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Sample records for lightly doped drain

  1. Method of making self-aligned lightly-doped-drain structure for MOS transistors

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, Kurt H.; Carey, Paul G.

    2001-01-01

    A process for fabricating lightly-doped-drains (LDD) for short-channel metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) transistors. The process utilizes a pulsed laser process to incorporate the dopants, thus eliminating the prior oxide deposition and etching steps. During the process, the silicon in the source/drain region is melted by the laser energy. Impurities from the gas phase diffuse into the molten silicon to appropriately dope the source/drain regions. By controlling the energy of the laser, a lightly-doped-drain can be formed in one processing step. This is accomplished by first using a single high energy laser pulse to melt the silicon to a significant depth and thus the amount of dopants incorporated into the silicon is small. Furthermore, the dopants incorporated during this step diffuse to the edge of the MOS transistor gate structure. Next, many low energy laser pulses are used to heavily dope the source/drain silicon only in a very shallow region. Because of two-dimensional heat transfer at the MOS transistor gate edge, the low energy pulses are inset from the region initially doped by the high energy pulse. By computer control of the laser energy, the single high energy laser pulse and the subsequent low energy laser pulses are carried out in a single operational step to produce a self-aligned lightly-doped-drain-structure.

  2. Scalability of Gate/N- Overlapped Lightly Doped Drain in Deep-Submicrometer Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Masahiro; Mitsui, Katsuyoshi; Inuishi, Masahide; Arima, Hideaki; Hamaguchi, Chihiro

    1998-12-01

    In this paper an experimental study of the scalability of a gate/N- overlapped lightly doped drain (OL-LDD) structure in the deep-submicrometer regime is presented. Devices were optimized for processes with a design rule down to 0.15 µm. The allowable power supply voltage is obtained by investigating the time-dependent dielectric breakdown reliability, the minimum operating voltage, the gate-induced-drain-leakage current, the drain-induced-barrier-lowering effect and the DC hot carrier reliability. It was found that the maximum allowable supply voltage is mainly limited by the DC hot carrier reliability even in the deep-submicrometer range. A higher current-driving ability in the OL-LDD structure is achieved in comparison to that in a single drain (SD) structure when VDmax is applied as a supply voltage. The OL-LDD structure has a smaller CGD in the inversion region as well as in the accumulated region, as compared with the SD structure, especially with smaller LG. Consequently, the performance of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices with the OL-LDD structure is superior to that with the SD structure in the deep-submicrometer regime. It is also confirmed that the OL-LDD structure has a scaling merit even for 0.15 µm CMOS devices.

  3. Novel source follower transistor structure without lightly doped drain for high performance CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hyeong-Sub; Kwon, Sung-Kyu; Jeon, So-Ra; Oh, Dong-Jun; Lee, Ga-Won; Lee, Hi-Deok

    2016-08-01

    To realize high-resolution pixels in the CMOS image sensor, it is necessary to reduce low-frequency noise, particularly random telegraph signal (RTS) noise of the source-follower transistor (SFT). To achieve less relative variation of drain noise current, ΔI D/I D, a metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor structure without the lightly doped drain (LDD) for the SFT transistor is proposed. Then, a comparison of RTS noise characteristics between the proposed SFT structure without LDD and the conventional SFT structure with LDD was conducted. Although the RTS noise occurrence probability of the proposed SFT structure without LDD is somewhat greater than that of the conventional SFT structure with LDD, the amplitude of relative variation of drain noise current of the proposed SFT structure is significantly less than that of the conventional SFT. Despite changes in several factors in the proposed SFT, such as effective channel length, trap depth profile in gate oxide, and random dopant fluctuation (RDF), it is believed that the change of trap depth profile is a primary factor for the improved RTS characteristic. Therefore, the proposed SFT is highly desirable for the high-resolution CMOS image sensor.

  4. Hetero-junction carbon nanotube FET with lightly doped drain and source regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefi, Reza; Doorzad, Leila

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new structure was introduced for carbon nanotube (CNT) MOSFET transistors. The proposed structure was composed of two different nanotubes for the source/drain and channel regions. Electrical characteristics of this structure were investigated using nonequilibrium Green’s function approach. Results of the simulations demonstrated that the proposed hetero-structure had almost the same ON-current and much less OFF-current and as a result higher ION/IOFF ratio than the conventional homo-structure. Results of the comparison between switching behavior in equal ION/IOFF ratio showed that, although the proposed structure had longer delay, its power dissipation for every switching event was less than that of the conventional structure. A further comparison of the switching characteristic in equal ON-current values showed that the proposed structure enjoys from shorter delay and also consumes less power-delay product (PDP) when compared to the LDDS structure.

  5. A two-dimensional analytical model for channel potential and threshold voltage of short channel dual material gate lightly doped drain MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shweta, Tripathi

    2014-11-01

    An analytical model for the channel potential and the threshold voltage of the short channel dual-material-gate lightly doped drain (DMG-LDD) metal—oxide—semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is presented using the parabolic approximation method. The proposed model takes into account the effects of the LDD region length, the LDD region doping, the lengths of the gate materials and their respective work functions, along with all the major geometrical parameters of the MOSFET. The impact of the LDD region length, the LDD region doping, and the channel length on the channel potential is studied in detail. Furthermore, the threshold voltage of the device is calculated using the minimum middle channel potential, and the result obtained is compared with the DMG MOSFET threshold voltage to show the improvement in the threshold voltage roll-off. It is shown that the DMG-LDD MOSFET structure alleviates the problem of short channel effects (SCEs) and the drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) more efficiently. The proposed model is verified by comparing the theoretical results with the simulated data obtained by using the commercially available ATLAS™ 2D device simulator.

  6. Hot Carrier Degradation in Deep Sub-Micron Nitride Spacer Lightly Doped Drain N-Channel Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Jun-lin; Huang, Kai-ye; Lai, Jinn-horng; Gong, Jeng; Yang, Fu-Jei; Lin, Sun-Yun

    2002-08-01

    Spacer bottom oxide in the nitride spacer lightly doped drain (LDD) device, which is used to prevent huge interfacial states between the nitride and silicon interface, plays an important role in the hot carrier test. Because of the stress due to atomic size mismatch between the nitride spacer and silicon, trap-assisted hot electron tunneling is more significant in a nitride spacer LDD device than in the oxide spacer counterpart. A thicker bottom oxide can eliminate this effect. However, the optimal thickness of the nitride spacer bottom oxide should be varied for different poly-silicon gate structures. The hot carrier stress in a nitride spacer LDD device causes multi-stage degradation under Isub,max stress. It is dominated by electron trapping at the early stage, interfacial state (Nit) creation at the second stage, and self-limiting hot carrier degradation at the final stage. The degradation for Ig,max stress in nitride spacer LDD devices is mostly caused by electrons trapped in the nitride/oxide interface.

  7. A new analytical drain current model of cylindrical gate silicon tunnel FET with source δ-doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Sidhartha; Jena, Biswajit; Mishra, Guru Prasad

    2016-09-01

    A new δ-doped cylindrical gate silicon tunnel FET (DCG-TFET) analytical model is developed and investigated extensively, with the aim of addressing the challenges of the conventional CG-TFET. The improvement in tunneling probability of charge carriers has been achieved by inserting a δ-doping sheet in the source region which leads to high drain current as compared to CG-TFET. The effect of distance between the δ-doping sheet and source/channel interface on the current performance, sub-threshold swing (SS) and threshold voltage (Vth) has been examined. The instantaneous position of δ-doping region from the tunneling junction is optimized based on the trade-off between current ratio and SS. The present model exhibit maximum switching current ratio (ION/IOFF ≅1012) for an optimum distance of 2 nm without degrading SS (SS∼55 mV/decade) and Vth performance. The electrostatic behavior of the present model is obtained using the solution of Poisson's equation in the cylindrical coordinate system. However the impact of scaling of the gate oxide thickness and cylindrical pillar diameter on drain current performance has been discussed. In future, DCG-TFET can be one of the potential successors for ultra-low-power applications because of its improved drain current and switching ratio.

  8. Nature of the drains for excess atoms in polycrystalline CdS films doped with copper and chlorine

    SciTech Connect

    Torchinskaya, T.V.; Baidokha, L.N.

    1985-03-01

    The aging of polycrystalline CdS films doped with copper and chlorine and having a thickness of 2-5 ..mu.. with time, which is accompanied by decreases in the photoconductivity and the dark conductivity, is caused by the decomposition of the supersaturated solid solution of the donor defects in the CdS crystal lattice with their settling in certain drains. The purpose of the present work is to ascertain the physicochemical nature of the drains, whose knowledge would make it possible to stabilize the parameters of the films indicated. The investigation of the aging process of the films showed that its efficiency in the initial stage is practically independent of the grain diameters.

  9. Analysis of gate-induced drain leakage characteristics and threshold voltage modulation of plasma-doped FinFETs for low-power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ji-myoung; Cho, Keun Hwi; Kim, Dong-won; Chung, Ilsub

    2016-04-01

    FinFET devices were fabricated using plasma doping both at the source and drain extensions and in the channel region. In an effort to overcome dopant loss after the strip process, oxide buffer layers were deposited prior to plasma doping. Owing to the oxide buffer, 76% of the dopants were retained after the strip process and even after ashing, thereby keeping a high doping concentration of over 1 × 1020 atoms/cm3 on the surface of the Si fin. The gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) current was decreased by 2 orders of magnitude due to the shallow and abrupt plasma doping, compared to the performance with an ion implantation method. The threshold voltage (V th) was shifted by 250 mV through plasma doping of the channel. The doping conformality was evaluated using electrical measurements and a newly-proposed method based on the GIDL data with various fin widths. The conformal doping profile with a smaller dopant loss provides a smaller GIDL current.

  10. Analytical Modeling of Potential Distribution and Threshold Voltage of Gate Underlap DG MOSFETs with a Source/Drain Lateral Gaussian Doping Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kunal; Kumar, Mirgender; Goel, Ekta; Singh, Balraj; Dubey, Sarvesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Jit, Satyabrata

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports a new two-dimensional (2D) analytical model for the potential distribution and threshold voltage of the short-channel symmetric gate underlap ultrathin DG MOSFETs with a lateral Gaussian doping profile in the source (S)/drain (D) region. The parabolic approximation and conformal mapping techniques have been explored for solving the 2D Poisson's equation to obtain the channel potential function of the device. The effects of straggle parameter (of the lateral Gaussian doping profile in the S/D region), underlap length, gate length, channel thickness and oxide thickness on the surface potential and threshold voltage have been investigated. The loss of switching speed due to the drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) has also been reported. The proposed model results have been validated by comparing them with their corresponding TCAD simulation data obtained by using the commercially available 2D ATLAS™ simulation software.

  11. Co doped ZnO nanowires as visible light photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šutka, Andris; Käämbre, Tanel; Pärna, Rainer; Juhnevica, Inna; Maiorov, Mihael; Joost, Urmas; Kisand, Vambola

    2016-06-01

    High aspect ratio cobalt doped ZnO nanowires showing strong photocatalytic activity and moderate ferromagnetic behaviour were successfully synthesized using a solvothermal method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activities evaluated for visible light driven degradation of an aqueous methylene orange (MO) solution were higher than for Co doped ZnO nanoparticles at the same doping level and synthesized by the same synthesis route. The rate constant for MO visible light photocatalytic degradation was 1.9·10-3 min-1 in case of nanoparticles and 4.2·10-3 min-1 in case of nanowires. We observe strongly enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity for moderate Co doping levels, with an optimum at a composition of Zn0.95Co0.05O. The enhanced photocatalytic activities of Co doped ZnO nanowires were attributed to the combined effects of enhanced visible light absorption at the Co sites in ZnO nanowires, and improved separation efficiency of photogenerated charge carriers at optimal Co doping.

  12. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Performance optimization of MOS-like carbon nanotube-FETs with realistic source/drain contacts based on electrostatic doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailiang, Zhou; Yue, Hao; Minxuan, Zhang

    2010-12-01

    Due to carrier band-to-band-tunneling (BTBT) through channel-source/drain contacts, conventional MOS-like Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors (C-CNFETs) suffer from ambipolar conductance, which deteriorates the device performance greatly. In order to reduce such ambipolar behavior, a novel device structure based on electrostatic doping is proposed and all kinds of source/drain contacting conditions are considered in this paper. The non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism based simulation results show that, with proper choice of tuning voltage, such electrostatic doping strategy can not only reduce the ambipolar conductance but also improve the sub-threshold performance, even with source/drain contacts being of Schottky type. And these are both quite desirable in circuit design to reduce the system power and improve the frequency as well. Further study reveals that the performance of the proposed design depends strongly on the choice of tuning voltage value, which should be paid much attention to obtain a proper trade-off between power and speed in application.

  13. Impactful study of dual work function, underlap and hetero gate dielectric on TFET with different drain doping profile for high frequency performance estimation and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Dharmendra Singh; Sharma, Dheeraj; Raad, Bhagwan Ram; Bajaj, Varun

    2016-08-01

    This manuscript presents a comparative study of different combination for the dual workfunction gate material, underlap and hetero gate dielectric tunnel field-effect transistors (TFET's). Their performances have been analyzed in terms of ON-state current, ambipolar behaviour and RF response along with different drain doping profile. For this, the Dual work function of gate provides enhancement in ON-state current by reducing the tunnel barrier width at source/channel interface. Whereas, the underlap of gate is done near to the drain region, helps in reduction of ambipolar conduction by creating deficiency of hole for the conduction, which is major hurdle for TFET. Further, the combinations of the dual workfunction and underlap give combine advantages of both such as improve ON-state current and suppressed ambipolar current. Apart from this, the combination of hetero gate dielectric dual workfunction under lapping leads to superior device performance in terms of ON-state current and ambipolar behaviour. The use of hetero gate dielectric and Gaussian doping profile with gate underlap reduces the gate to drain capacitance that also improves the RF parameters of the device.

  14. Single-poly EEPROM cell with lightly doped MOS capacitors

    DOEpatents

    Riekels, James E.; Lucking, Thomas B.; Larsen, Bradley J.; Gardner, Gary R.

    2008-05-27

    An Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM) memory cell and a method of operation are disclosed for creating an EEPROM memory cell in a standard CMOS process. A single polysilicon layer is used in combination with lightly doped MOS capacitors. The lightly doped capacitors employed in the EEPROM memory cell can be asymmetrical in design. Asymmetrical capacitors reduce area. Further capacitance variation caused by inversion can also be reduced by using multiple control capacitors. In addition, the use of multiple tunneling capacitors provides the benefit of customized tunneling paths.

  15. Emission Characteristics and Effect of Battery Drain in "Budget" Curing Lights.

    PubMed

    AlShaafi, M M; Harlow, J E; Price, H L; Rueggeberg, F A; Labrie, D; AlQahtani, M Q; Price, R B

    2016-01-01

    Recently, "budget" dental light-emitting diode (LED)-based light-curing units (LCUs) have become available over the Internet. These LCUs claim equal features and performance compared to LCUs from major manufacturers, but at a lower cost. This study examined radiant power, spectral emission, beam irradiance profiles, effective emission ratios, and the ability of LCUs to provide sustained output values during the lifetime of a single, fully charged battery. Three examples of each budget LCU were purchased over the Internet (KY-L029A and KY-L036A, Foshan Keyuan Medical Equipment Co, and the Woodpecker LED.B, Guilin Woodpecker Medical Instrument Co). Major dental manufacturers provided three models: Elipar S10 and Paradigm (3M ESPE) and the Bluephase G2 (Ivoclar Vivadent). Radiant power emissions were measured using a laboratory-grade thermopile system, and the spectral emission was captured using a spectroradiometer system. Irradiance profiles at the tip end were measured using a modified laser beam profiler, and the proportion of optical tip area that delivered in excess of 400 mW/cm(2) (termed the effective emission ratio) was displayed using calibrated beam profile images. Emitted power was monitored over sequential exposures from each LCU starting at a fully charged battery state. The results indicated that there was less than a 100-mW/cm(2) difference between manufacturer-stated average tip end irradiance and the measured output. All the budget lights had smaller optical tip areas, and two demonstrated lower effective emission ratios than did the units from the major manufacturers. The budget lights showed discontinuous values of irradiance over their tip ends. One unit delivered extremely high output levels near the center of the light tip. Two of the budget lights were unable to maintain sustained and stable light output as the battery charge decreased with use, whereas those lights from the major manufacturers all provided a sustained light output for at least

  16. Polarization behavior of paints doped with silicone light diffusion agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Xie, Wei; Guo, Honggui; Wu, Jianye

    2016-02-01

    We report on the polarization behavior of painted samples doped with a silicone light diffusion agent and illuminated by linearly polarized laser light centered at 532 and 650 nm. Reflection spectra of the painted samples with dopant concentration of 0 and 12.2 wt.% were examined. The degree of depolarization increases from 0.35 to 0.8 under laser illumination at 650 nm and from 0.5 to 0.94 under laser illumination at 532 nm with an increasing concentration of light diffusion agent. The polarization behavior of painted samples was described, taking into account contribution of both surface scattering and volume scattering.

  17. White light generation from Dy3+ doped tellurite glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damak, Kamel; Yousef, El Sayed; Rüssel, Christian; Maâlej, Ramzi

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports on the spectral results of Dy3+ (1.0 mol%) ions-doped TeO2-ZnO-PbO-PbF2-Na2O (TZPPN) glass. Raman spectrum measurements, differential thermal analysis (DTA) profiles of this rare-earth ion-doped glass were carried out. From the DTA thermogram, glass transition (Tg), crystallization (Tc) and melting (Tm) temperatures were evaluated. Direct and indirect optical band gaps were calculated based on the glasses UV absorption spectra. From the absorption spectra, Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters, Ωk, were calculated. Using J-O intensity parameters, several radiative properties such as spontaneous transition probabilities (AR), radiative branching ratios (βR) and radiative lifetimes (τR) were determined for the excitation level 4F9/2. From the emission spectra, a strong yellow emission at 574 nm (4F9/2→6H13/2) was observed and it also showed a combination of blue and red emission bands for this glass. The stimulated emission cross-section σ(λp) was also evaluated for the 4F9/2→6HJ (J=11/2, 13/2, and 15/2) transitions. This study indicates that 1 mol% Dy2O3-doped tellurite glass can be considered for white light generation with the excitation of blue light (454 nm).

  18. Hemovac drain

    MedlinePlus

    ... gloves Five or 6 cotton swabs Gauze pads Clean soapy water Plastic trash bag Surgical tape Waterproof pad or ... Use a cotton swab dipped in the soapy water to clean the skin around the drain. Do this 3 ...

  19. P-doping-free III-nitride high electron mobility light-emitting diodes and transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Baikui; Tang, Xi; Chen, Kevin J.; Wang, Jiannong

    2014-07-21

    We report that a simple metal-AlGaN/GaN Schottky diode is capable of producing GaN band-edge ultraviolet emission at 3.4 eV at a small forward bias larger than ∼2 V at room temperature. Based on the surface states distribution of AlGaN, a mature impact-ionization-induced Fermi-level de-pinning model is proposed to explain the underlying mechanism of the electroluminescence (EL) process. By experimenting with different Schottky metals, Ni/Au and Pt/Au, we demonstrated that this EL phenomenon is a “universal” property of metal-AlGaN/GaN Schottky diodes. Since this light-emitting Schottky diode shares the same active structure and fabrication processes as the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors, straight-forward and seamless integration of photonic and electronic functional devices has been demonstrated on doping-free III-nitride heterostructures. Using a semitransparent Schottky drain electrode, an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility light-emitting transistor is demonstrated.

  20. Bistable salt doped cholesteric liquid crystals light shutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moheghi, Alireza; Nemati, Hossein; Li, Yannian; Li, Quan; Yang, Deng-Ke

    2016-02-01

    Liquid crystals have been used to make electrically switchable light shutters (windows), but most of them are monostable: opaque in the absence of applied voltage and transparent when a voltage is applied. Here we report a bistable switchable light shutter based on cholesteric liquid crystal doped with tetrabutylammonium bromide. The salt makes it possible for the liquid crystal to have different electro-optical responses to applied voltages with different frequencies. The shutter can be either transparent or opaque in the absence of applied voltage. It can be switched from the transparent state to the opaque state by applying a low frequency (60 Hz) voltage pulse and switched back to the transparent state by applying a high frequency (2 kHz) voltage pulse. Because of the bistability, it can be used for energy-saving switchable privacy control and architectural windows.

  1. Visible-light emission at room temperature in Mn-doped Si light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Pham Nam; Maruo, Daiki; Anh, Le Duc; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate Si-based light-emitting diodes that continuously emit reddish-yellow visible light at room temperature by utilizing optical transitions between the p-d hybrid orbitals of Mn atoms doped in Si. Our light-emitting diodes show clear visible-light electroluminescence with two peaks at E1=1.75 and E2=2.30 eV , corresponding to optical transitions between p-d hybrid orbitals of Mn atoms. The electrons at the p-d hybrid orbitals of Mn in Si are excited by hot holes that are accelerated by an intensive electric field in the depletion layer of reverse biased Si p -n junctions containing a Mn-doped Si (Si:Mn) layer. The observed two peaks at E1=1.75 and E2=2.30 eV are redshifted and blueshifted by 0.14 eV, respectively, from those of GaAs:Mn or ZnS:Mn. Our observations are consistent with the p -d hybridized electronic structure of Mn atoms doped in Si as predicted by first-principles calculations.

  2. Visible-light electroluminescence in Mn-doped GaAs light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam Hai, Pham; Maruo, Daiki; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2014-03-01

    We observed visible-light electroluminescence (EL) due to d-d transitions in light-emitting diodes with Mn-doped GaAs layers (here, referred to as GaAs:Mn). Besides the band-gap emission of GaAs, the EL spectra show two peaks at 1.89 eV and 2.16 eV, which are exactly the same as 4A2(4F) → 4T1(4G) and 4T1(4G) → 6A1(6S) transitions of Mn atoms doped in ZnS. The temperature dependence and the current-density dependence are consistent with the characteristics of d-d transitions. We explain the observed EL spectra by the p-d hybridized orbitals of the Mn d electrons in GaAs.

  3. Effect of light Si doping on the properties of GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Lin; Zhai, Guangmei; Jia, Zhigang; Mei, Fuhong; Lu, Taiping; Liu, Xuguang; Xu, Bingshe

    2016-03-01

    An obvious increase in electron mobility and yellow luminescence (YL) band intensity was found in light Si doping GaN. For a series of GaN samples with different doping concentration, the dislocation density is almost the same. It is inferred that the abrupt increase in mobility and YL intensity does not originate from the change of dislocation density. The mobility behavior is attributed to the screening of scattering by dislocation and increase of ionized impurity scattering with the increase of Si doping concentration. At lower doping level, the screening of dislocation scattering is dominant, which results in the increase in carrier mobility. At higher doping level, the increase in ionized impurity scattering leads to the decrease in carrier mobility. Higher mobility causes longer diffusion length of nonequilibrium carrier. More dislocations will participate in the recombination process which induces stronger YL intensity in light Si doping GaN.

  4. Ultra High p-doping Material Research for GaN Based Light Emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Dmitriev

    2007-06-30

    The main goal of the Project is to investigate doping mechanisms in p-type GaN and AlGaN and controllably fabricate ultra high doped p-GaN materials and epitaxial structures. Highly doped p-type GaN-based materials with low electrical resistivity and abrupt doping profiles are of great importance for efficient light emitters for solid state lighting (SSL) applications. Cost-effective hydride vapor phase epitaxial (HVPE) technology was proposed to investigate and develop p-GaN materials for SSL. High p-type doping is required to improve (i) carrier injection efficiency in light emitting p-n junctions that will result in increasing of light emitting efficiency, (ii) current spreading in light emitting structures that will improve external quantum efficiency, and (iii) parameters of Ohmic contacts to reduce operating voltage and tolerate higher forward currents needed for the high output power operation of light emitters. Highly doped p-type GaN layers and AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with low electrical resistivity will lead to novel device and contact metallization designs for high-power high efficiency GaN-based light emitters. Overall, highly doped p-GaN is a key element to develop light emitting devices for the DOE SSL program. The project was focused on material research for highly doped p-type GaN materials and device structures for applications in high performance light emitters for general illumination P-GaN and p-AlGaN layers and multi-layer structures were grown by HVPE and investigated in terms of surface morphology and structure, doping concentrations and profiles, optical, electrical, and structural properties. Tasks of the project were successfully accomplished. Highly doped GaN materials with p-type conductivity were fabricated. As-grown GaN layers had concentration N{sub a}-N{sub d} as high as 3 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. Mechanisms of doping were investigated and results of material studies were reported at several International conferences providing

  5. Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with polarization-doped p-type layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wenxiao; Qin, Ping; Song, Weidong; Zhang, Chongzhen; Wang, Rupeng; Zhao, Liangliang; Xia, Chao; Yuan, Songyang; Yin, Yian; Li, Shuti

    2016-09-01

    We report ultraviolet light emitting diode (LEDs) with polarization doped p-type layer. Fabricated LEDs with polarization doped p-type layer exhibited reduced forward voltage and enhanced light output power, compared to those with traditional p-type AlGaN layer. The improvement is attributed to improved hole concentration and the smooth valence band by the polarization enhanced p-type doping. Our simulated results reveal that this p-type layer can further enhance the performance of ultraviolet LEDs by removing the electron blocking layer (EBL).

  6. Enhanced visible-light photoactivity of La-doped ZnS thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuan; Huang, Gui-Fang; Huang, Wei-Qing; Zou, B. S.; Pan, Anlian

    2012-09-01

    ZnS and La-doped ZnS thin films were successfully synthesized using chemical-bath deposition on conductive glass substrates. The effects of La-doping on the surface morphology, composition, structure and optical properties of the films were investigated. The photocatalytic performances of undoped and doped ZnS films were evaluated by photodegrading methyl orange aqueous solution under both ultraviolet-light and visible-light irradiation. The results show that the stoichiometry ratio and the properties of ZnS can be tailored by the La-doping concentration. An appropriate amount of La-doping effectively extends the absorption edge to visible-light region, which leads to the significant enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of ZnS thin films under visible-light irradiation. The mechanism of enhanced visible-light photoactivity by La-doping is briefly discussed. The present study provides a simple method for designing the highly efficient semiconductor photocatalysts that can effectively utilize sunlight.

  7. Electrical doping for high performance organic light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jang-Joo; Leem, Dong-Seok; Lee, Jae-Hyun

    2009-02-01

    Novel p-dopants of ReO3 and CuI, and an n-dopant of Rb2CO3 have been developed. Among many other p-dopants, ReO3 possesses superior characteristics of low temperature deposition, efficient charge generation and increasing the device lifetime. The absorption intensity of charge transfer complexes and current-voltage characteristics revealed that charge generation in p-doped hole transporting layers is more effective when the work function of the dopant is larger. High performance OLEDs have been fabricated using the p- and n-dopants, including the low driving voltage p-i-n phosphorescent OLEDs, high power efficiency of tandem OLEDs using ReO3 doped NPB/ReO3 (1 nm)/Rb2CO3 doped Bphen as the interconnection unit, and top emission OLEDs using CuI doped NPB as the hole injection layer from Ag electrode.

  8. The Electric and Optical Properties of Doped Small Molecular Organic Light-Emitting Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Kwang-Ohk Cheon

    2003-08-05

    Organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) constitute a new and exciting emissive display technology. In general, the basic OLED structure consists of a stack of fluorescent organic layers sandwiched between a transparent conducting-anode and metallic cathode. When an appropriate bias is applied to the device, holes are injected from the anode and electrons from the cathode; some of the recombination events between the holes and electrons result in electroluminescence (EL). Until now, most of the efforts in developing OLEDs have focused on display applications, hence on devices within the visible range. However some organic devices have been developed for ultraviolet or infrared emission. Various aspects of the device physics of doped small molecular OLEDs were described and discussed. The doping layer thickness and concentration were varied systematically to study their effects on device performances, energy transfer, and turn-off dynamics. Low-energy-gap DCM2 guest molecules, in either {alpha}-NPD or DPVBi host layers, are optically efficient fluorophores but also generate deep carrier trap-sites. Since their traps reduce the carrier mobility, the current density decreases with increased doping concentration. At the same time, due to efficient energy transfer, the quantum efficiency of the devices is improved by light doping or thin doping thickness, in comparison with the undoped neat devices. However, heavy doping induces concentration quenching effects. Thus, the doping concentration and doping thickness may be optimized for best performance.

  9. Lag and light-transfer characteristics of amorphous selenium photoconductive film with tellurium-doped layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Wug-Dong; Tanioka, Kenkichi

    2016-07-01

    Amorphous selenium (a-Se) high-gain avalanche rushing amorphous photoconductor (HARP) films have been used for highly sensitive imaging devices. To study a-Se HARP films for a solid-state image sensor, current–voltage, lag, spectral response, and light-transfer characteristics of 0.4-µm-thick a-Se HARP films are investigated. Also, to clarify a suitable Te-doped a-Se layer thickness in the a-Se photoconductor, we considered the effects of Te-doped layer thickness on the lag, spectral response, and light-transfer characteristics of 0.4-µm-thick a-Se HARP films. The threshold field, at which avalanche multiplication occurs in the a-Se HARP targets, decreases when the Te-doped layer thickness increases. The lag of 0.4-µm-thick a-Se HARP targets with Te-doped layers is higher than that of the target without Te doping. The lag of the targets with Te-doped layers is caused by the electrons trapped in the Te-doped layers within the 0.4-µm-thick a-Se HARP films. From the results of the spectral response measurement of about 15 min, the 0.4-µm-thick a-Se HARP targets with Te-doped layers of 90 and 120 nm are observed to be unstable owing to the electrons trapped in the Te-doped a-Se layer. From the light-transfer characteristics of 0.4-µm-thick a-Se HARP targets, as the slope at the operating point of signal current–voltage characteristics in the avalanche mode increases, the γ of the a-Se HARP targets decreases. Considering the effects of dark current on the lag and spectral response characteristics, a Te-doped layer of 60 nm is suitable for 0.4-µm-thick a-Se HARP films.

  10. Combining Microbial Enzyme Kinetics Models with Light Use Efficiency Models to Predict CO2 and CH4 Ecosystem Exchange from Flooded and Drained Peatland Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Jenerette, D.; Knox, S. H.; Sturtevant, C. S.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    Under California's Cap-and-Trade program, companies are looking to invest in land-use practices that will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is a drained cultivated peatland system and a large source of CO2. To slow soil subsidence and reduce CO2 emissions, there is growing interest in converting drained peatlands to wetlands. However, wetlands are large sources of CH4 that could offset CO2-based GHG reductions. The goal of our research is to provide accurate measurements and model predictions of the changes in GHG budgets that occur when drained peatlands are restored to wetland conditions. We have installed a network of eddy covariance towers across multiple land use types in the Delta and have been measuring CO2 and CH4 ecosystem exchange for multiple years. In order to upscale these measurements through space and time we are using these data to parameterize and validate a process-based biogeochemical model. To predict gross primary productivity (GPP), we are using a simple light use efficiency (LUE) model which requires estimates of light, leaf area index and air temperature and can explain 90% of the observed variation in GPP in a mature wetland. To predict ecosystem respiration we have adapted the Dual Arrhenius Michaelis-Menten (DAMM) model. The LUE-DAMM model allows accurate simulation of half-hourly net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in a mature wetland (r2=0.85). We are working to expand the model to pasture, rice and alfalfa systems in the Delta. To predict methanogenesis, we again apply a modified DAMM model, using simple enzyme kinetics. However CH4 exchange is complex and we have thus expanded the model to predict not only microbial CH4 production, but also CH4 oxidation, CH4 storage and the physical processes regulating the release of CH4 to the atmosphere. The CH4-DAMM model allows accurate simulation of daily CH4 ecosystem exchange in a mature wetland (r2=0.55) and robust estimates of annual CH4 budgets. The LUE

  11. Gold nanorod-enhanced light emission in quantum-dot-doped polymer nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xianguang; Xu, Rui; Bao, Dinghua; Li, Baojun

    2014-08-13

    One-dimensional nanomaterials have attracted great interest in both fundamental research and technological applications because they can function as device elements and be used to effectively generate, guide, and detect light. Here we report a gold nanorod-enhanced light emission in quantum-dot-doped polymer nanofibers. By incorporating gold nanorods into quantum-dot-doped polymer nanofiber, a 67% increment in 600 nm red light emission efficiency was obtained with an extinction coefficient of 100 cm(-1), a low excitation power operation of 100 nW, and a 100 min increment in photostability. PMID:25027239

  12. A non-doped phosphorescent organic light-emitting device with above 31% external quantum efficiency.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Oswald, Iain W H; Yang, Xiaolong; Zhou, Guijiang; Jia, Huiping; Qiao, Qiquan; Chen, Yonghua; Hoshikawa-Halbert, Jason; Gnade, Bruce E

    2014-12-23

    The demonstrated square-planar Pt(II)-complex has reduced triplet-triplet quenching and therefore a near unity quantum yield in the neat thin film. A non-doped phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (PhOLED) based on this emitter achieves (31.1 ± 0.1)% external quantum efficiency without any out-coupling, which shows that a non-doped PhOLED can be comparable in efficiency to the best doped devices with very complicated device structures. PMID:25219957

  13. Fermi energy tuning with light to control doping profiles during epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, C. E.; Beaton, D. A.; Reedy, R. C.; Alberi, K.

    2015-05-04

    The influence of light stimulation and photogenerated carriers on the process of dopant surface segregation during growth is studied in molecular beam epitaxially grown Si-doped GaAs structures. The magnitude of surface segregation decreases under illumination by above-bandgap photons, wherein splitting of the quasi Fermi levels reduces the band bending at the growth surface and raises the formation energy of compensating defects that can enhance atomic diffusion. We further show that light-stimulated epitaxy can be used as a practical approach to diminish dopant carry-forward in device structures and improve the performance of inverted modulation-doped quantum wells.

  14. UV light induced plasticization and light activated shape memory of spiropyran doped ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianzhe; Zhou, Qingqing; Liu, Huarong; Liu, Hewen

    2014-06-01

    Light activated shape memory polymers (LASMPs) are relatively new kinds of smart materials and have significant technological applications ranging from biomedical devices to aerospace technology. EVA films doped with spiropyran with contents ranging from 0.1% to 3% show efficient UV activated shape memory behaviors if the fixed shape deformation is limited within 80%. For EVA films containing 3% spiropyran, UV irradiation causes a decrease in EVA modulus of about 44%. FT-IR and solid (13)C NMR in association with UV-vis absorption analysis demonstrate that UV irradiation transforms spiropyran from the SP form to the MC form, meanwhile, it induces an increase in the molecular mobility in the amorphous phase of EVA. Thus, the spiropyran-doped EVA films act as LASMPs via a mechanism of light induced plasticization. Light activated spiropyran acts as a plasticizer to EVA. PMID:24686814

  15. Visible light photocatalytic antibacterial activity of Ni-doped and N-doped TiO2 on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ananpattarachai, Jirapat; Boonto, Yuphada; Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat

    2016-03-01

    The Ni-doped and N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated for their antibacterial activities on Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. Their morphological features and characteristics such as particle size, surface area, and visible light absorbing capacity were compared and discussed. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV-visible spectrophotometry were used to characterize both materials. The inactivation of E. coli (as an example of Gram-negative bacteria) and S. aureus (as an example of Gram-positive bacteria) with Ni-doped and N-doped TiO2 was investigated in the absence and presence of visible light. Antibacterial activity tests were conducted using undoped, Ni-doped, and N-doped TiO2. The N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles show higher antibacterial activity than Ni-doped TiO2. The band gap narrowing of N-doped TiO2 can induce more visible light absorption and leads to the superb antibacterial properties of this material. The complete inactivation time for E. coli at an initial cell concentration of 2.7 × 10(4) CFU/mL was 420 min which is longer than the 360 min required for S. aureus inactivation. The rate of inactivation of S. aureus using the doped TiO2 nanoparticles in the presence of visible light is greater than that of E. coli. The median lethal dose (LD50) values of S. aureus and E. coli by antibacterial activity under an 18-W visible light intensity were 80 and 350 mg/ml for N-doped TiO2, respectively. PMID:26028352

  16. Doped quantum dot@silica nanocomposites for white light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bingxia; Yao, Yulian; Gao, Mengyu; Sun, Kang; Zhang, Jianhua; Li, Wanwan

    2015-10-01

    This work reports the use of a near-UV-LED chip in combination with blue, green-yellow and red emitting doped ZnSe QD@silica nanocomposites to construct a novel WLED with reduced scattering and no reabsorption. Blue, green-yellow and red emitting Cu or Mn doped ZnSe QDs with enlarged Stokes shifts and similar absorption peaks (360-410 nm) were synthesized in liquid paraffin in order to solve the reabsorption problem and also obtain balanced white emission spectra. Silica shells were then coated onto the doped QDs, allowing for the refractive index of the nanocomposites to be tailored while simultaneously improving their compatibility with the epoxy resin. The transparent doped ZnSe QD@SiO2/epoxy composite was then used as a light conversion and encapsulant material in combination with the near-UV-LED chip to fabricate the WLED. This fabricated WLED demonstrated high luminous efficiency and good color chromatics stability, suggesting that WLEDs based on highly fluorescent doped ZnSe QD@silica nanocomposites in combination with near-UV-LED chips may prove to be promising candidates for alternative light sources.This work reports the use of a near-UV-LED chip in combination with blue, green-yellow and red emitting doped ZnSe QD@silica nanocomposites to construct a novel WLED with reduced scattering and no reabsorption. Blue, green-yellow and red emitting Cu or Mn doped ZnSe QDs with enlarged Stokes shifts and similar absorption peaks (360-410 nm) were synthesized in liquid paraffin in order to solve the reabsorption problem and also obtain balanced white emission spectra. Silica shells were then coated onto the doped QDs, allowing for the refractive index of the nanocomposites to be tailored while simultaneously improving their compatibility with the epoxy resin. The transparent doped ZnSe QD@SiO2/epoxy composite was then used as a light conversion and encapsulant material in combination with the near-UV-LED chip to fabricate the WLED. This fabricated WLED

  17. Facile synthesis of phosphorus doped graphitic carbon nitride polymers with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ligang; Chen, Xiufang; Guan, Jing; Jiang, Yijun; Hou, Tonggang; Mu, Xindong

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • P-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} has been prepared by a one-pot green synthetic approach. • The incorporation of P resulted in favorable textural and electronic properties. • Doping with P enhanced the visible-light photocatalytic activity of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. • A postannealing treatment further enhanced the activity of P-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. • Photogenerated holes were the main species responsible for the activity. - Abstract: Phosphorus-doped carbon nitride materials were prepared by a one-pot green synthetic approach using dicyandiamide monomer and a phosphorus containing ionic liquid as precursors. The as-prepared materials were subjected to several characterizations and investigated as metal-free photocatalysts for the degradation of organic pollutants (dyes like Rhodamine B, Methyl orange) in aqueous solution under visible light. Results revealed that phosphorus-doped carbon nitride have a higher photocatalytic activity for decomposing Rhodamine B and Methyl orange in aqueous solution than undoped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, which was attributed to the favorable textural, optical and electronic properties caused by doping with phosphorus heteroatoms into carbon nitride host. A facile postannealing treatment further improved the activity of the photocatalytic system, due to the higher surface area and smaller structural size in the postcalcined catalysts. The phosphorus-doped carbon nitride showed high visible-light photocatalytic activity, making them promising materials for a wide range of potential applications in photochemistry.

  18. Red-light emission induced by Mn-doped magnesium fluorogermanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiabei; Li, Hao-Bo; Yuan, Linlin; Wang, Changhong; Cheng, Yahui; Wang, Wei-Hua; Lu, Feng; Li, Lan; Wang, Weichao; Liu, Hui

    2015-12-01

    As a potential red-light source in the white light emitting diodes (LEDs), Mn-doped magnesium fluorogermanate (Mg28Ge7.5O38F10) are investigated by the first principles calculation with the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) functional. The results demonstrate that the neutral Mn substitutions at the Mg (Mn{{}\\text{Mg}} ), octahedral Ge (Mn{{}\\text{Ge≤ft(\\text{oct}\\right)}} ) and tetrahedral Ge (Mn{{}\\text{Ge≤ft(\\text{tet}\\right)}} ) sites are all energetically favorable. However, only Mn{{}\\text{Mg}} could create proper transition levels leading to the experimentally observed red-light emission under near ultra-violet (UV) excitation. Our results provide fundamental understanding of the Mn defects behavior and the corresponding red-light emission in Mn-doped magnesium fluorogermanate.

  19. Director sliding induced by a circularly polarised light in dye-doped liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchetti, L.; Tifi, L.; Simoni, F.

    2008-09-01

    We report the first detailed experimental study of the transient effects of a circularly polarised beam on dye-doped liquid crystal cells. Experiments show that, as linearly polarized light does, light with circular polarization induces quasi-free sliding of the molecular director on the irradiated surface. The behaviour of the sliding angle vs. the incident intensity, its dependence on the exposure time and its independence on the sign of the light ellipticity, suggest that the phenomenon is connected to surface effects instead of being directly due to the transfer of intrinsic angular momentum from light to the LC molecules.

  20. REVIEW ARTICLE: Slow and fast light based on coherent population oscillations in erbium-doped fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrieta-Yáñez, Francisco; Calderón, Oscar G.; Melle, Sonia

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we review the main results on slow and fast light induced by coherent population oscillations in optical fibres doped with erbium ions. We explain the physics behind this technique and we describe the experimental realization. Finally, we summarize some recent advances in this field and future goals.

  1. Visible light induced photobleaching of methylene blue over melamine-doped TiO2 nanocatalyst

    EPA Science Inventory

    TiO2 doping with N-rich melamine produced a stable, active and visible light sentisized nanocatalyst that showed a remarkable efficiency towards the photobleaching of a model compound – methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution. The photobleaching followed a mixed reaction order ki...

  2. Formation of temperature fields in doped anisotropic crystals under spatially inhomogeneous light beams passing through them

    SciTech Connect

    Zaitseva, E. V.; Markelov, A. S.; Trushin, V. N. Chuprunov, E. V.

    2013-12-15

    The features of formation of thermal fields in potassium dihydrophosphate crystal doped with potassium permanganate under a 532-nm laser beam passing through it have been investigated. Data on the influence of birefringence on the temperature distribution in an anisotropic crystal whose surface is illuminated by a spatially modulated light beam are presented.

  3. Formation of temperature fields in doped anisotropic crystals under spatially inhomogeneous light beams passing through them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitseva, E. V.; Markelov, A. S.; Trushin, V. N.; Chuprunov, E. V.

    2013-12-01

    The features of formation of thermal fields in potassium dihydrophosphate crystal doped with potassium permanganate under a 532-nm laser beam passing through it have been investigated. Data on the influence of birefringence on the temperature distribution in an anisotropic crystal whose surface is illuminated by a spatially modulated light beam are presented.

  4. Electrochemical doping and the optical properties of light-emitting polymer materials and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, Janelle Maureen

    The first three chapters of this dissertation serve as an introduction to the field of light-emitting polymers and polymer-based devices including materials, device construction, and measurement techniques. In chapter one I discuss the physical models necessary to understand semiconductivity in conjugated polymers. Chapter two reviews the device physics of several important applications. In chapter three I introduce the experimental techniques used in the following studies. Two well established light-emitting polymer devices include the polymer LED and the polymer LEC. The LEC uses electrochemical doping to achieve the charge injection necessary for light emission, while the LED injects charge directly from contact electrodes. I use a technique employing simulations of interference effects in multilayered device structures, matching experimental device spectra to simulation in order to gain insight into the location of light emission within the device. In chapter four I use this technique to explore the thickness dependence of PLEDs. In chapter five I combine simulations of interference effects in LECs with studies of planar geometry devices, thereby providing information about the fundamental operating mechanism of these devices. Several polymer-based applications include light-emitting electrochemical cells (LEC), electrochromic devices (ECD), and actuators, for which the operating mechanism depends heavily on electrochemical doping. Unfortunately, the doping of light-emitting polymers is not well understood. In chapter six I study the basic electrochemical doping reactions of one common light-emitting polymer, MEH-PPV. I explore factors affecting the fundamental doping reaction through cyclic voltammetry. Further, I investigate the optical properties of doped films in order to gain insight into the structural changes and changes in the energy band structure induced by doping. Finally, I explore some unique functionalities of MEH-PPV, specifically electrochromic

  5. Doped quantum dot@silica nanocomposites for white light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bingxia; Yao, Yulian; Gao, Mengyu; Sun, Kang; Zhang, Jianhua; Li, Wanwan

    2015-11-01

    This work reports the use of a near-UV-LED chip in combination with blue, green-yellow and red emitting doped ZnSe QD@silica nanocomposites to construct a novel WLED with reduced scattering and no reabsorption. Blue, green-yellow and red emitting Cu or Mn doped ZnSe QDs with enlarged Stokes shifts and similar absorption peaks (360-410 nm) were synthesized in liquid paraffin in order to solve the reabsorption problem and also obtain balanced white emission spectra. Silica shells were then coated onto the doped QDs, allowing for the refractive index of the nanocomposites to be tailored while simultaneously improving their compatibility with the epoxy resin. The transparent doped ZnSe QD@SiO2/epoxy composite was then used as a light conversion and encapsulant material in combination with the near-UV-LED chip to fabricate the WLED. This fabricated WLED demonstrated high luminous efficiency and good color chromatics stability, suggesting that WLEDs based on highly fluorescent doped ZnSe QD@silica nanocomposites in combination with near-UV-LED chips may prove to be promising candidates for alternative light sources. PMID:26372169

  6. Doping Evolution and Junction Formation in Stacked Cyanine Dye Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells.

    PubMed

    Jenatsch, Sandra; Wang, Lei; Bulloni, Matia; Véron, Anna C; Ruhstaller, Beat; Altazin, Stéphane; Nüesch, Frank; Hany, Roland

    2016-03-16

    Cyanine dyes are fluorescent organic salts with intrinsic conductivity for ionic and electronic charges. Recently ( J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013 , 135 , 18008 - 18011 ), these features have been exploited in cyanine light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs). Here, we demonstrate that stacked, constant-voltage driven trimethine cyanine LECs with various counteranions develop a p-i-n junction that is composed of p- and n-doped zones and an intrinsic region where light-emission occurs. We introduce a method that combines spectral photocurrent response measurements with optical modeling and find that at maximum current the intrinsic region is centered at ∼37% away from the anode. Transient capacitance, photoluminescence and attenuance experiments indicate a device situation with a narrow p-doped region, an undoped region that occupies ∼72% of the dye layer thickness and an n-doped region with a maximum doping concentration of 0.08 dopant/cyanine molecule. Finally, we observe that during device relaxation the parent cyanines are not reformed. We ascribe this to irreversible reactions between doped cyanine radicals. For sterically conservative cyanine dyes, this suggests that undesired radical decomposition pathways limit the LEC long-term stability in general. PMID:26914281

  7. Drain cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002779.htm Drain cleaner poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Drain cleaners contain very dangerous chemicals that can be ...

  8. Nitrogen-fluorine co-doped titania inverse opals for enhanced solar light driven photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Rahul, T K; Sandhyarani, N

    2015-11-21

    Three dimensionally ordered nitrogen-fluorine (N-F) co-doped TiO2 inverse opals (IOs) were fabricated by templating with polystyrene (PS) colloidal photonic crystals (CPCs) by infiltration. During preparation, the TiO2 precursor was treated with a mixture of nitric acid and trifluoroacetic acid to facilitate N-F co-doping into the TiO2 lattice. Enhanced solar light absorption was observed in the samples as a consequence of the red shift in the electronic band gap of TiO2 due to N-F co-doping. The photonic band gap (PBG) of these TiO2 IO films was tuned by varying the sphere size of the PS CPC templates. The as-prepared N-F co-doped TiO2 IO films were used as photocatalysts for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) dye under solar light irradiation. A significant enhancement in the photocatalytic activity was observed in N-F co-doped TiO2 IO films prepared using PS spheres of 215 nm as a template, with the red edge of the PBG closer to the electronic band gap (EBG) of TiO2. 100% of the dye molecules were degraded within 2 minutes under direct solar irradiation, which is one of the fastest reaction times ever reported for RhB degradation in the presence of TiO2 photocatalysts. The N-F co-doped TiO2 IO film prepared using PS of 460 nm with its PBG centered at 695 nm also showed good photocatalytic activity. It was found that the IO films displayed improved photocatalytic activity in comparison to ordinary nanocrystalline (nc)-TiO2 films. The enhancement could be attributed to the bandgap scattering effect and the slow photon effect, leading to a significant improvement in solar light harvesting. PMID:26487369

  9. Nitrogen-fluorine co-doped titania inverse opals for enhanced solar light driven photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahul, T. K.; Sandhyarani, N.

    2015-10-01

    Three dimensionally ordered nitrogen-fluorine (N-F) co-doped TiO2 inverse opals (IOs) were fabricated by templating with polystyrene (PS) colloidal photonic crystals (CPCs) by infiltration. During preparation, the TiO2 precursor was treated with a mixture of nitric acid and trifluoroacetic acid to facilitate N-F co-doping into the TiO2 lattice. Enhanced solar light absorption was observed in the samples as a consequence of the red shift in the electronic band gap of TiO2 due to N-F co-doping. The photonic band gap (PBG) of these TiO2 IO films was tuned by varying the sphere size of the PS CPC templates. The as-prepared N-F co-doped TiO2 IO films were used as photocatalysts for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) dye under solar light irradiation. A significant enhancement in the photocatalytic activity was observed in N-F co-doped TiO2 IO films prepared using PS spheres of 215 nm as a template, with the red edge of the PBG closer to the electronic band gap (EBG) of TiO2. 100% of the dye molecules were degraded within 2 minutes under direct solar irradiation, which is one of the fastest reaction times ever reported for RhB degradation in the presence of TiO2 photocatalysts. The N-F co-doped TiO2 IO film prepared using PS of 460 nm with its PBG centered at 695 nm also showed good photocatalytic activity. It was found that the IO films displayed improved photocatalytic activity in comparison to ordinary nanocrystalline (nc)-TiO2 films. The enhancement could be attributed to the bandgap scattering effect and the slow photon effect, leading to a significant improvement in solar light harvesting.

  10. Highly enhanced phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with cesium fluoride doped electron injection layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jongseok; Kwon, Yongwon; Sohn, Jiho; Lee, Changhee

    2015-09-01

    We systematically investigate doping effect of cesium fluoride (CsF) on the device performance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). CsF can be used as a stable n-type dopant due to its low chemical reactivity and simple deposition process. We have observed that CsF could be employed as an effective n-type dopant in thin films of 3,3'-[5'- [3-(3-Pyridinyl)phenyl][1,1':3',1''-terphenyl]-3,3''-diyl]bispyridine (TmPyPB) through experimental studies of optical absorption spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with different doping concentration. In addition, we measured bulk resistance using impedance spectroscopy in an electron-only devices (EODs) with CsF-doped TmPyPB. As the doping ratio of the CsF increases, the current densities of EOD increase and the bulk resistances of the CsF-doped layer decrease. Owing to high electrical property of CsF-doped TmPyPB in EIL, green phosphorescent OLEDs showed significantly lower voltage and considerably enhanced efficiency. The device with 30 vol% CsF-doped TmPyPB showed power efficiency of 28.1 lm/W at 1000 cd/m2, whereas the device with pristine TmPyPB exhibited 13.8 lm/W. From these results, CsF-doped TmPyPB as EIL can reduce bulk resistance of EIL and improve the electron-injection and transport properties of electron-transport layer. Therefore, we can utilize CsF as an efficient n-type dopant in EIL of OLEDs.

  11. White Light Emission by Dy3+ Doped Phosphor Matrices: A Short Review.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Ravi; Kaur, Jagjeet; Dubey, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    In this review we have studied number of research papers related to white light emission from Dy3+ doped different host matrices. It is observed that most of the Dy3+doped aluminates, silicates, borates etc., emitted blue, green and red colour with specific intensities so that CIE coordinates, appeared near to white light. Correlated Colour Temperature(CCT) values of these phosphors expressed that the white light emission produced, was adaptable to human eyes. Dy3+ ions act as activator in each case. Four peaks at approximately 480,575, 670, and 757 nm could be seen in most of the Dy3+ doped phosphors. Expected transition responsible for these peaks are 4F9/2 → 6H15/2 (Blue Colour), 4F9/2 → 6H13/2 (Green-Yellow Colour), 4F9/2 → 6H11/2 (Red Colour) and 4F9/2 → 6H9/2(Brownish Red Colour). Few of the discussed phosphors exhibited long phosphorescence, starting from several minutes to few hours. Mechanism responsible for long lasting white light emission was also discussed. Five different factors, to recognize the phosphors for its suitability as commercial white light phosphor have been discussed. PMID:26498457

  12. White Light Emission Through Downconversion of Terbium and Europium Doped CeF3 Nanophosphors.

    PubMed

    Varun, S; Kalra, Mohit; Gandhi, Mayuri

    2015-09-01

    CeF3 nanophosphors have been extensively investigated in recent years for lighting and numerous bio-applications. Downconversion emissions in CeF3:Eu(3+)/Tb(3+) phosphors were studied with the objective of attaining a white light emitting composition, by means of a simple co-precipitation method. The material was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Photoluminescence (PL). Uniformly distributed nanoparticles were obtained with an average particle size range of 8-10 nm. Various studies were undertook utilizing different doping concentrations and respective fluorescence studies were carried out to optimize dopant concentrations while achieving maximum luminescence intensity. From PL results, it was observed that the efficient energy transfers from the donor to the acceptor ions. Different concentrations of Tb(3+), Eu(3+) were doped in order to achieve a white light emitting phosphor for UV-based Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). The nanoparticles showed characteristic emission of respective dopants (Eu(3+), Tb(3+)) when excited at the 4f → 5d transition of Ce(3+). The chromaticity coordinates for CeF3 doped with Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) were calculated and an emission very close to white light was observed. PMID:26260989

  13. Visible and Infra-red Light Emission in Boron-Doped Wurtzite Silicon Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Fabbri, Filippo; Rotunno, Enzo; Lazzarini, Laura; Fukata, Naoki; Salviati, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    Silicon, the mainstay semiconductor in microelectronic circuitry, is considered unsuitable for optoelectronic applications owing to its indirect electronic band gap, which limits its efficiency as a light emitter. Here we show the light emission properties of boron-doped wurtzite silicon nanowires measured by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy at room temperature. A visible emission, peaked above 1.5 eV, and a near infra-red emission at 0.8 eV correlate respectively to the direct transition at the Γ point and to the indirect band-gap of wurtzite silicon. We find additional intense emissions due to boron intra-gap states in the short wavelength infra-red range. We present the evolution of the light emission properties as function of the boron doping concentration and the growth temperature. PMID:24398782

  14. Integrated porous-silicon light-emitting diodes: A fabrication process using graded doping profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Barillaro, G.; Diligenti, A.; Pieri, F.; Fuso, F.; Allegrini, M.

    2001-06-25

    A fabrication process, compatible with an industrial bipolar+complementary metal{endash}oxide{endash}semiconductor (MOS)+diffusion MOS technology, has been developed for the fabrication of efficient porous-silicon-based light-emitting diodes. The electrical contact is fabricated with a double n{sup +}/p doping, achieving a high current injection efficiency and thus lower biasing voltages. The anodization is performed as the last step of the process, thus reducing potential incompatibilities with industrial processes. The fabricated devices show yellow-orange electroluminescence, visible with the naked eye in room lighting. A spectral characterization of light emission is presented and briefly discussed. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  15. Light-controlled electric Freedericksz threshold in dye doped liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchetti, L.; Catani, L.; Simoni, F.

    2014-05-01

    We report the results of measurements of the threshold of Freedericksz transition in a nematic liquid crystal doped by Methyl-red. We show that in case of dc field the threshold voltage can decrease or increase depending on the light dose, due to the light-induced desorption and adsorption of charge complexes from and on the irradiated surface, that has been recently demonstrated. This effect has the potential to be exploited in optical devices such as liquid crystal microlenses and spatial light modulators.

  16. Light-controlled electric Freedericksz threshold in dye doped liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lucchetti, L.; Catani, L.; Simoni, F.

    2014-05-28

    We report the results of measurements of the threshold of Freedericksz transition in a nematic liquid crystal doped by Methyl-red. We show that in case of dc field the threshold voltage can decrease or increase depending on the light dose, due to the light-induced desorption and adsorption of charge complexes from and on the irradiated surface, that has been recently demonstrated. This effect has the potential to be exploited in optical devices such as liquid crystal microlenses and spatial light modulators.

  17. Light controlled drug delivery containers based on spiropyran doped liquid crystal micro spheres

    PubMed Central

    Petriashvili, Gia; Devadze, Lali; Zurabishvili, Tsisana; Sepashvili, Nino; Chubinidze, Ketevan

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a novel, light activated drug delivery containers, based on spiropyran doped liquid crystal micro spheres. Upon exposure to UV/violet light, the spiropyran molecules entrapped inside the nematic liquid crystal micro spheres, interconvert from the hydrophobic, oil soluble form, to the hydrophilic, water soluble merocyanine one, which stimulates the translocation of the merocyanine molecules across the nematic liquid crystal-water barrier and results their homogeneous distribution throughout in an aqueous environment. Light controllable switching property and extremely high solubility of spiropyran in the nematic liquid crystal, promise to elaborate a novel and reliable vehicles for the drug delivery systems. PMID:26977353

  18. Light controlled drug delivery containers based on spiropyran doped liquid crystal micro spheres.

    PubMed

    Petriashvili, Gia; Devadze, Lali; Zurabishvili, Tsisana; Sepashvili, Nino; Chubinidze, Ketevan

    2016-02-01

    We have developed a novel, light activated drug delivery containers, based on spiropyran doped liquid crystal micro spheres. Upon exposure to UV/violet light, the spiropyran molecules entrapped inside the nematic liquid crystal micro spheres, interconvert from the hydrophobic, oil soluble form, to the hydrophilic, water soluble merocyanine one, which stimulates the translocation of the merocyanine molecules across the nematic liquid crystal-water barrier and results their homogeneous distribution throughout in an aqueous environment. Light controllable switching property and extremely high solubility of spiropyran in the nematic liquid crystal, promise to elaborate a novel and reliable vehicles for the drug delivery systems. PMID:26977353

  19. Angular distribution of light scattered from heavily doped silica fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, V V; Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Salganskii, M Yu; Khopin, V F; Gur'yanov, Aleksei N; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2011-10-31

    This paper describes an experimental setup for precision measurements of the angular distribution of light scattered by optical fibres in a wide angular range and demonstrates that the models of anomalous scattering proposed to date need to be refined. We have found and interpreted a discrepancy between the Rayleigh scattering coefficients measured by different techniques.

  20. Strong blue light emission from Eu-doped SiOC prepared by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhenxu; Guo, Yanqing; Wang, Xiang; Song, Chao; Song, Jie; Zhang, Yi; Huang, Rui

    2015-08-01

    The Eu-doped SiOC films were prepared by magnetron sputtering technique at a low temperature of 250°C. The effects of the Eu2O3 deposited power and post-thermal annealing temperature on the PL characteristics of the Eu-doped SiOC films were investigated. It is found that the photoluminescence intensity could be enhanced by more than tenfold by increasing the Eu2O3 deposited power from 20W to 80W. Furthermore, very bright blue light emission can be clearly observed with the naked eye in a bright room for the Eu-doped SiOC films prepared at a Eu2O3 deposited power of 80 W. The improved PL intensity is attributed to the increasing number density of europium silicate clusters as a result of the increasing Eu2O3 deposited power as well as high annealing temperatures.

  1. Improved photovoltaic performance of multiple carbon-doped ZnO nanostructures under UV and visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianbin; Du, Hejun; Sun, Xiao Wei; Zhan, Zhaoyao; Sun, Gengzhi; Li, Fengji; Zheng, Lianxi; Zhang, Sam

    2014-09-01

    We report synthesis of multiple carbon-doped ZnO nanostructures by using carbon cloth as substrates to obtain multiple hollow ZnO microtube-nanowire structures. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy analysis clearly show that carbon is doped into ZnO through substitution of carbon for oxygen in the growth and annealing processes. Upon exposure to 633-nm red laser, a distinct photoresponse can be observed, which indicates that carbon doping in ZnO can well extend its light harvesting to visible light region. Furthermore, a prototype of photovoltaic cell was fabricated to demonstrate the photovoltaic performance of multiple carbon-doped ZnO nanostructures under UV and visible light irradiation. This result shows that carbon-doped ZnO can act as effective photoactive materials for photoelectric components. PMID:25924372

  2. A hydrothermal synthesis of Pr3+ doped mesoporous TiO2 for UV light photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Chen, Guihua; Shen, Qianhong; Yang, Hui; Li, Liquan; Song, Yanjiang

    2014-07-01

    Pr3+ doped mesoporous TiO2 photocatalysts with a different molar ratio of Pr to Ti were prepared by a hydrothermal method using triblock copolymer as the template. The as-prepared samples were systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray photoelectron spectra, transmission electron microscopy and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The characterizations indicated all the samples had mesoporous structure and narrow pore size distribution. Pr3+ doping enlarged the surface area and decreased the crystallite size. The surface area of the samples varied from 136 to 170 m2/g, and the average crystallite size ranged between 5.04 and 7.60 nm. The effect of Pr3+ doping amount on the photocatalytic activity of mesoporous TiO2 was evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange under UV light irradiation. The results showed that the suitable amount of Pr3+ doped samples exhibited the higher photocatalytic activity than mesoporous TiO2. Among the samples, 1 at.% Pr3+ doped mesoporous TiO2 showed the highest photocatalytic activity. PMID:24757971

  3. Deep-ultraviolet-light-driven reversible doping of WS2 field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas; Iqbal, Muhammad Zahir; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Shehzad, Muhammad Arslan; Seo, Yongho; Eom, Jonghwa

    2015-01-14

    Improvement of the electrical and photoelectric characteristics is essential to achieve an advanced performance of field-effect transistors and optoelectronic devices. Here we have developed a doping technique to drastically improve electrical and photoelectric characteristics of single-layered, bi-layered and multi-layered WS2 field-effect transistors (FET). After illuminating with deep ultraviolet (DUV) light in a nitrogen environment, WS2 FET shows an enhanced charge carrier density, mobility and photocurrent response. The threshold voltage of WS2 FET shifted toward the negative gate voltage, and the positions of E and A1g peaks in Raman spectra shifted toward lower wavenumbers, indicating the n-type doping effect of the WS2 FET. The doping effect is reversible. The pristine characteristics of WS2 FET can be restored by DUV light illumination in an oxygen environment. The DUV-driven doping technique in a gas environment provides a very stable, effective, easily applicable way to enhance the performance of WS2 FET. PMID:25429443

  4. SBS slow light using a novel optical fiber doped with nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Lang, Peilin; Zhang, Ru

    2008-11-01

    As the key of these all optical techniques which would be widely used in the future optical fiber communication, the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) slow light draws a great of attention and shows several advantages over other slow light methods. With recent growth of nano-technology, researchers are hoping to improve the nonlinearity of the optical fiber by using the nano-technology. According to this current situation, a numerical model of the SBS slow light and three typical experiments are discussed. A novel optical fiber doped with nano material as InP is manufactured and introduced into the SBS slow light, serving as the nonlinear medium of SBS process. And the numerical simulations are performed to validate our method. The results show a considerable time delay of the optical light can be achieved through this novel optical fiber.

  5. Synthesis of nitrogen doped faceted titanium dioxide in pure brookite phase with enhanced visible light photoactivity.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jian; Jiang, San Ping

    2016-05-01

    Brookite titanium dioxide (TiO2) is rarely studied, as compared with anatase and rutile phases TiO2, due to its comparatively lower photoactivity. It has been recently reported that brookite TiO2 with active facets exhibits excellent performance, however, synthesis of such faceted brookite TiO2 is difficult because of its low thermodynamic phase stability and low structural symmetric. Furthermore, like faceted anatase and rutile TiO2, faceted brookite TiO2 is not responsive to visible light due to its wide bandgap. In this study, a novel dopant, hydrazine, was introduced in the development of nitrogen doping. By applying this dopant, nitrogen doped brookite nanorods with active {120}, {111} and {011¯} facets were successfully synthesized. The resultant materials exhibited remarkably enhanced visible-light photoactivity in photodegradation. PMID:26866886

  6. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of Gd-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles and mechanism insight

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Chen, Da; Niu, Feng; Wang, Sen; Qin, Laishun; Huang, Yuexiang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of Gd doping on photocatalytic activity of BiFeO3 (BFO), Gd-doped BFO nanoparticles containing different Gd doping contents (Bi(1−x)GdxFeO3, x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05) were synthesized using a facile sol-gel route. The obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra, and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by photocatalytic decomposition of Rhodamine B in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. It was found that the Gd doping content could significantly affect the photocatalytic activity of as-prepared Gd-doped BFO, and the photocatalytic activity increased with increasing the Gd doping content up to the optimal value and then decreased with further enhancing Gd doping content. To elucidate the enhanced photocatalytic mechanism of Gd-doped BFO, the trapping experiments, photoluminescence, photocurrent and electrochemical impedance measurements were performed. On the basis of these experimental results, the enhanced photocatalytic activities of Gd-doped BFO could be ascribed to the increased optical absorption, the efficient separation and migration of photogenerated charge carriers as well as the decreased recombination probability of electron-hole pairs derived from the Gd doping effect. Meanwhile, the possible photocatalytic mechanism of Gd-doped BFO was critically discussed. PMID:27198166

  7. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of Gd-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles and mechanism insight.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Chen, Da; Niu, Feng; Wang, Sen; Qin, Laishun; Huang, Yuexiang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of Gd doping on photocatalytic activity of BiFeO3 (BFO), Gd-doped BFO nanoparticles containing different Gd doping contents (Bi(1-x)GdxFeO3, x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05) were synthesized using a facile sol-gel route. The obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra, and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by photocatalytic decomposition of Rhodamine B in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. It was found that the Gd doping content could significantly affect the photocatalytic activity of as-prepared Gd-doped BFO, and the photocatalytic activity increased with increasing the Gd doping content up to the optimal value and then decreased with further enhancing Gd doping content. To elucidate the enhanced photocatalytic mechanism of Gd-doped BFO, the trapping experiments, photoluminescence, photocurrent and electrochemical impedance measurements were performed. On the basis of these experimental results, the enhanced photocatalytic activities of Gd-doped BFO could be ascribed to the increased optical absorption, the efficient separation and migration of photogenerated charge carriers as well as the decreased recombination probability of electron-hole pairs derived from the Gd doping effect. Meanwhile, the possible photocatalytic mechanism of Gd-doped BFO was critically discussed. PMID:27198166

  8. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of Gd-doped BiFeO3 nanoparticles and mechanism insight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ning; Chen, Da; Niu, Feng; Wang, Sen; Qin, Laishun; Huang, Yuexiang

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effect of Gd doping on photocatalytic activity of BiFeO3 (BFO), Gd-doped BFO nanoparticles containing different Gd doping contents (Bi(1‑x)GdxFeO3, x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05) were synthesized using a facile sol-gel route. The obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra, and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by photocatalytic decomposition of Rhodamine B in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. It was found that the Gd doping content could significantly affect the photocatalytic activity of as-prepared Gd-doped BFO, and the photocatalytic activity increased with increasing the Gd doping content up to the optimal value and then decreased with further enhancing Gd doping content. To elucidate the enhanced photocatalytic mechanism of Gd-doped BFO, the trapping experiments, photoluminescence, photocurrent and electrochemical impedance measurements were performed. On the basis of these experimental results, the enhanced photocatalytic activities of Gd-doped BFO could be ascribed to the increased optical absorption, the efficient separation and migration of photogenerated charge carriers as well as the decreased recombination probability of electron-hole pairs derived from the Gd doping effect. Meanwhile, the possible photocatalytic mechanism of Gd-doped BFO was critically discussed.

  9. Room temperature synthesis of Mn2+ doped ZnS d-dots and observation of tunable dual emission: Effects of doping concentration, temperature, and ultraviolet light illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kole, A. K.; Tiwary, C. S.; Kumbhakar, P.

    2013-03-01

    Mn2+ doped (0-50.0 molar %) ZnS d-dots have been synthesized in water medium by using an environment friendly low cost chemical technique. Tunable dual emission in UV and yellow-orange regions is achieved by tailoring the Mn2+ doping concentration in the host ZnS nanocrystal. The optimum doping concentration for achieving efficient photoluminescence (PL) emission is determined to be ˜1.10 (at. %) corresponding to 40.0 (molar %) of Mn2+ doping concentration used during synthesis. The mechanism of charge transfer from the host to the dopant leading to the intensity modulated tunable (594-610 nm) yellow-orange PL emission is straightforwardly understood as no capping agent is used. The temperature dependent PL emission measurements are carried out, viz., in 1.10 at. % Mn2+ doped sample and the experimental results are explained by using a theoretical PL emission model. It is found that the ratio of non-radiative to radiative recombination rates is temperature dependent and this phenomenon has not been reported, so far, in Mn2+ doped ZnS system. The colour tuning of the emitted light from the samples are evident from the calculated chromaticity coordinates. UV light irradiation for 150 min in 40.0 (molar %) Mn2+ doped sample shows an enhancement of 33% in PL emission intensity.

  10. Study of SBS slow light based on nano-material doped fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Lang, Pei-Lin; Zhang, Ru

    2009-03-01

    A novel optical fiber doped with nano material InP is manufactured by the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD). The slow light based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in the optical fiber is studied. The results show that a time delay of ˜738 ps is obtained when the input Stokes pulse is 900 ps(FWHM) and the SBS gain is ˜15. It shows that a considerable time delay and an amplification of the input light can be achieved by this novel optical fiber.

  11. Light-induced effects in dye-doped liquid crystals: role of space charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoni, F.; Lucchetti, L.

    2014-10-01

    We report the experimental demonstration that both the extra-ordinarily large nonlinear response and the light-induced permanent reorientation in liquid crystals doped by the azo-dye Methyl-Red originates from the modification of the charge density on the irradiated surface. By recording the sample response by applying dc or ac voltage, it is shown that in the latter case no permanent anchoring is possible. It is also demonstrated the limited role of photo-isomerization that gives a contribution to the nonlinear reorientation process only in the high dose regime. The effects on light-induced tuning of the Freedericksz transition are also reported.

  12. Visible-light sensitization of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond through non-covalent surface modification.

    PubMed

    Krysova, Hana; Vlckova-Zivcova, Zuzana; Barton, Jan; Petrak, Vaclav; Nesladek, Milos; Cigler, Petr; Kavan, Ladislav

    2015-01-14

    A novel simple and versatile synthetic strategy is developed for the surface modification of boron-doped diamond. In a two-step procedure, polyethyleneimine is adsorbed on the hydrogenated diamond surface and subsequently modified with a model light-harvesting donor-π-bridge-acceptor molecule (coded P1). The sensitized diamond exhibits stable cathodic photocurrents under visible-light illumination in aqueous electrolyte solution with dimethylviologen serving as an electron mediator. In spite of the simplicity of the surface sensitization protocol, the photoelectrochemical performance is similar to or better than that of other sensitized diamond electrodes which were reported in previous studies (2008-2014). PMID:25418375

  13. White luminescence of Tm-Dy ions co-doped aluminoborosilicate glasses under UV light excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Shimin; Zhao Gaoling; Lin Xiaohua; Ying Hao; Liu Junbo; Wang Jianxun; Han Gaorong

    2008-10-15

    Tm{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} ions co-doped aluminoborosilicate glasses were prepared in this study. The luminescence properties of the glasses were analyzed. A combination of blue, green, yellow, and red emission bands was shown for these glasses, and white light emission could be observed under UV light excitation. White light luminescence color could be changed by varying the excitation wavelength. Concentration quenching effect was investigated in this paper. Furthermore, the dependence of luminescence properties on glass compositions was studied. Results showed that the luminescence intensity changed with different network modifier oxides, while the white color luminescence was not affected significantly. - Graphical abstract: Tm{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} ions co-doped aluminoborosilicate glasses, which emit white light under UV light excitation, were prepared. The dependence of luminescence properties on glass compositions was studied, and results showed that the white color luminescence was not affected significantly with different network modifier oxides. This adjustability could broaden application areas.

  14. Light storage in a doped solid enhanced by feedback-controlled pulse shaping

    SciTech Connect

    Beil, F.; Buschbeck, M.; Heinze, G.; Halfmann, T.

    2010-05-15

    We report on experiments dealing with feedback-controlled pulse shaping to optimize the efficiency of light storage by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a Pr{sup 3+}:Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} crystal. A learning loop in combination with an evolutionary algorithm permits the automatic determination of optimal temporal profiles of intensities and frequencies in the driving laser pulses (i.e., the probe and coupling pulses). As a main advantage, the technique finds optimal solutions even in the complicated multilevel excitation scheme of a doped solid, involving large inhomogeneous broadening. The learning loop experimentally determines optimal temporal intensity profiles of the coupling pulses for a given probe pulse. The optimized intensity pulse shapes enhance the light-storage efficiency in the doped solid by a factor of 2. The learning loop also determines a fast and efficient preparation pulse sequence, which serves to optically prepare the crystal prior to light-storage experiments. The optimized preparation sequence is 5 times faster than standard preparation sequences. Moreover, the optimized preparation sequence enhances the optical depth in the medium by a factor of 5. As a consequence, the efficiency of light storage also increases by another factor of 3. Our experimental data clearly demonstrate the considerable potential of feedback-controlled pulse shaping, applied to EIT-driven light storage in solid media.

  15. Effects of Mg doping in the quantum barriers on the efficiency droop of GaN based light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liu; Yongchun, Yang

    2016-05-01

    The effects of Mg doping in the quantum barriers (QBs) on the efficiency droop of GaN based light emitting diodes (LEDs) were investigated through a duel wavelength method. Barrier Mg doping would lead to the enhanced hole transportation and reduced polarization field in the quantum wells (QWs), both may reduce the efficiency droop. However, heavy Mg doping in the QBs would strongly deteriorate the crystal quality of the QWs grown after the doped QB. When increasing the injection current, the carriers would escape from the QWs between n-GaN and the doped QB and recombine non-radiatively in the QWs grown after the doped QB, leading to a serious efficiency droop. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41171143).

  16. Photonic crystal light emitting diode based on Er and Si nanoclusters co-doped slot waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Lo Savio, R.; Galli, M.; Liscidini, M.; Andreani, L. C.; Franzò, G.; Iacona, F.; Miritello, M.; Irrera, A.; Sanfilippo, D.; Piana, A.; Priolo, F.

    2014-03-24

    We report on the design, fabrication, and electro-optical characterization of a light emitting device operating at 1.54 μm, whose active layer consists of silicon oxide containing Er-doped Si nanoclusters. A photonic crystal (PhC) is fabricated on the top-electrode to enhance the light extraction in the vertical direction, and thus the external efficiency of the device. This occurs if a photonic mode of the PhC slab is resonant with the Er emission energy, as confirmed by theoretical calculations and experimental analyses. We measure an increase of the extraction efficiency by a factor of 3 with a high directionality of light emission in a narrow vertical cone. External quantum efficiency and power efficiency are among the highest reported for this kind of material. These results are important for the realization of CMOS-compatible efficient light emitters at telecom wavelengths.

  17. Preparation and visible light photocatalytic activity of N-doped titania.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yulong; Liu, Hongfang; Chen, Weiran; Chen, Debin; Yin, Jiwei; Guo, Xingpeng

    2010-03-01

    N-doped titania powders were prepared with titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as the titanium source and urea as the nitrogen source by the sol-gel method. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The XRD and TEM results indicated that urea played an important role in controlling the size and aggregation process of titania nanoparticles. As an appropriate amount of urea was added into the titania sol, the size of the particles decreased. However, the excess urea reduced the dispersion of the particles and resulted in the aggregation. At the same time, the size of particle increased, and the size distribution broadened. The XPS and DRS results showed that the nitrogen was incorporated into titania lattice successfully, which brought about the redshift of the absorption edge and induced the photocatalytic activity in the visible light region. The photocatalytic experiments showed that the N-doped titania nanoparticles could effectively photodegrade methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic activity increased with the increase of the nitrogen doping level in the titania lattice, but decreased with the increase of the particle size and the organic surface residues caused by excess urea. PMID:20355662

  18. Integrated oxygen-doping and dye sensitization of graphitic carbon nitride for enhanced visible light photodegradation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shizhen; Sun, Hongqi; Ang, H M; Tade, Moses O; Wang, Shaobin

    2016-08-15

    Graphitic carbon nitride (GCN) is a promising metal-free photocatalyst while suffering from low charge mobility induced inefficient photocatalysis. In this work, oxygen doping was employed to enhance the photodegradation of organic pollutants in water on graphitic carbon nitride (GCNO) under visible light. For further absorption extension, four organic dyes (Eosin-Y, Perylene, Nile-red and Coumarin) were adopted to dye-sensitize the GCNO photocatalyst. It was found that O-doping can promote dye sensitization, which was dependent on the type of dyes and influenced the photodegradation efficiencies of methylene blue (MB) and phenol. Nile-red sensitized GCNO presented the best activity in MB degradation under λ>480nm irradiations while Eosin-Y showed the best sensitization performance for phenol degradation under λ>420nm light source. However, dye sensitization was not effective for enhanced pollutant degradation on GCN without O-doping. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and photocurrent analyses were applied to investigate the mechanism of carriers' transfer, which indicated that dye molecules could inject extra electrons into GCNO energy band and the energy dislocation could suppress electron/hole recombination, enhancing photocatalytic performances. PMID:27218807

  19. Visible light carrier generation in co-doped epitaxial titanate films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comes, Ryan B.; Smolin, Sergey Y.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Gao, Ran; Apgar, Brent A.; Martin, Lane W.; Bowden, Mark E.; Baxter, Jason B.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2015-03-01

    Perovskite titanates such as SrTiO3 (STO) exhibit a wide range of important functional properties, including ferroelectricity and excellent photocatalytic performance. The wide optical band gap of titanates limits their use in these applications; however, making them ill-suited for integration into solar energy harvesting technologies. Our recent work has shown that by doping STO with equal concentrations of La and Cr, we can enhance visible light absorption in epitaxial thin films while avoiding any compensating defects. In this work, we explore the optical properties of photoexcited carriers in these films. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry, we show that the Cr3+ dopants, which produce electronic states immediately above the top of the O 2p valence band in STO reduce the direct band gap of the material from 3.75 eV to 2.4-2.7 eV depending on doping levels. Transient reflectance spectroscopy measurements are in agreement with the observations from ellipsometry and confirm that optically generated carriers are present for longer than 2 ns. Finally, through photoelectrochemical methylene blue degradation measurements, we show that these co-doped films exhibit enhanced visible light photocatalysis when compared to pure STO.

  20. Visible light carrier generation in co-doped epitaxial titanate films

    SciTech Connect

    Comes, Ryan B.; Smolin, Sergey Y.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Gao, Ran; Apgar, Brent A.; Martin, Lane W.; Bowden, Mark E.; Baxter, Jason; Chambers, Scott A.

    2015-03-02

    Perovskite titanates such as SrTiO3 (STO) exhibit a wide range of important functional properties, including high electron mobility, ferroelectricity—which may be valuable in photovoltaic applications—and excellent photocatalytic performance. The wide optical band gap of titanates limits their use in these applications, however, making them ill-suited for integration into solar energy harvesting technologies. Our recent work has shown that by doping STO with equal concentrations of La and Cr we can enhance visible light absorption in epitaxial thin films while avoiding any compensating defects. In this work, we explore the optical properties of photoexcited carriers in these films. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry, we show that the Cr3+ dopants, which produce electronic states immediately above the top of the O 2p valence band in STO reduce the direct band gap of the material from 3.75 eV to between 2.4 and 2.7 eV depending on doping levels. Transient reflectance measurements confirm that optically generated carriers have a recombination lifetime comparable to that of STO and are in agreement with the observations from ellipsometry. Finally, through photoelectrochemical yield measurements, we show that these co-doped films exhibit enhanced visible light photocatalysis when compared to pure STO.

  1. Visible light carrier generation in co-doped epitaxial titanate films

    SciTech Connect

    Comes, Ryan B. Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Chambers, Scott A.; Smolin, Sergey Y.; Baxter, Jason B.; Gao, Ran; Apgar, Brent A.; Martin, Lane W.; Bowden, Mark E.

    2015-03-02

    Perovskite titanates such as SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) exhibit a wide range of important functional properties, including ferroelectricity and excellent photocatalytic performance. The wide optical band gap of titanates limits their use in these applications; however, making them ill-suited for integration into solar energy harvesting technologies. Our recent work has shown that by doping STO with equal concentrations of La and Cr, we can enhance visible light absorption in epitaxial thin films while avoiding any compensating defects. In this work, we explore the optical properties of photoexcited carriers in these films. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry, we show that the Cr{sup 3+} dopants, which produce electronic states immediately above the top of the O 2p valence band in STO reduce the direct band gap of the material from 3.75 eV to 2.4–2.7 eV depending on doping levels. Transient reflectance spectroscopy measurements are in agreement with the observations from ellipsometry and confirm that optically generated carriers are present for longer than 2 ns. Finally, through photoelectrochemical methylene blue degradation measurements, we show that these co-doped films exhibit enhanced visible light photocatalysis when compared to pure STO.

  2. The Draining Cylinder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James Graham-Eagle

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the time it takes for a liquid to drain from a cylindrical container through a hole in the bottom. Using dimensional analysis and some thought experiments this time is determined and Torricelli's law derived as a consequence. Finally, the effect of pouring liquid into the container as it drains is considered.

  3. High-performance single-crystalline arsenic-doped indium oxide nanowires for transparent thin-film transistors and active matrix organic light-emitting diode displays.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Chiang; Shen, Guozhen; Chen, Haitian; Ha, Young-geun; Wu, Chao; Sukcharoenchoke, Saowalak; Fu, Yue; Liu, Jun; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J; Thompson, Mark E; Zhou, Chongwu

    2009-11-24

    We report high-performance arsenic (As)-doped indium oxide (In(2)O(3)) nanowires for transparent electronics, including their implementation in transparent thin-film transistors (TTFTs) and transparent active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays. The As-doped In(2)O(3) nanowires were synthesized using a laser ablation process and then fabricated into TTFTs with indium-tin oxide (ITO) as the source, drain, and gate electrodes. The nanowire TTFTs on glass substrates exhibit very high device mobilities (approximately 1490 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)), current on/off ratios (5.7 x 10(6)), steep subthreshold slopes (88 mV/dec), and a saturation current of 60 microA for a single nanowire. By using a self-assembled nanodielectric (SAND) as the gate dielectric, the device mobilities and saturation current can be further improved up to 2560 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and 160 microA, respectively. All devices exhibit good optical transparency (approximately 81% on average) in the visible spectral range. In addition, the nanowire TTFTs were utilized to control green OLEDs with varied intensities. Furthermore, a fully integrated seven-segment AMOLED display was fabricated with a good transparency of 40% and with each pixel controlled by two nanowire transistors. This work demonstrates that the performance enhancement possible by combining nanowire doping and self-assembled nanodielectrics enables silicon-free electronic circuitry for low power consumption, optically transparent, high-frequency devices assembled near room temperature. PMID:19842677

  4. Origin of Enhanced Hole Injection in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with an Electron-Acceptor Doping Layer: p-Type Doping or Interfacial Diffusion?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zu, Feng-Shuo; Deng, Ya-Li; Igbari, Femi; Wang, Zhao-Kui; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2015-06-10

    The electrical doping nature of a strong electron acceptor, 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HATCN), is investigated by doping it in a typical hole-transport material, N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-diphenylbenzidine (NPB). A better device performance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) was achieved by doping NPB with HATCN. The improved performance could, in principle, arise from a p-type doping effect in the codeposited thin films. However, physical characteristics evaluations including UV-vis absorption, Fourier transform infrared absorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrated that there was no obvious evidence of charge transfer in the NPB:HATCN composite. The performance improvement in NPB:HATCN-based OLEDs is mainly attributed to an interfacial modification effect owing to the diffusion of HATCN small molecules. The interfacial diffusion effect of the HATCN molecules was verified by the in situ ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy evaluations. PMID:25970499

  5. Molecular assembled self-doped polyaniline interlayer for application in polymer light-emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chien-Hsin; Chih, Yi-Kai

    2006-10-01

    Self-doped polyaniline (SPANI) ultrathin films were prepared by using a self-assembly process consisting of a self-doping monomer (o-aminobenzenesulfonic acid, SAN) and aniline (AN). SAN-AN copolymerization and film formation were simultaneously performed in aqueous solution. An immersing self-assembly method was developed to build up a SPANI nanofilm on an ITO glass, providing a hole injection layer in a double-layer electroluminescence (EL) device ITO/SPANI nanofilm//MEH-PV//Ca/Al. This device produces an orange EL as compared with a single-layer EL device of ITO//MEH-PV//Ca/Al. A double-layer device demonstrates that a SPANI film is capable of transporting holes in a polymer light-emitting diode (PLED). PMID:17004799

  6. Coherent quasiparticles with a small fermi surface in lightly doped Sr(3)Ir(2)O(7).

    PubMed

    de la Torre, A; Hunter, E C; Subedi, A; McKeown Walker, S; Tamai, A; Kim, T K; Hoesch, M; Perry, R S; Georges, A; Baumberger, F

    2014-12-19

    We characterize the electron doping evolution of (Sr_{1-x}La_{x})_{3}Ir_{2}O_{7} by means of angle-resolved photoemission. Concomitant with the metal insulator transition around x≈0.05 we find the emergence of coherent quasiparticle states forming a closed small Fermi surface of volume 3x/2, where x is the independently measured La concentration. The quasiparticle weight Z remains large along the entire Fermi surface, consistent with the moderate renormalization of the low-energy dispersion, and no pseudogap is observed. This indicates a conventional, weakly correlated Fermi liquid state with a momentum independent residue Z≈0.5 in lightly doped Sr_{3}Ir_{2}O_{7}. PMID:25554897

  7. Color tunable light-emitting diodes based on copper doped semiconducting nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaumik, Saikat; Ghosh, Batu; Pal, Amlan J.

    2011-08-01

    We have introduced copper-doped semiconducting nanocrystals in light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Characteristics of the devices show that electroluminescence (EL) emission in these LEDs is color tunable. In copper-doped ZnS nanocrystals in the core and Zn1-xCdxS host as a shell-layer, photoluminescence (PL) arises from a transition from conduction band-edge of the host to 3d-levels of copper-ions. The PL of the nanocrystals and hence the EL of LEDs based on such nanostructures become tunable by varying the Cd-content in Zn-Cd-S alloys, that is, Zn1-xCdxS with different values of x, which changes the conduction band-edge of the host.

  8. Coherent quasiparticles with a small Fermi Surface in lightly doped Sr3Ir2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, Alberto; McKeown Walker, Siobhan; Tamai, Anna; Hunter, Emily; Subedi, Alaska; Kim, Timur; Hoesch, Moritz; Perry, Robin; Georges, Antoine; Baumberger, Felix

    2015-03-01

    We characterize the electron doping evolution of (Sr1-xLax)Ir2O7 by means of angle-resolved photoemission. Concomitant with the metal insulator transition around x ~ 0 . 05 we find the emergence of coherent quasiparticle states forming a closed small Fermi surface of volume 3 x / 2 , where x is the independently measured La concentration. The quasiparticle weight Z remains large along the entire Fermi surface, consistent with the moderate renormalization of the low-energy dispersion and no pseudogap is observed. This indicates a conventional, weakly correlated Fermi liquid state with a momentum independent residue Z ~ 0 . 5 in lightly doped Sr3Ir2O7, in stark contrast with underdoped cuprates.

  9. Coherent Quasiparticles with a Small Fermi Surface in Lightly Doped Sr3Ir2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, A.; Hunter, E. C.; Subedi, A.; McKeown Walker, S.; Tamai, A.; Kim, T. K.; Hoesch, M.; Perry, R. S.; Georges, A.; Baumberger, F.

    2014-12-01

    We characterize the electron doping evolution of (Sr1 -xLax)3Ir2O7 by means of angle-resolved photoemission. Concomitant with the metal insulator transition around x ≈0.05 we find the emergence of coherent quasiparticle states forming a closed small Fermi surface of volume 3 x /2 , where x is the independently measured La concentration. The quasiparticle weight Z remains large along the entire Fermi surface, consistent with the moderate renormalization of the low-energy dispersion, and no pseudogap is observed. This indicates a conventional, weakly correlated Fermi liquid state with a momentum independent residue Z ≈0.5 in lightly doped Sr3Ir2O7 .

  10. Structure and photoluminescence properties of nanocrystal Eu{sup 3+}-doped gadolinium tungsten red emitting phosphors excited by blue light

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, W.; He, H.; Zhang, X.; Feng, A.L.; Li, G.

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► We get a series of Eu{sup 3+} doped tungstate phosphors with a wide range doping level. ► Different doping level leads to different crystal structures of final productions. ► Gd{sub 6}WO{sub 12}-like with a tetragonal lattice structure grows at low doping level. ► Gd{sub 2}WO{sub 6}-like with a monoclinic lattice structure grows at high doping level. ► The doping level at 40 mol% Eu{sup 3+} excited by blue light shows excellent red emission. -- Abstract: A co-precipitation reaction was used to prepare nanocrystal Gd{sub 6}WO{sub 12}:Eu{sup 3+} and Gd{sub 2}WO{sub 6}:Eu{sup 3+} red emitting phosphor powders with different Eu{sup 3+} doping levels. It is found that under the same preparation conditions, different doping level leads to different crystal structures; Gd{sub 6}WO{sub 12}-like with a tetragonal lattice structure tends to be synthesized at low doping level (10–40 mol%) yet Gd{sub 2}WO{sub 6}-like with a monoclinic lattice structure easily to grow at high doping level (60–80 mol%). The strong red emission of {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 2} transitions at 620 nm was observed for all powders under either near ultraviolet or blue light excited and the most intense emission was obtained at the concentration of 40 mol%. This kind of powders might find their promising application to compensate the white LEDs for the lack of red light component and to improve rendering index.

  11. Characterization and improved solar light activity of vanadium doped TiO2/diatomite hybrid catalysts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Zhang, Guangxin; Leng, Xue; Sun, Zhiming; Zheng, Shuilin

    2015-03-21

    V-doped TiO2/diatomite composite photocatalysts with different vanadium concentrations were synthesized by a modified sol-gel method. The diatomite was responsible for the well dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles on the matrix and consequently inhibited the agglomeration. V-TiO2/diatomite hybrids showed red shift in TiO2 absorption edge with enhanced absorption intensity. Most importantly, the dopant energy levels were formed in the TiO2 bandgap due to V(4+) ions substituted to Ti(4+) sites. The 0.5% V-TiO2/diatomite photocatalyst displayed narrower bandgap (2.95 eV) compared to undoped sample (3.13 eV) and other doped samples (3.05 eV) with higher doping concentration. The photocatalytic activities of V doped TiO2/diatomite samples for the degradation of Rhodamine B under stimulated solar light illumination were significantly improved compared with the undoped sample. In our case, V(4+) ions incorporated in TiO2 lattice were responsible for increased visible-light absorption and electron transfer to oxygen molecules adsorbed on the surface of TiO2 to produce superoxide radicals ˙O2(-), while V(5+) species presented on the surface of TiO2 particles in the form of V2O5 contributed to e(-)-h(+) separation. In addition, due to the combination of diatomite as support, this hybrid photocatalyst could be separated from solution quickly by natural settlement and exhibited good reusability. PMID:25497036

  12. Enhanced photoluminescence of Si nanocrystals-doped cellulose nanofibers by plasmonic light scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Zhang, Ran; Reinhard, Björn M.; Fujii, Minoru; Perotto, Giovanni; Marelli, Benedetto; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.; Dal Negro, Luca

    2015-07-27

    We report the development of bio-compatible cellulose nanofibers doped with light emitting silicon nanocrystals and Au nanoparticles via facile electrospinning. By performing photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy as a function of excitation wavelength, we demonstrate plasmon-enhanced PL by a factor of 2.2 with negligible non-radiative quenching due to plasmon-enhanced scattering of excitation light from Au nanoparticles to silicon nanocrystals inside the nanofibers. These findings provide an alternative approach for the development of plasmon-enhanced active systems integrated within the compact nanofiber geometry. Furthermore, bio-compatible light-emitting nanofibers prepared by a cost-effective solution-based processing are very promising platforms for biophotonic applications such as fluorescence sensing and imaging.

  13. Controlling Proton Conductivity with Light: A Scheme Based on Photoacid Doping of Materials.

    PubMed

    Haghighat, Shima; Ostresh, Sarah; Dawlaty, Jahan M

    2016-02-11

    Transducing light energy to changes in material properties is central to a large range of functional materials, including those used in light harvesting. In conventional semiconductors, photoconductivity arises due to generation of mobile electrons or holes with light. Here we demonstrate, to our knowledge for the first time, an analogue of this effect for protons in an organic polymer solution and in water. We show that when a material is doped with photoacids, light excitation generates extra mobile protons that change the low-frequency conductivity of the material. We measure such change both in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and in water sandwiched between two transparent electrodes and doped with a well-known photoacid 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid (HPTS). The complex impedance of the material is measured over a range of 0.1 Hz-1 MHz in both the presence and absence of light, and it is found that shining light changes the low frequency impedance significantly. We model the impedance spectra of the material with a minimal circuit composed of a diffusive impedance (Warburg element), a parallel capacitance, and a resistance. Fitting the light and dark impedance spectra to the model reveals that light reduces the low-frequency diffusive impedance of the material, which is consistent with generation of extra free carriers by light. We further suggest that the light-induced conductivity change arises mainly due to those photoreleased protons that manage to escape the zone of influence of the parent ion and avoid recapture. Such escape is more likely in materials with larger diffusion coefficient for protons and shorter electrostatic screening lengths for the parent ion. This explanation is consistent with our observed differences in the photoconductivity of solution of HPTS in water and in PEG. We anticipate that this scheme can be employed in protonic circuits where direct transduction of energy from light to protonic gradients or protonic currents is

  14. Visible light emission and energy transfer processes in Sm-doped nitride films

    SciTech Connect

    Zanatta, A. R.

    2012-06-15

    Even though the great interest in studying the near-infrared light emission due to Er{sup 3+} ions for telecommunication purposes, efficient visible radiation can be achieved from many different rare-earth (RE) ions. In fact, visible and/or near-infrared light emission takes place in RE-doped wide bandgap semiconductors following either photon or electron excitation, suggesting their technological potential in devices such as light-emitting diodes (LED's) and flat-panel displays, for example. Taking into consideration these aspects, the present contribution reports on the investigation of AlN, BeN, GeN, and SiN thin films doped with samarium. The samples were prepared by sputtering and as a result of the deposition method and conditions they present an amorphous structure and Sm concentrations in the low 0.5 at. %. After deposition, the samples were submitted to thermal annealing treatments and investigated by different spectroscopic techniques. A detailed examination of the experimental data allowed to identify optical transitions due to Sm{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 2+} ions as well as differences in their mechanisms of photon excitation and recombination. Moreover, it is shown that the Sm-related spectral features and emission intensity are susceptible, respectively, to the atomic environment the Sm{sup 3+}/Sm{sup 2+} ions experience and to the presence of non-radiative recombination centers.

  15. A visible light-responsive iodine-doped titanium dioxide nanosphere.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiqiao; Zhan, Liyong; Hong, Fangyue; Song, Shuang; Lin, Zhengying; Chen, Jianmeng; Jin, Mantong

    2011-01-01

    I-doped titanium dioxide nanospheres (I-TNSs) were synthesized via a two-step hydrothermal synthesis route, their potential for the efficient utilization of visible light was evaluated. The prepared anatase-phase I-TNSs had a bimodal porous size distribution with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of 76 m2/g, a crystallite size of approximately 14 nm calculated from X-ray diffraction data, and a remarkable absorption in the visible light region at wavelengths > 400 nm. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by decoloration of Methyl Orange in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation in comparison to the iodine-doped TiO2 (I-TiO2). The I-TNSs showed higher photocatalytic efficiency compared with I-TiO2 after irradiation for 180 min even though the latter had a much greater surface area (115 m2/g). It was concluded that the surface area was not the predominant factor determining photocatalytic activity, and that the good crystallization and bimodal porous nanosphere structure were favourable for photocatalysis. PMID:21476357

  16. Large magnetic field effects in electrochemically doped organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Reenen, S.; Kersten, S. P.; Wouters, S. H. W.; Cox, M.; Janssen, P.; Koopmans, B.; Bobbert, P. A.; Kemerink, M.

    2013-09-01

    Large negative magnetoconductance (MC) of ˜12% is observed in electrochemically doped polymer light-emitting diodes at sub-band-gap bias voltages (Vbias). Simultaneously, a positive magnetoefficiency (Mη) of 9% is observed at Vbias = 2 V. At higher bias voltages, both the MC and Mη diminish while a negative magnetoelectroluminescence (MEL) appears. The negative MEL effect is rationalized by triplet-triplet annihilation that leads to delayed fluorescence, whereas the positive Mη effect is related to competition between spin mixing and exciton formation leading to an enhanced singlet:triplet ratio at nonzero magnetic field. The resultant reduction in triplet exciton density is argued to reduce detrapping of polarons in the recombination zone at low-bias voltages, explaining the observed negative MC. Regarding organic magnetoresistance, this study provides experimental data to verify existing models describing magnetic field effects in organic semiconductors, which contribute to better understanding hereof. Furthermore, we present indications of strong magnetic field effects related to interactions between trapped carriers and excitons, which specifically can be studied in electrochemically doped organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Regarding light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs), this work shows that delayed fluorescence from triplet-triplet annihilation substantially contributes to the electroluminescence and the device efficiency.

  17. Low driving voltage and high stability organic light-emitting diodes with rhenium oxide-doped hole transporting layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leem, Dong-Seok; Park, Hyung-Dol; Kang, Jae-Wook; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Ji Whan; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2007-07-01

    The authors report a promising metal oxide-doped hole transporting layer (HTL) of rhenium oxide (ReO3)-doped N ,N'-diphenyl-N ,N'-bis (1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (NPB). The tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum-based organic light-emitting diodes with ReO3-doped NPB HTL exhibit driving voltage of 5.2-5.4V and power efficiency of 2.2-2.3lm/W at 20mA/cm2, which is significantly improved compared to those (7.1V and 2.0lm/W, respectively) obtained from the devices with undoped NPB. Furthermore, the device with ReO3-doped NPB layer reveals the prolonged lifetime than that with undoped NPB. Details of ReO3 doping effects are described based on the UV-Vis absorption spectra and characteristics of hole-only devices.

  18. High performance B doped BiVO4 photocatalyst with visible light response by citric acid complex method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Zheng, Haoyan; Liu, Qiong; Niu, Chao; Che, Yinsheng; Dang, Mingyan

    2013-10-01

    A B-doped BiVO4 photocatalyst was synthesized by citric acid complex method and using H3BO3 as the dopant source, and the photocatalyst was characterized with XPS, XRD, SEM, BET and UV-Vis DRS. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of a methyl orange (MO) solution under visible light. This assay revealed that both the pure BiVO4 and all of the B doped samples were the monoclinic phase. Doping the BiVO4 with B increased the number of V(4+) and oxygen vacancies, which led to the red shift of the absorbing boundary of the B-doped BiVO4 but had little influence on the morphology and crystal size. The B doping improved the photocatalytic activity, and the highest photocatalytic degradation rate of 98% occurred with a B dopant concentration of 0.04. PMID:23751222

  19. The enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of yttrium-doped BiOBr synthesized via a reactable ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Minqiang; Li, Weibing; Xia, Jiexiang; Xu, Li; Di, Jun; Xu, Hui; Yin, Sheng; Li, Huaming; Li, Mengna

    2015-03-01

    Yttrium (Y)-doped BiOBr with different Y doping concentrations has been synthesized via solvothermal method in the presence of reactable ionic liquid 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C16mim]Br). Their structures, morphologies and optical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The photocatalytic activities of the yttrium doped BiOBr samples were evaluated by the degradation of ciprofloxacin (CIP) and rhodamine B (RhB) under visible-light irradiation. The yttrium doped BiOBr exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of the two types of pollutants, and the 5wt%Y-doped BiOBr showed the highest photocatalytic activity. The enhanced photocatalytic performance could be attributed to the reduced band gap and improved separation of electron-hole pairs.

  20. Doped thin films of two organic molecules for light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovanella, Umberto; Botta, Chiara; Pasini, Mariacecilia; Porzio, William; Destri, Silvia

    2003-11-01

    The photoluminescence and electroluminescence of doped organic materials are reported for thin films prepared by ultrahigh-vacuum coevaporation and by spin coating from solution of two emitting molecules. For both films, efficient energy transfer from the donor to the acceptor molecules is observed without relevant dopant segregation for molar concentrations up to 10%. In spin-coated films the energy transfer from the matrix to the dopant is due to purely resonant energy transfer processes while the cosublimated films show the presence of additional thermally activated hopping processes. Light-emitting diodes fabricated with coevaporated films yield electroluminescence with higher efficiency and stability.

  1. Enhancement of Quantum Efficiency of Organic Light Emitting Devices by Doping Magnetic Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Chengjun; Wu, Yue; Xu, Zhihua; Hu, Bin; Bai, Jianmin; Wang, Jian-Ping; Shen, Jian

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles of CoFe are used as dopants to enhance the quantum efficiency of electroluminance in a single layer organic light emitting device (OLED). The enhancement of quantum efficiency increases with both increasing density of CoFe nanoparticles and external magnetic field. For a given OLED with 0.1 wt % doping, the enhancement of the quantum efficiency reaches {approx}27% and {approx}32% without and with a magnetic field, respectively. The origin of these improvements could be attributed to the simultaneous increases of the portion of excitons among total charge carriers and the fraction of singlets among the total excitons

  2. Bistable light shutter using dye-doped liquid crystals for a see-through display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Jae-Won; Heo, Joon; Yu, Byeong-Huh; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2016-03-01

    See-through displays have got high attention as one of the next generation display devices. Especially, see-through displays that use organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have been actively studied. However, a see-through display using OLEDs cannot provide black color because of their see-through area. Although a see-through display using LCDs can provide black color with crossed polarizers, it cannot block the background. This inevitable problem can be solved by placing a light shutter at the back of a see-through display. To maintain the transparent or opaque state, an electric field must be applied to a light shutter. To achieve low power consumption, a bistable light shutter using polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals (CLC) has been proposed. It is switchable between the translucent and transparent states only. Therefore, it cannot provide black color. Moreover, it cannot block the background perfectly because of poor performance in the translucent state. In this work we will introduce a bistable light shutter using dye-doped CLCs. To improve the electro-optic characteristics in the opaque state, we employed a crossed electrode structure instead of a parallel one. We will demonstrate that the light shutter can exhibit stable bistable operation between the transparent homeotropic and opaque focal-conic states thanks to polymer stabilization.

  3. Ultrastrong light-matter coupling in electrically doped microcavity organic light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzeo, M.; Genco, A.; Gambino, S.; Ballarini, D.; Mangione, F.; Sanvitto, D.; Di Stefano, O.; Patanè, S.; Savasta, S.; Gigli, G.

    2014-06-09

    The coupling of the electromagnetic field with an electronic transition gives rise, for strong enough light-matter interactions, to hybrid states called exciton-polaritons. When the energy exchanged between light and matter becomes a significant fraction of the material transition energy an extreme optical regime called ultrastrong coupling (USC) is achieved. We report a microcavity embedded p-i-n monolithic organic light emitting diode working in USC, employing a thin film of squaraine dye as active layer. A normalized coupling ratio of 30% has been achieved at room temperature. These USC devices exhibit a dispersion-less angle-resolved electroluminescence that can be exploited for the realization of innovative optoelectronic devices. Our results may open the way towards electrically pumped polariton lasers.

  4. P-doped TiO2 with superior visible-light activity prepared by rapid microwave hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Jinfen; Lu, Pan; Kang, Mei; Deng, Kunfa; Yao, Binghua; Yu, Xiaojiao; Zhang, Qian

    2014-11-01

    Phosphorous-doped anatase TiO2 powders (P-TiO2) were prepared by rapid microwave hydrothermal method. The resulting materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, XPS, DRS and N2 adsorption. P-doping decreased the band gap and enlarged the surface area of P-doped samples than that of undoped TiO2 samples. Therefore, the photocatalytic degradation of methyl blue (MB) and tetracycline hydrochloride (Tc) experiments showed that the P-TiO2 catalysts, especially the two-steps-controlling products P-TiO2-2, exhibited higher degradation efficiency than the undoped TiO2 and commercial P25 under visible-light irradiation. Hydroxyl radicals (rad OH) have been confirmed to be the active species during the photocatalytic oxidation reaction. The microwave hydrothermal method confirms to be very suitable for the synthesis of superior visible-light activity P-doped samples.

  5. Photocatalysis using a Wide Range of the Visible Light Spectrum: Hydrogen Evolution from Doped AgGaS2.

    PubMed

    Yamato, Kohei; Iwase, Akihide; Kudo, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    Doping of nickel into AgGaS2 yields a new absorption band, at a wavelength longer than the intrinsic absorption band of the AgGaS2 host. The doped nickel forms an electron donor level in a forbidden band of AgGaS2 . The nickel-doped AgGaS2 with rhodium co-catalyst shows photocatalytic activity for sacrificial H2 evolution under the light of up to 760 nm due to the transition from the electron donor level consisting of Ni(2+) to the conduction band of AgGaS2 . Apparent quantum yields for the sacrificial H2 evolution at 540-620 nm are about 1 %. Moreover, the nickel-doped AgGa0.75 In0.25 S2 also responds to near-IR light, up to 900 nm. PMID:26212706

  6. Preparation of N-doped ZnO-loaded halloysite nanotubes catalysts with high solar-light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhi-Lin; Sun, Wei

    2015-01-01

    N-doped ZnO nanoparticles were successfully assembled into hollow halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) by using the impregnation method. The catalysts based on N-doped ZnO-loaded HNTs nanocomposites (N-doped ZnO/HNTs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (TEM-EDX), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), UV-vis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques. The XRD pattern showed ZnO nanoparticles with hexagonal structure loaded on HNTs. The TEM-EDX analysis indicated ZnO particles with the crystal size of ca.10 nm scattered in hollow structure of HNTs, and furthermore the concentration of N atom in nanocomposites was up to 2.31%. The SEM-EDX verified most of N-ZnO nanoparticles existing in hollow nanotubes of HNTs. Besides containing an obvious ultraviolet absorbance band, the UV-vis spectra of the N-doped ZnO/HNTs catalysts showed an available visible absorbance band by comparing to HNTs and non-doped ZnO/HNTs. The photocatalytic activity of the N-doped ZnO/HNTs catalysts was evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) solution with the concentration of 20 mg/L under the simulated solar-light irradiation. The result showed that the N-doped ZnO/HNTs catalyst exhibited a desirable solar-light photocatalytic activity. PMID:26540544

  7. The formation of light emitting cerium silicates in cerium-doped silicon oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jing; Zalloum, Othman; Roschuk, Tyler; Heng Chenglin; Wojcik, Jacek; Mascher, Peter

    2009-01-05

    Cerium-doped silicon oxides with cerium concentrations of up to 0.9 at. % were deposited by electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Bright cerium related photoluminescence, easily seen even under room lighting conditions, was observed from the films and found to be sensitive to film composition and annealing temperature. The film containing 0.9 at. % Ce subjected to anneal in N{sub 2} at 1200 deg. C for 3 h showed the most intense cerium-related emission, easily visible under bright room lighting conditions. This is attributed to the formation of cerium silicate [Ce{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} or Ce{sub 4.667} (SiO{sub 4}){sub 3}O], the presence of which was confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy.

  8. Thermo-optical and polarized light studies of MWCNT doped PDLCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Jyoti; Gupta, Sureshchandra J.; Saxena, S.; Swati, K.

    2016-05-01

    Optical properties of liquid crystals (LCs) are very essential in an understanding of the technological applications of the LCs. Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals (PDLCs) are prepared by dispersing the liquid crystal droplets in polymer matrix. Experiments to study thermo-optical properties and polarized light studies are considered in the present work. PDLCs used in the present work are composed of poly (methyl methacrylate) and cholestric liquid crystal namely cholesteryl propionate. These are further doped with Multi-walled carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs). Thermo-optical study reveals that there is decrease in the nematic-isotropic phase transition temperature (Clearing point temperature i.e. CPT) with increase in the concentration of MWCNTs. The effect of polarized light is studied by means of change in polarization which is characteristic of the material properties. The optical constants graphs obtained from ellipsometry provides the possibility of the use of composite material for optical switching systems.

  9. Static and dynamic photoinduced magnetic effects in yttrium-iron garnet lightly doped with barium ions

    SciTech Connect

    Vorob'eva, N. V. Khalilov, R. Z.

    2012-04-15

    In yttrium-iron garnet lightly doped with barium, direct measurements of the photoinduced changes in magnetostrictive strains disagree with those in magnetostriction constants at 78-100 K. This is attributed to a considerable photoinduced modification of the initial state in this sample due to a redistribution of the charge (during illumination) between cations of the ferromagnetic octahedral sublattice. In the same sample, the temperature dependence of the photoinduced disaccomodation of magnetic permeability characterizing the initial demagnetized state is measured and calculated. A change in the electron mechanism of the phenomenon during the transition to room temperature is shown. The conclusion about the promising prospects for using such samples for remagnetization by light is advanced.

  10. Slow/fast light using a very short Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped fiber.

    PubMed

    Gan, Jiulin; Chen, Jiali; Xu, Shanhui; Yang, Zhongmin; Jiang, Zhonghong

    2013-03-01

    A slow/fast light device with a sealed size of 130 mm×30 mm×3 mm has been demonstrated. Ultraslow propagation and superluminal propagation with group velocity values from 8.4 to -14.7 m/s are observed in a 3.86 cm long Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped single-mode phosphate glass fiber. The dependence of pump power, modulation frequency, and wavelength on the slow/fast light effect in this fiber is investigated in detail. These results suggest that this compact slow/fast device is more suitable for all-fiber applications than those made by traditional methods. PMID:23455260

  11. Antibacterial property of Ag nanoparticle-impregnated N-doped titania films under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ming-Show; Chen, Chun-Wei; Hsieh, Chia-Chun; Hung, Shih-Che; Sun, Der-Shan; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2015-07-01

    Photocatalysts produce free radicals upon receiving light energy; thus, they possess antibacterial properties. Silver (Ag) is an antibacterial material that disrupts bacterial physiology. Our previous study reported that the high antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles on the surfaces of visible light-responsive nitrogen-doped TiO2 photocatalysts [TiO2(N)] could be further enhanced by visible light illumination. However, the major limitation of this Ag-TiO2 composite material is its durability; the antibacterial property decreased markedly after repeated use. To overcome this limitation, we developed TiO2(N)/Ag/TiO2(N) sandwich films in which the silver is embedded between two TiO2(N) layers. Various characteristics, including silver and nitrogen amounts, were examined in the composite materials. Various analyses, including electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum and methylene blue degradation rate analyses, were performed. The antibacterial properties of the composite materials were investigated. Here we revealed that the antibacterial durability of these thin films is substantially improved in both the dark and visible light, by which bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii, could be efficiently eliminated. This study demonstrated a feasible approach to improve the visible-light responsiveness and durability of antibacterial materials that contain silver nanoparticles impregnated in TiO2(N) films.

  12. Antibacterial property of Ag nanoparticle-impregnated N-doped titania films under visible light

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ming-Show; Chen, Chun-Wei; Hsieh, Chia-Chun; Hung, Shih-Che; Sun, Der-Shan; Chang, Hsin-Hou

    2015-01-01

    Photocatalysts produce free radicals upon receiving light energy; thus, they possess antibacterial properties. Silver (Ag) is an antibacterial material that disrupts bacterial physiology. Our previous study reported that the high antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles on the surfaces of visible light-responsive nitrogen-doped TiO2 photocatalysts [TiO2(N)] could be further enhanced by visible light illumination. However, the major limitation of this Ag-TiO2 composite material is its durability; the antibacterial property decreased markedly after repeated use. To overcome this limitation, we developed TiO2(N)/Ag/TiO2(N) sandwich films in which the silver is embedded between two TiO2(N) layers. Various characteristics, including silver and nitrogen amounts, were examined in the composite materials. Various analyses, including electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and ultraviolet–visible absorption spectrum and methylene blue degradation rate analyses, were performed. The antibacterial properties of the composite materials were investigated. Here we revealed that the antibacterial durability of these thin films is substantially improved in both the dark and visible light, by which bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii, could be efficiently eliminated. This study demonstrated a feasible approach to improve the visible-light responsiveness and durability of antibacterial materials that contain silver nanoparticles impregnated in TiO2(N) films. PMID:26156001

  13. Enhanced photocatalytic performance of boron doped Bi₂WO₆ nanosheets under simulated solar light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yu; Chang, Chun; Chen, Peng; Chu, Xiaolong; Zhu, Lingyan

    2013-06-15

    Bi₂WO6 doped with different amounts of boron atoms (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10% B) were synthesized using hydrothermal method and their photocatalytic activities to degrade rhodamine B (RhB) under simulated solar light was investigated. The successful incorporation of B atoms in Bi₂WO₆ was proved by FT-IR, Raman spectra and XPS. Doping with B could affect the pore structure and volume. 0.5% B/Bi₂WO₆ displayed more mesopores with higher total pore volume than pure Bi₂W₆; while the pores of 10% B/Bi₂WO₆ mainly distributed in microporous range with much less total pore volume. As a result, 0.5% B/Bi₂WO₆ displayed stronger adsorption capacity to RhB, favoring the photodegradation. In addition, the doped B atoms could act as electron traps and facilitate the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs due to its electron deficient and oxytropic characteristics. 0.5% B/Bi₂WO₆ displayed the highest photocatalytic activity under simulated solar light with rate constant (kobs) 8.8 times of that using pure Bi₂WO₆. Its photoactivity was affected by solution pH and the optimum was achieved at pH 7. At this condition, around 100% of RhB (10(-5)mol/L) was degraded in 180 min. The photogenerated holes were the main active species responsible for the photodegradation of RhB by B/Bi₂WO₆. PMID:23618657

  14. Visible-light electroluminescence in Mn-doped GaAs light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruo, Daiki; Hai, Pham Nam; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate visible-light electroluminescence (EL) due to d- d transitions in GaAs:Mn based LEDs. We design p+-n junctions with a p+ GaAs:Mn layer, in which at a reverse bias voltage (-3 to -6 V), an intense electric field builds up in the depletion layers of the p+-n junctions. Holes are injected to the depletion layer by Zener tunneling from the conduction band or by diffusion of minority holes from the valence band of the n-type layer. These holes are accelerated by the intense electric field in the depletion layer, and excite the d electrons of Mn in the p+ GaAs:Mn layer by impact excitations. We observe visible-light emission at E1 = 1.89 eV and E2 = 2.16 eV, which are exactly the same as the 4T1-->6A1 and 4A2-->4T1 transition energy of Mn. The threshold voltage for observation of visible-light EL is -4 V, corresponding to -(E1 +E2) / e. This indicates that the impact excitation is most effective for the one step excitation from the ground state 6A1 to the highest excited state 4A2 .

  15. III-Nitride Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes with Delta-Doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. H.; Fan, Z. Y.; Nakarmi, M. L.; Li, J.; Jin, S. X.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2004-03-01

    Currently, there is a great need of solid-state ultraviolet (UV) emitters for many applications, ranging from the fluorescence detection of chemical and biological agents to the next generation solid-state lighting. Other applications include the use of compact UV sources (λ <350 nm) in medical and health research. We present the results on the fabrication and characterization of 310 nm ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on InAlGaN quaternary alloys grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. By employing δ -doping in the n- and p-type layers together with the use of AlN epilayer template, we have demonstrated enhanced structural quality. The output power of a 300 x 300 μ m^2 LED chip measured from the sapphire side reached a maximum value of about 1.0 mW under a DC operating condition at 120 mA, 0.25 mW under a standard DC operating condition at 20 mA and about 10 mW under a pulsed current driving at 1A with 1% duty cycle. The improved performance was attributed to the reduction in dislocation density in the device structure by δ -doping and the use of AlN epilayer template. Preliminary results on deep UV emitters (≤ 300 nm) will also be discussed.

  16. Study of new states in visible light active W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} photo catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Sajjad, Ahmed Khan Leghari; Shamaila, Sajjad; Zhang, Jinlong

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► Visible light efficient W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} photo catalysts are prepared by sol–gel. ► Oxygen vacancies are detected in the form of new linkages as N-Ti-O, N-W-O, Ti-O-N and W-O-N. ► W, N co-doped titania has new energy states which narrows the band gap effectively. ► Oxygen vacancies are proved to be the cause for high photo catalytic activity. ► W and N co-doping plays the major role to make the composite thermally stable. -- Abstract: The visible light efficient W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} photo catalysts are prepared by sol–gel method. New linkages of N, W and O are formed as N-Ti-O, N-W-O, Ti-O-N and W-O-N. Electron paramagnetic resonance illustrates the presence of oxygen vacancies in W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} acting as trapping agencies for electrons to produce active species. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of new energy states. New linkages and oxygen vacancies are proved to be the main cause for the improved photo catalytic performances. W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} has new energy states which narrow the band gap effectively. W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} is thermally stable and retains its anatase phase up to 900 °C. 4.5% W, N co-doped TiO{sub 2} showed superior activity for the degradation of Rhodamine B and 2,4-dichlorophenol as compared to pure titania, Degussa P-25, traditional N-doped TiO{sub 2} and pure WO{sub 3}.

  17. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous cerium doped TiO{sub 2} as visible light sensitive photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Aman, Noor; Satapathy, P.K.; Mishra, T.; Mahato, M.; Das, N.N.

    2012-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Cerium doped titania having optimum 5 wt% of cerium can decompose methylene blue and reduce selenium (IV) efficiently under visible light. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of cerium doping on the surface properties and visible light mediated photocatalytic reaction is studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cerium doping increases the anatase phase stability, surface area (up to 137 m{sup 2}/g) and visible light absorption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Importance of Ce{sup 3+}/Ce{sup 4+}, oxygen vacancy, surface area and crystallinity is correlated with improved catalytic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Material with 5 wt% Ce is found to be most active photocatalyst for methylene blue decomposition and Se (IV) reduction. -- Abstract: Cerium doped titania materials were synthesized varying the cerium concentration from 0 to 10 wt%. Materials are characterised by XRD, TEM, XPS and N{sub 2} adsorption desorption method. Surface area and visible light absorption substantially increases and crystallite size decreases with the increasing cerium content. Cerium doping stabilizes the anatase phase and surface area even at 600 Degree-Sign C calcination. Photocatalytic activity towards methylene blue decomposition and selenium (IV) reduction is found to increase with the cerium content up to 5 wt% and then decreases. Materials calcined at 600 Degree-Sign C shows better activity than that calcined at 400 Degree-Sign C, even though surface area decreases. Anatase crystallinity mostly decides the photocatalytic activity rather than only surface area. It can be concluded that the optimum visible light absorption and oxygen vacancy with 5% cerium doping enhances the photocatalytic activity. In addition photocatalytic performance is found to depend on the presence of Ce{sup 4+}/Ce{sup 3+} rather than only visible light absorption.

  18. Visible-Light-Induced Bactericidal Activity of Titanium Dioxide Co-doped with Nitrogen and Silver

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pinggui; Xie, Rongcai; Imlay, Kari; Shang, Jian-Ku

    2011-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles co-doped with nitrogen and silver (Ag2O/TiON) were synthesized by the sol-gel process and found to be an effective visible light driven photocatalyst. The catalyst showed strong bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) under visible light irradiation (λ> 400 nm). In x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction characterization of the samples, the as-added Ag species mainly exist as Ag2O. Spin trapping EPR study showed Ag addition greatly enhanced the production of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) under visible light irradiation. The results indicate that the Ag2O species trapped eCB− in the process of Ag2O/TiON photocatalytic reaction, thus inhibiting the recombination of eCB− and hVB+ in agreement with the stronger photocatalytic bactericidal activity of Ag2O/TiON. The killing mechanism of Ag2O/TiON under visible light irradiation is shown to be related to oxidative damages in the forms of cell wall thinning and cell disconfiguration. PMID:20726520

  19. Photodegradation of aniline by goethite doped with boron under ultraviolet and visible light irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guanglong; Liao, Shuijiao; Zhu, Duanwei; Liu, Linghua; Cheng, Dongsheng; Zhou, Huaidong

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Goethite modified by boron was prepared by sol-gel method in presence of boron acid at the low temperature. {yields} B-goethite has slight red shift in the band gap transition beside their stronger light absorption compared with pristine goethite. {yields} The results showed that semiconductor photocatalytic reaction mechanism should exist in the process of aniline degradation with goethite and B-goethite as photocatalyst. -- Abstract: In the present study, goethite and goethite doped with boron (B-goethite) were employed to detect the presence or absence of semiconductor photocatalytic reaction mechanism in the reaction systems. B-goethite was prepared by sol-gel method in presence of boron acid in order to improve its photocatalystic efficiency under the ultraviolet and visible light irradiation. The optical properties of goethite and B-goethite were characterized by ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra and the result indicated that B-goethite has slight red shift in the band gap transition beside their stronger light absorption compared with pristine goethite. Degradation of aniline was investigated in presence of goethite and B-goethite in aqueous solution. It was found that the B-goethite photocatalyst exhibited enhanced ultraviolet and visible light photocatalytic activity in degradation of aniline compared with the pristine goethite. The photocatalytic degradation mechanism of B-goethite was discussed.

  20. White light emitting Ho{sup 3+}-doped CdS nanocrystal ingrained glass nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Chirantan; Karmakar, Basudeb; Goswami, Madhumita

    2015-02-23

    We report the generation of white light from Ho{sup 3+} ion doped CdS nanocrystal ingrained borosilicate glass nanocomposites prepared by the conventional melt-quench method. Near visible 405 nm diode laser excited white light emission is produced by tuning the blue emission from the Ho{sup 3+} ions, green band edge, and orange-red surface-state emissions of the nanocrystalline CdS, which are further controlled by the size of the nanocrystals. The absorption and emission spectra evidenced the excitation of Ho{sup 3+} ions by absorption of photons emitted by the CdS nanocrystals. The high color rendering index (CRI = 84–89) and befitting chromaticity coordinates (x = 0.308–0.309, y = 0.326–0.338) of white light emission, near visible harmless excitation wavelength (405 nm), and high absorbance values at excitation wavelength point out that these glass nanocomposites may serve as a prominent candidate for resin free high power white light emitting diodes.

  1. Visible Light Photocatalysis with Nitrogen-Doped Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Prepared by Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Buzby,S.; Barakat, M.; Lin, H.; Ni, C.; Rykov, S.; Chen, J.; Shah, S.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized via plasma assisted metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Nitrogen dopant concentration was varied from 0 to 1.61 at. %. The effect of nitrogen ion doping on visible light photocatalysis has been investigated. Samples were analyzed by various analytical techniques such as x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure. Titanium tetraisopropoxide was used as the titanium precursor, while rf-plasma-decomposed ammonia was used as the source for nitrogen doping. The N-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were deposited on stainless steel mesh under a flow of Ar and O2 gases at 600 {sup o}C in a tube reactor. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared N-doped TiO{sub 2} samples was tested by the degradation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) in an aqueous solution using a visible lamp equipped with an UV filter. The efficiency of photocatalytic oxidation of 2-CP was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Results obtained revealed the formation of N-doped TiO{sub 2} samples as TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x}, and a corresponding increase in the visible light photocatalytic activity.

  2. Tunable light filtering by a Bragg mirror/heavily doped semiconducting nanocrystal composite

    PubMed Central

    Kriegel, Ilka

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tunable light filters are critical components for many optical applications in which light in-coupling, out-coupling or rejection is crucial, such as lasing, sensing, photovoltaics and information and communication technology. For this purpose, Bragg mirrors (band-pass filters with high reflectivity) represent good candidates. However, their optical characteristics are determined during the fabrication stage. Heavily doped semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), on the other hand, deliver a high degree of optical tunability through the active modulation of their carrier density, ultimately influencing their plasmonic absorption properties. Here, we propose the design of an actively tunable light filter composed of a Bragg mirror and a layer of plasmonic semiconductor NCs. We demonstrate that the filtering properties of the coupled device can be tuned to cover a wide range of frequencies from the visible to the near infrared (vis–NIR) spectral region when employing varying carrier densities. As the tunable component, we implemented a dispersion of copper selenide (Cu2−xSe) NCs and a film of indium tin oxide (ITO) NCs, which are known to show optical tunablility with chemical or electrochemical treatments. We utilized the Mie theory to describe the carrier-dependent plasmonic properties of the Cu2−x Se NC dispersion and the effective medium theory to describe the optical characteristics of the ITO film. The transmission properties of the Bragg mirror have been modelled with the transfer matrix method. We foresee ease of experimental realization of the coupled device, where filtering modulation is achieved upon chemical and electrochemical post-fabrication treatment of the heavily doped semiconductor NC component, eventually resulting in tunable transmission properties of the coupled device. PMID:25671163

  3. Phosphorus Doping in Si Nanocrystals/SiO2 msultilayers and Light Emission with Wavelength compatible for Optical Telecommunication

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Peng; Mu, Weiwei; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Wenping; Li, Wei; Xu, Ling; Chen, Kunji

    2016-01-01

    Doping in semiconductors is a fundamental issue for developing high performance devices. However, the doping behavior in Si nanocrystals (Si NCs) has not been fully understood so far. In the present work, P-doped Si NCs/SiO2 multilayers are fabricated. As revealed by XPS and ESR measurements, P dopants will preferentially passivate the surface states of Si NCs. Meanwhile, low temperature ESR spectra indicate that some P dopants are incorporated into Si NCs substitutionally and the incorporated P impurities increase with the P doping concentration or annealing temperature increasing. Furthermore, a kind of defect states will be generated with high doping concentration or annealing temperature due to the damage of Si crystalline lattice. More interestingly, the incorporated P dopants can generate deep levels in the ultra-small sized (~2 nm) Si NCs, which will cause a new subband light emission with the wavelength compatible with the requirement of the optical telecommunication. The studies of P-doped Si NCs/SiO2 multilayers suggest that P doping plays an important role in the electronic structures and optoelectronic characteristics of Si NCs. PMID:26956425

  4. Phosphorus Doping in Si Nanocrystals/SiO2 msultilayers and Light Emission with Wavelength compatible for Optical Telecommunication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Peng; Mu, Weiwei; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Wenping; Li, Wei; Xu, Ling; Chen, Kunji

    2016-03-01

    Doping in semiconductors is a fundamental issue for developing high performance devices. However, the doping behavior in Si nanocrystals (Si NCs) has not been fully understood so far. In the present work, P-doped Si NCs/SiO2 multilayers are fabricated. As revealed by XPS and ESR measurements, P dopants will preferentially passivate the surface states of Si NCs. Meanwhile, low temperature ESR spectra indicate that some P dopants are incorporated into Si NCs substitutionally and the incorporated P impurities increase with the P doping concentration or annealing temperature increasing. Furthermore, a kind of defect states will be generated with high doping concentration or annealing temperature due to the damage of Si crystalline lattice. More interestingly, the incorporated P dopants can generate deep levels in the ultra-small sized (~2 nm) Si NCs, which will cause a new subband light emission with the wavelength compatible with the requirement of the optical telecommunication. The studies of P-doped Si NCs/SiO2 multilayers suggest that P doping plays an important role in the electronic structures and optoelectronic characteristics of Si NCs.

  5. Improvement of light scattering capacity in dye-sensitized solar cells by doping with SiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Min-Jun; Park, Jun-Yong; Kim, Chan-Soo; Okuyama, Kikuo; Lee, Sung-Eun; Kim, Tae-Oh

    2016-09-01

    N-doped TiO2 was further doped with SiO2 to prepare SiO2/N-doped TiO2 photoelectrodes with high activity in the visible region. A sol-gel process was employed to produce nanoparticles of SiO2/N-doped TiO2. The addition of SiO2 to the metal oxide enhanced charge transfer and reduced charge recombination. With the addition of sufficient amounts of SiO2 and N, the photoelectrodes exhibited a high surface area and strong absorption of light because of their altered absorptivity in the visible wavelength region. These characteristics enabled the production of photoelectrodes with increased charge transfer and reduced charge recombination, resulting in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with enhanced Jsc values. The SiO2/N-doped TiO2 photoelectrodes were characterized using a range of analysis techniques. After the J-V curve measurements, the DSSCs fabricated with the 0.1 mM SiO2/N-doped TiO2 photoelectrodes exhibited the highest energy conversion efficiency of 8.68%, which was approximately 3% higher than that of the N-doped TiO2 control groups. This high energy efficiency with the addition of SiO2 might be due to the enhanced surface area of the photoelectrodes, allowing more dye absorption, and a decrease in electron recombination.

  6. Low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis of S-doped TiO{sub 2} with visible light photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Ho Wingkei; Yu, Jimmy C. . E-mail: jimyu@cuhk.edu.hk; Lee, Shuncheng

    2006-04-15

    A one-step low-temperature hydrothermal route was developed for the synthesis of S-doped TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts from TiS{sub 2} and HCl. Crystalline TiO{sub 2} was formed and sulfur could be efficiently doped into the anatase lattice under hydrothermal conditions. When the initial TiS{sub 2} concentration is increased, the content of S-dopant and optical absorption in the visible region also increase. The photocatalytic activity of the S-doped TiO{sub 2} was evaluated through the degradation of 4-chlorophenol under visible light irradiation. Our results show that the S-doped TiO{sub 2} prepared by this hydrothermal approach possesses much higher photocatalytic activity than that obtained by the traditional high-temperature thermal annealing method.

  7. Mn-doped nanocrystals in light-emitting diodes: Energy-transfer to obtain electroluminescence from quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, Arup K.; Bhaumik, Saikat; Pal, Amlan J.

    2010-09-01

    We fabricate light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on Mn-doped ZnS nanocrystals along with hole-transporting N ,N' bis(3-methylphenyl)-N ,N'-diphenyl-benzidine (TPD). With Mn-doping, ZnS nanostructures exhibit a strong photoluminescence. The LEDs exhibit electroluminescence (EL) from Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots and TPD. In order to open up channels for energy-transfer from TPD to quantum dots and to achieve EL from only the nanoparticles, we grow core-shell nanoparticles with Mn-doped ZnS in the core and CdS as the shell layer. Excitons formed in TPD can now transfer their energy directly to the shell-layer to yield EL from only the nanoparticles.

  8. High visible light photocatalytic property of Co2+-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with mixed phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Cong; Shu, Xin; Zhu, Da-chuan; Wei, Shang-hai; Wang, Yu-xin; Tu, Ming-jing; Gao, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Mixed phases Co2+-doped TiO2 nanoparticles have been prepared by a novel method combined with sol-gel and hydrothermal methods. The section of sol-gel method, sol, provides an unstable colloidal reaction system for the next reaction process. The hydrothermal method is to treat the above reaction system to prepare undoped and doped samples. The as-prepared samples have been characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, HRTEM and UV-vis spectroscopy. The results show that the as-prepared samples contain three titania polymorphs: brookite, rutile and anatase phases. These titania polymorphs probably form polymorph-junctions that can extend the lifetime of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The photocatalytic activity has been evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B in air under visible-light irradiation. The degradation results indicate that the photocatalytic activity of as-prepared samples is higher than that of Degussa P25, especially the doped sample. This is ascribed to the fact that the phases with smaller band gap can enhance visible-light photocatalytic activity, the polymorph-junctions effectively extend the photoelectron lifetime and the nano size effect and Co-doping induce the shift of the absorption edge into the visible-light region. Furthermore, the XRD, SEM, and TEM data indicate that Co2+-doping results in the decrease of particle size.

  9. Narrow-linewidth red-emission Eu3+-doped TiO2 spheres for light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Peifen; Zhu, Hongyang; Qin, Weiping; Dantas, Breno H.; Sun, Wei; Tan, Chee-Keong; Tansu, Nelson

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the amorphous Eu3+-doped TiO2 spheres were synthesized by low cost mixed-solvent method, while the anatase and rutile spheres can be obtained by annealing the as-synthesized amorphous TiO2 spheres at elevated temperatures. The optical properties of Eu3+-doped TiO2 spheres were also investigated, and strong red emission (centered at 610 nm) with narrow line-width of 30 nm was observed under 465 nm or 394 nm excitations for the Eu3+-doped anatase TiO2 spheres. Our findings indicate the potential of using Eu3+-doped TiO2 spheres to achieve red emission with InGaN blue light emitting diodes (LEDs). Owing to the high light extraction efficiency in the GaN-based LEDs using anatase TiO2 spheres as demonstrated in our previous works, this work shows the strong potential of Eu3+-doped TiO2 spheres as the red phosphor material for high efficiency GaN-based white light-emitting diode.

  10. Low Temperature Hydrothermal Synthesis of Visible-Light-Activated I-Doped TiO2 for Improved Dye Degradation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongting; Li, Jianwen; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Wenxu; Zhang, Xianxi; Pan, Xu

    2016-06-01

    Iodine doped TiO2 with different iodine/Ti molar ratios has been firstly synthesized with a low temperature hydrothermal route and has been studied systematically in photocatalysis under visible light condition. The resulting iodine doped TiO2 were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalytic performance investigations were conducted by means of the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under the visible light irradiation in aqueous solution. Under an optimized I/Ti doping ratio of 10 mol%, the photocatalytic performance is greatly better, with degradation efficiency of 95%, which is almost double that of pure TiO2. The superior photocatalytic activity of iodine-doped TiO2 could be mainly attributed to extended visible light absorption originated from the formation of continuous states existed in the band gap of the doped TiO2 introduced by iodine. Active oxygen species, that is, *OH and O2-, were evidenced to be involved in the degradation process and a possible mechanism was also proposed. PMID:27427614

  11. Effects of doping dyes on the electroluminescent characteristics of multilayer organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Hoshino, Satoshi

    1996-06-01

    We report the effects of dyes doped in the emitting layer on the electroluminescent characteristics of multilayer organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using a polysilane polymer, poly(methylphenylsilane) (PMPS), as the hole transporting material. We formed the emitting layer by dispersing in poly(styrene) (PS), one of four dyes whose fluorescence ranged from blue to orange. Two- or three-layer LEDs were prepared by combining PMPS and dye doped PS layers with the indium tin oxide and aluminum used for the hole and electron injecting electrodes, respectively. The three-layer LEDs had an additional vacuum-deposited tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum layer. The electroluminescent (EL) characteristics of these multilayer organic LEDs, such as the current-voltage-EL intensity curve, the relative EL efficiency, and the EL emitting species, exhibit a marked dependence on the emitting dye. The observed dependence can be described consistently in terms of the dependence of the charge carrier trapping efficiency on the emitting dyes.

  12. Light induced dielectric constant of Alumina doped lead silicate glass based on silica sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diantoro, Markus; Natalia, Desi Ayu; Mufti, Nandang; Hidayat, Arif

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies on glass ceramic compounds have been conducted intensively. Two major problems to be solved are to simplify the fabrication process by reducing melting temperature as well as improving various properties for various fields of technological application. To control the dielectric constant, the researchers generally use a specific dopant. So far there is no comprehensive study to control the dielectric constant driven by both of dopant and light intensity. In this study it is used Al2O3 dopant to increase the light induced dielectric constant of the glass. The source of silica was taken from local silica sands of Bancar Tuban. The sands were firstly leached using hydrochloric acid to improve the purity of silica which was investigated by means of XRF. Fabricating the glass samples were performed by using melting-glass method. Silica powder was mixed with various ratio of SiO2:Na2CO3:PbO:Al2O3. Subsequently, a mixture of various Al2O3 doped lead silicate glasses were melted at 970°C and directy continued by annealed at 300°C. The samples were investigated by XRD, FTIR, SEM-EDX and measuring dielectric constant was done using dc-capacitance meter with various light intensities. The investigation result of XRD patterns showed that the crystal structures of the samples are amorphous state. The introduction of Al2O3 does not alter the crystal structure, but significantly change the structure of the functional glass bonding PbO-SiO2 which was shown by the FTIR spectra. It was noted that some new peak peaks were exist in the doped samples. Measuring result of dielectricity shows that the dielectric constant of glass increases with the addition of Al2O3. Increasing the light intensity gives rise to increase their dielectric constant in general. A detail observation of the dielectric seen that there are discontinuous step-like of dielectric. Most likely a specific quantization mechanism occurs when glass exposed under light.

  13. Photodegradation of ibuprofen by TiO2 co-doping with urea and functionalized CNT irradiated with visible light - Effect of doping content and pH.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ching; Hung, Chung-Hsuang; Li, Huei-Wen; Chang, Wei-Hsian

    2016-07-01

    Ibuprofen (IBP) is one kind of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are classified as Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs). IBP possesses bioactive property and the substantial use of IBP results in a harmful impact on bioreceptors even in small concentrations. Accordingly, the treatment of these wastewaters is important before discharging them into the ecosystem. The photodegradation of IBP with TiO2 co-doped with functionalized CNTs (CNT-COOH and CNT-COCl) and urea, named as N-doping CNT/TiO2, irradiated with visible light of 410 nm was investigated in this study. The titanium tetrachloride was used as the precursor of Ti. The N-doping CNT-COCl/TiO2 photocatalysts exhibited a better crystalline structure and smaller crystal size than the N-doping CNT-COOH/TiO2 photocatalyst. It might largely ascribe to strong binding between acyl chloride functional group and TiO2. About 85.0%-86.0% of IBP was degraded with N-doping CNT/TiO2 within 120 min at natural condition, which obeyed the pseudo first order reaction and the rate constant was 4.45 × 10(-3)-1.22 × 10(-2) min(-1) and 5.03 × 10(-3)-1.47 × 10(-2) min(-1) for N-doping CNT-COOH/TiO2 and N-doping CNT-COCl/TiO2, respectively. The best IBP degradation of 87.9%-89.0% was found at pH 5, which indicated superoxide radicals (O2(-)) played a key role. The optimal pH was majorly dominated by the nature of IBP and N-doping CNT/TiO2. A successful synergy effect of TiO2 and dopants was exhibited and this mainly attributed to the strong binding strength by functional group of acyl chloride (COCl) and carboxylic acid (COOH). In summary, IBP could be effectively photodegraded by the fabricated N-doping CNT/TiO2 photocatalysts. PMID:27145421

  14. Spectroscopic study and white-light simulation using praseodymium-doped fluorogermanate glass as single phosphor for white LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia-Neto, Artur S.; Rios, Nathalia P. S. M.; Bueno, Luciano A.

    2012-03-01

    Praseodymium-doped fluorogermanate 60PbGeO3-20PbF2-20CdF2 nano-structured phosphors were synthesized by thermal treatment of precursor glasses. Luminescence features of praseodymium ions incorporated into low-phononenergy PbF2 nanocrystals dispersed in the fluorogermanate glass matrix was evaluated. The luminescence spectra exhibited visible emission signals peaked at 490, 525, 613, 643 nm. White-light emission was observed in praeodymium single-doped phosphor excited using a LED at 460 nm. The dependence of the luminescence emisson intensity upon annealing temperature, and rare-earth concentration was also evaluated. The results indicated the existence of optimum annealing temperature and activator ion concentration to obtain intense emission light with CIE 1931 chromaticity coordinates within the white-light boundary region. Results suggest that the novel nanocomposite glass material herein reported is a promissing phosphor for white-light LED applications

  15. Spectroscopic study and white-light simulation using praseodymium-doped fluorogermanate glass as single phosphor for white LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia-Neto, Artur S.; Rios, Nathalia P. S. M.; Bueno, Luciano A.

    2012-12-01

    Praseodymium-doped fluorogermanate 60PbGeO3-20PbF2-20CdF2 nano-structured phosphors were synthesized by thermal treatment of precursor glasses. Luminescence features of praseodymium ions incorporated into low-phonon-energy PbF2 nanocrystals dispersed in the fluorogermanate glass matrix was evaluated. The luminescence spectra exhibited visible emission signals peaked at 490, 525, 613, and 643 nm. White-light emission was observed in praeodymium single-doped phosphor excited using a LED at 460 nm. The dependence of the luminescence emission intensity upon annealing temperature, and rare-earth concentration was also evaluated. The results indicated the existence of optimum annealing temperature and activator ion concentration to obtain intense emission light with CIE 1931 chromaticity coordinates within the white-light boundary region. Results suggest that the novel nanocomposite glass material herein reported is a promising phosphor for white-light LED applications.

  16. Crystallinity-dependent substitutional nitrogen doping in ZnO and its improved visible light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zongbao; Yin, Li-Chang; Xie, Yingpeng; Liu, Gang; Ma, Xiuliang; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2013-06-15

    Increasing visible light absorption of wide-bandgap photocatalysts (for example, ZnO and TiO2) plays a pivotal role in improving their photocatalytic activity. In this work, we show that substitutional nitrogen doping can be realized in semi-crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles but fails for highly crystalline ZnO by heating the ZnO at a temperature of 400°C in gaseous ammonia atmosphere. The results suggest that substitutional nitrogen for lattice oxygen is strongly dependent on the crystallinity of ZnO. The nitrogen doped ZnO obtained shows an improved visible light photocatalytic activity in the degradation of organic dyes due to its increased visible light absorption. The origin of the increased visible light absorption is theoretically attributed to the formed N 2p localized states in the bandgap. PMID:23561822

  17. Origin of photoactivity of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide under visible light.

    PubMed

    Livraghi, Stefano; Paganini, Maria Cristina; Giamello, Elio; Selloni, Annabella; Di Valentin, Cristiana; Pacchioni, Gianfranco

    2006-12-13

    Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO2), a photocatalytic material active in visible light, has been investigated by a combined experimental and theoretical approach. The material contains single-atom nitrogen impurities that form either diamagnetic (Nb-) or paramagnetic (Nb*) bulk centers. Both types of Nb centers give rise to localized states in the band gap of the oxide. The relative abundance of these species depends on the oxidation state of the solid, as, upon reduction, electron transfer from Ti3+ ions to Nb* results in the formation of Ti4+ and Nb-. EPR spectra measured under irradiation show that Nb centers are responsible for visible light absorption with promotion of electrons from the band gap localized states to the conduction band or to surface-adsorbed electron scavengers. These results provide a characterization of the electronic states associated with N impurities in TiO2 and, for the first time, a picture of the processes occurring in the solid under irradiation with visible light. PMID:17147376

  18. Leakage current reduction in junctionless tunnel FET using a lightly doped source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Shibir; Asthana, Pranav Kumar; Goswami, Yogesh; Ghosh, Bahniman

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we explain the problem of dramatic OFF-state leakage in junctionless tunnel field effect transistor (JLTFET) for a channel thickness greater than 10 nm. In JLTFET, with channel width greater than 10 nm, the depletion region primarily remains confined below the dielectric-semiconductor interface. Hence, we tend to incur significant leakage through the center of the device. With the help of 2D device simulations, we demonstrate that the cause of the leakage current is predominantly due to thermal injection in the source region and is concentrated through the center of the device. We suggest a technique of using a lightly doped source region, below the p-gate to increase the barrier and prevent any leakage. The proposed alteration records an improved I ON/ I OFF ratio for JLTFET for a channel of width 20 nm.

  19. Electro-optic phase modulation in light induced self-written waveguides propagated in a 5CB doped photopolymer.

    PubMed

    Jemal, Abdelmonem; Ben Belgacem, Mohamed; Kamoun, Saber; Gargouri, Mohamed; Honorat Dorkenoo, Kokou D; Barsella, Alberto; Mager, Loïc

    2013-01-28

    We present the inscription of a Light Induced Self-Written (LISW) waveguide in a 4-cyano-4'-pentylbipheny (5CB) doped photopolymer. The dynamic reorientation of the 5CB molecules in the material under applied electric field leads to birefringence in LISW waveguide and thus allows the control of the phase of the guided mode. PMID:23389136

  20. Synthesis of N-doped TiO2 Using Guanidine Nitrate: An Excellent Visible Light Photocatalyst

    EPA Science Inventory

    An excellent visible light active nitrogen-rich TiO2 photocatalyst have been synthesized by using guanidine nitrate as the doping material. The catalytic efficiency of the catalyst has been demonstrated by the decomposition of the dye, methyl orange (MO), and the pollutant, 2,4 d...

  1. Boron and nitrogen co-doped titania with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuexiang; Ma, Gangfeng; Peng, Shaoqin; Lu, Gongxuan; Li, Shuben

    2008-08-01

    A visible-light boron and nitrogen co-doped titania (B-N-TiO 2) photocatalyst was prepared by sol-gel method with titanium tetra- n-butyl oxide, urea and boric acid as precursors. The photocatalyst was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), UV-vis diffusive reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET and electrochemistry method. Photocatalytic activity for hydrogen production over platinized B-N-TiO 2 under visible-light ( λ ≥ 420 nm) irradiation was investigated. In nitrogen doped titania (N-TiO 2) N sbnd Ti sbnd O bond is formed, which extends the absorption edge to the visible-light region. A part of doping boron enters into titania lattice and most of the boron exists at the surface of the catalyst. The crystallite size of B-N-TiO 2 decreases compared to N-TiO 2, while its photocurrent and the surface hydroxyl group increase. Furthermore, doping boron could act as shallow traps for photoinduced electrons to prolong the life of the electrons and holes. Therefore, the visible-light activity of B-N-iO 2 increases greatly compared with that of N-TiO 2.

  2. Kinetics stabilized doping: computational optimization of carbon-doped anatase TiO2 for visible-light driven water splitting.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-01-28

    Using density functional theory calculation we investigate the carbon doping of anatase TiO2, a technique widely studied for visible-light driven water splitting. By a detailed analysis of the thermodynamics of C defects in TiO2, we show that any significant concentration of C dopants in the TiO2 lattice must be a result of non-equilibrium doping, which emphasizes the importance of kinetics stabilized C defects. Based on the band gaps calculated using hybrid density functionals, we exclude the possibility of C occupying Ti lattice sites or interstitial sites to enhance visible-light absorption of TiO2, as extensively discussed in the literature. Also, the recently proposed defect with a CO species occupying two O sites yields a too small band gap for water splitting. Two defects that can effectively reduce the band gap for the water splitting application are identified to be: (1) the CO-VO complex, i.e., a C substituting for O (CO) paired with an O vacancy (VO) and (2) the (C2)2O complex with a C dimer (C2) occupying two neighboring O vacancies. Compared with the CO-VO complex, (C2)2O exhibits strong binding (greater than 2.5 eV) between the two C atoms, which could significantly enhance its kinetic stability to survive from high temperature annealing. With a reduced band gap of about 1.4 eV, carbon dimers could be ideal for kinetic doping of anatase TiO2 to enhance its visible-light activity in photocatalytic reactions. Molecular doping using C2H2 or C2H4 as C precursors has been proposed to introduce the carbon dimers into TiO2. PMID:26725589

  3. Erbium-doped amorphous silicon nitride light emitters for on-chip photonics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerci, Selcuk

    Silicon Photonics is considered as a viable, scalable and cost-effective solution to "the interconnect bottleneck" problem. However, the engineering of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible light sources is considered the biggest challenge of silicon photonics. Er-doped silicon-based structures are very promising candidates for 1.54 pm operation. Although Er-doped fiber lasers and amplifiers are available for long-haul communications, the small emission cross section of Er severely limits the applicability to small footprint (˜2.5 cm2) optical chip applications due to the small gain x length product. As a result, engineering strategies to boost emission efficiency and optical gain under both optical and electrical pumping in Er-doped CMOS materials need to be developed. Recently, energy sensitization of Er ions through Si-nanocrystals in Si-rich SiO2 films (Er:SRO) has been demonstrated with excitation cross sections (sigmaexc) of Er ions four-five orders of magnitude larger than sigmaabs. However, this approach suffers from the substantial free carrier losses introduced by Si-nanocrystals and the low fraction of optically active Er ions preventing net optical gain. Hence, novel materials approaches need to be developed. In this thesis, Er-doped amorphous silicon nitride (Er:SiNx) by N2 reactive sputtering is developed as a CMOS compatible platform for light sources operating under both optical and electrical pumping. The origin of visible PL of SiNx is explained by radiative transitions via localized states at the band-tails of SiNx. The efficient energy transfer between the localized band tails states in SiNx and Er ions is discussed and, sigmaexc is quantified. By performing temperature dependent studies, we demonstrated that the energy transfer is phonon-mediated. Er PL intensity and lifetime are optimized in ErSiN x by varying the fabrication parameters and a fundamental trade-off between Er excitation and emission efficiencies is

  4. Synergistic effect on the visible light activity of Ti3+ doped TiO2 nanorods/boron doped graphene composite

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Mingyang; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Jinlong

    2014-01-01

    TiO2/graphene (TiO2-x/GR) composites, which are Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 nanorods decorated on boron doped graphene sheets, were synthesized via a simple one-step hydrothermal method using low-cost NaBH4 as both a reducing agent and a boron dopant on graphene. The resulting TiO2 nanorods were about 200 nm in length with exposed (100) and (010) facets. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Raman, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The XRD results suggest that the prepared samples have an anatase crystalline structure. All of the composites tested exhibited improved photocatalytic activities as measured by the degradation of methylene blue and phenol under visible light irradiation. This improvement was attributed to the synergistic effect of Ti3+ self-doping on TiO2 nanorods and boron doping on graphene. PMID:24974890

  5. Effect of carrier doping on the formation and collapse of magnetic polarons in lightly hole-doped La1-xSrxCoO3

    SciTech Connect

    Podlesnyak, Andrey A; Ehlers, Georg; Frontzek, Matthias D; Sefat, A. S.; Furrer, Albert; Straessle, Thierry; Pomjakushina, Ekaterina; Conder, Kazimierz; Demmel, F.; Khomskii, D. I.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the doping dependence of the nanoscale electronic and magnetic inhomogeneities in the hole-doping range 0.002 < x < 0.1 of cobalt based perovskites, La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3}. Using single-crystal inelastic neutron scattering and magnetization measurements we show that the lightly doped system exhibits magnetoelectronic phase separation in the form of spin-state polarons. Higher hole doping leads to a decay of spin-state polarons in favor of larger scale magnetic clusters, due to competing ferromagnetic correlations of Co{sup 3+} ions which are formed by neighboring polarons. The present data give evidence for two regimes of magnetoelectronic phase separation in this system: (i) x {approx}< 0.05, dominated by ferromagnetic intrapolaron interactions, and (ii) x {approx}> 0.05, dominated by Co{sup 3+}-Co{sup 3+} intracluster interactions. Our conclusions are in good agreement with a recently proposed model of the phase separation in cobalt perovskites.

  6. Strong Energy-momentum Dispersion of Phonon Dressed Carriers in the Lightly Doped Band Insulator SrTiO3

    SciTech Connect

    Meevasana, Warawat

    2010-05-26

    Much progress has been made recently in the study of the effects of electron-phonon (el-ph) coupling in doped insulators using angle resolved photoemission (ARPES), yielding evidence for the dominant role of el-ph interactions in underdoped cuprates. As these studies have been limited to doped Mott insulators, the important question arises how this compares with doped band insulators where similar el-ph couplings should be at work. The archetypical case is the perovskite SrTiO{sub 3} (STO), well known for its giant dielectric constant of 10000 at low temperature, exceeding that of La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} by a factor of 500. Based on this fact, it has been suggested that doped STO should be the archetypical bipolaron superconductor. Here we report an ARPES study from high-quality surfaces of lightly doped SrTiO{sub 3}. Comparing to lightly doped Mott insulators, we find the signatures of only moderate electron-phonon coupling: a dispersion anomaly associated with the low frequency optical phonon with a {lambda}{prime} {approx} 0.3 and an overall bandwidth renormalization suggesting an overall {lambda}{prime} {approx} 0.7 coming from the higher frequency phonons. Further, we find no clear signatures of the large pseudogap or small polaron phenomena. These findings demonstrate that a large dielectric constant itself is not a good indicator of el-ph coupling and highlight the unusually strong effects of the el-ph coupling in doped Mott insulators.

  7. Facile synthesis and enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity of N and Zr co-doped TiO2 nanostructures from nanotubular titanic acid precursors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Zr/N co-doped TiO2 nanostructures were successfully synthesized using nanotubular titanic acid (NTA) as precursors by a facile wet chemical route and subsequent calcination. These Zr/N-doped TiO2 nanostructures made by NTA precursors show significantly enhanced visible light absorption and much higher photocatalytic performance than the Zr/N-doped P25 TiO2 nanoparticles. Impacts of Zr/N co-doping on the morphologies, optical properties, and photocatalytic activities of the NTA precursor-based TiO2 were thoroughly investigated. The origin of the enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity is discussed in detail. PMID:24369051

  8. 17O NMR study of the doped electrons in lightly oxygen-deficient cubic SrMnO3 -x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trokiner, A.; Verkhovskii, S.; Volkova, Z.; Gerashenko, A.; Mikhalev, K.; Germov, A.; Yakubovskii, A.; Korolev, A.; Dabrowski, B.; Tyutyunnik, A.

    2016-05-01

    The spin susceptibility of the localized Mn (t2 g) electrons, χs, and the spatially distributed spin density of the doped electrons were investigated by 17O nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in the paramagnetic (PM) and antiferromagnetic (AF) phases of electron-doped SrMnO3 -x ceramics with the cubic structure. Three lightly doped samples (2 x <0.015 ) were studied with TN=220 K-240 K. In the PM state χs increases gradually from TN and reaches a broad maximum above ˜1.5 TN . The gapped behavior of χs indicates a low-dimensional short-range spin order persisting above TN. These short-range one-dimensional correlations are consistent with 17O NMR results obtained at room temperature, which show that Mn magnetic moments are aligned along the edges of the cubic unit cell. Above 350 K all doped electrons are fast-moving eg electrons. They provide the uniform polarization of the localized spins which increases χs and the increasing doping shifts the oxygen-deficient SrMnO3 -x oxide towards a ferromagnetic (FM) metallic state. At lower T the doped electrons are heterogeneously distributed in the oxide: The fraction of the fast-moving electrons diminishes and vanishes below 100 K, while the remaining doped electrons slow down their hopping and each of them creates a FM domain. These FM domains which are detected below 10 K by 55Mn NMR can be considered as small-size magnetic polarons. Their T -activated hopping in the G-type AF lattice was probed by 17O spin-echo experiments. The energy barrier of hopping shows a trend to grow with increasing doping, indicating that the de Gennes metallic ground state cannot be achieved in oxygen-deficient SrMnO3 -x oxides, probably due to detrimental oxygen vacancy defects.

  9. Magnetic field effects in singlet-polaron quenching in molecularly doped fluorescence organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kai; Ma, Dongge

    2014-08-01

    The magnetic field effects of electroluminescence (MEL) in 4-[dicyanomethylene]-2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran(DCJTB) doped tri-(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum (Alq3) based organic light-emitting diodes were investigated. A linear decrease in MEL with the increase of magnetic field was observed at high magnetic field (>20 mT) in this doping devices, which has been attributed to the singlet-polaron quenching effect. It was found that the singlet-polaron quenching is magnetic field dependent. Our results showed that singlet-polaron quenching commonly exists in fluorescence OLEDs and induces the linear decrease in MEL.

  10. Analysis and calculation of electronic properties and light absorption of defective sulfur-doped silicon and theoretical photoelectric conversion efficiency.

    PubMed

    Jiang, He; Chen, Changshui

    2015-04-23

    Most material properties can be traced to electronic structures. Black silicon produced from SF6 or sulfur powder via irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses displays decreased infrared absorption after annealing, with almost no corresponding change in visible light absorption. The high-intensity laser pulses destroy the original crystal structure, and the doping element changes the material performance. In this work, the structural and electronic properties of several sulfur-doped silicon systems are investigated using first principle calculations. Depending on the sulfur concentration (level of doping) and the behavior of the sulfur atoms in the silicon lattice, different states or an absence of states are exhibited, compared with the undoped system. Moreover, the visible-infrared light absorption intensities are structure specific. The results of our theoretical calculations show that the conversion efficiency of sulfur-doped silicon solar cells depends on the sulfur concentrations. Additionally, two types of defect configurations exhibit light absorption characteristics that differ from the other configurations. These two structures produce a rapid increase in the theoretical photoelectric conversion efficiency in the range of the specific chemical potential studied. By controlling the positions of the atomic sulfur and the sulfur concentration in the preparation process, an efficient photovoltaic (PV) material may be obtainable. PMID:25798659

  11. Nanophotonic coherent light-matter interfaces based on rare-earth-doped crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Tian; Kindem, Jonathan M.; Miyazono, Evan; Faraon, Andrei

    2015-09-01

    Quantum light-matter interfaces connecting stationary qubits to photons will enable optical networks for quantum communications, precise global time keeping, photon switching and studies of fundamental physics. Rare-earth-ion-doped crystals are state-of-the-art materials for optical quantum memories and quantum transducers between optical photons, microwave photons and spin waves. Here we demonstrate coupling of an ensemble of neodymium rare-earth-ions to photonic nanocavities fabricated in the yttrium orthosilicate host crystal. Cavity quantum electrodynamics effects including Purcell enhancement (F=42) and dipole-induced transparency are observed on the highly coherent 4I9/2-4F3/2 optical transition. Fluctuations in the cavity transmission due to statistical fine structure of the atomic density are measured, indicating operation at the quantum level. Coherent optical control of cavity-coupled rare-earth ions is performed via photon echoes. Long optical coherence times (T2~100 μs) and small inhomogeneous broadening are measured for the cavity-coupled rare-earth ions, thus demonstrating their potential for on-chip scalable quantum light-matter interfaces.

  12. Visible light caffeic acid degradation by carbon-doped titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Venditti, Francesco; Cuomo, Francesca; Ceglie, Andrea; Avino, Pasquale; Russo, Mario Vincenzo; Lopez, Francesco

    2015-03-31

    The removal of the phenolic compound, caffeic acid, by photodegradation has been investigated using carbon-doped titanium dioxide particles as a photocatalyst under visible light. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry analyses revealed a substrate concentration dependence of the removal of caffeic acid from a water solution. The k2 and t(0.5) parameters of each reaction were calculated by fitting kinetics data to a second-order kinetic adsorption model. To evaluate the photodegradation event, the effect of the adsorption process on the whole degradation was also monitored in the absence of light. Adsorption isotherm studies supported by ζ potential and scanning electron microscopy data demonstrated the pivotal role of the absorption mechanism. It was found that the whole photodegradation process is governed by a synergic mechanism in which adsorption and photodegradation are involved. This study, centered on the removal of caffeic acid from aqueous solutions, highlights the potential application of this technology for the elimination of phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater, a fundamental goal in both the agronomical and environmental fields. PMID:25763603

  13. Nanophotonic coherent light-matter interfaces based on rare-earth-doped crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Tian; Kindem, Jonathan M; Miyazono, Evan; Faraon, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Quantum light-matter interfaces connecting stationary qubits to photons will enable optical networks for quantum communications, precise global time keeping, photon switching and studies of fundamental physics. Rare-earth-ion-doped crystals are state-of-the-art materials for optical quantum memories and quantum transducers between optical photons, microwave photons and spin waves. Here we demonstrate coupling of an ensemble of neodymium rare-earth-ions to photonic nanocavities fabricated in the yttrium orthosilicate host crystal. Cavity quantum electrodynamics effects including Purcell enhancement (F=42) and dipole-induced transparency are observed on the highly coherent (4)I(9/2)-(4)F(3/2) optical transition. Fluctuations in the cavity transmission due to statistical fine structure of the atomic density are measured, indicating operation at the quantum level. Coherent optical control of cavity-coupled rare-earth ions is performed via photon echoes. Long optical coherence times (T2∼100 μs) and small inhomogeneous broadening are measured for the cavity-coupled rare-earth ions, thus demonstrating their potential for on-chip scalable quantum light-matter interfaces. PMID:26364586

  14. Visible-Light-Induced Photocatalytic Inactivation of Bacteria by Composite Photocatalysts of Palladium Oxide and Nitrogen-Doped Titanium Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pinggui; Xie, Rongcai; Imlay, James A.; Shang, Jian Ku

    2011-01-01

    Composite photocatalysts of palladium oxide and nitrogen-doped titanium oxide (PdO/TiON) were synthesized by a solgel process, as convenient forms of nanopowder or immobilized powder on nanofiber. The PdO/TiON catalysts were tested for visible-light-activated photocatalysis using different bacterial indicators, including gram-negative cells of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and gram-positive cells of Staphylococcus aureus. Disinfection data indicated that PdO/TiON composite photocatalysts have a much better photocatalytic activity than either palladium-doped (PdO/TiO2) or nitrogen-doped titanium oxide (TiON) under visible-light illumination. The roles of Pd and N were discussed in terms of the production and separation of the charge carriers under visible light illumination. The photocatalytic activity was thus dependent on dopants and light intensity. Microscopic characterization demonstrated that visible-light photocatalysis on PdO/TiON caused drastic damage on the bacteria cell wall and the cell membrane. PMID:21423793

  15. Visible-Light-Induced Photocatalytic Inactivation of Bacteria by Composite Photocatalysts of Palladium Oxide and Nitrogen-Doped Titanium Oxide.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pinggui; Xie, Rongcai; Imlay, James A; Shang, Jian Ku

    2009-05-20

    Composite photocatalysts of palladium oxide and nitrogen-doped titanium oxide (PdO/TiON) were synthesized by a solgel process, as convenient forms of nanopowder or immobilized powder on nanofiber. The PdO/TiON catalysts were tested for visible-light-activated photocatalysis using different bacterial indicators, including gram-negative cells of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and gram-positive cells of Staphylococcus aureus. Disinfection data indicated that PdO/TiON composite photocatalysts have a much better photocatalytic activity than either palladium-doped (PdO/TiO(2)) or nitrogen-doped titanium oxide (TiON) under visible-light illumination. The roles of Pd and N were discussed in terms of the production and separation of the charge carriers under visible light illumination. The photocatalytic activity was thus dependent on dopants and light intensity. Microscopic characterization demonstrated that visible-light photocatalysis on PdO/TiON caused drastic damage on the bacteria cell wall and the cell membrane. PMID:21423793

  16. A versatile thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitter for both highly efficient doped and non-doped organic light emitting devices.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wei-Lung; Huang, Ming-Hao; Lee, Wei-Kai; Hsu, Yi-Jiun; Pan, Kuan-Chung; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Ting, Hao-Chun; Sarma, Monima; Ho, Yu-Yi; Hu, Hung-Chieh; Chen, Chung-Chia; Lee, Meng-Ting; Wong, Ken-Tsung; Wu, Chung-Chih

    2015-09-14

    A thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) emitter (DMAC-TRZ) was reported either as the emitting dopant in a host or as the non-doped (neat) emitting layer to achieve high EL EQEs of up to 26.5% and 20% in OLEDs, respectively. PMID:26226072

  17. Band alignment and photon extraction studies of Na-doped MgZnO/Ga-doped ZnO heterojunction for light-emitter applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Sushil Kumar; Awasthi, Vishnu; Sengar, Brajendra Singh; Garg, Vivek; Sharma, Pankaj; Kumar, Shailendra; Mukherjee, C.; Mukherjee, Shaibal

    2015-10-01

    Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy is carried out to measure the energy discontinuity at the interface of p-type Na-doped MgZnO (NMZO)/n-type Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) heterojunction grown by dual ion beam sputtering. The offset values at valence band and conduction band of NMZO/GZO heterojunction are calculated to be 1.93 and -2.36 eV, respectively. The p-type conduction in NMZO film has been confirmed by Hall measurement and band structure. Moreover, the effect of Ar+ ion sputtering on the valence band onset values of NMZO and GZO thin films has been investigated. This asymmetric waveguide structure formed by the lower refractive index of GZO than that of NMZO indicates that easy extraction of photons generated in GZO through the NMZO layer into free space. The asymmetric waveguide structure has potential applications to produce ZnO-based light emitters with high extraction efficiency.

  18. White light simulation and luminescence studies on Dy3+ doped Zinc borophosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, R.; Venkataiah, G.; Marimuthu, K.

    2015-01-01

    The Dy3+ doped Zinc borophosphate glasses with the chemical composition (79-x)B2O3+xP2O5+10Li2O+10ZnO+1Dy2O3 (where x=0, 10, 20, 30 and 50 in wt%) have been prepared by melt quenching technique. The prepared glass samples were characterized through optical absorption, emission and decay measurements. The bonding parameters, optical band gap and Urbach's energy values were calculated from the optical absorption spectra to explore the bonding nature of the Dy-O metal ligand and electronic band structure of the studied glasses. Judd-Ofelt (JO) intensity parameters were calculated from the absorption spectra by using the JO theory and it gives information about symmetry of the ligand environment around the Dy3+ ion site. The Y/B intensity ratio and radiative properties were obtained from the emission spectra and the results were compared with the reported literature. The x, y chromaticity color coordinates of the studied glasses were analyzed using a CIE 1931 color chromaticity diagram and found that the x, y coordinates lie in the white light region. The decay curve measurements of the prepared glasses exhibit non-exponential behavior and are well fitted to Inokuti-Hirayama (IH) model to understand the energy transfer mechanism between Dy3+ ions. The Q, R0 and CDA values of the prepared Dy3+ doped glasses were obtained from the IH model and the results were discussed and compared with the reported literature.

  19. Preparation and Solar Light Photocatalytic Activity of N-Doped TiO2-Loaded Halloysite Nanotubes Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhi-Lin; Sun, Wei

    2015-10-01

    A novel method to prepare N-doped TiO2-loaded halloysite nanotubes (N-TiO2/HNTs) nanocomposites was achieved by using the chemical vapor deposition in autoclave. The N-TiO2/HNTs nanocomposites obtained by the different form of the doping N source were studied through a series of characterizations. The XRD, SEM, and TEM characterizations verified the anatase structure of TiO2 nanoparticles with the size of ca.20nm loaded on the outer surface of HNTs. The UV-vis characterization of the N-TiO2/HNTs presented a further red-shift compared to the pure N-TiO2 nanoparticles.. The XPS characterizations confirmed the N element doped into the crystal structure of TiO2 nanoparticles. The photocatalytic activities of N-TiO2/HNTs nanocomposites prepared were evaluated by degradation of phenol at room temperature under simulated solar light irradiation.

  20. PNPN tunnel FET with controllable drain side tunnel barrier width: Proposal and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdi, Dawit Burusie; Jagadesh Kumar, M.

    2015-10-01

    A detailed study of a technique to realize a PNPN tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) with a controllable tunnel barrier width on the drain side is reported in this paper. By using the charge plasma concept on a doped N+/P- starting structure, we have demonstrated the possibility of realizing the PNPN TFET without the need for any additional chemically doped junctions. We have showed that using electrostatic doping on the drain side of TFETs provides a new design parameter, the gate-drain electrode gap. This gate-drain electrode gap can be used to control the ambipolar current in TFETs by controlling the tunneling barrier width at the channel-drain junction.

  1. Ultrasonic synthesis and photocatalytic performance of metal-ions doped TiO{sub 2} catalysts under solar light irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Huajun; Yu, Liya E.; Zhang, Min-Hong

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► We synthesized eight metal-ions doped TiO{sub 2} catalysts by a unique ultrasonic method. ► Mg-doped TiO{sub 2} showed the highest photocatalytic performance under solar light. ► Surface area of catalyst dominates the photocatalytic efficiency under solar light. ► Crystal property and visible light activity are less important than surface area. -- Abstract: Eight metal-ions doped TiO{sub 2} (M-TiO{sub 2}) were successfully synthesized by an ultrasonic method, including Fe, Co, Ce, Cr, Mn, Mg, Ni and Ag ions. Among them, the 1% Mg–TiO{sub 2} shows the highest photocatalytic efficiency under solar light, which was determined by degrading rhodamine B (RhB) molecules in an aqueous solution. The synthesized M-TiO{sub 2} samples were characterized by XRD, BET Surface area, TEM, XPS and diffuse reflectance spectrum. Effects of synthesis conditions and characterized properties on photocatalytic efficiency of the M-TiO{sub 2} were investigated comprehensively. A positive correlation between specific surface area and photocatalytic efficiency of the M-TiO{sub 2} was found across different synthesis conditions. However, no clear correlation with photocatalytic efficiency was observed for crystal structure and radii of doping ions of the M-TiO{sub 2}. XPS study indicates the change of oxidation states of Mn ions in Mn–TiO{sub 2} during synthesis procedure from the initial Mn{sup 2+} to a mixture of Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+} ions. Dye sensitization mechanism was observed during the photocatalytic procedure of the Mg–TiO{sub 2}, which enhanced the degradation efficiency of the Mg–TiO{sub 2} under solar light. Finally, no obvious loss of photocatalytic activity was observed for the Mg–TiO{sub 2} after five cycles of RhB degradation.

  2. N, S co-doped-TiO2/fly ash beads composite material and visible light photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jun; Sheng, Tong; Su, Lili; Xu, Guangqing; Wang, Dongmei; Zheng, Zhixiang; Wu, Yucheng

    2013-11-01

    Using TiCl4 as the titanium source, urea as the precipitating agent, nano-TiO2/fly ash beads composite materials were prepared by hydrolysis-precipitation method. Using (NH2)2CO and (NH2)2SC as the N and S source respectively, N and S co-doped TiO2/fly ash beads composite materials were prepared by grinding them together according to a certain proportion and calcined at 500 °C for 2 h. The composite materials were characterized by SEM, EDS, XPS, and UV-vis spectrophotometer methods. The UV-vis absorption spectra results show that the absorption edge of un-doped composites is 390 nm while that of doped composites red-shifts to 500 nm. The photocatalytic activity of composite materials was evaluated by degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation (halogen lamp, 250 W). The results showed that after irradiation for 1 h, degradation rate of N, S co-doped-TiO2/fly ash beads composite material can reach 65%, while the degradation rate of un-doped sample and P25 were just 10% and 6%, respectively. The composite material also showed excellent recycling properties.

  3. White light emission from Tm{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+} co-doped oxyfluoride germanate glasses under UV light excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Lakshminarayana, G.; Yang Hucheng; Qiu Jianrong

    2009-04-15

    In this paper, we report on the absorption and photoluminescence properties of Tm{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+} ions co-doped oxyfluoride germanate glasses for white light emission. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) profiles of the host glass have been carried out to confirm its structure and thermal stability. From the measured absorption spectra, Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters (OMEGA{sub 2}, OMEGA{sub 4} and OMEGA{sub 6}) have been evaluated for Tm{sup 3+} and Dy{sup 3+} ions. A combination of blue, yellow and red emissions has emerged in these glasses, which allows the observation of bright white light when the glasses are excited by the ultraviolet light. The white light luminescence colour could be changed by varying the excitation wavelength. Also, various colours of luminescence, including white light, can be easily tuned by adjusting the concentrations of Tm{sup 3+} or Dy{sup 3+} ions in the co-doped glasses. Concentration quenching effect was also investigated and possible energy transfer mechanism from Dy{sup 3+}->Tm{sup 3+} ions was explained which is also confirmed by the decay lifetime measurements. - Graphical Abstract: A combination of blue, yellow and red emissions has emerged from Tm{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+} co-doped glasses, which allows the observation of bright white light and makes them as excellent candidates applicable in the solid-state multi-colour three-dimensional display.

  4. Enhanced visible light activity of nano-titanium dioxide doped with multiple ions: Effect of crystal defects

    SciTech Connect

    Jaimy, Kanakkanmavudi B.; Ghosh, Swapankumar; Gopakumar Warrier, Krishna

    2012-12-15

    Titanium dioxide photocatalysts co-doped with iron(III) and lanthanum(III) have been prepared through a modified sol-gel method. Doping with Fe{sup 3+} resulted in a relatively lower anatase to rutile phase transformation temperature, while La{sup 3+} addition reduced the crystal growth and thus retarded the phase transformation of titania nanoparticles. The presence of Fe{sup 3+} ions shifted the absorption profile of titania to the longer wavelength side of the spectrum and enhanced the visible light activity. On the other hand, La{sup 3+} addition improved the optical absorption of titania nanoparticles. Both the dopants improved the life time of excitons by proper transferring and trapping of photoexcited charges. In the present work, considerable enhancement in photocatalytic activity under visible light was achieved through synergistic effect of optimum concentrations of the two dopants and associated crystal defects. - Graphical abstract: Photocatalytic activity studies indicate a synergistic effect of dopants and crystal defects leading to an enhanced photochemical activity. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An aqueous sol-gel synthesis of Fe{sup 3+} and La{sup 3+} co-doped TiO{sub 2} is being reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical and microstructural properties of titania were modified by co-doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced activity of titania by the crystal defects is being reported.

  5. Plasmon resonance and perfect light absorption in subwavelength trench arrays etched in gallium-doped zinc oxide film

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, Joshua R. Leedy, Kevin; Cleary, Justin W.; Vangala, Shivashankar; Nader, Nima; Guo, Junpeng

    2015-11-09

    Near-perfect light absorption in subwavelength trench arrays etched in highly conductive gallium-doped zinc oxide films was experimentally observed in the mid infrared regime. At wavelengths corresponding to the resonant excitation of surface plasmons, up to 99% of impinging light is efficiently trapped and absorbed in the periodic trenches. Scattering cross sectional calculations reveal that each individual trench acts like a vertical split ring resonator with a broad plasmon resonance spectrum. The coupling of these individual plasmon resonators in the grating structure leads to enhanced photon absorption and significant resonant spectral linewidth narrowing. Ellipsometry measurements taken before and after device fabrication result in different permittivity values for the doped zinc oxide material, indicating that localized annealing occurred during the plasma etching process due to surface heating. Simulations, which incorporate a 50 nm annealed region at the zinc oxide surface, are in a good agreement with the experimental results.

  6. Plasmon resonance and perfect light absorption in subwavelength trench arrays etched in gallium-doped zinc oxide film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickson, Joshua R.; Vangala, Shivashankar; Nader, Nima; Leedy, Kevin; Guo, Junpeng; Cleary, Justin W.

    2015-11-01

    Near-perfect light absorption in subwavelength trench arrays etched in highly conductive gallium-doped zinc oxide films was experimentally observed in the mid infrared regime. At wavelengths corresponding to the resonant excitation of surface plasmons, up to 99% of impinging light is efficiently trapped and absorbed in the periodic trenches. Scattering cross sectional calculations reveal that each individual trench acts like a vertical split ring resonator with a broad plasmon resonance spectrum. The coupling of these individual plasmon resonators in the grating structure leads to enhanced photon absorption and significant resonant spectral linewidth narrowing. Ellipsometry measurements taken before and after device fabrication result in different permittivity values for the doped zinc oxide material, indicating that localized annealing occurred during the plasma etching process due to surface heating. Simulations, which incorporate a 50 nm annealed region at the zinc oxide surface, are in a good agreement with the experimental results.

  7. The extreme quantum limit in lightly-doped SrTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Anand; Skinner, Brian; Khalsa, Guru; Suslov, Alexey

    When a three dimensional electron gas is placed in a sufficiently strong magnetic field, it is said to be in the quantum limit when the cyclotron energy ℏωc >ɛF >>kT, and all of the electrons occupy the lowest Landau level. Achieving this limit in a material requires a small Fermi energy relative to the applied magnetic field, and a weak disorder potential such that magnetic freeze-out is avoided. We present an experimental study of lightly-doped single crystals of SrTiO3, which remain good bulk conductors in temperatures down to 25 mK and magnetic fields up to 45 T. Our measurements probe deep into the quantum limit, where ℏωc >>ɛF and theory has long predicted that electron-electron interactions can drive the system into a charge density wave or Wigner crystal like state. A number of interesting features arise in electrical transport in this regime, including a striking re-entrant nonlinearity in the current-voltage characteristics. We discuss these features in the context of possible correlated electron states, and present a picture based on magnetic field induced puddling of electrons in a disorder potential landscape. U.S. DOE, BES Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357; NIST CNST; US NSF Cooperative Agreement No. DMR-1157490; State of Florida.

  8. Novel Na(+) doped Alq3 hybrid materials for organic light-emitting diode (OLED) devices and flat panel displays.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, S A; Borghate, S V; Kalyani, N Thejo; Dhoble, S J

    2015-05-01

    Pure and Na(+) -doped Alq3 complexes were synthesized by a simple precipitation method at room temperature, maintaining a stoichiometric ratio. These complexes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), UV/Vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The X-ray diffractogram exhibits well-resolved peaks, revealing the crystalline nature of the synthesized complexes, FTIR confirms the molecular structure and the completion of quinoline ring formation in the metal complex. UV/Vis absorption and PL spectra of sodium-doped Alq3 complexes exhibit high emission intensity in comparison with Alq3 phosphor, proving that when doped in Alq3 , Na(+) enhances PL emission intensity. The excitation spectra of the synthesized complexes lie in the range 242-457 nm when weak shoulders are also considered. Because the sharp excitation peak falls in the blue region of visible radiation, the complexes can be employed for blue chip excitation. The emission wavelength of all the synthesized complexes lies in the bluish green/green region ranging between 485 and 531 nm. The intensity of the emission wavelength was found to be elevated when Na(+) is doped into Alq3 . Because both the excitation and emission wavelengths fall in the visible region of electromagnetic radiation, these phosphors can also be employed to improve the power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells by using the solar spectral conversion principle. Thus, the synthesized phosphors can be used as bluish green/green light-emitting phosphors for organic light-emitting diodes, flat panel displays, solid-state lighting technology - a step towards the desire to reduce energy consumption and generate pollution free light. PMID:25045087

  9. Studies of mechanisms of decay and recovery in organic dye-doped polymers using spatially resolved white light interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Benjamin; Bernhardt, Elizabeth; Kuzyk, Mark

    2012-10-01

    Several organic dyes have been shown to self heal when doped in a polymer matrix. Most measurements to date use optical absorbance, amplified spontaneous emission, or digital imaging as a probe. Each method determines a subset of the relevant parameters. We have constructed a white light interferometric microscope, which measures the absorption spectrum and change in refractive index during decay and recovery simultaneously at multiple points in the material. We report on preliminary measurements and results concerning the microscopes spatial resolution.

  10. Interlayer-I-doped BiOIO3 nanoplates with an optimized electronic structure for efficient visible light photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanjuan; Xiong, Ting; Dong, Fan; Huang, Hongwei; Cen, Wanglai

    2016-07-01

    The success in the synthesis of Bi-based layered photocatalysts with high photocatalytic activities has triggered intensive studies. Herein, we prepared interlayer-I-doped BiOIO3 nanoplates by a facile method. Interestingly, it was found that I atoms were doped into the BiOIO3 interlayers instead of substituting for the lattice atoms based on theoretical and experimental results. The interbedded I atoms endowed BiOIO3 with an extended light response from the UV to the visible region by narrowing the bandgap and generating a middle level. The enhanced oxidation capability via positive-shifting the valence band position and improved carrier separation efficiency via forming charge delivery channels at the adjacent two layers can be achieved simultaneously. As expected, I-intercalated BiOIO3 with an optimized electronic structure demonstrated outstanding NO removal ability under visible light irradiation, much superior to pure BiOIO3. The present success in fabricating interlayer-I-doped BiOIO3 would open a promising route to prepare other Bi-based layered semiconductors with efficient visible-light photocatalysis. PMID:27284595

  11. A comprehensive investigation of tetragonal Gd-doped BiVO4 with enhanced photocatalytic performance under sun-light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yangyang; Tan, Guoqiang; Dong, Guohua; Ren, Huijun; Xia, Ao

    2016-02-01

    Tetragonal Gd-doped BiVO4 having enhanced photocatalytic activity have been synthesized by a facile microwave hydrothermal method. The structural analysis indicates that Gd doping can induce the phase transition from monoclinic to tetragonal BiVO4. The reaction results in precursor solutions imply that tetragonal GdVO4 seeds as crystal nucleus are the original and determined incentives to force the formation of tetragonal Gd-BiVO4. The influences of the surface defect, band structure, and BET surface area on the improved photocatalytic activities of tetragonal Gd-doped BiVO4 are investigated systematically. The results demonstrate that the more surface oxygen deficiencies as active sites and the excellent mobility and separation of photogenerated electrons and holes are beneficial to the enhancement of the photocatalytic performance of tetragonal Gd-BiVO4. The RhB photodegradation experiments indicate that the contribution of high photocatalytic activities under simulated sun-light is mainly from UV-light region due to the tetragonal structure feature. The best photocatalytic performance is obtained for tetragonal 10 at% Gd-BiVO4, of which the RhB degradation rate can reach to 96% after 120 min simulated sun-light irradiation. The stable tetragonal Gd-BiVO4 with efficient mineralization will be a promising photocatalytic material applied in water purification.

  12. Optimizing white light luminescence in Dy3+-doped Lu3Ga5O12 nano-garnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haritha, P.; Martín, I. R.; Linganna, K.; Monteseguro, V.; Babu, P.; León-Luis, S. F.; Jayasankar, C. K.; Rodríguez-Mendoza, U. R.; Lavín, V.; Venkatramu, V.

    2014-11-01

    Trivalent dysprosium-doped Lu3Ga5O12 nano-garnets have been prepared by sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and laser excited spectroscopy. Under a cw 457 nm laser excitation, the white luminescence properties of Lu3Ga5O12 nano-garnets have been studied as a function of the optically active Dy3+ ion concentration and at low temperature. Decay curves for the 4F9/2 level of Dy3+ ion exhibit non-exponential nature for all the Dy3+ concentrations, which have been well-fitted to a generalized energy transfer model for a quadrupole-quadrupole interaction between Dy3+ ions without diffusion. From these data, a simple rate-equations model can be applied to predict that intense white luminescence could be obtained from 1.8 mol% Dy3+ ions-doped nano-garnets, which is in good agreement with experimental results. Chromaticity color coordinates and correlated color temperatures have been determined as a function of temperature and are found to be within the white light region for all Dy3+ concentrations. These results indicate that 2.0 mol% Dy3+ ions doped nano-garnet could be useful for white light emitting device applications.

  13. In Situ Fluorine Doping of TiO2 Superstructures for Efficient Visible-Light Driven Hydrogen Generation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Tachikawa, Takashi; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Majima, Tetsuro

    2016-03-21

    With the aid of breakthroughs in nanoscience and nanotechnology, it is imperative to develop metal oxide semiconductors through visible light-driven hydrogen generation. In this study, TiOF2 was incorporated as an n-type F-dopant source to TiO2 mesocrystals (TMCs) with visible-light absorption during the topotactic transformation. The crystal growth, structural change, and dynamic morphological evolution, from the initial intermediate NH4 TiOF3 to HTiOF3 , TiOF2 , and F-doped TMCs, were verified through in situ temperature-dependent techniques to elucidate the doping mechanism from intermediate TiOF2 . The visible-light efficiencies of photocatalytic hydrogen were dependent on the contents of the dopant as compared with the pure TMC and a controled reference. Using femtosecond time-resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, the charge-transfer dynamics were monitored to confirm the improvement of charge separation after doping. PMID:26871554

  14. Nanostructured organic light-emitting diodes with electronic doping, transparent carbon nanotube charge injectors, and quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Christopher D.

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and polymeric light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) are rapidly-emerging technologies which are being studied extensively in industrial, academic, and government laboratories for applications in displays and solid-state lighting. Their thin film structure (with total thickness of active layers less than a micron) and the inherent flexibility of the constituent materials give them promise in the flat panel display industry as well as open new areas of possible applications for flexible transparent displays and even textile displays. The materials also show high electroluminescence efficiency, and with proper device engineering these devices demonstrate efficiencies and lifetimes which surpass current methods of lighting such at incandescent bulbs, which average approximately 1% efficiency. Lastly, the materials offer easy processing through well studied and developed methods such as thermal evaporation, solution spin-casting and ink jet printing. Ink jet printing of polymeric layers in PLEDs offers many advantages when considering mass production of display and lighting panels, as it allows uniform films to be produced on large area substrates using a simple roll-to-roll method. In this dissertation, we discuss several new methods and procedures which we have developed and used to produce OLEDs and PLEDs. More specifically these are electronic doping of transport layers, fluorescent doping of emissive layers by semiconductor nanocrystals (NC) (also known as quantum dots (QD)), and electrode engineering, namely by the use of transparent carbon nanotube sheets as charge injectors. We expand on the existing field of molecular doping and introduce a doped device with a very thick hole transport layer. Such a device is more resistant to failure due to excessive current density. We also investigate the effects of the presence of dopant molecules in the emissive layer of a multilayer OLED. This portion of the work introduces the negative

  15. Role of space charges on light-induced effects in nematic liquid crystals doped by methyl red

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchetti, L.; Simoni, F.

    2014-03-01

    We show that both the extraordinarily large nonlinear response and the light-induced permanent reorientation in liquid crystals doped by the azo dye methyl red originates from the same phenomenon of modification of the charge density on the irradiated surface. The demonstration is done by applying ac voltage to the samples, showing that in this case no permanent anchoring is possible. The measurements confirm the role of photoisomerization that gives a transient contribution to the actual reorientation process only in the high dose regime. This result allows us to draw a picture for light-induced effects that might be applied to a large class of compounds.

  16. Product selectivity of visible-light photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide using titanium dioxide doped by different nitrogen-sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoguo; Huang, Zhengfeng; Cheng, Xudong; Wang, Qingli; Chen, Yi; Dong, Peimei; Zhang, Xiwen

    2015-11-01

    The influence of nitrogen-source on the photocatalytic properties of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide is herein first investigated from the perspective of the chemical bond form of the nitrogen element in the nitrogen-source. The definitive role of groups such as Nsbnd N from the nitrogen-source on the surface of as-prepared samples in the selectivity of the dominant product of photocatalytic reduction is demonstrated. Well-crystallized one-dimensional Nsbnd TiO2 nanorod arrays with a preferred orientation of the rutile (3 1 0) facet are manufactured via a hydrothermal treatment using hydrazine and ammonia variously as the source of nitrogen. Significant selectivity of the dominant reduced products has been exhibited for Nsbnd TiO2 prepared from different nitrogen-sources in carbon dioxide photocatalytic reduction under visible light illumination. CH4 is the main product with N2H4-doped Nsbnd TiO2, while CO is the main product with NH3-doped Nsbnd TiO2, which can be attributed to the existence of the reducing Nsbnd N groups in the N2H4-doped Nsbnd TiO2 surfaces after the hydrothermal treatment. Compared with the approaches previously reported, the facile one-step route utilized here accomplishes the fabrication of Nsbnd TiO2 possessing visible-light activity and attainment of selectivity of dominant photocatalytic reduction product simultaneously by choosing a nitrogen-source with appropriate chemical bond form, which provides a completely new approach to understanding the effects of doping treatment on photocatalytic properties.

  17. Morphology-controlled synthesis of Ti{sup 3+} self-doped yolk–shell structure titanium oxide with superior photocatalytic activity under visible light

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shixiong; Yang, Xiangjun; Wang, Yapeng; Liu, Lixiang; Guo, Yuanyuan; Guo, Hong

    2014-05-01

    Ti{sup 3+} self-doped yolk–shell structure titanium oxide nanoparticle aggregates are fabricated through an environmental template-free route and the reduction reaction at low temperature subsequently. After the Ti{sup 3+} doping, the reduced TiO{sub 2} sample exhibits a wide visible-light absorption ranged from 400 nm to 800 nm. The intrinsic hollow core–shell microstructure can make multiple reflections of light within the chamber, and thus results in more efficient use of the light source compared with solid structure. Besides, the large surface area can render the sample with a high activity. Therefore, Ti{sup 3+} self-doped yolk–shell structure titanium oxide exhibits a superior photocatalytic activity under visible light. This strategy is simple, cheap and mass-productive, which may shed light on a new avenue for large scale production of self-doped yolk–shell structural nano functional materials for catalyst, sensors, energy storage and other new applications. - Graphical abstract: A facile generic strategy is employed to prepare Ti{sup 3+} self-doped yolk–shell structure titanium oxide nanoparticle aggregates with the superior photocatalytic activity under visible light. - Highlights: • Yolk–shell TiO{sub 2} mesospheres are synthesized by solvothermal alcoholysis. • Ti{sup 3+} self-doped yolk–shell structure titanium oxide is obtained at low temperature. • It exhibits a remarkable photocatalytic activity.

  18. Identifying Temporal Patterns in Light use Efficiency for two Loblolly Pine Plantations in a Drained Lower Coastal Plain Region of North Carolina, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirino, V. F.; Wynne, R. H.; Noormets, A.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Sun, G.; McNulty, S.

    2007-12-01

    Light Use Efficiency (LUE) is a variable present in most ecosystem models driven by remote sensing. Among other factors, LUE varies with time. In this study we evaluate the temporal variation of LUE over a one year period for two loblolly pine plantations - one mid-rotation and one recently harvested. Specifically, we determine the most reasonable measurement time periods for LUE, and if these periods vary with stand age. The underlying hypothesis is that short term temporal changes in LUE cancel out over a certain amount of time, and therefore, to estimate forest productivity at landscape to regional scales using moderate resolution satellite data these intensive measurements are unnecessary. To test this hypothesis we use data collected in two micrometeorological tower sites that are a part of the Ameriflux network. They are located in the coastal plain region of North Carolina, U.S.A and are less than five kilometers apart. For this study eddy covariance measurements and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) sensors are used to obtain gross primary production (GPP) and the fraction of incident photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the canopy (APAR). LUE is calculated as GPP divided by fAPAR. The analysis of the data consists of first calculating daily LUE averages for the entire study period. Changes in both the trend and variance of LUE are being assessed using autoregressive conditional techniques for time series analysis.

  19. Efficiency droop enhancement in AlGaN deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by making whole barriers but the bottom Mg doped

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jie; Sun, Huiqing; Yi, Xinyan; Yang, Xian; Fan, Xuancong; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Zhuding; Guo, Zhiyou

    2016-09-01

    Ultra violet light-emitting diodes (UVLEDs) with different types of Mg-doped barriers have been studied. The energy band diagrams, internal quantum efficiency, total output power and radiative recombination rate are investigated by APSYS software. The simulation results show that the UVLED with only a p-doped top barrier get little enhancement comparing to the conventional one, on the contrary the structure with p-doping in all but the bottom barriers has a much better optical and electrical properties due to enhancement of the holes' injection and the electrons' confinement. The efficiency droop is significantly alleviated and the light output power is greatly enhanced. To avoid forming a PN junction by the bottom barrier and the n-AlGaN in the proposed structure, therefore, the bottom barrier isn't p-doped. Then structures with different hole densities in the Mg-doped barriers have been studied numerically and that confirmed the best.

  20. Effects of ultraviolet light on B-doped CdS thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method using perfume atomizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novruzov, V. D.; Keskenler, E. F.; Tomakin, M.; Kahraman, S.; Gorur, O.

    2013-09-01

    Boron doped CdS thin films were deposited by spray pyrolysis method using perfume atomizer. The effects of ultraviolet light on the structural, optical and electrical properties of B-doped CdS thin films were investigated as a function of dopant concentration (B/Cd). X-ray diffraction studies showed that all samples were polycrystalline nature with hexagonal structure. It was determined that the preferred orientation of non-illuminated samples changes from (1 0 1) to (0 0 2) with B concentration. The c lattice constant of films decreases from 6.810 Å to 6.661 Å with boron doping. The XRD peak intensity increased with the illumination for almost all the samples. The lattice parameters of B-doped samples remained nearly constant after illumination. It was found that the optical transmittance, photoluminescence spectra, resistivity and carrier concentration of the B-doped samples are stable after the illumination with UV light. Also the effects of UV light on B-doped CdS/Cu2S solar cell were investigated and it was determined that photoelectrical parameters of B-doped solar cell were more durable against the UV light.

  1. A novel approach for enhanced visible light activity in doped nanosize titanium dioxide through the excitons trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaimy, Kanakkanmavudi B.; Baiju, K. V.; Ghosh, Swapankumar; Warrier, K. G. K.

    2012-02-01

    Titanium dioxide doped with iron oxide (0-10 mol%) has been synthesized by an aqueous sol-gel method. The extent of phase transformation is higher in presence of up to 1 mol% of Fe3+ ions in doped titania. A further increase in Fe3+ content was found to decrease the phase transformation. A composition which contains ∼90% rutile and the remaining anatase phase shows the highest photocatalytic activity. Even though surface area values are dramatically decreased by the modification of TiO2 by Fe3+ doping, crystallinity plays a major role in photocatalytic activity enhancement. UV-vis reflectance spectra indicate a red-shift in band gap energy and thus an enhanced photoactivity in visible light, suitable for application in photodegradation of toxic industrial effluents as well as other organic contaminants, is achieved. Low concentrations of Fe3+ ions act as excitons trapping centers, while higher concentrations act as recombination centers. The synergy between the rutile-anatase ratios and optimum amount of Fe3+ ions improve the interfacial charge transfer and trapping which enhanced the photochemical degradation of MB dye. The Fe3+ doped TiO2 composition has the highest photoactivity, having an apparent rate constant of 11.1×10-3 min-1, which is much higher than that of commercial P25 Degussa titania (6.03×10-3 min-1).

  2. Polarization induced doped transistor

    DOEpatents

    Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep; Nomoto, Kazuki; Song, Bo; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang

    2016-06-07

    A nitride-based field effect transistor (FET) comprises a compositionally graded and polarization induced doped p-layer underlying at least one gate contact and a compositionally graded and doped n-channel underlying a source contact. The n-channel is converted from the p-layer to the n-channel by ion implantation, a buffer underlies the doped p-layer and the n-channel, and a drain underlies the buffer.

  3. White light emission from Dy3+-doped LiLuF4 single crystal grown by Bridgman method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yan-ming; Xia, Hai-ping; Fu, Li; Li, Shan-shan; Gu, Xue-mei; Zhang, Jian-li; Wang, Dong-jie; Zhang, Yue-pin; Jiang, Hao-chuan; Chen, Bao-jiu

    2014-07-01

    Lithium lutetium fluoride (LiLuF4) single crystals doped with different Dy3+ ion concentrations were grown by Bridgman method. The Judd-Ofelt (J-O) strength parameters ( Ω 2, Ω 4, Ω 6) of Dy3+ in LiLuF4 crystal are calculated according to the measured absorption spectra and the J-O theory, by which the asymmetry of the Dy3+:LiLuF4 single crystal and the possibility of attaining stimulated emission from 4F9/2 level are analyzed. The capability of the Dy3+:LiLuF4 crystal in generating white light by simultaneous blue and yellow emissions under excitation with ultraviolet light is produced. The effects of excitation wavelength and doping concentration on chromaticity coordinates and photoluminescence intensity are also investigated. Favorable CIE coordinates, x=0.319 3 and y=0.349 3, can be obtained for Dy3+ ion in 2.701% molar doping concentration under excitation of 350 nm.

  4. Enhanced photoelectrocatalytic performance of Zn-doped WO(3) photocatalysts for nitrite ions degradation under visible light.

    PubMed

    Cheng, X F; Leng, W H; Liu, D P; Zhang, J Q; Cao, C N

    2007-08-01

    WO(3) and Zn-doped WO(3) thin films were prepared on indium-tin oxide glass by a dip-coating. The composite films were characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The effect of preparation conditions (concentration of Zn, annealing temperature, number of layers) on the photocurrent was studied. It was found that the photocurrent under visible light displayed the highest value for 2% Zn-WO(3) films annealed at 400 degrees C. The photocatalytic activity of the Zn-doped WO(3) was evaluated in terms of decay rate of nitrite ions under visible light. The influence of applied potential, initial pH and nitrite concentration on the reaction rate was studied. The experiments demonstrated that NO(2)(-) could be efficiently degraded on the doped photoanode that showed a higher activity than the undoped WO(3) especially under high anodic potential (>0.7 V). The rate of degradation was enhanced in aqueous NaCl solutions. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the photodegradation mechanism of NO(2)(-) proceeded mainly indirectly via OH radicals. The possible reason of enhancement of reaction rate was also discussed. PMID:17482660

  5. Light-induced relaxation dynamics in Rh-doped Bi12TiO20 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinova, V.; Vlaikova, E.; Goovaerts, E.

    2014-12-01

    The lifetime of the excited charge carriers in Rh-doped BTO crystals is characterized by measuring the time-resolved photoinduced absorption (PIA) after nanosecond pulse excitation from a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser (λ=532 nm). It was found that the Rh-addition in the BTO structure slows down the relaxation decay in comparison with non- doped BTO, which is attributed to additional trapping centers related to the rhodium dopant. The experimental curve is well fitted by a double-exponential decay which is ascribed to the presence of two different shallow traps contributing to the charge transport and recombination mechanisms in Rh-doped BTO crystal.

  6. White light generation in Tb3+/Eu3+/Dy3+ triply-doped Zn(PO3)2 glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza-Rocha, A. N.; Lozada-Morales, R.; Speghini, A.; Bettinelli, M.; Caldiño, U.

    2016-01-01

    A spectroscopic investigation of Tb3+/Eu3+/Dy3+ triply-doped Zn(PO3)2 glass focused on generation of white light is performed through photoluminescence spectra and decay time measurements. The white light emission obtained in the glass phosphor shows excitation wavelength dependent tunable tonality: neutral white (0.385, 0.441) of 4250 K and warm white (0.417, 0.412) of 3429 K, upon 445 and 322 nm excitations, respectively. A quantum yield of 26.1 ± 1.2% is attained upon Dy3+ excitation at 445 nm. The white luminescence is due mainly to terbium 5D4 → 7F5, dysprosium 4F9/2 → 6H15/2,13/2 and europium 5D0 → 7F2 transitions. It is demonstrated that non-radiative energy transfers Dy3+ to Tb3+ and Eu3+, and Tb3+ to Eu3+, take place in the glass phosphor excited at 445 or 322 nm. Tb3+/Eu3+/Dy3+ triply-doped Zn(PO3)2 glass, excited by AlGaN (322 nm) or InGaN (445 nm) LEDs, could then be appropriated for solid state lighting technology as neutral or warm white light phosphors.

  7. Efficient Mineralization of Toluene by W-Doped TiO2 Nanofibers Under Visible Light Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Li, Yaogang; Xie, Hongyong; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong

    2015-04-01

    Toxic toluene gas caused enormous harm to human health, and the traditional method to deal with this puzzle is using physical adsorption, which just transfer the toluene from one medium to another. Photocatalysis has great potential to mineralize toluene into CO2 under visible light irradiation, but their applications have been limited by difficulties in preparing efficient photocatalysts with fine crystallite size, considerable visible light response, and large surface area to contact with toluene gas. To address this problem, we have developed a film composed of W-doped TiO2 nanofibers to mineralize toluene under visible light irradiation. The electrospinning preparation route allows incorporation of up to 50 wt% of W in substitutional positions of titanium atom in the anatase network. The W-doped TiO2 nanofibers behave finer crystallite size, stronger visible light absorbance, and larger surface area comparing with pure TiO2 nanofibers. The nanofiber structured morphology on the quartz tube promotes the reaction rates for the gas-phase photo-oxidation of toluene. The concentrations of the produced CO2 keep steady during the photodegradation process, indicating the practicality and operability for the whole experiment. This research is conducive to the development of novel photocatalytic materials to efficiently mineralize toxic gas pollutants including toluene for practical application. PMID:26353518

  8. A Newly Designed Polyfluorene as an Efficient Host Material for Phosphorescent-Dye-Doped Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Soo-Hyun; Noh, Yong-Young

    2013-10-01

    A newly designed polyfluorene derivative, poly[2,7-(9,9-bis(5-cyanopentyl fluorene)-co-alt)-2,5-dimethyl-phenylene] (CNPFX), was synthesized for use as a host material for a phosphorescent dye, fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) [Ir(ppy)3], in phosphorescent polymer light-emitting diodes. Efficient energy transfer to Ir(ppy)3 was achieved as a result of improved chemical compatibility via introduction of a polar unit, as well as increased spectrum overlap due to a blue-shift in the emission spectrum. Photo- and electro-luminescent spectra of Ir(ppy)3-doped CNPFX film showed clear green emission from Ir(ppy)3 due to efficient energy transfer, whereas those of Ir(ppy)3-doped poly(9,9-dihexylfluorene) (PF6) film showed blue emission from PF6. The CNPFX:Ir(ppy)3 (8 wt %) single layer device showed significantly improved performance.

  9. Efficient inverted organic light-emitting devices with self or intentionally Ag-doped interlayer modified cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenbo; Liu, Shihao; Yu, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Wen, Xuemei; Yin, Yongming; Zhang, Letian; Chen, Ping; Xie, Wenfa

    2014-03-03

    Green phosphorescent inverted organic light-emitting devices (IOLEDs) with self or intentionally Ag-doped interlayer modified cathode were demonstrated. The IOLEDs show low driving voltage and high efficiency. For example, the efficiency of inverted bottom-emitting OLED with ITO cathode is comparable with the conventional bottom-emitting OLED with ITO anode. The top-emitting IOLED with Ag cathode shows high current efficiency of 76.4 cd/A which is 2.38 times of that of the conventional bottom-emitting OLED with ITO anode. The results indicate that the electron injection from cathode was observably improved by the Ag-doped interlayer and such interlayer is cathode independent relatively.

  10. Improved characteristics of organic light-emitting devices by surface modification of nickel-doped indium tin oxide anode

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C.-M.; Wu, W.-T.

    2004-08-02

    This letter presents the optoelectrical performance of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) through the elevation of indium tin oxide (ITO) anode work function by Ni co-sputter surface doping and additional O{sub 2} plasma treatment. The turn-on voltage of OLED devices can be reduced by 2.3 V for Ni atomic concentration greater than 1.8% and by 2.7 V for the additional O{sub 2} plasma treatment. Devices with Ni(2.6%)-doped and O{sub 2} plasma treated ITO anodes perform the highest luminance efficiency (0.91 lm/W), three times larger than undoped ITO (0.31 lm/W) at 250 cd/m{sup 2}.

  11. Anisotropic softening of magnetic excitations in lightly electron-doped Sr2IrO4

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, X.; Dean, M. P. M.; Meng, Z. Y.; Upton, M. H.; Qi, T.; Gog, T.; Cao, Y.; Lin, J. Q.; Meyers, D.; Ding, H.; et al

    2016-06-10

    The magnetic excitations in electron doped (Sr1-xLax)2IrO4 with x = 0:03 were measured using resonant inelastic X-ray scattering at the Ir L3-edge. Although much broadened, well defined dispersive magnetic excitations were observed. Comparing with the magnetic dispersion from the undoped compound, the evolution of the magnetic excitations upon doping is highly anisotropic. Along the anti-nodal direction, the dispersion is almost intact. On the other hand, the magnetic excitations along the nodal direction show significant softening. These results establish the presence of strong magnetic correlations in electron doped (Sr1-xLax)2IrO4 with close analogies to the hole doped cuprates, further motivating the searchmore » for high temperature superconductivity in this system.« less

  12. Anisotropic softening of magnetic excitations in lightly electron-doped Sr2IrO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Dean, M. P. M.; Meng, Z. Y.; Upton, M. H.; Qi, T.; Gog, T.; Cao, Y.; Lin, J. Q.; Meyers, D.; Ding, H.; Cao, G.; Hill, J. P.

    2016-06-01

    The magnetic excitations in electron-doped (Sr1 -xLax )2IrO4 with x =0.03 were measured using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering at the Ir L3 edge. Although much broadened, well defined dispersive magnetic excitations were observed. Comparing with the magnetic dispersion from the undoped compound, the evolution of the magnetic excitations upon doping is highly anisotropic. Along the antinodal direction, the dispersion is almost intact. On the other hand, the magnetic excitations along the nodal direction show significant softening. These results establish the presence of strong magnetic correlations in electron-doped (Sr1 -xLax )2IrO4 with close analogies to the hole-doped cuprates, further motivating the search for high temperature superconductivity in this system.

  13. Drain current modulation in a nanoscale field-effect-transistor channel by single dopant implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. C.; Tettamanzi, G. C.; Alves, A. D. C.; Thompson, S.; Yang, C.; Verduijn, J.; Mol, J. A.; Wacquez, R.; Vinet, M.; Sanquer, M.; Rogge, S.; Jamieson, D. N.

    2010-06-01

    We demonstrate single dopant implantation into the channel of a silicon nanoscale metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor. This is achieved by monitoring the drain current modulation during ion irradiation. Deterministic doping is crucial for overcoming dopant number variability in present nanoscale devices and for exploiting single atom degrees of freedom. The two main ion stopping processes that induce drain current modulation are examined. We employ 500 keV He ions, in which electronic stopping is dominant, leading to discrete increases in drain current and 14 keV P dopants for which nuclear stopping is dominant leading to discrete decreases in drain current.

  14. Room temperature synthesis of Mn{sup 2+} doped ZnS d-dots and observation of tunable dual emission: Effects of doping concentration, temperature, and ultraviolet light illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Kole, A. K.; Kumbhakar, P.; Tiwary, C. S.

    2013-03-21

    Mn{sup 2+} doped (0-50.0 molar %) ZnS d-dots have been synthesized in water medium by using an environment friendly low cost chemical technique. Tunable dual emission in UV and yellow-orange regions is achieved by tailoring the Mn{sup 2+} doping concentration in the host ZnS nanocrystal. The optimum doping concentration for achieving efficient photoluminescence (PL) emission is determined to be {approx}1.10 (at. %) corresponding to 40.0 (molar %) of Mn{sup 2+} doping concentration used during synthesis. The mechanism of charge transfer from the host to the dopant leading to the intensity modulated tunable (594-610 nm) yellow-orange PL emission is straightforwardly understood as no capping agent is used. The temperature dependent PL emission measurements are carried out, viz., in 1.10 at. % Mn{sup 2+} doped sample and the experimental results are explained by using a theoretical PL emission model. It is found that the ratio of non-radiative to radiative recombination rates is temperature dependent and this phenomenon has not been reported, so far, in Mn{sup 2+} doped ZnS system. The colour tuning of the emitted light from the samples are evident from the calculated chromaticity coordinates. UV light irradiation for 150 min in 40.0 (molar %) Mn{sup 2+} doped sample shows an enhancement of 33% in PL emission intensity.

  15. Mechanisms of lighting enhancement of Al nanoclusters-embedded Al-doped ZnO film in GaN-based light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hsin-Ying; Chou, Ying-Hung; Lee, Ching-Ting

    2010-01-15

    Aluminum (Al)-doped ZnO (AZO) films with embedded Al nanoclusters were proposed and utilized to enhance the light output power and maximum operation current of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The AZO films were sputtered using ZnO and Al targets in a magnetron cosputtering system. With Al dc power of 7 W and ZnO 100 W ac power, the electron concentration of 4.1x10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}, electron mobility of 16.2 cm{sup 2}/V s, and resistivity of 7.2x10{sup -4} {Omega} cm were obtained for the deposited AZO film annealed at 600 deg. C for 1 min in a N{sub 2} ambient. As verified by a high resolution transmission electron microscopy, the deposited AZO films with embedded Al nanoclusters were clearly observed. A 35% increase in light output power of the GaN-based LEDs with Al nanoclusters-embedded AZO films was realized compared with the conventional LEDs operated at 500 mA. It was verified experimentally that the various characteristics of GaN-based LEDs including the antireflection, light scattering, current spreading, and the light extraction efficiency in light emission could be significantly enhanced with the use of Al nanoclusters-embedded AZO films.

  16. Band alignment and photon extraction studies of Na-doped MgZnO/Ga-doped ZnO heterojunction for light-emitter applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Sushil Kumar; Awasthi, Vishnu; Sengar, Brajendra Singh; Garg, Vivek; Sharma, Pankaj; Mukherjee, Shaibal; Kumar, Shailendra; Mukherjee, C.

    2015-10-28

    Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy is carried out to measure the energy discontinuity at the interface of p-type Na-doped MgZnO (NMZO)/n-type Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) heterojunction grown by dual ion beam sputtering. The offset values at valence band and conduction band of NMZO/GZO heterojunction are calculated to be 1.93 and −2.36 eV, respectively. The p-type conduction in NMZO film has been confirmed by Hall measurement and band structure. Moreover, the effect of Ar{sup +} ion sputtering on the valence band onset values of NMZO and GZO thin films has been investigated. This asymmetric waveguide structure formed by the lower refractive index of GZO than that of NMZO indicates that easy extraction of photons generated in GZO through the NMZO layer into free space. The asymmetric waveguide structure has potential applications to produce ZnO-based light emitters with high extraction efficiency.

  17. Visible light photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol using vanadium and nitrogen co-doped TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, R.; Patel, N.; Kothari, D. C.; Miotello, A.

    2013-02-01

    Vanadium and Nitrogen were codoped in TiO2 photocatalyst by Sol-gel method to utilize visible light more efficiently for photocatalytic reactions. A noticeable shift of absorption edge to visible light region was obtained for the singly-doped namely V-TiO2, N-TiO2 and codoped V-N-TiO2 samples in comparison with undoped TiO2, with smallest band gap obtained with codoped-TiO2. The photocatalytic activities for all TiO2 photocatalysts were tested by 4-chlorophenol (organic pollutant) degradation under visible light irradiation. It was found that codoped TiO2 exhibits the best photocatalytic activity, which could be attributed to the synergistic effect produced by V and N dopants.

  18. Visible light photocatalytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol using vanadium and nitrogen co-doped TiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Jaiswal, R.; Kothari, D. C.; Patel, N.; Miotello, A.

    2013-02-05

    Vanadium and Nitrogen were codoped in TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst by Sol-gel method to utilize visible light more efficiently for photocatalytic reactions. A noticeable shift of absorption edge to visible light region was obtained for the singly-doped namely V-TiO{sub 2}, N-TiO{sub 2} and codoped V-N-TiO{sub 2} samples in comparison with undoped TiO{sub 2}, with smallest band gap obtained with codoped-TiO{sub 2}. The photocatalytic activities for all TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were tested by 4-chlorophenol (organic pollutant) degradation under visible light irradiation. It was found that codoped TiO{sub 2} exhibits the best photocatalytic activity, which could be attributed to the synergistic effect produced by V and N dopants.

  19. Photocarrier Radiometry Investigation of Light-Induced Degradation of Boron-Doped Czochralski-Grown Silicon Without Surface Passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Li, Bincheng

    2016-04-01

    Light-induced degradation (LID) effects of boron-doped Cz silicon wafers without surface passivation are investigated in details by photocarrier radiometry (PCR). The resistivity of all samples is in the range of 0.006 Ω {\\cdot } {cm} to 38 Ω {\\cdot } {cm}. It is found that light-induced changes in surface state occupation have a great effect on LID under illumination. With the increasing contribution of light-induced changes in surface state occupation, the generation rate of the defect decreases. The light-induced changes in surface state occupation and light-induced degradation dominate the temporal behaviors of the excess carrier density of high- and low-resistivity Si wafers, respectively. Moreover, the temporal behaviors of PCR signals of these samples under laser illumination with different powers, energy of photons, and multiple illuminations were also analyzed to understand the light-induced change of material properties. Based on the nonlinear dependence of PCR signal on the excitation power, a theoretical model taking into account both light-induced changes in surface state occupation and LID processes was proposed to explain those temporal behaviors.

  20. TiS2 transformation into S-doped and N-doped TiO2 with visible-light catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Chen; Chien, Tzu-En; Lai, Po-Chih; Chiang, Yu-Hsien; Li, Kun-Lin; Lin, Jong-Liang

    2015-12-01

    S-doped rutile has been prepared for the first time by hydrothermal reaction of TiS2 in hydrochloric acid at a low temperature (180 °C), with the S atoms in three states of Tisbnd Ssbnd Ti, Tisbnd Ssbnd O and SO4. TiS2 in nitric acid can also be transformed into TiO2, but with mixed phases of anatase and rutile, containing nitrogen atoms at interstitial sites in the form of Tisbnd Osbnd N or Tisbnd Nsbnd O. The Ssbnd TiO2 catalyst shows a better visible-light reactivity toward adsorbed methylene blue (MB) photodegradation and hydroxylation of terephthalic acid with respect to the Nsbnd TiO2. The possible reasons leading to the high photoactivity of the Ssbnd TiO2 are discussed in terms of the incorporated sulfur states.

  1. Cu-doped TiO(2) nanoparticles enhance survival of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under ultraviolet light (UV) exposure.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bing; Zhuang, Wei-Qin; Sahu, Manoranjan; Biswas, Pratim; Tang, Yinjie J

    2011-10-01

    It has been shown that photocatalytic TiO(2) nanoparticles (NPs) can be used as an efficient anti-microbial agent under UV light due to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a metal-reducing bacterium highly susceptible to UV radiation. Interestingly, we found that the presence of Cu-doped TiO(2) NPs in the cultural medium dramatically increased the survival rates (based on colony-forming unit) of strain MR-1 by over 10,000-fold (incubation without shaking) and ~200 fold (incubation with shaking) after a 2-h exposure to UV light. Gene expression results (via qPCR measurement) indicated that the DNA repair gene recA in MR-1 was significantly induced by UV exposure (indicating cellular damage under UV stress), but the influence of NPs on recA expression was not statistically evident. Plausible explanations to NP attenuation of UV stresses are: 1. TiO(2) based NPs are capable of scattering and absorbing UV light and thus create a shading effect to protect MR-1 from UV radiation; 2. more importantly, Cu-doped TiO(2) NPs can co-agglomerate with MR-1 to form large flocs that improves cells' survival against the environmental stresses. This study improves our understanding of NP ecological impacts under natural solar radiation and provides useful insights to application of photocatalytic-NPs for bacterial disinfection. PMID:21855961

  2. Low-temperature solvothermal synthesis of visible-light-responsive S-doped TiO2 nanocrystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guidong; Yan, Zifeng; Xiao, Tiancun

    2012-02-01

    In this work, a low-temperature solvothermal method has been developed to synthesize visible-light-responsive S-doped TiO2 nanocrystal photocatalyst, using thiourea as the sulfur source to enhance sulfur incorporation into TiO2 lattice. The effects of different S:Ti molar ratio on the crystal structure, chemical composition, surface property and catalytic performance have been studied. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra displayed that the TiO2 was modified by the S element incorporated into the TiO2 network to form Tisbnd Osbnd S bond, which therefore led to the formation of intermediate energy level just above the O 2p valance band, and caused the absorption edge of TiO2 to shift into the visible light region up to 500 nm. Characterization results show that the pure nanocrystal anatase structure, with both the degree of S doping and oxygen vacancies makes contribution to the exceptional photocatalytic activity of TONS in visible-light degradation of Methylene Blue (MB) and phenol molecules.

  3. 266  nm ultraviolet light generation in Ga-doped BaAlBO3F2 crystals.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Yue, Yinchao; Yang, Feng; Hu, Zhanggui; Xu, Zuyan

    2016-04-01

    BaAlBO3F2 (BABF) crystals are a recently developed and promising nonlinear optical material, notably for the third harmonic generation of ultraviolet (UV) light at 355 nm. However, the fourth harmonic generation of UV light at 266 nm has never been obtained by using a BABF crystal due to its relatively small birefringence. We demonstrate that the birefringence of BABF can be effectively increased by doping it with Ga3+. The fourth harmonic generation of UV light at 266 nm was achieved for the first time in a Ga-doped BABF crystal. PMID:27192296

  4. Synthesis and characterization of copper-doped zinc sulfide nanomaterials for the application of energy efficient electroluminescent lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrado, Carley

    Doped nanocrystals (NCs) compose an important subset of nanomaterials in which a small percentage of dopant ion is introduced into host semiconductor nanocrystals with the affect of altering their optical properties. Their tunable, intense, and stable emission make them ideal candidates for a number of opto-electronic applications, including use as phosphors for solid-state lighting applications. ZnS doped with Cu (ZnS:Cu) is a commonly used bulk phosphor material and a promising candidate for use as a nanophospor material, though the energy states involved in the electronic transitions leading to luminescence are not well understood. To shed light on this topic, ZnS:Cu nanocrystals were synthesized and their optical properties were correlated with their structure using UV-Vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, TEM, EXAFS, XRD, and ICP. The dependence of the optical and structural properties on dopant concentration, shell growth, co-doping, and solvent were explored. Through EXAFS study about the local structure of the Cu-dopant, it was found that Cu was located at or near the surface of the nanocrystals. A ZnS shell was grown around the ZnS:Cu nanocrystals resulting in increased dopant-related PL emission due to encapsulation of the dopant into the core of the nanocrystals. ZnS:Cu nanocrystals were also synthesized in an organic solvent to enable fabrication of high quality films for electroluminescent lighting applications. Addition of Br was added as a co-activator with the effect of greatly enhanced Cu-dopant PL emission. Characterization of the local structure of the Br-dopant using EXAFS confirmed substitutional incorporation of the Br into the core of the ZnS nanocrystals. Methods were developed to enhance dopant-related PL emission.

  5. Solvothermal synthesis of carbon coated N-doped TiO2 nanostructures with enhanced visible light catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xue-Min; Kang, Jialing; Gao, Lin; Xiong, Lin; Mei, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Visible light-active carbon coated N-doped TiO2 nanostructures(CTS-TiO2) were prepared by a facile one-step solvothermal method with chitosan as carbon and nitrogen resource at 180 °C. The as-prepared samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The CTS-TiO2 nanocomposites possess anatase phase of nanocrystalline structure with average particle size of about 5-7 nm. A wormhole mesostructure can be observed in the CTS-TiO2 nanocomposites due to the constituent agglomerated of nanoparticles. It has been evidenced that the nitrogen was doped into the anatase titania lattice and the carbon species were modified on the surface of TiO2. The photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared photocatalysts were measured by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation at λ ≥ 400 nm. The results show that CTS-TiO2 nanostructures display a higher visible light photocatalytic activity than pure TiO2, commercial P25 and C-coated TiO2 (C-TiO2) photocatalysts. The higher photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the band-gap narrowed by N-doping and the accelerated separation of the photo-generated electrons and holes by carbon modification.

  6. Temperature dependent x-ray diffraction study of lightly doped Na{sub x}WO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Sanhita; Mukherjee, G. D.; Ghosh, Anirudha; Raj, Satyabrata; Oishi, S.

    2011-03-21

    Temperature dependent x-ray diffraction studies have been carried out on nonstoichiometric lightly doped sodium tungsten bronze (Na{sub x}WO{sub 3} for x=0.025). The investigation reveals a structural modification around 230 K. Although the high and low temperature phases are monoclinic but at low temperature the corner sharing WO{sub 6} octahedra get significantly distorted due to displacement of tungsten and oxygen atoms from its mean position. This structural modification induces polaron formation in Na{sub 0.025}WO{sub 3} below 230 K.

  7. Enhancement of electrical property by oxygen doping to copper phthalocyanine in inverted top emitting organic light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Kihyon; Kim, Kisoo; Lee, Jong-Lam

    2009-11-23

    We reported the evidence of oxygen doping to copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc) by O{sub 2}-plasma treatment to inverted top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (ITOLEDs). In situ synchrotron-radiation photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that a new Cu-O bond appeared and the energy difference between the highest-occupied molecular orbital and E{sub F} is lowered by 0.15 eV after plasma treatment. The oxygen ions chemically interacted with Cu atoms and transferred charges to the CuPc. Thus the hole injection barrier was lowered, enhancing the electroluminescent property of ITOLEDs.

  8. Tunable phase control of slow and fast light propagation in a slab doped by four-level quantum dot nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarzadeh, Hossein; Sangachin, Elnaz Ahmadi; Asadpour, Seyyed Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Tunable phase control of the slow and fast light propagation through a defect slab medium doped by four-level InGaN/GaN quantum dot structure is demonstrated. By solving the Schrödinger and Poisson’s equations self-consistently, a spherical InGaN quantum dot with GaN barrier shell which can interact by terahertz (THz) signal field is designed numerically. It is found that the phase variation of THz signal field imparts the tunability in the group velocity of the transmitted and reflected pulses through a dielectric slab.

  9. Ultraviolet-light-driven doping modulation in chemical vapor deposition grown graphene.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M Z; Iqbal, M W; Khan, M F; Eom, Jonghwa

    2015-08-28

    The tuning of charge carrier density of graphene is an essential factor to achieve the integration of high-efficiency electronic and optoelectronic devices. We demonstrate the reversible doping in graphene using deep ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and treatment with O2 and N2 gases. The Dirac point shift towards a positive gate voltage of chemical vapor deposition grown graphene field-effect transistors confirms the p-type doping, which is observed under UV irradiation and treatment with O2 gas, while it restores its pristine state after treatment with N2 gas under UV irradiation. The emergence of an additional peak in the X-ray photoelectron spectra during UV irradiation and treatment with O2 gas represents the oxidation of graphene, and the elimination of this peak during UV irradiation and treatment with N2 gas reveals the restoration of graphene in its pristine state. The shift in the G and 2D bands in Raman spectra towards higher and then lower wavenumber also suggests p-type doping and then reversible doping in graphene. The controlled doping and its reversibility in large area grown graphene offer a new vision for electronic applications. PMID:26198203

  10. Role of Li+ on white light emission from Sm3+ and Tb3+ co-doped Y2O3 nano-phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, R. S.; Yadav, R. V.; Bahadur, A.; Yadav, T. P.; Rai, S. B.

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports on white light emission from Sm3+ and Tb3+ co-doped Y2O3 nano-phosphor, synthesized through the solution combustion method. The XRD and TEM measurements of the nano-phosphors reveal a crystalline nature and spherical particle distribution. The Sm3+-doped nano-phosphor gives off an orange-red emission whereas the Tb3+-doped nano-phosphor gives off blue and green emissions individually on excitation with 380 nm radiation. When the Sm3+and Tb3+ ions are doped together, the co-doped nano-phosphor emits white light with the CIE coordinates 0.33 and 0.37, due to the combined emissions of these two ions on excitation with 380 nm radiation. The color of the emitted light is tunable with the concentration of Sm3+ ions, and it emits white light at the 2.0 mol% concentration of Sm3+ and 1.0 mol% concentration of Tb3+ ions. The nano-phosphor sample annealed at a higher temperature results in a greater emission intensity. The presence of Li+ ions in the co-doped sample enhances the emission intensity of white light up to three times. The enhancement in the emission intensity is discussed in terms of a reduction in the optical quenching centers and an increase in the crystallite size. The Sm3+ and Tb3+ co-doped Y2O3 nano-phosphor in the presence of Li+ is a suitable candidate for white light in a solid state display.

  11. Plumbing the brain drain.

    PubMed Central

    Saravia, Nancy Gore; Miranda, Juan Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Opportunity is the driving force of migration. Unsatisfied demands for higher education and skills, which have been created by the knowledge-based global economy, have generated unprecedented opportunities in knowledge-intensive service industries. These multi-trillion dollar industries include information, communication, finance, business, education and health. The leading industrialized nations are also the focal points of knowledge-intensive service industries and as such constitute centres of research and development activity that proactively draw in talented individuals worldwide through selective immigration policies, employment opportunities and targeted recruitment. Higher education is another major conduit of talent from less-developed countries to the centres of the knowledge-based global economy. Together career and educational opportunities drive "brain drain and recirculation". The departure of a large proportion of the most competent and innovative individuals from developing nations slows the achievement of the critical mass needed to generate the enabling context in which knowledge creation occurs. To favourably modify the asymmetric movement and distribution of global talent, developing countries must implement bold and creative strategies that are backed by national policies to: provide world-class educational opportunities, construct knowledge-based research and development industries, and sustainably finance the required investment for these strategies. Brazil, China and India have moved in this direction, offering world-class education in areas crucial to national development, such as biotechnology and information technology, paralleled by investments in research and development. As a result, only a small proportion of the most highly educated individuals migrate from these countries, and research and development opportunities employ national talent and even attract immigrants. PMID:15375451

  12. Plumbing the brain drain.

    PubMed

    Saravia, Nancy Gore; Miranda, Juan Francisco

    2004-08-01

    Opportunity is the driving force of migration. Unsatisfied demands for higher education and skills, which have been created by the knowledge-based global economy, have generated unprecedented opportunities in knowledge-intensive service industries. These multi-trillion dollar industries include information, communication, finance, business, education and health. The leading industrialized nations are also the focal points of knowledge-intensive service industries and as such constitute centres of research and development activity that proactively draw in talented individuals worldwide through selective immigration policies, employment opportunities and targeted recruitment. Higher education is another major conduit of talent from less-developed countries to the centres of the knowledge-based global economy. Together career and educational opportunities drive "brain drain and recirculation". The departure of a large proportion of the most competent and innovative individuals from developing nations slows the achievement of the critical mass needed to generate the enabling context in which knowledge creation occurs. To favourably modify the asymmetric movement and distribution of global talent, developing countries must implement bold and creative strategies that are backed by national policies to: provide world-class educational opportunities, construct knowledge-based research and development industries, and sustainably finance the required investment for these strategies. Brazil, China and India have moved in this direction, offering world-class education in areas crucial to national development, such as biotechnology and information technology, paralleled by investments in research and development. As a result, only a small proportion of the most highly educated individuals migrate from these countries, and research and development opportunities employ national talent and even attract immigrants. PMID:15375451

  13. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity for H2 Evolution under Irradiation of UV–Vis Light by Au-Modified Nitrogen-Doped TiO2

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Weirong; Ai, Zhuyu; Dai, Jiusong; Zhang, Meng

    2014-01-01

    Background Purpose Photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen evolution is a potential way to solve many energy and environmental issues. Developing visible-light-active photocatalysts to efficiently utilize sunlight and finding proper ways to improve photocatalytic activity for H2 evolution have always been hot topics for research. This study attempts to expand the use of sunlight and to enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 by N doping and Au loading. Methods Au/N-doped TiO2 photocatalysts were synthesized and successfully used for photocatalytic water splitting for H2 evolution under irradiation of UV and UV–vis light, respectively. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), and photoelectrochemical characterizations. Results DRS displayed an extension of light absorption into the visible region by doping of N and depositing with Au, respectively. PL analysis indicated electron-hole recombination due to N doping and an efficient inhibition of electron-hole recombination due to the loaded Au particles. Under the irradiation of UV light, the photocatalytic hydrogen production rate of the as-synthesized samples followed the order Au/TiO2 > Au/N-doped TiO2 > TiO2 > N-doped TiO2. While under irradiation of UV–vis light, the N-TiO2 and Au/N-TiO2 samples show higher H2 evolution than their corresponding nitrogen-free samples (TiO2 and Au/TiO2). This inconsistent result could be attributed to the doping of N and the surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) effect of Au particles extending the visible light absorption. The photoelectrochemical characterizations further indicated the enhancement of the visible light response of Au/N-doped TiO2. Conclusion Comparative studies have shown that a combination of nitrogen doping and Au loading enhanced the visible light response of TiO2 and

  14. Effect of Vanadium(IV)-Doping on the Visible Light-Induced Catalytic Activity of Titanium Dioxide Catalysts for Methylene Blue Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wen-Churng; Lin, Yo-Jane

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vanadium(IV)-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalyst powders were prepared by the sol–gel method and characterized by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller–specific surface area, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. V-doping in the TiO2 increases the crystal grain size, which decreases the specific surface areas of powders. This V-doping changes the band gap of TiO2, leading to extend the absorption to visible light regions (400–800 nm). Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) in water was investigated as a function of the vanadium content in TiO2 and was found to follow pseudo first-order rate kinetics. Appropriate content of V-doping is an effective means to improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 for MB degradation under visible light irradiation. PMID:22693413

  15. Structural, thermal, optical properties and simulation of white light of titanium-tungstate-tellurite glasses doped with dysprosium

    SciTech Connect

    Jyothi, L.; Upender, G.; Kuladeep, R.; Rao, D. Narayana

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: CIE coordinate diagram of different concentrations of the Dy{sup 3+}-doped TTWD glasses with coordinates in the white light region. - Highlights: • Radiative lifetime of {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} level of Dy{sup 3+} ions is longer in the tellurite glass. • Quantum efficiency is found to be high. • These glasses are suitable materials for generating white light. - Abstract: Structural, thermal, optical properties and simulation of white light of Dy{sup 3+}-doped tellurite glasses of composition TTWD: (75 − x)TeO{sub 2} − 10TiO{sub 2} − 15WO{sub 3} − xDy{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x = 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mol%) were investigated. Raman spectra revealed that the glass contains TeO{sub 4}, TeO{sub 3}, WO{sub 4} and WO{sub 6} units. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements were carried out to measure the glass transition temperature of all the glasses. From the optical absorption spectra, luminescence spectra and using the Judd–Ofelt (JO) analysis, we estimated the radiative transition probabilities, emission cross-sections, branching ratios and radiative lifetimes. The decay curves at lower concentrations are exponential while they show a non-exponential behavior at higher concentrations (≥0.5 mol%) due to energy transfer processes. The effective lifetime for the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} level decreases with increase in Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration for the glasses under investigation. The non-exponential decay curves could fit well to the Inokuti–Hirayama (IH) model with S = 6, indicating that the nature of interaction responsible for energy transfer is of dipole–dipole type. Simulation of white light is examined with varying concentration and the results indicate that these glasses are suitable for white light emitting diode applications.

  16. M (Tm3+, Tb3+, Ho3+, Dy3+, Mn2+)-doped transparent fluorophosphate glasses for white light-emitting-diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Chengguo; Song, Feng; Qin, Yueting; Ren, Xiaobin; An, Liqun

    2014-06-01

    M-doped (M=Tm3+, Tb3+, Ho3+, Dy3+, Mn2+) transparent fluorophosphate glasses were prepared by a high temperature melting method. Excitation and emission spectra of the samples were investigated. Under near-ultraviolet excitation, the emission colors of the Tm3+-and Mn2+-doped samples are blue and red, respectively; the emission colors of the Tb3+-, Ho3+-, and Dy3+-doped samples are green; and the emission color of Tb3+/ Mn2+/Tm3+ tridoped fluorophosphate glass is white to the naked eye. Our research will be helpful in developing luminescent materials for white light-emitting-diodes.

  17. Excitation transfer processes in a phosphor-doped poly(p-phenylene vinylene) light-emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, I. H.; Smith, D. L.; Tretiak, S.; Martin, R. L.; Neef, C. J.; Ferraris, J. P.

    2002-02-01

    We present experimental measurements and theoretical calculations of the electrical and optical properties of phosphor-doped poly (p-phenylene vinylene) light-emitting diodes to determine the excitation processes that lead to radiative recombination from the phosphor molecule. Three possible phosphor excitation processes are considered: (1) sequential electron and hole capture by the phosphor, (2) energy transfer from the polymer triplet exciton (Dexter transfer), and (3) energy transfer from the polymer singlet exciton (Förster transfer). The properties of the doped polymer are investigated for doping levels up to about 20 wt %. At the highest doping density, all radiative recombination occurs in the phosphor molecule and the observed electroluminescence decay time increases significantly compared to the undoped polymer. Built-in potential and current-voltage measurements indicate that the electron and hole energy levels of the phosphor are outside the energy gap of the polymer, and that the phosphor molecule does not capture either individual electrons or holes. Measurements of triplet optical absorption show that the triplet population in the polymer is not affected by the presence of the phosphor, indicating that Dexter transfer processes are weak. Calculations of the triplet optical-absorption cross section combined with the measurements of the triplet optical absorption determine the triplet exciton density in the device. In an analogous chemically substituted polymer, no significant excitation transfer occurs when there is no overlap between the emission spectrum of the polymer and the absorption spectrum of the phosphor. These results demonstrate that the dominant excitation transfer path from the polymer to the phosphor is dipole-dipole (Förster) coupling. Calculations of the charged and neutral electronic excitation energies of the polymer and phosphor are performed using hybrid and time-dependent, density-functional theory. The results of these

  18. Nonvolatile holographic storage in iron-doped lithium tantalate with continuous-wave laser light.

    PubMed

    Imbrock, J; Kip, D; Krätzig, E

    1999-09-15

    Holograms have been recorded in congruent LiTaO(3):Fe with continuous-wave laser light by use of a two-step process. Blue gating light (lambda=488 nm) sensitizes the crystals for holographic recording with red light (lambda=660 nm) of a diode laser. Refractive-index changes of as much as 1.0x10(-5) are achieved for intensities of the red light of 1 W/cm(2) . The saturation values are proportional to the intensity of the writing light. Nondestructive readout with red light is possible, and the holograms remain erasable for blue light. PMID:18079787

  19. Erbium and nitrogen co-doped SrTiO{sub 3} with highly visible light photocatalytic activity and stability by solvothermal synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jing; Wei, Yuelin; Huang, Yunfang; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Xuanqing; Sun, Zhixian; Wu, Ying; Tao, Xinling; Fan, Leqing; Wu, Jihuai

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Er/N co-doped SrTiO{sub 3} was prepared by a solvothermal process at low temperature. • The co-doping induces the band gap narrowing and prominent absorbance in visible light region. • The samples show excellent catalytic activity and stability under visible light irradiation. - Abstract: Erbium–nitrogen co-doped SrTiO{sub 3} photocatalysts have been synthesized by a facile solvothermal method. The resulting samples were analyzed by FE-SEM, XRD, BET-surface area and UV–vis. The UV–vis absorption spectra of these powders indicated that erbium–nitrogen co-doped SrTiO{sub 3} possessed stronger absorption bands in the visible light region in comparison with that of pure SrTiO{sub 3}. The occurrence of the erbium–nitrogen co-doped cubic SrTiO{sub 3} induced the higher photocatalytic activities for the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under irradiation by ultraviolet light and visible light, respectively, being superior to that of pure SrTiO{sub 3} and commercial TiO{sub 2} (P-25) powders. In addition, the Er–N co-doped SrTiO{sub 3} (initial molar ratios of Sr/Er/N = 1:0.015:0.1, designated as S5) sample showed the best photocatalytic activity with the degradation rate as high as 98% after 30 min under the visible light irradiation. After five cycles, the photocatalytic activity of the S5 catalyst showed no significant decrease, which indicated that the photocatalysts were stable under visible light irradiation.

  20. Sol-gel deposited gallium-doped zinc oxide electrode for polymer light-emitting diode applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Donghyun; Ha, Jaeheung; Lee, Changhee; Hong, Yongtaek

    2012-09-01

    We have made a sol-gel deposited gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) film as a transparent conductive anode in polymer light-emitting diode (PLED) applications. The GZO films were obtained by spin-coating GZO precursor solutions followed by consecutive thermal annealing in the air and in the hydrogen-rich atmosphere. The resistance of GZO film was reduced to ~100 Ω/□ after thermal annealing in the hydrogen environment. Its surface roughness was sufficiently low (1.159 nm RMS) for depositing other polymer layers. We have fabricated PLEDs with quartz substrate / solution-processed GZO electrode (anode) / PEDOT:PSS (HITL) / SPG-01T (Green polymer light-emitting material purchased from Merck, EML) / Ca (EIL) / Al (Cathode). The fabricated devices showed current efficiency of 3.06 cd/A and power efficiency of 1.25 lm/W at luminance of 1000 cd/m2.

  1. Room-temperature light emission from an airbridge double-heterostructure microcavity of Er-doped Si photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue; An, Jun-ming; Wu, Yuan-da; Hu, Xiong-wei

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an efficient enhancement of luminescence from two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal photonic crystal (PC) airbridge double-heterostructure microcavity with Er-doped silicon (Si) as light emitters on siliconon-insulator (SOI) wafer at room temperature. A single sharp resonant peak at 1 529.6 nm dominates the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum with the pumping power of 12.5 mW. The obvious red shift and the degraded quality factor (Q-factor) of resonant peak appear with the pumping power increasing, and the maximum measured Q-factor of 4 905 is achieved at the pumping power of 1.5 mW. The resonant peak is observed to shift depending on the structural parameters of PC, which indicates a possible method to control the wavelength of enhanced luminescence for Si-based light emitters based on PC microcavity.

  2. Effective ionic charge polarization using typical supporting electrolyte and charge injection phenomena in molecularly doped polymer light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Eiji; Yamashita, Takanori; Miyairi, Keiichi

    2002-11-01

    An effective method of enhancing charge injection and electroluminescence efficiency of polymer-based light-emitting diodes is introduced. Spin-coated films of poly (N-vinylcarbazole) blended with electron-transport material (Bu-PBD), laser dye (Coumarin6), and the typical supporting electrolyte [tetraethylammonium perchlorate (TEAP)] were examined and it was found that the injection current and luminance of the light emitting diodes doped with TEAP were enhanced dramatically after heat treatment at 80 degC and appropriate biasing in an external electric field of 1.5 x108 V/m at this temperature. A charge injection model based on Fowler-Nordheim tunneling is proposed, taking into account electric field distortion due to the accumulation of ionic space charges at the electrode/film interface. The relaxation time of ionic polarization is found to be related to the cation size of the electrolyte.

  3. Investigation of light induced effect on density of states of Pb doped CdSe thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Jagdish; Singh, Baljinder; Tripathi, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    Thin films of Pb doped CdSe are deposited on the glass substrates by thermal evaporation technique using inert gas condensation method. The prepared thin films are light soaked under vacuum of 2×10-3 mbar for two hour. The absorption coefficient in the sub-band gap region has been studied using Constant Photocurrent Method (CPM). The absorption coefficient in the sub-band gap region follows an exponential Urbach tail. The value of Urbach energy and number density of defect states have been calculated from the absorption coefficient in the sub-band gap region and found to increase after light soaking treatment. The energy distribution of the occupied density of states below Fermi level has been evaluated using derivative procedure of the absorption coefficient.

  4. Closed suction drain with bulb

    MedlinePlus

    ... gloves Five or 6 cotton swabs Gauze pads Clean soapy water Plastic trash bag Surgical tape Waterproof pad or ... Use a cotton swab dipped in the soapy water to clean the skin around the drain. Do this 3 ...

  5. Light emitting diodes from MOVPE-grown p- and n-doped II VI compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, W.; Hahn, B.; Stanzl, H.; Deufel, M.

    1996-02-01

    A critical review is given of the present state, the problems and the prospects of MOVPE-growth of II-VI LEDs. It is shown that MOVPE-growth on (001)GaAs substrates occurs preferentially in a three-dimensional growth mode independent of substrate preparation. ZnS xSe 1 - x grows in good quality over the whole range of composition x. Good quality of Zn xCd 1 - xSe was only obtained for low Cd-concentrations. Improvements can be expected from the use of new precursors. The n-doping of ZnSe and ZnS xSe 1 - x presents no problem when n-butylchloride is used. Carrier concentrations can be as high as n ≥ 10 18. Various nitrogen compounds have been used to achieve p-doping of ZnSe by MOVPE. We show that quite large concentrations of nitrogen can be incorporated by photoassisted MOVPE with phenylhydrazine as precursor. The nitrogen doped samples are usually highly compensated independent from the special doping procedure. Proper annealing can activate at least part of the incorporated nitrogen. The preparation of appropriate diode structures presents no special problems, however their room temperature (RT) luminescence efficiency is still low but may be considerably improved with increasing purity of precursors.

  6. Specific features of the anisotropy of low-temperature microwave magnetoresistivity of lightly doped p-Ge due to the presence of light and heavy holes

    SciTech Connect

    Veinger, A. I. Zabrodskii, A. G.; Tisnek, T. V.; Goloshchapov, S. I.

    2011-10-15

    The microwave magnetoresistivity of lightly doped (nondegenerate) p-Ge has been studied by the electron spin resonance method. This technique can be employed to record the derivative of the microwave absorption with respect to the magnetic field on the assumption that changes in this absorption are proportional to changes in the conductivity of a semiconductor. At the 10-GHz frequency of the electromagnetic field, the averaging time of the effective masses of light and heavy holes at low temperatures is substantially longer than the oscillation period. This makes it possible to study the individual responses of light and heavy holes to the magnetic field. It is shown that the microwave magnetoabsorption associated with light holes only slightly depends on the direction of the magnetic field relative to the crystallographic axes of Ge. At the same time, the signal related to heavy holes changes by several times when a sample is rotated in a magnetic field. The experimental results are correlated with the theory of the classical magnetoresistive effect.

  7. Characterization of the transport properties of channel delta-doped structures by light-modulated Shubnikov-de Haas measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mena, R. A.; Schacham, S. E.; Haugland, E. J.; Alterovitz, S. A.; Young, P. G.; Bibyk, S. B.; Ringel, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    The transport properties of channel delta-doped quantum well structures were characterized by conventional Hall effect and light-modulated Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) effect measurements. The large number of carriers that become available due to the delta-doping of the channel, leads to an apparent degeneracy in the well. As a result of this degeneracy, the carrier mobility remains constant as a function of temperature from 300 K down to 1.4 K. The large amount of impurity scattering, associated with the overlap of the charge carriers and the dopants, resulted in low carrier mobilities and restricted the observation of the oscillatory magneto-resistance used to characterize the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) by conventional SdH measurements. By light-modulating the carriers, we were able to observe the SdH oscillation at low magnetic fields, below 1.4 tesla, and derive a value for the quantum scattering time. Our results for the ratio of the transport and quantum scattering times are lower than those previously measured for similar structures using much higher magnetic fields.

  8. Strong white light in P2O5-Li2O-Yb2O3-Sb2O3 glass doped with Pr3+ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Chengguo; Han, Yingdong; Song, Feng; Ren, Xiaobin; An, Liqun

    2013-01-01

    P2O5-Li2O-Yb2O3-Sb2O3 glasses doped with Pr3+ ion had been prepared to explore white-light-emitting materials. The photoluminescence spectra of the glasses were measured under 270 nm excitation. The emission color of the glass doped with 2 mol% Pr3+ ion was white to the naked eye, and the CIE coordinates (0.336, 0.319) of the sample were close to the standard equal energy white-light illumination (x=0.333, y=0.333). The present working mechanism of the commercial white-LEDs is that a yellow phosphor is excited by a blue LED chip. The emission characters are restricted by the intensity of the blue light and the thickness of the phosphor. However, the luminescent characters of our materials are not effected by the pumping light. Thus, our materials will be helpful in developing white-light-emitting materials.

  9. UV light sensing properties of Sm doped vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, D. Ranjith; Ranjith, K. S.; Rajendrakumar, R. T.

    2015-06-24

    Samarium doped ZnO nanorods were grown on silicon substrate by using vapor phase transport method (VPT) with the growth temperature of 950°C. The synthesized nanorods were characterized by XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, and photocurrent measurements. The XRD result revealed that Sm was successfully doped into lattice plane of hexagonal ZnO nanorods. The FESEM result confirms the pure ZnO has nanorod like morphology with an average diameter and length of 130nm and 10µm respectively. The above observation is supported by the Micro-Raman spectroscopy result. The photocurrent in the visible region has been significantly enhanced due to deposition of Sm on the surface of the ZnO nanorods. Sm acts as a visible sensitizer because of its lower band gap compared to ZnO.

  10. Role of vacancies, light elements and rare-earth metals doping in CeO2.

    PubMed

    Shi, H; Hussain, T; Ahuja, R; Kang, T W; Luo, W

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic properties and electronic structures of pure, doped and defective cerium oxide (CeO2) have been studied theoretically by means of ab initio calculations based on the density function theory (DFT) with the hybrid HF/DFT technique named PBE0. Carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), sulphur (S), lanthanum (La) and praseodymium (Pr) doped in CeO2 and CeO2 containing oxygen vacancies (Ov) were considered. Our spin-polarized calculations show that C, N, Pr dopants and Ov defects magnetize the non-magnetic CeO2 in different degree. The optical band gap related to photocatalysis for pure CeO2, corresponding to the ultraviolet region, is reduced obviously by C, N, S, Pr impurities and oxygen vacancies, shifting to the visible region and even further to the infrared range. Especially, N-, S- and Pr-doped CeO2 could be used to photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen production. As the concentration of Ov increasing up to 5%, the CeO2 exhibits a half-metallic properties. PMID:27554285

  11. Role of vacancies, light elements and rare-earth metals doping in CeO2

    PubMed Central

    Shi, H.; Hussain, T.; Ahuja, R.; Kang, T. W.; Luo, W.

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic properties and electronic structures of pure, doped and defective cerium oxide (CeO2) have been studied theoretically by means of ab initio calculations based on the density function theory (DFT) with the hybrid HF/DFT technique named PBE0. Carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), sulphur (S), lanthanum (La) and praseodymium (Pr) doped in CeO2 and CeO2 containing oxygen vacancies (Ov) were considered. Our spin-polarized calculations show that C, N, Pr dopants and Ov defects magnetize the non-magnetic CeO2 in different degree. The optical band gap related to photocatalysis for pure CeO2, corresponding to the ultraviolet region, is reduced obviously by C, N, S, Pr impurities and oxygen vacancies, shifting to the visible region and even further to the infrared range. Especially, N-, S- and Pr-doped CeO2 could be used to photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen production. As the concentration of Ov increasing up to 5%, the CeO2 exhibits a half-metallic properties. PMID:27554285

  12. The fabrication and characterization of novel carbon doped TiO2 nanotubes, nanowires and nanorods with high visible light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongbiao; Dong, Fan; Zhao, Weirong; Wang, Haiqiang; Liu, Yue; Guan, Baohong

    2009-06-10

    Novel carbon doped TiO(2) nanotubes, nanowires and nanorods were fabricated by utilizing the nanoconfinement of hollow titanate nanotubes (TNTs). The fabrication process included adsorption of ethanol molecules in the inner space of TNTs and thermal treatment of the complex in inert N(2) atmosphere. The structural morphology of carbon doped TiO(2) nanostructures can be tuned using the calcination temperature. X-ray diffraction, Raman and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller studies proved that the doped carbon promoted the crystallization and phase transition by acting as nucleation seeds. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that O-Ti-C and Ti-O-C bonds were formed in the nanostructures. Additional electronic states from the XPS valence band due to carbon doping were observed. This evidence indicated the electronic origin of the band gap narrowing and visible light absorption. The differences in chemical and electronic states between the surface and bulk of as-prepared samples confirmed that carbon was doped into the lattice of TiO(2) nanostructure through an inner doping process. The as-prepared catalysts exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity for degradation of toluene in gas phase under both visible and simulated solar light irradiation compared with that of commercial Degussa P25. This novel fabrication approach can valuably contribute to designing nanostructured photocatalytic materials and modifying various nanotube materials. PMID:19451679

  13. Fabrication of the C-N co-doped rod-like TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst with visible-light responsive photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liang-Hai; Lu, Juan; Wang, Zuo-Shan; Yang, Lu; Zhou, Xiu-Feng; Han, Lu

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: ► Novel synthesis of C-N co-doped TiO{sub 2}. ► Self-assembly of C-N co-doped TiO{sub 2} nanorods by nanoparticles. ► Excellent photocatalytic efficiency. -- Abstract: The C-N co-doped TiO{sub 2} nanorods were synthesized by the vapor transport method of water molecules, and urea was used as the carbon and nitrogen source. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The scanning electron microscope images showed that as-prepared TiO{sub 2} powders were nanorods, which were formed by the stacking of nanoparticles with a uniform size around 40 nm. The degradation of methylene blue with the prepared nanorods demonstrated the photocatalytic activities of TiO{sub 2} under visible light are improved by doping with C and N elements. The main reasons were discussed: doping with C and N elements could enhance the corresponding visible-light absorption of TiO{sub 2}. On the other hand, doping C and N could create more oxygen vacancies in the TiO{sub 2} crystals, which could capture the photogenerated electrons more effectively. Thus, more photogenerated holes could be left to improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2}.

  14. White-light-emitting long-lasting phosphorescence in Dy{sup 3+}-doped SrSiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang Jinyong; Liu Yingliang . E-mail: tliuyl@jnu.edu.cn; Zhang Jianxian

    2006-01-15

    We report on a luminescent phenomenon in Dy{sup 3+}-doped SrSiO{sub 3} long-lasting phosphor. After irradiation by a 254-nm UV lamp for 5min, the Dy{sup 3+}-doped SrSiO{sub 3} phosphor emits white light-emitting long-lasting phosphorescence for more than 1h even after the irradiation source has been removed. Photoluminescence, long-lasting phosphorescence and thermoluminescence (TL) spectra are used to explain this phenomenon. Photoluminescence spectra reveal that the white light-emitting long-lasting phosphorescence originated from the two mixtures of Dy{sup 3+} characteristic luminescence, the 480-nm blue emission ({sup 4}F{sub 9/2}->{sup 6}H{sub 15/2}) and the 572-nm yellow emission ({sup 4}F{sub 9/2}->{sup 6}H{sub 13/2}). TL spectra shows that the introduction of Dy{sup 3+} ions into the SrSiO{sub 3} host produces a highly dense trapping level at 377K (0.59eV), which is responsible for the long-lasting phosphorescence at room temperature. A possible mechanism of the long-lasting phosphorescence based on the experimental results is proposed. It is considered that the long-lasting phosphorescence is due to persistent energy transfer from the electron traps to the Dy{sup 3+} ions, which creates the persistent luminescence of Dy{sup 3+} to produce the white light-emitting long-lasting phosphorescence.

  15. Comparing Cr, and N only doping with (Cr,N)-codoping for enhancing visible light reactivity of TiO2

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuan; Wang, Wei; Qiu, Xiaofeng; Meyer III, Harry M; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Eres, Gyula; Zhang, Zhenyu; Gu, Baohua

    2011-01-01

    The photoreactivity of titania (TiO2) nanoclusters with varying levels of N or Cr-doping, or (Cr,N)-codoping, was systematically investigated using photodegradation of methyl orange in aqueous suspensions. The shifting of the TiO2 absorption edge into the visible spectral region that is primarily attributable to band gap narrowing was found to be a reliable metric for estimating the photoreactivity of the doped nanoclusters. Compared to the weak response with undoped and N-doped TiO2, Cr-doping and (Cr, N)-codoping were found to significantly enhance photodegradation of methyl orange under visible light. The initial reaction rates increase from about 0 to above 1.6 10-2 min-1 when the doping concentration of Cr in TiO2 increases from 0 to 5%. In stark contrast, under UV irradiation, doping is not only ineffective but detrimental to the photoreactivity, and all doping including N or Cr only and (Cr, N)-codoping were found to reduce photoreactivity.

  16. One-step synthesis, characterization, and visible light photocatalytic activity of pure and Zn-doped SnO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhan, D.; Rajkumar, P.; Rajeshwaran, P.; Sivarajan, A.; Sangeetha, M.

    2015-08-01

    A one-step microwave irradiation route was used to synthesize undoped and Zn-doped SnO2 nanoparticles for the first time. The morphologies, structures and optical properties of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectra and photoluminescence spectra analysis. The results clearly revealed that both the pure and doped samples had a tetragonal rutile-type structure and a space group of P42/mnm have formed directly during the microwave irradiation process. FESEM studies illustrate that both the pristine and Zn-doped SnO2 form in spherical-shaped morphology with an average diameter around 41-32 nm, which is in good agreement with the average crystallite sizes calculated by Scherrer's formula. Optical studies reveal that both pristine and Zn-doped SnO2 direct transitions occur with the bandgap energies in the range of 3.43-3.26 eV. The photocatalytic activities of the pure and Zn-doped SnO2 samples were evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue rhodamine B in an aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic activity and reusability of Zn (10 wt%)-doped SnO2 was much higher than that of the pure SnO2. The improvement mechanism by zinc doping was also discussed.

  17. Continuous visible-light emission at room temperature in Mn-doped GaAs and Si light-emitting diodes (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masaaki; Hai, Pham Nam; Anh, Le Duc

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate visible-light electroluminescence due to d-d transitions in GaAs:Mn based light emitting diodes (LEDs) [1][2]. We prepared p+n junctions with a p+GaAs:Mn layer. At a reverse bias voltage (-3 to -6V), holes are injected from the n-type layer to the depletion layer and accelerated by the intense electric field, and excite the d electrons of Mn in the p+GaAs:Mn layer by impact excitations. We observe visible-light emission E1 = 1.89eV and E2 = 2.16eV, which are exactly the same as the 4T1 -> 6A1 and 4A2 -> 4 T1 transition energy of Mn. Furthermore, by utilizing optical transitions between the p-d hybridized orbitals of Mn atoms doped in Si, we demonstrate Si-based LEDs that continuously emit reddish-yellow visible light at room temperature. The Mn p-d hybrid states are excited by hot holes that are accelerated in the depletion layers of reverse biased Si pn junctions. Above a threshold reverse bias voltage of about -4V, our LEDs show strong visible light emission with two peaks at E1 = 1.75eV and E2 = 2.30eV, corresponding to optical transitions from the t-a (spin-down anti-bonding) states to the e- (spin-down non-bonding) states, and from the e- to the t+a (spin-up anti-bonding) states. The internal quantum efficiency of the E1 and E2 transitions is 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than that of the indirect band-gap transition [3]. [1] P. N. Hai, et al., APL 104, 122409 (2014). [2] P. N. Hai, et al., JAP 116, 113905 (2014). [3] P. N. Hai, et al., submitted.

  18. Nano-cerium-element-doped titanium dioxide induces apoptosis of Bel 7402 human hepatoma cells in the presence of visible light

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Long; Mao, Jian; Zhang, Gao-Hua; Tu, Ming-Jing

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the apoptotic effect of photoexcited titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in the presence of visible light on human hepatoma cell line (Bel 7402) and to study the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Cerium-element-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles were prepared by impregnation method. Bel 7402 human hepatoma cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium in a humidified incubator with 50 mL/L CO2 at 37°C. A 15 W fluorescent lamp with continuous wavelength light was used as light source in the photocatalytic test. Fluorescence morphology and agarose gel eletrophoresis pattern were performed to analyze apoptotic cells. RESULTS: The Ce (IV)-doped TiO2 nanoparticles displayed their superiority. The adsorption edge shifted to the 400-450 nm region. With visible light illuminated for 10 min, 10 μg/cm3 Ce (IV)-doped TiO2 induced micronuclei and significant apoptosis in 4 and 24 h, respectively. Hochest 33 258 staining of the fixed cells revealed typical apoptotic structures (apoptotic bodies), agarose gel electrophoresis showed typical DNA ladder pattern in treated cells but not in untreated ones. CONCLUSION: Ce (IV) doped TiO2 nanoparticles can induce apoptosis of Bel 7402 human hepatoma cells in the presence of visible light. PMID:17663520

  19. Enhancement in visible light-responsive photocatalytic activity by embedding Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles on multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, M.; Ahmed, E.; Hong, Z. L.; Jiao, X. L.; Abbas, T.; Khalid, N. R.

    2013-11-01

    Copper doped ZnO nanoparticles embedded on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were successfully synthesized using a facile, nontoxic sol method. The resulting visible light-responsive Cu-doped ZnO/CNTs composites were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area analyzer. Optical properties of Cu-doped ZnO/CNTs nanocomposites, studied using UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), which exhibited extended light absorption in visible light region and possessed better charge separation capability, respectively as compared to Cu-doped ZnO, pure ZnO and ZnO/CNTs composite. The photocatalytic activity was tested by degradation of methyl orange (MO) dye under visible light irradiation. The results demonstrated that Cu-doped ZnO/CNTs nanocomposites effectively bleached out MO, showing an impressive photocatalytic enhancement over ZnO, commercial ZnO, Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles and ZnO/CNTs nanocomposites. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) of textile wastewater was also measured before and after the photocatalysis experiment under sunlight to evaluate the mineralization of wastewater. The significant decrease in COD of the treated effluent revealed a complete destruction of the organic molecules along with color removal. This dramatically enhanced photoactivity of nanocomposite photocatalysts was attributed to greater adsorptivity of dyes, extended light absorption and increased charge separation efficiency due to excellent electrical properties of carbon nanotubes and the large surface area.

  20. Samarium and Nitrogen Co-Doped Bi2 WO6 Photocatalysts: Synergistic Effect of Sm(3+) /Sm(2+) Redox Centers and N-Doped Level for Enhancing Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fangzhi; Li, Wenjun; Gu, Shaonan; Li, Hongda; Wu, Xue; Liu, Xintong

    2016-08-26

    Samarium and nitrogen co-doped Bi2 WO6 nanosheets were successfully synthesized by using a hydrothermal method. The crystal structures, morphology, elemental compositions, and optical properties of the prepared samples were investigated. The incorporation of samarium and nitrogen ions into Bi2 WO6 was proved by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. UV/Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicated that the samarium and nitrogen co-doped Bi2 WO6 possessed strong visible-light absorption. Remarkably, the samarium and nitrogen co-doped Bi2 WO6 exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than single-doped and pure Bi2 WO6 under visible-light irradiation. Radical trapping experiments indicated that holes (h(+) ) and superoxide radicals ((.) O2 (-) ) were the main active species. The results of photoluminescence spectroscopy and photocurrent measurements demonstrated that the recombination rate of the photogenerated electrons and holes pairs was greatly depressed. The enhanced activity was attributed to the synergistic effect of the in-built Sm(3+) /Sm(2+) redox pair centers and the N-doped level. The mechanism of the excellent photocatalytic activity of Sm-N-Bi2 WO6 is also discussed. PMID:27464522

  1. Effects of emission layer doping on the spatial distribution of charge and host recombination rate density in organic light emitting devices: A numerical study

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yanli; Zhou, Maoqing; Zheng, Tingcai; Yao, Bo; Peng, Yingquan

    2013-12-28

    Based on drift-diffusion theory, a numerical model of the doping of a single energy level trap in the emission layer of an organic light emitting device (OLED) was developed, and the effects of doping of this single energy level trap on the distribution of the charge density, the recombination rate density, and the electric field in single- and double-layer OLEDs were studied numerically. The results show that by doping the n-type (p-type) emission layer with single energy electron (hole) traps, the distribution of the recombination rate density can be tuned and shifted, which is useful for improvement of the device performance by reduced electrode quenching or for realization of desirable special functions, e.g., emission spectrum tuning in multiple dye-doped white OLEDs.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and degradation of Bisphenol A using Pr, N co-doped TiO 2 with highly visible light activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Juan; Dai, Jun; Li, Jiantong

    2011-08-01

    Praseodymium and nitrogen co-doped titania (Pr/N-TiO 2) photocatalysts, which could degrade Bisphenol A (BPA) under visible light irradiation, were prepared by the modified sol-gel process. Tetrabutyl titanate, urea and praseodymium nitrate were used as the sources of titanium, nitrogen and praseodymium, respectively. The resulting materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherm and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR). It was found that Pr doping inhibited the growth of crystalline size and the transformation from anatase to rutile. The degradation of BPA under visible light illumination was taken as probe reaction to evaluate the photo-activity of the co-doped photocatalyst. In our experiments, the optimal dopant amount of Pr was 1.2 mol% and the calcination temperature was 500 °C for the best photocatalytic activity. Pr/N-TiO 2 samples exhibited enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity compared to N-TiO 2, undoped TiO 2 and commercial P25. The nitrogen atoms were incorporated into the crystal of titania and could narrow the band gap energy. Pr doping could slow the radiative recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes in TiO 2. The improvement of photocatalytic activity was ascribed to the synergistic effects of nitrogen and Pr co-doping.

  3. Slow and stored light by photo-isomerization induced transparency in dye doped chiral nematics.

    PubMed

    Wei, D; Bortolozzo, U; Huignard, J P; Residori, S

    2013-08-26

    Decelerating and stopping light is fundamental for optical processing, high performance sensor technologies and digital signal treatment, many of these applications relying on the ability of controlling the amplitude and phase of coherent light pulses. In this context, slow-light has been achieved by various methods, as coupling light into resonant media, Brillouin scattering in optical fibers, beam coupling in photorefractive and liquid crystal media or engineered dispersion in photonic crystals. Here, we present a different mechanism for slowing and storing light, which is based on photo-isomerization induced transparency of azo-dye molecules hosted in a chiral liquid crystal structure. Sharp spectral features of the medium absorption/dispersion, and the long population lifetime of the dye metastable state, enable the storage of light pulses with a significant retrieval after times much longer than the medium response time. PMID:24105502

  4. Application of visible-light photocatalysis with nitrogen-doped or unmodified titanium dioxide for control of indoor-level volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Kim, Jong-Tae

    2009-05-15

    The present study evaluated visible-light photocatalysis, applying an annular reactor coated with unmodified or nitrogen (N)-doped titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), to cleanse gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at indoor levels. The surface chemistry investigation of N-doped TiO(2) suggested that there was no significant residual of sulfate ions or urea species on the surface of the N-doped TiO(2). Under visible-light irradiation, the photocatalytic technique using N-doped TiO(2) was much superior to that for unmodified TiO(2) for the degradation of VOCs. Moreover, the degradation efficiency by a reactor coated with N-doped TiO(2) was well above 90% for four target compounds (ethyl benzene, o,m,p-xylenes), suggesting that this photocatalytic system can be effectively employed to cleanse these pollutants at indoor air quality (IAQ) levels. The degradation efficiency of all target compounds increased as the stream flow rate (SFR) decreased. For most target compounds, a reactor with a lower hydraulic diameter (HD) exhibited elevated degradation efficiency. The result on humidity effect suggested that the N-doped photocatalyst could be employed effectively to remove four target compounds (ethyl benzene, o,m,p-xylenes) under conditions of less humidified environments, including a typical indoor comfort range (50-60%). Consequently, it is suggested that with appropriate photocatalytic conditions, a visible-light-assisted N-doped photocatalytic system is clearly an important tool for improving IAQ. PMID:18809252

  5. Explicit drain current model of junctionless double-gate field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesayan, Ashkhen; Prégaldiny, Fabien; Sallese, Jean-Michel

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents an explicit drain current model for the junctionless double-gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor. Analytical relationships for the channel charge densities and for the drain current are derived as explicit functions of applied terminal voltages and structural parameters. The model is validated with 2D numerical simulations for a large range of channel thicknesses and is found to be very accurate for doping densities exceeding 1018 cm-3, which are actually used for such devices.

  6. Metal Oxide Induced Charge Transfer Doping and Band Alignment of Graphene Electrodes for Efficient Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jens; Kidambi, Piran R.; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Weijtens, Christ; Kuhn, Anton; Centeno, Alba; Pesquera, Amaia; Zurutuza, Amaia; Robertson, John; Hofmann, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    The interface structure of graphene with thermally evaporated metal oxide layers, in particular molybdenum trioxide (MoO3), is studied combining photoemission spectroscopy, sheet resistance measurements and organic light emitting diode (OLED) characterization. Thin (<5 nm) MoO3 layers give rise to an 1.9 eV large interface dipole and a downwards bending of the MoO3 conduction band towards the Fermi level of graphene, leading to a near ideal alignment of the transport levels. The surface charge transfer manifests itself also as strong and stable p-type doping of the graphene layers, with the Fermi level downshifted by 0.25 eV and sheet resistance values consistently below 50 Ω/sq for few-layer graphene films. The combination of stable doping and highly efficient charge extraction/injection allows the demonstration of simplified graphene-based OLED device stacks with efficiencies exceeding those of standard ITO reference devices. PMID:24946853

  7. Iron-Doped Carbon Nitride-Type Polymers as Homogeneous Organocatalysts for Visible Light-Driven Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lin-Feng; Wen, Ting; Xu, Jing-Yin; Zhai, Xin-Ping; Zhao, Min; Hu, Guo-Wen; Chen, Peng; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Hao-Li

    2016-01-13

    Graphitic carbon nitrides have appeared as a new type of photocatalyst for water splitting, but their broader and more practical applications are oftentimes hindered by the insolubility or difficult dispersion of the material in solvents. We herein prepared novel two-dimensional (2D) carbon nitride-type polymers doped by iron under a mild one-pot method through preorganizing formamide and citric acid precursors into supramolecular structures, which eventually polycondensed into a homogeneous organocatalyst for highly efficient visible light-driven hydrogen evolution with a rate of ∼16.2 mmol g(-1) h(-1) and a quantum efficiency of 0.8%. Laser photolysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements suggested that iron-doping enabled strong electron coupling between the metal and the carbon nitride and formed unique electronic structures favoring electron mobilization along the 2D nanomaterial plane, which might facilitate the electron transfer process in the photocatalytic system and lead to efficient H2 evolution. In combination with electrochemical measurements, the electron transfer dynamics during water reduction were depicted, and the earth-abundant Fe-based catalyst may open a sustainable strategy for conversion of sunlight into hydrogen energy and cope with current challenging energy issues worldwide. PMID:26650485

  8. High-efficiency yellow double-doped organic light-emitting devices based on phosphor-sensitized fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    D'Andrade, Brian W.; Baldo, Marc A.; Adachi, Chihaya; Brooks, Jason; Thompson, Mark E.; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2001-08-13

    We demonstrate high-efficiency yellow organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) employing [2-methyl-6-[2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H,5H-benzo[ij]quinolizin-9-yl-ethenyl]-4H-pyran-4-ylidene] propane-dinitrile (Dcm{sup 2}) as a fluorescent lumophore, with a green electrophospho- rescent sensitizer, fac tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium [Ir(ppy){sub 3}] co-doped into a 4,4{prime}-N,N{prime}dicarbazole-biphenyl host. The devices exhibit peak external fluorescent quantum and power efficiencies of 9%{+-}1% (25 cd/A) and 17{+-}2 lm/W at 0.01 mA/cm{sup 2}, respectively. At 10 mA/cm{sup 2}, the efficiencies are 4.1%{+-}0.5% (11 cd/A) and 3.1{+-}0.3 lm/W. We show that this exceptionally high performance for a fluorescent dye is due to the {approx}100% efficient transfer of both singlet and triplet excited states in the doubly doped host to the fluorescent material using Ir(ppy){sub 3} as a sensitizing agent. These results suggest that 100% internal quantum efficiency fluorescent OLEDs employing this sensitization process are within reach. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis and visible-light-driven photocatalytic degradation for tetracycline of Mn-doped SrTiO3 nanocubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guoling; Li, Ping; Xu, Dongbo; Luo, Bifu; Hong, Yuanzhi; Shi, Weidong; Liu, Chunbo

    2015-04-01

    Visible-light-driven manganese doped SrTiO3 nanocubes with various manganese atomic percentages in the range of 3-7%, were prepared by a hydrothermal method. These obtained photocatalysts were systematically characterized by XRD, EDX, TEM, STEM, XPS, UV-vis, PL, EIS. The results demonstrated that the Mn4+ has substituted into the lattice of SrTiO3 nanocubes and the absorption onset shifted toward the visible region. It is beneficial to the photocatalytic degradation of tetracycline under the visible light irradiation. Interestingly, the optimal doping atomic percentages at 5% exhibited the highest degradation rates (66.7%) in 60 min. The high photocatalytic activity could be ascribed to the Mn doping adjustment the energy band of SrTiO3 and the highly effective separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs. Furthermore, the possible photocatalytic mechanism has been discussed based on the active species trapping experiments and ESR analysis.

  10. Ag-doped ZnO nanorods coated metal wire meshes as hierarchical photocatalysts with high visible-light driven photoactivity and photostability.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Mu-Hsiang; Chang, Chi-Jung

    2014-08-15

    Ag-doped ZnO nanorods were grown on stainless-steel wire meshes to fabricate the hierarchical photocatalysts with excellent visible light driven activity and anti-photocorrosion property. Effects of Ag doping and the surface structure on the surface chemistry, surface wetting properties, absorption band shift, photoelectrochemical response, and photocatalytic decolorization properties of the hierarchical photocatalysts, together with the stability of photocatalytic activity for recycled photocatalysts were investigated. Ag doping leads to red-shift in the absorption band and increased visible light absorption. Nanorods coated wire meshes hierarchical structure not only increases the surface area of photocatalysts but also makes the surface hydrophilic. The photocatalytic activity enhancement and reduced photocorrosion can be achieved because of increased surface area, enhanced hydrophilicity, and the interaction between the metal wire/ZnO and Ag/ZnO heterostructure interface which can improve the charge separation of photogenerated charge carriers. PMID:24997260

  11. Multicolor upconversion luminescence of rare-earth doped Y2CaZnO5 nanophosphors for white lighting-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeswari, R.; Surendra Babu, S.; Jayasankar, C. K.

    2014-02-01

    Rare earth doped Y2CaZnO5 nanophosphors were synthesized via the citrate-gel combustion method. Transmission electron microscopy measurements reveal that the particles are distributed uniformly within the size range of 10-30 nm. The Er3+-doped Y2CaZnO5 nanophosphors show strong green upconversion luminescence, which is visible to the naked eye even at 20 mW excitation power of 980 nm diode laser. When these phosphors are codoped with Yb3+ ions, the emission changed to reddish color at higher Yb3+ ion concentrations. Moreover, these phosphors emitted bright white light luminescence when it is triply doped with Er3+/Tm 3+/Yb3+ ions, indicates Y2CaZnO5 nanophosphors are an ideal candidate for phosphor converted white light emitting diodes.

  12. History Dependent Magnetoresistance in Lightly Doped LaZxSrxCuO4Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Bozovic I.; Shi, X.; Popovic, D.; Panagopoulos, C.; Logvenov, G.; Bollinger, A.T.

    2012-06-01

    The in-plane magnetoresistance (MR) in atomically smooth La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} thin films grown by molecular-beam-epitaxy was measured in magnetic fields B up to 9 T over a wide range of temperatures T. The films, with x = 0.03 and x = 0.05, are insulating, and the positive MR emerges at T < 4 K. The positive MR exhibits glassy features, including history dependence and memory, for all orientations of B. The results show that this behavior, which reflects the onset of glassiness in the dynamics of doped holes, is a robust feature of the insulating state.

  13. Novel rare earth ions-doped oxyfluoride nano-composite with efficient upconversion white-light emission

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Daqin; Wang Yuansheng Yu Yunlong; Huang Ping; Weng Fangyi

    2008-10-15

    Transparent SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NaF-YF{sub 3} bulk nano-composites triply doped with Ho{sup 3+}, Tm{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} were fabricated by melt-quenching and subsequent heating. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements demonstrated the homogeneous precipitation of the {beta}-YF{sub 3} crystals with mean size of 20 nm among the glass matrix, and rare earth ions were found to partition into these nano-crystals. Under single 976 nm laser excitation, intense red, green and blue upconversion emissions were simultaneously observed owing to the successive energy transfer from Yb{sup 3+} to Ho{sup 3+} or Tm{sup 3+}. Various colors of luminescence, including bright perfect white light, can be easily tuned by adjusting the concentrations of the rare earth ions in the material. The overall energy efficiency of the white-light upconversion was estimated to be about 0.2%. - Graphical abstract: Under single 976 nm laser excitation, intense red, green and blue upconversion emissions were simultaneously observed owing to the successive energy transfer from Yb{sup 3+} to Ho{sup 3+} or Tm{sup 3+}. Various colors of luminescence, including bright perfect white light with CIE-X=0.351 and CIE-Y=0.306, can be easily tuned by adjusting the concentrations of the rare earth ions in the transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramics.

  14. Li and Ag Co-Doped ZnO Photocatalyst for Degradation of RO 4 Dye Under Solar Light Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Dhatshanamurthi, P; Shanthi, M

    2016-06-01

    The synthesis of Li doped Ag-ZnO (Li-Ag-ZnO) has been successfully achieved by a sonochemically assisted precipitation-decomposition method. The synthesized catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), photoluminescence spectra (PL), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and BET surface area measurements. The photocatalytic activity of Li-Ag-ZnO was investigated for the degradation of Reactive orange 4 (RO 4) dye in aqueous solution under solar light irradiation. Co-dopants shift the absorbance of ZnO to the visible region. Li-Ag-ZnO is found to be more efficient than Ag-ZnO, Li-ZnO, commercial ZnO and prepared ZnO at pH 7 for the mineralization of RO 4 dye under solar light irradiation. The influences of operational parameters such as the amount of photocatalyst, dye concentration, initial pH on photo-mineralization of RO 4 have been analyzed. The mineralization of RO 4 dye has been confirmed by COD measurements. A degradation mechanism is proposed for the degradation of RO 4 under solar light. The catalyst was found to be more stable and reusable. PMID:27427652

  15. Observation of low voltage driven green emission from erbium doped Ga2O3 light-emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhengwei; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Fabi; Noda, Shinji; Saito, Katsuhiko; Tanaka, Tooru; Nishio, Mitsuhiro; Arita, Makoto; Guo, Qixin

    2016-07-01

    Erbium doped Ga2O3 thin films were deposited on Si substrate by pulsed laser deposition method. Bright green emission (˜548 nm) can be observed by naked eye from Ga2O3:Er/Si light-emitting devices (LEDs). The driven voltage of this LEDs is 6.2 V which is lower than that of ZnO:Er/Si or GaN:Er/Si devices. Since the wide bandgap of Ga2O3 contain more defect-related level which will enhance the effects of recombination between electrons in the defect-related level and the holes in the valence band, resulting in the improvement of the energy transfer to Er ions. We believe that this work paves the way for the development of Si-based green LEDs by using wide bandgap Ga2O3 as the host materials for Er3+ ions.

  16. Red-Light-Emitting Diodes with Site-Selective Eu-Doped GaN Active Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Hiroto; Takagi, Yasufumi; Otani, Tatsuki; Matsumura, Ryota; Okada, Hiroshi; Wakahara, Akihiro

    2013-08-01

    Mg codoping into Eu-doped GaN (GaN:Eu) changed the dominant optical site and increased the photoluminescence (PL) intensity at room temperature (RT). From the ratio of PL integrated intensity at 25 K to that at 300 K, PL efficiency of the GaN:Eu,Mg layer was evaluated to be as high as 77%. On the basis of this experiment, GaN:Eu-based LEDs grown by NH3 MBE were fabricated. Clear rectification characteristics with a turn-on voltage of 3.2 V were observed and a pure red emission was observed by the naked eye at RT. For the electroluminescence (EL) spectra, two predominant peaks of higher-efficiency optical sites A and C were selectively enhanced and the EL intensity was improved. This result suggests that GaN:Eu was very effective for realizing red-light-emitting devices using the nitride semiconductor.

  17. Study of electrical current reconstruction on macropore arrays etched electrochemically on lightly-doped n-Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Chang-Yong; Zou, Yu; Jiang, Wen; Fan, Xiao-Qiang; Jiang, Yong; Feng, Qi-Jie; Li, Xing-Liang; Sun, Hua; Wu, Jian-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Silicon macropore arrays are fabricated on lightly-doped n-Si by electrochemical etching. The opening diameter, inner diameter, and wall thickness of the macropores are observed to depend on HF concentration and current. A current reconstruction model is proposed to elucidate the formation mechanism of the macropores. Two geometric models are established for the silicon macropores according to the experimental results. The finite element method is used to simulate the electric field and current in the electrolyte-silicon system. The reconstruction of electrical current on the silicon macropore arrays is described by simulating the electric field and current. The ratio of major to minor semi-axes of the elliptical pore (b/a) decreases with increasing the ratio of diameter to wall thickness as confirmed experimentally. The results indicate that the b/a ratio is correlated with the HF concentration and applied voltage.

  18. Light Emission and Slot Waveguide Effect in erbium-doped silicon dioxide/silicon nanocrystalline Multilayer Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yijing

    In this thesis, Er doped SiO2/nc-Si multilayer structure - a promising material for on-chip silicon light emission devices, is studied in detail. It is demonstrated, for the first time, that infrared Er emission could be enhanced by an Er doped SiO2/nc-Si multilayer structure. It is also determined that energy transfer from nc-Si to nearby Er ions, is responsible for this emission enhancement. The SiO2/nc-Si multilayer structure also works as a horizontal multi-slot waveguide, in which a high percentage of photons are strongly confined in the nanometer thin SiO2 layers, where the refractive index is lower than its surrounding environments. Owing to this unique photon distribution, we theoretically predicted and experimentally demonstrated that free carrier absorption (FCA) could be strongly suppressed. Our observation of free carrier suppression in this structure is the first experimental demonstration of this effect in a slot waveguide. Scattering loss from multiple interfaces in this device is the price needed to be paid for this benefit. To see if the costs outweigh the benefits, we proposed a model to theoretically calculate the scattering loss. Experimental measurements of the scattering loss, using a top scattering method, agree well with the simulation results. Based on the Er emission enhancement, the FCA suppression and the scattering loss due to multiple interfaces, a detailed parametric study suggested that overall optical gain at 1535 nm could be achieved under certain conditions. The last piece of our experiment is an ultrafast pump probe study of our device. The obtained results confirmed our observation of FCA suppression in the slot structure, and clearly showed a significant difference between Er doped and non-Er doped samples. This thesis is concluded with our vision for future research direction, including the optimization and detailed explanation of the energy transfer to achieve infrared optical gain from Er. We believe that the studies

  19. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic hydrogen evolution of sulfur-doped polymeric g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Lei; Han, Changcun; Xiao, Xinlai; Guo, Lele; Li, Yujing

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sulfur-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was prepared using thiourea as sulfur source. • The sulfur-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} shows significantly enhanced H{sub 2} evolution activity. • The doped sulfur species plays key roles in the improvement of H{sub 2} production. • Photocatalytic mechanism is proposed based on the experimental results. • The mechanism is confirmed by PL spectra and transient photocurrent curves. - Abstract: Visible light-activated sulfur-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalysts were successfully synthesized using thiourea as sulfur source. The obtained photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microcopy, ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and transient photocurrent response. The sulfur-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalysts show beneficial effects on visible light absorption, electron–hole pair generation and separation. The sulfur species doped in the samples was identified as S{sup 2−} to replace N atoms in the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} framework. The photocatalytic activities of the sulfur-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} under visible light were evaluated by hydrogen evolution from water splitting in aqueous solution containing methanol. The sulfur-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalyst showed the highest photocatalytic performance with H{sub 2} evolution rate of 12.16 μmol h{sup −1}, about 6 times higher than un-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. It can be concluded that the sulfur species play a vital role and act as active sites in the photocatalytic reaction. This novel sulfur-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} can be potentially used in energy and environmental applications.

  20. Photocatalytic comparison of Cu- and Ag-doped TiO2/GF for bioaerosol disinfection under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Thanh-Dong; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2015-12-01

    Photocatalysts, TiO2/glass fiber (TiO2/GF), Cu-doped TiO2/glass fiber (Cu-TiO2/GF) and Ag-doped TiO2/glass fiber (Ag-TiO2/GF), were synthesized by a sol-gel method. They were then used to disinfect Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in bioaerosols under visible light irradiation. TiO2/GF did not show any significant disinfection effect. Both Cu and Ag acted as intermediate agents to enhance separation efficiency of electron-hole pairs of TiO2, leading to improved photocatalytic activity of Cu-TiO2/GF and Ag-TiO2/GF under visible light. Cu in Cu-TiO2/GF acted as a defective agent, increasing the internal quantum efficiency of TiO2, while Ag in Ag-TiO2/GF acted as a sensitive agent, enhancing the transfer efficiency of the electrons generated. The highest disinfection efficiencies of E. coli and S. aureus by Cu-TiO2/GF were 84.85% and 65.21%, respectively. The highest disinfection efficiencies of E. coli and S. aureus by Ag-TiO2/GF were 94.46% and 73.12%, respectively. Among three humidity conditions - 40±5% (dry), 60±5% (moderate), and 80±5% (humid) - the moderate humidity condition showed the highest disinfection efficiency for both E. coli and S. aureus. This study also showed that a Gram-negative bacterium (E. coli) were more readily disinfected by the photocatalysts than a Gram-positive bacterium (S. aureus).

  1. N Doping to ZnO Nanorods for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting under Visible Light: Engineered Impurity Distribution and Terraced Band Structure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Ren, Feng; Zhou, Jigang; Cai, Guangxu; Cai, Li; Hu, Yongfeng; Wang, Dongniu; Liu, Yichao; Guo, Liejin; Shen, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    Solution-based ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs) were modified with controlled N doping by an advanced ion implantation method, and were subsequently utilized as photoanodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting under visible light irradiation. A gradient distribution of N dopants along the vertical direction of ZnO nanorods was realized. N doped ZnO NRAs displayed a markedly enhanced visible-light-driven PEC photocurrent density of ~160 μA/cm2 at 1.1 V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE), which was about 2 orders of magnitude higher than pristine ZnO NRAs. The gradiently distributed N dopants not only extended the optical absorption edges to visible light region, but also introduced terraced band structure. As a consequence, N gradient-doped ZnO NRAs can not only utilize the visible light irradiation but also efficiently drive photo-induced electron and hole transfer via the terraced band structure. The superior potential of ion implantation technique for creating gradient dopants distribution in host semiconductors will provide novel insights into doped photoelectrode materials for solar water splitting. PMID:26262752

  2. Visible light activity of Ag-loaded and guanidine nitrate-doped nano-TiO2: Degradation of dichlorophenol and antibacterial properties

    EPA Science Inventory

    To utilize visible light, co-doped nano-TiO2 was prepared via “one pot” synthesis using mild reaction conditions and benign precursors. Synthesis was optimized using an appropriate experimental design taking into account silver content and calcination temperature. The optimized ...

  3. N Doping to ZnO Nanorods for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting under Visible Light: Engineered Impurity Distribution and Terraced Band Structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Ren, Feng; Zhou, Jigang; Cai, Guangxu; Cai, Li; Hu, Yongfeng; Wang, Dongniu; Liu, Yichao; Guo, Liejin; Shen, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    Solution-based ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs) were modified with controlled N doping by an advanced ion implantation method, and were subsequently utilized as photoanodes for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting under visible light irradiation. A gradient distribution of N dopants along the vertical direction of ZnO nanorods was realized. N doped ZnO NRAs displayed a markedly enhanced visible-light-driven PEC photocurrent density of ~160 μA/cm(2) at 1.1 V vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE), which was about 2 orders of magnitude higher than pristine ZnO NRAs. The gradiently distributed N dopants not only extended the optical absorption edges to visible light region, but also introduced terraced band structure. As a consequence, N gradient-doped ZnO NRAs can not only utilize the visible light irradiation but also efficiently drive photo-induced electron and hole transfer via the terraced band structure. The superior potential of ion implantation technique for creating gradient dopants distribution in host semiconductors will provide novel insights into doped photoelectrode materials for solar water splitting. PMID:26262752

  4. GaAs MESFET with lateral non-uniform doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y. C.; Bahrami, M.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical model of the GaAs MESFET with arbitrary non-uniform doping is presented. Numerical results for linear lateral doping profile are given as a special case. Theoretical considerations predict that better device linearity and improved F(T) can be obtained by using linear lateral doping when doping density increases from source to drain.

  5. The Low-Temperature Synthesis and Optical Properties of Near-White Light Emission Nanophosphors Based on Manganese-Doped Zinc Sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hao-Ying; Chu, Sheng-Yuan; Tan, Soon-Seng

    2005-07-01

    Manganese-doped zinc sulfide as a nano scale phosphor has been prepared via a solid-state reaction employing zinc acetate, manganese acetate and thioacetamide (TAA). At a synthesis temperature of 100-300°C, the structure of 2 mol % Mn2+-doped ZnS nanoparticles was cubic, as identified from X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. Four temperatures were adopted to synthesize 2 mol % Mn2+-doped ZnS with particle sizes ranging from 3.9 to 7.0 nm. According to the quantum size effect, the increases in ZnS band-gap energy (calculated from photoluminescence excitation spectra and the Brus formula) were examined, and similar tendencies were obtained in the results of the two methods. From the photoluminescence (PL) spectra, two emission bands (blue-light emission and orange-light emission) were observed. The blue-light emission band resulted from the energy level of the ZnS matrix, and the orange-light emission band was assigned to the 4T1→{6A}1 transition of a Mn2+ ion in a ZnS matrix. By controlling the synthesis temperature, the ratio of the two light-emission intensities was tuned by increasing the excitation surface of ZnS matrix material. According to Commission Internationale de L'clairage (CIE) coordinates, a near-white-light emission was observed by this simple and rapid method.

  6. Adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of pharmaceuticals and pesticides by carbon doped-TiO2 coated on zeolites under solar light irradiation.

    PubMed

    An, Ye; de Ridder, David Johannes; Zhao, Chun; Schoutteten, Klaas; Bussche, Julie Vanden; Zheng, Huaili; Chen, Gang; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of zeolite-supported carbon-doped TiO(2) composite catalysts toward target pollutants under solar light irradiation, the adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of 18 pharmaceuticals and pesticides with distinguishing features (molecular size and volume, and photolysis) were investigated using mordenite zeolites with SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) ratios of 18 and 240. Different quantities of carbon-doped TiO(2) were coated on the zeolites, and then the finished composite catalysts were tested in demineralized, surface, and hospital wastewater samples, respectively. The composite photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and surface area and porosity analyses. Results showed that a dispersed layer of carbon-doped TiO(2) is formed on the zeolite surface; this layer blocks the micropores of zeolites and reduces their surface area. However, these reductions did not significantly affect adsorption onto the zeolites. Our results demonstrated that zeolite-supported carbon-doped TiO(2) systems can effectively degrade 18 pharmaceuticals and pesticides in demineralized water under natural and simulated solar light irradiation. In surface and hospital wastewaters, zeolite-supported carbon-doped TiO(2) systems present excellent anti-interference capability against radical scavengers and competitive organics for pollutants removal, and higher pollutants adsorption on zeolites evidently enhances the removal rate of target pollutants in surface and hospital wastewater samples with a complicated matrix. PMID:27332831

  7. Facile one-step synthesis of N-doped ZnO micropolyhedrons for efficient photocatalytic degradation of formaldehyde under visible-light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Changle

    2014-11-01

    N-doped ZnO micropolyhedrons were fabricated by calcining the mixture of commercial ZnO (analytical grade) and NH4NO3 at 600 °C for 1.5 h, in which NH4NO3 was utilized as the nitrogen source. The structure, composition, BET specific surface area and optical properties of N-doped ZnO sample were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic results demonstrated that the as-synthesized N-doped ZnO microcrystals possessed much higher photocatalytic activity than N-doped TiO2 (which was synthesized by calcining the mixture of P25 TiO2 and NH4NO3 at 600 °C for 1.5 h) and commercial pure ZnO in the decomposition of formaldehyde under visible-light (λ > 420 nm) irradiation. The present work suggests that NH4NO3 is a promising nitrogen source for one-step calcination synthesis of microcrystalline N-doped ZnO, which can be applied as a visible-light-activated photocatalyst in efficient utilization of solar energy for treating formaldehyde wastewater.

  8. Effect of bismuth doping on the ZnO nanocomposite material and study of its photocatalytic activity under UV-light

    SciTech Connect

    Chandraboss, V.L.; Natanapatham, L.; Karthikeyan, B.; Kamalakkannan, J.; Prabha, S.; Senthilvelan, S.

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The hetero-junctions that are formed between the ZnO and the Bi provide an internal electric field that facilitates separation of the electron-hole pairs and induces faster carrier migration. Thus they often enhanced photocatalytic reaction. - Highlights: • Bi-doped ZnO nanocomposite material was prepared by precipitation method. • Characterized by XRD, HR-SEM with EDX, UV–visible DRS and FT-RAMAN analysis. • Bi-doped ZnO nanocomposite material was used to photodegradation of Congo red. • Mechanism and photocatalytic effect of nanocomposite material have been discussed. - Abstract: Bismuth (Bi)-doped ZnO nanocomposite material was prepared by precipitation method with doping precursors of bismuth nitrate pentahydrate and oxalic acid, characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Scanning Electron Microscopy (HR-SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, UV–visible Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (UV–visible DRS) and Fourier Transform-Raman (FT-RAMAN) analysis. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the Bi-doped ZnO is demonstrated through photodegradation of Congo red under UV-light irradiation. The mechanism of photocatalytic effect of Bi-doped ZnO nanocomposite material has been discussed.

  9. Improvement of carrier injection symmetry and quantum efficiency in InGaN light-emitting diodes with Mg delta-doped barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, F.; Can, N.; Hafiz, S.; Monavarian, M.; Das, S.; Avrutin, V.; Özgür, Ü. Morkoç, H.

    2015-05-04

    The effect of δ-doping of In{sub 0.06}Ga{sub 0.94}N barriers with Mg on the quantum efficiency of blue light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) with active regions composed of 6 (hex) 3-nm In{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}N is investigated. Compared to the reference sample, δ-doping of the first barrier on the n-side of the LED structure improves the peak external quantum efficiency (EQE) by 20%, owing to the increased hole concentration in the wells adjacent to the n-side, as confirmed by numerical simulations of carrier distributions across the active region. Doping the second barrier, in addition to the first one, did not further enhance the EQE, which likely indicates compensation of improved hole injection by degradation of the active region quality due to Mg doping. Both LEDs with Mg δ-doped barriers effectively suppress the drop of efficiency at high injection when compared to the reference sample, and the onset of EQE peak roll-off shifts from ∼80 A/cm{sup 2} in the reference LED to ∼120 A/cm{sup 2} in the LEDs with Mg δ-doped barriers.

  10. Tuning near-gap electronic structure, interface charge transfer and visible light response of hybrid doped graphene and Ag3PO4 composite: Dopant effects

    PubMed Central

    He, Chao-Ni; Huang, Wei-Qing; Xu, Liang; Yang, Yin-Cai; Zhou, Bing-Xin; Huang, Gui-Fang; Peng, P.; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The enhanced photocatalytic performance of doped graphene (GR)/semiconductor nanocomposites have recently been widely observed, but an understanding of the underlying mechanisms behind it is still out of reach. As a model system to study the dopant effects, we investigate the electronic structures and optical properties of doped GR/Ag3PO4 nanocomposites using the first-principles calculations, demonstrating that the band gap, near-gap electronic structure and interface charge transfer of the doped GR/Ag3PO4(100) composite can be tuned by the dopants. Interestingly, the doping atom and C atoms bonded to dopant become active sites for photocatalysis because they are positively or negatively charged due to the charge redistribution caused by interaction. The dopants can enhance the visible light absorption and photoinduced electron transfer. We propose that the N atom may be one of the most appropriate dopants for the GR/Ag3PO4 photocatalyst. This work can rationalize the available experimental results about N-doped GR-semiconductor composites, and enriches our understanding on the dopant effects in the doped GR-based composites for developing high-performance photocatalysts. PMID:26923338

  11. Emerging cool white light emission from Dy(3+) doped single phase alkaline earth niobate phosphors for indoor lighting applications.

    PubMed

    Vishwakarma, Amit K; Jha, Kaushal; Jayasimhadri, M; Sivaiah, B; Gahtori, Bhasker; Haranath, D

    2015-10-21

    Single-phase cool white-light emitting BaNb2O6:Dy(3+) phosphors have been synthesized via a conventional solid-state reaction method and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and spectrofluorophotometric measurements. XRD and Rietveld structural refinement studies confirm that all the samples exhibit pure orthorhombic structure [space group -C2221(20)]. SEM observations reveal the dense particle packaging with irregular morphology in a micron range. The as-prepared phosphors exhibit blue (482 nm) and yellow (574 nm) emissions under 349, 364, 386 and 399 nm excitations corresponding to (4)F9/2→(6)HJ (J = 15/2, 13/2) transitions of Dy(3+) ions. The energy transfer mechanism between Dy(3+) ions has been studied in detail and the luminescence decay lifetime for the (4)F9/2 level was found to be around 146.07 μs for the optimized phosphor composition. The calculated Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates for the optimized phosphor are (x = 0.322, y = 0.339), which are close to the National Television Standard Committee (NTSC) (x = 0.310, y = 0.316) coordinates. The values of CIE chromaticity coordinates and correlated color temperature (CCT) of 5907 K endorse cool white-light emission from the phosphor. The study reveals that BaNb2O6:Dy(3+) phosphor could be a potential candidate for near ultra-violet (NUV) excited white-LED applications. PMID:26374377

  12. Energy-level matching of Fe(III) ions grafted at surface and doped in bulk for efficient visible-light photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Qiu, Xiaoqing; Miyauchi, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Kazuhito

    2013-07-10

    Photocatalytic reaction rate (R) is determined by the multiplication of light absorption capability (α) and quantum efficiency (QE); however, these two parameters generally have trade-off relations. Thus, increasing α without decreasing QE remains a challenging issue for developing efficient photocatalysts with high R. Herein, using Fe(III) ions grafted Fe(III) doped TiO2 as a model system, we present a novel method for developing visible-light photocatalysts with efficient R, utilizing the concept of energy level matching between surface-grafted Fe(III) ions as co-catalysts and bulk-doped Fe(III) ions as visible-light absorbers. Photogenerated electrons in the doped Fe(III) states under visible-light efficiently transfer to the surface grafted Fe(III) ions co-catalysts, as the doped Fe(III) ions in bulk produced energy levels below the conduction band of TiO2, which match well with the potential of Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) redox couple in the surface grafted Fe(III) ions. Electrons in the surface grafted Fe(III) ions efficiently cause multielectron reduction of adsorbed oxygen molecules to achieve high QE value. Consequently, the present Fe(III)-FexTi1-xO2 nanocomposites exhibited the highest visible-light R among the previously reported photocatalysts for decomposition of gaseous organic compounds. The high R can proceed even under commercial white-light emission diode irradiation and is very stable for long-term use, making it practically useful. Further, this efficient method could be applied in other wide-band gap semiconductors, including ZnO or SrTiO3, and may be potentially applicable for other photocatalysis systems, such as water splitting, CO2 reduction, NOx removal, and dye decomposition. Thus, this method represents a strategic approach to develop new visible-light active photocatalysts for practical uses. PMID:23768256

  13. 38. View of 6' valve for draining Wolslegal Basin, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. View of 6' valve for draining Wolslegal Basin, looking south from north side of the basin. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  14. Visible-Light-Responsive Photocatalysis: Ag-Doped TiO2 Catalyst Development and Reactor Design Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Hintze, Paul E.; Meier, Anne; Shah, Malay G.; Devor, Robert W.; Surma, Jan M.; Maloney, Phillip R.; Bauer, Brint M.; Mazyck, David W.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the alteration of titanium dioxide to become visible-light-responsive (VLR) has been a major focus in the field of photocatalysis. Currently, bare titanium dioxide requires ultraviolet light for activation due to its band gap energy of 3.2 eV. Hg-vapor fluorescent light sources are used in photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) reactors to provide adequate levels of ultraviolet light for catalyst activation; these mercury-containing lamps, however, hinder the use of this PCO technology in a spaceflight environment due to concerns over crew Hg exposure. VLR-TiO2 would allow for use of ambient visible solar radiation or highly efficient visible wavelength LEDs, both of which would make PCO approaches more efficient, flexible, economical, and safe. Over the past three years, Kennedy Space Center has developed a VLR Ag-doped TiO2 catalyst with a band gap of 2.72 eV and promising photocatalytic activity. Catalyst immobilization techniques, including incorporation of the catalyst into a sorbent material, were examined. Extensive modeling of a reactor test bed mimicking air duct work with throughput similar to that seen on the International Space Station was completed to determine optimal reactor design. A bench-scale reactor with the novel catalyst and high-efficiency blue LEDs was challenged with several common volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in ISS cabin air to evaluate the system's ability to perform high-throughput trace contaminant removal. The ultimate goal for this testing was to determine if the unit would be useful in pre-heat exchanger operations to lessen condensed VOCs in recovered water thus lowering the burden of VOC removal for water purification systems.

  15. Adsorption and solar light decomposition of acetone on anatase TiO2 and niobium doped TiO2 thin films.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Andreas; Leideborg, Michael; Larsson, Karin; Westin, Gunnar; Osterlund, Lars

    2006-01-26

    Adsorption and solar light decomposition of acetone was studied on nanostructured anatase TiO2 and Nb-doped TiO2 films made by sol-gel methods (10 and 20 mol % NbO2.5). A detailed characterization of the film materials show that films contain only nanoparticles with the anatase modification with pentavalent Nb oxide dissolved into the anatase structure, which is interpreted as formation of substituted Nb=O clusters in the anatase lattice. The Nb-doped films displayed a slight yellow color and an enhanced the visible light absorption with a red-shift of the optical absorption edge from 394 nm for the pure TiO2 film to 411 nm for 20 mol % NbO2.5. In-situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) transmission spectroscopy shows that acetone adsorbs associatively with eta1-coordination to the surface cations on all films. On Nb-doped TiO2 films, the carbonyl bonding to the surface is stabilized, which is evidenced by a lowering of the nu(C=O) frequency by about 20 cm(-1) to 1672 cm(-1). Upon solar light illumination acetone is readily decomposed on TiO2, and stable surface coordinated intermediates are formed. The decomposition rate is an order of magnitude smaller on the Nb-doped films despite an enhanced visible light absorption in these materials. The quantum yield is determined to be 0.053, 0.004 and 0.002 for the pure, 10% Nb:TiO2, and 20%Nb:TiO2, respectively. Using an interplay between FTIR and DFT calculations we show that the key surface intermediates are bidentate bridged formate and carbonate, and H-bonded bicarbonate, respectively, whose concentration on the surface can be correlated with their heats of formation and bond strength to coordinatively unsaturated surface Ti and Nb atoms at the surface. The oxidation rate of these intermediates is substantially slower than the initial acetone decomposition rate, and limits the total oxidation rate at t>7 min on TiO2, while no decrease of the rate is observed on the Nb-doped films. The rate of degradation of key surface

  16. Highly Efficient F, Cu doped TiO2 anti-bacterial visible light active photocatalytic coatings to combat hospital-acquired infections

    PubMed Central

    Leyland, Nigel S.; Podporska-Carroll, Joanna; Browne, John; Hinder, Steven J.; Quilty, Brid; Pillai, Suresh C.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections are a major threat to the health of patients in healthcare facilities including hospitals. One of the major causes of patient morbidity is infection with Staphylococcus aureus. One of the the most dominant nosocomial bacteria, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been reported to survive on hospital surfaces (e.g. privacy window glasses) for up to 5 months. None of the current anti-bacterial technology is efficient in eliminating Staphylococcus aureus. A novel transparent, immobilised and superhydrophilic coating of titanium dioxide, co-doped with fluorine and copper has been prepared on float glass substrates. Antibacterial activity has demonstrated (by using Staphylococcus aureus), resulting from a combination of visible light activated (VLA) photocatalysis and copper ion toxicity. Co-doping with copper and fluorine has been shown to improve the performance of the coating, relative to a purely fluorine-doped VLA photocatalyst. Reductions in bacterial population of log10 = 4.2 under visible light irradiation and log10 = 1.8 in darkness have been achieved, compared with log10 = 1.8 under visible light irradiation and no activity, for a purely fluorine-doped titania. Generation of reactive oxygen species from the photocatalytic coatings is the major factor that significantly reduces the bacterial growth on the glass surfaces. PMID:27098010

  17. Highly Efficient F, Cu doped TiO2 anti-bacterial visible light active photocatalytic coatings to combat hospital-acquired infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyland, Nigel S.; Podporska-Carroll, Joanna; Browne, John; Hinder, Steven J.; Quilty, Brid; Pillai, Suresh C.

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial infections are a major threat to the health of patients in healthcare facilities including hospitals. One of the major causes of patient morbidity is infection with Staphylococcus aureus. One of the the most dominant nosocomial bacteria, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been reported to survive on hospital surfaces (e.g. privacy window glasses) for up to 5 months. None of the current anti-bacterial technology is efficient in eliminating Staphylococcus aureus. A novel transparent, immobilised and superhydrophilic coating of titanium dioxide, co-doped with fluorine and copper has been prepared on float glass substrates. Antibacterial activity has demonstrated (by using Staphylococcus aureus), resulting from a combination of visible light activated (VLA) photocatalysis and copper ion toxicity. Co-doping with copper and fluorine has been shown to improve the performance of the coating, relative to a purely fluorine-doped VLA photocatalyst. Reductions in bacterial population of log10 = 4.2 under visible light irradiation and log10 = 1.8 in darkness have been achieved, compared with log10 = 1.8 under visible light irradiation and no activity, for a purely fluorine-doped titania. Generation of reactive oxygen species from the photocatalytic coatings is the major factor that significantly reduces the bacterial growth on the glass surfaces.

  18. Highly Efficient F, Cu doped TiO2 anti-bacterial visible light active photocatalytic coatings to combat hospital-acquired infections.

    PubMed

    Leyland, Nigel S; Podporska-Carroll, Joanna; Browne, John; Hinder, Steven J; Quilty, Brid; Pillai, Suresh C

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections are a major threat to the health of patients in healthcare facilities including hospitals. One of the major causes of patient morbidity is infection with Staphylococcus aureus. One of the the most dominant nosocomial bacteria, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been reported to survive on hospital surfaces (e.g. privacy window glasses) for up to 5 months. None of the current anti-bacterial technology is efficient in eliminating Staphylococcus aureus. A novel transparent, immobilised and superhydrophilic coating of titanium dioxide, co-doped with fluorine and copper has been prepared on float glass substrates. Antibacterial activity has demonstrated (by using Staphylococcus aureus), resulting from a combination of visible light activated (VLA) photocatalysis and copper ion toxicity. Co-doping with copper and fluorine has been shown to improve the performance of the coating, relative to a purely fluorine-doped VLA photocatalyst. Reductions in bacterial population of log10 = 4.2 under visible light irradiation and log10 = 1.8 in darkness have been achieved, compared with log10 = 1.8 under visible light irradiation and no activity, for a purely fluorine-doped titania. Generation of reactive oxygen species from the photocatalytic coatings is the major factor that significantly reduces the bacterial growth on the glass surfaces. PMID:27098010

  19. Hydrothermal fabrication of N-doped (BiO)2CO3: Structural and morphological influence on the visible light photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Fan; Wang, Rui; Li, Xinwei; Ho, Wing-Kei

    2014-11-01

    Various 3D N-doped (BiO)2CO3 (N-BOC) hierarchical superstructures self-assembled with 2D nanosheets were fabricated by one-step hydrothermal treatment of bismuth citrate and urea. The as-obtained samples were characterized by XRD, XPS, FT-IR, SEM, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms and UV-vis DRS. The hydrothermal temperature plays a crucial role in tuning the crystal and morphological structure of the samples. Adjusting the reaction temperature to 150, 180 and 210 °C, we obtained N-doped (BiO)2CO3 samples with corresponding attractive persimmon-like, flower-like and nanoflakes nano/microstructures. The photocatalytic activities of the samples were evaluated by removal of NO under visible and solar light irradiation. The results revealed that the N-doped (BiO)2CO3 hierarchical superstructures showed enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity compared to pure (BiO)2CO3 and TiO2-based visible light photocatalysts. The outstanding photocatalytic performance of N-BOC samples can be ascribed to the doped nitrogen and the special hierarchical structure. The present work could provide new perspectives in controlling the morphological structure and photocatalytic activity of photocatalyst for better environmental pollution control.

  20. Light-hole exciton mixing and dynamics in Mn-doped quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldoveanu, V.; Dinu, I. V.; Dragomir, R.; Tanatar, B.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate theoretically the spectral and dynamical effects of the short-range exchange interaction between a single manganese (Mn) atom hosted by cylindrical CdTe quantum dots and its light-hole excitons or biexcitons. Our approach is based on the Kohn-Luttinger k .p theory and configuration interaction method, the dynamics of the system in the presence of intraband relaxation being derived from the von Neumann-Lindblad equation. The complex structure of the light-hole exciton absorption spectrum reveals the exchange-induced exciton mixing and depends strongly on the Mn position. In particular, if the Mn atom is closer to the edges of the cylinder, the bright and dark light-hole excitons are mixed by the hole-Mn exchange alone. Consequently, their populations exhibit exchange-induced Rabi oscillations which can be viewed as optical signatures of light-hole spin reversal. Similar results are obtained for mixed biexcitons, in this case the exchange-induced Rabi oscillations being damped by the intraband hole relaxation processes. The effect of light-hole heavy-hole mixing is also discussed.

  1. Electrostatic Discharge Characteristics of InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Si-Doped Graded Superlattice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwanjae; Lee, Cheul-Ro; Kim, Jin Soo; Lee, Jin Hong; Lim, Kee Young; Leem, Jae-Young

    2015-10-01

    We report the influences of a Si-doped graded superlattice (SiGSL) on the electrostatic discharge (ESD) characteristics of an InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode (LED). For comparison, a conventional InGaN/GaN LED (C-LED) was also investigated. The luminous efficacy for the SiGSL-LED was 2.68 times stronger than that for the C-LED at the injection current of 20 mA. The resistances estimated from current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curves were 16.5 and 8.8 Ω for the C-LED and SiGSL-LED, respectively. After the ESD treatment at the voltages of 4000 and 6000 V, there was no significant change in the I-V curves for the SiGSL-LED. Also, there was small variation in the I-V characteristics for the SiGSL-LED at the ESD voltage of 8000 V. However, the I-V curves for the C-LED were drastically degraded with increasing ESD voltage. While the light emission was not observed at the injection current of 20 mA from the C-LED sample after the ESD treatment, the emission spectra for the SiGSL-LED sample were clearly measured with the output powers of 10.47, 9.66, and 7.27 mW for the ESD voltages of 4000, 6000, and 8000 V respectively. PMID:26726403

  2. Reappraisal of flow to tile drains III. Drains with limited flow capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, S.; Rushton, K. R.

    1996-09-01

    This third paper of the series on the reappraisal of flow to tile drains considers the time-variant situations in tile drain drainage systems when the quantity of water carried by tile drains is limited due to the capacity of the drains or the pumping equipment. Two categories of problem are analysed in this paper: (i) a series of parallel tile drains with a maximum specified flow and (ii) interceptor drains in the vicinity of canals. Complete details for satisfying the maximum specified flow conditions in tile drains are given. The effect of different capacities of tile drains on the performance of drainage system is explored.

  3. Food contact surfaces coated with nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide: effect on Listeria monocytogenes survival under different light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, D.; Teixeira, P.; Tavares, C. J.; Azeredo, J.

    2013-04-01

    Improvement of food safety is a very important issue, and is on the basis of production and application of new/modified food contact surfaces. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and, more recently, nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO2) coatings are among the possible forms to enhance food contact surfaces performance in terms of higher hygiene and easier sanitation. In this context, the present work aimed at evaluating the bactericidal activity of an N-TiO2 coating on glass and stainless steel under two different sources of visible light - fluorescent and incandescent - and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Listeria monocytogenes was chosen as representative of major foodborne pathogens and its survival was tested on N-TiO2 coated coupons. In terms of survival percentage, good results were obtained after exposure of coated surfaces to all light types since, apart from the value obtained after exposing glass to fluorescent light (56.3%), survival rates were always below 50%. However, no effective disinfection was obtained, given that for a disinfectant or sanitizing agent to be claimed as effective it needs to be able to promote at least a 3-log reduction of the microbial load, which was not observed for any of the experimental conditions assessed. Even so, UV irradiation was the most successful on eliminating cells on coated surfaces, since the amount of bacteria was reduced to 1.49 × 106 CFU/ml on glass and 2.37 × 107 on stainless steel. In contrast, both visible light sources had only slightly decreased the amount of viable cells, which remained in the range of 8 log CFU/ml. Hence, although some bactericidal effect was accomplished under visible light, UV was the most effective light source on promoting photocatalytic reactions on N-TiO2 coated coupons and none of the experimental conditions have reached a satisfactory disinfection level. Thus, this surface coating needs further research and improvement in order to become truly effective against foodborne pathogens and

  4. Driving voltage reduction in white organic light-emitting devices from selectively doping in ambipolar blue-emitting layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Chih-Hung; Lin, Chi-Feng; Lee, Jiun-Haw

    2007-11-01

    White organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) consisting of ambipolar 9,10-bis(2'-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN) as a host of blue-emitting layer (EML) were investigated. A thin codoped layer of yellow 5,6,11,12-Tetraphenylnaphthacene (rubrene) served as a probe for detecting the position of maximum recombination rate in the 4,4'-bis[2-(4-(N,N-diphenylamino)phenyl)vinyl]biphenyl (DPAVBi) doped-ADN EML. Due to the energy barrier and bipolar carrier transport, the maximum recombination rate was found to be close to but not exactly at the interface of the hole-transporting layer and the EML. With appropriate tuning in the thickness, position, and dopant concentrations of the codoped layer (rubrene:DPAVBi:ADN) in the EML, the device driving voltage decreased by 21.7%, nearly 2 V in reduction, due to the increased recombination current from the faster exciton relaxation induced by the yellow dopants. Among the advantages of introducing the codoped layer over conventional single-doped layers are the elimination of the trapping effect to avoid increasing the device driving voltage, the alleviation of the dependence of the recombination zone on the applied voltage for improving color stability, and the utilization of excitons in a more efficient way to enhance device efficiency. Without using any electrically conductive layers such as the p-i-n structure, we were able to successfully generate 112 cd/m2 at 4 V from our white OLED simply by engineering the structure of the EML.

  5. Low temperature preparation of Ag-doped ZnO nanowire arrays for sensor and light-emitting diode applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupan, O.; Viana, B.; Cretu, V.; Postica, V.; Adelung, R.; Pauporté, T.

    2016-02-01

    Transition metal doped-oxide semiconductor nanostructures are important to achieve enhanced and new properties for advanced applications. We describe the low temperature preparation of ZnO:Ag nanowire/nanorod (NW/NR) arrays by electrodeposition at 90 °C. The NWs have been characterized by SEM, EDX, transmittance and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The integration of Ag in the crystal is shown. Single nanowire/nanorod of ZnO:Ag was integrated in a nanosensor structure leading to new and enhanced properties. The ultraviolet (UV) response of the nanosensor was investigated at room temperature. Experimental results indicate that ZnO:Ag (0.75 μM) nanosensor possesses faster response/recovery time and better response to UV light than those reported in literature. The sensor structure has been also shown to give a fast response for the hydrogen detection with improved performances compared to pristine ZnO NWs. ZnO:Ag nanowire/nanorod arrays electrochemically grown on p-type GaN single crystal layer is also shown to act as light emitter in LED structures. The emission wavelength is red-shifted compared to pristine ZnO NW array. At low Ag concentration a single UV-blue emission is found whereas at higher concentration of dopant the emission is broadened and extends up to the red wavelength range. Our study indicates that high quality ZnO:Ag NW/NR prepared at low temperature by electrodeposition can serve as building nanomaterials for new sensors and light emitting diodes (LEDs) structures with low-power consumption.

  6. Ho3+-doped strontium-aluminium-bismuth-borate glasses for green light emission.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, D; Dhamodhara Naidu, M; Ratnakaram, Y C; Balakrishna, A

    2014-11-01

    Strontium-aluminium-bismuth-borate glasses (SAlBiB) doped with different concentrations of Ho(3+) were prepared using conventional melt quenching technique and their structural and optical properties investigated. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis were used to study the structural properties. Optical properties were studied by measuring the optical absorption and visible luminescence spectra. The Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory was applied to evaluate J-O intensity parameters, Ω(λ) (λ = 2, 4 and 6). Using J-O intensity parameters, radiative properties such as spontaneous transition probabilities (A(R)), branching ratios (β(R)) and radiative lifetimes (τ(R)) were determined. From the emission spectra, a strong green emission nearly at 549 nm corresponding to the transition, (5)S2 ((5)F4)→(5)I(8) was observed. Emission peak positions (λ(P)), effective bandwidths (Δλ(eff)) and stimulated emission cross-sections (σ(p)) were calculated for the observed emission transitions, (5)F3 →(5)I(8), (5)S2((5)F4)→(5)I(8) and (5)F5 →(5)I(8) of Ho(3+) in all the glass matrices. Chromaticity color coordinates were calculated using the emission spectra. The experimental results suggest that SAlBiB glass matrix with 1.5 mol% of Ho(3+) has better emission properties. PMID:24519914

  7. Light emission and microstructure of Mg-doped AlGaN grown on patterned sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, A.; Liu, R.; Ponce, F. A.; Amano, H.; Akasaki, I.; Cherns, D.

    2003-01-01

    Distinct crystalline and optical properties have been observed in Mg-doped Al0.03Ga0.97N grown on a patterned sapphire substrate; the pattern consisting of etched trenches along the sapphire <112¯0> direction. The epilayer has two distinct regions: one grown directly onto the sapphire mesa and the other an epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) region that overhangs the trench. Transmission electron microscopy shows the presence of pyramidal defects as well as large dislocation densities in the region grown directly on sapphire. In contrast, the ELO region is defect free and contains no Mg-related pyramidal defects. Cathodoluminescence measurements show superior near-band-edge emission in the ELO region, suggesting that the emission is susceptible to nonradiative centers caused by the high defect density in the rest of the sample. The Mg-related donor-acceptor-pair emission is fairly uniform throughout the film, indicating that it is not affected by the nonradiative centers. These optical and structural properties of AlGaN are closely related to the direction of the growth front.

  8. Light amplification in dye-doped DNA-surfactant complex films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabe, Yutaka; Wang, Lili; Koyama, T.; Horinouchi, Suguru; Ogata, Naoya

    2000-11-01

    We observed amplified spontaneous emission (laser action without cavities) from several kinds of dyes doped in films of salmon DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) derivatives. We employed laser dye Rhodamine-6G, Pyrromethene 556, and nonlinear optical dye DMASDPB for dopants. Most of sample films with several micrometers thickness were prepared as follows: 1) DNA aqueous solution was mixed with hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride aqueous solution. 2) precipitated DNA-lipid complex and dyes were dissolved in ethanol or chloroform. 3) Films were formed on substrates by casting from the solution. The amplified spontaneous emission was observed when the films were pumped with a nanosecond laser of 532 nm at the intensity above a threshold value. Spectral narrowing occurred at the threshold energy, and it was accompanied with superlinear dependence of the emission intensity on the pumping intensity. Dye molecules in DNA films can be intercalated in the double helix structure. Because molecules are separated form one another, it is possible to increase chromophore concentration without fluorescence quenching due to aggregation. Furthermore, it is known that DNA shows a good conducting property. We will discuss the possibility of optical and electronic devices utilizing these characteristics.

  9. Heater drain system transient monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Voll, B.J.; Farsaci, C.D.

    1995-12-01

    Feedwater heater drain systems are susceptible to unstable, two phase flow conditions. These instabilities are difficult to predict and are dependent on plant-specific system designs and operating conditions. Therefore, significant vibrations and transient events can occur that the systems are not specifically designed for. This paper describes how heater drain system responses due to unanticipated transient events at a nuclear plant were captured and quantified using a digital data acquisition system. The setup of the data acquisition system, including the determination of what parameters to monitor and how to effectively capture potential transient events, is discussed. This paper also discusses the monitoring results and their relevance to system modification evaluations and root cause evaluations.

  10. Roles of lightly doped carbon in the drift layers of vertical n-GaN Schottky diode structures on freestanding GaN substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takeshi; Kaneda, Naoki; Mishima, Tomoyoshi; Kihara, Yuhei; Aoki, Toshichika; Shiojima, Kenji

    2015-04-01

    We studied the roles of lightly doped carbon in a series of n-GaN Schottky diode epitaxial structures on freestanding GaN substrates, and evaluated the effects of the doping on diode performances. A large variation of compensation ratio was observed for carbon doping at (1-2) × 1016 cm-3. A model was proposed to explain this phenomenon, in which a vulnerable balance between donor-type CGa and deep acceptor CN strongly affected the free-carrier generation. Application of Norde plots and reverse biased leakage current in current-voltage measurements suggested provisional optimization for a free-carrier concentration of 8 × 1015 cm-3 to achieve a tradeoff between breakdown voltage and on-resistance of the n-GaN diodes.

  11. Generation of airborne listeria from floor drains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes can colonize floor drains in poultry processing and further processing facilities remaining even after cleaning and disinfection. Therefore, during wash down, workers exercise caution to prevent escape and transfer of drain microflora to food contact surfaces. The objective ...

  12. Low-Temperature Preparation of Ag-Doped ZnO Nanowire Arrays, DFT Study, and Application to Light-Emitting Diode.

    PubMed

    Pauporté, Thierry; Lupan, Oleg; Zhang, Jie; Tugsuz, Tugba; Ciofini, Ilaria; Labat, Frédéric; Viana, Bruno

    2015-06-10

    Doping ZnO nanowires (NWs) by group IB elements is an important challenge for integrating nanostructures into functional devices with better and tuned performances. The growth of Ag-doped ZnO NWs by electrodeposition at 90 °C using a chloride bath and molecular oxygen precursor is reported. Ag acts as an electrocatalyst for the deposition and influences the nucleation and growth of the structures. The silver atomic concentration in the wires is controlled by the additive concentration in the deposition bath and a content up to 3.7 atomic % is reported. XRD analysis shows that the integration of silver enlarges the lattice parameters of ZnO. The optical measurements also show that the direct optical bandgap of ZnO is reduced by silver doping. The bandgap shift and lattice expansion are explained by first principle calculations using the density functional theory (DFT) on the silver impurity integration as an interstitial (Ag(i)) and as a substitute of zinc atom (Ag(Zn)) in the crystal lattice. They notably indicate that Ag(Zn) doping forms an impurity band because of Ag 4d and O 2p orbital interactions, shifting the Fermi level toward the valence band. At least, Ag-doped ZnO vertically aligned nanowire arrays have been epitaxially grown on GaN(001) substrate. The heterostructure has been inserted in a light emitting device. UV-blue light emission has been achieved with a low emission threshold of 5 V and a tunable red-shifted emission spectrum related to the bandgap reduction induced by silver doping of the ZnO emitter material. PMID:25990263

  13. Self-doped Ti3+ enhanced photocatalyst for hydrogen production under visible light.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Fan; Wang, Le; Wu, Tao; Zhang, Zhenyu; Borchardt, Dan; Feng, Pingyun

    2010-09-01

    Through a facile one-step combustion method, partially reduced TiO(2) has been synthesized. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra confirm the presence of Ti(3+) in the bulk of an as-prepared sample. The UV-vis spectra show that the Ti(3+) here extends the photoresponse of TiO(2) from the UV to the visible light region, which leads to high visible-light photocatalytic activity for the generation of hydrogen gas from water. It is worth noting that the Ti(3+) sites in the sample are highly stable in air or water under irradiation and the photocatalyst can be repeatedly used without degradation in the activity. PMID:20687606

  14. Origin of Mechanoluminescence from Cu-Doped ZnS Particles Embedded in an Elastomer Film and Its Application in Flexible Electro-mechanoluminescent Lighting Devices.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seung Wook; Oh, Jeung Pyo; Hong, Chang Woo; Kim, Eun Mi; Woo, Jeong Ju; Heo, Gi-Seok; Kim, Jin Hyeok

    2016-01-20

    Mechanically driven light emission from particles embedded in elastomer films has recently attracted interest as a strong candidate for next-generation light sources on display devices because it is nondestructive, reproducible, real-time, environmentally friendly, and reliable. The origin of mechanoluminescence (ML) obtained from particles embedded in elastomer films have been proposed as the trapping of drifting charge carriers in the presence of a piezoelectric field. However, in this study, we propose a new origin of ML through the study of the microstructure of a Cu-doped ZnS particles embedded in an elastomer composite film with high brightness using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to clearly demonstrate the origin of ML with respect to the microstructure of ML composite films. The TEM characterization of the ML composite film demonstrated that the Cu-doped ZnS particles were fully encapsulated by a 500 nm thick Al layer, which acts as an electron source for ML emission. Furthermore, we fabricated a flexible electro-mechanoluminescence (EML) device using a Cu-doped ZnS particles embedded in a flexible elastomer composite film. Our research results on a new emission mechanism for ML and its application in flexible light generating elastomer films represent an important step toward environmentally benign and ecofriendly flexible electro-mechanoluminescent lighting devices. PMID:26492352

  15. Formation of hydroxyl radicals and kinetic study of 2-chlorophenol photocatalytic oxidation using C-doped TiO2, N-doped TiO2, and C,N Co-doped TiO2 under visible light.

    PubMed

    Ananpattarachai, Jirapat; Seraphin, Supapan; Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat

    2016-02-01

    This work reports on synthesis, characterization, adsorption ability, formation rate of hydroxyl radicals (OH(•)), photocatalytic oxidation kinetics, and mineralization ability of C-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2), N-doped TiO2, and C,N co-doped TiO2 prepared by the sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-visible spectroscopy were used to analyze the titania. The rate of formation of OH(•) for each type of titania was determined, and the OH-index was calculated. The kinetics of as-synthesized TiO2 catalysts in photocatalytic oxidation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) under visible light irradiation were evaluated. Results revealed that nitrogen was incorporated into the lattice of titania with the structure of O-Ti-N linkages in N-doped TiO2 and C,N co-doped TiO2. Carbon was joined to the Ti-O-C bond in the C-doped TiO2 and C,N co-doped TiO2. The 2-CP adsorption ability of C,N co-doped TiO2 and C-doped TiO2 originated from a layer composed of a complex carbonaceous mixture at the surface of TiO2. C,N co-doped TiO2 had highest formation rate of OH(•) and photocatalytic activity due to a synergistic effect of carbon and nitrogen co-doping. The order of photocatalytic activity per unit surface area was the same as that of the formation rate of OH(•) unit surface area in the following order: C,N co-doped TiO2 > C-doped TiO2 > N-doped TiO2 > undoped TiO2. PMID:26499197

  16. One-pot synthesis of copper-doped graphitic carbon nitride nanosheet by heating Cu–melamine supramolecular network and its enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Junkuo; Wang, Jiangpeng; Qian, Xuefeng; Dong, Yingying; Xu, Hui; Song, Ruijing; Yan, Chenfeng; Zhu, Hangcheng; Zhong, Qiwei; and others

    2015-08-15

    Here we report a novel synthetic pathway for preparation of Cu-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} (Cu-g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) with nanosheet morphology by using a two dimensional Cu–melamine supramolecular network as both sacrificial template and precursor. The specific surface area of Cu-g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} is 40.86 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, which is more than 7 times larger than that of pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Cu-g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} showed strong optical absorption in the visible-light region and expanded the absorption to the near-infrared region. The uniform nanosheet morphology, higher surface area and strong visible-light absorption have enabled Cu-g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} exhibiting enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity for the photo-degradation of methylene blue (MB). The results indicate that metal–melamine supramolecular network can be promising precursors for the one step preparation of efficient metal-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalysts. - Graphical abstract: Cu-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} (Cu-g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) with nanosheet morphology was fabricated via a simple one step preparation by using a two dimensional Cu–melamine supra-molecular network as both sacrificial template and precursor. - Highlights: • Cu-doped g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} (Cu-g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) with nanosheet morphology was prepared. • Cu-g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} showed strong optical absorption in the visible-light region. • Cu-g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} exhibits enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity.

  17. 21 CFR 884.3200 - Cervical drain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cervical drain. 884.3200 Section 884.3200 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Prosthetic Devices § 884.3200 Cervical drain. (a) Identification. A cervical drain is a device designed to provide an exit channel for...

  18. 21 CFR 884.3200 - Cervical drain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cervical drain. 884.3200 Section 884.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... drain. (a) Identification. A cervical drain is a device designed to provide an exit channel for...

  19. Surface recombination in doped semiconductors: Effect of light excitation power and of surface passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadiz, F.; Paget, D.; Rowe, A. C. H.; Berkovits, V. L.; Ulin, V. P.; Arscott, S.; Peytavit, E.

    2013-09-01

    For n- and p-type semiconductors doped above the 1016 cm-3 range, simple analytical expressions for the surface recombination velocity S have been obtained as a function of excitation power P and surface state density NT. These predictions are in excellent agreement with measurements on p-type GaAs films, using a novel polarized microluminescence technique. The effect on S of surface passivation is a combination of the changes of three factors, each of which depends on NT: (i) a power-independent factor which is inversely proportional to NT and (ii) two factors which reveal the effect of photovoltage and the shift of the electron surface quasi Fermi level, respectively. In the whole range of accessible excitation powers, these two factors play a significant role so that S always depends on power. Three physical regimes are outlined. In the first regime, illustrated experimentally by the oxidized GaAs surface, S depends on P as a power law of exponent determined by NT. A decrease of S such as the one induced by sulfide passivation is caused by a marginal decrease of NT. In a second regime, as illustrated by GaInP-encapsulated GaAs, because of the reduced value of S, the photoelectron concentration in the subsurface depletion layer can no longer be neglected. Thus, S-1 depends logarithmically on P and very weakly on surface state density. In a third regime, expected at extremely small values of P, the photovoltage is comparable to the thermal energy, and S increases with P and decreases with increasing NT.

  20. Rich premixed laminar methane flames doped by light unsaturated hydrocarbons. II. 1,3-Butadiene

    SciTech Connect

    Gueniche, H.A.; Glaude, P.A.; Fournet, R.; Battin-Leclerc, F.

    2007-10-15

    In line with the study presented in Part I of this paper, the structure of a rich premixed laminar methane flame doped with 1,3-butadiene has been investigated. The flame contains 20.7% (molar) of methane, 31.4% of oxygen, and 3.3% of 1,3-butadiene, corresponding to an equivalence ratio of 1.8, and a C{sub 4}H{sub 6}/CH{sub 4} ratio of 16%. The flame has been stabilized on a burner at a pressure of 6.7 kPa using argon as dilutant, with a gas velocity at the burner of 36 cm/s at 333 K. The temperature ranged from 600 K close to the burner up to 2150 K. Quantified species included the usual methane C{sub 0}-C{sub 2} combustion products and 1,3-butadiene, but also propyne, allene, propene, propane, 1,2-butadiene, butynes, vinylacetylene, diacetylene, 1,3-pentadiene, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene (isoprene), 1-pentene, 3-methyl-1-butene, benzene, and toluene. To model these new results, some improvements have been made to a mechanism previously developed in our laboratory for the reactions of C{sub 3}-C{sub 4} unsaturated hydrocarbons. The main reaction pathways of consumption of 1,3-butadiene and of formation of C{sub 6} aromatic species have been derived from flow rate analyses. In this case, the C{sub 4} route to benzene formation plays an important role in comparison to the C{sub 3} pathway. (author)

  1. Tunable multicolor and white-light upconversion luminescence in Yb3+/Tm3+/Ho3+ tri-doped NaYF4 micro-crystals.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hao; Xu, Dekang; Teng, Dongdong; Yang, Shenghong; Zhang, Yueli

    2015-09-01

    NaYF4 micro-crystals with various concentrations of Yb(3+) /Tm(3+) /Ho(3+) were prepared successfully via a simple and reproducible hydrothermal route using EDTA as the chelating agent. Their phase structure and surface morphology were studied using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD patterns revealed that all the samples were pure hexagonal phase NaYF4. SEM images showed that Yb(3+)/Tm(3+)/Ho(3+) tri-doped NaYF4 were hexagonal micro-prisms. Upconversion photoluminescence spectra of Yb(3+)/Tm(3+)/Ho(3+) tri-doped NaYF4 micro-crystals with various dopant concentrations under 980 nm excitation with a 665 mW pump power were studied. Tunable multicolor (purple, purplish blue, yellowish green, green) and white light were achieved by simply adjusting the Ho(3+) concentration in 20%Yb(3+)/1%Tm(3+)/xHo(3+) tri-doped NaYF4 micro-crystals. Furthermore, white-light emissions could be obtained using different pump powers in 20%Yb(3+)/1%Tm(3+)/1%Ho(3+) tri-doped NaYF4 micro-crystals at 980 nm excitation. The pump power-dependent intensity relationship was studied and relevant energy transfer processes were discussed in detail. The results suggest that Yb(3+)/Tm(3+) Ho(3+) tri-doped NaYF4 micro-crystals have potential applications in optoelectronic devices such as photovoltaic, plasma display panel and white-light-emitting diodes. PMID:25377774

  2. Hydrothermally Grown In-doped ZnO Nanorods on p-GaN Films for Color-tunable Heterojunction Light-emitting-diodes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Geun Chul; Hwang, Soo Min; Lee, Seung Muk; Choi, Jun Hyuk; Song, Keun Man; Kim, Hyun You; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Eum, Sung-Jin; Jung, Seung-Boo; Lim, Jun Hyung; Joo, Jinho

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of doping elements in ZnO nanostructures plays an important role in adjusting the optical and electrical properties in optoelectronic devices. In the present study, we fabricated 1-D ZnO nanorods (NRs) doped with different In contents (0% ~ 5%) on p-GaN films using a facile hydrothermal method, and investigated the effect of the In doping on the morphology and electronic structure of the NRs and the electrical and optical performances of the n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes (LEDs). As the In content increased, the size (diameter and length) of the NRs increased, and the electrical performance of the LEDs improved. From the electroluminescence (EL) spectra, it was found that the broad green-yellow-orange emission band significantly increased with increasing In content due to the increased defect states (oxygen vacancies) in the ZnO NRs, and consequently, the superposition of the emission bands centered at 415 nm and 570 nm led to the generation of white-light. These results suggest that In doping is an effective way to tailor the morphology and the optical, electronic, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs, as well as the EL emission property of heterojunction LEDs. PMID:25988846

  3. Fabrication of Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles and investigation of photocatalytic decolorization of reactive red 198 under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Halimeh; Eshaghi, Akbar; Hosseini, Seyed Rahman; Ghani, Kamal

    2016-09-01

    In this research, Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with various Fe concentrations (0. 0.1, 1, 5 and 10wt%) were prepared by a sol-gel method. Then, nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), BET surface area, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The photocatalytic activity of the nano-particles was evaluated through degradation of reactive red 198 (RR 198) under UV and visible light irradiations. XRD results revealed that all samples contained only anatase phase. DRS showed that the Fe doping in the titania induced a significant red shift of the absorption edge and then the band gap energy decreased from 3 to 2.1eV. Photocatalytic results indicated that TiO2 had a highest photocatalytic decolorization of the RR 198 under UV irradiation whereas photocatalytic decolorization of the RR 198 under visible irradiation increased in the presence of Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles. Among the samples, Fe-1wt% doped TiO2 nanoparticles showed the highest photocatalytic decolorization of RR198 under visible light irradiation. PMID:27150776

  4. Safety drain system for fluid reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A safety drain system includes a plurality of drain sections, each of which defines distinct fluid flow paths. At least a portion of the fluid flow paths commence at a side of the drain section that is in fluid communication with a reservoir's fluid. Each fluid flow path at the side communicating with the reservoir's fluid defines an opening having a smallest dimension not to exceed approximately one centimeter. The drain sections are distributed over at least one surface of the reservoir. A manifold is coupled to the drain sections.

  5. Crystal growth and characterization of europium doped KCaI3, a high light yield scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Adam C.; Zhuravleva, Mariya; Stand, Luis; Wu, Yuntao; Melcher, Charles L.

    2015-10-01

    The presented study reports on the spectroscopic characteristics of a new high performance scintillation material KCaI3:Eu. The growth of ∅ 17 mm boules using the Bridgman-Stockbarger method in fused silica ampoules is demonstrated to produce yellow tinted, yet transparent single crystals suitable for use in spectroscopic applications due to very promising performance. Scintillation light yield of 72,000 ± 3000 ph/MeV and energy resolution of 3% (FWHM) at 662 keV and 6.1% at 122 keV was obtained from small single crystals of approximately 15 mm3. For a much larger 3.8 cm3 detector, 4.4% and 7.3% for the same energy. Proportionality of the scintillation response to the energy of ionizing radiation is within 96% of the ideal response over an energy range of 14-662 keV. The high light yield and energy resolution of KCaI3:Eu make it suitable for potential use in domestic security applications requiring radionuclide identification.

  6. Phosphorus-Doped Carbon Nitride Tubes with a Layered Micro-nanostructure for Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shien; Deng, Zhaopeng; Li, Mingxia; Jiang, Baojiang; Tian, Chungui; Pan, Qingjiang; Fu, Honggang

    2016-01-26

    Phosphorus-doped hexagonal tubular carbon nitride (P-TCN) with the layered stacking structure was obtained from a hexagonal rod-like single crystal supramolecular precursor (monoclinic, C2/m). The production process of P-TCN involves two steps: 1) the precursor was prepared by self-assembly of melamine with cyanuric acid from in situ hydrolysis of melamine under phosphorous acid-assisted hydrothermal conditions; 2) the pyrolysis was initiated at the center of precursor under heating, thus giving the hexagonal P-TCN. The tubular structure favors the enhancement of light scattering and active sites. Meanwhile, the introduction of phosphorus leads to a narrow band gap and increased electric conductivity. Thus, the P-TCN exhibited a high hydrogen evolution rate of 67 μmol h(-1) (0.1 g catalyst, λ >420 nm) in the presence of sacrificial agents, and an apparent quantum efficiency of 5.68 % at 420 nm, which is better than most of bulk g-C3 N4 reported. PMID:26692105

  7. Synthesis and optical properties of Eu3+ doped ZnO nanoparticles used for white light emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinzhao; Liu, Shiyou; Gao, Baojun; Jiang, Tao; Zhao, Yongdan; Liu, Song; Kuang, Lei; Xu, Xijin

    2014-04-01

    ZnO nanoparticles doped with trivalent europium ions (Eu3+) were synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The structural properties of the samples were investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicated that Eu3+ was incorporated into the lattice of ZnO. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements of ZnO:Eu3+ showed a strong red luminescence emission. Specially, the red emission can be obtained even under the nonresonant excitation of 320 nm, and it is explained by an energy transfer mechanism in which the energy is transferred from ZnO matrix to Eu3+. These results indicate that the ZnO:Eu3+ is the attractive candidate phosphor for the application in phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes (pc-LEDs) as red phosphor. The intensity of Eu3+ PL decreased with the increasing Eu3+ concentration and the concentration quenching mechanism was presented based on non-radiative recombination processes in ZnO and the energy back-transfer from the excited state of Eu3+ to the ZnO host. Moreover, the samples were synthesized under low temperature condition. PMID:24734733

  8. Studies on white light emission of Sr2MgSi2O7 doped with Dy3+ phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Ravi; Kaur, Jagjeet; Dash, Manoranjan

    2015-06-01

    Present paper reports the preparation of Sr2MgSi2O7 doped with Dy3+ ions by modified high temperature solid state reaction technique. Samples were prepared for different concentration of Dy3+ (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mol%). Sample with optimum photoluminescence intensity was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Observed XRD spectrum matched with crystallographic open database card specifically appeared for Sr2MgSi2O7 phosphor. This is a confirmation of proper preparation of the sample. Photoluminescence studies of these samples were done. Emission spectra exhibited 5 prominent peaks at 480, 490, 575, 590 and 660 nm respectively. In this case Dy3+ acts as an activator. Peaks centered at 480 and 490 nm are due to the transition 4F9/2 → 6H15/2 (blue color) of Dy3+ ions occupied at different sites. Similarly 575 and 590 nm peaks are originated due to transition 4F9/2 → 6H13/2 (yellow-orange color) of Dy3+ ions occupied at different sites. Emission at 660 nm is due to transition 4F9/2 → 6H11/2 (red color). CIE coordinates have been calculated for each sample and its value exhibited that, overall emission is near white light. In order to investigate the suitability of the samples as white color light sources for industrial uses, correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI) were calculated. Values of CCT and CRI were found, well within the defined acceptable range.

  9. Alternative p-doped hole transport material for low operating voltage and high efficiency organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Murawski, Caroline Fuchs, Cornelius; Hofmann, Simone; Leo, Karl; Gather, Malte C.

    2014-09-15

    We investigate the properties of N,N′-[(Diphenyl-N,N′-bis)9,9,-dimethyl-fluoren-2-yl]-benzidine (BF-DPB) as hole transport material (HTL) in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and compare BF-DPB to the commonly used HTLs N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)-benzidine (MeO-TPD), 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N′-di-p-methylphenylamino)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (Spiro-TTB), and N,N′-di(naphtalene-1-yl)-N,N′-diphenylbenzidine (NPB). The influence of 2,2′-(perfluoronaphthalene-2,6-diylidene)dimalononitrile (F6-TCNNQ p-dopant) concentration in BF-DPB on the operation voltage and efficiency of red and green phosphorescent OLEDs is studied; best results are achieved at 4 wt. % doping. Without any light extraction structure, BF-DPB based red (green) OLEDs achieve a luminous efficacy of 35 .1 lm/W (74 .0 lm/W) at 1000 cd/m{sup 2} and reach a very high brightness of 10 000 cd/m{sup 2} at a very low voltage of 3.2 V (3.1 V). We attribute this exceptionally low driving voltage to the high ionization potential of BF-DPB which enables more efficient hole injection from BF-DPB to the adjacent electron blocking layer. The high efficiency and low driving voltage lead to a significantly lower luminous efficacy roll-off compared to the other compounds and render BF-DPB an excellent HTL material for highly efficient OLEDs.

  10. Origin of the visible-light photoactivity of NH3-treated TiO2: Effect of nitrogen doping and oxygen vacancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yilin; Cao, Xiaoxin; Lin, Bizhou; Gao, Bifen

    2013-01-01

    N-doped and oxygen-deficient TiO2 photocatalysts were obtained by heating commercial TiO2 in NH3 atmosphere, followed by a postcalcination process. Catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2-sorption BET surface area, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Elemental analysis (EA), UV/vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Electron spin resonance (ESR) and Photoluminescence (PL). It shows that the NH3-heat-treatment of TiO2 resulted in not only nitrogen doping but also creation of oxygen vacancies with optical absorption in visible-light region. The postcalcination achieved several beneficial effects including dramatic removal of surface amino species, a rapid decrease in surface Ti3+ species, and a low recombination rate of photogenerated carriers on the co-doped TiO2. The photocatalytic measurement was carried out by the degradation of gas-phase benzene under visible light irradiation. At steady state, the photocatalytic conversion rate of benzene over the postannealed catalyst was 35.8%, accompanied by the yield of 115 ppmv CO2, which was much higher than that on the NH3-treated TiO2 before postcalcination or the H2-treated TiO2 catalysts. Results show that the visible-light activity of the NH3-treated TiO2 is attributed to a synergistic effect of substitutional nitrogen species and oxygen vacancies in TiO2.

  11. Enhanced photocatalytic removal of sodium pentachlorophenate with self-doped Bi2WO6 under visible light by generating more superoxide ions.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xing; Zhao, Kun; Zhang, Lizhi

    2014-05-20

    In this study, we demonstrate that the photocatalytic sodium pentachlorophenate removal efficiency of Bi2WO6 under visible light can be greatly enhanced by bismuth self-doping through a simple soft-chemical method. Density functional theory calculations and systematical characterization results revealed that bismuth self-doping did not change the redox power of photogenerated carriers but promoted the separation and transfer of photogenerated electron-hole pairs of Bi2WO6 to produce more superoxide ions, which were confirmed by photocurrent generation and electron spin resonance spectra as well as superoxide ion measurement results. We employed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and total organic carbon analysis to probe the degradation and the mineralization processes. It was found that more superoxide ions promoted the dechlorination process to favor the subsequent benzene ring cleavage and the final mineralization of sodium pentachlorophenate during bismuth self-doped Bi2WO6 photocatalysis by producing easily decomposable quinone intermediates. This study provides new insight into the effects of photogenerated reactive species on the degradation of sodium pentachlorophenate and also sheds light on the design of highly efficient visible-light-driven photocatalysts for chlorophenol pollutant removal. PMID:24787282

  12. High performance sulfur, nitrogen and carbon doped mesoporous anatase-brookite TiO₂ photocatalyst for the removal of microcystin-LR under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, Said M; Zhang, Geshan; El-Hosainy, Hamza M; Ismail, Adel A; O'Shea, Kevin E; Falaras, Polycarpos; Kontos, Athanassios G; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2014-09-15

    Carbon, nitrogen and sulfur (C, N and S) doped mesoporous anatase-brookite nano-heterojunction titania photocatalysts have been synthesized through a simple sol-gel method in the presence of triblock copolymer Pluronic P123. XRD and Raman spectra revealed the formation of anatase and brookite mixed phases. XPS spectra indicated the presence of C, N and S dopants. The TEM images demonstrated the formation of almost monodisperse titania nanoparticles with particle sizes of approximately 10nm. N2 isotherm measurements confirmed that both doped and undoped titania anatase-brookite materials have mesoporous structure. The photocatalytic degradation of the cyanotoxin microcystin-LR (MC-LR) has been investigated using these novel nanomaterials under visible light illumination. The photocatalytic efficiency of the mesoporous titania anatase-brookite photocatalyst dramatically increased with the addition of the C, N and S non-metal, achieving complete degradation (∼ 100 %) of MC-LR. The results demonstrate the advantages of the synthetic approach and the great potential of the visible light activated C, N, and S doped titania photocatalysts for the treatment of organic micropollutants in contaminated waters under visible light. PMID:25238189

  13. Three-dimensional ruthenium-doped TiO2 sea urchins for enhanced visible-light-responsive H2 production.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Phan, Thuy-Duong; Luo, Si; Vovchok, Dimitriy; Llorca, Jordi; Sallis, Shawn; Kattel, Shyam; Xu, Wenqian; Piper, Louis F J; Polyansky, Dmitry E; Senanayake, Sanjaya D; Stacchiola, Dario J; Rodriguez, José A

    2016-06-21

    Three-dimensional (3D) monodispersed sea urchin-like Ru-doped rutile TiO2 hierarchical architectures composed of radially aligned, densely-packed TiO2 nanorods have been successfully synthesized via an acid-hydrothermal method at low temperature without the assistance of any structure-directing agent and post annealing treatment. The addition of a minuscule concentration of ruthenium dopants remarkably catalyzes the formation of the 3D urchin structure and drives the enhanced photocatalytic H2 production under visible light irradiation, not possible on undoped and bulk rutile TiO2. Increasing ruthenium doping dosage not only increases the surface area up to 166 m(2) g(-1) but also induces enhanced photoresponse in the regime of visible and near infrared light. The doping introduces defect impurity levels, i.e. oxygen vacancy and under-coordinated Ti(3+), significantly below the conduction band of TiO2, and ruthenium species act as electron donors/acceptors that accelerate the photogenerated hole and electron transfer and efficiently suppress the rapid charge recombination, therefore improving the visible-light-driven activity. PMID:27240884

  14. Ab initio studies of Nb-N-S tri-doped TiO2 with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Dahua; Cheng, Junxia; Cheng, Xinlu

    2016-06-01

    The electronic and optical properties of Nb-N-S tri-doped anatase TiO2 were investigated within the frame of the density functional theory (DFT) plus U method. Results show that a significant red-shift effect and improvement of visible-light absorption for Nb-N-S tri-doped TiO2 are observed with respect to pure TiO2 and S-N codoped TiO2. At the same time, the enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of tri-doped TiO2 is derived from the narrowing band gap, the appearance of Nb 4d state at the bottom of conduction band and the mixture of N 2p, S 3p states forming new defect levels at the top of valance band, which is excellently consistent with the previous experiment. Moreover, S ion leads to the lattice distortion and promotes the visible-light photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, the absorbance of 1.39NbNS-TiO2 accords well with the experimental result in the visible region. It is also found that the 2.78NbNS-TiO2 can be easily grown under O-rich condition and have the strongest absorbance from 2.0 to 4.2 eV among four models.

  15. Improvement of radiative efficiency and wavelength-tuning by TPD-doping in organic light emitting diode using Poly [methylmethacrylate-co-(7-(4-trifluoromethyl)coumarin acrylamide)] (PCA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haishi, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Murata, M.; Ohtani, N.

    2008-03-01

    We fabricated polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) using a low-weight-molecular-doped luminescent material with a ?max in the ultraviolet region. A single layer PLED without low-weight-molecular-doping does not reveal any electroluminescence (EL) signal at all. However, a PLED with doping clearly shows EL signals. This indicates that carrier injection as well as radiative efficiency can be drastically improved by low-weight-molecular-doping. In addition, multilayered PLEDs are found to be very effective to further improve carrier injection.

  16. Strong heavy-to-light hole intersubband absorption in the valence band of carbon-doped GaAs/AlAs superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M. I.; Ikonic, Z.; Watson, J.; Shao, J.; Harrison, P.; Manfra, M. J.; Malis, O.

    2013-02-01

    We report strong mid-infrared absorption of in-plane polarized light due to heavy-to-light hole intersubband transitions in the valence band of C-doped GaAs quantum wells with AlAs barriers. The transition energies are well reproduced by theoretical calculations including layer inter-diffusion. The inter-diffusion length was estimated to be 8 ± 2 Å, a value that is consistent with electron microscopy measurements. These results highlight the importance of modeling the nanoscale structure of the semiconductors for accurately reproducing intra-band transition energies of heavy carriers such as the holes.

  17. Influence of physicochemical-electronic properties of transition metal ion doped polycrystalline titania on the photocatalytic degradation of Indigo Carmine and 4-nitrophenol under UV/solar light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, L. Gomathi; Kumar, S. Girish

    2011-01-01

    To understand the role of dopant inside TiO2 matrix, anatase TiO2 was doped with transition metal ions like Mn2+, Fe3+, Ru3+ and Os3+ having unique half filled electronic configuration and their photocatalytic activity was probed in the degradation of Indigo Carmine (IC) and 4-nitrophenol (NP) under UV/solar light. For comparison, TiO2 was also doped with V5+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ metal ions having d0, d8 and d10 electronic configuration respectively. Irrespective of excitation source UV/solar light and nature of the organic pollutant, photocatalytic activities of doped photocatalysts followed the order: Mn2+-TiO2 > Fe3+-TiO2 > Ru3+-TiO2 ≥ Os3+-TiO2 > Zn2+-TiO2 > V5+-TiO2 > Ni2+-TiO2 at an optimum concentration of dopant. Based on the experimental results obtained, it is proposed that the existence of dopant with half filled electronic configuration in TiO2 matrix which is known to enhance the photocatalytic activity is not universal! Rather it is a complex function of several physicochemical-electronic properties of doped titania. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Mn2+ (0.06 at.%)-TiO2 was attributed to the combined factors of high positive reduction potential of Mn2+/Mn3+ pairs, synergistic effects in the mixed polymorphs of anatase and rutile, smaller crystallite size with high intimate contact between two phases and favorable surface structure of the photocatalyst. Despite the intense research devoted to transition metal ion doped TiO2, it is rather difficult to make unifying conclusion which is highlighted in this study.

  18. Effect of calcination temperature on the structure and visible-light photocatalytic activities of (N, S and C) co-doped TiO2 nano-materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, X. F.; Xue, X. X.; Yang, H.; Chen, C.; Li, X.; Niu, M. C.; Gao, X. Y.; Yang, Y. T.

    2015-03-01

    The (N, S and C) co-doped TiO2 samples (NSC-TiO2) were synthesized by the sol-gel method combining with the high energy ball milling method calcined at the different temperature (400-700 °C), employing butyl titanate as the titanium source and thiourea as the doping agent. The structures of NSC-TiO2 samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), X-ray photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The photocatalytic activities were checked through the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) as a model compound under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the (N, S and C) co-doping and the calcination temperature played important role on the microstructure and photocatalytic activity of the samples. According to XPS spectra, sulfur was mainly attributed to the Tisbnd Osbnd S bond; nitrogen was ascribed to the Tisbnd Osbnd N and Tisbnd N bonds; carbon was assigned to the Tisbnd Osbnd C bond in the NSC-TiO2 samples. (N, S and C) co-doped TiO2 samples calcinated at 500 °C exhibits higher photocatalytic activity than that of the other samples under visible light irradiation, which can be attributed to the synergic effect of its enhancing crystallization of anatase and (N, S and C) co-doping.

  19. Origin of the visible light induced persistent luminescence of Cr3+-doped zinc gallate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourier, Didier; Bessière, Aurélie; Sharma, Suchinder. K.; Binet, Laurent; Viana, Bruno; Basavaraju, Neelima; Priolkar, Kaustubh R.

    2014-07-01

    ZnGa2O4:Cr3+ (ZGO:Cr) is a very bright persistent phosphor able to emit a near infrared light for hours following a UV (band to band excitation) or visible (Cr3 excitation) illumination. As such it serves as an outstanding biomarker for in vivo imaging. Persistent luminescence, due to trapping of electrons/holes at point defects, is studied here on a series of ZGO:Cr spinel compounds where the introduction of defects is controlled by varying the Zn/(Ga+Cr) nominal ratio during synthesis. Simulation of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectra revealed up to six types of Cr3+ ions with different neighboring defects and correlated to four emission lines in low temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy. Of particular importance, three EPR signals were attributed to Cr3+ with a pair of neighboring ZnGa' and GaZn0° antisite defects. They were identified to the emission line N2 that plays a key role in the persistent luminescence mechanism for both storage of visible excitation and persistent luminescence emission. A model is proposed whereby the local electric field at Cr3+ created by the two neighboring antisite defects triggers the electron-hole separation and trapping upon excitation of Cr3+. The process is equivalent to a photoinduced electron transfer from a donor (here ZnGa') to an acceptor (here GaZn0°) observed in some molecular systems.

  20. On the role of diluted magnetic cobalt-doped ZnO electrodes in efficiency improvement of InGaN light emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong-Ru; Ou, Sin-Liang; Wang, Shih-Yin; Wuu, Dong-Sing

    2016-07-01

    The 120-nm-thick cobalt-doped ZnO (Co-doped ZnO, CZO) dilute magnetic films deposited by pulsed laser deposition were employed as the n-electrodes for both lateral-type blue (450 nm) and green (520 nm) InGaN light emitters. In comparison to the conventional blue and green emitters, there were 15.9% and 17.7% enhancements in the output power (@350 mA) after fabricating the CZO n-electrode on the n-GaN layer. Observations on the role of CZO n-electrodes in efficiency improvement of InGaN light emitters were performed. Based on the results of Hall measurements, the carrier mobilities were 176 and 141 cm2/V s when the electrons passed through the n-GaN and the patterned-CZO/n-GaN, respectively. By incorporating the CZO n-electrode into the InGaN light emitters, the electrons would be scattered because of the collisions between the magnetic atoms and the electrons as the device is driven, leading to the reduction of the electron mobility. Therefore, the excessively large mobility difference between electron and hole carriers occurred in the conventional InGaN light emitter can be efficiently decreased after preparing the CZO n-electrode on the n-GaN layer, resulting in the increment of carrier recombination rate and the improvement of light output power.

  1. Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistors Possessing Step Functional I-V Curves Caused by the Punch Through between Drain and Inversion Layer of the Gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasawa, Shinji; Yamanouchi, Kazuhiko; Tachibana, Yukio

    1992-02-01

    Through measurements of an Al gate p-channel Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistor (MOSFET) with a gap between the gate and drain, the behavior of the minority carrier in the depletion layer is clarified. The turn-on drain voltage depends upon the length and the density of impurity on the punch-through area. That is, Vd{=}-4 V for Lgap{=}0.5 μm in 3˜5 Ω\\cdotcm n-Si wafer and Vd{=}-3 V for Lgap{=}2.0 μm in 120˜200 Ω\\cdotcm n-Si wafer. The abrupt step functional I-V curve is revealed under the condition of low gate voltage. There are surface effects by which the higher the gate voltage, the lower the turn-on voltage of the drain becomes. The hole mobility in the depletion layer made from lightly doped < 111> wafer abruptly decreases when the temperature is lowered to below 20 K and the turn-on voltage on the step function MOSFET increases remarkably at 4.2 K.

  2. Optical and electrical properties of electrochemically doped organic field effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Yumusak, Cigdem; Abbas, Mamatimin; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2013-02-01

    Mixed ionic/electronic conduction in conducting polymers introduces new physics/chemistry and an additional functionality in organic optoelectronic devices. The incorporation of an ionic species in a conjugated polymer matrix results in the increase in electrical conductivity associated with the electrochemical doping of the material. In recent years polymer light emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) have been demonstrated. In such electrochemical optoelectronic devices, mobile ions facilitate the efficient injection of electronic charge carriers creating "in situ" doping regions near the electrodes and lead to efficient electroluminescence light emission. Here, we introduce the same concept of an LEC in the organic field effect transistors (OFETs). The presence of both electronic and ionic charge carriers in the active layers of OFETs brings high charge carrier mobility and light emission even using symmetric source and drain metal electrodes. PMID:23482672

  3. The composite of nitrogen-doped anatase titania plates with exposed {001} facets/graphene nanosheets for enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jian-Wen; Ai, Hui-Ying; Chen, Jian-Wei; Cui, Hao-Jie; Fu, Ming-Lai

    2014-09-15

    Composite photocatalysts composed of nitrogen-doped anatase TiO2 plates with exposed {001} facets (NTS) and graphene nanosheets (G) were firstly synthesized by a facile one-pot hydrothermal process. The morphologies, structural properties, and photocatalytic activities of the resultant NTS/G composites were investigated in detail. Graphene nanosheets were demonstrated play three important roles in the NTS/G composites, as transporter of photo-excited electrons, extender of light absorption range and enhancer of adsorptive capacity, respectively. Due to the effective charge anti-recombination, the efficient utilization of the visible light and the high adsorptive capacity to target pollutants, the composites exhibited significant improvement in photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. Based on the results, the mechanism of enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity on NTS/G composites was proposed. PMID:24998060

  4. A case of a retained drain tip following intercostal drain insertion: avoiding a 'never event'.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Nicola K; Abdelaziz, Mahmoud; Rajesh, Pala B; Steyn, Richard S

    2016-01-01

    Pleural effusions are commonly drained with Seldinger intercostal drains. One uncommon but serious risk of drain insertion is that of a foreign body being retained in the pleural cavity following removal. We report a case in which the tip of the drain was retained in the pleural space following difficult insertion of a Seldinger intercostal drain in a district general hospital. Prompt recognition and clear patient communication are important at the occurrence of an unusual complication. Surgical removal of the foreign body was performed following transfer. We report this case to raise awareness that insertion and withdrawal of drains over the guidewire during insertion may damage the drain and highlight the need for doctors who insert chest drains to perform a count of instruments during ward or clinic-based procedures as well as those performed in theatres. We now include removable parts of chest drains in our theatre instrument count. PMID:27076623

  5. Ferroelectric Schottky barrier tunnel FET with gate-drain underlap: Proposal and investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, Sumit; Kondekar, P. N.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, for the first time, a novel ferroelectric schottky barrier tunnel FET (Fe SB-TFET) is proposed and investigated. The Fe SB-TFET consists of ferroelectric gate stack with highly doped pocket at the source/drain and channel interface. In addition, for the suppression of ambipolar leakage current (IAMB), gate-drain underlap is employed. By using ferroelectric gate stack, we effectively amplified the applied gate voltage to enhance electric field for the reduction of tunneling barrier width at the source side schottky barrier. As a result, the increased tunneling probability improves the device performance in terms of high ION, high ION/IOFF ratio, reduced IAMB and low subthreshold swing (SS) as compared to the conventional SB-TFET having double pocket. We also investigate the influence of highly doped pocket (HDP) doping concentration and length on the device performance.

  6. Improving the visible light photocatalytic activity of mesoporous TiO2 via the synergetic effects of B doping and Ag loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Baozhu; Shao, Zhimang; Ma, Yunfei; Zhang, Jinlong; Chen, Feng

    2011-11-01

    B-doped together with Ag-loaded mesoporous TiO2 (Ag/B-TiO2) was prepared by a two-step hydrothermal method in the presence of boric acid, triblock copolymer surfactant, and silver nitrate, followed by heat treatment. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. It was revealed that all samples consist of highly crystalline anatase with mesoporous structure. For Ag/B-TiO2, B was doped into TiO2 matrix in the form of both interstitial B and substitutional B while Ag was deposited on the surface of B-TiO2 in the form of metallic silver. Compared with the single B-doped or Ag-loaded TiO2 one, mesoporous Ag/B-TiO2 exhibits much higher visible light photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Rhodamine 6G, which can be ascribed to the synergistic effects of B doping and Ag loading by narrowing the band gap of the photocatalyst and preventing the fast recombination of the photogenerated charge carriers, respectively.

  7. Artificial Neural Network Modelling of Photodegradation in Suspension of Manganese Doped Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles under Visible-Light Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, Yadollah; Sairi, Nor Asrina; Amin Matori, Khamirul; Fard Masoumi, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The artificial neural network (ANN) modeling of m-cresol photodegradation was carried out for determination of the optimum and importance values of the effective variables to achieve the maximum efficiency. The photodegradation was carried out in the suspension of synthesized manganese doped ZnO nanoparticles under visible-light irradiation. The input considered effective variables of the photodegradation were irradiation time, pH, photocatalyst amount, and concentration of m-cresol while the efficiency was the only response as output. The performed experiments were designed into three data sets such as training, testing, and validation that were randomly splitted by the software's option. To obtain the optimum topologies, ANN was trained by quick propagation (QP), Incremental Back Propagation (IBP), Batch Back Propagation (BBP), and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithms for testing data set. The topologies were determined by the indicator of minimized root mean squared error (RMSE) for each algorithm. According to the indicator, the QP-4-8-1, IBP-4-15-1, BBP-4-6-1, and LM-4-10-1 were selected as the optimized topologies. Among the topologies, QP-4-8-1 has presented the minimum RMSE and absolute average deviation as well as maximum R-squared. Therefore, QP-4-8-1 was selected as final model for validation test and navigation of the process. The model was used for determination of the optimum values of the effective variables by a few three-dimensional plots. The optimum points of the variables were confirmed by further validated experiments. Moreover, the model predicted the relative importance of the variables which showed none of them was neglectable in this work. PMID:25538962

  8. Doping nano-Co3O4 surface with bigger nanosized Ag and its photocatalytic properties for visible light photodegradation of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guangliang; Si, Xiaolei; Yu, Jinsong; Bai, Huiyu; Zhang, Xianhui

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of nanosized Ag/Co3O4 composite catalysts using a silver-mirror reaction and the calibration of their catalytic activities towards methyl blue (MB) dye degradation with peroxymonosulfate (PMS) under visible light. The nanosized Ag/Co3O4 composites were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-vis spectroscopy. The experimental evidence indicated that the hydrothermal synthesis approach lead to the exposure of the {1 1 2} facets of the Co3O4 nanoflakes. Compared to Co3O4 nanoflakes, Co3O4 doped with Ag nanoparticle (average diameters of 10-15 nm) presented lower band gap energy and photoluminescent (PL) intensity. Meanwhile, the Ag/Co3O4 exhibited high stability and excellent dispersion property in dye solution. Experimental data suggested that 3.06 wt% Ag nanoparticle-doped Ag/Co3O4 nanocomposite catalyst possessed the highest catalytic activity towards MB degradation in aqueous solution at the tested concentration level of 15 mg/L, about 2.4 times higher than that of pure Co3O4. Complete decolorization of the 15 mg/L MB solution can be achieved by 3.06 wt% Ag-doped Ag/Co3O4 nanocomposite within 20 min of visible light irradiation.

  9. Synthesis and visible light photocatalysis of Fe-doped TiO{sub 2} mesoporous layers deposited on hollow glass microbeads

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Lifeng; Wang Yuansheng; Niu Mutong; Chen Guoxin; Cheng Yao

    2009-10-15

    Nano-composite of Fe-doped anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals loaded on the hollow glass microbeads was prepared by co-thermal hydrolysis deposition and calcining treatment. The adherence of TiO{sub 2} mesoporous layers to the surfaces of hollow glass microbeads prevented the aggregation of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and benefited to their catalytic activity. The doping of Fe ions makes the absorption edge of the TiO{sub 2} based nano-composite red-shifted into the visible region. An effective photodegradation of the methyl orange aqueous solution was achieved under visible light (lambda>420 nm) irradiation, revealing the potential applicability of such nano-composite in some industry fields, such as air and water purifications. - Graphical abstract: Nano-composite of Fe-doped anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals loaded on the hollow glass microbeads was prepared by co-thermal hydrolysis deposition. Photodegradation of the methyl orange was achieved under visible light irradiation, revealing the potential applicability of such nano-composite in some industry fields.

  10. Cardiovascular collapse with attempted pericardial drain withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Molly B; Spitznagel, Rachel A; Kugler, Jane A

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac tamponade is a rare but serious emergency condition in the pediatric population. As treatment, a pericardial drain is often placed to evacuate the fluid. We present a case of a 4-year-old girl with cardiac tamponade secondary to renal failure. After the tamponade resolved, she suffered cardiovascular collapse upon attempted drain withdrawal. This case highlights an unusual cause for cardiovascular collapse, which occurred on blind removal of a pericardial drain. PMID:27625522

  11. Collapse of the Mott Gap and Emergence of a Nodal Liquid in Lightly Doped Sr(2)IrO(4).

    PubMed

    de la Torre, A; McKeown Walker, S; Bruno, F Y; Riccó, S; Wang, Z; Gutierrez Lezama, I; Scheerer, G; Giriat, G; Jaccard, D; Berthod, C; Kim, T K; Hoesch, M; Hunter, E C; Perry, R S; Tamai, A; Baumberger, F

    2015-10-23

    We report angle resolved photoemission experiments on the electron doped Heisenberg antiferromagnet (Sr(1-x)La(x))(2)IrO(4). For a doping level of x=0.05, we find an unusual metallic state with coherent nodal excitations and an antinodal pseudogap bearing strong similarities with underdoped cuprates. This state emerges from a rapid collapse of the Mott gap with doping resulting in a large underlying Fermi surface that is backfolded by a (π,π) reciprocal lattice vector which we attribute to the intrinsic structural distortion of Sr(2)IrO(4). PMID:26551128

  12. Collapse of the Mott Gap and Emergence of a Nodal Liquid in Lightly Doped Sr2IrO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, A.; McKeown Walker, S.; Bruno, F. Y.; Riccó, S.; Wang, Z.; Gutierrez Lezama, I.; Scheerer, G.; Giriat, G.; Jaccard, D.; Berthod, C.; Kim, T. K.; Hoesch, M.; Hunter, E. C.; Perry, R. S.; Tamai, A.; Baumberger, F.

    2015-10-01

    We report angle resolved photoemission experiments on the electron doped Heisenberg antiferromagnet (Sr1 -xLax)2IrO4 . For a doping level of x =0.05 , we find an unusual metallic state with coherent nodal excitations and an antinodal pseudogap bearing strong similarities with underdoped cuprates. This state emerges from a rapid collapse of the Mott gap with doping resulting in a large underlying Fermi surface that is backfolded by a (π ,π ) reciprocal lattice vector which we attribute to the intrinsic structural distortion of Sr2IrO4 .

  13. Lighting.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-09-01

    Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.

  14. Enhanced light extraction of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with periodic textured SiO2 on Al-doped ZnO transparent conductive layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhao; Bingfeng, Fan; Yiting, Chen; Yi, Zhuo; Zhoujun, Pang; Zhen, Liu; Gang, Wang

    2016-07-01

    We report an effective enhancement in light extraction of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with an Al-doped ZnO (AZO) transparent conductive layer by incorporating a top regular textured SiO2 layer. The 2 inch transparent through-pore anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane was fabricated and used as the etching mask. The periodic pore with a pitch of about 410 nm was successfully transferred to the surface of the SiO2 layer without any etching damages to the AZO layer and the electrodes. The light output power was enhanced by 19% at 20 mA and 56% at 100 mA compared to that of the planar LEDs without a patterned surface. This approach offers a technique to fabricate a low-cost and large-area regular pattern on the LED chip for achieving enhanced light extraction without an obvious increase of the forward voltage. ).

  15. Ultraviolet-driven white light generation from oxyfluoride glass co-doped with Tm{sup 3+}-Tb{sup 3+}-Eu{sup 3+}

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, A. S.; Nikitin, A.; Tikhomirov, V. K.; Shestakov, M. V.; Moshchalkov, V. V.

    2013-04-22

    Tm{sup 3+}-Tb{sup 3+}-Eu{sup 3+} co-doped oxyfluoride glasses, doped with about 3.0 mol. % TmF{sub 3}, 0.25 mol. % TbF{sub 3}, and 0.25 mol. % EuF{sub 3}, have been prepared by melt quenching technique. Under excitation at commercial 365 nm, the rare-earth co-dopants are all directly excited and emit in the blue, green, and red, respectively, without appreciable energy transfer amongst the co-dopants. Tint of the white luminescence can be adjusted by changing the ratio of the co-dopants. Properties of the glass host promote excellent dissolution of the co-dopants and low non-radiative decay rate. The white emission at 365 nm excitation is suitable for light emitting diodes applications.

  16. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic performance of g-C3N4 photocatalysts co-doped with iron and phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shaozheng; Ma, Lin; You, Jiguang; Li, Fayun; Fan, Zhiping; Lu, Guang; Liu, Dan; Gui, Jianzhou

    2014-08-01

    Preparation of Fe and P co-doped g-C3N4 was described, using dicyandiamide monomer, ferric nitrate, and diammonium hydrogen phosphate as precursor. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption, UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), photoluminescence (PL), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and photocurrent measurement were used to characterize the prepared catalysts. The results indicated that the addition of dopants inhibited the crystal growth of graphitic carbon nitride, enhanced the surface area, decreased the band gap energy, and restrained the recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes. Fe and P co-doped g-C3N4 exhibited much higher Rhodamine B (RhB) photodegradation rate and H2 production ability than that of single doped and neat g-C3N4 catalysts. The possible mechanism and doping sites of P and Fe were proposed.

  17. A facile green antisolvent approach to Cu2+-doped ZnO nanocrystals with visible-light-responsive photoactivities.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Wei-Hao; Yang, Chao-Yao; Chiu, Yi-Hsuan; Pu, Ying-Chih; Lee, Min-Han; Tseng, Yuan-Chieh; Hsu, Yung-Jung

    2014-08-01

    An environmentally benign antisolvent method has been developed to prepare Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals with controllable dopant concentrations. A room temperature ionic liquid, known as a deep eutectic solvent (DES), was used as the solvent to dissolve ZnO powders. Upon the introduction of the ZnO-containing DES into a bad solvent which shows no solvation to ZnO, ZnO was precipitated and grown due to the dramatic decrease of solubility. By adding Cu(2+) ions to the bad solvent, the growth of ZnO from the antisolvent process was accompanied by Cu(2+) introduction, resulting in the formation of Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The as-prepared Cu(2+)-doped ZnO showed an additional absorption band in the visible range (400-800 nm), which conduced to an improvement in the overall photon harvesting efficiency. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectra, together with the photovoltage information, suggested that the doped Cu(2+) may otherwise trap photoexcited electrons during the charge transfer process, inevitably depressing the photoconversion efficiency. The photoactivity of Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals for photoelectrochemical water oxidation was effectively enhanced in the visible region, which achieved the highest at 2.0 at% of Cu(2+). A further increase in the Cu(2+) concentration however led to a decrease in the photocatalytic performance, which was ascribed to the significant carrier trapping caused by the increased states given by excessive Cu(2+). The photocurrent action spectra illustrated that the enhanced photoactivity of the Cu(2+)-doped ZnO nanocrystals was mainly due to the improved visible photon harvesting achieved by Cu(2+) doping. These results may facilitate the use of transition metal ion-doped ZnO in other photoconversion applications, such as ZnO based dye-sensitized solar cells and magnetism-assisted photocatalytic systems. PMID:24954742

  18. Tm-doped silicate glass fibre lasers: the foundation technology for high-power mid-infrared light generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, S. D.

    2011-02-01

    The Tm-doped silicate glass fibre laser that operates in the 2 micron region of the spectrum is fast becoming a mature technology with output powers already exceeding 1 kW. In this paper, I will review a number of current and future experiments that involve lasers pumped with the output from Tm-doped silicate glass fibre lasers including linear systems e.g., the optical excitation of rare earth ions and nonlinear systems e.g., Raman fibre lasers.

  19. Highly Stable and Tunable Chemical Doping of Multilayer WS2 Field Effect Transistor: Reduction in Contact Resistance.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Hafiz M W; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Eom, Jonghwa; Noh, Hwayong

    2015-10-28

    The development of low resistance contacts to 2D transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) is still a big challenge for the future generation field effect transistors (FETs) and optoelectronic devices. Here, we report a chemical doping technique to achieve low contact resistance by keeping the intrinsic properties of few layers WS2. The transfer length method has been used to investigate the effect of chemical doping on contact resistance. After doping, the contact resistance (Rc) of multilayer (ML) WS2 has been reduced to 0.9 kΩ·μm. The significant reduction of the Rc is mainly due to the high electron doping density, thus a reduction in Schottky barrier height, which limits the device performance. The threshold voltage of ML-WS2 FETs confirms a negative shift upon the chemical doping, as further confirmed from the positions of E(1)2g and A1g peaks in Raman spectra. The n-doped samples possess a high drain current of 65 μA/μm, with an on/off ratio of 1.05 × 10(6) and a field effect mobility of 34.7 cm(2)/(V·s) at room temperature. Furthermore, the photoelectric properties of doped WS2 flakes were also measured under deep ultraviolet light. The potential of using LiF doping in contact engineering of TMDs opens new ways to improve the device performance. PMID:26434774

  20. Light emission from conductive paths in nanocrystalline CdSe embedded Zr-doped HfO{sub 2} high-k stack

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chi-Chou; Kuo, Yue

    2015-03-23

    Electrical and optical properties of the solid state incandescent light emitting devices made of zirconium doped hafnium oxide high-k films with and without an embedded nanocrystalline CdSe layer on the p-type Si wafer have been studied. The broad band white light was emitted from nano sized conductive paths through the thermal excitation mechanism. Conductive paths formed from the dielectric breakdown have been confirmed from scanning electron microscopic and atomic force microscopic images and the secondary ion mass spectrometric elemental profiles. Si was diffused from the wafer to the device surface through the conductive path during the high temperature light emission process. There are many potential applications of this type of device.

  1. Light emission from conductive paths in nanocrystalline CdSe embedded Zr-doped HfO2 high-k stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chi-Chou; Kuo, Yue

    2015-03-01

    Electrical and optical properties of the solid state incandescent light emitting devices made of zirconium doped hafnium oxide high-k films with and without an embedded nanocrystalline CdSe layer on the p-type Si wafer have been studied. The broad band white light was emitted from nano sized conductive paths through the thermal excitation mechanism. Conductive paths formed from the dielectric breakdown have been confirmed from scanning electron microscopic and atomic force microscopic images and the secondary ion mass spectrometric elemental profiles. Si was diffused from the wafer to the device surface through the conductive path during the high temperature light emission process. There are many potential applications of this type of device.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic applications of N-, S-, and C-doped SnO2 nanoparticles under ultraviolet (UV) light illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri, Azita; Fakhri, Ali

    2015-03-01

    N-, S-, and C-doped SnO2 nanoparticles were synthesized via a precipitation method and were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectral (UV-vis DRS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) techniques. The photocatalytic activities of these SnO2 samples were investigated with methyl orange as the organic pollutant under UV light illumination. UV-vis spectroscopy demonstrated that dopants N,S,C-species can shift the absorption edge to the near UV and visible light region. N,S,C-SnO2 nanoparticles achieved the best photocatalytic efficiency and the most optimal doping ratio was 3 (T/S). The degradation of methyl orange by N,S,C-SnO2 nanoparticles fitted well with the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics model. The results of subsequent experiments indicate that enhanced adsorption ability of light and high separation rate of photo induced charge carriers all play an major role in promotion of photocatalytic activity of N,S,C-SnO2 nanoparticles.

  3. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic applications of N-, S-, and C-doped SnO2 nanoparticles under ultraviolet (UV) light illumination.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Azita; Fakhri, Ali

    2015-03-01

    N-, S-, and C-doped SnO2 nanoparticles were synthesized via a precipitation method and were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectral (UV-vis DRS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) techniques. The photocatalytic activities of these SnO2 samples were investigated with methyl orange as the organic pollutant under UV light illumination. UV-vis spectroscopy demonstrated that dopants N,S,C-species can shift the absorption edge to the near UV and visible light region. N,S,C-SnO2 nanoparticles achieved the best photocatalytic efficiency and the most optimal doping ratio was 3 (T/S). The degradation of methyl orange by N,S,C-SnO2 nanoparticles fitted well with the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics model. The results of subsequent experiments indicate that enhanced adsorption ability of light and high separation rate of photo induced charge carriers all play an major role in promotion of photocatalytic activity of N,S,C-SnO2 nanoparticles. PMID:25531405

  4. Optimizing white light luminescence in Dy{sup 3+}-doped Lu{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} nano-garnets

    SciTech Connect

    Haritha, P.; Linganna, K.; Venkatramu, V.; Martín, I. R.; Monteseguro, V.; Rodríguez-Mendoza, U. R.; Babu, P.; León-Luis, S. F.; Jayasankar, C. K.; Lavín, V.

    2014-11-07

    Trivalent dysprosium-doped Lu{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} nano-garnets have been prepared by sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and laser excited spectroscopy. Under a cw 457 nm laser excitation, the white luminescence properties of Lu{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} nano-garnets have been studied as a function of the optically active Dy{sup 3+} ion concentration and at low temperature. Decay curves for the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} level of Dy{sup 3+} ion exhibit non-exponential nature for all the Dy{sup 3+} concentrations, which have been well-fitted to a generalized energy transfer model for a quadrupole-quadrupole interaction between Dy{sup 3+} ions without diffusion. From these data, a simple rate-equations model can be applied to predict that intense white luminescence could be obtained from 1.8 mol% Dy{sup 3+} ions-doped nano-garnets, which is in good agreement with experimental results. Chromaticity color coordinates and correlated color temperatures have been determined as a function of temperature and are found to be within the white light region for all Dy{sup 3+} concentrations. These results indicate that 2.0 mol% Dy{sup 3+} ions doped nano-garnet could be useful for white light emitting device applications.

  5. N-doped P25 TiO2-amorphous Al2O3 composites: one-step solution combustion preparation and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Fa-tang; Zhao, Ye; Hao, Ying-juan; Wang, Xiao-jing; Liu, Rui-hong; Zhao, Di-shun; Chen, Dai-mei

    2012-11-15

    Nitrogen-doped Degussa P25 TiO2-amorphous Al2O3 composites were prepared via facile solution combustion. The composites were characterised using X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis light-diffusion reflectance spectrometry (DRS), zeta-potential measurements, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The DRS results showed that TiO2 and amorphous Al2O3 exhibited absorption in the UV region. However, the Al2O3/TiO2 composite exhibited visible-light absorption, which was attributed to N-doping during high-temperature combustion and to alterations in the electronic structure of Ti species induced by the addition of Al. The optimal molar ratio of TiO2 to Al2O3 was 1.5:1, and this composite exhibited a large specific surface area of 152 m2/g, surface positive charges, and enhanced photocatalytic activity. These characteristics enhanced the degradation rate of anionic methylene orange, which was 43.6 times greater than that of pure P25 TiO2. The high visible-light photocatalytic activity was attributed to synthetic effects between amorphous Al2O3 and TiO2, low recombination efficiency of photo-excited electrons and holes, N-doping, and a large specific surface area. Experiments that involved radical scavengers indicated that OH and O2- were the main reactive species. A potential photocatalytic mechanism was also proposed. PMID:23021102

  6. Theory of Maxwell's fish eye with mutually interacting sources and drains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Sahebdivan, Sahar

    2015-11-01

    Maxwell's fish eye is predicted to image with a resolution not limited by the wavelength of light. However, interactions between sources and drains may ruin the subwavelength imaging capabilities of this and similar absolute optical instruments. Nevertheless, as we show in this paper, at resonance frequencies of the device, an array of drains may resolve a single source, or alternatively, a single drain may scan an array of sources, no matter how narrowly spaced they are. It seems that near-field information can be obtained from far-field distances.

  7. Internal energy transfer phenomenon and light-emission properties of γ-LiAlO2 phosphor doped with Mn2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bai-Bin; Chang, Chi-Fen; Yang, Wein-Duo

    2013-07-01

    γ-LiAlO2:Mn2+ phosphor was synthesized using the cellulose-citric acid sol-gel method, and its light emission and energy transfer properties were investigated. Excitation and emission spectrum analysis revealed a decrease in intensity of the spectrum as the amount of Mn2+ doping increased. Blasse's equation determined the maximum distance for energy transfer between Mn2+ ions as 4.3142 nm. Dexter's theory verifies that the mechanism of energy transfer between Mn2+ ions conforms to an electric dipole and electric quadrupole interaction.

  8. High-power-efficiency hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes with a single emitting layer doped with blue delayed fluorescent and yellow phosphorescent emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wook; Lee, Jun Yeob

    2015-09-01

    High-efficiency hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes (HWOLEDs) with a blue thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) emitter and a yellow phosphorescent emitter doped in a single emitting layer were developed. Exciton harvesting by the blue TADF and yellow phosphorescent emitters rendered both singlet and triplet excitons to contribute to the white emission, which leads to a high quantum efficiency of 22.4% and a power efficiency of 60.3 lm W-1 in the HWOLEDs. In addition, the electroluminescence spectra of the HWOLEDs were kept stable from 100 cd m-2 to 5, 000 cd m-2.

  9. Photodegradation of rhodamine B and methyl orange over boron-doped g-C3N4 under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yan, S C; Li, Z S; Zou, Z G

    2010-03-16

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C(3)N(4)) and boron-doped g-C(3)N(4) were prepared by heating melamine and the mixture of melamine and boron oxide, respectively. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-vis spectra were used to describe the properties of as-prepared samples. The electron paramagnetic resonance was used to detect the active species for the photodegradation reaction over g-C(3)N(4). The photodegradation mechanisms for two typical dyes, rhodamine B (Rh B) and methyl orange (MO), are proposed based on our comparison experiments. In the g-C(3)N(4) photocatalysis system, the photodegradation of Rh B and MO is attributed to the direct hole oxidation and overall reaction, respectively; however, for the MO photodegradation the reduction process initiated by photogenerated electrons is a major photocatalytic process compared with the oxidation process induced by photogenerated holes. Boron doping for g-C(3)N(4) can promote photodegradation of Rh B because the boron doping improves the dye adsorption and light absorption of catalyst. PMID:20175583

  10. Luminescent properties of Eu{sup 2+}-doped BaGdF{sub 5} glass ceramics a potential blue phosphor for ultra-violet light-emitting diode

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Weihuan; Zhang, Yuepin Ouyang, Shaoye; Zhang, Zhixiong; Wang, Qian; Xia, Haiping

    2015-01-14

    Eu{sup 2+} doped transparent oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing BaGdF{sub 5} nanocrystals were successfully fabricated by melt-quenching technique under a reductive atmosphere. The structure of the glass and glass ceramics were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The luminescent properties were investigated by transmission, excitation, and emission spectra. The decay time of the Gd{sup 3+} ions at 312 nm excited with 275 nm were also investigated. The results of XRD and TEM indicated the existence of BaGdF5 nanocrystals in the transparent glass ceramics. The excitation spectra of Eu{sup 2+} doped glass ceramics showed an excellent overlap with the main emission region of an ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV-LED). Compared with the as-made glass, the emission of glass ceramics is much stronger by a factor of increasing energy transfer efficiency from Gd{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} ions, the energy transfer efficiency from Gd{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} ions was discussed. In addition, the chromaticity coordinates of glass and glass ceramics specimens were also discussed, which indicated that the Eu{sup 2+} doped BaGdF{sub 5} glass ceramics may be used as a potential blue-emitting phosphor for UV-LED.

  11. Flower-like N-doped MoS2 for photocatalytic degradation of RhB by visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peitao; Liu, Yonggang; Ye, Weichun; Ma, Ji; Gao, Daqiang

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the photocatalytic performance and reusability of N-doped MoS2 nanoflowers with the specific surface area of 114.2 m(2) g(-1) was evaluated by discoloring of RhB under visible light irradiation. Results indicated that the 20 mg fabricated catalyst could completely degrade 50 ml of 30 mg l(-1) RhB in 70 min with excellent recycling and structural stability. The optimized N-doped MoS2 nanoflowers showed a reaction rate constant (k) as high as 0.06928 min(-1) which was 26.4 times that of bare MoS2 nanosheets (k = 0.00262). In addition, it was about seven times that of P25 (k = 0.01) (Hou et al 2015 Sci. Rep. 5 15228). The obtained outstanding photocatalytic performance of N-doped MoS2 nanoflowers provides potential applications in water pollution treatment, as well as other related fields. PMID:27108967

  12. Flower-like N-doped MoS2 for photocatalytic degradation of RhB by visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peitao; Liu, Yonggang; Ye, Weichun; Ma, Ji; Gao, Daqiang

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the photocatalytic performance and reusability of N-doped MoS2 nanoflowers with the specific surface area of 114.2 m2 g‑1 was evaluated by discoloring of RhB under visible light irradiation. Results indicated that the 20 mg fabricated catalyst could completely degrade 50 ml of 30 mg l‑1 RhB in 70 min with excellent recycling and structural stability. The optimized N-doped MoS2 nanoflowers showed a reaction rate constant (k) as high as 0.06928 min‑1 which was 26.4 times that of bare MoS2 nanosheets (k = 0.00262). In addition, it was about seven times that of P25 (k = 0.01) (Hou et al 2015 Sci. Rep. 5 15228). The obtained outstanding photocatalytic performance of N-doped MoS2 nanoflowers provides potential applications in water pollution treatment, as well as other related fields.

  13. 14 CFR 29.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 29.1021 Section 29.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  14. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be accessible; and...

  15. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be accessible; and...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  19. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be accessible; and...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 29.1021 Section 29.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  2. 14 CFR 29.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 29.1021 Section 29.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  3. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be accessible; and...

  4. Synergetic effects of Sr-doped CuBi2O4 catalyst with enhanced photoactivity under UVA- light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Elaziouti, A; Laouedj, N; Bekka, A

    2016-08-01

    Sr-doped CuBi2O4 micro-particles were successively synthesized via a solid-state technique and were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis-DRS) techniques. Results show that Sr-doped CuBi2O4 was crystallized with a spinel-type structure and tetragonal crystal system, and the band gap energy was about 1.35 eV. The as-prepared Sr-doped CuBi2O4 treated at 573 °C for 12 h exhibited the highest efficiency, as a result of 97.22 % of CR degradation within 220 min, which is approximately 31 times greater than CR photodegradation when catalyzed by CuBi2O4 (3.13 %) and about 2.3 times superior than that catalyzed by the untreated Sr-doped CuBi2O4 sample (42.08 %). Pseudo-first-order kinetic model gave the best fit, with highest correlation coefficients (R (2) = 0.94-0.97). The Sr-doping and extending reaction time up to 12 h could be effective in producing Sr-doped CuBi2O4 materials that delay electron-hole recombination, thereby increasing the lifetime of the electron electron-hole separation and support the charge carrier transfer to the catalyst surface. On the basis of the calculated energy band positions, superoxide radical anions (O2 (•-)) were the main oxidative species responsible for the photocatalytic degradation of CR dye solution. PMID:26150294

  5. Carbon implanted waveguides in soda lime glass doped with Yb3+ and Er3+ for visible light emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, G. V.; Valiente, R.; Gómez-Salces, S.; Flores-Romero, E.; Rickards, J.; Trejo-Luna, R.

    2016-05-01

    Channel waveguides were fabricated by carbon implantation in soda lime glass samples doped with Er3+ and Yb3+, exhibiting good confinement and both monomode and multimode behaviour at 633 nm. Excitation at near infrared (NIR) and ultraviolet (UV) spectral ranges were used in order to obtain anti-Stokes (upconversion) and Stokes (downshift) emission in the visible range, respectively. The characteristic green and red bands of Er3+ transitions were observed, showing the potential of Yb3+ and Er3+ co-doping for the generation of visible guided emission under NIR excitation.

  6. Study of synergistic effect of Sc and C co-doping on the enhancement of visible light photo-catalytic activity of TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Muhammad; Lei, Juying; Iqbal, Waheed; Zhang, Jinlong

    2016-02-01

    Scandium and carbon co-doped TiO2 catalyst was prepared through a simple sol-gel synthesis method by using scandium nitrate as scandium dopant precursor, glucose as carbon precursor and tetrabutyl orthotitanate as titanium precursor and calcined them at 450 °C for 3 h. The characterizations of the prepared samples were accomplished through X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The X-ray diffraction results of the samples showed the decrease in the crystal size of the sample with the subsequent increase in the specific surface area as shown by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller. The UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy displayed the blue shift in the absorption together with the photoluminescence spectroscopy revealed the decrease in the recombination of electrons and holes by the addition of the scandium and then after the certain optimum value, the further increase of the scandium further increased the recombination of electrons and holes. The photo-catalytic activity of the samples was investigated with the help of photo-catalytic degradation of Acid orange 7 under visible light irradiation. The degradation of Acid orange 7 was highly increased for the Sc and C co-doped samples compared to the single C doped sample. And the sample 0.2 Sc/C-TiO2 had the maximum increase. The enhanced photo-catalytic performance was due the decrease of the crystal size, increase of the surface area, increase in the surface hydroxyl groups, and increase of the lifetime of the electrons and holes because of the synergistic effect of the Sc and C co-doping in TiO2.

  7. Silver-loaded nitrogen-doped yolk-shell mesoporous TiO2 hollow microspheres with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhifeng; Wei, Wei; Mao, Danjun; Chen, Cheng; Shi, Yunfei; Lv, Xiaomeng; Xie, Jimin

    2014-12-01

    Silver-loaded nitrogen-doped yolk-shell mesoporous TiO2 hollow microspheres (Ag-N-TiO2-YSM) were prepared by employing acetic acid as the hollowing controller and triethanolamine as the N source for the first time. Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were uniformly deposited by a simple in situ photo-reduction method, which can prevent the aggregation of Ag NPs. The efficiency of the as-prepared samples was investigated by monitoring the degradation of rhodamine B and ciprofloxacin under visible light irradiation. The experimental results indicate that N-doped yolk-shell mesoporous TiO2 hollow microspheres show higher photocatalytic activity than P25 TiO2 under visible light irradiation because of N doping and the unique yolk-shell structure. In addition, Ag-N-TiO2-YSM shows enhanced activity compared with N-TiO2-YSM due to the SPR absorption of silver NPs and the fast generation, separation and transportation of the photogenerated carriers. Moreover, the Ag contents can affect the photocatalytic activity of the Ag-N-TiO2-YSM composite. A suitable amount of Ag deposition gives the highest photocatalytic activity. A higher loading does not improve the photocatalytic activity of N-TiO2-YSM further. The active species generated in the photocatalytic system were also investigated. Based on our experimental results, a possible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed. The strategy presented here gives a promising route towards the development of delicate metal@hollow semiconductor composites for many applications in photocatalysis.Silver-loaded nitrogen-doped yolk-shell mesoporous TiO2 hollow microspheres (Ag-N-TiO2-YSM) were prepared by employing acetic acid as the hollowing controller and triethanolamine as the N source for the first time. Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were uniformly deposited by a simple in situ photo-reduction method, which can prevent the aggregation of Ag NPs. The efficiency of the as-prepared samples was investigated by monitoring the degradation of rhodamine B and

  8. Mesoporous nitrogen-doped TiO2 for the photocatalytic destruction of the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin-LR under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeok; Antoniou, Maria G; Pelaez, Miguel; De la Cruz, Armah A; Shoemaker, Jody A; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2007-11-01

    The presence of the harmful cyanobacterial toxins in water resources worldwide drives the development of an innovative and practical water treatment technology with great urgency. This study deals with two important aspects: the fabrication of mesoporous nitrogen-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) photocatalysts and their environmental application for the destruction of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) under visible light. In a nanotechnological sol-gel synthesis method, a nitrogen-containing surfactant (dodecylammonium chloride) was introduced as a pore templating material for tailor-designing the structural properties of TiO2 and as a nitrogen dopant for its visible light response. The resulting N-TiO2 exhibited significantly enhanced structural properties including 2-8 nm mesoporous structure (porosity 44%) and high surface area of 150 m2/g. Red shift in light absorbance up to 468 nm, 0.9 eV lower binding energy of electrons in Ti 2p state, and reduced interplanar distance of crystal lattices proved nitrogen doping in the TiO2 lattice. Due to its narrow band gap at 2.65 eV, N-TiO2 efficiently degraded MC-LR under visible spectrum above 420 nm. Acidic condition (pH 3.5) was more favorable for the adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of MC-LR on N-TiO2 due to electrostatic attraction forces between negatively charged MC-LR and +6.5 mV charged N-TiO2. Even under UV light, MC-LR was decomposed 3-4 times faster using N-TiO2 than control TiO2. The degradation pathways and reaction intermediates of MC-LR were not directly related to the energy source for TiO2 activation (UV and visible) and nature of TiO2 (neat and nitrogen-doped). This study implies a strong possibility for the in situ photocatalytic remediation of contaminated water with cyanobacterial toxins and other toxic compounds using solar light, a sustainable source of energy. PMID:18044537

  9. Carbon-nanotube-assisted nanoepitaxy of Si-doped GaN for improved performance of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Park, Ah Hyun; Chandramohan, S; Seo, Tae Hoon; Lee, Gun Hee; Min, Kyung Hyun; Hong, Chang-Hee; Kim, Myung Jong; Suh, Eun-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as nanomasks on an undoped GaN template, a significant biaxial stress relaxation was achieved in the subsequently-grown Si-doped n-GaN layer. Enhanced near band edge (NBE) emission intensity, similar free carrier concentrations, and the reduced peak width of the asymmetric (102) crystallographic plane all confirmed the suppression of threading dislocations due to the nanoepitaxial growth process. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) revealed improved internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) grown on this n-GaN layer. Furthermore, enhanced light output power and a remarkable reduction in efficiency droop were observed for the blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs), especially at higher injection currents. Our results emphasize the strong potential for SWCNTs as nanomasks in the heteroepitaxy of GaN-based devices without the exploitation of complicated lithography or etching processes. PMID:27232210

  10. Green synthetic approach for Ti3+ self-doped TiO2-x nanoparticles with efficient visible light photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Gao, Shanmin; Xu, Hui; Lou, Zaizhu; Wang, Wenjun; Huang, Baibiao; Dai, Ying

    2013-02-01

    Rice-shaped Ti3+ self-doped TiO2-x nanoparticles were synthesized by mild hydrothermal treatment of TiH2 in H2O2 aqueous solution. The structure, crystallinity, morphology, and other properties of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microcopy and X-ray photoelectron spectra. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra confirm the presence of high concentration of paramagnetic Ti3+ in the bulk and surface of the as-prepared samples. The particles showed a strong absorption across the UV to the visible light region and retained their light-blue color upon storage in ambient atmosphere or water for one month at 40 °C. The formation mechanism of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2-x nanoparticles was discussed. Under visible light irradiation, the samples exhibit higher photocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution and photooxidation of methylene blue than that of the commercial P25 TiO2 nanoparticles. The sample obtained at 160 °C for 27 h showed a 9-fold enhancement for the visible light decomposition of methylene blue and 12.5 times higher for H2 production in comparison to P25 TiO2. The samples also showed an excellent cycling stability of the photocatalytic activity.Rice-shaped Ti3+ self-doped TiO2-x nanoparticles were synthesized by mild hydrothermal treatment of TiH2 in H2O2 aqueous solution. The structure, crystallinity, morphology, and other properties of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microcopy and X-ray photoelectron spectra. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra confirm the presence of high concentration of paramagnetic Ti3+ in the bulk and surface of the as-prepared samples. The particles showed a strong absorption across the UV to the visible light region and retained their light-blue color upon storage in ambient atmosphere or water for one month at 40 °C. The

  11. Carbon-nanotube-assisted nanoepitaxy of Si-doped GaN for improved performance of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ah Hyun; Chandramohan, S.; Seo, Tae Hoon; Lee, Gun Hee; Min, Kyung Hyun; Hong, Chang-Hee; Jong Kim, Myung; Suh, Eun-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as nanomasks on an undoped GaN template, a significant biaxial stress relaxation was achieved in the subsequently-grown Si-doped n-GaN layer. Enhanced near band edge (NBE) emission intensity, similar free carrier concentrations, and the reduced peak width of the asymmetric (102) crystallographic plane all confirmed the suppression of threading dislocations due to the nanoepitaxial growth process. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) revealed improved internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) grown on this n-GaN layer. Furthermore, enhanced light output power and a remarkable reduction in efficiency droop were observed for the blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs), especially at higher injection currents. Our results emphasize the strong potential for SWCNTs as nanomasks in the heteroepitaxy of GaN-based devices without the exploitation of complicated lithography or etching processes.

  12. Degradation of some typical pharmaceuticals and personal care products with copper-plating iron doped Cu2O under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    An, Jing; Zhou, Qixing

    2012-01-01

    A mixture of five commonly used pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) was degraded using a new combined catalyst under visible light irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the combined catalyst was composed of copper-plating iron doped Cu2O (FeCu/Cu2O). Compared with the Fe/C inner micro-circuit, the electric currents flowing between Cu and Fe increase the speed of anodic Fe dissolution. Moreover, due to the photochemical properties, Cu2O can accelerate the PPCPs degradation processes under the irradiation of visible light. In addition, shaking increased the dissolved oxygen concentration in the solution, which not only preconditioned the photo-catalysis reaction, but also set the stage for Fe reduction. According to the experimental results, we propose the possible reaction mechanism of the reaction. PMID:22893958

  13. Dislocation lines in indium-doped GaAs crystals observed by infrared light scattering tomography of about 1 μm wavelength radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Tomoya

    1988-05-01

    Decorated dislocation lines in GaAs crystals are remarkably well observed by scattering of an infrared laser beam in the 1 μm wavelength range. Some of these dislocation lines are also observed by absorption imaging in the same wavelength region but others are only detected by light scattering. Furthermore, the former lines correspond to the pits etched by molten KOH. Dislocation lines in In-doped GaAs crystals grown by the LEC method from nearly stoichiometric melts are studied in connection with their growth history, where grown-in dislocation lines are bent at growth interfaces to react with each other and then their density is decreased. At the shoulder part of the ingots, many slip dislocations are found, where most dislocation lines are so isolated that they are clearly and individually observed by light scattering tomography without etching.

  14. A facile green antisolvent approach to Cu2+-doped ZnO nanocrystals with visible-light-responsive photoactivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Wei-Hao; Yang, Chao-Yao; Chiu, Yi-Hsuan; Pu, Ying-Chih; Lee, Min-Han; Tseng, Yuan-Chieh; Hsu, Yung-Jung

    2014-07-01

    An environmentally benign antisolvent method has been developed to prepare Cu2+-doped ZnO nanocrystals with controllable dopant concentrations. A room temperature ionic liquid, known as a deep eutectic solvent (DES), was used as the solvent to dissolve ZnO powders. Upon the introduction of the ZnO-containing DES into a bad solvent which shows no solvation to ZnO, ZnO was precipitated and grown due to the dramatic decrease of solubility. By adding Cu2+ ions to the bad solvent, the growth of ZnO from the antisolvent process was accompanied by Cu2+ introduction, resulting in the formation of Cu2+-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The as-prepared Cu2+-doped ZnO showed an additional absorption band in the visible range (400-800 nm), which conduced to an improvement in the overall photon harvesting efficiency. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectra, together with the photovoltage information, suggested that the doped Cu2+ may otherwise trap photoexcited electrons during the charge transfer process, inevitably depressing the photoconversion efficiency. The photoactivity of Cu2+-doped ZnO nanocrystals for photoelectrochemical water oxidation was effectively enhanced in the visible region, which achieved the highest at 2.0 at% of Cu2+. A further increase in the Cu2+ concentration however led to a decrease in the photocatalytic performance, which was ascribed to the significant carrier trapping caused by the increased states given by excessive Cu2+. The photocurrent action spectra illustrated that the enhanced photoactivity of the Cu2+-doped ZnO nanocrystals was mainly due to the improved visible photon harvesting achieved by Cu2+ doping. These results may facilitate the use of transition metal ion-doped ZnO in other photoconversion applications, such as ZnO based dye-sensitized solar cells and magnetism-assisted photocatalytic systems.An environmentally benign antisolvent method has been developed to prepare Cu2+-doped ZnO nanocrystals with controllable dopant concentrations. A room

  15. Plasma induced tungsten doping of TiO2 particles for enhancement of photocatalysis under visible light.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yohei; Motokane, Yasutomo; Tokunaga, Tomoharu; Yonezawa, Tetsu

    2015-10-14

    Here we report a novel method for modifying commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles by a microwave-induced plasma technique. After the plasma treatment TiO2 nanoparticles showed enhanced visible absorption due to the doped W atoms, and the photocatalytic methylene blue degradation above 440 nm was successfully improved. PMID:26344653

  16. Energy alignment and trap states in dye-doped tris-8-(hydroxyquinoline) aluminum light-emitting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, Eric W.; Morton, David C.; Le, Quoc T.; Yan, Li; Nuesch, F.; Tang, Ching W.; Gao, Yongli

    1999-05-01

    Thermally stimulated luminescence has used to directly measure the trap states in intrinsic Alq3 and Alq3 doped with coumarin 6. For Alq3 doped with coumarin 6, we observe an increase in the trap energy from 0.25eV for undoped Alq3 to 0.32eV for doping concentrations as high as 2 percent. The origin of these trap states may be related to the relative energy level alignment between the Alq3 host and coumarin dopant. Using UV photoemission spectroscopy, we have measured the solid state energy alignment of the highest occupied molecular orbitals between Alq3 and coumarin 6. Finally, we report I-V curves for single layer devices as a function of doping with Al/LiF top and bottom contacts. The charge transport shows the trap states induced in the Alq3 films due to the presence of the coumarin 6 molecules decrease the carrier mobility and increase the energetic disorder. These results can be directly observed from the measured I-V curves.

  17. Visible light absorption in La, Cr co-doped SrTiO3 and BaTiO3 for ferroelectric photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comes, Ryan; McBriarty, Martin; Ong, Phuong-Vu; Heald, Steve; Carroll, Gerard; Gamelin, Daniel; Freedy, Keren; Smolin, Sergey; Baxter, Jason; Kaspar, Tiffany; Bowden, Mark; Sushko, Peter; Chambers, Scott

    Ferroelectric materials offer intriguing possibilities as photovoltaic materials, as their built-in electric field is ideal for separation of optically-excited electron-hole pairs without the need for a p-n junction. However, the majority of ferroelectrics suffer from a wide optical band gap outside the visible range. By co-doping La and Cr into epitaxial SrTiO3 and BaTiO3 (SLTCO/BLTCO) thin films, we show that absorption in the visible light regime can be achieved with a band gap of ~2.3 eV while preserving ideal stoichiometry. Through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, photoconductivity and ultrafast pump-probe transient reflectance measurements, we show that visible light excitation of Cr 3d valence electrons into the Ti 3d conduction band produces optical carriers. Using piezoresponse force microscopy and polarized x-ray absorption fine structure measurements, we measure the ferroelectric polarization of the doped BLTCO films. These results are compared to density functional theory models to understand the optical and structural properties of the materials.

  18. Tm3+/Er3+/Yb3+ tri-doped TeO2-PbF2-AlF3 glass for white-light-emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Chengguo; Song, Feng; Ren, Xiaobin; An, Liqun; Qin, Yueting

    2013-09-01

    By the high temperature melting method, Er3+/Yb3+, Tm3+/Yb3+, and Tm3+/Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped oxyfluoride telluride glasses with the compositions of (50TeO2-30PbF2-20AlF3)+(5Yb2O3-0.2Er2O3), (50TeO2-30PbF2-20AlF3)+(5Yb2O3-0.5Tm2O3), and (50TeO2-30PbF2-20AlF3)+(5Yb2O3-0.2Er2O3-0.5Tm2O3) (mol%) were prepared. The emission spectra of the samples were measured under 975 nm excitation. The emission color of Tm3+/Er3+/Yb3+ tri-doped glass is white to the naked eye. The International Commission on Illumination (CIE) coordinates (0.353,0.308) of the sample are close to the equal energy white-light illumination standard (x=0.333,y=0.333) and the color temperature is 4381 K. Our research will be helpful in developing luminescent materials for white light-emitting-diodes (LEDs).

  19. Study on blue organic light-emitting diodes doped with 4,4'-bis (9-ethyl-3carbazovinylene)-1,1'-biphenyl in various host materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Qianqian; Wang, Wenjun; Li, Shuhong; Zhang, Dong; Li, Wenlian; Zheng, Wanquan

    2016-05-01

    We have fabricated efficient blue organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with 4,4‧-bis (9-ethyl-3carbazovinylene)-1,1‧-biphenyl(BCzVBi) as the fluorescent emitter doped into 4,4‧-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl(CBP) and 1,3,5-Tris(1-phenyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)benzene (TPBi), respectively, and the results show that luminance and luminous efficiency are greatly enhanced in the doped devices. Particularly, the optimized blue CBP-host device with a well-designed structure has a significantly higher luminous efficiency of 4.45 cd/A. The energy level structure of the BCzVBi molecules is obtained, which yields useful information on the light emission processes. We carry out a spectroscopic analysis based on Gaussian multi-peak fit for the electroluminescence (EL) emission spectra and present a theoretical explanation of the energy transfer mechanism in the host-guest system. These are expected to provide an effective strategy in enhancing high-efficiency blue OLEDs.

  20. White light upconversion in Yb-sensitized (Tm, Ho)-doped KLu(WO4)2 nanocrystals: the effect of Eu incorporation.

    PubMed

    Barrera, E W; Pujol, M C; Carvajal, J J; Mateos, X; Solé, Rosa; Massons, J; Speghini, A; Bettinelli, M; Cascales, C; Aguiló, M; Díaz, F

    2014-01-28

    Monoclinic Yb-sensitized (Tm, Ho)-doped KLu(WO4)2 nanocrystals of ~100 nm size have been synthesized by the modified Pechini sol-gel method. Their diode laser near-infrared (~980 nm) excited upconversion emission properties have been characterized at power densities in the range 30-355 W cm(-2). Bright white light composed of blue ~475 nm, green ~540 nm, and red ~650 nm emissions, corresponding to Tm(3+ 1)G4 → (3)H6, Ho(3+ 5)S2, (5)F4 → (5)I8, and Ho(3+ 5)F5 → (5)I8 electronic transitions, respectively, was generated by adjusting the Yb, Tm, and Ho contents in KLu(WO4)2 nanocrystalline samples. Chromaticity coordinates of the emitted white light can be tuned by modifying the excitation power density. The effect of Tm and Ho on the luminescence dynamics has been described by analyzing the upconverted emission intensity dependence on the excitation power, as well as from Stokes and decay time measurements. The effect on upconversion properties of further codoping with Eu in these (Tm, Ho, Yb)-doped KLu(WO4)2 nanocrystals has also been studied. PMID:24322200

  1. Nitrogen-doped TiO2 modified with NH4F for efficient photocatalytic degradation of formaldehyde under blue light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuexiang; Jiang, Yuan; Peng, Shaoqin; Jiang, Fengyi

    2010-10-15

    A nitrogen-doped TiO(2) (N-TiO(2)) photocatalyst was prepared by calcination of the hydrolysis precipitate of Ti(SO(4))(2) with aqueous ammonia. The prepared N-TiO(2) was treated with NH(4)F (F-N-TiO(2)) by an impregnation-calcination method. The photocatalyst (F-N-TiO(2)) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), UV-vis diffusive reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), BET and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). With blue light-emitting diode (LED) as the light source, its photocatalytic activity for the degradation of formaldehyde was investigated. NH(4)F treatment enhances markedly photocatalytic activity of N-TiO(2). The treatment increases the visible absorption of N-TiO(2), decreases its specific surface area and influences the concentration of oxygen vacancies in N-TiO(2). Photocatalytic activity of F-N-TiO(2) depends on the visible absorption, the specific surface area, and the concentration of oxygen vacancies. The preparation conditions, such as the calcination temperature and the initial molar ratio of NH(4)F to N-TiO(2), have a significant influence on the photocatalytic activity. The doping mechanism of NH(4)F was investigated. PMID:20580490

  2. Enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activities of porous olive-shaped sulfur-doped BiVO4-supported cobalt oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhenxuan; Dai, Hongxing; Deng, Jiguang; Liu, Yuxi; Au, Chak Tong

    2013-04-01

    Porous S-doped bismuth vanadate with an olive-like morphology and its supported cobalt oxide (y wt% CoOx/BiVO4-δS0.08, y = 0.1, 0.8, and 1.6) photocatalysts were fabricated using the dodecylamine-assisted alcohol-hydrothermal and incipient wetness impregnation methods, respectively. It is shown that the y wt% CoOx/BiVO4-δS0.08 photocatalysts were single-phase with a monoclinic scheetlite structure, a porous olive-like morphology, a surface area of 8.8-9.2 m2/g, and a bandgap energy of 2.38-2.41 eV. There was the co-presence of surface Bi5+, Bi3+, V5+, V3+, Co3+, and Co2+ species in y wt% CoOx/BiVO4-δS0.08. The 0.8 wt% CoOx/BiVO4-δS0.08 sample performed the best for methylene blue degradation under visible-light illumination. The photocatalytic mechanism was also discussed. We believe that the sulfur and CoOx co-doping, higher oxygen adspecies concentration, and lower bandgap energy were responsible for the excellent visible-light-driven catalytic activity of 0.8 wt% CoOx/BiVO4-δS0.08.

  3. Blue and white light emission in Tm3+ and Tm3+/Dy3+ doped zinc phosphate glasses upon UV light excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meza-Rocha, A. N.; Speghini, A.; Lozada-Morales, R.; Caldiño, U.

    2016-08-01

    A spectroscopic study based on photoluminescence spectra and decay time profiles in Tm3+ and Tm3+/Dy3+ doped Zn(PO3)2 glasses is reported. The Tm3+ doped Zn(PO3)2 glass, upon 357 nm excitation, exhibits blue emission with CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, x = 0.157 and y = 0.030, and color purity of about 96%. Under excitations at 348, 352 and 363 nm, which match with the emissions of AlGaN and GaN based LEDs, the Tm3+/Dy3+ co-doped Zn(PO3)2 glass displays natural white, bluish white and cool white overall emissions, with correlated color temperature values of 4523, 10700 and 7788 K, respectively, depending strongly on the excitation wavelength. The shortening of the Dy3+ emission decay time in presence of Tm3+ suggests that Dy3+→Tm3+ non-radiative energy transfer occurs. By using the Inokuti-Hirayama model, it is inferred that an electric quadrupole-quadrupole interaction might be the dominant mechanism involved in the energy transfer. The efficiency and probability of this energy transfer are 0.12 and 126.70 s-1, respectively.

  4. White light emission in host-sensitized Dy3+-single-doped NaIn(WO4)2 phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, F. B.; Lin, H. F.; Wang, L. J.; Meng, X. G.; Zhu, W. Z.

    2015-02-01

    A novel white NaIn1-x(WO4)2: xDy3+ (x=0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08) phosphors in pure phase were prepared via high temperature solid-state reaction, and luminescent properties of the phosphors were investigated. The crystal structure of the phosphor was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, and the spectroscopic properties of Dy3+-doped NaIn(WO4)2 were investigated by diffuse reflectance spectra, photoluminescence emission and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy. Those spectra illustrated that the Dy3+-doped NaIn(WO4)2 phosphors could be efficiently excited by the host-sensitized excitation in the spectral range of 280-350 nm, and the host-sensitized excitation is more efficient than the Dy3+ excitation. The 6 mol% Dy3+ doping concentration in NaIn(WO4)2 is optimum, and the luminescence concentration quenching occurs beyond the 6 mol% concentration. The concentration quenching mechanism could be attributed to the dipole-dipole interaction between the Dy3+ ions. The CIE color coordinate of the 6 mol% Dy3+-doped NaIn(WO4)2 is (0.319, 0.325). The present work suggests that Dy3+-doped NaIn(WO4)2 could be a promising host-sensitized phosphor applied in white LEDs, and white emission can be obtained by combining the blue host emission with the yellow Dy3+ emission.

  5. Urokinase-Treated Antithrombogenic Drains and Optimized Drain Placement in Endoscopic Lumbar Decompressive Surgery.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shu; Ikeda, Shoji; Taguchi, Mitsuto

    2016-07-01

    Background Spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) frequently occurs after microendoscopic decompressive laminotomy (MEDL), and a drain may not be functioning sufficiently. Objective To reduce the incidence of SEH after MEDL. Methods  A urokinase-treated antithrombogenic drain, which is available only with a large diameter, was reduced in diameter and used after MEDL. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were performed 36 to 48 hours after surgery. The size of the SEH was measured by MRI, and the location of the drain tip was assessed by CT scan. After imaging, the drain was removed. Results Use of the urokinase-treated antithrombogenic drain reduced the incidence of SEH. However, the drain was not adequately placed in many cases, limiting the effect of the drainage. When the urokinase-treated antithrombogenic drain was placed contralaterally to the approach side using an unsheathed endoscope, the incidence of SEH was further reduced. Conclusions The urokinase-treated antithrombogenic drain prevented thrombus-related drain obstruction. In addition, unsheathed endoscopic contralateral placement of the drain was effective for SEH prevention. PMID:26935298

  6. Might digital drains speed up the time to thoracic drain removal?

    PubMed

    Afoke, Jonathan; Tan, Carol; Hunt, Ian; Zakkar, Mustafa

    2014-07-01

    A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: might digital drains speed up the time to thoracic drain removal in terms of time till chest drain removal, hospital stay and overall cost? A total of 296 papers were identified as a result of the search as described below. Of these, five papers provided the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of the papers are tabulated. A literature search revealed that several single-centre prospective randomized studies have shown significantly earlier removal of chest drains with digital drains ranging between 0.8 and 2.1 days sooner. However, there was heterogeneity in studies in the management protocol of chest drains in terms of the use of suction, number of drains and assessment for drain removal. Some protocols such as routinely keeping drains irrespective of the presence of air leak or drain output may have skewed results. Differences in exclusion criteria and protocols for discharging home with portable devices may have biased results. Due to heterogeneity in the management protocol of chest drains, there is conflicting evidence regarding hospital stay. The limited data on cost suggest that there may be significantly lower postoperative costs in the digital drain group. All the studies were single-centre series generally including patients with good preoperative lung function tests. Further larger studies with more robust chest drain management protocols are required especially to assess length of hospital stay, cost and whether the results are applicable to a larger patient population. PMID:24722516

  7. How to remove a chest drain.

    PubMed

    Allibone, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    RATIONALE AND KEY POINTS: This article aims to help nurses to undertake the removal of a chest drain in a safe, effective and patient-centred manner. This procedure requires two practitioners. The chest drain will have been inserted aseptically to remove air, blood, fluid or pus from the pleural cavity. ▶ Chest drains may be small or wide bore depending on the underlying condition and clinical setting. They may be secured with a mattress suture and/or an anchor suture. ▶ Chest drains are usually removed under medical instructions when the patient's lung has inflated, the underlying condition has resolved, there is no evidence of respiratory compromise or failure, and their anticoagulation status has been assessed as satisfactory. ▶ Chest drains secured with a mattress suture should be removed by two practitioners. One practitioner is required to remove the tube and the other to tie the mattress suture (if present) and secure the site. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How reading this article will change your practice. 2. How this article could be used to educate patients with chest drains. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26443174

  8. Photoluminescence of Sm doped porous silicon—evidence for light emission through luminescence centers in SiO2 layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Zhang, L. Z.; Huang, Y. M.; Zhang, B. R.; Qin, G. G.

    1994-06-01

    After oxidation promoted by gamma-ray irradiation, in the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Sm doped porous silicon (PS), there are three sharp peaks, superimposed on a broad band, with wavelengths near to those of the Sm doped SiO2 [R. Morimo, T. Mizushima, and H. Okumura, J. Electrochem. Soc. 137, 2340 (1990)]. The experimental results indicate that Sm-related luminescence centers can be created within the oxide of porous silicon, and only in porous silicon with high porosity can the Sm-related luminescence be found in the SiO2 layer. This experimental result can be explained by the fact that the excitation of electron-hole pairs occurs in nanoscale silicon, and the recombination occurs at the Sm-related luminescence centers in SiO2 layers covering nanoscale silicon.

  9. White light generation from Dy{sup 3+}-doped ZnO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Jayasimhadri, M.; Jang, Kiwan; Lee, Ho Sueb; Chen, Baojiu; Yi, Soung-Soo; Jeong, Jung-Hyun

    2009-07-01

    Dysprosium doped ZnO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (ZBP) glasses were prepared by a conventional melt quenching technique in order to study the luminescent properties and their utility for white light emitting diodes (LEDs). X-ray diffraction spectra revealed the amorphous nature of the glass sample. The present glasses were characterized by infrared and Raman spectra to evaluate the vibrational features of the samples. The emission and excitation spectra were reported for the ZBP glasses. Strong blue (484 nm) and yellow (574 nm) emission bands were observed upon various excitations. These two emissions correspond to the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}->{sup 6}H{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}->{sup 6}H{sub 13/2} transitions of Dy{sup 3+} ions, respectively. Combination of these blue and yellow bands gives white light to the naked eye. First time, it was found that ZnO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glasses efficiently emit white light under 400 and 454 nm excitations, which are nearly match with the emissions of commercial GaN blue LEDs and InGaN LED, respectively. CIE chromaticity coordinates also calculated for Dy{sup 3+}: ZBP glasses to evaluate the white light emission.

  10. Polarization control of an infrared silicon light-emitting diode by dressed photons and analyses of the spatial distribution of doped boron atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawazoe, Tadashi; Nishioka, Katsuhiro; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the fabrication of a polarization-controlled infrared LED fabricated by dressed-photon-phonon (DPP)-assisted annealing of a bulk Si crystal. For the DPP-assisted annealing, linearly polarized infrared light with a wavelength of 1.342 μm was made normally incident on the top surface of the crystal. The photon energy at the peak of the emitted light spectrum of the fabricated LED was close to that of the light irradiated during the DPP-assisted annealing. A degree of polarization of as large as 0.07 was obtained. The spatial distribution of the doped B atoms in the fabricated LED was measured, and the following findings were obtained: (1) B atoms formed pairs in which the separation between the two B atoms was three times the lattice constant of the Si crystal; and (2) the B atom pairs were apt to orient along the direction perpendicular to the propagation direction and to the polarization direction of the light irradiated during the DPP-assisted annealing. Based on these findings (1) and (2), photon breeding was confirmed with respect to photon energy and spin, respectively.

  11. Light scattering and computer simulation studies of superionic pure and La-doped BaF2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rammutla, K. E.; Comins, J. D.; Erasmus, R. M.; Netshisaulu, T. T.; Ngoepe, P. E.; Chadwick, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    A combination of both Raman and Brillouin scattering experiments as well as Molecular Dynamics (MD) was used to study the superionic behaviour of BaF2 doped with a wide range of LaF3 concentrations (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 50 mol%). Raman spectroscopy reveals that for undoped BaF2 and those doped with 5% and 10% LaF3, the room temperature spectra show the usual T2g symmetry mode at 241 cm-1 whereas for those doped with 20%, 30% and 50% LaF3, the dominant Raman mode is of the Eg symmetry situated at ∼263, 275 and 286 cm-1, respectively. The Raman linewidths show near linear increases with temperature followed by rapid increases above the characteristic transition temperatures (Tc), being at 1200, 850, 800, 975, 950 and 920 K for LaF3 concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50; respectively. The temperature dependence of the squares of the Brillouin frequencies (ΔωB)2 of the LA and TA acoustic modes respectively related to elastic constants C11 and C44 showed linear decreases followed by significant deviations around the same temperatures (Tc), at which the Raman linewidths start to show substantial increases. The complementary studies using MD simulations show that the diffusion coefficients increase markedly above the same temperatures observed experimentally. The extrinsic fluorine ion trajectories were also determined from the MD simulations to better understand the mechanisms of diffusion.

  12. White-light luminescence properties of Mg and Sn doped ZnO prepared by thermal oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Jun; Fan, Huiqing; Xue, Jun; Wang, Yangli

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: The PL spectrum of MgSnZnO was measured at room temperature through multi-peak Gaussian fitting, it is found that the broad emission is composed of six peaks. - Highlights: • Mg and Sn doped ZnO are synthesized by thermal oxidation of MgSnZn alloys. • The structure is characterized by XRD and micro-Raman scattering technology. • The optical properties are characterized by photoluminescence spectrum. • The resulting Mg and Sn doped ZnO shows white photoluminescence. - Abstract: This work reports that Mg and Sn doped ZnO (MgSnZnO) are synthesized by thermal oxidation of MgSnZn alloys. The structure and optical properties are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman scattering technology and photoluminescence spectrum. Interestingly, the resulting MgSnZnO shows white photoluminescence. Additionally, the photoluminescence spectrum of MgSnZnO shows two broad emission bands ranging from 360 to 420 nm and 420 to 630 nm, respectively. Through multi-peak Gaussian fitting, it is found that the broad emission is composed of six Gaussian peaks. The six Gaussian peaks are centrered at 383 nm, 397 nm, 455 nm, 516 nm, 560 nm and 614 nm.

  13. Facile preparation of N-doped TiO2 at ambient temperature and pressure under UV light with 4-nitrophenol as the nitrogen source and its photocatalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Shirasaka, Yutaro; Uchida, Hiroshi; Horikoshi, Natsuko; Serpone, Nick

    2016-08-01

    To date syntheses of nitrogen-doped TiO2 photocatalysts (TiO2-xNx) have been carried out under high temperatures and high pressures with either NH3 or urea as the nitrogen sources. This article reports for the first time the facile preparation of N-doped TiO2 (P25 titania) in aqueous media at ambient temperature and pressure under inert conditions (Ar- and N2-purged dispersions) with 4-nitrophenol (or 4-nitrobenzaldehyde) as the nitrogen source. The resulting N-doped P25 TiO2 materials were characterized by UV/Vis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS) that confirmed the presence of nitrogen within the photocatalyst; X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques confirmed the crystalline phases of the doped material. The photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2 was assessed through examining the photodegradation of 4-chlorophenol in aqueous media and iso-propanol as a volatile pollutant under UV/Vis and visible-light irradiation. Under visible light irradiation, undoped P25 was inactive contrary to N-doped P25 that successfully degraded 95% of the 4-chlorophenol (after 10 h) and 23% of iso-propanol (after 2.5 h). PMID:27444263

  14. Impact of extension implantation conditions of fin field-effect transistors on gate-induced drain leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsukawa, Takashi; Liu, Yongxun; Mori, Takahiro; Morita, Yukinori; O'uchi, Shinichi; Otsuka, Shintaro; Migita, Shinji; Masahara, Meishoku

    2016-04-01

    The influence of the extension doping conditions on gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) has been investigated to optimize fin field-effect transistors (FinFETs) for ultralow-power (ULP) applications. An increased GIDL for a smaller fin thickness and a dependence on the implanted ion species, i.e., a larger GIDL for As than for P, are recognized. These results suggest that the residual defects due to extension doping increase the GIDL, and the suppression of the defects by the optimization of the doping process is the key to the optimization of FinFETs for ULP applications.

  15. Enhanced Raman spectroscopy of molecules adsorbed on carbon-doped TiO₂ obtained from titanium carbide: a visible-light-assisted renewable substrate.

    PubMed

    Kiran, Vankayala; Sampath, Srinivasan

    2012-08-01

    Titanium carbide (TiC) is an electrically conducting material with favorable electrochemical properties. In the present studies, carbon-doped TiO(2) (C-TiO(2)) has been synthesized from TiC particles, as well as TiC films coated on stainless steel substrate via thermal annealing under various conditions. Several C-TiO(2) substrates are synthesized by varying experimental conditions and characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic techniques. C-TiO(2) in the dry state (in powder form as well as in film form) is subsequently used as a substrate for enhancing Raman signals corresponding to 4-mercaptobenzoic acid and 4-nitrothiophenol by utilizing chemical enhancement based on charge-transfer interactions. Carbon, a nonmetal dopant in TiO(2), improves the intensities of Raman signals, compared to undoped TiO(2). Significant dependence of Raman intensity on carbon doping is observed. Ameliorated performance obtained using C-TiO(2) is attributed to the presence of surface defects that originate due to carbon as a dopant, which, in turn, triggers charge transfer between TiO(2) and analyte. The C-TiO(2) substrates are subsequently regenerated for repetitive use by illuminating an analyte-adsorbed substrate with visible light for a period of 5 h. PMID:22738214

  16. Sol-gel synthesized far-red chromium-doped garnet phosphors for phosphor-conversion light-emitting diodes that meet the photomorphogenetic needs of plants.

    PubMed

    Zabiliūtė, Akvilė; Butkutė, Skirmantė; Žukauskas, Artūras; Vitta, Pranciškus; Kareiva, Aivaras

    2014-02-10

    We report the sol-gel synthesis and characterization of far-red garnet phosphors Gd(3)Ga(5)O(12) (GGG:Cr), Y(3)Ga(5)O(12) (YGG:Cr), Lu(3)Ga(5)O(12) (LGG:Cr), and Gd(3)Sc(2)Ga(3)O(12) (GSGG:Cr) doped with different chromium (III) concentration (3, 5, and 8 mol. %). The morphological and luminescence properties of the phosphors annealed at different temperatures (1000°C, 1300°C, 1400°C, and 1500°C) were examined using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, photoluminescence (PL), and PL excitation (PLE) spectroscopy, and by the measurements of diffuse reflection, PL internal quantum efficiency (QE), and PL decay time. The PLE spectra of the samples were found to peak at around 450 nm depending on the host, and luminescence was observed in the region of 700-760 nm. The QE was found to strongly depend on doping concentration and calcination temperature, and the PL decay exhibited biexponential behavior. The investigated far-red garnet phosphors, in particular GGG:Cr and YGG:Cr, show a potential for use in phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes that meet the photomorphogenetic needs of plants. PMID:24663271

  17. Fabrication of cation-doped BaTaO{sub 2}N photoanodes for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting under visible light irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Higashi, Masanobu; Yamanaka, Yuta; Tomita, Osamu; Abe, Ryu

    2015-10-01

    A series of cation-doped BaTaO{sub 2}N particle was synthesized to control the donor density in the bulk for improving the performance of photoelectrochemical water splitting on porous BaTaO{sub 2}N photoanodes under visible light. Among the dopants (Mo{sup 6+}, W{sup 6+}, Zr{sup 4+}, and Ti{sup 4+}) examined, Mo{sup 6+} cations can be introduced into the Ta{sup 5+} site up to 5 mol. % without producing any impurity phases; the donor density of BaTaO{sub 2}N was indeed increased significantly by introducing higher ratio of Mo{sup 6+} dopant. The porous photoanodes of Mo-doped BaTaO{sub 2}N showed much higher photocurrent than others including undoped one and also exhibited much improved performance in photoelectrochemical water splitting into H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} after loaded with cobalt oxide cocatalyst and coupled with Pt counter electrode.

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of iron-doped titania/silane based hydrogel for the adsorptional photocatalytic degradation of Victoria blue under visible light.

    PubMed

    Anirudhan, Thayyath S; Divya, Peethambaran L; Nima, Jayachandran; Sandeep, Sadanandan

    2014-11-15

    Novel photocatalyst, poly(itaconic acid-co-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane-1-sulfonic acid) iron doped titania/silane was successfully prepared by the polymerization of iron doped titania/silane and two functional monomers, itaconic acid and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane-1-sulfonic acid in aqueous solution using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker and benzoylperoxide as initiator. The sample was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) techniques. Effects of various factors like pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, and ionic strength on the adsorption capacity of photocatalyst for Victoria blue (VB) were studied by batch adsorption experiments. The kinetic data were found to follow pseudo-second-order kinetic model with low chi square, χ(2) values and R(2) values closer to unity. The equilibrium data were in well agreement with Langmuir isotherm model and maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 153.89 mg/g. The swelling capacity of the adsorbent with changes in pH, time and temperature was also investigated. The kinetics of photocatalytic degradation of VB by the photocatalyst found to follow first-order kinetics. The regeneration and repeated use of photocatalyst were also examined upto four cycles. The prepared photocatalyst was found to be efficient photocatalyst-cum-adsorbent for the degradation of VB from aqueous solutions under solar light. PMID:25168582

  19. Low-Temperature Facile Synthesis of Sb-Doped p-Type ZnO Nanodisks and Its Application in Homojunction Light-Emitting Diode.

    PubMed

    Baek, Sung-Doo; Biswas, Pranab; Kim, Jong-Woo; Kim, Yun Cheol; Lee, Tae Il; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2016-05-25

    This study explores low-temperature solution-process-based seed-layer-free ZnO p-n homojunction light-emitting diode (LED). In order to obtain p-type ZnO nanodisks (NDs), antimony (Sb) was doped into ZnO by using a facile chemical route at 120 °C. The X-ray photoelectron spectra indicated the presence of (SbZn-2VZn) acceptor complex in the Sb-doped ZnO NDs. Using these NDs as freestanding templates, undoped n-type ZnO nanorods (NRs) were epitaxially grown at 95 °C to form ZnO p-n homojunction. The homojunction with a turn-on voltage of 2.5 V was found to be significantly stable up to 100 s under a constant voltage stress of 5 V. A strong orange-red emission was observed by the naked eye under a forward bias of 5 V. The electroluminescence spectra revealed three major peaks at 400, 612, and 742 nm which were attributed to the transitions from Zni to VBM, from Zni to Oi, and from VO to VBM, respectively. The presence of these deep-level defects was confirmed by the photoluminescence of ZnO NRs. This study paves the way for future applications of ZnO homojunction LEDs using low-temperature and low-cost solution processes with the controlled use of native defects. PMID:27160161

  20. Using an ultra-thin non-doped orange emission layer to realize high efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes with low efficiency roll-off

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Liping; Chen, Jiangshan; Ma, Dongge; Zhao, Yongbiao; Zhang, Hongmei

    2014-06-28

    By adopting an ultra-thin non-doped orange emission layer sandwiched between two blue emission layers, high efficiency white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) with reduced efficiency roll-off were fabricated. The optimized devices show a balanced white emission with Internationale de L'Eclairage of (0.41, 0.44) at the luminance of 1000 cd/m{sup 2}, and the maximum power efficiency, current efficiency (CE), and external quantum efficiency reach 63.2 lm/W, 59.3 cd/A, and 23.1%, which slightly shift to 53.4 lm/W, 57.1 cd/A, and 22.2% at 1000 cd/m{sup 2}, respectively, showing low efficiency roll-off. Detailed investigations on the recombination zone and the transient electroluminescence (EL) clearly reveal the EL processes of the ultra-thin non-doped orange emission layer in WOLEDs.

  1. Photocatalytic performance of Sn-doped TiO{sub 2} nanostructured thin films for photocatalytic degradation of malachite green dye under UV and VIS-lights

    SciTech Connect

    Sayilkan, F.; Asiltuerk, M.; Tatar, P.; Kiraz, N.; Sener, S.; Arpac, E.; Sayilkan, H.

    2008-01-08

    Sn-doped and undoped nano-TiO{sub 2} particles have been synthesized by hydrotermal process without acid catalyst at 225 deg. C in 1 h. Nanostructure-TiO{sub 2} based thin films, contain at different solid ratio of TiO{sub 2} in coating, have been prepared on glass surfaces by spin-coating technique. The structure, surface morphology and optical properties of the thin films and the particles have been investigated by element analysis and XRD, BET and UV/VIS/NIR techniques. The photocatalytic performance of the films was tested for degradation of malachite green dye in solution under UV and VIS-lights. The results showed that the hydrothermally synthesized nano-TiO{sub 2} particles are fully anatase crystalline form and are easily dispersed in water, the coated surfaces have nearly super-hydrophilic properties and, the doping of transition metal ion efficiently improved the photocatalytic performance of the TiO{sub 2} thin film. The results also proved that malachite green is decomposed catalytically due to the pseudo first-order reaction kinetics.

  2. Enhanced visible-light absorption of mesoporous TiO2 by co-doping with transition-metal/nitrogen ions

    SciTech Connect

    Mathis, John; Bi, Zhonghe; Bridges, Craig A; Kidder, Michelle; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (IV) oxide, TiO2, has been the object of intense scrutiny for energy applications. TiO2 is inexpensive, non-toxic, and has excellent corrosion resistance when exposed to electrolytes. A major drawback preventing the widespread use TiO2 for photolysis is its relatively large band gap of ~3eV. Only light with wavelengths shorter than 400 nm, which is in the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum, has sufficient energy to be absorbed. Less than 14 percent of the solar irradiation reaching the earth s surface has energy exceeding this band gap. Adding dopants such as transition metals has long been used to reduce the gap and increase photocatalytic activity by accessing the visible part of the solar spectrum. The degree to which the band gap is reduced using transition metals depends in part on the overlap of the d-orbitals of the transition metals with the oxygen p-orbitals. Therefore, doping with anions such as nitrogen to modify the cation-anion orbital overlap is another approach to reduce the gap. Recent studies suggest that using a combination of transition metals and nitrogen as dopants is more effective at introducing intermediate states within the band gap, effectively narrowing it. Here we report the synthesis of mesoporous TiO2 spheres, co-doped with transition metals and nitrogen that exhibit a nearly flat absorbance response across the visible spectrum extending into the near infrared.

  3. Synthesis of transition-metal-doped KTiOPO{sub 4} and lanthanide-doped RbTiOAsO{sub 4} isomorphs that absorb visible light

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson M.T.; Phillips, M.L.F.; Sinclair, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have substituted aliovalent transition-metal (M = Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Co) and lanthanide (Ln = Er) ions that absorb visible light onto the titanium sites of the nonlinear optical materials KTiOPO{sub 4} (KTP) and RbTiOAsO{sub 4} (RTA). The substitution formally creates a charge deficiency on the Ti site. To compensate for this, the authors have substituted aliovalent counterions on the titanium (Nb), phosphorus (S, Se, Cr, Mo, W, Re) oxygen (F), or potassium (Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb) sites. The resulting new materials expand the KTiOPO{sub 4} structure field for partial replacement of one or more ions. The M and Ln ions alter the optical absorption and second harmonic properties of the materials. The ions reduce the second harmonic intensities of the isomorphs and second harmonic radiation to be phase matched at slightly shorter wavelengths than in the undoped host.

  4. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  11. 3. DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING, REINFORCED CONCRETE MUSHROOM COLUMNS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING, REINFORCED CONCRETE MUSHROOM COLUMNS WITH DROP PANELS SUPPORTING DRAINING BINS (IRON VALVES OF DRAINING BINS ARE EMBEDDED IN THE CEILING), VIEW LOOKING WEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  12. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  13. 14 CFR 23.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 23.999 Section 23.999... § 23.999 Fuel system drains. (a) There must be at least one drain to allow safe drainage of the entire fuel system with the airplane in its normal ground attitude. (b) Each drain required by paragraph...

  14. 14 CFR 125.159 - Vent and drain lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vent and drain lines. 125.159 Section 125... Requirements § 125.159 Vent and drain lines. All vent and drain lines, and their fittings, that are located in... Administrator finds that the rupture or breakage of any vent or drain line may result in a fire hazard....

  15. 14 CFR 121.261 - Vent and drain lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vent and drain lines. 121.261 Section 121... drain lines. All vent and drain lines and their fittings, that are located in a designated fire zone... the rupture or breakage of any vent or drain line may result in a fire hazard....

  16. 21 CFR 868.5995 - Tee drain (water trap).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tee drain (water trap). 868.5995 Section 868.5995...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5995 Tee drain (water trap). (a) Identification. A tee drain (water trap) is a device intended to trap and drain water that collects in...

  17. Light-induced degradation and metastable-state recovery with reaction kinetics modeling in boron-doped Czochralski silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soo Min; Chun, Seungju; Bae, Suhyun; Park, Seungeun; Lee, Hae-seok Kim, Donghwan; Kang, Min Gu; Song, Hee-eun; Kang, Yoonmook

    2014-08-25

    Solar cells fabricated from boron-doped p-type Czochralski silicon suffer from light-induced degradation that can lower the conversion efficiency by up to 10% relative. When solar cells are exposed to temperatures between 100 °C and 200 °C under illumination, regeneration, in which the minority carrier lifetime is gradually recovered, occurs after the initial light-induced degradation. We studied the light-induced degradation and regeneration process using carrier injection within a design chamber and observed open-circuit voltage trends at various sample temperatures. We proposed a cyclic reaction kinetics model to more precisely analyze the degradation and recovery phenomenon. Our model incorporated the reaction paths that were not counted in the original model between the three states (annealed, degradation, and regeneration). We calculated a rate constant for each reaction path based on the proposed model, extracted an activation energy for each reaction using these rate constants at various temperatures, and calculated activation energies of redegradation and the stabilization reaction.

  18. Study on the visible-light-induced photokilling effect of nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanoparticles on cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Mi, Lan; Wang, Pei-Nan; Chen, Ji-Yao

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) nanoparticles were prepared by calcining the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles under ammonia atmosphere. The N-TiO2 showed higher absorbance in the visible region than the pure TiO2. The cytotoxicity and visible-light-induced phototoxicity of the pure- and N-TiO2 were examined for three types of cancer cell lines. No significant cytotoxicity was detected. However, the visible-light-induced photokilling effects on cells were observed. The survival fraction of the cells decreased with the increased incubation concentration of the nanoparticles. The cancer cells incubated with N-TiO2 were killed more effectively than that with the pure TiO2. The reactive oxygen species was found to play an important role on the photokilling effect for cells. Furthermore, the intracellular distributions of N-TiO2 nanoparticles were examined by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The co-localization of N-TiO2 nanoparticles with nuclei or Golgi complexes was observed. The aberrant nuclear morphologies such as micronuclei were detected after the N-TiO2-treated cells were irradiated by the visible light. PMID:21711880

  19. Strong blue and white photoluminescence emission of BaZrO{sub 3} undoped and lanthanide doped phosphor for light emitting diodes application

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, V.H.; De la Rosa, E.; Salas, P.; Velazquez-Salazar, J.J.

    2012-12-15

    In this paper, we report the obtained strong broadband blue photoluminescence (PL) emission centered at 427 nm for undoped BaZrO{sub 3} observed after 266 nm excitation of submicron crystals prepared by hydrothermal/calcinations method. This emission is enhanced with the introduction of Tm{sup 3+} ions and is stronger than the characteristic PL blue emission of such lanthanide. The proposed mechanism of relaxation for host lattice emission is based on the presence of oxygen vacancies produced during the synthesis process and the charge compensation due to the difference in the electron valence between dopant and substituted ion in the host. Brilliant white light emission with a color coordinate of (x=0.29, y=0.32) was observed by combining the blue PL emission from the host with the green and red PL emission from Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} ions, respectively. The color coordinate can be tuned by changing the ratio between blue, green and red band by changing the concentration of lanthanides. - Graphical abstract: Strong blue emission from undoped BaZrO{sub 3} phosphor and white light emission by doping with Tb{sup 3+} (green) and Eu{sup 3+} (red) after 266 nm excitation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blue emission from BaZrO{sub 3} phosphor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blue emission enhanced with Tm{sup 3+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer White light from BaZrO{sup 3+} phosphor.

  20. Hydrogen generation from water/methanol under visible light using aerogel prepared strontium titanate (SrTiO3) nanomaterials doped with ruthenium and rhodium metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yenting; Klabunde, Kenneth J.

    2012-07-01

    Nanostructured strontium titanate visible-light-driven photocatalysts containing rhodium and ruthenium were synthesized by a modified aerogel synthesis using ruthenium chloride and rhodium nitrate as dopant precursors, and titanium isopropoxide and strontium metal as the metal sources. The well-defined crystalline SrTiO3 structure was confirmed by means of x-ray diffraction. After calcination at 500 °C, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy shows an increase in light absorption at 370 nm due to the presence of Rh3 + ; however an increase of the calcination temperature to 600 °C led to a decrease in intensity, probably due to a loss of surface area. An increase in the rhodium doping level also led to an increase in absorption at 370 nm however, the higher amounts of dopant lowered the photocatalytic activity. The modified aerogel synthesis allows greatly enhanced H2 production performance from an aqueous methanol solution under visible light irradiation compared with lower surface area conventional materials. We believe that this enhanced activity is due to the higher surface areas while high quality nanocrystalline materials are still obtained. Furthermore, the surface properties of these nanocrystalline aerogel materials are different, as exhibited by the higher activities in alkaline solutions, while conventional materials (obtained via high temperature solid-state synthesis methods) only exhibit reasonable hydrogen production in acidic solutions. Moreover, an aerogel synthesis approach gives the possibility of thin-film formation and ease of incorporation into practical solar devices.

  1. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of magnetic samarium-doped mesoporous titanium dioxide at the decomposition of methylene blue under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhongliang; Lai, Hong; Yao, Shuhua

    2012-08-01

    Preparation of samarium-doped mesoporous titanium dioxide (Sm/MTiO2) coated magnetite (Fe3O4) photocatalysts (Sm/MTiO2/Fe3O4) and their activities under visible light were reported. The catalysts with Sm/MTiO2 shell and a Fe3O4 core were prepared by coating photoactive Sm/MTiO2 onto a magnetic Fe3O4 core through the hydrolysis of tetrabutyltitanate (Ti(OBu)4, TBT) with precursors of Sm(NO3)3 and TBT in the presence of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The morphological, structural and optical properties of the prepared samples were characterized by BET surface area, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The effect of Sm ion content on the photocatalytic activity was studied. The photocatalytic activities of obtained photocatalysts under visible light were estimated by measuring the decomposition rate of methylene blue (MB, 50 mg/L) in an aqueous solution. The results showed that the prepared photocatalyst was activated by visible light and used as effective catalyst in photooxidation reactions. In addition, the possibility of cyclic usage of the prepared photocatalyst was also confirmed. Moreover, Sm/MTiO2 was tightly bound to Fe3O4 and could be easily recovered from the medium by a simple magnetic process. It can therefore be potentially applied for the treatment of water contaminated by organic pollutants.

  2. Highly efficient tandem organic light-emitting devices utilizing the connecting structure based on n-doped electron-transport layer/HATCN/hole-transport layer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Lin; Chen, Chien-Yu; Huang, Yi-Hsiang; Lu, Yin-Jui; Chou, Cheng-Hsu; Wu, Chung-Chih

    2014-08-01

    In this work, we conducted studies of tandem organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) based on the connecting structure consisting of n-doped electron-transport layer (n-ETL)/1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HATCN)/hole-transport layer. We investigated effects of different n-ETL materials and different HATCN thicknesses on characteristics of tandem OLEDs. Results show that the tandem OLEDs with n-BPhen and a 20 nm layer of HATCN in the connecting structure exhibited the best performance. With these, highly efficient and bright green phosphorescent two-emitting-unit tandem OLEDs, with drive voltages significantly lower than twice that of the single-unit benchmark device and current efficiencies higher than twice that of the single-unit benchmark device, were demonstrated. PMID:25090347

  3. Near-infrared electroluminescence from light-emitting devices based on Nd-doped TiO2/p+-Si heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Lv, Chunyan; Zhu, Chen; Li, Si; Ma, Xiangyang; Yang, Deren

    2014-05-01

    We report on near-infrared (NIR) electroluminescence (EL) from the light-emitting devices based on Nd-doped TiO2/p+-Si heterostructures. NIR emissions peaking at ˜910, 1090, and 1370 nm, originated from intra-4f transitions in Nd3+ ions, can be activated by a forward bias voltage as low as ˜5 V. Such NIR EL is triggered by the energy transferred from TiO2 host to Nd3+ ions. It is found that the coexistence of anatase and rutile phases in the TiO2 host enables the device to exhibit pronounced Nd-related EL without concurrent emission from the TiO2 host itself, quite other than the case of existing only anatase phase in TiO2 host. We tentatively suggest that the anatase/rutile interface states play important role in the energy transfer from TiO2 host to Nd3+ ions.

  4. Electron transfer modifies chemical properties of C70 fullerene surface: An ab initio molecular dynamics study of C70O3 molozonides doped with light atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bil, Andrzej; Hutter, Jürg; Morrison, Carole A.

    2014-06-01

    Light metal atoms such as Li, K (electronic state 2S1/2) or Ca (1S0) encapsulated in a C70 cage considerably modifies the chemical properties of the fullerene surface due to metal-to-cage electron transfer. H-doped and anion ozonide systems were also considered to validate the electron transfer hypothesis. The relative stabilities of the eight isomers of the C70O3 molozonide series at room temperature depend on the identity of the endohedral guest, as was the preferred channel for thermal decomposition. No electron transfer was observed for the complex N@C70 where the fullerene acts as an inert container for the 4S3/2 radical.

  5. Improved efficiency in organic light-emitting devices with tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium doped 9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene emission layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yongbo; Lian, Jiarong; Li, Shuang; Zhou, Xiang

    2008-11-01

    Organic light-emitting devices with tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3) doped 9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene (ADN) as the emission layer (EML) have been fabricated. These devices exhibit efficient electroluminescence (EL) originated from the Alq3 as the mass ratio of Alq3 to ADN was varied from 1 to 50%. The devices with an optimal Alq3 mass ratio of 10 wt% showed a peak EL efficiency and an external quantum efficiency of 9.1 cd A-1 and 2.7% at a luminance of 1371 cd m-2, which is improved by a factor of 2.2 compared with 4.1 cd A-1 and 1.2% at a luminance of 3267 cd m-2 for conventional devices with the neat Alq3 as the EML.

  6. Energy-dependent crossover from anisotropic to isotropic magnetic dispersion in lightly-doped La1.96Sr0.04CuO4

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, Masaaki; Granroth, Garrett E; Fujita, M.; Yamada, K.; Tranquada, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering experiments have been performed on lightly-doped La$_{1.96}$Sr$_{0.04}$CuO$_{4}$, which shows diagonal incommensurate spin correlations at low temperatures. We previously reported that this crystal, with a single orthorhombic domain, exhibits the ``hourglass" dispersion at low energies [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 197001 (2008)]. In this paper, we investigate in detail the energy evolution of the magnetic excitations up to 65 meV. It is found that the anisotropic excitations at low energies, dispersing only along the spin modulation direction, crossover to an isotropic, conical dispersion that resembles spin waves in the parent compound La$_2$CuO$_{4}$. The change from two-fold to full symmetry on crossing the waist of the hourglass reproduces behavior first identified in studies of underdoped YBa$_2$Cu$_3$O$_{6+x}$. We discuss the significance of these results.

  7. Investigation of energy transfer and charge trapping in dye-doped organic light-emitting diodes by magneto-electroluminescence measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Qiming; Gao, Na; Li, Weijun; Chen, Ping; Li, Feng; Ma, Yuguang

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the energy transfer and charge trapping (CT) in dye-doped organic light-emitting devices by using the magneto-electroluminescence as a tool. An intra-molecular charge-transfer fluorescent material N,N-diphenyl-4-(9-phenylnaphtho-[2,3-c][1,2,5]thiadiazol-4-yl)aniline was selected as the guest emitter. The tri-(8-hydroxyquinoline)-aluminum and 1,3-bis(9-carbazolyl)benzene were selected as the hosts. Our results demonstrate that as the energy difference between the HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital)/LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) of the host and the guest (ΔEHOMO/ΔELUMO) increases, the CT becomes more dominant, and the CT cannot be ignored even when the ΔEHOMO/ΔELUMO is small and the emission spectrum of the host overlaps the absorption spectrum of the guest well.

  8. Cesium doping at C{sub 60}/rubrene heterointerfaces for improving the performance of organic light- and current-generating devices

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Chiu-Ping Lu, Meng-Han; Chu, Yu-Ya; Wei, Ching-Hsuan; Pi, Tun-Wen

    2015-01-07

    This study examined the effect of adding cesium (Cs) at C{sub 60}/rubrene heterointerfaces by using synchrotron-radiation photoelectron spectroscopy. A C{sub 60}/rubrene heterostructure is the basis of a novel organic dual device found to facilitate efficient integration of both electroluminescent and photovoltaic functions. With Cs doping, the interfacial dipole potential was considerably enlarged, as was the separation between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of C{sub 60} and the highest occupied molecular orbital of rubrene. However, the energy-level diagram indicated that a high Cs concentration prevents the formation of photoexcitons. By contrast, adding a small amount of Cs can effectively improve the efficiency of light- and current-generating devices. In particular, the deficiency of the dopants at the heterointerface may benefit the survival of photoexcitons.

  9. Highly Efficient Lasing Action of Nd3+- and Cr3+-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Ceramics Based on Phonon-Assisted Cross-Relaxation Using Solar Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiki, Taku; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Imasaki, Kazuo

    2010-08-01

    We constructed a theory to explain the mechanism of laser generation with a high optical-optical conversion efficiency for Nd3+- and Cr3+-doped yttrium aluminum ceramics when sunlight or lamplight sources are used for pumping. As a result, a unique mechanism of laser action was found where the solar or lamp-light power could be converted to laser power with a high efficiency close to 80%, which has not previously been observed. The high conversion efficiency was not only considered to be based on one-to-one photon conversion but on two-photon excitation by a single photon with phonon assistance. Thus, the mechanism of lasing action should include a process where thermal energy is converted to photon energy. The theoretical results we obtained were consistent with those of the experiments.

  10. Bicolor Mn-doped CuInS{sub 2}/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals for white light-emitting diode with high color rendering index

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Bo; Dai, Qian; Zhang, Huichao; Liao, Chen; Cui, Yiping; Zhang, Jiayu; Zhuo, Ningze; Jiang, Qingsong; Shi, Fenghua; Wang, Haibo

    2014-09-07

    We synthesized bicolor Mn-doped CuInS{sub 2} (CIS)/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals (NCs), in which Mn{sup 2+} ions and the CIS core were separated with a ZnS layer, and both Mn{sup 2+} ions and CIS cores could emit simultaneously. Transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction measurements indicated the epitaxial growth of ZnS shell on the CuInS{sub 2} core, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum indicated that Mn{sup 2+} ions were on the lattice points of ZnS shell. By integrating these bicolor NCs with commercial InGaN-based blue-emitting diodes, tricolor white light-emitting diodes with color rendering index of 83 were obtained.

  11. Enhancement of carrier lifetime in lightly Al-doped p-type 4H-SiC epitaxial layers by combination of thermal oxidation and hydrogen annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuda, Takafumi; Miyazawa, Tetsuya; Tsuchida, Hidekazu; Kimoto, Tsunenobu; Suda, Jun

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the enhancement of carrier lifetime in lightly Al-doped p-type 4H-SiC epilayers (NA ≃ 2 × 1014 cm-3) by postgrowth processing. A carrier lifetime of 2.8 µs in an as-grown epilayer is increased to 5.1 µs by carbon vacancy elimination, i.e., thermal oxidation at 1400 °C for 48 h. It reaches 10 µs by subsequent hydrogen annealing at 1000 °C for 10 min. The carrier lifetime in the as-grown epilayer is also increased to 4.0 µs by only hydrogen annealing. These results suggest that, in addition to carbon vacancy, there is another lifetime killer in p-type SiC, which cannot be eliminated by thermal oxidation but can be passivated by hydrogen annealing.

  12. Low-field microwave absorption and magnetoresistance in iron nanostructures grown by electrodeposition on n-type lightly doped silicon substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix, J. F.; Figueiredo, L. C.; Mendes, J. B. S.; Morais, P. C.; Araujo, C. I. L. de.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we investigate magnetic properties, surface morphology and crystal structure in iron nanoclusters electrodeposited on lightly doped (100) n-type silicon substrates. Our goal is to investigate the spin injection and detection in the Fe/Si lateral structures. The samples obtained under electric percolation were characterized by magnetoresistive and magnetic resonance measurements with cycling the sweeping applied field in order to understand the spin dynamics in the as-produced samples. The observed hysteresis in the magnetic resonance spectra, plus the presence of a broad peak in the non-saturated regime confirming the low field microwave absorption (LFMA), were correlated to the peaks and slopes found in the magnetoresistance curves. The results suggest long range spin injection and detection in low resistive silicon and the magnetic resonance technique is herein introduced as a promising tool for analysis of electric contactless magnetoresistive samples.

  13. Synergy of metal and nonmetal dopants for visible-light photocatalysis: a case-study of Sn and N co-doped TiO2.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Huaqiang; Zhang, Yingguang; Chu, Zhenwei; Long, Jinlin; An, Xiaohan; Zhang, Hongwen; Lin, Huaxiang; Zhang, Zizhong; Wang, Xuxu

    2016-04-14

    This paper mainly focuses on the synergistic effect of Sn and N dopants to enhance the photocatalytic performance of anatase TiO2 under visible light or simulated solar light irradiation. The Sn and N co-doped TiO2 (SNT-x) photocatalysts were successfully prepared by the facile sol-gel method and the post-nitridation route in the temperature range of 400-550 °C. All the as-prepared samples were characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron and electron spin resonance spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical measurements. The characterization results reveal that the co-incorporation of Sn and N atoms remarkably modifies the electronic structure of TiO2, which gives rise to a prominent separation of photogenerated charge carriers and more efficient interfacial charge-transfer reactions in a photocatalytic process. The enhanced photocatalytic activity is attributed to the intensified active oxygen species including hydroxyl radicals (˙OH) and superoxide anion radicals (O2˙(-)) for degradation of organic pollutants. And the result of photocatalytic hydrogen production further confirms the existence of the synergistic effect in the SNT-x samples, because they exhibit higher photocatalytic activity than the sum of N/TiO2 and Sn/TiO2. This work provides a paradigm to consolidate the understanding of the synergistic effect of metal and non-metal co-doped TiO2 in domains of photocatalysis and photoelectrochemistry. PMID:26996319

  14. [Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A in water by Fe doped-TiO2 nanotube arrays under simulated solar light irradiation].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Guo-Liang; Yu, Ze-Bin; Chen, Ying; Xu, Tian-Zuo; Peng, Zhen-Bo; Liu, Yu-Xin

    2015-02-01

    Seeking an efficient treatment method for bisphenol A ( BPA), a representative endocrine disrupting compound, is important for environmental remediation and human health. Herein, the degradation of BPA by means of photoelectrocatalysis was investigated. Fe doped-TiO2 nanotube arrays ( Fe/TNA ) served as the photoanode, and a xenon lamp simulated the solar light source. First, undoped TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNA) and a series of Fe/TNA were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of Fe/TNA showed a red-shift and an enhancement of the absorption in the visible-light region compared to TNA. Then, experimental conditions including Fe doping content, current intensity and aeration rate were varied to demonstrate their effects on the elimination of BPA. It was observed that the degradation of BPA could be fitted to the quasi-first-order equation. Under the following conditions: Fe/TNA prepared by 0.9 mol x L(-1) Fe(NO3)3 solution dip-coating as photoanode, titanium foil as cathode, current intensity of 1.15 mA x cm(-2) and initial BPA concentration of 10 mg x L(-1), 72.3% BPA was decomposed during 4 h reaction, with a rate constant of 5.32 x 10(-3) min(-1). Aeration enhanced the removal rate of BPA to 82.7% and 94.1% with an aerating rate of 1.0 L x min(-1) using titanium foil as cathode and an aerating rate of 0.2 L x min(-1) using carbon cloth as cathode, respectively, and the corresponding rate constants were 7.20 x 10(-3) min(-1) and 11.6 x 10(-3) min(-1), respectively. PMID:26031084

  15. Simple fabrication of N-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanorods with the enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiufeng; Lu, Juan; Jiang, Jingjing; Li, Xiaobin; Lu, Mengna; Yuan, Guotao; Wang, Zuoshan; Zheng, Min; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2014-01-01

    N-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanorods were fabricated by a modified and facile sol-gel approach without any templates. Ammonium nitrate was used as a raw source of N dopants, which could produce a lot of gasses such as N2, NO2, and H2O in the process of heating samples. These gasses were proved to be vitally important to form the special mesoporous structure. The samples were characterized by the powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer, nitrogen adsorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and UV-visible absorption spectra. The average length and the cross section diameter of the as-prepared samples were ca. 1.5 μm and ca. 80 nm, respectively. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution. The N-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanorods showed an excellent photocatalytic activity, which may be attributed to the enlarged surface area (106.4 m2 g-1) and the narrowed band gap (2.05 eV). Besides, the rod-like photocatalyst was found to be easy to recycle. PMID:24428848

  16. Simple fabrication of N-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanorods with the enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    N-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanorods were fabricated by a modified and facile sol–gel approach without any templates. Ammonium nitrate was used as a raw source of N dopants, which could produce a lot of gasses such as N2, NO2, and H2O in the process of heating samples. These gasses were proved to be vitally important to form the special mesoporous structure. The samples were characterized by the powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer, nitrogen adsorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and UV-visible absorption spectra. The average length and the cross section diameter of the as-prepared samples were ca. 1.5 μm and ca. 80 nm, respectively. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution. The N-doped mesoporous TiO2 nanorods showed an excellent photocatalytic activity, which may be attributed to the enlarged surface area (106.4 m2 g-1) and the narrowed band gap (2.05 eV). Besides, the rod-like photocatalyst was found to be easy to recycle. PMID:24428848

  17. Effect of asymmetrical double-pockets and gate-drain underlap on Schottky barrier tunneling FET: Ambipolar conduction vs. high frequency performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaker, Ahmed; Ossaimee, Mahmoud; Zekry, A.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a proposed structure based on asymmetrical double pockets SB-TFET with gate-drain underlap is presented. 2D extensive modeling and simulation, using Silvaco TCAD, were carried out to study the effect of both underlap length and pockets' doping on the transistor performance. It was found that the underlap from the drain side suppresses the ambipolar conduction and doesn't enhance the high-frequency characteristics. The enhancement of the high-frequency characteristics could be realized by increasing the doping of the drain pocket over the doping of the source pocket. An optimum choice was found which gives the conditions of minimum ambipolar conduction, maximum ON current and maximum cut-off frequency. These enhancements render the device more competitive as a nanometer transistor.

  18. DNA Persistence in Sink Drain Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Winder, Eric M.; Bonheyo, George T.

    2015-07-31

    Biofilms are organized structures composed mainly of cells and extracellular polymeric substances produced by the constituent microorganisms. Ubiquitous in nature, biofilms have an innate ability to capture and retain passing material and may therefore act as natural collectors of contaminants or signatures of upstream activities. To determine the persistence and detectability of DNA passing through a sink drain environment, Bacillus anthracis strain Ames35 was cultured (6.35 x 107 CFU/mL), sterilized, and disposed of by addition to a sink drain apparatus with an established biofilm.

  19. Reverse draining of a magnetic soap film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulton, D. E.; Pelesko, J. A.

    2010-04-01

    We investigate the draining of a vertical magnetic soap film in the presence of a strong, nonuniform magnetic field. A colloidal suspension of magnetic nanoparticles in a regular soap solution yields a magnetic soap solution, from which a soap film is formed across an isolated frame. Experiments demonstrate that with a strong magnet placed above the frame, the film may be made to flow upward against gravity. The amount of film draining upward is altered by varying the distance between the frame and magnet. A first mathematical model is developed for the evolution of the film. Simulations demonstrate qualitative agreement with the experiment.

  20. Enhanced photo-catalytic activity of Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles for the degradation of Direct Green-6 and Reactive Blue-160 under UV & visible light.

    PubMed

    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Thejaswini, T V L; Prabhakaran, D; Sivakumar, A; Satyanarayana, V S V; Arun Prasad, A S

    2015-10-01

    This work is focused on sol-gel synthesis of silver and strontium co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles and their utilization as photo-catalysts in degradation of two textile dyes. Effect of pH, intensity of light, amount of photo-catalyst, concentration of dye, sensitizers, etc., were studied to optimize conditions for obtaining enhanced photo-catalytic activity of synthesized nanoparticles. XRD, BET, HR-TEM, EDAX and UV-Vis (diffused reflectance mode) techniques were used to characterize the nanoparticles. Interestingly, band gap of Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles showed considerable narrowing (2.6 eV) when compared to Ag doped TiO2 (2.7 eV) and undoped TiO2 (3.17 eV) nanoparticles. Incorporation of Ag and Sr in the lattice of TiO2 could bring isolated energy levels near conduction and valence bands thus narrowing band gap. The XRD analysis shows that both Ag and Sr nanoparticles are finely dispersed on the surface of titania framework, without disturbing its crystalline structure. TEM images indicate that representative grain sizes of Ag-doped TiO2 & Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles are in the range of 8-20 nm and 11-25 nm, respectively. Effective degradation of Direct Green-6 (DG-6) and Reactive Blue-160 (RB-160) under UV and visible light has been achieved using the photo-catalysts. Sr and Ag co-doped TiO2 photo-catalysts showed higher catalytic activity during degradation process in visible region when compared to Ag-doped and undoped TiO2 nanoparticles which could be attributed to the interactive effect caused by band gap narrowing and enhancement in charge separation. For confirming degradation of the dyes, total organic carbon (TOC) content was monitored periodically. PMID:25983059

  1. Effect of light on the polarization of a banana-shaped achiral compound doped with a photoactive azobenzene material

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Geetha G.; Prasad, S. Krishna; Hiremath, Uma S.; Yelamaggad, C. V.

    2001-07-01

    We report photoinduced effects on a liquid crystal comprising of bent-core molecules, doped with a photoactive azobenzene compound and exhibiting the recently discovered {open_quotes}banana{close_quotes} B{sub 2} mesophase. The photoisomerization of the azobenzene molecules, brought about by the UV radiation, hardly changes the B{sub 2}-isotropic transition temperatures, but has a significant influence on the spontaneous polarization (Ps) as well as the switching time in the B{sub 2} phase. The efficiency of this opto-polarization effect has been observed to be strongly dependent on the temperature at which the irradiation is carried out. A possible mechanism responsible for the observed phenomenon has been suggested. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of microcystin-LR under UV-A, solar and visible light using nanostructured nitrogen doped TiO2.

    PubMed

    Triantis, T M; Fotiou, T; Kaloudis, T; Kontos, A G; Falaras, P; Dionysiou, D D; Pelaez, M; Hiskia, A

    2012-04-15

    In an attempt to face serious environmental hazards, the degradation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR), one of the most common and more toxic water soluble cyanotoxin compounds released by cyanobacteria blooms, was investigated using nitrogen doped TiO(2) (N-TiO(2)) photocatalyst, under UV-A, solar and visible light. Commercial Degussa P25 TiO(2), Kronos and reference TiO(2) nanopowders were used for comparison. It was found that under UV-A irradiation, all photocatalysts were effective in toxin elimination. The higher MC-LR degradation (99%) was observed with Degussa P25 TiO(2) followed by N-TiO(2) with 96% toxin destruction after 20 min of illumination. Under solar light illumination, N-TiO(2) nanocatalyst exhibits similar photocatalytic activity with that of commercially available materials such as Degussa P25 and Kronos TiO(2) for the destruction of MC-LR. Upon irradiation with visible light Degussa P25 practically did not show any response, while the N-TiO(2) displayed remarkable photocatalytic efficiency. In addition, it has been shown that photodegradation products did not present any significant protein phosphatase inhibition activity, proving that toxicity is proportional only to the remaining MC-LR in solution. Finally, total organic carbon (TOC) and inorganic ions (NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+)) determinations confirmed that complete photocatalytic mineralization of MC-LR was achieved under both UV-A and solar light. PMID:22169146

  3. Pr3+-doped heavy metal germanium tellurite glasses for irradiative light source in minimally invasive photodynamic therapy surgery.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Chen, B J; Pun, E Y B; Zhai, B; Lin, H

    2013-01-14

    Pr3+-doped medium-low phonon energy heavy metal germanium tellurite (NZPGT) glasses have been fabricated and the intense multi-peak red fluorescence emissions of Pr3+ are exhibited. Judd-Ofelt parameters Ω2 = 3.14 × 10(-20)cm(2), Ω4 = 10.67 × 10(-20)cm(2) and Ω6 = 3.95 × 10(-20)cm(2) indicate a high asymmetrical and covalent environment in the optical glasses. The spontaneous emission probabilities A(ij) corresponding to the 1D2→3H4, 3P0→3H6, and 3P0→3F2 transitions are derived to be 1859.6, 6270.1 and 17276.3s(-1), respectively, and the relevant stimulated emission cross-sections σ(em) are 5.20 × 10(-21), 14.14 × 10(-21) and 126.77 × 10(-21)cm(2), confirming that the effectiveness of the red luminescence in Pr3+-doped NZPGT glasses. Under the commercial blue LED excitation, the radiant flux and the quantum yield for the red fluorescence of Pr3+ are solved to be 219μW and 11.80%, respectively. 85.24% photons of the fluorescence in the visible region are demonstrated to be located in 600-720nm wavelength range, which matches the excitation band of the most photosensitizers (PS), holding great promise for photodynamic therapy (PDT) treatment and clinical trials. PMID:23388997

  4. The effects of ultraviolet-ozone-treated ultra-thin MnO-doped ZnO film as anode buffer layer on the electrical characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hsin-Wei; Kao, Po-Ching; Juang, Yung-Der; Chu, Sheng-Yuan

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) was enhanced by depositing an MnO-doped ZnO film as a buffer layer between the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode and the α-naphthylphenylbiphenyldiamine hole transport layer. The enhancement mechanism was systematically investigated, and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy results revealed the formation of the UV-ozone-treated MnO-doped ZnO film. With this film, the work function increased from 4.8 eV (standard ITO electrode (˜ 10 ±5 Ω/◻ )) to 5.27 eV (UV-ozone-treated MnO-doped ZnO deposited on the ITO electrode with 1 wt. % for 1 nm), while the surface roughness of the UV-ozone-treated MnO-doped ZnO film was smoother than that of the ITO electrode. The deposited UV-ozone-treated MnO-doped ZnO film increased the surface energy and polarity of the ITO surface, as determined from contact angle measurements. Further, results from admittance spectroscopy showed that the inserted UV-ozone-treated MnO-doped ZnO film increased the capacitance and conductance of the OLEDs. It was also found that the carrier injection increased in the space-charge region when the UV-ozone-treated MnO-doped ZnO buffer layer was inserted. Moreover, the turn-on voltage of the devices decreased from 3.8 V to 3.2 V, the luminance increased from 7588 cd/m2 to 20 350 cd/m2, and the current efficiency increased from 3.2 cd/A to 5.8 cd/A when a 1 nm-thick UV-ozone-treated MnO-doped ZnO film with 1 wt. % was inserted as a buffer layer in the OLEDs.

  5. Magnetically separable {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-Ce-doped TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanocomposites: Fabrication and visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    He, Minqiang; Li, Di; Jiang, Deli; Chen, Min

    2012-08-15

    Novel visible-light-induced {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-Ce-doped-TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanocomposite photocatalysts capable of magnetic separation have been synthesized by a facile sol-gel and after-annealing process. The as-obtained core-shell nanocomposite is composed of a central {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} core with a strong response to external fields, an interlayer of SiO{sub 2}, and an outer layer of Ce-doped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals. UV-vis spectra analysis indicates that Ce doping in the compound results in a red-shift of the absorption edge, thus offering increased visible light absorption. We show that such a {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-Ce-doped-TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanocomposite with appreciated Ce doping amount exhibits much higher visible-light photocatalytic activity than bare TiO{sub 2} and undoped {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanocomposite toward the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB). Moreover, the {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-Ce-doped-TiO{sub 2} core-shell nanocomposite photocatalysts could be easily separated and reused from the treated water under application of an external magnetic field. - Graphical abstract: Novel {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-Ce-doped-TiO{sub 2} core/shell nanocomposite photocatalysts with enhanced photocatalytic activity and fast magnetic separability were prepared. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-Ce-doped TiO{sub 2} core/shell composite photocatalysts were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The resulting core/shell composite show high visible light photocatalytic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanocomposite photocatalysts can be easily recycled with excellent durability.

  6. The effect of electronegative difference on the electronic structure and visible light photocatalytic activity of N-doped anatase TiO{sub 2} by first-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Dongqiu; Huang Xiaowei; Tian Baoli; Zhou Shaomin; Li Yuncai; Du Zuliang

    2011-04-18

    The effect of electronegative difference between nitrogen and oxygen on electronic properties of N-doped anatase TiO{sub 2} has been studied using first-principles calculations. The results indicate that the valence band maximum (VBM) shifts to high energy by 0.27 eV and the band gap states composed of N 2p, O 2p, and Ti 3d states are formed through the three states entering into the gap after N doping. The interactions of three states widen and delocalize the band gap states. The raised VBM and the wide band gap states can improve the visible light photocatalytic activity.

  7. Porous immobilized C coated N doped TiO2 containing in-situ generated polyenes for enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabri, N. A.; Nawi, M. A.; Nawawi, W. I.

    2015-10-01

    Carbon coated nitrogen-doped Degussa P25TiO2 (or C,N-P25TiO2) was successfully immobilized on a glass plate using epoxidized natural rubber (ENR-50) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as the organic binders. Photo-etching of the fabricated system for 10 h oxidized its PVC binder into polyenes as well as forming a highly porous surface. The band gap energy (Eg) of the photo-etched immobilized photocatalyst system (C,N-P25TiO2/ENR/PVC-10 h) was reduced from 2.91 to 2.86 eV. Its photocatalytic activity was studied via photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) under a 45 W visible light fluorescent lamp. C,N-P25TiO2/ENR/PVC-10 h with polyenes performed better than its slurry counterpart under visible light irradiation where the conjugated double bonds acted as photo sensitizers. The immobilized C,N-P25TiO2/ENR/PVC-10 h has excellent reusability and sustainable with an average k value of 0.056 ± 0.011 min-1 and average percent removal of 99.18 ± 0.54%.

  8. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of cerium-doped terbium-yttrium aluminum garnet phosphor for white light-emitting diodes applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Han, Tao; Lang, Tianchun; Tu, Mingjing; Peng, Lingling

    2015-11-01

    Cerium-doped terbium-yttrium aluminum garnet phosphors were synthesized using the solid-state reaction method. The crystalline phase, morphology, and photoluminescence properties were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively. The XRD results indicate that with an increase of the amount of x (Tb3+), all of the samples have a pure garnet crystal structure without secondary phases. The SEM images reveal that the samples are composed of sphere-like crystallites, which exhibit different degrees of agglomeration. The luminescent properties of Ce ions in )Al5O12∶Ce0.1 have been studied, and it was found that the emission band shifted toward a longer wavelength. The redshift is attributed to the lowering of the 5d energy level centroid of Ce, which can be explained by the nephelauxetic effect and compression effect. These phosphors were coated on blue light-emitting diode (LED) chips to fabricate white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs), and their color-rendering indices, color temperatures, and luminous efficiencies were measured. As a consequence of the addition of Tb, the blue LED pumped )Al5O12∶Ce0.1 phosphors WLEDs showed good optical properties.

  9. Comparison of the killing effects between nitrogen-doped and pure TiO2 on HeLa cells with visible light irradiation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The killing effect of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO2) nanoparticles on human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells by visible light photodynamic therapy (PDT) was higher than that of TiO2 nanoparticles. To study the mechanism of the killing effect, the reactive oxygen species produced by the visible-light-activated N-TiO2 and pure-TiO2 were evaluated and compared. The changes of the cellular parameters, such as the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), intracellular Ca2+, and nitrogen monoxide (NO) concentrations after PDT were measured and compared for N-TiO2- and TiO2-treated HeLa cells. The N-TiO2 resulted in more loss of MMP and higher increase of Ca2+ and NO in HeLa cells than pure TiO2. The cell morphology changes with time were also examined by a confocal microscope. The cells incubated with N-TiO2 exhibited serious distortion and membrane breakage at 60 min after the PDT. PMID:23433090

  10. Facile synthesis of surface N-doped Bi2O2CO3: Origin of visible light photocatalytic activity and in situ DRIFTS studies.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Zhao, Ziyan; Wang, Fang; Cao, Kun; Doronkin, Dmitry E; Dong, Fan; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk

    2016-04-15

    Bi2O2CO3 nanosheets with exposed {001} facets were prepared by a facile room temperature chemical method. Due to the high oxygen atom density in {001} facets of Bi2O2CO3, the addition of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) does not only influence the growth of crystalline Bi2O2CO3, but also modifies the surface properties of Bi2O2CO3 through the interaction between CTAB and Bi2O2CO3. Nitrogen from CTAB as dopant interstitially incorporates in the Bi2O2CO3 surface evidenced by both experimental and theoretical investigations. Hence, the formation of localized states from NO bond improves the visible light absorption and charge separation efficiency, which leads to an enhancement of visible light photocatalytic activity toward to the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and oxidation of NO. In addition, the photocatalytic NO oxidation over Bi2O2CO3 nanosheets was successfully monitored for the first time using in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Both bidentate and monodentate nitrates were identified on the surface of catalysts during the photocatalytic reaction process. The application of this strategy to another relevant bismuth based photocatalyst, BiOCl, demonstrated that surface interstitial N doping could also be achieved in this case. Therefore, our current route seems to be a general option to modify the surface properties of bismuth based photocatalysts. PMID:26780703

  11. Tunnel-injection quantum dot deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with polarization-induced doping in III-nitride heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Jai Islam, S. M.; Protasenko, Vladimir; Kumar Kandaswamy, Prem; Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep

    2014-01-13

    Efficient semiconductor optical emitters in the deep-ultraviolet spectral window are encountering some of the most deep rooted problems of semiconductor physics. In III-Nitride heterostructures, obtaining short-wavelength photon emission requires the use of wide bandgap high Al composition AlGaN active regions. High conductivity electron (n-) and hole (p-) injection layers of even higher bandgaps are necessary for electrical carrier injection. This approach requires the activation of very deep dopants in very wide bandgap semiconductors, which is a difficult task. In this work, an approach is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to counter the challenges. The active region of the heterostructure light emitting diode uses ultrasmall epitaxially grown GaN quantum dots. Remarkably, the optical emission energy from GaN is pushed from 365 nm (3.4 eV, the bulk bandgap) to below 240 nm (>5.2 eV) because of extreme quantum confinement in the dots. This is possible because of the peculiar bandstructure and band alignments in the GaN/AlN system. This active region design crucially enables two further innovations for efficient carrier injection: Tunnel injection of carriers and polarization-induced p-type doping. The combination of these three advances results in major boosts in electroluminescence in deep-ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lays the groundwork for electrically pumped short-wavelength lasers.

  12. Non-covalent doping of graphitic carbon nitride with ultrathin graphene oxide and molybdenum disulfide nanosheets: an effective binary heterojunction photocatalyst under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hu, S W; Yang, L W; Tian, Y; Wei, X L; Ding, J W; Zhong, J X; Chu, Paul K

    2014-10-01

    A proof of concept integrating binary p-n heterojunctions into a semiconductor hybrid photocatalyst is demonstrated by non-covalent doping of graphite-like carbon nitride (g-C3N4) with ultrathin GO and MoS2 nanosheets using a facile sonochemical method. In this unique ternary hybrid, the layered MoS2 and GO nanosheets with a large surface area enhance light absorption to generate more photoelectrons. On account of the coupling between MoS2 and GO with g-C3N4, the ternary hybrid possesses binary p-n heterojunctions at the g-C3N4/MoS2 and g-C3N4/GO interfaces. The space charge layers created by the p-n heterojunctions not only enhance photogeneration, but also promote charge separation and transfer of electron-hole pairs. In addition, the ultrathin MoS2 and GO with high mobility act as electron mediators to facilitate separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs at each p-n heterojunction. As a result, the ternary hybrid photocatalyst exhibits improved photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation compared to other reference materials. The results provide new insights into the large-scale production of semiconductor photocatalysts. PMID:24980624

  13. Characterization of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier as a light source and development of a near-infrared spectrophotometer based on the EDFA and an acoustooptic tunable filter.

    PubMed

    Tran, C D; Gao, G H

    1996-07-01

    A novel light source for the near-infrared region which has the highest intensity and widest spectral bandwidth of all near-IR light sources has been developed. The system is based on a single-mode fiber (about 18 m long) doped with Er3+ ion. The doped ion produces amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in the near-IR region (from 1500 to 1600 nm) when it is excited by a diode laser at 980 nm. Because the diode laser is fusion-spliced directly to the doped fiber, the system is compact, all-solid-state, reliable, and stable and requires little maintenance. Its ASE output intensity was found to be comparable with those of diode lasers currently available for this near-IR region and is much higher than those of conventional halogen-tungsten lamps and the so-called (high-intensity) superluminescent light emitting diodes (SLEDs). Its spectral bandwidth is, however, much wider than those of the diode lasers and the SLEDs. Even higher intensity can be obtained from the doped fiber when a low-intensity (1 mW) light from a 1550-nm laser diode is introduced into the doped fiber. The intensity is enhanced (up to 7 times compared to the ASE) because the input light is amplified by the doped fiber. Furthermore, the output intensity of this erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) can be appropriately adjusted to provide relatively higher output intensity at any range of wavelengths (within this 1500-1600-nm region) by simply changing the temperature and/or the driven current of the input diode laser. Subsequently, an acoustooptic tunable filter was used to provide a means to spectrally tune the EDFA rapidly and to develop an all-solid-state, compact near-IR spectrophotometer which not only is very sensitive, stable, and reliable but also has a very high throughput. This spectrophotometer can detect water in ethanol at a limit of detection of 10 ppm. More importantly, the high through-put makes it possible to use the instrument to measure spectra of highly absorbing samples (e

  14. Photoluminescence performance of thulium doped Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2} under irradiation of ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet lights

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhaofeng; Li, Yezhou; Liu, Xiong; Wei, Xingmin; Chen, Yueling; Zhou, Fei; Wang, Yuhua

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • A novel blue-emitting phosphor Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tm{sup 3+} was reported. • Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tm{sup 3+} exhibited excellent thermal and irradiation stability. • Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tm{sup 3+} was found to possess high color purity. - Abstract: In this work, we synthesized Tm{sup 3+} doped Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2} phosphors and investigated their photoluminescence properties under the excitation of ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet lights. The crystal structure analysis and variation of cell parameters confirm that Tm{sup 3+} ions have been successfully doped in the structure of Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2} host by occupying the sites of Ca{sup 2+} with the coordination number of 6. The luminescence results suggest that Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tm{sup 3+} is a good blue-emitting phosphor when excited by ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet irradiations. In addition, it is observed that there is nearly no degradation for Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tm{sup 3+} after undergoing thermal and irradiation treatments. Possible mechanisms for the luminescence processes are proposed on the basis of the discussion of excitation and emission spectra. In particular, the emission color of Li{sub 4}SrCa(SiO{sub 4}){sub 2}:Tm{sup 3+} by excitation of 147 and 172 nm irradiations is very close to the standard blue color, suggesting that it could be potentially applied in plasma display panels and mercury-free fluorescence lamps.

  15. Optical energy storage and reemission based weak localization of light and accompanying random lasing action in disordered Nd{sup 3+} doped (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti)O{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Long; Zhao, Hua; Xu, Caixia; Zhang, Siqi; Zhang, Jingwen

    2014-08-14

    Multi-mode random lasing action and weak localization of light were evidenced and studied in normally transparent but disordered Nd{sup 3+} doped (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} ceramics. Noticeable localized zone and multi-photon process were observed under strong pumping power. A tentative phenomenological physical picture was proposed by taking account of diffusive process, photo-induced scattering, and optical energy storage process as dominant factors in elucidating the weak localization of light observed. Both the decreased transmittance (increased reflectivity) of light and the observed long lasting fading-off phenomenon supported the physical picture proposed by us.

  16. A case of a retained drain tip following intercostal drain insertion: avoiding a ‘never event’

    PubMed Central

    Oswald, Nicola K.; Abdelaziz, Mahmoud; Rajesh, Pala B.; Steyn, Richard S.

    2016-01-01

    Pleural effusions are commonly drained with Seldinger intercostal drains. One uncommon but serious risk of drain insertion is that of a foreign body being retained in the pleural cavity following removal. We report a case in which the tip of the drain was retained in the pleural space following difficult insertion of a Seldinger intercostal drain in a district general hospital. Prompt recognition and clear patient communication are important at the occurrence of an unusual complication. Surgical removal of the foreign body was performed following transfer. We report this case to raise awareness that insertion and withdrawal of drains over the guidewire during insertion may damage the drain and highlight the need for doctors who insert chest drains to perform a count of instruments during ward or clinic-based procedures as well as those performed in theatres. We now include removable parts of chest drains in our theatre instrument count. PMID:27076623

  17. Significant visible-light photocatalytic enhancement in Rhodamine B degradation of silver orthophosphate via the hybridization of N-doped graphene and poly(3-hexylthiophene).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanlin; Xie, Churu; Gu, Feng Long; Wu, Honghai; Guo, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Organic pollutants as typical water contaminants are potentially harmful to human health. In this study, we suggested that the novel Ag3PO4/N-doped graphene (NG)/Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) composites can remove the organic dye Rhodamine B (RhB) from water. This Ag3PO4-based photocatalyst was synthesized via a facile method and subsequently characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS, Raman spectroscopy, PL spectroscopy, and UV-vis DRS. The photocatalytic activity of Ag3PO4/NG/P3HT composites is significantly higher than that of pristine Ag3PO4, Ag3PO4/NG, and Ag3PO4/P3HT for RhB degradation under visible light irradiation, especially the kinetic constant of Ag3PO4/NG/P3HT is more than 6 times of pristine Ag3PO4. The reactive oxygen species trapping experiments indicate that the degradation of RhB over the Ag3PO4/NG/P3HT composites mainly results from the holes oxidation and superoxide radical reduction. Besides, Ag3PO4/NG/P3HT composites exhibit better recyclability and stability than pristine Ag3PO4. Furthermore, the photocatalytic mechanism of Ag3PO4/NG/P3HT composites for RhB degradation under visible light was proposed as the synergistic effect of irradiated Ag3PO4, P3HT and NG sheets on the effective separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, and the enhancement of visible light absorbance. PMID:27152973

  18. Light amplification and lasing from dyes doped in DNA-complex thin films prepared by soaking method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabe, Yutaka; Suzuki, Takemasa; Iisaka, You

    2014-08-01

    An alternative fabrication method for dye-doped DNA-surfactant complex films was developed and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and lasing under low energy optical pumping were demonstrated. In this new preparation technique, thin DNA-cethyltrimethylammonium (CTMA) complex films made by a spin coating method were stained with a hemicyanine dye by soaking them in acetone solution of the dye for one day. Molar ratio of the dye to DNA base pair for the final products was estimated to be 0.2, the value was much higher than those achieved via usual mixing method. ASE threshold value under pumping of a pulsed frequency-doubled YAG laser was about 0.3 mJ/cm2. Laser emission was also attained under the excitation with two interfering beams forming a dynamic grating of gain coefficient. Durability test indicated that 70% of their initial performance was maintained after 1 hour of continuous pumping. The technique was applied to water soluble dyes because the DNA complex was insoluble to water as well as acetone. We employed anionic Eosin Y dye, succeeding in sample formation and ASE emission. Different types of surfactants were also complexed with DNA, showing variation of emission peak wavelength. These results give a clue about the structure of the complex or interaction modes between DNA and surfactants, strongly suggesting that dye molecules are not intercalated into nor bound to DNA double strand directly, but are incorporated in the complex system via ion-exchange process or aggregating with cationic surfactants.

  19. Sol-Gel Microspheres Doped with Glycerol: A Structural Insight in Light of Forthcoming Applications in the Polyurethane Foam Industry

    PubMed Central

    Ciriminna, Rosaria; Fidalgo, Alexandra; Ilharco, Laura M; Pagliaro, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Porous silica-based microspheres encapsulating aqueous glycerol can be potential curing agents for one-component foams (OCFs). Such agents have the advantage of an enhanced sustainability profile on top of being environmentally friendly materials. A synthetically convenient and scalable sol-gel process was used to make silica and organosilica microspheres doped with aqueous glycerol. These methyl-modified silica microspheres, named “GreenCaps”, exhibit remarkable physical and chemical stability. The microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy at reduced pressure, and cryogenic nitrogen adsorption—desorption analysis. The structure of the materials was also analyzed at the molecular level by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. As expected, the degree of methylation affects the degree of encapsulation and pore structure. Microspheres similarly methylated, however, can differ considerably in surface area and pore size due to the templating effect of glycerol on the organosilica structure. The results of the structure analysis reveal that glycerol is efficiently encapsulated, acts as a template, barely leaches over time, but is released by depressurization. A proper application of these microspheres can later on enhance both the environmental and health profile, as well as the technical performance (curing speed, foam quality, and froth thixotropy) of spray polyurethane foams. PMID:25969809

  20. High-efficiency electrophosphorescent white organic light-emitting devices with a double-doped emissive layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wenfa; Zhao, Yi; Li, Chuannan; Liu, Shiyong

    2005-03-01

    Efficient white emission with mixing of red emission from bis (1-(phenyl)isoquinoline) iridium (III) acetylanetonate [Ir(piq)2(acac)], green emission from fac (2-phenylpyridine) iridium [Ir(ppy)3], and blue emission from N, N'-bis-(1-naphthyl)-N, N'diphenyl-1,1'biphenyl-4, 4'diamine (NPB) is reported. Ir(piq)2(acac) and Ir(ppy)3 are codoped into a 2,2',2''-(1,3,5-phenylene) tris (1-phenyl-1H-benzimidazole) (TPBI) host. The device emission colour is controlled by varying dopant concentrations. The maximum luminance and power efficiency of the devices with the doping concentrations of 4 wt% Ir(ppy)3 and 2 wt% Ir(piq)2(acac) in TPBI are 33 000 cd m-2 and 10.7 lm W-1, respectively. The CIE coordinates of the device vary from (0.44, 0.44) at 5 V to (0.29, 0.34) at 18 V and are well within the white region.

  1. Role of paramagnetic defects in light emission processes in Y-doped ZrO2 nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsunska, N.; Baran, M.; Zhuk, A.; Polishchuk, Yu; Stara, T.; Kladko, V.; Bacherikov, Yu; Venger, Ye; Konstantinova, T.; Khomenkova, L.

    2014-12-01

    Luminescence and structural properties of pure and Y-doped ZrO2 nanopowders with different Y content synthesized by co-precipitation of Zr and Y salts were investigated by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and photoluminescence (PL) methods. It was found that at constant calcination temperature (700 °С), the increase of Y content stimulates the transformation of crystalline phase from monoclinic through the tetragonal to the cubic one. Generally, room temperature PL emission was found to be similar for the samples with different Y content, demonstrating the same overlapped PL components in visible spectral range under extrinsic excitation. The relative contribution of each PL component was found to be affected by calcination time. In EPR spectra of as-prepared samples no signals were observed. The annealing in N2 or H2 flow results in the appearance of the signal from surface Zr3+ defects. In the latter the signal assigned to F-center also arises. The anti-correlation observed between the PL intensity and the value of the Zr3+ EPR signal allows us to conclude that the Zr3+ center is the center of fast non-radiative recombination. At the same time, interrelation between the intensity of the EPR signal assigned to F-centers and observed PL bands was not found.

  2. Excellent deep-blue emitting materials based on anthracene derivatives for non-doped organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wei; Xu, Chen; Ji, Baoming; Zheng, Caijun; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2016-08-01

    Two deep-blue emitting materials 2-tert-butyl-9,10-bis(3,5-diphenylphenyl)anthracene (An-1) and 2-tert-butyl-9,10-bis(3,5-diphenylbiphenyl-4‧-yl)anthracene (An-2) were successfully synthesized by the Pd-catalyzed Suzuki coupling reaction. Both of these compounds have high thermal stabilities and show strong deep-blue emission as solid-state film as well as in n-hexane solution. Two non-doped electroluminescent devices employing An-1 and An-2 as emitting layers were fabricated by vacuum vapor deposition. These devices exhibited highly efficient and stable deep-blue emission with high color purity. The CIE coordinate and maximum EQE of An-1 based device are 4.2% and (0.16, 0.06), respectively. Device based on An-2 achieved a maximum EQE of 4.0% and a CIE coordinate of (0.16, 0.10).

  3. Enhancing the visible light absorption of titania nanoparticles by S and C doping in a single-step process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarisoreanu, M.; Morjan, I.; Alexandrescu, R.; Fleaca, C. T.; Badoi, A.; Dutu, E.; Niculescu, A.-M.; Luculescu, C.; Vasile, E.; Wang, J.; Bouhadoun, S.; Herlin-Boime, N.

    2014-05-01

    We report the synthesis of carbon coated and sulfur doped titania nanoparticles using a continuous, single-step laser pyrolysis technique. We employed air as oxidant and C2H4 as laser energy transfer agent (sensitizer)/carbon donor, both carrying the TiCl4 vapors as a titania precursor. The volatile (CH3)2S2 was used to introduce sulfur as dopant in the nanopowders. The incorporation of C and S atoms in nanopowders with anatase dominant phase and with average particle diameter between 18 and 25 nm was performed through the addition of S2(CH3)2 and C2H4 to the reactive precursor mixtures. The samples were characterized by: EDX, XRD, TEM, XPS and UV-Vis spectroscopy. By the introduction of the sulfur precursor, the anatase-to-rutile ratio within the resulted TiO2-based nanoparticles decreased, as well as their bandgap energy values which are also lower than those of commercial TiO2 Degussa P25.

  4. Drain Current Modulation of a Single Drain MOSFET by Lorentz Force for Magnetic Sensing Application.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Prasenjit; Chow, Hwang-Cherng; Feng, Wu-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a detailed analysis of the drain current modulation of a single-drain normal-gate n channel metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (n-MOSFET) under an on-chip magnetic field. A single-drain n-MOSFET has been fabricated and placed in the center of a square-shaped metal loop which generates the on-chip magnetic field. The proposed device designed is much smaller in size with respect to the metal loop, which ensures that the generated magnetic field is approximately uniform. The change of drain current and change of bulk current per micron device width has been measured. The result shows that the difference drain current is about 145 µA for the maximum applied magnetic field. Such changes occur from the applied Lorentz force to push out the carriers from the channel. Based on the drain current difference, the change in effective mobility has been detected up to 4.227%. Furthermore, a detailed investigation reveals that the device behavior is quite different in subthreshold and saturation region. A change of 50.24 µA bulk current has also been measured. Finally, the device has been verified for use as a magnetic sensor with sensitivity 4.084% (29.6 T(-1)), which is very effective as compared to other previously reported works for a single device. PMID:27589747

  5. Climate mitigation scenarios of drained peat soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimir Klemedtsson, Åsa; Coria, Jessica; He, Hongxing; Liu, Xiangping; Nordén, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The national inventory reports (NIR) submitted to the UNFCCC show Sweden - which as many other countries has wetlands where parts have been drained for agriculture and forestry purposes, - to annually emit 12 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalents, which is more GHG'es than industrial energy use release in Sweden. Similar conditions can be found in other northern countries, having cool and wet conditions, naturally promoting peat accumulation, and where land use management over the last centuries have promoted draining activities. These drained peatland, though covering only 2% of the land area, have emissions corresponding to 20% of the total reported NIR emissions. This substantial emission contribution, however, is hidden within the Land Use Land Use Change and Forestry sector (LULUCF) where the forest Carbon uptake is even larger, which causes the peat soil emissions become invisible. The only drained soil emission accounted in the Swedish Kyoto reporting is the N2O emission from agricultural drained organic soils of the size 0.5 million tonnes CO2e yr-1. This lack of visibility has made incentives for land use change and management neither implemented nor suggested, however with large potential. Rewetting has the potential to decrease soil mineralization, why CO2 and N2O emissions are mitigated. However if the soil becomes very wet CH4 emission will increase together with hampered plant growth. By ecological modeling, using the CoupModel the climate change mitigation potential have been estimated for four different land use scenarios; 1, Drained peat soil with Spruce (business as usual scenario), 2, raised ground water level to 20 cm depth and Willow plantation, 3, raised ground water level to 10 cm depth and Reed Canary Grass, and 4, rewetting to an average water level in the soil surface with recolonizing wetland plants and mosses. We calculate the volume of biomass production per year, peat decomposition, N2O emission together with nitrate and DOC

  6. Eu{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+} co-doped Ba{sub 9}Y{sub 2}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24} phosphors based on near-UV-excitable LED lights

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoejin; Park, Sangmoon

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • New near-ultraviolet (NUV)-excitable materials composed of Ba{sub 9}Eu{sub m}Mn{sub n}Y{sub 2}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24} (m = 0.01–0.5, n = 0–0.7) were prepared. • High energy-transfer from Eu{sup 2+} to Mn{sup 2+} and their energy-transfer mechanism were discussed. • The co-doping of Eu{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} in the orthosilicate structure resulted in the emission of white light under NUV LED light. - Abstract: New single-phase and near-ultraviolet (NUV)-excitable materials composed of Ba{sub 9}Eu{sub m}Mn{sub n}Y{sub 2}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24} (m = 0.01–0.5, n = 0–0.7) were prepared via a solid-state reaction in reducing atmosphere. X-ray diffraction patterns of the obtained phosphors were examined to index the peak positions. After doping the host structure with Eu{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} emitters, the intense green, white, and orange emission lights that were observed in the photoluminescence spectra under NUV excitation were monitored. The dependence of the luminescent intensity of the Mn{sup 2+} co-doped (n = 0.1–0.7) host lattices on the fixed Eu{sup 2+} content (m = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) is also investigated. Co-doping Mn{sup 2+} into the Eu{sup 2+}-doped host structure enabled a high energy-transfer from Eu{sup 2+} to Mn{sup 2+} and their energy-transfer mechanism were discussed. Using these phosphors, the desired CIE values including emissions throughout the green to orange regions of the spectra were achieved. Efficient white-light light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated using Eu{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} co-doped phosphors based on NUV-excitable LED lights.

  7. Enhanced luminescence and white light emission from Eu(3+) -co-doped K3 Ca2 (SO4 )3 Cl:Dy(3+) phosphor with near visible ultraviolet excitation for white LEDs.

    PubMed

    Baig, N; Dhoble, N S; Park, K; Kokode, N S; Dhoble, S J

    2015-06-01

    The luminescent properties of europium (Eu)- and dysprosium (Dy)-co-doped K3 Ca2 (SO4 )3 Cl halosulfate phosphors were analyzed. This paper reports the photoluminescence (PL) properties of K3 Ca2 (SO4 )3 Cl microphosphor doped with Eu and Dy and synthesized using a cost-effective wet chemical method. The phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The CIE coordinates were calculated to display the color of the phosphor. PL emission of the prepared samples show peaks at 484 nm (blue), 575 nm (yellow), 594 nm (orange) and 617 nm (red). The emission color of the Eu,Dy-co-doped K3 Ca2 (SO4 )3 Cl halophosphor depends on the doping concentration and excitation wavelength. The addition of Eu in K3 Ca2 (SO4 )3 Cl:Dy greatly enhances the intensity of the blue and yellow peaks, which corresponds to the (4)  F9/2  → (6) H15/2 and (4)  F9/2  → (6) H13/2 transitions of Dy(3+) ions (under 351 nm excitation). The Eu(3+) /Dy(3+) co-doping also produces white light emission for 1 mol% of Eu(3+) , 1 mol% of Dy(3+) in the K3 Ca2 (SO4 )3 Cl lattice under 396 nm excitation, for which the calculated chromaticity coordinates are (0.35, 0.31). Thus, K3 Ca2 (SO4 )3 Cl co-doped with Eu/Dy is a suitable candidate for NUV based white light-emitting phosphors technology. PMID:25223265

  8. Fast fabrication of a novel transparent PMMA light scattering materials with high haze by doping with ordinary polymer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Xiong, Ying; Shen, Jiabin; Guo, Shaoyun

    2015-07-13

    Poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) light scattering materials are fabricated by a simple, low-cost approach of melt blending and compression molding. We find that the competing effects of particle diameter versus number concentration of the scattering particles is the controlling factor to tailoring the optical properties of the materials, which is analyzed according to Mie scattering theory. The results show that the transmittance kept decreasing in the PET concentration range 0-10 wt% followed by a constant level in the range 10-20 wt%; however, the transmittance experienced a significant increase in the range 20-35 wt% and plateaued again after PET content exceeded 35 wt%. Therefore, the application of ordinary polymer dopant makes preparing light scattering sheets with high haze but not decreasing transmittance possible. PMID:26191841

  9. Crystal Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Perfectly Oriented Non-Doped Pt-Based Emitting Layer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwon-Hyeon; Liao, Jia-Ling; Lee, Si Woo; Sim, Bomi; Moon, Chang-Ki; Lee, Gene-Hsiang; Kim, Hyo Jung; Chi, Yun; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2016-04-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency of 38.8% are realized using a Pt-based thin-film emitting layer with photoluminescence quantum yield of 96% and transition dipole ratio of 93%. The emitting dipole orientation of the thin films fabricated using Pt complexes is investigated and the structural relationship between X-ray structural analysis and the structures in thin films are discussed based on quantum chemical calculations. PMID:26833629

  10. Generation of White Light from Dysprosium-Doped Strontium Aluminate Phosphor by a Solid-State Reaction Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Ishwar Prasad; Bisen, D. P.; Brahme, N.; Tamrakar, Raunak Kumar

    2016-04-01

    A single-host lattice, white light-emitting SrAl2O4:Dy3+ phosphor was synthesized by a solid-state reaction method. The crystal structure of prepared SrAl2O4:Dy3+ phosphor was in a monoclinic phase with space group P21. The chemical composition of the sintered SrAl2O4:Dy3+ phosphor was confirmed by the energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy technique. Under ultra-violet excitation, the characteristic emissions of Dy3+ are peaking at 475 nm, 573 nm and 660 nm, originating from the transitions of 4F9/2 → 6H15/2, 4F9/2 →&!nbsp; 6H13/2 and 4F9/2 → 6H11/2 in the 4f9 configuration of Dy3+ ions. Commission International de I'Eclairage color coordinates of SrAl2O4:Dy3+ are suitable for white light-emitting phosphor. In order to investigate the suitability of the samples as white color light sources for industrial uses, correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI) values were calculated. Values of CCT and CRI were found well within the defined acceptable range. Mechanoluminescence (ML) intensity of SrAl2O4:Dy3+ phosphor increased linearly with increasing impact velocity of the moving piston. Thus, the present investigation indicates piezo-electricity was responsible for producing ML in sintered SrAl2O4:Dy3+ phosphor. Decay rates of the exponential decaying period of the ML curves do not change significantly with impact velocity. The photoluminescence and ML results suggest that the synthesized SrAl2O4:Dy3+ phosphor was useful for the white light-emitting diodes and stress sensor respectively.

  11. Bandgap tailoring of in-situ nitrogen-doped TiO2 sputtered films intended for electrophotocatalytic applications under solar light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delegan, N.; Daghrir, R.; Drogui, P.; El Khakani, M. A.

    2014-10-01

    We report on a reactive RF-sputtering process permitting the in-situ nitrogen doping of TiO2 films in order to shift their photoactivity from UV to visible range. By carefully controlling the relative nitrogen-to-argon mass flow rate ratio (within the 0%-25% range) in the sputter deposition chamber, TiO2:N films were grown with nitrogen contents ranging from 0 to 6.2 at. %, as determined by high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy measurements. A systematic investigation of the crystalline structure of the TiO2:N films, as a function of their N content, revealed that low N contents (0.2-0.3 at. %) induce crystallization in the rutile phase while higher N contents (≥1.4 at. %) were accompanied with the recovery of the anatase structure with an average crystallite size of ˜35 nm. By using both UV-Vis absorption and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements, we were able to quantitatively determine the bandgap (Eg) variation of the TiO2:N films as a function of their N content. Thus, we have demonstrated that the Eg of the TiO2:N films effectively narrows from 3.2 eV down to a value as low as ˜2.3 eV for the optimal N doping concentration of 3.4 at. % (higher N incorporation does not translate into further red shifting of the TiO2:N films' Eg). The photoactivity of the TiO2:N films under visible light was confirmed through electro-photocatalytic decomposition of chlortetracycline (CTC, an emerging water pollutant) under standard 1.5AM solar radiation. Thus, CTC degradation efficiencies of up to 98% were achieved with 2 hours process cycles under simulated solar light. Moreover, the electro-photocatalytic performance of the TiO2:N films is shown to be directly correlated to their optoelectronic properties (namely their bandgap narrowing).

  12. Bandgap tailoring of in-situ nitrogen-doped TiO₂ sputtered films intended for electrophotocatalytic applications under solar light

    SciTech Connect

    Delegan, N.; El Khakani, M. A.; Daghrir, R.; Drogui, P.

    2014-10-21

    We report on a reactive RF-sputtering process permitting the in-situ nitrogen doping of TiO₂ films in order to shift their photoactivity from UV to visible range. By carefully controlling the relative nitrogen-to-argon mass flow rate ratio (within the 0%–25% range) in the sputter deposition chamber, TiO₂:N films were grown with nitrogen contents ranging from 0 to 6.2 at. %, as determined by high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy measurements. A systematic investigation of the crystalline structure of the TiO₂:N films, as a function of their N content, revealed that low N contents (0.2–0.3 at. %) induce crystallization in the rutile phase while higher N contents (≥1.4 at. %) were accompanied with the recovery of the anatase structure with an average crystallite size of ~35 nm. By using both UV-Vis absorption and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements, we were able to quantitatively determine the bandgap (E{sub g}) variation of the TiO₂:N films as a function of their N content. Thus, we have demonstrated that the E{sub g} of the TiO₂:N films effectively narrows from 3.2 eV down to a value as low as ~2.3 eV for the optimal N doping concentration of 3.4 at. % (higher N incorporation does not translate into further red shifting of the TiO₂:N films' E{sub g}). The photoactivity of the TiO₂:N films under visible light was confirmed through electro-photocatalytic decomposition of chlortetracycline (CTC, an emerging water pollutant) under standard 1.5AM solar radiation. Thus, CTC degradation efficiencies of up to 98% were achieved with 2 hours process cycles under simulated solar light. Moreover, the electro-photocatalytic performance of the TiO₂:N films is shown to be directly correlated to their optoelectronic properties (namely their bandgap narrowing).

  13. Internally drained condenser for spacecraft thermal management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valenzuela, Javier A.; Drew, Brian C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained to date in a program to develop a high heat flux condenser for use in two-phase spacecraft thermal management loops. The objective is to obtain a several fold increase in condensation heat transfer coefficient over those which can be achieved with shear-controlled or capillary-wick condensers. The internally drained condenser relies on shaped fins to develop a capillary pressure gradient over the surface of the fins and drive the condensate toward narrow drainage grooves separating the fins. The condensate then flows through a drainage network embedded in the condenser walls. Heat transfer coefficients of up to 8 W/sq cm C were measured in steam, providing a heat transfer enhancement ratio greater than a factor of 8. In the paper the proof-of-concept experiments are described and simplified models to predict the performance of the internally drained condenser are presented.

  14. Coma due to malplaced external ventricular drain.

    PubMed

    Chai, Feng Yih; Farizal, Fadzil; Jegan, Thanabalan

    2013-01-01

    Ventriculostomy or external ventricular drain (EVD) placement by free-hand technique has a high malplacement rate. It is a blind procedure that often requires multiple attempts and revisions. To date, no neurological complication due to EVD malplacement has been reported in the literature. In this report, we present the first case of coma induced by a malplaced EVD and the patient regained consciousness after the drain was adjusted. Our discussion focused on various techniques that can improve the accuracy of EVD insertion. EVD insertion under image guidance provides better accuracy with limited disadvantages. We hypothesized that the patient's coma was due to the mass effect and irritation of the malplaced EVD exerted onto the ventral periaqueductal grey matter and the ascending neurons from upper brainstem. PMID:24101284

  15. Isoelectronic co-doping

    DOEpatents

    Mascarenhas, Angelo

    2004-11-09

    Isoelectronic co-doping of semiconductor compounds and alloys with deep acceptors and deep donors is used to decrease bandgap, to increase concentration of the dopant constituents in the resulting alloys, and to increase carrier mobilities lifetimes. Group III-V compounds and alloys, such as GaAs and GaP, are isoelectronically co-doped with, for example, N and Bi, to customize solar cells, thermal voltaic cells, light emitting diodes, photodetectors, and lasers on GaP, InP, GaAs, Ge, and Si substrates. Isoelectronically co-doped Group II-VI compounds and alloys are also included.

  16. Using Smoke Injection in Drains to Identify Potential Preferential Pathways in a Drained Arable Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, M. H.; Petersen, C. T.; Hansen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Macropores forming a continuous pathway between the soil surface and subsurface drains favour the transport of many contaminants from agricultural fields to surface waters. The smoke injection method presented by Shipitalo and Gibbs (2000) used for demonstrating and quantifying such pathways has been further developed and used on a drained Danish sandy loam. In order to identify the preferential pathways to drains, smoke was injected in three 1.15 m deep tile drains (total drain length 93 m), and smoke emitting macropores (SEMP) at the soil surface were counted and characterized as producing either strong or weak plumes compared to reference plumes from 3 and 6 mm wide tubes. In the two situations investigated in the present study - an early spring and an autumn situation, smoke only penetrated the soil surface layer via earthworm burrows located in a 1.0 m wide belt directly above the drain lines. However, it is known from previous studies that desiccation fractures in a dry summer situation also can contribute to the smoke pattern. The distance between SEMP measured along the drain lines was on average 0.46 m whereas the average spacing between SEMP with strong plumes was 2.3 m. Ponded water was applied in 6 cm wide rings placed above 52 burrows including 17 reference burrows which did not emit smoke. Thirteen pathways in the soil were examined using dye tracer and profile excavation. SEMP with strong plumes marked the entrance of highly efficient transport pathways conducting surface applied water and dye tracer into the drain. However, no single burrow was traced all the way from the surface into the drain, the dye patterns branched off in a network of other macropores. Water infiltration rates were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in SEMP with strong plumes (average rate: 247 mL min-1 n = 19) compared to SEMP with weak plumes (average rate: 87 mL min-1 n = 16) and no plumes (average rate: 56 mL min-1 n = 17). The results suggest that the smoke injection method

  17. 2. INTERIOR OF SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING WITH DRYING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR OF SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING WITH DRYING BINS TO THE RIGHT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  18. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  19. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  20. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  1. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  2. 40 CFR 60.692-2 - Standards: Individual drain systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emissions From Petroleum Refinery Wastewater Systems § 60.692-2 Standards: Individual drain systems. (a)(1... section. (e) Refinery wastewater routed through new process drains and a new first common...

  3. Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Audin, L.

    1994-12-31

    EPAct covers a vast territory beyond lighting and, like all legislation, also contains numerous {open_quotes}favors,{close_quotes} compromises, and even some sleight-of-hand. Tucked away under Title XIX, for example, is an increase from 20% to 28% tax on gambling winnings, effective January 1, 1993 - apparently as a way to help pay for new spending listed elsewhere in the bill. Overall, it is a landmark piece of legislation, about a decade overdue. It remains to be seen how the Federal Government will enforce upgrading of state (or even their own) energy codes. There is no mention of funding for {open_quotes}energy police{close_quotes} in EPAct. Merely creating such a national standard, however, provides a target for those who sincerely wish to create an energy-efficient future.

  4. DNA Persistence in a Sink Drain Environment

    PubMed Central

    Winder, Eric M.; Bonheyo, George T.

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms are organized structures composed mainly of cells and extracellular polymeric substances produced by the constituent microorganisms. Ubiquitous in nature, biofilms have an innate ability to capture and retain passing material and may therefore act as natural collectors of contaminants or signatures of upstream activities. To determine the persistence and detectability of DNA passing through a sink drain environment, Bacillus anthracis strain Ames35 was cultured (6.35 x 107 CFU/mL), sterilized, and disposed of by addition to a sink drain apparatus with an established biofilm. The sink drain apparatus was sampled before and for several days after the addition of the sterilized B. anthracis culture to detect the presence of B. anthracis DNA. Multiple PCR primer pairs were used to screen for chromosomal and plasmid DNA with primers targeting shorter sequences showing greater amplification efficiency and success. PCR amplification and detection of target sequences indicate persistence of chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA in the biofilm for 5 or more and 14 or more days, respectively. PMID:26230525

  5. DNA Persistence in a Sink Drain Environment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Winder, Eric M.; Bonheyo, George T.

    2015-07-31

    Biofilms are organized structures composed mainly of cells and extracellular polymeric substances produced by the constituent microorganisms. Ubiquitous in nature, biofilms have an innate ability to capture and retain passing material and may therefore act as natural collectors of contaminants or signatures of upstream activities. To determine the persistence and detectability of DNA passing through a sink drain environment, Bacillus anthracis strain Ames35 was cultured (6.35 x 107 CFU/mL), sterilized, and disposed of by addition to a sink drain apparatus with an established biofilm. The sink drain apparatus was sampled before and for several days after the addition of themore » sterilized B. anthracis culture to detect the presence of B. anthracis DNA. Multiple PCR primer pairs were used to screen for chromosomal and plasmid DNA with primers targeting shorter sequences showing greater amplification efficiency and success. PCR amplification and detection of target sequences indicate persistence of chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA in the biofilm for 5 or more and 14 or more days, respectively.« less

  6. DNA Persistence in a Sink Drain Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Winder, Eric M.; Bonheyo, George T.

    2015-07-31

    Biofilms are organized structures composed mainly of cells and extracellular polymeric substances produced by the constituent microorganisms. Ubiquitous in nature, biofilms have an innate ability to capture and retain passing material and may therefore act as natural collectors of contaminants or signatures of upstream activities. To determine the persistence and detectability of DNA passing through a sink drain environment, Bacillus anthracis strain Ames35 was cultured (6.35 x 107 CFU/mL), sterilized, and disposed of by addition to a sink drain apparatus with an established biofilm. The sink drain apparatus was sampled before and for several days after the addition of the sterilized B. anthracis culture to detect the presence of B. anthracis DNA. Multiple PCR primer pairs were used to screen for chromosomal and plasmid DNA with primers targeting shorter sequences showing greater amplification efficiency and success. PCR amplification and detection of target sequences indicate persistence of chromosomal DNA and plasmid DNA in the biofilm for 5 or more and 14 or more days, respectively.

  7. Bed drain cover assembly for a fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Comparato, Joseph R.; Jacobs, Martin

    1982-01-01

    A loose fitting movable cover plate (36), suitable for the severe service encountered in a fluidized bed combustor (10), restricts the flow of solids into the combustor drain lines (30) during shutdown of the bed. This cover makes it possible to empty spent solids from the bed drain lines which would otherwise plug the piping between the drain and the downstream metering device. This enables use of multiple drain lines each with a separate metering device for the control of solids flow rate.

  8. Luminescence study of Eu(3+) doped Li6 Y(BO3 )3 phosphor for solid-state lighting.

    PubMed

    Yawalkar, Mrunal M; Zade, G D; Dabre, K V; Dhoble, S J

    2016-06-01

    In this study, Li6 Y1-x Eux (BO3 )3 phosphor was successfully synthesized using a modified solid-state diffusion method. The Eu(3+) ion concentration was varied at 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1 mol%. The phosphor was characterized for phase purity, morphology, luminescent properties and molecular transmission at room temperature. The XRD pattern suggests a result closely matching the standard JCPDS file (#80-0843). The emission and excitation spectra were followed to discover the luminescence traits. The excitation spectra indicate that the current phosphor can be efficiently excited at 395 nm and at 466 nm (blue light) to give emission at 595 and 614 nm due to the (5) D0  → (7) Fj transition of Eu(3+) ions. Concentration quenching was observed at 0.5 mol% Eu(3+) in the Li6 Y1-x Eux (BO3 )3 host lattice. Strong red emission with CIE chromaticity coordinates of phosphor is x = 0.63 and y = 0.36 achieved with dominant red emission at 614 nm the (5) D0  → (7)  F2 electric dipole transition of Eu(3+) ions. The novel Li6 Y1-x Eux (BO3 )3 phosphor may be a suitable red-emitting component for solid-state lighting using double-excited wavelengths, i.e. near-UV at 395 nm and blue light at 466 nm. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26311630

  9. 14 CFR 125.139 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 125.139 Section 125.139....139 Oil system drains. Accessible drains incorporating either a manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  10. 14 CFR 125.139 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 125.139 Section 125.139....139 Oil system drains. Accessible drains incorporating either a manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  11. 14 CFR 125.139 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 125.139 Section 125.139....139 Oil system drains. Accessible drains incorporating either a manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  12. 14 CFR 125.139 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 125.139 Section 125.139....139 Oil system drains. Accessible drains incorporating either a manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  13. 14 CFR 125.139 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Oil system drains. 125.139 Section 125.139....139 Oil system drains. Accessible drains incorporating either a manual or automatic means for positive locking in the closed position must be provided to allow safe drainage of the entire oil system....

  14. 1. SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (RIGHT), COVERED INCLINE CONVEYOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SAND DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (RIGHT), COVERED INCLINE CONVEYOR (LOWER RIGHT) THAT EXTENDS TO THE SAND-SORTING BUILDING, AND REMAINS OF ORIGINAL (1917) WASHING, DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING (LEFT), VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM TOP OF SAND-SORTING BUILDING - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  15. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from...

  16. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from...

  17. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from...

  18. 46 CFR 45.157 - Scuppers and gravity drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scuppers and gravity drains. 45.157 Section 45.157 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.157 Scuppers and gravity drains. Scuppers and gravity deck drains from...

  19. 14 CFR 25.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 25.999 Section 25.999... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.999 Fuel system drains. (a) Drainage of the fuel system must be accomplished by the use of fuel strainer and fuel tank sump drains....

  20. 14 CFR 23.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 23.999 Section 23.999... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 23.999 Fuel system drains. (a) There must be at least one drain to allow safe drainage of the...