo red staining and immunofluorescence techniques. Conventional chemistry tests [serum and urine electrophoresis (SPE and UPE); serum and urine immunofixation (SIFE and UIFE)] were inconclusive. Only quantitative FLC immunoassay (serum free light chain immunoanalysis, SFLC) provided correct diagnostic information. A combination of gel-based SIFE and UIFE with more novel quantitative FLC immunoassays appears necessary when searching for monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain-related diseases. PMID:26760309

  3. [The concurrence of light-chain deposition disease, AL-amyloidosis, and cast nephropathy in a patient with multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Rekhtina, I G; Zakharova, E V; Stoliarevich, E S; Sinitsina, M N; Denisova, E N

    2015-01-01

    Despite of the fact that their clinical manifestations are similar, AL-amyloidosis (AL-A) and light chain deposition disease (LCDD) are individual nosological entities in view of considerable differences in their pathogenesis and pathomorphology. The paper describes a rare case of the concurrence of LCDD and AL-A in a patient with multiple myeloma. Clinically, there was dialysis-dependent renal failure, flail leg syndrome, myocardiopathy, and rhabdomyolysis. At the disease onset, his nephrobiopsy specimen could diagnose LCDD and myeloma or cast nephropathy. The disease was characterized by an aggressive course. Despite the administration of innovative agents, the patient had a short-term remission and died from disease progression. Autopsy additionally revealed amyloid deposition in the heart and kidney. The development of AL-A in the presence of prior LCDD may reflect the progression of the tumor and the appearance of an additional subclone of plasma cells that produce amyloidogenic light chains. The uncommonness of this case is that renal amyloid was found in the tubular casts and absent in the glomeruli, which may be considered as a special form--tubular AL-amyloidosis. PMID:26281203

  4. Evolution of Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Immunoglobulin Light Chain Amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Sher, Taimur; Dispenzieri, Angela; Gertz, Morie A

    2016-05-01

    Immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidosis. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) is an effective treatment option for AL however due to multi-organ involvement in this disease HCT is feasible in a minority of patients. To maximize the benefit and minimize toxicity it is of paramount importance to optimize the selection of patients for HCT. In this review we discuss evolution of HCT and its typical application to a case of AL amyloidosis. PMID:26475727

  5. Kinetics of organ response and survival following normalization of the serum free light chain ratio in AL amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Gregory P; Dispenzieri, Angela; Gertz, Morie A; Lacy, Martha Q; Buadi, Francis K; Hayman, Suzanne R; Leung, Nelson; Dingli, David; Lust, John A; Lin, Yi; Kapoor, Prashant; Go, Ronald S; Zeldenrust, Steven R; Kyle, Robert A; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Kumar, Shaji K

    2015-03-01

    Despite successful treatment of the clonal plasma cell implicated in its pathogenesis, patients with AL amyloidosis (AL) experience significant morbidity related to underlying amyloid mediated organ dysfunction. While normalization of the serum free light chain measurements [normal ratio of involved and uninvolved free light chains (nFLCr)] is the goal of therapy and centerpiece of hematologic response criteria, achieving (or not achieving) meaningful organ response (OR) is clinically significant for its implications on long-term symptomatology as well as overall survival (OS), and remains the ultimate goal of treatment. Expectations for organ recovery following successful therapy leading to nFLCr in AL remain poorly described. We evaluated the timeframe and predictive factors for OR, and long-term outcome, in 313 AL patients who achieved nFLCr following therapy initiation. OR was seen in 80% of surviving AL patients within 1-year of nFLCr. Patients achieving early OR within 1 year of nFLCr had superior OS compared with those who despite obtaining nFLCr did not achieve early OR. We further evaluated factors predicting OR and OS among patients achieving nFLCr. Higher values of dFLC (involved-uninvolved) at diagnosis predict OR, and early OR predicts improved OS following successful hematologic therapy in AL. PMID:25388651

  6. Update on treatment of light chain amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Shameem; Palladini, Giovanni; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; Wechalekar, Ashutosh

    2014-02-01

    Light chain amyloidosis is the most common type of amyloidosis as a consequence of protein misfolding of aggregates composed of amyloid fibrils. The clinical features are dependent on the organs involved, typically cardiac, renal, hepatic, peripheral and autonomic neuropathy and soft tissue. A tissue biopsy or fat aspirate is needed to confirm the presence/type of amyloid and prognostic tools are important in a risk stratified approach to treatment. Autologous stem cell transplant eligibility should be assessed at baseline, weighing the reversible or non-reversible contraindications, toxicity of treatment and chemotherapy alternatives available. Chemotherapy options include melphalan, thalidomide, bortezomib, lenalidomide, bendamustine in combination with dexamethasone. Many studies have explored these treatment modalities, with ongoing debate about the optimal first line and sequential treatment thereafter. Attaining a very good partial response or better is the treatment goal coupled with early assessment central to optimizing treatment. One major challenge remains increasing the awareness of this disease, frequently diagnosed late as the presenting symptoms mimic many other medical conditions. This review focuses on the treatments for light chain amyloidosis, how these treatments have evolved over the years, improved patient risk stratification, toxicities encountered and future directions. PMID:24497558

  7. Glycosylation of immunoglobulin light chains associated with amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Omtvedt, L A; Bailey, D; Renouf, D V; Davies, M J; Paramonov, N A; Haavik, S; Husby, G; Sletten, K; Hounsell, E F

    2000-12-01

    AL amyloidosis is a fatal disease caused by deposition of immunoglobulin light chains in a fibrillarforin (AL) in various organs. By searching the Kabat database of immunoglobulin sequences using the KabatMan software, we have shown that there is a preponderance of the consensus glycosylation sequon (AsnXxxSer/Thr) in the framework regions of amyloid light chains. We have characterised by computer graphics simulations, NMR spectroscopy and carbohydrate biochemistry the structure and conformation of the oligosaccharide from amyloid protein AL MS (lamba1) and from the amyloid associated Bence Jones protein of patient MH (kappa1). These proteins have glycosylation in the hypervariable complementarity-determining region versus framework region, respectively. Both contained a 2-6 sialylated core fucosylated biantennary chain mostly with bisecting GIcNAc. Together our results suggest that light chain glycosylation may be one of several modifications which may render the protein more prone to amyloid formation. PMID:11132092

  8. Light chain amyloidosis - current findings and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Baden, Elizabeth M; Sikkink, Laura A; Ramirez-Alvarado, Marina

    2009-10-01

    Systemic light chain amyloidosis (AL) is one of several protein misfolding diseases and is characterized by extracellular deposition of immunoglobulin light chains in the form of amyloid fibrils [1]. Immunoglobulin (Ig) proteins consist of two light chains (LCs) and two heavy chains (HCs) that ordinarily form a heterotetramer which is secreted by a plasma cell. In AL, however, a monoclonal plasma cell population produces an abundance of a pathogenic LC protein. In this case, not all of the LCs pair with the HCs, and free LCs are secreted into circulation. The LC-HC dimer is very stable, and losing this interaction may result in an unstable LC protein [2]. Additionally, somatic mutations are thought to cause amyloidogenic proteins to be less stable compared to non-amyloidogenic proteins [3-5], leading to protein misfolding and amyloid fibril formation. The amyloid fibrils cause tissue damage and cell death, leading to patient death within 12-18 months if left untreated [6]. Current therapies are harsh and not curative, including chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplants. Studies of protein pathogenesis and fibril formation mechanisms may lead to better therapies with an improved outlook for patient survival. Much has been done to determine the molecular factors that make a particular LC protein amyloidogenic and to elucidate the mechanism of amyloid fibril formation. Anthony Fink's work, particularly with discerning the role of intermediates in the fibril formation pathway, has made a remarkable impact in the field of amyloidosis research. This review provides a general overview of the current state of AL research and also attempts to capture the most recent ideas and knowledge generated from the Fink laboratory. PMID:19538145

  9. Acute cardiac tamponade in light-chain amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Kuprian, Mikhail; Mount, George

    2014-01-01

    A 71-year-old woman, with a history of light-chain amyloidosis, presented with a sudden onset dyspnoea. Echocardiography showed a large pericardial effusion with compression of the right atrium and the right ventricle. Right heart catheterisation demonstrated equalisation of her diastolic pressures consistent with cardiac tamponade. Pericardiocentesis revealed a haemmorrhagic exudative effusion with no evidence of malignancy. Bone marrow biopsy and other investigations showed no evidence of multiple myeloma. Her effusion recurred 2 weeks later and repeat pericardiocentesis demonstrated similar findings. She was started on chemotherapy with no further recurrence of pericardial effusion. The patient was unable to tolerate chemotherapy and died 1 year after initial presentation. This case represents a rare manifestation of cardiac amyloidosis and explores the reported aetiologies for cardiac tamponade in the setting of light-chain amyloidosis. Acute and definitive treatments are also discussed. PMID:24695654

  10. Acute cardiac tamponade in light-chain amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Kuprian, Mikhail; Mount, George

    2014-01-01

    A 71-year-old woman, with a history of light-chain amyloidosis, presented with a sudden onset dyspnoea. Echocardiography showed a large pericardial effusion with compression of the right atrium and the right ventricle. Right heart catheterisation demonstrated equalisation of her diastolic pressures consistent with cardiac tamponade. Pericardiocentesis revealed a haemmorrhagic exudative effusion with no evidence of malignancy. Bone marrow biopsy and other investigations showed no evidence of multiple myeloma. Her effusion recurred 2 weeks later and repeat pericardiocentesis demonstrated similar findings. She was started on chemotherapy with no further recurrence of pericardial effusion. The patient was unable to tolerate chemotherapy and died 1 year after initial presentation. This case represents a rare manifestation of cardiac amyloidosis and explores the reported aetiologies for cardiac tamponade in the setting of light-chain amyloidosis. Acute and definitive treatments are also discussed. PMID:24695654

  11. Immunoglobulin Light-Chain Amyloidosis: From Basics to New Developments in Diagnosis, Prognosis and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Muchtar, Eli; Buadi, Francis K; Dispenzieri, Angela; Gertz, Morie A

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis is the most common form of systemic amyloidosis, where the culprit amyloidogenic protein is immunoglobulin light chains produced by marrow clonal plasma cells. AL amyloidosis is an infrequent disease, and since presentation is variable and often nonspecific, diagnosis is often delayed. This results in cumulative organ damage and has a negative prognostic effect. AL amyloidosis can also be challenging on the diagnostic level, especially when demonstration of Congo red-positive tissue is not readily obtained. Since as many as 31 known amyloidogenic proteins have been identified to date, determination of the amyloid type is required. While several typing methods are available, mass spectrometry has become the gold standard for amyloid typing. Upon confirming the diagnosis of amyloidosis, a pursuit for organ involvement is essential, with a focus on heart involvement, even in the absence of suggestive symptoms for involvement, as this has both prognostic and treatment implications. Details regarding initial treatment options, including stem cell transplantation, are provided in this review. AL amyloidosis management requires a multidisciplinary approach with careful patient monitoring, as organ impairment has a major effect on morbidity and treatment tolerability until a response to treatment is achieved and recovery emerges. PMID:26771835

  12. Inhibition of Light Chain 6aJL2-R24G Amyloid Fiber Formation Associated with Light Chain Amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Pelaez-Aguilar, Angel E; Rivillas-Acevedo, Lina; French-Pacheco, Leidys; Valdes-Garcia, Gilberto; Maya-Martinez, Roberto; Pastor, Nina; Amero, Carlos

    2015-08-18

    Light chain amyloidosis (AL) is a deadly disease characterized by the deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains as insoluble amyloid fibrils in different organs and tissues. Germ line λ VI has been closely related to this condition; moreover, the R24G mutation is present in 25% of the proteins of this germ line in AL patients. In this work, five small molecules were tested as inhibitors of the formation of amyloid fibrils from the 6aJL2-R24G protein. We have found by thioflavin T fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy that EGCG inhibits 6aJL2-R24G fibrillogenesis. Furthermore, using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and isothermal titration calorimetry, we have determined that the inhibition is due to binding to the protein in its native state, interacting mainly with aromatic residues. PMID:26214579

  13. Rare and unusual clinicopathologic presentation of renal AL amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Zuppan, Craig; Pi, Alexander; Zhang, Zhiwei; Jaipaul, Navin

    2016-01-01

    Lesson Rarely, renal light chain (AL) amyloidosis may present without significant proteinuria owing to glomerular sparing and amyloid deposition confined to the vasculature and tubulointerstitium. PMID:27186381

  14. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Bever, Katherine M.; Masha, Luke I.; Sun, Fangui; Stern, Lauren; Havasi, Andrea; Berk, John L.; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; Seldin, David C.; Sloan, J. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis are at risk for both thrombotic and bleeding complications. While the hemostatic defects have been extensively studied, less is known about thrombotic complications in this disease. This retrospective study examined the frequency of venous thromboembolism in 929 patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis presenting to a single referral center, correlated risk of venous thromboembolism with clinical and laboratory factors, and examined complications of anticoagulation in this population. Sixty-five patients (7%) were documented as having at least one venous thromboembolic event. Eighty percent of these patients had events within one year prior to or following diagnosis. Lower serum albumin was associated with increased risk of VTE, with a hazard ratio of 4.30 (CI 1.60–11.55; P=0.0038) for serum albumin less than 3 g/dL compared to serum albumin greater than 4 g/dL. Severe bleeding complications were observed in 5 out of 57 patients with venous thromboembolism undergoing treatment with anticoagulation. Prospective investigation should be undertaken to better risk stratify these patients and to determine the optimal strategies for prophylaxis against and management of venous thromboembolism. PMID:26452981

  15. Light-chain amyloidosis presenting with rapidly progressive submucosal hemorrhage of the stomach.

    PubMed

    Kim, Song-Yi; Moon, Suk-Bae; Lee, Seung Koo; Hong, Seong Kweon; Kim, Yang Hee; Chae, Gi Bong; Park, Sung-Bae

    2016-04-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is frequently in involved light-chain (AL) amyloidosis, but significant hemorrhagic complications are rare. A 71-year-old man presented to our hospital with dyspepsia and heartburn for 1 month. Gastroscopy revealed a large submucosal hematoma at the gastric fundus. Two days later, a follow-up gastroscopy indicated extensive expansion of the hematoma throughout the upper half of the stomach. The hematoma displayed ongoing expansion during the endoscopic examination, suggesting that rupture was imminent. Emergency total gastrectomy was performed, and amyloidosis was confirmed after examining the surgical specimen. Bone marrow examination revealed multiple myeloma, and serum immunoglobulin assay confirmed the diagnosis of myeloma-associated AL amyloidosis. At manuscript submission, the patient was doing well and was undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:24246158

  16. Immunogold quantitation of immunoglobulin light chains in renal amyloidosis and kappa light chain nephropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Silver, M. M.; Hearn, S. A.; Walton, J. C.; Lines, L. A.; Walley, V. M.

    1990-01-01

    By quantitative immunoelectron microscopy using protein A-gold, the authors compared the content and distribution of immunoglobulin light chain (LC) antigens in glomeruli from 11 cases of renal amyloidosis with that in two cases of kappa LC glomerulopathy and two cases of diabetic glomerulosclerosis. In a supplementary study and using a similar immunogold technique, the authors identified amyloid A in deparaffinized renal tissue from three of the 11 cases of renal amyloidosis. Each patient had similar clinical manifestations (chronic renal failure with proteinuria) and similar glomerular morphology (thickened glomerular basement membranes and nodular expansion of the mesangium). In 12 cases (10 amyloid, 2 kappa LC), immunoelectron microscopy localized LC antigens over the glomerular deposits and allowed indirect tissue quantitation of each LC antigen to the various cellular and interstitial compartments. In 6 of the 11 cases of renal amyloidosis, the amyloid labeled only for lambda, and in one, only for kappa. In one patient with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, who had a biclonal gammopathy, both LC were identified in the amyloid. In two cases, both of whom had a history of chronic suppurative lung disease, both LC antigens as well as amyloid A were localized to the amyloid fibrils. In only one case, in which glomerular amyloid labeled for amyloid A, the amyloid did not label for either LC. Whereas lambda LC-derived fibrils often appeared as spicules in the glomerular subepithelial space, other amyloid deposits usually accumulated in the subendothelial zone and did not form spicules. The epimembranous location of spicules suggested that the amyloid precursor protein transformed into amyloid fibrils after filtration into the urinary space. Presence of epimembranous spicules may explain the more severe proteinuric renal failure and the more rapid progression to glomerulosclerosis described in primary amyloidosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1693473

  17. Treatment of Immunoglobulin Light Chain Amyloidosis: Mayo Stratification of Myeloma and Risk-Adapted Therapy (mSMART) Consensus Statement.

    PubMed

    Dispenzieri, Angela; Buadi, Francis; Kumar, Shaji K; Reeder, Craig B; Sher, Tamur; Lacy, Martha Q; Kyle, Robert A; Mikhael, Joseph R; Roy, Vivek; Leung, Nelson; Grogan, Martha; Kapoor, Prashant; Lust, John A; Dingli, David; Go, Ronald S; Hwa, Yi Lisa; Hayman, Suzanne R; Fonseca, Rafael; Ailawadhi, Sikander; Bergsagel, P Leif; Chanan-Khan, Ascher; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Russell, Stephen J; Stewart, Keith; Zeldenrust, Steven R; Gertz, Morie A

    2015-08-01

    Immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL amyloidosis) has an incidence of approximately 1 case per 100,000 person-years in Western countries. The rarity of the condition not only poses a challenge for making a prompt diagnosis but also makes evidenced decision making about treatment even more challenging. Physicians caring for patients with AL amyloidosis have been borrowing and customizing the therapies used for patients with multiple myeloma with varying degrees of success. One of the biggest failings in the science of the treatment of AL amyloidosis is the paucity of prospective trials, especially phase 3 trials. Herein, we present an extensive review of the literature with an aim of making recommendations in the context of the best evidence and expert opinion. PMID:26250727

  18. Cardiac Amyloidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... abbreviation AL stands for Amyloidosis formed from Light chains, and it is a disease of the bone ... proteins that make up antibodies, known as light chains. These light chains circulate in the blood and ...

  19. Undiagnosed light chain systemic amyloidosis: does it matter to anesthesiologists? -a case report-.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gwan Ho; Lee, Woo Kyung; Na, Se Hee; Lee, Jong Seok

    2013-11-01

    Light chain systemic amyloidosis is rare but may accompany laryngeal or pulmonary involvement, which may increase the risk in airway management. We present a case of a patient planned for resection of cervical epidural mass. The patient had face and neck ecchymoses and purpuras with an unknown cause. Mask ventilation and intubation were successful, but the operation was cancelled to evaluate bleeding from facial skin lesions. A diagnosis of light chain systemic amyloidosis prompted evaluation of involvement of other organs and treatment. This case shows the importance of preoperative evaluation and careful airway management in patients with systemic amyloidosis. PMID:24363850

  20. Localized AL amyloidosis: a suicidal neoplasm?

    PubMed

    Westermark, Per

    2012-05-01

    Although AL amyloidosis usually is a systemic disease, strictly localized AL deposits are not exceptionally rare. Such case reports form a considerable body of published articles. Although both AL amyloidosis types are formed from an N-terminal segment of a monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain, a typical localized AL amyloid differs from the systemic counterpart by the morphological appearance of the amyloid, and presence of clonal plasma cells and of giant cells. In this article it is pointed out that localized AL amyloidosis ('amyloidoma') represents a true plasma cell neoplasm and not a pseudotumor. The pathogenesis of localized AL amyloidosis may differ from that of the systemic type, a suggestion underlined by the fact that localized AL amyloidosis of kappa type is as common as that of lambda origin, in contrast to the systemic form where lambda chains constitute the overwhelming majority of cases. It is suggested that oligomeric assemblies of the produced immunoglobulin light chain are toxic to plasma cells, which in this way commit suicide. PMID:22335280

  1. Burden of cytogenetically abnormal plasma cells in light chain amyloidosis and their prognostic relevance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon Young; Im, Kyongok; Park, Si Nae; Kim, Jung-Ah; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Lee, Dong Soon

    2016-05-01

    We performed cytoplasmic fluorescence in situ hybridization assays of light chain amyloidosis (AL). In total, 234 patients were enrolled: 28 patients with AL, 24 with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), and 182 with multiple myeloma (MM). Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 13 of 22 (59%) AL patients without MM. All 13 patients demonstrated IGH rearrangement, and t(11;14)/IGH-CCND1 was most frequent (32%). Chromosome gain was not observed in AL patients without MM. These findings were dissimilar to findings in MGUS patients, in whom trisomy 9 was the most frequent abnormality. Of 6 AL patients with MM, 5 (83%) patients had cytogenetic abnormalities: 1q gain (4/6, 67%), gains of chromosome 9 (3/6, 50%), IGH rearrangement and RB1 (13q) deletions (2/6 each, 33%). The percentage of clonal plasma cells among total plasma cells was variable (median, 75%; range, 16-100%) for AL patients without MM, which was lower than the results for MM patients (median 100%). The overall survival of AL patients without MM was not significantly different according to the presence of cytogenetic abnormalities (P=0.510). In summary, among Korean AL patients, IGH rearrangement was the most frequent cytogenetic abnormality and cytogenetic aberration patterns differ compared with MGUS and MM patients. PMID:27015231

  2. Lenalidomide, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone (CRd) for light-chain amyloidosis: long-term results from a phase 2 trial

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, Suzanne R.; Buadi, Francis K.; Roy, Vivek; Lacy, Martha Q.; Gertz, Morie A.; Allred, Jacob; Laumann, Kristina M.; Bergsagel, Leif P.; Dingli, David; Mikhael, Joseph R.; Reeder, Craig B.; Stewart, A. Keith; Zeldenrust, Steven R.; Greipp, Philip R.; Lust, John A.; Fonseca, Rafael; Russell, Stephen J.; Rajkumar, S. Vincent; Dispenzieri, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Light-chain (AL) amyloidosis remains incurable despite recent therapeutic advances. Given the activity of the lenalidomide-alkylating agent combination in myeloma, we designed this phase 2 trial of lenalidomide, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone in AL amyloidosis. Thirty-five patients, including 24 previously untreated, were enrolled. Nearly one-half of the patients had cardiac stage III disease and 28% had ≥ 3 organs involved. The overall hematologic response (≥ partial response [PR]) rate was 60%, including 40% with very-good partial response or better. Using serum-free light chain for assessing response, 77% of patients had a hematologic response. Organ responses were seen in 29% of patients and were limited to those with a hematologic response. The median hematologic progression-free survival was 28.3 months, and the median overall survival was 37.8 months. Hematologic toxicity was the predominant adverse event, followed by fatigue, edema, and gastrointestinal symptoms. A grade 3 or higher toxicity occurred in 26 patients (74%) including ≥ grade 3 hematologic toxicity in 16 patients (46%) and ≥ grade 3 nonhematologic toxicity in 25 patients (71%). Seven patients (20%) died on study, primarily because of advanced disease. Lenalidomide, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone (CRd) is an effective combination for treatment of AL amyloidosis and leads to durable hematologic responses as well as organ responses with manageable toxicity. The trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00564889). PMID:22504925

  3. T1 mapping and survival in systemic light-chain amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Banypersad, Sanjay M.; Fontana, Marianna; Maestrini, Viviana; Sado, Daniel M.; Captur, Gabriella; Petrie, Aviva; Piechnik, Stefan K.; Whelan, Carol J.; Herrey, Anna S.; Gillmore, Julian D.; Lachmann, Helen J.; Wechalekar, Ashutosh D.; Hawkins, Philip N.; Moon, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To assess the prognostic value of myocardial pre-contrast T1 and extracellular volume (ECV) in systemic amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) T1 mapping. Methods and results One hundred patients underwent CMR and T1 mapping pre- and post-contrast. Myocardial ECV was calculated at contrast equilibrium (ECVi) and 15 min post-bolus (ECVb). Fifty-four healthy volunteers served as controls. Patients were followed up for a median duration of 23 months and survival analyses were performed. Mean ECVi was raised in amyloid (0.44 ± 0.12) as was ECVb (mean 0.44 ± 0.12) compared with healthy volunteers (0.25 ± 0.02), P < 0.001. Native pre-contrast T1 was raised in amyloid (mean 1080 ± 87 ms vs. 954 ± 34 ms, P < 0.001). All three correlated with pre-test probability of cardiac involvement, cardiac biomarkers, and systolic and diastolic dysfunction. During follow-up, 25 deaths occurred. An ECVi of >0.45 carried a hazard ratio (HR) for death of 3.84 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.53–9.61], P = 0.004 and pre-contrast T1 of >1044 ms = HR 5.39 (95% CI: 1.24–23.4), P = 0.02. Extracellular volume after primed infusion and ECVb performed similarly. Isolated post-contrast T1 was non-predictive. In Cox regression models, ECVi was independently predictive of mortality (HR = 4.41, 95% CI: 1.35–14.4) after adjusting for E:E′, ejection fraction, diastolic dysfunction grade, and NT-proBNP. Conclusion Myocardial ECV (bolus or infusion technique) and pre-contrast T1 are biomarkers for cardiac AL amyloid and they predict mortality in systemic amyloidosis. PMID:25411195

  4. Activity of pomalidomide in patients with immunoglobulin light-chain amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Buadi, Francis; Laumann, Kristina; LaPlant, Betsy; Hayman, Suzanne R.; Kumar, Shaji K.; Dingli, David; Zeldenrust, Steven R.; Mikhael, Joseph R.; Hall, Robert; Rajkumar, S. Vincent; Reeder, Craig; Fonseca, Rafael; Bergsagel, P. Lief; Stewart, A. Keith; Roy, Vivek; Witzig, Thomas E.; Lust, John A.; Russell, Stephen J.; Gertz, Morie A.; Lacy, Martha Q.

    2012-01-01

    Immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) amyloidosis is a rare, incurable plasma cell disorder. Its therapy has benefited immensely from the expanding drug armamentarium available for multiple myeloma. Pomalidomide in combination with weekly dexamethasone (Pom/dex) is active among patients with relapsed myeloma. In the present study, we explored the Pom/dex combination in patients with previously treated AL. Patients were eligible for this prospective phase 2 trial if they had had at least one prior regimen and if they had reasonably preserved organ function. Patients were treated with oral Pom/dex. Thirty-three patients were enrolled. The median age was 66 years. Median time from diagnosis to on-study was 37 months. Eighty-two percent had cardiac involvement. The confirmed hematologic response rate was 48%, with a median time to response of 1.9 months. Organ improvement was documented in 5 patients. The median overall and progression-free survival rates were 28 and 14 months, respectively; the 1-year overall and progression-free survival rates were 76% and 59%, respectively. There was a discordance between the hematologic response and the N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide response. The most common grade 3-5 adverse events, regardless of attribution, were neutropenia and fatigue. We conclude that pomalidomide appears to be a valuable drug covering an unmet clinical need in patients with previously treated AL. The trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00558896. PMID:22493299

  5. A phase II trial of lenalidomide, dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide for newly diagnosed patients with systemic immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Cibeira, Maria T; Oriol, Albert; Lahuerta, Juan J; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; de la Rubia, Javier; Hernández, Miguel T; Granell, Miquel; Fernández de Larrea, Carlos; San Miguel, Jesús F; Bladé, Joan

    2015-09-01

    Immunomodulatory drugs have been shown to be of benefit in relapsed/refractory immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) amyloidosis. We designed a prospective, multicentre phase II trial of lenalidomide, dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide for newly diagnosed patients with AL amyloidosis not eligible for autologous stem-cell transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were included in the study. Cardiac involvement was present in 23 patients; 14 of them had cardiac stage III. The overall haematological response rate was 46%, including complete and very good partial responses in 25% and 18% of patients respectively. Haematological response was mainly associated with absence of cardiac stage III and lower tumour burden. Organ response was observed in 46% of patients. After a median follow-up of 24 months, median progression-free and overall survival have not been reached, both being significantly longer in responders (P < 0·001 and P = 0·001 respectively). Seventeen patients have discontinued treatment, mostly due to amyloid-related death, disease progression or lack of response. Only 14% of the patients discontinued treatment due to therapy-related adverse events. Our results support the efficacy of this regimen, with high quality responses and prolonged survival, as well as its tolerability, in patients with AL amyloidosis not eligible for stem cell transplant and without advanced cardiac involvement (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01194791). PMID:25974382

  6. Acute tumour lysis syndrome: a case in AL amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Akasheh, M S; Chang, C P; Vesole, D H

    1999-11-01

    Tumour lysis syndrome (TLS) in plasma cell dyscrasias is extremely rare. TLS has been described in eight cases of multiple myeloma undergoing high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT). Recently, clinical trials of intensive chemotherapy followed by autologous or allogeneic stem cell support has been shown to offer potential benefit in AL (amyloid light-chain) amyloidosis. TLS in primary AL amyloidosis in this setting has not been previously reported. We report a case of TLS in a patient with AL amyloidosis which developed after high-dose melphalan chemotherapy supported by ASCT. PMID:10583230

  7. Immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis is diagnosed late in patients with preexisting plasma cell dyscrasias.

    PubMed

    Kourelis, Taxiarchis V; Kumar, Shaji K; Go, Ronald S; Kapoor, Prashant; Kyle, Robert A; Buadi, Francis K; Gertz, Morie A; Lacy, Martha Q; Hayman, Suzanne R; Leung, Nelson; Dingli, David; Lust, John A; Lin, Yi; Zeldenrust, Stephen R; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Dispenzieri, Angela

    2014-11-01

    AL amyloidosis (AL) is rare and frequently remains undiagnosed until organ function is compromised, even among patients with known pre-existing untreated plasma cell dyscrasias (PCD). We identified 168 patients with AL amyloidosis who had a prior untreated PCD. The earliest symptom or sign (s/s) was defined as the first symptom reported by the patient that could be attributed to organ dysfunction caused by AL. The interval from the time of development of s/s to the establishment of diagnosis of AL (Interval-SA) was calculated. PCD diagnosis preceded recorded onset of s/s in 75% (114/152) of patients, with a median interval-SA for this group of 10 months. PCD was diagnosed after s/s in 25% (38/152) of patients, with a median interval-SA of 20 months. Overall survival (OS) from diagnosis of AL was not different between the two groups. AL amyloidosis patients with an identified pre-existing PCD had less advanced cardiac disease at AL diagnosis when compared to a control group of AL patients without pre-identified PCD. Long-term OS was not significantly superior among patients with a pre-identified PCD. In patients with "asymptomatic" PCD, symptoms and signs of AL amyloidosis should be solicited, since timely diagnosis is important in AL amyloidosis. PMID:25111004

  8. Novel analysis of clonal diversification in blood B cell and bone marrow plasma cell clones in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Roshini S; Manske, Michelle K; Zuckerman, Neta S; Sohni, Abhishek; Edelman, Hanna; Shahaf, Gitit; Timm, Michael M; Dispenzieri, Angela; Gertz, Morie A; Mehr, Ramit

    2007-01-01

    Immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL) is characterized by a limited clonal expansion of plasma cells and amyloid formation. Here, we report restriction in the diversity of VL gene usage with a dominance of clonally related B cells in the peripheral blood (PB) isotype-specific repertoire of AL patients. A rigorous quantification of lineage trees reveals presence of intraclonal variations in the PB clones compared to the bone marrow (BM) clones, which suggests a common precursor that is still subject to somatic mutation. When compared to normal BM and PB B cells, AL clones showed significant but incomplete impairment of antigenic selection, which could not be detected by conventional R and S mutation analysis. Therefore, graphical analysis of B cell lineage trees and mathematical quantification of tree properties provide novel insights into the process of B cell clonal evolution in AL. PMID:17192818

  9. Outcomes and treatments of patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis who progress or relapse postautologous stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Warsame, Rahma; Bang, Soo Mee; Kumar, Shaji K; Gertz, Morie A; Lacy, Martha Q; Buadi, Francis; Dingli, David; Hayman, Suzanne R; Kapoor, Prashant; Kyle, Robert A; Leung, Nelson; Lust, John A; Russell, Stephen J; Witzig, Thomas E; Zeldenrust, Steven R; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Dispenzieri, Angela

    2014-06-01

    Immunoglobulin light chain (AL) Amyloidosis is a condition whereby misfolded proteins generated by plasma cells deposit in tissues causing organ dysfunction. Chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant when eligible are standard treatment options. Several studies report long-term outcomes of patients post-transplant. However, there is a paucity of literature describing outcomes of relapsed patients post-transplant. We performed a retrospective study to assess outcomes and therapies employed upon relapse after transplant. Between 1996 and 2009, 410 patients received transplant at the Mayo Clinic as first-line therapy. Of those patients, 42 (10%) died within 3 months of transplant, 64 (16%) died without documented relapse, 158 (38%) were alive without documented progression, and 146 (36%) had documented progression. Those 146 patients are the subject of our study, and their median time to hematologic relapse/progression was 23.6 months (95%CI 18.3, 26.3 months). Their median overall survival and 5-yrs overall survival from post-transplant relapse/progression was 51.7 months (95%CI 34.1-62.3) and 39%, respectively. The most common first regimen for treatment after relapse was lenalidomide or thalidomide. In conclusion, our study indicates that patients with AL amyloidosis fare well post-transplant relapse/progression. Additionally, it provides a yardstick to design clinical trials to determine best treatment options. PMID:24502602

  10. A role for destabilizing amino acid replacements in light-chain amyloidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hurle, M R; Helms, L R; Li, L; Chan, W; Wetzel, R

    1994-01-01

    Light-chain (L-chain) amyloidosis is characterized by deposition of fibrillar aggregates composed of the N-terminal L-chain variable region (VL) domain of an immunoglobulin, generally in individuals overproducing a monoclonal L chain. In addition to proteolytic fragmentation and high protein concentration, particular amino acid substitutions may also contribute to the tendency of an L chain to aggregate in L-chain amyloidosis, although evidence in support of this has been limited and difficult to interpret. In this paper we identify particular amino acid replacements at specific positions in the VL domain that are occupied at frequencies significantly higher in those L chains associated with amyloidosis. Analysis of the structural model for the VL domain of the Bence-Jones protein REI suggests that these positions play important roles in maintaining domain structure and stability. Using an Escherichia coli expression system, we prepared single-point mutants of REI VL incorporating amyloid-associated amino acid replacements that are both rare and located at structurally important positions. These mutants support ordered aggregate formation in an in vitro L-chain fibril formation model in which wild-type REI VL remains soluble. Moreover, the ability of these sequences to aggregate in vitro correlates well with the extent to which domain stability is decreased in denaturant-induced unfolding. The results are consistent with a mechanism for the disease process in which the VL domain, either before or after proteolytic cleavage from the L-chain constant region domain, unfolds by virtue of one or more destabilizing amino acid replacements to generate an aggregation-prone nonnative state. Images PMID:8202506

  11. Quantitative analysis of serum free light chains. A new marker for the diagnostic evaluation of primary systemic amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Roshini S; Katzmann, Jerry A; Clark, Raynell J; Bradwell, A R; Kyle, Robert A; Gertz, Morie A

    2003-02-01

    Primary systemic amyloidosis is a plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by the accumulation of excess free immunoglobulin light chains (FLCs) as amyloid. One of the diagnostic features of amyloidosis is the presence of circulating monoclonal FLCs in the serum and urine of the patients. The FLC usually is present in small amounts, and immunofixation is required for detection. A nephelometric method for quantitating FLCs in serum has been described using antibodies that recognize only FLC not bound to heavy chain. We describe a retrospective study using this quantitative FLC method for assessing monoclonal FLCs in 95 patients with amyloidosis. The sensitivity of nephelometric serum FLC measurements is particularly useful in patients with negative immunofixation results for serum, urine, or both. In addition, the FLC assay can be used for follow-up of patients with amyloidosis who have undergone stem cell transplantation. PMID:12579999

  12. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation as Bridge-to-Decision in Acute Heart Failure due to Systemic Light-Chain Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Jennifer Mancio; Fontes-Carvalho, Ricardo; Valente, Dília; Almeida, Cristiana; Cruz, António José; Tente, David; Coelho, Henrique; Oliveira, Marco; Albuquerque, Aníbal; Ribeiro, Vasco Gama

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 58 Final Diagnosis: Acute hear failure Symptoms: Dispnoea • edema • fatigue Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Bone marrow biopsy • endomyocardial biopsy • abdominal subcutaneous fat biopsy under ECMO support Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Rare disease Background: Cardiac amyloidosis results from the amyloid deposition in heart tissue, either in the context of a systemic disease or as a localized form. Several pro-amyloid proteins can produce amyloid deposits in the heart. Each of these amyloidoses has characteristic clinical (cardiac and extracardiac) features, and a specific diagnosis and treatment. Case Report: A 58-year-old woman who presented with acute heart failure and echocardiographic findings strongly suggestive of infiltrative cardiomyopathy needed percutaneous veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as bridge-to-decision. Amyloid deposition was found on endomyocardial and bone marrow biopsies. Bone marrow plasma cell infiltrate with acute renal lesion and hypercalcemia confirmed the diagnosis of multiple myeloma-associated systemic light-chain amyloidosis (AL). Refractory shock with multi-organic failure syndrome persisted and no improvements in left ventricular function and structure were seen. After extensive discussion by a multidisciplinary team, and with the patients’ family, she was not considered eligible for high-dose chemotherapy and/or autologous stem cell transplantation, heart transplantation, or sequential heart with autologous stem cell transplantation. The patient died a few hours after ECMO withdrawal. During the 14 days of ECMO support no major bleeding or thrombotic complications occurred. Conclusions: The clinician must consider a diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis in patients with heart failure, a restrictive type of cardiomyopathy with ventricular hypertrophy in the absence of valve abnormalities, or uncontrolled arterial hypertension. Although developments in chemotherapy have greatly improved the outcomes in AL amyloidosis, the prognosis of patients with severe cardiac involvement remains very poor. ECMO is potentially a reliable bridge-to-diagnosis and bridge-to-decision in these patients. An experienced ECMO team, careful patient selection, and rigorous management protocols with objective criteria to wean or stop ECMO are needed. PMID:25803181

  13. Combined use of bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone induces favorable hematological and organ responses in Japanese patients with amyloid light-chain amyloidosis: a single-institution retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Kikukawa, Yoshitaka; Yuki, Hiromichi; Hirata, Sinya; Ide, Kazuhiko; Nakata, Hirotomo; Miyakawa, Toshikazu; Matsuno, Naofumi; Nosaka, Kisato; Yonemura, Yuji; Kawaguchi, Tatsuya; Hata, Hiroyuki; Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Okuno, Yutaka

    2015-02-01

    Amyloid light-chain amyloidosis (ALA) is a rare disease with poor prognosis and is often associated with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, multiple myeloma, or Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Only high-dose melphalan with auto-peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) has shown high long-term hematological response rates, but combinations with novel agents, including bortezomib or lenalidomide, have recently shown high hematological response rates for AL amyloidosis patients. In the present study, we treated eight Japanese patients with AL amyloidosis using bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone (CyBorD). Overall response rate was 100 %; four patients (50 %) had complete remissions (CR), two (25 %) had very good partial responses, and two (25 %) had partial responses. Five of six patients (83 %) had organ responses in the heart and/or kidney. A relapsed patient repeatedly achieved CR with the CyBorD treatment. One patient died of sudden cardiac arrest a month after normalization of his serum free light chain level, which may be attributable to his spending the previous 6 months undergoing PBSCT collection and high-dose melphalan with auto-PBSCT. Altogether, the CyBorD regimen achieved high levels of hematological responses relatively quickly (within 2-3 months). The CyBorD regimen, rather than high-dose melphalan treatment, could serve as a first-line therapy for Japanese patients with ALA. PMID:25430082

  14. Plerixafor and abbreviated-course granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for mobilizing hematopoietic progenitor cells in light chain amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Binod; Strouse, Christopher; D'Souza, Anita; Arce-Lara, Carlos; Esselman, Jeanie; Eastwood, Daniel; Pasquini, Marcelo; Saber, Wael; Drobyski, William; Rizzo, J Douglas; Hari, Parameswaran N; Hamadani, Mehdi

    2014-12-01

    Cytokine-based mobilization in light chain (AL) amyloidosis is frequently complicated by fluid overload, weight gain, cardiac arrhythmias, and peri-mobilization mortality. We analyzed hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) mobilization outcomes in 49 consecutive AL amyloidosis patients at our institution between 2004 and 2013 with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G) (10 μg/kg/day) (n = 25) versus an institutional protocol to limit G exposure using plerixafor (P) (.24 mg/kg s.c. starting day 3 of G 10 μg/kg) (n = 24). G+P strategy yielded higher total CD34(+) cells/kg (12.8 × 10(6) versus 6.3 × 10(6); P < .001) and CD34(+) cells/kg collected on day 1 (10.8 × 10(6) versus 4.9 × 10(6), P = .004) compared with the G cohort. More G+P patients collected ≥5 × 10(6) CD34(+) HPCs/kg (22 versus 16, P = .02) and ≥ 10 × 10(6) CD34(+) HPCs/kg (13 versus 5, P = .01). Four patients (16%) had mobilization failure with G; none with G+P. Peri-mobilization weight gain was lower with G+P strategy (median weight gain 1 versus 7 pounds, P = .009). Numbers of apheresis sessions (median, 1 versus 1, P = .52), number of hospitalization days (median, 1.1 versus 1.6, P = .52), transfusions, use of intravenous antibiotics, and cardiac arrhythmias were similar. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that upfront use of G+P as a mobilization strategy results in superior HPC collection, no mobilization failures, and less weight gain than G alone. PMID:25111581

  15. Abnormal FISH in patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis is a risk factor for cardiac involvement and for death

    PubMed Central

    Warsame, R; Kumar, S K; Gertz, M A; Lacy, M Q; Buadi, F K; Hayman, S R; Leung, N; Dingli, D; Lust, J A; Ketterling, R P; Lin, Y; Russell, S; Hwa, L; Kapoor, P; Go, R S; Zeldenrust, S R; Kyle, R A; Rajkumar, S V; Dispenzieri, A

    2015-01-01

    Importance of interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with cytoplasmic staining of immunoglobulin FISH (cIg-FISH) on bone marrow is not well understood in light chain amyloidosis (AL). This is in contrast with multiple myeloma where prognostic and treatment related decisions are dependent on cytogenetic testing. This retrospective study reviewed 401 AL patients with cIg-FISH testing performed at our institution between 2004 and 2012. Eighty-one percent of patients had an abnormal cIg-FISH. Common abnormalities involved translocations of chromosome 14q32 (52%), specifically: t(11;14) (43%), t(14;16) (3%) and t(4;14) (2%). Other common abnormalities include monosomy 13/deletion 13q (30%), trisomies 9 (20%), 15 (14%), 11 (10%) and 3 (10%). Median overall survival for this cohort of patients is 3.5 years. When plasma cell burden was greater than 10% trisomies predicted for worse survival (44 vs 19 months), and when it was ⩽10% t(11;14) predicted for worse survival (53 months vs not reached). Abnormal cIg-FISH was significantly associated with advanced cardiac involvement, and remained a prognostic factor on multivariate analysis. This large AL cohort demonstrates that abnormal FISH at diagnosis is prognostic for survival and advanced cardiac disease. Particularly, trisomies and t(11;14) affect survival when degree of plasma cell burden is considered. PMID:25933374

  16. Abnormal FISH in patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis is a risk factor for cardiac involvement and for death.

    PubMed

    Warsame, R; Kumar, S K; Gertz, M A; Lacy, M Q; Buadi, F K; Hayman, S R; Leung, N; Dingli, D; Lust, J A; Ketterling, R P; Lin, Y; Russell, S; Hwa, L; Kapoor, P; Go, R S; Zeldenrust, S R; Kyle, R A; Rajkumar, S V; Dispenzieri, A

    2015-01-01

    Importance of interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with cytoplasmic staining of immunoglobulin FISH (cIg-FISH) on bone marrow is not well understood in light chain amyloidosis (AL). This is in contrast with multiple myeloma where prognostic and treatment related decisions are dependent on cytogenetic testing. This retrospective study reviewed 401 AL patients with cIg-FISH testing performed at our institution between 2004 and 2012. Eighty-one percent of patients had an abnormal cIg-FISH. Common abnormalities involved translocations of chromosome 14q32 (52%), specifically: t(11;14) (43%), t(14;16) (3%) and t(4;14) (2%). Other common abnormalities include monosomy 13/deletion 13q (30%), trisomies 9 (20%), 15 (14%), 11 (10%) and 3 (10%). Median overall survival for this cohort of patients is 3.5 years. When plasma cell burden was greater than 10% trisomies predicted for worse survival (44 vs 19 months), and when it was ⩽10% t(11;14) predicted for worse survival (53 months vs not reached). Abnormal cIg-FISH was significantly associated with advanced cardiac involvement, and remained a prognostic factor on multivariate analysis. This large AL cohort demonstrates that abnormal FISH at diagnosis is prognostic for survival and advanced cardiac disease. Particularly, trisomies and t(11;14) affect survival when degree of plasma cell burden is considered. PMID:25933374

  17. Outcomes of light-chain amyloidosis patients treated with first-line bortezomib: a collaborative retrospective multicenter assessment.

    PubMed

    Gatt, Moshe E; Hardan, Izhar; Chubar, Evgeni; Suriu, Celia; Tadmor, Tamar; Shevetz, Olga; Patachenco, Paulina; Dally, Najib; Yeganeh, Shay; Ballan-Haj, Mouna; Cohen, Yael; Trestman, Svetlana; Muchtar, Eli; Magen, Hila; Jakubinsky, Julia; Avivi, Irit

    2016-02-01

    Light-chain amyloidosis (AL) is associated with low survival rates, particularly in patients with cardiac involvement. We evaluated the outcome of 73 consecutive, non-selected 'real-world' AL patients, treated with first-line bortezomib-based induction, focusing on the benefit of concurrent administration of alkylating agents. Most patients had renal (77%), cardiac (66%), or multiorgan (74%) involvement. Sixty-eight per cent (n = 50) received alkylating agent (mostly cyclophosphamide). Severe adverse events were seen in 45%, most evident in patients with cardiac involvement, with no increased toxicity in patients receiving an alkylator agent. Hematological response (HemR) was obtained in 77% of patients, including 33% very good partial responses and 19% complete responses. Age <70 yr, lack of cardiac and peripheral neurologic involvement, and co-administration of an alkylating agent were associated with significantly improved HemR. NYHA cardiac failure staging was the only independent factor affecting overall survival. Administration of an alkylating agent and the achievement of both HemR and organ response were associated with a statistically significant improved survival in those surviving the first 6 months of induction. First-line bortezomib-based regimen resulted in favorable response and survival in newly diagnosed patients. Co-administration of an alkylating agent improved outcome without increasing treatment-related toxicity. PMID:25827161

  18. Stabilisation of Laryngeal AL Amyloidosis with Long Term Curcumin Therapy.

    PubMed

    Golombick, Terry; Diamond, Terrence H; Manoharan, Arumugam; Ramakrishna, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM), smoldering myeloma (SMM), and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) represent a spectrum of plasma cell dyscrasias (PCDs). Immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL) falls within the spectrum of these diseases and has a mortality rate of more than 80% within 2 years of diagnosis. Curcumin, derived from turmeric, has been shown to have a clinical benefit in some patients with PCDs. In addition to a clinical benefit in these patients, curcumin has been found to have a strong affinity for fibrillar amyloid proteins. We thus administered curcumin to a patient with laryngeal amyloidosis and smoldering myeloma and found that the patient has shown a lack of progression of his disease for a period of five years. This is in keeping with our previous findings of clinical benefits of curcumin in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias. We recommend further evaluation of curcumin in patients with primary AL amyloidosis. PMID:26199769

  19. Thermodynamic and fibril formation studies of full length immunoglobulin light chain AL-09 and its germline protein using scan rate dependent thermal unfolding.

    PubMed

    Blancas-Mejía, Luis M; Horn, Timothy J; Marin-Argany, Marta; Auton, Matthew; Tischer, Alexander; Ramirez-Alvarado, Marina

    2015-12-01

    Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a fatal disease where monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains deposit as insoluble amyloid fibrils. For many years it has been considered that AL amyloid deposits are formed primarily by the variable domain, while its constant domain has been considered not to be amyloidogenic. However recent studies identify full length (FL) light chains as part of the amyloid deposits. In this report, we compare the stabilities and amyloidogenic properties of two light chains, an amyloid-associated protein AL-09 FL, and its germline protein κ I O18/O8 FL (IGKV 1-33). We demonstrate that the thermal unfolding for both proteins is irreversible and scan rate dependent, with similar stability parameters compared to their VL counterparts. In addition, the constant domain seems to modulate their amyloidogenic properties and affect the morphology of the amyloid fibrils. These results allow us to understand the role of the kappa constant domain in AL amyloidosis. PMID:26263488

  20. Lenalidomide Desensitization in Systemic Light-Chain Amyloidosis With Multi-Organ Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Jack T.; Sakurai, Naoko; Kukreti, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Limited therapeutic options are available to amyloid patients treated with many lines of therapy. Although combination therapy using lenalidomide and dexamethasone is an effective sequential regimen for systemic amyloidosis (AL), dexamethasone is often poorly tolerated in patients with cardiac involvement. Lenalidomide as single agent has modest activity, but when used in combination with dexamethasone, careful titration is needed. Dermatological adverse reactions can be problematic to patients on lenalidomide-based therapy. Lowering lenalidomide doses have not been able to consistently prevent recurrent skin toxicity. We report a patient who was neither eligible for stem cell transplant nor able to tolerate previous lines of therapy. Therapeutic dilemma arose from lenalidomide-related moderately severe skin toxicity. We enrolled the patient in the lenalidomide rapid desensitization program (RDP) with success in the presence of poor cardiac reserve and renal impairment. No recurrence of skin rash was observed during the course of therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first AL patients who received and tolerated RDP well, despite multi-organ impairments. The target dose may be achieved based on individual patient’s ability to tolerate RDP. Incremental dose increase can be applied in future dates without risk of rash recurrence. PMID:26346623

  1. Lenalidomide Desensitization in Systemic Light-Chain Amyloidosis With Multi-Organ Involvement.

    PubMed

    Seki, Jack T; Sakurai, Naoko; Kukreti, Vishal

    2015-10-01

    Limited therapeutic options are available to amyloid patients treated with many lines of therapy. Although combination therapy using lenalidomide and dexamethasone is an effective sequential regimen for systemic amyloidosis (AL), dexamethasone is often poorly tolerated in patients with cardiac involvement. Lenalidomide as single agent has modest activity, but when used in combination with dexamethasone, careful titration is needed. Dermatological adverse reactions can be problematic to patients on lenalidomide-based therapy. Lowering lenalidomide doses have not been able to consistently prevent recurrent skin toxicity. We report a patient who was neither eligible for stem cell transplant nor able to tolerate previous lines of therapy. Therapeutic dilemma arose from lenalidomide-related moderately severe skin toxicity. We enrolled the patient in the lenalidomide rapid desensitization program (RDP) with success in the presence of poor cardiac reserve and renal impairment. No recurrence of skin rash was observed during the course of therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first AL patients who received and tolerated RDP well, despite multi-organ impairments. The target dose may be achieved based on individual patient's ability to tolerate RDP. Incremental dose increase can be applied in future dates without risk of rash recurrence. PMID:26346623

  2. Amyloid Light-Chain Amyloidosis Manifesting as Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction in a Patient with Hyper-Immunoglobulin E-emia

    PubMed Central

    Nojima, Yuhei; Ihara, Madoka; Kurimoto, Testuya; Nanto, Shinsuke

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 53 Final Diagnosis: Acute heart failure • primary AL amyloidosis • hyper IgE-emia Symptoms: Progressive breathlessness Medication: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta blockers Clinical Procedure: Skin and endomyocardial biopsy Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Rare co-existence of disease or pathology Background: Considering the increased prevalence of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) as a result of the aging population, the pathophysiology of HFpEF needs to be examined. Furthermore, many comorbidity profiles in patients with HFpEF have been reported. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a well-known specific etiology of HFpEF. Cardiac amyloidosis, which mimics infiltrative and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, resulting from intensive amyloid deposition, is easily overlooked. Case Report: A 53-year-old man with a 2-week history of persistent breathlessness was referred to our hospital. Upon admission, transthoracic echocardiography showed concentric mild left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy without a characteristic granular sparkling appearance or pericardial effusion, preserved ejection fraction, and bi-atrial enlargement with normal ventricular chambers. Doppler-derived LV diastolic filling demonstrated a prominent restrictive pattern indicating LV stiffness and elevated LV filling pressure. Blood tests revealed severe elevation of B-type natriuretic peptide and marked elevation of immunoglobulin E without eosinophilia. He was diagnosed with primary amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis via skin and endomyocardial biopsy. Conclusions: We encountered a rare case of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with HFpEF and identified a Doppler-derived restrictive filling pattern suggestive of early-stage heart failure in infiltrative cardiomyopathies. We suggest that infiltrative cardiomyopathies, such as cardiac amyloidosis, should be considered if hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is observed in a patient with HFpEF. PMID:27064109

  3. Gain of chromosome 1q21 is an independent adverse prognostic factor in light chain amyloidosis patients treated with melphalan/dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Bochtler, Tilmann; Hegenbart, Ute; Kunz, Christina; Benner, Axel; Seckinger, Anja; Dietrich, Sascha; Granzow, Martin; Neben, Kai; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Ho, Anthony D; Hose, Dirk; Jauch, Anna; Schönland, Stefan O

    2014-03-01

    Chromosomal aberrations of plasma cells are well established pathogenetic and prognostic factors in multiple myeloma, but their prognostic implication in systemic light chain (AL) amyloidosis is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify prognostic cytogenetic risk factors by interphase FISH in a series of 103 consecutive AL amyloidosis patients treated uniformly with melphalan/dexamethasone as first-line therapy. Detection of gain of 1q21 was predictive for a poor overall survival (OS) (median 12.5 versus 38.2 months, p = 0.002). Hematologic event free survival (hem EFS) for gain of 1q21 was 5.0 versus 8.5 months in median (p = 0.08) and haematologic remission rates (≥VGPR) after three cycles were 5% versus 25% (p = 0.06). Most important, in multivariate concordance analyses the adverse prognosis carried by gain of 1q21 was retained as an independent prognostic factor (OS: p = 0.003, average hazard ratio (AHR) = 3.64, hemEFS: p = 0.008, AHR = 2.35), along with the well established Mayo cardiac staging. Patients with t(11;14) had a longer median OS with 38.2 months versus 17.5 months, though no statistical significance was reached. Deletion 13q14 and hyperdiploidy turned out to be prognostically neutral. In conclusion, we have identified gain of 1q21 as an independent adverse prognostic factor in AL amyloidosis patients treated with standard chemotherapy. PMID:24455967

  4. Treatment with intravenous melphalan and dexamethasone is not able to overcome the poor prognosis of patients with newly diagnosed systemic light chain amyloidosis and severe cardiac involvement.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Sascha; Schönland, Stefan O; Benner, Axel; Bochtler, Tilmann; Kristen, Arnt V; Beimler, Jörg; Hund, Ernst; Zorn, Markus; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Ho, Antony D; Hegenbart, Ute

    2010-07-29

    Treatment with oral melphalan and dexamethasone (M-Dex) was reported to be effective and feasible in patients with systemic light chain amyloidosis (AL) not eligible for high-dose melphalan. We report on 61 patients with advanced AL who were treated with intravenous M-Dex as first-line therapy. Estimated median overall survival (OS) was 17.5 months. Seventeen patients (28%) died within 3 months, mostly of disease-related complications. In addition, nonhematologic toxicity of Common Terminology Criteria grade 3 or 4 was observed in 20 patients, whereas hematologic toxicity was low. Twenty-seven patients (44%) had hematologic response, including complete in 7 patients (11%) and partial remission in 20 patients (33%). Organ response was observed in 15 patients (25%). The amount of the involved free light chains in serum and Karnofsky Index at diagnosis significantly influenced OS. Plasma levels of the cardiac biomarkers before start of treatment and their increase after the third M-Dex cycle also were strong negative predictors of OS. These parameters might help to identify patients who will not benefit from M-Dex chemotherapy. PMID:20375312

  5. Autoimmune disease leading to pulmonary AL amyloidosis and pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ellender, Claire M; McLean, Catriona; Williams, Trevor J; Snell, Gregory I; Whitford, Helen M

    2015-01-01

    A 33-year-old woman with past history of Sjgren's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus presented with dyspnea and syncope secondary to pulmonary hypertension. After progressive symptoms over 4 years, she received bilateral lung transplantation. Histopathology of the explanted lungs showed isolated pulmonary amyloid light-chain amyloidosis and pulmonary cysts. No evidence of systemic amyloidosis was found at the time of transplantation. Seven years post lung transplantation, she remains well with no evidence of systemic amyloidosis recurrence. PMID:26090118

  6. Amyloid Light-Chain Amyloidosis Manifesting as Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction in a Patient with Hyper-Immunoglobulin E-emia.

    PubMed

    Nojima, Yuhei; Ihara, Madoka; Kurimoto, Tetsuya; Nanto, Shinsuke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Considering the increased prevalence of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) as a result of the aging population, the pathophysiology of HFpEF needs to be examined. Furthermore, many comorbidity profiles in patients with HFpEF have been reported. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a well-known specific etiology of HFpEF. Cardiac amyloidosis, which mimics infiltrative and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, resulting from intensive amyloid deposition, is easily overlooked. CASE REPORT A 53-year-old man with a 2-week history of persistent breathlessness was referred to our hospital. Upon admission, transthoracic echocardiography showed concentric mild left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy without a characteristic granular sparkling appearance or pericardial effusion, preserved ejection fraction, and bi-atrial enlargement with normal ventricular chambers. Doppler-derived LV diastolic filling demonstrated a prominent restrictive pattern indicating LV stiffness and elevated LV filling pressure. Blood tests revealed severe elevation of B-type natriuretic peptide and marked elevation of immunoglobulin E without eosinophilia. He was diagnosed with primary amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis via skin and endomyocardial biopsy. CONCLUSIONS We encountered a rare case of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with HFpEF and identified a Doppler-derived restrictive filling pattern suggestive of early-stage heart failure in infiltrative cardiomyopathies. We suggest that infiltrative cardiomyopathies, such as cardiac amyloidosis, should be considered if hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is observed in a patient with HFpEF. PMID:27064109

  7. CSF neurofilament light chain reflects corticospinal tract degeneration in ALS

    PubMed Central

    Menke, Ricarda A L; Gray, Elizabeth; Lu, Ching-Hua; Kuhle, Jens; Talbot, Kevin; Malaspina, Andrea; Turner, Martin R

    2015-01-01

    Objective Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is sensitive to white matter tract pathology. A core signature involving the corticospinal tracts (CSTs) has been identified in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Raised neurofilament light chain protein (NfL) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is thought to reflect axonal damage in a range of neurological disorders. The relationship between these two measures was explored. Methods CSF and serum NfL concentrations and DTI acquired at 3 Tesla on the same day were obtained from ALS patients (n = 25 CSF, 40 serum) and healthy, age-similar controls (n = 17 CSF, 25 serum). Within-group correlations between NfL and DTI measures of microstructural integrity in major white matter tracts (CSTs, superior longitudinal fasciculi [SLF], and corpus callosum) were performed using tract-based spatial statistics. Results NfL levels were higher in patients compared to controls. CSF levels correlated with clinical upper motor neuron burden and rate of disease progression. Higher NfL levels were significantly associated with lower DTI fractional anisotropy and increased radial diffusivity in the CSTs of ALS patients, but not in controls. Interpretation Elevated CSF and serum NfL is, in part, a result of CST degeneration in ALS. This highlights the wider potential for combining neurochemical and neuroimaging-based biomarkers in neurological disease. PMID:26273687

  8. What is the role of giant cells in AL-amyloidosis?

    PubMed

    Olsen, K E; Sletten, K; Sandgren, O; Olsson, H; Myrvold, K; Westermark, P

    1999-06-01

    AL-amyloidosis is one of the most common amyloidoses and can be found in a localized and a systemic form. The precursor protein is an immunoglobulin light chain which as AL-protein in both localized and systemic AL-amyloidosis shows the same pattern of fragmentation and changes of primary structure. In this work it is shown that that there is a difference between localized and systemic amyloidosis in respect to accompanying giant cells which constantly are found associated with amyloid deposits in localized AL-amyloidosis. In addition, giant cells were found together with amyloid deposits in lymph nodes of some cases of systemic AL-amyloidosis. Based on these findings and electron microscopic studies, it is discussed whether the giant cells actively participate in amyloid fibril formation by uptake and modification of the precursor protein or the giant cells are part of a foreign body reaction. Included in this work are two new cases of localized lung (lambda I) and ureteric (kappa I) AL-amyloidosis. PMID:10439114

  9. [Cardiac amyloidosis].

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Caroline; Angermann, Christiane E; Knop, Stefan; Ertl, Georg; Störk, Stefan

    2008-03-15

    Amyloidoses are a heterogeneous group of multisystem disorders, which are characterized by an extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils. Typically affected are the heart, liver, kidneys, and nervous system. More than half of the patients die due to cardiac involvement. Clinical signs of cardiac amyloidosis are edema of the lower limbs, hepatomegaly, ascites and elevated jugular vein pressure, frequently in combination with dyspnea. There can also be chest pain, probably due to microvessel disease. Dysfunction of the autonomous nervous system or arrhythmias may cause low blood pressure, dizziness, or recurrent syncope. The AL amyloidosis caused by the deposition of immunoglobulin light chains is the most common form. It can be performed by monoclonal gammopathy. The desirable treatment therapy consists of high-dose melphalan therapy twice followed by autologous stem cell transplantation. Due to the high peritransplantation mortality, selection of appropriate patients is mandatory. The ATTR amyloidosis is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by the amyloidogenic form of transthyretin, a plasmaprotein that is synthesized in the liver. Therefore, liver transplantation is the only curative therapy. The symptomatic treatment of cardiac amyloidosis is based on the current guidelines for chronic heart failure according to the patient's New York Heart Association (NYHA) state. Further types of amyloidosis with possible cardiac involvement comprise the senile systemic amyloidosis caused by the wild-type transthyretin, secondary amyloidosis after chronic systemic inflammation, and the beta(2)-microglobulin amyloidosis after long-term dialysis treatment. PMID:18344065

  10. Development of Renal Failure without Proteinuria in a Patient with Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance: An Unusual Presentation of AL Kappa Amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yijuan; Sandhu, Amarpreet; Gabaldon, Darlene; Danaraj, Jonathan; Servilla, Karen S; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2012-01-01

    AL amyloidosis complicating monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) has usually a predominant glomerular deposition of lambda light chain. Heavy proteinuria is one of its cardinal manifestations. A 78-year-old man with a 9-year history of IgG kappa light-chain-MGUS and normal urine protein excretion developed severe renal failure. Serum levels of kappa light chain and serum IgG had been stable while proteinuria was absent throughout the nine-year period. For the first eight years, he had stable stage III chronic kidney disease attributed to bladder outlet obstruction secondary to prostatic malignancy. In the last year, he developed progressive serum creatinine elevation, without any increase in the serum or urine levels of paraproteins or any sign of malignancy. Renal ultrasound and furosemide renogram showed no evidence of urinary obstruction. Renal biopsy revealed AL amyloidosis, with reactivity exclusive for kappa light chains, affecting predominantly the vessels and the interstitium. Glomerular involvement was minimal. Melphalan and prednisone were initiated. However, renal function continues deteriorating. Deposition of AL kappa amyloidosis developing during the course of MGUS predominantly in the wall of the renal vessels and the renal interstitium, while the involvement of the glomeruli is minimal, leads to progressive renal failure and absence of proteinuria. Renal biopsy is required to detect both the presence and the sites of deposition of renal AL kappa light chain amyloidosis. PMID:24555136

  11. The clinical features and outcomes of systemic AL amyloidosis: a cohort of 231 Chinese patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xianghua; Wang, Qingwen; Jiang, Song; Chen, Wencui; Zeng, Caihong; Liu, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    Background Few data are available on the clinical features and outcomes of Chinese patients with systemic immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) amyloidosis. The aim of this study is to reveal the clinical picture and risk factors of disease progression in a large cohort of Chinese patients with AL amyloidosis. Methods Patients in the Jinling Hospital amyloidosis registry from 2003 to 2011 were studied. The clinical and laboratory information were collected from first presentation to death or until the last available clinical follow-up. The patients' survival and renal outcomes were analyzed, and the relationships between the clinical parameters and survival were also assessed. Results A total of 231 patients were enrolled in this study, all the patients studied had renal involvement. One hundred and fifty-three (66.2%) were male, and the median age at diagnosis was 56 years. A total of 198 (85.7%) cases had light-chain ?-type. One hundred and forty-seven (63.6%) cases presented as nephrotic syndrome (NS), and 25% of patients had renal insufficiency at diagnosis. Liver involvement and NS appeared to be more common in patients of ?-type amyloidosis, and renal impairment is more severe in ?-type amyloidosis. The median survival time of all patients was 36.3 months, and the 1-, 2-, 3- and 5-year cumulative survival rates were 67, 53, 48 and 35%, respectively. Multivariate COX analysis showed that age, hepatic involvement and heart involvement can significantly influence survival in these patients. The median time that patients remained dialysis free was 50 months. The percentage of patients that remained dialysis free at 1, 2, 3 and 5 years were 78, 69, 62 and 37%, respectively. Multivariate COX analysis showed that serum creatinine and hypotension were the important risk factors of renal failure. Conclusion ?-Type is the most dominant type of AL amyloidosis in Chinese patients. The survival of patients with AL amyloidosis is poor. The risk factors included heart and hepatic involvement, hypotension and impairment of renal function. The high serum creatinine level and hypotension at diagnosis are associated with poor renal outcome. PMID:25713722

  12. Sudden death due to undiagnosed primary amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Morin, Jason; Schreiber, William E; Lee, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Amyloidosis is a disease characterized by abnormal deposition of amyloid protein within tissues throughout the body. The site of deposition can differ between patients, and therefore, clinical presentation can vary. Here, we present a case of previously undiagnosed amyloidosis presenting with sudden death. Autopsy demonstrated amyloid infiltration of intramural myocardial vessels, in the absence of myocardial involvement, leading to acute myocardial infarction and death. Postmortem analysis on femoral blood demonstrated an increase in the concentration of free lambda light chains with a significantly decreased kappa-to-lambda ratio, confirming the amyloidosis to be of AL type. While cardiac involvement in AL amyloidosis is not uncommon, isolated intramural vessel involvement is rarely seen, and to our knowledge, no reported cases have resulted in sudden death. This case highlights the importance of investigating angina-like symptoms in patients with amyloidosis. It also demonstrates that free light chain analysis can be a useful tool for diagnosing and classifying amyloidosis in postmortem investigations. PMID:23181621

  13. 77 FR 6466 - Schedule for Rating Disabilities; AL Amyloidosis (Primary Amyloidosis)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... 22, 2010, VA published in the Federal Register (75 FR 65279) a proposed rule that would add AL... decision was published in the Federal Register at 74 FR 21258, which amended 38 CFR 3.309(e) by adding AL..., insoluble proteins called light chain amyloid proteins in any organ of the body, interfering with...

  14. Impact of Regional Left Ventricular Function on Outcome for Patients with AL Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Sebastian; Cikes, Maja; Störk, Stefan; Beer, Meinrad; Gaudron, Philipp Daniel; Morbach, Caroline; Knop, Stefan; Geissinger, Eva; Ertl, Georg; Bijnens, Bart; Weidemann, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to explore the left ventricular (LV) deformation changes and the potential impact of deformation on outcome in patients with proven light-chain (AL) amyloidosis and LV hypertrophy. Background Cardiac involvement in AL amyloidosis patients is associated with poor outcome. Detecting regional cardiac function by advanced non-invasive techniques might be favorable for predicting outcome. Methods LV longitudinal, circumferential and radial peak systolic strains (Ssys) were assessed by speckle tracking imaging (STI) in 44 biopsy-proven systemic AL amyloidosis patients with LV hypertrophy (CA) and in 30 normal controls. Patients were divided into compensated (n = 18) and decompensated (n = 26) group based on clinical assessment and followed-up for a median period of 345 days. Results Ejection fraction (EF) was preserved while longitudinal Ssys (LSsys) was significantly reduced in both compensated and decompensated groups. Survival was significantly reduced in decompensated group (35% vs. compensated 78%, P = 0.001). LSsys were similar in apical segments and significantly reduced in basal segments between two patient groups. LSsys at mid-segments were significantly reduced in all LV walls of decompensated group. Patients were further divided into 4 subgroups according to the presence or absence of reduced LSsys in no (normal), only basal (mild), basal and mid (intermediate) and all segments of the septum (severe). This staging revealed continuously worse prognosis in proportion to increasing number of segments with reduced LSsys (mortality: normal 14%, mild 27%, intermediate 67%, and severe 64%). Mid-septum LSsys<11% suggested a 4.8-fold mortality risk than mid-septum LSsys≥11%. Multivariate regression analysis showed NYHA class and mid-septum LSsys were independent predictors for survival. Conclusions Reduced deformation at mid-septum is associated with worse prognosis in systemic amyloidosis patients with LV hypertrophy. PMID:23520459

  15. Amyloidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical, surgical, radiation, gynecologic, and pediatric oncologists, oncology nurses, physician assistants, social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Amyloidosis ... with Side Effects Follow-Up Care Questions to ...

  16. Malnutrition, pharmaconutrition and other considerations in AL amyloidosis, a rare disease with masquerading symptoms and usually delayed diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Franco-López, Ángeles; Culebras, Jesús M

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid Light-chain (AL) amyloidosis is a very rare disease. Nutritional and pharmaconutrional aspects are described. Nutrition repletion of malnourished AL patients is an essential strategy for improving treatment efficacy and clinical outcomes. Early diagnosis of AL amiloidosis is difficult to establish due to the fact that signs and symptoms appearing mimic other processes that delay the final correct histological diagnosis. Untreated patients with this disease have a dismal outcome, with a median survival of 10-14 months from diagnosis. The sooner the treatment is established the better the results are. Modern chemotherapeutical agents, based primarily in cyclophosphamide, bortethomid and dexametasone, produce a rapid, deep, and durable response in the majority of patients. Autologous stem cell transplantation remains restricted to selected patients who are generally without advanced cardiac amyloidosis. PMID:26040337

  17. Clinical and echocardiographic characteristics for differentiating between transthyretin-related and light-chain cardiac amyloidoses.

    PubMed

    Mori, Minako; An, Yoshimori; Katayama, Oju; Kitagawa, Tomoya; Sasaki, Yuya; Onaka, Takashi; Yonezawa, Akihito; Murata, Kenichiro; Yokota, Tadaaki; Ando, Kenji; Imada, Kazunori

    2015-11-01

    Differential diagnosis between transthyretin (TTR) and immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) cardiac amyloidoses is essential due to significantly different prognoses and therapeutic options. Therefore, clinical characteristics of patients with biopsy-proven cardiac amyloidosis were investigated to differentiate TTR from AL amyloidosis. From September 2006 to May 2014, 46 patients were confirmed to have cardiac amyloidosis (TTR, n = 28; AL, n = 18) in our institute. The median age of patients with TTR amyloidosis was 78 years (range 61-90) with 27 (96 %) males, while that of patients with AL amyloidosis was 66 (range 52-76) with 12 (67 %) males. There were no statistically significant differences in echocardiographic findings regarding left ventricular (LV) systolic function or diastolic dysfunction between the two groups. Interestingly, serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in patients with AL amyloidosis were significantly higher than those in TTR amyloidosis patients. In contrast, the LV wall was significantly thicker in patients with TTR amyloidosis than in those with AL amyloidosis. Therefore, the ratio of BNP to LV mass index (LVMI) at presentation in AL amyloidosis patients was significantly higher than that in TTR patients (6.7 vs 2.9, p = 0.0006). A BNP-LVMI ratio of less than 3.5 had a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for TTR amyloidosis of 71 and 83 %, respectively. One-year overall survival was 88.7 % in the patients with TTR amyloidosis and 23.7 % in the patients with AL amyloidosis. Our analysis indicates that the BNP-LVMI ratio, as well as age and sex, may be useful parameters for distinguishing TTR from AL cardiac amyloidosis. PMID:26251157

  18. Bortezomib and dexamethasone consolidation following risk-adapted melphalan and stem cell transplantation for patients with newly diagnosed light-chain amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Landau, H; Hassoun, H; Rosenzweig, M A; Maurer, M; Liu, J; Flombaum, C; Bello, C; Hoover, E; Riedel, E; Giralt, S; Comenzo, R L

    2013-04-01

    To improve the efficacy of risk-adapted melphalan (MEL) in patients with amyloidosis (AL), we conducted a phase II trial using bortezomib and dexamethasone (BD) as consolidation. Forty untreated patients with renal (70%), cardiac (65%), liver/gastrointestinal (15%) or nervous system (13%) AL were assigned MEL 100, 140 or 200 mg/m(2) based on age, renal function and cardiac involvement. Hematological response was assessed at 3 months post stem cell transplant (SCT); patients with less than complete hematological response (CR) received BD consolidation. Four patients with advanced cardiac AL died within 100 days of SCT (10% treatment-related mortality). Survival at 12 and 24 months post treatment start was 88 and 82% overall and was 81 and 72% in patients with cardiac AL. At 3 months post SCT, 45% had ≥ partial response (PR) including 27% CR. Twenty-three patients received consolidation and in 86% response improved; all patients responded in one cycle. At 12 and 24 months, 79 and 60% had ≥ PR, 58 and 40% CR. Organ responses occurred in 55 and 70% at 12 and 24 months. Eight patients relapsed/progressed. One patient with serologic progression had organ impairment at time of progression. In newly diagnosed AL, BD following SCT rapidly and effectively improves responses resulting in high CR rates and maintained organ improvement. PMID:23014566

  19. Nodular pulmonary amyloidosis with spontaneous fatal blood aspiration.

    PubMed

    Morgenthal, S; Bayer, R; Schneider, E; Zachäus, M; Röcken, C; Dreßler, J; Ondruschka, B

    2016-05-01

    Amyloidosis is a multisystem disease, which is characterized by the extracellular deposition of insoluble abnormal fibrils. Histological and subsequent immunohistochemical examinations are necessary for the determination of the diagnosis and the classification of the amyloid type. The most common systemic variant is immunoglobulin-derived light chain (AL) amyloidosis. However, local or organ-limited AL amyloidosis can occur. Isolated pulmonary amyloidosis is a rare condition and frequently an incidental finding at chest scans or during autopsy. Generally, it is associated with a benign prognosis. Here, we present two fatal cases, in which the cause of death was asphyxiation due to severe blood aspiration. During autopsy, several nodules were found in the lungs. Based on histological and immunohistochemical analysis, the diagnosis of an isolated nodular pulmonary AL amyloidosis lambda light chain was made. Amyloid was also present in pulmonary blood vessels, which lead to fragility and finally fatal hemorrhage. PMID:27017172

  20. Safety and efficacy of high-dose melphalan and auto-SCT in patients with AL amyloidosis and cardiac involvement.

    PubMed

    Girnius, S; Seldin, D C; Meier-Ewert, H K; Sloan, J M; Quillen, K; Ruberg, F L; Berk, J L; Doros, G; Sanchorawala, V

    2014-03-01

    In Ig light chain (AL) amyloidosis, cardiac involvement is associated with worse prognosis and increased treatment-related complications. In this retrospective cohort study, we assessed survival, hematologic and cardiac responses to high-dose melphalan and auto-SCT (HDM/SCT) in patients with AL amyloidosis and cardiac involvement, stratified by cardiac biomarkers brain natriuretic peptide and Troponin I, analogous to the Mayo cardiac staging. Forty-seven patients underwent HDM/SCT based upon functional measures; six patients had modified cardiac stage I disease, seventeen had modified cardiac stage II disease and twenty-four had modified cardiac stage III disease. Treatment-related mortality was 4% for all patients and 8% for patients with stage III disease. Three-year survival was 88% and EFS was 47%; these did not differ by stage. By intention-to-treat analysis, 27% of patients achieved a hematologic complete response and 32% a very good partial response, of whom 70 and 45%, respectively, have not required additional therapy at 36 months. Cardiac response was achieved in 53% of patients. We conclude that with appropriate patient selection and a risk-adapted treatment approach, HDM/SCT is safe and effective in patients with AL amyloidosis and cardiac involvement. PMID:24317129

  1. Amyloidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Glenner, G.G.; Osserman, E.F.

    1986-01-01

    The subjects covered in this Symposium range through almost every clinical medical specialty. From an average of one paper in each of the past three Symposiums, the explosive interest in cerebral amyloidosis has led to the presentation of 12 papers on this subject in the present volume. The genetically predisposed familial amyloidotic processes, such as the polyneuropathies and familial Mediterranean fever have also stimulated extensive and intriguing investigations which have revealed the striking effect of a single amino acid substitution in transforming a normal protein into a lethal ''amyloidogenic'' one. This Symposium clearly depicts the advances since the first amyloid fibril protein was definitively identified and defined 14 years ago. Since all amyloid fibril proteins so far described are variants of normal proteins, attention to gene abnormalities now becomes a significant focus as well as the pathogenic sequences which lead in these cases to twisted BETA-pleated sheet (amyloid) fibril formation. Tentative concepts such as the ''amyloidogenic protein precursor of the fibril,'' ''proteolysis as one mechanism of fibril formation,'' ''Congo red birefringence as a marker for the twisted BETA-pleated sheet protein'' are now substantiated by recurring confirmation. Even a prophylactic treatment for one of the amyloidotic conditions, familial Mediterranean fever, is now available. Predictably, as the pathogeneses of the amyloid diseases are individually deciphered, highly specific and directed therapies will evolve to treat their devastated victims.

  2. Serum free light chain analysis in the diagnosis and management of multiple myeloma and related conditions.

    PubMed

    Graziani, Maria Stella; Merlini, Giampaolo

    2014-01-01

    The serum free light chain (FLC) assay is an important tool in the management of patients with monoclonal gammopathies. MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from January 2000 through July 2013, were used as data sources. The available evidence is rather weak. For screening of multiple myeloma and related conditions, the association of the FLC assay with the traditional serum tests avoids urine study. Screening for immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) amyloidosis or other rare syndromes requires the urine examination. FLC measurement is used in the assessment of the risk of progression of precursor diseases to overt myeloma, and for risk stratification in solitary plasmacytoma, multiple myeloma and AL amyloidosis. In patients with oligosecretory myeloma and AL amyloidosis, the quantification of FLC is essential for monitoring and categorization of response to therapy. Further studies with improved design are warranted to strengthen the available evidence. PMID:24308339

  3. Bortezomib-based induction for transplant ineligible AL amyloidosis and feasibility of later transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cornell, R F; Zhong, X; Arce-Lara, C; Atallah, E; Blust, L; Drobyski, W R; Fenske, T S; Pasquini, M C; Rizzo, J D; Saber, W; Hari, P N

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies support the use of bortezomib-based therapies in light chain amyloidosis (AL). We performed a retrospective analysis of the safety, efficacy and long-term survival (median follow-up 3 years) after bortezomib-based treatment in 28 consecutive patients with de novo AL deemed ineligible at initial presentation. The first 14 patients received bortezomib and dexamethasone (VD), and the second 14 patients received cyclophosphamide, bortezomib and dexamethasone (CVD; CyBorD). Both regimens were well tolerated with no treatment-related mortality. The overall hematological response (HR) rate was 93% in both the groups. Median time to response was shorter in the CVD group (39 days vs 96 days in the VD group; P=0.002). Hematological and organ responses induced with bortezomib-based therapy enabled 8 (33%) of initially transplant ineligible patients to undergo autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHCT), including 4 patients with cardiac stage III or IV. Seven of the eight patients (88%) who underwent subsequent AHCT achieved sustained HR at a median of 33 months posttransplant. These data suggest that bortezomib-based induction followed by AHCT is a viable therapeutic strategy for transplant-ineligible AL. Larger, multicenter prospective trials are necessary to confirm our findings. PMID:25915809

  4. Bone marrow amyloid spherulites in a case of AL amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Bommannan B K, Karthik; Sonai, Mukinkumar; Sachdeva, Man Updesh Singh

    2016-05-01

    Parallel arrangement of β-pleated sheets by amyloidogenic proteins is a well known phenomenon. Rarely, amyloid fibrils undergo radial orientation to form globular structures called spherulites. These amyloid spherulites show Maltese cross pattern under polarized microscopy. The clinical significance of amyloid spherulites is undetermined. Amyloidogenic proteins like insulin and β-lactoglobulin form spherulites in vitro. The senile plaques of Alzheimer's disease rarely form in vivo spherulites. Amyloid spherulites have been described in the liver and small intestine. For the first time, we document amyloid spherulite formation in the bone marrow biopsy of an AL amyloidosis patient. PMID:27067483

  5. Management of systemic AL amyloidosis: recommendations of the Myeloma Foundation of Australia Medical and Scientific Advisory Group.

    PubMed

    Weber, N; Mollee, P; Augustson, B; Brown, R; Catley, L; Gibson, J; Harrison, S; Ho, P J; Horvath, N; Jaksic, W; Joshua, D; Quach, H; Roberts, A W; Spencer, A; Szer, J; Talaulikar, D; To, B; Zannettino, A; Prince, H M

    2015-04-01

    Systemic AL amyloidosis is a plasma cell dyscrasia with a characteristic clinical phenotype caused by multi-organ deposition of an amyloidogenic monoclonal protein. This condition poses a unique management challenge due to the complexity of the clinical presentation and the narrow therapeutic window of available therapies. Improved appreciation of the need for risk stratification, standardised use of sensitive laboratory testing for monitoring disease response, vigilant supportive care and the availability of newer agents with more favourable toxicity profiles have contributed to the improvement in treatment-related mortality and overall survival seen over the past decade. Nonetheless, with respect to the optimal management approach, there is a paucity of high-level clinical evidence due to the rarity of the disease, and enrollment in clinical trials is still the preferred approach where available. This review will summarise the Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Management of Systemic Light Chain (AL) Amyloidosis recently prepared by the Medical Scientific Advisory Group of the Myeloma Foundation of Australia. It is hoped that these guidelines will assist clinicians in better understanding and optimising the management of this difficult disease. PMID:25169210

  6. Immunoglobulin light chains, glycosaminoglycans and amyloid.

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, F. J.; Kisilevsky, R.; Biosciences Division; Queen's Univ.

    2000-03-01

    Immunoglobulin light chains are the precursor proteins for fibrils that are formed during primary amyloidosis and in amyloidosis associated with multiple myeloma. As found for the approximately 20 currently described forms of focal, localized, or systemic amyloidoses, light chain-related fibrils extracted from physiological deposits are invariably associated with glycosaminoglycans, predominantly heparan sulfate. Other amyloid-related proteins are either structurally normal, such as g2-microglobulin and islet amyloid polypeptide, fragments of normal proteins such as serum amyloid A protein or the precursor protein of the g peptide involved in Alzheimer's disease, or are inherited forms of single amino acid variants of a normal protein such as found in the familial forms of amyloid associated with transthyretin. In contrast, the primary structures of light chains involved in fibril formation exhibit extensive mutational diversity rendering some proteins highly amyloidogenic and others non-pathological. The interactions between light chains and glycosaminoglycans are also affected by amino acid variation and may influence the clinical course of disease by enhancing fibril stability and contributing to resistance to protease degradation. Relatively little is currently known about the mechanisms by which glycosaminoglycans interact with light chains and light-chain fibrils. It is probable that future studies of this uniquely diverse family of proteins will continue o shed light on the processes of amyloidosis, and contribute as well to a greater understanding of the normal physiological roles of glycosaminoglycans.

  7. Systemic AA amyloidosis: epidemiology, diagnosis, and management.

    PubMed

    Real de Asa, Diego; Costa, Ramn; Galvn, Jose Mara; Filigheddu, Mara Teresa; Trujillo, Davinia; Cadianos, Julen

    2014-01-01

    The term "amyloidosis" encompasses the heterogeneous group of diseases caused by the extracellular deposition of autologous fibrillar proteins. The global incidence of amyloidosis is estimated at five to nine cases per million patient-years. While amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis is more frequent in developed countries, amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is more common in some European regions and in developing countries. The spectrum of AA amyloidosis has changed in recent decades owing to: an increase in the median age at diagnosis; a percent increase in the frequency of primary AL amyloidosis with respect to the AA type; and a substantial change in the epidemiology of the underlying diseases. Diagnosis of amyloidosis is based on clinical organ involvement and histological evidence of amyloid deposits. Among the many tinctorial characteristics of amyloid deposits, avidity for Congo red and metachromatic birefringence under unidirectional polarized light remain the gold standard. Once the initial diagnosis has been made, the amyloid subtype must be identified and systemic organ involvement evaluated. In this sense, the (123)I-labeled serum amyloid P component scintigraphy is a safe and noninvasive technique that has revolutionized the diagnosis and monitoring of treatment in systemic amyloidosis. It can successfully identify anatomical patterns of amyloid deposition throughout the body and enables not only an initial estimation of prognosis, but also the monitoring of the course of the disease and the response to treatment. Given the etiologic diversity of AA amyloidosis, common therapeutic strategies are scarce. All treatment options should be based upon a greater control of the underlying disease, adequate organ support, and treatment of symptoms. Nevertheless, novel therapeutic strategies targeting the formation of amyloid fibrils and amyloid deposition may generate new expectations for patients with AA amyloidosis. PMID:25378951

  8. Characterization of amyloidogenic immunoglobulin light chains directly from serum by on-line immunoaffinity isolation.

    PubMed

    Bergen, H Robert; Abraham, Roshini S; Johnson, Kenneth L; Bradwell, Arthur R; Naylor, Stephen

    2004-04-01

    Primary systemic amyloidosis (AL) is characterized by the overproduction of immunoglobulin light chain proteins by a monoclonal, terminally differentiated B-lymphocyte or plasma cell clone. The free immunoglobulin light chains are deposited in an abnormal conformation as amyloid in a variety of organs in the body. The mechanism of amyloid formation is not well understood, but appears to be associated with some form of cleavage of the immunoglobulin light chain with subsequent aggregate formation. In an attempt to characterize the structure of amyloid-forming light chain proteins we developed an on-line immunoaffinity purification and subsequent characterization of free kappa and free lambda immunoglobulin light chains by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The methodology is totally automated and requires 20 micro L of serum. Mass spectral analysis of Bence Jones proteins under non-denaturing conditions was also utilized to examine the tertiary and quaternary structure of light chain proteins and clearly shows covalent dimer formation of lambda type light chain. This type of on-line assay may prove helpful in elucidating distinguishing features capable of discriminating AL from benign monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance as well as diagnosing AL. PMID:15103706

  9. Interaction between glycosaminoglycans and immunoglobulin light chains.

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, X.; Myatt, E.; Lykos, P.; Stevens, F. J.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Illinois Inst. of Tech.

    1997-01-01

    Amyloidosis is a pathological process in which normally soluble proteins polymerize to form insoluble fibrils (amyloid). Amyloid formation is found in a number of diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, adult-onset diabetes, and light-chain-associated amyloidosis. No pharmaceutical methods currently exist to prevent this process or to remove the fibrils from tissue. The search for treatment and prevention methods is hampered by a limited understanding of the biophysical basis of amyloid formation. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are long, unbranched heteropolysaccharides composed of repeating disaccharide subunits and are known to associate with amyloid fibrils. The interaction of amyloid-associated free light chains with GAGs was tested by both size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis experiments. The results indicated that heparin 16 000 and chondroitin sulfate B and C precipitated both human intact light chains and recombinant light chain variable domains. Although all light chains interacted with heparin, the strongest interactions were obtained with proteins that had formed amyloid. Molecular modeling indicated the possibility of interaction between heparin and the conserved saddle like surface of the light chain dimer opposite the complementarity-determining segments that form part of the antigen-binding site of a functional antibody. This suggestion might offer a new path to block the aggregation of amyloid-associated light chain proteins, by design of antagonists based on properties of GAG binding. A hexasaccharide was modeled as the basis for a possible antagonist.

  10. Tertiary structure of human {Lambda}6 light chains.

    SciTech Connect

    Pokkuluri, P. R.; Solomon, A.; Weiss, D. T.; Stevens, F. J.; Schiffer, M.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Univ. of Tennessee Medical Center /Graduate School of Medicine

    1999-01-01

    AL amyloidosis is a disease process characterized by the pathologic deposition of monoclonal light chains in tissue. To date, only limited information has been obtained on the molecular features that render such light chains amyloidogenic. Although protein products of the major human V kappa and V lambda gene families have been identified in AL deposits, one particular subgroup--lambda 6--has been found to be preferentially associated with this disease. Notably, the variable region of lambda 6 proteins (V lambda 6) has distinctive primary structural features including the presence in the third framework region (FR3) of two additional amino acid residues that distinguish members of this subgroup from other types of light chains. However, the structural consequences of these alterations have not been elucidated. To determine if lambda 6 proteins possess unique tertiary structural features, as compared to light chains of other V lambda subgroups, we have obtained x-ray diffraction data on crystals prepared from two recombinant V lambda 6 molecules. These components, isolated from a bacterial expression system, were generated from lambda 6-related cDNAs cloned from bone marrow-derived plasma cells from a patient (Wil) who had documented AL amyloidosis and another (Jto) with multiple myeloma and tubular cast nephropathy, but no evident fibrillar deposits. The x-ray crystallographic analyses revealed that the two-residue insertion located between positions 68 and 69 (not between 66 and 67 as previously surmised) extended an existing loop region that effectively increased the surface area adjacent to the first complementarity determining region (CDR1). Further, an unusual interaction between the Arg 25 and Phe 2 residues commonly found in lambda 6 molecules was noted. However, the structures of V lambda 6 Wil and Jto also differed from each other, as evidenced by the presence in the latter of certain ionic and hydrophobic interactions that we posit increased protein stability and thus prevented amyloid formation.

  11. Systemic AA amyloidosis: epidemiology, diagnosis, and management

    PubMed Central

    Real de Asúa, Diego; Costa, Ramón; Galván, Jose María; Filigheddu, María Teresa; Trujillo, Davinia; Cadiñanos, Julen

    2014-01-01

    The term “amyloidosis” encompasses the heterogeneous group of diseases caused by the extracellular deposition of autologous fibrillar proteins. The global incidence of amyloidosis is estimated at five to nine cases per million patient-years. While amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis is more frequent in developed countries, amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is more common in some European regions and in developing countries. The spectrum of AA amyloidosis has changed in recent decades owing to: an increase in the median age at diagnosis; a percent increase in the frequency of primary AL amyloidosis with respect to the AA type; and a substantial change in the epidemiology of the underlying diseases. Diagnosis of amyloidosis is based on clinical organ involvement and histological evidence of amyloid deposits. Among the many tinctorial characteristics of amyloid deposits, avidity for Congo red and metachromatic birefringence under unidirectional polarized light remain the gold standard. Once the initial diagnosis has been made, the amyloid subtype must be identified and systemic organ involvement evaluated. In this sense, the 123I-labeled serum amyloid P component scintigraphy is a safe and noninvasive technique that has revolutionized the diagnosis and monitoring of treatment in systemic amyloidosis. It can successfully identify anatomical patterns of amyloid deposition throughout the body and enables not only an initial estimation of prognosis, but also the monitoring of the course of the disease and the response to treatment. Given the etiologic diversity of AA amyloidosis, common therapeutic strategies are scarce. All treatment options should be based upon a greater control of the underlying disease, adequate organ support, and treatment of symptoms. Nevertheless, novel therapeutic strategies targeting the formation of amyloid fibrils and amyloid deposition may generate new expectations for patients with AA amyloidosis. PMID:25378951

  12. Cardiac immunocyte-derived (AL) amyloidosis: an endomyocardial biopsy study in 11 patients.

    PubMed

    Arbustini, E; Merlini, G; Gavazzi, A; Grasso, M; Diegoli, M; Fasani, R; Bellotti, V; Marinone, G; Morbini, P; Dal Bello, B

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the spectrum of morphologic features in myocardial biopsy specimens from patients with cardiac immunocyte-derived (AL) amyloidosis. Cardiac involvement is the most important predictor of survival in AL amyloidosis. Myocardial biopsy remains the method of choice for diagnosing cardiac amyloidosis when noninvasive studies give equivocal results. Histologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and morphometric studies were made on myocardial biopsy specimens from 11 patients in whom the diagnosis of AL amyloidosis was based on the demonstration of a monoclonal immunoglobulinopathy and of amyloid deposits in tissues. Histopathologic study showed amyloid in 10 of the 11 biopsies. In one biopsy (Congo red negative), the diagnosis was made by ultrastructural identification of amyloid fibrils. In all patients, the deposits formed perimyocytic layers that measured up to 18 microns in thickness. These layers formed along the basement membranes, which were partially preserved in 5 patients and unrecognizable in 6. Interstitial nodular deposits were also present in 5 patients. Immunohistochemical studies for the characterization of the proteins in the amyloid deposits were diagnostic in 1 patient and confirmatory in 10. Nodular deposits, thick perimyocytic layers of amyloid and small myocyte diameters were associated with shorter survival of the patients. Small-vessel involvement and myofilament loss occurred in all patients. In conclusion, myocardial biopsy serves to (1) establish the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis; (2) characterize immunohistochemically the proteins in the amyloid fibrils and (3) assess the degree of myocyte damage and atrophy. PMID:7661071

  13. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratorial profile of renal amyloidosis: a 12-year retrospective study of 37 cases

    PubMed Central

    da Fonseca, Elissa Oliveira; Filho, Porphirio Jose Soares; da Silva, Licinio Esmeraldo; Caldas, Maria Lucia Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Renal amyloidosis is one of the main differential diagnoses in the investigation of nephrotic proteinuria in adults, especially elderly patients. Objectives: The aim of this article is to contribute to international research with epidemiologic data of renal amyloidosis, given the lack of uniformity described in the literature. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study of 37 cases of renal amyloidosis diagnosed by kidney biopsy, between 2000 and 2011, considering epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data. Results: Subjects aged between 32 and 80 years. Of the 37 cases, 21 (56.8%) were diagnosed as non-light chain (non-AL) renal amyloidosis and 16 (43.2%) as light chain amyloidosis (AL). There was seen an increase in number of both AL and non-AL cases, with a slight predominance in non-AL. The mean 24-hour proteinuria was 5839.0 mg/day. Hematuria was present in 75% of patients. Hypertension was reported in 34% of patients. Acute renal failure, occurred in about 10% of patients, and chronic loss of renal function was present in about 5% at diagnosis. Conclusions: Renal amyloidosis is a disease of increasing incidence. The forms of clinical presentation proved to be variable, but the presence of proteinuria or nephrotic syndrome in elderly patients should always prompt the suspicion of renal amyloidosis and is a formal indication of renal biopsy. PMID:25657979

  14. Presumptive service connection for disease associated with exposure to certain herbicide agents: AL amyloidosis. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2009-05-01

    This document amends the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adjudication regulations concerning presumptive service connection for a certain disease based on the most recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Institute of Medicine committee report, "Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2006" (Update 2006). This amendment is necessary to implement a decision of the Secretary of Veterans Affairs that there is a positive association between exposure to herbicides used in the Republic of Vietnam during the Vietnam era and the subsequent development of AL amyloidosis. The intended effect of this amendment is to establish presumptive service connection for AL amyloidosis based on herbicide exposure. PMID:19507326

  15. Light Chain Amyloid Fibrils Cause Metabolic Dysfunction in Human Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams-Koeppen, Helen P.; Foster, James S.; Hackenbrack, Nicole; Ramirez-Alvarado, Marina; Donohoe, Dallas; Williams, Angela; Macy, Sallie; Wooliver, Craig; Wortham, Dale; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer; Foster, Carmen M.; Kennel, Stephen J.; Wall, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Light chain (AL) amyloidosis is the most common form of systemic amyloid disease, and cardiomyopathy is a dire consequence, resulting in an extremely poor prognosis. AL is characterized by the production of monoclonal free light chains that deposit as amyloid fibrils principally in the heart, liver, and kidneys causing organ dysfunction. We have studied the effects of amyloid fibrils, produced from recombinant λ6 light chain variable domains, on metabolic activity of human cardiomyocytes. The data indicate that fibrils at 0.1 μM, but not monomer, significantly decrease the enzymatic activity of cellular NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductase, without causing significant cell death. The presence of amyloid fibrils did not affect ATP levels; however, oxygen consumption was increased and reactive oxygen species were detected. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that fibrils bound to and remained at the cell surface with little fibril internalization. These data indicate that AL amyloid fibrils severely impair cardiomyocyte metabolism in a dose dependent manner. These data suggest that effective therapeutic intervention for these patients should include methods for removing potentially toxic amyloid fibrils. PMID:26393799

  16. Extended follow up of high-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation after vincristine, doxorubicin, dexamethasone induction in amyloid light chain amyloidosis of the prospective phase II HOVON-41 study by the Dutch-Belgian Co-operative Trial Group for Hematology Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Hazenberg, Bouke P.C.; Croockewit, Alexandra; van der Holt, Bronno; Zweegman, Sonja; Bos, Gerard M.J.; Delforge, Michel; Raymakers, Reinier A.P.; Sonneveld, Pieter; Vellenga, Edo; Wijermans, Pierre W.; von dem Borne, Peter A.; van Oers, Marinus H.; de Weerdt, Okke; Spoelstra, Fokje M.; Lokhorst, Henk M.

    2015-01-01

    In a prospective multicenter phase II study, we evaluated the effect of three courses of vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone followed by high-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation on an intention-to-treat basis. Sixty-nine newly diagnosed patients with amyloid light chain amyloidosis were included between November 2000 and January 2006: 37 men and 32 women with a median age of 56 years, including 46% of patients with cardiac and 22% of patients with involvement of 3 or 4 organs. Initial results presented in 2008 showed a 4-year overall survival rate of 62% among all the patients, while the 4-year survival rate after transplantation was 78%. Here we report the long-term follow-up data after a median follow up of 115 months of the patients still alive. Median survival of all patients was 96 months from registration and for the transplanted patients ten years from the date of transplantation. Twelve (12%) patients died during induction therapy with vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone, including 8 patients (12%) due to treatment-related mortality. Two patients died within one month following high-dose melphalan. We conclude that vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone should not be applied as induction therapy for intensification in amyloid light chain amyloidosis. However, a 2-step approach consisting of a non-intensive less toxic induction therapy followed by high-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation may result in extended survival in newly diagnosed patients with amyloid light chain amyloidosis (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: 01207094). PMID:25661441

  17. Serum Free Light Chains

    MedlinePlus

    ... SFLC; FLC; Kappa and Lambda Free Light Chains; Quantitative Serum Free Light Chains with Ratio Formal name: ... Free Kappa/Lambda Ratio Related tests: Protein Electrophoresis , Quantitative Immunoglobulins , Complete Blood Count , Bone Marrow Aspiration and ...

  18. Clinical profile and treatment outcome of older (>75 years) patients with systemic AL amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Sachchithanantham, Sajitha; Offer, Mark; Venner, Christopher; Mahmood, Shameem A.; Foard, Darren; Rannigan, Lisa; Lane, Thirusha; Gillmore, Julian D.; Lachmann, Helen J.; Hawkins, Philip N.; Wechalekar, Ashutosh D.

    2015-01-01

    Systemic AL amyloidosis, a disease with improving outcomes using novel therapies, is increasingly recognized in the elderly but treatment and outcomes have not been systematically studied in this group of patients in whom comorbidities and frailty may compound morbidity and mortality. We report the outcomes of 295 patients with systemic AL amyloidosis ≥75 years seen at the UK National Amyloidosis Centre from 2005–2012. The median age was 78.5 years. The median overall survival was 20 months. Two hundred and thirty-eight patients received chemotherapy and 57 elected for supportive care only (overall survival – 24 and 8.4 months, respectively). On intention-to-treat analysis, 44% achieved a hematologic response including a very good partial response or better in 23%. The median overall survival was 6.2 years in patients achieving very good partial response or better at the 6-month landmark analysis and 1.5 years in non-responders. Factors independently indicating a poor prognosis were: cardiac involvement, performance status ≥2; systolic blood pressure <100 mmHg and, on landmark analysis, achieving less than a very good partial response. Treatment of systemic AL amyloidosis in the elderly is challenging. Deep clonal responses are associated with excellent survival and organ responses. Achieving a response to the first-line regimen appears particularly important as outcomes of non-responders are similar to those of untreated patients. Prospective trials with lower toxicity, outpatient treatment regimens are needed. PMID:26294730

  19. Effect of Lysine Modification on the Stability and Cellular Binding of Human Amyloidogenic Light Chains

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Davern, Sandra M.; Murphy, Charles L.; Wall, Jonathan; Deborah, Weiss T.; Solomon, Alan

    2011-01-01

    AL amyloidosis is characterized by the pathologic deposition as fibrils of monoclonal light chains (i.e., Bence Jones proteins [BJPs]) in particular organs and tissues. This phenomenon has been attributed to the presence in amyloidogenic proteins of particular amino acids that cause these molecules to become unstable, as well as post-translational modifications and, in regard to the latter, we have investigated the effect of biotinylation of lysyl residues on cell binding. We utilized an experimental system designed to test if BJPs obtained from patients with AL amyloidosis or, as a control, multiple myeloma (MM), bound human fibroblasts and renal epithelial cells. As documented by fluorescent microscopy and ELISA, the amyloidogenic BJPs, as compared with MM components, bound preferentially and this reactivity increased significantly after chemical modification of their lysyl residues with sulfo-NHS-biotin. Further, based on tryptophan fluorescence and circular dichorism data, it was apparent that their conformation was altered, which we hypothesize exposed a binding site not accessible on the native protein. The results of our studies indicate that post-translational structural modifications of pathologic light chains can enhance their capacity for cellular interaction and thus may contribute to the pathogenesis of AL amyloidosis and multiple myeloma.

  20. Systemic amyloidosis AL with temporal artery involvement revealing lymphoplasmacytic malignancy in a man presenting as polymyalgia rheumatica.

    PubMed Central

    Lafforgue, P; Senbel, E; Figarella-Branger, D; Boucraut, J; Horschowsky, N; Pellissier, J F; Acquaviva, P C

    1993-01-01

    A 68 year old man presented with a clinical and biological picture that suggested polymyalgia rheumatica. Temporal artery biopsy disclosed no inflammatory change but massive light chain amyloid deposits in the media. Further exploration showed a malignant lymphoplasmacytic haemopathy with a triclonal gammopathy and a muscular, rectal, and probable cardiac amyloidosis. Cryoglobulinaemia and high concentrations of soluble interleukin 2 receptor (sIL-2R) were also found. This is the fifth case with confirmed involvement of the temporal artery. The especially high sIL-2R concentration was thought to reflect the tumour mass rather than lymphocyte activation. Images PMID:8447697

  1. Molecular modeling of immunoglobulin light chains implicates hydrophobic residues in non-amyloid light chain deposition disease.

    PubMed

    Déret, S; Chomilier, J; Huang, D B; Preud'homme, J L; Stevens, F J; Aucouturier, P

    1997-10-01

    Light chain deposition disease is a severe complication of certain immunoproliferative disorders, due to the secretion of a monoclonal light chain which precipitates close to basement membranes of several tissues. A kappa isotype restriction and an unusual frequency of a variable region subgroup (VkappaIV) suggest that precise structural features govern the propensity of pathogenic light chains to precipitate in extracellular spaces. We studied primary structures of light chains from six patients with light chain deposition disease in comparison with light chains from other pathological conditions. Sequence alignment revealed the presence of certain amino acids only in light chain deposition disease, in particular non-polar replacing hydrophilic residues. To determine the role of these residues, structures of the variable domain from four kappa chains belonging to VkappaI and VkappaIV subgroups responsible for deposition disease were modeled using known immunoglobulins as templates. The most evident structural features shared by all pathogenic light chains were hydrophobic residues exposed to the solvent in complementarity determining regions 1 or 3. In contrast to immunoglobulin light chain-related amyloidosis, where deposition of organized material might be due to electrostatic interactions between light chain dimers, hydrophobic interactions could enhance amorphous precipitation in non-amyloid light chain deposition disease. PMID:9488143

  2. Neurofilament light chain

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ching-Hua; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Gray, Elizabeth; Pearce, Neil; Petzold, Axel; Norgren, Niklas; Giovannoni, Gavin; Fratta, Pietro; Sidle, Katie; Fish, Mark; Orrell, Richard; Howard, Robin; Talbot, Kevin; Greensmith, Linda; Kuhle, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To test blood and CSF neurofilament light chain (NfL) levels in relation to disease progression and survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: Using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, NfL levels were measured in samples from 2 cohorts of patients with sporadic ALS and healthy controls, recruited in London (ALS/control, plasma: n = 103/42) and Oxford (ALS/control, serum: n = 64/36; paired CSF: n = 38/20). NfL levels in patients were measured at regular intervals for up to 3 years. Change in ALS Functional Rating Scale–Revised score was used to assess disease progression. Survival was evaluated using Cox regression and Kaplan–Meier analysis. Results: CSF, serum, and plasma NfL discriminated patients with ALS from healthy controls with high sensitivity (97%, 89%, 90%, respectively) and specificity (95%, 75%, 71%, respectively). CSF NfL was highly correlated with serum levels (r = 0.78, p < 0.0001). Blood NfL levels were approximately 4 times as high in patients with ALS compared with controls in both cohorts, and maintained a relatively constant expression during follow-up. Blood NfL levels at recruitment were strong, independent predictors of survival. The highest tertile of blood NfL at baseline had a mortality hazard ratio of 3.91 (95% confidence interval 1.98–7.94, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Blood-derived NfL level is an easily accessible biomarker with prognostic value in ALS. The individually relatively stable levels longitudinally offer potential for NfL as a pharmacodynamic biomarker in future therapeutic trials. Classification of evidence: This report provides Class III evidence that the NfL electrochemiluminescence immunoassay accurately distinguishes patients with sporadic ALS from healthy controls. PMID:25934855

  3. Acute liver failure due to primary amyloidosis in a nephrotic syndrome: a swiftly progressive course.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Brigite Aguiar; Leal, Rita; Sá, Helena; Campos, Mário

    2016-01-01

    AL amyloidosis is a clonal plasma cell proliferative disorder characterised by extracellular tissue deposits of insoluble fibrils derived from κ or λ immunoglobulin light chains. The most common organs affected by AL amyloidosis are the kidney, presenting with nephrotic syndrome and/or progressive renal dysfunction, and the heart, with restrictive cardiomyopathy. Hepatic deposition of fibrils occurs in half the cases but the liver is rarely the predominantly affected organ. The most common presentation of hepatic amyloidosis is hepatomegaly with elevated alkaline phosphatase. Acute liver failure with cholestasis and jaundice is a rare complication, with a prevalence of approximately 5%, and is usually associated with a worse prognosis. We report a case of a 39-year-old man admitted to our nephrology department with an unusual presentation of primary amyloidosis with nephrotic syndrome and acute liver failure, complicated by obstructive cholestasis resulting in death 2 months after diagnosis. PMID:26965175

  4.  Liver transplantation followed by autologous stem cell transplantation for acute liver failure caused by AL amyloidosis. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Elnegouly, Mayada; Specht, Katja; Zoller, Heinz; Matevossian, Edouard; Bassermann, Florian; Umgelter, Andreas

    2016-01-01

     Hepatic involvement in AL amyloidosis may present as acute liver failure. Historically, liver transplantation in these cases has achieved poor outcomes due to progress of amyloidosis and non-hepatic organ damage. In the era of bortezomib treatment, the prognosis of AL amyloidosis has been markedly improved and may also result in better post-transplant outcomes. We present a case of isolated acute liver failure caused by AL amyloidosis, bridged to transplantation with bortezomib and treated with sequential orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) and autologous stem cell transplantation. The patient is in stable remission 3 years after OLT. PMID:27236160

  5. Formation of Amyloid Fibers by Monomeric Light Chain Variable Domains*

    PubMed Central

    Brumshtein, Boris; Esswein, Shannon R.; Landau, Meytal; Ryan, Christopher M.; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Phillips, Martin L.; Cascio, Duilio; Sawaya, Michael R.; Eisenberg, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Systemic light chain amyloidosis is a lethal disease characterized by excess immunoglobulin light chains and light chain fragments composed of variable domains, which aggregate into amyloid fibers. These fibers accumulate and damage organs. Some light chains induce formation of amyloid fibers, whereas others do not, making it unclear what distinguishes amyloid formers from non-formers. One mechanism by which sequence variation may reduce propensity to form amyloid fibers is by shifting the equilibrium toward an amyloid-resistant quaternary structure. Here we identify the monomeric form of the Mcg immunoglobulin light chain variable domain as the quaternary unit required for amyloid fiber assembly. Dimers of Mcg variable domains remain stable and soluble, yet become prone to assemble into amyloid fibers upon disassociation into monomers. PMID:25138218

  6. Splenic plasma cells can serve as a source of amyloidogenic light chains.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Alan; Macy, Sallie D; Wooliver, Craig; Weiss, Deborah T; Westermark, Per

    2009-02-12

    Bone marrow-derived clonal plasma cells, as found in systemic amyloidogenic light chain-associated (AL) amyloidosis, are presumed to be the source of light chains that deposit as fibrils in tissues throughout the body. Paradoxically, people with this disorder, in contrast to multiple myeloma, often have a low percentage of such cells, and it is unknown whether this relatively sparse number can synthesize enough amyloidogenic precursor to form the extensive pathology that occurs. To investigate whether another hematopoietic organ, the spleen, also contains monoclonal light chain-producing plasma cells, we have immunostained such tissue from 26 AL patients with the use of antiplasma cell, antifree kappa and lambda, and anti-V(L) subgroup-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). In 12 cases, there was statistically significant evidence of a monoclonal population bearing the same kappa or lambda isotype as that within the bone marrow and identical to the amyloid. Our studies have shown that the spleen may be another source of amyloidogenic light chains. PMID:19050307

  7. Rare presentation of primary (AL) amyloidosis as gastrointestinal hemorrhage without systemic involvement.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad F; Patel, Anik; Muller, Stephanie; Friedel, David

    2014-04-16

    We are reporting a rare case of a patient with primary (AL) amyloidosis presenting with an acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in the absence of other systemic involvement. The case report involves a 58-year-old woman with significant cardiac history and hereditary blood disorder who came in complaining of abdominal pain and coffee-ground emesis for two days. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen and pelvis with contrast revealed segmental wall thickening of the proximal jejunum with hyperdense, heterogenous luminal content. Similar findings were evident in the left lower small bowel region, suspicious for small bowel hematoma and the possibility of intraluminal clots. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed post resuscitation showed punctate, erythematous lesions throughout the stomach as well as regions of small bowel mucosa that appeared scalloped, ulcerated, and hemorrhaged on contact. Despite initial treatment for immunostain-positive focal cytomegalovirus gastritis, follow-up esophagogastroduodenoscopy after two months continued to demonstrate friable and irregular duodenal mucosa hinting at a different underlying etiology. Pathology reports from analyses of biopsy samples highlighted infiltration and expansion of the lamina propria and submucosa. Subsequent staining with congo red/crystal violet and appropriate subtyping established the diagnosis of AL (kappa)-type amyloidosis. The significance of this case lies in the fact that our patient did not have the typically seen diagnostic systemic involvements-namely of heart and kidneys-usually seen in primary (AL) amyloidosis patients. It was the persistent endoscopic findings and biopsy results which gave clues to the physicians regarding the possibility of an abnormal protein-deposition entity. PMID:24748922

  8. Imaging mass spectrometry analysis of renal amyloidosis biopsies reveals protein co-localization with amyloid deposits.

    PubMed

    Casadonte, Rita; Kriegsmann, Mark; Deininger, Sören-Oliver; Amann, Kerstin; Paape, Rainer; Belau, Eckhard; Suckau, Detlev; Fuchser, Jens; Beckmann, Janine; Becker, Michael; Kriegsmann, Jörg

    2015-07-01

    Amyloidosis is a heterogeneous group of protein misfolding diseases characterized by deposition of amyloid proteins. The kidney is frequently affected, especially by immunoglobulin light chain (AL) and serum amyloid A (SAA) amyloidosis as the most common subgroups. Current diagnosis relies on histopathological examination, Congo red staining, or electron microscopy. Subtyping is done by immunohistochemistry; however, commercially available antibodies lack specificity. The purpose of this study was to identify and map amyloid proteins in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI IMS) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis in an integrated workflow. Renal amyloidosis and non-amyloidosis biopsies were processed for histological and MS analysis. Mass spectra corresponding to the congophilic areas were directly linked to the histological and MS images for correlation studies. Peptides for SAA and AL were detected by MALDI IMS associated to Congo red-positive areas. Sequence determination of amyloid peptides by LC-MS/MS analysis provided protein distribution and identification. Serum amyloid P component, apolipoprotein E, and vitronectin proteins were identified in both AA and AL amyloidosis, showing a strong correlation with Congo red-positive regions. Our findings highlight the utility of MALDI IMS as a new method to type amyloidosis in histopathological routine material and characterize amyloid-associated proteins that may provide insights into the pathogenetic process of amyloid formation. PMID:25935672

  9. Renal Amyloidosis: Origin and Clinicopathologic Correlations of 474 Recent Cases

    PubMed Central

    Said, Samar M.; Sethi, Sanjeev; Valeri, Anthony M.; Leung, Nelson; Cornell, Lynn D.; Fidler, Mary E.; Herrera Hernandez, Loren; Vrana, Julie A.; Theis, Jason D.; Quint, Patrick S.; Dogan, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives The kidney is the organ most commonly involved in systemic amyloidosis. This study reports the largest clinicopathologic series of renal amyloidosis. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study provides characteristics of 474 renal amyloidosis cases evaluated at the Mayo Clinic Renal Pathology Laboratory from 2007 to 2011, including age, sex, serum creatinine, proteinuria, type of amyloid, and tissue distribution according to type. Results The type of amyloid was Ig amyloidosis in 407 patients (85.9%), AA amyloidosis in 33 (7.0%), leukocyte chemotactic factor 2 amyloidosis in 13 (2.7%), fibrinogen A α chain amyloidosis in 6 (1.3%), Apo AI, Apo AII, or Apo AIV amyloidosis in 3 (0.6%), combined AA amyloidosis/Ig heavy and light chain amyloidosis in 1 (0.2%), and unclassified in 11 (2.3%). Laser microdissection/mass spectrometry, performed in 147 cases, was needed to determine the origin of amyloid in 74 of the 474 cases (16%), whereas immunofluorescence failed to diagnose 28 of 384 light chain amyloidosis cases (7.3%). Leukocyte chemotactic factor 2 amyloidosis and Apo AI, Apo AII, or Apo AIV amyloidosis were characterized by diffuse interstitial deposition, whereas fibrinogen A α chain amyloidosis showed obliterative glomerular involvement. Compared with other types, Ig amyloidosis was associated with lower serum creatinine, higher degree of proteinuria, and amyloid spicules. Conclusions In the authors’ experience, the vast majority of renal amyloidosis cases are Ig derived. The newly identified leukocyte chemotactic factor 2 amyloidosis form was the most common of the rarer causes of renal amyloidosis. With the advent of laser microdissection/mass spectrometry for amyloid typing, the origin of renal amyloidosis can be determined in >97% of cases. PMID:23704299

  10. Stanniocalcin1 is a key mediator of amyloidogenic light chain induced cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Jian; Mishra, Shikha; Shi, Jianru; Plovie, Eva; Qiu, Yiling; Cao, Xin; Gianni, Davide; Jiang, Bingbing; del Monte, Federica; Connors, Lawreen H.; Seldin, David C.; Lavatelli, Francesca; Rognoni, Paola; Palladini, Giovanni; Merlini, Giampaolo; Falk, Rodney H.; Semigran, Marc J.; Dec, G. William; MacRae, Calum A.; Liao, Ronglih

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulin light chain (LC) amyloidosis (AL) results from overproduction of circulating amyloidogenic LC proteins and subsequent amyloid fibril deposition in organs. Mortality in AL amyloidosis patients is highly associated with a rapidly progressive AL cardiomyopathy, marked by profound impairment of diastolic and systolic cardiac function and significant early mortality. While myocardial fibril deposition contributes to the severe diastolic dysfunction seen in AL cardiomyopathy patients, the degree of fibril deposition has not been found to correlate with prognosis. Previously, we and others showed a direct cardiotoxic effect of amyloidogenic LC proteins (AL-LC), which may contribute to the pathophysiology and mortality observed in AL cardiomyopathy patients. However, the mechanisms underlying AL-LC related cardiotoxicity remain unknown. Mammalian stanniocalcin1 (STC1) is associated with a number of cellular processes including oxidative stress and cell death. Herein, we find that STC1 expression is elevated in cardiac tissue from AL cardiomyopathy patients, and is induced in isolated cardiomyocytes in response to AL-LC, but not non-amyloidogenic LC. STC1 overexpression in vitro recapitulates the pathophysiology of AL-LC mediated cardiotoxicity, with increased ROS production, contractile dysfunction and cell death. Overexpression of STC1 in vivo results in significant cardiac dysfunction and cell death. Genetic silencing of STC1 prevents AL-LC induced cardiotoxicity in cardiomyocytes and protects against AL-LC induced cell death and early mortality in zebrafish. The cardiotoxic effects of STC1 appears to be mediated via mitochondrial dysfunction as indicated by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS production and increased mitochondrial calcium levels. Collectively, this work identifies STC1 as a critical determinant of AL-LC cardiotoxicity. PMID:23982491

  11. Nodular amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    White, Forrest; Shvartsbeyn, Marianna; Meehan, Shane A; Ramachandran, Sarika

    2015-01-01

    Nodular amyloidosis is the rarest form of primary cutaneous amyloidosis. We report the case of a 74-year-old woman with an eight-year history of asymptomatic, hyperpigmented plaques on the pretibial areas. A skin biopsy specimen showed deposits of amorphous eosinophilic material that extended throughout the dermis with apple-green birefringence with a Congo-red stain, which established a diagnosis of nodular amyloidosis. Patients with nodular amyloidosis should be evaluated for systemic disease and followed appropriately due to a small risk of progression to systemic amyloidosis. PMID:26990345

  12. Risk stratification in cardiac amyloidosis: novel approaches.

    PubMed

    Kristen, Arnt V; Meyer, F Joachim; Perz, Jolanta B; Schonland, Stefan O; Hundemer, Michael; Hegenbart, Ute; Singer, Reinhard; Schnabel, Philipp A; Sack, Falk-Udo; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Katus, Hugo A; Dengler, Thomas J

    2005-09-27

    Amyloidosis is a term for diseases with extracellular deposition of insoluble beta-fibrillar proteins in different organs. The heart is primarily involved in more than half of patients with immunoglobulin light-chain amyloidosis or hereditary amyloidosis and associated with poor prognosis. Different traditional diagnostic tools that have been described for risk stratification lack of sufficient sensitivity and specificity for patient survival. Until November 2004 in 50 consecutive patients with light chain amyloidosis and 15 patients with hereditary amyloidosis electrocardiography, echocardiography, Holter monitoring, cardiopulmonary exercise test, lung function testing, tilt-test, and laboratory investigations have been performed at our department. Cardiac amyloidosis was found in 32 patients. Interventricular septum (14.3+/-0.5 mm vs. 12.3+/-0.7 mm, P<0.05), plasma NT-proBNP (7154+/-2122 ng/l vs. 380+/-113 ng/l; P<0.01), cardiac Troponin T (0.105+/-0.030 vs. 0.019+/-0.010 microg/l; P<0.05) were increased in patients with cardiac amyloidosis as compared to patients light chain amyloidosis but no cardiac involvement. Maximal inspiratory (Pimax) and expiratory (Pemax) mouth pressure were decreased with CA compared to controls. Correlation of NT-proBNP and interventricular septum thickness (r=0.53, P=0.029) as well as and Pimax (r=0.72, P<0.01) or Pemax (r=0.69; P<0.01) was noticed. A correlation of grade of arrhythmias in Holter monitoring and syncopes was not observed. Cardiac involvement of amyloid disease carries a poor prognosis and is not well characterized by classic heart failure determinants. Heart transplantation based on novel risk markers including NT-proBNP might be a suitable therapeutic approach for patients with manifest cardiac amyloidosis, but will require alternative patient selection and listing criteria. PMID:16286895

  13. Recruitment of Light Chains by Homologous and Heterologous Fibrils Shows Distinctive Kinetic and Conformational Specificity.

    PubMed

    Blancas-Mejía, Luis M; Ramirez-Alvarado, Marina

    2016-05-31

    Light chain amyloidosis is a protein misfolding disease in which immunoglobulin light chains aggregate as insoluble fibrils that accumulate in extracellular deposits. Amyloid fibril formation in vitro has been described as a nucleation-polymerization, autocatalytic reaction in which nascent fibrils catalyze formation of new fibrils, recruiting soluble protein into the fibril. In this context, it is also established that preformed fibrils or "seeds" accelerate fibril formation. In some cases, seeds with a substantially different sequence are able to accelerate the reaction, albeit with a lower efficiency. In this work, we studied the recruitment and addition of monomers in the presence of seeds of five immunoglobulin light chain proteins, covering a broad range of protein stabilities and amyloidogenic properties. Our data reveal that in the presence of homologous or heterologous seeds, the fibril formation reactions become less stochastic than de novo reactions. The kinetics of the most amyloidogenic proteins (AL-T05 and AL-09) do not present significant changes in the presence of seeds. Amyloidogenic protein AL-103 presented fairly consistent acceleration with all seeds. In contrast, the less amyloidogenic proteins (AL-12 and κI) presented dramatic differential effects that are dependent on the kind of seed used. κI had a poor efficiency to elongate preformed fibrils. Together, these results indicate that fibril formation is kinetically determined by the conformation of the amyloidogenic precursor and modulated by the differential ability of each protein to either nucleate or elongate fibrils. We observe morphological and conformational properties of some seeds that do not favor elongation with some proteins, resulting in a delay in the reaction. PMID:27158939

  14. Pathophysiology and treatment of cardiac amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Gertz, Morie A; Dispenzieri, Angela; Sher, Taimur

    2015-02-01

    Amyloid cardiomyopathy should be suspected in any patient who presents with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction. In patients with echocardiographic evidence of ventricular thickening and without a clear history of hypertension, infiltrative cardiomyopathy should be considered. If imaging suggests the presence of amyloid deposits, confirmation by biopsy is required, although endomyocardial biopsy is generally not necessary. Assessment of aspirated subcutaneous fat and bone-marrow biopsy samples verifies the diagnosis in 40-80% of patients, dependent on the type of amyloidosis. Mass spectroscopy can be used to determine the protein subunit and classify the disease as immunoglobulin light-chain amyloidosis or transthyretin-related amyloidosis associated with mutant or wild-type TTR (formerly known as familial amyloid cardiomyopathy and senile cardiac amyloidosis, respectively). In this Review, we discuss the characteristics of cardiac amyloidosis, and present a structured approach to both the assessment of patients and treatment with emerging therapies and organ transplantation. PMID:25311231

  15. Amyloidosis in bilateral external auditory canals

    PubMed Central

    Hosoi, Takahiro; Dhaliwal, Gurpreet; Tokuda, Yasuharu

    2014-01-01

    We report a 76-year-old man, a retired farmer, presenting with bilateral external auditory canal obstruction. Skin examination revealed multiple pruritic nodules and periorbital purpura. Ear canal opening surgery was performed. Skin and ear canal biopsy revealed extensive amyloid depositions. Immunoelectrophoresis for urinary Bence-Jones protein was positive, and bone marrow examination showed plasma cell dyscrasia. He received chemotherapy for amyloid light-chain amyloidosis secondary to light-chain multiple myeloma but died from myeloma progression. This case demonstrated how infiltrative conditions such as amyloidosis can lead to bilateral auditory canal obstruction and that the diagnosis of amyloidosis can be missed if a clinician focuses solely on a single organ. PMID:24825551

  16. Probing the role of λ6 immunoglobulin light chain dimerization in amyloid formation.

    PubMed

    Wolwertz, Mathieu Laporte; Nguyen, Phuong Trang; Quittot, Noé; Bourgault, Steve

    2016-04-01

    Light chain amyloidosis (AL) is a lethal disease associated with the deposition of misfolded immunoglobulin light chains (LC) as amyloid fibrils in the extracellular space of vital organs. The exact mechanisms of LC self-assembly and the molecular basis leading to cellular and organ failure still remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the quaternary structure, the stability and the amyloidogenecity of LC variable domain (VL) from the λ6 germline. We observed that the amyloidogenic λ6 Wil and its non-amyloidogenic counterpart Jto dimerize in a concentration-dependent manner and that the dimer affinity is considerably decreased in the presence of a high ionic strength. Our results showed that the dimeric state delays the structural conversion associated with amyloid formation and that the monomer is critical to initiate amyloidogenesis. Thermal and chemical unfolding studies revealed that the dimeric state of VL λ6 has an equivalent stability to the monomer. This indicates that the protective effect of dimerization is not related to thermodynamic stability but, most likely, resides in specific structural features. The toxicity of monomeric Jto and Wil as well as fibrillar aggregates was evaluated on cardiomyoblasts and ThT-negative proteospecies reduced cellular viability when employed at high concentration. This study provides novel insights into the complex process of LC amyloidogenesis and suggests that dimer stabilization constitutes a promising strategy to prevent self-assembly and amyloid deposition. PMID:26802902

  17. Site-directed Mutagenesis Reveals Regions Implicated in the Stability and Fiber Formation of Human λ3r Light Chains*

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Miryam I.; Canul-Tec, Juan C.; Luna-Martínez, Oscar D.; Sánchez-Alcalá, Rosalba; Olamendi-Portugal, Timoteo; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Rojas, Sonia; Sánchez-López, Rosana; Fernández-Velasco, Daniel A.; Becerril, Baltazar

    2015-01-01

    Light chain amyloidosis (AL) is a disease that affects vital organs by the fibrillar aggregation of monoclonal light chains. λ3r germ line is significantly implicated in this disease. In this work, we contrasted the thermodynamic stability and aggregation propensity of 3mJL2 (nonamyloidogenic) and 3rJL2 (amyloidogenic) λ3 germ lines. Because of an inherent limitation (extremely low expression), Cys at position 34 of the 3r germ line was replaced by Tyr reaching a good expression yield. A second substitution (W91A) was introduced in 3r to obtain a better template to incorporate additional mutations. Although the single mutant (C34Y) was not fibrillogenic, the second mutation located at CDR3 (W91A) induced fibrillogenesis. We propose, for the first time, that CDR3 (position 91) affects the stability and fiber formation of human λ3r light chains. Using the double mutant (3rJL2/YA) as template, other variants were constructed to evaluate the importance of those substitutions into the stability and aggregation propensity of λ3 light chains. A change in position 7 (P7D) boosted 3rJL2/YA fibrillogenic properties. Modification of position 48 (I48M) partially reverted 3rJL2/YA fibril aggregation. Finally, changes at positions 8 (P8S) or 40 (P40S) completely reverted fibril formation. These results confirm the influential roles of N-terminal region (positions 7 and 8) and the loop 40–60 (positions 40 and 48) on AL. X-ray crystallography revealed that the three-dimensional topology of the single and double λ3r mutants was not significantly altered. This mutagenic approach helped to identify key regions implicated in λ3 AL. PMID:25505244

  18. [Cardiac amyloidosis. General review].

    PubMed

    Laraki, R

    1994-04-01

    Cardiac amyloidosis, most often of AL type, is a non-exceptional disease as it represents 5 to 10% of non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. It realizes typically a restrictive cardiomyopathy. Nevertheless the wide diversity of possible presentation makes it a "big shammer" which must be evoked in front of every unexplained cardiopathy after the age of forty. If some associated manifestations can rapidly suggest the diagnosis, as a peripheric neuropathy especially a carpal tunnel syndrome or palpebral ecchymosis, cardiac involvement can also evolve in an apparently isolated way. The most suggestive paraclinic elements for the diagnosis are, in one hand, the increased myocardial echogenicity with a "granular sparkling" appearance seen throughout all walls of the left ventricle and, in the other hand, the association of a thickened left ventricle and a low voltage (electrocardiogram could also show pseudo-infarct Q waves). In front of such aspects, the proof of amyloidosis is brought by an extra-cardiac biopsy or by scintigraphy with labelled serum amyloid P component, so that the indications of endomyocardial biopsy are very limited today. The identification of the amyloid nature of a cardiopathy has an direct therapeutic implication: it contra-indicates the use of digitalis, calcium channel blockers and beta-blockers. The treatment of AL amyloidosis (chemotherapy with alkylant agents) remains very unsatisfactory especially in the cardiac involvement which is the most frequent cause of death (in AL amyloidosis). Last, cardiac amyloidosis is a bad indication for transplantation which results are burden by rapid progression of deposits especially in the gastro-intestinal tract and the nervous system. PMID:8059146

  19. Isolation and characterization of the integral glycosaminoglycan constituents of human amyloid A and monoclonal light-chain amyloid fibrils.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, S R; Lyon, M; Gallagher, J T; Johnson, E A; Pepys, M B

    1991-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils were isolated by extraction in water from the livers and spleens of four patients who had died of monoclonal, light-chain (AL)-type, systemic amyloidosis and one with reactive systemic, amyloid A protein (AA)-type amyloidosis. Each fibril preparation contained 1-2% by weight of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) which was tightly associated with the fibrils and not just co-isolated from the tissues with them. After exhaustive digestion of the fibrils with papain and Pronase, the GAGs were specifically precipitated with cetylpyridinium chloride and were identified by cellulose acetate electrophoresis and selective susceptibility to specific glycosidases. All the preparations contained approximately equal amounts of heparan sulphate and dermatan sulphate. There was no evidence for the presence of chondroitin sulphate or other GAGs. Fine structural analysis by oligosaccharide mapping in gradient polyacrylamide gels, following partial digestion with specific glycosidases, showed very similar structures among the heparan sulphates and the dermatan sulphates, respectively. GAGs were also extracted by solubilizing amyloid fibrils in 4 M-guanidinium chloride followed by CsCl density-gradient ultracentrifugation. Although a minor proportion of the GAG material obtained in this way was apparently in the form of proteoglycan molecules, most of it was free GAG chains. The presence in amyloid fibrils of different types, in different organs and from different patients of particular GAG classes with similar structures supports the view that these molecules may be of pathogenic significance. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:1902087

  20. Secondary systemic amyloidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Amyloidosis - secondary systemic ... is unknown. You are more likely to develop secondary systemic amyloidosis if you have a long-term ... Symptoms of secondary systemic amyloidosis depend on which body ... by the protein deposits. These deposits damage normal tissues, ...

  1. Histopathological atlas of renal diseases: light chain deposition disease.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Franco; Rastaldi, Maria Pia

    2005-01-01

    Monoclonal diseases of B-cell lineage, often referred to as plasma cell dyscrasias, are characterized by abnormal and uncontrolled proliferation of a single clone of B cells at different maturation stages, with a more or less marked differentiation to immunoglobulin (Ig)-secreting plasma cells. Thus B-cell proliferation is usually associated with the production and secretion in blood of a monoclonal Ig or a fragment thereof. An ominous consequence of secretion of monoclonal Ig products is their deposition in tissue. These proteinaceous deposits can take the form of casts (in myeloma cast nephropathy), cristals (in myeloma-associated Fanconi's syndrome), fibrils (in light-chain [LC] amyloidosis), or granular precipitates (in monoclonal Ig deposition disease [LCDD]). PMID:16299674

  2. A molecular model for self-assembly of amyloid fibrils: Immunoglobulin light chains

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, F.J.; Myatt, E.A.; Westholm, F.A.

    1995-08-29

    The formation and pathological deposition of amyloid fibrils are defining features of many acquired and inherited disorders, including primary or light-chain-associated amyloidosis, Alzheimer`s disease, and adult-onset diabetes. No pharmacological methods exist to block this process or to effect the removal of fibrils from tissue, and thus, little can be done to prevent organ failure and ultimate death that result from deposition of amyloid. Knowledge of the pathogenesis, treatment, or prevention of these presently incurable diseases is limited due to the relative paucity of information regarding the biophysical basis of amyloid formation. Antibody light chains of different amino acid sequence show differential amyloid-forming tendencies and, as such, can provide insight into the structural organization of amyloid fibrils as well as into basic mechanisms of protein self-assembly. We have compared primary structures of 180 human monoclonal light chains and have identified particular residues and positions within the variable domain that differentiate amyloid-from nonamyloid-associated proteins. We propose a molecular model that accounts for amyloid formation by antibody light chains and might also have implications for other forms of amyloidosis. 24 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Nodular cutaneous amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Borowicz, Jessica; Shama, Leah; Miller, Richard

    2011-01-01

    A 56-year-old white man presented with a lesion on the right shoulder. The lesion developed during a short period and recently became irritated with occasional bleeding and mild pruritus. The patient denied pain. Medical history included melanoma, nonmelanoma skin cancer, diabetes mellitus type II, hyperlipidemia, multinodular thyroid goiter, and obesity. Medications and family and social history were noncontributory. Review of systems was negative. Examination revealed a slightly raised, friable yellow-pink waxy plaque located on the right shoulder (Figure 1). There was no evidence of excoriation, secondary infection, drainage, scale, crust, atrophy, lichenification, or telangiectasia. The patient had no mucosal or nail changes and the remainder of his skin examination was normal. A shave biopsy on the right shoulder revealed a nodular deposit of homogenous eosinophilic material associated with extravasated erythrocytes within the dermis. An infiltrate of lymphocytes and plasma cells was associated with the deposits. Immunohistochemical stains revealed positive plasma cells with kappa light chain and negative with lambda light chain. Congo red stain was positive and supported the diagnosis. The findings were consistent with nodular cutaneous amyloidosis (NCA) of the amyloid light-type. Initial work-up included referrals to hematology/oncology and to general surgery. The patient had a complete blood cell count (CBC), complete metabolic profile (CMP), serum protein electrophoresis (S-PEP), urine protein electrophoresis (U-PEP), 24-hour urine creatinine clearance, and protein, serum immunoglobulins and 132 microglobulin. These were all within normal limits. Abdominal/pelvic computed tomography and positron emission tomography scan also were within normal limits. Bone marrow biopsy showed no abnormalities. The patient underwent both an abdominal fat pad biopsy as well as a colonoscopy with rectal biopsy. Both were negative for amyloidosis. Initially, the patient's cutaneous amyloidosis remained localized and mild pruritus was controlled with low potency topical steroids. The patient was closely monitored by hematology/oncology and general surgery on a biannual basis to assess the possibility of progression to systemic amyloidosis. Over the course of the subsequent two years, the patient developed multiple similar lesions across the back, shoulders, and chest, which were biopsied and found to be consistent with NCA. Progression of the cutaneous nodules led to disfiguring, painful, and friable pink to yellow waxy papules coalescing into plaques with obvious hemorrhage diffusely over the trunk (Figure 2). In lieu of the painful and disfiguring progression of disease, the patient desired a more aggressive treatment plan. At present, the treatment option recommended to the patient is carbon dioxide laser ablation. Hematology/oncology recommendation consists of a general systemic amyloid reevaluation annually, including CBC, CMP, S-PEP, U-PEP, 24-hour urine collection with creatinine clearance, and history and physical examination. PMID:22165048

  4. [The role of the assessment of heavy/light chain pairs of immunoglobulin in monoclonal gammopathies].

    PubMed

    ?udla, Vlastimil; Pika, Tom; Mina?k, Ji?

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to inform about the contribution of novel, highly sensitive analytic technique for the assessment of serum immunoglobulins (Hevylite), enabling separate quantitative assessment of heavy/light chain pairs of immunoglobulin (HLC), i. e. the monoclonal ("involved") and polyclonal ("noninvolved") isotype including their ratio (HLC-r) in monoclonal gammopathies. We particularly target the characteristics of this technique, the compari-son of its clinical contribution with standard methods used in the diagnostics, course and the detection of relapse and progression of the disease, as well as the stratification, assessment of therapeutic outcome and prognosis in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, multiple myeloma, Waldenstrms macroglobulinemia, systemic AL-amyloidosis and some non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Present results show that in comparison with existing routinely used techniques the Hevylite method enriches clinical practice with the assessment of serum levels of "uninvolved" Ig. It enables the evaluation of the depth of "immunoparesis", and the determination of HLC-r index that is needful for the stratification of MM into "risk cohorts". It also contributes to prognostic assessment and improvement of the evaluation of the depth of therapeutic response. In MGUS individuals the HLC-r index provides information about the risk of malignant transformation. We await the results of ongoing validation studies that are expected to provide specific indications for Hevylite technique for MG in routine practice. PMID:25693618

  5. Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma causing light chain cast nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Nuria S; Garcia-Herrera, Adriana; Rosiñol, Laura; Palos, Lily; Santiago, Evelyn; Espinosa, Gerard; Solé, Manel; Campistol, Josep M; Quintana, Luis F

    2012-01-01

    Plasma cell dyscrasias are frequently associated with kidney disease through the production of monoclonal immunoglobulin but with a diverse set of pathologic renal patterns. While almost all patients with a renal biopsy showing a cast nephropathy have myeloma, kidney involvement associated with pathological immunoglobulin light chains and lymphoma is rare. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a cast nephropathy associated with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. We emphasize the relation between light chain deposition and renal dysfunction in this disease with production of light chains. A therapeutic approach that decreases light chain production appears to be warranted in these patients. PMID:22241794

  6. Prognostic Value of Late Gadolinium Enhancement Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Cardiac Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Marianna; Pica, Silvia; Reant, Patricia; Abdel-Gadir, Amna; Treibel, Thomas A.; Banypersad, Sanjay M.; Maestrini, Viviana; Barcella, William; Rosmini, Stefania; Bulluck, Heerajnarain; Sayed, Rabya H.; Patel, Ketna; Mamhood, Shameem; Bucciarelli-Ducci, Chiara; Whelan, Carol J.; Herrey, Anna S.; Lachmann, Helen J.; Wechalekar, Ashutosh D.; Manisty, Charlotte H.; Schelbert, Eric B.; Kellman, Peter; Gillmore, Julian D.; Hawkins, Philip N.

    2015-01-01

    Background— The prognosis and treatment of the 2 main types of cardiac amyloidosis, immunoglobulin light chain (AL) and transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis, are substantially influenced by cardiac involvement. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) is a reference standard for the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis, but its potential for stratifying risk is unknown. Methods and Results— Two hundred fifty prospectively recruited subjects, 122 patients with ATTR amyloid, 9 asymptomatic mutation carriers, and 119 patients with AL amyloidosis, underwent LGE cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Subjects were followed up for a mean of 24±13 months. LGE was performed with phase-sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) and without (magnitude only). These were compared with extracellular volume measured with T1 mapping. PSIR was superior to magnitude-only inversion recovery LGE because PSIR always nulled the tissue (blood or myocardium) with the longest T1 (least gadolinium). LGE was classified into 3 patterns: none, subendocardial, and transmural, which were associated with increasing amyloid burden as defined by extracellular volume (P<0.0001), with transitions from none to subendocardial LGE at an extracellular volume of 0.40 to 0.43 (AL) and 0.39 to 0.40 (ATTR) and to transmural at 0.48 to 0.55 (AL) and 0.47 to 0.59 (ATTR). Sixty-seven patients (27%) died. Transmural LGE predicted death (hazard ratio, 5.4; 95% confidence interval, 2.1–13.7; P<0.0001) and remained independent after adjustment for N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, ejection fraction, stroke volume index, E/E′, and left ventricular mass index (hazard ratio, 4.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.3–13.1; P<0.05). Conclusions— There is a continuum of cardiac involvement in systemic AL and ATTR amyloidosis. Transmural LGE is determined reliably by PSIR and represents advanced cardiac amyloidosis. The PSIR technique provides incremental information on outcome even after adjustment for known prognostic factors. PMID:26362631

  7. The immunoglobulin light chain in poikilothermic vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Pilström, L; Lundqvist, M L; Wermenstam, N E

    1998-12-01

    The immunoglobulin light chains are classified as kappa or lambda in mammals and birds (homeothermic vertebrates), but the traditional criteria for this classification are not applicable to the light chains found in poikilothermic vertebrates. Still it is possible to find some relationships between Ig light chain sequences in these animals and in those of the homeothermic animals. It is generally accepted that the Ig light chains contribute to the antigen binding capacity of antibodies and the variability is approximately similar in all studied vertebrate species except the elasmobranchs. This might be explained by the organisation of the Ig light chain locus in these animals and the fact that the variable and joining DNA segments are joined in the genome. These conclusions are limited by the small number of species studied in this respect. PMID:9914907

  8. Four structural risk factors identify most fibril-forming kappa light chains.

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, F. J.; Biosciences Division

    2000-09-01

    Antibody light chains (LCs) comprise the most structurally diverse family of proteins involved in amyloidosis. Many antibody LCs incorporate structural features that impair their stability and solubility, leading to their assembly into fibrils and to their subsequent pathological deposition when produced in excess during multiple myeloma and primary amyloidosis. The particular amino acid variations in antibody LCs that account for fibril formation and amyloidogenesis have not been identified. This study focuses on amyloidogenesis within the Kl family of human LCs. Reanalysis of the current database of primary structures of proteins from more than 100 patients who produced Kl LCS, 37 of which were amyloidogenic, reveals apparent structural features that may contribute to amyloidosis. These features include loss of conserved residues or the gain of particular residues through mutation at sites involving a repertoire of approximately 20% of the amino acid positions in the light chain variable domain (V{sub L}). Moreover, 80% of all K1 amyloidogenic V{sub L}s are identifiable by the presence of at least one of three single-site substitutions or the acquisition of an N-linked glycosylation site through mutations. These findings suggest that it is feasible to predict fibril propensity by analysis of primary structure.

  9. The association of Hashimoto disease and Congo red negative amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Chaiban, Joumana T; Kalache, Safa M; Abu Alfa, Ali K; Shabb, Nina S; Salti, Ibrahim S

    2008-09-01

    Systemic amyloidosis which is characterized by extracellular deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains in various organs may be difficult to diagnose at an early stage, especially when the Congo red stain is negative. We describe herein a case of Congo red negative primary amyloidosis associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis. The patient presented with multiple organ involvement suggestive of amyloidosis including heart failure, renal failure, and macroglossia. Serum and urine immunofixation studies were positive for monoclonal chains. Even though a biopsy taken from the enlarged tongue of the patient was negative when stained with Congo red, electron microscopy showed ultrastructural features of amyloid deposition. In conclusion, we are reporting a rare case of primary amyloidosis with a negative Congo red stain associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis. PMID:18794630

  10. Physicochemical consequences of amino acid variations that contribute to fibril formation by immunoglobulin light chains.

    PubMed Central

    Raffen, R.; Dieckman, L. J.; Szpunar, M.; Wunschl, C.; Pokkuluri, P. R.; Dave, P.; Wilkins Stevens, P.; Cai, X.; Schiffer, M.; Stevens, F. J.

    1999-01-01

    The most common form of systemic amyloidosis originates from antibody light chains. The large number of amino acid variations that distinguish amyloidogenic from nonamyloidogenic light chain proteins has impeded our understanding of the structural basis of light-chain fibril formation. Moreover, even among the subset of human light chains that are amyloidogenic, many primary structure differences are found. We compared the thermodynamic stabilities of two recombinant kappa4 light-chain variable domains (V(L)s) derived from amyloidogenic light chains with a V(L) from a benign light chain. The amyloidogenic V(L)s were significantly less stable than the benign V(L). Furthermore, only the amyloidogenic V(L)s formed fibrils under native conditions in an in vitro fibril formation assay. We used site-directed mutagenesis to examine the consequences of individual amino acid substitutions found in the amyloidogenic V(L)s on stability and fibril formation capability. Both stabilizing and destabilizing mutations were found; however, only destabilizing mutations induced fibril formation in vitro. We found that fibril formation by the benign V(L) could be induced by low concentrations of a denaturant. This indicates that there are no structural or sequence-specific features of the benign V(L) that are incompatible with fibril formation, other than its greater stability. These studies demonstrate that the V(L) beta-domain structure is vulnerable to destabilizing mutations at a number of sites, including complementarity determining regions (CDRs), and that loss of variable domain stability is a major driving force in fibril formation. PMID:10091653

  11. Dynein light chain family in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, David E; Rajagopalan, Vidyalakshmi; Chan, Clarence W C; Kniazeva, Ekaterina; Wiedeman, Alice E; Asai, David J

    2007-02-01

    Dyneins are large protein complexes that produce directed movement on microtubules. In situ, dyneins comprise combinations of heavy, intermediate, light-intermediate, and light chains. The light chains regulate the locations and activities of dyneins but their functions are not completely understood. We have searched the recently sequenced Tetrahymena thermophila macronuclear genome to describe the entire family of dynein light chains expressed in this organism. We identified fourteen genes encoding putative dynein light chains and seven genes encoding light chain-like proteins. RNA-directed PCR revealed that all 21 genes were expressed. Quantitative real time reverse transcription PCR showed that many of these genes were upregulated after deciliation, indicating that these proteins are present in cilia. Using the nomenclature developed in Chlamydomonas, Tetrahymena expresses two isoforms each of LC2, LC4, LC7, and Tctex1, three isoforms of p28, and six LC8/LC8-like isoforms. Tetrahymena also expresses two LC3-like genes. No Tetrahymena orthologue was found for Chlamydomonas LC5 or LC6. This study provides a complete description of the different genes and isoforms of the dynein light chains that are expressed in Tetrahymena, a model organism in which the targeted manipulation of genes is straightforward. PMID:17009324

  12. Immunochemical analysis of kinesin light chain function.

    PubMed Central

    Stenoien, D L; Brady, S T

    1997-01-01

    The kinesin heterotetramer consists of two heavy and two light chains. Kinesin light chains have been proposed to act in binding motor protein to cargo, but evidence for this has been indirect. A library of monoclonal antibodies directed against conserved epitopes throughout the kinesin light chain sequence were used to map light chain functional architecture and to assess physiological functions of these domains. Immunocytochemistry with all antibodies showed a punctate pattern that was detergent soluble. A monoclonal antibody (KLC-All) made against a highly conserved epitope in the tandem repeat domain of light chains inhibited fast axonal transport in isolated axoplasm by decreasing both the number and velocity of vesicles moving, whereas an antibody against a conserved amino terminus epitope had no effect. KLC-All was equally effective at inhibiting both anterograde and retrograde transport. Neither antibody inhibited microtubule-binding or ATPase activity in vitro. KLC-All was unique among antibodies tested in releasing kinesin from purified membrane vesicles, suggesting a mechanism of action for inhibition of axonal transport. These results provide further evidence that conventional kinesin is a motor for fast axonal transport and demonstrate that kinesin light chains play an important role in kinesin interaction with membranes. Images PMID:9247647

  13. Natural history and outcome of light chain deposition disease

    PubMed Central

    Sayed, Rabya H.; Wechalekar, Ashutosh D.; Gilbertson, Janet A.; Bass, Paul; Mahmood, Shameem; Sachchithanantham, Sajitha; Fontana, Marianna; Patel, Ketna; Whelan, Carol J.; Lachmann, Helen J.; Hawkins, Philip N.

    2015-01-01

    Light chain deposition disease (LCDD) is characterized by the deposition of monotypic immunoglobulin light chains in the kidney, resulting in renal dysfunction. Fifty-three patients with biopsy-proven LCDD were prospectively followed at the UK National Amyloidosis Center. Median age at diagnosis was 56 years, and patients were followed for a median of 6.2 years (range, 1.1-14.0 years). Median renal survival from diagnosis by Kaplan-Meier analysis was 5.4 years, and median estimated patient survival was 14.0 years; 64% of patients were alive at censor. Sixty-two percent of patients required dialysis, and median survival from commencement of dialysis was 5.2 years. There was a strong association between hematologic response to chemotherapy and renal outcome, with a mean improvement in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 6.1 mL/min/year among those achieving a complete or very good partial hematologic response (VGPR) with chemotherapy, most of whom remained dialysis independent, compared with a mean GFR loss of 6.5 mL/min/year among those achieving only a partial or no hematologic response (P < .009), most of whom developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD; P = .005). Seven patients received a renal transplant, and among those whose underlying clonal disorder was in sustained remission, there was no recurrence of LCDD up to 9.7 years later. This study highlights the need to diagnose and treat LCDD early and to target at least a hematologic VGPR with chemotherapy, even among patients with advanced renal dysfunction, to delay progression to ESRD and prevent recurrence of LCDD in the renal allografts of those who subsequently receive a kidney transplant. PMID:26392598

  14. Natural history and outcome of light chain deposition disease.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Rabya H; Wechalekar, Ashutosh D; Gilbertson, Janet A; Bass, Paul; Mahmood, Shameem; Sachchithanantham, Sajitha; Fontana, Marianna; Patel, Ketna; Whelan, Carol J; Lachmann, Helen J; Hawkins, Philip N; Gillmore, Julian D

    2015-12-24

    Light chain deposition disease (LCDD) is characterized by the deposition of monotypic immunoglobulin light chains in the kidney, resulting in renal dysfunction. Fifty-three patients with biopsy-proven LCDD were prospectively followed at the UK National Amyloidosis Center. Median age at diagnosis was 56 years, and patients were followed for a median of 6.2 years (range, 1.1-14.0 years). Median renal survival from diagnosis by Kaplan-Meier analysis was 5.4 years, and median estimated patient survival was 14.0 years; 64% of patients were alive at censor. Sixty-two percent of patients required dialysis, and median survival from commencement of dialysis was 5.2 years. There was a strong association between hematologic response to chemotherapy and renal outcome, with a mean improvement in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 6.1 mL/min/year among those achieving a complete or very good partial hematologic response (VGPR) with chemotherapy, most of whom remained dialysis independent, compared with a mean GFR loss of 6.5 mL/min/year among those achieving only a partial or no hematologic response (P < .009), most of whom developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD; P = .005). Seven patients received a renal transplant, and among those whose underlying clonal disorder was in sustained remission, there was no recurrence of LCDD up to 9.7 years later. This study highlights the need to diagnose and treat LCDD early and to target at least a hematologic VGPR with chemotherapy, even among patients with advanced renal dysfunction, to delay progression to ESRD and prevent recurrence of LCDD in the renal allografts of those who subsequently receive a kidney transplant. PMID:26392598

  15. Amyloid Goiter Associated with Amyloidosis Secondary to Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Uzum, Gungor; Kaya, Fatih Oner; Uzum, Ayse Kubat; Kucukyilmaz, Meltem; Duzkoylu, Yigit; Leblebici, Cem; Koc, Oguz

    2013-01-01

    Amyloidosis refers to a variety of conditions in which amyloid proteins are abnormally deposited in organs and/or tissues. The most common forms of systemic amyloidosis are primary amyloidosis (PA) of light chains and secondary amyloidosis (SA) caused by chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although involvement of the thyroid gland by amyloid is a relatively common phenomenon, clinically significant enlargement of the thyroid owing to amyloid deposition is a rare occurrence. In SA, the deposition of amyloid associated (AA) protein is associated with atrophy of thyroid follicles. The clinical picture of these patients is characterized by rapid, painless thyroid gland enlargement which may be associated with dysphagia, dyspnea, or hoarseness. Thyroid function is not impaired in most cases. Although amyloid goitre secondary to systemic amyloidosis due to chronic inflammatory diseases is relatively common, specifically related to RA is much more uncommon one and it is reported less in the literature. In this report, A 52-old-year female patient with amyloid goiter associated with amyloidosis secondary to rheumatoid arthritis is presented. PMID:24368922

  16. [Complete remission of nephrotic syndrome and improvement of renal function in a patient with light chain deposition disease following high dose chemotherapy with transplantation of autologous haematopoietic stem cells. A case study and review of literature].

    PubMed

    Adam, Z; Krejcí, M; Pour, L; Stepánková, S; Cermáková, Z; Voska, L; Teplan, V; Krivanová, A; Hájek, R; Mayer, J

    2009-11-01

    Light chain deposition disease (LCDD) damages most frequently kidneys, and less frequently other organs. The incidence of LCDD is lower than the incidence of AL-amyloidosis. Symmetric swelling of both legs was the first sign of nephrotic syndrome with renal insufficiency in our female patient. Renal biopsy specimen revealed the diagnosis of LCDD. Bone marrow biopsy contained 40% of plasma cells. Bone survey showed no osteolytic changes. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of multiple myeloma (MM) Durie Salmon stage IB with LCDD. The patient was initially treated with 4 cycles of VAD (vinkristine, adriamycine, dexamethasone) chemotherapy with no response. Followed collection of peripheral haematopoietic stem cells and later high dose chemotherapy with reduced dose of melphalan 140 mg/sqm and autologous peripheral haematopoietic stem cells transplantation. Melphalan dose was reduced because of renal insufficiency (serum creatinine 290 micromol/l) before application of conditioning regimen. High dose therapy was complicated by with deterioration of renal function, creatinine increased to 600 micromol/l. Worsening of renal function was most likely caused by nephrotoxicity of melphalan in nephrotic syndrome. This has been previously described in patients with AL-amyloidosis, and nephrotic syndrome who were treated with high dose melphalan. This phenomenon was entitled "post conditioning renal insufficiency". Hypoalbuminemia hypoproteinemia and reduced intravascular volume and renal damage caused by amyloid deposits as well as probably, amorphous non-amyloid deposits of monoclonal immunoglobulin are likely to have contributed to nephrotoxicity of the high dose of melphalan. However, worsening of renal insufficiency was facilitated by the mucositis-associated sepsis. Follow-up examination one month after high dose chemotherapy showed complete remission, that was confirmed by further examinations. In the course of the first year after high dose chemotherapy renal function gradually improved and nephrotic syndrome completely disappeared (complete kidney remission). Proteinuria declined to 2-3 g/24 hours and glomerular filtration slowly improved. Three years after high dose chemotherapy the patient is still in complete remission of multiple myeloma and free of nephrotic syndrome, with slightly increased creatinine (160 micromol/l) that, nevertheless, has had an improving tendency over last 3 years. The present case study illustrates accomplishment of complete haematological remission with high dose chemotherapy followed by autologous haematopoietic stem cells transplantation despite complete resistance of the disease to the standard chemotherapy VAD in a patient with MM and LCDD. We draw the reader's attention to the possibility of nephrotoxic effects of high dose melphalan (post conditioning renal insufficiency) in patients with nephrotic syndrome caused by light chain deposits as AL-amyloid or amorphous light chains deposits (LCDD)and we document the importance of plasma free light chain detection. PMID:20017442

  17. Leukocyte chemotactic factor 2 amyloidosis (ALECT2) is a common form of renal amyloidosis among Egyptians.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Christopher P; Ismail, Wesam; Kurtin, Paul J; Vrana, Julie A; Dasari, Surendra; Nasr, Samih H

    2016-04-01

    Large case series of renal amyloidosis subtypes have recently been published in the United States and Europe showing AL amyloidosis to be the predominant subtype in this part of the world. However, the most common subtypes of renal amyloidosis throughout the rest of the world are unknown. We present here the first large case series detailing the subtypes of renal amyloidosis among Egyptians. In this population, AA amyloidosis was the most common type of amyloidosis on renal biopsy at 48%. The newly described leukocyte chemotactic factor 2 amyloidosis (ALECT2) was the second most common type and represented nearly one-third of renal amyloid cases at 31%. AL accounted for only 20% of cases. The pathologic findings in ALECT2 cases were similar to those previously described in other case series. Thus ALECT2, which was initially thought to affect mainly Hispanics in the United States, appears to represent an important and likely underrecognized etiology of chronic kidney disease among Egyptians and probably in other ethnic groups around the world. PMID:26867784

  18. Amyloidosis and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Gertz, Morie A; Merlini, Giampaolo; Treon, Steven P

    2004-01-01

    Primary systemic amyloidosis is an immunoglobulin light chain disorder that is 1/5th as common as multiple myeloma. Amyloidosis is regularly seen in the practice of a hematologist and has recently undergone major advances in terms of the ability to evaluate responses as well as new therapeutic options that were not available when this topic was covered as an education session at the American Society of Hematology meeting 5 years ago. Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is rarer than amyloidosis (1500 per year WM versus 3000 per year amyloid in the US), and recent consensus panels have established the definition of the disease, the diagnostic criteria, criteria for initiation of therapy and a new classification scheme. In this session, new developments in amyloid and macroglobulinemia, from suspicion of the diagnosis to treatment, are covered. In Section I, Dr. Morie Gertz answers four specific questions: (1) When should amyloidosis be suspected? (2) How does one heighten ones index of suspicion for amyloid? (3) How is the diagnosis confirmed and the type classified as primary? (4) What is the prognosis and how is it accurately assessed? Recent findings on cardiac biomarkers, presenting features and use of the free light chain assay are reviewed. Staging for amyloid and recently proposed criteria of response and progression are covered. In Section II, Dr. Giampaolo Merlini comprehensively reviews therapy of amyloidosis from the use of standard melphalan/prednisone to the recently described standard dose therapies including dexamethasone, thalidomide/dexamethasone, melphalan/dexamethasone and IV melphalan/dexamethasone. An extensive discussion of the role of high-dose therapy with stem cell reconstitution follows and includes patient selection, predictors of immediate morbidity and mortality, and survival expectation. Finally, a therapeutic strategy is proposed. In Section III, Drs. Steven Treon and Giampaolo Merlini review the most current information on WM. The consensus panel results and recommendations of the clinical pathologic definition of WM, the prognostic markers and the indications to initiate therapy in WM, the uniform response criteria in WM and available treatments for the disease are reviewed. Drs. Treon and Merlini cover recently published treatment protocols that use rituximab, purine nucleoside analogs, and alkylating agents. The current data on thalidomide, alpha interferon, and high-dose therapy are also covered. PMID:15561687

  19. Leukocyte Cell-Derived Chemotaxin 2-Associated Amyloidosis: A Recently Recognized Disease with Distinct Clinicopathologic Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Samih H; Dogan, Ahmet; Larsen, Christopher P

    2015-11-01

    Amyloidosis derived from leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 is a recently recognized form of amyloidosis, and it has already been established as a frequent form of systemic amyloidosis in the United States, with predominant involvement of kidney and liver. The disease has a strong ethnic bias, affecting mainly Hispanics (particularly Mexicans). Additional ethnic groups prone to develop amyloidosis derived from leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 include Punjabis, First Nations people in British Columbia, and Native Americans. Most patients are elderly who present with chronic renal insufficiency and bland urinary sediment. Proteinuria is variable, being absent altogether in about one third of patients. Liver involvement is frequently an incidental finding. Amyloidosis derived from leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 deposits shows a characteristic distribution: in the kidney, there is consistent involvement of cortical interstitium, whereas in the liver, there is a preferential involvement of periportal and pericentral vein regions. Concurrent renal disease is frequent, with diabetic nephropathy and IgA nephropathy being the most common. Patient survival is excellent, likely because of the rarity of cardiac involvement, whereas renal survival is guarded, with a median renal survival of 62 months in those without concurrent renal disease. There is currently no efficacious therapy for amyloidosis derived from leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 amyloidosis. Renal transplantation seems to be a reasonable treatment for patients with advanced renal failure, although the disease may recur in the allograft. The pathogenesis of amyloidosis derived from leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 amyloidosis has not yet been elucidated. It could be a result of leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 overexpression by hepatocytes either constitutively (controlled by yet-uncharacterized genetic defects) or secondary to hepatocellular damage. It is critical not to misdiagnose amyloidosis derived from leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 amyloidosis as Ig light chain-derived amyloidosis to avoid harmful chemotherapy. PMID:25873265

  20. Helicobacter pylori Infection and Light Chain Gammopathy

    PubMed Central

    Girón, José A.; Shah, Shawn L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Helicobacter pylori provokes a host of immune alterations upon colonizing the gastric mucosa. Design. We report 22 individuals with confirmed Helicobacter pylori infection who were also managed for the concurrent elevation of immunoglobulin free light chain (kappa and lambda) levels. Result. Of the 22 patients, 15 patients (68.2%) had elevated free light chain levels: 6 patients (40%) had only kappa chain elevation, 2 patients (13.3%) had only lambda chain elevation, and 7 patients (46.7%) had both kappa and lambda chain elevation. Twenty out of the 22 patients (90.9%) were microbiologically confirmed cured with 3 patients being lost to follow-up for repeat levels. Of the 3 patients who were lost to follow-up, 1 patient had only kappa chain elevation, 1 patient had only lambda chain elevation, and 1 patient had both kappa and lambda chain elevation. For those who were cured (19 patients), 5 patients with kappa elevation had normalized values, 4 patients with lambda elevation had normalized values, and 2 patients with combined kappa and lambda elevation had normalized values. For 6 out of the 19 patients, the light chain levels remained elevated. Conclusion. We speculate that the Helicobacter pylori infection disrupts the immunoglobulin system with potential implications being discussed below. PMID:24363759

  1. Multiple sclerosis: free light chains in cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Rudick, R A; Peter, D R; Bidlack, J M; Knutson, D W

    1985-10-01

    We found free light chains in the CSF of 18 MS patients, but not in any of 14 patients with other neurologic disease. CSF from all MS patients contained kappa and lambda chain dimers, less frequently contained light chain monomers, and never contained free gamma heavy chains. Light chains were not detected in matched serum samples. CSF from MS patients did not release free light chains from whole IgG in CSF of controls. The findings suggest that these free light chains originate in plasma cells, not from degradation of whole IgG. PMID:3929159

  2. Light chains of immunoglobulins in human secretions.

    PubMed

    Molé, C M; Béne, M C; Montagne, P M; Seilles, E; Faure, G C

    1994-01-31

    Immunoglobulin kappa light chains are predominant in normal human serum and a kappa/lambda ratio of 1.7 to 2 has been reported. However, little is known of the partition of light chains in secretions. The levels of IgA, kappa and lambda were assayed by nephelometry in a series of secretions and in normal human serum. Although kappa chains remained predominant, the different secretions studied could be classified according to their kappa/lambda ratio. In saliva (P < 0.001), nasal fluid (P = 0.01) and tears (P = 0.04) the kappa/lambda ratio was significantly lower than in serum. Conversely, higher kappa/lambda ratios were obtained in gastric juice (P = 0.005) and hepatic bile (P = 0.004) and no significant difference was noted between serum and gall bladder bile (P = 0.62). The lower ratios were all observed in fluids produced by glands surrounded by lymphoid tissue included in the mucosae-associated lymphoid tissue. These data strengthen previous observations that suggest a preferential production of lambda chains in human mucosae. PMID:8004789

  3. Influence of the germline sequence on the thermodynamic stability and fibrillogenicity of human lambda 6 light chains.

    PubMed

    del Pozo Yauner, Luis; Ortiz, Ernesto; Sánchez, Rosalba; Sánchez-López, Rosana; Güereca, Leopoldo; Murphy, Charles L; Allen, Amy; Wall, Jonathan S; Fernández-Velasco, D Alejandro; Solomon, Alan; Becerril, Baltazar

    2008-08-01

    Light chain-associated amyloidosis is a fatal disease characterized by the aggregation and pathologic deposition of monoclonal light chain-related fragments as amyloid fibrils in organs or tissues throughout the body. Notably, it has been observed that proteins encoded by the lambda variable light chain (V(L)) gene segment 6a are invariably associated with amyloid deposition; however, the contribution of the gene to this phenomenon has not been established. In this regard, we have determined the thermodynamic stability and kinetics of in vitro fibrillogenesis of a recombinant (r) V(L) protein, designated 6aJL2, which contains the predicted sequences encoded by the 6a and JL2 germline genes. Additionally, we studied a 6a mutant (6aJL2-Arg25Gly), that is present in approximately 25% of all amyloid-associated lambda6 light chains. Remarkably, the wild-type 6aJL2 protein was more stable than were all known amyloidogenic kappa and lambda light chains for which stability parameters are available; more importantly, it was even more so (and less fibrillogenic) than the only clinically proven nonamyloidogenic lambda6 protein, Jto. Conversely, the mutated 6aJL2-R25G molecule was considerably less stable and more fibrillogenic than was the native 6aJL2. Our data indicate that the propensity of lambda6 light chains to form amyloid can not be attributed to thermodynamic instability of the germline-encoded Vlambda6 domain, but rather, is dependent on sequence alterations that render such proteins amyloidogenic. PMID:18260098

  4. Insulin-derived amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Yashdeep; Singla, Gaurav; Singla, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Amyloidosis is the term for diseases caused by the extracellular deposition of insoluble polymeric protein fibrils in tissues and organs. Insulin-derived amyloidosis is a rare, yet significant complication of insulin therapy. Insulin-derived amyloidosis at injection site can cause poor glycemic control and increased insulin dose requirements because of the impairment in insulin absorption, which reverse on change of injection site and/or excision of the mass. This entity should be considered and assessed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry, in patients with firm/hard local site reactions, which do not regress after cessation of insulin injection at the affected site. Search strategy: PubMed was searched with terms insulin amyloidosis. Full text of articles available in English was reviewed. Relevant cross references were also reviewed. Last search was made on October 15, 2014. PMID:25593849

  5. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase efficiently phosphorylates serine 15 of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain

    SciTech Connect

    Josephson, Matthew P.; Sikkink, Laura A.; Penheiter, Alan R.; Burghardt, Thomas P.; Ajtai, Katalin

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (MYL2) is phosphorylated at S15. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) is a ubiquitous kinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is a widely believed that MYL2 is a poor substrate for smMLCK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In fact, smMLCK efficiently and rapidly phosphorylates S15 in MYL2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation kinetics measured by novel fluorescence method without radioactivity. -- Abstract: Specific phosphorylation of the human ventricular cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (MYL2) modifies the protein at S15. This modification affects MYL2 secondary structure and modulates the Ca{sup 2+} sensitivity of contraction in cardiac tissue. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) is a ubiquitous kinase prevalent in uterus and present in other contracting tissues including cardiac muscle. The recombinant 130 kDa (short) smMLCK phosphorylated S15 in MYL2 in vitro. Specific modification of S15 was verified using the direct detection of the phospho group on S15 with mass spectrometry. SmMLCK also specifically phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain S15 in porcine ventricular myosin and chicken gizzard smooth muscle myosin (S20 in smooth muscle) but failed to phosphorylate the myosin regulatory light chain in rabbit skeletal myosin. Phosphorylation kinetics, measured using a novel fluorescence method eliminating the use of radioactive isotopes, indicates similar Michaelis-Menten V{sub max} and K{sub M} for regulatory light chain S15 phosphorylation rates in MYL2, porcine ventricular myosin, and chicken gizzard myosin. These data demonstrate that smMLCK is a specific and efficient kinase for the in vitro phosphorylation of MYL2, cardiac, and smooth muscle myosin. Whether smMLCK plays a role in cardiac muscle regulation or response to a disease causing stimulus is unclear but it should be considered a potentially significant kinase in cardiac tissue on the basis of its specificity, kinetics, and tissue expression.

  6. Genetic factors in amyloidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, P K

    1975-01-01

    In the absence of biochemical distinctions, the nosography of the inherited amyloidoses must at present depend largely upon clinical subdivisions. In the broad classification adopted here, the disorders have for convenience been grouped according to the anatomical system that is predominantly affected. It is evident that the amyloid syndromes display considerable heterogeneity. However, they overlap. Thus in the Iowa type classified with the hereditary amyloid neuropathies (van Allen et al, 1969; Gimeno et al, 1974), renal involvement was frequent and was the usual cause of death. In the English (Zalin et al, 1974) and Scandinavian (Andersson, 1970) families with neuropathy as the predominant feature, cardiac involvement was a common finding. In certain of the conditions discussed, such as medullary carcinoma of the thyroid and Down's syndrome, amyloid deposition is merely an incidental aspect of the disorder. In those conditions in which generalized or localized amyloid deposition occupies a more central position in the clinical syndrome, an autosomal dominant inheritance has been established or suggested in the majority. An autosomal recessive inheritance has so far only been recognized in familial Mediterranean fever. In the family with hereditary amyloid heart diseases reported by Fredricksen et al (1962), the disorder was confined to a single sibship, raising the possibility of recessive inheritance. This could also be true in sporadic examples of primary amyloidosis. The dominantly inherited amyloidoses comprise a number of geographically widely scattered families with clinical pictures that do not show consistent differences between some families. The families that do not show consistent differences are not necessarily harbouring nutations at the same locus, or the same mutation at any particular locus. However, many of these dominantly inherited clinical syndromes are sufficiently different from each other and the clinical manifestations of each sufficiently consistent to indicate that separate main genes are likely to be involved... PMID:176361

  7. One siRNA pool targeting the λ constant region stops λ light-chain production and causes terminal endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ping; Ma, Xun; Iyer, Lakshmanan; Chaulagain, Chakra; Comenzo, Raymond L

    2014-05-29

    In systemic light-chain amyloidosis, λ light chains produced by clonal plasma cells cause organ damage and early death. In pursuit of novel therapy, we developed 1 pool of short interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the constant region of λ light chains that substantially and promptly reduces λ-light-chain production and secretion by human plasma cells regardless of sequence diversity. In clones producing intact immunoglobulin G (IgG) λ antibodies (containing paired heavy and light chains), the secretion of intact antibodies is reduced, and all 3 branches of the unfolded protein response are activated by accumulation of unpaired IgG heavy chains in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Moreover, an ER stress response can then become terminal with effector caspase activity mediated in part by the transcription of the Bcl-2 homology 3 domain only family member NOXA. This pool of siRNA can be used to reduce pathological λ-light-chain production and cause apoptosis in human plasma cells making intact IgGλ antibodies. PMID:24723680

  8. Method for altering antibody light chain interactions

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Fred J.; Stevens, Priscilla Wilkins; Raffen, Rosemarie; Schiffer, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    A method for recombinant antibody subunit dimerization including modifying at least one codon of a nucleic acid sequence to replace an amino acid occurring naturally in the antibody with a charged amino acid at a position in the interface segment of the light polypeptide variable region, the charged amino acid having a first polarity; and modifying at least one codon of the nucleic acid sequence to replace an amino acid occurring naturally in the antibody with a charged amino acid at a position in an interface segment of the heavy polypeptide variable region corresponding to a position in the light polypeptide variable region, the charged amino acid having a second polarity opposite the first polarity. Nucleic acid sequences which code for novel light chain proteins, the latter of which are used in conjunction with the inventive method, are also provided.

  9. Comparison of serum free light chain and urine electrophoresis for the detection of the light chain component of monoclonal immunoglobulins in light chain and intact immunoglobulin multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Dejoie, Thomas; Attal, Michel; Moreau, Philippe; Harousseau, Jean-Luc; Avet-Loiseau, Herve

    2016-01-01

    Response criteria for multiple myeloma are based upon changes in monoclonal protein levels quantified using serum and/or urine protein electrophoresis. The latter lacks sensitivity at low monoclonal protein levels and since 2001, the serum free light chain test has been available and its clinical utility proven, yet guidelines have not recommended it as a replacement for urine assessment. Herein we evaluated responses using serum free light chain measurements and serum and urine electrophoresis after 2 and 4 cycles of therapy and after stem cell transplantation in 25 light chain and 157 intact immunoglobulin myeloma patients enrolled in the IFM 2007-02 MM trial. All 25 light chain patients had measurable disease by serum free light chain and urine methods at presentation. By contrast 98 out of 157 intact immunoglobulin patients had measurable disease by serum free light chain compared to 55 out of 157 by urine electrophoresis. In all patients there was substantial agreement between predicate (serum/urine protein electrophoresis) and test (serum protein electrophoresis and serum free light chain) methods for response assessment (Weighted Kappa=0.83). Urine immunofixation became negative in 47% light chain and 43% intact immunoglobulin patients after 2 cycles of therapy. At this time the serum free light chain ratio normalised in only 11% and 27% patients, respectively. In summary we found good agreement between methods for response assessment, but the serum free light chain test provided greater sensitivity than urine electrophoresis for monitoring. To our knowledge this is the first report comparing both methods for response assignment based on the International Myeloma Working Group guidelines. PMID:26635032

  10. Comparison of serum free light chain and urine electrophoresis for the detection of the light chain component of monoclonal immunoglobulins in light chain and intact immunoglobulin multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Dejoie, Thomas; Attal, Michel; Moreau, Philippe; Harousseau, Jean-Luc; Avet-Loiseau, Herve

    2016-03-01

    Response criteria for multiple myeloma are based upon changes in monoclonal protein levels quantified using serum and/or urine protein electrophoresis. The latter lacks sensitivity at low monoclonal protein levels and since 2001, the serum free light chain test has been available and its clinical utility proven, yet guidelines have not recommended it as a replacement for urine assessment. Herein we evaluated responses using serum free light chain measurements and serum and urine electrophoresis after 2 and 4 cycles of therapy and after stem cell transplantation in 25 light chain and 157 intact immunoglobulin myeloma patients enrolled in the IFM 2007-02 MM trial. All 25 light chain patients had measurable disease by serum free light chain and urine methods at presentation. By contrast 98 out of 157 intact immunoglobulin patients had measurable disease by serum free light chain compared to 55 out of 157 by urine electrophoresis. In all patients there was substantial agreement between predicate (serum/urine protein electrophoresis) and test (serum protein electrophoresis and serum free light chain) methods for response assessment (Weighted Kappa=0.83). Urine immunofixation became negative in 47% light chain and 43% intact immunoglobulin patients after 2 cycles of therapy. At this time the serum free light chain ratio normalised in only 11% and 27% patients, respectively. In summary we found good agreement between methods for response assessment, but the serum free light chain test provided greater sensitivity than urine electrophoresis for monitoring. To our knowledge this is the first report comparing both methods for response assignment based on the International Myeloma Working Group guidelines. PMID:26635032

  11. Peptide p5 binds both heparinase-sensitive glycosaminoglycans and fibrils in patient-derived AL amyloid extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Emily B.; Williams, Angela; Heidel, Eric; Macy, Sallie; Kennel, Stephen J.; Department of Radiology, University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine, 1924 Alcoa Highway, Knoxville, TN 37922 ; Wall, Jonathan S.

    2013-06-21

    Highlights: •Polybasic peptide p5 binds human light chain amyloid extracts. •The binding of p5 with amyloid involves both glycosaminoglycans and fibrils. •Heparinase treatment led to a correlation between p5 binding and fibril content. •p5 binding to AL amyloid requires electrostatic interactions. -- Abstract: In previously published work, we have described heparin-binding synthetic peptides that preferentially recognize amyloid deposits in a mouse model of reactive systemic (AA) amyloidosis and can be imaged by using positron and single photon emission tomographic imaging. We wanted to extend these findings to the most common form of visceral amyloidosis, namely light chain (AL); however, there are no robust experimental animal models of AL amyloidosis. To further define the binding of the lead peptide, p5, to AL amyloid, we characterized the reactivity in vitro of p5 with in situ and patient-derived AL amyloid extracts which contain both hypersulfated heparan sulfate proteoglycans as well as amyloid fibrils. Histochemical staining demonstrated that the peptide specifically localized with tissue-associated AL amyloid deposits. Although we anticipated that p5 would undergo electrostatic interactions with the amyloid-associated glycosaminoglycans expressing heparin-like side chains, no significant correlation between peptide binding and glycosaminoglycan content within amyloid extracts was observed. In contrast, following heparinase I treatment, although overall binding was reduced, a positive correlation between peptide binding and amyloid fibril content became evident. This interaction was further confirmed using synthetic light chain fibrils that contain no carbohydrates. These data suggest that p5 can bind to both the sulfated glycosaminoglycans and protein fibril components of AL amyloid. Understanding these complex electrostatic interactions will aid in the optimization of synthetic peptides for use as amyloid imaging agents and potentially as therapeutics for the treatment of amyloid diseases.

  12. Myosin, Transgelin, and Myosin Light Chain Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Lguillette, Renaud; Laviolette, Michel; Bergeron, Celine; Zitouni, Nedjma; Kogut, Paul; Solway, Julian; Kachmar, Linda; Hamid, Qutayba; Lauzon, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Airway smooth muscle (SM) of patients with asthma exhibits a greater velocity of shortening (Vmax) than that of normal subjects, and this is thought to contribute to airway hyperresponsiveness. A greater Vmax can result from increased myosin activation. This has been reported in sensitized human airway SM and in models of asthma. A faster Vmax can also result from the expression of specific contractile proteins that promote faster cross-bridge cycling. This possibility has never been addressed in asthma. Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that the expression of genes coding for SM contractile proteins is altered in asthmatic airways and contributes to their increased Vmax. Methods: We quantified the expression of several genes that code for SM contractile proteins in mild allergic asthmatic and control human airway endobronchial biopsies. The function of these contractile proteins was tested using the in vitro motility assay. Measurements and Main Results: We observed an increased expression of the fast myosin heavy chain isoform, transgelin, and myosin light chain kinase in patients with asthma. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the expression of these genes at the protein level. To address the functional significance of this overexpression, we purified tracheal myosin from the hyperresponsive Fisher rats, which also overexpress the fast myosin heavy chain isoform as compared with the normoresponsive Lewis rats, and found a faster rate of actin filament propulsion. Conversely, transgelin did not alter the rate of actin filament propulsion. Conclusions: Selective overexpression of airway smooth muscle genes in asthmatic airways leads to increased Vmax, thus contributing to the airway hyperresponsiveness observed in asthma. PMID:19011151

  13. Primary systemic amyloidosis as a real diagnostic challenge – case study

    PubMed Central

    Jerzykowska, Sonia; Gil, Lidia A.; Balcerzak, Andrzej; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Komarnicki, Mieczysław A.

    2014-01-01

    Primary amyloidosis (AL) is a rare variety of plasma cell dyscrasia, the diagnosis of which is often difficult to establish. Pathogenesis of amyloidosis involves extracellular deposition of insoluble protein fibrils in tissues, leading to insufficiency of affected organs. According to various sources, mean survival rate of patients with primary amyloidosis ranges from 12 to 24 months, making primary amyloidosis a disease with a very poor prognosis. Survival rate is significantly lowered in case of cardiac manifestation of amyloidosis (about 6 months survival in untreated patients). In recent years a considerable progress in AL treatment has been observed. Nowadays we are able not only to delay progression of amyloidosis, but also to improve the function of the affected organs. Unfortunately as first signs and symptoms of AL are usually nonspecific, the diagnosis of AL is often delayed, resulting in late introduction of optimal therapy. There are many diagnostic tests which can be used in diagnostic process of amyloidosis, i.e. electrophoresis, serum and urine immunofixation or affected organs and bone marrow biopsy. On establishing the diagnosis in a patient with suspected amyloidosis it should be remembered that particular diagnostic methods vary considerably in sensitivity. The aim of this paper is to present a case report of a 27-year-old patient with primary amyloidosis focusing on diagnostic aspect of this condition. On the basis of this case, the authors would like to emphasize the value of precise diagnostic process, with immunological techniques playing undoubtedly a crucial role. PMID:26155101

  14. Adult Fanconi syndrome secondary to light chain gammopathy. Clinicopathologic heterogeneity and unusual features in 11 patients.

    PubMed

    Messiaen, T; Deret, S; Mougenot, B; Bridoux, F; Dequiedt, P; Dion, J J; Makdassi, R; Meeus, F; Pourrat, J; Touchard, G; Vanhille, P; Zaoui, P; Aucouturier, P; Ronco, P M

    2000-05-01

    Fifty-seven cases of Ig light chain-associated Fanconi syndrome (FS) have been reported so far, mostly as isolated reports. The pioneering work by Maldonado and associates (35), who reviewed the first 17 cases in 1975, led to the unifying concept that patients with FS and Bence Jones proteinuria have a special form of plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by slow progression of the tumor and by prominent crystal formation in proximal tubule cells, in the absence of myeloma casts in the distal tubule. We carefully reappraised these characteristics in a series of 11 patients. Ten renal biopsy specimens were available for electron microscopy, adding to the 15 previously reported cases with ultrastructural studies. Moreover, 10 of the kappa light chains could be entirely or partially sequenced and tested for their resistance to cathepsin B, a lysosomal protease present in proximal tubule cells. Our series showed an unexpected clinicopathologic heterogeneity. Seven patients presented with the typical clinical and pathologic features of FS and low-mass myeloma or monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), in keeping with Maldonado et al's description. Crystals in bone marrow cells were detected in patients of this group, only. Three patients who presented with full-blown FS exhibited, however, the characteristic features of myeloma cast nephropathy in the setting of high-mass myeloma. One patient of this group also had numerous crystals in proximal tubule cells. The eleventh patient had complete FS with MGUS, but no crystals in proximal tubule cells even after electron microscopy. Contrasting with the clinicopathologic heterogeneity, genetic and biochemical analyses of the light chains showed a striking homogeneity. First, they all were of the kappa type. Second, 8 of 9 belonged to the V kappa I variability subgroup, which indicates that FS light chains are related by the sequence of their variable regions. Third, the 8 V kappa I light chain sequences most likely originated from only 2 germline genes, LCO2/012 and LCO8/018. Fourth, all 5 LCO2/012-derived sequences presented an unusual hydrophobic or nonpolar residue at position 30. These sequence peculiarities may account for unusual physicochemical properties of the light chains including the resistance of their variable domain V kappa to proteolysis by cathepsin B, observed in 7 of 9 patients in our series, while light chains isolated from patients with myeloma cast nephropathy are completely digested. Resistance of V kappa to proteolysis in FS patients can explain the accumulation of the light chain in the endocytotic compartment of the proximal tubule cells, leading to impairment of proximal tubule functions. PMID:10844934

  15. Monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains in urine of patients with lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Pierson, J.; Darley, T.; Stevenson, G. T.; Virji, M.

    1980-01-01

    Fourteen of 31 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukaemia had a monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain detectable in their urine. These chains are believed to be synthesized by the B lymphoid cells comprising the tumour. Upon comparing the different cases, the occurrence and amount of monoclonal light chain showed no dependence upon the extent of tumour, the presence of leukaemic component, or exposure to cytotoxic therapy. The method of detection involved purifying the urinary light chains by immunosorption, and examining their electrophoretic distributions so as to distinguish between the homogeneous monoclonal chains and their heterogeneous normal analogues. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6775652

  16. [Chronic inflammation and AA amyloidosis].

    PubMed

    Blank, N; Schönland, S O

    2013-09-01

    Systemic AA amyloidosis is a severe complication of chronic inflammatory diseases. Renal involvement is the predominant organ manifestation. Patients who are at risk for developing AA amyloidosis should be screened for microalbuminuria. The goal of therapy is an effective control of the acute phase reaction. A well controlled blood pressure and nephroprotective treatment contribute to the maintenance of renal function. In case of progressive amyloidosis dialysis is required. Renal transplantation can be performed if the underlying disease is well controlled. PMID:24006165

  17. Serum free light chain assays not total light chain assays are the standard of care to assess Monoclonal Gammopathies

    PubMed Central

    Tietsche de Moraes Hungria, Vania; Allen, Syreeta; Kampanis, Petros; Soares, Elyara Maria

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of Multiple Myeloma is a challenge to the physician due to the non-specific symptoms (anemia, bone pain and recurrent infections) that are commonplace in the elderly population. However, early diagnosis is associated with less severe disease, including fewer patients presenting with acute renal injury, pathological fractures and severe anemia. Since 2006, the serum free light chain test Freelite® has been included alongside standard laboratory tests (serum and urine protein electrophoresis, and serum and urine immunofixation) as an aid in the identification of monoclonal proteins, which are a cornerstone for the diagnosis of Multiple Myeloma. The serum free light chain assay recognizes the light chain component of the immunoglobulin in its free form with high sensitivity. Other assays that measure light chains in the free and intact immunoglobulin forms are sensitive, but unfortunately, due to the nomenclature used, these assays (total light chains) are sometimes used in place of the free light chain assay. This paper reviews the available literature comparing the two assays and tries to clarify hypothetical limitations of the total assay to detect Multiple Myeloma. Furthermore, we elaborate on our study comparing the two assays used in 11 Light Chain Multiple Myeloma patients at presentation and 103 patients taken through the course of their disease. The aim of this article is to provide a clear discrimination between the two assays and to provide information to physicians and laboratory technicians so that they can utilize the International Myeloma Working Group guidelines. PMID:26969773

  18. AL Amyloidosis and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Program Creative Arts Festival Golden Age Games Summer Sports Clinic Training - Exposure - Experience (TEE) Tournament Wheelchair Games Winter Sports Clinic Locations Hospitals & Clinics Vet Centers Regional Benefits ...

  19. Amyloidosis in alkaptonuria.

    PubMed

    Millucci, Lia; Braconi, Daniela; Bernardini, Giulia; Lupetti, Pietro; Rovensky, Josef; Ranganath, Lakshminaryan; Santucci, Annalisa

    2015-09-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is an ultra-rare inborn error of metabolism developed from the lack of homogentisic acid oxidase activity, causing homogentisic acid (HGA) accumulation that produces an HGA-melanin ochronotic pigment, of hitherto unknown composition. Besides the accumulation of HGA, the potential role and presence of unidentified proteins has been hypothesized as additional causal factors involved in ochronotic pigment deposition. Evidence has been provided on the presence of serum amyloid A (SAA) in several AKU tissues, which allowed classifying AKU as a novel secondary amyloidosis. In this paper, we will briefly review all direct and indirect lines of evidence related to the presence of amyloidosis in AKU. We also report the first data on abnormal SAA serum levels in a cohort of AKU patients. PMID:25868666

  20. [Pulmonary amyloidosis--own experience].

    PubMed

    Remiszewski, P; Langfort, R; Orłowski, T M; Polubiec-Kownacka, M; Szopiński, J; Sledziewska, J; Roszkowska, B; Bestry, I; Rowińska-Zakrzewska, E

    2001-01-01

    Three cases of amyloidosis were described. In all diagnosis was confirmed by histological examination. There was amyloidosis limited to the lungs in 2 cases and in 1 generalised. In 1 patient lobectomia was performed. Next 2 pts were treated with prednisone and cytostatic drugs (melphalane and cyclophosphamide). PMID:12134442

  1. Myosin-linked calcium regulation in squid mantle muscle. Light-chain components of squid myosin.

    PubMed

    Konno, K; Arai, K; Watanabe, S

    1979-12-01

    As reported by Kendrick-Jones et al. (1976), myosin from squid mantle muscle contains two types of light-chain components, different in size but similar in net charge. We were able to separate the two types of light chains by a five-step procedure, yielding LC-1 (17,000 daltons) and LC-2 (15,000 daltons). It was found that squid mantle LC-1 and LC-2 function exactly like SH-light chains and EDTA-light chains of scallop adductor myosin, respectively. In functional tests, we used "desensitized" myosin of scallop adductor muscle, simply because "EDTA washing" removed neither LC-1 nor LC-2 from squid mantle myosin. The removal and recombination of light chains were examined by gel electrophoresis, and Ca or Sr sensitivity was determined by measuring the Mg-ATPase activity of skeletal acto-scallop or squid myosin. It was found that EDTA washing readily released the EDTA-light chains of scallop myosin completely, and that the EDTA-washed scallop myosin was capable of regaining its full content of EDTA-LC as well as its full sensitivity to calcium. We also found that as regards combining with, and conferring calcium sensitivity on the EDTA-washed myosin of scallop adductor, squid mantle LC-2 could effectively replace scallop adductor EDTA-LC. In addition, calcium or strontium ions were found to induce changes in the UV absorption spectrum of scallop adductor EDTA-LC, although the apparent binding constants estimated from the difference spectrum were too low to account for the Ca or Sr sensitivity of scallop actomyosin-ATPase. The divalent cations also induced changes in the UV absorption spectrum of squid LC-2, and the apparent binding constants estimated from the difference spectrum were sufficiently high (1.5 X 10(5) M-1 for Ca binding, and 1.6 X 10(3) M-1 for Sr binding) to account for the Ca and Sr sensitivities of squid mantle myosin B-ATPase. The findings with scallop adductor myosin are in conflict with those reported by Kendrick-Jones et al., and must be accounted for in formulating the molecular mechanism of myosin-linked calcium regulation in molluscan muscles. PMID:160911

  2. Dialysis-related amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, K; Yamamoto, H

    2001-06-01

    Dialysis-related amyloidosis (DRA) is a well-recognized complication in patients on long-term hemodialysis. It occurs secondary to the deposition of beta(2)-microglobulin, preferentially in the musculoskeletal tissues. Plain radiography demonstrates advanced DRA findings such as bone erosions and cystic lesions, but it is not suitable for the demonstration of earlier changes. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound are sufficient for the detection of amyloid deposition in the periarticular soft tissues and in the evaluation of spinal complications. PMID:11500151

  3. Increased Neurofilament Light Chain Blood Levels in Neurodegenerative Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gaiottino, Johanna; Norgren, Niklas; Dobson, Ruth; Topping, Joanne; Nissim, Ahuva; Malaspina, Andrea; Bestwick, Jonathan P.; Monsch, Andreas U.; Regeniter, Axel; Lindberg, Raija L.; Kappos, Ludwig; Leppert, David; Petzold, Axel; Giovannoni, Gavin; Kuhle, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Objective Neuronal damage is the morphological substrate of persisting neurological disability. Neurofilaments (Nf) are cytoskeletal proteins of neurons and their release into cerebrospinal fluid has shown encouraging results as a biomarker for neurodegeneration. This study aimed to validate the quantification of the Nf light chain (NfL) in blood samples, as a biofluid source easily accessible for longitudinal studies. Methods We developed and applied a highly sensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) based immunoassay for quantification of NfL in blood and CSF. Results Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (30.8 pg/ml, n=20), Guillain-Barré-syndrome (GBS) (79.4 pg/ml, n=19) or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) (95.4 pg/ml, n=46) had higher serum NfL values than a control group of neurological patients without evidence of structural CNS damage (control patients, CP) (4.4 pg/ml, n=68, p<0.0001 for each comparison, p=0.002 for AD patients) and healthy controls (HC) (3.3 pg/ml, n=67, p<0.0001). Similar differences were seen in corresponding CSF samples. CSF and serum levels correlated in AD (r=0.48, p=0.033), GBS (r=0.79, p<0.0001) and ALS (r=0.70, p<0.0001), but not in CP (r=0.11, p=0.3739). The sensitivity and specificity of serum NfL for separating ALS from healthy controls was 91.3% and 91.0%. Conclusions We developed and validated a novel ECL based sandwich immunoassay for the NfL protein in serum (NfLUmea47:3); levels in ALS were more than 20-fold higher than in controls. Our data supports further longitudinal studies of serum NfL in neurodegenerative diseases as a potential biomarker of on-going disease progression, and as a potential surrogate to quantify effects of neuroprotective drugs in clinical trials. PMID:24073237

  4. Antibody elbow angles are influenced by their light chain class

    SciTech Connect

    Stanfield, R; Zemla, A; Wilson, I; Rupp, B

    2006-01-12

    We have examined the elbow angles for 365 different Fab fragments, and observe that Fabs with lambda light chains have adopted a wider range of elbow angles than their kappa-chain counterparts, and that the lambda light chain Fabs are frequently found with very large (>195{sup o}) elbow angles. This apparent hyperflexibility of lambda-chain Fabs may be due to an insertion in their switch region, which is one residue longer than in kappa chains, with glycine occurring most frequently at the insertion position. A new, web-based computer program that was used to calculate the Fab elbow angles is also described.

  5. [Primary pulmonary amyloidosis with multiple nodules].

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Y; Jinn, Y; Tachi, H; Yokose, T; Suzuki, K; Hujiwara, A; Hunakoshi, N

    1995-10-01

    A 42-year-old man complained of a productive cough and exertional dyspnea. Roentgenogram and computed tomography of the chest showed several nodular shadows, and an open lung biopsy was done. Congo-red staining and electron microscopy showed the pulmonary nodules to be amyloid with infiltration by plasma cells and foreign body giant cells. The amyloid was identified as AL-lambda and kappa type by immunohistochemical examination, and plasma cells and foreign body giant cells contained light chains. In situ hybridization studies showed intens signals of lambda mRNA and kappa mRNA in the plasma cells, but no signal in the foreign body giant cells. The foreign body giant cells appeared to have phogocytosed the light chains. Electron microscopic examination showed an "amyloid star" in the foreign body giant cells. Morphologically, this observation showed that the amyloid was produced by the foreign body giant cells. PMID:8544391

  6. [Pulmonary Amyloidosis: A Diagnostic Challenge].

    PubMed

    Alves, Ana; Alfaro, Tiago M; Madama, Daniela; Freitas, Sara; Robalo-Cordeiro, Carlos; Gamboa, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Amyloidosis is characterized by amyloid extracellular deposition in organs and tissues. Pulmonary involvement is a rare manifestation of the disease and it can be focal or as part of systemic amyloidosis. We report two cases. Case 1: 71 year-old female with bronchiectasis and Sjogrenâ syndrome, who complained of anorexia, weight loss and a productive cough. The diagnostic study included a surgical lung biopsy and histological examination demonstrated pulmonary amyloidosis. Case 2: 83 year-old male patient, ex-smoker, asymptomatic, whose routine chest x-ray showed a nodular opacity in the right lung field. A transthoracic biopsy revealed an amyloid lung tumor. These cases illustrate a rare disease which in Case 1 also coexisted with Sjögrenâs syndrome and bronchiectasis. The most important differential diagnosis is cancer and so a definitive diagnosis is essential, as amyloidosis is usually benign and indolent. PMID:26574992

  7. Rat Kinesin light chain 3 associates with spermatid mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Oko, Richard; van der Hoorn, Frans A.

    2011-01-01

    We recently discovered that in rat spermatids, kinesin light chain KLC3 can associate with outer dense fibers, major sperm tail components, and accumulates in the sperm midpiece. Here we show that mitochondria isolated from rat elongating spermatids have bound KLC3. Immuno electron microscopy indicates that the association of KLC3 with mitochondria coincides with the stage in spermatogenesis when mitochondria move from the plasma membrane to the developing midpiece. KLC3 is able to bind in vitro to mitochondria from spermatids as well as somatic cells employing a conserved kinesin light chain motif, the tetratrico-peptide repeats. Expression of KLC3 in fibroblasts results in formation of large KLC3 clusters close to the nucleus, which also contain mitochondria: no other organelles were present in these clusters. Mitochondria are not present in KLC3 clusters after deletion of KLC3’s tetratrico-peptide repeats. Our results indicate that the rat spermatid kinesin light chain KLC3 can associate with mitochondria. PMID:15464570

  8. Cysteine Racemization on IgG Heavy and Light Chains

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingchun; Flynn, Gregory C.

    2013-01-01

    Under basic pH conditions, the heavy chain 220-light chain 214 (H220-L214) disulfide bond, found in the flexible hinge region of an IgG1, can convert to a thioether. Similar conditions also result in racemization of the H220 cysteine. Here, we report that racemization occurs on both H220 and L214 on an IgG1 with a ? light chain (IgG1?) but almost entirely on H220 of an IgGl with a ? light chain (IgG1?) under similar conditions. Likewise, racemization was detected at significant levels on H220 and L214 on endogenous human IgG1? but only at the H220 position on IgG1?. Low but measurable levels of d-cysteines were found on IgG2 cysteines in the hinge region, both with monoclonal antibodies incubated under basic pH conditions and on antibodies isolated from human serum. A simplified reaction mechanism involving reversible ?-elimination on the cysteine is presented that accounts for both base-catalyzed racemization and thioether formation at the hinge disulfide. PMID:24142697

  9. Role of the Essential Light Chain in the Activation of Smooth Muscle Myosin by Regulatory Light Chain Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Kenneth A.; Feig, Michael; Brooks, Charles L.; Fagnant, Patricia M.; Lowey, Susan; Trybus, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    The activity of smooth and non-muscle myosin II is regulated by phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain (RLC) at serine 19. The dephosphorylated state of full-length monomeric myosin is characterized by an asymmetric intramolecular head-head interaction that completely inhibits the ATPase activity, accompanied by a hairpin fold of the tail, which prevents filament assembly. Phosphorylation of serine 19 disrupts these head-head interactions by an unknown mechanism. Computational modeling suggested that formation of the inhibited state is characterized by both torsional and bending motions about the myosin heavy chain (HC) at a location between the RLC and the essential light chain (ELC). Therefore, altering relative motions between the ELC and the RLC at this locus might disrupt the inhibited state. Based on this hypothesis we have derived an atomic model for the phosphorylated state of the smooth muscle myosin light chain domain (LCD). This model predicts a set of specific interactions between the N-terminal residues of the RLC with both the myosin HC and the ELC. Site directed mutagenesis was used to show that interactions between the phosphorylated N-terminus of the RLC and helix-A of the ELC are required for phosphorylation to activate smooth muscle myosin. PMID:24361582

  10. Higher Stem Cell Dose Infusion after Intensive Chemotherapy Does Not Improve Symptom Burden in Older Patients with Multiple Myeloma and Amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nina; Shi, Qiuling; Williams, Loretta A; Mendoza, Tito R; Wang, Xin Shelley; Reuben, James M; Dougherty, Patrick M; Bashir, Qaiser; Qazilbash, Muzaffar H; Champlin, Richard E; Cleeland, Charles S; Giralt, Sergio A

    2016-02-01

    Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for multiple myeloma (MM) is associated with high symptom burden, particularly for older patients and those with amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis. Symptom burden peaks during leukopenia. We hypothesized that higher doses of CD34(+) stem cells would be associated with an improved symptom outcome. Patients undergoing ASCT for MM who were ≥60 years old or had AL amyloidosis were randomized to receive either a standard (4 to 6 × 10(6) cells/kg) or high dose (10 to 15 × 10(6) cells/kg) of CD34(+) cells after melphalan 200 mg/m(2). Symptom burden was assessed via the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory MM module. Eighty patients were enrolled. Median CD34(+) cell doses were 5.1 × 10(6) cells/kg (standard dose) and 10.5 × 10(6) cells/kg (high dose). The most severe symptoms during the first week were fatigue, lack of appetite, drowsiness, disturbed sleep, and pain. The area under the curve for the mean composite severity score of these symptoms was similar between treatment arms (P = .819). Median times to neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet engraftment were also similar between groups. IL-6 increased similarly for both groups throughout the ASCT course. Infusion of higher autologous stem cell dose after high-dose chemotherapy does not yield a difference in symptom burden or engraftment time in the first few weeks after ASCT. PMID:26253006

  11. Role of myosin light chain and myosin light chain kinase in advanced glycation end product-induced endothelial hyperpermeability in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fan; Guo, Xiaohua; Xu, Jing; Wang, Weiju; Li, Bingling; Huang, Qiaobing; Su, Lei; Xu, Qiulin

    2016-03-01

    We have previously reported that advanced glycation end products activated Rho-associated protein kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, causing endothelial hyperpermeability. However, the mechanisms involved were not fully clarified. Here, we explored the role of myosin light chain kinase in advanced glycation end product-induced endothelial hyperpermeability. Myosin light chain phosphorylation significantly increased by advanced glycation end products in endothelial cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, indicating that myosin light chain phosphorylation is involved in the advanced glycation end product pathway. Advanced glycation end products also induced myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit 1 phosphorylation, and small interfering RNA knockdown of the receptor for advanced glycation end products, or blocking myosin light chain kinase with its inhibitor, ML-7, or small interfering RNA abated advanced glycation end product-induced myosin light chain phosphorylation. Advanced glycation end product-induced F-actin rearrangement and endothelial hyperpermeability were also diminished by inhibition of receptor for advanced glycation end product or myosin light chain kinase signalling. Moreover, inhibiting myosin light chain kinase with ML-7 or blocking receptor for advanced glycation end product with its neutralizing antibody attenuated advanced glycation end product-induced microvascular hyperpermeability. Our findings suggest a novel role for myosin light chain and myosin light chain kinase in advanced glycation end product-induced endothelial hyperpermeability. PMID:26607798

  12. Constitutive phosphorylation of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chang, Audrey N; Battiprolu, Pavan K; Cowley, Patrick M; Chen, Guohua; Gerard, Robert D; Pinto, Jose R; Hill, Joseph A; Baker, Anthony J; Kamm, Kristine E; Stull, James T

    2015-04-24

    In beating hearts, phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) at a single site to 0.45 mol of phosphate/mol by cardiac myosin light chain kinase (cMLCK) increases Ca(2+) sensitivity of myofilament contraction necessary for normal cardiac performance. Reduction of RLC phosphorylation in conditional cMLCK knock-out mice caused cardiac dilation and loss of cardiac performance by 1 week, as shown by increased left ventricular internal diameter at end-diastole and decreased fractional shortening. Decreased RLC phosphorylation by conventional or conditional cMLCK gene ablation did not affect troponin-I or myosin-binding protein-C phosphorylation in vivo. The extent of RLC phosphorylation was not changed by prolonged infusion of dobutamine or treatment with a β-adrenergic antagonist, suggesting that RLC is constitutively phosphorylated to maintain cardiac performance. Biochemical studies with myofilaments showed that RLC phosphorylation up to 90% was a random process. RLC is slowly dephosphorylated in both noncontracting hearts and isolated cardiac myocytes from adult mice. Electrically paced ventricular trabeculae restored RLC phosphorylation, which was increased to 0.91 mol of phosphate/mol of RLC with inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). The two RLCs in each myosin appear to be readily available for phosphorylation by a soluble cMLCK, but MLCP activity limits the amount of constitutive RLC phosphorylation. MLCP with its regulatory subunit MYPT2 bound tightly to myofilaments was constitutively phosphorylated in beating hearts at a site that inhibits MLCP activity. Thus, the constitutive RLC phosphorylation is limited physiologically by low cMLCK activity in balance with low MLCP activity. PMID:25733667

  13. Staircase in mammalian muscle without light chain phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Rassier, D E; Tubman, L A; MacIntosh, B R

    1999-01-01

    In disuse atrophied skeletal muscle, the staircase response is virtually absent and light chain phosphorylation does not occur. The purpose of the present study was to determine if staircase could be restored in atrophied muscle with continued absence of myosin light chain phosphorylation, by reducing what appears to be an otherwise enhanced calcium release. Control (untreated) and sham-operated female Sprague-Dawley rats were compared with animals after 2 weeks of complete inactivity induced by tetrodotoxin (TTX) application to the left sciatic nerve. In situ isometric contractile responses of rat gastrocnemius muscle were analyzed before and after administration of dantrolene sodium (DS), a drug which is known to inhibit Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle. Twitch active force (AF) was attenuated by DS from 2.2 +/- 0.2 N, 2.7 +/- 0.1 N and 2.4 +/- 0.2 N to 0.77 +/- 0.2 N, 1.05 +/- 0.1 N and 1.01 +/- 0.2 N in TTX (N = 5), sham (N = 11) and control (N = 7) muscles, respectively. Following dantrolene treatment, 10 s of 10-Hz stimulation increased AF to 1.32 +/- 0.2 N, 1.52 +/- 0.1 N and 1.45 +/- 0.2 N for the TTX, sham and control groups, respectively, demonstrating a positive staircase response. Regulatory light chain (R-LC) phosphorylation was lower for TTX-treated (5.5 +/- 5.5%) than for control (26.1 +/- 5.3%) and sham (20.0 +/- 5%) groups. There was no significant change from resting levels for any of the groups after DS treatment (P = 0.88). This study shows that treatment with dantrolene permits staircase in atrophied muscle as well as control muscle, by a mechanism which appears to be independent of R-LC phosphorylation. PMID:10347779

  14. [Amyloidosis associated with dialysis].

    PubMed

    Mátyus, J; Kakuk, G

    1995-03-12

    Recently dialysis related amyloidosis has become a major complication in patients treated with long-term dialysis therapy. The serum level of the amyloid precursor beta 2-microglobulin is significantly elevated in uraemia, mostly due to the retention. The bioincompatibility of dialysis membranes and the endotoxin content of the dialysate may contribute to the synthesis and tissue deposition of beta 2-microglobulin, but the details of pathogenesis are not yet cleared. At first periarticular and perineural structures are involved in the deposition of amyloid. The carpal tunnel syndrome is of great differential diagnostic value, it appears frequently together with the beginning of the joint pain. The main target of arthropathy are the large and medium-sized joints symmetrically. Deposition of the amyloid to the subchondral bone cysts might lead to pathological fractures, mainly in the hips and destructive spondylarthrophathy might involve severe neurologic complications. Visceral organs (gastrointestinal and urogeniteal tract, heart etc.) are involved rarely and later. Ultrasonography and isotope methods in addition to the conventional radiologic examinations are also used to differentiate the joint complaints nowadays. The definitive diagnosis is based on immunohistology. The alteration of dialysis strategy first of all the usage of high permeable, biocompatibile membranes and pure dialysis water has a role in the prevention of disease and decreasing its progression. In the case of developed lesions timely surgical-orthopedic interventions are required in addition to drug therapy. Todays' renal transplantation is a successful treatment, but the consequences of amyloid depositions already formed can't be left out of considerations even after transplantation. PMID:7700615

  15. A Single Mutation at the Sheet Switch Region Results in Conformational Changes Favoring 6 Light-Chain Fibrillogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández-Santoyo, A.; Del Pozo Yauner, L; Fuentes-Silva, D; Ortiz, E; Rudiño-Piñera, E; Sánchez-López, R; Horjales, E; Becerril, B; Rodríguez-Romero, A

    2010-01-01

    Systemic amyloid light-chain (LC) amyloidosis is a disease process characterized by the pathological deposition of monoclonal LCs in tissue. All LC subtypes are capable of fibril formation although {lambda} chains, particularly those belonging to the {lambda}6 type, are overrepresented. Here, we report the thermodynamic and in vitro fibrillogenic properties of several mutants of the {lambda}6 protein 6aJL2 in which Pro7 and/or His8 was substituted by Ser or Pro. The H8P and H8S mutants were almost as stable as the wild-type protein and were poorly fibrillogenic. In contrast, the P7S mutation decreased the thermodynamic stability of 6aJL2 and greatly enhanced its capacity to form amyloid-like fibrils in vitro. The crystal structure of the P7S mutant showed that the substitution induced both local and long-distance effects, such as the rearrangement of the VL (variable region of the light chain)-VL interface. This mutant crystallized in two orthorhombic polymorphs, P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and C222{sub 1}. In the latter, a monomer that was not arranged in the typical Bence-Jones dimer was observed for the first time. Crystal-packing analysis of the C222{sub 1} lattice showed the establishment of intermolecular {beta}-{beta} interactions that involved the N-terminus and {beta}-strand B and that these could be relevant in the mechanism of LC fibril formation. Our results strongly suggest that Pro7 is a key residue in the conformation of the N-terminal sheet switch motif and, through long-distance interactions, is also critically involved in the contacts that stabilized the VL interface in {lambda}6 LCs.

  16. [The informative value of oral mucosal biopsy for the diagnosis of systemic amyloidosis].

    PubMed

    Rybakova, M G; Kuznetsova, I A; Semernin, E N; Gudkova, A Ia; Barmasheva, A A

    2013-01-01

    One hundred and thirteen oral mucosal biopsy specimens were analyzed in patients suspected of having systemic amyloidosis. Histological, immunohistochemical, and genetic studies and polarized light microscopy revealed oral amyloid deposits in 72.6% of cases, including 63.5% with metabolic syndrome and 36.5% with another etiology of chronic heart failure (coronary heart disease, cardiomyopathy). Systemic amyloidosis was found in 13.4% of cases (hereditary transthyretin, AL, and senile forms in 1.8, 10.5, and 1.1% cases, respectively). An anterior abdominal wall skin flap was a valid location to reveal the systemic forms of amyloidosis. Patients with metabolic syndrome and periodontal diseases may have local oral amyloidosis. PMID:24341225

  17. Recombinant DNA clones constructed from immunoglobulin kappa light chain messenger RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Wall, R; Gilmore-Hebert, M; Higuchi, R; Komaromy, M; Paddock, G; Strommer, J; Salser, W

    1978-01-01

    Recombinant DNA clones have been generated from mouse myeloma MOPC 21 immunoglobulin kappa light chain mRNA. Complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesized on kappa light chain mRNA by reverse transcriptase was made double stranded and inserted into the bacterial plasmid vector, pMB9. Approximately 70 tetracycline-resistant transformed colonies containing kappa light chain mRNA sequences were identified by colony hybridization. Five of these recombinant clones were selected and characterized. Three clones contain both kappa light chain constant and variable region sequences. Two of these three recombinant clones have been shown to include all of the kappa light chain constant and variable region coding sequences. Another of the five selected recombinant clones contain kappa light chain constant region sequences. The remaining characterized clone appears to be derived from sequences at the 5'-end of kappa light chain mRNA, possibly extending to the terminal cap structure. Images PMID:100767

  18. [Type AA renal amyloidosis in sarcoidosis].

    PubMed

    Tchénio, X; Bertocchi, M; McGrégor, B; Daoud, S; Mornex, J F; Cordier, J F

    1996-12-01

    Sarcoidosis is an uncommon cause of secondary amyloidosis. We describe in this paper the case of a 39 years old patient, with a pulmonary and hepatosplenic sarcoidosis. A nephrotic syndrome led to a renal biopsy which showed AA type amyloidosis. As no other cause of amyloidosis has been found we admitted that it was a result of sarcoidosis which was associated with the unusual inflammatory syndrome. PMID:9036507

  19. Ocular Myasthenia Gravis Associated With Thymic Amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Kristin O; Beneck, Debra M; Dinkin, Marc J

    2016-03-01

    A 45-year-old woman with ptosis and diplopia was found to have myasthenia gravis (MG) associated with amyloidosis of the thymus gland. Systemic MG is frequently associated with thymomas or thymic hyperplasia but has only once previously been reported in association with amyloidosis of the thymus. This case demonstrates that isolated ocular MG rarely may also be associated with amyloidosis of the thymus. PMID:25822660

  20. Single Nodular Pulmonary Amyloidosis: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Young Chun; Jeong, Jong Pil; Park, Chan Woo; Seo, Seok Ho; Kim, Jong Taek; Park, Dae Won; Bak, Cheol Min; Moon, Seung Ki; Jo, Shin Hyoung; Kim, Se Mi; Jung, Ah Lon

    2015-01-01

    Amyloidosis is defined as the presence of extra-cellular deposits of an insoluble fibrillar protein, amyloid. The pulmonary involvement of amyloidosis is usually classified as tracheobronchial, parenchymal nodular, or diffuse alveolar septal. A single nodular lesion can mimic various conditions, including malignancy, pulmonary tuberculosis, and fungal infection. To date, only one case of nodular pulmonary amyloidosis has been reported in Korea, a case involving multiple nodular lesions. Here, we report and discuss the case of a patient having single nodular amyloidosis. PMID:26508930

  1. The N-terminal strand modulates immunoglobulin light chain fibrillogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pozo-Yauner, Luis del; Wall, Jonathan S.; González Andrade, Martín; Sánchez-López, Rosana; Rodríguez-Ambriz, Sandra L.; Pérez Carreón, Julio I.; and others

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •We evaluated the impact of mutations in the N-terminal strand of 6aJL2 protein. •Mutations destabilized the protein in a position-dependent manner. •Destabilizing mutations accelerated the fibrillogenesis by shortening the lag time. •The effect on the kinetic of fibril elongation by seeding was of different nature. •The N-terminal strand is buried in the fibrillar state of 6aJL2 protein. -- Abstract: It has been suggested that the N-terminal strand of the light chain variable domain (V{sub L}) protects the molecule from aggregation by hindering spurious intermolecular contacts. We evaluated the impact of mutations in the N-terminal strand on the thermodynamic stability and kinetic of fibrillogenesis of the V{sub L} protein 6aJL2. Mutations in this strand destabilized the protein in a position-dependent manner, accelerating the fibrillogenesis by shortening the lag time; an effect that correlated with the extent of destabilization. In contrast, the effect on the kinetics of fibril elongation, as assessed in seeding experiments was of different nature, as it was not directly dependant on the degree of destabilization. This finding suggests different factors drive the nucleation-dependent and elongation phases of light chain fibrillogenesis. Finally, taking advantage of the dependence of the Trp fluorescence upon environment, four single Trp substitutions were made in the N-terminal strand, and changes in solvent exposure during aggregation were evaluated by acrylamide-quenching. The results suggest that the N-terminal strand is buried in the fibrillar state of 6aJL2 protein. This finding suggest a possible explanation for the modulating effect exerted by the mutations in this strand on the aggregation behavior of 6aJL2 protein.

  2. [Amyloidosis in infected Didelphis marsupialis].

    PubMed

    Roa, Diana Milena; Sarmiento, Ladys; Rodríguez, Gerzaín

    2002-09-01

    A male opossum, Didelphis marsupialis, captured in Teruel (Huila), Colombia, was inoculated intraperitoneally with 1 x 10(6) promastigotes of Leishmania chagasi (MHOM/CO/84/CL044B). The animal died 5 weeks after inoculation. Autopsy revealed signs of visceral leishmaniasis along with amastigote parasite form in Kupffer cells and spleen macrophages. Amyloid deposits in liver and spleen were demonstrated by histological staining and electron microscopy. The rapid death was considered a consequence of a secondary, reactive amyloidosis. PMID:12404923

  3. Variable domain structure of {kappa}IV human light chain len : high homology to the murine light chain McPC603.

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, D.-B.; Chang, C.-H.; Ainsworth, C.; Johnson, G.; Solomon, A.; Stevens, F. J.; Schiffer, M.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Univ. of Tennessee Medical Center

    1997-12-01

    Antibody light chains of the {kappa} subgroup are the predominant light chain component in human immune responses and are used almost exclusively in the antibody repertoire of mice. Human {kappa} light chains comprise four subgroups. To date, all crystallographic studies of human {kappa} light chains were carried out on proteins of the {kappa}I subgroup. The light chain produced by multiple myeloma patient Len, was of the {kappa}IV subgroup, it differed by only one residue from the germ-line gene encoded protein. The variable domain fragment of the light chain was crystallized from ammonium sulfate in space group C222{sub 1}. The crystal structure was determined by molecular replacement and refined at 1.95 Angstrom resolution to an R-factor of 0.15. Protein Len has six additional residues in its CDR1 segment compared to the {kappa}I proteins previously characterized. The {kappa}IV variable domain. Len, differs in only 23 of 113 residues from murine {kappa} light chain McPC603. The RMS deviation upon superimposing their {alpha}-carbons was 0.69 Angstrom. The CDR1 segment of the human and murine variable domains have the same length and conformation although their amino acid sequences differ in 5 out of 17 residues. Structural features were identified that could account for the significantly higher stability of the human {kappa}IV protein relative to its murine counterpart. This human {kappa}IV light chain structure is the closest human homolog to a murine light chain and can be expected to facilitate detailed structural comparisons necessary for effective humanization of murine antibodies.

  4. CVID Associated with Systemic Amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Esenboga, Saliha; Çagdas Ayvaz, Deniz; Saglam Ayhan, Arzu; Peynircioglu, Banu; Sanal, Ozden; Tezcan, Ilhan

    2015-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a frequent primary immune deficiency (PID), which consists of a heterogeneous group of disorders and can present with recurrent infections, chronic diarrhea, autoimmunity, chronic pulmonary and gastrointestinal diseases, and malignancy. Secondary amyloidosis is an uncommon complication of CVID. We report an unusual case of a 27-year-old male patient who presented with recurrent sinopulmonary infections, chronic diarrhea, and hypogammaglobulinemia and was diagnosed with CVID. The patient was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy once every 21 days and daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for prophylaxis. Two years after initial diagnosis, the patient was found to have progressive decline in IgG levels (as low as 200-300 mg/dL) despite regular Ig infusions. The laboratory tests revealed massive proteinuria and his kidney biopsy showed accumulation of AA type amyloid. We believe that the delay in the diagnosis of CVID and initiation of Ig replacement therapy caused chronic inflammation due to recurrent infections in our patient and this led to an uncommon and life-threatening complication, amyloidosis. Patients with CVID require regular follow-up for the control of infections and assessment of adequacy of Ig replacement therapy. Amyloidosis should be kept in the differential diagnosis when managing patients with CVID. PMID:26346511

  5. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance for amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Marianna; Chung, Robin; Hawkins, Philip N; Moon, James C

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac involvement drives the prognosis and treatment in systemic amyloid. Echocardiography, the mainstay of current cardiac imaging, defines cardiac structure and function. Echocardiography, in conjunction with clinical phenotype, electrocardiogram and biomarkers (brain natriuretic peptide and troponin), provides an assessment of the likelihood and extent of cardiac involvement. Two tests are transforming our understanding of cardiac amyloidosis, bone tracer scanning and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). CMR provides a "second opinion" on the heart's structure and systolic function with better accuracy and more precision than echocardiography but is unable to assess diastolic function and is not as widely available. Where CMR adds unique advantages is in evaluating myocardial tissue characterisation. With administration of contrast, the latest type of late gadolinium enhancement imaging (phase-sensitive inversion recovery sequence) is highly sensitive and specific with images virtually pathognomonic for amyloidosis. CMR is also demonstrating that the range of structural and functional changes in cardiac amyloid is broader than traditionally thought. CMR with T1 mapping, a relatively new CMR technique, can measure the amyloid burden and the myocyte response to infiltration (hypertrophy/cell loss) with advantages for tracking change (e.g. the wall thickness can stay the same but the composition can change) over time or during therapy. Such techniques hold great promise for advancing drug development in this arena and providing new prognostic insights. CMR with tissue characterisation is rewriting our understanding of cardiac amyloidosis and may lead to the development of new classification, therapies and prognostic systems. PMID:25549885

  6. CVID Associated with Systemic Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Esenboga, Saliha; Çagdas Ayvaz, Deniz; Saglam Ayhan, Arzu; Peynircioglu, Banu; Sanal, Ozden; Tezcan, Ilhan

    2015-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a frequent primary immune deficiency (PID), which consists of a heterogeneous group of disorders and can present with recurrent infections, chronic diarrhea, autoimmunity, chronic pulmonary and gastrointestinal diseases, and malignancy. Secondary amyloidosis is an uncommon complication of CVID. We report an unusual case of a 27-year-old male patient who presented with recurrent sinopulmonary infections, chronic diarrhea, and hypogammaglobulinemia and was diagnosed with CVID. The patient was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy once every 21 days and daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for prophylaxis. Two years after initial diagnosis, the patient was found to have progressive decline in IgG levels (as low as 200–300 mg/dL) despite regular Ig infusions. The laboratory tests revealed massive proteinuria and his kidney biopsy showed accumulation of AA type amyloid. We believe that the delay in the diagnosis of CVID and initiation of Ig replacement therapy caused chronic inflammation due to recurrent infections in our patient and this led to an uncommon and life-threatening complication, amyloidosis. Patients with CVID require regular follow-up for the control of infections and assessment of adequacy of Ig replacement therapy. Amyloidosis should be kept in the differential diagnosis when managing patients with CVID. PMID:26346511

  7. Unusual presentation of oral amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Silva, William P P; Wastner, Bruna F; Bohn, Joslei C; Jung, Juliana E; Schussel, Juliana L; Sassi, Laurindo M

    2015-09-01

    Amyloidosis is a rare disease of difficult diagnosis that occurs due accumulation of amyloid substance localized or systemic. The oral cavity is an unusual site and can be related to both localized and systemic forms and for that reason a full investigation is necessary to determine the extent of the disease. This study reports a case of a 58-year-old melanoderm male patient referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery with white plaques on the tongue and multiple nodules in the region of the buccal mucosa and labial commissure, with 6 months of evolution and painful symptoms. An incisional biopsy was performed on both sites and histological examination indicated the presence of eosinophilic amorphous material within the connective tissue, positive for crystal violet staining, consistent with amyloidosis. At the present time, there is no consensus on the management of local amyloidosis. Surgical treatment of localized forms is indicated in some cases to reduce the functional prejudice. Moreover, follow-up is mandatory, both to manage recurrences and to monitor the possible evolution of the disease to the systemic form. PMID:26604589

  8. Unusual presentation of oral amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, William P. P.; Wastner, Bruna F.; Bohn, Joslei C.; Jung, Juliana E.; Schussel, Juliana L.; Sassi, Laurindo M.

    2015-01-01

    Amyloidosis is a rare disease of difficult diagnosis that occurs due accumulation of amyloid substance localized or systemic. The oral cavity is an unusual site and can be related to both localized and systemic forms and for that reason a full investigation is necessary to determine the extent of the disease. This study reports a case of a 58-year-old melanoderm male patient referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery with white plaques on the tongue and multiple nodules in the region of the buccal mucosa and labial commissure, with 6 months of evolution and painful symptoms. An incisional biopsy was performed on both sites and histological examination indicated the presence of eosinophilic amorphous material within the connective tissue, positive for crystal violet staining, consistent with amyloidosis. At the present time, there is no consensus on the management of local amyloidosis. Surgical treatment of localized forms is indicated in some cases to reduce the functional prejudice. Moreover, follow-up is mandatory, both to manage recurrences and to monitor the possible evolution of the disease to the systemic form. PMID:26604589

  9. Detection of serum cardiac myosin light chains in acute experimental myocardial infarction: radioimmunoassay of cardiac myosin light chains.

    PubMed

    Khaw, B A; Gold, H K; Fallon, J T; Haber, E

    1978-12-01

    To develop a more specific plasma test for myocardial infarction, antibodies specific for cardiac myosin light chains (CM-LC) were elicited that showed less than 3% cross-reactivity with skeletal muscle light chains. These antibodies were used to develop a radioimmunoassay for CM-LC that had a sensitivity of 20 ng (+/- 4 SD; P less than 0.001). Normal dog plasma showed no measurable concentrations of CM-LC (n = 6). Plasma samples from 10 dogs with experimental myocardial infarction produced by persistent left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) occlusion were obtained at 0, 2, 4, 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours. CM-LC were first detectable in all 10 animals 6 hours after occlusion (97.98 +/- 14 ng/ml [mean +/- SEM]; P less than 0.001). Maximal CM-LC levels were usually obtained between 24 and 48 hours. Sham-operated open chest dogs (0--48 hours, n = 3) showed no measurable CM-LC in the plasma samples. Another group of 10 dogs were subjected to 5 hours of LAD occlusion, followed by reperfusion. In four dogs, CM-LC were detectable as early as 1 hour after reperfusion (81.88 +/- 37.75 ng/ml serum). Sera from all 10 dogs showed elevated levels of CM-LC (199.75 +/- 24.0 ng/ml) by 24 hours. Peak CM-LC concentrations were obtained in five dogs at 24 hours (247.0 +/- 35.28 ng/ml) and in another dog at 120 hours (245 ng/ml). Histochemical infarct size was determined to be 0.5--10% of the left ventricular mass at seven days by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. The specificity and sensitivity of this radioimmunoassay for detection of CM-LC, unique proteins to the heart, may be valuable in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. PMID:709768

  10. Light-chain binding sites on renal brush-border membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Batuman, V.; Dreisbach, A.W.; Cyran, J.

    1990-05-01

    Immunoglobulin light chains are low-molecular-weight proteins filtered at the renal glomerulus and catabolized within the proximal tubular epithelium. Excessive production and urinary excretion of light chains are associated with renal dysfunction. They also interfere with proximal renal tubule epithelial functions in vitro. We studied the binding of 125I-labeled kappa- and lambda-light chains, obtained from the urine of multiple myeloma patients, to rat and human renal proximal tubular brush-border membranes. Light-chain binding to brush borders was also demonstrated immunologically by flow cytometry. Computer analysis of binding data was consistent with presence of a single class of low-affinity, high-capacity, non-cooperative binding sites with relative selectivity for light chains on both rat and human kidney brush-border membranes. The dissociation constants of light chains ranged from 1.6 X 10(-5) to 1.2 X 10(-4) M, and maximum binding capacity ranged from 4.7 +/- 1.3 X 10(-8) to 8.0 +/- 0.9 X 10(-8) (SD) mol/mg protein at 25 degrees C. Kappa- and lambda-light chains competed with each other for binding with comparable affinity constants. Competition by albumin and beta-lactoglobulin, however, was much weaker, suggesting relative site selectivity for light chains. These binding sites probably function as endocytotic receptors for light chains and possibly other low-molecular-weight proteins.

  11. Extensive Loculated Ascites in Hepatic Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Buppajarntham, Saranya; Kue-A-Pai, Pongsathorn

    2014-01-01

    Context: Amyloidosis is a disease of extracellular deposition of misfolded proteinaceous subunits, which could be systemic or localized disease. Though hepatic amyloidosis was not uncommon in autopsy series, most cases of hepatic amyloidosis were asymptomatic. Ascites, jaundice, portal hypertension, and gastrointestinal bleeding from esophageal varices were reported in literature. Case report: A 42-year-old man with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis and recent small bowel obstruction presented with chronic abdominal pain. Computed tomography of abdomen and pelvis showed extensive loculated ascites and multiple small bowel loops tethered to adhesions and hepatomegaly. Finally, hepatic venography and liver biopsy confirmed hepatic amyloidosis with portal hypertension. The patient was waiting for liver transplant for definite treatment. Conclusion: We report a rare case of hepatic amyloidosis with prior small bowel obstruction presented with extensive loculated ascites and multiple small bowel loops tethered to adhesions. PMID:25077085

  12. Primary Breast Amyloidosis Presenting as Microcalcifications Only

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Youngsub; Kim, Min Jung; Ryu, Han Suk

    2013-01-01

    Amyloidosis is a rare disease characterized by the formation of pathological protein deposits in organs or tissues. It is typically a systemic disease which can occur in a localized form. Amyloidosis of the breast is uncommon. Common mammographic findings of breast amyloidosis are multiple nodules with or without calcifications. We report a case of primary localized breast amyloidosis presenting suspicious microcalcifications on mammography without associated masses. Mammography in a 72-year-old woman displayed multiple, linearly distributed, irregular and rod-like calcifications in the subareolar area of the left breast. The patient underwent surgical excision under mammo-guided needle localization and the pathology was confirmed to be breast amyloidosis. PMID:24043964

  13. The light chains of kinesin-1 are autoinhibited.

    PubMed

    Yip, Yan Y; Pernigo, Stefano; Sanger, Anneri; Xu, Mengjia; Parsons, Maddy; Steiner, Roberto A; Dodding, Mark P

    2016-03-01

    The light chains (KLCs) of the microtubule motor kinesin-1 bind cargoes and regulate its activity. Through their tetratricopeptide repeat domain (KLC(TPR)), they can recognize short linear peptide motifs found in many cargo proteins characterized by a central tryptophan flanked by aspartic/glutamic acid residues (W-acidic). Using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer biosensor in combination with X-ray crystallographic, biochemical, and biophysical approaches, we describe how an intramolecular interaction between the KLC2(TPR) domain and a conserved peptide motif within an unstructured region of the molecule, partly occludes the W-acidic binding site on the TPR domain. Cargo binding displaces this interaction, effecting a global conformational change in KLCs resulting in a more extended conformation. Thus, like the motor-bearing kinesin heavy chains, KLCs exist in a dynamic conformational state that is regulated by self-interaction and cargo binding. We propose a model by which, via this molecular switch, W-acidic cargo binding regulates the activity of the holoenzyme. PMID:26884162

  14. Immunoquantitation of free light chain immunoglobulins: applications in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Cole, P W; Durie, B G; Salmon, S E

    1978-01-01

    A single radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay for the free lambda (lambda) and kappa (kappa) light chain (LC) immunoglobulins was developed for study of clinical samples of serum, urine, and bone marrow of patients with multiple myeloma. Using highly specific rabbit anti-LC sera, we were able to quantitate: (a) free serum LC after fractionating the serum sample using an Amicon ultrafiltration chamber equipped with an XM100A diaflow membrane and an 125I-LC standard for calculating filtration efficiencies, (b) directly, Bence Jones (BJ) proteins in the urine, and (c) the in vitro LC synthesis by myeloma plasma cells obtained from bone marrow aspirates. The median values of free LC levels in sera (n = 12), urines (n = 25), and marrow culture synthetic rates (n = 17) were 116.2 mg/dl, 0.775 g/day and 15.3 pg/plasma cell/day, respectively. These data were useful in initial evaluation of patients and serial follow-up studies. The assays have also been of use in our research on the determination of total body tumor mass in patients with BJ multiple myeloma. PMID:416145

  15. Is accuracy of serum free light chain measurement achievable?

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Joannes F M; Tate, Jillian R; Merlini, Giampaolo

    2016-06-01

    The serum free light chain (FLC) assay has proven to be an important complementary test in the management of patients with monoclonal gammopathies. The serum FLC assay has value for patients with plasma cell disorders in the context of screening and diagnosis, prognostic stratification, and quantitative monitoring. Nonetheless, serum FLC measurements have analytical limitations which give rise to differences in FLC reporting depending on which FLC assay and analytical platform is used. As the FLC measurements are incorporated in the International Myeloma Working Group guidelines for the evaluation and management of plasma cell dyscrasias, this may directly affect clinical decisions. As new certified methods for serum FLC assays emerge, the need to harmonise patient FLC results becomes increasingly important. In this opinion paper we provide an overview of the current lack of accuracy and harmonisation in serum FLC measurements. The clinical consequence of non-harmonized FLC measurements is that an individual patient may or may not meet certain diagnostic, prognostic, or response criteria, depending on which FLC assay and platform is used. We further discuss whether standardisation of serum FLC measurements is feasible and provide an overview of the steps needed to be taken towards harmonisation of FLC measurements. PMID:26641970

  16. Myosin light chain phosphorylation during the contraction cycle of frog muscle.

    PubMed

    Bárány, K; Bárány, M; Gillis, J M; Kushmerick, M J

    1980-04-01

    Changes in the [32P]phosphate content of proteins during contraction were investigated with sartorius and semitendinosus muscles dissected from live frogs injected with [32P]orthophosphate. During a single tetanus, the only significant change was the increase in the [32P]phosphate content of the 18,000-dalton light chain of myosin. The extent of light chain phosphorylation was a function of stimulus duration and it amounted maximally to 0.35 mol of [32P]phosphate transferred per mol of light chain. The extent of phosphorylation in stimulated and stretched semitendinosus muscles, which were unable to produce active tension, was nearly identical to that in muscles stimulated at standard rest length, when the time of stimulation was over a half-second. Maximal light chain phosphorylation was also observed in muscles treated with caffein. These results provide evidence for the activation of the light chain kinase in the intact muscle through a process involving Ca2+. The phosphorylation of the light chain associated with tetanic stimulation was reversible. After short tetanuses, dephosphorylation of light chain approximately followed relaxation and after longer tetanuses, dephosphorylation lagged behind relaxation. The role of light chain phosphorylation was investigated in caffeine-treated and untreated muscles by measuring the Ca content of actin and the [32P]phosphate content of light chain. Phosphorylation of light chain protected the actin-bound Ca against removal by EDTA stoichiometrically. It is postulated that the physiological role of light chain phosphorylation is to increase the rate of combination of the cross-bridges with the actin filaments in the contracting phase of the mechanical activity. PMID:7364050

  17. Biochemical features of a catalytic antibody light chain, 22F6, prepared from human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Hifumi, Emi; Fujimoto, Naoko; Arakawa, Mitsue; Saito, Eri; Matsumoto, Shingo; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Uda, Taizo

    2013-07-01

    Human antibody light chains belonging to subgroup II of germ line genes were amplified by a seminested PCR technique using B-lymphocytes taken from a human adult infected with influenza virus. Each gene of the human light chains was transferred into the Escherichia coli system. The recovered light chain was highly purified using a two-step purification system. Light chain 22F6 showed interesting catalytic features. The light chain cleaved a peptide bond of synthetic peptidyl-4-methyl-coumaryl-7-amide (MCA) substrates, such as QAR-MCA and EAR-MCA, indicating amidase activity. It also hydrolyzed a phosphodiester bond of both DNA and RNA. From the analysis of amino acid sequences and molecular modeling, the 22F6 light chain possesses two kinds of active sites as amidase and nuclease in close distances. The 22F6 catalytic light chain could suppress the infection of influenza virus type A (H1N1) of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells in an in vitro assay. In addition, the catalytic light chain clearly inhibited the infection of the influenza virus of BALB/c mice via nasal administration in an in vivo assay. In the experiment, the titer in the serum of the mice coinfected with the 22F6 light chain and H1N1 virus became considerably lowered compared with that of 22F6-non-coinfected mice. Note that the catalytic light chain was prepared from human peripheral lymphocyte and plays an important role in preventing infection by influenza virus. Considering the fact that the human light chain did not show any acute toxicity for mice, our procedure developed in this study must be unique and noteworthy for developing new drugs. PMID:23677996

  18. 21 CFR 866.5550 - Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system. 866.5550 Section 866.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Test Systems § 866.5550 Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system....

  19. 21 CFR 866.5550 - Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system. 866.5550 Section 866.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Test Systems § 866.5550 Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system....

  20. 21 CFR 866.5550 - Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system. 866.5550 Section 866.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Test Systems § 866.5550 Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system....

  1. The use of immunoglobulin light chain assays in the diagnosis of paraprotein-related kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Punit; Leung, Nelson; Sanders, Paul W.; Cockwell, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Kidney involvement is common in paraprotein-related diseases. A diversity of clinical presentations and histopathological features can occur secondary to tissue injury caused by precipitation or deposition of a clonal immunoglobulin, usually an immunoglobulin light chain. The paraprotein is either produced by multiple myeloma or by a clone of B-cell lineage that does not fulfill diagnostic criteria for multiple myeloma. The recent introduction of serum immunoglobulin free light chain assays, which accurately quantify both light chain isotypes to produce a ratio that indicates the presence or absence of a light chain paraprotein, is a major clinical development. However, as the interpretation of the assay can be challenging, the aim of this review is to clarify the role of serum and urinary light chain assays in the screening and diagnosis of paraprotein-related kidney disease. PMID:25296094

  2. [A case of light chain deposition disease involving kidney and bone marrow with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia].

    PubMed

    Cho, Young Uk; Chi, Hyun Sook; Park, Chan Jeoung; Jang, Seongsoo; Cho, Yong Mee; Park, Jung Sik

    2009-10-01

    We report a case of light chain deposition disease in a 59-yr-old female showing deposition of monoclonal light chain in the kidney and bone marrow accompanied with a schistocytosis, the morphologic finding of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. The immunofluorescence examination of the kidney revealed strongly stained kappa-light chain deposits on the glomerular mesangium and capillary wall, tubules, and vessel wall. The electron microscopy demonstrated electron-dense deposits on the glomerular basement membrane and mesangium. Anemia was observed with schistocytosis and Howell-Jolly body in the peripheral blood smears. The immunohistochemical examination of the bone marrow showed the presence of kappa-light chain deposits in scattered plasma cells and thickened vessel wall in the absence of a prominent plasma cell proliferation. Although an immunofixation electrophoresis failed to detect a monoclonal gammopathy, the presence of monoclonal protein could be identified by an abnormal kappa/lambda ratio on the serum free light chain analysis. PMID:19893345

  3. Kinesin light chain 1 gene haplotypes in three conformational diseases.

    PubMed

    von Otter, Malin; Landgren, Sara; Nilsson, Staffan; Lundvall, Caroline; Minthon, Lennart; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Andreasen, Niels; Gustafson, Deborah R; Skoog, Ingmar; Wallin, Anders; Håkansson, Anna; Nissbrandt, Hans; Zetterberg, Madeleine; Tasa, Gunnar; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2010-09-01

    A functional intracellular transport system is essential to maintain cell shape and function especially in elongated cells, e.g. neurons and lens fibre cells. Impaired intracellular transport has been suggested as a common pathological mechanism for age-related diseases characterised by protein aggregation. Here, we hypothesise that common genetic variation in the transport protein kinesin may influence the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related cataract. This case-control study involves a PD material (165 cases and 190 controls), an AD material (653 cases and 845 controls) and a cataract material (495 cases and 183 controls). Genetic variation in the kinesin light chain 1-encoding gene (KLC1) was tagged by six tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Single SNPs and haplotypes were analysed for associations with disease risk, age parameters, mini-mental state examination scores and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for AD using logistic or linear regression. Genetic variation in KLC1 did not influence risk of PD. Weak associations with risk of AD were seen for rs8007903 and rs3212079 (P (c) = 0.04 and P (c) = 0.02, respectively). Two SNPs (rs8007903 and rs8702) influenced risk of cataract (P (c) = 0.0007 and P (c) = 0.04, respectively). However, the allele of rs8007903 that caused increased risk of AD caused reduced risk of cataract, speaking against a common functional effect of this particular SNP in the two diseases. Haplotype analyses did not add significantly to the associations found in the single SNP analyses. Altogether, these results do not convincingly support KLC1 as a major susceptibility gene in any of the studied diseases, although there is a small effect of KLC1 in relation to cataract. PMID:19911314

  4. Pathogenetic mechanisms of amyloid A amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Simons, J Paul; Al-Shawi, Raya; Ellmerich, Stephan; Speck, Ivana; Aslam, Samrina; Hutchinson, Winston L; Mangione, Palma P; Disterer, Petra; Gilbertson, Janet A; Hunt, Toby; Millar, David J; Minogue, Shane; Bodin, Karl; Pepys, Mark B; Hawkins, Philip N

    2013-10-01

    Systemic amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is a serious complication of chronic inflammation. Serum AA protein (SAA), an acute phase plasma protein, is deposited extracellularly as insoluble amyloid fibrils that damage tissue structure and function. Clinical AA amyloidosis is typically preceded by many years of active inflammation before presenting, most commonly with renal involvement. Using dose-dependent, doxycycline-inducible transgenic expression of SAA in mice, we show that AA amyloid deposition can occur independently of inflammation and that the time before amyloid deposition is determined by the circulating SAA concentration. High level SAA expression induced amyloidosis in all mice after a short, slightly variable delay. SAA was rapidly incorporated into amyloid, acutely reducing circulating SAA concentrations by up to 90%. Prolonged modest SAA overexpression occasionally produced amyloidosis after long delays and primed most mice for explosive amyloidosis when SAA production subsequently increased. Endogenous priming and bulk amyloid deposition are thus separable events, each sensitive to plasma SAA concentration. Amyloid deposits slowly regressed with restoration of normal SAA production after doxycycline withdrawal. Reinduction of SAA overproduction revealed that, following amyloid regression, all mice were primed, especially for rapid glomerular amyloid deposition leading to renal failure, closely resembling the rapid onset of renal failure in clinical AA amyloidosis following acute exacerbation of inflammation. Clinical AA amyloidosis rarely involves the heart, but amyloidotic SAA transgenic mice consistently had minor cardiac amyloid deposits, enabling us to extend to the heart the demonstrable efficacy of our unique antibody therapy for elimination of visceral amyloid. PMID:23959890

  5. [Truss-induced macular amyloidosis].

    PubMed

    Abels, C; Karrer, S; Landthaler, M; Szeimies, R M

    2001-10-01

    A 80-year-old male presented with a long time history of a localized red-brown macule with superficial lichenification and slight scaling in the right groin. An earlier skin biopsy revealed the presence of amyloid deposits. The patient therefore had a complete internal checkup including a rectal biopsy for exclusion of systemic amyloidosis. However, the laboratory data did not reveal any specific abnormalities including immunoglobulins and Bence-Jones protein. The rectal biopsy was also nonspecific. After skin examination, a rebiopsy was performed at our department showing acanthosis and spongiosis of the epidermis with parakeratosis. A homogenous eosinophilic deposit was present in the upper dermis and stained positive with thioflavine. At the second visit the patient wore a truss for a right inguinal hernia, perfectly matching the area of the skin lesion. Thus, the diagnosis of a localized macular amyloidosis was confirmed very likely due to permanent local friction. The classification of localized cutaneous amyloidoses should include local trauma as a cause to avoid unnecessary and exhausting internal checkups to exclude systemic involvement. PMID:11715396

  6. Cardiac Amyloidosis Presenting as Recurrent Syncope

    PubMed Central

    Su, Min-I; Tsai, Jui-Peng; Chang, Sheng-Hsiung; Su, Cheng-Huang

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac amyloidosis is an uncommon disease that is rarely diagnosed clinically. In this study, we present a case of a 63-year-old man with recurrent syncope and elevated troponin I levels. The patient’s coronary angiography showed no significant stenosis. An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator was implanted into the patient due to episodes of ventricular tachycardia. The diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis was made by endomyocardial biopsy. The patient died of a combination of cardiogenic shock and rapid deterioration of renal function. Although cardiac amyloidosis is rarely diagnosed, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with recurrent syncope, because it is potentially treatable. PMID:27122773

  7. Drosophila melanogaster has only one myosin alkali light-chain gene which encodes a protein with considerable amino acid sequence homology to chicken myosin alkali light chains.

    PubMed Central

    Falkenthal, S; Parker, V P; Mattox, W W; Davidson, N

    1984-01-01

    A chimeric lambda DNA molecule containing the myosin alkali light-chain gene of Drosophila melanogaster was isolated. The encoded amino acid sequence was determined from the nucleic acid sequence of a cDNA homologous to the genomic clone. The identity of the encoded protein was established by two criteria: (i) sequence homology with the chicken alkali light-chain proteins and (ii) comparison of the two-dimensional gel electrophoretic pattern of the peptides synthesized by in vitro translation of hybrid-selected RNA to that of myosin alkali light-chain peptides extracted from Drosophila myofibrils. There is only one myosin alkali light-chain in D. melanogaster; its chromosomal location is region 98B . This gene is abundantly expressed during the development of larval as well as adult muscles. The Drosophila protein appears to contain one putative divalent cation-binding domain (an EF hand) as compared with the three EF hands present in chicken alkali light chains. Images PMID:6328279

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging in cardiac amyloidosis

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donnell, J.K.; Go, R.T.; Bott-Silverman, C.; Feiglin, D.H.; Salcedo, E.; MacIntyre, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Primary amyloidosis (AL) involves the myocardium in 90% of cases and may present as apparent ischemia, vascular disease, or congestive heart failure. Two-dimensional echocardiography (echo) has proven useful in the diagnosis, particularly in differentiating AL from constrictive pericarditis. The findings of thickened RV and LV myocardium, normal LV cavity dimension, and a diffuse hyperrefractile ''granular sparkling'' appearance are virtually diagnostic. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging may improve the resolution of anatomic changes seen in cardiac AL and has the potential to provide more specific information based on biochemical tissue alterations. In this preliminary study, the authors obtained both MR and echo images in six patients with AL and biopsy-proven myocardial involvement. 5/6 patients also had Tc-99 PYP myocardial studies including emission tomography (SPECT). MR studies utilized a 0.6 Tesla superconductive magnet. End diastolic gated images were obtained with TE=30msec and TR=R-R interval on the ECG. 6/6 pts. showed LV wall thickening which was concentric and included the septum. Papillary muscles were identified in all and were enlarged in 3/6. 4/6 pts. showed RV wall thickening but to a lesser degree than LV. Pericardial effusions were present in 4 cases. These findings correlated well with the results of echo although MR gave better RV free wall resolution. PYP scans were positive in 3 pts. but there was no correlation with degree of LV thickening. The authors conclude that there are no identifiable MR findings in patients with cardiac AL which encourage further attempts to characterize myocardial involvement by measurement of MR relaxation times in vivo.

  9. Involvement of myosin light-chain kinase in endothelial cell retraction

    SciTech Connect

    Wysolmerski, R.B.; Lagunoff, D. )

    1990-01-01

    Permeabilized bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cell monolayers were used to investigate the mechanism of endothelial cell retraction. Postconfluent endothelial cells permeabilized with saponin retracted upon exposure to ATP and Ca{sup 2+}. Retraction was accompanied by thiophosphorylation of 19,000-Da myosin light chains when adenosine 5'-(gamma-({sup 35}S)thio)triphosphate was included in the medium. Both retraction and thiophosphorylation of myosin light chains exhibited a graded quantitative dependence on Ca{sup 2+}. When permeabilized monolayers were extracted in buffer D containing 100 mM KCl and 30 mM MgCl2 for 30 min, the cells failed to retract upon exposure to ATP and Ca{sup 2+}, and no thiophosphorylation of myosin light chains occurred. The ability both to retract and to thiophosphorylate myosin light chains was restored by the addition to the permeabilized, extracted cells of myosin light-chain kinase and calmodulin together but not by either alone. These studies indicate that endothelial cell retraction, as does smooth muscle contraction, depends on myosin light-chain kinase phosphorylation of myosin light chains.

  10. Pneumatosis intestinalis due to gastrointestinal amyloidosis: A case report & review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Filza; Kaiyasah, Hadiel; Binfadil, Wafa; Majid, Maiyasa; Hazim, Wessam; ElTayeb, Yousif

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) is not a disease but a radiological finding with a poorly understood pathogenesis. It can be divided into primary/idiopathic (15%) or secondary (85%) Kim et al. 2007, based on the factors thought to play a role in its development. Amongst the rare causes of secondary PI is gastrointestinal (GI) amyloidosis. Presentation of the case We report a case of a 46-year-old gentleman who presented with a one month history of acute on chronic abdominal pain, associated with one episode of melena. Upon further investigation, he was found to have pneumoperitoneum. He was taken to the operating theatre, where he was noted to have features of pneumatosis intestinalis of the small bowel with no evidence of bowel perforation. Postoperatively, he underwent an upper GI endoscopy with biopsies that revealed GI amyloidosis. Discussion One of the rare causes that can lead to secondary PI is GI amyloidosis as proven in our case. Patients with symptomatic gastrointestinal amyloidosis usually present with one of four syndromes: gastrointestinal bleeding, malabsorption, protein-losing gastroenteropathy, and, less often, gastrointestinal dysmotility. Conclusion GI amyloidosis is a rare cause of secondary pneumatosis intestinalis. The presentation of the disease varies from patient to patient, therefore, the management should be tailored accordingly. PMID:27085104

  11. Abdominal amyloidosis: spectrum of radiological findings.

    PubMed

    Kim, S H; Han, J K; Lee, K H; Won, H J; Kim, K W; Kim, J S; Park, C H; Choi, B I

    2003-08-01

    Amyloidosis is a disease characterized by the deposition of fibrillar protein amyloid of beta-structure in organs or tissues. It is usually classified as either a primary disease or secondary to a co-existent condition, such as rheumatoid arthritis, tuberculosis, or neoplasm (particularly multiple myeloma or renal cell carcinoma). Amyloid protein deposition can be seen in a variety of organs though it occurs with higher frequency in the gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and heart. Amyloidosis can have a wide spectrum of manifestations in nearly every abdominal organ. Some of these, for example, multiple cystic submucosal masses of the stomach, amyloidosis of the gallbladder, and dirty soft tissue infiltration of the subcutaneous fat, have not yet been covered in the radiological literature. The combination of various imaging techniques and the identification of characteristic computed tomography (CT) hepatic features may help in the differentiation of amyloidosis from other infiltrative diseases; however, confirmative diagnosis can usually only be achieved by tissue biopsy. PMID:12887954

  12. Symptomatic cardiac amyloidosis in an American family

    SciTech Connect

    Ruder, M.A.; Alpert, M.A.; Sanfelippo, J.F.; Dix, J.D.; Whiting, R.B.

    1984-07-01

    This report describes an American family with a high incidence of symptomatic cardiac amyloidosis among four siblings, and explores the role of echocardiography and technetium pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy in the detection of this infiltrative cardiomyopathy within the involved family.

  13. Renal amyloidosis. Evaluation by gallium imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.W.; Skinner, M.; Cohen, A.S.; Ngai, S.; Peng, T.T.

    1986-09-01

    A study has been performed to evaluate the efficacy of gallium imaging in the detection of renal amyloidosis. Ten of the 11 patients who had biopsy-proven renal amyloidosis demonstrated marked uptake in both kidneys. One patient revealed moderate gallium uptake in his kidneys. None of the patients had underlying renal or extrarenal pathology other than amyloidosis, which could account for renal gallium uptake (renal infection, neoplasm, hepatic failure or frequent blood transfusions). Four patients also had extrarenal foci of abnormal gallium uptake, suggesting other sites of amyloid deposits. Our data strongly suggest that gallium imaging has a high sensitivity for detection of renal amyloidosis. Its specificity is enhanced significantly by careful review of the clinical history to exclude other known causes of renal gallium uptake. Potentially, gallium imaging may be used to monitor the progress of patients under experimental therapy.

  14. Systemic Amyloidosis and Extraocular Muscle Deposition.

    PubMed

    Shah, Veeral S; Cavuoto, Kara M; Capo, Hilda; Grace, Sara F; Dubovy, Sander R; Schatz, Norman J

    2016-06-01

    Isolated amyloid deposition in an extraocular muscle is a rare event but can be a presenting feature of systemic amyloidosis. A 67-year-old woman with an acquired exotropia and hypertropia was found to have unilateral diffuse extraocular muscle enlargement on magnetic resonance imaging. Owing to the progressive nature of her strabismus and the negative laboratory testing for thyroid disease, she underwent an extraocular muscle biopsy that revealed amyloid deposition. Further workup demonstrated a monoclonal gammopathy consistent with systemic amyloidosis. This case demonstrates the need to consider amyloidosis in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with an atypical acquired strabismus. We review other reports of isolated amyloid deposition in extraocular muscles and its association with systemic amyloidosis, emphasizing the importance of the ophthalmologist in the early recognition of this disease to prevent irreversible, life-threatening end organ damage. PMID:26967574

  15. Transmission of systemic AA amyloidosis in animals.

    PubMed

    Murakami, T; Ishiguro, N; Higuchi, K

    2014-03-01

    Amyloidoses are a group of protein-misfolding disorders that are characterized by the deposition of amyloid fibrils in organs and/or tissues. In reactive amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis, serum AA (SAA) protein forms deposits in mice, domestic and wild animals, and humans that experience chronic inflammation. AA amyloid fibrils are abnormal ?-sheet-rich forms of the serum precursor SAA, with conformational changes that promote fibril formation. Extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils causes disease in affected animals. Recent findings suggest that AA amyloidosis could be transmissible. Similar to the pathogenesis of transmissible prion diseases, amyloid fibrils induce a seeding-nucleation process that may lead to development of AA amyloidosis. We review studies of possible transmission in bovine, avian, mouse, and cheetah AA amyloidosis. PMID:24280941

  16. Antigen nature and complexity influence human antibody light chain usage and specificity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kenneth; Shah, Hemangi; Muther, Jennifer J; Duke, Angie L; Haley, Kathleen; James, Judith A

    2016-05-27

    Human antibodies consist of a heavy chain and one of two possible light chains, kappa (κ) or lambda (λ). Here we tested how these two possible light chains influence the overall antibody response to polysaccharide and protein antigens by measuring light chain usage in human monoclonal antibodies from antibody secreting cells obtained following vaccination with Pneumovax23. Remarkably, we found that individuals displayed restricted light chain usage to certain serotypes and that lambda antibodies have different specificities and modes of cross-reactivity than kappa antibodies. Thus, at both the monoclonal (7 kappa, no lambda) and serum levels (145μg/mL kappa, 2.82μg/mL lambda), antibodies to cell wall polysaccharide were nearly always kappa. The pneumococcal reference serum 007sp was analyzed for light chain usage to 12 pneumococcal serotypes for which it is well characterized. Similar to results at the monoclonal level, certain serotypes tended to favor one of the light chains (14 and 19A, lambda; 6A and 23F, kappa). We also explored differences in light chain usage at the serum level to a variety of antigens. We examined serum antibodies to diphtheria toxin mutant CRM197 and Epstein-Barr virus protein EBNA-1. These responses tended to be kappa dominant (average kappa-to-lambda ratios of 4.52 and 9.72 respectively). Responses to the influenza vaccine were more balanced with kappa-to-lambda ratio averages having slight strain variations: seasonal H1N1, 1.1; H3N2, 0.96; B, 0.91. We conclude that antigens with limited epitopes tend to produce antibodies with restricted light chain usage and that in most individuals, antibodies with lambda light chains have specificities different and complementary to kappa-containing antibodies. PMID:27113164

  17. Amyloidosis: Modern Cross-sectional Imaging.

    PubMed

    Czeyda-Pommersheim, Ferenc; Hwang, Misun; Chen, Sue Si; Strollo, Diane; Fuhrman, Carl; Bhalla, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Amyloidosis is a rare diverse condition caused by the pathologic extracellular deposition of abnormal insoluble proteins throughout the body. It may exist as a primary disease or, more commonly, may be secondary to a wide variety of pathologic processes ranging from chronic infection or inflammation to malignancy. Hereditary forms also exist. On the basis of the structure of the protein deposits, more than two dozen subtypes of amyloidosis have been described. A single organ or multiple organ systems may be affected. The radiologic manifestations of amyloidosis are varied and often nonspecific, making amyloidosis a diagnostic challenge for the radiologist. In the chest, the lungs, mediastinum, pleura, and heart may be involved. Lung involvement may manifest as diffuse reticulonodular interstitial thickening, consolidations, or solitary or multiple parenchymal nodules that may calcify, cavitate, and slowly enlarge. Pleural involvement most commonly manifests as pleural effusions. Tracheobronchial involvement may exhibit concentric airway thickening, mural and intraluminal nodules, submucosal calcification, and airway obstruction. Mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes may enlarge and frequently calcify. At cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the left ventricular wall is typically thickened, with associated diastolic dysfunction. Delayed contrast material-enhanced cardiac MR imaging typically shows global transmural or subendocardial enhancement. The pathophysiology, classification, treatment, and prognosis of amyloidosis are reviewed, followed by case examples of the appearance of thoracic and cardiac amyloidosis on chest radiographs, computed tomographic (CT) images, and cardiac MR images. PMID:26230754

  18. Myosin light chain kinase regulates synaptic plasticity and fear learning in the lateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Lamprecht, R; Margulies, D S; Farb, C R; Hou, M; Johnson, L R; LeDoux, J E

    2006-01-01

    Learning and memory depend on signaling molecules that affect synaptic efficacy. The cytoskeleton has been implicated in regulating synaptic transmission but its role in learning and memory is poorly understood. Fear learning depends on plasticity in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala. We therefore examined whether the cytoskeletal-regulatory protein, myosin light chain kinase, might contribute to fear learning in the rat lateral amygdala. Microinjection of ML-7, a specific inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase, into the lateral nucleus of the amygdala before fear conditioning, but not immediately afterward, enhanced both short-term memory and long-term memory, suggesting that myosin light chain kinase is involved specifically in memory acquisition rather than in posttraining consolidation of memory. Myosin light chain kinase inhibitor had no effect on memory retrieval. Furthermore, ML-7 had no effect on behavior when the training stimuli were presented in a non-associative manner. Anatomical studies showed that myosin light chain kinase is present in cells throughout lateral nucleus of the amygdala and is localized to dendritic shafts and spines that are postsynaptic to the projections from the auditory thalamus to lateral nucleus of the amygdala, a pathway specifically implicated in fear learning. Inhibition of myosin light chain kinase enhanced long-term potentiation, a physiological model of learning, in the auditory thalamic pathway to the lateral nucleus of the amygdala. When ML-7 was applied without associative tetanic stimulation it had no effect on synaptic responses in lateral nucleus of the amygdala. Thus, myosin light chain kinase activity in lateral nucleus of the amygdala appears to normally suppress synaptic plasticity in the circuits underlying fear learning, suggesting that myosin light chain kinase may help prevent the acquisition of irrelevant fears. Impairment of this mechanism could contribute to pathological fear learning. PMID:16515842

  19. Isolated intracerebral light chain deposition disease: novel imaging and pathologic findings☆

    PubMed Central

    Yu, John-Paul J.; Wilson, David M.; Chang, Edward F.; Cotter, Jennifer; Perry, Arie; Mahindra, Anuj; Glastonbury, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Light chain deposition disease (LCDD) is a rare clinicopathologic entity first described in 1976 and is characterized by a monoclonal gammopathy resulting in nonamyloid immunoglobulin light chain tissue deposition. Only four cases of intracerebral LCDD have been previously reported, all in the setting of a known plasma cell dyscrasia or in the presence of local mature plasma cells. We present the first case of intracranial LCDD in the absence of a known plasma cell dyscrasia or local mature plasma cells. PMID:25084689

  20. Characterization of the myosin light chain kinase from smooth muscle as an actin-binding protein that assembles actin filaments in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, K; Okagaki, T; Ye, L H; Samizo, K; Higashi-Fujime, S; Takagi, T; Kohama, K

    1999-05-01

    In addition to its kinase activity, myosin light chain kinase has an actin-binding activity, which results in bundling of actin filaments [Hayakawa et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 199, 786-791, 1994]. There are two actin-binding sites on the kinase: calcium- and calmodulin-sensitive and insensitive sites [Ye et al., J. Biol. Chem. 272, 32182-32189, 1997]. The calcium/calmodulin-sensitive, actin-binding site is located at Asp2-Pro41 and the insensitive site is at Ser138-Met213. The cyanogen bromide fragment, consisting of Asp2-Met213, is furnished with both sites and is the actin-binding core of myosin light chain kinase. Cross-linking between the two sites assembles actin filaments into bundles. Breaking of actin-binding at the calcium/calmodulin-sensitive site by calcium/calmodulin disassembles the bundles. PMID:10231551

  1. Macular Amyloidosis and Epstein-Barr Virus

    PubMed Central

    Nahidi, Yalda; Tayyebi Meibodi, Naser; Meshkat, Zahra; Nazeri, Narges

    2016-01-01

    Background. Amyloidosis is extracellular precipitation of eosinophilic hyaline material of self-origin with special staining features and fibrillar ultrastructure. Macular amyloidosis is limited to the skin, and several factors have been proposed for its pathogenesis. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in this lesion suggests that this virus can play a role in pathogenesis of this disease. Objective. EBV DNA detection was done on 30 skin samples with a diagnosis of macular amyloidosis and 31 healthy skin samples in the margin of removed melanocytic nevi by using PCR. Results. In patients positive for beta-globin gene in PCR, BLLF1 gene of EBV virus was positive in 23 patients (8 patients in case and 15 patients in the control group). There was no significant difference in presence of EBV DNA between macular amyloidosis (3.8%) and control (23.8%) groups (P = 0.08). Conclusion. The findings of this study showed that EBV is not involved in pathogenesis of macular amyloidosis. PMID:26981113

  2. Light Chain Escape in 3 Cases: Evidence of Intraclonal Heterogeneity in Multiple Myeloma from a Single Institution in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kraj, Maria; Kruk, Barbara; Endean, Kelly; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Budziszewska, Katarzyna; D?browska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    We report three cases of light chain escape (LCE) at a single institution in Poland, including an interesting case of biclonal monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) that satisfied the criteria for progression to light chain multiple myeloma (LCMM) with a rapid rise in serum free light chain (FLC) levels, following steroidal treatment for simultaneous temporal artery inflammation and polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). In the three cases discussed, progression of the disease by light chain escape was associated with rapid and severe renal impairment, highlighting the necessity for prompt detection of such free light chain-only producing clones in order to prevent the possible development of irreversible end-organ damage. Interestingly, monitoring of these three patients by serum free light chain assay (sFLC) and retrospective heavy/light chain analysis (HLC) detected this clonal evolution prior to clinical relapse and suggests that these assays represent important additional tools for more accurate monitoring of multiple myeloma patients. PMID:26881153

  3. Light Chain Escape in 3 Cases: Evidence of Intraclonal Heterogeneity in Multiple Myeloma from a Single Institution in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Kraj, Maria; Kruk, Barbara; Endean, Kelly; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Budziszewska, Katarzyna; Dąbrowska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    We report three cases of light chain escape (LCE) at a single institution in Poland, including an interesting case of biclonal monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) that satisfied the criteria for progression to light chain multiple myeloma (LCMM) with a rapid rise in serum free light chain (FLC) levels, following steroidal treatment for simultaneous temporal artery inflammation and polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). In the three cases discussed, progression of the disease by light chain escape was associated with rapid and severe renal impairment, highlighting the necessity for prompt detection of such free light chain-only producing clones in order to prevent the possible development of irreversible end-organ damage. Interestingly, monitoring of these three patients by serum free light chain assay (sFLC) and retrospective heavy/light chain analysis (HLC) detected this clonal evolution prior to clinical relapse and suggests that these assays represent important additional tools for more accurate monitoring of multiple myeloma patients. PMID:26881153

  4. Megaduodenum: an unusual presentation of amyloidosis?

    PubMed

    Elli, L; Falconieri, G; Bardella, M T; Caldato, M; Pizzolitto, S; Bonura, A; Zilli, M; Maieron, R

    2010-01-01

    Amyloidosis, a potentially fatal disease, is characterized by an abnormal deposition of autologous proteins. Heart, liver, kidneys, lung, thyroid, skin and the gastrointestinal tract can be involved; in this last case mucosal alterations or disturbances of the motility leading to pseudo-obstruction, bleeding, diarrhea and malabsorption can be present. However, the data concerning the possible gastrointestinal presentations of amyloidosis are scanty and heterogeneous. We report the case of a patient presenting severe gastrointestinal symptoms caused by a megaduodenum. The patient was thoroughly investigated and lesions appeared limited to the upper gastrointestinal tract in the absence of a systemic disorder. However, at follow up the patient developed cardiac dilatation and bioptic samples revealed the presence of amyloidosis. PMID:20690573

  5. Transthyretin Cardiac Amyloidosis in Black Americans.

    PubMed

    Shah, Keyur B; Mankad, Anit K; Castano, Adam; Akinboboye, Olakunle O; Duncan, Phillip B; Fergus, Icilma V; Maurer, Mathew S

    2016-06-01

    Transthyretin-related cardiac amyloidosis is a progressive infiltrative cardiomyopathy that mimics hypertensive and hypertrophic heart disease and often goes undiagnosed. In the United States, the hereditary form disproportionately afflicts black Americans, who when compared with whites with wild-type transthyretin amyloidosis, a phenotypically similar condition, present with more advanced disease despite having a noninvasive method for early identification (genetic testing). Although reasons for this are unclear, this begs to consider the inadequate access to care, societal factors, or a biological basis. In an effort to improve awareness and explore unique characteristics, we review the pathophysiology, epidemiology, and therapeutic strategies for transthyretin amyloidosis and highlight diagnostic pitfalls and clinical pearls for identifying patients with amyloid heart disease. PMID:27188913

  6. [Systemic amyloidosis secondary to xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis].

    PubMed

    Almirall, J; López, T; Sáez, A; Gratacós, J; Prats, J

    2001-01-01

    Secondary amyloidosis is a relatively common pathology in which chronic infectious diseases are common causes, especially infected bronchiectasis, osteomyelitis or chronic ulcers. The association of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis and systemic amyloidosis is extremely rare. To our knowledge, despite innumerable cases of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis reported in the literature, this association has been reported in only 8 previous cases. Patients usually complain of fever, back or flank pain and urinary tract symptoms. A long lasting evolution of the process is frequent. We report a 70 year old patient who developed amyloidosis secondary to xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. As well as the rarity of this association, this case is exceptional in its clinical presentation, without any urinary tract symptoms that could suggest the diagnosis. PMID:11795022

  7. Colchicine use in isolated renal AA amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Carlos F; Egües, César A; Uriarte, Miren; Belzunegui, Joaquín; Rezola, Marta

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 45-year-old woman, with two-year history of chronic renal insufficiency and proteinuria. A kidney biopsy showed the presence of AA amyloidosis (positive Congo red staining and immunohistochemistry). There was no evidence of amyloid deposits in other organs and there was no underlying disease. AA amyloidosis normally is secondary to chronic inflammatory or infectious diseases. High levels of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α play a role in the pathogenesis of amyloidosis and induce the synthesis of serum amyloid A protein (SAA), a precursor of tissue amyloid deposits. We empirically treated the patient with a low dose colchicine. The patient responded well. Colchicine has been used for the treatment of Familiar Mediterranean Fever and related auto-inflammatory diseases. To monitor treatment responses, we measured SAA finding low titers. Soon after treatment onset there were signs of improvement pertaining to proteinuria and stabilization of renal function. PMID:25453598

  8. Mice completely suppressed for the expression of immunoglobulin kappa light chain.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, S; Lehmann, K; Raschke, W C; Cohn, M

    1984-01-01

    Complete suppression of expression of immunoglobulin kappa light chain was achieved by injecting female mice from birth with a mixture of antisera against the mu heavy chain and kappa light chain (anti-mu and anti-kappa). Then their offspring were injected with anti-kappa from birth. This resulted in stable suppression as long as anti-kappa injections were continued. kappa light chain was not detectable either in serum or at the cellular level. The number of B cells in spleen and the concentration of immunoglobulin classes and subclasses in serum were normal. The normal levels were achieved by a compensating enhancement of lambda light chain expression. Analysis of the light chains of immunoglobulins secreted by spleen cells from suppressed mice after liposaccharide stimulation by two-dimensional gels showed lambda chain to have a limited heterogeneity. Primary responses to dinitrophenol, influenza strain A, and keyhole limpet hemocyanin were drastically affected, whereas secondary responses appeared to be quite normal, suggesting a surprisingly large potential repertoire. Images PMID:6420788

  9. Recurrence of light chain deposit disease after renal allograft transplantation: potential role of rituximab?

    PubMed

    Kuypers, Dirk R J; Lerut, Evelyne; Claes, Kathleen; Evenepoel, Pieter; Vanrenterghem, Yves

    2007-04-01

    Light chain deposit disease (LCDD) is a monoclonal plasma cell disorder characterized by tissue deposition of nonamyloid immunoglobulin light chains, predominantly kappa chains, causing renal insufficiency. LCDD reoccurs almost invariably after renal grafting, leading to early graft loss, usually within a time span of months to years. We describe a female patient with LCDD who lost her first living donor graft after 1 year due to extensive recurrence of kappa chain deposition. Rituximab was administered on the seventh day after her second transplantation with a graft from a deceased donor, in order to prevent early recurrence of LCDD. The 2-year protocol biopsy - similarly to the completely normal 1-year protocol biopsy - revealed persistent absence of light chain deposition on light microscopy but immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopy showed very mild recurrence of light chain deposits. A second 4-week course of rituximab was repeated because of these electron microscopic findings. Subsequently, free kappa light chain concentration decreased from 693 to 74 mg/l and remained low 4 months after completion of therapy. Rituximab could be considered for delaying early LCDD recurrence in patients in whom treatment of the underlying bone marrow disorder failed or is contraindicated, but maintenance therapy is apparently necessary to consolidate this response. PMID:17326779

  10. Characteristics of light chains of Chara myosin revealed by immunological investigation

    PubMed Central

    KAKEI, Toshihito; SUMIYOSHI, Hiroki; HIGASHI-FUJIME, Sugie

    2012-01-01

    Chara myosin is plant myosin responsible for cytoplasmic streaming and moves actin filaments at 60 µm/s, which is the fastest of all myosins examined. The neck of the myosin molecule has usually mechanical and regulatory roles. The neck of Chara myosin is supposed to bind six light chains, but, at present, we have no knowledge about them. We found Ca++-calmodulin activated Chara myosin motility and its actin-activated ATPase, and actually bound with the Chara myosin heavy chain, indicating calmodulin might be one of candidates for Chara myosin light chains. Antibody against essential light chain from Physarum myosin, and antibodies against Chara calmodulin and chicken myosin light chain from lens membranes reacted with 20 kDa and 18 kDa polypeptides of Chara myosin preparation, respectively. Correspondingly, column purified Chara myosin had light chains of 20 kDa, and 18 kDa with the molar ratio of 0.7 and 2.5 to the heavy chain, respectively. PMID:22687741

  11. A Case of Cardiac Light Chain Deposition Disease in a Patient with Solitary Plasmacytoma

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Meera; Gokden, Murat; Gokden, Neriman; Schinke, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 31 Final Diagnosis: Light chain depsotion disease Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: None Specialty: Hematology Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Light chain deposition disease is a systemic disease characterized by deposition of immunoglobin light chains in various organs. Cardiac involvement of light chain deposition disease, also known as cardiac nonamyloidotic immunoglobin deposition disease (CIDD), is a rare clinical entity, where clinical outcome is very variable and best treatment approaches are not well known. Case Report: We present the case of a 31-year-old man with a solitary thoracic plasmacytoma and cardiac light chain deposition disease with evidence of congestive heart failure by echocardiography and cardiac markers. The patient underwent surgical resection of the plasmacytoma followed by systemic therapy with 50% VDT-PACE and then VRD with near-normalization of his heart function. A melphalan-based stem cell transplant is planned in this young patient to achieve the best possible long-term remission. Conclusions: CIDD is a very rare disease, with previous reports showing diverse manifestations with variable outcome. A high level of clinical suspicion should be maintained in such cases and early intervention, as in our patient, can restore cardiac function. There is very little literature on the optimal management of these patients. A combination of surgery and chemotherapy were pursued in our patient with very good results. PMID:26988342

  12. Abnormal scintigraphic evolution in AA hepatic amyloidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lomena, F.; Rosello, R.; Pons, F.; Grau, M.; Garcia, A.; Catafau, A.; Setoain, J.

    1988-03-01

    A patient with AA amyloidosis secondary to ankylosing spondylitis showed intense liver uptake of Tc-99m MDP on bone imaging. The biopsy showed hepatic amyloid deposition. A repeat bone scan with Tc-99m MDP 1 year later was negative, although the clinical signs and liver function tests of the patient had not changed. A mechanism might exist, other than the affinity of amyloid to calcium, which would explain the extraosseous uptake of pyrophosphates and diphosphonates in organs and soft tissues affected by systemic amyloidosis.

  13. Kappa light chain-associated Fanconi's syndrome : molecular analysis of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains from patients with and without intracellular crystals.

    SciTech Connect

    Deret, S.; Denoroy, L.; Lamarine, M.; Vidal, R.; Mougenot, B.; Frangione, B.; Stevens, F. J.; Ronco, P. M.; Aucouturier, P.; Biosciences Division; INSERM; Univ. Claude Bernard; NYU Medical Center

    1999-01-01

    Plasma cell dyscrasias may be responsible for Fanconi's syndrome, due to the toxicity of a free monoclonal kappa light chain toward kidney proximal tubules. Eight cases of Fanconi's syndrome were analyzed. We compared the structures of V{sub {kappa}}I variability subgroup V domains from five cases of Fanconi's syndrome and one myeloma without renal involvement. Among Fanconi cases, four putative structures were obtained after molecular modeling by homology, and the other had previously been refined by X-ray crystallography. The complete sequences of one V{sub {kappa}}I, one V{sub {kappa}}III and N-terminal sequences of two V{sub {kappa}}I light chains, from patients with different forms of Fanconi's syndrome, were compared with four previously studied sequences. All three kappa chains responsible for a 'classical' form with intralysosomal crystals and a low mass myeloma, were encoded by the LCO2/O12 germline gene and had an unusual non-polar residue exposed to the solvent in the CDR-L1 loop. Of both V{sub {kappa}}I light chains from patients with Fanconi's syndrome without intracellular crystals, one derived from LCO2/O12 and the other from LCO8/O18 gene. Another feature that could be related to non-crystallization was the absence of accessible side chains in the CDR-L3 loop which is known to be implicated in dimer formation.

  14. Kappa light chain-associated Fanconi's syndrome: molecular analysis of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains from patients with and without intracellular crystals.

    PubMed

    Déret, S; Denoroy, L; Lamarine, M; Vidal, R; Mougenot, B; Frangione, B; Stevens, F J; Ronco, P M; Aucouturier, P

    1999-04-01

    Plasma cell dyscrasias may be responsible for Fanconi's syndrome, due to the toxicity of a free monoclonal kappa light chain toward kidney proximal tubules. Eight cases of Fanconi's syndrome were analyzed. We compared the structures of VkappaI variability subgroup V domains from five cases of Fanconi's syndrome and one myeloma without renal involvement. Among Fanconi cases, four putative structures were obtained after molecular modeling by homology, and the other had previously been refined by X-ray crystallography. The complete sequences of one VkappaI, one VkappaIII and N-terminal sequences of two VkappaI light chains, from patients with different forms of Fanconi's syndrome, were compared with four previously studied sequences. All three kappa chains responsible for a 'classical' form with intralysosomal crystals and a low mass myeloma, were encoded by the LCO2/O12 germline gene and had an unusual non-polar residue exposed to the solvent in the CDR-L1 loop. Of both VkappaI light chains from patients with Fanconi's syndrome without intracellular crystals, one derived from LCO2/O12 and the other from LCO8/O18 gene. Another feature that could be related to non-crystallization was the absence of accessible side chains in the CDR-L3 loop which is known to be implicated in dimer formation. PMID:10325408

  15. Multiple nodular pulmonary amyloidosis. A case report and comparison with diffuse alveolar-septal pulmonary amyloidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S C; Johnson, H

    1975-01-01

    A case of multiple nodular pulmonary amyloidosis in a 54-year-old Caucasian man is presented. Discrete symptomless radiodensities had developed in this patient's lungs within a period of three years, leading to a suspicion of a neoplastic process. The amyloid nature of these nodules was demonstrated by biopsy. In this case, as in others previously reported, there was no evidence of systemic disease, and immunoglobulins were normal. Local factors probably play an important part in the pathogenesis of this disease. This entity is to be distinguished from the diffuse type of pulmonary amyloidosis, which has a far graver prognosis. Diffuse alveolar septal amyloidosis is usually associated with primary systemic amyloidosis or multiple myeloma and leads rapidly to respiratory distress. Images PMID:1179315

  16. Atypical rapid progression of osteoarticular amyloidosis involving the hip in a patient on hemodialysis using polyacrylonitrile membranes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kenneth S; van Holsbeeck, Marnix T; Abbud, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Amyloidosis related to dialysis is a well-known complication affecting many organ systems, in particular the musculoskeletal system. In 1985 Shirahama et al. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 53:705-709, 1985) identified beta-2 microglobulin (MG) as the offending constituent by using protein purification techniques. Amyloidosis has been increasing in prevalence because of longer life spans and increased chronic medical conditions such as end-stage renal disease. When dialysis-related amyloidosis involves the musculoskeletal system, it affects the shoulder girdle, the so called shoulder pad sign, the wrist, hip, knee, and spine (Resnick, Diagnosis of bone and joint disorders, 4th edn., pp. 2054-2058 and 2176-2183, 2002). Other osteoarticular manifestations of amyloidosis include osteoporosis, lytic lesions, and pathologic fractures. It has been well documented that the prevalence of amyloid is dependent on duration of dialysis-over 90% in patients on dialysis for over 7 years (Jadoul, Nephrol Dial Transplant 13:61-64, 1998). However, a recent changeover to high-flux membranes used in hemofiltration has been reported to delay its onset (Campistol et al., Contrib Nephrol 125:76-85, 1999). We report on the radiographic, nuclear medicine, and computed tomography (CT) findings of osteoarticular amyloidosis involving the hip, and sequence its atypical rapid onset. The imaging, histopathological findings, and differential diagnosis are discussed. PMID:19707759

  17. The establishment of a human myeloma cell line elaborating lambda-light chain protein.

    PubMed

    Niho, Y; Shibuya, T; Yamasaki, K; Kimura, N

    1984-05-01

    A human myeloma cell line (KMM-56) producing lambda-light chain protein was established in vitro by cultivation of the cells in the pleural effusion obtained from a patient with IgD-lambda-myeloma. The cells proliferate in suspension and do not aggregate or attach to the culture dish. Surface marker analysis revealed that the cells were negative for E-rosette, and surface immunoglobulin. Immunoelectrophoresis, immunodiffusion, and immunofluorescence with various antibodies demonstrated no heavy chains, while lambda-light chains were detected in the cytoplasm of the cells. Using the immunodiffusion technique, only lambda-light chains were detected in the frozen and thawed cell extract, the concentrated supernatant of the cell culture, and the urine of the patient. Electron microscopic examination revealed the plasmablastoid appearance of the cells. This cell line may be useful for future studies of human immunoglobulin genes and for the material of human-human hybridoma, which could produce monoclonal human immunoglobulin. PMID:6429256

  18. Molecular characterization of monoclonal CRIA-positive anti-arsonate antibodies derived from idiotype-negative mice bearing a light chain polymorphism.

    PubMed Central

    Tassignon, J; Brait, M; Ismaili, J; Urbain, J; Gottlieb, P; Brown, A; Hasemann, C A; Capra, J D; Meek, K

    1993-01-01

    We have elicited anti-arsonate antibodies bearing the major cross-reactive idiotype (CRIA) in a double congenic idiotype-negative strain (C.C58.AL-20) bearing a light chain polymorphism that has previously been shown serologically not to complement idiotype-positive heavy chains. Using the idiotype cascade (Ab1-->Ab2-->Ab3-->-->Ab1'), CRIA-positive antibodies were raised and monoclonal antibodies were isolated and characterized serologically and by nucleotide sequence analysis. Two types of idiotype-positive anti-arsonate antibodies were generated in the C.C58.AL-20 strain. One group of hybridomas used the canonical VH1.8 heavy chain gene segment with V kappa 10 variant light chains. A second group used a VHGAM3.8 heavy chain with V kappa 10 variant light chains. This latter heavy-light pairing has been observed in CRIA-like responses previously in BALB/c mice after idiotypic manipulation (or rarely after antigen alone). These studies demonstrate the plasticity of the immune response when manipulated with idiotype reagents as well as its structural variability. Additionally, they provide important insights into the potentials of idiotype vaccines. PMID:8415731

  19. Study on epidemiology of cutaneous amyloidosis in northern India and effectiveness of dimethylsulphoxide in cutaneous amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Arvind; Nath, Bhola; Dhir, G. G.; Kumari, Ranjeeta; Budhiraja, Virendra; Singh, Kalpana

    2012-01-01

    Context: Amyloidosis, which is characterized by the extracellular deposition of a proteinaceous substance, is usually associated with considerable tissue dysfunction. However, the etiology of the disease remains uncertain and the treatment disappointing. Aim: 1. To know the epidemiology of cutaneous amyloidosis 2. To evaluate the effect of dimethylsulphoxide on cutaneous amyloidosis. Settings and Design: Data was collected from patients attending the Outpatient Department (OPD) over a period of one year. Material and Methods: Patients were screened on the basis of signs and symptoms and then confirmed histologically. A total of 62 patients who were suspected to be suffering from amyloidosis on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms and 38 patients who were further confirmed histopathologically underwent the treatment. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test was used for testing the significance of proportions. Results: 63.15 percent of the patients had macular amyloidosis and the interscapular area was the most common area involved (52.63%). Pruritus, pigmentation, and papules responded excellently to dimethylsulphoxide after one month of treatment. Conclusions: Cutaneous amyloidosis is a disease found in middle-aged persons, with a female preponderance, and dimethylsulphoxide seems to be an effective therapy. PMID:23189250

  20. Characterization of the subclasses and light chain types of IgG antibodies to rubella.

    PubMed Central

    Skvaril, F; Schilt, U

    1984-01-01

    IgG subclasses of antibodies to rubella were determined in indirect enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) with monoclonal antibodies specific for human IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4. Eleven sera from women with long past history of rubella, two hyperimmune and five non-hyperimmune immunoglobulin preparations were tested. Light chain types of the antibodies were tested in ELISA with polyclonal specific antibodies to kappa and lambda chains. Antibodies to rubella in the sera as well as in the immunoglobulin preparations were found in the IgG1 subclass only. Both light chain types were present in the antibodies. PMID:6423327

  1. Overrepresentation of the V kappa IV subgroup in light chain deposition disease.

    PubMed

    Denoroy, L; Déret, S; Aucouturier, P

    1994-09-01

    The variability subgroup of human monoclonal kappa chains purified from urine in 3 consecutive patients with myeloma associated light chain deposition disease was determined from amino acid sequences of their first framework regions (FR1). N-glycosylation was searched for by N-glycosidase F treatment. These data together with our previously published results, indicate the pathogenic potential of the rare V kappa IV subgroup and confirm the absence of detectable serum and urine free monoclonal light chains when they are N-glycosylated. PMID:7829131

  2. Systemic involvement of dialysis-amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Campistol, J M; Solé, M; Muñoz-Gomez, J; Lopez-Pedret, J; Revert, L

    1990-01-01

    A new type of amyloidosis, predominantly osteoarticular, has recently been recognized in uremic patients on hemodialysis, beta 2-microglobulin being the major constituent protein. Nowadays, it is not clear whether the amyloid deposition is limited to osteoarticular structures or whether it has a systemic character. In order to investigate the extension of dialysis amyloidosis, we studied 26 patients receiving hemodialysis treatment (mean time 12.2 years) for chronic renal failure due to nonamyloid nephropathy and who were affected by symptomatic dialysis amyloidosis. Twenty-two patients developed a carpal tunnel syndrome, and amyloid arthropathy was present in 21. Subcutaneous abdominal fat aspiration, rectal and skin biopsy, and two-dimensional echocardiography were performed in most of the patients, searching for the visceral involvement. Surgical pieces (one stomach and two colon) and three necropsies of symptomatic patients were included in the systemic investigation. Also, we studied five necropsies of patients without articular symptoms. Histological confirmation of amyloid visceral involvement was demonstrated in 15 (58%) of the 26 patients studied. When positive two-dimensional echocardiograms were included, the percentage increased to 81%. No differences in the rate of visceral involvement could be found between the two clinical groups (with and without carpal tunnel syndrome). Two-dimensional echocardiography represents the most useful tool to search for the visceral involvement of beta 2-microglobulin amyloidosis, followed by abdominal fat aspiration and rectal biopsy. Amyloid deposits were resistant to potassium permanganate treatment and reacted with antihuman beta 2-microglobulin (avidin-biotin-peroxidase method). PMID:2080789

  3. Macular amyloidosis complicating macroprolactinoma--a novel clinical association.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Deep; Ahuja, Arvind; Sharma, Lokesh; Bhardwaj, Minakshi; Kulshreshtha, Bindu

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid deposition in the pituitary gland is a rare localised form of amyloidosis, and most commonly reported with prolactinoma. Macular amyloidosis is a rare form of localised cutaneous amyloidosis of obscure aetiology. In contrast to most localised amyloidosis, the precursor protein(s) of both macular amyloidosis and prolactinoma are unknown. A 35-year-old man with chronic headache (six years), blurring of vision (three years), and hyperpigmented macular lesion involving arms, legs, and back (two years) was diagnosed to have hyperprolactinaemia (8927 ng/mL) and secondary adrenal insufficiency. MRI revealed pituitary macroadenoma compressing the optic chiasma, encasing the right carotid artery and extending into the sphenoid sinus. A biopsy of skin from the right upper arm revealed thickened stratum corneum, acanthosis, and deposition of pale eosinophilic material in papillary dermis that gave a rose pink colour under methyl-violet and appeared congophilic with Congo red stain, which under polarised light showed green birefringence, diagnostic of macular amyloidosis. Headache, bitemporal haemianopia, and skin lesion improved following cabergoline therapy. Temporal profile of the disease characterised by symptoms of macroprolactinoma preceding onset of macular amyloidosis with resolution of symptoms of macroprolactinoma, accompanied by reductions in prolactin, and concomitant improvement in macular amyloidosis with cabergoline therapy may suggest some link between macroprolactinoma and macular amyloidosis. This report intends to highlight this novel association of macular amyloidosis and macroprolactinoma. PMID:26662655

  4. The light chain but not the heavy chain of botulinum A toxin inhibits exocytosis from permeabilized adrenal chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Stecher, B; Weller, U; Habermann, E; Gratzl, M; Ahnert-Hilger, G

    1989-09-25

    The heavy and light chains of botulinum A toxin were separated by anion exchange chromatography. Their intracellular actions were studied using bovine adrenal chromaffin cells permeabilized with streptolysin O. Purified light chain inhibited the Ca2+-stimulated [3H]noradrenaline release with a half-maximal effect at about 1.8 nM. The inhibition was incomplete. Heavy chain up to 28 nM was neither effective by itself nor did it enhance the inhibitory effect of light chain. It is concluded that the light chain of botulinum A toxin contains the functional domain responsible for the inhibition of exocytosis. PMID:2792383

  5. A Case of Cardiac Light Chain Deposition Disease in a Patient with Solitary Plasmacytoma.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Meera; Gokden, Murat; Gokden, Neriman; Schinke, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Light chain deposition disease is a systemic disease characterized by deposition of immunoglobin light chains in various organs. Cardiac involvement of light chain deposition disease, also known as cardiac nonamyloidotic immunoglobin deposition disease (CIDD), is a rare clinical entity, where clinical outcome is very variable and best treatment approaches are not well known. CASE REPORT We present the case of a 31-year-old man with a solitary thoracic plasmacytoma and cardiac light chain deposition disease with evidence of congestive heart failure by echocardiography and cardiac markers. The patient underwent surgical resection of the plasmacytoma followed by systemic therapy with 50% VDT-PACE and then VRD with near-normalization of his heart function. A melphalan-based stem cell transplant is planned in this young patient to achieve the best possible long-term remission. CONCLUSIONS CIDD is a very rare disease, with previous reports showing diverse manifestations with variable outcome. A high level of clinical suspicion should be maintained in such cases and early intervention, as in our patient, can restore cardiac function. There is very little literature on the optimal management of these patients. A combination of surgery and chemotherapy were pursued in our patient with very good results. PMID:26988342

  6. Ferritin light-chain subunits: key elements for the electron transfer across the protein cage.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Unai; Li, Le; Zhang, Lianbing; Knez, Mato

    2014-12-18

    The first specific functionality of the light-chain (L-chain) subunit of the universal iron storage protein ferritin was identified. The electrons released during iron-oxidation were transported across the ferritin cage specifically through the L-chains and the inverted electron transport through the L-chains also accelerated the demineralization of ferritin. PMID:25348725

  7. Purification, Characterization and Analysis of the Allergenic Properties of Myosin Light Chain in Procambarus clarkia.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myosin light chain (MLC) plays a vital role in cell and muscle functions and has been identified as an allergen in close species. In this study, MLC with the molecular mass of 18kDa was purified from crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) muscle fibrils. Its physicochemical characterization showed that the...

  8. 21 CFR 866.5550 - Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system. 866.5550 Section 866.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5550 Immunoglobulin...

  9. 21 CFR 866.5550 - Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system. 866.5550 Section 866.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5550 Immunoglobulin...

  10. Two Essential Light Chains Regulate the MyoA Lever Arm To Promote Toxoplasma Gliding Motility

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Melanie J.; Alonso, Hernan; Enciso, Marta; Egarter, Saskia; Sheiner, Lilach; Meissner, Markus; Striepen, Boris; Smith, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Key to the virulence of apicomplexan parasites is their ability to move through tissue and to invade and egress from host cells. Apicomplexan motility requires the activity of the glideosome, a multicomponent molecular motor composed of a type XIV myosin, MyoA. Here we identify a novel glideosome component, essential light chain 2 (ELC2), and functionally characterize the two essential light chains (ELC1 and ELC2) of MyoA in Toxoplasma. We show that these proteins are functionally redundant but are important for invasion, egress, and motility. Molecular simulations of the MyoA lever arm identify a role for Ca2+ in promoting intermolecular contacts between the ELCs and the adjacent MLC1 light chain to stabilize this domain. Using point mutations predicted to ablate either the interaction with Ca2+ or the interface between the two light chains, we demonstrate their contribution to the quality, displacement, and speed of gliding Toxoplasma parasites. Our work therefore delineates the importance of the MyoA lever arm and highlights a mechanism by which this domain could be stabilized in order to promote invasion, egress, and gliding motility in apicomplexan parasites. PMID:26374117

  11. Light chain deposition disease of the liver without renal involvement in a patient with multiple myeloma related to liver failure and rapid fatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Michopoulos, Spyros; Petraki, Kalliopi; Petraki, Constantina; Dimopoulos, Meletios-Athanasios

    2002-04-01

    We describe a 36-year-old man with advanced multiple myeloma (Salmon and Durie stage III) who developed jaundice and severe cholestasis after a first cure with systemic chemotherapy of vincristine, doxorubicin, and oral dexamethasone (VAD). Serology for hepatitis A, B, and C and for CMV was negative. A liver ultrasound and CT scan showed mild hepatomegaly without evidence of extrahepatic or intrahepatic biliary tree dilatation. A percutaneous liver biopsy revealed perisinusoidal deposits of an abundant slightly eosinophilic, PAS-positive amorphous substance. Immunohistochemistry showed positivity for kappa-light chains and was negative for lambda-light chains, for IgA, IgG, IgM, and IgD immunoglobulins as well as for AA and AL proteins and for amyloid P component. A diagnosis of light chain deposition disease (LCDD) of the liver was made. The patient developed rapid deterioration of liver function, leading to a multisystem dysfunction and death. The occurrence of LCDD in multiple myeloma is close to 5% and myeloma is the underlying disease in two thirds of patients with LCDD. The kidneys are involved in almost all cases of LCDD and renal dysfunction usually reveals the disease. Only three patients with LCDD of the liver without overt renal involvement have been reported so far. This is the first observation of LCDD presenting with jaundice and severe cholestasis shortly after the diagnosis of high tumor mass myeloma, without overt renal involvement, leading rapidly to the patient's death. PMID:11991600

  12. Nasopharyngeal amyloidosis: an unusual cause of unilateral hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, A.H.; El-Shunnar, Suliman; Sama, Anshul

    2013-01-01

    Amyloidosis is typically a systemic depositional disease, diagnosed on clinical symptoms and signs in conjunction with histopathology. When occurring on a localized basis in the head and neck, the lesion is most commonly observed in the larynx. Primary localized nasal amyloidosis however is an uncommon finding, with 25 reported cases in the literature to date. We present the case of a young woman presenting with primary localized nasal amyloidosis secondary to the curious symptoms of unilateral hearing loss. PMID:24964411

  13. [Localized amyloidosis of the seminal vesicle: a case report].

    PubMed

    Kono, Masanori; Kurokawa, Tetsuyuki; Takata, Masayuki; Komatsu, Kazuto; Tsukahara, Kenji; Kurose, Nozomu

    2011-02-01

    Primary amyloidosis of the seminal vesicle is a rare disease entity. We report here a case of localized seminal vesicle amyloidosis with hematospermia. A 66-year-old man visited our hospital with a chief complaint of hematospermia. T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a hypointensity mass in the left seminal vesicle. Needle biopsy revealed amyloidosis of the seminal vesicle. Without any specific treatment, the mass lesion disappeared on MRI, and hematospermia was improved. PMID:21412044

  14. Isolated Tricuspid Regurgitation: Initial Manifestation of Cardiac Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Dong Woog; Park, Byung-Jo; Kim, In Sook; Jeong, Dong Seop

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid deposits in the heart are not exceptional in systemic amyloidosis. The clinical manifestations of cardiac amyloidosis may include restrictive cardiomyopathy, characterized by progressive diastolic and eventually systolic bi-ventricular dysfunction; arrhythmia; and conduction defects. To the best of our knowledge, no previous cases of isolated tricuspid regurgitation as the initial manifestation of cardiac amyloidosis have been reported. We describe a rare case of cardiac amyloidosis that initially presented with severe tricuspid regurgitation in a 42-year-old woman who was successfully treated with tricuspid valve replacement. Unusual surgical findings prompted additional evaluation that established a diagnosis of plasma cell myeloma. PMID:26665112

  15. Gastrointestinal Amyloidosis Presenting with Multiple Episodes of Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang Hyeon Kang, Eun Ju; Park, Jee Won; Jo, Jung Hyun; Kim, Soo Jin; Cho, Jin Han; Kang, Myong Jin; Park, Byeong Ho

    2009-05-15

    Amyloidosis is characterized by the extracellular deposition of amyloid protein in various organs. Gastrointestinal involvement in amyloidosis is common, but a diagnosis of amyloidosis is often delayed. Severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage in amyloidosis is rare but can be fatal in some cases. We experienced a case of a 49-year-old man who presented with recurrent massive hematochezia. Although embolization was performed eight times for bleeding from different sites of the small intestine, hematochezia did not cease. We report the case, with a review of the literature.

  16. Poikiloderma-like cutaneous amyloidosis - a rare presentation of primary localized cutaneous amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Heng, Jun Khee; Ho, Sue Ann; Tan, Kong Bing

    2016-01-01

    Poikiloderma-like cutaneous amyloidosis (PCA) is a rare variant of primary cutaneous amyloidosis. It was first described in 1929 and there are two clinical forms of PCA, the ordinary type and PCA syndrome. The characteristics of PCA include poikiloderma-like skin changes, lichenoid papules, blister formation, and cutaneous amyloid deposits on histological examination. These skin lesions usually occur at the extremities, consistent with the few cases that have been reported. We present a case of a 62-year-old man who presented with the features of poikiloderma-like cutaneous amyloidosis. Diagnosis of this unique condition is a challenge and a skin biopsy is necessary in such instances. A discussion of the differential diagnosis of this condition is also included. PMID:26990468

  17. Tissue specificity of 3'-untranslated sequence of myosin light chain gene: unexpected interspecies homology with repetitive DNA.

    PubMed

    Saidapet, C; Khandekar, P; Mendola, C; Siddiqui, M A

    1984-09-01

    Using the 3' noncoding and coding sequences of chick heart myosin light chain mRNA cloned into Escherichia coli as probes, it was observed that, while the coding sequence shared homology with myosin light-chain mRNAs from other sources, the 3' noncoding sequence was specific for chick heart muscle. This property was used to detect chick heart-specific myosin light-chain gene activity in chick blastoderms of very early developmental stages where cells of different muscle origins cannot be distinguished morphologically. However, in spite of the tissue-specific divergence of the 3' noncoding sequence of myosin light-chain gene, which is present in a single copy in the chick genome, a surprising homology with DNA from such a diverse source like Dictyostelium discoideum was noted. The sequence homologous to chick myosin light-chain DNA was apparently present in a high repetition frequency in the Dictyostelium genome. PMID:6385857

  18. Synaptobrevin cleavage by the tetanus toxin light chain is linked to the inhibition of exocytosis in chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Höhne-Zell, B; Ecker, A; Weller, U; Gratzl, M

    1994-11-28

    Exocytosis of secretory granules by adrenal chromaffin cells is blocked by the tetanus toxin light chain in a zinc specific manner. Here we show that cellular synaptobrevin is almost completely degraded by the tetanus toxin light chain within 15 min. We used highly purified adrenal secretory granules to show that synaptobrevin, which can be cleaved by the tetanus toxin light chain, is localized in the vesicular membrane. Proteolysis of synaptobrevin in cells and in secretory granules is reversibly inhibited by the zinc chelating agent dipicolinic acid. Moreover, cleavage of synaptobrevin present in secretory granules by the tetanus toxin light chain is blocked by the zinc peptidase inhibitor captopril and by synaptobrevin derived peptides. Our data indicate that the tetanus toxin light chain acts as a zinc dependent protease that cleaves synaptobrevin of secretory granules, an essential component of the exocytosis machinery in adrenal chromaffin cells. PMID:7982485

  19. Phosphorylation of myosin light chains in perfused rat heart. Effect of adrenaline and increased cytoplasmic calcium ions.

    PubMed Central

    Jeacocke, S A; England, P J

    1980-01-01

    1. A method was developed for the isolation of essentially pure myosin light chains from perfused rat heart. The phosphorylation of the P-light chains was estimated by hydrolysis and measurement of phosphate released, by electrophoresis in 8 M-urea and by 32P incorporation in perfusion with [32P]Pi. 2. In control perfusions there was 0.5-0.6 mol of phosphate/mol of P-light chain. This was not changed by perfusion with 5 microM-adrenaline for 10-40s. Perfusion for 1 min with medium containing 7.5 mM-CaCl2, or for 30s with medium containing 118 mM-KCl, also did not change the phosphorylation of P-light chains. 3. It is concluded that phosphorylation of P-light chains is not important in mediating the action of inotropic agents in the heart. Images Fig. 1. PMID:7470033

  20. Incidental seminal vesicle amyloidosis observed in diagnostic prostate biopsies—are routine investigations for systemic amyloidosis warranted?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zichu; Laird, Alexander; Monaghan, Ashley; Seywright, Morag; Ahmad, Imran; Leung, Hing Y

    2013-01-01

    Seminal vesicle (SV) amyloidosis is a well-documented histological entity, but it is observed infrequently. Its incidence is on the rise, which is probably related to the increasing use of prostate biopsies to investigate patients with elevated serum prostate-specific antigen levels. Here, we report seven cases of incidental SV amyloidosis over a 3-year period and consider their relationship to the previously suggested aetiological factors. Based on our series, we conclude that incidental localized SV amyloidosis observed in diagnostic prostate biopsies does not warrant formal investigations for systemic amyloidosis. PMID:23223033

  1. Secondary localized cutaneous amyloidosis in solar elastosis.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, T; Asai, Y; Hamada, T

    1982-04-01

    A case of secondary localized cutaneous amyloidosis in solar elastosis was studies by light and electron microscopy. Amyloid deposition was restricted to areas with elastotic changes, and in some areas both changes were intermingled with each other. The amyloid was permanganate-sensitive, and proved to be protein AA. Ultrastructurally it was composed of fine tubular filaments. It is suggested that the amyloid deposition in this case was related to sunlight damage of the skin. PMID:7073972

  2. Diagnostic aspects of beta 2-microglobulin amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, J; Floege, J; Koch, K M

    1996-01-01

    Osteoarticular symptoms and signs, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, periarthritis humeroscapularis, synovial and joint inflammation, lead to the clinical diagnosis of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-M) amyloidosis. Radiologically, destructive arthropathy, spondylarthropathy and periarticular cystic bone radiolucencies can be demonstrated by plain X-ray and conventional and computed tomography. Magnetic resonance is used to visualize amyloid masses in special locations such as the cervical spine. Joint ultrasonography demonstrating thickening of synoviae and tendons has become a useful non-invasive diagnostic tool, although it is not specific for beta 2-M amyloidosis, and results depend on observer experience. Efforts to develop more specific methods for demonstration of amyloid deposits have led to two scintigraphic techniques based on the injection of radiolabelled proteins which are incorporated into the amyloid tissue. One method uses serum amyloid P component, a non-specific constituent of all types of amyloid. An alternative imaging technique based on radiolabelled beta 2-M as the specific precursor molecule of beta 2-M amyloidosis appears to be a more sensitive diagnostic method. Both tracer techniques have been used so far only in small single-centre clinical studies, and a more widespread application will require the introduction of recombinant material as the protein source for labelling. The 'gold standard' for the definitive diagnosis of beta 2-M amyloidosis, and also for reference in the evaluation of new diagnostic techniques, remains the histomorphological demonstration of beta 2-M amyloid by Congo red staining, green birefringence under polarized light, positive immunostaining with anti-beta 2-M antibodies, and electronoptic visualization of amyloid fibrils in tissue obtained invasively by biopsy, surgery or autopsy. PMID:8804016

  3. Response to oral acitretin in lichen amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Vasani, Resham J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the therapeutically challenging case of a patient with severe and extensive lichen amyloidosis (LA) who responded to oral acitretin and topical corticosteroids. Colloid milia and terra firma-forme dermatoses were noted post healing of the lesions of LA. There has been no recurrence of lesions post 8 months of follow-up. We recommend that acitretin should be used more often in severe and recalcitrant cases of LA. PMID:25593815

  4. Hereditary Transthyretin Amyloidosis in Eight Chinese Families

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Ling-Chao; Lyu, He; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Jing; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Yuan, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mutations of transthyretin (TTR) cause the most common type of autosomal-dominant hereditary systemic amyloidosis, which occurs worldwide. To date, more and more mutations in the TTR gene have been reported. Some variations in the clinical presentation are often observed in patients with the same mutation or the patients in the same family. The purpose of this study was to find out the clinicopathologic and genetic features of Chinese patients with hereditary TTR amyloidosis. Methods: Clinical and necessary examination materials were collected from nine patients of eight families with hereditary TTR amyloidosis at Peking University First Hospital from January 2007 to November 2014. Sural nerve biopsies were taken for eight patients and skin biopsies were taken in the calf/upper arm for two patients, for light and electron microscopy examination. The TTR genes from the nine patients were analyzed. Results: The onset age varied from 23 to 68 years. The main manifestations were paresthesia, proximal and/or distal weakness, autonomic dysfunction, cardiomyopathy, vitreous opacity, hearing loss, and glossohypertrophia. Nerve biopsy demonstrated severe loss of myelinated fibers in seven cases and amyloid deposits in three. One patient had skin amyloid deposits which were revealed from electron microscopic examination. Genetic analysis showed six kinds of mutations of TTR gene, including Val30Met, Phe33Leu, Ala36Pro, Val30Ala, Phe33Val, and Glu42Gly in exon 2. Conclusions: Since the pathological examinations of sural nerve were negative for amyloid deposition in most patients, the screening for TTR mutations should be performed in all the adult patients, who are clinically suspected with hereditary TTR amyloidosis. PMID:26521788

  5. Murine alveolar hydatidosis: a potential experimental model for the study of AA-amyloidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ali-Khan, Z.; Jothy, S.; Al-Karmi, T.

    1983-01-01

    Histochemical and immunohistologic evidence has been presented to characterize the AA-type of amyloidosis in C57BL/6J (H-2b) mice infected i.p. with 50 cysts of Echinococcus multilocularis. Congo red-stained sections of kidneys and spleens from 4 weeks postinfected (p.i.) hydatid-mice were negative for the amyloid deposits. Heavy amyloid deposits, which in ultrathin sections of kidneys measured 8-12 nm in thickness, obliterated the perifollicular sinuses in spleens and glomerular capillaries in kidneys at 16 weeks p.i. Amyloid deposits were resistant to potassium permanganate treatment. They bind strongly to rabbit anti-mouse AA serum (RAA) as demonstrated by using peroxidase-anti-peroxidase technique. Preabsorption of RAA with azo-casein induced amyloid abolished completely the binding of RAA to mouse AA and hydatid-mouse deposits. Rabbit monospecific mouse antisera to heavy and light chains of Igs did not bind to amyloid deposits in hydatid-mice kidneys. Enumeration of spleen cells from the 16 weeks p.i. amyloidotic spleens showed a significant reduction in the total lymphocytes and T-cells. Overt accumulation of amyloid deposits in the spleen was associated with its disorganization, a significant reduction in T-cells and the depressed response of spleen cells to ConA and LPS mitogens. The relationship between proliferating alveolar hydatid cyst, intense inflammatory response, depressed cell mediated immunity and AA-type of amyloidosis is discussed in murine hydatidosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 Fig. 5 PMID:6661394

  6. A Concise Review of Amyloidosis in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Woldemeskel, Moges

    2012-01-01

    Amyloidosis refers to a group of protein misfolding diseases characterized by deposition of a particular amyloid protein in various organs and tissues of animals and humans. Various types and clinical forms of amyloidosis, in which the pathology and pathogenesis is diverse depending upon the underlying causes and species affected, are reported in domestic and wild animals. The clinical findings are also quite variable consequent to the variation of the tissues and organs involved and the extent of functional disruption of the affected organs in various animal species. The affected organs may be enlarged and exhibit variable pallor grossly, or the amyloid deposit may be discernible only after microscopic examination of the affected tissues. Amyloid appears as a pale eosinophilic homogenous extracellular deposit in tissues. However, microscopic examination and Congo red staining with green birefringence under polarized light are needed to confirm amyloid and differentiate it from other apparently similar extracellular deposits such as collagen and fibrin. Identifying the type of amyloid deposit needs immunohistochemical staining, ultrastructural characterization of the amyloid fibril, and if feasible also genetic studies of the involved species for clinical and prognostic purposes. This paper provides a concise review of the occurrence of amyloidosis in domestic and wild animals. PMID:22577608

  7. Friction melanosis, friction amyloidosis, macular amyloidosis, towel melanosis: many names for the same clinical entity.

    PubMed

    Siragusa, M; Ferri, R; Cavallari, V; Schepis, C

    2001-01-01

    Macular or friction amyloidosis is a cutaneous entity characterized by a brownish pigmentation distributed on the skin over bony regions of the trunk and limbs after the use, for many years, of a nylon towel or scrub brush to clean the skin. Electron microscopy is necessary for the diagnosis of this dermatosis and reveals deposits of amyloid in the papillary dermis. This condition is relatively unknown in Western countries. In this report, we describe 24 Italian patients affected by friction amyloidosis which was caused by the use of cotton towels, horse-hair gloves or artificial and rough sponges to clean their skin. PMID:11701405

  8. Crystal Structure of a Phosphorylated Light Chain Domain of Scallop Smooth-Muscle Myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, V.S.; Robinson, H.; O-Neall-Hennessey, E.; Reshetnikova, L.; Brown, J. H.; Szent-Gyorgyi, A. G.; Cohen, C.

    2011-11-02

    We have determined the crystal structure of a phosphorylated smooth-muscle myosin light chain domain (LCD). This reconstituted LCD is of a sea scallop catch muscle myosin with its phosphorylatable regulatory light chain (RLC SmoA). In the crystal structure, Arg{sup 16}, an arginine residue that is present in this isoform but not in vertebrate smooth-muscle RLC, stabilizes the phosphorylation site. This arginine interacts with the carbonyl group of the phosphorylation-site serine in the unphosphorylated LCD (determined previously), and with the phosphate group when the serine is phosphorylated. However, the overall conformation of the LCD is essentially unchanged upon phosphorylation. This result provides additional evidence that phosphorylation of the RLC is unlikely to act as an on-switch in regulation of scallop catch muscle myosin.

  9. Effect of clathrin light chains on the stiffness of clathrin lattices and membrane budding.

    PubMed

    Dannhauser, Philip N; Platen, Mitja; Böning, Heike; Ungewickell, Huberta; Schaap, Iwan A T; Ungewickell, Ernst J

    2015-05-01

    Clathrin-dependent transport processes require the polymerization of clathrin triskelia into polygonal scaffolds. Together with adapter proteins, clathrin collects cargo and induces membrane bud formation. It is not known to what extent clathrin light chains affect the structural and functional properties of clathrin lattices and the ability of clathrin to deform membranes. To address these issues, we have developed a novel procedure for analyzing clathrin lattice formation on rigid surfaces. We found that lattices can form on adaptor-coated convex-, planar- and even shallow concave surfaces, but the rate of formation and resistance to thermal dissociation of the lattice are greatly enhanced on convex surfaces. Atomic force microscopy on planar clathrin lattices demonstrates that the stiffness of the clathrin lattice is strictly dependent on light chains. The reduced stiffness of the lattice also compromised the ability of clathrin to generate coated buds on the surface of rigid liposomal membranes. PMID:25652138

  10. A novel antibody light chain dimer: Implications for T-cell receptor structure

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, M.; Chang, Chong-Hwan; Solomon, A.; Stevens, F.J.

    1989-01-01

    The dimeric structures of antibody light chains produced in patients with multiple myeloma (Bence Jones proteins) have for some time been studied chemically and crystallographically as models of the antigen binding fragment (Fab) of an antibody. The conformational concordance of Fabs and a Bence Jones dimer was demonstrated by the initial immunoglobulin crystallographic structures. We have recently described the structure of a second intact light chain, the lambda-type protein Loc. The Loc protein exhibits an unanticipated protruding arrangement of its complementarity-determining residues. Grooves on each side of the protrusion may function as separate binding sites. In this report, we examine the Loc structure and its intracrystalline interactions in more detail and consider aspects of this structure that may possess implications for models of a nonantibody constituent of the immunoglobulin superfamily, the T-cell antigen receptor. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Light-chain deposition disease of the kidney: a case report.

    PubMed

    Darouich, Sihem; Goucha, Rym; Jaafoura, Mohamed Habib; Zekri, Semy; Kheder, Adel; Maiz, Hedi Ben

    2012-04-01

    A 41-year-old man was admitted for evaluation of nephrotic syndrome associated with microhematuria, hypertension, and moderate renal failure. In serum and urine samples, monoclonal IgG-lambda was detected. Bone marrow examination showed normal representation of all cell lines with normal range of plasma cells. Renal biopsy demonstrated diabetes-like nodular glomerulosclerosis. Immunofluorescence failed to demonstrate the presence of kappa or lambda light chains in the kidney. Electron microcopy showed granular electron-dense deposits along the glomerular basement membranes and in the mesangial nodules. The patient was diagnosed as having light-chain deposition disease (LCDD) without evidence of plasma cell dyscrasia. This report was designed to stress the significant challenges that remain in the diagnosis of LCDD-related glomerulopathy. The salient morphological features that help in making an accurate diagnosis are discussed. PMID:22471437

  12. Interaction of protein-bound polysaccharide (PSK) with smooth muscle myosin regulatory light chain.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Toshihiro; Kunimatsu, Mitoshi

    2003-06-01

    The interaction of a protein-bound polysaccharide (PSK) isolated from Basidiomycetes with smooth muscle myosin components was evaluated by limited digestion, urea/glycerol gel electrophoresis, affinity chromatography and overlay assay using a peptide array. PSK was bound to the regulatory light chain (RLC) of myosin, but not to the essential light chain. The binding to PSK was definitely observed for unphosphorylated RLC, compared to phosphorylated one. From the amino acid sequence of the RLC, 490 peptides were synthesized on a cellulose membrane. Overlay assays showed that the PSK-binding on the molecule of RLC were localized in the N- and C-terminal basic regions and these sites were conserved in RLC from the human smooth muscle and nonmuscle cells. PMID:12808284

  13. A novel method of preparing the monoform structure of catalytic antibody light chain.

    PubMed

    Hifumi, Emi; Matsumoto, Shingo; Nakashima, Hiroki; Itonaga, Shogo; Arakawa, Mitsue; Katayama, Yoshiki; Kato, Ryuichi; Uda, Taizo

    2016-02-01

    Along with the development of antibody drugs and catalytic antibodies, the structural diversity (heterogeneity) of antibodies has been given attention. For >20 yr, detailed studies on the subject have not been conducted, because the phenomenon presents many difficult and complex problems. Structural diversity provides some (or many) isoforms of an antibody distinguished by different charges, different molecular sizes, and modifications of amino acid residues. For practical use, the antibody and the subunits must have a defined structure. In recent work, we have found that the copper (Cu) ion plays a substantial role in solving the diversity problem. In the current study, we used several catalytic antibody light chains to examine the effect of the Cu ion. In all cases, the different electrical charges of the molecule converged to a single charge, giving 1 peak in cation-exchange chromatography, as well as a single spot in 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The Cu-binding site was investigated by using mutagenesis, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscope analysis, and molecular modeling, which suggested that histidine and cysteine residues close to the C-terminus are involved with the binding site. The constant region domain of the antibody light chain played an important role in the heterogeneity of the light chain. Our findings may be a significant tool for preparing a single defined, not multiple, isoform structure.-Hifumi, E., Matsumoto, S., Nakashima, H., Itonaga, S., Arakawa, M., Katayama, Y., Kato, R., Uda T. A novel method of preparing the monoform structure of catalytic antibody light chain. PMID:26527062

  14. Identification of the dynein light chains required for human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Marc A; Spoden, Gilles A; Florin, Luise; Lambert, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a family of small non-enveloped DNA viruses. Some genital HPV types, including HPV type 16 (HPV16), are the causative agent for the development of cancer at the site of infection. HPVs encode two capsid proteins, L1 and L2. After endocytic cell entry and egress from endosomes, L2 accompanies the viral DNA to the nucleus where replication is initiated. For cytoplasmic transport, L2 interacts with the microtubule network via the motor protein complex dynein. We have performed yeast two-hybrid screening and identified the dynein light chain DYNLT1 (previously called Tctex1) as interaction partner of HPV16 L2. Using co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence colocalization studies we confirmed the L2-DYNLT1 interaction in mammalian cells. Further studies revealed that DYNLT3, the second member of the Tctex-light chain family, also interacts with L2 in vitro and in vivo, whereas other constituents of the dynein complex were not found to associate with L2. Depletion of DYNLT1 and DYNLT3 by specific siRNAs or cytosolic delivery of light chain-specific antibodies inhibited infection of HPV16. Therefore, this work identified two host cell proteins involved in HPV16 infection that are most likely required for transport purposes towards the nucleus. PMID:21166973

  15. Myosin light-chain phosphatase regulates basal actomyosin oscillations during morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Valencia-Expósito, Andrea; Grosheva, Inna; Míguez, David G.; González-Reyes, Acaimo; Martín-Bermudo, María D.

    2016-01-01

    Contractile actomyosin networks generate forces that drive tissue morphogenesis. Actomyosin contractility is controlled primarily by reversible phosphorylation of the myosin-II regulatory light chain through the action of myosin kinases and phosphatases. While the role of myosin light-chain kinase in regulating contractility during morphogenesis has been largely characterized, there is surprisingly little information on myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) function in this context. Here, we use live imaging of Drosophila follicle cells combined with mathematical modelling to demonstrate that the MLCP subunit flapwing (flw) is a key regulator of basal myosin oscillations and cell contractions underlying egg chamber elongation. Flw expression decreases specifically on the basal side of follicle cells at the onset of contraction and flw controls the initiation and periodicity of basal actomyosin oscillations. Contrary to previous reports, basal F-actin pulsates similarly to myosin. Finally, we propose a quantitative model in which periodic basal actomyosin oscillations arise in a cell-autonomous fashion from intrinsic properties of motor assemblies. PMID:26888436

  16. Detection of free immunoglobulin light chains in cerebrospinal fluids of patients with central nervous system lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Schroers, Roland; Baraniskin, Alexander; Heute, Christoph; Kuhnhenn, Jan; Alekseyev, Andriy; Schmiegel, Wolff; Schlegel, Uwe; Pels, Hendrik-Johannes

    2010-09-01

    Diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma depends on histopathology of brain biopsies, because no reliable disease marker in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been identified yet. B-cell lymphomas such as CNS lymphomas are clonally restricted and express either kappa or lambda immunoglobulin light chains. The aim of this study was to find out a potential diagnostic value of free immunoglobulin light chains released into the CSF of CNS lymphoma patients. Kappa (kappa) and lambda (lambda) free immunoglobulin light chains (FLC) were measured in CSF and serum samples collected from 21 patients with primary and secondary CNS lymphomas and 14 control patients with different neurologic disorders. FLC concentrations and ratios were compared between patient groups and were further analyzed in correlation with clinical, cytopathological, and radiological findings. FLC concentrations for all patients were lower in CSF when compared to serum. In patients with CNS lymphoma, the FLC ratios in CSF were higher (range 392-0.3) compared to control patients (range 3.0-0.3). Irrespective of cytopathological proven lymphomatous meningitis, in 11/21 lymphoma CSF samples the FLC ratios were markedly above 3.0 indicating a clonally restricted B-cell population. Increased FLC ratios in CSF were found in those patients showing subependymal lymphoma contact as detected in magnetic resonance imaging. In summary, this is the first report demonstrating that a significant proportion of patients with CNS lymphomas display a markedly increased FLC ratio in the CSF. PMID:20528903

  17. Myosin light-chain phosphatase regulates basal actomyosin oscillations during morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Expósito, Andrea; Grosheva, Inna; Míguez, David G; González-Reyes, Acaimo; Martín-Bermudo, María D

    2016-01-01

    Contractile actomyosin networks generate forces that drive tissue morphogenesis. Actomyosin contractility is controlled primarily by reversible phosphorylation of the myosin-II regulatory light chain through the action of myosin kinases and phosphatases. While the role of myosin light-chain kinase in regulating contractility during morphogenesis has been largely characterized, there is surprisingly little information on myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) function in this context. Here, we use live imaging of Drosophila follicle cells combined with mathematical modelling to demonstrate that the MLCP subunit flapwing (flw) is a key regulator of basal myosin oscillations and cell contractions underlying egg chamber elongation. Flw expression decreases specifically on the basal side of follicle cells at the onset of contraction and flw controls the initiation and periodicity of basal actomyosin oscillations. Contrary to previous reports, basal F-actin pulsates similarly to myosin. Finally, we propose a quantitative model in which periodic basal actomyosin oscillations arise in a cell-autonomous fashion from intrinsic properties of motor assemblies. PMID:26888436

  18. Inhibition of myosin light chain kinase reduces brain edema formation after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Luh, Clara; Kuhlmann, Christoph R; Ackermann, Bianca; Timaru-Kast, Ralph; Luhmann, Heiko J; Behl, Christian; Werner, Christian; Engelhard, Kristin; Thal, Serge C

    2010-02-01

    The role of the endothelial contractile apparatus in the process of brain edema formation after brain trauma is not characterized. Phosphorylation of myosin light chains by myosin light chain kinases (MLCK) activates endothelial contractile elements and results in a rearrangement of the cytoskeleton. This may enhance post-traumatic blood-brain barrier dysfunction. In order to investigate the role of the MLCK on brain edema formation and blood-brain barrier permeability after brain injury, mice were anesthetized and subjected to a controlled cortical impact (CCI). MLCK expression is significantly up-regulated after CCI with a maximum 12 h post-injury. Specific inhibition of MLCK by ML-7 resulted in a reduction of phosphorylation of myosin light chains and improved blood-brain-barrier integrity. Accordingly, ML-7 attenuated post-traumatic brain edema formation and intracranial hypertension 24 h after CCI. Prevention of brain edema formation did not translate into improved neurological outcome or reduced brain lesion. In conclusion, the results confirm that the endothelial contractile apparatus is activated by CCI and opens the endothelial barrier leading to vasogenic brain edema formation. Lack of neurological and histological improvement suggests that specific targeting of vasogenic brain edema at the endothelial level is not sufficient to limit secondary brain damage and has, therefore, to be combined with other potential neuroprotective strategies. PMID:19943851

  19. Small Intestinal Amyloidosis: A Rare Cause of Diverticular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Groisman, Gabriel M.; Cohen, Hector I.

    2014-01-01

    Systemic amyloidosis frequently involves the small intestine. However, its association with diverticular disease has been seldom reported to date. To draw attention to this rare but potentially harmful association, we herein present an additional case of small bowel diverticular disease associated with amyloidosis. PMID:25002983

  20. Idiopathic systemic AA-amyloidosis in a skunk (Mephitis mephitis).

    PubMed

    Elhensheri, Mohamed; Linke, Reinhold P; Blankenburg, Anja; Beineke, Andreas

    2012-03-01

    This report describes a case of systemic amyloidosis in a captive striped skunk. At necropsy, bilateral alopecia, as well as reno-, hepato-, and splenomegaly were present. Congo red staining and immunohistochemistry revealed depositions of AA-amyloid in different organs. The lack of a predisposing disease is suggestive of idiopathic systemic AA-amyloidosis. PMID:22448530

  1. The C-terminal helix in subdomain 4 of the regulatory light chain is essential for myosin regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, T; Kendrick-Jones, J

    1993-01-01

    In vertebrate smooth/non-muscle myosins, phosphorylation of the regulatory light chains by a specific calmodulin-activated kinase controls both myosin head interaction with actin and assembly of the myosin into filaments. Previous studies have shown that the C-terminal domain of the regulatory light chain is crucial for the regulation of these myosin functions. To further dissect the role of this region of the light chain in myosin regulation, a series of chicken smooth muscle myosin regulatory light chain mutants has been constructed with successive C-terminal deletions. These mutants were synthesized in Escherichia coli and analysed by their ability to restore Ca2+ regulation to scallop myosin that had been stripped of its native regulatory light chains ('desensitized'). The results show that regulatory light chain mutants with deletions in the C-terminal helix in subdomain 4 were able to reform the regulatory Ca2+ binding site on the scallop myosin head, but had lost the ability to suppress scallop myosin filament assembly and interaction with actin in the absence of Ca2+. Further deletions in the C-terminal domain led to a gradual loss of ability to restore the regulatory Ca2+ binding site. Thus, the regions in the C-terminal half of the regulatory light chain responsible for myosin regulation can be identified. Images PMID:8223496

  2. Immunoglobulin light chain mRNA detected by in situ hybridisation in diagnostic fine needle aspiration cytology specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, C J; Farquharson, M A; Kerr, T; McCorriston, J

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To demonstrate expression of immunoglobulin light chain mRNA in diagnostic fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology specimens using an in situ hybridisation (ISH) technique; and to evaluate ISH in a series of reactive lymphoid proliferations and malignant lymphomas. METHODS: Forty diagnostic FNA specimens showing a lymphoid cell population were examined for immunoglobulin light chain mRNA expression using ISH. Aspirates were obtained from lymph node (n = 34), salivary gland (n = 3), subcutaneous tissue, thyroid and breast (n = 1 each). The cases included 20 B cell lymphomas, five cases of Hodgkin's disease and 15 reactive lymphoid proliferations. Comparison with light chain immunoreactivity was made in 36 cases and histological correlation from biopsy material was available in 24. RESULTS: Immunoglobulin light chain restriction was demonstrated in 14 of 20 B cell lymphomas using ISH and in six of 17 B cell lymphomas using immunocytochemistry. A polytypic pattern of light chain expression was observed in four of five cases of Hodgkin's disease with both techniques, and in 12 of 15 and 11 of 14 reactive lymphoid proliferations using ISH and immunocytochemistry, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The assessment of immunoglobulin light chain expression is a useful adjunct to morphology in the diagnosis of reactive and malignant lymphoid proliferations in FNA specimens. Light chain restriction can be shown using either immunocytochemistry or ISH, but the latter is more sensitive in the diagnosis of B cell lymphoma. Images PMID:9038760

  3. Thirteen is enough: the myosins of Dictyostelium discoideum and their light chains

    PubMed Central

    Kollmar, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Background Dictyostelium discoideum is one of the most famous model organisms for studying motile processes like cell movement, organelle transport, cytokinesis, and endocytosis. Members of the myosin superfamily, that move on actin filaments and power many of these tasks, are tripartite proteins consisting of a conserved catalytic domain followed by the neck region consisting of a different number of so-called IQ motifs for binding of light chains. The tails contain functional motifs that are responsible for the accomplishment of the different tasks in the cell. Unicellular organisms like yeasts contain three to five myosins while vertebrates express over 40 different myosin genes. Recently, the question has been raised how many myosins a simple multicellular organism like Dictyostelium would need to accomplish all the different motility-related tasks. Results The analysis of the Dictyostelium genome revealed thirteen myosins of which three have not been described before. The phylogenetic analysis of the motor domains of the new myosins placed Myo1F to the class-I myosins and Myo5A to the class-V myosins. The third new myosin, an orphan myosin, has been named MyoG. It contains an N-terminal extension of over 400 residues, and a tail consisting of four IQ motifs and two MyTH4/FERM (myosin tail homology 4/band 4.1, ezrin, radixin, and moesin) tandem domains that are separated by a long region containing an SH3 (src homology 3) domain. In contrast to previous analyses, an extensive comparison with 126 class-VII, class-X, class-XV, and class-XXII myosins now showed that MyoI does not group into any of these classes and should not be used as a model for class-VII myosins. The search for calmodulin related proteins revealed two further potential myosin light chains. One is a close homolog of the two EF-hand motifs containing MlcB, and the other, CBP14, phylogenetically groups to the ELC/RLC/calmodulin (essential light chain/regulatory light chain) branch of the tree. Conclusion Dictyostelium contains thirteen myosins together with 6–8 MLCs (myosin light chain) to assist in a variety of actin-based processes in the cell. Although they are homologous to myosins of higher eukaryotes, the myosins of Dictyostelium should be considered with care as models for specific functions of vertebrate myosins. PMID:16857047

  4. Tracheobronchial amyloidosis: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Birkeland, Andrew C.; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Spector, Matthew E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This is a case report on tracheobronchial amyloidosis. This disease may provide a diagnostic challenge for otolaryngologists due to its rarity and relative lack of literature. Our case highlights presentation and workup of this disease. Methods The index patient's workup included clinical exam, CT of the neck and chest, direct laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy and biopsy. Additional reports of tracheobronchial amyloidosis were identified in a PubMed database search. Results Our index patient presented with dyspnea and hoarseness. Clinic laryngoscopy showed a tracheal mass. Radiology demonstrated an irregular tracheal soft tissue lesion. The patient underwent biopsy, and pathology was consistent with amyloidosis. He had no systemic signs of amyloidosis. He underwent local resection to improve his airway diameter, with no complications. Conclusions Tracheobronchial amyloidosis should be kept in an otolaryngologist's differential diagnosis for patients with nonspecific upper airway symptomatology and radiographic lesions in the trachea or bronchi.

  5. AA protein-related renal amyloidosis in drug addicts.

    PubMed Central

    Menchel, S.; Cohen, D.; Gross, E.; Frangione, B.; Gallo, G.

    1983-01-01

    Reports of renal amyloidosis occurring among narcotic addicts have been limited, for the most part, to case reports. In a prospective survey of 150 addicts examined at autopsy in the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner of the City of New York, 7 cases of renal amyloidosis were found. Immunohistologic examination demonstrated that in all of the 7 cases, the amyloid was AA protein-related. The amyloid extracted from the kidneys of two addicts and analyzed biochemically did not differ from the AA amyloid secondary to chronic infectious and inflammatory diseases. The combined data of previous reports and the present survey demonstrate that addicts who are subcutaneous users with skin infections most frequently develop amyloidosis. Our data demonstrating renal amyloidosis in 26% of addicts with chronic suppurative skin infections suggest that such addicts are at high risk for the development of amyloidosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:6881286

  6. Macroglossia secondary to systemic amyloidosis: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Sandra Doria; Bussoloti, Ivo Filho; Müller, Helena

    2005-06-01

    Amyloidosis is characterized by an abnormal extracellular deposition of amyloid in different tissues and organs, where it usually causes some type of dysfunction. Its cause is unknown. The two main forms of amyloidosis are systemic and localized; the latter is rare. No satisfactory treatment for systemic amyloidosis has been discovered, and mean survival is poor, ranging from 5 to 15 months depending on the presence or absence of multiple myeloma. We report a case of primary systemic amyloidosis in a 71-year-old man. The diagnosis of amyloidosis was established by tongue biopsy, and its systemic nature was identified by analysis of aspirated abdominal fat. At the 1-year follow-up, the patient's clinical condition had not changed, and he was thereafter lost to follow-up. PMID:16075859

  7. Clathrin light chain B: gene structure and neuron-specific splicing.

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, S; Casper, D; Dinsmore, J; Kaufmann, C A; Brosius, J; Helfman, D M

    1992-01-01

    The clathrin light chains are components of clathrin coated vesicles, structural constituents involved in endocytosis and membrane recycling. The clathrin light chain B (LCB) gene encodes two isoforms, termed LCB2 and LCB3, via an alternative RNA splicing mechanism. We have determined the structure of the rat clathrin light chain B gene. The gene consists of six exons that extend over 11.9 kb. The first four exons and the last exon are common to the LCB2 and LCB3 isoforms. The fifth exon, termed EN, is included in the mRNA in brain, giving rise to the brain specific form LCB2 but is excluded in other tissues, generating the LCB3 isoform. Primary rat neuronal cell cultures express predominantly the brain specific LCB2 isoform, whereas primary rat cultures of glia express only the LCB3 isoform, suggesting that expression of the brain-specific LCB2 form is limited to neurons. Further evidence for neuronal localization of the LCB2 form is provided using a teratocarcinoma cell line, P19, which can be induced by retinoic acid to express a neuronal phenotype, concomitant with the induction of the LCB2 form. In order to determine the sequences involved in alternative splice site selection, we constructed a minigene containing the alternative spliced exon EN and its flanking intron and exon sequences. This minigene reflects the splicing pattern of the endogenous gene upon transfection in HeLa cell and primary neuronal cell cultures, indicating that this region of the LCB gene contains all the necessary information for neuron-specific splicing. Images PMID:1408826

  8. Systemic lupus erythematosus: molecular cloning and analysis of recombinant DNase monoclonal κ light chain NGK-1.

    PubMed

    Kostrikina, Irina A; Odintsova, Elena S; Buneva, Valentina N; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2014-08-01

    Because DNase antibodies are cytotoxic, enter the nucleus and cause DNA fragmentation inducing cell death by apoptosis, they can play an important role in the pathogenesis of different autoimmune pathologies and especially systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The interesting goal of catalytic antibodies research is not only to study a possible biological role of such antibodies, but also to develop in future new human and animal therapies that use the advantages offered by abzymes. An immunoglobulin κ light chain library from SLE patients was cloned into a phagemid vector. Phage particles displaying recombinant monoclonal antibody light chains (MLChs) capable of binding DNA were isolated by affinity chromatography on DNA-cellulose. Sixteen of the 46 MLChs efficiently hydrolyzed DNA; one MLCh (approximately 27-28kDa) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by metal chelating and gel filtration. MLCh NGK-1 was electrophoretically homogeneous and demonstrated a positive answer with mouse IgGs against light chains of human antibodies after western blotting. SDS-PAGE in a gel containing DNA demonstrated that the MLCh hydrolyzes DNA and is not contaminated by canonical DNases. The DNase MLCh was activated by several metal ions. The protein sequence of the DNase MLCh has homology with mammalian DNases I and shares with them several identical or similar (with the same side chain functionality) important amino acid residues, which are necessary for DNA hydrolysis and binding of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) ions. The affinity of DNA for this first example of a MLCh (K(M) = 0.3 microM) was 150- to 200-fold higher than for human DNase I. PMID:24919596

  9. Some correlations between specificity and sequence of the first complementarity-determining segments of human kappa light chains.

    PubMed

    Kabat, E A; Wu, T T; Bilofsky, H

    1976-12-01

    Examination of the sequences of the first complementarity-determining segments of the light chains of two IgM cold agglutinins agains blood group I, four monoclonal IgM antibodies against IgG proteins, and of three Bence Jones proteins provides clues for predicting which residues contribute to antibody specificity and indicates that these predictions may be tested by evaluating recovery of antibody activity and specificity when various light chains are recombined with homologous and heterologous heavy chains. PMID:826908

  10. Induction of antiphosphocholine antibodies utilizing lambda light chains in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Hall, T J

    1987-01-01

    BALB/c mice immunized with 1 or 100 micrograms of phosphocholine (PC)-keyhole-limpet hemocyanin absorbed on aluminum hydroxide gel (alum) produced up to 50% lambda 1-light-chain-containing anti-PC antibodies in their serum. Only 10% lambda 1 antibodies were seen when complete Freund's adjuvant or bentonite were used as the adjuvant or if PC-bovine serum albumin was used with alum. Thus, the induction of large lambda-antibody responses to PC (a response usually dominated by kappa-antibodies) was both adjuvant- and carrier-dependent. PMID:3108165

  11. Prevalence of amyloid deposition in mature healthy chickens in the flock that previously had outbreaks of vaccine-associated amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    IBI, Kanata; MURAKAMI, Tomoaki; GODA, Wael Mohamed; KOBAYASHI, Naoki; ISHIGURO, Naotaka; YANAI, Tokuma

    2015-01-01

    Avian amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is commonly observed in adult birds with chronic inflammation, such as that caused by bacterial infection. We previously described vaccine-associated AA amyloidosis in juvenile chickens. In this study, the prevalence of amyloid deposition was measured in mature healthy chickens that survived a previous outbreak of avian AA amyloidosis while they were juveniles. Herein, we analyzed the amyloid deposition in mature chickens and compared the prevalence of amyloid deposition with juvenile chickens obtained in our previous study (Murakami et al., 2013). We found that: 1) amyloid deposition in the liver was absent in mature chickens, while juvenile chickens had a rate of 24%; 2) amyloid deposition in the spleen was observed in 36% of juvenile chickens and in 40% of mature chickens; 3) amyloid deposition in the pectoral muscle of mature chickens (43.75%) was approximately half that of juvenile chickens (88%). These results suggest that additional amyloid deposition in chickens previously exposed to AA amyloidosis may not worsen with age. Further, amyloid deposition in chickens may tend to regress when causative factors, such as vaccinations and/or chronic inflammation, are absent. PMID:25985816

  12. Structural Characterization of the Partially Folded Intermediates of An Immunoglobulin Light Chain Leading to Amyloid Fibrillation And Amorphous Aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Z.; Hu, D.; Zhu, M.; Fink, A.L.; /UC, Santa Cruz

    2007-07-12

    Immunoglobulin light chain deposition diseases involve various types of extracellular deposition of light chain variable domains, including amyloid fibrils and amorphous deposits. The decreased thermodynamic stability of the light chain is believed to be the major factor leading to fibrillation. However, the differences in the nature of the deposits among the light chain deposition diseases raise the question of whether the mechanisms leading to fibrillar or amorphous aggregation is different. In this study, we generated two partially folded intermediates of the light chain variable domain SMA in the presence of guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) and characterized their conformations. The more unfolded intermediate formed fibrils most rapidly, while the more native-like intermediate predominantly led to amorphous deposits. The results also show that the monomeric, rather than the dimeric state, was critical for fibrillation. The data also indicate that fibril elongation involves addition of a partially unfolded intermediate, rather than the native state. We postulate that a more highly unfolded intermediate is more suited to undergo the topological rearrangements necessary to form amyloid fibrils than a more structured one and that this also correlates with increased destabilization. In the case of light chain aggregation, it appears that more native-like intermediate conformations are more prone to form amorphous deposits.

  13. Purification and characterization of a sea urchin egg Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent kinase with myosin light chain phosphorylating activity.

    PubMed

    Chou, Y H; Rebhun, L I

    1986-04-25

    The crude actomyosin precipitate from sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) egg extracts contains Ca2+-sensitive myosin light chain kinase activity. Activity can be further increased by exogenous calmodulin (CaM). Egg myosin light chain kinase activity is purified from total egg extract by fractionating on three different chromatographic columns: DEAE ion exchange, gel filtration on Sephacryl-300, and Affi-Gel-CaM affinity. The purified egg kinase depends totally on Ca2+ and CaM for activity. Unphosphorylated egg myosin has very little actin-activated ATPase. After phosphorylation of the phosphorylable light chain by either egg kinase or gizzard myosin light chain kinase, the actin-activated ATPase of egg myosin is enhanced several fold. However, the egg kinase bears some unique characteristics which are very different from conventional myosin light chain kinases of differentiated tissues. The purified egg kinase has a native molecular mass of 405 kDa, while on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis it shows a single subunit of 56 kDa. The affinity of egg kinase for CaM (Ka = 0.4 microM) is relatively weaker than that of the gizzard myosin light chain kinase. The egg kinase autophosphorylates in the presence of Ca2+ and CaM and has a rather broad substrate specificity. The possible relationship between this egg Ca2+-CaM-dependent kinase and the Ca2+-CaM-dependent kinases from brain and liver is discussed. PMID:2937787

  14. Effect of specimen type on free immunoglobulin light chains analysis on the Roche Diagnostics cobas 8000 analyzer.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Louis S; Steussy, Bryan; Morris, Cory S; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of free immunoglobulin light chains is typically performed on serum; however, the use of alternative specimen types has potential benefits. Using the Freelite™ kappa and lambda free light chains assay on a Roche Diagnostics cobas 8000 c502 analyzer, we compared three specimen types (serum, EDTA-plasma and lithium heparin plasma separator gel-plasma) on 100 patients. Using Deming regression and eliminating outliers (limiting data to light chain concentrations below 400 mg/L), the three specimen types showed comparable results for kappa light chain concentration, lambda light chain concentration, and kappa/lambda ratio with slopes close to 1.0 and y-intercepts close to zero. EDTA-plasma showed slightly more positive bias relative to serum than lithium heparin. Analysis using EDTA-plasma and lithium heparin plasma showed comparable linearity, precision, and temperature stability. A single sample showing hook effect (not in the comparison set) gave comparable results using either plasma specimen type. For the Freelite™ kappa and lambda free light chains assay, both EDTA-plasma or lithium heparin-plasma can serve as acceptable substitutes for serum, at least for the Roche cobas 8000 analyzer. PMID:26682113

  15. Histological study of experimental murine AA amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Kuroiwa, Mie; Aoki, Kimiko; Izumiyama, Naotaka

    2003-01-01

    The localization of amyloid fibril components and the cells related to the formation and resorption of the fibrils are still controversial. We conducted a time-kinetic study to analyse the process of amyloid fibril deposition in the spleen of an AA amyloidosis animal model immunohistochemically. Murine AA amyloidosis was induced by an emulsion injection composed of Freund's complete adjuvant and Mycobacterium butyricum. The serum amyloid A level was the highest at 3 days after the induction and gradually decreased. The amyloid deposition was first detected in extracellular spaces in the marginal zone of the spleen at 7 days after induction. F4/80 positive red pulp macrophages increased in number after the induction and accumulated near the amyloid deposition areas. Amyloid P component (APC) and chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (CSPG), which are composed of amyloid fibril, were detected in the cytoplasm of F4/80 positive red pulp macrophages and ER-TR9 positive marginal zone macrophages, respectively, then localized in the amyloid deposition areas. APC was also localized in CSPG positive and F4/80 negative cells, which might be fibroblasts at 3 days. These results suggest a close association of APC positive/ER-TR9 positive macrophages and APC positive/CSPG positive fibroblasts in the formation of amyloid fibrils and F4/80 positive macrophages with the resorption of fibrils. PMID:14599103

  16. Cutaneous amyloidosis and insulin with coexistence of acanthosis nigricans.

    PubMed

    Nandeesh, Bevinahalli N; Rajalakshmi, T; Shubha, B

    2014-01-01

    Skin is one of the important organs affected by amyloidosis which is characterized by extracellular deposition of fibrillary proteins having homogenous, eosinophilic on routine staining with distinct tinctorial properties. Nodular cutaneous amyloidosis is rare and may affect dermis, subcutis and also vascular walls. Nodular amyloid deposits in the deeper dermis occurring at the site of insulin injection are a rare observation, which is described here. This description indicates that cutaneous amyloidosis may be associated with local subcutaneous injections of insulin and may clinically mimic a neoplasm or lipodystrophic lesion. PMID:24739851

  17. Dephosphorylation of Tctex2-related dynein light chain by type 2A protein phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Kazuo

    2002-10-01

    Sperm flagellar movements are regulated by cAMP-dependent protein phosphorylation. Tctex2-related light chain of outer arm dynein is a well-defined phosphorylated protein that is phosphorylated at activation of sperm motility. Here, the protein phosphatase that dephosphorylates Tctex2-related dynein light chain (LC2) has been characterized in salmonid fish sperm. Most of the phosphatase activity against LC2 is found in Triton-soluble fraction of flagella but trace extent of the activity is retained in the axoneme. The dephosphorylation of LC2 is inhibited by okadaic acid at more than 1nM, whereas that of dynein alpha heavy chain is inhibited at more than 10nM. The addition of Ca(2+) gives no direct effect on LC2 dephosphorylation, but it accelerates the dephosphorylation of the regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, resulting in the decrease of LC2 phosphorylation. The activity to dephosphorylate the LC2 is separated by MonoQ ion-exchange column chromatography along with the immunoreactivity to the antibody against the catalytic subunit of type 2A protein phosphatase. These results suggest that LC2 is dephosphorylated by type 2A protein phosphatase and that dynein alpha heavy chain and the regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase are dephosphorylated by other types of protein phosphatases. PMID:12359223

  18. A Unique Role for Endothelial Cell Kinesin Light Chain 1, Variant 1 in Leukocyte Transendothelial Migration.

    PubMed

    Cyrus, Bita F; Muller, William A

    2016-05-01

    A reservoir of parajunctional membrane in endothelial cells, the lateral border recycling compartment (LBRC), is critical for transendothelial migration (TEM). We have previously shown that targeted recycling of the LBRC to the site of TEM requires microtubules and a kinesin molecular motor. However, the identity of the kinesin and mechanism of cargo binding were not known. We show that microinjection of endothelial cells with a monoclonal antibody specific for kinesin-1 significantly blocked LBRC-targeted recycling and TEM. In complementary experiments, knocking down KIF5B, a ubiquitous kinesin-1 isoform, in endothelial cells significantly decreased targeted recycling of the LBRC and leukocyte TEM. Kinesin heavy chains move cargo along microtubules by one of many kinesin light chains (KLCs), which directly bind the cargo. Knocking down KLC 1 isoform variant 1 (KLC1C) significantly decreased LBRC-targeted recycling and TEM, whereas knocking down other isoforms of KLC1 had no effect. Re-expression of KLC1C resistant to the knockdown shRNA restored targeted recycling and TEM. Thus kinesin-1 and KLC1C are specifically required for targeted recycling and TEM. These data suggest that of the many potential combinations of the 45 kinesin family members and multiple associated light chains, KLC1C links the LBRC to kinesin-1 (KIF5B) during targeted recycling and TEM. Thus, KLC1C can potentially be used as a target for anti-inflammatory therapy. PMID:26994343

  19. Russell body gastritis/duodenitis: a case series and description of immunoglobulin light chain restriction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hejun; Jin, Zhu; Cui, Rongli

    2014-10-01

    Russell body esophago-gastro-duodenitis is an unusual form of chronic inflammation, with only 22 cases being reported in PubMed. However, the prevalence and clinical significance remain unknown. This report describes the clinico-pathological characteristics of nine cases of Russell body gastritis (RBG) and one case of Russell body duodentitis (RBD), with nonspecific endoscopic appearance. The Mott cells (plasma cells with Russell bodies) showed κ light chain restriction in eight gastritis cases and λ light chain restriction in the duodentitis case, and there were no histological features that suggested lymphoma. Thus, a diagnosis of monoclonal RBG/RBD was made. Helicobacter pylori infection was found in 55.6% of RBG cases and in the RBD case. And, the clinical follow-up evaluations were uneventful. This report is the first study to describe this benign disease entity with monoclonality on a large-scale basis. In addition, the monoclonality of Mott cells cannot be used as evidence of an existing neoplastic lesion, and taken together, these findings may indicate a reactive process. PMID:25001185

  20. Synthesis and secretion of light-chain immunoglobulin in two successive cycles of synchronized plasmacytoma cells

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    Suspension-cultured mouse plasmacytoma cells (MPC-11) were accumulated in the late G1 phase by exposure to isoleucine-deficient medium for 20- 24 h. The arrested culture was fed with complete medium enabling the cells to continue the cell cycle synchronously, undergo mitosis, and enter a second cycle of growth. This method of synchronization left the protein-synthesizing ability intact as judged by the polysome profile and the capacity of the cells to incorporate labeled amino acids into protein after the restoration of isoleucine. After incubation in isoleucine-deficient medium and the addition of isoleucine to the culture, cells entered the S phase after a short lag, as judged by [3H]thymidine incorporation into nucleic acid and by spectrophotometric measurement of nuclear DNA. The cells were in mitosis between 12 and 18 h as judged by the increase in cell count and analysis of cell populations on albumin gradients. Synthesis and secretion of light- chain immunoglobulin were maximal in the late G1/early S phase of the first cycle. During late S phase, G2 phase, and mitosis, both synthesis and secretion were observed to be at a low level; however, immediately after motosis the cells which then entered the G1 phase apparently commenced synthesis of light chain immunoglobulin straight away, although secretion of labeled material remained at a low level. PMID:812877

  1. The Effects of Neuregulin on Cardiac Myosin Light Chain Kinase Gene-Ablated Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Audrey N.; Huang, Jian; Battiprolu, Pavan K.; Hill, Joseph A.; Kamm, Kristine E.; Stull, James T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Activation of ErbB2/4 receptor tyrosine kinases in cardiomyocytes by neuregulin treatment is associated with improvement in cardiac function, supporting its use in human patients with heart failure despite the lack of a specific mechanism. Neuregulin infusion in rodents increases cardiac myosin light chain kinase (cMLCK) expression and cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation which may improve actin-myosin interactions for contraction. We generated a cMLCK knockout mouse to test the hypothesis that cMLCK is necessary for neuregulin-induced improvement in cardiac function by increasing RLC phosphorylation. Principal Findings The cMLCK knockout mice have attenuated RLC phosphorylation and decreased cardiac performance measured as fractional shortening. Neuregulin infusion for seven days in wildtype mice increased cardiac cMLCK protein expression and RLC phosphorylation while increasing Akt phosphorylation and decreasing phospholamban phosphorylation. There was no change in fractional shortening. In contrast, neuregulin infusion in cMLCK knockout animals increased cardiac performance in the absence of cMLCK without increasing RLC phosphorylation. In addition, CaMKII signaling appeared to be enhanced in neuregulin-treated knockout mice. Conclusions Thus, Neuregulin may improve cardiac performance in the failing heart without increasing cMLCK and RLC phosphorylation by activating other signaling pathways. PMID:23776695

  2. CaMKII in addition to MLCK contributes to phosphorylation of regulatory light chain in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Eikemo, Hilde; Moltzau, Lise Romn; Hussain, Rizwan I; Nguyen, Cam H T; Qvigstad, Eirik; Levy, Finn Olav; Skomedal, Tor; Osnes, Jan-Bjrn

    2016-02-26

    The aim was to identify kinase activities involved in the phosphorylation of regulatory light chain (RLC) in situ in cardiomyocytes. In electrically stimulated rat cardiomyocytes, phosphatase inhibition by calyculin A unmasked kinase activities evoking an increase of phosphorylated RLC (P-RLC) from about 16% to about 80% after 80min. The phosphorylation rate in cardiomyocytes was reduced by about 40% by the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor, ML-7. In rat ventricular muscle strips, calyculin A induced a positive inotropic effect that correlated with P-RLC levels. The inotropic effect and P-RLC elevation were abolished by ML-7 treatment. The kinase activities phosphorylating RLC in cardiomyocytes were reduced by about 60% by the non-selective kinase inhibitor staurosporine and by about 50% by the calmodulin antagonist W7. W7 eliminated the inhibitory effect of ML-7, suggesting that the cardiac MLCK is Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent. The CaM-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitor KN-93 attenuated the calyculin A-induced RLC phosphorylation by about 40%, indicating a contribution from CaMKII. The residual phosphorylation in the presence of W7 indicated that also CaM-independent kinase activities might contribute. RLC phosphorylation was insensitive to protein kinase C inhibition. In conclusion, in addition to MLCK, CaMKII phosphorylates RLC in cardiomyocytes. Involvement of other kinases cannot be excluded. PMID:26809094

  3. Structural and Thermodynamic Characterization of a Cytoplasmic Dynein Light Chain-Intermediate Chain Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Williams,J.; Roulhac, P.; Roy, A.; Vallee, R.; Fitzgerald, M.; Hendrickson, W.

    2007-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a microtubule-based motor protein complex that plays important roles in a wide range of fundamental cellular processes, including vesicular transport, mitosis, and cell migration. A single major form of cytoplasmic dynein associates with membranous organelles, mitotic kinetochores, the mitotic and migratory cell cortex, centrosomes, and mRNA complexes. The ability of cytoplasmic dynein to recognize such diverse forms of cargo is thought to be associated with its several accessory subunits, which reside at the base of the molecule. The dynein light chains (LCs) LC8 and TcTex1 form a subcomplex with dynein intermediate chains, and they also interact with numerous protein and ribonucleoprotein partners. This observation has led to the hypothesis that these subunits serve to tether cargo to the dynein motor. Here, we present the structure and a thermodynamic analysis of a complex of LC8 and TcTex1 associated with their intermediate chain scaffold. The intermediate chains effectively block the major putative cargo binding sites within the light chains. These data suggest that, in the dynein complex, the LCs do not bind cargo, in apparent disagreement with a role for LCs in dynein cargo binding interactions.

  4. Regulation of myosin light chain kinase and telokin expression in smooth muscle tissues.

    PubMed

    Herring, B Paul; El-Mounayri, Omar; Gallagher, Patricia J; Yin, Feng; Zhou, Jiliang

    2006-11-01

    The mylk1 gene is a large gene spanning approximately 250 kb and comprising at least 31 exons. The mylk1 gene encodes at least four protein products: two isoforms of the 220-kDa myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), a 130-kDa MLCK, and telokin. Transcripts encoding these products are derived from four independent promoters within the mylk1 gene. The kinases expressed from the mylk1 gene have been extensively characterized and function to regulate the activity of nonmuscle and smooth muscle myosin II. Activation of these myosin motors by MLCK modulates a variety of contractile processes, including smooth muscle contraction, cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Dysregulation of these processes contributes to a number of diseases. The noncatalytic gene product telokin also has been shown to modulate contraction in smooth muscle cells through its ability to inhibit myosin light chain phosphatase. Given the crucial role of the products of the mylk1 gene in regulating numerous contractile processes, it seems intuitive that alterations in the transcriptional activity of the mylk1 gene also will have a significant impact on many physiological and pathological processes. In this review we highlight some of the recent studies that have described the transcriptional regulation of mylk1 gene products in smooth muscle tissues and discuss the implications of these findings for regulation of expression of other smooth muscle-specific genes. PMID:16774989

  5. Myosin Regulatory Light Chain (RLC) Phosphorylation Change as a Modulator of Cardiac Muscle Contraction in Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Toepfer, Christopher; Caorsi, Valentina; Kampourakis, Thomas; Sikkel, Markus B.; West, Timothy G.; Leung, Man-Ching; Al-Saud, Sara A.; MacLeod, Kenneth T.; Lyon, Alexander R.; Marston, Steven B.; Sellers, James R.; Ferenczi, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation alters cardiac muscle mechanics is important because it is often altered in cardiac disease. The effect this protein phosphorylation has on muscle mechanics during a physiological range of shortening velocities, during which the heart generates power and performs work, has not been addressed. We have expressed and phosphorylated recombinant Rattus norvegicus left ventricular RLC. In vitro we have phosphorylated these recombinant species with cardiac myosin light chain kinase and zipper-interacting protein kinase. We compare rat permeabilized cardiac trabeculae, which have undergone exchange with differently phosphorylated RLC species. We were able to enrich trabecular RLC phosphorylation by 40% compared with controls and, in a separate series, lower RLC phosphorylation to 60% of control values. Compared with the trabeculae with a low level of RLC phosphorylation, RLC phosphorylation enrichment increased isometric force by more than 3-fold and peak power output by more than 7-fold and approximately doubled both maximum shortening speed and the shortening velocity that generated peak power. We augmented these measurements by observing increased RLC phosphorylation of human and rat HF samples from endocardial left ventricular homogenate. These results demonstrate the importance of increased RLC phosphorylation in the up-regulation of myocardial performance and suggest that reduced RLC phosphorylation is a key aspect of impaired contractile function in the diseased myocardium. PMID:23530050

  6. Planarian myosin essential light chain is involved in the formation of brain lateral branches during regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuying; Chen, Xuhui; Yuan, Zuoqing; Zhou, Luming; Pang, Qiuxiang; Mao, Bingyu; Zhao, Bosheng

    2015-08-01

    The myosin essential light chain (ELC) is a structure component of the actomyosin cross-bridge, however, the functions in the central nervous system (CNS) development and regeneration remain poorly understood. Planarian Dugesia japonica has revealed fundamental mechanisms and unique aspects of neuroscience and neuroregeneration. In this study, the cDNA DjElc, encoding a planarian essential light chain of myosin, was identified from the planarian Dugesia japonica cDNA library. It encodes a deduced protein with highly conserved functionally domains EF-Hand and Ca(2+) binding sites that shares significant similarity with other members of ELC. Whole mount in situ hybridization studies show that DjElc expressed in CNS during embryonic development and regeneration of adult planarians. Loss of function of DjElc by RNA interference during planarian regeneration inhibits brain lateral branches regeneration completely. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that DjElc is required for maintenance of neurons and neurite outgrowth, particularly for involving the brain later branch regeneration. PMID:25585662

  7. Renal Artery Microaneurysm in a Woman With Amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Sanei Taheri, Morteza; Abolghasemi, Rozita; Haghighatkhah, Hamid Reza; Taziki, Omolbanin; Arab Ahmadi, Mehran; Behnam, Behdad; Zakavati Avval, Mohsen

    2016-03-01

    Amyloidosis is an extracellular deposition of abnormal serum proteins. Systemic amyloidosis could involve different organs such as the spleen, liver, and kidneys. Renal artery microaneurysm is very rare in renal amyloidosis. We report a 44-year-old woman who was referred to our general hospital for evaluation of rising serum creatinine level, anemia, and pathological fracture. Two hours following renal biopsy, she developed severe pain in the left flank during voiding and ultrasonography revealed a large perinephric hematoma. She underwent angiography that incidentally showed pseudoaneurysm with diffused renal artery microaneurysm. The feeding artery to the pseudoaneurysm was completely ligated by an interventional radiologist. The subsequent histopathological report of the kidney revealed amyloidosis. PMID:26921752

  8. Renal amyloidosis due to familial mediterranean fever misdiagnosed

    PubMed Central

    Hama, Iman; Ilham, Ratbi; Ouzeddoun, Naima; Alhamany, Zaitouna; Bayahia, Radia; Sefiani, Abdelaziz

    2012-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF, MIM 249100) is an autosomal recessive disease affecting mainly patients of the Mediterranean basin. It is an autoinflammatory periodic disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and abdominal pain, synovitis, and pleuritis. The major complication of FMF is the development of renal AA amyloidosis. Treatment with colchicine prevents the occurrence of recurrent seizures and renal amyloidosis. The disease is caused by mutations in the MEFV gene. We report here the cases of two unrelated patients, who have been late diagnosed with FMF complicated by renal amyloidosis. We focus on the importance of early diagnosis of FMF, both to start rapidly treatment with colchicine and avoid renal amyloidosis, and to provide genetic counseling to families. PMID:23716950

  9. Only selected light chains combine with a given heavy chain to confer specificity for a model glycopeptide antigen.

    PubMed

    Czerwinski, M; Siemaszko, D; Siegel, D L; Spitalnik, S L

    1998-05-01

    The M and N human blood group glycopeptide Ags are carried on RBCs by glycophorin A. Previous results suggested that the murine humoral immune response against the N, but not the M, Ag is restricted. In addition, these results suggested that particular highly homologous heavy chains might be able to combine promiscuously with various light chains to yield anti-N specificity. To examine this, the current study used Fab phage methodology to couple an array of light chains, obtained from cDNA libraries isolated from immunized mice, to single Fd obtained from N61, N92, and 425/2B hybridomas. Interestingly, for the chimeric Fab to retain M or N specificity, the new light chains needed to belong to the same Vk gene family as the light chain from the parental, hybridoma-derived mAb. In some cases the new light chains modified the Fab affinity and fine specificity. For example, library-derived light chains coupled with the N92 Fd yielded chimeric Fab with increased affinity. In particular, the affinity of these univalent chimeric Fab for the N Ag was equivalent to that of the bivalent parental IgG mAb. Taken together, these results demonstrate that particular structures formed by the light chain V region are required to cooperate with a particular heavy chain V region to create a functional binding site for these glycopeptide Ags. They also demonstrate a lack of heavy chain promiscuity in the formation of murine anti-M and anti-N Abs. PMID:9574545

  10. Sequences of V kappa L subgroup light chains in Fanconi's syndrome. Light chain V region gene usage restriction and peculiarities in myeloma-associated Fanconi's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rocca, A; Khamlichi, A A; Touchard, G; Mougenot, B; Ronco, P; Denoroy, L; Deret, S; Preud'homme, J L; Aucouturier, P; Cogné, M

    1995-09-15

    Certain monoclonal Ig light chains (LC) are responsible for marked disturbances of proximal tubule cell functions (Fanconi's syndrome, FS). In patients with FS, intracellular crystal-like inclusions containing LC determinants are commonly found in plasma cells, macrophages, and renal tubular cells. In an attempt at understanding the pathogenesis of myeloma-associated FS, we recently determined the first complete primary sequence of a kappa-LC (CHEB) responsible for the disease. We now report on the primary structure of three other kappa-LC of the V kappa l variability subgroup associated with FS (TRE, TRO, and DEL). After PCR amplification, cDNA encoding these LC were sequenced. CHEB, TRE, and TRO LC genes were found to be highly homologous to the same germline gene O2/O12. These patients had numerous intracellular crystals, whereas the fourth patient, DEL, had no detectable crystals. The LC from the latter patient was homologous to another germline gene, O8/O18. Comparison of these LC sequences to previously reported LC of the V kappa l subgroup allowed identification of a number of unusual amino acid substitutions in the V region that had rarely or never been previously described at the corresponding positions. Some of these unusual substitutions affect highly conserved amino acids located either in an external loop (residue 30) or in inner (residues 48 and 55) and outer (positions 63 and 72) beta-sheets that may be important for the structure and binding properties of the kappa-chains. These and several other substitutions, some of them shared with amyloidogenic kappa-LC, could induce conformational alterations and represent a determinant pathogenic factor. PMID:7673737

  11. Recipient aging accelerates acquired transthyretin amyloidosis after domino liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Misumi, Yohei; Narita, Yasuko; Oshima, Toshinori; Ueda, Mitsuharu; Yamashita, Taro; Tasaki, Masayoshi; Obayashi, Konen; Isono, Kaori; Inomata, Yukihiro; Ando, Yukio

    2016-05-01

    Domino liver transplantation (DLT) with liver grafts from patients with hereditary transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis has been performed throughout the world because of a severe liver graft shortage. Reports of acquired systemic TTR amyloidosis in domino liver recipients have been increasing; however, the precise pathogenesis and clinical course of acquired TTR amyloidosis remains unclear. We analyzed the relationship between the occurrence of acquired amyloidosis and clinical features in 22 consecutive domino liver donors with hereditary TTR amyloidosis (10 males and 12 females; mean age at DLT: 37.2 years; TTR mutations: V30M [n = 19], Y114C [n = 1], L55P [n = 1], and S50I [n = 1]) and 22 liver recipients (16 males and 6 females; mean age at DLT, 46.2 years). The mean times from DLT to amyloid first appearance and transplant recipient symptom onset were 8.2 years and 9.9 years, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis and quantification of the amyloid deposition revealed aging of recipients correlated with early de novo amyloid deposition. The sex of donors and recipients and the age, disease duration, and disease severity of donors had no significant effect on the latency of de novo amyloid deposition. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that recipient aging is associated with the early onset de novo amyloidosis. Because acquired amyloidosis will likely increase, careful follow-up for early amyloidosis detection and new treatments, including TTR stabilizers and gene-silencing therapies, are required. Liver Transplantation 22 656-664 2016 AASLD. PMID:26600212

  12. Mitral valve involvement as a predominant feature of cardiac amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Girish; Williams, James; Slinn, Simon; Campbell, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac involvement in systemic amyloidosis carries poor prognosis with a median survival of 5 months.1 The authors report an unusual presentation of cardiac amyloidosis in the form of predominant mitral regurgitation. The patient responded very well to medical therapy with subsequent improvement of mitral valve dysfunction. The authors would like to highlight this multisystem involvement and the presence of a complex overlap of systemic features. PMID:22767536

  13. Predictors of AA amyloidosis in familial Mediterranean fever.

    PubMed

    Mukhin, Nikolay A; Kozlovskaya, Lidiya V; Bogdanova, Marina V; Rameev, Vilen V; Moiseev, Sergey V; Simonyan, Armine Kh

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical and genetic predictors of AA amyloidosis in patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). We retrospectively studied 170 Armenian patients who were admitted to the two tertiary centers in 2003-2014. The diagnosis of amyloidosis that was suspected clinically (new proteinuria or nephrotic syndrome) was confirmed histologically. Screening for MEFV gene mutations was performed in 70 patients. The most common genotype was M694V/M694V (in 36 % of patients). Biopsy-proven AA amyloidosis was found in 102 (60 %) of 170 patients. AA amyloidosis was diagnosed in 17 (68 %) of 25 patients with homozygous M694V mutation, 17 (53 %) of 32 patients with heterozygous M694V allele and 4 (31 %) of 13 patients with other MEFV gene mutations. The M694V homozygosity and heterozygosity were associated with increased risk of AA amyloidosis, but this association did not reach statistical significance (odds ratio 2.43; 95 % CI 0.87-6.76, and 3.33; 0.91-12.1, respectively). Male gender, early onset of disease, severity of FMF, frequent attacks, peritonitis, pleuritis and erysipelas-like erythema also did not predict AA amyloidosis development. Recurrent arthritis was the only clinical finding that was significantly associated with AA amyloidosis (odds ratio 2.28; 95 % CI 1.17-4.42). Involvement of the joint synovial membrane, that is capable of active serum amyloid A production, is the main predictor of renal amyloidosis in FMF. PMID:25586652

  14. 75 FR 65279 - Schedule for Rating Disabilities; AL Amyloidosis (Primary Amyloidosis)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... INFORMATION: A final rule was published in the Federal Register at 74 FR 21258 amending 38 CFR 3.309(e) by... or without renal insufficiency, congestive cardiomyopathy, peripheral neuropathy, and...

  15. Hereditary renal amyloidosis with a novel variant fibrinogen.

    PubMed Central

    Uemichi, T; Liepnieks, J J; Benson, M D

    1994-01-01

    Two families with hereditary renal amyloidosis were found to have a novel mutation in the fibrinogen A alpha chain gene. This form of amyloidosis is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by proteinuria, hypertension, and subsequent azotemia. DNAs of patients with amyloidosis were screened for a polymorphism in fibrinogen A alpha chain gene by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, and affected individuals from two kindreds were found to have a mutation. Both of these kindreds are American of Irish descent presenting with non-neuropathic, nephropathic amyloidosis in the fifth to the seventh decade of life. DNA sequencing showed a point mutation in the fibrinogen A alpha chain gene that is responsible for substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 526. By restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, 7 affected individuals and 14 asymptomatic individuals in these two kindreds were positive for the fibrinogen A alpha chain Val 526 gene. Fibrinogen was isolated from plasma of a heterozygous gene carrier and shown to contain approximately 50% variant fibrinogen. Discovery of this new mutation confirms the association between fibrinogen A alpha chain variant and hereditary renal amyloidosis and establishes a new biochemical subtype of amyloidosis. Images PMID:8113408

  16. Nuclear imaging modalities for cardiac amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Bokhari, Sabahat; Shahzad, Reehan; Castaño, Adam; Maurer, Mathew S.

    2015-01-01

    Amyloidosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by localized or systemic deposition of insoluble extracellular fibrillary proteins in organs and tissues. Several types of amyloid can infiltrate the heart resulting in a restrictive cardiomyopathy, heart failure, and atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Scintigraphy is a noninvasive method that may facilitate early diagnosis, distinguish various forms of cardiac amyloid, and may be useful in following disease burden. The amyloid-specific tracers presented in this article have been used with planar imaging and/or single-photon emission computed tomography. To date, there are no approved cardiac amyloid tracers although investigational tracers are currently under examination. This article serves to review the current nuclear imaging modalities available in the detection of cardiac amyloid. PMID:24162886

  17. Cerebral amyloidosis: amyloid subunits, mutants and phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Rostagno, A.; Holton, J. L.; Lashley, T.; Revesz, T.

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid diseases are part of a complex group of chronic and progressive entities bracketed together under the common denomination of protein folding disorders and characterized by the intra- and extracellular accumulation of fibrillar aggregates. Of the more than 25 unrelated proteins known to produce amyloidosis in humans only about a third of them are associated with cerebral deposits translating in cognitive deficits, dementia, stroke, cerebellar and extrapyramidal signs, or a combination thereof. The familial forms reviewed herein, although infrequent, provide unique paradigms to examine the role of amyloid in the mechanism of disease pathogenesis and to dissect the link between vascular and parenchymal amyloid deposition and their differential contribution to neurodegeneration. PMID:19898742

  18. Functional characterization of the catalytic site of the tetanus toxin light chain using permeabilized adrenal chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Höhne-Zell, B; Stecher, B; Gratzl, M

    1993-12-20

    The molecular events underlying the inhibition of exocytosis by tetanus toxin were investigated in permeabilized adrenal chromaffin cells. We found that replacement of amino acid residues within the putative zinc binding domain of the tetanus toxin light chain such as of histidine (position 233) by cysteine or valine, or of glutamate (position 234) by glutamine completely abolished the effect of the light chains on Ca2+ induced catecholamine release. Dipicolinic acid, a strong chelating agent for zinc, also prevented the effect of the tetanus toxin light chain. Zn2+ and, less potently Cu2+ and Ni2+, but not Cd2+ and Co2+, restored the activity of the neurotoxin. These data show that zinc and the putative zinc binding domain constitute the active site of the tetanus toxin light chain. Neither captopril, an inhibitor of synaptobrevin cleavage nor peptides spanning the site of synaptobrevins cleaved by the tetanus toxin in neurons, prevented the inhibition of Ca2+ induced catecholamine release by the tetanus toxin light chain. This suggests that synaptobrevins are not a major target of tetanus toxin in adrenal chromaffin cells. PMID:8262205

  19. Clinical efficacy of high-dose dexamethasone with maintenance dexamethasone/alpha interferon in patients with primary systemic amyloidosis: results of United States Intergroup Trial Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) S9628.

    PubMed

    Dhodapkar, Madhav V; Hussein, Mohamad A; Rasmussen, Erik; Solomon, Alan; Larson, Richard A; Crowley, John J; Barlogie, Bart

    2004-12-01

    Current therapy of primary systemic (AL) amyloidosis with oral melphalan and prednisone remains unsatisfactory, with a median survival of only 13 months. Between 1996 and 2003, 93 patients with biopsy-proven AL amyloidosis were enrolled in a prospective US national cooperative group trial. Treatment schema consisted of induction therapy with pulse dexamethasone (DEX), followed by maintenance therapy with DEX and alpha interferon. Hematologic complete remissions were observed in 24% and improvement in AL amyloidosis-related organ dysfunction occurred in 45% of patients evaluable for response. Median survival of the entire cohort is 31 months, with an estimated 2-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) of 60% and 52%, respectively. Presence of congestive heart failure and increased level of serum beta2 microglobulin (>/= 0.0035 g/L [3.5 mg/L]) were dominant predictors of adverse outcome. Estimated 2-year OS in patients who are eligible to receive transplants with this approach was 78%. These data demonstrate for the first time in the context of a US multicenter prospective clinical trial that front-line therapy with a DEX-based regimen in AL amyloidosis can lead to durable reversal of AL amyloidosis-related organ dysfunction and prolonged survival. PMID:15308571

  20. Novel approaches for reducing free light chains in patients with myeloma kidney.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Colin A; Bladé, Joan; Cockwell, Paul; Cook, Mark; Drayson, Mark; Fermand, Jean-Paul; Kastritis, Efstathios; Kyle, Robert; Leung, Nelson; Pasquali, Sonia; Winearls, Christopher

    2012-04-01

    Myeloma kidney is a tubulointerstitial pathology that accounts for approximately 80-90% of severe acute kidney injury in patients with multiple myeloma. Unless there is rapid intervention, progressive irreversible damage from interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy occurs. Work over the past decade has demonstrated that an early sustained reduction in serum concentrations of pathogenic monoclonal free light chains (FLCs) leads to improved renal recovery rates. In turn, an early improvement in renal function is associated with improved patient survival. An early reduction in FLC levels should therefore become standard of care, although the optimum mechanisms to achieve this depletion of FLCs remain to be determined. To provide a coordinated, cross-disciplinary approach to research in this disease, the International Kidney and Monoclonal Gammopathy Research Group was formed. In this Review, we address the current state of knowledge in the management of myeloma kidney. PMID:22349488

  1. Measurement of free light chains with assays based on monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Te Velthuis, Henk; Drayson, Mark; Campbell, John P

    2016-06-01

    Recently, serum free light chain (FLC) assays incorporating anti-kappa (κ) and anti-lambda (λ) FLC monoclonal antibodies have become available: N Latex FLC assay (Siemens) and Seralite® (Abingdon Health). The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of these two new monoclonal antibody-based methods. In doing so, the review will outline the performance characteristics of each method, including a summary of: assay principles, antibody specificity, analytical performance and assay performance in disease. Additionally, the review will describe the potential user benefits of adopting these new generation FLC assays, which are designed to overcome the established limitations of existing polyclonal antibody based FLC assays. PMID:27010775

  2. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 phosphorylates kinesin light chains and negatively regulates kinesin-based motility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfini, Gerardo; Szebenyi, Gyorgyi; Elluru, Ravindhra; Ratner, Nancy; Brady, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    Membrane-bounded organelles (MBOs) are delivered to different domains in neurons by fast axonal transport. The importance of kinesin for fast antero grade transport is well established, but mechanisms for regulating kinesin-based motility are largely unknown. In this report, we provide biochemical and in vivo evidence that kinesin light chains (KLCs) interact with and are in vivo substrates for glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). Active GSK3 inhibited anterograde, but not retrograde, transport in squid axoplasm and reduced the amount of kinesin bound to MBOs. Kinesin microtubule binding and microtubule-stimulated ATPase activities were unaffected by GSK3 phosphorylation of KLCs. Active GSK3 was also localized preferentially to regions known to be sites of membrane delivery. These data suggest that GSK3 can regulate fast anterograde axonal transport and targeting of cargos to specific subcellular domains in neurons.

  3. [Free light-chain immunoglobulins in the biological fluids of patients with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Totolian, N A; Griazeva, I V; Klimovich, V B; Totolian, A A

    1997-01-01

    15 patients with clinically significant multiple sclerosis (MS) were examined in terms of content of free light chains of immunoglobulins of kappa- and lambda-types in blood serum, cerebrospinal liquor, lacrimal fluid, saliva, urine, indices were compared with corresponding data of 12 patients with other neurological diseases and of 10 healthy individuals (control group). Significantly increased content of kappa-chains in cerebrospinal, lacrimal fluids and urine was revealed in patients with MS as compared with other two groups and in saliva of patients as compared with controls. The frequency of alterations was high in all biological fluids of the patients with MS. Elevated content of kappa-chains was most often observed in cerebrospinal fluid of the patients (13 individuals). The changes observed reflected systemic activation of humoral immune response in MS. Examination of cerebrospinal fluid was most informative for differential diagnosis. PMID:9245156

  4. Light chain multiple myeloma presenting with spinal plasmacytoma: Unusual radiological appearance mimicking giant cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Satija, Bhawna; Gupta, Rajat; Kumar, Sanyal; Chandoke, Raj

    2015-01-01

    Plasmacytoma, an initial presentation of multiple myeloma, is extremely rare and an unusual cause of spinal cord compression in a young male. A 35-year-old man presented with complaints of progressive weakness and tingling of bilateral lower limbs, severe backache for 3 months, and bladder and bowel incontinence for 1 week duration. Imaging demonstrated lytic destruction of 10 th and 11 th dorsal vertebrae with large soft tissue component and compression of the spinal cord. Biopsy was performed under computed tomography guidance and the histopathology demonstrated presence of plasmacytoma. Serum electrophoresis and bone marrow examination confirmed the diagnosis of light chain multiple myeloma. Though the magnetic resonance imaging the appearance of spinal plasmacytoma is nonspecific, a minibrain appearance has been considered pathognomonic. This case is reported for the unusual radiological appearance of this entity mimicking giant cell tumor. PMID:26458612

  5. Helicobacter pylori CagA Disrupts Epithelial Patterning by Activating Myosin Light Chain

    PubMed Central

    Muyskens, Jonathan B.; Guillemin, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is a leading cause of ulcers and gastric cancer. We show that expression of the H. pylori virulence factor CagA in a model Drosophila melanogaster epithelium induces morphological disruptions including ectopic furrowing. We find that CagA alters the distribution and increases the levels of activated myosin regulatory light chain (MLC), a key regulator of epithelial integrity. Reducing MLC activity suppresses CagA-induced disruptions. A CagA mutant lacking EPIYA motifs (CagAEPISA) induces less epithelial disruption and is not targeted to apical foci like wild-type CagA. In a cell culture model in which CagAEPISA and CagA have equivalent subcellular localization, CagAEPISA is equally potent in activating MLC. Therefore, in our transgenic system, CagA is targeted by EPIYA motifs to a specific apical region of the epithelium where it efficiently activates MLC to disrupt epithelial integrity. PMID:21445303

  6. Phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain controls myosin head conformation in cardiac muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kampourakis, Thomas; Irving, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    The effect of phosphorylation on the conformation of the regulatory light chain (cRLC) region of myosin in ventricular trabeculae from rat heart was determined by polarized fluorescence from thiophosphorylated cRLCs labelled with bifunctional sulforhodamine (BSR). Less than 5% of cRLCs were endogenously phosphorylated in this preparation, and similarly low values of basal cRLC phosphorylation were measured in fresh intact ventricle from both rat and mouse hearts. BSR-labelled cRLCs were thiophosphorylated by a recombinant fragment of human cardiac myosin light chain kinase, which was shown to phosphorylate cRLCs specifically at serine 15 in a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent manner, both in vitro and in situ. The BSR-cRLCs were exchanged into demembranated trabeculae, and polarized fluorescence intensities measured for each BSR-cRLC in relaxation, active isometric contraction and rigor were combined with RLC crystal structures to calculate the orientation distribution of the C-lobe of the cRLC in each state. Only two of the four C-lobe orientation populations seen during relaxation and active isometric contraction in the unphosphorylated state were present after cRLC phosphorylation. Thus cRLC phosphorylation alters the equilibrium between defined conformations of the cRLC regions of the myosin heads, rather than simply disordering the heads as assumed previously. cRLC phosphorylation also changes the orientation of the cRLC C-lobe in rigor conditions, showing that the orientation of this part of the myosin head is determined by its interaction with the thick filament even when the head is strongly bound to actin. These results suggest that cRLC phosphorylation controls the contractility of the heart by modulating the interaction of the cRLC region of the myosin heads with the thick filament backbone. PMID:26057075

  7. Crystal Structures of the Tetratricopeptide Repeat Domains of Kinesin Light Chains: Insight into Cargo Recognition Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Haizhong; Lee, Han Youl; Tong, Yufeng; Hong, Bum-Soo; Kim, Kyung-Phil; Shen, Yang; Lim, Kyung Jik; Mackenzie, Farrell; Tempel, Wolfram; Park, Hee-Won

    2012-10-23

    Kinesin-1 transports various cargos along the axon by interacting with the cargos through its light chain subunit. Kinesin light chains (KLC) utilize its tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain to interact with over 10 different cargos. Despite a high sequence identity between their TPR domains (87%), KLC1 and KLC2 isoforms exhibit differential binding properties towards some cargos. We determined the structures of human KLC1 and KLC2 tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains using X-ray crystallography and investigated the different mechanisms by which KLCs interact with their cargos. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we attributed the specific interaction between KLC1 and JNK-interacting protein 1 (JIP1) cargo to residue N343 in the fourth TRP repeat. Structurally, the N343 residue is adjacent to other asparagines and lysines, creating a positively charged polar patch within the groove of the TPR domain. Whereas, KLC2 with the corresponding residue S328 did not interact with JIP1. Based on these finding, we propose that N343 of KLC1 can form 'a carboxylate clamp' with its neighboring asparagine to interact with JIP1, similar to that of HSP70/HSP90 organizing protein-1's (HOP1) interaction with heat shock proteins. For the binding of cargos shared by KLC1 and KLC2, we propose a different site located within the groove but not involving N343. We further propose a third binding site on KLC1 which involves a stretch of polar residues along the inter-TPR loops that may form a network of hydrogen bonds to JIP3 and JIP4. Together, these results provide structural insights into possible mechanisms of interaction between KLC TPR domains and various cargo proteins.

  8. Association between Free Light Chain Levels, and Disease Progression and Mortality in Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Desjardins, Lucie; Liabeuf, Sophie; Lenglet, Aurélie; Lemke, Horst-Dieter; Vanholder, Raymond; Choukroun, Gabriel; Massy, Ziad A.

    2013-01-01

    Immunoglobulin free light chains (FLCs) form part of the middle molecule group of uremic toxins. Accumulation of FLCs has been observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of the present study was to measure FLC levels in patients at different CKD stages and to assess putative associations between FLC levels on one hand and biochemical/clinical parameters and mortality on the other. One hundred and forty patients at CKD stages 2-5D were included in the present study. Routine clinical biochemistry assays and assays for FLC kappa (κ) and lambda (λ) and other uremic toxins were performed. Vascular calcification was evaluated using radiological techniques. The enrolled patients were prospectively monitored for mortality. Free light chain κ and λ levels were found to be elevated in CKD patients (especially in those on hemodialysis). Furthermore, FLC κ and λ levels were positively correlated with inflammation, aortic calcification and the levels of various uremic toxins levels. A multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that FLC κ and λ levels were independently associated with CKD stages and β2 microglobulin levels. Elevated FLC κ and λ levels appeared to be associated with mortality. However, this association disappeared after adjustment for a propensity score including age, CKD stage and aortic calcification. In conclusion, our results indicate that FLC κ and λ levels are elevated in CKD patients and are associated with inflammation, vascular calcification and levels of other uremic toxins. The observed link between elevated FLC levels and mortality appears to depend on other well-known factors. PMID:24217396

  9. Autoregulatory Control of Smooth Muscle Myosin Light Chain Kinase Promoter by Notch Signaling.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sanchita; Proweller, Aaron

    2016-02-01

    Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (SM-MLCK) is the key enzyme responsible for phosphorylation of regulatory myosin light chain (MLC20), resulting in actin-myosin cross-bridging and force generation in vascular smooth muscle required for physiological vasoreactivity and blood pressure control. In this study, we investigated the combinatorial role of myocardin/serum response factor (SRF) and Notch signaling in the transcriptional regulation of MLCK gene expression. Promoter reporter analyses in rat A10 smooth muscle cells revealed a bimodal pattern of MLCK promoter activity and gene expression upon stimulation with constitutively active Notch1 in presence of myocardin or by Jagged1 ligand stimulation. An initial Notch1-induced increase in MLCK transcription was followed by loss in promoter sensitivity, which could be restored with further Notch1 dose escalation. Real-time PCR analyses revealed that endogenous levels of Hairy Related Transcription (HRT) factor 2 (HRT2) peaked concurrently with inhibitory concentrations of Notch1. Forced expression of HRT2 demonstrated simultaneous repression of both myocardin- and Notch1-induced MLCK promoter activity. HRT2-mediated repression was further confirmed by HRT2 truncations and siHRT2 treatments that rescued MLCK promoter activity and gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed both Jagged1 ligand- and Notch1-enhanced myocardin/SRF complex formation at the promoter CArG element. In contrast, heightened levels of HRT2 concomitantly disrupted myocardin/SRF and Notch transcription complex formation at respective CArG and CSL binding elements. Taken together, SM-MLCK promoter activity appears highly sensitive to the relative levels of Notch1 signaling, HRT2, and myocardin. These findings identify a novel Notch-dependent HRT2 autoregulatory circuit coordinating transcriptional regulation of SM-MLCK. PMID:26703474

  10. Depolarization induces Rho-Rho kinase-mediated myosin light chain phosphorylation in kidney tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Szászi, Katalin; Sirokmány, Gábor; Di Ciano-Oliveira, Caterina; Rotstein, Ori D; Kapus, András

    2005-09-01

    Myosin-based contractility plays important roles in the regulation of epithelial functions, particularly paracellular permeability. However, the triggering factors and the signaling pathways that control epithelial myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation have not been elucidated. Herein we show that plasma membrane depolarization provoked by distinct means, including high extracellular K(+), the lipophilic cation tetraphenylphosphonium, or the ionophore nystatin, induced strong diphosphorylation of MLC in kidney epithelial cells. In sharp contrast to smooth muscle, depolarization of epithelial cells did not provoke a Ca(2+) signal, and removal of external Ca(2+) promoted rather than inhibited MLC phosphorylation. Moreover, elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) did not induce significant MLC phosphorylation, and the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor ML-7 did not prevent the depolarization-induced MLC response, suggesting that MLCK is not a regulated element in this process. Instead, the Rho-Rho kinase (ROK) pathway is the key mediator because 1) depolarization stimulated Rho and induced its peripheral translocation, 2) inhibition of Rho by Clostridium difficile toxin B or C3 transferase abolished MLC phosphorylation, and 3) the ROK inhibitor Y-27632 suppressed the effect. Importantly, physiological depolarizing stimuli were able to activate the same pathway: L-alanine, the substrate of the electrogenic Na(+)-alanine cotransporter, stimulated Rho and induced Y-27632-sensitive MLC phosphorylation in a Na(+)-dependent manner. Together, our results define a novel mode of the regulation of MLC phosphorylation in epithelial cells, which is depolarization triggered and Rho-ROK-mediated but Ca(2+) signal independent. This pathway may be a central mechanism whereby electrogenic transmembrane transport processes control myosin phosphorylation and thereby regulate paracellular transport. PMID:15857905

  11. PKC-mediated cerebral vasoconstriction: Role of myosin light chain phosphorylation versus actin cytoskeleton reorganization.

    PubMed

    El-Yazbi, Ahmed F; Abd-Elrahman, Khaled S; Moreno-Dominguez, Alejandro

    2015-06-15

    Defective protein kinase C (PKC) signaling has been suggested to contribute to abnormal vascular contraction in disease conditions including hypertension and diabetes. Our previous work on agonist and pressure-induced cerebral vasoconstriction implicated PKC as a major contributor to force production in a myosin light chain (LC20) phosphorylation-independent manner. Here, we used phorbol dibutyrate to selectively induce a PKC-dependent constriction in rat middle cerebral arteries and delineate the relative contribution of different contractile mechanisms involved. Specifically, we employed an ultra-sensitive 3-step western blotting approach to detect changes in the content of phosphoproteins that regulate myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) activity, thin filament activation, and actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Data indicate that PKC activation evoked a greater constriction at a similar level of LC20 phosphorylation achieved by 5-HT. PDBu-evoked constriction persisted in the presence of Gö6976, a selective inhibitor of Ca(2+)-dependent PKC, and in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+). Biochemical evidence indicates that either + or - extracellular Ca(2+), PDBu (i) inhibits MLCP activity via the phosphorylation of myosin targeting subunit of myosin phosphatase (MYPT1) and C-kinase potentiated protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor (CPI-17), (ii) increases the phosphorylation of paxillin and heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), and reduces G-actin content, and (iii) does not change the phospho-content of the thin filament proteins, calponin and caldesmon. PDBu-induced constriction was more sensitive to disruption of actin cytoskeleton compared to inhibition of cross-bridge cycling. In conclusion, this study provided evidence for the pivotal contribution of cytoskeletal actin polymerization in force generation following PKC activation in cerebral resistance arteries. PMID:25931148

  12. Role of protein kinase C in the phosphorylation of cardiac myosin light chain 2.

    PubMed Central

    Venema, R C; Raynor, R L; Noland, T A; Kuo, J F

    1993-01-01

    The role of protein kinase C (PKC) in the phosphorylation of myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) in adult rat heart cells has been investigated. PKC-mediated phosphorylation of MLC2 in adult rat cardiac myofibrils in vitro occurs with a stoichiometry (0.7 mol of phosphate/mol of protein) similar to that mediated by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Two-dimensional tryptic phosphopeptide mapping of MLC2 following phosphorylation by PKC or MLCK in vitro yields the same major phosphopeptides for each protein kinase. These sites are also 32P-labelled in situ when isolated cardiomyocytes are incubated with [32P]P(i). 32P labelling of MLC2 in cardiomyocytes is increased by 5-fold in 10 min upon incubation with the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A, demonstrating the existence of a rapidly turning over component of MLC2 phosphorylation in these cells. 32P label is completely removed from MLC2 when myocytes are exposed to 2,3-butanedione monoxime, an inhibitor of cardiac contraction known to desensitize the myofilaments to activation by Ca2+. 32P labelling of MLC2 is also decreased by 50-100% following exposure to the PKC-selective inhibitors calphostin C and chelerythrine, suggesting that PKC, and not MLCK, is primarily responsible for incorporation of rapidly turning over phosphate into MLC2 in situ. Taken together, these data implicate PKC in the phosphorylation of MLC2 in heart cells and support the hypothesis that phosphorylation of cardiac MLC2 has a role in determining myofibrillar Ca2+ sensitivity. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8396912

  13. Function of the N terminus of the myosin essential light chain of vertebrate striated muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, H L

    1995-01-01

    All but one (LC3-f; a fast skeletal muscle isoform) of the essential light chain isoforms of myosin (ELC) that are expressed in vertebrate striated muscles have an extended N terminus that is found neither in invertebrate ELCs nor in the majority of vertebrate smooth and nonmuscle myosin ELCs. Studies with permeabilized skeletal muscle fibers and in vitro motility assays have demonstrated that the presence of the ELC isoform lacking the N-terminal extension (LC3-f) is correlated with an increased maximal velocity of filament sliding. To examine further this modulatory role of the ELCs, a procedure was developed for the exchange of ELCs that is based on a technique for the removal of regulatory light chains from permeabilized muscle fibers. Different isoforms of the ELCs and mutant ELCs were exchanged into permeabilized skeletal muscle fibers from rabbit psoas muscle. The role of the ELCs of myosin in altering the shortening Vmax of striated muscle was confirmed. Additionally, experiments with mutant ELCs in which lysines at the extreme N terminus were replaced with alanines, demonstrated an increased shortening Vmax that coincided with removal of the positive charges contributed by the lysines. This suggests that charge interactions (i.e., salt bridges) between the N terminus of the ELC and negatively charged amino acids on the surface of actin cause a slowing of filament sliding. Whether this role in altering shortening velocity is the primary function of the extended N terminus of the ELC or whether it is merely a consequence of providing a tether between the thick and thin filaments is discussed. PMID:7787052

  14. Rearrangement of immunoglobulin light chain genes in the chicken occurs prior to colonization of the embryonic bursa of Fabricius.

    PubMed Central

    Mansikka, A; Sandberg, M; Lassila, O; Toivanen, P

    1990-01-01

    We have applied polymerase-chain-reaction-directed immunoglobulin gene analysis to study the embryonic differentiation of chicken B cells. Immunoglobulin light chain DNA segments in the rearranged configuration were amplified from cells of the intraembryonic mesenchyme as early as day 7 of incubation. We showed by sequencing that the rearranged variable region genes in these early B-cell progenitors were not different from the germ-line V lambda 1 gene (the single functional light chain variable region gene in chickens). In the bursal B lymphocytes, on the other hand, clear gene conversion events were first observed at day 15 of embryonic development. The present data indicate that rearrangement of light chain genes in the chicken occurs independently of the bursa of Fabricius and that diversification of the variable region begins only later, when the surface immunoglobulin-positive B cells are proliferating in the bursal follicles. Images PMID:2123557

  15. Fluorescence intensity and UV absorption changes accompanying dissociation and association of regulatory light chain of scallop adductor myosin.

    PubMed

    Konno, K; Arai, K; Watanabe, S

    1983-10-01

    Dissociation and association of regulatory light chains of scallop myosin were found to be accompanied by changes in the fluorescence intensity and in the UV absorption spectrum. The changes in the two optical properties of scallop myosin and the dissociation and association of regulatory light chains were studied as a function of the magnesium and calcium concentrations. The results thus obtained suggested that there are two different types of attachment between regulatory light chains and "desensitized" myosin; one type is a calcium-specific attachment, and the other type of attachment can be mediated by either calcium or magnesium ions. These changes in the optical properties of scallop myosin were distinguishable from those induced by Mg-ATP; for example, with "desensitized" scallop myosin, the former changes were not observed but the latter were. PMID:6418724

  16. Purification and characterization of a stimulator of plasmin generation from the antiangiogenic agent Neovastat: identification as immunoglobulin kappa light chain.

    PubMed

    Boivin, Dominique; Provençal, Mathieu; Gendron, Sébastien; Ratel, David; Demeule, Michel; Gingras, Denis; Béliveau, Richard

    2004-11-15

    We have recently shown that Neovastat, an antiangiogenic extract from shark cartilage, stimulates the in vitro activation of plasminogen by facilitating the tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA)-dependent conversion of plasminogen to plasmin. In this report, we describe the purification and characterization of the stimulatory molecules. Neovastat was subjected to a three-step purification procedure including gel filtration, preparative isoelectric focusing, and preparative SDS-PAGE. Two 28-kDa proteins with pIs of approximately 4.5 and 6.5 were purified to apparent homogeneity and identified as immunoglobulin (Ig) kappa light chains by N-terminal microsequencing. Ig light chains do not directly stimulate the activity of tPA or plasmin, suggesting a mechanism of action involving an interaction with plasminogen. Kinetic analysis showed that both Ig light chains accelerate the in vitro tPA-dependent conversion of plasminogen in plasmin by increasing the affinity of tPA for plasminogen by 32- and 38-fold (Km decrease from 456 nM to 12-14 nM). Shark Ig light chains also stimulated the degradation of fibrin by the tPA/plasminogen system in an in vitro assay. A direct interaction between Ig light chains and plasminogen (KA=4.0-5.5 x 10(7) M(-1); KD=18-25 nM) and with tPA (KA=2.8 x 10(7) M(-1); KD=36 nM) was demonstrated using real time binding measured by surface plasmon resonance. Ig light chain is the first molecule associated with the antiangiogenic activity of Neovastat to be purified and identified. PMID:15488468

  17. Renal transplantation in AA amyloidosis associated with Whipple's disease.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Sofia; Lobato, Luísa; Carvalho, Maria João; Malheiro, Jorge; Vizcaíno, Ramón; Rodrigues, Anabela; Cabrita, António

    2011-12-01

    Whipple's disease (WD) is a chronic infection caused by Thropheryma whipplei that usually manifests with intestinal, articular, pulmonary, neurological and cardiac abnormalities. Rarely, WD has been associated with renal AA amyloidosis.We report a 50 year-old male with nephrotic syndrome and renal failure whose renal biopsy revealed extensive AA amyloidosis. Amyloid was not found in other organs, namely in gastrointestinal tract and bone marrow. There was no evidence of chronic inflammatory disease, and despite detailed investigation, the diagnosis of the underlying disease remained obscure. Eight months after referral he started peritoneal dialysis. Three years later he developed anorexia, weight loss, anemia, and recurrent attacks of non-bloody diarrhea. A biopsy of the small intestine showed typical histological findings of WD and PCR was positive for T. whipplei. He was treated with ceftriaxone followed by co-trimoxazole, with remission of complaints and histological features. Three years later the patient underwent successful cadaveric kidney transplantation. In this case, AA amyloidosis preceded the manifestations of WD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of kidney transplantation in a patient with amyloidosis due to WD. Recurrence of amyloidosis in renal graft is not expected. PMID:21995309

  18. Evolving landscape in the management of transthyretin amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Philip N.; Ando, Yukio; Dispenzeri, Angela; Gonzalez-Duarte, Alejandra; Adams, David; Suhr, Ole B.

    2015-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) amyloidosis (ATTR amyloidosis) is a multisystemic, multigenotypic disease resulting from deposition of insoluble ATTR amyloid fibrils in various organs and tissues. Although considered rare, the prevalence of this serious disease is likely underestimated because symptoms can be non-specific and diagnosis largely relies on amyloid detection in tissue biopsies. Treatment is guided by which tissues/organs are involved, although therapeutic options are limited for patients with late-stage disease. Indeed, enthusiasm for liver transplantation for familial ATTR amyloidosis with polyneuropathy was dampened by poor outcomes among patients with significant neurological deficits or cardiac involvement. Hence, there remains an unmet medical need for new therapies. The TTR stabilizers tafamidis and diflunisal slow disease progression in some patients with ATTR amyloidosis with polyneuropathy, and the postulated synergistic effect of doxycycline and tauroursodeoxycholic acid on dissolution of amyloid is under investigation. Another therapeutic approach is to reduce production of the amyloidogenic protein, TTR. Plasma TTR concentration can be significantly reduced with ISIS-TTRRx, an investigational antisense oligonucleotide-based drug, or with patisiran and revusiran, which are investigational RNA interference-based therapeutics that target the liver. The evolving treatment landscape for ATTR amyloidosis brings hope for further improvements in clinical outcomes for patients with this debilitating disease. PMID:26611723

  19. Constitutive phosphorylation of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain prevents development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chen-Ching; Muthu, Priya; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Liang, Jingsheng; Huang, Wenrui; Irving, Thomas C.; Kanashiro-Takeuchi, Rosemeire M.; Hare, Joshua M.; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)-dependent phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain (RLC) of cardiac myosin is known to play a beneficial role in heart disease, but the idea of a phosphorylation-mediated reversal of a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) phenotype is novel. Our previous studies on transgenic (Tg) HCM-RLC mice revealed that the D166V (Aspartate166 ?Valine) mutation-induced changes in heart morphology and function coincided with largely reduced RLC phosphorylation in situ. We hypothesized that the introduction of a constitutively phosphorylated Serine15 (S15D) into the hearts of D166V mice would prevent the development of a deleterious HCM phenotype. In support of this notion, MLCK-induced phosphorylation of D166V-mutated hearts was found to rescue some of their abnormal contractile properties. Tg-S15D-D166V mice were generated with the human cardiac RLC-S15D-D166V construct substituted for mouse cardiac RLC and were subjected to functional, structural, and morphological assessments. The results were compared with Tg-WT and Tg-D166V mice expressing the human ventricular RLC-WT or its D166V mutant, respectively. Echocardiography and invasive hemodynamic studies demonstrated significant improvements of intact heart function in S15D-D166V mice compared with D166V, with the systolic and diastolic indices reaching those monitored in WT mice. A largely reduced maximal tension and abnormally high myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity observed in D166V-mutated hearts were reversed in S15D-D166V mice. Low-angle X-ray diffraction study revealed that altered myofilament structures present in HCM-D166V mice were mitigated in S15D-D166V rescue mice. Our collective results suggest that expression of pseudophosphorylated RLC in the hearts of HCM mice is sufficient to prevent the development of the pathological HCM phenotype. PMID:26124132

  20. Ontogenesis of myosin light chain phosphorylation in guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Chitano, Pasquale; Worthington, Charles L; Jenkin, Janet A; Stephens, Newman L; Gyapong, Sylvia; Wang, Lu; Murphy, Thomas M

    2005-02-01

    Increased airway responsiveness occurs in normal young individuals compared to adults. A maturation of airway smooth muscle (ASM) contractility is likely a mechanism of this juvenile airway hyperresponsiveness. Indeed, we showed in guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle (TSM) that maximum shortening velocity decreases dramatically after the first 3 weeks of life. Because the phosphorylation of the 20-kDa myosin light chain (MLC(20)) was shown to be a key event in ASM contractility, in the present work we sought to investigate it during ontogenesis. In three age groups (1-week-old, 3-week-old, and adult guinea pigs), we assessed the amount of MLC(20) phosphorylation achieved either in TSM crude protein homogenates exposed to Mg(2+) . ATP . CaCl(2) or in tracheal strips during electrical field stimulation (EFS). Phosphorylated and unphosphorylated MLC(20) were separated on nondenaturing 10% polyacrylamide gels, and the ratio of phosphorylation was obtained by densitometric analysis of chemiluminescent Western immunoblots. Maximum MLC(20) phosphorylation (% of total MLC(20)) in TSM tissue homogenate was, respectively, 32.6 +/- 5.7, 32.2 +/- 5.7, and 46.8 +/- 5.8 in 1-week, 3-week, and adult guinea pigs. Interestingly, in nonstimulated intact tracheal strips, we found a substantial degree of MLC(20) phosphorylation: respectively, 42.2 +/- 5.8, 36.5 +/- 7.8, and 46.4 +/- 4.7 in 1-week, 3-week, and adult guinea pigs. Maximal EFS-induced MLC(20) phosphorylation (% increase over baseline) in the 3-week age group was attained after 3 sec of EFS, and was 161.2 +/- 17.6, while in 1-week and adult guinea pigs, it was attained at 1.5 sec of EFS and was, respectively, 133.3 +/- 9.3 and 110.2 +/- 3.9 (P < 0.05). We conclude that MLC(20) phosphorylation in guinea pig intact tracheal strips correlates with ontogenetic changes in shortening velocity and changes in myosin light chain kinase content. These results further suggest that the maturation of ASM contractile properties plays a role in the greater airway responsiveness reported in children and young animals. PMID:15573396

  1. Detection of immunoglobulin light-chain mRNA in lymphoid tissues using a practical in situ hybridization method.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, L. M.; Movahed, L. A.; Chen, Y. Y.; Shin, S. S.; Stroup, R. M.; Bui, N.; Estess, P.; Bindl, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The identification of immunoglobulin protein in routinely fixed and paraffin-embedded sections using antibodies combined with immunoperoxidase or similar techniques of detection is often problematic. We developed an in situ hybridization methodology for the identification of light-chain mRNA that is applicable to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, using either radiolabeled or biotinylated oligonucleotide probes based on the kappa and lambda light-chain gene-constant regions. Reactive plasma cells can be consistently identified in reactive lymphoid tissues, and a monotypic pattern of light-chain mRNA restriction was seen in each of eight cases of multiple myeloma/plasmacytoma. Immunoblasts and germinal center cells also are labeled in reactive lymphoid tissues. Using 355-labeled probes, 29 of 93 cases (30%) of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas had detectable light-chain mRNA, while 19% of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas were positive using biotinylated probes. Images Figure 2 Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:2121043

  2. Exploiting light chains for the scalable generation and platform purification of native human bispecific IgG

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Nicolas; Elson, Greg; Magistrelli, Giovanni; Dheilly, Elie; Fouque, Nicolas; Laurendon, Amélie; Gueneau, Franck; Ravn, Ulla; Depoisier, Jean-François; Moine, Valery; Raimondi, Sylvain; Malinge, Pauline; Di Grazia, Laura; Rousseau, François; Poitevin, Yves; Calloud, Sébastien; Cayatte, Pierre-Alexis; Alcoz, Mathias; Pontini, Guillemette; Fagète, Séverine; Broyer, Lucile; Corbier, Marie; Schrag, Delphine; Didelot, Gérard; Bosson, Nicolas; Costes, Nessie; Cons, Laura; Buatois, Vanessa; Johnson, Zoe; Ferlin, Walter; Masternak, Krzysztof; Kosco-Vilbois, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies enable unique therapeutic approaches but it remains a challenge to produce them at the industrial scale, and the modifications introduced to achieve bispecificity often have an impact on stability and risk of immunogenicity. Here we describe a fully human bispecific IgG devoid of any modification, which can be produced at the industrial scale, using a platform process. This format, referred to as a κλ-body, is assembled by co-expressing one heavy chain and two different light chains, one κ and one λ. Using ten different targets, we demonstrate that light chains can play a dominant role in mediating specificity and high affinity. The κλ-bodies support multiple modes of action, and their stability and pharmacokinetic properties are indistinguishable from therapeutic antibodies. Thus, the κλ-body represents a unique, fully human format that exploits light-chain variable domains for antigen binding and light-chain constant domains for robust downstream processing, to realize the potential of bispecific antibodies. PMID:25672245

  3. Exploiting light chains for the scalable generation and platform purification of native human bispecific IgG.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Nicolas; Elson, Greg; Magistrelli, Giovanni; Dheilly, Elie; Fouque, Nicolas; Laurendon, Amélie; Gueneau, Franck; Ravn, Ulla; Depoisier, Jean-François; Moine, Valery; Raimondi, Sylvain; Malinge, Pauline; Di Grazia, Laura; Rousseau, François; Poitevin, Yves; Calloud, Sébastien; Cayatte, Pierre-Alexis; Alcoz, Mathias; Pontini, Guillemette; Fagète, Séverine; Broyer, Lucile; Corbier, Marie; Schrag, Delphine; Didelot, Gérard; Bosson, Nicolas; Costes, Nessie; Cons, Laura; Buatois, Vanessa; Johnson, Zoe; Ferlin, Walter; Masternak, Krzysztof; Kosco-Vilbois, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies enable unique therapeutic approaches but it remains a challenge to produce them at the industrial scale, and the modifications introduced to achieve bispecificity often have an impact on stability and risk of immunogenicity. Here we describe a fully human bispecific IgG devoid of any modification, which can be produced at the industrial scale, using a platform process. This format, referred to as a κλ-body, is assembled by co-expressing one heavy chain and two different light chains, one κ and one λ. Using ten different targets, we demonstrate that light chains can play a dominant role in mediating specificity and high affinity. The κλ-bodies support multiple modes of action, and their stability and pharmacokinetic properties are indistinguishable from therapeutic antibodies. Thus, the κλ-body represents a unique, fully human format that exploits light-chain variable domains for antigen binding and light-chain constant domains for robust downstream processing, to realize the potential of bispecific antibodies. PMID:25672245

  4. Hematogones With Lambda Light Chain Restriction in a 4-Year-Old Boy With Burkitt Lymphoma: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall.

    PubMed

    Guillory, Tesha; Li, Shiyong; Bergsagel, Daniel J; Weinzierl, Elizabeth; Bunting, Silvia T

    2016-05-01

    Hematogones are immature normal B cell precursors with a characteristic immunophenotype profile on flow cytometry that typically do not express surface immunoglobulin light chains. In this report, we describe a case in which the hematogones exhibit light chain restriction. Our patient was a 4-year-old boy with a complicated medical history involving treatment for a presumed bilateral Wilms tumor of the kidney that on later resection was diagnosed as Burkitt lymphoma. Flow cytometry analysis of his bone marrow revealed a small distinct population of cells expressing dim cluster of differentiation (CD)10, CD19, CD22, CD38, dim CD58, human leukocyte antigen-D related (HLA-DR), and dim CD45, which are characteristic of hematogones. These cells, however, demonstrated dim surface immunoglobulin lambda light-chain restriction. Molecular study results for immunoglobulin heavy and kappa light-chain gene rearrangements were negative. We present this case to raise awareness of the potential pitfalls of working up bone marrow for involvement by B cell lymphoproliferative disorder. PMID:27069035

  5. Primary amyloidosis of the urinary bladder presenting as painless heamaturia

    PubMed Central

    Altwairgi, Adil

    2011-01-01

    A case of primary amyloidosis of urinary bladder was presented with painless heamaturia and irritative urinary symptoms. Radiological imaging showed multiple small masses within the urinary bladder with suspicion of multiple transitional cell carcinomas within the urinary bladder. Cystoscopy confirmed the multiple masses within the urinary bladder, some showing haemorrhagic papules and papillary projections over the masses. Histopathology of the biopsy material was negative for the malignancy. Immunostaining of the biopsy material with Congo red stain showed the presence of amyloid fibrils within the biopsy material. Further investigations of systemic illness exclude the secondary amyloidosis. Transurethral resection was done. Patient showed improvement after the resection and no recurrence was observed during follow up. The purpose of this case presentation is to create awareness among the urologists to think for the rare entity of urinary amyloidosis especially if the histopathology is negative for the malignant cells. PMID:23267295

  6. Myosin light chain kinase plays an essential role in S. flexneri dissemination.

    PubMed

    Rathman, M; de Lanerolle, P; Ohayon, H; Gounon, P; Sansonetti, P

    2000-10-01

    Shigella flexneri, the causitive agent of bacillary dysentery, has been shown to disseminate in colonic epithelial cells via protrusions that extend from infected cells and are endocytosed by adjacent cells. This phenomenon occurs in the region of the eukaryotic cell's adherens junctions and is inhibited by pharmacological reagents or host cell mutations that completely disrupt the junctional complex. In this study, inhibitors of the myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) were shown to dramatically decrease intercellular spread of S. flexneri but to have no inhibitory effect on bacterial entry, multiplication or actin-based motility within the host cell. Furthermore, cell-to-cell spread of Listeria monocytogenes, another bacterial pathogen that uses an actin-based mechanism to move within the eukaryotic cytoplasm and to spread from cell to cell, was not affected by the MLCK inhibitors, indicating that (1) the inhibition of S. flexneri cell-to-cell spread in treated cells is not due to a complete break down of cell-cell contacts, which was subsequently confirmed by confocal microscopy, and (2) MLCK plays a role in a S. flexneri-specific mechanism of dissemination. Myosin has been shown to play a role in a variety of membrane-based phenomena. The work presented here suggests that activation of this molecule via phosphorylation by MLCK, at the very least participates in the formation of the bacteria-containing protrusion, and could also contribute to the endocytosis of this structure by neighboring cells. PMID:10984429

  7. Molecular requirements for the mu-induced light chain gene rearrangement in pre-B cells.

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias, A; Kopf, M; Williams, G S; Bühler, B; Köhler, G

    1991-01-01

    During B cell differentiation rearrangement of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes is partially regulated by the Ig proteins. Rearrangement of heavy (H) chain genes is inhibited, whilst that of light (L) chain genes is induced by the membrane form of the mu H chain. In order to analyse additional structural requirements of mu induced L chain gene rearrangement we transfected wild-type mu and mutant mu constructs lacking functional exons encoding the first or second constant domains into Abelson murine leukemia virus (AMuLV) transformed pre-B cells. All mu chains are expressed on the surface of the pre-B cell and all associate with omega and iota, two proteins forming a surrogate light chain, necessary for mu membrane expression. Nevertheless, only wild-type mu and not the mutant mu proteins promote L gene rearrangement. A heterodimer of proteins with Mr of 33 kd and 36 kd was found associated with wild-type but not with the mutant mu proteins. Continuous presence of mu is required for L chain gene recombination since loss of mu stopped and readdition of mu started L gene rearrangement. We propose that the protein complex composed of mu and the 33 kd/36 kd protein heterodimer is responsible for the activation of the L chain gene locus and its rearrangement. Images PMID:1712291

  8. Thermal Denaturation and Aggregation of Myosin Subfragment 1 Isoforms with Different Essential Light Chains

    PubMed Central

    Markov, Denis I.; Zubov, Eugene O.; Nikolaeva, Olga P.; Kurganov, Boris I.; Levitsky, Dmitrii I.

    2010-01-01

    We compared thermally induced denaturation and aggregation of two isoforms of the isolated myosin head (myosin subfragment 1, S1) containing different “essential” (or “alkali”) light chains, A1 or A2. We applied differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to investigate the domain structure of these two S1 isoforms. For this purpose, a special calorimetric approach was developed to analyze the DSC profiles of irreversibly denaturing multidomain proteins. Using this approach, we revealed two calorimetric domains in the S1 molecule, the more thermostable domain denaturing in two steps. Comparing the DSC data with temperature dependences of intrinsic fluorescence parameters and S1 ATPase inactivation, we have identified these two calorimetric domains as motor domain and regulatory domain of the myosin head, the motor domain being more thermostable. Some difference between the two S1 isoforms was only revealed by DSC in thermal denaturation of the regulatory domain. We also applied dynamic light scattering (DLS) to analyze the aggregation of S1 isoforms induced by their thermal denaturation. We have found no appreciable difference between these S1 isoforms in their aggregation properties under ionic strength conditions close to those in the muscle fiber (in the presence of 100 mM KCl). Under these conditions kinetics of this process was independent of protein concentration, and the aggregation rate was limited by irreversible denaturation of the S1 motor domain. PMID:21151434

  9. Myosin light chain kinase regulates cell polarization independently of membrane tension or Rho kinase

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Sunny S.; Diz-Muñoz, Alba; Weiner, Orion D.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Cells polarize to a single front and rear to achieve rapid actin-based motility, but the mechanisms preventing the formation of multiple fronts are unclear. We developed embryonic zebrafish keratocytes as a model system for investigating establishment of a single axis. We observed that, although keratocytes from 2 d postfertilization (dpf) embryos resembled canonical fan-shaped keratocytes, keratocytes from 4 dpf embryos often formed multiple protrusions despite unchanged membrane tension. Using genomic, genetic, and pharmacological approaches, we determined that the multiple-protrusion phenotype was primarily due to increased myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) expression. MLCK activity influences cell polarity by increasing myosin accumulation in lamellipodia, which locally decreases protrusion lifetime, limiting lamellipodial size and allowing for multiple protrusions to coexist within the context of membrane tension limiting protrusion globally. In contrast, Rho kinase (ROCK) regulates myosin accumulation at the cell rear and does not determine protrusion size. These results suggest a novel MLCK-specific mechanism for controlling cell polarity via regulation of myosin activity in protrusions. PMID:25918227

  10. Regulatory Light Chain Mutations Associated with Cardiomyopathy Affect Myosin Mechanics and Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Michael J.; Watt, James D.; Jones, Michelle; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Moore, Jeffrey R.

    2009-01-01

    The myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) wraps around the alpha helical neck region of myosin. This neck region has been proposed to act as a lever arm, amplifying small conformational changes in the myosin head to generate motion. The RLC serves an important structural role, supporting the myosin neck region and a modulatory role, tuning the kinetics of the actin myosin interaction. Given the importance of the RLC, it is not surprising that mutations of the RLC can lead to familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC), the leading cause of sudden cardiac death in people under 30. Population studies identified two FHC mutations located near the cationic binding site of the RLC, R58Q and N47K. Although these mutations are close in sequence, they differ in clinical presentation and prognosis with R58Q showing a more severe phenotype. We examined the molecular based changes in myosin that are responsible for the disease phenotype by purifying myosin from transgenic mouse hearts expressing mutant myosins and examining actin filament sliding using the in vitro motility assay. We found that both R58Q and N47K showed reductions in force compared to the wild type that could result in compensatory hypertrophy. Furthermore, we observed a higher ATPase rate and an increased activation at submaximal calcium levels for the R58Q myosin that could lead to decreased efficiency and incomplete cardiac relaxation, potentially explaining the more severe phenotype for the R58Q mutation. PMID:18929571

  11. Phosphorylation of myosin light chain from adrenomedullary chromaffin cells in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, L M; Hidalgo, M J; Palmero, M; Ballesta, J J; Reig, J A; Garcia, A G; Viniegra, S

    1989-01-01

    The myosin-light-chain (MLC) phosphorylation accompanying catecholamine release in chromaffin cells was investigated with the objective of assessing the possible role of this contractile protein in catecholamine secretion. The electrophoretic characteristics of adrenomedullary MLC were determined by immunochemical techniques using two different specific antibodies. The identified 22 kDa phosphoprotein was mainly present in the cytosol, as demonstrated by ultracentrifugation and immunocytochemical analysis. A part of this protein was located on, or close to, the plasma membrane. Cell stimulation by secretagogues resulted in a Ca2(+)-dependent 32P incorporation into MLC, the time course of this process being related to catecholamine release. These findings were supported by a two-dimensional gel-electrophoretic analysis by which means this protein was resolved into two acidic forms. A role for Ca2(+)-calmodulin and Ca2(+)-phospholipid kinases in adrenomedullary MLC phosphorylation is reported. The results obtained suggest a regulatory role for such a protein in the underlying exocytotic event. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. PMID:2481449

  12. Contraction due to microtubule disruption is associated with increased phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain.

    PubMed Central

    Kolodney, M S; Elson, E L

    1995-01-01

    Microtubules have been proposed to function as rigid struts which oppose cellular contraction. Consistent with this hypothesis, microtubule disruption strengthens the contractile force exerted by many cell types. We have investigated alternative explanation for the mechanical effects of microtubule disruption: that microtubules modulate the mechanochemical activity of myosin by influencing phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (LC20). We measured the force produced by a population of fibroblasts within a collagen lattice attached to an isometric force transducer. Treatment of cells with nocodazole, an inhibitor of microtubule polymerization, stimulated an isometric contraction that reached its peak level within 30 min and was typically 30-45% of the force increase following maximal stimulation with 30% fetal bovine serum. The contraction following nocodazole treatment was associated with a 2- to 4-fold increase in LC20 phosphorylation. The increases in both force and LC20 phosphorylation, after addition of nocodazole, could be blocked or reversed by stabilizing the microtubules with paclitaxel (former generic name, taxol). Increasing force and LC20 phosphorylation by pretreatment with fetal bovine serum decreased the subsequent additional contraction upon microtubule disruption, a finding that appears inconsistent with a load-shifting mechanism. Our results suggest that phosphorylation of LC20 is a common mechanism for the contractions stimulated both by microtubule poisons and receptor-mediated agonists. The modulation of myosin activity by alterations in microtubule assembly may coordinate the physiological functions of these cytoskeletal components. PMID:7479762

  13. Purification, Characterization, and Analysis of the Allergenic Properties of Myosin Light Chain in Procambarus clarkii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Xia; Chen, Heng-Li; Maleki, Soheila J; Cao, Min-Jie; Zhang, Ling-Jing; Su, Wen-Jin; Liu, Guang-Ming

    2015-07-15

    Myosin light chain (MLC) plays a vital role in cell and muscle functions and has been identified as an allergen in shrimp. In this study, MLC with a molecular mass of 18 kDa was purified from crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) muscle. Its physicochemical characterization showed that the purified MLC is a glycoprotein with 4.3% carbohydrate, highly stable to heat, acid-alkali, and digestion, and weakly retains IgE-binding activity when its secondary structure was altered. Serological assays suggested that conformational epitopes predominate over linear epitopes in the purified MLC. Two isoforms of the MLC gene (MLC1 and MLC2) were cloned, and the purified MLC was identified as MLC1. Analysis of the secondary and tertiary structures of the MLCs indicated that MLC1 has four conformational epitopes and three linear epitopes, whereas MLC2 had a major conformational epitope and three linear epitopes. These results are significant for understanding hypersensitization of humans to crayfish. PMID:26083097

  14. Biased Immunoglobulin Light Chain Use in the Chlamydophila psittaci Negative Ocular Adnexal Marginal Zone Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Daxing; Lossos, Chen; Chapman-Fredricks, Jennifer R.; Lossos, Izidore S

    2013-01-01

    Ocular adnexal mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas (OAMALTL) are the most common lymphomas of the eye. The potential roles for specific antigens in these lymphomas are still controversial. Previously we examined IGHV usage and mutations IGHVin Chlamydophila (C) psittaci-negative OAMALTL, demonstrating biased use of the IGHV4 family and IGHV4-34 gene and evidence for antigen selection. Herein, we examined the IKGV/IGLV gene usage and mutations in 34 C. psittaci-negative OAMALTL originating from the orbit (15), conjunctivae (14) and lacrimal gland (5). Clonal potentially functional IGKV/IGLV gene sequences were identified in 30 tumors (18 kappa and 12 lambda). An overrepresentation of the IGKV4 family (p<0.01) was observed. The IGKV3-20*01 allele was used at a greater frequency than in normal peripheral blood B-lymphocytes (p=0.02) and commonly paired with the IGHV4-34 allele. 27 of the 30 unique light chain sequences displayed mutations from germline and evidence for antigen selection. Overall our findings demonstrate that in C. psittaci-negative OAMALTL there is a biased usage of IGKV families and genes, which harbor somatic mutations. These findings and the specific paring between the IGKV3-20*01 and IGHV4-34 alleles suggest that specific antigens could play an important role in the pathogenesis of these lymphomas. PMID:23418012

  15. Dynein light chain 1 is required for autophagy, protein clearance, and cell death in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Batlevi, Yakup; Martin, Damali N; Pandey, Udai Bhan; Simon, Claudio R; Powers, Christine M; Taylor, J Paul; Baehrecke, Eric H

    2010-01-12

    Autophagy is a catabolic pathway that is important for turnover of long-lived proteins and organelles, and has been implicated in cell survival, tumor progression, protection from infection, neurodegeneration, and cell death. Autophagy and caspases are required for type II autophagic cell death of Drosophila larval salivary glands during development, but the mechanisms that regulate these degradation pathways are not understood. We conducted a forward genetic screen for genes that are required for salivary gland cell death, and here we describe the identification of Drosophila dynein light chain 1 (ddlc1) as a gene that is required for type II cell death. Autophagy is attenuated in ddlc1 mutants, but caspases are active in these cells. ddlc1 mutant salivary glands develop large fibrillar protein inclusions that stain positive for amyloid-specific dyes and ubiquitin. Ectopic expression of Atg1 is sufficient to induce autophagy, clear protein inclusions, and rescue degradation of ddlc1 mutant salivary glands. Furthermore, ddlc1 mutant larvae have decreased motility, and mutations in ddlc1 enhance the impairment of motility that is observed in a Drosophila model of neurodegenerative disease. Significantly, this decrease in larval motility is associated with decreased clearance of protein with polyglutamine expansion, the accumulation of p62 in neurons and muscles, and fewer synaptic boutons. These results indicate that DDLC1 is required for protein clearance by autophagy that is associated with autophagic cell death and neurodegeneration. PMID:20080745

  16. Plasma membrane localization signals in the light chain of botulinum neurotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Salas, Ester; Steward, Lance E.; Ho, Helen; Garay, Patton E.; Sun, Sarah W.; Gilmore, Marcella A.; Ordas, Joseph V.; Wang, Joanne; Francis, Joseph; Aoki, K. Roger

    2004-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a potent biological substance used to treat neuromuscular and pain disorders. Both BoNT type A and BoNT type E display high-affinity uptake into motor neurons and inhibit exocytosis through cleavage of the synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25). The therapeutic effects of BoNT/A last from 3 to 12 months, whereas the effects of BoNT/E last less than 4 weeks. Using confocal microscopy and site-specific mutagenesis, we have determined that the protease domain of BoNT/A light chain (BoNT/A-LC) localizes in a punctate manner to the plasma membrane, colocalizing with the cleaved product, SNAP25197. In contrast, the short-duration BoNT/E serotype is cytoplasmic. Mutations in the BoNT/A-LC have revealed sequences at the N terminus necessary for plasma membrane localization, and an active dileucine motif in the C terminus that is likely involved in trafficking and interaction with adaptor proteins. These data support sequence-specific signals as determinants of intracellular localization and as a basis for the different durations of action in these two BoNT serotypes. PMID:14982988

  17. Quantification of immunoglobulin free light chains in cerebrospinal fluid by nephelometry.

    PubMed

    Desplat-Jégo, Sophie; Feuillet, Lionel; Pelletier, Jean; Bernard, Dominique; Chérif, André Ali; Boucraut, José

    2005-07-01

    Oligoclonal free light chains (FLC) banding has been described in multiple sclerosis (MS) and should be correlated with disease activity. However, discrepancies between studies have been reported because of differences in methods. A new quantitative, rapid, and automated method using nephelometry is now available. Our objective was to investigate the interest of this method for the diagnosis and prognosis of MS. For this purpose, FLC index was determined in paired samples of CSF and serum from consecutive and unselected patients from the same department of neurology. We enrolled 89 patients (33 MS, 15 "possible MS", and 41 controls) and correlated with IgG index, IgG oligoclonal banding, and clinical MS progression criteria. The main results were (1) FLC kappa index was more sensitive but less specific than IgG index for the diagnosis of MS, (2) two MS patients were negative for oligoclonal banding but exhibited a positive kappa index, (3) no relation between FLC kappa indices, MS clinical criteria, and disease progression was found. In conclusion, FLC kappa index should be considered as a useful complementary test for MS diagnosis. Its pronostic interest remains to be determined on a larger cohort of possible MS patients. PMID:16133990

  18. Olanzapine May Inhibit Colonic Motility Associated with the 5-HT Receptor and Myosin Light Chain Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiarui; Qiao, Ying; Le, Jingjing

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study whether the effects of olanzapine on gastrointestinal motility is related to the serotonin antagonism and myosin light chain kinase. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups. Olanzapine gavage was performed for each treatment group during the course of 30 continuous days, while the same volume of saline was given to the rats in the control group. Defecation of the rats was observed on days 7 and 30 after olanzapine gavage. The effects of olanzapine on contraction of colonic smooth muscles were observed in ex vivo experiments. A Western blot was used to evaluate expression levels of the serotonin transporter (SERT) and MLCK in colon segments of the rats. Results ResultsaaCompared to the control group, 5-160 µ M of olanzapine could inhibit dose-dependently the contraction of colonic smooth muscle ex vivo experiments. The maximum smooth muscle contraction effects of 5-HT and acetylcholine significantly decreased after treatment with 40-160 µ M of olanzapine. Constipation was found in the olanzapine-treated rats on day 7 and have sustained day 30 after gavage. Expression of MLCK in olanzapine-treated rats was significantly decreased, whereas the expression of SERT significantly increased on the day 7, then significantly decreased on the day 30 after olanzapine gavage. Conclusion SERT and MLCK may involve in the inhibition of colonic contraction induced by olanzapine. PMID:27081386

  19. Light Chain Proximal Tubulopathy: Clinical and Pathologic Characteristics in the Modern Treatment Era.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Michael B; Valeri, Anthony M; Herlitz, Leal; Khan, Abdullah M; Siegel, David S; Markowitz, Glen S; D'Agati, Vivette D

    2016-05-01

    Light chain proximal tubulopathy (LCPT) is characterized by cytoplasmic inclusions of monoclonal LC within proximal tubular cells. The significance of crystalline versus noncrystalline LCPT and the effect of modern therapies are unknown. We reported the clinical-pathologic features of 40 crystalline and six noncrystalline LCPT patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2014. All crystalline LCPTs were κ-restricted and displayed acute tubular injury. One-third of noncrystalline LCPT patients displayed λ-restriction or acute tubular injury. Only crystalline LCPT frequently required antigen retrieval to demonstrate monoclonal LC by immunofluorescence. In five of 38 patients, crystals were not detectable by light microscopy, but they were visible by electron microscopy. Hematolymphoid neoplasms, known before biopsy in only 15% of patients, included 21 monoclonal gammopathies of renal significance; 15 multiple myelomas; seven smoldering multiple myelomas; and three other neoplasms. Biopsy indications included Fanconi syndrome (38%; all with crystalline LCPT), renal insufficiency (83%), and proteinuria (98%). Follow-up was available for 30 (75%) patients with crystalline LCPT and all six patients with noncrystalline LCPT, of whom 11 underwent stem cell transplant, 16 received chemotherapy only, and nine were untreated. Complete or very good partial hematologic remissions occurred in six of 22 treated crystalline LCPT patients. By multivariable analysis, the only independent predictor of final eGFR was initial eGFR, highlighting the importance of early detection. All patients with crystalline LCPT treated with stem cell transplant had stable or improved kidney function, indicating the effectiveness of aggressive therapy in selected patients. PMID:26374607

  20. G protein ?? subunit interaction with the dynein light-chain component Tctex-1 regulates neurite outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Pallavi; Menon, Santosh; Kastner, David B; Chuang, Jen-Zen; Yeh, Ting-Yu; Conde, Cecilia; Caceres, Alfredo; Sung, Ching-Hwa; Sakmar, Thomas P

    2007-01-01

    Tctex-1, a light-chain component of the cytoplasmic dynein motor complex, can function independently of dynein to regulate multiple steps in neuronal development. However, how dynein-associated and dynein-free pools of Tctex-1 are maintained in the cell is not known. Tctex-1 was recently identified as a G??-binding protein and shown to be identical to the receptor-independent activator of G protein signaling AGS2. We propose a novel role for the interaction of G?? with Tctex-1 in neurite outgrowth. Ectopic expression of either Tctex-1 or G?? promotes neurite outgrowth whereas interfering with their function inhibits neuritogenesis. Using embryonic mouse brain extracts, we demonstrate an endogenous G??Tctex-1 complex and show that G?? co-segregates with dynein-free fractions of Tctex-1. Furthermore, G? competes with the dynein intermediate chain for binding to Tctex-1, regulating assembly of Tctex-1 into the dynein motor complex. We propose that Tctex-1 is a novel effector of G??, and that G??Tctex-1 complex plays a key role in the dynein-independent function of Tctex-1 in regulating neurite outgrowth in primary hippocampal neurons, most likely by modulating actin and microtubule dynamics. PMID:17491591

  1. Essential myosin light chain as a target for caspase-3 in failing myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Alessandra; Weig, Hans-Jörg; Ott, Thomas; Seyfarth, Melchior; Holthoff, Hans-Peter; Grewe, Diana; Gillitzer, Angelika; Bott-Flügel, Lorenz; Schömig, Albert; Ungerer, Martin; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig

    2002-01-01

    Programmed cell death involves the activation of caspase proteases that can mediate the cleavage of vital cytoskeletal proteins. We have recently reported that, in failing cardiac myocytes, caspase-3 activation is associated with a reduction in contractile performance. In this study we used a modified yeast two-hybrid system to screen for caspase-3 interacting proteins of the cardiac cytoskeleton. We identified ventricular essential myosin light chain (vMLC1) as a target for caspase-3. By sequencing and site-directed mutagenesis, a noncanonical cleavage site for caspase-3 was mapped to the C-terminal DFVE135G motif. We demonstrated that vMLC1 cleavage in failing myocardium in vivo is associated with a morphological disruption of the organized vMLC1 staining of sarcomeres, and with a reduction in myocyte contractile performance. Adenoviral gene transfer of the caspase inhibitor p35 in vivo prevented caspase-3 activation and vMLC1 cleavage, with positive impact on contractility. These data suggest that direct cleavage of vMLC1 by activated caspase-3 may contribute to depression of myocyte function by altering cross-bridge interaction between myosin and actin molecules. Therefore, activation of apoptotic pathways in the heart may lead to contractile dysfunction before cell death. PMID:12186978

  2. [Innervation, activity rhythm and accumulation of myosin light chains in a fast muscle of chickens].

    PubMed

    Gardahaut, M F; Khaskiye, A; Rouaud, T; Renaud, D; Le Douarin, G

    1988-01-01

    The fast posterior latissimus dorsi muscle (PLD) of the chick ceases to accumulate slow myosin light chains (MLC) during neonatal development. On day 18 of embryonic life slow MLC represented only 2% of total MLC, and LC3F was first detected. In chick embryo, spinal cord stimulation at a slow rhythm modifies PLD differentiation toward the slow type: LC3F did not accumulate and slow MLC increased. In contrast, stimulation at a fast rhythm accelerated LC3F accumulation. PLD denervation on day 2 after hatching inhibited the synthesis of LC3F. Direct stimulation at a fast rhythm led to post-hatching development into normal fast type while a slow rhythm influenced the development of denervated PLD towards the slow type. In innervated PLD, the effect of stimulation at a slow rhythm was less important than in denervated PLD. These results suggest that the rhythm of the neural and/or contractile activity plays an important role in the MLC expression during embryonic and post-natal development of the chicken fast muscle. PMID:3187186

  3. Effects of a Fluorescent Myosin Light Chain Phosphatase Inhibitor on Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Grindrod, Scott; Suy, Simeng; Fallen, Shannon; Eto, Masumi; Toretsky, Jeffrey; Brown, Milton L.

    2011-01-01

    Myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) is an enzyme important to regulation of cell cycle and motility that is shown to be upregulated in aggressive prostate cancer cells and tissue. We developed a fluorescent small molecule inhibitor of MLCP using structure based design in recombinant protein phosphatase 1C. Several best fit compounds were synthesized and evaluated by their inhibition of MLCP/32P-MLC dephosphorylation, which resulted in the identification of novel MLCP inhibitors. Androgen dependent (AD) and castration resistant prostate cancer cell (CRPC) lines were treated with the lead inhibitor resulting in decreased growth rate, reduced DNA synthesis, and G2/M cell cycle arrest. Moreover, CRPC cell lines showed an increased sensitivity to drug treatment having GI50 values four times lower than the AD prostate cancer cell line. This was reinforced by reduced BrdU DNA incorporation into CRPC cells compared to AD cells. β-actin disruption was also seen at much lower drug concentrations in CR cells which caused a dose dependent reduction in cellular chemotaxis of PC-3 cells. Since there are currently few clinical therapeutics targeting CR prostate cancer, MLCP represents a new target for preclinical and clinical development of new potential therapeutics which inhibit this disease phenotype. PMID:22655237

  4. Immunohistochemical demonstration of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor light chain (bikunin) in human mast cells.

    PubMed

    Ide, H; Itoh, H; Yoshida, E; Kobayashi, T; Tomita, M; Maruyama, H; Osada, Y; Nakahata, T; Nawa, Y

    1999-07-01

    We recently reported that the rat mast cell proteinase inhibitor trypstatin is genetically identical with the second half of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor light chain (ITI-LC), also known as bikunin or urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI). In this study, therefore, immunoreactivities of mast cells of various human tissues were examined with three antibodies, anti-human ITI-LC, anti-ITI, which recognizes mainly heavy chains or the sugar moiety of ITI, and anti-alpha 1-microglobulin (alpha1mG). ITI-LC immunoreactivity was strongly found in mast cells in the connective tissues of various organs except for those of the propria mucosae of small intestine. Neither anti-ITI antibody nor anti-alpha1mG antibody reacted with mast cells in various tissues. By reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, alpha1mG/ITI-LC mRNA was not detected in the skin and tongue, and only weakly in small intestine, although ITI-LC immunoreactivity was strongly detected in these tissues. Furthermore, the mRNA was not expressed in cultured human mast cells. These results suggest that ITI-LC protein is stored in the granules of human connective tissue mast cells, though is not produced by them. PMID:10398892

  5. Dictyostelium discoideum myosin: Isolation and characterization of cDNAs encoding the essential light chain

    SciTech Connect

    Chisholm, R.L.; Rushforth, A.M.; Pollenz, R.S.; Kuczmarski, E.R.; Tafuri, S.R.

    1988-02-01

    The authors used an antibody specific for Dictyostelium discoideum myosin to screen a lambdagt11 cDNA expression library to obtain cDNA clones which encode the Dictyostelium essential myosin light chain (EMLC). The amino acid sequence predicted from the sequence of the cDNA clone showed 31.5% identity with the amino acid sequence of the chicken EMLC. Comparisons of the Dictyostelium EMLC, a nonmuscle cell type, with EMLC sequences from similar MLCs of skeletal- and smooth-muscle origin, showed distinct regions of homology. Much of the observed homology was localized to regions corresponding to consensus Ca/sup 2 +/-binding of E-F hand domains. Southern blot analysis suggested that the Dictyostelium genome contains a single gene encoding the EMLC. Examination of the pattern of EMLC mRNA expression showed that a significant increase in EMLC message levels occurred during the first few hours of development, coinciding with increased actin expression and immediately preceding the period of maximal chemotactic activity.

  6. Plasmodium possesses dynein light chain classes that are unique and conserved across species.

    PubMed

    Githui, Elijah K; De Villiers, Etienne P; McArthur, Andrew G

    2009-05-01

    Plasmodium belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa. Within the Apicomplexa, Plasmodium, Toxoplasma and Cryptosporidium are parasites of considerable medical importance while Theileria and Eimeria are animal pathogens. P. falciparum is particularly important as it causes malaria, resulting in more than 1 million deaths each year. The malaria parasite actively invades the host cell in which it propagates and several proteins associated with the apical organelles have been implicated to be crucial in the invasion process. The biogenesis of the apical organelles is not well understood, but several studies indicate that microtubule-based vesicular transport is involved. Vesicular transport proteins are also present in Plasmodium and are presumed to be involved in transcellular transport in infected erythrocytes. Dynein is a multi-subunit motor protein involved in microtubule-based vesicular transport. In this study, we analyzed the cytoplasmic dynein light chains (Dlcs) of P. falciparum since they provide adaptor surface to the cargoes and are likely to be involved in differential transport. Dlcs consist of three different families: TcTex1/2, LC8 and LC7/roadblock. The data presented demonstrate that P. falciparum Dlcs sequences and functional domains show high sequence similarity within the species, but that only the Dlc group 1 (LC8) has a high similarity to human orthologues. TcTex1 and LC7/roadblock have low similarity to human orthologues. This sequence variation could be targeted for vaccine or drug development. PMID:18467191

  7. The regulation of RhoGEF Lfc by dynein light chain Tctex-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan, Marc

    Lfc is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that activates the small GTPase RhoA, and its GEF activity is tightly regulated through protein-protein interactions, phosphorylation, and cellular localization. Lfc is anchored to microtubules through its interaction with the dynein light chain Tctex-1, which results in inhibition of Lfc's GEF activity. Here we present a crystallographic structure of Tctex-1 in complex with Lfc with residues 143-155 of Lfc bound at the Tctex-1 dimer interface. Structural alignment of our structure with Tctex-1 in complex with the dynein intermediate chain (DIC) shows the binding site of the DIC peptide and Lfc substantially overlap. Biochemical evidence, NMR perturbations assays and intrinsic fluorescence provide structural validation and support an extension of the Lfc binding site to the andalpha;-helices that may accommodate additional contact points with Tctex-1. We postulate a potential mechanism for Lfcandrsquo;s recruitment to the microtubules through a tripartite complex with Tctex-1 and DIC.

  8. G protein-mediated inhibition of myosin light-chain phosphatase in vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Kitazawa, T; Masuo, M; Somlyo, A P

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism of G protein-mediated sensitization of the contractile apparatus of smooth muscle to Ca2+ was studied in receptor-coupled alpha-toxin-permeabilized rabbit portal vein smooth muscle. To test the hypothesis that Ca2+ sensitization is due to inhibition of myosin light-chain (MLC) phosphatase activity, we measured the effect of guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate and phenylephrine on the rate of MLC dephosphorylation in muscles preactivated with Ca2+ and incubated in Ca(2+)- and ATP-free solution containing 1-(5-chloronaphthalene-1-sulfonyl)-1H-hexahydro-1,4-diazepine (ML-9) to block MLC kinase activity. Guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate alone (300 microM) or in combination (3 microM) with phenylephrine decreased the rates of relaxation and dephosphorylation of MLC to about half of control values; this inhibition is sufficient to account for maximal G protein-mediated Ca2+ sensitization of MLC phosphorylation. The rate of thiophosphorylation of MLC with adenosine 5'-[gamma-thio]-triphosphate was not affected by guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate. We suggest that inhibition of protein phosphatase(s) by G protein(s) may have important regulatory functions. PMID:1656467

  9. Probing BoNT/A protease exosites: implications for inhibitor design and light chain longevity.

    PubMed

    Xue, Song; Javor, Sacha; Hixon, Mark S; Janda, Kim D

    2014-11-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) is one of the most lethal toxins known. Its extreme toxicity is due to its light chain (LC), a zinc protease that cleaves SNAP-25, a synaptosome-associated protein, leading to the inhibition of neuronal activity. Studies on BoNT/A LC have revealed that two regions, termed exosites, can play an important role in BoNT catalytic activity. A clear understanding of how these exosites influence neurotoxin catalytic activity would provide a critical framework for deciphering the mechanism of SNAP-25 cleavage and the design of inhibitors. Herein, based on the crystallographic structure of BoNT/A LC complexed with its substrate, we designed an α-exosite binding probe. Experiments with this unique probe demonstrated that α-exosite binding enhanced both catalytic activity and stability of the LC. These data help delineate why α-exosite binding is needed for SNAP-25 cleavage and also provide new insights into the extended lifetime observed for BoNT/A LC in vivo. PMID:25295706

  10. Biofunctionalized gold nanoparticles for colorimetric sensing of botulinum neurotoxin A light chain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohu; Wang, Yi; Chen, Peng; Wang, Yusong; Zhang, Jinling; Aili, Daniel; Liedberg, Bo

    2014-03-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin is considered as one of the most toxic food-borne substances and is a potential bioweapon accessible to terrorists. The development of an accurate, convenient, and rapid assay for botulinum neurotoxins is therefore highly desirable for addressing biosafety concerns. Herein, novel biotinylated peptide substrates designed to mimic synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) are utilized in gold nanoparticle-based assays for colorimetric detection of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A light chain (BoLcA). In these proteolytic assays, biotinylated peptides serve as triggers for the aggregation of gold nanoparticles, while the cleavage of these peptides by BoLcA prevents nanoparticle aggregation. Two different assay strategies are described, demonstrating limits of detection ranging from 5 to 0.1 nM of BoLcA with an overall assay time of 4 h. These hybrid enzyme-responsive nanomaterials provide rapid and sensitive detection for one of the most toxic substances known to man. PMID:24484451

  11. Productive recognition of factor IX by factor XIa exosites requires disulfide linkage between heavy and light chains of factor XIa.

    PubMed

    Marcinkiewicz, Mariola M; Sinha, Dipali; Walsh, Peter N

    2012-02-24

    In the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation factor XIa (FXIa) activates factor IX (FIX) by cleaving the zymogen at Arg(145)-Ala(146) and Arg(180)-Val(181) bonds releasing an 11-kDa activation peptide. FXIa and its isolated light chain (FXIa-LC) cleave S-2366 at comparable rates, but FXIa-LC is a very poor activator of FIX, possibly because FIX undergoes allosteric modification on binding to an exosite on the heavy chain of FXIa (FXIa-HC) required for optimal cleavage rates of the two scissile bonds of FIX. However preincubation of FIX with a saturating concentration of isolated FXIa-HC did not result in any potentiation in the rate of FIX cleavage by FXIa-LC. Furthermore, if FIX binding via the heavy chain exosite of FXIa determines the affinity of the enzyme-substrate interaction, then the isolated FXIa-HC should inhibit the rate of FIX activation by depleting the substrate. However, whereas FXIa/S557A inhibited FIX activation of by FXIa, FXIa-HC did not. Therefore, we examined FIX binding to FXIa/S557A, FXIa-HC, FXIa-LC, FXIa/C362S/C482S, and FXIa/S557A/C362S/C482S. The heavy and light chains are disulfide-linked in FXIa/S557A but not in FXIa/C362S/C482S and FXIa/S557A/C362S/C482S. In an ELISA assay only FXI/S557A ligated FIX with high affinity. Partial reduction of FXIa/S557A to produce heavy and light chains resulted in decreased FIX binding, and this function was regained upon reformation of the disulfide linkage between the heavy and the light chains. We therefore conclude that substrate recognition by the FXIa exosite(s) requires disulfide-linked heavy and light chains. PMID:22207756

  12. Experimental induction and oral transmission of avian AA amyloidosis in vaccinated white hens.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tomoaki; Muhammad, Naeem; Inoshima, Yasuo; Yanai, Tokuma; Goryo, Masanobu; Ishiguro, Naotaka

    2013-06-01

    Avian AA amyloidosis is commonly observed in adult birds afflicted with bacterial infections or chronic inflammatory disorders. Experimental AA amyloidosis in birds can be induced by repeated inflammatory stimulation, such as injection with casein or vaccination with oil-emulsified bacterins. However, the transmission of amyloidosis among avian species has not been studied well to date. In the present study, we confirm the potential induction of avian AA amyloidosis by inoculation of Salmonella enteritidis (SE) vaccine or Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine. To determine the transmission of chicken AA amyloidosis among white hens, we induced experimental AA amyloidosis in vaccinated chickens by intravenous or oral administration of chicken AA fibrils. Amyloid deposits were observed in chickens injected with SE and inoculated with chicken AA fibrils intravenously (21/26: 81%) and orally (8/12: 67%). These results suggest that chicken AA amyloidosis can be induced by vaccinations, and may be transmitted among like species by oral administration. PMID:23548152

  13. [Hepatic amyloidosis as cause of severe intrahepatic cholestasis].

    PubMed

    Gavilán, J C; Bermúdez, F J; Márquez, A; Sánchez-Carrillo, J J; González-Santos, P

    2003-01-01

    The liver is frequently involved by amyloidosis, but hyperbilirubinemia and liver failure are uncommon features. A mild elevation of the serum alkaline phosphatase value and, less frequently, hepatomegaly are the most common findings. Usually the patients have no symptoms related with the liver involvement; the clinical manifestation and the long term prognosis depends on the renal and cardiac disease. We report an unusual clinical presentation of primary amyloidosis in a previously asymptomatic 65 years old woman who was admitted to the hospital because of ictericia and ascitis mimicking a drug induced acute hepatic failure. PMID:12666305

  14. Severe hidradenitis suppurativa complicated by renal AA amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Utrera-Busquets, M; Romero-Maté, A; Castaño, Á; Alegre, L; García-Donoso, C; Borbujo, J

    2016-04-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, recurrent inflammatory disease affecting the skin folds. Multiple therapeutic options have been proposed for severe cases, but persistent responses are rarely seen. Important complications of HS are uncommon, and usually seen only in severe and unresponsive disease. Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is secondary to inflammatory chronic diseases, and is an uncommon complication of dermatological diseases. Only a few cases related with HS have been reported. We report the case of a 37-year-old patient who developed AA amyloidosis secondary to severe HS. PMID:26206410

  15. UNUSUAL PRESENTATION OF GENERALIZED MACULAR AMYLOIDOSIS IN A YOUNG ADULT

    PubMed Central

    Kudur, Mohan H; B, Sathish Pai; H, Sripathi; Prabhu, Smitha

    2008-01-01

    Macular amyloidosis is a common problem seen dermatology out-patient department. Generalized macular amyloidosis presenting with a poikilodermatous appearance is rare. In our case, an 18-year-old male presented with generalized hypopigmented macules with a poikilodermatous appearance of 10-year duration. His developmental milestones were normal with negative family history of similar complaints. Histopathology of hyperpigmented lesions revealed hyperkeratosis and acanthosis of epidermis and hypopigmented lesion showing only hyperkeratosis. Both lesions were showing the deposition of amorphous, hazy material in the tips of papillary dermis with perivascular inflammatory infiltrate. Congo red staining of the amorphous material was positive for amyloid. PMID:19882037

  16. Cutaneous and Systemic Plasmacytosis Associated with Renal Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taek Geun; Jeong, Woo Seok; Moon, Seung Hyun; Hwangbo, Hyun; Lee, Dong Ryeol; Kwon, Tae Gwang

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous and systemic plasmacytosis (CSP) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology characterized by cutaneous polyclonal plasma cell infiltrates associated with various extracutaneous involvement and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. Here, we report on a 54-year-old male patient with chronic renal insufficiency who presented with disseminated reddish-brown macules and plaques on the face and trunk. In our evaluation, he was found to have lymphadenopathy, polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia; benign plasma cell infiltration involving the skin, bone marrow, and retroperitoneal area; and renal amyloidosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of CSP associated with renal amyloidosis. PMID:26719649

  17. Canine bladderworm (Capillaria plica) infection associated with glomerular amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Callegari, D; Kramer, L; Cantoni, A M; Di Lecce, R; Dodi, P L; Grandi, G

    2010-03-25

    Capillaria plica (Trichuroidea: Capillariidae), commonly known as bladderworm, is a nematode rarely associated with clinical disease that resides in the lower urinary tract of wild and domestic canids. In the present paper a case of canine urinary capillariosis associated with glomerular amyloidosis is described. The dog, an 8-year-old, male, hunting Jagd terrier had a history of weight loss and diarrhoea and was referred to the University of Parma Teaching Veterinary Hospital (UPTVH). Clinical and laboratory tests shown here suggest that C. plica may be a contributing factor to glomerular amyloidosis. PMID:20034745

  18. Scintigraphic methods to detect beta2-microglobulin associated amyloidosis (Abeta2-microglobulin amyloidosis).

    PubMed

    Floege, J; Schäffer, J; Koch, K M

    2001-01-01

    beta2-Microglobulin-derived amyloidosis (Abeta2m) represents a major cause or morbidity in patients with end-stage renal disease. Symptoms of Abeta2m amyloid are mainly related to (peri-) articular amyloid deposition. Conventional non-invasive diagnostic techniques, i.e. clinical evaluation, joint ultrasonography or X-ray, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging findings, as well as conventional bone scans, suffer from relative non-specificity and/or low sensitivity. Two recent methods, namely scintigraphy with radiolabelled serum amyloid P component (SAP) or with the radiolabelled Abeta2m-precursor protein, beta2-microglobulin (beta2m), yield more specific information. Using (123)I-labelled SAP, Abeta2m deposits have been visualized in several long-term haemodialysis (HD) patients. However, this scan did not show tracer accumulation in other frequently involved sites, such as hips or shoulders, but did frequently label the spleen, which is usually spared from Abeta2m deposits. Scanning with (131)I-labelled beta2m, in contrast, yielded tracer accumulations corresponding to the typical distribution pattern of Abeta2m. Specificity of this method was shown by several methods, and the sensitivity was found to markedly exceed that of combined clinical and radiological investigations. Recently, both the radiation exposure and the optical resolution of this latter scan have been further refined by substituting (131)I with (111)In. In a final step we generated recombinant human beta2m (rhbeta2m). (111)In-rhbeta2m again failed to show significant tracer accumulation over joint regions in patients on short-term HD without evidence of Abeta2m amyloidosis. In contrast, local tracer accumulations similar to those observed with natural, (111)In-labelled beta2m could be demonstrated in long-term HD patients with evidence of Abeta2m amyloidosis. In conclusion, scintigraphy for Abeta2m with (111)In-labelled rhbeta2m provides a homogenous and safe recombinant protein source, and allows for the sensitive and specific non-invasive detection of Abeta2m-amyloid deposits in dialysis patients. PMID:11402091

  19. Myosin light chain kinase controls voltage-dependent calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, A; Schakman, O; Yerna, X; Dessy, C; Morel, N

    2014-07-01

    The Ca(2+)-dependent kinase myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) is the activator of smooth muscle contraction. In addition, it has been reported to be involved in Ca(2+) channel regulation in cultured cells, and we previously showed that the MLCK inhibitor ML-7 decreases arginine vasopressin (AVP)-induced Ca(2+) influx in rat aorta. This study was designed to investigate whether MLCK is involved in Ca(2+) regulation in resistance artery smooth muscle cell, which plays a major role in the control of blood pressure. As ML compounds were shown to have off-target effects, MLCK was downregulated by transfection with a small interfering RNA targeting MLCK (MLCK-siRNA) in rat small resistance mesenteric artery (RMA) and in the rat embryonic aortic cell line A7r5. Noradrenaline-induced contraction and Ca(2+) signal were significantly depressed in MLCK-siRNA compared to scramble-siRNA-transfected RMA. Contraction and Ca(2+) signal induced by high KCl and voltage-activated Ca(2+) current were also significantly decreased in MLCK-siRNA-transfected RMA, suggesting that MLCK depletion modifies voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels. KCl- and AVP-induced Ca(2+) signals and voltage-activated Ca(2+) current were decreased in MLCK-depleted A7r5 cells. Eventually, real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that in A7r5, MLCK controlled mRNA expression of CaV1.2 (L-type) and CaV3.1 (T-type) voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels. Our results suggest that MLCK controls the transcription of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:24162233

  20. Dynein Modifiers in C. elegans: Light Chains Suppress Conditional Heavy Chain Mutants

    PubMed Central

    O'Rourke, Sean M; Dorfman, Marc D; Carter, J. Clayton; Bowerman, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a microtubule-dependent motor protein that functions in mitotic cells during centrosome separation, metaphase chromosome congression, anaphase spindle elongation, and chromosome segregation. Dynein is also utilized during interphase for vesicle transport and organelle positioning. While numerous cellular processes require cytoplasmic dynein, the mechanisms that target and regulate this microtubule motor remain largely unknown. By screening a conditional Caenorhabditis elegans cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain mutant at a semipermissive temperature with a genome-wide RNA interference library to reduce gene functions, we have isolated and characterized twenty dynein-specific suppressor genes. When reduced in function, these genes suppress dynein mutants but not other conditionally mutant loci, and twelve of the 20 specific suppressors do not exhibit sterile or lethal phenotypes when their function is reduced in wild-type worms. Many of the suppressor proteins, including two dynein light chains, localize to subcellular sites that overlap with those reported by others for the dynein heavy chain. Furthermore, knocking down any one of four putative dynein accessory chains suppresses the conditional heavy chain mutants, suggesting that some accessory chains negatively regulate heavy chain function. We also identified 29 additional genes that, when reduced in function, suppress conditional mutations not only in dynein but also in loci required for unrelated essential processes. In conclusion, we have identified twenty genes that in many cases are not essential themselves but are conserved and when reduced in function can suppress conditionally lethal C. elegans cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain mutants. We conclude that conserved but nonessential genes contribute to dynein function during the essential process of mitosis. PMID:17676955

  1. Structural and functional aspects of the myosin essential light chain in cardiac muscle contraction

    SciTech Connect

    Muthu, Priya; Wang, Li; Yuan, Chen-Ching; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Huang, Wenrui; Hernandez, Olga M.; Kawai, Masataka; Irving, Thomas C.; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2012-04-02

    The myosin essential light chain (ELC) is a structural component of the actomyosin cross-bridge, but its function is poorly understood, especially the role of the cardiac specific N-terminal extension in modulating actomyosin interaction. Here, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the A57G (alanine to glycine) mutation in the cardiac ELC known to cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC). The function of the ELC N-terminal extension was investigated with the Tg-{Delta}43 mouse model, whose myocardium expresses a truncated ELC. Low-angle X-ray diffraction studies on papillary muscle fibers in rigor revealed a decreased interfilament spacing ({approx} 1.5 nm) and no alterations in cross-bridge mass distribution in Tg-A57G mice compared to Tg-WT, expressing the full-length nonmutated ELC. The truncation mutation showed a 1.3-fold increase in I{sub 1,1}/I{sub 1,0}, indicating a shift of cross-bridge mass from the thick filament backbone toward the thin filaments. Mechanical studies demonstrated increased stiffness in Tg-A57G muscle fibers compared to Tg-WT or Tg-{Delta}43. The equilibrium constant for the cross-bridge force generation step was smallest in Tg-{Delta}43. These results support an important role for the N-terminal ELC extension in prepositioning the cross-bridge for optimal force production. Subtle changes in the ELC sequence were sufficient to alter cross-bridge properties and lead to pathological phenotypes.

  2. Localization of dynein light chains 1 and 2 and their pro-apoptotic ligands.

    PubMed

    Day, Catherine L; Puthalakath, Hamsa; Skea, Gretchen; Strasser, Andreas; Barsukov, Igor; Lian, Lu-Yun; Huang, David C S; Hinds, Mark G

    2004-02-01

    The dynein and myosin V motor complexes are multi-protein structures that function to transport molecules and organelles within the cell. DLC (dynein light-chain) proteins, found as components of both dynein and myosin V motor complexes, connect the complexes to their cargoes. One of the roles of these motor complexes is to selectively sequester the pro-apoptotic 'BH3-only' (Bcl-2 homology 3-only) proteins, Bim (Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death) and Bmf (Bcl-2-modifying factor), and so regulate their cell death-inducing function. In vivo DLC2 is found exclusively as a component of the myosin V motor complex and Bmf binds DLC2 selectively. On the other hand, Bim interacts with DLC1 (LC8), an integral component of the dynein motor complex. The two DLCs share 93% sequence identity yet show unambiguous in vivo specificity for their respective BH3-only ligands. To investigate this specificity the three-dimensional solution structure of DLC2 was elucidated using NMR spectroscopy. In vitro structural and mutagenesis studies show that Bmf and Bim have identical binding characteristics to recombinant DLC2 or DLC1. Thus the selectivity shown by Bmf and Bim for binding DLC1 or DLC2, respectively, does not reside in their DLC-binding domains. Remarkably, mutational analysis of DLC1 and DLC2 indicates that a single surface residue (residue 41) determines the specific localization of DLCs with their respective motor complexes. These results suggest a molecular mechanism for the specific compartmentalization of DLCs and their pro-apoptotic cargoes and implicate other protein(s) in defining the specificity between the cargoes and the DLC proteins. PMID:14561217

  3. Localization of dynein light chains 1 and 2 and their pro-apoptotic ligands.

    PubMed Central

    Day, Catherine L; Puthalakath, Hamsa; Skea, Gretchen; Strasser, Andreas; Barsukov, Igor; Lian, Lu-Yun; Huang, David C S; Hinds, Mark G

    2004-01-01

    The dynein and myosin V motor complexes are multi-protein structures that function to transport molecules and organelles within the cell. DLC (dynein light-chain) proteins, found as components of both dynein and myosin V motor complexes, connect the complexes to their cargoes. One of the roles of these motor complexes is to selectively sequester the pro-apoptotic 'BH3-only' (Bcl-2 homology 3-only) proteins, Bim (Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death) and Bmf (Bcl-2-modifying factor), and so regulate their cell death-inducing function. In vivo DLC2 is found exclusively as a component of the myosin V motor complex and Bmf binds DLC2 selectively. On the other hand, Bim interacts with DLC1 (LC8), an integral component of the dynein motor complex. The two DLCs share 93% sequence identity yet show unambiguous in vivo specificity for their respective BH3-only ligands. To investigate this specificity the three-dimensional solution structure of DLC2 was elucidated using NMR spectroscopy. In vitro structural and mutagenesis studies show that Bmf and Bim have identical binding characteristics to recombinant DLC2 or DLC1. Thus the selectivity shown by Bmf and Bim for binding DLC1 or DLC2, respectively, does not reside in their DLC-binding domains. Remarkably, mutational analysis of DLC1 and DLC2 indicates that a single surface residue (residue 41) determines the specific localization of DLCs with their respective motor complexes. These results suggest a molecular mechanism for the specific compartmentalization of DLCs and their pro-apoptotic cargoes and implicate other protein(s) in defining the specificity between the cargoes and the DLC proteins. PMID:14561217

  4. Effect of a myosin regulatory light chain mutation K104E on actin-myosin interactions.

    PubMed

    Duggal, D; Nagwekar, J; Rich, R; Huang, W; Midde, K; Fudala, R; Das, H; Gryczynski, I; Szczesna-Cordary, D; Borejdo, J

    2015-05-15

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death in young individuals. Molecular mechanisms underlying this disorder are largely unknown; this study aims at revealing how disruptions in actin-myosin interactions can play a role in this disorder. Cross-bridge (XB) kinetics and the degree of order were examined in contracting myofibrils from the ex vivo left ventricles of transgenic (Tg) mice expressing FHC regulatory light chain (RLC) mutation K104E. Because the degree of order and the kinetics are best studied when an individual XB makes a significant contribution to the overall signal, the number of observed XBs in an ex vivo ventricle was minimized to ∼20. Autofluorescence and photobleaching were minimized by labeling the myosin lever arm with a relatively long-lived red-emitting dye containing a chromophore system encapsulated in a cyclic macromolecule. Mutated XBs were significantly better ordered during steady-state contraction and during rigor, but the mutation had no effect on the degree of order in relaxed myofibrils. The K104E mutation increased the rate of XB binding to thin filaments and the rate of execution of the power stroke. The stopped-flow experiments revealed a significantly faster observed dissociation rate in Tg-K104E vs. Tg-wild-type (WT) myosin and a smaller second-order ATP-binding rate for the K104E compared with WT myosin. Collectively, our data indicate that the mutation-induced changes in the interaction of myosin with actin during the contraction-relaxation cycle may contribute to altered contractility and the development of FHC. PMID:25770245

  5. Myosin light chain phosphorylation in contraction of gastric antral smooth muscle from neonate and adult rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ierardi, J A; Paul, D A; Ryan, J P

    1996-01-01

    The decreased contractility of gastric antral smooth muscle in the neonate has been attributed to reduced levels of activator calcium. It is generally accepted that calcium-dependent myosin light chain phosphorylation (MLCP) is the key step in the initiation of force development in smooth muscle. In this study, we investigated the relationship between MLCP and force development in gastric antral smooth muscle from neonatal (4-6 d old) and adult rabbits. We tested the hypothesis that the reduced force development of circular smooth muscle from the neonate would be accompanied by decreased levels of MLCP, as compared with data from adult animals. Full thickness muscle strips oriented parallel to the circular muscle layer were examined for their contractile response to acetylcholine (ACh) (10(-8) M to 10(-3) M) or 10(-4) M ACh only. In the latter study, tissues were rapidly frozen in a dry ice-acetone slurry for subsequent MLCP determination. MLCP was determined at times corresponding to 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 s of stimulation. For each age group, maximal active force developed at an ACh concentration of 10(-4) M and was significantly greater in tissues from adults (1.86 +/- 0.24 N/m2, adult; 0.95 +/- 0.05 N/m2, neonate; p < 0.05). In contrast, no significant differences were observed with respect to basal or agonist-stimulated levels of MLCP. The data suggest that factors other than levels of MLCP contribute to the reduced force-generating capacity of antral smooth muscle from the neonate. PMID:8825402

  6. Myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation enhances cardiac β-myosin in vitro motility under load

    PubMed Central

    Karabina, Anastasia; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Moore, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and myofibrillar disarray, and often results in sudden cardiac death. Two HCM mutations, N47K and R58Q, are located in the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). The RLC mechanically stabilizes the myosin lever arm, which is crucial to myosin’s ability to transmit contractile force. The N47K and R58Q mutations have previously been shown to reduce actin filament velocity under load, stemming from a more compliant lever arm (Greenberg, 2010). In contrast, RLC phosphorylation was shown to impart stiffness to the myosin lever arm (Greenberg, 2009). We hypothesized that phosphorylation of the mutant HCM-RLC may mitigate distinct mutation-induced structural and functional abnormalities. In vitro motility assays were utilized to investigate the effects of RLC phosphorylation on the HCM-RLC mutant phenotype in the presence of an α-actinin frictional load. Porcine cardiac β-myosin was depleted of its native RLC and reconstituted with mutant or wild-type human RLC in phosphorylated or non-phosphorylated form. Consistent with previous findings, in the presence of load, myosin bearing the HCM mutations reduced actin sliding velocity compared to WT resulting in 31–41% reductions in force production. Myosin containing phosphorylated RLC (WT or mutant) increased sliding velocity and also restored mutant myosin force production to near WT unphosphorylated values. These results point to RLC phosphorylation as a general mechanism to increase force production of the individual myosin motor and as a potential target to ameliorate the HCM-induced phenotype at the molecular level. PMID:26116789

  7. CSF Neurofilament Light Chain but not FLT3 Ligand Discriminates Parkinsonian Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Megan K.; Aerts, Marjolein B.; Beenes, Marijke; Norgren, Niklas; Esselink, Rianne A. J.; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Kuiperij, H. Bea; Verbeek, Marcel M.

    2015-01-01

    The differentiation between multiple system atrophy (MSA) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) is difficult, particularly in early disease stages. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of neurofilament light chain (NFL), fms-like tyrosine kinase ligand (FLT3L), and total tau protein (t-tau) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as biomarkers to discriminate MSA from PD. Using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, we measured CSF levels of NFL, FLT3L, and t-tau in a discovery cohort of 36 PD patients, 27 MSA patients, and 57 non-neurological controls and in a validation cohort of 32 PD patients, 25 MSA patients, 15 PSP patients, 5 CBS patients, and 56 non-neurological controls. Cut-offs obtained from individual assays and binary logistic regression models developed from combinations of biomarkers were assessed. CSF levels of NFL were substantially increased in MSA and discriminated between MSA and PD with a sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 92% (AUC = 0.85) in the discovery cohort and with 80% sensitivity and 97% specificity (AUC = 0.94) in the validation cohort. FLT3L levels in CSF were significantly lower in both PD and MSA compared to controls in the discovery cohort, but not in the validation cohort. t-tau levels were significantly higher in MSA than PD and controls. Addition of either FLT3L or t-tau to NFL did not improve discrimination of PD from MSA above NFL alone. Our findings show that increased levels of NFL in CSF offer clinically relevant, high accuracy discrimination between PD and MSA. PMID:25999911

  8. Expression of calmodulin and myosin light chain kinase during larval settlement of the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhang-Fan; Wang, Hao; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Barnacles are one of the most common organisms in intertidal areas. Their life cycle includes seven free-swimming larval stages and sessile juvenile and adult stages. The transition from the swimming to the sessile stages, referred to as larval settlement, is crucial for their survivor success and subsequent population distribution. In this study, we focused on the involvement of calmodulin (CaM) and its binding proteins in the larval settlement of the barnacle, Balanus ( = Amphibalanus) amphitrite. The full length of CaM gene was cloned from stage II nauplii of B. amphitrite (referred to as Ba-CaM), encoding 149 amino acid residues that share a high similarity with published CaMs in other organisms. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that Ba-CaM was highly expressed in cyprids, the stage at which swimming larvae are competent to attach and undergo metamorphosis. In situ hybridization revealed that the expressed Ba-CaM gene was localized in compound eyes, posterior ganglion and cement glands, all of which may have essential functions during larval settlement. Larval settlement assays showed that both the CaM inhibitor compound 48/80 and the CaM-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor ML-7 effectively blocked barnacle larval settlement, whereas Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors did not show any clear effects. The subsequent real-time PCR assay showed a higher expression level of Ba-MLCK gene in larval stages than in adults, suggesting an important role of Ba-MLCK gene in larval development and competency. Overall, the results suggest that CaM and CaM-dependent MLCK function during larval settlement of B. amphitrite. PMID:22348072

  9. Ragweed sensitization-induced increase of myosin light chain kinase content in canine airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H; Rao, K; Halayko, A J; Liu, X; Stephens, N L

    1992-12-01

    Previous studies have identified changes of mechanical properties of airway smooth muscle (ASM) from a canine model of atopic airway hyperreactivity. These changes, including increased maximum shortening capacity (delta Lmax) and early shortening velocity (Vo), may be responsible for the airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma. We have suggested that these changes may be due to increased actomyosin ATPase activity, controlled via phosphorylation of the 20 kD myosin light chain (MLC20) by MLC kinase (MLCK). Therefore, ATPase activity, MLC20 phosphorylation, and MLCK content and activity were assessed in tracheal and bronchial smooth muscles (TSM and BSM) of ragweed pollen-sensitized dogs (S) and their littermate controls (C). Specific ATPase activities from STSM and SBSM were significantly higher than their control counterparts (CTSM, CBSM). Phosphorylation of MLC20 in STSM was greater both at rest and during electrical stimulation due to the increased amount of MLCK in STSM and SBSM by 30 and 25%, respectively. MLCK activity was also increased significantly in STSM and SBSM (from 46.99 +/- 8.33 and 42.85 +/- 5.92 to 91.9 +/- 6.43 and 64.12 +/- 7.88 32P mmol/mg fresh tissue weight/min respectively [mean +/- SEM]). When normalized to the amount of MLCK in the tissue, however, specific MLCK activity in STSM and SBSM was similar to that in controls. It is unlikely that myosin phosphatase plays any role in the changes of MLC20 phosphorylation in sensitized animals. Peptide mapping showed no visible change in primary structure of MLCK in STSM and SBSM compared with those of controls. We report that ASM actomyosin ATPase activity is increased in STSM and SBSM. The increased ATPase activity is the result of increased MLC20 phosphorylation, the latter likely resulting from the increased MLCK content, which may account for the hyperresponsiveness found in ASM from these animals. PMID:1449804

  10. Constraints on intron evolution in the gene encoding the myosin alkali light chain in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Leicht, B.G.; Muse, S.V.; Hanczyc, M.

    1995-01-01

    Interspecific comparisons of intron sequences reveal conserved blocks of invariant nucleotides and several other departures from the strictly neutral model of molecular evolution. To distinguish the past action of evolutionary forces in introns known to have regulatory information, we examined nucleotide sequence variation at 991 sites in a random sample of 16 Drosophila melanogaster alleles of the gene encoding the myosin alkali light chain (Mlc1). The Mlc1 gene of D. melanogaster encodes two Mlc1 isoforms via developmentally regulated alternative pre-mRNA splicing. Analyses of these data reveal that introns 4 and 5, which flank the alternatively spliced exon 5, have reduced levels of both intraspecific polymorphism and interspecific divergence relative to intron 3. No polymorphism was observed in any of the exons examined in D. melanogaster. A genealogical analysis clearly demonstrates the occurrence of intragenic recombination in the ancestral history of Mlc1. Recombination events are estimated to be 13 times more likely than mutation events over the span of the sequenced region. Although there is little evidence for pairwise linkage disequilibrium in the Mlc1 region, higher order disequilibrium. does seem to be present in the 5{prime} half of the portion of the gene that was examined. Predictions of the folding free energy of the pre-mRNA reveal that sampled alleles have a significantly higher (less stable) free energy than do randomly permuted sequences. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that introns surrounding an alternatively spliced exon are subjected to additional constraints, perhaps due to specific aspects of secondary structure required for appropriate splicing of the pre-mRNA molecule. 48 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Expression of Calmodulin and Myosin Light Chain Kinase during Larval Settlement of the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhang-Fan; Wang, Hao; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Barnacles are one of the most common organisms in intertidal areas. Their life cycle includes seven free-swimming larval stages and sessile juvenile and adult stages. The transition from the swimming to the sessile stages, referred to as larval settlement, is crucial for their survivor success and subsequent population distribution. In this study, we focused on the involvement of calmodulin (CaM) and its binding proteins in the larval settlement of the barnacle, Balanus ( = Amphibalanus) amphitrite. The full length of CaM gene was cloned from stage II nauplii of B. amphitrite (referred to as Ba-CaM), encoding 149 amino acid residues that share a high similarity with published CaMs in other organisms. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that Ba-CaM was highly expressed in cyprids, the stage at which swimming larvae are competent to attach and undergo metamorphosis. In situ hybridization revealed that the expressed Ba-CaM gene was localized in compound eyes, posterior ganglion and cement glands, all of which may have essential functions during larval settlement. Larval settlement assays showed that both the CaM inhibitor compound 48/80 and the CaM-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitor ML-7 effectively blocked barnacle larval settlement, whereas Ca2+/CaM-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors did not show any clear effects. The subsequent real-time PCR assay showed a higher expression level of Ba-MLCK gene in larval stages than in adults, suggesting an important role of Ba-MLCK gene in larval development and competency. Overall, the results suggest that CaM and CaM-dependent MLCK function during larval settlement of B. amphitrite. PMID:22348072

  12. Characterization of immunoglobulin heavy and light chain gene expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Nakahashi, Hirotaka; Tsukamoto, Norifumi; Hashimoto, Yoko; Koiso, Hiromi; Yokohama, Akihiko; Saitoh, Takayuki; Uchiumi, Hideki; Handa, Hiroshi; Murakami, Hirokazu; Nojima, Yoshihisa; Karasawa, Masamitsu

    2009-04-01

    The incidence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia is low in the Japanese population compared with populations in western countries, suggesting a role for genetic factors in the occurrence of this disease. We have previously shown that chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Japan rarely expresses the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IGHV) 1-69 gene (1 out of 43 patients, 2.3%), which is a gene most commonly expressed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cases from western countries. In the current study, we extended the previous study by examining immunoglobulin heavy chain and light chain gene expression in 80 Japanese patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and in 52 Japanese patients with other leukemic chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. IGHV1-69 gene expression was again quite low in our cohort, found in only two patients: one with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and the other with splenic marginal zone lymphoma. The IGHV4-34 gene was most frequently expressed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (27.5%), whereas it was rarely found in leukemic chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (7.7%, P = 0.005). There was also a significant difference in the expression of IGLV3-21 between chronic lymphocytic leukemia and leukemic chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (29.4 vs 4.8%, P = 0.018). The IGLV3-21 gene in the majority of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cases was associated with homologous complementarity determining region 3 sequences. Recent studies identified subsets of cases expressing almost identical B-cell receptors. We found that two patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and the patient with splenic marginal zone lymphoma expressed IGHV4-39/IGKV1-39 and IGHV1-69/IGKV3-20, respectively, which belong to these subsets. PMID:19220298

  13. Serum free light chain measurement aids the diagnosis of myeloma in patients with severe renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Colin A; Plant, Tim; Drayson, Mark; Cockwell, Paul; Kountouri, Melpomeni; Basnayake, Kolitha; Harding, Stephen; Bradwell, Arthur R; Mead, Graham

    2008-01-01

    Background Monoclonal free light chains (FLCs) frequently cause rapidly progressive renal failure in patients with multiple myeloma. Immunoassays which provide quantitative measurement of FLCs in serum, have now been adopted into screening algorithms for multiple myeloma and other lymphoproliferative disorders. The assays indicate monoclonal FLC production by the presence of an abnormal ? to ? FLC ratio (reference range 0.261.65). Previous work, however, has demonstrated that in patients with renal failure the FLC ratio can be increased above normal with no other evidence of monoclonal proteins suggesting that in this population the range should be extended (reference range 0.373.1). This study evaluated the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the immunoassays in patients with severe renal failure. Methods Sera from 142 patients with new dialysis-dependent renal failure were assessed by serum protein electrophoresis (SPE), FLC immunoassays and immunofixation electrophoresis. The sensitivity and specificity of the FLC ratio's published reference range was compared with the modified renal reference range for identifying patients with multiple myeloma; by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results Forty one patients had a clinical diagnosis of multiple myeloma; all of these patients had abnormal serum FLC ratios. The modified FLC ratio range increased the specificity of the assays (from 93% to 99%), with no loss of sensitivity. Monoclonal FLCs were identified in the urine from 23 of 24 patients assessed. Conclusion Measurement of serum FLC concentrations and calculation of the serum ?/? ratio is a convenient, sensitive and specific method for identifying monoclonal FLC production in patients with multiple myeloma and acute renal failure. Rapid diagnosis in these patients will allow early initiation of disease specific treatment, such as chemotherapy plus or minus therapies for direct removal of FLCs. PMID:18808676

  14. Measurement of free light chains - pros and cons of current methods.

    PubMed

    Graziani, Maria Stella

    2016-06-01

    The measurement of the serum free light chains (FLC) is of paramount importance in the management of patients with plasma cell dyscrasias (PSD). The immunoassays for FLC measurement require adequate precision, accuracy, specificity and reproducibility between batches to prevent under or over estimation of FLC concentration and for an adequate patient monitoring. Considering the peculiarity of the measurand (monoclonal proteins), the optimization of any analytical aspect is difficult to achieve. Three methods are currently available for the assay. The first one has been on the market for over 15 years, and it is based on polyclonal antibodies. The vast majority of the clinical studies demonstrating the utility of the serum FLC measurement have been performed using this assay. A second method based on monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was marketed in 2011; a third one, also employing mAbs and allowing the simultaneous measurement of κ and λ FLC is in the process of publication. These methods show relevant differences in the type of antibodies used and in the assay design and it is not possible to identify an immunoassay that is superior to the others in any analytical aspect. The comparison studies show that the three methods differ significantly in terms of quantitative values, especially when samples containing monoclonal proteins are compared. Hence the methods cannot be used interchangeably, in particular when the assay is used to monitor the patient response to therapy. In the absence of an international standard for FLC measurement, it is impossible, at this stage to establish, which method shows the best accuracy. PMID:26812876

  15. Serum N-Glycans: A New Diagnostic Biomarker for Light Chain Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yun-Peng; Yi, Chang-Hong; Ji, Jun; Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Meng-Meng; Gu, Xing; Sun, Quan-Sheng; Chen, Xiao-Ling; Gao, Chun-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic and differential diagnostic power of serum N-glycans for light chain multiple myeloma (LCMM). A total of 167 cases of subjects, including 42 LCMM, 42 IgG myeloma, 41 IgA myeloma, and 42 healthy controls were recruited in this study. DNA sequencer-assisted fluorophore-assisted capillary electrophoresis (DSA-FACE) was applied to determine the quantitive abundance of serum N-glycans. The core fucosylated, bisecting and sialylated modifications were analyzed in serum of LCMM patients (n=20) and healthy controls (n=20) randomly selected from the same cohort by lectin blot. Moreover, serum sialic acid (SA) level was measured by enzymatic method. We found two N-glycan structures (NG1A2F, Peak3; NA2FB, Peak7) showed the optimum diagnostic efficacy with area under the ROC curve (AUC) 0.939 and 0.940 between LCMM and healthy control. The sensitivity and specificity of Peak3 were 88.1% and 92.9%, while Peak7 were 92.9% and 97.6%, respectively. The abundance of Peak3 could differentiate LCMM from IgG myeloma with AUC 0.899, sensitivity 100% and specificity 76.2%, and Peak7 could be used to differentiate LCMM from IgA myeloma with AUC 0.922, sensitivity 92.9% and specificity 82.9%. Serum SA level was significantly higher in patients with LCMM than that in healthy controls. Moreover, the decreased core fucosylation, bisecting and increased sialylation characters of serum glycoproteins were observed in patients with LCMM. We concluded that serum N-glycan could provide a simple, reliable and non-invasive biomarker for LCMM diagnosis and abnormal glycosylation might imply a new potential therapeutic target in LCMM. PMID:26075387

  16. Antibody light chain variable domains and their biophysically improved versions for human immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Young; To, Rebecca; Kandalaft, Hiba; Ding, Wen; van Faassen, Henk; Luo, Yan; Schrag, Joseph D; St-Amant, Nadereh; Hefford, Mary; Hirama, Tomoko; Kelly, John F; MacKenzie, Roger; Tanha, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    We set out to gain deeper insight into the potential of antibody light chain variable domains (VLs) as immunotherapeutics. To this end, we generated a naïve human VL phage display library and, by using a method previously shown to select for non-aggregating antibody heavy chain variable domains (VHs), we isolated a diversity of VL domains by panning the library against B cell super-antigen protein L. Eight domains representing different germline origins were shown to be non-aggregating at concentrations as high as 450 µM, indicating VL repertoires are a rich source of non-aggregating domains. In addition, the VLs demonstrated high expression yields in E. coli, protein L binding and high reversibility of thermal unfolding. A side-by-side comparison with a set of non-aggregating human VHs revealed that the VLs had similar overall profiles with respect to melting temperature (T(m)), reversibility of thermal unfolding and resistance to gastrointestinal proteases. Successful engineering of a non-canonical disulfide linkage in the core of VLs did not compromise the non-aggregation state or protein L binding properties. Furthermore, the introduced disulfide bond significantly increased their T(m)s, by 5.5-17.5 ° C, and pepsin resistance, although it somewhat reduced expression yields and subtly changed the structure of VLs. Human VLs and engineered versions may make suitable therapeutics due to their desirable biophysical features. The disulfide linkage-engineered VLs may be the preferred therapeutic format because of their higher stability, especially for oral therapy applications that necessitate high resistance to the stomach's acidic pH and pepsin. PMID:24423624

  17. Prognostic Significance of Serum Free Light Chains in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Sarris, Katerina; Koulieris, Efstathios; Bartzis, Vassiliki; Tzenou, Tatiana; Sachanas, Sotirios; Nikolaou, Eftychia; Efthymiou, Anna; Bitsani, Katerina; Dimou, Maria; Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros P.; Angelopoulou, Maria K.; Kontopidou, Flora; Tsaftaridis, Panagiotis; Kafasi, Nikolitsa; Pangalis, Gerasimos A.; Panayiotidis, Panayiotis P.; Harding, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Background. Serum free light chains (sFLC), the most commonly detected paraprotein in CLL, were recently proposed as useful tools for the prognostication of CLL patients. Objective. To investigate the prognostic implication of sFLC and the summated FLC-kappa plus FLC-lambda in a CLL patients' series. Patients and Methods. We studied 143 CLL patients of which 18 were symptomatic and needed treatment, while 37 became symptomatic during follow-up. Seventy-two percent, 18%, and 10% were in Binet stage A, B and C, respectively. Median patients' followup was 32 months (range 4–228). Results. Increased involved (restricted) sFLC (iFLC) was found in 42% of patients, while the summated FLC-kappa plus FLC-lambda was above 60 mg/dL in 14%. Increased sFLC values as well as those of summated FLC above 60 were related to shorter time to treatment (P = 0.0005 and P = 0.000003, resp.) and overall survival (P = 0.05 and P = 0.003, resp.). They also correlated with β2-microglobulin (P = 0.009 and P = 0.03, resp.), serum albumin (P = 0.009 for summated sFLC), hemoglobin (P < 0.001), abnormal LDH (P = 0.037 and P = 0.001, resp.), Binet stage (P < 0.05) and with the presence of beta symptoms (P = 0.004 for summated sFLC). Conclusion. We confirmed the prognostic significance of sFLC in CLL regarding both time to treatment and survival and showed their relationship with other parameters. PMID:24288537

  18. A Heterologous Reporter Defines the Role of the Tetanus Toxin Interchain Disulfide in Light-Chain Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Zuverink, Madison; Chen, Chen; Przedpelski, Amanda; Blum, Faith C.

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and tetanus toxin (TeNT) are the most potent toxins for humans and elicit unique pathologies due to their ability to traffic within motor neurons. BoNTs act locally within motor neurons to elicit flaccid paralysis, while retrograde TeNT traffics to inhibitory neurons within the central nervous system (CNS) to elicit spastic paralysis. BoNT and TeNT are dichain proteins linked by an interchain disulfide bond comprised of an N-terminal catalytic light chain (LC) and a C-terminal heavy chain (HC) that encodes an LC translocation domain (HCT) and a receptor-binding domain (HCR). LC translocation is the least understood property of toxin action, but it involves low pH, proteolysis, and an intact interchain disulfide bridge. Recently, Pirazzini et al. (FEBS Lett 587:150155, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2012.11.007) observed that inhibitors of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) blocked TeNT and BoNT action in cerebellar granular neurons. In the current study, an atoxic TeNT LC translocation reporter was engineered by fusing ?-lactamase to the N terminus of TeNT [?lac-TeNT(RY)] to investigate LC translocation in primary cortical neurons and Neuro-2a cells. ?lac-TeNT(RY) retained the interchain disulfide bond, showed ganglioside-dependent binding to neurons, required acidification to promote ?lac translocation, and was sensitive to auranofin, an inhibitor of thioredoxin reductase. Mutation of ?lac-TeNT(RY) at C439S and C467S eliminated the interchain disulfide bond and inhibited ?lac translocation. These data support the requirement of an intact interchain disulfide for LC translocation and imply that disulfide reduction is a prerequisite for LC delivery into the host cytosol. The data also support a model that LC translocation proceeds from the C to the N terminus. ?lac-TeNT(RY) is the first reporter system to measure translocation by an AB single-chain toxin in intact cells. PMID:25895970

  19. A Heterologous Reporter Defines the Role of the Tetanus Toxin Interchain Disulfide in Light-Chain Translocation.

    PubMed

    Zuverink, Madison; Chen, Chen; Przedpelski, Amanda; Blum, Faith C; Barbieri, Joseph T

    2015-07-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and tetanus toxin (TeNT) are the most potent toxins for humans and elicit unique pathologies due to their ability to traffic within motor neurons. BoNTs act locally within motor neurons to elicit flaccid paralysis, while retrograde TeNT traffics to inhibitory neurons within the central nervous system (CNS) to elicit spastic paralysis. BoNT and TeNT are dichain proteins linked by an interchain disulfide bond comprised of an N-terminal catalytic light chain (LC) and a C-terminal heavy chain (HC) that encodes an LC translocation domain (HCT) and a receptor-binding domain (HCR). LC translocation is the least understood property of toxin action, but it involves low pH, proteolysis, and an intact interchain disulfide bridge. Recently, Pirazzini et al. (FEBS Lett 587:150-155, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2012.11.007) observed that inhibitors of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) blocked TeNT and BoNT action in cerebellar granular neurons. In the current study, an atoxic TeNT LC translocation reporter was engineered by fusing β-lactamase to the N terminus of TeNT [βlac-TeNT(RY)] to investigate LC translocation in primary cortical neurons and Neuro-2a cells. βlac-TeNT(RY) retained the interchain disulfide bond, showed ganglioside-dependent binding to neurons, required acidification to promote βlac translocation, and was sensitive to auranofin, an inhibitor of thioredoxin reductase. Mutation of βlac-TeNT(RY) at C439S and C467S eliminated the interchain disulfide bond and inhibited βlac translocation. These data support the requirement of an intact interchain disulfide for LC translocation and imply that disulfide reduction is a prerequisite for LC delivery into the host cytosol. The data also support a model that LC translocation proceeds from the C to the N terminus. βlac-TeNT(RY) is the first reporter system to measure translocation by an AB single-chain toxin in intact cells. PMID:25895970

  20. Primary hepatic amyloidosis: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Sonthalia, Nikhil; Jain, Samit; Pawar, Sunil; Zanwar, Vinay; Surude, Ravindra; Rathi, Praveen M

    2016-02-28

    We describe a case of 42-year-old female presenting with abdominal pain associated with loss of weight and fever for 8 mo. On evaluation she had gross hepatomegaly with raised alkaline phosphatase and raised GGT levels with normal transaminases and bilirubin. On imaging she had diffuse enlargement of liver with heterogeneous contrast uptake in liver. Her viral marker and autoimmune markers were negative. Liver biopsy depicted massive deposition of amyloid in peri-sinusoidal spaces which revealed apple green birefringence on polarizing microscopy after Congo red staining. Cardiac and renal evaluation was unremarkable. Abdominal fat pad and rectum biopsy was negative for amyloid deposit. There was no evidence of primary amyloidosis as bone marrow examination was normal. Serum and urine immunofixation electrophoresis were normal. Immunoperoxidase staining for serum amyloid associated protein for secondary amyloidosis was negative from liver biopsy. We present this rare case of primary hepatic amyloidosis and review the literature regarding varied presentations of hepatic involvement in amyloidosis. PMID:26962400

  1. [Otolaryngological complaints in tongue amyloidosis: a case report].

    PubMed

    Pons Rocher, F; Guallart Doménech, F; Mompó Romero, L; Artazkozl del Toro, J J; Serrano Badía, E; Dalmau Galofré, J; Faubel Serra, M

    1994-01-01

    We present a case of Amyloidosis of the oral cavity associated to multiple mieloma, with otolaryngological symptom. Review of structural characterization of the disease, its pathogenesis and clinical disorders when displayed in thyroid, oral cavity and upper respiratory tract. PMID:7864303

  2. [New advances in the subtyping of systemic amyloidosis].

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei-Yi; Li, Jian

    2014-02-01

    Amyloidosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases caused by deposition of misfolded proteins, which usually leads to organ dysfunction. Accurate typing of amyloid deposits is of paramount importance because organ involvements and disease prognosis differ widely among different subtypes, and its treatments are type specific. Correct identification of amyloidogenic protein is crucial to proper treatment. Traditional antibody-based diagnostic methods such as immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence are helpful in amyloid typing, but limitations of those approaches including antibody availability and serum protein contamination impair sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis. Sometimes misdiagnosis can lead to catastrophic therapeutic outcome. Genetic testing is important to confirm the diagnosis of hereditary amyloidosis. Nowadays proteomic analysis has been used as an advanced strategy for amyloid typing and the gold-standard today is laser microdissection followed by mass spectrometry (LMD/MS), which can identify causal protein without additional clinical information. Furthermore, LMD/MS is performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens, thus large scale retrospective studies based on archival material can be conducted. In recent studies, LMD/MS has been proven superior to traditional methods without the drawbacks mentioned above. This proteomic approach provides guarantee of appropriate clinical management and probability of new insights into the mechanism of amyloidosis.In this article the new advances of studies on subtyping of systemic amyloidosis are reviewed. PMID:24598691

  3. Primary hepatic amyloidosis: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sonthalia, Nikhil; Jain, Samit; Pawar, Sunil; Zanwar, Vinay; Surude, Ravindra; Rathi, Praveen M

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of 42-year-old female presenting with abdominal pain associated with loss of weight and fever for 8 mo. On evaluation she had gross hepatomegaly with raised alkaline phosphatase and raised GGT levels with normal transaminases and bilirubin. On imaging she had diffuse enlargement of liver with heterogeneous contrast uptake in liver. Her viral marker and autoimmune markers were negative. Liver biopsy depicted massive deposition of amyloid in peri-sinusoidal spaces which revealed apple green birefringence on polarizing microscopy after Congo red staining. Cardiac and renal evaluation was unremarkable. Abdominal fat pad and rectum biopsy was negative for amyloid deposit. There was no evidence of primary amyloidosis as bone marrow examination was normal. Serum and urine immunofixation electrophoresis were normal. Immunoperoxidase staining for serum amyloid associated protein for secondary amyloidosis was negative from liver biopsy. We present this rare case of primary hepatic amyloidosis and review the literature regarding varied presentations of hepatic involvement in amyloidosis. PMID:26962400

  4. Cytokinesis is not controlled by calmodulin or myosin light chain kinase in the Caenorhabditis elegans early embryo

    PubMed Central

    Batchelder, Ellen L.; Thomas–Virnig, Christina L.; Hardin, Jeffery D.; White, John G.

    2007-01-01

    Furrow ingression in animal cell cytokinesis is controlled by phosphorylation of myosin II regulatory light chain (mRLC). In C. elegans embryos, Rho-dependent Kinase (RhoK) is involved in, but not absolutely required for, this phosphorylation. The calmodulin effector Myosin Light Chain Kinase (MLCK) can also phosphorylate mRLC and is widely regarded as a candidate for redundant function with RhoK. However, our results show that RNAi against C. elegans calmodulin and candidate MLCKs had no effect on cytokinesis in wild type or RhoK mutant embryos, ruling out the calmodulin/MLCK pathway as the missing regulator of cytokinesis in the C. elegans early embryo. PMID:17716666

  5. Effects of Myosin “Essential” Light Chain A1 on the Aggregation Properties of the Myosin Head

    PubMed Central

    Markov, D.I.; Nikolaeva, O.P.

    2010-01-01

    We compared the thermal aggregation properties of two isoforms of the isolated myosin head (myosin subfragment 1, S1) containing different “essential” (or “alkali”) light chains, A1 or A2. Temperature dependencies for the aggregation of these two S1 isoforms, as measured by the increase in turbidity, were compared with the temperature dependencies of their thermal denaturation obtained from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments. At relatively high ionic strength (in the presence of 100 mM KCl) close to its physiological values in muscle fibers, we have found no appreciable difference between the two S1 isoforms in their thermally induced aggregation. Under these conditions, the aggregation of both S1 isoforms was independent of the protein concentration and resulted from their irreversible denaturation, which led to the cohesion of denatured S1 molecules. In contrast, a significant difference between these S1 isoforms was revealed in their aggregation measured at low ionic strength. Under these conditions, the aggregation of S1 containing a light chain A1 (but not A2) was strongly dependent on protein concentration, the increase of which (from 0.125 to 2.0 mg/ml) shifted the aggregation curve by ~10 degrees towards the lower temperatures. It has been concluded that the aggregation properties of this S1 isoform at low ionic strength is basically determined by intermolecular interactions of the N–terminal extension of the A1 light chain (which is absent in the A2 light chain) with other S1 molecules. These interactions seem to be independent of the S1 thermal denaturation, and they may take place even at low temperature. PMID:22649644

  6. Amplitude of the actomyosin power stroke depends strongly on the isoform of the myosin essential light chain.

    PubMed

    Guhathakurta, Piyali; Prochniewicz, Ewa; Thomas, David D

    2015-04-14

    We have used time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) to determine the role of myosin essential light chains (ELCs) in structural transitions within the actomyosin complex. Skeletal muscle myosins have two ELC isoforms, A1 and A2, which differ by an additional 40-45 residues at the N terminus of A1, and subfragment 1 (S1) containing A1 (S1A1) has higher catalytic efficiency and higher affinity for actin than S1A2. ELC's location at the junction between the catalytic and light-chain domains gives it the potential to play a central role in the force-generating power stroke. Therefore, we measured site-directed TR-FRET between a donor on actin and an acceptor near the C terminus of ELC, detecting directly the rotation of the light-chain domain (lever arm) relative to actin (power stroke), induced by the interaction of ATP-bound myosin with actin. TR-FRET resolved the weakly bound (W) and strongly bound (S) states of actomyosin during the W-to-S transition (power stroke). We found that the W states are essentially the same for the two isoenzymes, but the S states are quite different, indicating a much larger movement of S1A1. FRET from actin to a probe on the N-terminal extension of A1 showed close proximity to actin. We conclude that the N-terminal extension of A1-ELC modulates the W-to-S structural transition of acto-S1, so that the light-chain domain undergoes a much larger power stroke in S1A1 than in S1A2. These results have profound implications for understanding the contractile function of actomyosin, as needed in therapeutic design for muscle disorders. PMID:25825773

  7. Amplitude of the actomyosin power stroke depends strongly on the isoform of the myosin essential light chain

    PubMed Central

    Guhathakurta, Piyali; Prochniewicz, Ewa; Thomas, David D.

    2015-01-01

    We have used time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) to determine the role of myosin essential light chains (ELCs) in structural transitions within the actomyosin complex. Skeletal muscle myosins have two ELC isoforms, A1 and A2, which differ by an additional 40–45 residues at the N terminus of A1, and subfragment 1 (S1) containing A1 (S1A1) has higher catalytic efficiency and higher affinity for actin than S1A2. ELC’s location at the junction between the catalytic and light-chain domains gives it the potential to play a central role in the force-generating power stroke. Therefore, we measured site-directed TR-FRET between a donor on actin and an acceptor near the C terminus of ELC, detecting directly the rotation of the light-chain domain (lever arm) relative to actin (power stroke), induced by the interaction of ATP-bound myosin with actin. TR-FRET resolved the weakly bound (W) and strongly bound (S) states of actomyosin during the W-to-S transition (power stroke). We found that the W states are essentially the same for the two isoenzymes, but the S states are quite different, indicating a much larger movement of S1A1. FRET from actin to a probe on the N-terminal extension of A1 showed close proximity to actin. We conclude that the N-terminal extension of A1-ELC modulates the W-to-S structural transition of acto-S1, so that the light-chain domain undergoes a much larger power stroke in S1A1 than in S1A2. These results have profound implications for understanding the contractile function of actomyosin, as needed in therapeutic design for muscle disorders. PMID:25825773

  8. Papaverine Prevents Vasospasm by Regulation of Myosin Light Chain Phosphorylation and Actin Polymerization in Human Saphenous Vein

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Kyle M.; Putumbaka, Gowthami; Wise, Eric S.; Cheung-Flynn, Joyce; Brophy, Colleen M.; Komalavilas, Padmini

    2016-01-01

    Objective Papaverine is used to prevent vasospasm in human saphenous veins (HSV) during vein graft preparation prior to implantation as a bypass conduit. Papaverine is a nonspecific inhibitor of phosphodiesterases, leading to increases in both intracellular cGMP and cAMP. We hypothesized that papaverine reduces force by decreasing intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) and myosin light chain phosphorylation, and increasing actin depolymerization via regulation of actin regulatory protein phosphorylation. Approach and Results HSV was equilibrated in a muscle bath, pre-treated with 1 mM papaverine followed by 5 μM norepinephrine, and force along with [Ca2+]i levels were concurrently measured. Filamentous actin (F-actin) level was measured by an in vitro actin assay. Tissue was snap frozen to measure myosin light chain and actin regulatory protein phosphorylation. Pre-treatment with papaverine completely inhibited norepinephrine-induced force generation, blocked increases in [Ca2+]i and led to a decrease in the phosphorylation of myosin light chain. Papaverine pre-treatment also led to increased phosphorylation of the heat shock-related protein 20 (HSPB6) and the vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), as well as decreased filamentous actin (F-actin) levels suggesting depolymerization of actin. Conclusions These results suggest that papaverine-induced force inhibition of HSV involves [Ca2+]i-mediated inhibition of myosin light chain phosphorylation and actin regulatory protein phosphorylation-mediated actin depolymerization. Thus, papaverine induces sustained inhibition of contraction of HSV by the modulation of both myosin cross-bridge formation and actin cytoskeletal dynamics and is a pharmacological alternative to high pressure distention to prevent vasospasm. PMID:27136356

  9. Systemic lupus erythematosus: molecular cloning of several recombinant DNase monoclonal kappa light chains with different catalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Botvinovskaya, Alina V; Kostrikina, Irina A; Buneva, Valentina N; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2013-10-01

    An immunoglobulin light chain phagemid library derived from peripheral blood lymphocytes of three patients with systemic lupus erythematosus was used. Phage particles displaying DNA binding light chains were isolated by affinity chromatography on DNA-cellulose, and the fraction eluted by an acidic buffer (pH 2.6) was used for preparation of individual monoclonal light chains (MLChs, 28?kDa). Thirty three of 687 individual colonies obtained were randomly chosen for study of MLCh DNase activity. Nineteen of 33 clones contained MLChs with DNase activity. Four preparations of MLChs were expressed in Escherichia coli in soluble form, purified by metal chelating chromatography followed by gel filtration, and studied in detail. Detection of DNase activity after SDS-PAGE in a gel containing DNA demonstrated that the four MLChs are not contaminated by canonical DNases. The MLChs demonstrated one or two pH optima. They were inactive after the dialysis against ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid but could be activated by several externally added metal ions; the ratio of relative activity in the presence of Mg(2+) , Mn(2+) , Ni(2+) , Ca(2+) , Zn(2+) , and Co(2+) was individual for each MLCh preparation. K(+) and Na(+) inhibited the DNase activity of various MLChs at different concentrations. Hydrolysis of DNA by all four MLCh was saturable and consistent with Michaelis-Menten kinetics. These clones are the first examples of recombinant MLChs possessing high affinity for DNA (Km ?=?3-9?nM) and demonstrating high kcat values (3.4-6.9?min(-1) ). These observations suggest that the systemic lupus erythematosus light chain repertoire can serve as a source of new types of DNases. PMID:23996487

  10. Molecular and genetic characterization of SLC1, a putative Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog of the metazoan cytoplasmic dynein light chain 1.

    PubMed

    Dick, T; Surana, U; Chia, W

    1996-04-24

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a multisubunit, microtubule-dependent motor enzyme that has been proposed to function in a variety of intracellular movements. As part of an effort to understand the evolution and the biological roles of cytoplasmic dynein, we have identified the first non-metazoan dynein light chain 1, SLC1, in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The amino acid sequence of the SLC1 protein is similar to those of the human, Drosophila and Caenorhabditis cytoplasmic dynein light chains 1. The SLC1 gene lies adjacent to the YAP2 (= CAD1) transcription unit. The SLC1 coding sequence is split by two introns and its mRNA is detectable throughout the cell cycle. Tetrad analysis of heterozygotes harboring a TRP insertion in the SLC1 coding region indicate that SLC1 function is not essential for cell viability. Furthermore, we demonstrate that double mutants, defective for SLC1 and the kinesin-related CIN8 genes are non-lethal. The redundancy of SLC1 function in yeast contrasts with the cell death caused by loss-of-function mutations in the dynein light chain 1 gene in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:8628245

  11. Cloning, high level expression, purification, and crystallization of the full length Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type E light chain.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Rakhi; Eswaramoorthy, Subramaniam; Kumaran, Desigan; Dunn, John J; Swaminathan, Subramanyam

    2004-03-01

    The catalytic activity of the highly potent botulinum neurotoxins are confined to their N-terminal light chains ( approximately 50kDa). A full-length light chain for the type E neurotoxin with a C-terminal 6x His-tag, BoNT/E-LC, has been cloned in a pET-9c vector and over-expressed in BL21 (DE3) cells. BoNT/E-LC was purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on Ni-NTA agarose followed by exclusion chromatography using a Superdex-75 sizing column. The purified protein has very good solubility and can be stored stably at -20 degrees C; however, it seems to undergo auto-proteolysis when stored at temperature #10878;4-10 degrees C. BoNT/E-LC is active on its natural substrate, the synaptosomal associated 25kDa protein, SNAP-25, indicating that it retains a native-like conformation and therefore can be considered as a useful tool in studying the structure/function of the catalytic light chain. Recombinant BoNT/E-LC has been crystallized under five different conditions and at various pHs. Crystals diffract to better than 2.1A. PMID:14766304

  12. The kappa immunoglobulin light chain repertoire of peripheral blood B cells in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Morbach, Henner; Richl, Petra; Faber, Claudius; Singh, Sunit K; Girschick, Hermann J

    2008-08-01

    The frequent appearance of antinuclear antibodies in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) indicates a loss of tolerance in B cell differentiation and/or activation. In this analysis, we were interested whether particular changes in the immunoglobulin light chain repertoire might exist in early-onset pauciarticular arthritis (EOPA) patients thereby potentially revealing distinct molecular patterns, which characterize defects in central tolerance mechanisms as well as an autoreactive peripheral B cell repertoire. Using single cell sorting and single cell PCR the distribution of Vkappa Jkappa rearrangements has been analyzed in individual naïve B cells of patients with EOPA-JRA and healthy individuals. The immunoglobulin kappa light chain repertoire of peripheral blood B cells in EOPA patients seems to be skewed to a decreased use of downstream Vkappa gene segments indicating increased events of secondary V(D)J-recombination. Another prominent molecular pattern in JRA B cells seem to be a restricted combination of Vkappa Jkappa rearrangements based on the predominant utilization of the Jkappa 1 and 2 gene segment. The current study indicates disturbances in the peripheral B cell pool in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. The peripheral blood B cell pool of JRA patients did show molecular changes in the kappa light chain repertoire which, in part, could be a sequel of secondary V(D)J-recombination and of a molecular bias during immunoglobulin rearrangement in the bone marrow. Thus, B cell tolerance might be broken by more than one pathogenic mechanism. PMID:18614233

  13. Hsc70-induced Changes in Clathrin-Auxilin Cage Structure Suggest a Role for Clathrin Light Chains in Cage Disassembly

    PubMed Central

    Young, Anna; Stoilova-McPhie, Svetla; Rothnie, Alice; Vallis, Yvonne; Harvey-Smith, Phillip; Ranson, Neil; Kent, Helen; Brodsky, Frances M; Pearse, Barbara M F; Roseman, Alan; Smith, Corinne J

    2013-01-01

    The molecular chaperone, Hsc70, together with its co-factor, auxilin, facilitates the ATP-dependent removal of clathrin during clathrin-mediated endocytosis in cells. We have used cryo-electron microscopy to determine the 3D structure of a complex of clathrin, auxilin401-910 and Hsc70 at pH 6 in the presence of ATP, frozen within 20 seconds of adding Hsc70 in order to visualize events that follow the binding of Hsc70 to clathrin and auxilin before clathrin disassembly. In this map, we observe density beneath the vertex of the cage that we attribute to bound Hsc70. This density emerges asymmetrically from the clathrin vertex, suggesting preferential binding by Hsc70 for one of the three possible sites at the vertex. Statistical comparison with a map of whole auxilin and clathrin previously published by us reveals the location of statistically significant differences which implicate involvement of clathrin light chains in structural rearrangements which occur after Hsc70 is recruited. Clathrin disassembly assays using light scattering suggest that loss of clathrin light chains reduces the efficiency with which auxilin facilitates this reaction. These data support a regulatory role for clathrin light chains in clathrin disassembly in addition to their established role in regulating clathrin assembly. PMID:23710728

  14. Mutations of the Drosophila Myosin Regulatory Light Chain Affect Courtship Song and Reduce Reproductive Success

    PubMed Central

    Chakravorty, Samya; Vu, Hien; Foelber, Veronica; Vigoreaux, Jim O.

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila indirect flight muscles (IFM) rely on an enhanced stretch-activation response to generate high power output for flight. The IFM is neurally activated during the male courtship song, but its role, if any, in generating the small amplitude wing vibrations that produce the song is not known. Here, we examined the courtship song properties and mating behavior of three mutant strains of the myosin regulatory light chain (DMLC2) that are known to affect IFM contractile properties and impair flight: (i) Dmlc2Δ2–46 (Ext), an N-terminal extension truncation; (ii) Dmlc2S66A,S67A (Phos), a disruption of two MLC kinase phosphorylation sites; and (iii) Dmlc2Δ2–46;S66A,S67A (Dual), expressing both mutations. Our results show that the Dmlc2 gene is pleiotropic and that mutations that have a profound effect on flight mechanics (Phos and Dual) have minimal effects on courtship song. None of the mutations affect interpulse interval (IPI), a determinant of species-specific song, and intrapulse frequency (IPF) compared to Control (Dmlc2+ rescued null strain). However, abnormalities in the sine song (increased frequency) and the pulse song (increased cycles per pulse and pulse length) evident in Ext males are not apparent in Dual males suggesting that Ext and Phos interact differently in song and flight mechanics, given their known additive effect on the latter. All three mutant males produce a less vigorous pulse song and exhibit impaired mating behavior compared to Control males. As a result, females are less receptive to Ext, Phos, and Dual males when a Control male is present. These results open the possibility that DMLC2, and perhaps contractile protein genes in general, are partly under sexual selection. That mutations in DMLC2 manifest differently in song and flight suggest that this protein fulfills different roles in song and flight and that stretch activation plays a smaller role in song production than in flight. PMID:24587213

  15. Enhanced paracellular transport of insulin can be achieved via transient induction of myosin light chain phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Taverner, Alistair; Dondi, Ruggero; Almansour, Khaled; Laurent, Floriane; Owens, Siân-Eleri; Eggleston, Ian M.; Fotaki, Nikoletta; Mrsny, Randall J.

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium functions to effectively restrict the causal uptake of luminal contents but has been demonstrated to transiently increase paracellular permeability properties to provide an additional entry route for dietary macromolecules. We have examined a method to emulate this endogenous mechanism as a means of enhancing the oral uptake of insulin. Two sets of stable Permeant Inhibitor of Phosphatase (PIP) peptides were rationally designed to stimulate phosphorylation of intracellular epithelial myosin light chain (MLC) and screened using Caco-2 monolayers in vitro. Apical application of PIP peptide 640, designed to disrupt protein–protein interactions between protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and its regulator CPI-17, resulted in a reversible and non-toxic transient reduction in Caco-2 monolayer trans-epithelial electric resistance (TEER) and opening of the paracellular route to 4 kDa fluorescent dextran but not 70 kDa dextran in vitro. Apical application of PIP peptide 250, designed to impede MYPT1-mediated regulation of PP1, also decreased TEER in a reversible and non-toxic manner but transiently opened the paracellular route to both 4 and 70 kDa fluorescent dextrans. Direct injection of PIP peptides 640 or 250 with human insulin into the lumen of rat jejunum caused a decrease in blood glucose levels that was PIP peptide and insulin dose-dependent and correlated with increased pMLC levels. Systemic levels of insulin suggested approximately 3–4% of the dose injected into the intestinal lumen was absorbed, relative to a subcutaneous injection. Measurement of insulin levels in the portal vein showed a time window of absorption that was consistent with systemic concentration-time profiles and approximately 50% first-pass clearance by the liver. Monitoring the uptake of a fluorescent form of insulin suggested its uptake occurred via the paracellular route. Together, these studies add validation to the presence of an endogenous mechanism used by the intestinal epithelium to dynamically regulate its paracellular permeability properties and better define the potential to enhance the oral delivery of biopharmaceuticals via a transient regulation of an endogenous mechanism controlling the intestinal paracellular barrier. PMID:25980620

  16. Ca2+, caldesmon, and myosin light chain kinase exchange with calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Kasturi, R; Vasulka, C; Johnson, J D

    1993-04-15

    Wheat calmodulin (CaM) was labeled at Cys-27 with the sulfhydryl-specific fluorescent probe 2-(4'-maleimidoanilino)-naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid (MIANS), to form MIANS.CaM. In the presence of Ca2+, MIANS.CaM undergoes a large fluorescence increase when it binds myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and caldesmon (CaD), but little fluorescence change when it binds CaM antagonists or Ca2+. MLCK associates with MIANS.CaM at a rate of 2.8 x 10(7) M-1 s-1 and dissociates at 0.031 s-1 (Kd = 1.1 nM). Protein kinase A phosphorylation of MLCK (P-MLCK) produces a 3.5-fold decrease in its association rate with CaM and a 6-fold increase in its dissociation rate (Kd = 23 nM). CaD associates with MIANS.CaM with a rate of 5.3 x 10(8) M-1 s-1 and dissociates at 57 s-1 (Kd = 108 nM). EGTA disrupts the CaM.MLCK, CaM.P-MLCK, and the CaM.CaD complexes at rates of 3.5 s-1, 6.5 s-1, and 13.5 s-1, respectively. MLCK, therefore, dissociates from CaM more quickly by Ca2+ removal while the lower affinity CaD is dissociated more quickly by competition from higher affinity CaM target proteins than by Ca2+ removal. MLCK binding to CaM slowed Ca2+ dissociation from CaM's C-terminal Ca(2+)-binding sites from 30 s-1 to 6 s-1 while CaD had little effect on Ca2+ dissociation from these sites. During a Ca2+ transient, CaM could exchange with MLCK and CaD rapidly enough for these proteins to be directly involved in the contraction/relaxation cycle of smooth muscle. PMID:8463316

  17. Orofacial amyloidosis-unusual -presentation of a rare condition: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Rachna; Pushpanshu, Kumar; Punyani, Silky R

    2016-03-01

    Orofacial amyloidosis is an extremely rare and generally a benign condition. In contrast to systemic amyloidosis, other organs are not involved; however, extensive investigations are recommended to intercept any systemic involvement. Diagnosis is confirmed by histological examination and Congo red staining. This condition does not have a known etiology, and hence no general consensus exists regarding its management. We are presenting a case of a 65-year-old female patient with orofacial amyloidosis having ocular and extensive oral involvement. PMID:26763405

  18. Macular posterior pigmentary incontinence: its relation to macular amyloidosis and notalgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Westermark, P; Ridderström, E; Vahlquist, A

    1996-07-01

    Patients with clinical features of dorsal macular amyloidosis but without subepidermal amyloid deposits were followed for 2-11 years. The clinical appearance was fairly stable during this period of time, with little tendency of healing. Only 2 of the patients developed typical macular amyloidosis during the follow-up. It is concluded that a condition strongly resembling macular amyloidosis but without amyloid is an entity, and the designation "macular posterior pigmentary incontinence" is proposed. The relationship between macular posterior pigmentary incontinence and the two conditions macular amyloidosis and notalgia paresthetica is discussed. PMID:8869690

  19. AA amyloidosis in the renal allograft: a report of two cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Rebecca; Josephson, Michelle A.; Chang, Anthony; Meehan, Shane M.

    2012-01-01

    AA amyloidosis is a disorder characterized by the abnormal formation, accumulation and systemic deposition of fibrillary material that frequently involves the kidney. Recurrent AA amyloidosis in the renal allograft has been documented in patients with tuberculosis, familial Mediterranean fever, ankylosing spondylitis, chronic pyelonephritis and rheumatoid arthritis. De novo AA amyloidosis is rarely described. We report two cases of AA amyloidosis in the renal allograft. Our first case is a 47-year-old male with a history of ankylosing spondylitis who developed end-stage renal disease reportedly from tubulointerstitial nephritis from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent use. A biopsy was never performed. One year after transplantation, AA amyloidosis was identified in the femoral head and 8 years post-transplantation, AA amyloidosis was identified in the renal allograft. He was treated with colchicine and adalimumab and has stable renal function at 1 year-follow-up. Our second case is a 57-year-old male with a long history of intravenous drug use and hepatitis C infection who developed end-stage kidney disease due to AA amyloidosis. Our second patient's course was complicated by renal adenovirus, pulmonary aspergillosis and hepatitis C with AA amyloidosis subsequently being identified in the allograft 2.5 years post-transplantation. Renal allograft function remains stable 4-years post-transplantation. These reports describe clinical and pathologic features of two cases of AA amyloidosis presenting with proteinuria and focal involvement of the renal allograft. PMID:22833808

  20. Utility of technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate bone scanning in cardiac amyloidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Gertz, M.A.; Brown, M.L.; Hauser, M.F.; Kyle, R.A.

    1987-06-01

    Thirty-four patients with amyloidosis proved by biopsy specimen were studied using technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy to assess its utility in the diagnosis of amyloid heart involvement. Of 14 patients studied retrospectively, only three had intense uptake judged to be diagnostic of cardiac amyloidosis. In a prospective analysis of 20 patients with amyloidosis, all of whom had evidence of cardiac involvement by two-dimensional echocardiography, 17 had abnormal scans. Fourteen of the 17 scans had only 1+ or 2+ uptake, a finding that also was present in 15 of the 20 control patients (without amyloid heart disease). Only three of the 20 patients with cardiac amyloidosis had intense uptake that was considered unequivocal and diagnostic of amyloidosis. Of the five patients with biopsy specimen proof of endomyocardial amyloidosis, only one had intense uptake and one had no uptake. When intense uptake of technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate is found in the heart of a patient, amyloidosis is highly likely. The technique, however, is not sufficiently sensitive to warrant routine screening of patients with amyloidosis or cardiomyopathies. Cross-sectional echocardiography is superior to pyrophosphate scintigraphy for recognition of cardiac amyloidosis.

  1. Asymptomatic localized pleural amyloidosis mimicking malignant pleural mesothelioma: report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Tomoyuki; Tetsuka, Kenji; Fukushima, Noriyoshi

    2016-01-01

    We herein report an asymptomatic 65-year-old male with localized pleural amyloidosis mimicking malignant pleural mesothelioma. He had a history of exposure to asbestos and was admitted for investigation of an abnormal pleural thickness detected by chest radiography. Positron emission tomography showed elevation of standardized uptake value corresponding to the pleural thickness. Partial pleurectomy including the tumor was performed for the purpose of diagnosis and local disease control. The pathological examination showed that the tumor was pleural amyloidosis. The tumor was diagnosed as localized primary amyloidosis, because serum monoclonal protein concentration did not increase. Pleural amyloidosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis from pleural mesothelioma. PMID:26904248

  2. AA amyloidosis in the renal allograft: a report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Rebecca; Josephson, Michelle A; Chang, Anthony; Meehan, Shane M

    2012-04-01

    AA amyloidosis is a disorder characterized by the abnormal formation, accumulation and systemic deposition of fibrillary material that frequently involves the kidney. Recurrent AA amyloidosis in the renal allograft has been documented in patients with tuberculosis, familial Mediterranean fever, ankylosing spondylitis, chronic pyelonephritis and rheumatoid arthritis. De novo AA amyloidosis is rarely described. We report two cases of AA amyloidosis in the renal allograft. Our first case is a 47-year-old male with a history of ankylosing spondylitis who developed end-stage renal disease reportedly from tubulointerstitial nephritis from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent use. A biopsy was never performed. One year after transplantation, AA amyloidosis was identified in the femoral head and 8 years post-transplantation, AA amyloidosis was identified in the renal allograft. He was treated with colchicine and adalimumab and has stable renal function at 1 year-follow-up. Our second case is a 57-year-old male with a long history of intravenous drug use and hepatitis C infection who developed end-stage kidney disease due to AA amyloidosis. Our second patient's course was complicated by renal adenovirus, pulmonary aspergillosis and hepatitis C with AA amyloidosis subsequently being identified in the allograft 2.5 years post-transplantation. Renal allograft function remains stable 4-years post-transplantation. These reports describe clinical and pathologic features of two cases of AA amyloidosis presenting with proteinuria and focal involvement of the renal allograft. PMID:22833808

  3. Chronic eyelid swelling as an initial manifestation of myeloma-associated amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Chee, Elaine; Kim, Yoon-Duck; Lee, Jung Hye; Woo, Kyung In

    2013-01-01

    Orbital amyloidosis is uncommon and difficult to diagnose due to their variable clinical presentations. The authors report a case of a patient who presents with chronic eyelid swelling as an initial manifestation of myeloma-associated amyloidosis. This patient was also found to have retrobulbar infiltration with no visual impairment. The authors also describe the first documentation of the atypical necrotic appearance of amyloidosis in the involved eyelid tissues. Myeloma-associated amyloidosis can present as chronic, nonspecific periorbital swelling, hence a biopsy of the affected tissues is important in preventing a delay in the correct diagnosis. PMID:22955341

  4. Tracheobronchial amyloidosis in a patient with Sjogren syndrome.

    PubMed

    Inaty, Hanine; Folch, Erik; Stephen, Christopher; Majid, Adnan

    2013-07-01

    Pulmonary amyloidosis in the setting of Sjogren syndrome is rare. It most commonly presents in form of multinodular disease with or without cysts formation. Amyloid plaques may also deposit in the airway submucosa, causing airway narrowing; the condition referred as "tracheobronchial amyloidosis" (TBA). Patients with this condition most commonly present with postobstructive pneumonia, wheezing, and occasionally hemoptysis. Endoscopic therapies, using flexible forceps with or without laser therapy is crucial to alleviate the obstruction and control the bleeding. Other therapeutic modalities such as external beam radiation has been shown to be promising; however, further data are still needed. To our knowledge, our patient is the first reported case of TBA in a setting of Sjogren syndrome. PMID:23857203

  5. Guideline of transthyretin-related hereditary amyloidosis for clinicians

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Transthyretin amyloidosis is a progressive and eventually fatal disease primarily characterized by sensory, motor, and autonomic neuropathy and/or cardiomyopathy. Given its phenotypic unpredictability and variability, transthyretin amyloidosis can be difficult to recognize and manage. Misdiagnosis is common, and patients may wait several years before accurate diagnosis, risking additional significant irreversible deterioration. This article aims to help physicians better understand transthyretin amyloidosis—and, specifically, familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy—so they can recognize and manage the disease more easily and discuss it with their patients. We provide guidance on making a definitive diagnosis, explain methods for disease staging and evaluation of disease progression, and discuss symptom mitigation and treatment strategies, including liver transplant and several pharmacotherapies that have shown promise in clinical trials. PMID:23425518

  6. FhCaBP3: a Fasciola hepatica calcium binding protein with EF-hand and dynein light chain domains.

    PubMed

    Banford, Samantha; Drysdale, Orla; Hoey, Elizabeth M; Trudgett, Alan; Timson, David J

    2013-04-01

    A DNA sequence encoding a protein with predicted EF-hand and dynein light chain binding domains was identified in a Fasciola hepatica EST library. Sequence analysis of the encoded protein revealed that the most similar known protein was the Fasciola gigantica protein FgCaBP3 and so this newly identified protein was named FhCaBP3. Molecular modelling of FhCaBP3 predicted a highly flexible N-terminal region, followed by a domain containing two EF-hand motifs the second of which is likely to be a functioning divalent ion binding site. The C-terminal domain of the protein contains a dynein light chain like region. Interestingly, molecular modelling predicts that calcium ion binding to the N-terminal domain destabilises the β-sheet structure of the C-terminal domain. FhCaBP3 can be expressed in, and purified from, Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein dimerises and the absence of calcium ions appeared to promote dimerisation. Native gel shift assays demonstrated that the protein bound to calcium and manganese ions, but not to magnesium, barium, zinc, strontium, nickel, copper or cadmium ions. FhCaBP3 interacted with the calmodulin antagonists trifluoperazine, N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide and chlorpromazine as well as the myosin regulatory light chain-binding drug praziquantel. Despite sequence and structural similarities to other members of the same protein family from F. hepatica, FhCaBP3 has different biochemical properties to the other well characterised family members, FH22 and FhCaBP4. This suggests that each member of this trematode calcium-binding family has discrete functional roles within the organism. PMID:23142130

  7. Myosin light chain phosphorylation in sup 32 P-labeled rabbit aorta stimulated by phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate and phenylephrine

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, H.A.; Oren, J.W.; Benscoter, H.A. )

    1989-12-15

    The mechanism(s) of force development in vascular smooth muscle following pharmacological activation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters are not known. In this study, we examined the myosin light chain phosphorylation response following stimulation by phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDB) or phenylephrine in rabbit aorta which had been incubated with 32PO4 in order to label ATP pools. Through tryptic phosphopeptide mapping of myosin light chain from intact tissue and comparison to controls using purified components, we inferred that Ca2+-dependent force stimulated by PDB was associated with small increases in serine-19 phosphorylation, consistent with a contractile mechanism involving indirect activation of myosin light chain kinase. Additional residues, consistent with the in vitro substrate specificity of protein kinase C, were also observed to be phosphorylated in response to PDB and represented proportionately a larger fraction of the total phosphorylated myosin light chain in Ca2+-depleted tissues. Stimulation by an alpha 1-adrenergic agonist (phenylephrine) resulted in phosphorylation of residues which were consistent with an activation mechanism involving myosin light chain kinase only. These results indicate that in rabbit aorta the contractile effects of PDB may be partially mediated by Ca2+-dependent activation of myosin light chain kinase. However, the data do not rule out a component of the PDB-stimulated contractile response which is independent of myosin light chain phosphorylation on the serine-19 residue. In addition, activation by a more physiological stimulus, phenylephrine, does not result in protein kinase C-mediated myosin light chain phosphorylation.

  8. Surgical Management of Pulmonary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Associated With Light-Chain Deposition Disease.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Largacha, Juan A; O'Hara, Carl J; Sloan, J Mark; Fernando, Hiran C; Litle, Virginia R

    2016-06-01

    A 52-year-old woman presented with a right middle lobe (RML) lung nodule suspicious for malignancy. Thoracoscopic middle lobectomy was performed. The pathology report revealed a pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in association with light-chain deposition disease (LCDD). Pulmonary MALT lymphoma and LCDD are unusual disorders presenting in the lung, and the association between these 2 conditions is even more uncommon. The optimal management for these patients is controversial, although surgical resection of localized well-circumscribed lesions may represent an effective therapeutic approach. PMID:27211983

  9. Monoclonal origin of localised orbital amyloidosis detected by molecular analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Pasternak, S; White, V A; Gascoyne, R D; Perry, S R; Johnson, R L; Rootman, J

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: Primary localised orbital amyloidosis is a rare disease. The purpose of this study was to describe two cases of primary orbital amyloidosis and emphasise the value of molecular analysis of immunoglobulin gene rearrangement in identifying a monoclonal population of cells responsible for the amyloid production. METHODS: Charts and biopsy specimens of each case were reviewed. Conventional light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for immunoglobulin gene rearrangement were performed in both cases. RESULTS: An unusual presentation of localised primary amyloidosis with bilateral and extensive enlargement of multiple extraocular muscles was seen in case 1. The presence of amyloid deposits was confirmed by biopsy in both cases. Evidence of a monoclonal population of plasma cells was shown by immunohistochemical analysis in case 2 only. The monoclonal origin of the cells responsible for the amyloid deposition was determined by PCR analysis demonstrating immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement in both cases. CONCLUSIONS: A monoclonal population of plasma cells responsible for the amyloid deposition was present in these two cases. PCR analysis is extremely helpful in determining monoclonality, a finding that may have important therapeutic and prognostic implications. Images PMID:8976732

  10. [A Case of Primary Gastric Amyloidosis with Fulminant Heart Failure].

    PubMed

    Hong, Seonghun; Chang, Young Woon; Byun, Jong Kyu; Kim, Min Je; Chae, Jung Min; Park, Sun Hee; Oh, Chi Hyuk; Park, Yong Koo

    2015-10-01

    A 53-year-old woman was admitted with epigastric discomfort and weakness. Laboratory examination at admission showed mild anemia and proteinuria. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed marked mucosal atrophy, diffuse nodularity and granular appearance with mucosal friability. Biopsy was performed on the antrum and body of the stomach. On the next day, the patient began to complain of severe dyspnea, and hypoxia was present on pulse oximetry. Therefore, emergency echocardiography was conducted and it showed restrictive cardiomyopathy along with thrombus in the left atrium. With time, heart failure was aggravated despite intensive management. The result of gastric biopsy revealed amyloid deposits which stained positively with Congo red. On immunohistochemistry study, kappa and lambda chain were present. In addition, kappa chain was significantly elevated in urine and serum on electrophoresis. Although the patient was finally diagnosed as having primary gastric amyloidosis with restrictive cardiomyopathy, her general condition rapidly deteriorated and died at 12th hospital day. When obscure gastric lesion is encountered, performing gastric biopsy is strongly recommended since it be primary gastric amyloidosis. Herein, we present an unusual case of primary gastric amyloidosis. PMID:26493509

  11. TNF causes changes in glomerular endothelial permeability and morphology through a Rho and myosin light chain kinase-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Hack, Bradley K; Bao, Lihua; Cunningham, Patrick N

    2015-12-01

    A key function of the endothelium is to serve as a regulated barrier between tissue compartments. We have previously shown that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays a crucial role in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute kidney injury, in part by causing injury to the renal endothelium through its receptor TNFR1. Here, we report that TNF increased permeability to albumin in primary culture mouse renal endothelial cells, as well as human glomerular endothelial cells. This process occurred in association with changes in the actin cytoskeleton and was associated with gaps between previously confluent cells in culture and decreases in the tight junction protein occludin. This process was dependent on myosin light chain activation, as seen by its prevention with Rho-associated kinase and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibitors. Surprisingly, permeability was not blocked by inhibition of apoptosis with caspase inhibitors. Additionally, we found that the renal glycocalyx, which plays an important role in barrier function, was also degraded by TNF in a Rho and MLCK dependent fashion. TNF treatment caused a decrease in the size of endothelial fenestrae, dependent on Rho and MLCK, although the relevance of this to changes in permeability is uncertain. In summary, TNF-induced barrier dysfunction in renal endothelial cells is crucially dependent upon the Rho/MLCK signaling pathway. PMID:26634902

  12. Role of ??? light-chain constant-domain switch in the structure and functionality of A17 reactibody

    SciTech Connect

    Ponomarenko, Natalia; Belogurov, Alexey Jr; Fedorova, Olga S.; Dubina, Michael; Golovin, Andrey; Lamzin, Victor; Makarov, Alexander A.; Wilmanns, Matthias

    2014-03-01

    Catalytic antibody variants with ? and ? light-chain constant domains show differences in their crystal structures which lead to subtle changes in catalytic efficiency and thermodynamic parameters as well as in their affinity for peptide substrates. The engineering of catalytic function in antibodies requires precise information on their structure. Here, results are presented that show how the antibody domain structure affects its functionality. The previously designed organophosphate-metabolizing reactibody A17 has been re-engineered by replacing its constant ? light chain by the ? chain (A17?), and the X-ray structure of A17? has been determined at 1.95 resolution. It was found that compared with A17? the active centre of A17? is displaced, stabilized and made more rigid owing to interdomain interactions involving the CDR loops from the V{sub L} and V{sub H} domains. These V{sub L}/V{sub H} domains also have lower mobility, as deduced from the atomic displacement parameters of the crystal structure. The antibody elbow angle is decreased to 126 compared with 138 in A17?. These structural differences account for the subtle changes in catalytic efficiency and thermodynamic parameters determined with two organophosphate ligands, as well as in the affinity for peptide substrates selected from a combinatorial cyclic peptide library, between the A17? and A17? variants. The data presented will be of interest and relevance to researchers dealing with the design of antibodies with tailor-made functions.

  13. Relationship between elevated immunoglobulin free light chain and the presence of IgH translocations in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Zhang, L; Dispenzieri, A; Van Wier, S; Katzmann, J A; Snyder, M; Blood, E; DeGoey, R; Henderson, K; Kyle, R A; Bradwell, A R; Greipp, P R; Rajkumar, S V; Fonseca, R

    2010-08-01

    Elevated immunoglobulin free light chain (FLC) level and abnormal FLC ratio are commonly seen in multiple myeloma (MM) and have prognostic implications. We hypothesized that presence of immunoglobin heavy chain (IgH) translocations leads to unbalanced production of light chains and more extreme abnormalities of FLC, and may explain the prognostic value of FLC. We studied 314 patients with newly diagnosed MM enrolled in a phase III trial, in whom results of fluorescence in situ hybridization testing and data on serum FLC levels were available. Cytogenetic analyses and FLC estimates were performed on stored samples and results were correlated with clinical data. The median ratio (FLC ratio) and the absolute difference (FLC diff) between the involved and uninvolved FLC were higher among those with IgH translocations, especially t(14;16). In multivariate analysis, the prognostic value of FLC estimates on progression-free and overall survival were independent of high-risk IgH translocations t(4;14) and t(14;16). A combination of the risk factors; either abnormal FLC estimate and/or the presence of high-risk IgH translocation, achieved better prognostic stratification. We conclude that patients with IgH translocations have higher FLC levels and abnormal ratios, but the prognostic effect of FLC is only partially explained by translocation status. A system including both these risk factors allows better prediction of outcome. PMID:20520636

  14. The carboxyl terminus of the smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase is expressed as an independent protein, telokin.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, P J; Herring, B P

    1991-12-15

    It has been proposed that the carboxyl terminus of the smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase is expressed as an independent protein. This protein has been purified from tissues and named telokin (Ito, M., Dabrowska, R., Guerriero, V., Jr., and Hartshorne, D. J. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 13971-13974). In this study we have isolated and characterized cDNA and genomic clones encoding telokin. Analysis of a genomic DNA clone suggests that the mRNA encoding telokin arises from a promoter which appears to be located within an intron of the smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) gene. This intron interrupts exons encoding the calmodulin binding domain of the kinase. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA predicts that telokin is identical to the carboxyl-terminal 155 residues of the smooth muscle MLCK. Unlike the smooth muscle MLCK which is expressed in both smooth and non-muscle tissues, telokin is expressed in some smooth muscle tissues but has not been detected in aortic smooth muscle or in any non-muscle tissues. PMID:1748667

  15. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ELEVATED IMMUNOGLOBULIN FREE LIGHT CHAIN AND THE PRESENCE OF IgH TRANSLOCATIONS IN MULTIPLE MYELOMA

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S.; Zhang, L.; Dispenzieri, A.; Van Wier, S.; Katzmann, J.A.; Snyder, M.; Blood, E.; DeGoey, R.; Henderson, K.; Kyle, R.A.; Bradwell, A.R.; Greipp, P.R.; Rajkumar, S.V.; Fonseca, R

    2013-01-01

    Elevated immunoglobulin free light chain (FLC) level and abnormal FLC ratio is commonly seen in multiple myeloma (MM) and have prognostic implications. We hypothesized that presence of IgH translocations leads to unbalanced production of light chains and more extreme abnormalities of FLC and may explain the prognostic value of FLC. We studied 314 patients with newly diagnosed MM enrolled on a phase-III trial, in whom results of FISH testing and serum FLC were available. Cytogenetic analyses and FLC estimates were performed on stored samples and results correlated with clinical data. The median ratio (FLC-ratio) and the absolute difference (FLC-diff) between the involved and uninvolved FLC was higher among those with IgH translocations, especially t(14;16). In multivariate analysis, the prognostic value of FLC estimates on progression free and overall survival were independent of high-risk IgH translocations t(4;14) and t(14;16). A combination of the risk factors; either abnormal FLC estimate and/or the presence of high-risk IgH translocation, achieved better prognostic stratification. In conclusion, patients with IgH translocations tend to have higher FLC levels and abnormal ratios, but the prognostic effect of FLC is only partially explained by translocation status. A system including both these risk factors allows better prediction of outcome. PMID:20520636

  16. Pre-steady-state kinetics of the activation of rabbit skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase by Ca2+/calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Bowman, B F; Peterson, J A; Stull, J T

    1992-03-15

    Myosin light chain kinase is activated by Ca2+/calmodulin. Insights into the kinetic mechanism of this activation by Ca2+/calmodulin have now been obtained using extrinsically labeled fluorescent calmodulin, a fluorescent peptide substrate, and a stopped-flow spectrophotofluorimeter. We employed spinach calmodulin labeled with the sulfhydryl-selective probe, 2-(4-maleimidoanilino)naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid, to measure changes in the fluorescence intensity of the 2-(4-maleimidoanilino)naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid-calmodulin upon binding to rabbit skeletal muscle myosin light chain kinase. The fluorescent peptide substrate KKRAARAC(sulfobenzo-furazan)SNVFS-amide was used to measure kinase activity. Our results showed that the binding interaction could be modeled as a two-step process: a bimolecular reaction with an association rate of 4.6 x 10(7) M-1 s-1 followed by an isomerization with a rate of 2.2 s-1. Phosphorylation of the peptide during stopped-flow experiments could be modeled by a two-step process with a catalytic association rate of 6.5 x 10(6) M-1 s-1 and a turnover rate of 10-20 s-1. Our results also indicated that kinase activity occurred too rapidly for the slower isomerization rate of 2.2 s-1 to be linked specifically to the activation process. PMID:1544916

  17. Quantification of β region IgA paraproteins - should we include immunochemical "heavy/light chain" measurements? Counterpoint.

    PubMed

    Paolini, Lucia

    2016-06-01

    Serum protein electrophoresis (SPE), serum immunofixation (s-IFE), free light chain measurement (FLC) and nephelometric measurements of total immunoglobulin in serum (IgTot) are some of the laboratory tests required for the management of plasma cell proliferative disorders. The monoclonal protein is usually visible on SPE as a spike (M-spike) in the γ region and the derived densitogram is used to quantify it relative to serum total protein concentration. IgA M-protein, however, often migrates in the β region on SPE and its quantification can be masked by other serum proteins that migrate in this region. The immunoassay Hevylite™ (heavy/light chain, HLC) seems to solve this problem: it quantifies the involved/uninvolved isotype, calculating the ratio IgAκ/IgAλ, considered indicative of clonal proliferation. However, this test seems redundant in the case of artifacts on SPE such as obvious hemolysis or lipemia, or if the IgA M-spike is clearly visible in the β region. In conclusion whereas the IgA HLC assay does not represent an alternative to SPE and s-IFE in the diagnostic patient workup, it may prove to be an alternative to SPE, s-IFE and total IgA quantification in risk stratification and evaluation of response to therapy in patients affected by MM and other monoclonal plasma proliferative disorders. PMID:26812795

  18. Schistosoma spp.: Isolation of microtubule associated proteins in the tegument and the definition of dynein light chains components.

    PubMed

    Githui, Elijah K; Damian, Raymond T; Aman, Rashid A; Ali, Mohamed A; Kamau, Joseph M

    2009-01-01

    Schistosomes are parasitic blood flukes that reside in human mesenteric veins or urinary bladder veins, depending on species of the parasite. The syncytial tegument of these parasites represents a dynamic interface that regulates nutritional and immunological interactions between the parasite and the host. It is known that the components for biogenesis and maintenance of the tegument are supplied via vesicles from the nucleated cell bodies beneath the syncytium and muscle layer. To investigate the common motor components of vesicular transport in the tegument of schistomes, we extracted Schistosoma mansoni tegumental microtubule associated proteins utilizing detergent/high-salt procedure and raised antiserum against these proteins. The antiserum was applied to screen Schistosoma haematobium lambda gt11 expression library and some of the isolated clones were sequenced. Blast search for the sequences against NCBI database identified clones that are dynein light chains and myosin genes. Further analysis of schistosome dynein genes in the databases identified three families of dynein light chains (Dlcs). The Tctex family protein sequences are significantly different from the mammalian homologs and, therefore, offer a potential vaccine/drug target against schistosomes. PMID:18996374

  19. Commensal bacterial endocytosis in epithelial cells is dependent on myosin light chain kinase-activated brush border fanning by interferon-?.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Ling; Peng, Wei-Hao; Kuo, Wei-Ting; Huang, Ching-Ying; Ni, Yen-Hsuan; Lu, Kuo-Shyan; Turner, Jerrold R; Yu, Linda C H

    2014-08-01

    Abnormal bacterial adherence and internalization in enterocytes have been documented in Crohn disease, celiac disease, surgical stress, and intestinal obstruction and are associated with low-level interferon (IFN)-? production. How commensals gain access to epithelial soma through densely packed microvilli rooted on the terminal web (TW) remains unclear. We investigated molecular and ultrastructural mechanisms of bacterial endocytosis, focusing on regulatory roles of IFN-? and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in TW myosin phosphorylation and brush border fanning. Mouse intestines were sham operated on or obstructed for 6 hours by loop ligation with intraluminally administered ML-7 (a MLCK inhibitor) or Y27632 (a Rho-associated kinase inhibitor). After intestinal obstruction, epithelial endocytosis and extraintestinal translocation of bacteria were observed in the absence of tight junctional damage. Enhanced TW myosin light chain phosphorylation, arc formation, and brush border fanning coincided with intermicrovillous bacterial penetration, which were inhibited by ML-7 and neutralizing anti-IFN-? but not Y27632. The phenomena were not seen in mice genetically deficient for long MLCK-210 or IFN-?. Stimulation of human Caco-2BBe cells with IFN-? caused MLCK-dependent TW arc formation and brush border fanning, which preceded caveolin-mediated bacterial internalization through cholesterol-rich lipid rafts. In conclusion, epithelial MLCK-activated brush border fanning by IFN-? promotes adherence and internalization of normally noninvasive enteric bacteria. Transcytotic commensal penetration may contribute to initiation or relapse of chronic inflammation. PMID:24911373

  20. Diagnosing Multiple Myeloma from Test Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... does not need to be treated right away. Light chain amyloidosis A diagnosis of light chain amyloidosis is made when the patient has ... A biopsy that shows amyloid made up of light chains, PLUS any of the following: Elevated free ...

  1. Multifocal primary amyloidosis of the airways: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lang, S M; Täuscher, D; Füller, J; Müller, A H; Schiffl, H

    2015-01-01

    Primary localized amyloidosis of the airways is an uncommon disorder characterized by amyloid deposits in the airway mucosa. In contrast to systemic amyloidosis other organs are not involved. Among the entities of airway amyloidosis, tracheobronchial amyloidosis is comparatively the most common subtype in the lower respiratory tract and laryngeal amyloidosis in the upper respiratory tract. The pathophysiology of localized airway amyloidosis is poorly understood. The clinical presentation is variable and often non-specific. No general consensus exists with regard to optimal treatment resulting in a variety of modalities used in clinical practice to manage this disorder. We report the case of a 50 year old woman with multifocal localized amyloidosis of the tracheobronchial tree and the upper airways. Tracheobronchial amyloidosis was treated with endoscopic debulking and external beam radiation, sinunasal amyloid deposits were surgically excised and are currently under surveillance. The importance of this extremely rare case lies in the multifocal presentation of an uncommon disorder requiring a multidisciplinary approach to offer optimal treatment including external beam radiation. PMID:26236619

  2. Behçet's disease associated with amyloidosis in Turkey and in the world.

    PubMed Central

    Dilşen, N; Koniçe, M; Aral, O; Erbengi, T; Uysal, V; Koçak, N; Ozdogan, E

    1988-01-01

    The association of amyloidosis with Behçet's disease has infrequently been reported in published works. Twenty four such cases have been observed in the world, of which 12 are from Turkey, including eight of ours. In all our eight cases renal biopsy showed amyloidosis of type AA. Behçet's disease of male preponderance, long duration, complete type, multiple organ involvement, and positive skin pathergy test were the main characteristics of all 24 cases of Behçet's disease with amyloidosis. We conclude that amyloidosis associated with Behçet's disease is a secondary AA amyloidosis occurring as an intrinsic manifestation of Behçet's disease. Images PMID:3281606

  3. Transthyretin Amyloidosis: Chaperone Concentration Changes and Increased Proteolysis in the Pathway to Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Raquel; Gilberto, Samuel; Gomes, Ricardo A.; Ferreira, António; Mateus, Élia; Barroso, Eduardo; Coelho, Ana V.; Freire, Ana Ponces; Cordeiro, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Transthyretin amyloidosis is a conformational pathology characterized by the extracellular formation of amyloid deposits and the progressive impairment of the peripheral nervous system. Point mutations in this tetrameric plasma protein decrease its stability and are linked to disease onset and progression. Since non-mutated transthyretin also forms amyloid in systemic senile amyloidosis and some mutation bearers are asymptomatic throughout their lives, non-genetic factors must also be involved in transthyretin amyloidosis. We discovered, using a differential proteomics approach, that extracellular chaperones such as fibrinogen, clusterin, haptoglobin, alpha-1-anti-trypsin and 2-macroglobulin are overrepresented in transthyretin amyloidosis. Our data shows that a complex network of extracellular chaperones are over represented in human plasma and we speculate that they act synergistically to cope with amyloid prone proteins. Proteostasis may thus be as important as point mutations in transthyretin amyloidosis. PMID:26147092

  4. Comparison of functional status, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic parameters to mortality in endomyocardial-biopsy proven cardiac amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Austin, Bethany A; Duffy, Brendan; Tan, Carmela; Rodriguez, E Rene; Starling, Randall C; Desai, Milind Y

    2009-05-15

    Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is generally associated with a poor prognosis and significantly increased mortality. We sought to identify predictors of longer-term survival in patients with endomyocardial biopsy (EMB)-documented CA. Forty-five consecutive patients with EMB-documented CA were studied from January 1998 to December 2003. Age, gender, New York Heart Association class, medications, presence of light-chain amyloid, and electrocardiographic voltage were recorded. Baseline left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, deceleration time, diastolic function, LV mass, ventricular septal thickness, and myocardial performance index ([isovolumic contraction time + isovolumic relaxation time]/ejection time) were recorded. Mean age was 66 +/- 10 years with 34 men (76%). New York Heart Association class >II was noted in 26 patients (58%) and low voltage on electrocardiogram (S wave [lead V(1)] + R wave [lead V(5)] < or =15) in 12 (27%). Mean LV ejection fraction, ventricular septal thickness, and LV mass were 46 +/- 13%, 1.7 +/- 0.42 cm, and 303 +/- 114 g, respectively. Deceleration time < or =150 ms was found in 19 (42%) and myocardial performance index >0.6 in 15 (33%). At a median follow-up of 1.7 years, there were 25 deaths (56%). On univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis, New York Heart Association class >II, deceleration time <150 ms, and beta-blocker use were associated with increased mortality (log-rank statistic p values <0.001, <0.05, and 0.01, respectively). On Cox proportional hazard survival analysis, only New York Heart Association class was significantly associated with increased mortality (hazard ratio 3.92, 1.92 to 7.95, p = 0.0002). In conclusion, in patients with EMB-documented CA, longer-term survival is more strongly associated with New York Heart Association functional class compared with electrocardiographic and echocardiographic variables. PMID:19427441

  5. Catalytic Features of the Botulinum Neurotoxin A Light Chain Revealed by High Resolution Structure of an Inhibitory Peptide Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Silvaggi,N.; Wilson, D.; Tzipori, S.; Allen, K.

    2008-01-01

    The Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin serotype A light chain (BoNT/A-LC) is a Zn(II)-dependent metalloprotease that blocks the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction by cleaving SNAP-25, one of the SNARE proteins required for exocytosis. Because of the potential for use of the toxin in bioterrorism and the increasingly widespread application of the toxin in the medical field, there is significant interest in the development of small-molecule inhibitors of the metalloprotease. Efforts to design such inhibitors have not benefited from knowledge of how peptides bind to the active site since the enzyme-peptide structures available previously either were not occupied in the vicinity of the catalytic Zn(II) ion or did not represent the product of SNAP-25 substrate cleavage. Herein we report the 1.4 Angstroms-resolution X-ray crystal structure of a complex between the BoNT/A-LC and the inhibitory peptide N-Ac-CRATKML, the first structure of the light chain with an inhibitory peptide bound at the catalytic Zn(II) ion. The peptide is bound with the Cys S? atom coordinating the metal ion. Surprisingly, the cysteine sulfur is oxidized to the sulfenic acid form. Given the unstable nature of this species in solution, is it likely that oxidation occurs on the enzyme. In addition to the peptide-bound structure, we report two structures of the unliganded light chain with and without the Zn(II) cofactor bound at 1.25 and 1.20 Angstroms resolution, respectively. The two structures are nearly identical, confirming that the Zn(II) ion plays a purely catalytic role. Additionally, the structure of the Zn(II)-bound uncomplexed enzyme allows identification of the catalytic water molecule and a second water molecule that occupies the same position as the peptidic oxygen in the tetrahedral intermediate. This observation suggests that the enzyme active site is prearranged to stabilize the tetrahedral intermediate of the protease reaction.

  6. Vascular O-GlcNAcylation augments reactivity to constrictor stimuli by prolonging phosphorylated levels of the myosin light chain

    PubMed Central

    Lima, V.V.; Lobato, N.S.; Filgueira, F.P.; Webb, R.C.; Tostes, R.C.; Giachini, F.R.

    2014-01-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is a modification that alters the function of numerous proteins. We hypothesized that augmented O-GlcNAcylation levels enhance myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and reduce myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) activity, leading to increased vascular contractile responsiveness. The vascular responses were measured by isometric force displacement. Thoracic aorta and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from rats were incubated with vehicle or with PugNAc, which increases O-GlcNAcylation. In addition, we determined whether proteins that play an important role in the regulation of MLCK and MLCP activity are directly affected by O-GlcNAcylation. PugNAc enhanced phenylephrine (PE) responses in rat aortas (maximal effect, 14.2±2 vs 7.9±1 mN for vehicle, n=7). Treatment with an MLCP inhibitor (calyculin A) augmented vascular responses to PE (13.4±2 mN) and abolished the differences in PE-response between the groups. The effect of PugNAc was not observed when vessels were preincubated with ML-9, an MLCK inhibitor (7.3±2 vs 7.5±2 mN for vehicle, n=5). Furthermore, our data showed that differences in the PE-induced contractile response between the groups were abolished by the activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AICAR; 6.1±2 vs 7.4±2 mN for vehicle, n=5). PugNAc increased phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT-1) and protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitor protein of 17 kDa (CPI-17), which are involved in RhoA/Rho-kinase-mediated inhibition of myosin phosphatase activity. PugNAc incubation produced a time-dependent increase in vascular phosphorylation of myosin light chain and decreased phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase, which decreased the affinity of MLCK for Ca2+/calmodulin. Our data suggest that proteins that play an important role in the regulation of MLCK and MLCP activity are directly affected by O-GlcNAcylation, favoring vascular contraction. PMID:25140811

  7. Clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of light chain deposition disease: an analysis of 48 patients in a single Chinese center.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao Mei; Rui, Hao Chen; Liang, Dan Dan; Xu, Feng; Liang, Shao Shan; Zhu, Xiao Dong; Huang, Xiang Hua; Liu, Zhi Hong; Zeng, Cai Hong

    2016-05-01

    To explore the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of light chain deposition disease (LCDD) in a Chinese population, we retrospectively studied the clinicopathological data, treatment, and outcomes of 48 patients with biopsy-proven LCDD from a single center. Among the patients, there were 29 males and 19 females, with an average age of 51 years. The patients presented with hypertension (79.2 %), edema (60.4 %), renal insufficiency (95.8 %), anemia (93.8 %), nephrotic proteinuria (≥3.0 g/24 h) (44.4 %), and hematuria (75.0 %). Moreover, 33.3 % had hypocomplementemia of C3, and 25 % were diagnosed with multiple myeloma. Serum immunofixation electrophoresis and a serum free light chain assay showed that 26.7 and 85.4 % of patients presented with monoclonal immunoglobulin, respectively. Nodular mesangial sclerosis was identified in 83.3 % of our cases and vascular involvement was observed in 77.1 % by light microscopy. Over an average of 22 months of follow-up, the mean renal survival was 32.5 months. Of the patients, 34.1 % had stable or improved renal dysfunction, 2.3 % had worsening renal function, and 63.6 % progressed to end-stage renal disease. Of the 33 patients receiving chemotherapy, 15 patients had stable or improved renal function and the renal survival was higher in patients with hematological and renal responses than in those without. The independent predictors of ESRD by multivariate analysis were serum creatinine (p = 0.008) and urinary retinol binding protein (RBP) (p = 0.045). In conclusion, LCDD was characterized in Chinese patients by renal dysfunction, hypertension, anemia, proteinuria, abnormal free light chain ratios, and less overt hematologic malignancies. Serum creatinine and RBP were independent prognostic factors of LCDD. As better hematologic and renal responses to chemotherapy were associated with improved renal survival, there is an urgent need for multicenter and prospective studies to establish the standardized therapy for LCDD. PMID:27056200

  8. Variations in contractile properties of rabbit single muscle fibres in relation to troponin T isoforms and myosin light chains.

    PubMed Central

    Greaser, M L; Moss, R L; Reiser, P J

    1988-01-01

    1. The maximal velocity of shortening (Vmax), tension-pCa relationships and the contractile and regulatory protein composition were determined in single, chemically skinned fibres from adult rabbit plantaris muscles. 2. Three groups of fibres were identified based on their protein compositions. One group had exclusively the slow-type myosin heavy chain (MHC) and myosin light chains (LC) and had low velocities. Another group of fibres had mixtures of fast-type and slow-type MHCs and LCs and had intermediate shortening velocities. The third group of fibres had fast-type myosin heavy and light chains and high velocities. 3. The low-velocity fibres had a mean velocity (+/- S.E.M.) of 0.86 +/- 0.03 muscle lengths/s (ML/s) at 15 degrees C. The remaining fibres formed a continuum with respect to Vmax from 1.37 to 3.94 ML/s. These results indicate that a much greater diversity exists among single fibres from adult mammalian skeletal muscle than previously recognized. The intermediate- and high-velocity fibres formed a continuum (from slow to fast) with respect to the amount of myosin light chain 3 (LC3). That is, Vmax increased with the relative LC3 content in single fibres in the intermediate- and high-velocity groups in a quantitative, statistically significant manner. 4. Three isoforms of fast-type troponin T were identified among the intermediate- and high-velocity fibres. These fibres also contained fast-type troponin C and troponin I. As was the case with the relative LC3 content, these fibres also formed a continuum with respect to the relative proportions of the three isoforms of fast-type troponin T. It appears that different isoforms of troponin T are responsible for a slightly higher Ca2+ sensitivity of tension development in the high-velocity fibres compared to the intermediate fibres. The continuum in troponin T isoform composition paralleled an increase in Vmax among these fibres. 5. The low-velocity fibres had the highest Ca2+ sensitivity of the three groups and had exclusively the slow-type isoforms of the regulatory proteins in the troponin complex. 6. The co-ordinated variations in troponin T and LC3 compositions among the intermediate- and high-velocity fibres are discussed as a possible means for the further differentiation of the contractile properties of the fibres in these two groups, beyond that provided by myosin heavy chain isoforms alone. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:3254423

  9. Molecular basis of factor VIII inhibition by human antibodies. Antibodies that bind to the factor VIII light chain prevent the interaction of factor VIII with phospholipid.

    PubMed Central

    Arai, M; Scandella, D; Hoyer, L W

    1989-01-01

    Most antibodies to factor VIII have recently been shown to react with discrete regions of the factor VIII light chain (within the C2 domain) and/or the factor VIII heavy chain (within the amino-terminal segment of the A2 domain). The mechanism by which these antibodies, usually designated "factor VIII inhibitors," interfere with factor VIII function has been examined by determining their effect on factor VIII binding to a phospholipid. Factor VIII-phosphatidylserine binding was prevented by all seven factor VIII inhibitors that had strong factor VIII light chain reactivity and reduced by two inhibitors with weak anti-light chain reactivity. None of four inhibitors with heavy chain reactivity prevented factor VIII-phosphatidylserine interaction, though a partial reduction (less than 50%) was noted for the intact IgG preparations. However, when Fab' fragments were substituted, no detectable reduction in factor VIII-phosphatidylserine binding was noted for the anti-heavy chain inhibitors and complete inhibition was retained by the anti-light chain inhibitors. These data suggest that a subset of factor VIII inhibitors, those that bind to light chain determinants, inactivate factor VIII by preventing its effective interaction with phospholipid. PMID:2498393

  10. Affinity Labeling of the Heavy and Light Chains of a Myeloma Protein with Anti-2,4-Dinitrophenyl Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Haimovich, Joseph; Givol, David; Eisen, Herman N.

    1970-01-01

    A mouse myeloma protein with high affinity for 2,4-dinitrophenyl (Dnp) ligands was reacted with the bromoacetyl derivatives of N-Dnp-ethylenediamine and ε-N-Dnp-L-lysine. Up to 1.4 sites per protein molecule were covalently labeled. The labeling reactions were essentially completely blocked by a large excess of Dnp ligands that do not combine covalently (e.g., ε-Dnp-L-lysine). Analyses of the labeled protein revealed that the bromoacetyl derivative of N-Dnp-ethylenediamine reacted exclusively with tyrosyl in the light chain, while the derivative of ε-Dnp-L-lysine reacted exclusively with lysyl in the heavy chain. The findings support the conclusion that chains are involved in forming specific combining sites. Images PMID:4099105

  11. MRC OX-2 antigen: a lymphoid/neuronal membrane glycoprotein with a structure like a single immunoglobulin light chain.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, M J; Gagnon, J; Williams, A F; Barclay, A N

    1985-01-01

    The MRC OX-2 antigen is a rat cell surface glycoprotein of mol. wt. 41 000-47 000 found on neurones, thymocytes, B cells, follicular dendritic cells and endothelium. We now report the amino sequence for this antigen as deduced from the nucleotide sequence of cDNA clones detected by use of an oligonucleotide probe. The sequence contains 248 amino acid residues of which 202 residues are likely to be outside the cell with two domains that show homology with immunoglobulins. The N-terminal domain fits best with Ig V domains and Thy-1 antigen while the C-terminal part is like an Ig C domain. Thus the structure overall is similar to an Ig light chain or the T cell receptor beta chain. Three glycosylation sites are identified on each of the MRC OX-2 antigen domains. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:2862025

  12. Regulation of calcium channels in smooth muscle: New insights into the role of myosin light chain kinase

    PubMed Central

    Martinsen, A; Dessy, C; Morel, N

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) plays a crucial role in artery contraction, which regulates blood pressure and blood flow distribution. In addition to this role, MLCK contributes to Ca2+ flux regulation in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) and in non-muscle cells, where cytoskeleton has been suggested to help Ca2+ channels trafficking. This conclusion is based on the use of pharmacological inhibitors of MLCK and molecular and cellular techniques developed to down-regulate the enzyme. Dissimilarities have been observed between cells and whole tissues, as well as between large conductance and small resistance arteries. A differential expression in MLCK and ion channels (either voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels or non-selective cationic channels) could account for these observations, and is in line with the functional properties of the arteries. A potential involvement of MLCK in the pathways modulating Ca2+ entry in VSM is described in the present review. PMID:25483583

  13. Identification and characterization of asparagine deamidation in the light chain CDR1 of a humanized IgG1 antibody.

    PubMed

    Vlasak, Josef; Bussat, Marie C; Wang, Shiyi; Wagner-Rousset, Elsa; Schaefer, Mark; Klinguer-Hamour, Christine; Kirchmeier, Marc; Corvaa, Nathalie; Ionescu, Roxana; Beck, Alain

    2009-09-15

    Despite technological advances, detection of deamidation in large proteins remains a challenge and the use of orthogonal methods is needed for unequivocal assignment. By a combination of cation-exchange separation, papain digestion, and a panel of mass spectrometry techniques we identified asparagine deamidation in light chain complementarity determining region 1 (CDR1) of a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody. The reaction yields both Asp and isoAsp, which were assigned by Edman degradation and by isoAsp detection using protein isoaspartate methyltransferase. The deamidated antibody variants were less potent in antigen binding compared to the nondegraded antibody. Changes in near-UV CD spectra, susceptibility to papain cleavage in an adjacent CDR2 loop, and the tendency of the newly formed isoAsp to undergo isomerization suggest local perturbations in the structure of the isoAsp-containing antibody. PMID:19497295

  14. Phosphorylation of Nonmuscle myosin II-A regulatory light chain resists Sendai virus fusion with host cells

    PubMed Central

    Das, Provas; Saha, Shekhar; Chandra, Sunandini; Das, Alakesh; Dey, Sumit K.; Das, Mahua R.; Sen, Shamik; Sarkar, Debi P.; Jana, Siddhartha S.

    2015-01-01

    Enveloped viruses enter host cells through membrane fusion and the cells in turn alter their shape to accommodate components of the virus. However, the role of nonmuscle myosin II of the actomyosin complex of host cells in membrane fusion is yet to be understood. Herein, we show that both (−) blebbistatin, a specific inhibitor of nonmuscle myosin II (NMII) and small interfering RNA markedly augment fusion of Sendai virus (SeV), with chinese hamster ovary cells and human hepatocarcinoma cells. Inhibition of RLC phosphorylation using inhibitors against ROCK, but not PKC and MRCK, or overexpression of phospho-dead mutant of RLC enhances membrane fusion. SeV infection increases cellular stiffness and myosin light chain phosphorylation at two hour post infection. Taken together, the present investigation strongly indicates that Rho-ROCK-NMII contractility signaling pathway may provide a physical barrier to host cells against viral fusion. PMID:25993465

  15. Abnormal Myocardial Blood Flow Reserve Observed in Cardiac Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Nel, Karen; Senior, Roxy; Greaves, Kim

    2016-01-01

    We performed real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography on a patient with cardiac amyloidosis and previous normal coronary angiography presenting with atypical chest pain to assess myocardial blood flow reserve (MBFR). Myocardial contrast echocardiography was performed and flash microbubble destruction and replenishment analysis was used to calculate myocardial blood flow. Dipyridamole was used to achieve hyperemia. MBFR was derived from the ratio of peak myocardial blood flow at hyperemia and rest. The results show a marked reduction in MBFR in our patient. Previous reports of luminal obstruction of intramyocardial rather than epicardial vessels by amyloid deposition may be causing microvascular dysfunction. PMID:27081447

  16. Pedigree analysis of Abyssinian cats with familial amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    DiBartola, S P; Hill, R L; Fechheimer, N S; Powers, J D

    1986-12-01

    Pedigrees of 62 Abyssinian cats with familial amyloidosis were compared with those of 100 Abyssinian cats registered with the Cat Fanciers Association. The inbreeding coefficients of the 2 samples of cats were not significantly different. Analysis of the pedigrees with respect to specific ancestors, however, showed that certain cats were significantly more common in the pedigrees of affected cats than in those of cats in the randomly selected sample. These data support a genetic basis for this disease, but do not allow determination of the mode of inheritance. PMID:3800128

  17. [Para-amyloidosis in 2 patients with malignant diseases].

    PubMed

    Atanasova, P; Milkov, V

    1985-01-01

    Two cases are described with paraneoplastic amyloidosis, advancing in patients with a basic etiological moment--myeloma and hypernephroma. The clinical picture, in both patients was dominated by the nephrotic syndrome and rapidly progressing renal insufficiency, leading to the fatal end within a very short term. That term in the patient with hypernephroma was only several months after making the diagnosis, and in the patient with myeloma--up to two years. Renal punch biopsy was performed to both patients during their life time. PMID:4090460

  18. Involvement of NADPH oxidases and non-muscle myosin light chain in senescence of endothelial progenitor cells in hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting-Bo; Zhang, Jie-Jie; Liu, Bin; Liu, Wei-Qi; Wu, Yan; Xiong, Xiao-Ming; Luo, Xiu-Ju; Ma, Qi-Lin; Peng, Jun

    2016-03-01

    NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in endothelial dysfunction of hyperlipidemia, and non-muscle myosin regulatory light chain (nmMLC20) is reported to have a transcriptional function in regulation of gene expression. The purposes of this study are to determine whether NOX-derived ROS can promote endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) senescence and whether nmMLC20 can regulate NOX expression through a phosphorylation-dependent manner. The rats were subjected to 8weeks of high-fat diet feeding to establish a hyperlipidemic model, which showed an increase in plasma lipids and the accelerated senescence and reduced number of circulating EPCs, accompanied by an increase in myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and NOX activities, p-nmMLC20 level, NOX (NOX2, NOX4) expression, and H2O2 content. Next, EPCs isolated from normal rats were incubated with ox-LDL (100?g/mL) for 24h to establish a senescent model in vitro. Consistent with our in vivo findings, ox-LDL treatment increased the senescence of EPCs concomitant with an increase in MLCK and NOX activities, p-nmMLC20 level (in total or nuclear proteins), NOX expression, and H2O2 content; these phenomena were reversed by MLCK inhibitor. NOX inhibitor achieved similar results to that of MLCK inhibitor except that there is no effect on MLCK activity and p-nmMLC20 level. Furthermore, knockdown of nmMLC20, NOX2, or NOX4 led to a down-regulation in NOX and a reduction in ox-LDL-induced EPC senescence. These results suggest that NOX-derived ROS promotes the senescence of circulating EPCs in hyperlipidemia and nmMLC20 may play a transcriptional role in the upregulation of NOX through a phosphorylation-dependent manner. PMID:26685858

  19. Anti-nociceptive effect of a conjugate of substance P and light chain of botulinum neurotoxin type A

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Golam; Anderson, Ethan M.; Bokrand-Donatelli, Yvonne; Neubert, John K.

    2013-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is a debilitating condition resulting from damage to sensory transmission pathways in the peripheral and central nervous system. A potential new way of treating chronic neuropathic pain is to target specific pain processing neurons based on their expression of particular receptor molecules. We hypothesized that a toxin-neuropeptide conjugate would alter pain by first being taken up by specific receptors for the neuropeptide expressed on the neuronal cells. Then, once inside the cell the toxin would inhibit the neurons’ activity without killing the neurons, thereby providing pain relief without lesioning the nervous system. In an effort to inactivate the nociceptive neurons in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis in mice we targeted the NK1 receptor (NK1R) using substance P (SP). The catalytically active light chain of botulinum neurotoxin type A (LC/A) was conjugated with SP. Our results indicate that the conjugate BoNT/A-LC:SP is internalized in cultured NK1R expressing neurons and also cleaves the target of botulinum toxin, a component docking motif necessary for release of neurotransmitters called SNAP-25. The conjugate was next tested in a mouse model of Taxol induced neuropathic pain. An intracisternal injection of BoNT/A-LC:SP decreased thermal hyperalgesia as measured by the operant orofacial nociception assay. These findings indicate that conjugates of the light chain of botulinum toxin are extremely promising agents for use in suppressing neuronal activity for extended time periods and that BoNT/A-LC:SP may be a useful agent for treating chronic pain. PMID:23933181

  20. Anti-nociceptive effect of a conjugate of substance P and light chain of botulinum neurotoxin type A.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Golam; Anderson, Ethan M; Bokrand-Donatelli, Yvonne; Neubert, John K; Caudle, Robert M

    2013-11-01

    Neuropathic pain is a debilitating condition resulting from damage to sensory transmission pathways in the peripheral and central nervous system. A potential new way of treating chronic neuropathic pain is to target specific pain-processing neurons based on their expression of particular receptor molecules. We hypothesized that a toxin-neuropeptide conjugate would alter pain by first being taken up by specific receptors for the neuropeptide expressed on the neuronal cells. Then, once inside the cell the toxin would inhibit the neurons' activity without killing the neurons, thereby providing pain relief without lesioning the nervous system. In an effort to inactivate the nociceptive neurons in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis in mice, we targeted the NK1 receptor (NK1R) using substance P (SP). The catalytically active light chain of botulinum neurotoxin type A (LC/A) was conjugated with SP. Our results indicate that the conjugate BoNT/A-LC:SP is internalized in cultured NK1R-expressing neurons and also cleaves the target of botulinum toxin, a component-docking motif necessary for release of neurotransmitters called SNAP-25. The conjugate was next tested in a murine model of Taxol-induced neuropathic pain. An intracisternal injection of BoNT/A-LC:SP decreased thermal hyperalgesia as measured by the operant orofacial nociception assay. These findings indicate that conjugates of the light chain of botulinum toxin are extremely promising agents for use in suppressing neuronal activity for extended time periods, and that BoNT/A-LC:SP may be a useful agent for treating chronic pain. PMID:23933181

  1. Generation of chimeric monoclonal antibodies from mice that carry human immunoglobulin Cgamma1 heavy of Ckappa light chain gene segments.

    PubMed

    Pluschke, G; Joss, A; Marfurt, J; Daubenberger, C; Kashala, O; Zwickl, M; Stief, A; Sansig, G; Schläpfer, B; Linkert, S; van der Putten, H; Hardman, N; Schröder, M

    1998-06-01

    Gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells was used to replace (i) the mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) Cgamma2a gene segment (mCgamma2a) with the human Cgamma1 gene segment (hCgamma1), and (ii) the mouse immunoglobulin light chain (IgL) Ckappa gene segment (mC kappa) with its human counterpart (hC kappa). ES cells carrying these gene conversions were used to generate chimeric mice that transmitted the human alleles through the germ line. Mice homozygous for both gene alterations were generated by breeding. Serum from homozygous mutant mice contained comparable amounts of antibodies with chimeric kappa or mouse lambda light chains but only small fractions of basal serum IgG or antibodies elicited against immunizing agents contained chimeric heavy chains. A relative increase in immunogen-specific hCgamma1 antibodies was seen following immunization in combination with the saponin adjuvant QS-21. The effect of this was to shift the IgG1-dominated response to an IgG subclass profile that included significant amounts of IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3 and chimeric IgG. The amounts of antibody secreted by hybridomas derived from mutant and wild-type mice were similar. Sequencing confirmed correct splicing of hCgamma1 and hCkappa gene segments to mouse J gene segments in hybridoma Ig gene transcripts. In conclusion, IgHhCgamma1/IgLhCkappa double mutant mice provide a useful animal model for deriving humanized antibodies with potential applications in immunotherapy and diagnostics in vivo as well as for investigating hCgamma1 associated functions. PMID:9744745

  2. Amyloidosis involving the respiratory system: 5-year's experience of a multi-disciplinary group's activity.

    PubMed

    Scala, Raffaele; Maccari, Uberto; Madioni, Chiara; Venezia, Duccio; La Magra, Lidia Calogera

    2015-01-01

    Amyloidosis may involve the respiratory system with different clinical-radiological-functional patterns which are not always easy to be recognized. A good level of knowledge of the disease, an active integration of the pulmonologist within a multidisciplinary setting and a high level of clinical suspicion are necessary for an early diagnosis of respiratory amyloidosis. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the number and the patterns of amyloidosis involving the respiratory system. We searched the cases of amyloidosis among patients attending the multidisciplinary rare and diffuse lung disease outpatients' clinic of Pulmonology Unit of the Hospital of Arezzo from 2007 to 2012. Among the 298 patients evaluated during the study period, we identified three cases of amyloidosis with involvement of the respiratory system, associated or not with other extra-thoracic localizations, whose diagnosis was histo-pathologically confirmed after the pulmonologist, the radiologist, and the pathologist evaluation. Our experience of a multidisciplinary team confirms that intra-thoracic amyloidosis is an uncommon disorder, representing 1.0% of the cases of rare and diffuse lung diseases referred to our center. The diagnosis of the disease is not always easy and quick as the amyloidosis may involve different parts of the respiratory system (airways, pleura, parenchyma). It is therefore recommended to remind this orphan disease in the differential diagnosis of the wide clinical scenarios the pulmonologist may intercept in clinical practice. PMID:26229565

  3. Amyloidosis involving the respiratory system: 5-year's experience of a multi-disciplinary group's activity

    PubMed Central

    Scala, Raffaele; Maccari, Uberto; Madioni, Chiara; Venezia, Duccio; La Magra, Lidia Calogera

    2015-01-01

    Amyloidosis may involve the respiratory system with different clinical-radiological-functional patterns which are not always easy to be recognized. A good level of knowledge of the disease, an active integration of the pulmonologist within a multidisciplinary setting and a high level of clinical suspicion are necessary for an early diagnosis of respiratory amyloidosis. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the number and the patterns of amyloidosis involving the respiratory system. We searched the cases of amyloidosis among patients attending the multidisciplinary rare and diffuse lung disease outpatients' clinic of Pulmonology Unit of the Hospital of Arezzo from 2007 to 2012. Among the 298 patients evaluated during the study period, we identified three cases of amyloidosis with involvement of the respiratory system, associated or not with other extra-thoracic localizations, whose diagnosis was histo-pathologically confirmed after the pulmonologist, the radiologist, and the pathologist evaluation. Our experience of a multidisciplinary team confirms that intra-thoracic amyloidosis is an uncommon disorder, representing 1.0% of the cases of rare and diffuse lung diseases referred to our center. The diagnosis of the disease is not always easy and quick as the amyloidosis may involve different parts of the respiratory system (airways, pleura, parenchyma). It is therefore recommended to remind this orphan disease in the differential diagnosis of the wide clinical scenarios the pulmonologist may intercept in clinical practice. PMID:26229565

  4. Evidence indicating independent assortment of framework and complementarity-determining segments of the variable regions of rabbit light chains. Delineation of a possible J minigene.

    PubMed

    Kabat, E A; Wu, T T; Bilofsky, H

    1980-07-01

    Amino acid sequences of rabbit light chains show considerable evidence of independent assortment of framework (FR) and complementarity-determining (CDR) segments. This suggests that they are coded for by independent genetic units (minigaenes) and that individual light chains are assembled somatically by recombining these units. Identical FR sets with multiple members generally comprise chains with different specificities, whereas identical CDR sets tend to have chains of a single specificity. A J segment, which, by analogy with mouse light chains, is made up of the last two residues of CDR3 plus all of FR4, contained 18 different sets and could contribute to diversity generated by CDR3. The longest segment, FR3, had a very large number of sets. Evidence is presented showing that the number of sets could be substantially reduced by permitting FR3 to be formed by two independently assorting segments comprising residues 57-68 and 69-88. PMID:6772734

  5. Flexible light-chain and helical structure of F-actin explain the movement and step size of myosin-VI.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ganhui; Sun, Sean X

    2006-12-01

    Myosin-VI is a dimeric isoform of unconventional myosins. Single molecule experiments indicate that myosin-VI and myosin-V are processive molecular motors, but travel toward opposite ends of filamentous actin. Structural studies show several differences between myosin-V and VI, including a significant difference in the light-chain domain connecting the motor domains. Combining the measured kinetics of myosin-VI with the elasticity of the light chains, and the helical structure of F-actin, we compare and contrast the motility of myosin-VI with myosin-V. We show that the elastic properties of the light-chain domain control the stepping behavior of these motors. Simple models incorporating the motor elastic energy can quantitatively capture most of the observed data. Implications of our result for other processive motors are discussed. PMID:16963511

  6. The structure of an entire noncovalent immunoglobulin kappa light-chain dimer (Bence-Jones protein) reveals a weak and unusual constant domains association.

    PubMed

    Roussel, A; Spinelli, S; Déret, S; Navaza, J; Aucouturier, P; Cambillau, C

    1999-02-01

    Monoclonal free light chains secreted in immunoproliferative disorders are frequently involved in renal complications, including a specific proximal tubule impairment, Fanconi's syndrome. The latter is characterized in most cases by intracellular crystallization including a light-chain variable-domain fragment which resists lysosomal proteases. Bence-Jones protein (BJP) DEL was isolated from a patient with myeloma-associated Fanconi's syndrome. The crystal structure of this human kappa immunoglobulin light-chain noncovalent dimer was determined using molecular replacement with the structure of molecule REI, as the variable domain, and that of BJP LOC as the constant domain. To our knowledge, DEL is the first complete kappa BJP structure described to date. The R-factor is 20.7% at 2.8 A resolution. The BJP DEL dimer was compared with other light-chain dimers and with Fab fragments with a kappa light chain. Although the domain-folding pattern was similar, the relative positions of the constant domains differed. BJP DEL showed a noncanonical quaternary structural arrangement which may be attributable to the poor CL-CL affinity and lack of an interchain disulfide bridge, combined with the conformational editing effect of the crystal-packing forces. Our results suggest that, in the absence of a disulfide bridge, most BJP CLs are probably mobile in solution. This may explain their high susceptibility to proteases and the absence of naturally occurring crystals for these dimers. Furthermore, these findings of an unusual quaternary structure of an immunoglobulin light-chain association extend our knowledge about the large and highly diverse structures of the immunoglobulin superfamily. PMID:10091599

  7. Online registry for mutations in hereditary amyloidosis including nomenclature recommendations.

    PubMed

    Rowczenio, Dorota M; Noor, Islam; Gillmore, Julian D; Lachmann, Helen J; Whelan, Carol; Hawkins, Philip N; Obici, Laura; Westermark, Per; Grateau, Gilles; Wechalekar, Ashutosh D

    2014-09-01

    Hereditary systemic amyloidosis comprises a group of rare monogenic diseases inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. It is associated with mutations in genes encoding eight different proteins, including transthyretin, apolipoprotein AI, apolipoprotein AII, lysozyme, fibrinogen A ?-chain, cystatin C, gelsolin and beta-2-microglobulin. With support from the EU FP6 EURAMY project we have designed an online registry of genes and mutations in hereditary amyloidosis including their associated clinical phenotypes, with a view to having a single free online portal for the collection and distribution of this information. Users can search the registry by either mutation, phenotype or authors who have published or submitted mutations. It provides a submission form for reporting newly identified mutations. We also wanted to introduce nomenclature which complies with recommendations set out by Human Genome Variation Society and HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee for description of new and known genetic variants. We hope this registry would be a useful and convenient tool for the medical and scientific community. PMID:25044787

  8. Proteomics and mass spectrometry in the diagnosis of renal amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Picken, Maria M

    2015-12-01

    The amyloidoses are a 'group' of disorders, all of which are associated with deposits that display similar staining and ultrastructural features and are toxic to tissues. Many proteins-currently 31 protein types and many more variants-have been shown to undergo such transformations. Among the various currently known amyloidoses, there are marked differences with regard to their pathogenesis and incidence, while the associated clinical picture is frequently overlapping. However, the therapies that are currently available are amyloid-type specific. The diagnosis of amyloidosis thus involves two steps: (i) a generic diagnosis, followed by (ii) an amyloid type-specific diagnosis or 'amyloid typing'. Immunofluorescence in frozen sections or immunohistochemistry (IHC) in paraffin sections has traditionally been used in the typing of amyloid. However, IHC of amyloid differs significantly from IHC in other areas of surgical pathology; both caution and experience are necessary for its interpretation. The rationale for the application of proteomic methods to amyloid typing lies in the relative abundance of amyloid proteins in tissue where, frequently, it is the 'dominant' protein. Proteomic techniques include the following steps: sample preparation, protein extraction and digestion into peptide fragments, followed by their subsequent separation and measurement by mass spectrometry (MS) and protein identification by informatics. The advantages as well as the limitations of both methods-immunohistochemistry and MS-based proteomics-are discussed. The current recommendations for the application of proteomics in renal amyloidosis are summarized. PMID:26613021

  9. Proteomics and mass spectrometry in the diagnosis of renal amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Picken, Maria M.

    2015-01-01

    The amyloidoses are a ‘group’ of disorders, all of which are associated with deposits that display similar staining and ultrastructural features and are toxic to tissues. Many proteins—currently 31 protein types and many more variants—have been shown to undergo such transformations. Among the various currently known amyloidoses, there are marked differences with regard to their pathogenesis and incidence, while the associated clinical picture is frequently overlapping. However, the therapies that are currently available are amyloid-type specific. The diagnosis of amyloidosis thus involves two steps: (i) a generic diagnosis, followed by (ii) an amyloid type-specific diagnosis or ‘amyloid typing’. Immunofluorescence in frozen sections or immunohistochemistry (IHC) in paraffin sections has traditionally been used in the typing of amyloid. However, IHC of amyloid differs significantly from IHC in other areas of surgical pathology; both caution and experience are necessary for its interpretation. The rationale for the application of proteomic methods to amyloid typing lies in the relative abundance of amyloid proteins in tissue where, frequently, it is the ‘dominant’ protein. Proteomic techniques include the following steps: sample preparation, protein extraction and digestion into peptide fragments, followed by their subsequent separation and measurement by mass spectrometry (MS) and protein identification by informatics. The advantages as well as the limitations of both methods—immunohistochemistry and MS-based proteomics—are discussed. The current recommendations for the application of proteomics in renal amyloidosis are summarized. PMID:26613021

  10. Cardiac Amyloidosis: Typical Imaging Findings and Diffuse Myocardial Damage Demonstrated by Delayed Contrast-Enhanced MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Sueyoshi, Eijun Sakamoto, Ichiro; Okimoto, Tomoaki; Hayashi, Kuniaki; Tanaka, Kyouei; Toda, Genji

    2006-08-15

    Amyloidosis is a rare systemic disease. However, involvement of the heart is a common finding and is the most frequent cause of death in amyloidosis. We report the sonographic, scintigraphic, and MRI features of a pathologically proven case of cardiac amyloidosis. Delayed contrast-enhanced MR images, using an inversion recovery prepped gradient-echo sequence, revealed diffuse enhancement in the wall of both left and right ventricles. This enhancement suggested expansion of the extracellular space of the myocardium caused by diffuse myocardial necrosis secondary to deposition of amyloid.

  11. Primary Systemic Amyloidosis with Unusual Dermatological Manifestations: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Kapil; Morgaonkar, Manjaree; Gupta, Savera; Jain, Suresh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Amyloidosis is a group of heterogeneous diseases characterized by pathological deposition of proteinaceous substance extracellularly in various tissues. The clinical presentation depends on the site of amyloid deposition, with predominant involvement of mesenchymal elements and cutaneous findings in 30–40% of patients in case of primary systemic amyloidosis. We present a case of idiopathic primary systemic amyloidosis presenting with an unusual finding of nodulo-ulcerative lesion over tongue along with multiple skin-colored nodules, mimicking squamous cell carcinoma of tongue with secondary cutaneous metastasis, as well as lacking the classical presentation of purpura, macroglossia, waxy papules, and plaques. PMID:27057028

  12. Differential roles of regulatory light chain and myosin binding protein-C phosphorylations in the modulation of cardiac force development

    SciTech Connect

    Colson, Brett A.; Locher, Matthew R.; Bekyarova, Tanya; Patel, Jitandrakumar R.; Fitzsimons, Daniel P.; Irving, Thomas C.; Moss, Richard L.

    2010-05-25

    Phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) by protein kinase A (PKA) independently accelerate the kinetics of force development in ventricular myocardium. However, while MLCK treatment has been shown to increase the Ca{sup 2+} sensitivity of force (pCa{sub 50}), PKA treatment has been shown to decrease pCa{sub 50}, presumably due to cardiac troponin I phosphorylation. Further, MLCK treatment increases Ca{sup 2+}-independent force and maximum Ca{sup 2+}-activated force, whereas PKA treatment has no effect on either force. To investigate the structural basis underlying the kinase-specific differential effects on steady-state force, we used synchrotron low-angle X-ray diffraction to compare equatorial intensity ratios (I{sub 1,1}/I{sub 1,0}) to assess the proximity of myosin cross-bridge mass relative to actin and to compare lattice spacings (d{sub 1,0}) to assess the inter-thick filament spacing in skinned myocardium following treatment with either MLCK or PKA. As we showed previously, PKA phosphorylation of cMyBP-C increases I{sub 1,1}/I{sub 1,0} and, as hypothesized, treatment with MLCK also increased I{sub 1,1}/I{sub 1,0}, which can explain the accelerated rates of force development during activation. Importantly, interfilament spacing was reduced by {approx}2 nm ({Delta} 3.5%) with MLCK treatment, but did not change with PKA treatment. Thus, RLC or cMyBP-C phosphorylation increases the proximity of cross-bridges to actin, but only RLC phosphorylation affects lattice spacing, which suggests that RLC and cMyBP-C modulate the kinetics of force development by similar structural mechanisms; however, the effect of RLC phosphorylation to increase the Ca{sup 2+} sensitivity of force is mediated by a distinct mechanism, most probably involving changes in interfilament spacing.

  13. Immunoglobulin analysis tool: a novel tool for the analysis of human and mouse heavy and light chain transcripts.

    PubMed

    Rogosch, Tobias; Kerzel, Sebastian; Hoi, Kam Hon; Zhang, Zhixin; Maier, Rolf F; Ippolito, Gregory C; Zemlin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Sequence analysis of immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy and light chain transcripts can refine categorization of B cell subpopulations and can shed light on the selective forces that act during immune responses or immune dysregulation, such as autoimmunity, allergy, and B cell malignancy. High-throughput sequencing yields Ig transcript collections of unprecedented size. The authoritative web-based IMGT/HighV-QUEST program is capable of analyzing large collections of transcripts and provides annotated output files to describe many key properties of Ig transcripts. However, additional processing of these flat files is required to create figures, or to facilitate analysis of additional features and comparisons between sequence sets. We present an easy-to-use Microsoft(®) Excel(®) based software, named Immunoglobulin Analysis Tool (IgAT), for the summary, interrogation, and further processing of IMGT/HighV-QUEST output files. IgAT generates descriptive statistics and high-quality figures for collections of murine or human Ig heavy or light chain transcripts ranging from 1 to 150,000 sequences. In addition to traditionally studied properties of Ig transcripts - such as the usage of germline gene segments, or the length and composition of the CDR-3 region - IgAT also uses published algorithms to calculate the probability of antigen selection based on somatic mutational patterns, the average hydrophobicity of the antigen-binding sites, and predictable structural properties of the CDR-H3 loop according to Shirai's H3-rules. These refined analyses provide in-depth information about the selective forces acting upon Ig repertoires and allow the statistical and graphical comparison of two or more sequence sets. IgAT is easy to use on any computer running Excel(®) 2003 or higher. Thus, IgAT is a useful tool to gain insights into the selective forces and functional properties of small to extremely large collections of Ig transcripts, thereby assisting a researcher to mine a data set to its fullest. PMID:22754554

  14. Nomenclature of amyloid and amyloidosis. WHO-IUIS Nomenclature Sub-Committee.

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    This classification of amyloid and amyloidosis is based on the amyloid fibril proteins, followed by a designation of the fibril protein precursor. Additional information includes the protein type or variant (where applicable) and the clinical diagnosis. PMID:8440029

  15. Association of Skin with the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Neurodegenerative Amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Clos, Audra L.; Kayed, Rakez; Lasagna-Reeves, Cristian A.

    2012-01-01

    Amyloidosis are a large group of conformational diseases characterized by abnormal protein folding and assembly which results in the accumulation of insoluble protein aggregates that may accumulate systemically or locally in certain organs or tissue. In local amyloidosis, amyloid deposits are restricted to a particular organ or tissue. Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are some examples of neurodegenerative amyloidosis. Local manifestation of protein aggregation in the skin has also been reported. Brain and skin are highly connected at a physiological and pathological level. Recently several studies demonstrated a strong connection between brain and skin in different amyloid diseases. In the present review, we discuss the relevance of the “brain–skin connection” in different neurodegenerative amyloidosis, not only at the pathological level, but also as a strategy for the treatment of these diseases. PMID:22319507

  16. Intestinal amyloidosis: Two cases with different patterns of clinical and imaging presentation

    PubMed Central

    Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Segreto, Sabrina; Mancini, Marcello; Rispo, Antonio; Cozzolino, Immacolata; Masone, Stefania; Rinaldi, Ciro Roberto; Nardone, Gerardo; Salvatore, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The involvement of the small bowel in systemic forms of amyloidosis may be diffuse or very rarely focal. Some cases of focal amyloidomas of the duodenum and jejunum without extraintestinal manifestations have been reported. The focal amyloidomas consisted of extensive amyloid infiltration of the entire intestinal wall thickness. Radiological barium studies, ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) patterns of diffuse small bowel amyloidosis have been described: the signs are non-specific and may include small-bowel dilatation, symmetric bowel wall thickening, mesenteric infiltration, and mesenteric adenopathy. No data are available about the positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of intestinal amyloidosis. We report two cases of small bowel amyloidosis: the former characterized by focal deposition of amyloid proteins exclusively within blood vessel walls of the terminal ileum, the latter characterized by diffuse intestinal involvement observed on MRI and PET/CT studies. PMID:20503459

  17. Localization of the human kinesin light chain gene (KNS2) to chromosome 14q32.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Goedert, M.; Marsh, S.; Carter, N.

    1996-02-15

    This article reports on the localization of human kinesin light chain gene (KNS2) to human chromosome 14q32.3 using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Further studies will need to be conducted to see whether mutations in the KNS2 gene are associated with hereditary diseases. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Purification of monoclonal antibodies with light-chain heterogeneity produced by mouse hybridomas raised with NS-1 myelomas: application of hydrophobic interaction high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Abe, N; Inouye, K

    1993-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) of IgG1 class produced by hybridomas raised with NS-1 myelomas, which were purified homogeneously by anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), contained two types of immunoglobulin light (kappa) chain. Since NS-1 myeloma synthesizes the light (kappa) chain, the mAb was presumed to be the mixture of hybrid mAbs formed by the random association of heavy (gamma l) and light chains from antigen-immunized spleen cells and light chain from NS-1 cells. Hydrophobic interaction HPLC using TSKgel Phenyl-5PW was applicable to separate 3 species of hybrid mAb from mAb fractions obtained by anion-exchange HPLC. mAbs in the fractions were adsorbed onto the gel equilibrated with phosphate-buffered saline containing 1 M ammonium sulfate and eluted by reducing the concentration to 0 M. The hybrid mAbs were purified separately. The hydrophobic interaction HPLC could discriminate a small difference in hydrophobicity between kappa chains from spleen and NS-1 cells. The immunoreactivities of hybrid mAb bearing light chains only from spleen cells and that bearing those from both spleen and NS-1 cells were almost the same, and hybrid mAb bearing light chains derived only from NS-1 cells showed a relatively lower immunoreactivity than the others. The method described here could be useful for purification of hybrid mAbs. PMID:7505010

  19. Kappa and lambda light chain mRNA in situ hybridization compared to flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry in B cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Detection of B cell clonality is useful for assisting in the diagnosis of B cell lymphomas. Clonality assessment can be accomplished through evaluation of KAPPA and LAMBDA light chain expression. Currently, only slide based methods are available for the majority of patient biopsies and do not detect light chain protein or mRNA in many B-cell lymphomas. Herein we evaluated a new method, known as colorimetric in situ hybridization (CISH), with improved sensitivity and multiplexing capacity, for its usefulness in clonality detection in mature B cell malignancies. Methods The KAPPA and LAMBDA ISH was performed on a Ventana Benchmark XT utilizing two color chromogenetic detection. The probes comprised 2 haptenated riboprobes each approximately 500 base pairs long directed against the conserved regions of either KAPPA or LAMBDA mRNA. The dual colors consisted of silver deposition (black) for KAPPA light chain and a novel (pink) chromogen for LAMBDA light chain. Following optimization, CISH allowed visualization of mRNA in benign B cells in reactive tissues including germinal center, mantle zone, and post-germinal center cells. We then identified 79 cases of B cell lymphoma with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) biopsies including: follicular (36 cases), mantle cell (6 cases), marginal zone (12 cases), lymphoplasmacytic (6 cases), small lymphocytic (4 cases), and diffuse large B cell (15 cases), which were selected on the basis of either prior flow cytometry or immunohistochemistry (IHC) results to serve as the predicate, "gold standard," comparator. Results 39/79 (49.4%) cases were classified as KAPPA and 29/79 (36.7%) as LAMBDA light chain restricted; while 9/79 (11.3%) cases were classified as indeterminate. Of the 70 cases with KAPPA or LAMBDA light chain restricted CISH, 69/70 (98.6%) were concordant with the reference method, while 1/70 (1.4%) was discordant. Conclusions Optimized CISH detected lower levels of mRNA than can be visualized with current slide based methods, making clonality assessment in FFPE biopsies possible for mature B cell neoplasms. In this preliminary study, CISH was highly accurate compared to flow cytometry or IHC. CISH offers the possibility of wider applicability of light chain ISH and is likely to become a useful diagnostic tool. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1430491067123856 PMID:25047073

  20. [Haemospermia due to seminal vesicle amyloidosis. Treatment by laparoscopic vesiculectomy. A case report].

    PubMed

    Vandwalle, Jérôme; Dugardin, Fabrice; Petit, Thomas; Surga, Nicolas; Paul, Alexandre; Petit, Jacques

    2007-11-01

    Amyloidosis of the seminal vesicles is a rare cause of haemospermia. The authors report the case of a 42-year-old patient with recurrent haemospermia over a period of 2 years and abnormalities of one seminal vesicle on ultrasonography and MRI, justifying laparoscopic resection. Histological examination demonstrated localized amyloidosis, secondary to inflammation. No recurrence was observed with a follow-up of one. PMID:18271428

  1. A High-throughput-compatible FRET-based Platform for Identification and Characterization of Botulinum Neurotoxin Light Chain Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Caglič, Dejan; Bompiani, Kristin M.; Krutein, Michelle C.; Čapek, Petr; Dickerson, Tobin J.

    2013-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a potent and potentially lethal bacterial toxin that binds to host motor neurons, is internalized into the cell, and cleaves intracellular proteins that are essential for neurotransmitter release. BoNT is comprised of a heavy chain (HC), which mediates host cell binding and internalization, and a light chain (LC), which cleaves intracellular host proteins essential for acetylcholine release. While therapies that inhibit toxin binding/internalization have a small time window of administration, compounds that target intracellular LC activity have a much larger time window of administrations, particularly relevant given the extremely long half-life of the toxin. In recent years, small molecules have been heavily analyzed as potential LC inhibitors based on their increased cellular permeability relative to larger therapeutics (peptides, aptamers, etc.). Lead identification often involves high-throughput screening (HTS), where large libraries of small molecules are screened based on their ability to modulate therapeutic target function. Here we describe a FRET-based assay with a commercial BoNT/A LC substrate and recombinant LC that can be automated for HTS of potential BoNT inhibitors. Moreover, we describe a manual technique that can be used for follow-up secondary screening, or for comparing the potency of several candidate compounds. PMID:24430674

  2. Microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 is involved in melanogenesis via regulation of MITF expression in melanocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Woo Jin; Kim, Eun-Young; Park, Ji-Eun; Jo, Soo Youn; Bang, Seung Hyun; Chang, Eun-Ju; Chang, Sung Eun

    2016-01-01

    Although autophagy plays a role in melanogenesis by regulating melanosome degradation and biogenesis in melanocytes, a detailed understanding of the regulatory functions of autophagy factors is lacking. Here, we report a mechanistic link between microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) activation and melanogenesis. We observed high expression of LC3 in melanosome-associated pigment-rich melanocytic nevi of sun-exposed skin, as indicated by patterns of melanosomal protein MART1 expression. Rapamycin-induced autophagy significantly increased the melanin index, tyrosinase activity and expression of several proteins linked to melanosome biogenesis, including microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF), pre-melanosome protein and tyrosinase, in Melan-a melanocytes. siRNA-mediated knockdown of LC3, but not beclin-1 or ATG5, decreased melanin content and tyrosinase activity. LC3 knockdown also markedly inhibited MITF expression and subsequent rapamycin-induced melanosome formation. More importantly, LC3 knockdown suppressed α-MSH-mediated melanogenesis by attenuating cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and MITF expression in Melan-a cells via decreased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity. Overexpression of constitutively active ERK reversed the effect of LC3 knockdown on CREB phosphorylation and MITF expression. These findings demonstrate that LC3 contributes to melanogenesis by increasing ERK-dependent MITF expression, thereby providing a mechanistic insight into the signaling network that links autophagy to melanogenesis. PMID:26814135

  3. Differences in the transient response of fast and slow skeletal muscle fibers. Correlations between complex modulus and myosin light chains.

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, M; Schachat, F H

    1984-01-01

    Sinusoidal analysis of the mechanochemical properties of skinned muscle fibers under conditions of maximal activation was applied to fibers from several rabbit skeletal muscles (psoas, tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, diaphragm, soleus, semitendinosus). This investigation distinguished between two general classes of fibers, which on the basis of their myosin light chain complements could be classified as fast and slow. In fast fibers (e.g., psoas) we identified the presence of at least three exponential processes (A), (B), (C) of comparable magnitudes. In slow fibers (e.g., soleus) we identified the presence of at least four exponential processes (A)-(D) of very different magnitudes; magnitudes of processes (A) and (B) are very small compared with those of (C) and (D). The apparent rate constants are 8-29-fold slower in slow fibers. Because our sinusoidal characterization takes less than or equal to 22 s and does not involve chemical denaturation or other means of disruption of the myofilament lattice, it allows the different physiological classes of fibers to be characterized and then studied further by other techniques. The perfect correlation between physiological and molecular properties as assayed by gel electrophoresis after sinusoidal analysis demonstrates this and justifies its use in distinguishing between fiber types. Images FIGURE 3 PMID:6743745

  4. Utility of Serum Free Light Chain Measurements in Multiple Myeloma Patients Not Achieving Complete Response to Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, Muhamad Alhaj; Rajkumar, S. Vincent; Dispenzieri, Angela; Gertz, Morie A.; Lacy, Martha Q.; Buadi, Francis K.; Hwa, Yi Lisa; Dingli, David; Kapoor, Prashant; Hayman, Suzanne R.; Lust, John A.; Kyle, Robert A.; Kumar, Shaji K.

    2015-01-01

    Normalization of the serum free light chain ratio (FLCr) with the absence of bone marrow monoclonal plasma cells following achievement of a complete response (CR) to therapy denotes a stringent CR in multiple myeloma (MM), and is associated with improved overall survival (OS). However, its value in patients achieving

  5. 4-Amino-7-chloroquinolines: probing ligand efficiency provides botulinum neurotoxin serotype A light chain inhibitors with significant antiprotozoal activity

    PubMed Central

    Opsenica, Igor M.; Tot, Mikloš; Gomba, Laura; Nuss, Jonathan E.; Sciotti, Richard J.; Bavari, Sina; Burnett, James C.; Šolaja, Bogdan A.

    2013-01-01

    Structurally simplified analogs of dual antimalarial and botulinum neurotoxin serotype A light chain (BoNT/A LC) inhibitor bis-aminoquinoline (1) were prepared. New compounds were designed to improve ligand efficiency while maintaining or exceeding the inhibitory potency of 1. Three of the new compounds are more active than 1 against both indications. Metabolically, the new inhibitors are relatively stable and non-toxic. Twelve, 14, and 15 are more potent BoNT/A LC inhibitors than 1. Additionally, 15 has excellent in vitro antimalarial efficacy, with IC90 values ranging from 4.45-12.11 nM against five Plasmodium falciparum (P.f.) strains: W2, D6, C235, C2A, C2B. The results indicate that the same level of inhibitory efficacy provided by 1 can be retained/exceeded with less structural complexity. Twelve, 14, and 15 provide new platforms for the development of more potent dual BoNT/A LC and P.f. inhibitors adhering to generally accepted chemical properties associated with the druggability of synthetic molecules. PMID:23815186

  6. Axonemal dynein light chain-1 locates at the microtubule-binding domain of the γ heavy chain

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Muneyoshi; Saito, Kei; Yanagisawa, Haru-aki; Yagi, Toshiki; Kamiya, Ritsu; Yamaguchi, Shin; Yajima, Junichiro; Kushida, Yasuharu; Nakano, Kentaro; Numata, Osamu; Toyoshima, Yoko Y.

    2015-01-01

    The outer arm dynein (OAD) complex is the main propulsive force generator for ciliary/flagellar beating. In Chlamydomonas and Tetrahymena, the OAD complex comprises three heavy chains (α, β, and γ HCs) and >10 smaller subunits. Dynein light chain-1 (LC1) is an essential component of OAD. It is known to associate with the Chlamydomonas γ head domain, but its precise localization within the γ head and regulatory mechanism of the OAD complex remain unclear. Here Ni-NTA-nanogold labeling electron microscopy localized LC1 to the stalk tip of the γ head. Single-particle analysis detected an additional structure, most likely corresponding to LC1, near the microtubule-binding domain (MTBD), located at the stalk tip. Pull-down assays confirmed that LC1 bound specifically to the γ MTBD region. Together with observations that LC1 decreased the affinity of the γ MTBD for microtubules, we present a new model in which LC1 regulates OAD activity by modulating γ MTBD's affinity for the doublet microtubule. PMID:26399296

  7. Resonance Assignments and Secondary Structure Analysis of Dynein Light Chain 8 by Magic Angle Spinning NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shangjin; Butterworth, Andrew H.; Paramasivam, Sivakumar; Yan, Si; Lightcap, Christine M.; Williams, John C.; Polenova, Tatyana

    2012-01-01

    Dynein light chain LC8 is the smallest subunit of the dynein motor complex and has been shown to play important roles in both dynein dependent and dynein independent physiological functions via its interaction with a number of its binding partners. It has also been linked to pathogenesis including roles in viral infections and tumorigenesis. Structural information for LC8-target proteins is critical to understanding the underlying function of LC8 in these complexes. However, some LC8-target interactions are not amenable for structural characterization by conventional structural biology techniques due to their large size, low solubility and crystallization difficulties. Here, we report magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies of the homodimeric apo-LC8 protein as a first effort in addressing more complex, multi-partner LC8-based protein assemblies. We have established site-specific backbone and side chain resonance assignments for the majority of the residues of LC8, and show TALOS+ predicted torsion angles ϕ and ψ in close agreement with most residues in the published LC8 crystal structure. Data obtained through these studies will provide the first step toward using MAS NMR to examine the LC8 structure, which will eventually be used to investigate protein-protein interactions in larger systems, which cannot be determined by conventional structural studies. PMID:23243318

  8. Clathrin light chains are required for the gyrating-clathrin recycling pathway and thereby promote cell migration.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Sophia R; Vasudevan, Lavanya; Chen, Chih-Ying; Luo, Yi; Torres, Jorge A; Evans, Timothy M; Sharkey, Andrew; Foraker, Amy B; Wong, Nicole M L; Esk, Christopher; Freeman, Theresa A; Moffett, Ashley; Keen, James H; Brodsky, Frances M

    2014-01-01

    The clathrin light chain (CLC) subunits participate in several membrane traffic pathways involving both clathrin and actin, through binding the actin-organizing huntingtin-interacting proteins (Hip). However, CLCs are dispensable for clathrin-mediated endocytosis of many cargoes. Here we observe that CLC depletion affects cell migration through Hip binding and reduces surface expression of β1-integrin by interference with recycling following normal endocytosis of inactive β1-integrin. CLC depletion and expression of a modified CLC also inhibit the appearance of gyrating (G)-clathrin structures, known mediators of rapid recycling of transferrin receptor from endosomes. Expression of the modified CLC reduces β1-integrin and transferrin receptor recycling, as well as cell migration, implicating G-clathrin in these processes. Supporting a physiological role for CLC in migration, the CLCb isoform of CLC is upregulated in migratory human trophoblast cells during uterine invasion. Together, these studies establish CLCs as mediating clathrin-actin interactions needed for recycling by G-clathrin during migration. PMID:24852344

  9. Utility of serum free light chain measurements in multiple myeloma patients not achieving complete response to therapy.

    PubMed

    Alhaj Moustafa, M; Rajkumar, S V; Dispenzieri, A; Gertz, M A; Lacy, M Q; Buadi, F K; Hwa, Y L; Dingli, D; Kapoor, P; Hayman, S R; Lust, J A; Kyle, R A; Kumar, S K

    2015-10-01

    Normalization of the serum-free light-chain ratio (FLCr) with the absence of bone marrow monoclonal plasma cells following achievement of a complete response (CR) to therapy denotes a stringent CR in multiple myeloma (MM), and is associated with improved overall survival (OS). However, its value in patients achieving

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis inclusion membrane protein CT850 interacts with the dynein light chain DYNLT1 (Tctex1).

    PubMed

    Mital, Jeffrey; Lutter, Erika I; Barger, Alexandra C; Dooley, Cheryl A; Hackstadt, Ted

    2015-06-26

    Chlamydia trachomatis actively subverts the minus-end directed microtubule motor, dynein, to traffic along microtubule tracks to the Microtubule Organizing Center (MTOC) where it remains within a membrane bound replicative vacuole for the duration of its intracellular development. Unlike most substrates of the dynein motor, disruption of the dynactin cargo-linking complex by over-expression of the p50 dynamitin subunit does not inhibit C. trachomatis transport. A requirement for chlamydial protein synthesis to initiate this process suggests that a chlamydial product supersedes a requirement for p50 dynamitin. A yeast 2-hybrid system was used to screen the chlamydia inclusion membrane protein CT850 against a HeLa cell cDNA library and identified an interaction with the dynein light chain DYNLT1 (Tctex1). This interaction was at least partially dependent upon an (R/K-R/K-X-X-R/K) motif that is characteristic of DYNLT1 binding domains. CT850 expressed ectopically in HeLa cells localized at the MTOC and this localization is similarly dependent upon the predicted DYNLT1 binding domain. Furthermore, DYNLT1 is enriched at focal concentrations of CT850 on the chlamydial inclusion membrane that are known to interact with dynein and microtubules. Depletion of DYNLT1 disrupts the characteristic association of the inclusion membrane with centrosomes. Collectively, the results suggest that CT850 interacts with DYNLT1 to promote appropriate positioning of the inclusion at the MTOC. PMID:25944661

  11. Analytical issues of serum free light chain assays and the relative performance of polyclonal and monoclonal based reagents.

    PubMed

    Carr-Smith, Hugh D; Jenner, Ellen L; Evans, Josie A R; Harding, Stephen J

    2016-06-01

    Serum free light chain (FLC) assays have been incorporated into routine clinical practice and their use is recommended in international guidelines for the management of monoclonal gammopathies. Given that FLCs are not simple analytes, laboratories should be aware of potential analytical issues when using FLC assays, including antigen excess, lot-to-lot variation and non-linearity. Whilst manufacturers of monoclonal antibody-based assays claim that they overcome such issues, the evidence available to date does not support this. Here we review and compare the technical performance of both polyclonal and monoclonal antibody-based assays. The evidence suggests that the Freelite assay, based on polyclonal antisera, gives a broader recognition of monoclonal FLCs than the N Latex assay, based on monoclonal antisera, and despite being cited as a technical concern, we show that lot-to-lot variation of the Freelite assay is good. Both non-linearity and antigen excess are characteristic of FLC analysis and laboratories should be aware of these phenomena regardless of the assay system they use. Comparisons of the absolute values of sFLCs determined using monoclonal and polyclonal antibody-based assays show poor quantitative agreement and, because current guidelines have been established using the polyclonal antibody-based Freelite assay, it should not be assumed that assays utilizing monoclonal antibodies will give compliance with these guidelines. PMID:26943608

  12. Flow cytometric surface light chain analysis of lymphocyte-rich effusions. A useful adjunct to cytologic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, R E; Teich, D; Smith, B R; Antin, J; Olivier, A P; Weinberg, D S

    1989-05-15

    The cytologic diagnoses in 49 body cavity fluids from 46 patients, of whom 30 had a clinical diagnosis of lymphoma or lymphatic leukemia, and 16 patients with benign inflammatory or reactive conditions, were compared to flow cytometric surface immunoglobulin light chain analysis (kappa-lambda analysis [KLA]). The results of both tests were correlated with clinical outcome and all available information from biopsy, autopsy, and additional cell marker studies. When the diagnoses by both cytologic analysis and KLA were in agreement (57.1% of cases), there were no false-negative or false-positive results. Overall, false-positive and false-negative rates were, respectively, 6.1% and 12.2% with cytologic study, and 4.1% and 4.1% with KLA. Sixteen samples were from patients with small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL) and small cleaved lymphoma, which had a false-negative rate of 37.5% by cytologic study, and only 6.2% by KLA. There was one false-positive result by KLA among the benign effusions. These findings indicate that KLA is a powerful adjunct to the cytologic evaluation of lymphocyte-rich effusions, especially in cases of lymphoproliferative disorders characterized by small lymphocytes, in which the cytologic diagnosis is frequently difficult. PMID:2495164

  13. The role of the N-terminus of the myosin essential light chain in cardiac muscle contraction

    PubMed Central

    Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Xu, Yuanyuan; Jones, Michelle; Guzman, Georgianna; Hernandez, Olga M.; Kerrick, W. Glenn L.; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2011-01-01

    Summary To study the regulation of cardiac muscle contraction by the myosin essential light chain (ELC) and the physiological significance of its N-terminal extension, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice partially replacing the endogenous mouse ventricular ELC with either the human ventricular ELC wild type (Tg-WT) or its 43 amino acid N-terminal truncation mutant (Tg-Δ43) in the murine hearts. The mutant protein is similar in sequence to the short ELC variant present in skeletal muscle and the ELC protein distribution in Tg-Δ43 ventricles resembles that of fast skeletal muscle. Cardiac muscle preparations from Tg-Δ43 mice demonstrate reduced force per cross-sectional area of muscle, which is likely caused by a reduced number of force generating myosin cross-bridges and/or by decreased force per cross-bridge. As the mice grow older, the contractile force per cross-sectional area further decreases in Tg-Δ43 mice and the mutant hearts develop a phenotype of non-pathologic hypertrophy while still maintaining normal cardiac performance. The myocardium of older Tg-Δ43 mice also exhibits reduced myosin content. Our results suggest that the role of the N-terminal ELC extension is to maintain the integrity of myosin and to modulate force generation by decreasing myosin neck region compliance and promoting strong cross-bridge formation and/or by enhancing myosin attachment to actin. PMID:19361417

  14. Structure of the smooth muscle myosin light-chain kinase calmodulin-binding domain peptide bound to calmodulin

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, S.M.; Schneider, D.M.; Wand, A.J. Univ. of Illinois, Urbana ); Strobel, L.A. ); VanBerkum, M.F.A.; Means, A.R. )

    1991-10-22

    The interaction between the peptide corresponding to the calmodulin-binding domain of smooth muscle myosin light-chain kinase and (Ca{sup 2+}){sub 4}-calmodulin has been studied by multinuclear and multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance methods. The study was facilitated by the use of {sup 15}N-labeled peptide in conjunction with {sup 15}N-edited and {sup 15}N-correlated {sup 1}H spectroscopy. The peptide forms a 1:1 complex with calcium-saturated calmodulin which is in slow exchange with free peptide. The {sup 1}H and {sup 15}N resonances of the bound have been assigned. An extensive set of structural constraints for the bound peptide has been assembled from the analysis of nuclear Overhauser effects and three-bond coupling constants. The backbone conformation of the bound peptide has been determined using these constraints by use of distance geometry and related computational methods. The backbone conformation of the peptide has been determined to high precision and is generally indicative of helical secondary structure. Nonhelical backbone conformations are seen in the middle and at the C-terminal end of the bound peptide. These studies provide the first direct confirmation of the amphiphilic helix model for the structure of peptides bound to calcium-saturated calmodulin.

  15. MyoD and myogenin act on the chicken myosin light-chain 1 gene as distinct transcriptional factors.

    PubMed Central

    Asakura, A; Fujisawa-Sehara, A; Komiya, T; Nabeshima, Y; Nabeshima, Y

    1993-01-01

    Expression of MyoD, myogenin, MRF4, and Myf-5 converts nonmuscle cells to muscle cells. In an attempt to analyze the roles of these factors, we have investigated their effects on transcription driven by the promoter of the chicken myosin alkaline light-chain (MLC1) gene. The activation by CMD1 or c-myogenin (chicken MyoD or myogenin, respectively) was dependent on the existence of a muscle-specific regulatory region located from positions -2096 to -1743. Its distal half, containing a pair of E boxes (CANNTG), had been previously characterized as an enhancer responsive to CMD1 but not to c-myogenin. In this study, we report the identification of another enhancer in the muscle-specific regulatory region which is preferentially responsive to c-myogenin. Deletion and mutation analyses indicated that this enhancer requires a single E box and its flanking sequences. Furthermore, analysis of chimeric proteins of CMD1 and c-myogenin indicated that regions outside the basic helix-loop-helix domain of c-myogenin are involved in the specificity of the enhancer. These results show that CMD1 and c-myogenin act on the MLC1 gene by recognizing different upstream DNA sequences and that direct or indirect interactions between the regions outside the basic helix-loop-helix domain and flanking sequences of E boxes are involved in the target sequence specificity. Images PMID:8413304

  16. Tarantula myosin free head regulatory light chain phosphorylation stiffens N-terminal extension, releasing it and blocking its docking back.

    PubMed

    Alamo, Lorenzo; Li, Xiaochuan Edward; Espinoza-Fonseca, L Michel; Pinto, Antonio; Thomas, David D; Lehman, William; Padrón, Raúl

    2015-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of smooth and striated muscle myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) N-terminal extension (NTE) showed that diphosphorylation induces a disorder-to-order transition. Our goal here was to further explore the effects of mono- and diphosphorylation on the straightening and rigidification of the tarantula myosin RLC NTE. For that we used MD simulations followed by persistence length analysis to explore the consequences of secondary and tertiary structure changes occurring on RLC NTE following phosphorylation. Static and dynamic persistence length analysis of tarantula RLC NTE peptides suggest that diphosphorylation produces an important 24-fold straightening and a 16-fold rigidification of the RLC NTE, while monophosphorylation has a less profound effect. This new information on myosin structural mechanics, not fully revealed by previous EM and MD studies, add support to a cooperative phosphorylation-dependent activation mechanism as proposed for the tarantula thick filament. Our results suggest that the RLC NTE straightening and rigidification after Ser45 phosphorylation leads to a release of the constitutively Ser35 monophosphorylated free head swaying away from the thick filament shaft. This is so because the stiffened diphosphorylated RLC NTE would hinder the docking back of the free head after swaying away, becoming released and mobile and unable to recover its original interacting position on activation. PMID:26038302

  17. Pseudo-Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Presentation of a Crystal-Storing Histiocytosis With an Unmutated Monoclonal κ Light Chain

    PubMed Central

    Aline-Fardin, Aude; Bender, Sebastien; Fabiani, Bettina; Buob, David; Brahimi, Said; Verpont, Marie Christine; Mothy, Mohamad; Ronco, Pierre; Boffa, Jean Jacques; Aucouturier, Pierre; Garderet, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Crystal-storing histiocytosis (CSH) is a rare complication of monoclonal gammopathies caused by accumulation of crystalline material inside macrophages, and it may result in a variety of clinical manifestations depending on the involved organs. Although immunoglobulin κ light chains (LCs) seem to be the most frequent pathogenic component, very few molecular data are currently available. A 69-year-old man presented with a very poor performance status. Remarkable features were mesenteric lymph node enlargement and proteinuria, including a monoclonal κ LC. Light and electron microscopy studies revealed the presence of crystals within macrophages in the lymph nodes, bone marrow, and kidney, leading to the diagnosis of CSH. The pathogenic κ LC variable domain sequence was identical to the germline Vk3-20∗01/Jk2∗01 gene segments, without any somatic mutation, suggesting an extra-follicular B cell proliferation. The patient was successfully treated with 4 cycles of bortezomib and dexamethasone. After a 12-month follow-up, he remains in hematological and renal remission. CSH may present as pseudo-peritoneal carcinomatosis and relate to a monoclonal κ LC encoded by an unmutated gene. Bortezomib-based therapy proved efficacious in this case. PMID:26266355

  18. LRRK2 localizes to endosomes and interacts with clathrin-light chains to limit Rac1 activation

    PubMed Central

    Schreij, Andrea MA; Chaineau, Mathilde; Ruan, Wenjing; Lin, Susan; Barker, Philip A; Fon, Edward A; McPherson, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common cause of dominant-inherited Parkinson's disease (PD), and yet we do not fully understand the physiological function(s) of LRRK2. Various components of the clathrin machinery have been recently found mutated in familial forms of PD. Here, we provide molecular insight into the association of LRRK2 with the clathrin machinery. We report that through its GTPase domain, LRRK2 binds directly to clathrin-light chains (CLCs). Using genome-edited HA-LRRK2 cells, we localize LRRK2 to endosomes on the degradative pathway, where it partially co-localizes with CLCs. Knockdown of CLCs and/or LRRK2 enhances the activation of the small GTPase Rac1, leading to alterations in cell morphology, including the disruption of neuronal dendritic spines. In Drosphila, a minimal rough eye phenotype caused by overexpression of Rac1, is dramatically enhanced by loss of function of CLC and LRRK2 homologues, confirming the importance of this pathway in vivo. Our data identify a new pathway in which CLCs function with LRRK2 to control Rac1 activation on endosomes, providing a new link between the clathrin machinery, the cytoskeleton and PD. PMID:25427558

  19. LRRK2 localizes to endosomes and interacts with clathrin-light chains to limit Rac1 activation.

    PubMed

    Schreij, Andrea M A; Chaineau, Mathilde; Ruan, Wenjing; Lin, Susan; Barker, Philip A; Fon, Edward A; McPherson, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common cause of dominant-inherited Parkinson's disease (PD), and yet we do not fully understand the physiological function(s) of LRRK2. Various components of the clathrin machinery have been recently found mutated in familial forms of PD. Here, we provide molecular insight into the association of LRRK2 with the clathrin machinery. We report that through its GTPase domain, LRRK2 binds directly to clathrin-light chains (CLCs). Using genome-edited HA-LRRK2 cells, we localize LRRK2 to endosomes on the degradative pathway, where it partially co-localizes with CLCs. Knockdown of CLCs and/or LRRK2 enhances the activation of the small GTPase Rac1, leading to alterations in cell morphology, including the disruption of neuronal dendritic spines. In Drosphila, a minimal rough eye phenotype caused by overexpression of Rac1, is dramatically enhanced by loss of function of CLC and LRRK2 homologues, confirming the importance of this pathway in vivo. Our data identify a new pathway in which CLCs function with LRRK2 to control Rac1 activation on endosomes, providing a new link between the clathrin machinery, the cytoskeleton and PD. PMID:25427558

  20. Friend or foe: emerging role of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells in cell senescence

    PubMed Central

    Mowla, Sophia N; Perkins, Neil D; Jat, Parmjit S

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) proteins are a family of ubiquitously expressed transcription factors that regulate the response to cellular stress. They mediate innate and adaptive immunity through the initiation of an inflammatory response to pro-inflammatory signals. The role of persistent inflammation in aiding tumor development has led to the NF-?B family of transcription factors being strongly implicated in promoting cancer. However, recent studies have now revealed that NF-?B can also function as a tumor suppressor through the induction of cellular senescence. Cellular senescence is a stable cell cycle arrest that normal cells undergo in response to a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli including: progressive telomere shortening, changes in telomeric structure, or other forms of genotoxic stress. Senescence can compromise tissue repair and regeneration, contributing to tissue and organismal aging via the accumulation of senescent cells, depletion of stem/progenitor cells and secretion of an array of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and matrix metalloproteinases. Senescence can also lead to the removal of potentially cancerous cells, thereby acting as a potent tumor suppressor mechanism. Herein, we review the evidence indicating a role for NF-?B in tumor suppression via cellular senescence and suggest that depending upon the subunit expressed, the biological context, and the type and intensity of the signal, NF-?B can indeed promote senescence growth arrest. PMID:24043947

  1. Interaction of the poliovirus receptor CD155 with the dynein light chain Tctex-1 and its implication for poliovirus pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Steffen; Cao, Xuemei; Welker, Reinhold; Wimmer, Eckard

    2002-03-01

    The cellular receptor for poliovirus CD155 (or PVR) is the founding member of a new class of membrane-associated immunoglobulin-like proteins, which include the mouse tumor-associated antigen E4 (Tage4) and three proteins termed "nectins." Using a yeast two-hybrid screen we have discovered that the cytoplasmic domain of CD155 associates strongly and specifically with Tctex-1, a light chain of the dynein motor complex, the latter representing the major driving