Science.gov

Sample records for lightwave synthesized frequency

  1. Broadband lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper using self-induced auto-tracking filter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoying; Liu, Shiyuan; Luo, Sha; Yuan, Quan; Ma, Rui; Ge, Chunfeng; Yang, Tianxin

    2015-08-24

    We present a scheme to broaden the sweeping span of lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper (LSFS) by using self-induced auto-tracking filter (SIATF). It is based on spatial-hole-burning effect in unpumped erbium-doped fiber (EDF), equivalent to introducing a Bragg grating. This Bragg grating works as the SIAFT, tracks the frequency of the incident optical signal automatically. It broadens LSFS's sweeping span limited by the homogeneous broadening of EDF. The scheme is demonstrated experimentally that the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise is effectively suppressed meanwhile sweeping span of LSFS is enlarged. 12.48nm sweeping span within 3.5dB power change is obtained, which corresponds to 1.56THz sweeping span. PMID:26368187

  2. Effects of frequency/polarization allocations and the zero-dispersion frequency on FDM lightwave transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Jun; Kojima, Shinya; Numai, Takahiro

    2008-07-01

    In long-haul frequency-division-multiplexing lightwave transmission systems, transmission characteristics are degraded by four-wave mixing (FWM) generated in optical fibers. To overcome this problem, several FWM suppression techniques have been reported. In this paper, dependence of FWM noises on frequency allocations, polarization allocations, and the zero-dispersion frequency is investigated. It is revealed that FWM noises are drastically decreased in frequency allocations such as equally spaced, repeated unequally spaced (RUS), equally spaced RUS, and unequally spaced RUS allocations by arranging polarization allocations of the channels with an increase in a separation between the channel frequencies and the zero-dispersion frequency.

  3. Effects of frequency and polarization allocations on FDM lightwave transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishi, Jun; Kojima, Shinya; Numai, Takahiro

    2008-05-01

    In long-haul frequency-division-multiplexing (FDM) lightwave transmission systems, transmission characteristics are degraded by four-wave mixing (FWM) generated in optical fibers. To overcome this problem in equally spaced (ES) allocation, modified repeated unequally spaced (RUS) allocations such as equally spaced RUS (ERUS) and unequally spaced RUS (URUS) allocations have been already examined. Also, it has been shown that FWM noises are decreased by arranging the polarization states of the channels. In this paper, dependence of FWM noises on frequency allocations and polarization allocations is investigated. It is revealed that FWM noises are decreased in ES, RUS, ERUS, and URUS with alternating polarization allocations of the channels, and FWM noises are drastically reduced when light polarizations are perpendicularly crossed at both sides of the zero dispersion frequency.

  4. Frequency synthesizers for telemetry receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stirling, Ronald C.

    1990-07-01

    The design of a frequency synthesizer is presented for telemetry receivers. The synthesizer contains two phase-locked loops, each with a programmable frequency counter, and incorporates fractional frequency synthesis but does not use a phase accumulator. The selected receiver design has a variable reference loop operating as a part of the output loop. Within the synthesizer, a single VTO generates the output frequency that is voltage-tunable from 375-656 MHz. The single-sideband phase noise is measured with an HP 8566B spectrum analyzer, and the receiver's bit error rate (BER) is measured with a carrier frequency of 250 MHz, synthesized LO at 410 MHz, and the conditions of BPSK, NRZ-L, and 2.3 kHz bit rate. The phase noise measurement limits and the BER performance data are presented in tabular form.

  5. Frequency Synthesizer For Tracking Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    Digital frequency-synthesizing subsystem generates trains of pulses, free of jitter, for use as frequency-control signals in tracking filters. Part of assembly of electronic equipment used to measure vibrations in bearings in rotating machinery. Designed to meet requirements for tracking narrow-band cage-rotation and ball-pass components of vibrations, as discussed in "Frequency-Tracking Error Detector" (MFS-29538) and "Ball-Pass Cage-Modulation Detector" (MFS-29539). Synthesizer includes preset counter, output of which controls signal for ball-pass filter. Input to this preset counter updated every 2 microseconds: responds almost immediately, effectively eliminating relatively long response time (lock-in time) and phase jitter.

  6. Precision frequency synthesizing sources with excellent time/frequency performances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Liren; Lin, Hai

    1994-01-01

    Precision frequency synthesizing sources are needed in the time / frequency measuring system, atomic frequency standards, telemetry, communication, and radar systems. This kind of frequency synthesizing source possesses high frequency accuracy and excellent long term and short term frequency stability. Several precision frequency synthesizing sources developed by Beijing Institute of Radio Metrology and Measurement (BIRMM) which have been successfully applied to the time / frequency measuring system, atomic frequency standards system, and radar system are described. In addition, the working principle, implementation approach, and the main technical specifications of the frequency synthesizing sources are also given.

  7. Novel distributed feedback lightwave circuit elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daǧ, Ceren B.; Anil, Mehmet A.; Serpengüzel, Ali

    2015-02-01

    The devices that are variations of inter-and intracoupled meandering optical waveguides are proposed as the lightwave circuit elements that exhibit distributed feedback. A preliminary transfer matrix method analysis is applied in frequency domain, taking the coupling purely directional and with constant coefficient on geometrically symmetric and anti-symmetric devices. The meandering loop mirror is the building block of all meandering waveguide based lightwave circuit elements. The simplest uncoupled meandering distributed feedback structure exhibits Rabi splitting in the transmittance spectrum. The symmetric and antisymmetric coupled meandering distributed feedback geometries can be utilized as band-pass, Fano, or Lorentzian filters or Rabi splitters. Meandering waveguide distributed feedback structures with a variety of spectral responses can be designed for a variety of lightwave circuit element functions and can be implemented with generality due to the analytic approach taken.

  8. VCO PLL Frequency Synthesizers for Spacecraft Transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott; Mysoor, Narayan; Lux, James; Cook, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Two documents discuss a breadboard version of advanced transponders that, when fully developed, would be installed on future spacecraft to fly in deep space. These transponders will be required to be capable of operation on any deepspace- communications uplink frequency channel between 7,145 and 7,235 MHz, and any downlink frequency channel between 8,400 and 8,500 MHz. The document focuses on the design and operation of frequency synthesizers for the receiver and transmitter. Heretofore, frequency synthesizers in deep-space transponders have been based on dielectric resonator oscillators (DROs), which do not have the wide tuning bandwidth necessary to tune over all channels in the uplink or downlink frequency bands. To satisfy the requirement for tuning bandwidth, the present frequency synthesizers are based on voltage-controlled-oscillator (VCO) phase-locked loops (PLLs) implemented by use of monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) implemented using inGaP heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) technology. MMIC VCO PLL frequency synthesizers similar to the present ones have been used in commercial and military applications but, until now, have exhibited too much phase noise for use in deep-space transponders. The present frequency synthesizers contain advanced MMIC VCOs, which use HBT technology and have lower levels of flicker (1/f) phase noise. When these MMIC VCOs are used with high-speed MMIC frequency dividers, it becomes possible to obtain the required combination of frequency agility and low phase noise.

  9. Digital Frequency Synthesizer For Radar Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadr, Ramin; Satorius, Edgar; Robinett, J. Loris, Jr.; Olson, Erlend

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses conceptual digital frequency synthesizer part of programmable local oscillator in radar-astronomy system. Phase must remain continuous during adjustments of frequency, phase noise must be low, and spectral purity must be high. Discusses theory of operation in some mathematical detail and presents new analysis of spectral purity of output.

  10. Frequency noise in frequency swept fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2013-04-01

    This Letter presents a measurement of the spectral content of frequency shifted pulses generated by a lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper. We found that each pulse is shifted in frequency with very high accuracy. We also discovered that noise originating from light leaking through the acousto- optical modulators and forward propagating Brillouin scattering appear in the spectrum. PMID:23546253

  11. Digital frequency synthesizer for radar astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadr, R.; Satorius, E.; Robinett, L.; Olson, E.

    1990-01-01

    The digital frequency synthesizer (DFS) is an integral part of the programmable local oscillator (PLO) which is being developed for the NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) and radar astronomy. Here, the theory of operation and the design of the DFS are discussed, and the design parameters in application for the Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) are specified. The spectral purity of the DFS is evaluated by analytically evaluating the output spectrum of the DFS. A novel architecture is proposed for the design of the DFS with a frequency resolution of 1/2(exp 48) of the clock frequency (0.35 mu Hz at 100 MHz), a phase resolution of 0.0056 degrees (16 bits), and a frequency spur attenuation of -96 dBc.

  12. A standard frequency synthesizer using TV line synchronization signal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yan; Liang, Shuangyou

    1999-06-01

    A new standard frequency synthesizer is described. The device extracts line synchronization signal (15.625 kHz) from CCTV signal, then synchronizes another 15.625 kHz signal which is obtained from the 10 MHz VCO with temperature compensation. The synchronization is implemented by a phase-locked loop, the phase difference between these two 15.625 kHz signals is converted to voltage signal for adjusting the output frequency of VCO. So, the standard frequency at any frequency bands can be obtained from the output of controlled VCO.

  13. A Novel Synthesizing Genetic Logic Circuit: Frequency Multiplier.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Chia-Hua; Lin, Chun-Liang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel synthesizing genetic logic circuit design based on an existing synthetic genetic oscillator, which provides a function of frequency multiplier to synthesize a clock signal whose frequency is a multiple of that of the genetic oscillator. In the renowned literature, the synthetic genetic oscillator, known as a repressilator, has been successfully built in Escherichia coli to generate a periodic oscillating phenomenon through three repressive genes repress each other in a chain. On the basis of this fact, our proposed genetic frequency multiplier circuit utilizes genetic Buffers in series with a waveform-shaping circuit to reshape the genetic oscillation signal into a crisp logic clock signal. By regulating different threshold levels in the Buffer, the time length of logic high/low levels in a fundamental sinusoidal wave can be engineered to pulse-width-modulated (PWM) signals with various duty cycles. Integrating some of genetic logic XOR gates and PWM signals from the output of the Buffers, a genetic frequency multiplier circuit can be created and the clock signal with the integer-fold of frequency of the genetic oscillator is generated. The synthesized signal can be used in triggering the downstream digital genetic logic circuits. Simulation results show the applicability of the proposed idea. PMID:26356341

  14. Design of a W-band Stepped-frequency Synthesizer with Fast Frequency Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao; Tang, Xiaohong; Xiao, Fei

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, a W-band coherent stepped-frequency synthesizer is proposed, which provides transmitter and local oscillator signals to a high range resolution radar system. This synthesizer is realized by combining the technique of direct digital synthesizer, phase lock loop, up-conversion and multiplier chain, etc. In order to shorten the lock time of the phase lock loop, a new method is introduced in the design of this synthesizer. Measurement results show that the transmitting signal is around 94 GHz, the bandwidth is 504 MHz, the phase noise is about -90 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset, and the spurious signals are less than -55 dBc. Especially, the frequency switching time of this synthesizer is about 1 μs. With the W-band stepped-frequency synthesizer, the range resolution of the high range resolution radar system is better than 0.6 m.

  15. Large-scale planar lightwave circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidnyk, Serge; Zhang, Hua; Pearson, Matt; Balakrishnan, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    By leveraging advanced wafer processing and flip-chip bonding techniques, we have succeeded in hybrid integrating a myriad of active optical components, including photodetectors and laser diodes, with our planar lightwave circuit (PLC) platform. We have combined hybrid integration of active components with monolithic integration of other critical functions, such as diffraction gratings, on-chip mirrors, mode-converters, and thermo-optic elements. Further process development has led to the integration of polarization controlling functionality. Most recently, all these technological advancements have been combined to create large-scale planar lightwave circuits that comprise hundreds of optical elements integrated on chips less than a square inch in size.

  16. A comparison of lightwave, microwave, and coaxial transmission technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. R.

    1982-10-01

    The relative performance, complexity, and cost for three digital transmission technologies - microwave, coaxial, and lightwave - are compared from the point of view of the lightwave technologist. It is found that lightwave systems are inherently noisier than the others. However, its bandwidth advantage can be exploited through bandwidth expansion techniques to overcome the noise disadvantage. It is further found that lightwave systems are potentially less complex than their radio and wireline counterparts given the advancement expected in the near future. Lastly, it is found that present-day lightwave systems can be less costly than the other technologies. Furthermore, it is found that anticipated near-term improvements to the technology will make lightwave systems even more attractive from the cost point of view. It is concluded that digital lightwave and microwave systems will continue to grow in usage - each has its own unique advantages relative to the other - and that digital coaxial systems will decline in usage.

  17. A wide range sigma—delta fractional-N frequency synthesizer with adaptive frequency calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianjun, Wei; Hanjun, Jiang; Lingwei, Zhang; Jingjing, Dong; Fule, Li; Zhihua, Wang; Chun, Zhang

    2013-06-01

    A wide range fractional-N frequency synthesizer in 0.18 μm RF CMOS technology is implemented. A switched-capacitors bank LC-tank VCO and an adaptive frequency calibration technique are used to expand the frequency range. A 16-bit third-order sigma—delta modulator with dither is used to randomize the fractional spur. The active area is 0.6 mm2. The experimental results show the proposed frequency synthesizer consumes 4.3 mA from a single 1.8 V supply voltage except for buffers. The frequency range is 1.44-2.11 GHz and the frequency resolution is less than 0.4 kHz. The phase noise is -94 dBc/Hz @ 100 kHz and -121 dBc/Hz @ 1 MHz at the output of the prescaler with a loop bandwidth of approximately 120 kHz. The performance meets the requirements for the multi-band and multi-mode transceiver applications.

  18. Allan deviation computations of a linear frequency synthesizer system using frequency domain techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Andy

    1995-01-01

    Allan Deviation computations of linear frequency synthesizer systems have been reported previously using real-time simulations. Even though it takes less time compared with the actual measurement, it is still very time consuming to compute the Allan Deviation for long sample times with the desired confidence level. Also noises, such as flicker phase noise and flicker frequency noise, can not be simulated precisely. The use of frequency domain techniques can overcome these drawbacks. In this paper the system error model of a fictitious linear frequency synthesizer is developed and its performance using a Cesium (Cs) atomic frequency standard (AFS) as a reference is evaluated using frequency domain techniques. For a linear timing system, the power spectral density at the system output can be computed with known system transfer functions and known power spectral densities from the input noise sources. The resulting power spectral density can then be used to compute the Allan Variance at the system output. Sensitivities of the Allan Variance at the system output to each of its independent input noises are obtained, and they are valuable for design trade-off and trouble-shooting.

  19. Coherent lightwave communications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Boston, MA, Sept. 7, 8, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunak, Harish R. D. (Editor); Steele, Roger C. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on coherent lightwave communications are presented. Individual topics addressed include: overview of coherent light wave communications, frequency stabilization techniques for coherent lightwave systems, characterization of laser diode intensity noise at microwave frequencies with high sensitivity, FP and DFB semiconductor lasers with arbitrary external optical feedback, birefringence-controlled phase-shifter, polarization diversity and scrambling techniques for coherent systems, polarization control scheme for coherent optical systems, simulation of IF filtering effects on the performance of coherent optical receivers. Also discussed are: performance of optical DPSK receivers in the presence of optical channel noise, optical heterodyne communications with polarization modulation, coherent fiber optical subcarrier multiplexed system, engineered rack-mounted coherent transmission system, technology aspects of a coherent optical MAN, broadband exchange by coherent multicarrier switching, generalized temporal CDMA for optical communications. Overviews are given of recent progress at individual companies.

  20. Possible applications of atomic frequency standards with an internal high resolution digital synthesizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detoma, E.; Stern, A.

    1993-06-01

    The applications of Atomic Frequency Standards with an internal synthesizer (thereafter referred as 'Synthesized Frequency Standards or Oscillators') with a special emphasis on the Rb oscillator are reviewed. A fractional frequency synthesizer, developed by SEPA, was incorporated in the Frequency Locked Loop of a TFL Rubidium Frequency Standard. This combination allows a frequency settability in steps of 1.5 x 10(exp -12) (optional 1 x 10(exp -13) over a range of 6 x 10(exp -9) without having to resort to change the C-field to tune the output frequency of the device. This capability, coupled to the excellent short term stability of the Rb frequency standard, opens new possibilities for time and frequency users in the various fields (time metrology, navigation, communication, etc.) in which stable frequency standards find their application.

  1. Possible applications of atomic frequency standards with an internal high resolution digital synthesizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Detoma, E.; Stern, A.

    1993-01-01

    The applications of Atomic Frequency Standards with an internal synthesizer (thereafter referred as 'Synthesized Frequency Standards or Oscillators') with a special emphasis on the Rb oscillator are reviewed. A fractional frequency synthesizer, developed by SEPA, was incorporated in the Frequency Locked Loop of a TFL Rubidium Frequency Standard. This combination allows a frequency settability in steps of 1.5 x 10(exp -12) (optional 1 x 10(exp -13) over a range of 6 x 10(exp -9) without having to resort to change the C-field to tune the output frequency of the device. This capability, coupled to the excellent short term stability of the Rb frequency standard, opens new possibilities for time and frequency users in the various fields (time metrology, navigation, communication, etc.) in which stable frequency standards find their application.

  2. Low-latency digital frequency synthesizer using the residue number system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chren, William A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A low-latency frequency synthesizer using the Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) technique has been designed. Called the Residue Assisted Frequency Synthesizer (RAFS), it exhibits frequency switching times which are reduced by more than 50 percent below previously published designs. The switching speed advantage is made possible by the use of the Residue Number System, which allows the pipeline lengths in the Phase Accumulator and other circuitry to be reduced significantly.

  3. Precise laser frequency scanning using frequency-synthesized optical frequency sidebands - Application to isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayman, M. D.; Aminoff, C. G.; Hall, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    Based on an efficient broadband electrooptic modulator producing RF optical sidebands locked to a stable cavity, a tunable dye laser can be scanned under computer control with frequency-synthesizer precision. Cavity drift is suppressed in software by using a strong feature in the spectrum for stabilization. Mercury isotope shifts are measured with a reproducibility of about 50 kHz. This accuracy of about 1/300 of the linewidth illustrates the power of the technique. Derived hyperfine-structure constants are compared with previous atomic-beam data.

  4. A full-duplex CATV/wireless-over-fiber lightwave transmission system.

    PubMed

    Li, Chung-Yi; Lu, Hai-Han; Ying, Cheng-Ling; Cheng, Chun-Jen; Lin, Che-Yu; Wan, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Jian-Hua

    2015-04-01

    A full-duplex CATV/wireless-over-fiber lightwave transmission system consisting of one broadband light source (BLS), two optical interleavers (ILs), one intensity modulator, and one phase modulator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The downstream light is optically promoted from 10Gbps/25GHz microwave (MW) data signal to 10Gbps/100GHz and 10Gbps/50GHz millimeter-wave (MMW) data signals in fiber-wireless convergence, and intensity-modulated with 50-550 MHz CATV signal. For up-link transmission, the downstream light is phase-remodulated with 10Gbps/25GHz MW data signal in fiber-wireless convergence. Over a 40-km single-mode fiber (SMF) and a 10-m radio frequency (RF) wireless transport, bit error rate (BER), carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), composite second-order (CSO), and composite triple-beat (CTB) are observed to perform well in such full-duplex CATV/wireless-over-fiber lightwave transmission systems. This full-duplex 100-GHz/50-GHz/25-GHz/550-MHz lightwave transmission system is an attractive alternative. This transmission system not only presents its advancement in the integration of fiber backbone and CATV/wireless feeder networks, but also it provides the advantages of a communication channel for higher data rates and bandwidth. PMID:25968756

  5. Multi-Tone Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizer for Atmospheric Propagation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results of a multi-tone millimeter-wave frequency synthesizer, based on a solid-state frequency comb generator. The intended application of the synthesizer is in a space-borne transmitter for radio wave atmospheric studies at Q-band (37-43 GHz). These studies would enable the design of robust high data rate space-to-ground satellite communication links.

  6. Multi-Tone Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizer for Atmospheric Propagation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2014-01-01

    The design and test results of a multi-tone millimeter-wave frequency synthesizer, based on a solid-state frequency comb generator is presented. The intended applications of the synthesizer is in a space-borne transmitter for radio wave atmospheric studies at Q-band (37 to 43 GHz). These studies would enable the design of robust high data rate space-to-ground satellite communication links.

  7. Multi-Tone Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizer for Atmospheric Propagation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results of a multi-tone millimeter-wave frequency synthesizer, based on a solid-state frequency comb generator. The intended application of the synthesizer is in a space-borne transmitter for radio wave atmospheric studies at Q-band (37 to 43 GHz). These studies would enable the design of robust high data rate space-to-ground satellite communication links.

  8. A power scalable PLL frequency synthesizer for high-speed Δ—Σ ADC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siyang, Han; Baoyong, Chi; Xinwang, Zhang; Zhihua, Wang

    2014-08-01

    A 35-130 MHz/300-360 MHz phase-locked loop frequency synthesizer for Δ—Σ analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in 65 nm CMOS is presented. The frequency synthesizer can work in low phase-noise mode (300-360 MHz) or in low-power mode (35-130 MHz) to satisfy the ADC's requirements. To switch between these two modes, a high frequency GHz LC VCO followed by a divided-by-four frequency divider and a low frequency ring VCO followed by a divided-by-two frequency divider are integrated on-chip. The measured results show that the frequency synthesizer achieves a phase-noise of -132 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset and an integrated RMS jitter of 1.12 ps with 1.74 mW power consumption from a 1.2 V power supply in low phase-noise mode. In low-power mode, the frequency synthesizer achieves a phase-noise of -112 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset and an integrated RMS jitter of 7.23 ps with 0.92 mW power consumption from a 1.2 V power supply.

  9. Low power fast settling multi-standard current reusing CMOS fractional-N frequency synthesizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenfeng, Lou; Peng, Feng; Haiyong, Wang; Nanjian, Wu

    2012-04-01

    A low power fast settling multi-standard CMOS fractional-N frequency synthesizer is proposed. The current reusing and frequency presetting techniques are adopted to realize the low power fast settling multi-standard fractional-N frequency synthesizer. An auxiliary non-volatile memory (NVM) is embedded to avoid the repetitive calibration process and to save power in practical application. This PLL is implemented in a 0.18 μm technology. The frequency range is 0.3 to 2.54 GHz and the settling time is less than 5 μs over the entire frequency range. The LC-VCO with the stacked divide-by-2 has a good figure of merit of -193.5 dBc/Hz. The measured phase noise of frequency synthesizer is about -115 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset when the carrier frequency is 2.4 GHz and the reference spurs are less than -52 dBc. The whole frequency synthesizer consumes only 4.35 mA @ 1.8 V.

  10. Impact Of Redundancy On Undersea Lightwave Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, S. Theodore

    1990-01-01

    Undersea lightwave systems represent a fascinating and challenging application of photonics engineering. Economy, transmission quality and long-term reliability are the hallmarks of these new systems. The optical fiber medium offers very high channel capacity for voice and all other digitally encoded signals. The high capacity results in low cost per channel. Concerning transmission quality, today digital transmission on undersea cables carries signals halfway round the world with quiet, virtually error - free performance. Furthermore, the short, direct path of the undersea route minimizes signal delay, making a significant contribution to customer satisfaction with voice, data, video conferencing, and other interactive services. We needed to achieve these important advances in economy and quality of transmission, and yet deliver systems with the traditional 25 year life and high reliability. This was the dilemma, to achieve extraordinarily high reliability with technologies which lacked extensive high-reliability background. Redundancy in several forms allowed us to introduce this advanced technology with high confidence of meeting the goal of 25 years of reliable system service. Following some historical notes on undersea cables, we describe the forms and levels of redundancy used in AT&T's SL Undersea cable systems. We then indicate how redundancy was implemented and it's impact on system reliability. Finally, we do a bit of crystal gazing concerning redundancy and reliability in the rapidly evolving optical undersea cable network.

  11. Low noise frequency synthesizer with self-calibrated voltage controlled oscillator and accurate AFC algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Qin; Jinbo, Li; Jian, Kang; Xiaoyong, Li; Jianjun, Zhou

    2014-09-01

    A low noise phase locked loop (PLL) frequency synthesizer implemented in 65 nm CMOS technology is introduced. A VCO noise reduction method suited for short channel design is proposed to minimize PLL output phase noise. A self-calibrated voltage controlled oscillator is proposed in cooperation with the automatic frequency calibration circuit, whose accurate binary search algorithm helps reduce the VCO tuning curve coverage, which reduces the VCO noise contribution at PLL output phase noise. A low noise, charge pump is also introduced to extend the tuning voltage range of the proposed VCO, which further reduces its phase noise contribution. The frequency synthesizer generates 9.75-11.5 GHz high frequency wide band local oscillator (LO) carriers. Tested 11.5 GHz LO bears a phase noise of-104 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz frequency offset. The total power dissipation of the proposed frequency synthesizer is 48 mW. The area of the proposed frequency synthesizer is 0.3 mm2, including bias circuits and buffers.

  12. A fractional-N frequency synthesizer for wireless sensor network nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ma; Zhankun, Du; Chang, Liu; Ke, Liu; Yuepeng, Yan; Tianchun, Ye

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a fractional-N frequency synthesizer for wireless sensor network (WSN) nodes. The proposed frequency synthesizer adopts a phase locked loop (PLL) based structure, which employs an LC voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) with small VCO gain (KVCO) and frequency step (fstep) variations, a charge pump (CP) with current changing in proportion with the division ratio and a 20-bit ΔΣ modulator, etc. To realize constant KVCO and fstep, a novel capacitor sub-bands grouping method is proposed. The VCO sub-groups' sizes are arranged according to the maximal allowed KVCO variation of the system. Besides, a current mode logic divide-by-2 circuit with inside-loop buffers ensures the synthesizer generates I/Q quadrature signals robustly. This synthesizer is implemented in a 0.13 μm CMOS process. Measurement results show that the frequency synthesizer has a frequency span from 2.07 to 3.11 GHz and the typical phase noise is -86.34 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz offset and -114.17 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset with a loop bandwidth of about 200 kHz, which meet the WSN nodes' requirements.

  13. Low-phase-noise frequency synthesizer for the trapped atom clock on a chip.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Martinez, Fernando; Lours, Michel; Rosenbusch, Peter; Reinhard, Friedemann; Reichel, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We report on the realization of a 6.834-GHz synthesis chain for the trapped atom clock on a chip (TACC) that is being developed at LNE-SYRTE. The chain is based on the frequency multiplication of a 100-MHz reference signal to obtain a signal at 6.4 GHz. It uses a comb generator based on a monolithic GaAs nonlinear transmission line. This is a novelty in the fabrication of high-stability microwave synthesizers. Measurements give a low flicker phase noise of -85 dBrad(2)/Hz at 1-Hz offset frequency and a white phase noise floor < -115 dBrad(2)/Hz. Based on these results, we estimate that the performance of the synthesizer is at least one order of magnitude better than the stability goal of TACC. This ensures that the synthesizer will not be limiting the clock performance. PMID:20040431

  14. Multi-Band Multi-Tone Tunable Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizer For Satellite Beacon Transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results of a multi-band multi-tone tunable millimeter-wave frequency synthesizer, based on a solid-state frequency comb generator. The intended application of the synthesizer is in a satellite beacon transmitter for radio wave propagation studies at K-band (18 to 26.5 GHz), Q-band (37 to 42 GHz), and E-band (71 to 76 GHz). In addition, the architecture for a compact beacon transmitter, which includes the multi-tone synthesizer, polarizer, horn antenna, and power/control electronics, has been investigated for a notional space-to-ground radio wave propagation experiment payload on a small satellite. The above studies would enable the design of robust high throughput multi-Gbps data rate future space-to-ground satellite communication links.

  15. Design of a 2.4-GHz CMOS monolithic fractional-N frequency synthesizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Keliu

    The wireless communication technology and market have been growing rapidly since a decade ago. The high demand market is a driving need for higher integration in the wireless transceivers. The trend is to achieve low-cost, small form factor and low power consumption. With the ever-reducing feature size, it is becoming feasible to integrate the RF front-end together with the baseband in the low-cost CMOS technology. The frequency synthesizer is a key building block in the RF front-end of the transceivers. It is used as a local oscillator for frequency translation and channel selection. The design of a 2.4-GHz low-power frequency synthesizer in 0.35mum CMOS is a challenging task mainly due to the high-speed prescaler. In this dissertation, a brief review of conventional PLL and frequency synthesizers is provided. Design techniques of a 2.4-GHz monolithic SigmaDelta fractional-N frequency synthesizer are investigated. Novel techniques are proposed to tackle the speed and integration bottlenecks of high-frequency PLL. A low-power and inherently glitch-free phase-switching prescaler and an on-chip loop filter with capacitance multiplier are developed. Compared with the existing and popular dual-path topology, the proposed loop filter reduces circuit complexity and its power consumption and noise are negligible. Furthermore, a third-order three-level digital SigmaDelta modulator topology is employed to reduce the phase noise generated by the modulator. Suitable PFD and charge-pump designs are employed to reduce their nonlinearity effects and thus minimize the folding of the SigmaDelta modulator-shaped phase noise. A prototype of the fractional-N synthesizer together with some standalone building blocks is designed and fabricated in TSMC 0.35mum CMOS through MOSIS. The prototype frequency synthesizer and standalone prescaler and loop filter are characterized. The feasibility and practicality of the proposed prescaler and loop filter are experimentally verified.

  16. A fully-differential phase-locked loop frequency synthesizer for 60-GHz wireless communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lixue, Kuang; Baoyong, Chi; Lei, Chen; Wen, Jia; Zhihua, Wang

    2014-12-01

    A 40-GHz phase-locked loop (PLL) frequency synthesizer for 60-GHz wireless communication applications is presented. The electrical characteristics of the passive components in the VCO and LO buffers are accurately extracted with an electromagnetic simulator HFSS. A differential tuning technique is utilized in the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) to achieve higher common-mode noise rejection and better phase noise performance. The VCO and the divider chain are powered by a 1.0 V supply while the phase-frequency detector (PFD) and the charge pump (CP) are powered by a 2.5 V supply to improve the linearity. The measurement results show that the total frequency locking range of the frequency synthesizer is from 37 to 41 GHz, and the phase noise from a 40 GHz carrier is -97.2 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset. Implemented in 65 nm CMOS, the synthesizer consumes a DC power of 62 mW, including all the buffers.

  17. Synthesizing primary molecular relaxation processes in excitable gases using a two-frequency reconstructive algorithm.

    PubMed

    Petculescu, Andi G; Lueptow, Richard M

    2005-06-17

    Identifying molecular relaxation processes in excitable gases remains challenging. An algorithm that reconstructs the primary relaxation processes is presented. Based on measurements of acoustic attenuation and sound speed at two frequencies, it synthesizes the entire frequency dependence of the complex effective specific heat of the gas, which is the macroscopic "footprint" of relaxation effects. The algorithm is based on the fact that for a simple relaxation process, such as occurs in many polyatomic gases at temperatures around 300 K, the effective specific heat traces a semicircle in the complex plane as a function of frequency. Knowing the high-frequency or instantaneous value of the specific heat provides the capability to not only sense the presence, but also infer the nature and, for mixtures of unlike-symmetry molecules, the concentration of foreign molecules leaking in a host gas. PMID:16090508

  18. Note: Directly measuring the direct digital synthesizer frequency chirp-rate for an atom interferometer.

    PubMed

    Tao, Juan-Juan; Zhou, Min-Kang; Zhang, Qiao-Zhen; Cui, Jia-Feng; Duan, Xiao-Chun; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Hu, Zhong-Kun

    2015-09-01

    During gravity measurements with Raman type atom interferometry, the frequency of the laser used to drive Raman transition is scanned by chirping the frequency of a direct digital synthesizer (DDS), and the local gravity is determined by precisely measuring the chip rate α of DDS. We present an effective method that can directly evaluate the frequency chirp rate stability of our DDS. By mixing a pair of synchronous linear sweeping signals, the chirp rate fluctuation is precisely measured with a frequency counter. The measurement result shows that the relative α instability can reach 5.7 × 10(-11) in 1 s, which is neglectable in a 10(-9) g level atom interferometry gravimeter. PMID:26429495

  19. Note: Directly measuring the direct digital synthesizer frequency chirp-rate for an atom interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Juan-Juan; Zhou, Min-Kang E-mail: zmk@hust.edu.cn; Zhang, Qiao-Zhen; Cui, Jia-Feng; Duan, Xiao-Chun; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Hu, Zhong-Kun E-mail: zmk@hust.edu.cn

    2015-09-15

    During gravity measurements with Raman type atom interferometry, the frequency of the laser used to drive Raman transition is scanned by chirping the frequency of a direct digital synthesizer (DDS), and the local gravity is determined by precisely measuring the chip rate α of DDS. We present an effective method that can directly evaluate the frequency chirp rate stability of our DDS. By mixing a pair of synchronous linear sweeping signals, the chirp rate fluctuation is precisely measured with a frequency counter. The measurement result shows that the relative α instability can reach 5.7 × 10{sup −11} in 1 s, which is neglectable in a 10{sup −9} g level atom interferometry gravimeter.

  20. A high-performance MUX-direct digital frequency synthesizer with quarter ROMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhikun, Hao; Qiang, Zhang; Weining, Ni; Yin, Shi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of a high-performance direct digital frequency synthesizer (DDFS) using optimized quarter ROMs. To improve the working frequency and spectral purity, an original quarter ROMs structure in 0.13 μm CMOS is brought forward and implemented. The working frequency is increased by 40% compared with Yuan Ling's method[1] of implementing a segmented DAC based DDFS. It has been implemented in 0.13 μm CMOS technology. The DDFS has a resolution of 10 bits with a measured SFDR 54 dBc. Its maximum operating frequency is 1.2 GHz by using six pipelining stages. Analytical investigation of improving spectral performances by using dual-slope approximation and pipeline is also presented.

  1. A wideband frequency synthesizer with VCO and AFC co-design for fast calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liheng, Lou; Lingling, Sun; Haijun, Gao; Haiting, Zhan

    2013-01-01

    A wideband fractional-N frequency synthesizer is implemented in a 65 nm CMOS process. It employs a wideband LC voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) with optimized VCO gain (KVCO) and a sub-band step to improve automatic frequency calibration (AFC) efficiency at negligible expense of phase noise performance. An agile AFC is realized by direct mapping based on the division ratio, and optional redundant counting and comparing calibration is introduced accommodating PVT variations, which samples the reference clock using the prescaled VCO output as a discriminating clock. A charge pump with switched charging current is adopted to compensate for the loop bandwidth variation. Measurement results show this directly-mapped AFC locates the target sub-band in 100 ns and only needs 1.2 μs for redundant calibration. The frequency synthesizer spans a frequency range from 0.62 to 1.52 GHz, with phase noise of -86 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset and -122 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset while consuming 9.76 mA from a 1.2 V supply.

  2. A ROM-Less Direct Digital Frequency Synthesizer Based on Hybrid Polynomial Approximation

    PubMed Central

    Omran, Qahtan Khalaf; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Misran, Norbahiah; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel design approach for a phase to sinusoid amplitude converter (PSAC) has been investigated. Two segments have been used to approximate the first sine quadrant. A first linear segment is used to fit the region near the zero point, while a second fourth-order parabolic segment is used to approximate the rest of the sine curve. The phase sample, where the polynomial changed, was chosen in such a way as to achieve the maximum spurious free dynamic range (SFDR). The invented direct digital frequency synthesizer (DDFS) has been encoded in VHDL and post simulation was carried out. The synthesized architecture exhibits a promising result of 90 dBc SFDR. The targeted structure is expected to show advantages for perceptible reduction of hardware resources and power consumption as well as high clock speeds. PMID:24892092

  3. A ROM-less direct digital frequency synthesizer based on hybrid polynomial approximation.

    PubMed

    Omran, Qahtan Khalaf; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Misran, Norbahiah; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel design approach for a phase to sinusoid amplitude converter (PSAC) has been investigated. Two segments have been used to approximate the first sine quadrant. A first linear segment is used to fit the region near the zero point, while a second fourth-order parabolic segment is used to approximate the rest of the sine curve. The phase sample, where the polynomial changed, was chosen in such a way as to achieve the maximum spurious free dynamic range (SFDR). The invented direct digital frequency synthesizer (DDFS) has been encoded in VHDL and post simulation was carried out. The synthesized architecture exhibits a promising result of 90 dBc SFDR. The targeted structure is expected to show advantages for perceptible reduction of hardware resources and power consumption as well as high clock speeds. PMID:24892092

  4. A WDM-OFDM-PON architecture with centralized lightwave and PolSK-modulated multicast overlay.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Xin, Xiangjun; Zhang, Lijia; Yu, Jianjun; Zhang, Qi; Yu, Chongxiu

    2010-02-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel wavelength-division-multiplexing orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing passive-optical-network (WDM-OFDM-PON) architecture with centralized lightwave sources and polarization shift keying (PolSK) multicast overlay. The 10-Gb/s 16QAM-OFDM point to point (P2P) signal, 2.5-Gb/s multicast PolSK signal and 2.5-Gb/s on-off keying (OOK) upstream signal are experimentally demonstrated. After transmission over 25km standard single mode fiber (SMF), 1.5dB crosstalk between the downstream signals is eliminated by employing a low pass electrical filter at the PolSK receiver. The power penalty of the upstream OOK signal at BER of 10(-9) is less than 0.1dB. PMID:20174042

  5. a Thz Photomixing Synthesizer Based on a Fiber Frequency Comb for High Resolution Rotational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gael; Cuisset, Arnaud; Yang, Chun; Eliet, Sophie; Bocquet, Robin

    2010-06-01

    To date the principal application for photomixing sources has been for high resolution spectroscopy of gases due to the large tuning range and spectral purity. New Developments of the Opto-Electronic THz Spectrometer have been performed in order to obtain a powerful tool for High-Resolution Spectroscopy. The combination of two extended cavity laser diodes and fast charge carrier lifetime semiconductor materials has allowed a continuous-wave THz spectrometer to be constructed based on optical heterodyning. Unlike many THz sources, this instrument gives access to all frequencies in the range 0.3 to 3.5 THz with a resolution of 1 MHz. The main spectroscopic applications of this spectrometer were dedicated to line profile analysis of rotational transitions referenced in the spectroscopic databases. One limitation of the THz spectrometer was accuracy with which the generated frequency is known. Recently, this obstacle has been circled with the construction of a photomixing spectrometer where the two pump lasers are phase locked to two modes of a repetition rate stabilized frequency doubled fiber laser frequency comb. In order to achieve a tuning range in excess to 100 MHz a third cw laser was required in the new configuration of the THz spectrometer. To assess the performances of this instrument, the frequencies of the pure rotational transitions of OCS molecules have been measured between 0,8 to 1,2 THz. A rms inferior to 100 kHz, deduced from the frequencies measured, demonstrates that the THz photomixing synthesizer is now able to be competitive with microwave and submillimeter techniques. S. Matton, F. Rohart, R. Bocquet, D. Bigourd, A. Cuisset, F. Hindle, G. Mouret, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 2006, 239: 182. C. Yang, J. Buldyreva, I. E. Gordon, F. Rohart, A. Cuisset, G. Mouret, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 2008, 109: 2857. G. Mouret, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, C. Yang, R. Bocquet, M. Lours, D. Rovera, Opt. Express, 2009, 17: 22031.

  6. Microphotonic devices for compact planar lightwave circuits and sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas Gonzalez, Jaime

    2005-07-01

    Higher levels of integration in planar lightwave circuits and sensor systems can reduce fabrication costs and broaden viable applications for optical network and sensor systems. For example, increased integration and functionality can lead to sensor systems that are compact enough for easy transport, rugged enough for field applications, and sensitive enough even for laboratory applications. On the other hand, more functional and compact planar lightwave circuits can make optical networks components less expensive for the metro and access markets in urban areas and allow penetration of fiber to the home. Thus, there is an important area of opportunity for increased integration to provide low cost, compact solutions in both network components and sensor systems. In this dissertation, a novel splitting structure for microcantilever deflection detection is introduced. The splitting structure is designed so that its splitting ratio is dependent on the vertical position of the microcantilever. With this structure, microcantilevers sensitized to detect different analytes or biological agents can be integrated into an array on a single chip. Additionally, the integration of a depolarizer into the optoelectronic integrated circuit in an interferometric fiber optic gyroscope is presented as a means for cost reduction. The savings come in avoiding labor intensive fiber pigtailing steps by permitting batch fabrication of these components. In particular, this dissertation focuses on the design of the waveguides and polarization rotator, and the impact of imperfect components on the performance of the depolarizer. In the area of planar lightwave circuits, this dissertation presents the development of a fabrication process for single air interface bends (SAIBs). SAIBs can increase integration by reducing the area necessary to make a waveguide bend. Fabrication and measurement of a 45° SAIB with a bend efficiency of 93.4% for TM polarization and 92.7% for TE polarization are

  7. A high speed direct digital frequency synthesizer based on multi-channel structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Yuan; Qiang, Zhang; Yin, Shi

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a direct digital frequency synthesizer (DDFS) for high speed application based on multi-channel structure. This DDFS has phase resolution of 32 bits and magnitude resolution of 12 bits. In order to ensure the high speed and high resolution at the same time, the multi-channel sampling technique is used and a 12 bits linear digital-to-analog converter is implemented. The chip is fabricated in TSMC 130 nm CMOS technology with active area of 0.89 × 0.98 mm2 and total power consumption of 300 mW at a single 1.2 V supply voltage. The maximum operating speed is up to 2.0 GHz at room temperature.

  8. Terahertz Frequency-Domain Spectroscopy of Low-Pressure Acetonitrile Gas by a Photomixing Terahertz Synthesizer Referenced to Dual Optical Frequency Combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Yi-Da; Kimura, Hiroto; Hayashi, Kenta; Minamikawa, Takeo; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Iwata, Tetsuo; Inaba, Hajime; Minoshima, Kaoru; Hindle, Francis; Yasui, Takeshi

    2016-05-01

    A terahertz (THz) frequency synthesizer based on photomixing of two near-infrared lasers with a sub-THz to THz frequency offset is a powerful tool for spectroscopy of polar gas molecules due to its broad spectral coverage; however, its frequency accuracy and resolution are relatively low. To tune the output frequency continuously and widely while maintaining its traceability to a frequency standard, we developed a photomixing THz synthesizer phase-locked to dual optical frequency combs (OFCs). While the phase-locking to dual OFCs ensured continuous tuning within a spectral range of 120 GHz, in addition to the traceability to the frequency standard, use of a broadband uni-traveling carrier photodiode for photomixing enabled the generation of CW-THz radiation within a frequency range from 0.2 to 1.5 THz. We demonstrated THz frequency-domain spectroscopy of gas-phase acetonitrile CH3CN and its isotope CH3 13CN in the frequency range of 0.600-0.720 THz using this THz synthesizer. Their rotational transitions were assigned with a frequency accuracy of 8.42 × 10-8 and a frequency resolution of 520 kHz. Furthermore, the concentration of the CH3CN gas at 20 Pa was determined to be (5.41 ± 0.05) × 1014 molecules/cm3 by curve fitting analysis of the measured absorbance spectrum, and the mixture ratio of the mixed CH3CN/CH3 13CN gas was determined to be 1:2.26 with a gas concentration of 1014-1015 molecules/cm3. The developed THz synthesizer is highly promising for high-precision THz-FDS of low-pressure molecular gases and will enable the qualitative and quantitative analyses of multiple gases.

  9. Terahertz Frequency-Domain Spectroscopy of Low-Pressure Acetonitrile Gas by a Photomixing Terahertz Synthesizer Referenced to Dual Optical Frequency Combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Yi-Da; Kimura, Hiroto; Hayashi, Kenta; Minamikawa, Takeo; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Iwata, Tetsuo; Inaba, Hajime; Minoshima, Kaoru; Hindle, Francis; Yasui, Takeshi

    2016-09-01

    A terahertz (THz) frequency synthesizer based on photomixing of two near-infrared lasers with a sub-THz to THz frequency offset is a powerful tool for spectroscopy of polar gas molecules due to its broad spectral coverage; however, its frequency accuracy and resolution are relatively low. To tune the output frequency continuously and widely while maintaining its traceability to a frequency standard, we developed a photomixing THz synthesizer phase-locked to dual optical frequency combs (OFCs). While the phase-locking to dual OFCs ensured continuous tuning within a spectral range of 120 GHz, in addition to the traceability to the frequency standard, use of a broadband uni-traveling carrier photodiode for photomixing enabled the generation of CW-THz radiation within a frequency range from 0.2 to 1.5 THz. We demonstrated THz frequency-domain spectroscopy of gas-phase acetonitrile CH3CN and its isotope CH3 13CN in the frequency range of 0.600-0.720 THz using this THz synthesizer. Their rotational transitions were assigned with a frequency accuracy of 8.42 × 10-8 and a frequency resolution of 520 kHz. Furthermore, the concentration of the CH3CN gas at 20 Pa was determined to be (5.41 ± 0.05) × 1014 molecules/cm3 by curve fitting analysis of the measured absorbance spectrum, and the mixture ratio of the mixed CH3CN/CH3 13CN gas was determined to be 1:2.26 with a gas concentration of 1014-1015 molecules/cm3. The developed THz synthesizer is highly promising for high-precision THz-FDS of low-pressure molecular gases and will enable the qualitative and quantitative analyses of multiple gases.

  10. A 55 nm CMOS ΔΣ fractional-N frequency synthesizer for WLAN transceivers with low noise filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingyi, Chen; Xiaojie, Chu; Peng, Yu; Jun, Yan; Yin, Shi

    2013-10-01

    A fully integrated ΔΣ fractional-N frequency synthesizer fabricated in a 55 nm CMOS technology is presented for the application of IEEE 802.11b/g wireless local area network (WLAN) transceivers. A low noise filter, occupying a small die area, whose power supply is given by a high PSRR and low noise LDO regulator, is integrated on chip. The proposed synthesizer needs no off-chip components and occupies an area of 0.72 mm2 excluding PAD. Measurement results show that in all channels, the phase noise of the synthesizer achieves -99 dBc/Hz and -119 dBc/Hz in band and out of band respectively with a reference frequency of 40 MHz and a loop bandwidth of 200 kHz. The integrated RMS phase error is no more than 0.6°. The proposed synthesizer consumes a total power of 15.6 mW.

  11. Low power low phase noise phase locked loop frequency synthesizer with fast locking mode for 2.4 GHz applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Feng, Peng; Liu, Liyuan; Wu, Nanjian

    2014-01-01

    We designed a low power low phase noise phase locked loop (PLL) frequency synthesizer for 2.4 GHz wireless communication applications. Current reusing technique and triple-well NMOS transistors are applied to reduce power consumption and improve phase noise performance of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO), respectively. The synthesizer has a fast locking mode that uses frequency presetting technique to greatly shorten the locking time. The synthesizer was implemented in 0.18 µm CMOS process. The chip core area is 1.49 mm2. Measured results show that the output frequency tuning range is 2.16-2.55 GHz. The phase noise is -124.18 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz from a 2.4 GHz carrier. The power consumption is 4.98 mW and the locking time in fast locking mode is about 4 µs.

  12. A Monolithic Sub-sampling PLL based 6-18 GHz Frequency Synthesizer for C, X, Ku Band Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hanchao; Zhu, Ning; LI, Wei; Zhou, Zibo; Li, Ning; Ren, Junyan

    A monolithic frequency synthesizer with wide tuning range, low phase noise and spurs was realized in 0.13 μm CMOS technology. It consists of an analog PLL, a harmonic-rejection mixer and injection-locked frequency doublers to cover the whole 6-18 GHz frequency range. To achieve a low phase noise performance, a sub-sampling PLL with non-dividers was employed. The synthesizer can achieve phase noise -113.7 dBc/Hz@100 kHz in the best case and the reference spur is below -60 dBc. The core of the synthesizer consumes about 110 mA*1.2 V.

  13. A 4 GHz 32 bit direct digital frequency synthesizer based on a novel architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Wu; Jianwu, Chen; Danyu, Wu; Lei, Zhou; Fan, Jiang; Zhi, Jin; Xinyu, Liu

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a novel direct digital frequency synthesizer (DDFS) architecture based on nonlinear DAC coarse quantization and the ROM-based piecewise approximation method, which has the advantages of high speed, low power and low hardware resources. By subdividing the sinusoid into a collection of phase segments, the same initial value of each segment is realized by a nonlinear DAC. The ROM is decomposed with a coarse ROM and fine ROM using the piecewise approximation method. Then, the coarse ROM stores the offsets between the initial value of the common segment and the initial value of each line in the same segment. Meanwhile, the fine ROM stores the differences between the line values and the initial value of each line. A ROM compression ratio of 32 can be achieved in the case of 11 bit phase and 9 bit amplitude. Based on the above method, a prototype chip was fabricated using 1.4 μm GaAs HBT technology. The measurement shows an average spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) of 45 dBc, with the worst SFDR only 40.07 dBc at a 4.0 GHz clock. The chip area is 4.6 × 3.7 mm2 and it consumes 7 W from a -4.9 V power supply.

  14. A Direct Diode Laser System Using a Planar Lightwave Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Kazuo; Matsubara, Hiroyuki; Ichikawa, Tadashi; Maeda, Mitsutoshi; Ito, Hiroshi

    2008-08-01

    In this paper we propose a direct diode laser (DDL) system consisting of laser diode (LD) bars, a planar lightwave circuit (PLC), and an optical fiber. We have developed a PLC as an optical power combiner and an LD mounting technology that is suitable for coupling to the PLC. A DDL system is presented that consists of six LD-PLC optical modules for the laser-welding of highly heat-resistant plastics. The total output power is in the 200 W class, with a spot diameter of 5.52 mm for the major axis and 5.00 mm for the minor axis at a focal length of 50 mm. The total output efficiency is 60.9% from the laser diode to the welding torch.

  15. Hybrid CATV/MMW/BB lightwave transmission system based on fiber-wired/fiber-wireless/fiber-VLLC integrations.

    PubMed

    Li, Chung-Yi; Lu, Hai-Han; Lu, Ting-Chieh; Chu, Chien-An; Chen, Bo-Rui; Lin, Chun-Yu; Peng, Peng-Chun

    2015-12-14

    A hybrid lightwave transmission system for cable television (CATV)/millimeter-wave (MMW)/baseband (BB) signal transmission based on fiber-wired/fiber-wireless/fiber-visible laser light communication (VLLC) integrations is proposed and demonstrated. For down-link transmission, the light is intensity-modulated with 50-550 MHz CATV signal and optically promoted from 25 GHz radio frequency (RF) signal to 10 Gbps/50 GHz and 20 Gbps/100 GHz MMW data signals based on fiber-wired and fiber-wireless integrations. Good performances of carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR), composite second-order (CSO), composite triple-beat (CTB), and bit error rate (BER) are obtained over a 40-km single-mode fiber (SMF) and a 10-m RF wireless transport. For up-link transmission, the light is successfully intensity-remodulated with 5-Gbps BB data stream based on fiber-VLLC integration. Good BER performance is achieved over a 40-km SMF and a 10-m free-space VLLC transport. Such a hybrid CATV/MMW/BB lightwave transmission system is an attractive alternative, it gives the benefits of a communication link for broader bandwidth and higher transmission rate. PMID:26698972

  16. Hybrid planar lightwave circuits for defense and aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua; Bidnyk, Serge; Yang, Shiquan; Balakrishnan, Ashok; Pearson, Matt; O'Keefe, Sean

    2010-04-01

    We present innovations in Planar Lightwave Circuits (PLCs) that make them ideally suited for use in advanced defense and aerospace applications. We discuss PLCs that contain no micro-optic components, no moving parts, pose no spark or fire hazard, are extremely small and lightweight, and are capable of transporting and processing a range of optical signals with exceptionally high performance. This PLC platform is designed for on-chip integration of active components such as lasers and detectors, along with transimpedance amplifiers and other electronics. These active components are hybridly integrated with our silica-on-silicon PLCs using fully-automated robotics and image recognition technology. This PLC approach has been successfully applied to the design and fabrication of multi-channel transceivers for aerospace applications. The chips contain hybrid DFB lasers and high-efficiency detectors, each capable of running over 10 Gb/s, with mixed digital and analog traffic multiplexed to a single optical fiber. This highlyintegrated functionality is combined onto a silicon chip smaller than 4 x 10 mm, weighing < 5 grams. These chip-based transceivers have been measured to withstand harsh g-forces, including sinusoidal vibrations with amplitude of 20 g acceleration, followed by mechanical shock of 500 g acceleration. The components operate over a wide range of temperatures, with no device failures after extreme temperature cycling through a range of > 125 degC, and more than 2,000 hours operating at 95 degC ambient air temperature. We believe that these recent advancements in planar lightwave circuits are poised to revolutionize optical communications and interconnects in the aerospace and defense industries.

  17. Reconfigurable optical interleaver modules with tunable wavelength transfer matrix function using polymer photonics lightwave circuits.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changming; Niu, Xiaoyan; Han, Chao; Shi, Zuosen; Wang, Xinbin; Sun, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Fei; Cui, Zhanchen; Zhang, Daming

    2014-08-25

    A transparent reconfigurable optical interleaver module composed of cascaded AWGs-based wavelength-channel-selector/interleaver monolithically integrated with multimode interference (MMI) variable optical attenuators (VOAs) and Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) switch arrays was designed and fabricated using polymer photonic lightwave circuits. Highly fluorinated photopolymer and grafting modified organic-inorganic hybrid material were synthesized as the waveguide core and caldding, respectively. Thermo-optic (TO) tunable wavelength transfer matrix (WTM) function of the module can be achieved for optical routing network. The one-chip transmission loss is ~ 6 dB and crosstalk is less than ~25 dB for transverse-magnetic (TM) mode. The crosstalk and extinction ratio of the MMI VOAs were measured as -15.2 dB and 17.5 dB with driving current 8 mA, respectively. The modulation depth of the TO switches is obtained as ~18.2 dB with 2.2 V bias. Proposed novel interleaver module could be well suited for DWDM optical communication systems. PMID:25321200

  18. Distributed Bragg reflector laser for frequency modulated communication systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chraplyvy, A.R.; Koch, T.L.; Tkach, R.W.

    1990-02-27

    This patent describes a lightwave transmitter. It includes a distributed Bragg reflector laser and means for frequency modulating said laser. The laser comprises first and second semiconductor heterostructure regions.

  19. A 2-to-2.4-GHz differentially-tuned fractional-N frequency synthesizer for DVB tuner applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingbu, Meng; Lei, Lu; Wei, Zhao; Zhangwen, Tang

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes the design of a fractional-N frequency synthesizer for digital video broadcasting-terrestrial (DVB-T) receivers. Transfer functions in differentially-tuned PLL are derived and loop parameters are designed. In addition, a fully-differential charge pump is presented. An 8/9 high speed prescaler is analyzed and the design considerations for the CML logic are also presented. Test results show that the RMS phase error is less than 0.7° in integer-N mode and less than 1° in fractional-N mode. The implemented frequency synthesizer draws 10 mA from a 1.8-V supply while occupying a die area of about 1-mm2 in a 0.18-μm CMOS process.

  20. Lightwave-driven quasiparticle collisions on a subcycle timescale.

    PubMed

    Langer, F; Hohenleutner, M; Schmid, C P; Poellmann, C; Nagler, P; Korn, T; Schüller, C; Sherwin, M S; Huttner, U; Steiner, J T; Koch, S W; Kira, M; Huber, R

    2016-05-12

    Ever since Ernest Rutherford scattered α-particles from gold foils, collision experiments have revealed insights into atoms, nuclei and elementary particles. In solids, many-body correlations lead to characteristic resonances--called quasiparticles--such as excitons, dropletons, polarons and Cooper pairs. The structure and dynamics of quasiparticles are important because they define macroscopic phenomena such as Mott insulating states, spontaneous spin- and charge-order, and high-temperature superconductivity. However, the extremely short lifetimes of these entities make practical implementations of a suitable collider challenging. Here we exploit lightwave-driven charge transport, the foundation of attosecond science, to explore ultrafast quasiparticle collisions directly in the time domain: a femtosecond optical pulse creates excitonic electron-hole pairs in the layered dichalcogenide tungsten diselenide while a strong terahertz field accelerates and collides the electrons with the holes. The underlying dynamics of the wave packets, including collision, pair annihilation, quantum interference and dephasing, are detected as light emission in high-order spectral sidebands of the optical excitation. A full quantum theory explains our observations microscopically. This approach enables collision experiments with various complex quasiparticles and suggests a promising new way of generating sub-femtosecond pulses. PMID:27172045

  1. Lightwave-driven quasiparticle collisions on a subcycle timescale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, F.; Hohenleutner, M.; Schmid, C. P.; Poellmann, C.; Nagler, P.; Korn, T.; Schüller, C.; Sherwin, M. S.; Huttner, U.; Steiner, J. T.; Koch, S. W.; Kira, M.; Huber, R.

    2016-05-01

    Ever since Ernest Rutherford scattered α-particles from gold foils, collision experiments have revealed insights into atoms, nuclei and elementary particles. In solids, many-body correlations lead to characteristic resonances—called quasiparticles—such as excitons, dropletons, polarons and Cooper pairs. The structure and dynamics of quasiparticles are important because they define macroscopic phenomena such as Mott insulating states, spontaneous spin- and charge-order, and high-temperature superconductivity. However, the extremely short lifetimes of these entities make practical implementations of a suitable collider challenging. Here we exploit lightwave-driven charge transport, the foundation of attosecond science, to explore ultrafast quasiparticle collisions directly in the time domain: a femtosecond optical pulse creates excitonic electron–hole pairs in the layered dichalcogenide tungsten diselenide while a strong terahertz field accelerates and collides the electrons with the holes. The underlying dynamics of the wave packets, including collision, pair annihilation, quantum interference and dephasing, are detected as light emission in high-order spectral sidebands of the optical excitation. A full quantum theory explains our observations microscopically. This approach enables collision experiments with various complex quasiparticles and suggests a promising new way of generating sub-femtosecond pulses.

  2. A 0.8-4.2 GHz monolithic all-digital PLL based frequency synthesizer for wireless communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuanxin, Zhao; Yuanpei, Gao; Wei, Li; Ning, Li; Junyan, Ren

    2015-01-01

    A 0.8-4.2 GHz monolithic all-digital PLL based frequency synthesizer for wireless communications is successfully realized by the 130 nm CMOS process. A series of novel methods are proposed in this paper. Two band DCOs with high frequency resolution are utilized to cover the frequency band of interest, which is as wide as 2.5 to 5 GHz. An overflow counter is proposed to prevent the “pulse-swallowing” phenomenon so as to significantly reduce the locking time. A NTW-clamp digital module is also proposed to prevent the overflow of the loop control word. A modified programmable divider is presented to prevent the failure operation at the boundary. The measurement results show that the output frequency range of this frequency synthesizer is 0.8-4.2 GHz. The locking time achieves a reduction of 84% at 2.68 GHz. The best in-band and out-band phase noise performances have reached -100 dBc/Hz, and -125 dBc/Hz respectively. The lowest reference spur is -58 dBc.

  3. A 3 to 5 GHz low-phase-noise fractional-N frequency synthesizer with adaptive frequency calibration for GSM/PCS/DCS/WCDMA transceivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaohua, Pan; Niansong, Mei; Hu, Chen; Yumei, Huang; Zhiliang, Hong

    2012-01-01

    A low-phase-noise Σ—Δ fractional-N frequency synthesizer for GSM/PCS/DCS/WCDMA transceivers is presented. The voltage controlled oscillator is designed with a modified digital controlled capacitor array to extend the tuning range and minimize phase noise. A high-resolution adaptive frequency calibration technique is introduced to automatically choose frequency bands and increase phase-noise immunity. A prototype is implemented in 0.13 μm CMOS technology. The experimental results show that the designed 1.2 V wideband frequency synthesizer is locked from 3.05 to 5.17 GHz within 30 μs, which covers all five required frequency bands. The measured in-band phase noise are -89, -95.5 and -101 dBc/Hz for 3.8 GHz, 2 GHz and 948 MHz carriers, respectively, and accordingly the out-of-band phase noise are -121, -123 and -132 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset, which meet the phase-noise-mask requirements of the above-mentioned standards.

  4. A hybrid lightwave transport system based on a BLS with an OSNR enhancement scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Cheng-Ling; Lu, Hai-Han; Li, Chung-Yi; Lin, Chun-Yu; Wu, Chang-Jen; Lin, Hung-Hsien

    2016-04-01

    A hybrid lightwave transport system based on a broadband light source (BLS) with an optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) enhancement scheme for millimeter-wave (MMW)/radio-over-fiber (RoF)/cable television (CATV) signal transmission is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Unlike traditional hybrid lightwave transport systems for signal transmission, in which a transmitting site needs multiple wavelength-selected distributed feedback laser diodes (DFB LDs) to support various services, such proposed systems employ a phase modulator to provide multiple optical carriers for various applications. Over an 80 km single-mode fiber (SMF) transmission, the bit error rate (BER)/carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR)/composite second-order (CSO)/composite triple-beat (CTB) perform brilliantly for hybrid 100 GHz MMW/50 GHz MMW/10 GHz RoF/550 MHz CATV signal transmission. Such a hybrid lightwave transport system would be attractive for fiber trunk applications to provide broadband integrated services.

  5. Application of telecom planar lightwave circuits for homeland security sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldhuis, Gert J.; Elders, Job; van Weerden, Harm; Amersfoort, Martin

    2004-03-01

    Over the past decade, a massive effort has been made in the development of planar lightwave circuits (PLCs) for application in optical telecommunications. Major advances have been made, on both the technological and functional performance front. Highly sophisticated software tools that are used to tailor designs to required functional performance support these developments. In addition extensive know-how in the field of packaging, testing, and failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) has been built up in the struggle for meeting the stringent Telcordia requirements that apply to telecom products. As an example, silica-on-silicon is now a mature technology available at several industrial foundries around the world, where, on the performance front, the arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) has evolved into an off-the-shelf product. The field of optical chemical-biological (CB) sensors for homeland security application can greatly benefit from the advances as described above. In this paper we discuss the currently available technologies, device concepts, and modeling tools that have emerged from the telecommunications arena and that can effectively be applied to the field of homeland security. Using this profound telecom knowledge base, standard telecom components can readily be tailored for detecting CB agents. Designs for telecom components aim at complete isolation from the environment to exclude impact of environmental parameters on optical performance. For sensing applications, the optical path must be exposed to the measurand, in this area additional development is required beyond what has already been achieved in telecom development. We have tackled this problem, and are now in a position to apply standard telecom components for CB sensing. As an example, the application of an AWG as a refractometer is demonstrated, and its performance evaluated.

  6. Reconfigurable radio-frequency arbitrary waveforms synthesized in a silicon photonic chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Shen, Hao; Fan, Li; Wu, Rui; Niu, Ben; Varghese, Leo T.; Xuan, Yi; Leaird, Daniel E.; Wang, Xi; Gan, Fuwan; Weiner, Andrew M.; Qi, Minghao

    2015-01-01

    Photonic methods of radio-frequency waveform generation and processing can provide performance advantages and flexibility over electronic methods due to the ultrawide bandwidth offered by the optical carriers. However, bulk optics implementations suffer from the lack of integration and slow reconfiguration speed. Here we propose an architecture of integrated photonic radio-frequency generation and processing and implement it on a silicon chip fabricated in a semiconductor manufacturing foundry. Our device can generate programmable radio-frequency bursts or continuous waveforms with only the light source, electrical drives/controls and detectors being off-chip. It modulates an individual pulse in a radio-frequency burst within 4 ns, achieving a reconfiguration speed three orders of magnitude faster than thermal tuning. The on-chip optical delay elements offer an integrated approach to accurately manipulating individual radio-frequency waveform features without constraints set by the speed and timing jitter of electronics, and should find applications ranging from high-speed wireless to defence electronics.

  7. Reconfigurable radio-frequency arbitrary waveforms synthesized in a silicon photonic chip

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Shen, Hao; Fan, Li; Wu, Rui; Niu, Ben; Varghese, Leo T.; Xuan, Yi; Leaird, Daniel E.; Wang, Xi; Gan, Fuwan; Weiner, Andrew M.; Qi, Minghao

    2015-01-01

    Photonic methods of radio-frequency waveform generation and processing can provide performance advantages and flexibility over electronic methods due to the ultrawide bandwidth offered by the optical carriers. However, bulk optics implementations suffer from the lack of integration and slow reconfiguration speed. Here we propose an architecture of integrated photonic radio-frequency generation and processing and implement it on a silicon chip fabricated in a semiconductor manufacturing foundry. Our device can generate programmable radio-frequency bursts or continuous waveforms with only the light source, electrical drives/controls and detectors being off-chip. It modulates an individual pulse in a radio-frequency burst within 4 ns, achieving a reconfiguration speed three orders of magnitude faster than thermal tuning. The on-chip optical delay elements offer an integrated approach to accurately manipulating individual radio-frequency waveform features without constraints set by the speed and timing jitter of electronics, and should find applications ranging from high-speed wireless to defence electronics. PMID:25581847

  8. Reconfigurable radio-frequency arbitrary waveforms synthesized in a silicon photonic chip.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Shen, Hao; Fan, Li; Wu, Rui; Niu, Ben; Varghese, Leo T; Xuan, Yi; Leaird, Daniel E; Wang, Xi; Gan, Fuwan; Weiner, Andrew M; Qi, Minghao

    2015-01-01

    Photonic methods of radio-frequency waveform generation and processing can provide performance advantages and flexibility over electronic methods due to the ultrawide bandwidth offered by the optical carriers. However, bulk optics implementations suffer from the lack of integration and slow reconfiguration speed. Here we propose an architecture of integrated photonic radio-frequency generation and processing and implement it on a silicon chip fabricated in a semiconductor manufacturing foundry. Our device can generate programmable radio-frequency bursts or continuous waveforms with only the light source, electrical drives/controls and detectors being off-chip. It modulates an individual pulse in a radio-frequency burst within 4 ns, achieving a reconfiguration speed three orders of magnitude faster than thermal tuning. The on-chip optical delay elements offer an integrated approach to accurately manipulating individual radio-frequency waveform features without constraints set by the speed and timing jitter of electronics, and should find applications ranging from high-speed wireless to defence electronics. PMID:25581847

  9. Eye-diagram and Q factor evaluation of fiber ring laser in lightwave transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yi-Lin; Liaw, Shien-Kuei; Lee, Yin-Wen

    2016-09-01

    A C-band erbium doped fiber ring laser is proposed and investigated. With the use of two sub-ring cavities and a saturable absorber, a high quality and stable fiber ring laser is obtained for high optical signal to noise ratio operation in lightwave transmission. As different fiber Bragg gratings are employed as the wavelength filter, a narrow 3 dB-bandwidth is necessary for the high quality operation. The fiber ring laser is evaluated in lightwave transmission. The Q factor and eye diagrams are also measured and discussed.

  10. Multiple optical code-label processing using multi-wavelength frequency comb generator and multi-port optical spectrum synthesizer.

    PubMed

    Moritsuka, Fumi; Wada, Naoya; Sakamoto, Takahide; Kawanishi, Tetsuya; Komai, Yuki; Anzai, Shimako; Izutsu, Masayuki; Kodate, Kashiko

    2007-06-11

    In optical packet switching (OPS) and optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) systems, label generation and processing are key technologies. Recently, several label processors have been proposed and demonstrated. However, in order to recognize N different labels, N separate devices are required. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a large-scale, multiple optical code (OC)-label generation and processing technology based on multi-port, a fully tunable optical spectrum synthesizer (OSS) and a multi-wavelength electro-optic frequency comb generator. The OSS can generate 80 different OC-labels simultaneously and can perform 80-parallel matched filtering. We also demonstrated its application to OCDMA. PMID:19547075

  11. A novel implementation of method of optimality criterion in synthesizing spacecraft structures with natural frequency constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bo Ping; Chu, F. H.

    1989-01-01

    In the design of spacecraft structures, fine tuning the structure to achieve minimum weight with natural frequency constraints is a time consuming process. Here, a novel implementation of the method of optimality criterion (OC) is developed. In this new implementation of OC, the free vibration analysis results are used to compute the eigenvalue sensitivity data required for the formulation. Specifically, the modal elemental strain and kinetic energies are used. Additionally, normalized design parameters are introduced as a second level linking that allows design variables of different values to be linked together. With the use of this novel formulation, synthesis of structures with natural frequency constraint can be carried out manually using modal analysis results. Design examples are presented to illustrate this novel implementation of the optimality criterion method.

  12. A Voltage Controlled Oscillator for a Phase-Locked Loop Frequency Synthesizer in a Silicon-on-Sapphire Process

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, Sean

    2009-05-21

    Engineers from a government-owned engineering and manufacturing facility were contracted by government-owned research laboratory to design and build an S-band telemetry transmitter using Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit (RFIC) technology packaged in a Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) Multi-Chip Module. The integrated circuit technology chosen for the Phase-Locked Loop Frequency Synthesizer portion of the telemetry transmitter was a 0.25 um CMOS process that utilizes a sapphire substrate and is fabricated by Peregrine Semiconductor corporation. This thesis work details the design of the Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) portion of the PLL frequency synthesizer and constitutes an fully integrated VCO core circuit and a high-isolation buffer amplifier. The high-isolation buffer amplifier was designed to provide 16 dB of gain for 2200-3495 MHz as well as 60 dB of isolation for the oscillator core to provide immunity to frequency pulling due to RF load mismatch. Actual measurements of the amplifier gain and isolation showed the gain was approximately 5 dB lower than the simulated gain when all bond-wire and test substrate parasitics were taken into account. The isolation measurements were shown to be 28 dB at the high end of the frequency band but the measurement was more than likely compromised due to the aforementioned bond-wire and test substrate parasitics. The S-band oscillator discussed in this work was designed to operate over a frequency range of 2200 to 2300 MHz with a minimum output power of 0 dBm with a phase-noise of -92 dBc/Hz at a 100 kHz offset from the carrier. The tuning range was measured to be from 2215 MHz to 2330 MHz with a minimum output power of -7 dBm over the measured frequency range. A phase-noise of -90 dBc was measured at a 100 kHz offset from the carrier.

  13. Heuristic algorithms for constructing optimized structures of linear multihop lightwave networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Subrata; Mukherjee, Biswanath; Sarkar, Dillip

    1994-02-01

    We propose to exploit the capabilities of emerging lightwave technology in order to construct photonic implementations of 'adaptive' and 'optimized' distributed queue dual bus (DQDB) structures. Two sets of heuristic optimization algorithms are formulated. The performance of these heuristics are compared, some of their properties are analyzed, while their other attractive properties are highlighted via numerical examples.

  14. Digitally synthesized high purity, high-voltage radio frequency drive electronics for mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, R. T.; MacAskill, J. A.; Mojarradi, M.; Chutjian, A.; Darrach, M. R.; Madzunkov, S. M.; Shortt, B. J.

    2008-09-01

    Reported herein is development of a quadrupole mass spectrometer controller (MSC) with integrated radio frequency (rf) power supply and mass spectrometer drive electronics. Advances have been made in terms of the physical size and power consumption of the MSC, while simultaneously making improvements in frequency stability, total harmonic distortion, and spectral purity. The rf power supply portion of the MSC is based on a series-resonant LC tank, where the capacitive load is the mass spectrometer itself, and the inductor is a solenoid or toroid, with various core materials. The MSC drive electronics is based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA), with serial peripheral interface for analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converter support, and RS232/RS422 communications interfaces. The MSC offers spectral quality comparable to, or exceeding, that of conventional rf power supplies used in commercially available mass spectrometers; and as well an inherent flexibility, via the FPGA implementation, for a variety of tasks that includes proportional-integral derivative closed-loop feedback and control of rf, rf amplitude, and mass spectrometer sensitivity. Also provided are dc offsets and resonant dipole excitation for mass selective accumulation in applications involving quadrupole ion traps; rf phase locking and phase shifting for external loading of a quadrupole ion trap; and multichannel scaling of acquired mass spectra. The functionality of the MSC is task specific, and is easily modified by simply loading FPGA registers or reprogramming FPGA firmware.

  15. Digitally synthesized high purity, high-voltage radio frequency drive electronics for mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, R. T.; Mojarradi, M.; MacAskill, J. A.; Chutjian, A.; Darrach, M. R.; Madzunkov, S. M.; Shortt, B. J.

    2008-09-15

    Reported herein is development of a quadrupole mass spectrometer controller (MSC) with integrated radio frequency (rf) power supply and mass spectrometer drive electronics. Advances have been made in terms of the physical size and power consumption of the MSC, while simultaneously making improvements in frequency stability, total harmonic distortion, and spectral purity. The rf power supply portion of the MSC is based on a series-resonant LC tank, where the capacitive load is the mass spectrometer itself, and the inductor is a solenoid or toroid, with various core materials. The MSC drive electronics is based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA), with serial peripheral interface for analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converter support, and RS232/RS422 communications interfaces. The MSC offers spectral quality comparable to, or exceeding, that of conventional rf power supplies used in commercially available mass spectrometers; and as well an inherent flexibility, via the FPGA implementation, for a variety of tasks that includes proportional-integral derivative closed-loop feedback and control of rf, rf amplitude, and mass spectrometer sensitivity. Also provided are dc offsets and resonant dipole excitation for mass selective accumulation in applications involving quadrupole ion traps; rf phase locking and phase shifting for external loading of a quadrupole ion trap; and multichannel scaling of acquired mass spectra. The functionality of the MSC is task specific, and is easily modified by simply loading FPGA registers or reprogramming FPGA firmware.

  16. A reconfigurable multi-mode multi-band transmitter with integrated frequency synthesizer for short-range wireless communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Qi; Fan, Chen; Lingwei, Zhang; Xiaoman, Wang; Baoyong, Chi

    2013-09-01

    A reconfigurable multi-mode direct-conversion transmitter (TX) with integrated frequency synthesizer (FS) is presented. The TX as well as the FS is designed with a flexible architecture and frequency plan, which helps to support all the 433/868/915 MHz ISM band signals, with the reconfigurable bandwidth from 250 kHz to 2 MHz. In order to save power and chip area, only one 1.8 GHz VCO is adopted to cover the whole frequency range. All the operation modes can be regulated in real time by configuring the integrated register-bank through an SPI interface. Implemented in 180 nm CMOS, the FS achieves a frequency coverage of 320-460 MHz and 620-920 MHz. The lowest phase noise can be -107 dBc/Hz at a 100 kHz offset and -126 dBc/Hz at a 1 MHz offset. The transmitter features a + 10.2 dBm peak output power with a +9.5 dBm 1-dB-compression point and 250 kHz/500 kHz/1 MHz/2 MHz reconfigurable signal bandwidth.

  17. High-frequency properties of oil-phase-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hao-Feng; Yang, Hai-Tao; Liu, Li-Ping; Ren, Xiao; Song, Ning-Ning; Shen, Jun; Zhang, Xiang-Qun; Cheng, Zhao-Hua; Zhao, Guo-Ping

    2015-02-01

    Monodispersive ZnO nanoparticles each with a hexagonal wurtzite structure are facilely prepared by the high-temperature organic phase method. The UV-visible absorption peak of ZnO nanoparticles presents an obvious blue-shift from 385 nm of bulk ZnO to 369 nm. Both the real part and the image part of the complex permittivity of ZnO nanoparticles from 0.1 GHz to 10 GHz linearly decrease without obvious resonance peak appearing. The real parts of intrinsic permittivity of ZnO nanoparticles are about 5.7 and 5.0 at 0.1 GHz and 10 GHz respectively, and show an obvious size-dependent behavior. The dielectric loss angle tangent (tanδ) of ZnO nanoparticles with a different weight ratio shows a different decreasing law with the increase of frequency. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274370 and 51471185) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2012CB933102 and 2011CB921801).

  18. Multi-Band (K- Q- and E-Band) Multi-Tone Millimeter-Wave Frequency Synthesizer for Radio Wave Propagation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results of a multi-band multi-tone millimeter-wave frequency synthesizer, based on a solid-state frequency comb generator. The intended application of the synthesizer is in a space-borne transmitter for radio wave atmospheric studies at K-band (18 to 26.5 GHz), Q-band (37 to 42 GHz), and E-band (71 to 76 GHz). These studies would enable the design of robust multi-Gbps data rate space-to-ground satellite communication links. Lastly, the architecture for a compact multi-tone beacon transmitter, which includes a high frequency synthesizer, a polarizer, and a conical horn antenna, has been investigated for a notional CubeSat based space-to-ground radio wave propagation experiment.

  19. Optimization and implementation of scaling-free CORDIC-based direct digital frequency synthesizer for body care area network systems.

    PubMed

    Juang, Ying-Shen; Ko, Lu-Ting; Chen, Jwu-E; Sung, Tze-Yun; Hsin, Hsi-Chin

    2012-01-01

    Coordinate rotation digital computer (CORDIC) is an efficient algorithm for computations of trigonometric functions. Scaling-free-CORDIC is one of the famous CORDIC implementations with advantages of speed and area. In this paper, a novel direct digital frequency synthesizer (DDFS) based on scaling-free CORDIC is presented. The proposed multiplier-less architecture with small ROM and pipeline data path has advantages of high data rate, high precision, high performance, and less hardware cost. The design procedure with performance and hardware analysis for optimization has also been given. It is verified by Matlab simulations and then implemented with field programmable gate array (FPGA) by Verilog. The spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) is over 86.85 dBc, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is more than 81.12 dB. The scaling-free CORDIC-based architecture is suitable for VLSI implementations for the DDFS applications in terms of hardware cost, power consumption, SNR, and SFDR. The proposed DDFS is very suitable for medical instruments and body care area network systems. PMID:23251230

  20. Optimization and Implementation of Scaling-Free CORDIC-Based Direct Digital Frequency Synthesizer for Body Care Area Network Systems

    PubMed Central

    Juang, Ying-Shen; Ko, Lu-Ting; Chen, Jwu-E.; Sung, Tze-Yun; Hsin, Hsi-Chin

    2012-01-01

    Coordinate rotation digital computer (CORDIC) is an efficient algorithm for computations of trigonometric functions. Scaling-free-CORDIC is one of the famous CORDIC implementations with advantages of speed and area. In this paper, a novel direct digital frequency synthesizer (DDFS) based on scaling-free CORDIC is presented. The proposed multiplier-less architecture with small ROM and pipeline data path has advantages of high data rate, high precision, high performance, and less hardware cost. The design procedure with performance and hardware analysis for optimization has also been given. It is verified by Matlab simulations and then implemented with field programmable gate array (FPGA) by Verilog. The spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) is over 86.85 dBc, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is more than 81.12 dB. The scaling-free CORDIC-based architecture is suitable for VLSI implementations for the DDFS applications in terms of hardware cost, power consumption, SNR, and SFDR. The proposed DDFS is very suitable for medical instruments and body care area network systems. PMID:23251230

  1. A hybrid lightwave transmission system based on light injection/optoelectronic feedback techniques and fiber-VLLC integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Wen-Shing; Lu, Hai-Han; Li, Chung-Yi; Chen, Bo-Rui; Lin, Hung-Hsien; Lin, Dai-Hua

    2016-04-01

    A hybrid lightwave transmission system based on light injection/optoelectronic feedback techniques and fiber-visible laser light communication (VLLC) integration is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. To be the first one of its kind in employing light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques in a fiber-VLLC integration lightwave transmission system, the light is successfully directly modulated with Community Access Television (CATV), 16-QAM, and 16-QAM-OFDM signals. Over a 40 km SMF and a 10 m free-space VLLC transport, good performances of carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR)/composite second-order (CSO)/composite triple-beat (CTB)/bit error rate (BER) are achieved for CATV/16-QAM/16-QAM-OFDM signals transmission. Such a hybrid lightwave transmission system would be very useful since it can provide broadband integrated services including CATV, Internet, and telecommunication services over both distribute fiber and in-building networks.

  2. Channel coding for coherent lightwave binary FSK communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golanbari, Michael; Fonseka, John P.

    The authors evaluate the performance of several channel coding schemes for a weakly coherent optical communications system that employs binary frequency-shift-keying (FSK). For the detection of signals, a double-filtering receiver structure is considered. Numerical results computed for BCH codes, Reed-Solomon codes, convolutional codes, and a concatenated code show that coding can provide a very economical solution for greatly improving the performance of such a system and for making it widely tolerant to laser phase noise. The codes evaluated demonstrated that the effects of various system impairments, such as laser phase noise and AWGN (additive white Gaussian noise), can be successfully ameliorated, providing significant relaxation of various system requirements such as SNR (signal-to-noise ratio), IF (intermediate frequency) filter bandwidth, and laser linewidth.

  3. A fractional-N frequency synthesizer-based multi-standard I/Q carrier generation system in 0.13 μm CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenfeng, Lou; Zhiqing, Geng; Peng, Feng; Nanjian, Wu

    2011-06-01

    This paper proposes a sigma—delta fractional-N frequency synthesizer-based multi-standard I/Q carrier generation system. With reasonable frequency planning, the system can be used in multi-standard wireless communication applications (GSM, WCDMA, GPRS, TD-SCDMA, WLAN (802.11a/b/g)). The implementation is achieved by a 0.13 μm RF CMOS process. The measured results demonstrate that three quadrature VCOs (QVCO) continuously cover the frequency from 3.1 to 6.1 GHz (65.2%), and through the successive divide-by-2 prescalers to achieve the frequency from 0.75 to 6.1 GHz continuously. The chip was fully integrated with the exception of an off-chip filter. The entire chip area is only 3.78 mm2, and the system consumes a 21.7 mA @ 1.2 V supply without output buffers. The lock-in time of the PLL frequency synthesizer is less than 4 μs over the entire frequency range with a direct frequency presetting technique and the auxiliary non-volatile memory (NVM) can store the digital configuration signal of the system, including presetting signals to avoid the calibration process case by case.

  4. Optimization of WDM lightwave systems (BAC) design using error control coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mruthyunjaya, H. S.; Umesh, G.; Sathish Kumar, M.

    2007-04-01

    In a binary asymmetric channel (BAC) it may be necessary to correct only those errors which result from incorrect transmission of one of the two code elements. In optical fiber multichannel systems, the optical amplifiers are critical components and amplified spontaneous emission noise in the optical amplifiers is the major source of noise in it. The property of erbium doped fiber amplifier is nearly ideal for application in lightwave long haul transmission. We investigate performance of error correcting codes in such systems in presence of stimulated Raman scattering and amplified spontaneous emission noise with asymmetric channel statistics. Performance of some best known concatenated coding schemes is reported.

  5. A 220-1100 MHz low phase-noise frequency synthesizer with wide-band VCO and selectable I/Q divider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Chen; Renjie, Gong; Xu, Cheng; Yulin, Zhang; Zhong, Gao; Guiliang, Guo; Yuepeng, Yan

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a low phase-noise fractional-N frequency synthesizer which provides an in-phase/quadrature-phase (I/Q) signal over a frequency range of 220-1100 MHz for wireless networks of industrial automation (WIA) applications. Two techniques are proposed to achieve the wide range. First, a 1.4-2.2 GHz ultralow gain voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is adopted by using 128 tuning curves. Second, a selectable I/Q divider is employed to divide the VCO frequency by 2 or 3 or 4 or 6. Besides, a phase-switching prescaler is proposed to lower PLL phase noise, a self-calibrated charge pump is used to suppress spur, and a detect-boosting phase frequency detector is adopted to shorten settling time. With a 200 kHz loop bandwidth, lowest measured phase noise is -106 dBc/Hz at a 10 kHz offset and -131 dBc/Hz at a 1 MHz offset. Fabricated in the TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS process, the synthesizer occupies a chip area of 1.2 mm2, consumes only 15 mW from the 1.8 V power supply, and settles within 13.2 μs. The synthesizer is optimized for the WIA applications, but can also be used for other short-range wireless communications, such as 433, 868, 916 MHz ISM band applications.

  6. Simple-design ultra-low phase noise microwave frequency synthesizers for high-performing Cs and Rb vapor-cell atomic clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, B.; Calosso, C. E.; Abdel Hafiz, M.; Micalizio, S.; Boudot, R.

    2015-09-01

    We report on the development and characterization of novel 4.596 GHz and 6.834 GHz microwave frequency synthesizers devoted to be used as local oscillators in high-performance Cs and Rb vapor-cell atomic clocks. The key element of the synthesizers is a custom module that integrates a high spectral purity 100 MHz oven controlled quartz crystal oscillator frequency-multiplied to 1.6 GHz with minor excess noise. Frequency multiplication, division, and mixing stages are then implemented to generate the exact output atomic resonance frequencies. Absolute phase noise performances of the output 4.596 GHz signal are measured to be -109 and -141 dB rad2/Hz at 100 Hz and 10 kHz Fourier frequencies, respectively. The phase noise of the 6.834 GHz signal is -105 and -138 dB rad2/Hz at 100 Hz and 10 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. The performances of the synthesis chains contribute to the atomic clock short term fractional frequency stability at a level of 3.1 × 10-14 for the Cs cell clock and 2 × 10-14 for the Rb clock at 1 s averaging time. This value is comparable with the clock shot noise limit. We describe the residual phase noise measurements of key components and stages to identify the main limitations of the synthesis chains. The residual frequency stability of synthesis chains is measured to be at the 10-15 level for 1 s integration time. Relevant advantages of the synthesis design, using only commercially available components, are to combine excellent phase noise performances, simple-architecture, low-cost, and to be easily customized for signal output generation at 4.596 GHz or 6.834 GHz for applications to Cs or Rb vapor-cell frequency standards.

  7. Simple-design ultra-low phase noise microwave frequency synthesizers for high-performing Cs and Rb vapor-cell atomic clocks.

    PubMed

    François, B; Calosso, C E; Abdel Hafiz, M; Micalizio, S; Boudot, R

    2015-09-01

    We report on the development and characterization of novel 4.596 GHz and 6.834 GHz microwave frequency synthesizers devoted to be used as local oscillators in high-performance Cs and Rb vapor-cell atomic clocks. The key element of the synthesizers is a custom module that integrates a high spectral purity 100 MHz oven controlled quartz crystal oscillator frequency-multiplied to 1.6 GHz with minor excess noise. Frequency multiplication, division, and mixing stages are then implemented to generate the exact output atomic resonance frequencies. Absolute phase noise performances of the output 4.596 GHz signal are measured to be -109 and -141 dB rad(2)/Hz at 100 Hz and 10 kHz Fourier frequencies, respectively. The phase noise of the 6.834 GHz signal is -105 and -138 dB rad(2)/Hz at 100 Hz and 10 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. The performances of the synthesis chains contribute to the atomic clock short term fractional frequency stability at a level of 3.1 × 10(-14) for the Cs cell clock and 2 × 10(-14) for the Rb clock at 1 s averaging time. This value is comparable with the clock shot noise limit. We describe the residual phase noise measurements of key components and stages to identify the main limitations of the synthesis chains. The residual frequency stability of synthesis chains is measured to be at the 10(-15) level for 1 s integration time. Relevant advantages of the synthesis design, using only commercially available components, are to combine excellent phase noise performances, simple-architecture, low-cost, and to be easily customized for signal output generation at 4.596 GHz or 6.834 GHz for applications to Cs or Rb vapor-cell frequency standards. PMID:26429467

  8. Simple-design ultra-low phase noise microwave frequency synthesizers for high-performing Cs and Rb vapor-cell atomic clocks

    SciTech Connect

    François, B.; Calosso, C. E.; Micalizio, S.; Abdel Hafiz, M.; Boudot, R.

    2015-09-15

    We report on the development and characterization of novel 4.596 GHz and 6.834 GHz microwave frequency synthesizers devoted to be used as local oscillators in high-performance Cs and Rb vapor-cell atomic clocks. The key element of the synthesizers is a custom module that integrates a high spectral purity 100 MHz oven controlled quartz crystal oscillator frequency-multiplied to 1.6 GHz with minor excess noise. Frequency multiplication, division, and mixing stages are then implemented to generate the exact output atomic resonance frequencies. Absolute phase noise performances of the output 4.596 GHz signal are measured to be −109 and −141 dB rad{sup 2}/Hz at 100 Hz and 10 kHz Fourier frequencies, respectively. The phase noise of the 6.834 GHz signal is −105 and −138 dB rad{sup 2}/Hz at 100 Hz and 10 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. The performances of the synthesis chains contribute to the atomic clock short term fractional frequency stability at a level of 3.1 × 10{sup −14} for the Cs cell clock and 2 × 10{sup −14} for the Rb clock at 1 s averaging time. This value is comparable with the clock shot noise limit. We describe the residual phase noise measurements of key components and stages to identify the main limitations of the synthesis chains. The residual frequency stability of synthesis chains is measured to be at the 10{sup −15} level for 1 s integration time. Relevant advantages of the synthesis design, using only commercially available components, are to combine excellent phase noise performances, simple-architecture, low-cost, and to be easily customized for signal output generation at 4.596 GHz or 6.834 GHz for applications to Cs or Rb vapor-cell frequency standards.

  9. Fiber-Coupled Planar Light-Wave Circuit for Seed Laser Control in High Spectral Resolution Lidar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Anthony; McNeil, Shirley; Switzer, Gregg; Battle, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Precise laser remote sensing of aerosol extinction and backscatter in the atmosphere requires a high-power, pulsed, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser that is wavelength- stabilized to a narrow absorption line such as found in iodine vapor. One method for precise wavelength control is to injection seed the Nd:YAG laser with a low-power CW laser that is stabilized by frequency converting a fraction of the beam to 532 nm, and to actively frequency-lock it to an iodine vapor absorption line. While the feasibility of this approach has been demonstrated using bulk optics in NASA Langley s Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) program, an ideal, lower cost solution is to develop an all-waveguide, frequency-locked seed laser in a compact, robust package that will withstand the temperature, shock, and vibration levels associated with airborne and space-based remote sensing platforms. A key technology leading to this miniaturization is the integration of an efficient waveguide frequency doubling element, and a low-voltage phase modulation element into a single, monolithic, planar light-wave circuit (PLC). The PLC concept advances NASA's future lidar systems due to its compact, efficient and reliable design, thus enabling use on small aircraft and satellites. The immediate application for this technology is targeted for NASA Langley's HSRL system for aerosol and cloud characterization. This Phase I effort proposes the development of a potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) waveguide phase modulator for future integration into a PLC. For this innovation, the proposed device is the integration of a waveguide-based frequency doubler and phase modulator in a single, fiber pigtail device that will be capable of efficient second harmonic generation of 1,064-nm light and subsequent phase modulation of the 532 nm light at 250 MHz, providing a properly spectrally formatted beam for HSRL s seed laser locking system. Fabrication of the integrated PLC chip for NASA Langley, planned for

  10. A broadband chip-scale optical frequency synthesizer at 2.7 × 10(-16) relative uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu-Wei; Yang, Jinghui; Yu, Mingbin; McGuyer, Bart H; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Zelevinsky, Tanya; Wong, Chee Wei

    2016-04-01

    Optical frequency combs-coherent light sources that connect optical frequencies with microwave oscillations-have become the enabling tool for precision spectroscopy, optical clockwork, and attosecond physics over the past decades. Current benchmark systems are self-referenced femtosecond mode-locked lasers, but Kerr nonlinear dynamics in high-Q solid-state microresonators has recently demonstrated promising features as alternative platforms. The advance not only fosters studies of chip-scale frequency metrology but also extends the realm of optical frequency combs. We report the full stabilization of chip-scale optical frequency combs. The microcomb's two degrees of freedom, one of the comb lines and the native 18-GHz comb spacing, are simultaneously phase-locked to known optical and microwave references. Active comb spacing stabilization improves long-term stability by six orders of magnitude, reaching a record instrument-limited residual instability of [Formula: see text]. Comparing 46 nitride frequency comb lines with a fiber laser frequency comb, we demonstrate the unprecedented microcomb tooth-to-tooth relative frequency uncertainty down to 50 mHz and 2.7 × 10(-16), heralding novel solid-state applications in precision spectroscopy, coherent communications, and astronomical spectrography. PMID:27152341

  11. A broadband chip-scale optical frequency synthesizer at 2.7 × 10−16 relative uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shu-Wei; Yang, Jinghui; Yu, Mingbin; McGuyer, Bart H.; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Zelevinsky, Tanya; Wong, Chee Wei

    2016-01-01

    Optical frequency combs—coherent light sources that connect optical frequencies with microwave oscillations—have become the enabling tool for precision spectroscopy, optical clockwork, and attosecond physics over the past decades. Current benchmark systems are self-referenced femtosecond mode-locked lasers, but Kerr nonlinear dynamics in high-Q solid-state microresonators has recently demonstrated promising features as alternative platforms. The advance not only fosters studies of chip-scale frequency metrology but also extends the realm of optical frequency combs. We report the full stabilization of chip-scale optical frequency combs. The microcomb’s two degrees of freedom, one of the comb lines and the native 18-GHz comb spacing, are simultaneously phase-locked to known optical and microwave references. Active comb spacing stabilization improves long-term stability by six orders of magnitude, reaching a record instrument-limited residual instability of 3.6mHz/τ. Comparing 46 nitride frequency comb lines with a fiber laser frequency comb, we demonstrate the unprecedented microcomb tooth-to-tooth relative frequency uncertainty down to 50 mHz and 2.7 × 10−16, heralding novel solid-state applications in precision spectroscopy, coherent communications, and astronomical spectrography. PMID:27152341

  12. A class-C VCO based Σ-Δ fraction-N frequency synthesizer with AFC for 802.11ah applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaobao, Yu; Siyang, Han; Zongming, Jin; Zhihua, Wang; Baoyong, Chi

    2015-09-01

    A 1.4-2 GHz phase-locked loop (PLL) Σ-Δ fraction-N frequency synthesizer with automatic frequency control (AFC) for 802.11ah applications is presented. A class-C voltage control oscillator (VCO) ranging from 1.4 to 2 GHz is integrated on-chip to save power for the sub-GHz band. A novel AFC algorithm is introduced to maintain the VCO oscillation at the start-up and automatically search for the appropriate control word of the switched-capacitor array to extend the PLL tuning range. A 20-bit third-order Σ-Δ modulator is utilized to reduce the fraction spurs while achieving a frequency resolution that is lower than 30 Hz. The measurement results show that the frequency synthesizer has achieved a phase noise of < -120 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset and consumes 11.1 mW from a 1.7 V supply. Moreover, compared with the traditional class-A counterparts, the phase noise in class-C mode has been improved by 5 dB under the same power consumption.

  13. Microwave frequency effects on dielectric properties of some common solvents and on microwave-assisted syntheses: 2-Allylphenol and the C12-C2-C12 Gemini surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Matsuzaki, Shohei; Mitani, Tomohiko; Serpone, Nick

    2012-12-01

    Microwave radiation emitted at a frequency of 915 MHz and 5.8 GHz from a newly fabricated single-mode resonance microwave apparatus is herein proposed for use in microwave-assisted organic syntheses. The usefulness of 5.8-GHz microwaves is demonstrated by the solvent-free synthesis of 2-allylphenol through a Claisen rearrangement process, and by the synthesis of the C12-C2-C12 Gemini surfactant in ethanol solvent undertaken to verify the usefulness of the 915-MHz frequency. These two model reactions have shown the advantage of these two microwave frequencies in that the observed efficiencies were greater than when employing the more commonly used 2.45-GHz microwaves. Dielectric parameters (dissipation factor: tan δ, dielectric constant: ɛ', and dielectric loss: ɛ'') have also been assessed for water and 22 common organic solvents typically used in organic syntheses, together with the temperature dependence of the dielectric parameters. Temperature-time profiles have been determined and rates of increase of temperature computed. The 5.8-GHz microwaves were effective in heating non-polar solvents, while the 915-MHz microwave frequency was most suitable for heating the alcohols.

  14. Lightwave Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheam, Harry

    1993-01-01

    Describes simple and inexpensive labs for introducing students to fiber optic communications. Students investigate light as a carrier wave; look into the difficulties associated with "light" communication; and learn about modulation, optical fibers, and critical angles. (PR)

  15. A bidirectional lightwave transport system based on PON integration with WDM VLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chia-Yi; Wu, Po-Yi; Lu, Hai-Han; Lin, Ying-Pyng; Chang, Ching-Hung; Lin, Huang-Chang

    2013-10-01

    A novel bidirectional lightwave transport system employing phase modulation (PM) scheme and light injection-locked distributed feedback laser diode (DFB LD) as a duplex transceiver for passive optical network (PON); as well as employing laser pointer lasers (LPLs) with directly modulating data signals for wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) visible light communication (VLC) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Impressive and low bit error rate (BER) operation is achieved for PON integration with VLC application. Such bidirectional PON integration with VLC system has been successfully demonstrated, which can not only present its advancement in PON/VLC application but also reveal its simplicity and convenience to be installed. Whereby, our proposed system is suitably applicable to the PON in combination with VLC system in wire and wireless transmission.

  16. Lightwave Circuits in Lithium Niobate through Hybrid Waveguides with Silicon Photonics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Weigel, Peter O.; Savanier, Marc; DeRose, Christopher T.; Pomerene, Andrew T.; Starbuck, Andrew L.; Lentine, Anthony L.; Stenger, Vincent; Mookherjea, Shayan

    2016-03-01

    Here we demonstrate a photonic waveguide technology based on a two-material core, in which light is controllably and repeatedly transferred back and forth between sub-micron thickness crystalline layers of Si and LN bonded to one another, where the former is patterned and the latter is not. In this way, the foundry-based wafer-scale fabrication technology for silicon photonics can be leveraged to form lithium-niobate based integrated optical devices. Using two different guided modes and an adiabatic mode transition between them, we demonstrate a set of building blocks such as waveguides, bends, and couplers which can be used to route light underneathmore » an unpatterned slab of LN, as well as outside the LN-bonded region, thus enabling complex and compact lightwave circuits in LN alongside Si photonics with fabrication ease and low cost.« less

  17. Design optimization of integrated BiDi triplexer optical filter based on planar lightwave circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chenglin; Hong, Xiaobin; Huang, Wei-Ping

    2006-05-01

    Design optimization of a novel integrated bi-directional (BiDi) triplexer filter based on planar lightwave circuit (PLC) for fiber-to-the premise (FTTP) applications is described. A multi-mode interference (MMI) device is used to filter the up-stream 1310nm signal from the down-stream 1490nm and 1555nm signals. An array waveguide grating (AWG) device performs the dense WDM function by further separating the two down-stream signals. The MMI and AWG are built on the same substrate with monolithic integration. The design is validated by simulation, which shows excellent performance in terms of filter spectral characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, cross-talk, etc.) as well as insertion loss.

  18. Design optimization of integrated BiDi triplexer optical filter based on planar lightwave circuit.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenglin; Hong, Xiaobin; Huang, Wei-Ping

    2006-05-29

    Design optimization of a novel integrated bi-directional (BiDi) triplexer filter based on planar lightwave circuit (PLC) for fiber-to-the premise (FTTP) applications is described. A multi-mode interference (MMI) device is used to filter the up-stream 1310nm signal from the down-stream 1490nm and 1555nm signals. An array waveguide grating (AWG) device performs the dense WDM function by further separating the two down-stream signals. The MMI and AWG are built on the same substrate with monolithic integration. The design is validated by simulation, which shows excellent performance in terms of filter spectral characteristics (e.g., bandwidth, cross-talk, etc.) as well as insertion loss. PMID:19516623

  19. Lightwave Circuits in Lithium Niobate through Hybrid Waveguides with Silicon Photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, Peter O.; Savanier, Marc; Derose, Christopher T.; Pomerene, Andrew T.; Starbuck, Andrew L.; Lentine, Anthony L.; Stenger, Vincent; Mookherjea, Shayan

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a photonic waveguide technology based on a two-material core, in which light is controllably and repeatedly transferred back and forth between sub-micron thickness crystalline layers of Si and LN bonded to one another, where the former is patterned and the latter is not. In this way, the foundry-based wafer-scale fabrication technology for silicon photonics can be leveraged to form lithium-niobate based integrated optical devices. Using two different guided modes and an adiabatic mode transition between them, we demonstrate a set of building blocks such as waveguides, bends, and couplers which can be used to route light underneath an unpatterned slab of LN, as well as outside the LN-bonded region, thus enabling complex and compact lightwave circuits in LN alongside Si photonics with fabrication ease and low cost.

  20. Lightwave Circuits in Lithium Niobate through Hybrid Waveguides with Silicon Photonics

    PubMed Central

    Weigel, Peter O.; Savanier, Marc; DeRose, Christopher T.; Pomerene, Andrew T.; Starbuck, Andrew L.; Lentine, Anthony L.; Stenger, Vincent; Mookherjea, Shayan

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a photonic waveguide technology based on a two-material core, in which light is controllably and repeatedly transferred back and forth between sub-micron thickness crystalline layers of Si and LN bonded to one another, where the former is patterned and the latter is not. In this way, the foundry-based wafer-scale fabrication technology for silicon photonics can be leveraged to form lithium-niobate based integrated optical devices. Using two different guided modes and an adiabatic mode transition between them, we demonstrate a set of building blocks such as waveguides, bends, and couplers which can be used to route light underneath an unpatterned slab of LN, as well as outside the LN-bonded region, thus enabling complex and compact lightwave circuits in LN alongside Si photonics with fabrication ease and low cost. PMID:26927022

  1. Two-Dimensional Planar Lightwave Circuit Integrated Spatial Filter Array and Method of Use Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ai, Jun (Inventor); Dimov, Fedor (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A large coherent two-dimensional (2D) spatial filter array (SFA), 30 by 30 or larger, is produced by coupling a 2D planar lightwave circuit (PLC) array with a pair of lenslet arrays at the input and output side. The 2D PLC array is produced by stacking a plurality of chips, each chip with a plural number of straight PLC waveguides. A pupil array is coated onto the focal plane of the lenslet array. The PLC waveguides are produced by deposition of a plural number of silica layers on the silicon wafer, followed by photolithography and reactive ion etching (RIE) processes. A plural number of mode filters are included in the silica-on-silicon waveguide such that the PLC waveguide is transparent to the fundamental mode but higher order modes are attenuated by 40 dB or more.

  2. Integrated optical interconnection for polymeric planar lightwave circuit device using roll-to-roll ultraviolet imprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sang Uk; Kang, Ho Ju; Chang, Sunghwan; Choi, Doo-sun; Kim, Chang-Seok; Jeong, Myung Yung

    2014-08-01

    We propose an integrated structure that combines chip and fiber array blocks for optical interconnection with a polymeric planar lightwave circuit (PLC) device using the roll-to-roll imprint process. The fiber array blocks and PLC chip of the integrated structure are fabricated on the same substrate, and the alignments in the three spatial directions were established with the insertion of an optical fiber. The characteristics of the integrated structure were evaluated by fabricating a 1×2 optical splitter device. The structure had an insertion loss of 3.9 dB, and the optical uniformity of the channel was 0.1 dB, indicating that the same performance for an active alignment can be expected.

  3. Lightwave Circuits in Lithium Niobate through Hybrid Waveguides with Silicon Photonics.

    PubMed

    Weigel, Peter O; Savanier, Marc; DeRose, Christopher T; Pomerene, Andrew T; Starbuck, Andrew L; Lentine, Anthony L; Stenger, Vincent; Mookherjea, Shayan

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a photonic waveguide technology based on a two-material core, in which light is controllably and repeatedly transferred back and forth between sub-micron thickness crystalline layers of Si and LN bonded to one another, where the former is patterned and the latter is not. In this way, the foundry-based wafer-scale fabrication technology for silicon photonics can be leveraged to form lithium-niobate based integrated optical devices. Using two different guided modes and an adiabatic mode transition between them, we demonstrate a set of building blocks such as waveguides, bends, and couplers which can be used to route light underneath an unpatterned slab of LN, as well as outside the LN-bonded region, thus enabling complex and compact lightwave circuits in LN alongside Si photonics with fabrication ease and low cost. PMID:26927022

  4. A -90 dBc@ 10 kHz Phase Noise Fractional-N Frequency Synthesizer with Accurate Loop Bandwidth Control Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosho, Shiro

    2006-06-01

    This paper describes a -90 dBc@10 kHz phase noise fractional-N frequency synthesizer of 110 M-180 MHz output with accurate loop bandwidth control. Stable phase noise characteristics are achieved by controlling the bandwidth correctly, even if the PLL uses a noisy but small ring oscillator. Digital controller adjusts voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) gain and time constant of the loop filter. Analog controller compensates temperature variance. Test chip fabricated on 0.13 μm CMOS process shows stable and 6.8 dB improvement of the phase noise performance is achieved against process and environmental variations.

  5. Synthesizing exoplanet demographics from radial velocity and microlensing surveys. II. The frequency of planets orbiting M dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Clanton, Christian; Gaudi, B. Scott

    2014-08-20

    In contrast to radial velocity (RV) surveys, results from microlensing surveys indicate that giant planets with masses greater than the critical mass for core accretion (∼0.1 M {sub Jup}) are relatively common around low-mass stars. Using the methodology developed in the first paper, we predict the sensitivity of M-dwarf RV surveys to analogs of the population of planets inferred by microlensing. We find that RV surveys should detect a handful of super-Jovian (>M {sub Jup}) planets at the longest periods being probed. These planets are indeed found by RV surveys, implying that the demographic constraints inferred from these two methods are consistent. Finally, we combine the results from both methods to estimate planet frequencies spanning wide regions of parameter space. We find that the frequency of Jupiters and super-Jupiters (1 ≲ m{sub p} sin i/M {sub Jup} ≲ 13) with periods 1 ≤ P/days ≤ 10{sup 4} is f{sub J}=0.029{sub −0.015}{sup +0.013}, a median factor of 4.3 (1.5-14 at 95% confidence) smaller than the inferred frequency of such planets around FGK stars of 0.11 ± 0.02. However, we find the frequency of all giant planets with 30 ≲ m{sub p} sin i/M {sub ⊕} ≲ 10{sup 4} and 1 ≤ P/days ≤ 10{sup 4} to be f{sub G}=0.15{sub −0.07}{sup +0.06}, only a median factor of 2.2 (0.73-5.9 at 95% confidence) smaller than the inferred frequency of such planets orbiting FGK stars of 0.31 ± 0.07. For a more conservative definition of giant planets (50 ≲ m{sub p} sin i/M {sub ⊕} ≲ 10{sup 4}), we find f{sub G{sup ′}}=0.11±0.05, a median factor of 2.2 (0.73-6.7 at 95% confidence) smaller than that inferred for FGK stars of 0.25 ± 0.05. Finally, we find the frequency of all planets with 1 ≤ m{sub p} sin i/M {sub ⊕} ≤ 10{sup 4} and 1 ≤ P/days ≤ 10{sup 4} to be f{sub p} = 1.9 ± 0.5.

  6. Synthesizing Exoplanet Demographics from Radial Velocity and Microlensing Surveys. II. The Frequency of Planets Orbiting M Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clanton, Christian; Gaudi, B. Scott

    2014-08-01

    In contrast to radial velocity (RV) surveys, results from microlensing surveys indicate that giant planets with masses greater than the critical mass for core accretion (~0.1 M Jup) are relatively common around low-mass stars. Using the methodology developed in the first paper, we predict the sensitivity of M-dwarf RV surveys to analogs of the population of planets inferred by microlensing. We find that RV surveys should detect a handful of super-Jovian (>M Jup) planets at the longest periods being probed. These planets are indeed found by RV surveys, implying that the demographic constraints inferred from these two methods are consistent. Finally, we combine the results from both methods to estimate planet frequencies spanning wide regions of parameter space. We find that the frequency of Jupiters and super-Jupiters (1 <~ mp sin i/M Jup <~ 13) with periods 1 <= P/days <= 104 is f_J=0.029^{+0.013}_{-0.015}, a median factor of 4.3 (1.5-14 at 95% confidence) smaller than the inferred frequency of such planets around FGK stars of 0.11 ± 0.02. However, we find the frequency of all giant planets with 30 <~ mp sin i/M ⊕ <~ 104 and 1 <= P/days <= 104 to be f_G=0.15^{+0.06}_{-0.07}, only a median factor of 2.2 (0.73-5.9 at 95% confidence) smaller than the inferred frequency of such planets orbiting FGK stars of 0.31 ± 0.07. For a more conservative definition of giant planets (50 <~ mp sin i/M ⊕ <~ 104), we find f_G^{\\prime }=0.11+/- 0.05, a median factor of 2.2 (0.73-6.7 at 95% confidence) smaller than that inferred for FGK stars of 0.25 ± 0.05. Finally, we find the frequency of all planets with 1 <= mp sin i/M ⊕ <= 104 and 1 <= P/days <= 104 to be fp = 1.9 ± 0.5.

  7. AgI-coated silver-clad stainless steel hollow waveguides for infrared lightwave transmission and their applications.

    PubMed

    Hongo, Akihito; Sato, Shinobu; Hattori, Akio; Iwai, Katsumasa; Takaku, Hiroyuki; Miyagi, Mitsunobu

    2012-01-01

    We fabricated silver iodide (AgI)-coated silver hollow waveguides to transmit a wide range of infrared (IR) light. Silver-clad stainless steel pipes were used as a supporting pipe. Since this type of metallic hollow waveguide has high mechanical strength and heat resistance, it is suitable as a rigid lightwave probe for various applications such as dental or medical laser treatment, IR spectroscopy, thermal radiometry, and laser processing. Considering these applications, we estimated the hollow waveguides with different thicknesses of the AgI layer. By optimizing the AgI layer thickness according to the wavelength of propagating light, we succeeded in efficiently transmitting Er-YAG and CO(2) laser light. We also studied the optical characteristics of a wide range of incoherent light for IR spectroscopy and radiometry applications using these metallic hollow waveguides as lightwave probes. PMID:22270406

  8. Super-high-frequency shielding properties of excimer-laser-synthesized-single-wall-carbon-nanotubes/polyurethane nanocomposite films

    SciTech Connect

    Aiessa, B.; Habib, M. A.; Denidni, T. A.; El Khakani, M. A.; Laberge, L. L.; Therriault, D.

    2011-04-15

    Electromagnetic shielding attenuation (ESA) properties of carbon nanotubes/polymer nanocomposite films, in the super high frequency (SHF) X-band (7-12 GHz) domain are studied. The nanocomposite films consisted of thermoset polyurethane (PU) resin blended with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) mats, and deposited on fused quartz substrates. Two different approaches were used to achieve the nanocomposite films, namely (i) through the on-substrate ''all-laser'' growth approach of SWCNTs directly onto substrate, followed by their infiltration by the PU resin, and (ii) by appropriately dispersing the chemically-purified SWCNTs (in the soot form) into the PU matrix and their subsequent deposition onto quartz substrates by means of a solvent casting process. Characterizations of the ESA properties of the developed nanocomposite films show that they exhibit systematically a deep shielding band, centered at around 9.5 GHz, with an attenuation as high as |- 30| dB, recorded for SWCNT loads of 2.5 wt. % and above. A direct correlation is established between the electrical conductivity of the nanocomposite films and their electromagnetic shielding capacity. The SWCNTs/PU nanocomposites developed here are highly promising shielding materials as SHF notch filters, as their ESA capacity largely exceeds the target value of |- 20| dB generally requested for commercial applications.

  9. Real-time Fourier transformation of lightwave spectra and application in optical reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Malacarne, Antonio; Park, Yongwoo; Li, Ming; LaRochelle, Sophie; Azaña, José

    2015-12-14

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a fiber-optics scheme for real-time analog Fourier transform (FT) of a lightwave energy spectrum, such that the output signal maps the FT of the spectrum of interest along the time axis. This scheme avoids the need for analog-to-digital conversion and subsequent digital signal post-processing of the photo-detected spectrum, thus being capable of providing the desired FT processing directly in the optical domain at megahertz update rates. The proposed concept is particularly attractive for applications requiring FT analysis of optical spectra, such as in many optical Fourier-domain reflectrometry (OFDR), interferometry, spectroscopy and sensing systems. Examples are reported to illustrate the use of the method for real-time OFDR, where the target axial-line profile is directly observed in a single-shot oscilloscope trace, similarly to a time-of-flight measurement, but with a resolution and depth of range dictated by the underlying interferometry scheme. PMID:26699041

  10. The FlashBake oven: Lightwave oven delivers high-quality, quick cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Gregerson, J.

    1995-06-01

    The FlashBake oven is a well-publicized new electrotechnology that over 40 utilities are promoting for commercial food service applications, but is it worth its high price? E Source research shows that this $5,000 to $8,500 lightwave oven can increase sales and profitability in a number of applications, thus paying for itself within months to a year or two. The FlashBake does so by cooking foods less than two inches thick in two minutes or less, as quickly as microwave ovens do, but with quality equal to or greater than that of conventional gas and electric ovens. The FlashBake makes sense for restaurants and kiosks that offer quick-order menus, as well as for full-menu restaurants that can use the FlashBake during slow periods (instead of larger ovens) and during busy periods (for extra capacity). In these target market applications, the FlashBake is likely to use less energy due to its extremely low idle energy use. It is not well suited to banquet and institutional kitchens that require large numbers of the same item to be cooked and ready simultaneously. The FlashBake has only one tray, so cooking large volumes may take longer, require more labor, and use more energy than a conventional oven that has multiple cooking racks. Energy use is rarely a major concern of those who buy FlashBake ovens, since energy for cooking represents a small fraction of a restaurant`s overall operating costs. The main selling point of the FlashBake is menu and productivity enhancement.

  11. SPIP: A computer program implementing the Interaction Picture method for simulation of light-wave propagation in optical fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balac, Stéphane; Fernandez, Arnaud

    2016-02-01

    The computer program SPIP is aimed at solving the Generalized Non-Linear Schrödinger equation (GNLSE), involved in optics e.g. in the modelling of light-wave propagation in an optical fibre, by the Interaction Picture method, a new efficient alternative method to the Symmetric Split-Step method. In the SPIP program a dedicated costless adaptive step-size control based on the use of a 4th order embedded Runge-Kutta method is implemented in order to speed up the resolution.

  12. Chip design of a 5.8-GHz fractional-N frequency synthesizer with a tunable Gm-C loop filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jhin-Fang; Liu, Ron-Yi; Lai, Wen-Cheng; Shin, Chun-Wei; Hsu, Chien-Ming

    2012-08-01

    This paper proposes a novel Gm-C loop filter instead of a conventional passive loop filter used in a phase-locked loop. The innovative advantage of the proposed architecture is tunable loop filter bandwidth and hence the process variations of passive elements of resistance R and capacitance C can be overcome and the chip area is greatly reduced. Furthermore, the MASH 1-1-1 sigma-delta (ΣΔ) modulator is adopted for performing the fractional division number and hence improves the phase noise as well. Measured results show that the locked phase noise is -114.1 dBc/Hz with lower Gm-C bandwidth and -111.7 dBm/C with higher Gm-C bandwidth at 1 MHz offset from carrier of 5.68 GHz. Including pads and built-in Gm-C filter, the chip area of the proposed frequency synthesizer is 1.06 mm2. The output power is -8.69 dBm at 5.68 GHz and consumes 56 mW with an off-chip buffer from 1.8-V supply voltage.

  13. System for synchronizing synthesizers of communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enriquez, E. A. (Inventor); Gookin, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Frequency synthesizers at first and second stations that communicate with each other via a transmission link having a constant propagation delay time are started and synchronized by transmitting a tone from the first station to the second station via the link. The frequencies derived from the synthesizer at the second station are received at the first station and are combined with the frequencies derived from the synthesizer at the first station to derive a constant beat frequency as the two synthesizers are stepped.

  14. PULSE SYNTHESIZING GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Kerns, Q.A.

    1963-08-01

    >An electronlc circuit for synthesizing electrical current pulses having very fast rise times includes several sinewave generators tuned to progressively higher harmonic frequencies with signal amplitudes and phases selectable according to the Fourier series of the waveform that is to be synthesized. Phase control is provided by periodically triggering the generators at precisely controlled times. The outputs of the generators are combined in a coaxial transmission line. Any frequency-dependent delays that occur in the transmission line can be readily compensated for so that the desired signal wave shape is obtained at the output of the line. (AEC)

  15. Reconfigurable Delay Time Polymer Planar Lightwave Circuit for an X-band Phased-Array Antenna Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howley, Brie; Wang, Xiaolong; Chen, Maggie; Chen, Ray T.

    2007-03-01

    A 4-bit polymer optoelectronic true-time delay (TTD) device is demonstrated. The planar lightwave circuit (PLC) is composed of monolithically integrated low-loss passive polymer waveguide delay lines and five cascaded 2 x 2 polymer thermooptic switches. Waveguide junction offsets and air trenches simultaneously reduce the bending loss and device area. Simulations are used to optimize the trench and offset structures for fabrication. The 16 time delays generated by the device are measured to be in the range from 0 to 177 ps in 11.8-ps increments. The packaged PLC has an insertion loss of up to 14.9 dB, and the delay switching speed is 2 ms. An eight-element X-band phased-array antenna system is constructed to demonstrate the beam-steering capabilities of the 4-bit-delay devices. The TTD devices are shown to steer the far-field radiation pattern between 0° and -14.5°.

  16. Vector magnetometry and lightwave defect imaging sensor technologies for internal pipe inspection systems: Phase 1 and 2 feasibility study, conceptual design, and prototype development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Steven; Fowler, Thomas; Peters, Edward; Power, Wendy; Reed, Michael

    1994-01-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) has been sponsoring the development of a vehicle and sensors for an integrated nondestructive internal inspection system for natural gas distribution pipes. Arthur D. Little has developed two sensor technologies; Vector Magnetometry (VM) and Lightwave Defect Imaging (LDI) for the system.The Vector Magnetometry sensor utilizes multiple arrays of miniature detection coils (fluxgate magnetometer elements): a three-axis array measures both the amplitude and phase of the magnetic leakage field that occurs in the vicinity of pipe wall defects. This technology is applicable to both cast iron and steel pipe.

  17. Oblique superposition of two elliptically polarized lightwaves using geometric algebra: is energy-momentum conserved?

    PubMed

    Sze, Michelle Wynne C; Sugon, Quirino M; McNamara, Daniel J

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we use Clifford (geometric) algebra Cl(3,0) to verify if electromagnetic energy-momentum density is still conserved for oblique superposition of two elliptically polarized plane waves with the same frequency. We show that energy-momentum conservation is valid at any time only for the superposition of two counter-propagating elliptically polarized plane waves. We show that the time-average energy-momentum of the superposition of two circularly polarized waves with opposite handedness is conserved regardless of the propagation directions of the waves. And, we show that the resulting momentum density of the superposed waves generally has a vector component perpendicular to the momentum densities of the individual waves. PMID:21045912

  18. Programmable electronic synthesized capacitance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A predetermined and variable synthesized capacitance which may be incorporated into the resonant portion of an electronic oscillator for the purpose of tuning the oscillator comprises a programmable operational amplifier circuit. The operational amplifier circuit has its output connected to its inverting input, in a follower configuration, by a network which is low impedance at the operational frequency of the circuit. The output of the operational amplifier is also connected to the noninverting input by a capacitor. The noninverting input appears as a synthesized capacitance which may be varied with a variation in gain-bandwidth product of the operational amplifier circuit. The gain-bandwidth product may, in turn, be varied with a variation in input set current with a digital to analog converter whose output is varied with a command word. The output impedance of the circuit may also be varied by the output set current. This circuit may provide very small ranges in oscillator frequency with relatively large control voltages unaffected by noise.

  19. Spatiotemporal dynamics of Kerr-Raman optical frequency combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chembo, Yanne K.; Grudinin, Ivan S.; Yu, Nan

    2015-10-01

    Optical frequency combs generated with ultrahigh-Q whispering-gallery-mode resonators are expected to provide a compact, versatile, and energy-efficient source for the generation of coherent lightwave and microwave signals. So far, Kerr and Raman nonlinearities in these resonators have predominantly been investigated separately, even though both effects originate from the same third-order susceptibility. We present a spatiotemporal formalism for the theoretical understanding of these Kerr-Raman combs, which allows us to describe the complex interplay between both nonlinearities and all-order dispersion. These theoretical findings are successfully compared with experiments performed with ultrahigh-Q calcium and magnesium fluoride resonators.

  20. Frequency Combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsch, Theodor W.; Picqué, Nathalie

    Much of modern research in the field of atomic, molecular, and optical science relies on lasers, which were invented some 50 years ago and perfected in five decades of intense research and development. Today, lasers and photonic technologies impact most fields of science and they have become indispensible in our daily lives. Laser frequency combs were conceived a decade ago as tools for the precision spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen. Through the development of optical frequency comb techniques, technique a setup of the size 1 ×1 m2, good for precision measurements of any frequency, and even commercially available, has replaced the elaborate previous frequency-chain schemes for optical frequency measurements, which only worked for selected frequencies. A true revolution in optical frequency measurements has occurred, paving the way for the creation of all-optical clocks clock with a precision that might approach 10-18. A decade later, frequency combs are now common equipment in all frequency metrology-oriented laboratories. They are also becoming enabling tools for an increasing number of applications, from the calibration of astronomical spectrographs to molecular spectroscopy. This chapter first describes the principle of an optical frequency comb synthesizer. Some of the key technologies to generate such a frequency comb are then presented. Finally, a non-exhaustive overview of the growing applications is given.

  1. Portable Speech Synthesizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibfritz, Gilbert H.; Larson, Howard K.

    1987-01-01

    Compact speech synthesizer useful traveling companion to speech-handicapped. User simply enters statement on board, and synthesizer converts statement into spoken words. Battery-powered and housed in briefcase, easily carried on trips. Unit used on telephones and face-to-face communication. Synthesizer consists of micro-computer with memory-expansion module, speech-synthesizer circuit, batteries, recharger, dc-to-dc converter, and telephone amplifier. Components, commercially available, fit neatly in 17-by 13-by 5-in. briefcase. Weighs about 20 lb (9 kg) and operates and recharges from ac receptable.

  2. Psychoacoustic Analysis of Synthesized Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okcu, Selen; Rathsam, Jonathan; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    An aircraft noise synthesis capability is being developed so the annoyance caused by proposed aircraft can be assessed during the design stage. To make synthesized signals as realistic as possible, high fidelity simulation is required for source (e.g., engine noise, airframe noise), propagation and receiver effects. This psychoacoustic study tests whether the jet noise component of synthesized aircraft engine noise can be made more realistic using a low frequency oscillator (LFO) technique to simulate fluctuations in level observed in recordings. Jet noise predictions are commonly made in the frequency domain based on models of time-averaged empirical data. The synthesis process involves conversion of the frequency domain prediction into an audible pressure time history. However, because the predictions are time-invariant, the synthesized sound lacks fluctuations observed in recordings. Such fluctuations are hypothesized to be perceptually important. To introduce time-varying characteristics into jet noise synthesis, a method has been developed that modulates measured or predicted 1/3-octave band levels with a (<20Hz) LFO. The LFO characteristics are determined through analysis of laboratory jet noise recordings. For the aft emission angle, results indicate that signals synthesized using a generic LFO are perceived as more similar to recordings than those using no LFO, and signals synthesized with an angle-specific LFO are more similar to recordings than those synthesized with a generic LFO.

  3. Multiplexed chirp waveform synthesizer

    DOEpatents

    Dudley, Peter A.; Tise, Bert L.

    2003-09-02

    A synthesizer for generating a desired chirp signal has M parallel channels, where M is an integer greater than 1, each channel including a chirp waveform synthesizer generating at an output a portion of a digital representation of the desired chirp signal; and a multiplexer for multiplexing the M outputs to create a digital representation of the desired chirp signal. Preferably, each channel receives input information that is a function of information representing the desired chirp signal.

  4. Mathematical analysis of adaptive step-size techniques when solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equation for simulating light-wave propagation in optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balac, Stéphane; Fernandez, Arnaud

    2014-10-01

    In optics the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) which modelizes light-wave propagation in an optical fibre is the most widely solved by the Symmetric Split-Step method. The practical efficiency of the Symmetric Split-Step method is highly dependent on the computational grid points distribution along the fiber and therefore an efficient adaptive step-size control strategy is mandatory. A lot of adaptive step-size methods designed to be used in conjunction with the Symmetric Split-Step method for solving the various forms taken by the NLSE can be found in the literature dedicated to optics. These methods can be gathered together into two groups. Broadly speaking, a first group of methods is based on the observation along the propagation length of the behavior of a given optical quantity (e.g. the photons number) and the step-size at each computational step is set so as to guarantee that the known properties of the quantity are preserved. Most of the time these approaches are derived under specific assumptions and the step-size selection criterion depends on the fiber parameters. The second group of methods makes use of some mathematical concepts to estimate the local error at each computational grid point and the step-size is set so as to maintain it lower than a prescribed tolerance. This approach should be preferred due to its generality of use but suffers from a lack of understanding in the mathematical concepts of numerical analysis it involves. The aim of this paper is to present an analysis of local error estimate and adaptive step-size control techniques for solving the NSLE by the Symmetric Split-Step method with all the unavoidable mathematical rigor required for a comprehensive understanding of the topic.

  5. Vector magnetometry and lightwave defect imaging sensor technologies for internal pipe inspection systems. Phase 1 and 2 feasibility study, conceptual design, and prototype development. Final report, March 1991-July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, S.; Fowler, T.; Peters, E.; Power, W.; Reed, M.

    1994-01-05

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) has been sponsoring the development of a vehicle and sensors for an integrated nondestructive internal inspection system for natural gas distribution pipes. Arthur D. Little has developed two sensor technologies, Vector Magnetometry (VM) and Lightwave Defect Imaging (LDI) for the system. The Vector Magnetometry sensor utilizes multiple arrays of miniature detection coils (fluxgate magnetometer elements); a three-axis array measures both the amplitude and phase of the magnetic leakage field that occurs in the vicinity of pipe wall defects. This technology is applicable to both cast iron and steel pipe.

  6. Stereo matching image processing by synthesized color and the characteristic area by the synthesized color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Akira; Mutoh, Eiichiro; Kumagai, Hideo

    2014-09-01

    We have developed the stereo matching image processing by synthesized color and the corresponding area by the synthesized color for ranging the object and image recognition. The typical images from a pair of the stereo imagers may have some image disagreement each other due to the size change, missed place, appearance change and deformation of characteristic area. We constructed the synthesized color and corresponding color area with the same synthesized color to make the distinct stereo matching. We constructed the synthesized color and corresponding color area with the same synthesized color by the 3 steps. The first step is making binary edge image by differentiating the focused image from each imager and verifying that differentiated image has normal density of frequency distribution to find the threshold level of binary procedure. We used Daubechies wavelet transformation for the procedures of differentiating in this study. The second step is deriving the synthesized color by averaging color brightness between binary edge points with respect to horizontal direction and vertical direction alternatively. The averaging color procedure was done many times until the fluctuation of averaged color become negligible with respect to 256 levels in brightness. The third step is extracting area with same synthesized color by collecting the pixel of same synthesized color and grouping these pixel points by 4 directional connectivity relations. The matching areas for the stereo matching are determined by using synthesized color areas. The matching point is the center of gravity of each synthesized color area. The parallax between a pair of images is derived by the center of gravity of synthesized color area easily. The experiment of this stereo matching was done for the object of the soccer ball toy. From this experiment we showed that stereo matching by the synthesized color technique are simple and effective.

  7. Wisdom, Intelligence & Creativity Synthesized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    How is it that smart administrators who want to do a good job often find themselves in situations that degenerate into confrontation and, ultimately, termination? In this article, the author discusses why in terms of a model of leadership--which he refers to it as WICS, an acronym for wisdom, intelligence and creativity synthesized. He describes…

  8. Synthesized night vision goggle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haixian

    2000-06-01

    A Synthesized Night Vision Goggle that will be described int his paper is a new type of night vision goggle with multiple functions. It consists of three parts: main observing system, picture--superimposed system (or Cathode Ray Tube system) and Charge-Coupled Device system.

  9. Synthesize Modes and Correlate

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-10-01

    SMAC is an automated experimental modal parameter extraction package which determines the natural frequencies of vibration, viscous damping ratios and mode shapes from experimental accelerance frequency response functions (FRFs). It is written in the MATLAB interpretive matrix language and has a graphical user interface.

  10. Total Syntheses of Perenniporides.

    PubMed

    Morita, Masao; Ohmori, Ken; Suzuki, Keisuke

    2015-11-20

    The total syntheses of perenniporide A (1) and related compounds have been achieved. Starting from 1,3,5-trifluorobenzene (9), difluorodienone 6 was obtained by oxidative dearomatization, which served as a platform for the high-pressure cycloaddition and for the introduction of the C3-methoxy group. The synthesis allowed access to the natural congeners 2 and 3, enabling assignment of the absolute structures of these natural products. PMID:26555442

  11. Pure frequency modulation of a multielectrode distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) laser diode

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, O.; Toba, H. ); Tohmori, Y. )

    1989-07-01

    Intensity-modulation (IM) suppressed frequency modulation (FM) is demonstrated over a 600 MHz bandwidth by using a three-electrode distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) laser diode (LD). A nonuniform carrier density distribution in the active region is realized by two separated electrodes, whose push-pull modulation yields only a 0.7 percent intensity fluctuation per 1 GHz frequency deviation. This corresponds to a 20 dB FM purity improvement. A third electrode on the DBR region makes it possible to tune the wavelength simultaneously. Because of its wider modulation bandwidth, the LD is suitable for the lightwave oscillator in frequency-shift keyed (FSK) transmissions and for linewidth reduction by electrical feedback.

  12. Synthesizing folded band chaos.

    PubMed

    Corron, Ned J; Hayes, Scott T; Pethel, Shawn D; Blakely, Jonathan N

    2007-04-01

    A randomly driven linear filter that synthesizes Lorenz-like, reverse-time chaos is shown also to produce Rössler-like folded band wave forms when driven using a different encoding of the random source. The relationship between the topological entropy of the random source, dissipation in the linear filter, and the positive Lyapunov exponent for the reverse-time wave form is exposed. The two drive encodings are viewed as grammar restrictions on a more general encoding that produces a chaotic superset encompassing both the Lorenz butterfly and Rössler folded band paradigms of nonlinear dynamics. PMID:17500950

  13. SYNTH: A spectrum synthesizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensley, W. K.; McKinnon, A. D.; Miley, H. S.; Panisko, M. E.; Savard, R. M.

    1993-10-01

    A computer code has been written at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to synthesize the results of typical gamma ray spectroscopy experiments. The code, dubbed SYNTH, allows a user to specify physical characteristics of a gamma ray source, the quantity of the nuclides producing the radiation, the source-to-detector distance and the presence of absorbers, the type and size of the detector, and the electronic set up used to gather the data. In the process of specifying the parameters needed to synthesize a spectrum, several interesting intermediate results are produced, including a photopeak transmission function versus energy, a detector efficiency curve, and a weighted list of gamma and x rays produced from a set of nuclides. All of these intermediate results are available for graphical inspection and for printing. SYNTH runs on personal computers. It is menu driven and can be customized to user specifications. SYNTH contains robust support for coaxial germanium detectors and some support for sodium iodide detectors. SYNTH is not a finished product. A number of additional developments are planned. However, the existing code has been compared carefully to spectra obtained from National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) certified standards with very favorable results. Examples of the use of SYNTH and several spectral results are presented.

  14. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    DOEpatents

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  15. Solvent resistant microfluidic DNA synthesizer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanyi; Castrataro, Piero; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Quake, Stephen R

    2007-01-01

    We fabricated a microfluidic DNA synthesizer out of perfluoropolyether (PFPE), an elastomer with excellent chemical compatibility which makes it possible to perform organic chemical reactions, and synthesized 20-mer oligonucleotides on chip. PMID:17180201

  16. Method for synthesizing HMX

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, R.R.; Coon, C.L.; Harrar, J.E.; Pearson, R.K.

    1984-02-21

    A method and apparatus for electrochemically synthesizing N/sub 2/O/sub 5/ includes oxidizing a solution of N/sub 2/O/sub 4//HNO/sub 3/ at an anode, while maintaining a controlled potential between the N/sub 2/O/sub 4//HNO/sub 3/ solution and the anode. A potential of about 1.35 to 2.0 V vs. SCE is preferred, while a potential of about 1.80 V vs. SCE is most preferred. Thereafter, the N/sub 2/O/sub 5/ is reacted with either 1.5-diacetyl-3,7-dinitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (DADN) or 1,3,5,7-tetraacetyl-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (TAT) to form cyclotetramethylenetetraamine (HMX).

  17. Method for synthesizing HMX

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, Raymond R.; Coon, Clifford L.; Harrar, Jackson E.; Pearson, Richard K.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for electrochemically synthesizing N.sub.2 O.sub.5 cludes oxidizing a solution of N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /HNO.sub.3 at an anode, while maintaining a controlled potential between the N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /HNO.sub.3 solution and the anode. A potential of about 1.35 to 2.0 V vs. SCE is preferred, while a potential of about 1.80 V vs. SCE is most preferred. Thereafter, the N.sub.2 O.sub.5 is reacted with either 1.5-diacetyl-3,7-dinitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (DADN) or 1,3,5,7-tetraacetyl-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (TAT) to form cyclotetramethylenetetraamine (HMX).

  18. Diophantine frequency synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sotiriadis, Paul Peter

    2006-11-01

    A methodology for fine-step, fast-hopping, low-spurs phase-locked loop based frequency synthesis is presented. It uses mathematical properties of integer numbers and linear Diophantine equations to overcome the constraining relation between frequency step and phase-comparator frequency that is inherent in conventional phase-locked loop based frequency synthesis. The methodology leads to fine-step, fast-hopping, modular-structured frequency synthesizers with potentially very low spurs, especially in the vicinity of the carrier. The paper focuses on the mathematical principles of the new methodology and the related number theoretic algorithms. PMID:17091835

  19. Doclet To Synthesize UML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Osborne, Richard N.

    2005-01-01

    The RoseDoclet computer program extends the capability of Java doclet software to automatically synthesize Unified Modeling Language (UML) content from Java language source code. [Doclets are Java-language programs that use the doclet application programming interface (API) to specify the content and format of the output of Javadoc. Javadoc is a program, originally designed to generate API documentation from Java source code, now also useful as an extensible engine for processing Java source code.] RoseDoclet takes advantage of Javadoc comments and tags already in the source code to produce a UML model of that code. RoseDoclet applies the doclet API to create a doclet passed to Javadoc. The Javadoc engine applies the doclet to the source code, emitting the output format specified by the doclet. RoseDoclet emits a Rose model file and populates it with fully documented packages, classes, methods, variables, and class diagrams identified in the source code. The way in which UML models are generated can be controlled by use of new Javadoc comment tags that RoseDoclet provides. The advantage of using RoseDoclet is that Javadoc documentation becomes leveraged for two purposes: documenting the as-built API and keeping the design documentation up to date.

  20. Synthesizing Exoplanet Demographics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clanton, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of thousands of exoplanets has revealed a large diversity of systems, the majority of which look nothing like our own. On the theoretical side, we are able to make ab initio calculations that make predictions about the properties of exoplanets. However, in order to link these predictions with observations, we must construct a statistical census of exoplanet demographics over as broad a range of parameters as possible. Current constraints on exoplanet demographics are typically constructed using the results of individual surveys using a single detection technique, and thus are incomplete. The only way to derive a statistically-complete census that samples a wide region of exoplanet parameter space is to synthesize the results from surveys employing all of the different discovery methods at our disposal. I present the first studies to demonstrate that this is actually possible, and describe a (mostly) de-biased exoplanet census that is constructed from the synthesis of results from microlensing, radial velocity, and direct imaging surveys. I will also discuss future work that will include the results of transit surveys (in particular, Kepler discoveries) to complete the census of exoplanets in our Galaxy, and describe the application of this census to develop the most comprehensive, observationally-constrained models of planet formation and evolution that have been derived to date.

  1. Flexible radio-frequency photonics: Optoelectronic frequency combs and integrated pulse shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalf, Andrew J.

    Microwave photonics is a discipline which leverages optoelectronics to enhance the generation, transport, and processing of high-frequency electrical signals. At the heart of many emerging techniques is the optical frequency comb. A comb is a lightwave source whose spectrum is made up of discrete equally spaced spectral components that share a fixed phase relationship. These discrete coherent oscillators --known as comb lines-- collectively form a Fourier basis that describe a periodic optical waveform. Within the last two decades frequency-stabilized broadband combs produced from mode-locked lasers have led to revolutionary advancements in precision optical frequency synthesis and metrology. Meanwhile, Fourier-transform optical pulse shaping, which provides a means to control a comb's Fourier basis in both amplitude and phase, has emerged as an integral tool in optical communications, broadband waveform generation, and microwave photonic filtering. However, traditional comb and pulse shaping architectures are often plagued by complex and bulky setups, rendering robust and cost effective implementation outside of the laboratory a challenge. In addition, traditional comb sources based on short-pulse lasers do not possess qualities which are ideally suited for this new application regime. Motivated by the shortcomings in current architectures, and empowered by recent advancements in optoelectronic technology, this dissertation focuses on developing novel and robust schemes in optical frequency comb generation and line-by-line pulse shaping. Our results include: the invention and low-noise characterization of a broadband flat-top comb source; the realization of an optoelectronic-based time cloak; and finally, the development of an integrated pulse shaper, which we use in conjunction with our flat-top comb source to demonstrate a rapidly reconfigurable microwave photonic filter.

  2. Waveguide-type optical passive ring resonator gyro using frequency modulation spectroscopy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ning; Lijun, Guo; Mei, Kong; Tuoyuan, Chen

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the experimental results of silica on a silicon ring resonator in a resonator micro optic gyroscope based on the frequency modulation spectroscopy technique by our research group. The ring resonator is composed of a 4 cm diameter silica waveguide. By testing at λ = 1550 nm, the FSR, FWHM and the depth of resonance are 3122 MHz, 103.07 MHz and 0.8 respectively. By using a polarization controller, the resonance curve under the TM mode can be inhibited. The depth of resonance increased from 0.8 to 0.8913, namely the finesse increase from 30.33 to 33.05. In the experiments, there is an acoustic-optical frequency shifter (AOFS) in each light loop. We lock the lasing frequency at the resonance frequency of the silica waveguide ring resonator for the counterclockwise lightwave; the frequency difference between the driving frequencies of the two AOFS is equivalent to the Sagnac frequency difference caused by gyro rotation. Thus, the gyro output is observed. The slope of the linear fit is about 0.330 mV/(°/s) based on the -900 to 900 kHz equivalent frequency and the gyro dynamic range is ±2.0 × 103 rad/s.

  3. RAMESES publication standards: realist syntheses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in realist synthesis as an alternative systematic review method. This approach offers the potential to expand the knowledge base in policy-relevant areas - for example, by explaining the success, failure or mixed fortunes of complex interventions. No previous publication standards exist for reporting realist syntheses. This standard was developed as part of the RAMESES (Realist And MEta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards) project. The project's aim is to produce preliminary publication standards for realist systematic reviews. Methods We (a) collated and summarized existing literature on the principles of good practice in realist syntheses; (b) considered the extent to which these principles had been followed by published syntheses, thereby identifying how rigor may be lost and how existing methods could be improved; (c) used a three-round online Delphi method with an interdisciplinary panel of national and international experts in evidence synthesis, realist research, policy and/or publishing to produce and iteratively refine a draft set of methodological steps and publication standards; (d) provided real-time support to ongoing realist syntheses and the open-access RAMESES online discussion list so as to capture problems and questions as they arose; and (e) synthesized expert input, evidence syntheses and real-time problem analysis into a definitive set of standards. Results We identified 35 published realist syntheses, provided real-time support to 9 on-going syntheses and captured questions raised in the RAMESES discussion list. Through analysis and discussion within the project team, we summarized the published literature and common questions and challenges into briefing materials for the Delphi panel, comprising 37 members. Within three rounds this panel had reached consensus on 19 key publication standards, with an overall response rate of 91%. Conclusion This project used multiple sources to develop and

  4. Laboratory Syntheses of Insect Pheromones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Russell A.; Hoban, James N.

    1984-01-01

    Provides background information and procedures for the multi-step synthesis of tiger moth and boll weevil pheromones (sex attractants). These syntheses require several laboratory periods. The tiger moth pheromone synthesis is suitable for introductory organic chemistry while the boll weevil pheromone is recommended for an advanced laboratory…

  5. Method of synthesizing pyrite nanocrystals

    DOEpatents

    Wadia, Cyrus; Wu, Yue

    2013-04-23

    A method of synthesizing pyrite nanocrystals is disclosed which in one embodiment includes forming a solution of iron (III) diethyl dithiophosphate and tetra-alkyl-ammonium halide in water. The solution is heated under pressure. Pyrite nanocrystal particles are then recovered from the solution.

  6. Mode synthesizing atomic force microscopy and mode-synthesizing sensing

    DOEpatents

    Passian, Ali; Thundat, Thomas George; Tetard, Laurene

    2013-05-17

    A method of analyzing a sample that includes applying a first set of energies at a first set of frequencies to a sample and applying, simultaneously with the applying the first set of energies, a second set of energies at a second set of frequencies, wherein the first set of energies and the second set of energies form a multi-mode coupling. The method further includes detecting an effect of the multi-mode coupling.

  7. Synthesizing genetic sequential logic circuit with clock pulse generator

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rhythmic clock widely occurs in biological systems which controls several aspects of cell physiology. For the different cell types, it is supplied with various rhythmic frequencies. How to synthesize a specific clock signal is a preliminary but a necessary step to further development of a biological computer in the future. Results This paper presents a genetic sequential logic circuit with a clock pulse generator based on a synthesized genetic oscillator, which generates a consecutive clock signal whose frequency is an inverse integer multiple to that of the genetic oscillator. An analogous electronic waveform-shaping circuit is constructed by a series of genetic buffers to shape logic high/low levels of an oscillation input in a basic sinusoidal cycle and generate a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) output with various duty cycles. By controlling the threshold level of the genetic buffer, a genetic clock pulse signal with its frequency consistent to the genetic oscillator is synthesized. A synchronous genetic counter circuit based on the topology of the digital sequential logic circuit is triggered by the clock pulse to synthesize the clock signal with an inverse multiple frequency to the genetic oscillator. The function acts like a frequency divider in electronic circuits which plays a key role in the sequential logic circuit with specific operational frequency. Conclusions A cascaded genetic logic circuit generating clock pulse signals is proposed. Based on analogous implement of digital sequential logic circuits, genetic sequential logic circuits can be constructed by the proposed approach to generate various clock signals from an oscillation signal. PMID:24884665

  8. Laser Frequency and Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsch, Theodor W.

    2003-04-01

    The following two contributions in this volume are highlighting some remarkable recent developments at the interface between precision laser spectroscopy and ultrafast laser physics. After decades of struggle, we have finally found a practical method for measuring the frequency of light with extreme precision [1]. Femtosecond laser optical frequency comb synthesizers are opening exciting new perspectives for atomic spectroscopy and they can provide the clockwork for optical atomic clocks that will eventually far surpass the accuracy of the best microwave cesium clocks. J. C. Bergquist et al. [2] are reporting on a first optical atomic clock at NIST based on a single trapped Hg+ ion. The contribution by Jun Ye et al. [3] is illustrating the wealth of new opportunities for femtosecond laser frequency combs in the frequency and time domain.

  9. Catalytic method for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Sapienza, Richard S.; Sansone, Michael J.; Slegeir, William A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A method for synthesizing hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen by contacting said gases with a slurry of a catalyst composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants.

  10. Catalytic method for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Sapienza, R.S.; Sansone, M.J.; Slegeir, W.A.R.

    A method for synthesizing hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen by contacting said gases with a slurry of a catalyst composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants.

  11. Determinism in synthesized chaotic waveforms.

    PubMed

    Corron, Ned J; Blakely, Jonathan N; Hayes, Scott T; Pethel, Shawn D

    2008-03-01

    The output of a linear filter driven by a randomly polarized square wave, when viewed backward in time, is shown to exhibit determinism at all times when embedded in a three-dimensional state space. Combined with previous results establishing exponential divergence equivalent to a positive Lyapunov exponent, this result rigorously shows that such reverse-time synthesized waveforms appear equally to have been produced by a deterministic chaotic system. PMID:18517561

  12. SYNTH - Gamma Ray Spectrum Synthesizer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-05-18

    SYNTH was designed to synthesize the results of typical gamma-ray spectroscopy experiments. The code allows a user to specify the physical characteristics of a gamma-ray source, the quantity of radionuclides emitting gamma radiation, the source-to-detector distance and the presence and type of any intervening absorbers, the size and type of the gamma-ray detector, and the electronic set-up used to gather the data.

  13. TSS-Thermal Synthesizer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chimenti, Edward; Rickman, Steven; Vogt, Robert; Longo, Carlos R. Ortiz; Bauman, Noel; Lepore, Joseph; Mackey, Phil; Pavlovsky, James, II; Welch, Mark; Fogerson, Peter; Dawber, Mark; Fong, Cynthia Jone; Hecke, Peter; Morrison, Susan; Castillo, Ernie; Chou, ZU; Fried, Lawrence; Howard, Jerry; Lombardi, Mike; Middleton, Jack

    1996-01-01

    Thermal Synthesizer System (TSS) is integrated set of thermal-analysis application programs designed to solve problems encountered by thermal engineers. Combines functionality of Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer/Fluid Integrator (SINDA/FLUINT) and radiation analysis with friendly and easily understood user-interface environment coupled with powerful interactive color graphics and geometric modeling capability. Enables thermal engineers to spend more time solving engineering problems instead of laboriously constructing and verifying math models. Written in FORTRAN and C language.

  14. Method for synthesizing powder materials

    DOEpatents

    Buss, R.J.; Ho, P.

    1988-01-21

    A method for synthesizing ultrafine powder materials, for example, ceramic and metal powders, comprises admitting gaseous reactants from which the powder material is to be formed into a vacuum reaction chamber maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric and at a temperature less than about 400/degree/K (127/degree/C). The gaseous reactants are directed through a glow discharge provided in the vacuum reaction chamber to form the ultrafine powder material. 1 fig.

  15. Frequency curves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riggs, H.C.

    1968-01-01

    This manual describes graphical and mathematical procedures for preparing frequency curves from samples of hydrologic data. It also discusses the theory of frequency curves, compares advantages of graphical and mathematical fitting, suggests methods of describing graphically defined frequency curves analytically, and emphasizes the correct interpretations of a frequency curve.

  16. Kerr optical frequency combs: theory, applications and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chembo, Yanne K.

    2016-06-01

    The optical frequency comb technology is one of the most important breakthrough in photonics in recent years. This concept has revolutionized the science of ultra-stable lightwave and microwave signal generation. These combs were originally generated using ultrafast mode-locked lasers, but in the past decade, a simple and elegant alternativewas proposed,which consisted in pumping an ultra-high-Q optical resonator with Kerr nonlinearity using a continuous-wave laser. When optimal conditions are met, the intracavity pump photons are redistributed via four-wave mixing to the neighboring cavity modes, thereby creating the so-called Kerr optical frequency comb. Beyond being energy-efficient, conceptually simple, and structurally robust, Kerr comb generators are very compact devices (millimetric down to micrometric size) which can be integrated on a chip. They are, therefore, considered as very promising candidates to replace femtosecond mode-locked lasers for the generation of broadband and coherent optical frequency combs in the spectral domain, or equivalently, narrow optical pulses in the temporal domain. These combs are, moreover, expected to provide breakthroughs in many technological areas, such as integrated photonics, metrology, optical telecommunications, and aerospace engineering. The purpose of this review article is to present a comprehensive survey of the topic of Kerr optical frequency combs.We provide an overview of the main theoretical and experimental results that have been obtained so far. We also highlight the potential of Kerr combs for current or prospective applications, and discuss as well some of the open challenges that are to be met at the fundamental and applied level.

  17. Physiologically driven avian vocal synthesizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitt, Jacobo D.; Arneodo, Ezequiel M.; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2010-03-01

    In this work, we build an electronic syrinx, i.e., a programmable electronic device capable of integrating biomechanical model equations for the avian vocal organ in order to synthesize song. This vocal prosthesis is controlled by the bird’s neural instructions to respiratory and the syringeal motor systems, thus opening great potential for studying motor control and its modification by sensory feedback mechanisms. Furthermore, a well-functioning subject-controlled vocal prosthesis can lay the foundation for similar devices in humans and thus provide directly health-related data and procedures.

  18. Method of synthesizing tungsten nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Thoma, Steven G; Anderson, Travis M

    2013-02-12

    A method to synthesize tungsten nanoparticles has been developed that enables synthesis of nanometer-scale, monodisperse particles that can be stabilized only by tetrahydrofuran. The method can be used at room temperature, is scalable, and the product concentrated by standard means. Since no additives or stabilizing surfactants are required, this method is particularly well suited for producing tungsten nanoparticles for dispersion in polymers. If complete dispersion is achieved due to the size of the nanoparticles, then the optical properties of the polymer can be largely maintained.

  19. Phillips SA8016BW 2.5 GHz Synthesizer SEE Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carts, Marty; Ladbury, Ray; Marshall, Paul W.; Mackey, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Single Event Effects (SEE) testing of the Phillips SA8016BW 2.5 GHz Synthesizer that was chose by the GLAST Program for Frequency Generation. Included in this are diagrams of the phased-locked loop (PLL), the synthesizer, and heater.

  20. Synthesized Bistatic Echo Imaging Using Phased Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soumekh, Mehrdad

    1990-01-01

    An object illuminated by a source produces a scattered signal; this signal depends upon both the source and the physical properties of the object. The problem of deducing coordinates, shape and/or certain physical properties of the object from the measurements of the returned signal is an inverse problem called echo imaging. The problem of echo imaging arises in medical imaging, remote sensing (radar; sonar; geophysical exploration), and non-destructive testing. In this paper, we address the problem of imaging an object form its returned signals using a phased array. Our approach is to exploit the array's various radiation patterns and the recordable portion of the returned signal's spectrum to generate the data base for this echo imaging system. Rapid steering of a phased array's radiation patterns can be achieved electronically. These steered waves can be utilized to synthesize waves with varying angles of propagation. In this case, the recorded returned signal for each direction of propagation can be viewed as data obtained by a bistatic array configuration. We first formulate the imaging problem for a plane wave source in a bistatic configuration. We utilize the two-way propagation time and amplitude of the returned signal to relate the object's properties, reflectivity function and coordinates, to the measured data (system modeling). This relationship is the basis for deducing the object's reflectivity function from the recorded data (inverse problem). We then extend these results for an arbitrary radiation pattern and synthesized radiation patterns generated by an array capable of beam steering in cross-range. We show that the recorded returned signals can be related to the spatial frequency contents of the reflectivity function. We also show that these array processing principles can be utilized to formulate a system model and inversion for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging that incorporates wavefront curvature.

  1. BPSK optical mm-wave signal generation by septupling frequency via a single optical phase modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Peng; Ma, Jianxin

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a novel and simple scheme to generate the BPSK optical millimeter wave (MMW) signal with frequency septupling by using an optical phase modulator (PM) and a wavelength selective switch (WSS). In this scheme, the PM is driven by a radio frequency (RF) BPSK signal at the optimized modulation index of 4.89 to assure the 4th and 3rd-order sidebands have equal amplitudes. An wavelength selective switch (WSS) is used to abstract the -4th and +3rd-order sidebands from the spectrum generated by RF BPSK signal modulating the lightwave to form the BPSK optical MMW signal with frequency septupling the driving RF signal. In these two tones, only the +3rd-order sideband bears the BPSK signal while the -4th-order sideband is unmodulated since the phase information is canceled by the even times multiplication of the phase of BPSK signal. The MMW signal can avoid the pulse walk-off effect and the amplitude fading effect caused by the fiber chromatic dispersion. By adjusting the modulation index to assure the two tones have equal amplitude, the generated optical MMW signal has the maximal opto-electrical conversion efficiency and good transmission performance.

  2. Synthese de champs sonores adaptative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Philippe-Aubert

    La reproduction de champs acoustiques est une approche physique au probleme technologique de la spatialisation sonore. Cette these concerne l'aspect physique de la reproduction de champs acoustiques. L'objectif principal est l'amelioration de la reproduction de champs acoustiques par "synthese de champs acoustiques" ("Wave Field Synthesis", WFS), une approche connue, basee sur des hypotheses de champ libre, a l'aide du controle actif par l'ajout de capteurs de l'erreur de reproduction et d'une boucle fermee. Un premier chapitre technique (chapitre 4) expose les resultats d'appreciation objective de la WFS par simulations et mesures experimentales. L'effet indesirable de la salle de reproduction sur les qualites objectives de la WFS fut illustre. Une premiere question de recherche fut ensuite abordee (chapitre 5), a savoir s'il est possible de reproduire des champs progressifs en salle dans un paradigme physique de controle actif: cette possibilite fut prouvee. L'approche technique privilegiee, "synthese de champs adaptative" ("Adaptive Wave Field Synthesis" [AWFS]), fut definie, puis simulee (chapitre 6). Cette approche d'AWFS comporte une originalite en controle actif et en reproduction de champs acoustiques: la fonction cout quadratique representant la minimisation des erreurs de reproduction inclut une regularisation de Tikhonov avec solution a priori qui vient de la WFS. L'etude de l'AWFS a l'aide de la decomposition en valeurs singulieres (chapitre 7) a permis de comprendre les mecanismes propres a l'AWFS. C'est la deuxieme principale originalite de la these. L'algorithme FXLMS (LMS et reference filtree) est modifie pour l'AWFS (chapitre 8). Le decouplage du systeme par decomposition en valeurs singulieres est illustre dans le domaine du traitement de signal et l'AWFS basee sur le controle independant des modes de rayonnement est simulee (chapitre 8). Ce qui constitue la troisieme originalite principale de cette these. Ces simulations du traitement de signal

  3. Synthesizing Diamond from Liquid Feedstock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tzeng, Yonhua

    2005-01-01

    A relatively economical method of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been developed for synthesizing diamond crystals and films. Unlike prior CVD methods for synthesizing diamond, this method does not require precisely proportioned flows of compressed gas feedstocks or the use of electrical discharges to decompose the feedstocks to obtain free radicals needed for deposition chemical reactions. Instead, the feedstocks used in this method are mixtures of common organic liquids that can be prepared in advance, and decomposition of feedstock vapors is effected simply by heating. The feedstock used in this method is a solution comprising between 90 and 99 weight percent of methanol and the balance of one or more other oxyhydrocarbons that could include ethanol, isopropanol, and/or acetone. This mixture of compounds is chosen so that dissociation of molecules results in the desired proportions of carbon-containing radicals (principally, CH3) and of OH, H, and O radicals. Undesirably, the CVD temperature and pressure conditions thermodynamically favor the growth of graphite over the growth of diamond. The H radicals are desirable because they help to stabilize the growing surface of diamond by shifting the thermodynamic balance toward favoring the growth of diamond. The OH and O radicals are desirable because they preferentially etch graphite and other non-diamond carbon, thereby helping to ensure the net deposition of pure diamond. The non-methanol compounds are included in the solution because (1) methanol contains equal numbers of C and O atoms; (2) an excess of C over O is needed to obtain net deposition of diamond; and (3) the non-methanol molecules contain multiple carbon atoms for each oxygen atom and thus supply the needed excess carbon A typical apparatus used in this method includes a reservoir containing the feedstock liquid and a partially evacuated stainless-steel reaction chamber. The reservoir is connected to the chamber via tubing and a needle valve or

  4. Composites comprising biologically-synthesized nanomaterials

    DOEpatents

    Curran, Seamus; Dias, Sampath; Blau, Werner; Wang, Jun; Oremland, Ronald S; Baesman, Shaun

    2013-04-30

    The present disclosure describes composite materials containing a polymer material and a nanoscale material dispersed in the polymer material. The nanoscale materials may be biologically synthesized, such as tellurium nanorods synthesized by Bacillus selenitireducens. Composite materials of the present disclosure may have optical limiting properties and find use in optical limiting devices.

  5. Frequency spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottino-Löffler, Bertrand; Strogatz, Steven H.

    2016-09-01

    We study the dynamics of coupled phase oscillators on a two-dimensional Kuramoto lattice with periodic boundary conditions. For coupling strengths just below the transition to global phase-locking, we find localized spatiotemporal patterns that we call "frequency spirals." These patterns cannot be seen under time averaging; they become visible only when we examine the spatial variation of the oscillators' instantaneous frequencies, where they manifest themselves as two-armed rotating spirals. In the more familiar phase representation, they appear as wobbly periodic patterns surrounding a phase vortex. Unlike the stationary phase vortices seen in magnetic spin systems, or the rotating spiral waves seen in reaction-diffusion systems, frequency spirals librate: the phases of the oscillators surrounding the central vortex move forward and then backward, executing a periodic motion with zero winding number. We construct the simplest frequency spiral and characterize its properties using analytical and numerical methods. Simulations show that frequency spirals in large lattices behave much like this simple prototype.

  6. Wide-Range Filter-Based Sinusoidal Wave Synthesizer for Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Measurements.

    PubMed

    Chia-Ling Wei; Yi-Wen Wang; Bin-Da Liu

    2014-06-01

    A filter-based wide-range programmable sinusoidal wave synthesizer for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement is proposed. The adopted filter is implemented with switched-capacitor circuits, so its corner frequency is accurate and adjustable by changing its switching frequency. The proposed sine wave synthesizer is implemented by using a 0.35 μm 2P4M 3.3 V mixed-signal polycide process. According to the measured results, the output frequency of the proposed synthesizer is 40 mHz-40 kHz . The measured total harmonic distortion is 0.073% at 10 Hz and 0.075% at 10 kHz, both of which are better than that of a typical function generator. PMID:24043398

  7. Heterostructure-based high-speed/high-frequency electronic circuit applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zampardi, P. J.; Runge, K.; Pierson, R. L.; Higgins, J. A.; Yu, R.; McDermott, B. T.; Pan, N.

    1999-08-01

    With the growth of wireless and lightwave technologies, heterostructure electronic devices are commodity items in the commercial marketplace [Browne J. Power-amplifier MMICs drive commercial circuits. Microwaves & RF, 1998. p. 116-24.]. In particular, HBTs are an attractive device for handset power amplifiers at 900 MHz and 1.9 GHz for CDMA applications [Lum E. GaAs technology rides the wireless wave. Proceedings of the 1997 GaAs IC Symposium, 1997. p. 11-13; "Rockwell Ramps Up". Compound Semiconductor, May/June 1997.]. At higher frequencies, both HBTs and p-HEMTs are expected to dominate the marketplace. For high-speed lightwave circuit applications, heterostructure based products on the market for OC-48 (2.5 Gb/s) and OC-192 (10 Gb/s) are emerging [http://www.nb.rockwell.com/platforms/network_access/nahome.html#5.; http://www.nortel.com/technology/opto/receivers/ptav2.html.]. Chips that operate at 40 Gb/ have been demonstrated in a number of research laboratories [Zampardi PJ, Pierson RL, Runge K, Yu R, Beccue SM, Yu J, Wang KC. hybrid digital/microwave HBTs for >30 Gb/s optical communications. IEDM Technical Digest, 1995. p. 803-6; Swahn T, Lewin T, Mokhtari M, Tenhunen H, Walden R, Stanchina W. 40 Gb/s 3 Volt InP HBT ICs for a fiber optic demonstrator system. Proceedings of the 1996 GaAs IC Symposium, 1996. p. 125-8; Suzuki H, Watanabe K, Ishikawa K, Masuda H, Ouchi K, Tanoue T, Takeyari R. InP/InGaAs HBT ICs for 40 Gbit/s optical transmission systems. Proceedings of the 1997 GaAs IC Symposium, 1997. p. 215-8]. In addition to these two markets, another area where heterostructure devices are having significant impact is for data conversion [Walden RH. Analog-to digital convertor technology comparison. Proceedings of the 1994 GaAs IC Symposium, 1994. p. 217-9; Poulton K, Knudsen K, Corcoran J, Wang KC, Nubling RB, Chang M-CF, Asbeck PM, Huang RT. A 6-b, 4 GSa/s GaAs HBT ADC. IEEE J Solid-State Circuits 1995;30:1109-18; Nary K, Nubling R, Beccue S, Colleran W

  8. Effect of tactile vibration on annoyance to synthesized propfan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenson, S. A.

    1981-01-01

    Design information that maximizes passenger comfort for propfan aircraft is presented. Predicted noise and vibration environments and the resultant passenger acceptability were studied. The effect of high frequency tactile vibration (i.e., greater than 30 Hz) on passenger reactions was analyzed. Passenger reactions to a wide range of noise with and without tactile vibration was studied. The passenger ride quality simulator was employed using subjects who evaluated either synthesized propeller noises only, or these noises combined with seat/arm vibration. The noises ranging from 80-100 dB consisted of a turbulent boundary layer noise with a factorial combination of five blade passage frequencies (50-200 Hz), two harmonic rolloffs, and three tone/noise ratios. It is indicated that passenger reaction (annoyance) to noise is not significantly changed in the presence of tactile vibration.

  9. Noise properties of microwave signals synthesized with femtosecond lasers.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Eugene N; McFerran, John J; Diddams, Scott A; Hollberg, Leo

    2007-04-01

    We discuss various aspects of high resolution measurements of phase fluctuations at microwave frequencies. This includes methods to achieve thermal noise limited sensitivity, along with the improved immunity to oscillator amplitude noise. A few prototype measurement systems were developed to measure phase fluctuations of microwave signals extracted from the optical pulse trains generated by femtosecond lasers. This enabled first reliable measurements of the excess phase noise associated with optical-to-microwave frequency division. The spectral density of the excess phase noise was found to be -140 dBc/Hz at 100 Hz offset from the 10 GHz carrier which was almost 40 dB better than that of a high quality microwave synthesizer. PMID:17441583

  10. Frequency generation and synthesis in the DRSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanloock, P.; Devlieghere, J.

    1992-06-01

    The feasibility of a Tunable Frequency Converter (TFC) concept envisaged on board of the Data Relay System Satellites (DRSS), which requires a synthesizer with state of the art phase noise performance that is locked to a common, ultrastable oscillator, is addressed. The DRSS Ka band communication links are discussed with reference to the DRS system and the TCF. The aim is to provide an autonomous TCF unit demonstrating that the advanced channel selection scheme, with all frequency translations locked to one common reference, is feasible. Concept tradeoff and key elements of the frequency synthesizer are outlined. White noise filtering and reference frequency selection of the reference generator are discussed. The TFC unit allows payload reconfigurability via the frequency setting. The concept is extendable to all TFC types on board of the DRSS.

  11. Subnanometer Palladium Particles Synthesized by Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Hao P.; Libera, Joseph A.; Stair, Peter C.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2011-06-03

    Monodispersed palladium nanoparticle catalysts were synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using alternating exposures of Pd hexafluoroacetylacetonate (Pd(hfac)₂) and formalin on an alumina support. The size of the ALD Pd particles could be tuned by adjusting the preparation conditions. Conventional ALD conditions produced Pd particles with an average size of 1.4 nm. Removal of surface hydroxyls from the alumina support by a chemical treatment using trimethyl aluminum (TMA) before performing Pd ALD led to nanoparticles larger than 2 nm. Ultrasmall (subnanometer) Pd particles were synthesized using low-temperature metal precursor exposures, followed by applying protective ALD alumina overcoats. The ALD Pd particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy techniques. The Pd loadings were measured by X-ray fluorescence. The catalytic performance of ALD Pd particles of different sizes was compared in the methanol decomposition reaction. The specific activity (normalized by Pd loading) of the ultrasmall Pd particles was higher than those of the larger particles. Considering the metal dispersion factor, the turnover frequency (TOF) of the ultrasmall Pd particles is comparable to that of the medium-sized (1.4 nm, on average) Pd particles synthesized under standard ALD conditions. The large Pd particles (>2 nm) are a factor of 2 less active than the smaller Pd particles.

  12. Freestanding doped silicon nanocrystals synthesized by plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Zhenyi; Pi, Xiaodong; Ali, Muhammad; Zhou, Shu; Nozaki, Tomohiro; Yang, Deren

    2015-08-01

    Freestanding silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) have recently gained great popularity largely due to their easily accessible surface and flexible incorporation into device structures. In the past decade plasmas have been increasingly employed to synthesize freestanding Si NCs. As freestanding Si NCs move closer to applications in a variety of fields such as electronics, thermoelectrics and lithium-ion batteries, doping becomes more imperative. Such a context explains the current great interest in plasma-synthesized doped freestanding Si NCs. In this work we review the synthesis of freestanding doped Si NCs by plasma. Doping-induced structural, electronic, optical and oxidation properties of Si NCs are discussed. We also review the applications of plasma-synthesized doped freestanding Si NCs that have been demonstrated so far. The development of freestanding doped Si NCs synthesized by plasma in the future is envisioned.

  13. ORGANIC SYNTHESES USING MICROWAVES AND SUPPORTED REAGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-accelerated chemical syntheses under solvent-free conditions have witnessed an explosive growth. The technique has found widespread application predominantly exploiting the inexpensive unmodified household microwave (MW) ovens although the use of dedicated MW equipment...

  14. Microwave synthesizer using an on-chip Brillouin oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiang; Lee, Hansuek; Vahala, Kerry J.

    2013-06-01

    Low-phase-noise microwave oscillators are important to a wide range of subjects, including communications, radar and metrology. Photonic-based microwave-wave sources now provide record, close-to-carrier phase-noise performance, and compact sources using microcavities are available commercially. Photonics-based solutions address a challenging scaling problem in electronics, increasing attenuation with frequency. A second scaling challenge, however, is to maintain low phase noise in reduced form factor and even integrated systems. On this second front, there has been remarkable progress in the area of microcavity devices with large storage time (high optical quality factor). Here we report generation of highly coherent microwaves using a chip-based device that derives stability from high optical quality factor. The device has a record low electronic white-phase-noise floor for a microcavity-based oscillator and is used as the optical, voltage-controlled oscillator in the first demonstration of a photonic-based, microwave frequency synthesizer. The synthesizer performance is comparable to mid-range commercial devices.

  15. Introduction to the special issue on the 2011 Joint IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and European Frequency and Time Forum.

    PubMed

    Burt, Eric; Gill, Patrick

    2012-03-01

    The 8 invited and 17 contributed papers in this special issue focus on the following topical areas covered at the 2011 Joint IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and European Frequency and Time Forum, held in San Francisco, California: 1) Materials and Resonators; 2) Oscillators, Synthesizers, and Noise; 3) Microwave Frequency Standards; 4) Sensors and Transducers; 5) Timekeeping and Time and Frequency Transfer; and 6) Optical Frequency Standards. PMID:22481765

  16. A Biochemical Magic Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1993-01-01

    Life is composed principally of four classes of biomolecules - protein, nucleic acid, polysaccharide and lipid. Using 1) estimates of the reducing equivalents (electron pairs) needed to synthesize these biomolecules from carbon dioxide, and 2) measurements of the molecular composition of different organisms, we calculated the average number of electron pairs required for the reduction of carbon dioxide to biological carbon (electron pairs/carbon atom). These calculations showed that the carbon of the Earths biosphere is at the reduction level of formaldehyde that requires 2 electron pairs/carbon atom to be synthesized from carbon dioxide. This was also the reduction level of carbon of individual organisms, except for those that stored large amounts of fuel as lipid. Since this chemical property of life is easily discovered and probably universal, it's most likely known by other intelligent life in the universe. It could be the one thing we know about other carbon-based life in the universe, and the one thing that other intelligent life knows about us. We believe this common knowledge that formaldehyde represents the reduction level of life's carbon could lead to the selection of the 72.83814 GHz line of the 0,0,0,1,0,1 ground-state rotational transition of formaldehyde as a frequency for interstellar communication.

  17. Large-capacity multiplexing of near-identical weak fiber Bragg gratings using frequency-shifted interferometry.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yiwen; Zhou, Ciming; Qian, Li; Fan, Dian; Cheng, Chunfu; Guo, Huiyong

    2015-11-30

    We demonstrate interrogation of a large-capacity sensor array with nearly identical weak fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) based on frequency-shifted interferometry (FSI). In contrast to time-division multiplexing, FSI uses continuous-wave light and therefore requires no pulse modulation or high-speed detection/acquisition. FSI utilizes a frequency shifter in the Sagnac interferometer to encode sensor location information into the relative phase between the clock-wise and counter-clockwise propagating lightwaves. Sixty-five weak FBGs with reflectivities in the range of -31 ~-34 dB and with near identical peak reflection wavelengths around 1555 nm at room temperature were interrogated simultaneously. Temperature sensing was conducted and the average measurement accuracy of the peak wavelengths was ± 3.9 pm, corresponding to a temperature resolution of ± 0.4 °C. Our theoretical analysis taking into account of detector noise, fiber loss, and sensor cross-talk noise shows that there exists an optimal reflectivity that maximizes multiplexing capacity. The multiplexing capacity can reach 3000 with the corresponding sensing range of 30 km, when the peak reflectivity of each grating is -40 dB, the sensor separation 10 m and the source power 14 mW. Experimental results and theoretical analysis reveal that FSI has distinct cost and speed advantages in multiplexing large-scale FBG networks. PMID:26698773

  18. Monitoring system for a synthesizer at SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility and obtained results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Y.; Ego, H.; Hara, M.; Ohashi, Y.; Ohshima, T.; Takao, M.; Takashima, T.

    2013-02-01

    Beam orbit distortion in all dispersive sections was observed in the SPring-8 storage ring during beam commissioning. In order to confirm the stability of the radio frequency (RF) synthesizer, a monitoring system was developed. The system consists of a frequency counter referenced to a global positioning system (GPS) receiver. With this system, the output of the synthesizer, which uses an external 10 MHz-Rubidium atomic clock with the time accuracy of Δt/t=10-12, is correctly monitored with 11 digits absolute accuracy, verifying that the synthesizer works well. Measurement of the circumference of the SPring-8 storage ring reveals the effect of tidal forces and seasonal temperature variations on beam orbit. To maintain the center axis of photon radiation in experimental beam lines, a beam energy correction is carried out. The frequency of the RF synthesizer is changed every 5 min with 10-digit accuracy. This corresponds to an energy accuracy of ΔE/E=1.16×10-6. The monitoring system for the synthesizer and obtained results are described.

  19. Development of automatic hologram synthesizer for medical use II: hologram synthesizing machine and viewer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masane; Saito, Takayuki

    1992-05-01

    Hologram synthesizing machine as a key component of the automatic hologram synthesizer is developed. Hologram synthesizing machine creates cylindrical multiplex holograms with 400 mm diameter from images displayed on liquid crystal SLM or images on 35 mm cine film. The machine consists of a main body, a controller, and a film processing machine, and performs synthesis and chemical processing of hologram automatically within 4 hours. A viewer which reconstructs original images from a synthesized hologram is also developed. In addition to reconstruction of images, the viewer also can point and measure images.

  20. Sintering effects on structure, morphology, and electrical properties of sol-gel synthesized, nano-crystalline erbium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhsh, Allah; Maqsood, Asghari

    2012-12-01

    The nano-crystalline erbium oxide powder was synthesized through the sol-gel technique. The effect of sintering temperature from 250°C to 1400°C on structure, morphology, and electrical properties was studied. The results were compared with the microcrystalline erbium oxide purchased from the market. The synthesized erbium oxide showed fiber like nanostructures. Dielectric properties at different sintering temperatures were measured in the frequency range 100 Hz to 5MHz. The synthesized erbium oxide had the highest dielectric constant at 650°C. The behavior of the dissipation factor tan δ for sol-gel synthesized material was distinct from that of the purchased material; it was higher at low frequencies and then decreased with the increase in frequency. The synthesized material sintered at different temperatures exhibited a similar sort of frequency-dependent response for permittivity (ɛ) and resistivity ( ρ). This was in accordance with Koop's theory of dielectrics. For the microcrystalline material, frequency dependence of permittivity and resistivity was not uniform. The results showed that sol-gel synthesized erbium oxide could be a good candidate for high-k applications.

  1. Radiolytic syntheses of nanoparticles in supramolecular assemblies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingde; Shen, Xinghai; Gao, Hongcheng

    2010-08-11

    Ionizing radiation is a powerful method in the syntheses of nanoparticles (NPs). The application of ionizing radiation in supramolecular assemblies can afford us more unique conditions to control the composition and morphology of the NPs. So far, most work focused on water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsions or reversed micelles. In this supramolecular organization, it has been proved that the effects of many conditions on the yield of e(aq)(-) play a key role, remarkably different from the mechanism in routine chemical method. Besides, some supramolecular assemblies of cyclodextrins and ionic liquids have been used in the syntheses of NPs by ionizing radiation, and many novel and interesting phenomena appeared. This review is intended to underline the three significant aspects of the radiolytic syntheses of NPs in supramolecular assemblies. PMID:20653087

  2. Total Syntheses of Periconiasins A-E.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chong; Lei, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Yuanhao; Dong, Zhen; Liu, Gang; Tang, Yefeng

    2016-06-01

    The first and collective total syntheses of periconiasins A-E, a group of naturally occurring cytochalasans, were achieved by a series of rationally designed or bioinspired transformations. Salient features of the syntheses include a tandem aldol condensation/Grob fragmentation to assemble the linear polyketide-amino acid hybrid precursor, a Diels-Alder macrocylization to construct the 9/6/5 tricyclic core of periconiasins A-C, and a transannular carbonyl-ene reaction to forge the polycyclic framework of periconiasins D and E. PMID:27121397

  3. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A low-spurious fast-hopping MB-OFDM UWB synthesizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danfeng, Chen; Wei, Li; Ning, Li; Junyan, Ren

    2010-06-01

    A frequency synthesizer for the ultra-wide band (UWB) group #1 is proposed. The synthesizer uses a phase-locked loop (PLL) and single-sideband (SSB) mixers to generate the three center frequencies of the first band group by mixing 4224 MHz with ±264 MHz and 792 MHz, respectively. A novel multi-QSSB mixer is designed to combine the function of frequency selection and frequency conversion for low power and high linearity. The synthesizer is fabricated in Jazz 0.18-μm RF CMOS technology. The measured reference spur is as low as -69 dBc and the maximum spur is the LO leakage of -32 dBc. A low phase noise of -110 dBc/Hz @ 1 MHz offset and an integrated phase noise of 1.86° are achieved. The hopping time between different bands is less than 1.8 ns. The synthesizer consumes 30 mA from a 1.8 V supply.

  4. Synthesize, Synthesize, Synthesize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Susan Monroe, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Focusing on synthesis--the ability to recognize and create new ideas that subsume and relate to others--as one of the most sophisticated skills writers can attain, the articles in this journal present many ideas for teaching synthesis and a number of classroom approaches that combine the study of English with other fields. The following titles and…

  5. Low frequency AC waveform generator

    DOEpatents

    Bilharz, Oscar W.

    1986-01-01

    Low frequency sine, cosine, triangle and square waves are synthesized in circuitry which allows variation in the waveform amplitude and frequency while exhibiting good stability and without requiring significant stabilization time. A triangle waveform is formed by a ramped integration process controlled by a saturation amplifier circuit which produces the necessary hysteresis for the triangle waveform. The output of the saturation circuit is tapped to produce the square waveform. The sine waveform is synthesized by taking the absolute value of the triangular waveform, raising this absolute value to a predetermined power, multiplying the raised absolute value of the triangle wave with the triangle wave itself and properly scaling the resultant waveform and subtracting it from the triangular waveform itself. The cosine is synthesized by squaring the triangular waveform, raising the triangular waveform to a predetermined power and adding the squared waveform raised to the predetermined power with a DC reference and subtracting the squared waveform therefrom, with all waveforms properly scaled. The resultant waveform is then multiplied with a square wave in order to correct the polarity and produce the resultant cosine waveform.

  6. Dielectric relaxations investigation of a synthesized epoxy resin polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jilani, Wissal; Mzabi, Nissaf; Gallot-Lavallée, Olivier; Fourati, Najla; Zerrouki, Chouki; Zerrouki, Rachida; Guermazi, Hajer

    2015-04-01

    A diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy resin was synthesized, and cured with 3,3'-diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS) at a curing temperature of 120 °C. The relaxation properties of the realized polymers were studied by two complementary techniques: dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS), in the temperature range 173-393K and in the frequency interval 10-1-106 Hz, and thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) with a windowing polarization process. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were also carried out to study interfacial relaxations. Dielectric data were analyzed in terms of permittivity and electric modulus variations. Three relaxation processes ( γ, β and α) have been identified. They were found to be frequency and temperature dependent and were interpreted in terms of the Havriliak-Negami approach. Relaxation parameters were determined by fitting the experimental data. The temperature dependence of the relaxation time was well fitted by the Arrhenius law for secondary relaxations, while the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamann model was found to better fit the τ( T) variations for α relaxation. We found τ 0 = 4.9 10-12 s, 9.6 10-13 s and 1.98 10-7 s for γ, β and α relaxations, respectively. The obtained results were found to be consistent with those reported in the literature. Due to the calculation of the low-frequency data of dielectric loss by the Hamon approximation, the Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars (MWS) relaxation was highlighted.

  7. The measurement of optical frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollberg, L.; Diddams, S.; Bartels, A.; Fortier, T.; Kim, K.

    2005-06-01

    Surprising as it might seem, it is possible to phase-coherently track, synthesize, count and divide optical frequencies of visible laser sources. In essence, the technologies described here now allow direct connection of basically any frequency from DC to 1000 THz. Modern 'self-referenced' femtosecond mode-locked lasers have enormously simplified the required technology. These revolutionary new systems build on a long history of optical frequency metrology that spans from the early days of the laser. The latest systems rely heavily on technologies previously developed for laser frequency stabilization, optical phase-locked-loops, nonlinear mixing, ultra-fast optics and precision opto-electronic metrology. Using examples we summarize some of the heroic efforts that led to the successful development of harmonic optical frequency chains. Those systems played critical roles in defining the speed of light and in redefining the metre. We then describe the present state-of-the-art technology in femtosecond laser frequency combs, their extraordinary performance capabilities and some of the latest results.

  8. Synthesizing Diacetylenes With Nonlinear Optical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, Samuel P.; Frazier, Donald P.; Paley, Mark S.

    1993-01-01

    Diacetylene compounds being investigated to determine whether they have nonlinear optical properties making them useful for four-wave mixing, generation of third harmonics, phase conjugation, and like. Diacetylene monomers synthesized by sequences of chemical reactions. Monomers polymerized by ultraviolet light, forming potentially useful nonlinear optical materials.

  9. Evaluating Text-to-Speech Synthesizers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoso, Walcir; Smith, George; Fuentes, Cesar Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Text-To-Speech (TTS) synthesizers have piqued the interest of researchers for their potential to enhance the L2 acquisition of writing (Kirstein, 2006), vocabulary and reading (Proctor, Dalton, & Grisham, 2007) and pronunciation (Cardoso, Collins, & White, 2012; Soler-Urzua, 2011). Despite their proven effectiveness, there is a need for…

  10. Issues in Synthesizing Research in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Richard; Harlen, Wynne

    2006-01-01

    Background: Systematic reviews of educational research require synthesis of the results from a range of studies. When these studies are diverse in nature and methodological approach, synthesis can be problematic. Purpose: To offer a critique of the process of synthesizing systematic reviews by considering the stages of the process and the problems…

  11. Method and apparatus for synthesizing filamentary structures

    DOEpatents

    Height, Murray J.; Howard, Jack B.; Vandersande, John B.

    2008-02-26

    Method and apparatus for producing filamentary structures. The structures include single-walled nanotubes. The method includes combusting hydrocarbon fuel and oxygen to establish a non-sooting flame and providing an unsupported catalyst to synthesize the filamentary structure in a post-flame region of the flame. Residence time is selected to favor filamentary structure growth.

  12. Syntheses of novel substituted-boranophosphate nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Vyakaranam, Kamesh; Rana, Geeta; Spielvogel, Bernard F; Maguire, John A; Hosmane, Narayan S

    2002-01-01

    A number of substituted (borano) nucleic acids, 3'-[diethylphosphite(cyano, carboxy, or carbamoyl) borano] deoxynucleosides (3a-4c) and 5'-[diethylphosphite(cyano or carboxy) borano] deoxynucleosides (6a-7d) were prepared by a variety of synthetic procedures. The syntheses of the pyrophosphates (2a-2c), as precursors for 3a-4c, are also described. PMID:12484452

  13. Syntheses of Arnottin I and Arnottin II

    PubMed Central

    Moschitto, Matthew J.; Anthony, David R.; Lewis, Chad A.

    2015-01-01

    Short total syntheses of arnottin I and II were accomplished in 5 and 6 steps, respectively. A sesamol-benzyne cycloaddition with a 3-furyl-benzoate followed by regiospecific lactonization provided rapid, large-scale access to the core of arnottin I. Saponification of arnottin I and hypervalent iodide mediated spirocyclization provided an efficient and direct preparation of racemic arnottin II. PMID:25748275

  14. Rheological measurements in titania gels synthesized from reverse micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, S. D.; Kurlat, D. H.

    2000-06-01

    TiO 2 sol and gel systems have been synthesized by hydrolysis of titanium butoxide in microemulsions W/O. Different systems compositions were prepared at constant Wo=[H 2O]/[AOT] and changing R=[H 2O]/[Ti(BuO) 4]. Experimental measurements show a progressive increase of the viscosity with time, characteristic of a sol-gel transition. The rheology of the transition was studied by following the behavior of viscoelastic parameters ( G', G″ and η*) as a function of time at different frequencies. The possibility to apply standard percolation theory was discussed. The application of two alternative growth models — either `fractal growth model' or `nearly linear growth model' — has been analysed.

  15. A PLL Synthesizer with Learning Repeatable Fluctuation of Input Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Hiroyuki

    This paper describes a high frequency PLL (Phase Locked Loop) synthesizer with a function of learning then eliminating repeatable fluctuation of timing intervals on series input pulses. Typical spindle encoder generates digital pulses according to the revolution speed. The intervals of each pulse have repeatable fluctuation every revolution by eccentricity or warpage of the encoder scale disk. This method provides a programmable counter for the loop counter of PLL circuit and an interval counter with memory in order to learn the repeatable fluctuation. After the learning process, the PLL generates very pure tone clock signal based on the real flutter components of the spindle revolution speed without influenced by encoder errors. This method has been applied to a hard disk test system in order to generate 3GHz read/write clock.

  16. A new approach for synthesizing dual reflector antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittra, R.; Hyjazie, F.; Galindo-Israel, V.

    It is pointed out that the offset geometry for dual reflector antennas is attractive for satellite communications where low side lobes are necessary to achieve good isolation between adjacent main lobes operating over the same frequency band. A description is presented of a new, numerically rigorous technique for synthesizing dual offset reflectors. The objective of the synthesis procedure is to transform a given primary feed pattern into a desired aperture distribution through two reflections in an offset dual reflector system. It is found that a given specification for the aperture distribution does not always lead to a smooth solution for the two surfaces. In this event, the so-called energy condition on the specified amplitude distribution is relaxed, and an approximate solution which satisfies the energy condition only within a certain numerical tolerance is derived.

  17. A new approach for synthesizing dual reflector antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittra, R.; Hyjazie, F.; Galindo-Israel, V.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that the offset geometry for dual reflector antennas is attractive for satellite communications where low side lobes are necessary to achieve good isolation between adjacent main lobes operating over the same frequency band. A description is presented of a new, numerically rigorous technique for synthesizing dual offset reflectors. The objective of the synthesis procedure is to transform a given primary feed pattern into a desired aperture distribution through two reflections in an offset dual reflector system. It is found that a given specification for the aperture distribution does not always lead to a smooth solution for the two surfaces. In this event, the so-called energy condition on the specified amplitude distribution is relaxed, and an approximate solution which satisfies the energy condition only within a certain numerical tolerance is derived.

  18. Discrimination of synthesized English vowels by American and Korean listeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Byunggon

    2001-05-01

    This study explored the discrimination of synthesized English vowel pairs by 27 American and Korean, male and female listeners. The average formant values of nine monophthongs produced by ten American English male speakers were employed to synthesize the vowels. Then, subjects were instructed explicitly to respond to AX discrimination tasks in which the standard vowel was followed by another one with the increment or decrement of the original formant values. The highest and lowest formant values of the same vowel quality were collected and compared to examine patterns of vowel discrimination. Results showed that the American and Korean groups discriminated the vowel pairs almost identically and their center formant frequency values of the high and low boundary fell almost exactly on those of the standards. In addition, the acceptable range of the same vowel quality was similar among the language and gender groups. The acceptable thresholds of each vowel formed an oval to maintain perceptual contrast from adjacent vowels. Pedagogical implications of those findings are discussed.

  19. Controlled oscillator system with a time dependent output frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkelstein, R. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A controlled oscillator system is presented for providing an output with a frequency which changes with respect to time and with a phase which is within established phase error limits. The system includes a frequency synthesizer with a symmetrical search oscillator, capable of tuning the output with a range of + or - 100 Hz about any fixed frequency to which the synthesizer is set. For a tuning range of 200 Hz (+ or - 100 Hz) an expanded search oscillator output of a frequency range of 4 MHz (from 1 MHz to 5 MHz) is provided. A counter counts continuously the expanded output cycles and at each of fixed sampling intervals, for every 0.1 second, the count or number accumulated in the counter is read out. The sample number is compared with a theoretical number which should be present in the counter at the particular sampling instant for proper synthesizer's output frequency and phase.

  20. Including the Group Quarters Population in the US Synthesized Population Database

    PubMed Central

    Chasteen, Bernadette M.; Wheaton, William D.; Cooley, Philip C.; Ganapathi, Laxminarayana; Wagener, Diane K.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, RTI International researchers developed methods to generate synthesized population data on US households for the US Synthesized Population Database. These data are used in agent-based modeling, which simulates large-scale social networks to test how changes in the behaviors of individuals affect the overall network. Group quarters are residences where individuals live in close proximity and interact frequently. Although the Synthesized Population Database represents the population living in households, data for the nation’s group quarters residents are not easily quantified because of US Census Bureau reporting methods designed to protect individuals’ privacy. Including group quarters population data can be an important factor in agent-based modeling because the number of residents and the frequency of their interactions are variables that directly affect modeling results. Particularly with infectious disease modeling, the increased frequency of agent interaction may increase the probability of infectious disease transmission between individuals and the probability of disease outbreaks. This report reviews our methods to synthesize data on group quarters residents to match US Census Bureau data. Our goal in developing the Group Quarters Population Database was to enable its use with RTI’s US Synthesized Population Database in the Modeling of Infectious Diseases Agent Study. PMID:21841972

  1. (m.n)-Homorubins. Syntheses and Structures

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, William P.

    2014-01-01

    Five new homorubin analogs of bilirubin with their two dipyrrinone components conjoined to (CH2)2, (CH2)3, and (CH2)4 units were synthesized with propionic acid chains shortened to acetic and elongated to butyric, and examined by spectroscopy and molecular mechanics computations for an ability to form conformation-determining hydrogen bonds. With m designating the number of conjoining CH2 units and n indicating the number of CH2 units of the alkanoic acid chains of (m.n)-homorubins, (2.1), (3.2), (4.2), and (4.3) homorubins were prepared and compared with previously synthesized (2.2) and (2.3), which adopt intramolecularly hydrogen bonded conformations in CHCl3. PMID:25544780

  2. Syntheses and studies of organosilicon compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, R.

    1999-02-12

    The syntheses of polycarbosilanes and polysilanes as silicon carbide ceramic precursors have been active research areas in the Barton Research Group. In this thesis, the work is focused on the preparation of polycarbosilanes and polysilanes as stoichiometric silicon carbide precursor polymers. The syntheses of the precursor polymers are discussed and the conversions of these precursors to silicon carbide via pyrolysis are reported. The XRD pattern and elemental analyses of the resulting silicon carbide ceramics are presented. Silicon monoxide is an important intermediate in the production of silicon metal. The existence of silicon monoxide in gap phase has been widely accepted. In the second part of this thesis, the generation of gaseous silicon monoxide in four different reactors and the reactions of gaseous silicon monoxide towards organic compounds are discussed.

  3. Gene Assembly from Chip-Synthesized Oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Eroshenko, Nikolai; Kosuri, Sriram; Marblestone, Adam H; Conway, Nicholas; Church, George M.

    2012-01-01

    De novo synthesis of long double-stranded DNA constructs has a myriad of applications in biology and biological engineering. However, its widespread adoption has been hindered by high costs. Cost can be significantly reduced by using oligonucleotides synthesized on high-density DNA chips. However, most methods for using off-chip DNA for gene synthesis have failed to scale due to the high error rates, low yields, and high chemical complexity of the chip-synthesized oligonucleotides. We have recently demonstrated that some commercial DNA chip manufacturers have improved error rates, and that the issues of chemical complexity and low yields can be solved by using barcoded primers to accurately and efficiently amplify subpools of oligonucleotides. This article includes protocols for computationally designing the DNA chip, amplifying the oligonucleotide subpools, and assembling 500-800 basepair (bp) constructs. PMID:25077042

  4. The microprocessor-based synthesizer controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wick, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    Implementation and performance of the microprocessor-based controllers and Dana Digiphase Synthesizer (DCO) installed in the Deep Space Network exciter in the 64-meter and 34-meter subnets to support uplink tuning required for the Voyager-Saturn Encounter is discussed. Test data in tests conducted during the production of the controllers verified the design objective for phase control accuracy of 10 to the - 12 power cycles in eight hours during ramping. Tests conducted require a phase error between a theoretical calculated value and the actual phase of no greater than + or - 1 cycle. Tests included (1) a ramp over a period of eight hours using a ramp rate which covers the synthesizer tuning range (40-51 MHz) and (2) a ramp sequence using the maximum rate (+ or kHz/s) over the tuning range.

  5. Genome Mining for Ribosomally Synthesized Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Velásquez, Juan E.; van der Donk, Wilfred

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the number of known peptide natural products that are synthesized via the ribosomal pathway has rapidly grown. Taking advantage of sequence homology among genes encoding precursor peptides or biosynthetic proteins, in silico mining of genomes combined with molecular biology approaches has guided the discovery of a large number of new ribosomal natural products, including lantipeptides, cyanobactins, linear thiazole/oxazole-containing peptides, microviridins, lasso peptides, amatoxins, cyclotides, and conopeptides. In this review, we describe the strategies used for the identification of these ribosomally-synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs) and the structures of newly identified compounds. The increasing number of chemical entities and their remarkable structural and functional diversity may lead to novel pharmaceutical applications. PMID:21095156

  6. Traceability of laser frequency/wavelength calibration through the frequency comb at Inmetro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, I. L. M.; Couceiro, I. B.; Torres, M. A. C.; Costa, P. A.; Grieneisen, H. P. H.

    2016-07-01

    The acquisition of a femtosecond laser comb by the Optical Metrology Division of Inmetro now allows for carrying out high precision calibrations of optical frequencies for lasers which are used as standards of the length unit with gauge block interferometers. The frequency comb is operated as an optical frequency synthesizer and is presently linked to the time unit by a 10 MHz oscillator which is disciplined by GPS. Laser frequencies are determined with accuracy in the range of few parts in 1012. This measurement method now links the length unit, meter, to the SI-second attending the recommendation by the BIPM.

  7. Nanocrystalline diamond synthesized from C60

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrovinskaia, N.; Dubrovinsky, L.; Langehorst, F.; Jacobsen, S.; Liebske, C.

    2010-11-30

    A bulk sample of nanocrystalline cubic diamond with crystallite sizes of 5-12 nm was synthesized from fullerene C{sub 60} at 20(1) GPa and 2000 C using a multi-anvil apparatus. The new material is at least as hard as single crystal diamond. It was found that nanocrystalline diamond at high temperature and ambient pressure kinetically is more stable with respect to graphitization than usual diamonds.

  8. Method of synthesizing a low density material

    DOEpatents

    Lorensen, L.E.; Monaco, S.B.

    1987-02-27

    A novel method of synthesizing a polymeric material of low density of the order of 50mg/cc or less. Such a low density material has applications in many areas including laser target fabrication. The method comprises preparing a polymer blend of two incompatible polymers as a major and a minor phase by mixing them and extruding the mixture, and then selectively extracting the major component, to yield a fine, low density structure.

  9. Method for synthesizing ultrafine powder materials

    DOEpatents

    Buss, Richard J.; Ho, Pauline

    1988-01-01

    A method for synthesizing ultrafine powder materials, for example, ceramic and metal powders, comprises admitting gaseous reactants from which the powder material is to be formed into a vacuum reaction chamber maintained at a pressure less than atmospheric and at a temperature less than about 400.degree. K. (127.degree.C.). The gaseous reactants are directed through a glow discharge provided in the vacuum reaction chamber to form the ultrafine powder material.

  10. Shock Syntheses of Novel Nitrides and Biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, Toshimori

    2013-06-01

    High-pressure spinel nitride of Si3N4 was discovered more than 10 years ago. Since then there have been many studies on the spinel nitrides and related materials including oxynitrides. We have developed shock synthesis method to investigate their structural, mechanical, chemical, physical, and optical properties. At the same time we tried to synthesize carbon nitrides from the organic substances. And later we extended to shock synthesis of ammonia through the Haber-Bosch reaction under shock in order to apply geochemical subjects related to the origin of life. The simplest amino acid of glycine, as well as animes (up to propylamine) and carboxylic acids (up to pentanoic acid), has been synthesized successfully in aqueous solutions through meteoritic impact reactions. Recently we are trying to make more complex biomolecules for implications of biomolecule formation for the origin of life through meteorite impacts on early Earth's ocean. These results of shock syntheses may imply significant contributions to materials science and Earth and planetary sciences. This research is collaborated with National Institute for Materials Science and Tohoku University.

  11. Wax ester-synthesizing activity of lipases.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, T; Sumiyoshi, M; Okuda, H

    1999-11-01

    The synthesis/hydrolysis of wax esters was studied in an aqueous solution using purified rat pancreatic lipase, porcine pancreatic carboxylester lipase, and Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase. The equilibrium between wax ester synthesis and hydrolysis favored ester formation at neutral pH. The synthesizing activities were measured using free fatty acid or triacylglycerol as the acyl donor and an equimolar amount of long-chain alcohol as the acyl acceptor. When oleic acid and hexadecanol emulsified with gum arabic were incubated with these lipases, wax ester was synthesized, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and the apparent equilibrium ratio of palmityl oleate/free oleic acid was about 0.9/0.1. These lipases catalyzed the hydrolysis of palmityl oleate emulsified with gum arabic, and the apparent equilibrium ratio of palmityl oleate/free oleic acid was also about 0.9/0.1. The apparent equilibrium ratio of wax ester/free fatty acid catalyzed by lipase depended on incubation pH and fatty alcohol chain length. When equimolar amounts of trioleoylglycerol and fatty acyl alcohol were incubated with pancreatic lipase, carboxylester lipase, or P. fluorescens lipase, wax esters were synthesized dose-dependently. These results suggest that lipases can catalyze the synthesis of wax esters from free fatty acids or through degradation of triacylglycerol in an aqueous medium. PMID:10606038

  12. Syntheses and studies of acetylenic polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Yiwei, Ding

    1994-03-03

    Based on new diiodo aryl compounds a series of novel soluble polymers, poly(2,5-dialkoxy-1,4-phenyleneethynylene)s (PPE polymers) were synthesized using palladium-catalysis. The molecular weights (MW) range from 8,000 to 40,000. Properties such as absorption, fluorescence, and conductivity were studied. A PPE polymer with butoxy side chain exhibits a weak electrical conductivity ({sigma} = 10{sup {minus}3} S/cm) after doping with AsF{sub 5}. Absorption spectra in THF solution at room temperature (RT) show a maximum at 440 nm. However, absorption spectra of PPE polymers in the film state at (RT) show a maximum at 480 nm. PPE polymer-based light emitting diode (LED) devices have been prepared; greenish light from these LED devices can be observed. Poly(ethynylene-p-arylene-ethynylene-silylene)s were synthesized through the same palladium-catalyzed polymerization; MWs are between 6,000 and 82,000. Absorption and fluorescence were studied. Some of these polymers exhibit thermotropic liquid crystalline properties. In addition, nonlinear optical properties were briefly examined. Poly(silylene-ethynylene) homopolymers as well as alternating copolymers were synthesized through a novel palladium-catalyzed polymerization; MWs range from 56 {times} 10{sup 3} to 5.3 {times} 10{sup 3}. Thermal stability of these was also investigated; char yields range from 56 to 83%. One of these polymers exhibits thermotropic liquid crystalline properties.

  13. Method of synthesizing cubic system boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Yuzu, S.; Sumiya, H.; Degawa, J.

    1987-10-13

    A method is described for synthetically growing cubic system boron nitride crystals by using boron nitride sources, solvents for dissolving the boron nitride sources, and seed crystals under conditions of ultra-high pressure and high temperature for maintaining the cubic system boron nitride stable. The method comprises the following steps: preparing a synthesizing vessel having at least two chambers, arrayed in order in the synthesizing vessel so as to be heated according to a temperature gradient; placing the solvents having different eutectic temperatures in each chamber with respect to the boron nitride sources according to the temperature gradient; placing the boron nitride source in contact with a portion of each of the solvents heated at a relatively higher temperature and placing at least a seed crystal in a portion of each of the solvents heated at a relatively lower temperature; and growing at least one cubic system boron nitride crystal in each of the solvents in the chambers by heating the synthesizing vessel for establishing the temperature gradient while maintaining conditions of ultra-high pressure and high temperature.

  14. Computer program for network synthesis by frequency response fit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, S.

    1967-01-01

    Computer program synthesizes a passive network by minimizing the difference in desired and actual frequency response. The program solves for the critical points of the error function /weighted least squares fit between calculated and desired frequency response/ by the multivariable Newton-Raphson method with components constrained to an admissible region.

  15. A new approach to synthesize nano WC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harjinder; Pandey, O. P.

    2013-06-01

    Tungsten carbide (WC) is extensively used in cutting and mining tools, dies and in wear resistance parts. The recent application of WC as electrocatalyst in fuel cells to replace costly nobel metal platinum (Pt) has further increased its demand. Its catalytic and mechanical properties are improved with the reduction of particle size in a nanometric range. The nano WC is synthesized from the pure precursor(s) which makes its production costly. In this work, we report a new process to get nano WC directly from the scheelite (CaWO4) ore. The powders were characterized by XRD, SEM and HRTEM.

  16. Evaluating and synthesizing broadcasting satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knouse, G. H.

    1974-01-01

    A system model and a computer program have been developed which are representative of broadcasting satellite systems employing several types of receiving terminals. The program provides a user-oriented tool for (1) evaluating performance/cost tradeoffs, (2) synthesizing minimum cost systems for a given set of system requirements, and (3) performing sensitivity analyses to identify critical user requirements, system parameters, and technology. The types of systems which can be evaluated are described, and the capabilities of the program are illustrated by means of several examples.

  17. Analog synthesized fast-variable linear load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, Janis M.

    1991-01-01

    A several kilowatt power level, fast-variable linear resistor was synthesized by using analog components to control the conductance of power MOSFETs. Risetimes observed have been as short as 500 ns with respect to the control signal and 1 to 2 microseconds with respect to the power source voltage. A variant configuration of this load that dissipates a constant power set by a control signal is indicated. Replacement of the MOSFETs by static induction transistors (SITs) to increase power handling, speed and radiation hardness is discussed.

  18. Low frequency ac waveform generator

    DOEpatents

    Bilharz, O.W.

    1983-11-22

    Low frequency sine, cosine, triangle and square waves are synthesized in circuitry which allows variation in the waveform amplitude and frequency while exhibiting good stability and without requiring significant stablization time. A triangle waveform is formed by a ramped integration process controlled by a saturation amplifier circuit which produces the necessary hysteresis for the triangle waveform. The output of the saturation circuit is tapped to produce the square waveform. The sine waveform is synthesized by taking the absolute value of the triangular waveform, raising this absolute value to a predetermined power, multiplying the raised absolute value of the triangle wave with the triangle wave itself and properly scaling the resultant waveform and subtracting it from the triangular waveform to a predetermined power and adding the squared waveform raised to the predetermined power with a DC reference and subtracting the squared waveform therefrom, with all waveforms properly scaled. The resultant waveform is then multiplied with a square wave in order to correct the polarity and produce the resultant cosine waveform.

  19. Applications of synthesized reference beam TV holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornis, Janos; Nemeth, Attila; Elkahamushi, S.

    1999-08-01

    The synthesized reference beam TV holographic technique is presented in this paper. In this method synthesized reference beams are used for compensating the deformation of the investigated object. The phase-fronts of the reference beams are built from phase shifted plane waves. These phase shifted plane waves can be used periodically, so almost any phase front can be produced. The actual phase-front can be built after the measurement using recorded pictures in the computer memory. Using this technique the sensitivity of the measurement can be changed after the recording, so this feature of the method is extremely valuable in industrial measurements, where the repetition of the measurement is not always an easy task. In this way the fringe density at highly deformed points can be decreased; different components of the complicated fringe pattern can be removed; and the evaluation of the fringe system can be done more easily. This method can help to determine the sign of the deformation. A set of simulations and the results of real measurements are presented.

  20. Biogenic synthesized nanoparticles and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Abhijeet; Sharma, Madan Mohan

    2016-05-01

    In the present scenario, there are growing concerns over the potential impacts of bioengineered nanoparticles in the health sector. However, our understanding of how bioengineered nanoparticles may affect organisms within natural ecosystems, lags far behind our rapidly increasing ability to engineer novel nanoparticles. To date, research on the biological impacts of bioengineered nanoparticles has primarily consisted of controlled lab studies of model organisms with single species in culture media. Here, we described a cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from 1 mM AgNO3 via a green synthesis process using leaf extract as reducing as well as capping agent. Nanoparticles were characterized with the help of UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis which revealed the size of nanoparticles of 30-40 nm size. Further the nanoparticles synthesized by green route are found highly toxic against pathogenic bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi viz. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas syringae and Sclerotiniasclerotiorum. The most important outcome of this work will be the development of value-added products and protection of human health from pathogens viz., bacteria, virus, fungi etc.

  1. Synthesizing new, high-temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Claire; Aronson, Meigan

    2015-03-01

    Currently, there is no accepted theory behind type-II, high-temperature superconductors, but there is a distinct relationship between anti-ferromagnetism and superconductivity. Our research focuses on synthesizing new superconducting materials by observing the link between atomic structure and magnetic moments of anti-ferromagnetic compounds and attempting to reproduce the molecular physics of these known materials in new compounds. Consider the square-planar arrangement of the transition metal Fe in the Fe-pnictide superconductors of the ZrCuSiAs ``11 11'' and the ThCr2Si2 ``122'' structure types. We believe that the physics behind this superconductor, where Fe has d6 valence electrons, contributes to the superconducting state, not the presence of Fe itself. For this reason, we are synthesizing materials containing neighboring transition metals, like Mn and Co, combined with other elements in similar crystal lattice arrangements, having ionization properties that hopefully impose d6 valence electrons on the transition metals. This project was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists (WDTS) under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships Program (SULI).

  2. Generation of wideband frequency combs by continuous-wave seeding of multistage mixers with synthesized dispersion.

    PubMed

    Myslivets, Evgeny; Kuo, Bill P P; Alic, Nikola; Radic, Stojan

    2012-01-30

    We numerically and experimentally demonstrate efficient generation of an equalized optical comb with 150-nm bandwidth. The comb was generated by low-power, continuous-wave seeds, eliminating the need for pulsed laser sources. The new architecture relies on efficient creation of higher-order mixing tones in phase-matched nonlinear fiber stages separated by a linear compressor. Wideband generation was enabled by precise dispersion engineering of multiple-stage parametric mixers. PMID:22330571

  3. Algorithm That Synthesizes Other Algorithms for Hashing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2010-01-01

    An algorithm that includes a collection of several subalgorithms has been devised as a means of synthesizing still other algorithms (which could include computer code) that utilize hashing to determine whether an element (typically, a number or other datum) is a member of a set (typically, a list of numbers). Each subalgorithm synthesizes an algorithm (e.g., a block of code) that maps a static set of key hashes to a somewhat linear monotonically increasing sequence of integers. The goal in formulating this mapping is to cause the length of the sequence thus generated to be as close as practicable to the original length of the set and thus to minimize gaps between the elements. The advantage of the approach embodied in this algorithm is that it completely avoids the traditional approach of hash-key look-ups that involve either secondary hash generation and look-up or further searching of a hash table for a desired key in the event of collisions. This algorithm guarantees that it will never be necessary to perform a search or to generate a secondary key in order to determine whether an element is a member of a set. This algorithm further guarantees that any algorithm that it synthesizes can be executed in constant time. To enforce these guarantees, the subalgorithms are formulated to employ a set of techniques, each of which works very effectively covering a certain class of hash-key values. These subalgorithms are of two types, summarized as follows: Given a list of numbers, try to find one or more solutions in which, if each number is shifted to the right by a constant number of bits and then masked with a rotating mask that isolates a set of bits, a unique number is thereby generated. In a variant of the foregoing procedure, omit the masking. Try various combinations of shifting, masking, and/or offsets until the solutions are found. From the set of solutions, select the one that provides the greatest compression for the representation and is executable in the

  4. CAFS: A Cesium Atomic Frequency Standard for GPS block IIR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisnia, Jeffry A.

    1993-01-01

    Kernco, Inc. was selected to design the Cesium Atomic Frequency Standards (CAFS) for the GPS Block IIR NAVSTAR satellites. These spacecraft are scheduled to be launched in the mid-1990's to replenish and upgrade the existing constellation of Global Positioning System satellites. The Block IIR CAFS output frequency is 13.4003378 MHz, the 686th submultiple of the cesium atomic resonance frequency. Using an integer submultiple simplifies the design of the atomic frequency standard's rf multiplier circuits, eliminating the secondary frequency synthesizer needed in previous designs. The GPS Block IIR CAFS design, particularly the improvements made on our earlier Block II design is described. Test results are included.

  5. Simplification of Methods for PET Radiopharmaceutical Syntheses

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbourn, Michael, R.

    2011-12-27

    In an attempt to develop simplified methods for radiochemical synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals useful in Positron Emission Tomography (PET), current commercially available automated synthesis apparati were evaluated for use with solid phase synthesis, thin-film techniques, microwave-accelerated chemistry, and click chemistry approaches. Using combinations of these techniques, it was shown that these automated synthesis systems can be simply and effectively used to support the synthesis of a wide variety of carbon-11 and fluorine-18 labeled compounds, representing all of the major types of compounds synthesized and using all of the common radiochemical precursors available. These techniques are available for use to deliver clinically useful amounts of PET radiopharmaceuticals with chemical and radiochemical purities and high specific activities, suitable for human administration.

  6. Synthesizing Biomolecule-based Boolean Logic Gates

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Takafumi; Razavi, Shiva; DeRose, Robert; Inoue, Takanari

    2012-01-01

    One fascinating recent avenue of study in the field of synthetic biology is the creation of biomolecule-based computers. The main components of a computing device consist of an arithmetic logic unit, the control unit, memory, and the input and output devices. Boolean logic gates are at the core of the operational machinery of these parts, hence to make biocomputers a reality, biomolecular logic gates become a necessity. Indeed, with the advent of more sophisticated biological tools, both nucleic acid- and protein-based logic systems have been generated. These devices function in the context of either test tubes or living cells and yield highly specific outputs given a set of inputs. In this review, we discuss various types of biomolecular logic gates that have been synthesized, with particular emphasis on recent developments that promise increased complexity of logic gate circuitry, improved computational speed, and potential clinical applications. PMID:23526588

  7. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1983-06-21

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of hydrocarbons having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further includes Na present as a substitutional cation in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 340 to 360/sup 0/C, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, CH/sub 3/OH is produced in an amount of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture, and comprised 1 mole % of the effluent gas.

  8. Methods for synthesizing metal oxide nanowires

    DOEpatents

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Kumar, Vivekanand; Kim, Jeong H.; Clark, Ezra Lee

    2016-08-09

    A method of synthesizing a metal oxide nanowire includes the steps of: combining an amount of a transition metal or a transition metal oxide with an amount of an alkali metal compound to produce a mixture; activating a plasma discharge reactor to create a plasma discharge; exposing the mixture to the plasma discharge for a first predetermined time period such that transition metal oxide nanowires are formed; contacting the transition metal oxide nanowires with an acid solution such that an alkali metal ion is exchanged for a hydrogen ion on each of the transition metal oxide nanowires; and exposing the transition metal oxide nanowires to the plasma discharge for a second predetermined time period to thermally anneal the transition metal oxide nanowires. Transition metal oxide nanowires produced using the synthesis methods described herein are also provided.

  9. Molecular scale electronics: syntheses and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinerth, William A.; Jones, LeRoy, II; Burgin, Timothy P.; Zhou, Chong-wu; Muller, C. J.; Deshpande, M. R.; Reed, Mark A.; Tour, James M.

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes four significant breakthroughs in the syntheses and testing of molecular scale electronic devices. The 16-mer of oligo(2-dodecylphenylene ethynylene) was prepared on Merrifields resin using the iterative divergent/convergent approach which significantly streamlines the preparation of this molecular scale wire. The formation of self-assembled monolayers and multilayers on gold surfaces of rigid rod conjugated oligomers that have thiol, 0957-4484/9/3/016/img11-dithiol, thioacetyl, or 0957-4484/9/3/016/img11-dithioacetyl end groups have been studied. The direct observation of charge transport through molecules of benzene-1, 4-dithiol, which have been self-assembled onto two facing gold electrodes, has been achieved. Finally, we report initial studies into what effect varying the molecular alligator clip has on the molecule scale wire's conductivity.

  10. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1985-04-16

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of aliphatic alcohols having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further optionally includes Na ions present as substitutional cations in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 570 to 630/sup 0/K, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, methanol and isobutanol are the predominant products and are produced in amounts of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture. 6 figs.

  11. Syntheses and degradations of fluorinated heterocyclics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciorek, K. L.; Kratzer, R. H.; Kaufman, J.; Rosser, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    The relative stability of two ring systems, the triazine rings and 1,2,4-oxadiazoles, which offer potential crosslinks useful for curing perfluoroalkyl ether elastomers, has been investigated. Tris (perfluoro-n-heptyl)-s-triazine, the perfluoroether substituted-s-triazine, 1,4-bis/(5-perfluoro-n-heptyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazolyl/benzene, its perfluoroalkyl ether substituted analog, and 3,5-bis-(perfluoro-n-heptyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole were synthesized and subjected to thermal and oxidative degradation at 235 and 325 C and to hydrolytic degradation at 235 C. The perfluoroalkyl ether substituted triazine and 3,5-bis(perfluoro-n-heptyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole were found to be stable under all conditions investigated.

  12. Synthesizing Earth's geochemical data for hydrogeochemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantley, S. L.; Kubicki, J.; Miller, D.; Richter, D.; Giles, L.; Mitra, P.

    2007-12-01

    For over 200 years, geochemical, microbiological, and chemical data have been collected to describe the evolution of the surface earth. Many of these measurements are data showing variations in time or in space. To forward predict hydrologic response to changing tectonic, climatic, or anthropogenic forcings requires synthesis of these data and utilization in hydrogeochemical models. Increasingly, scientists are attempting to synthesize such data in order to make predictions for new regions or for future time periods. However, to make such complex geochemical data accessible requires development of sophisticated cyberinfrastructures that both invite uploading as well as usage of data. Two such cyberinfrastructure (CI) initiatives are currently developing, one to invite and promote the use of environmental kinetics data (laboratory time course data) through ChemxSeer, and the other to invite and promote the use of spatially indexed geochemical data for the Earth's Critical Zone through CZEN.org. The vision of these CI initiatives is to provide cyber-enhanced portals that encourage domain scientists to upload their data before publication (in private cyberspace), and to make these data eventually publicly accessible (after an embargo period). If the CI can be made to provide services to the domain specialist - e.g. to provide data analysis services or data comparison services - we envision that scientists will upload data. In addition, the CI can promote the use and comparison of datasets across disciplines. For example, the CI can facilitate the use of spatially indexed geochemical data by scientists more accustomed to dealing with time-course data for hydrologic flow, and can provide user-friendly interfaces with CI established to facilitate the use of hydrologic data. Examples of the usage of synthesized data to predict soil development over the last 13ky and its effects on active hydrological flow boundaries in surficial systems will be discussed for i) a N

  13. Waveform Synthesizer For Imaging And Ranging Applications

    DOEpatents

    DUDLEY, PETER A.; [et al

    2004-11-30

    Frequency dependent corrections are provided for quadrature imbalance. An operational procedure filters imbalance effects without prior calibration or equalization. Waveform generation can be adjusted/corrected in a synthetic aperture radar system (SAR), where a rolling phase shift is applied to the SAR's QDWS signal where it is demodulated in a receiver; unwanted energies, such as imbalance energy, are separated from a desired signal in Doppler; the separated energy is filtered from the receiver leaving the desired signal; and the separated energy in the receiver is measured to determine the degree of imbalance that is represented by it. Calibration methods can also be implemented into synthesis. The degree of quadrature imbalance can be used to determine calibration values that can then be provided as compensation for frequency dependent errors in components, such as the QDWS and SSB mixer, affecting quadrature signal quality.

  14. Waveform Synthesizer For Imaging And Ranging Applications

    DOEpatents

    Dubbert, Dale F.; Dudley, Peter A.; Doerry, Armin W.; Tise, Bertice L.

    2004-12-28

    Frequency dependent corrections are provided for Local Oscillator (LO) feed-through. An operational procedure filters LO feed-through effects without prior calibration or equalization. Waveform generation can be adjusted/corrected in a synthetic aperture radar system (SAR), where a rolling phase shift is applied to the SAR's QDWS signal where it is demodulated in a receiver, unwanted energies, such as LO feed-through energy, are separated from a desired signal in Doppler; the separated energy is filtered from the receiver leaving the desired signal; and the separated energy in the receiver is measured to determine the degree of imbalance that is represented by it. Calibration methods can also be implemented into synthesis. The degree of LO feed-through can be used to determine calibration values that can then be provided as compensation for frequency dependent errors in components, such as the QDWS and SSB mixer, affecting quadrature signal quality.

  15. [Raman spectrum of nano-graphite synthesized by explosive detonation].

    PubMed

    Wen, Chao; Li, Xun; Sun, De-Yu; Guan, Jin-Qing; Liu, Xiao-Xin; Lin, Ying-Rui; Tang, Shi-Ying; Zhou, Gang; Lin, Jun-De; Jin, Zhi-Hao

    2005-01-01

    The nano-graphite powder synthesized by the detonation of explosives with negative oxygen balance is a new powder material with potential applications. In this work, the preparation of nano-graphite powder in steel chamber by pure TNT (trinitrotoluene) explosives has been introduced. In the synthesis process, the protective gases in the steel chamber are N2, CO2 and Ar, and the pressure is 0.25-2 atm. Raman spectrum of the nano-graphite was measured. The characteristic Raman band assigned to sp2 of graphite has been observed at about 1 585 cm(-1) with half-peak width of 22 cm(-1). The peak shifted to a higher frequency by 5 cm(-1) compared with that of bulk graphite. The authors explain this blue shift phenomenon by size effect. The average size of nanographite from Raman measurement is 2.97-3.97 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to measure the structure and particle size of the nano-graphite. The crystallite size of nano-graphite estimated from XRD andTEM are 2.58 nm (acid untreated) and 1.86 nm (acid treated) respectively, which is in accord with the results of the measurement approximately. PMID:15852818

  16. Frequency tuning of THz quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xifeng; Danylov, Andriy A.; Light, Alexander R.; Waldman, Jerry; Erickson, Neal

    2015-03-01

    This paper introduces the continuously tunable THz radiation through sideband generation of a free running and solidnitrogen- cooled THz quantum cascade laser. The 2.324 THz QCL operating in a single longitudinal mode (SLM) in continuous-wave (cw) was mixed with a swept synthesized microwave signal by a THz Schottky-diode-balanced mixer. Through sideband generation, two frequency branches were observed at low and high frequency, characterized with a Fourier-transform spectrometer. At low frequency, the sideband generates frequencies from -50 GHz to +50 GHz. At high frequency, it generates sideband frequencies from 70 GHz to 115 GHz. The total +/-100 GHz tuning range can be further expanded with higher frequency millimeter wave amplifier/multiplier source. The sideband generates total 1 μW of output power at both upper and lower frequency with 200 μW of driven power from the THz QCL, showing a power conversion efficiency of 5 × 10-3. The demonstration of this SM, continuously tunable THz source enables its applications where SM, spatially coherent beam is required.

  17. Chemical syntheses of inulin and levan structures.

    PubMed

    Oscarson, Stefan; Sehgelmeble, Fernando W

    2002-11-29

    A fructofuranosyl thiglycoside donor, ethyl 6-O-acetyl-3-O-benzyl-1,4-O-(1,1,3,3-tetraisopropyldisiloxane-1,3-diyl)-2-thio-beta-D-fructofuranoside (11), designed to yield stereospecifically beta-linkages and also to allow subsequent elongation in the 6- and/or 1-positions, was prepared and used in syntheses of levan and inulin structures. DMTST-promoted glycosylation between 11 (1.3 mol equiv) and methyl beta-D-fructofuranoside 6-OH and 1-OH acceptors (3 and 6) gave stereospecifically the protected methyl levanobioside 12 and inulinobioside 17 in excellent yields (80 and 86%), respectively. Protecting group manipulations on these afforded new disaccharide 6'-OH and 1'-OH acceptors (13 and 19), which were coupled again with donor 11 (1.0 mol equiv) to yield methyl levanotrioside 14 and inulinotrioside 20 in high yields, 65 and 67%, respectively. These were transformed into new acceptors and also fully deprotected to afford the methyl glycosides of levanotriose and inulinotriose, all structures that have earlier not been accessible by chemical synthesis. PMID:12444625

  18. Multistep sintering to synthesize fast lithium garnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Biyi; Duan, Huanan; Xia, Wenhao; Guo, Yiping; Kang, Hongmei; Li, Hua; Liu, Hezhou

    2016-01-01

    A multistep sintering schedule is developed to synthesize Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) doped with 0.2 mol% Al3+. The effect of sintering steps on phase, relative density and ionic conductivity of Al-doped LLZO has been evaluated using powder X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), 27Al magic spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that by holding the sample at 900 °C for 6 h, the mixture of tetragonal and cubic garnet phases are obtained; by continuously holding at 1100 °C for 6 h, the tetragonal phase completely transforms into cubic phase; by holding at 1200 °C, the relative density increases without decomposition of the cubic phase. The Al-LLZO pellets after multistep sintering exhibit cubic phase, relative density of 94.25% and ionic conductivity of 4.5 × 10-4 S cm-1 at room temperature. Based on the observation, a sintering model is proposed and discussed.

  19. Copper nanocoils synthesized through solvothermal method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjuan; Liu, Xiaowei; Zhan, Yongjie; Fan, Haiming; Lu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Recently helical nanostructures such as nanosprings and nanocoils have drawn great interests in nanotechnology, due to their unique morphologies and physical properties, and they may be potential building blocks in sorts of electromechanical, magnetic, photoelectronic and plasmonic devices at micro/nanoscales. In this report, multi-turns copper nanocoils were synthesized through a modified solvothermal method, in which the mixture of water and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) were selected as reaction medium and copolymer poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVP/VA 64E) as reductant. In the liquid solution, nanosprings could be formed from relaxed nanocoils and demonstrated high elasticity. These nanocoils and nanosprings are of single crystalline structure, with the characteristics wire diameters ranging from tens to a few hundreds of nanometers and the ring/coil diameters mostly ~10-35 microns. Their growth and deformation mechanisms were then investigated and discussed along with that of previously reported single-turn copper nanorings. This work could be of importance for researchers working on synthesis and applications of novel 1-D helical nanomaterials and their functional devices. PMID:26607386

  20. Copper nanocoils synthesized through solvothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanjuan; Liu, Xiaowei; Zhan, Yongjie; Fan, Haiming; Lu, Yang

    2015-11-01

    Recently helical nanostructures such as nanosprings and nanocoils have drawn great interests in nanotechnology, due to their unique morphologies and physical properties, and they may be potential building blocks in sorts of electromechanical, magnetic, photoelectronic and plasmonic devices at micro/nanoscales. In this report, multi-turns copper nanocoils were synthesized through a modified solvothermal method, in which the mixture of water and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) were selected as reaction medium and copolymer poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVP/VA 64E) as reductant. In the liquid solution, nanosprings could be formed from relaxed nanocoils and demonstrated high elasticity. These nanocoils and nanosprings are of single crystalline structure, with the characteristics wire diameters ranging from tens to a few hundreds of nanometers and the ring/coil diameters mostly ~10-35 microns. Their growth and deformation mechanisms were then investigated and discussed along with that of previously reported single-turn copper nanorings. This work could be of importance for researchers working on synthesis and applications of novel 1-D helical nanomaterials and their functional devices.

  1. Multilayer graphane synthesized under high hydrogen pressure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Antonov, V. E.; Bashkin, I. O.; Bazhenov, A. V.; Bulychev, B. M.; Fedotov, V. K.; Fursova, T. N.; Kolesnikov, A. I.; Kulakov, V. I.; Lukashev, R. V.; Matveev, D. V.; et al

    2015-12-19

    A new hydrocarbon – hydrographite – with the composition close to CH is shown to form from graphite and gaseous hydrogen at pressures above 2 GPa and temperatures from 450 to 700 °C. Hydrographite is a black solid thermally stable under ambient conditions. When heated in vacuum, it decomposes into graphite and molecular hydrogen at temperatures from 500 to 650 °C. Powder X-ray diffraction characterizes hydrographite as a multilayer “graphane II” phase predicted by ab initio calculations [Wen X-D et al. PNAS 2011; 108:6833] and consisting of graphane sheets in the chair conformation stacked along the hexagonal c axis inmore » the -ABAB- sequence. The crystal structure of the synthesized phase belongs to the P63mc space group. Moreover, the unit cell parameters are a = 2.53(1) Å and c = 9.54(1) Å and therefore exceed the corresponding parameters of graphite by 2.4(2)% and 42.0(3)%. Stretching vibrations of C–H groups on the surface of the hydrographite particles are examined by infrared spectroscopy.« less

  2. Multilayer graphane synthesized under high hydrogen pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Antonov, V. E.; Bashkin, I. O.; Bazhenov, A. V.; Bulychev, B. M.; Fedotov, V. K.; Fursova, T. N.; Kolesnikov, A. I.; Kulakov, V. I.; Lukashev, R. V.; Matveev, D. V.; Sakharov, M. K.; Shulga, Y. M.

    2015-12-19

    A new hydrocarbon – hydrographite – with the composition close to CH is shown to form from graphite and gaseous hydrogen at pressures above 2 GPa and temperatures from 450 to 700 °C. Hydrographite is a black solid thermally stable under ambient conditions. When heated in vacuum, it decomposes into graphite and molecular hydrogen at temperatures from 500 to 650 °C. Powder X-ray diffraction characterizes hydrographite as a multilayer “graphane II” phase predicted by ab initio calculations [Wen X-D et al. PNAS 2011; 108:6833] and consisting of graphane sheets in the chair conformation stacked along the hexagonal c axis in the -ABAB- sequence. The crystal structure of the synthesized phase belongs to the P63mc space group. Moreover, the unit cell parameters are a = 2.53(1) Å and c = 9.54(1) Å and therefore exceed the corresponding parameters of graphite by 2.4(2)% and 42.0(3)%. Stretching vibrations of C–H groups on the surface of the hydrographite particles are examined by infrared spectroscopy.

  3. Copper nanocoils synthesized through solvothermal method

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanjuan; Liu, Xiaowei; Zhan, Yongjie; Fan, Haiming; Lu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Recently helical nanostructures such as nanosprings and nanocoils have drawn great interests in nanotechnology, due to their unique morphologies and physical properties, and they may be potential building blocks in sorts of electromechanical, magnetic, photoelectronic and plasmonic devices at micro/nanoscales. In this report, multi-turns copper nanocoils were synthesized through a modified solvothermal method, in which the mixture of water and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) were selected as reaction medium and copolymer poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVP/VA 64E) as reductant. In the liquid solution, nanosprings could be formed from relaxed nanocoils and demonstrated high elasticity. These nanocoils and nanosprings are of single crystalline structure, with the characteristics wire diameters ranging from tens to a few hundreds of nanometers and the ring/coil diameters mostly ~10–35 microns. Their growth and deformation mechanisms were then investigated and discussed along with that of previously reported single-turn copper nanorings. This work could be of importance for researchers working on synthesis and applications of novel 1-D helical nanomaterials and their functional devices. PMID:26607386

  4. Legionella bozemanae synthesizes phosphatidylcholine from exogenous choline.

    PubMed

    Palusinska-Szysz, Marta; Janczarek, Monika; Kalitynski, Rafal; Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Russa, Ryszard

    2011-02-20

    The phospholipid class and fatty acid composition of Legionella bozemanae were determined using thin-layer chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and diphosphatidylglycerol were the predominant phospholipids, while phosphatidyl-N-monomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidyl-N,N-dimethylethanolamine were present at low concentrations. With the use of the LC/MS technique, PC16:0/15:0, PC17:/15:0, and PE16:1/15:0 were shown to be the dominant phospholipid constituents, which may be taxonomically significant. Two independent phosphatidylcholine synthesis pathways (the three-step methylation and the one-step CDP-choline pathway) were present and functional in L. bozemanae. In the genome of L. bozemanae, genes encoding two potential phosphatidylcholine forming enzymes, phospholipid N-methyl transferase (PmtA) and phosphatidylcholine synthase (Pcs), homologous to L. longbeachae, L. drancourtii, and L. pneumophila pmtA and pcs genes were identified. Genes pmtA and pcs from L. bozemanae were sequenced and analyzed on nucleotide and amino acid levels. Bacteria grown on an artificial medium with labelled choline synthesized phosphatidylcholine predominantly via the phosphatidylcholine synthase pathway, which indicates that L. bozemanae phosphatidylcholine, similarly as in other bacteria associated with eukaryotes, is an important determinant of host-microbe interactions. PMID:20338739

  5. Efficacy of some synthesized thiazoles against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Ouf, S A; Taleb, A M Abu; Tharwat, N A; Geweely, N S

    2013-12-01

    Twelve thiazoles and their fused derivatives were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Trichophyton rubrum, T. terrestre, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum gypseum. Most of the synthesized compounds were inhibitory to the tested fungi. The most effective compound was 5-(4-ethoxybenzylidene-4,5-dihydro-4-oxothiazol-2-yl)-N,3-diphenylbut-2-namide (3c) followed by 2-(4-oxo-4,5-dihydrothiazol-2-yl)-3-phenyl-but-2-enoic acid-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-amide (2b). These compounds were more efficacious than terbinafine, the reference drug. The tested compounds caused variable reduction in the activity of keratinase of the dermatophytes, depending on the azole derivative and the test fungus. Thiazole derivatives (2b) and (3c) exhibited the highest efficacy in decreasing ergosterol biosynthesis of the tested dermatophytes. The treatment of guinea pigs with compound (3c) induced complete curing in the case of all the test dermatophytes 30days post-treatment. The percent curing for compounds (3c) and (2b) was better than the reference drug. PMID:24129248

  6. Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Synthesize Neuromodulatory Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sakry, Dominik; Yigit, Hatice; Dimou, Leda; Trotter, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    NG2 protein-expressing oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) are a persisting and major glial cell population in the adult mammalian brain. Direct synaptic innervation of OPC by neurons throughout the brain together with their ability to sense neuronal network activity raises the question of additional physiological roles of OPC, supplementary to generating myelinating oligodendrocytes. In this study we investigated whether OPC express neuromodulatory factors, typically synthesized by other CNS cell types. Our results show that OPC express two well-characterized neuromodulatory proteins: Prostaglandin D2 synthase (PTGDS) and neuronal Pentraxin 2 (Nptx2/Narp). Expression levels of the enzyme PTGDS are influenced in cultured OPC by the NG2 intracellular region which can be released by cleavage and localizes to glial nuclei upon transfection. Furthermore PTGDS mRNA levels are reduced in OPC from NG2-KO mouse brain compared to WT cells after isolation by cell sorting and direct analysis. These results show that OPC can contribute to the expression of these proteins within the CNS and suggest PTGDS expression as a downstream target of NG2 signaling. PMID:25966014

  7. Sequence determination of synthesized chondroitin sulfate dodecasaccharides.

    PubMed

    Shioiri, Tatsumasa; Tsuchimoto, Jun; Watanabe, Hideto; Sugiura, Nobuo

    2016-06-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a linear acidic polysaccharide composed of repeating disaccharide units of glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine. The polysaccharide is modified with sulfate groups at different positions by a variety of sulfotransferases. CS chains exhibit various biological and pathological functions by interacting with cytokines and growth factors and regulating their signal transduction. The fine structure of the CS chain defines its specific biological roles. However, structural analysis of CS has been restricted to disaccharide analysis, hampering the understanding of the structure-function relationship of CS chains. Here, we chemo-enzymatically synthesized CS dodecasaccharides having various sulfate modifications using a bioreactor system of bacterial chondroitin polymerase mutants and various CS sulfotransferases. We developed a sequencing method for CS chains using the CS dodecasaccharides. The method consists of (i) labeling a reducing end with 2-aminopyridine (PA), (ii) partial digestion of CS with testicular hyaluronidase, followed by separation of PA-conjugated oligosaccharides with different chain lengths, (iii) limited digestion of these oligosaccharides with chondroitin lyase AC II into disaccharides, followed by labeling with 2-aminobenzamide, (iv) CS disaccharide analysis using a dual-fluorescence HPLC system (reversed-phase ion-pair and ion-exchange chromatography), and (v) estimation of the composition by calculating individual disaccharide ratios. This CS chain sequencing allows characterization of CS-modifying enzymes and provides a useful tool toward understanding the structure-function relationship of CS chains. PMID:26791444

  8. Technique for the calibration of thermal voltage converters using a Josephson waveform synthesizer and a transconductance amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budovsky, Ilya; Behr, Ralf; Palafox, Luis; Djordjevic, Sophie; Hagen, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes a simple and effective technique for calibrating thermal converters for an ac-dc voltage transfer difference using a Josephson waveform synthesizer and a transconductance amplifier. Preliminary measurements and uncertainty analysis confirm the possibility of achieving systematic uncertainties below 0.1 µV V-1 at frequencies up to 1 kHz.

  9. Synthesizing Smart Polymeric and Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Chaokun

    ,1-phenylene)bismaleimide (MDPB). It showed the same healing ability as 2MEP4F while all starting materials are cheaper and commercially available. To further improve the mechanical strength of the PFA-MDPB healable polymer, epoxy as a strengthening component was mixed with PFA-MDPB healable polymer. The PFA, MDPB and epoxy composite polymers were further reinforced by carbon fiber as done with 2MEP4F matrix and the final composites were proved to have higher short beam shear strength than 2MEP4F while exhibiting a similar healing efficiency. Healable polymer MDPB (a two maleimide groups monomer) -- FGEEDR (a four furan groups monomer) was also designed and synthesized for transparent healable polymer. The MDPB-FGEEDR healable polymer was composited with silver nanowires (AgNWs) to afford healable transparent composite conductor. Razer blade cuts in the composite conductor could heal upon heating to recover the mechanical strength and electrical conductivity of the composite. The healing could be repeated for multiple times on the same cut location. The healing process was as fast as 3 minutes for conductivity to recover 97% of the original value. For electroactive polymer polypyrrole, the fast volume change upon electrical field change due to electrochemical oxidization or reduction was studied for actuation targeting toward a robotic application. The flexibility of polypyrrole was improved via copolymerization with pyrrole derivatives. Actuator devices are fabricated that more suitable for implantable medical device application than pyrrole homopolymer. The change of dipole re-orientation and thus dielectric constant of ferroelectric polymers and ceramics upon electrical field may be exploited for electrocaloric effect (ECE) and solid state refrigeration. For ferroelectric ceramics, we synthesized a series of Ba1-xSrxTiO3 nanoparticles with diameter ranging from 8-12 nm and characterized their dielectric and ferroelectric properties through hysteresis measurement. It was

  10. Mode-synthesizing atomic force microscopy and mode-synthesizing sensing

    DOEpatents

    Passain, Ali; Thundat, Thomas George; Tetard, Laurene

    2014-07-22

    A method of analyzing a sample that includes applying a first set of energies at a first set of frequencies to a sample and applying, simultaneously with the applying the first set of energies, a second set of energies at a second set of frequencies, wherein the first set of energies and the second set of energies form a multi-mode coupling. The method further includes detecting an effect of the multi-mode coupling.

  11. Syntheses of dopa glycosides using glucosidases.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Ramaiah; Ponrasu, Thangavel; Divakar, Soundar

    2009-02-01

    Syntheses of L: -dopa 1a glucoside 10a,b and DL: -dopa 1b glycosides 10-18 with D: -glucose 2, D: -galactose 3, D: -mannose 4, D: -fructose 5, D: -arabinose 6, lactose 7, D: -sorbitol 8 and D: -mannitol 9 were carried out using amyloglucosidase from Rhizopus mold, beta-glucosidase isolated from sweet almond and immobilized beta-glucosidase. Invariably, L: -dopa and DL: -dopa gave low to good yields of glycosides 10-18 at 12-49% range and only mono glycosylated products were detected through glycosylation/arylation at the third or fourth OH positions of L: -dopa 1a and DL: -dopa 1b. Amyloglucosidase showed selectivity with D: -mannose 4 to give 4-O-C1beta and D: -sorbitol 8 to give 4-O-C6-O-arylated product. beta-Glucosidase exhibited selectivity with D: -mannose 4 to give 4-O-C1beta and lactose 7 to give 4-O-C1beta product. Immobilized beta-glucosidase did not show any selectivity. Antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition (ACE) activities of the glycosides were evaluated glycosides, out of which L: -3-hydroxy-4-O-(beta-D: -galactopyranosyl-(1'-->4)beta-D: -glucopyranosyl) phenylalanine 16 at 0.9 +/- 0.05 mM and DL: -3-hydroxy-4-O-(beta-D: -glucopyranosyl) phenylalanine 11b,c at 0.98 +/- 0.05 mM showed the best IC(50) values for antioxidant activity and DL: -3-hydroxy-4-O-(6-D: -sorbitol)phenylalanine 17 at 0.56 +/- 0.03 mM, L: -dopa-D: -glucoside 10a,b at 1.1 +/- 0.06 mM and DL: -3-hydroxy-4-O-(D: -glucopyranosyl)phenylalanine 11a-d at 1.2 +/- 0.06 mM exhibited the best IC(50) values for ACE inhibition. PMID:18712474

  12. Syntheses and electronic structures of decamethylmetallocenes

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, J.L.

    1981-04-01

    The synthesis of decamethylmanganocene ((eta-C/sub 5/(CH/sub 3/)/sub 5/)/sub 2/Mn or (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Mn)) is described. Magnetic susceptibility and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies show that (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Mn is a low-spin, 17-electron compound with an orbitally degenerate, /sup 2/E/sub 2g/ (e/sub 2g//sup 3/ a/sub 1g//sup 2/) ground state. An x-ray crystallographic study of (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Mn shows that it is a monomeric, D/sub 5d/ decamethylmetallocene with metal to ring carbon distances that are about 0.3 A shorter than those determined for high-spin manganocenes. The syntheses of new (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/M (M = Mg,V,Cr,Co, and Ni) and ((Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/M)PF/sub 6/ (M = Cr,Co, and Ni) compounds are described. In addition, a preparative route to a novel, dicationic decamethylmetallocene, ((Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Ni)(PF/sub 6/)/sub 2/ is reported. Infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, magnetic susceptibility, and/or x-ray crystallographic studies indicate that all the above compounds are D/sub 5d/ or D/sub 5h/ decamethylmetallocenes with low-spin electronic configurations. Cyclic voltammetry studies verify the reversibility and the one-electron nature of the (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/M ..-->.. ((Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/M)/sup +/ (M = Cr,Mn,Fe,Co,Ni), ((Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Mn)/sup -/ ..-->.. (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Mn and ((Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Ni)/sup +/ ..-->.. (Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/Ni)/sup 2 +/ redox reactions. These studies reveal that the neutral decamethylmetallocenes are much more easily oxidized than their metallocene counterparts. This result attests to the electron-donating properties of the ten substituent methyl groups. Proton and carbon-13 NMR data are reported for the diamagnetic Mg(II), Mn(I), Fe(II), Co(III), and Ni(IV) decamethylmetallocenes and for ((Me/sub 5/Cp)/sub 2/V(CO)/sub 2/)/sup +/. The uv-visible absorption spectra of the 15-, 18- and 20- electron decamethylmetallocenes are also reported.

  13. AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, C.F.; Salisbury, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    A control is described for automatically matching the frequency of a resonant cavity to that of a driving oscillator. The driving oscillator is disconnected from the cavity and a secondary oscillator is actuated in which the cavity is the frequency determining element. A low frequency is mixed with the output of the driving oscillator and the resultant lower and upper sidebands are separately derived. The frequencies of the sidebands are compared with the secondary oscillator frequency. deriving a servo control signal to adjust a tuning element in the cavity and matching the cavity frequency to that of the driving oscillator. The driving oscillator may then be connected to the cavity.

  14. Precise Frequency Measurements Using a Superconducting Cavity Stabilized Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, D. M.; Yeh, N.-C.; Jiang, W.; Anderson, V. L.; Asplund, N.

    1999-01-01

    Many physics experiments call on improved resolution to better define the experimental results, thus improving tests of theories. Modern microwave technology combined with high-Q resonators can achieve frequency readout and control with resolutions up to a part in 10(exp 18). When the physical quantity in question in the experiment can be converted to a frequency or a change in frequency, a high-stability microwave oscillator can be applied to obtain state-of-the-art precision. In this work we describe the overall physical concepts and the required experimental procedures for optimizing a high-resolution frequency measurement system that employs a high-Q superconducting microwave cavity and a low-noise frequency synthesizer. The basic approach is to resolve the resonant frequencies of a high-Q (Q > 10(exp 10)) cavity to extremely high precision (one part in 10(exp 17)- 10(exp 18)). Techniques for locking the synthesizer frequency to a resonant frequency of the superconducting cavity to form an ultra-stable oscillator are described. We have recently set up an ultra-high-vacuum high-temperature annealing system to process superconducting niobium cavities, and have been able to consistently achieve Q > 10(exp 9). We have integrated high-Q superconducting cavities with a low-noise microwave synthesizer in a phase-locked-loop to verify the frequency stability of the system. Effects that disturb the cavity resonant frequency (such as the temperature fluctuations and mechanical vibrations) and methods to mitigate those effects are also considered. Applicability of these techniques to experiments will be discussed, and our latest experimental progress in achieving high-resolution frequency measurements using the superconducting-cavity-stabilized-oscillator will be presented.

  15. Precise frequency calibration using television video carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkhardt, Edward E.

    1990-01-01

    The availability of inexpensive and quick precise frequency calibration methods is limited. VLF and GPS do offer precise calibration. However, antenna placement, cost of equipment, and calibration time place many restrictions on the user. The USNO maintained line-10 television Time of Coincidence (TOC) of station WTTG, channel 5, Washington, DC requires a frequency stable video carrier. This video carrier, 77.24 MHz is controlled by the same cesium beam standard controlling the TOC of line-10. Excellent frequency comparisons against this video carrier have been accomplished at 95 miles (153 km). With stable propagation and a three foot wire antenna, a part in 10(exp 9) can be determined in a few minutes. Inexpensive field equipment with a synthesized 1 kHz offset from the video carrier offers parts in 10(exp 11) calibrations in a few minutes using an oscilloscope as a phase comparator.

  16. Brillouin filtering of optical combs for narrow linewidth frequency synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo-Santos, Juan; Velasco, Aitor V.; Carrasco-Sanz, Ana; Corredera, Pedro

    2016-05-01

    We report a tunable monochromatic source generation scheme, based on Brillouin filtering of a self-referenced optical frequency comb. The system benefits from the high stability and mode linewidth of the frequency comb, significantly improving the performance of the original laser source used as Brillouin pump. A synthesized frequency with stability under 4×10-11 and a linewidth under 75 kHz was experimentally demonstrated for two separate pump lasers in the C-band. The proposed monochromatic source can be tuned with high precision in a very broad band by combining a coarse control with the pumping source and a fine control with the optical frequency comb references. In our experimental setup, coarse and fine tuning resolutions were 4 MHz and 20 Hz, respectively. Influence of Brillouin pump fluctuations in the synthesized signal stability were also analyzed for observation times up to 104 s.

  17. Digitally synthesized phased antenna for multibeam global positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Charles E. (Inventor); Young, Lawrence E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    In a system according to the proposed technique (see figure), the signal received by each element of the array antenna would be subjected to downconversion, and spread-spectrum demodulation and correlation as necessary; this processing would be performed separately from, and simultaneously with, similar processing of signals received by the other antenna elements. For the GPS implementation, following downconversion to baseband, the signals would be digitized, and all subsequent processing would be digital. In the digital process, residual carriers would be removed and each signal would be correlated with a locally generated model pseudo random-noise code, all following normal GPS procedure. As part of this procedure, accumulated values would be added in software and the resulting signals would be phase-shifted in software by the amounts necessary to synthesize the desired antenna directional gain pattern of peaks and nulls. The principal advantage of this technique over the conventional radio-frequency-combining technique is that the parallel digital baseband processing of the signals from the various antenna elements would be a relatively inexpensive and flexible means for exploiting the inherent multiple-peak/multiple-null aiming capability of a phased-array antenna. In the original intended GPS application, the peaks and nulls could be directed independently for each GPS signal being tracked by the GPS receiver. This will improve the SNR simultaneously for each GPS signal being tracked while steering multiple nulls toward sources of interference. The technique could also be applied to other code-division multiple-access communication systems.

  18. Encoding voice fundamental frequency into vibrotactile frequency.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, M; Molitor, R D

    1979-10-01

    Measured in this study was the ability of eight hearing and five deaf subjects to identify the stress pattern in a short sentence from the variation in voice fundamental frequency (F0), when presented aurally (for hearing subjects) and when transformed into vibrotactile pulse frequency. Various transformations from F0 to pulse frequency were tested in an attempt to determine an optimum transformation, the amount of F0 information that could be transmitted, and what the limitations in the tactile channel might be. The results indicated that a one- or two-octave reduction of F0 vibrotactile frequency (transmitting every second or third glottal pulse) might result in a significant ability to discriminate the intonation patterns associated with moderate-to-strong patterns of sentence stress in English. However, accurate reception of the details of the intonation pattern may require a slower than normal pronounciation because of an apparent temporal indeterminacy of about 200 ms in the perception of variations in vibrotactile frequency. A performance deficit noted for the two prelingually, profoundly deaf subjects with marginally discriminable encodings offers some support for our previous hypothesis that there is a natural association between auditory pitch and perceived vibrotactile frequency. PMID:159917

  19. Modeling Frequency Comb Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng; Yuan, Jinhui; Kang, Zhe; Li, Qian; Wai, P. K. A.

    2016-06-01

    Frequency comb sources have revolutionized metrology and spectroscopy and found applications in many fields. Stable, low-cost, high-quality frequency comb sources are important to these applications. Modeling of the frequency comb sources will help the understanding of the operation mechanism and optimization of the design of such sources. In this paper,we review the theoretical models used and recent progress of the modeling of frequency comb sources.

  20. Frequency Response Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-03-13

    According to the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) definition: “Frequency response is a measure of an Interconnection’s ability to stabilize frequency immediately following the sudden loss of generation or load, and is a critical component of the reliable operation of the Bulk-Power System, particularly during disturbances and recoveries. Failure to maintain frequency can disrupt the operation of equipment and initiate disconnection of power plant equipment to prevent it from being damaged, which could leadmore » to wide-spread blackouts.” Frequency Response Tool automates the power system frequency response analysis process. The tool performs initial estimation of the system frequency parameters (initial frequency, minimum frequency, settling point). User can visually inspect and adjust these parameters. The tool also calculates the frequency response performance metrics of the system, archives the historic events and baselines the system performance. Frequency response performance characteristics of the system are calculated using phasor measurement unit (PMU) information. Methodology of the frequency response performance assessment implemented in the tool complies with the NERC Frequency response standard.« less

  1. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D'Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  2. Frequency Response Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Etingov, Pavel; Chassin, PNNL David; Zhang, PNNL Yu; PNNL,

    2014-03-13

    According to the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) definition: “Frequency response is a measure of an Interconnection’s ability to stabilize frequency immediately following the sudden loss of generation or load, and is a critical component of the reliable operation of the Bulk-Power System, particularly during disturbances and recoveries. Failure to maintain frequency can disrupt the operation of equipment and initiate disconnection of power plant equipment to prevent it from being damaged, which could lead to wide-spread blackouts.” Frequency Response Tool automates the power system frequency response analysis process. The tool performs initial estimation of the system frequency parameters (initial frequency, minimum frequency, settling point). User can visually inspect and adjust these parameters. The tool also calculates the frequency response performance metrics of the system, archives the historic events and baselines the system performance. Frequency response performance characteristics of the system are calculated using phasor measurement unit (PMU) information. Methodology of the frequency response performance assessment implemented in the tool complies with the NERC Frequency response standard.

  3. Making Sense of Frequency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2002-01-01

    Responds to Ellis (2002), which focuses on frequency in language processing, language use, and language acquisition. Contextualizes the frequency factor in terms of the evolution of second language acquisition (SLA) research. Suggests that although relevant and important, the frequency factor requires greater definition and qualification.…

  4. The Electronic Music Synthesizer and the Physics of Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, W. M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the principal modules of analog electronic music synthesizers and discusses some ways that a synthesizer has been used in demonstrations, in psychophysical experiments, and in an undergraduate laboratory course in the physics of music and acoustics. Considers the synthesis of both steady and transitory auditory phenomena. (Author/MLH)

  5. Frequency discriminator/phase detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    Circuit provides dual function of frequency discriminator/phase detector which reduces frequency acquisition time without adding to circuit complexity. Both frequency discriminators, in evaluated frequency discriminator/phase detector circuits, are effective two decades above and below center frequency.

  6. Frequency selective infrared sensors

    DOEpatents

    Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2013-05-28

    A frequency selective infrared (IR) photodetector having a predetermined frequency band. The exemplary frequency selective photodetector includes: a dielectric IR absorber having a first surface and a second surface substantially parallel to the first surface; an electrode electrically coupled to the first surface of the dielectric IR absorber; and a frequency selective surface plasmonic (FSSP) structure formed on the second surface of the dielectric IR absorber. The FSSP structure is designed to selectively transmit radiation in the predetermined frequency band that is incident on the FSSP structure substantially independent of the angle of incidence of the incident radiation on the FSSP structure.

  7. Frequency selective infrared sensors

    DOEpatents

    Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2014-11-25

    A frequency selective infrared (IR) photodetector having a predetermined frequency band. The exemplary frequency selective photodetector includes: a dielectric IR absorber having a first surface and a second surface substantially parallel to the first surface; an electrode electrically coupled to the first surface of the dielectric IR absorber; and a frequency selective surface plasmonic (FSSP) structure formed on the second surface of the dielectric IR absorber. The FSSP structure is designed to selectively transmit radiation in the predetermined frequency band that is incident on the FSSP structure substantially independent of the angle of incidence of the incident radiation on the FSSP structure.

  8. Regional flood frequency analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book, the fourth of a four volume set, contains five sections encompassing major aspects of regional flood frequency analysis. Each section starts usually with an invited state-of-the-art paper followed by contributed papers. The first section provides an assessment of regional flood frequency analysis. Methods for performing regional frequency analysis for ungaged watersheds are presented in Section 2. More discussion on regional frequency analysis is provided in Section 3. Selection and comparison of regional frequency methods are dealt with in Section 4; these are of great interest to the user. Increasing attention is being focused these days on paleohydrologic flood analysis. This topic is covered in Section 5.

  9. Harmonic Frequency Lowering

    PubMed Central

    Kirchberger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A novel algorithm for frequency lowering in music was developed and experimentally tested in hearing-impaired listeners. Harmonic frequency lowering (HFL) combines frequency transposition and frequency compression to preserve the harmonic content of music stimuli. Listeners were asked to make judgments regarding detail and sound quality in music stimuli. Stimuli were presented under different signal processing conditions: original, low-pass filtered, HFL, and nonlinear frequency compressed. Results showed that participants reported perceiving the most detail in the HFL condition. In addition, there was no difference in sound quality across conditions. PMID:26834122

  10. Static inverter with synchronous output waveform synthesized by time-optimal-response feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kernick, A.; Stechschulte, D. L.; Shireman, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    Time-optimal-response 'bang-bang' or 'bang-hang' technique, using four feedback control loops, synthesizes static-inverter sinusoidal output waveform by self-oscillatory but yet synchronous pulse-frequency-modulation (SPFM). A single modular power stage per phase of ac output entails the minimum of circuit complexity while providing by feedback synthesis individual phase voltage regulation, phase position control and inherent compensation simultaneously for line and load disturbances. Clipped sinewave performance is described under off-limit load or input voltage conditions. Also, approaches to high power levels, 3-phase arraying and parallel modular connection are given.

  11. A compact micro-wave synthesizer for transportable cold-atom interferometers

    SciTech Connect

    Lautier, J.; Lours, M.; Landragin, A.

    2014-06-15

    We present the realization of a compact micro-wave frequency synthesizer for an atom interferometer based on stimulated Raman transitions, applied to transportable inertial sensing. Our set-up is intended to address the hyperfine transitions of {sup 87}Rb at 6.8 GHz. The prototype is evaluated both in the time and the frequency domain by comparison with state-of-the-art frequency references developed at Laboratoire national de métrologie et d'essais−Systémes de référence temps espace (LNE-SYRTE). In free-running mode, it features a residual phase noise level of −65 dB rad{sup 2} Hz{sup −1} at 10 Hz offset frequency and a white phase noise level in the order of −120 dB rad{sup 2} Hz{sup −1} for Fourier frequencies above 10 kHz. The phase noise effect on the sensitivity of the atomic interferometer is evaluated for diverse values of cycling time, interrogation time, and Raman pulse duration. To our knowledge, the resulting contribution is well below the sensitivity of any demonstrated cold atom inertial sensors based on stimulated Raman transitions. The drastic improvement in terms of size, simplicity, and power consumption paves the way towards field and mobile operations.

  12. Frequency dependent squeezed light at audio frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John

    2015-04-01

    Following successful implementation in the previous generation of instruments, squeezed states of light represent a proven technology for the reduction of quantum noise in ground-based interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. As a result of lower noise and increased circulating power, the current generation of detectors places one further demand on this technique - that the orientation of the squeezed ellipse be rotated as function of frequency. This extension allows previously negligible quantum radiation pressure noise to be mitigated in addition to quantum shot noise. I will present the results of an experiment which performs the appropriate rotation by reflecting the squeezed state from a detuned high-finesse optical cavity, demonstrating frequency dependent squeezing at audio frequencies for the first time and paving the way for broadband quantum noise reduction in Advanced LIGO. Further, I will indicate how a realistic implementation of this approach will impact Advanced LIGO both alone and in combination with other potential upgrades.

  13. Radio frequency detection assembly and method for detecting radio frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Cown, Steven H.; Derr, Kurt Warren

    2010-03-16

    A radio frequency detection assembly is described and which includes a radio frequency detector which detects a radio frequency emission produced by a radio frequency emitter from a given location which is remote relative to the radio frequency detector; a location assembly electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and which is operable to estimate the location of the radio frequency emitter from the radio frequency emission which has been received; and a radio frequency transmitter electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and the location assembly, and which transmits a radio frequency signal which reports the presence of the radio frequency emitter.

  14. Method for Synthesizing Extremeley High Temperature Melting Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise and Glorieux, Benoit

    2005-11-22

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as borides, carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an Aerodynamic Levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  15. Method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials

    SciTech Connect

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Glorieux, Benoit

    2007-11-06

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an aerodynamic levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  16. Method For Synthesizing Extremely High-Temperature Melting Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Glorieux, Benoit

    2005-11-22

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as borides, carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an Aerodynamic Levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  17. Efficient Syntheses of Vitamin K Chain-Shortened Acid Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Teitelbaum, Aaron M.; Scian, Michele; Nelson, Wendel L.; Rettie, Allan E.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin K sequentially undergoes ω-oxidation followed by successive rounds of β-oxidation to ultimately produce two chain-shortened carboxylic acid metabolites, vitamin K acid 1 and vitamin K acid 2. Two facile syntheses of these acid metabolites are described, each starting from commercially available menadione-cyclopentadiene adduct 3. Vitamin K acid 1 was synthesized in five steps via alkylation with a geranyl halide followed by subsequent oxidation reactions, while fully retaining the trans configuration of the side chain 2’,3’-double bond. Vitamin K acid 2 was synthesized in 5 steps from 3 via alkylation with dimethylallyl chloride and subsequent oxidation reactions. PMID:27003951

  18. Mode-synthesizing atomic force microscopy for volume characterization of mixed metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Vitry, P; Bourillot, E; Tétard, L; Plassard, C; Lacroute, Y; Lesniewska, E

    2016-09-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and other techniques derived from AFM have revolutionized the understanding of materials and biology at the nanoscale, but mostly provide surface properties. The observation of subsurface nanoscale features and properties remains a great challenge in nanometrology. The operating principle of the mode-synthesizing AFM (MSAFM) is based on the interaction of two ultrasonic waves, one launched by the AFM probe fp , a second launched by the sample fs , and their resulting nonlinear frequency mixing. Recent developments highlighted the need for quantitative correlation between the role of the frequency actuation of the probe fp and the sample fs . Here we present the great potential of MSAFM for advanced volume characterization of metallic nanoparticles presenting a multilayered structure composed of a nickel core surrounded by a gold envelope. PMID:27018572

  19. Genetic basis of triticale breeding (x triticale). IV. Embryo culture for synthesizing primary hexaploid triticales

    SciTech Connect

    Gordei, I.A.; Khodortsova, L.F.

    1986-07-01

    Results are reported on enhancing the efficiency of embryo culture for synthesizing primary hexaploid triticales (AABBRR, 2n = 42). The antioxidant tomatoside has a positive effect on the reduction of progamous incompatibility of wheat with rye and increases the output of wheat-rye amphihaploids. It has been established that irradiation of embryos, cultured on nutrient medium, with helium-neon laser, increases significantly (P < 0.01) the regeneration frequency of the wheat-rye hybrid embryos. The highest frequency (40%) of amphidiploids was obtained by treating the plants with 0.15% colchicine through roots during the tillering phase. Hexaploid triticales from 11 cross combinations between tetraploid wheats (AABB, 2n = 28) and diploid rye (RR, 2n = 14) formed the initial material for breeding.

  20. Frequency conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Steven (Inventor); Waarts, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A frequency conversion system comprises first and second gain sources providing first and second frequency radiation outputs where the second gain source receives as input the output of the first gain source and, further, the second gain source comprises a Raman or Brillouin gain fiber for wave shifting a portion of the radiation of the first frequency output into second frequency radiation output to provided a combined output of first and second frequencies. Powers are gain enhanced by the addition of a rare earth amplifier or oscillator, or a Raman/Brillouin amplifier or oscillator between the high power source and the NFM device. Further, polarization conversion using Raman or Brillouin wavelength shifting is provided to optimize frequency conversion efficiency in the NFM device.

  1. Low frequency cultural noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Jin Soo; Kang, Tae-Seob; Baag, Chang-Eob

    2009-09-01

    Abnormal cultural seismic noise is observed in the frequency range of 0.01-0.05 Hz. Cultural noise generated by human activities is generally observed in frequencies above 1 Hz, and is greater in the daytime than at night. The low-frequency noise presented in this paper exhibits a characteristic amplitude variation and can be easily identified from time domain seismograms in the frequency range of interest. The amplitude variation is predominantly in the vertical component, but the horizontal components also show variations. Low-frequency noise is markedly periodic, which reinforces its interpretation as cultural noise. Such noise is observed world-wide, but is limited to areas in the vicinity of railways. The amplitude variation in seismograms correlates strongly with railway timetables, and the waveform shows a wavelength shift associated with the Doppler effect, which indicates that the origin of seismic background noise in the frequency range 0.01-0.05 Hz is railways.

  2. High Resolution Spectroscopy Using a Tunable Thz Synthesizer Based on Photomixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gael; Eliet, Sophie; Guinet, Mickael; Bocquet, Robin

    2011-06-01

    Optical heterodyning, also know as photomixing is an attractive solution as a single device able to cover the entire frequency range from 300 GHz to 3 THz. As the THz frequency is extracted from the difference frequency of two lasers, the accuracy with which the generated frequency is known is directly determined by the frequency accuracy of the lasers. In order to fully characterize the spectral fingerprint of a given molecule an accuracy approximately one order of magnitude finer than the Doppler linewidth is required, around 100 kHz for smaller polar compounds. To generate accurate cw-THz the frequency spacing of the modes of a Frequency Comb (FC) has been employed to constrain the emission frequency of a photomixing source.footnote{G. Mouret, F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, C. Yang, R. Bocquet, M. Lours, D. Rovera, Opt. Express, 2009, 17: 22031.} Two phase locked loops are implemented coherently locking the two cw-lasers (CW1 and CW2) to different modes of the FC. Although this solution allows accurate generation of narrowband THz the continuous tuning of the frequency presents some obstacles. To overcome these difficulties a system architecture with a third cw-laser (CW3) phase locked to CW2 has been implemented. The beatnote between CW2 and CW3 is free from the FC modes therefore the PLL frequency can be freely scanned over its entire operating range, in our case around 200 MHz. The most of polar compounds may be studied at high resolution in the THz domain with this synthesizer. Three different examples of THz analysis with atmospherical and astrophysical interests will be presented: The ground and vibrationnally excited states of H_2CO revisited in the 0.5-2 THz frequency region The rotational dependences of the broadening coefficients of CH_3Cl studied at high J and K values The molecular discrimination of a complex mixture containing methanol and ethanol. F. Hindle, A. Cuisset, G. Mouret, R. Bocquet Comptes Rendus Physique, 2008, 9: 262-275.

  3. A comparative study of TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized in premixed and diffusion flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hsiao-Kang; Yang, Hsiung-An

    2010-12-01

    Previous studies have been shown that synthesis of titania (TiO2) crystalline phase purity could be effectively controlled by the oxygen concentration through titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) via premixed flame from a Bunsen burner. In this study, a modified Hencken burner was used to synthesize smaller TiO2 nanoparticles via short diffusion flames. The frequency of collisions among particles would decrease and reduce TiO2 nanoparticle size in a short diffusion flame height. The crystalline structure of the synthesized nanoparticles was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements. The characteristic properties of TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized from a modified Hencken burner were compared with the results from a Bunsen burner and commercial TiO2 (Degussa P25). The results showed that the average particle size of 6.63 nm from BET method was produced by a modified Hencken burner which was smaller than the TiO2 in a Bunsen burner and commercial TiO2. Moreover, the rutile content of TiO2 nanoparticles increased as the particle collecting height increased. Also, the size of TiO2 nanoparticles was highly dependent on the TTIP loading and the collecting height in the flame.

  4. Frequency Response Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Etingov, Pavel V.; Kosterev, Dmitry; Dai, T.

    2014-12-31

    Frequency response has received a lot of attention in recent years at the national level, which culminated in the development and approval of North American Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) BAL-003-1 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting Reliability Standard. This report is prepared to describe the details of the work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration and Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Joint Synchronized Information Subcommittee (JSIS) to develop a frequency response analysis tool (FRAT). The document provides the details on the methodology and main features of the FRAT. The tool manages the database of under-frequency events and calculates the frequency response baseline. Frequency response calculations are consistent with frequency response measure (FRM) in NERC BAL-003-1 for an interconnection and balancing authority. The FRAT can use both phasor measurement unit (PMU) data, where available, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data. The tool is also capable of automatically generating NERC Frequency Response Survey (FRS) forms required by BAL-003-1 Standard.

  5. Frequency selective terahertz retroreflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Richard James

    The use of novel optical structures operating at terahertz frequencies in industrial and military applications continues to grow. Some of these novel structures include gratings, frequency selective surfaces, metamaterials and metasurfaces, and retroreflectors. A retroreflector is a device that exhibits enhanced backscatter by concentrating the reflected wave in the direction of the source. Retroreflectors have applications in a variety of diverse fields such as aviation, radar systems, antenna technology, communications, navigation, passive identification, and metrology due to their large acceptance angles and frequency bandwidth. This thesis describes the design, fabrication, and characterization of a retroreflector designed for terahertz frequencies and the incorporation of a frequency selective surface in order to endow the retroreflector with narrow-band frequency performance. The radar cross section of several spherical lens reflectors operating at terahertz frequencies was investigated. Spherical lens reflectors with diameters ranging from 2 mm to 8 mm were fabricated from fused silica ball lenses and their radar cross section was measured at 100 GHz, 160 GHz, and 350 GHz. Crossed-dipole frequency selective surfaces exhibiting band-pass characteristics at 350 GHz fabricated from 12 um-thick Nickel screens were applied to the apertures of the spherical lens reflectors. The radar cross section of the frequency selective retroreflectors was measured at 160 GHz and 350 GHz to demonstrate proof-of-concept of narrow-band terahertz performance.

  6. Word frequency affects hypermnesia.

    PubMed

    Macie, K M; Larsen, J D

    1996-12-01

    Hypermnesia, the tendency of participants to recall more items from a list they have studied when they are asked to recall the list several times on a free-recall test, is enhanced by factors that lead to better performance on free-recall tests. This study tested the hypothesis that words which appear with high frequency in the English language would produce hypermnesia but that low frequency words would not. The activity the 57 participants were required to do between repeated recall tests was also manipulated but had no effect on the number of words recalled. High frequency words resulted in hypermnesia but low frequency words did not. PMID:9009796

  7. Probability and Relative Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drieschner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The concept of probability seems to have been inexplicable since its invention in the seventeenth century. In its use in science, probability is closely related with relative frequency. So the task seems to be interpreting that relation. In this paper, we start with predicted relative frequency and show that its structure is the same as that of probability. I propose to call that the `prediction interpretation' of probability. The consequences of that definition are discussed. The "ladder"-structure of the probability calculus is analyzed. The expectation of the relative frequency is shown to be equal to the predicted relative frequency. Probability is shown to be the most general empirically testable prediction.

  8. Frequencies of solar oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Libbrecht, K. G.; Woodard, M. F.; Kaufman, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Solar oscillations have been observed at three different spatial scales at Big Bear Solar Observatory during 1986-1987 and, using three data sets, a new and more accurate table of solar oscillation frequencies has been compiled. The oscillations, which are presented as functions of radial order n and spherical harmonic degree l, are averages over azimuthal order and therefore approximate the normal mode frequencies of a nonrotating, spherically symmetric sun, near solar minimum. The table contains frequencies for most of the solar p and f modes with l between 0 and 1860, n between 0 and 26, and oscillation mode frequencies between 1.0 and 5.3.

  9. Nonlinear Frequency Compression

    PubMed Central

    Scollie, Susan; Glista, Danielle; Seelisch, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Frequency lowering technologies offer an alternative amplification solution for severe to profound high frequency hearing losses. While frequency lowering technologies may improve audibility of high frequency sounds, the very nature of this processing can affect the perceived sound quality. This article reports the results from two studies that investigated the impact of a nonlinear frequency compression (NFC) algorithm on perceived sound quality. In the first study, the cutoff frequency and compression ratio parameters of the NFC algorithm were varied, and their effect on the speech quality was measured subjectively with 12 normal hearing adults, 12 normal hearing children, 13 hearing impaired adults, and 9 hearing impaired children. In the second study, 12 normal hearing and 8 hearing impaired adult listeners rated the quality of speech in quiet, speech in noise, and music after processing with a different set of NFC parameters. Results showed that the cutoff frequency parameter had more impact on sound quality ratings than the compression ratio, and that the hearing impaired adults were more tolerant to increased frequency compression than normal hearing adults. No statistically significant differences were found in the sound quality ratings of speech-in-noise and music stimuli processed through various NFC settings by hearing impaired listeners. These findings suggest that there may be an acceptable range of NFC settings for hearing impaired individuals where sound quality is not adversely affected. These results may assist an Audiologist in clinical NFC hearing aid fittings for achieving a balance between high frequency audibility and sound quality. PMID:23539261

  10. Intelligent switches of integrated lightwave circuits with core telecommunication functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izhaky, Nahum; Duer, Reuven; Berns, Neil; Tal, Eran; Vinikman, Shirly; Schoenwald, Jeffrey S.; Shani, Yosi

    2001-05-01

    We present a brief overview of a promising switching technology based on Silica on Silicon thermo-optic integrated circuits. This is basically a 2D solid-state optical device capable of non-blocking switching operation. Except of its excellent performance (insertion loss<5dB, switching time<2ms...), the switch enables additional important build-in functionalities. It enables single-to- single channel switching and single-to-multiple channel multicasting/broadcasting. In addition, it has the capability of channel weighting and variable output power control (attenuation), for instance, to equalize signal levels and compensate for unbalanced different optical input powers, or to equalize unbalanced EDFA gain curve. We examine the market segments appropriate for the switch size and technology, followed by a discussion of the basic features of the technology. The discussion is focused on important requirements from the switch and the technology (e.g., insertion loss, power consumption, channel isolation, extinction ratio, switching time, and heat dissipation). The mechanical design is also considered. It must take into account integration of optical fiber, optical planar wafer, analog electronics and digital microprocessor controls, embedded software, and heating power dissipation. The Lynx Photon.8x8 switch is compared to competing technologies, in terms of typical market performance requirements.

  11. A terminal molybdenum arsenide complex synthesized from yellow arsenic.

    PubMed

    Curley, John J; Piro, Nicholas A; Cummins, Christopher C

    2009-10-19

    A terminal molybdenum arsenide complex is synthesized in one step from the reactive As(4) molecule. The properties of this complex with its arsenic atom ligand are discussed in relation to the analogous nitride and phosphide complexes. PMID:19764796

  12. Organic syntheses employing supercritical carbon dioxide as a reaction solvent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barstow, Leon E. (Inventor); Ward, Glen D. (Inventor); Bier, Milan (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Chemical reactions are readily carried out using supercritical carbon dioxide as the reaction medium. Supercritical carbon dioxide is of special value as a reaction medium in reactions for synthesizing polypeptides, for sequencing polypeptides, or for amino acid analysis.

  13. Organic syntheses employing supercritical carbon dioxide as a reaction solvent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barstow, Leon E. (Inventor); Ward, Glen D. (Inventor); Bier, Milan (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Chemical reactions are readily carried out using supercritical carbon dioxide as the reaction medium. Supercritical carbon dioxide is of special value as a reaction medium in reactions for synthesizing polypeptides, for sequencing polypeptides, or for amino acid analysis.

  14. Synthesizing SoTL Institutional Initiatives toward National Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    This chapter draws on other authors' ideas in this issue, describing parallels and outlining distinctions toward a synthesized model for the development of SoTL initiatives at the institutional level and beyond.

  15. SYNTHESIZING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING LIGHT-ACTIVATED TIO2

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-value organic compounds have been synthesized successfully from linear and cyclic hydrocarbons, by photocatalytic oxidation using a semiconductor material, titanium dioxide (TiO2). Various hydrocarbons were partially oxgenated in both liquid and gaseous phase reactors usi...

  16. Synthesis of nitrogen-containing carbon by solution plasma in aniline with high-repetition frequency discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Koangyong; Ueno, Tomonaga; Saito, Nagahiro

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen-containing carbon nanoparticles were synthesized in aniline by solution plasma with high-repetition frequency discharges. We developed a bipolar pulsed power supply that can apply high-repetition frequencies ranging from 25 to 200 kHz. By utilizing high-repetition frequencies, conductive carbons were directly synthesized. The crystallinity was increased and H/C ratio of carbon was decreased. Furthermore, nitrogen atoms were simultaneously embedded in the carbon matrix. Due to the presence of nitrogen atoms, the conductivity and electrocatalytic activity of the samples were remarkably improved compared to that of a pure carbon matrix synthesized from a benzene precursor.

  17. Direct visualization of identified and newly synthesized proteins in situ

    PubMed Central

    Dieck, Susanne tom; Kochen, Lisa; Hanus, Cyril; Bartnik, Ina; Nassim-Assir, Belquis; Merk, Katrin; Mosler, Thorsten; Garg, Sakshi; Bunse, Stefanie; Tirrell, David A.; Schuman, Erin M.

    2015-01-01

    Protein synthesis is a dynamic process to tune the cellular proteome to internal and external demands. Metabolic labeling approaches identify the general proteomic response but missing is a tool to visualize within cells specific newly synthesized proteins. Here we describe a technique that couples non-canonical amino acid tagging or puromycylation with the proximity-ligation assay to visualize identified newly synthesized proteins and monitor their origin, redistribution and turnover in situ. PMID:25775042

  18. Mayenite Synthesized Using the Citrate Sol-Gel Method

    SciTech Connect

    Ude, Sabina N; Rawn, Claudia J; Meisner, Roberta A; Kirkham, Melanie J; Jones, Gregory L.; Payzant, E Andrew

    2014-01-01

    A citrate sol-gel method has been used to synthesize mayenite (Ca12Al14O33). X-ray powder diffraction data show that the samples synthesized using the citrate sol-gel method contained CaAl2O4 and CaCO3 along with mayenite when fired ex-situ in air at 800 C but were single phase when fired at 900 C and above. Using high temperature x-ray diffraction, data collected in-situ in air at temperatures of 600 C and below showed only amorphous content; however, data collected at higher temperatures indicated the first phase to crystallize is CaCO3. High temperature x-ray diffraction data collected in 4% H2/96% N2 does not show the presence of CaCO3, and Ca12Al14O33 starts to form around 850 C. In comparison, x-ray powder diffraction data collected ex-situ on samples synthesized using traditional solid-state synthesis shows that single phase was not reached until samples were fired at 1350 C. DTA/TGA data collected either in a nitrogen environment or air on samples synthesized using the citrate gel method suggest the complete decomposition of metastable phases and the formation of mayenite at 900 C, although the phase evolution is very different depending on the environment. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements showed a slightly higher surface area of 7.4 0.1 m2/g in the citrate gel synthesized samples compared to solid-state synthesized sample with a surface area of 1.61 0.02 m2/g. SEM images show a larger particle size for samples synthesized using the solid-state method compared to those synthesized using the citrate gel method.

  19. Degradation of Methylene Blue Using Biologically Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Vanaja, M.; Paulkumar, K.; Baburaja, M.; Rajeshkumar, S.; Gnanajobitha, G.; Malarkodi, C.; Sivakavinesan, M.; Annadurai, G.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles has great interest and achievement due to its eco-benign and low time consuming properties. In this study silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by using Morinda tinctoria leaf extract under different pH. The aqueous leaf extract was added to silver nitrate solution; the color of the reaction medium was changed from pale yellow to brown and that indicates reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles. Thus synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Dispersity and morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM); crystalline nature and purity of synthesized silver nanoparticles were revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). FTIR spectrum was examined to identify the effective functional molecules responsible for the reduction and stabilization of silver nanoparticles synthesized by leaf extract. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized silver nanoparticles was examined by degradation of methylene blue under sunlight irradiation. Green synthesized silver nanoparticles were effectively degrading the dye nearly 95% at 72 h of exposure time. PMID:24772055

  20. Electric modulus formalism and electrical transport property of ball mill synthesized nanocrystalline Mn doped ZrO2 solid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, S.; Nandy, A.; Meikap, A. K.; Pradhan, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Here we report the formation of Mn doped nanocrystalline ZrO2 solid solution synthesized by high energy ball-milling method and the transport mechanism in the temperature range 298 Kfrequency range 20 Hz-2 MHz. Rietveld method is employed for analysis of phase formation mechanism, structural and microstructural characterization of different phases and relative phase abundances using XRD patterns. The electrical study shows the dc conductivity enhances as the doping percentage increases. Complex electric modulus study shows low frequency region approaches to ideal Debye type behaviour while the high frequency side deviates. Alternating current conductivity is found to follow the power law σ'(f,T)∝fsTn. A transformation from small polaron hopping to correlated barrier hopping has been observed from the temperature dependence frequency exponent study. The contribution of grain boundary resistance is found to be dominating over the grain resistance in the ac conduction process.

  1. Stabilized radio frequency quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Lancaster, Henry D.; Fugitt, Jock A.; Howard, Donald R.

    1984-01-01

    A long-vane stabilized radio frequency resonator for accelerating charged particles and including means defining a radio frequency resonator cavity, a plurality of long vanes mounted in the defining means for dividing the cavity into sections, and means interconnecting opposing ones of the plurality of vanes for stabilizing the resonator.

  2. Stabilized radio frequency quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Lancaster, H.D.; Fugitt, J.A.; Howard, D.R.

    1984-12-25

    Disclosed is a long-vane stabilized radio frequency resonator for accelerating charged particles and including means defining a radio frequency resonator cavity, a plurality of long vanes mounted in the defining means for dividing the cavity into sections, and means interconnecting opposing ones of the plurality of vanes for stabilizing the resonator. 5 figs.

  3. Microfabricated ion frequency standard

    DOEpatents

    Schwindt, Peter; Biedermann, Grant; Blain, Matthew G.; Stick, Daniel L.; Serkland, Darwin K.; Olsson, III, Roy H.

    2010-12-28

    A microfabricated ion frequency standard (i.e. an ion clock) is disclosed with a permanently-sealed vacuum package containing a source of ytterbium (Yb) ions and an octupole ion trap. The source of Yb ions is a micro-hotplate which generates Yb atoms which are then ionized by a ultraviolet light-emitting diode or a field-emission electron source. The octupole ion trap, which confines the Yb ions, is formed from suspended electrodes on a number of stacked-up substrates. A microwave source excites a ground-state transition frequency of the Yb ions, with a frequency-doubled vertical-external-cavity laser (VECSEL) then exciting the Yb ions up to an excited state to produce fluorescent light which is used to tune the microwave source to the ground-state transition frequency, with the microwave source providing a precise frequency output for the ion clock.

  4. Simple sweep frequency generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yegorov, I.

    1985-01-01

    A sweep frequency generator is described whose center frequency can be varied from 10 kHz to 50 MHz, with seven 1 to 3 and 3 to 10 scales covering the 10 kHz to 30 MHz range and one 3 to 5 scale for the 30 to 50 MHz range. It consists of a tunable pulse generator with output voltage attenuator, a diode mixer for calibration, and a sawtooth voltage generator as a source of frequency deviation. The pulse generator is a multivibrator with two emitter coupled transistors and two diodes in the collector circuit of one. The first diode extends the tuning range and increases the frequency deviation, the second diode provides the necessary base bias to the other transistor. The pulse repetition rate is modulated either directly by the sweep voltage of the calibrating oscilloscope, this voltage being applied to the base of the transistor with the two diodes in its collector circuit through an additional attenuator or a special emitter follower, or by the separate sawtooth voltage generator. The latter is a conventional two transistor multivibrator and produces signals at any constant frequency within the 40 to 60 Hz range. The mixer receives unmodulated signals from a reference frequency source and produces different frequency signals which are sent through an RCR-filter to a calibrating oscilloscope.

  5. Frequency discriminating laser

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, M.D.

    1987-10-20

    A laser is described for discriminating between a higher gain transition and a lower gain transition to permit the laser to lase at the lower gain transition. It consists of: a laser cavity, including more than two mirrors each of which is highly transmissive at the frequency of the higher gain transition, one of which is partially reflective at the frequency of the lower gain transition, and all but the one of which are highly reflective at the frequency of the lower gain transition; an active laser medium disposed within the cavity; and means for pumping the active laser medium.

  6. Optical Frequency Domain Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Vakoc, Benjamin; Yun, Seok Hyun

    In this chapter, we discuss a frequency-domain approach, optical frequency-domain imaging (OFDI), which is based on optical frequency-domain reflectometry and uses a wavelength-swept laser and standard single-element photodetectors. The chapter begins with an overview of the fundamental aspects of the technology, including the detected signal, sensitivity, depth range, and resolution, and then goes on to discuss specific component technologies including the light source, interferometer and acquisition electronics, and image processing. The final section of the chapter provides a brief glimpse at some of the biomedical applications that most directly take advantage of the improved speed and sensitivity of OFDI.

  7. Frequency stabilized laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mongeon, R. J.; Henschke, R. W.

    1984-08-01

    The document describes a frequency control system for a laser for compensating for thermally-induced laser resonator length changes. The frequency control loop comprises a frequency reference for producing an error signal and electrical means to move a length-controlling transducer in response thereto. The transducer has one of the laser mirrors attached thereto. The effective travel of the transducer is multiplied severalfold by circuitry for sensing when the transducer is running out of extension and in response thereto rapidly moving the transducer and its attached mirror toward its midrange position.

  8. A beat frequency buncher

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, D.W.; Corcoran, D.T.; Harper, G.C.

    1995-09-01

    A superconducting high energy buncher operating at 13/12 times the linac frequency has been built and installed, to combine with the low energy buncher operating at 1/12 the linac frequency. The system is synchronized so the linac and high energy buncher beat frequency remains in phase with the low energy buncher. On linac cycles not corresponding to a primary bunch, the high energy buncher bunches residual beam away from the linac longitudinal acceptance rather than into it. The resonator for the new high energy buncher was constructed by shortening an existing low-{beta} resonator.

  9. Anomalous frequency dependent diamagnetism in metal silicide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, Ashutosh; Gunasekera, Jagat; Harriger, Leland; Singh, David J.; Singh, Deepak K.; Leland Harriger Collaboration

    Discovery of superconductivity in PbO-type FeSe has generated a lot of interest. Among the samples we synthesize with similar structure, NiSi has showed anomalous but very interesting results. Nickel silicides are important electronic materials that have been used as contacts for field effect transistors, as interconnects and in nanoelectronic devices. The magnetic properties of NiSi are not well known, however. In this presentation, we report a highly unusual magnetic phenomenon in NiSi. The ac susceptibility measurements on NiSi reveal strong frequency dependence of static and dynamic susceptibilities that are primarily diamagnetic at room temperature. The static susceptibility is found to exhibit a strong frequency dependence of the diamagnetic response below 100K, while dynamic susceptibility showed peak type feature at 10KHz frequency around 50K. Detailed neutron scattering measurements on high quality powder sample of NiSi on SPINS cold spectrometer further revealed an inelastic peak around 1.5meV, even though no magnetic order is detected. The inelastic peak dissipates above 100K, which is where the static susceptibility starts to diverge with frequency. Research is supported by U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Grant No. DE-SC0014461.

  10. Histograms and Frequency Density.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micromath, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Introduces exercises on histograms and frequency density. Guides pupils to Discovering Important Statistical Concepts Using Spreadsheets (DISCUSS), created at the University of Coventry. Includes curriculum points, teaching tips, activities, and internet address (http://www.coventry.ac.uk/discuss/). (KHR)

  11. Acoustic emission frequency discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugg, Frank E. (Inventor); Graham, Lloyd J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    In acoustic emission nondestructive testing, broadband frequency noise is distinguished from narrow banded acoustic emission signals, since the latter are valid events indicative of structural flaws in the material being examined. This is accomplished by separating out those signals which contain frequency components both within and beyond (either above or below) the range of valid acoustic emission events. Application to acoustic emission monitoring during nondestructive bond verification and proof loading of undensified tiles on the Space Shuttle Orbiter is considered.

  12. Review and Synthesize Completed Research Through Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Hopp, Lisa; Rittenmeyer, Leslie

    2015-10-01

    The evidence-based health care movement has generated new opportunity for scholars to generate synthesized sources of evidence. Systematic reviews are rigorous forms of synthesized evidence that scholars can conduct if they have requisite skills, time, and access to excellent library resources. Systematic reviews play an important role in synthesizing what is known and unknown about a particular health issue. Thus, they have a synergistic relationship with primary research. They can both inform clinical decisions when the evidence is adequate and identify gaps in knowledge to inform research priorities. Systematic reviews can be conducted of quantitative and qualitative evidence to answer many types of questions. They all share characteristics of rigor that arise from a priori protocol development, transparency, exhaustive searching, dual independent reviewers who critically appraise studies using standardized tools, rigor in synthesis, and peer review at multiple stages in the conduct and reporting of the systematic review. PMID:25845805

  13. Demonstration of an Electronic Gamma-Rau Spectrum Synthesizer

    SciTech Connect

    Luke, S J

    2002-04-03

    The goal of this demonstration was to show that it is possible to generate electronic signals that can accurately mimic the signals that are produced by a high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray detector. As an example of this fidelity, we decided to show that it was possible to perform a complex, multiplet-resolution analysis of a portion of the spectrum acquired from the gamma-ray spectrum synthesizer. We further showed that the results of this analysis were consistent with what would be obtained from a spectrum acquired from a real plutonium source and a real HPGe detector. The gamma-ray synthesizer used in the JRC Ispra demonstration was our first laboratory prototype. In this version of the synthesizer we produced signals that mimicked the output of an HPGe detector preamplifier. Although not shown at Ispra, we have also demonstrated that we can produce signals that mimic the signals produced in the detector itself.

  14. Comparison of Pyrolysis Characteristics of degreased and synthesized Mongolian Pine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kaige; Wang, Shurong; Guo, Xiujuan; Luo, Zhongyang; Fransson, Torsten

    2010-11-01

    In order to study the influence of components' cross-interaction on biomass pyrolysis, research of degreased and synthesized Mongolian Pine (MP) was performed on a thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR) and the fast pyrolysis device. Compared with synthesized MP, the thermal behavior of degreased MP is much closer to the original and the degreased MP produces less aldehydes, alcohols or phenols and acids due to the cross-interactions of components. Synthesized MP has lower bio-oil yield and higher gas production than the degreased one. And the contents of furfural, acetic acid and levoglucosan change with the kind of samples obviously due to the intense cross-interactions of components.

  15. On letter frequency effects.

    PubMed

    New, Boris; Grainger, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    In four experiments we examined whether the frequency of occurrence of letters affects performance in the alphabetic decision task (speeded letter vs. pseudo-letter classification). Experiments 1A and 1B tested isolated letters and pseudo-letters presented at fixation, and Experiments 2A and 2B tested the same stimuli inserted at the 1st, 3rd, or 5th position in a string of Xs. Significant negative correlations between letter frequency and response times to letter targets were found in all experiments. The correlations were found to be stronger for token frequency counts compared with both type frequency and frequency rank, stronger for frequency counts based on a book corpus compared with film subtitles, and stronger for measures counting occurrences as the first letter of words compared with inner letters and final letters. Correlations for letters presented in strings of Xs were found to depend on letter case and position-in-string. The results are in favor of models of word recognition that implement case-specific and position-specific letter representations. PMID:21855049

  16. Fatty acid alcohol ester-synthesizing activity of lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, T; Sumiyoshi, M; Okuda, H

    1999-12-01

    The fatty acid alcohol ester-synthesizing activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was characterized using bovine milk LPL. Synthesizing activities were determined in an aqueous medium using oleic acid or trioleylglycerol as the acyl donor and equimolar amounts of long-chain alcohols as the acyl acceptor. When oleic acid and hexadecanol emulsified with gum arabic were incubated with LPL, palmityl oleate was synthesized, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Apo-very low density lipoprotein (apoVLDL) stimulated LPL-catalyzed palmityl oleate synthesis. The apparent equilibrium ratio of fatty acid alcohol ester/oleic acid was estimated using a high concentration of LPL and a long (20 h) incubation period. The equilibrium ratio was affected by the incubation pH and the alcohol chain length. When the incubation pH was below pH 7.0 and long chain fatty acyl alcohols were used as substrates, the fatty acid alcohol ester/free fatty acid equilibrium ratio favored ester formation, with an apparent equilibrium ratio of fatty acid alcohol ester/fatty acid of about 0.9/0.1. The equilibrium ratio decreased sharply at alkaline pH (above pH 8.0). The ratio also decreased when fatty alcohols with acyl chains shorter than dodecanol were used. When a trioleoylglycerol/fatty acyl alcohol emulsion was incubated with LPL, fatty acid alcohol esters were synthesized in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Fatty acid alcohol esters were easily synthesized from trioleoylglycerol when fatty alcohols with acyl chains longer than dodecanol were used, but synthesis was decreased with fatty alcohols with acyl chain lengths shorter than decanol, and little synthesizing activity was detected with shorter-chain fatty alcohols such as butanol or ethanol. PMID:10578059

  17. Chemical phase analysis of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharti, Amardeep; Singh, Suman; Singla, M. L.; Goyal, Navdeep

    2015-08-01

    Noble-metal nanoparticles are of great interest because of its broad applications almost in every stream (i.e. biology, chemistry and engineering) due to their unique size/shape dependant properties. In this paper, chemical phase of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) has been investigated via fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). These nanaoparticles were synthesized by seed-growth method controlled by urea and dextrose results to highly stable 12-20 nm particle size revealed by zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  18. Salvage syntheses and their relationship to nucleic acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Königk, E.

    1977-01-01

    The intraerythrocytic stages of plasmodia are capable of synthesizing purine nucleotides and apparently deoxycytidylate by salvage syntheses. Data obtained by studying the incorporation of radioactive precursor molecules into intact cells and kinetic experiments on purified enzyme preparations suggest biosynthetic routes which, generally, are similar to those of the host's cell metabolism. However, details on the regulation of both the uptake of nucleosides and bases into the intraerythrocytic stages of plasmodia and of the metabolic routes involved in this incorporation are still lacking. PMID:303949

  19. Diameter Controlled of Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized on Nanoporous Silicon Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asli, N. A.; Shamsudin, M. S.; Maryam, M.; Yusop, S. F. M.; Suriani, A. B.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.

    2013-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been successfully synthesized on nanoporous silicon template (NPSiT) using botanical source, camphor oil. Diameter of CNTs synthesized was controlled by pore size of NPSiT prepared by photo-electrochemical anodization method. The diameter of CNTs grown on different NPSiT corresponded to the pore diameter of NPSiT. FESEM images showed self-organized bundles of fiber-like structures of CNTs with diameter of around 20nm which were successfully grown directly on nanoporous silicon while raman spectra obtained ratio of ID/IG at 0.67.

  20. Chemical phase analysis of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Bharti, Amardeep Goyal, Navdeep; Singh, Suman; Singla, M. L.

    2015-08-28

    Noble-metal nanoparticles are of great interest because of its broad applications almost in every stream (i.e. biology, chemistry and engineering) due to their unique size/shape dependant properties. In this paper, chemical phase of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) has been investigated via fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). These nanaoparticles were synthesized by seed-growth method controlled by urea and dextrose results to highly stable 12-20 nm particle size revealed by zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

  1. Microstructural and ionic transport studies of hydrothermally synthesized lanthanum fluoride nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Patro, L. N. E-mail: kbharath@umd.edu; Kamala Bharathi, K. E-mail: kbharath@umd.edu; Ravi Chandra Raju, N.

    2014-12-15

    This article presents the structural and transport characteristics of hydrothermally synthesized LaF{sub 3} nanoparticles with an average crystallite size of 35nm. The phase formation of the material is confirmed by both X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy techniques. In addition, phase purity of the LaF{sub 3} nanoparticles is corroborated by micro-Raman spectroscopy studies. The complex impedance plots at different temperatures reveal that the conductivity is predominantly due to the intrinsic bulk grains and the conductivity relaxation is non-Debye in nature. The frequency variation of conductivity exhibits dispersion at higher frequencies that can be explained with the frame work of Almond-West formalism. The conduction process is controlled by the mobility of the charge carriers and the charge of transport of mobile fluoride ions occur through hopping mechanism. The scaling behavior of both frequency dependence of conductivity and complex impedance plots at different temperatures confirm that the relaxation mechanism of the mobile fluoride ions is independent of temperature.

  2. Microstructural and ionic transport studies of hydrothermally synthesized lanthanum fluoride nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patro, L. N.; Kamala Bharathi, K.; Ravi Chandra Raju, N.

    2014-12-01

    This article presents the structural and transport characteristics of hydrothermally synthesized LaF3 nanoparticles with an average crystallite size of 35nm. The phase formation of the material is confirmed by both X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy techniques. In addition, phase purity of the LaF3 nanoparticles is corroborated by micro-Raman spectroscopy studies. The complex impedance plots at different temperatures reveal that the conductivity is predominantly due to the intrinsic bulk grains and the conductivity relaxation is non-Debye in nature. The frequency variation of conductivity exhibits dispersion at higher frequencies that can be explained with the frame work of Almond-West formalism. The conduction process is controlled by the mobility of the charge carriers and the charge of transport of mobile fluoride ions occur through hopping mechanism. The scaling behavior of both frequency dependence of conductivity and complex impedance plots at different temperatures confirm that the relaxation mechanism of the mobile fluoride ions is independent of temperature.

  3. Frequency Standards and Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleki, Lute

    2009-04-01

    Preface / Lute Maleki -- Symposium history / Jacques Vanier -- Symposium photos -- pt. I. Fundamental physics. Variation of fundamental constants from the big bang to atomic clocks: theory and observations (Invited) / V. V. Flambaum and J. C. Berengut. Alpha-dot or not: comparison of two single atom optical clocks (Invited) / T. Rosenband ... [et al.]. Variation of the fine-structure constant and laser cooling of atomic dysprosium (Invited) / N. A. Leefer ... [et al.]. Measurement of short range forces using cold atoms (Invited) / F. Pereira Dos Santos ... [et al.]. Atom interferometry experiments in fundamental physics (Invited) / S. W. Chiow ... [et al.]. Space science applications of frequency standards and metrology (Invited) / M. Tinto -- pt. II. Frequency & metrology. Quantum metrology with lattice-confined ultracold Sr atoms (Invited) / A. D. Ludlow ... [et al.]. LNE-SYRTE clock ensemble: new [symbol]Rb hyperfine frequency measurement - spectroscopy of [symbol]Hg optical clock transition (Invited) / M. Petersen ... [et al.]. Precise measurements of S-wave scattering phase shifts with a juggling atomic clock (Invited) / S. Gensemer ... [et al.]. Absolute frequency measurement of the [symbol] clock transition (Invited) / M. Chwalla ... [et al.]. The semiclassical stochastic-field/atom interaction problem (Invited) / J. Camparo. Phase and frequency noise metrology (Invited) / E. Rubiola ... [et al.]. Optical spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen for an improved determination of the Rydberg constant / J. L. Flowers ... [et al.] -- pt. III. Clock applications in space. Recent progress on the ACES mission (Invited) / L. Cacciapuoti and C. Salomon. The SAGAS mission (Invited) / P. Wolf. Small mercury microwave ion clock for navigation and radioScience (Invited) / J. D. Prestage ... [et al.]. Astro-comb: revolutionizing precision spectroscopy in astrophysics (Invited) / C. E. Kramer ... [et al.]. High frequency very long baseline interferometry: frequency standards and

  4. Monolithic THz Frequency Multipliers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, N. R.; Narayanan, G.; Grosslein, R. M.; Martin, S.; Mehdi, I.; Smith, P.; Coulomb, M.; DeMartinez, G.

    2001-01-01

    Frequency multipliers are required as local oscillator sources for frequencies up to 2.7 THz for FIRST and airborne applications. Multipliers at these frequencies have not previously been demonstrated, and the object of this work was to show whether such circuits are really practical. A practical circuit is one which not only performs as well as is required, but also can be replicated in a time that is feasible. As the frequency of circuits is increased, the difficulties in fabrication and assembly increase rapidly. Building all of the circuit on GaAs as a monolithic circuit is highly desirable to minimize the complexity of assembly, but at the highest frequencies, even a complete monolithic circuit is extremely small, and presents serious handling difficulty. This is compounded by the requirement for a very thin substrate. Assembly can become very difficult because of handling problems and critical placement. It is very desirable to make the chip big enough to that it can be seen without magnification, and strong enough that it may be picked up with tweezers. Machined blocks to house the chips present an additional challenge. Blocks with complex features are very expensive, and these also imply very critical assembly of the parts. It would be much better if the features in the block were as simple as possible and non-critical to the function of the chip. In particular, grounding and other electrical interfaces should be done in a manner that is highly reproducible.

  5. Synthesizing the Effect of Building Condition Quality on Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Tracey; Shao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 1970s, researchers have examined the relationship between school building condition and student performance. Though many literature reviews have claimed that a relationship exists, no meta-analysis has quantitatively examined this literature. The purpose of this review was to synthesize the existing literature on the relationship…

  6. Uses of a Vinylpyridine Polymer in Undergraduate Organic Syntheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getman, Damon; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents a series of syntheses in which poly-4-vinylpyridine is substituted for pyridine or other tertiary amines, avoiding some of the safety problems associated with traditional reagents and providing a readily recoverable and recyclable reactant. Background information, procedures used, and results are included. (JN)

  7. Branched nanostructures and method of synthesizing the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fonseca, Luis F. (Inventor); Resto, Oscar (Inventor); Sola, Francisco (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A branched nanostructure is synthesized. A porous material, with pores having a diameter of approximately 1 .mu.m or less, is placed in a vacuum. It is irradiated with an electron beam. This causes a trunk to grow from the porous material and further causes branches to grow from the trunk.

  8. Various difunctionalizations of acrylamide: an efficient approach to synthesize oxindoles.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen-Chen; Yang, Shang-Dong

    2016-05-11

    Various difunctionalizations of acrylamide can not only provide a simple approach to form a wide scope of functionalized oxindoles, but can also be applied and generated easily. This review concludes different difunctionalizations of acrylamide to synthesize oxindoles based on the mechanistic aspects. The goal is to encourage further mechanistic studies hopefully leading to an in-depth understanding of this strategy. PMID:27091597

  9. Total Syntheses of Secalonic Acids A and D**

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Tian

    2014-01-01

    Total syntheses of the dimeric tetrahydroxanthone natural products secalonic acids A and D are described. Key steps involve kinetic resolution of the tetrahydroxanthone core structure using homobenzotetramisole (HBTM) catalysis and late-stage copper (I)-mediated homodimerization of complex aryl stannane monomers. PMID:24519991

  10. Syntheses of Cyclic Guanidine-Containing Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yuyong; De, Saptarshi; Chen, Chuo

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring guanidine derivatives frequently display medicinally useful properties. Among them, the higher order pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids, the dragmacidins, the crambescidins/batzelladines, and the saxitoxins/tetradotoxins have stimulated the development of many new synthetic methods over the past decades. We provide here an overview of the syntheses of these cyclic guanidine-containing natural products. PMID:25684829

  11. Method for synthesizing peptides with saccharide linked enzyme polymer conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Callstrom, Matthew R.; Bednarski, Mark D.; Gruber, Patrick R.

    1997-01-01

    A method is disclosed for synthesizing peptides using water soluble enzyme polymer conjugates. The method comprises catalyzing the peptide synthesis with enzyme which has been covalently bonded to a polymer through at least three linkers which linkers have three or more hydroxyl groups. The enzyme is conjugated at lysines or arginines.

  12. Irradiation study of PNNL synthesized glass-ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Kossoy-simakov, Anna-eden; Tang, Ming; Valdez, James A; Usov, Igor O; Sickafus, Kurt E

    2011-01-18

    Two types of glass-ceramic were investigated: (1) for immobilization of Ln, alkali, and alkaline earths (GC4); and (2) same as above + high (7%) molybdenum content (Mo7) multiphase specimens. The purpose was to study the radiation stability of PNNL synthesized glass-ceramics and changes in microstructure/phase composition.

  13. Method for synthesizing peptides with saccharide linked enzyme polymer conjugates

    DOEpatents

    Callstrom, M.R.; Bednarski, M.D.; Gruber, P.R.

    1997-06-17

    A method is disclosed for synthesizing peptides using water soluble enzyme polymer conjugates. The method comprises catalyzing the peptide synthesis with enzyme which has been covalently bonded to a polymer through at least three linkers which linkers have three or more hydroxyl groups. The enzyme is conjugated at lysines or arginines. 19 figs.

  14. A Model of Educational Leadership: Wisdom, Intelligence, and Creativity, Synthesized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a model of educational leadership--WICS--that encompasses "wisdom", "intelligence" and "creativity", "synthesized". The article opens with a general discussion of issues in models of leadership. Then it discusses the role of creativity in leadership, dividing the discussion into academic and practical aspects. Next it deals…

  15. Meta-Analysis: A Systematic Method for Synthesizing Counseling Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiston, Susan C.; Li, Peiwei

    2011-01-01

    The authors provide a template for counseling researchers who are interested in quantitatively aggregating research findings. Meta-analytic studies can provide relevant information to the counseling field by systematically synthesizing studies performed by researchers from diverse fields. Methodologically sound meta-analyses require careful…

  16. CEO-Phase Stabilized Few-Cycle Field Synthesizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rausch, Stefan; Binhammer, Thomas; Harth, Anne; Kärtner, Franz X.; Morgner, Uwe

    We present an optical field synthesizer consisting of a CEO-phase stabilized octavespanning Ti:sapphire laser oscillator and prism-based pulse shaper allowing for full control of the electric field on a sub-femtosecond time-scale.

  17. Total syntheses of (-)-huperzine Q and (+)-lycopladines B and C.

    PubMed

    Hong, Benke; Li, Houhua; Wu, Jinbao; Zhang, Jing; Lei, Xiaoguang

    2015-01-12

    Utilizing a late-stage enamine bromofunctionalization strategy, the twelve-step total synthesis of (-)-huperzine Q was accomplished. Furthermore, the first total syntheses of (+)-lycopladines B and C are described. An unprecedented X-ray crystal structure of an unusual epoxyamine intermediate is also reported, and the synthetic application of this intermediate in natural product synthesis is demonstrated. PMID:25358669

  18. [The analytical-synthesizing part of an expert judgment].

    PubMed

    Ardashkin, A P; Zhigalkin, A V; Ponomarev, E V

    2014-01-01

    The present article provides the rationale for the necessity of introduction of a special analytical-synthesizing part in the expert judgment. It must characterize the process of cognitive operations in the course of forensic medical expertises and thereby ensure conditions for the adequate verification and assessment of the quality of the expertise. PMID:25764879

  19. Synthesizing a Life: An Interview with Carl Djerassi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardellini, Liberato

    2011-01-01

    In this interview, Carl Djerassi recalls his first years, from his pleasant childhood, to how he escaped the Nazi persecutions, to his college education in America. He remembers how with his research group he won the race for synthesis of cortisone, and how they then synthesized norethindrone, the active ingredient in oral contraceptives. Djerassi…

  20. Syntheses and insulin-like activity of phosphorylated galactose derivatives.

    PubMed

    Caro, H N; Martín-Lomas, M; Bernabé, M

    1993-02-24

    The syntheses of the poly-phosphorylated galactosides 6, 8, 10, 13, 16, and 20, isolated as sodium salts, have been performed. The non-phosphorylated disaccharide 17 and trisaccharide 21 have been prepared via glycosylation of the 2-(trimethylsilyl)ethyl galactosides 3 and 2, respectively, and subsequent complete deprotection. Preliminary insulin-like activity of the phosphorylated derivatives is reported. PMID:8458006

  1. ARSENIC REMOVAL USING SOL-GEL SYNTHESIZED TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, the effectiveness of TiO2 nanoparticles in arsenic adsorption was examined. TiO2 particles (LS) were synthesized via sol-gel techniques and characterized for their crystallinity, surface area and pore volume. Batch adsorption studies were perf...

  2. Frequency Standards and Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleki, Lute

    2009-04-01

    Preface / Lute Maleki -- Symposium history / Jacques Vanier -- Symposium photos -- pt. I. Fundamental physics. Variation of fundamental constants from the big bang to atomic clocks: theory and observations (Invited) / V. V. Flambaum and J. C. Berengut. Alpha-dot or not: comparison of two single atom optical clocks (Invited) / T. Rosenband ... [et al.]. Variation of the fine-structure constant and laser cooling of atomic dysprosium (Invited) / N. A. Leefer ... [et al.]. Measurement of short range forces using cold atoms (Invited) / F. Pereira Dos Santos ... [et al.]. Atom interferometry experiments in fundamental physics (Invited) / S. W. Chiow ... [et al.]. Space science applications of frequency standards and metrology (Invited) / M. Tinto -- pt. II. Frequency & metrology. Quantum metrology with lattice-confined ultracold Sr atoms (Invited) / A. D. Ludlow ... [et al.]. LNE-SYRTE clock ensemble: new [symbol]Rb hyperfine frequency measurement - spectroscopy of [symbol]Hg optical clock transition (Invited) / M. Petersen ... [et al.]. Precise measurements of S-wave scattering phase shifts with a juggling atomic clock (Invited) / S. Gensemer ... [et al.]. Absolute frequency measurement of the [symbol] clock transition (Invited) / M. Chwalla ... [et al.]. The semiclassical stochastic-field/atom interaction problem (Invited) / J. Camparo. Phase and frequency noise metrology (Invited) / E. Rubiola ... [et al.]. Optical spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen for an improved determination of the Rydberg constant / J. L. Flowers ... [et al.] -- pt. III. Clock applications in space. Recent progress on the ACES mission (Invited) / L. Cacciapuoti and C. Salomon. The SAGAS mission (Invited) / P. Wolf. Small mercury microwave ion clock for navigation and radioScience (Invited) / J. D. Prestage ... [et al.]. Astro-comb: revolutionizing precision spectroscopy in astrophysics (Invited) / C. E. Kramer ... [et al.]. High frequency very long baseline interferometry: frequency standards and

  3. Single frequency multitransmitter telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, Victor A. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    The invention relates to a single frequency multitransmitter telemetry system that will deliver a substantial amount of data at low cost. The invention consists essentially of a plurality of sensor transmitter units at different locations, with individual signal conditioning and logic, which send sampled data signals to a single receiver. The transmitters operate independently on the same frequency in a frequency shift keying modulation system and are not synchronized to the receiver. The problem of reception of data from more than one transmitter simultaneously is solved by discarding the data - when there is overlap of data from two or more transmitters, the data is discarded and when there is no overlap the data is retained. The invention utilizes a unique overlap detection technique to determine if data should be retained or discarded. When data is received from a transmitter, it goes into a shift register.

  4. Low Frequency Sky Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubin, Philip M.

    2015-08-01

    We propose to survey the sky from 10-100 GHz covering greater than 50% of the sky in intensity and polarizatiton. This will allow us to mep out the synchrotron and free - free background as well as the spinning dust component to sufficient sensitivity to allow detailed modeling and removal of the galactic foregrounds allowing for deeper polarization surveys searching for signatures of inflation. While most measurements have concentrated on the region above 100 GHz this reggion is more complex in dust contmination that originally thought. Dust is best measured at high frequencies but the atmosphere greatly hinders extremely deep dust surveys due to water vapor. Surveys ar low frequency will be complimentary to the higher frequency measurements.

  5. Frequency conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Steven (Inventor); Lang, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Laser diode pumped mid-IR wavelength sources include at least one high power, near-IR wavelength, injection and/or sources wherein one or both of such sources may be tunable providing a pump wave output beam to a quasi-phase matched (QPM) nonlinear frequency mixing (NFM) device. The NFM device may be a difference frequency mixing (DFM) device or an optical parametric oscillation (OPO) device. Wavelength tuning of at least one of the sources advantageously provides the ability for optimizing pump or injection wavelengths to match the QPM properties of the NFM device enabling a broad range of mid-IR wavelength selectivity. Also, pump powers are gain enhanced by the addition of a rare earth amplifier or oscillator, or a Raman/Brillouin amplifier or oscillator between the high power source and the NFM device. Further, polarization conversion using Raman or Brillouin wavelength shifting is provided to optimize frequency conversion efficiency in the NFM device.

  6. Hg(+) Frequency Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, John D.; Tjoelker, Robert L.; Maleki, Lute

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we review the development of Hg(+) microwave frequency standards for use in high reliability and continuous operation applications. In recent work we have demonstrated short-term frequency stability of 3 x 10(exp -14)/nu(sub tau) when a cryogenic oscillator of stability 2-3 x 10(exp 15) was used a the local oscillator. The trapped ion frequency standard employs a Hg-202 discharge lamp to optically pump the trapped Hg(+)-199 clock ions and a helium buffer gas to cool the ions to near room temperature. We describe a small Hg(+) ion trap based frequency standard with an extended linear ion trap (LITE) architecture which separates the optical state selection region from the clock resonance region. This separation allows the use of novel trap configurations in the resonance region since no optical pumping is carried out there. A method for measuring the size of an ion cloud inside a linear trap with a 12-rod trap is currently being investigated. At approx. 10(exp -12), the 2nd order Doppler shift for trapped mercury ion frequency standards is one of the largest frequency offsets and its measurement to the 1% level would represent an advance in insuring the very long-term stability of these standards to the 10(exp -14) or better level. Finally, we describe atomic clock comparison experiments that can probe for a time variation of the fine structure constant, alpha = e(exp 2)/2(pi)hc, at the level of 10(exp -20)/year as predicted in some Grand Unified String Theories.

  7. Frequency division multiplex technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brey, H. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A system for monitoring a plurality of condition responsive devices is described. It consists of a master control station and a remote station. The master control station is capable of transmitting command signals which includes a parity signal to a remote station which transmits the signals back to the command station so that such can be compared with the original signals in order to determine if there are any transmission errors. The system utilizes frequency sources which are 1.21 multiples of each other so that no linear combination of any harmonics will interfere with another frequency.

  8. Frequency Tunable Wire Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Qing (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides frequency tunable solid-state radiation-generating devices, such as lasers and amplifiers, whose active medium has a size in at least one transverse dimension (e.g., its width) that is much smaller than the wavelength of radiation generated and/or amplified within the active medium. In such devices, a fraction of radiation travels as an evanescent propagating mode outside the active medium. It has been discovered that in such devices the radiation frequency can be tuned by the interaction of a tuning mechanism with the propagating evanescent mode.

  9. Methods and apparatus for broadband frequency comb stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Jonathan A; Kaertner, Franz X

    2015-03-17

    Feedback loops can be used to shift and stabilize the carrier-envelope phase of a frequency comb from a mode-locked fibers laser or other optical source. Compared to other frequency shifting and stabilization techniques, feedback-based techniques provide a wideband closed-loop servo bandwidth without optical filtering, beam pointing errors, or group velocity dispersion. It also enables phase locking to a stable reference, such as a Ti:Sapphire laser, continuous-wave microwave or optical source, or self-referencing interferometer, e.g., to within 200 mrad rms from DC to 5 MHz. In addition, stabilized frequency combs can be coherently combined with other stable signals, including other stabilized frequency combs, to synthesize optical pulse trains with pulse durations of as little as a single optical cycle. Such a coherent combination can be achieved via orthogonal control, using balanced optical cross-correlation for timing stabilization and balanced homodyne detection for phase stabilization.

  10. Synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical studies of chemically synthesized NaFePO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Ann; Beck, Faith R; Haynes, Daniel; Poston, James A; Narayanana, S R; Kumta, Prashant N; Manivannan, A

    2012-12-01

    NaFePO{sub 4} is a naturally occurring mineral known as maricite. This compound has not been well characterized or examined for its potential use in battery applications. In the present study, NaFePO{sub 4} has been synthesized via the Pechini process with the resulting sample being characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Electrochemical properties have been investigated for possible application as a cathode in sodium-ion batteries. Electrodes of these materials were tested in coin cells using LiPF{sub 6} as the electrolyte and lithium metal as the counter electrode. Constant current cycling, cyclic voltammetry, and in situ frequency response analyses were performed. The results obtained demonstrate constant capacity or progressive increase in capacity with the consistently low internal resistance exhibited over consecutive cycles indicating possible application as a lithium analog in Na-ion batteries.

  11. Improvement in electric and dielectric properties of nanoferrite synthesized via reverse micelle technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Sangeeta; Katyal, S. C.; Singh, M.

    2007-12-01

    Nano nickel zinc ferrite (Ni0.58Zn0.42Fe2O4) with fascinating dielectric properties which reveal a direction for application was synthesized by reverse micelle technique. Dielectric constant and dielectric losses are controlled up to a measurement temperature of around 473K at higher frequency range of 9-19MHz. The dielectric loss of the sample investigated at room temperature is only 0.003 at 19MHz. The presently studied nanoferrite also exhibits a high value of dc resistivity, 108Ωcm. High resistivity and low dielectric constant and loss can be corelated to small grain size and better compositional stoichiometry obtained as a result of processing via reverse micelle technique at low sintering temperature (773K).

  12. A calculable, transportable audio-frequency AC reference standard

    SciTech Connect

    Oldham, N.M.; Hetrick, P.S. ); Zeng, X. )

    1989-04-01

    A transportable ac voltage source is described, in which sinusoidal signals are synthesized digitally in the audio-frequency range. The rms value of the output waveform may be calculated by measuring the dc level of the individual steps used to generate the waveform. The uncertainty of this calculation at the 7-V level is typically less than +-5 ppm from 60 Hz to 2 kHz and less than +-10 ppm from 30 Hz to 15 kHz.

  13. Design of unit cells and demonstration of methods for synthesizing Huygens metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Joseph P. S.; Selvanayagam, Michael; Eleftheriades, George V.

    2014-08-01

    The systematic design of unit cells for a Huygens metasurface, a particular class of metasurface, is presented here. The design of these unit cells uses transmission-line theory. This is validated through application to 1D refraction and Gaussian-to-Gaussian beam focusing. The 1D refraction is further validated experimentally. These applications demonstrate the practical utility of these Huygens metasurfaces. The Huygens metasurfaces presented here are printed on two bonded boards instead of many stacked, interspaced layers. This simplifies fabrication and enables the scaling down of the metasurfaces to shorter wavelengths. These two bonded boards implement a single, collocated layer of electric and magnetic dipoles. The electric and magnetic dipoles are synthesized using sub-wavelength arrays of printed elements. These printed elements can be manufactured using standard PCB fabrication techniques, and are capable of synthesizing the full range of impedances required. Furthermore, in contrast to frequency-selective surfaces (FSSs) and traditional transmitarrays, which are on the order of a wavelength thick, these designs are only λ/10 thick while incurring minimum reflections losses.

  14. Exotic shapes of gold nanoparticles synthesized using plasma in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Hieda, Junko; Saito, Nagahiro; Takai, Osamu

    2008-07-15

    Gold nanoparticles with exotic shapes, such as triangle, pentagon, and hexagon, have been synthesized by glow discharge in aqueous solutions. A pulsed power supply was used to generate discharges in the aqueous solutions. Pulse width and frequency were 2 {mu}s and 15 kHz, respectively. Discharges were generated at applied voltages of 1600 and 3200 V. The shapes of the gold nanoparticles and electron diffraction patterns were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The nanoparticles obtained were about 20 nm in diameter. In particular, at the higher voltage of 3200 V, nanoparticles with anisotropic shapes were synthesized. In the initial stages of synthesis, diameter decreased with discharge time as the nanoparticles redissolved in the solution. After discharge for 25 min, nanoparticles with anisotropic shapes appeared. This discharge led to the generation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and a decrease in pH as a result of the consumption of OH radicals during the generation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and electron donation of H radicals to the solution. After the pH stopped decreasing, H radicals mainly reacted as a reducing agent. The decrease in pH allowed redissolution of the gold nanoparticles. The gold dust particles that were not completely dissolved acted as new seeds for nucleation. Thus, the two reaction steps, nucleation and nuclear growth, occur during the formation of gold nanoparticles with exotic shapes.

  15. Elimination of frequency noise from groundwater measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, Y.M.; Bryce, R.W.; Strait, S.R.; Yeatman, R.A.

    1986-04-01

    Groundwater response to atmospheric fluctuation can be effectively removed from downhole-pressure records using the systematic approach. The technique is not as successful for removal of earth tides, due to a probable discrepancy between the actual earth tide and the theoretical earth tide. The advantage of the systematic technique is that a causative relationship is established for each component of the pressure response removed. This concept of data reduction is easily understood and well accepted. The disadvantage is that a record of the stress causing the pressure fluctuation must be obtained. This may be done by monitoring or synthesizing the stress. Frequency analysis offers a simpler way to eliminate the undesirable hydrologic fluctuations from the downhole pressure. Frequency analysis may prove to be impractical if the fluctuations being removed have broadband characteristics. A combination of the two techniques, such as eliminating the atmospheric effect with the systematic method and the earth-tide fluctuations with the frequency method, is the most effective and efficient approach.

  16. Dual frequency optical cavity

    DOEpatents

    George, E.V.; Schipper, J.F.

    Method and apparatus for generating two distinct laser frequencies in an optical cavity, using a T configuration laser cavity and means for intermittently increasing or decreasing the index of refraction n of an associated transmission medium in one arm of the optical cavity to enhance laser action in one arm or the second arm of the cavity.

  17. Dual frequency optical cavity

    DOEpatents

    George, E. Victor; Schipper, John F.

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for generating two distinct laser frequencies in an optical cavity, using a "T" configuration laser cavity and means for intermittently increasing or decreasing the index of refraction n of an associated transmission medium in one arm of the optical cavity to enhance laser action in one arm or the second arm of the cavity.

  18. The Frequency Spectrum Radio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This journal issue focuses on the frequency spectrum used in radio communication and on the World Administrative Radio Conference, sponsored by the International Telecommunication Union, held in Geneva, Switzerland, in the fall of 1979. Articles describe the World Administrative Radio Conference as the most important radio communication conference…

  19. Frequency of orthodontic extraction

    PubMed Central

    Dardengo, Camila de S.; Fernandes, Luciana Q. P.; Capelli, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The option of dental extraction for orthodontic purposes has been debated for more than 100 years, including periods when it was widely used in treatment, including the present, during which other methods are used to avoid dental extractions. The objective was to analyze the frequency of tooth extraction treatment performed between 1980 and 2011 at the Orthodontic Clinic of Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). Material and Methods: The clinical records of 1484 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were evaluated. The frequency of extractions was evaluated with regard to sex, Angle's classification, the different combinations of extractions and the period when orthodontic treatment began. Chi-square test was used to determine correlations between variables, while the chi-square test for trends was used to assess the frequency of extractions over the years. Results: There was a reduction of approximately 20% in the frequency of cases treated with tooth extraction over the last 32 years. The most frequently extracted teeth were first premolars. Patients with Class I malocclusion showed fewer extractions, while Class II patients underwent a higher number of extraction treatment. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to sex. Conclusion: New features introduced into the orthodontic clinic and new esthetic concepts contributed to reducing the number of cases treated with dental extractions. However, dental extractions for orthodontic purposes are still well indicated in certain cases. PMID:27007762

  20. Detection of low frequency impulsive noise from large wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, K. P.

    1985-01-01

    The thresholds of detection of low frequency, impulsive wind turbine sounds in the presence of background noise were examined. Seven wind turbine sounds, six of which were synthesized, were used in conjunction with three background noise conditions; quiet, 35, and 45 dB(A). The results indicate that thresholds of detection are predictable based on assumed characteristics of the auditory system. The synthesized wind turbine sounds were found to adequately represent a real recording.

  1. Optical frequency comb spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Foltynowicz, A; Masłowski, P; Ban, T; Adler, F; Cossel, K C; Briles, T C; Ye, J

    2011-01-01

    Optical frequency combs offer enormous potential in the detection and control of atoms and molecules by combining their vast spectral coverage with the extremely high spectral resolution of each individual comb component. Sensitive and multiplexed trace gas detection via cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy has been demonstrated for various molecules and applications; however, previous demonstrations have been confined to the visible and near-infrared wavelength range. Future spectroscopic capabilities are created by developing comb sources and spectrometers for the deep ultraviolet and mid-infrared spectral regions. Here we present a broadband high resolution mid-infrared frequency comb-based Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the important molecular fingerprint spectral region of 2100-3600 cm(-1) (2.8-4.8 microm). The spectrometer, employing a multipass cell, allows simultaneous acquisition of broadband, high resolution spectra (down to 0.0035 cm(-1) of many molecular species at concentrations in the part-per-billion range in less than 1 min acquisition time. The system enables precise measurements of concentration even in gas mixtures that exhibit continuous absorption bands. The current sensitivity, 2 x 10(-8) cm(-1) Hz-1/2 per spectral element, is expected to improve by two orders of magnitude with an external enhancement cavity. We have demonstrated this sensitivity increase by combining cavity-enhanced frequency comb spectroscopy with a scanning Fourier transform spectrometer in the near-infrared region and achieving a sensitivity of 4.7 x 10(-10) cm(-1) Hz(-1/2). A cavity-enhanced mid-infrared comb spectrometer will provide a near real-time, high sensitivity, high resolution, precisely frequency calibrated, broad bandwidth system for many applications. PMID:22457942

  2. Coarse frequency comb interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwider, J.

    2008-08-01

    Real wedge interferometers of the Fizeau-type do not allow for fringes in case of a spectral broad band source - or in short: for white light fringes. Here, the use of a suitable frequency comb source will help to overcome this limitation on the one hand and on the other will offer the capability for enhanced phase sensitivity in high precision measurements of surface deviations. Frequency combs can be produced either by using a pulse train from a fs-laser or by passive filtering of the light emitted by a broad band source as a superlum-diode or a fs-laser. The frequency comb produced by a common fs-laser is extremely fine, i.e., the frequency difference of consecutive peaks is very small or the distance of consecutive pulses of the pulse train might be of the order of 1m. Therefore, the coarse pulse train produced by passive filtering of a broad band source is better adapted to the needs of surface testing interferometers. White light fringes are either applied for the profiling of discontinuous surfaces and/or can serve as an indication for the correct choice of multiplication factors in superposition interferometry. During the last decennium it became more and more clear that spatially incoherent sources provide better measuring accuracy in surface measurements due to the reduced influence of dust diffraction patterns. The advantage of laser illumination can nevertheless be maintained if the laser light is made spatially incoherent through moving scatterers in the light path. Here, we will discuss the application of spatially incoherent broad band light frequency filtered through a Fabry-Perot filter. The main applications are in the following fields: (1) surface profiling applications using two-beam Fizeau interferometers, (2) selection of single cavities out of a series of interlaced cavities, and (3) sensitivity enhancement for multi-beam interferometers for planeness or sphericity measurements. Some of the discussed possibilities will be experimentally

  3. Synthesizing exoplanet demographics from radial velocity and microlensing surveys. I. Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Clanton, Christian; Gaudi, B. Scott

    2014-08-20

    Motivated by the order of magnitude difference in the frequency of giant planets orbiting M dwarfs inferred by microlensing and radial velocity (RV) surveys, we present a method for comparing the statistical constraints on exoplanet demographics inferred from these methods. We first derive the mapping from the observable parameters of a microlensing-detected planet to those of an analogous planet orbiting an RV-monitored star. Using this mapping, we predict the distribution of RV observables for the planet population inferred from microlensing surveys, taking care to adopt reasonable priors for, and properly marginalize over, the unknown physical parameters of microlensing-detected systems. Finally, we use simple estimates of the detection limits for a fiducial RV survey to predict the number and properties of analogs of the microlensing planet population such an RV survey should detect. We find that RV and microlensing surveys have some overlap, specifically for super-Jupiter mass planets (m{sub p} ≳ 1 M {sub Jup}) with periods between ∼3-10 yr. However, the steeply falling planetary mass function inferred from microlensing implies that, in this region of overlap, RV surveys should infer a much smaller frequency than the overall giant planet frequency (m{sub p} ≳ 0.1 M {sub Jup}) inferred by microlensing. Our analysis demonstrates that it is possible to statistically compare and synthesize data sets from multiple exoplanet detection techniques in order to infer exoplanet demographics over wider regions of parameter space than are accessible to individual methods. In a companion paper, we apply our methodology to several representative microlensing and RV surveys to derive the frequency of planets around M dwarfs with orbits of ≲ 30 yr.

  4. Design of Pound-Drever-Hall laser frequency stabilization system without phase shifter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Juan; Jiao, Mingxing; Xing, Junhong; Li, Zhe

    2015-02-01

    The Pound-Drever-Hall (PDH) laser frequency stabilization is a wide spread adopted technique for narrow linewidth and ultra-stable lasers, and a phase shifter is an important part in a traditional PDH frequency stabilization system. A PDH laser frequency stabilization system without phase shifter was proposed, in which quadrature coherent detection method was used to extract the frequency drifts. Orthogonal reference signals are generated using direct digital frequency synthesizer (DDS) and mixed with the output of a photo-detector. Over-sampling technique and cumulative average algorithm were used to improve the detection resolution and SNR, orthogonal phase sensitive detection algorithm was adopted to obtain the frequency drifts. Both the quadrature demodulation system structure and the signal processing methods were adopted, the systematic detection error is reduced, the anti-noise performance is raised and long term frequency stability is improved with the PDH laser frequency stabilization system without phase shifter.

  5. An investigation of the crystallization kinetics of zeotype SAPO-34 crystals synthesized by hydrothermal and sonochemical methods.

    PubMed

    Marzpour Shalmani, Fariba; Halladj, Rouein; Askari, Sima

    2016-03-01

    The kinetics study of SAPO-34 crystallization from a gel containing morpholine as a structure directing agent (SDA) was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns in order to determine the kinetics parameters, i.e. induction times, rate constants, frequency factors, and activation energies for the induction and growth stages. The kinetics data of growth period were determined by using the Avrami-Erofeev nucleation growth model. SAPO-34 molecular sieves were synthesized by using both sonochemical-assisted hydrothermal and conventional hydrothermal heating at temperatures of 180, 200, and 220 °C to elucidate the influence of crystallization method on the crystallization kinetics of SAPO-34. The activation energy values indicated that the crystal growth mechanism was enhanced for samples synthesized sonochemically, whereas the induction energy was not greatly affected by using sonication process. Also, the kinetic compensation effect (KCE) was considered in order to obtain the isokinetic temperature. PMID:26585015

  6. Design of optocoupler for synthesizing four color spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zechun; Ge, Aiming; Tao, Xinran; Yang, Shengqi; Wang, Tianyi

    2016-07-01

    LEDs with the advantage of high luminous efficacy and long life time show the potential of replacing traditional luminaire. Most commercial white LED light sources use blue or ultraviolet chip coated with emitting phosphor, but the sensitivity and instability of such phosphors has become a big issue. The typical RGB-LED by using individual chips has the problem of spatial separation and insufficient spectral overlap which leads to low CRI. This study suggests a novel and high-efficiency design of fiber optical optocoupler to synthesize four colors emitted by separate LEDs to provide the ideal light sources by adjusting the individual LEDs separately. By choosing different colored light to be synthesized, this optocoupler can be used as light sources which can be highly controlled to offer the best lighting conditions. Compared with other widely used commercial LED sources, this new design of light sources can be used in special experiments which require multi-spectral light.

  7. Two step continuous method to synthesize colloidal spheroid gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Chandra, S; Doran, J; McCormack, S J

    2015-12-01

    This research investigated a two-step continuous process to synthesize colloidal suspension of spheroid gold nanorods. In the first step; gold precursor was reduced to seed-like particles in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone and ascorbic acid. In continuous second step; silver nitrate and alkaline sodium hydroxide produced various shape and size Au nanoparticles. The shape was manipulated through weight ratio of ascorbic acid to silver nitrate by varying silver nitrate concentration. The specific weight ratio of 1.35-1.75 grew spheroid gold nanorods of aspect ratio ∼1.85 to ∼2.2. Lower weight ratio of 0.5-1.1 formed spherical nanoparticle. The alkaline medium increased the yield of gold nanorods and reduced reaction time at room temperature. The synthesized gold nanorods retained their shape and size in ethanol. The surface plasmon resonance was red shifted by ∼5 nm due to higher refractive index of ethanol than water. PMID:26298283

  8. Applications of magnetosomes synthesized by magnetotactic bacteria in medicine.

    PubMed

    Alphandéry, Edouard

    2014-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria belong to a group of bacteria that synthesize iron oxide nanoparticles covered by biological material that are called magnetosomes. These bacteria use the magnetosomes as a compass to navigate in the direction of the earth's magnetic field. This compass helps the bacteria to find the optimum conditions for their growth and survival. Here, we review several medical applications of magnetosomes, such as those in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic hyperthermia, and drug delivery. Different methods that can be used to prepare the magnetosomes for these applications are described. The toxicity and biodistribution results that have been published are summarized. They show that the magnetosomes can safely be used provided that they are prepared in specific conditions. The advantageous properties of the magnetosomes compared with those of chemically synthesized nanoparticles of similar composition are also highlighted. PMID:25152880

  9. Fatty acid composition of oil synthesized by Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Sharma, N D; Mathur, J M; Saxena, B S; Sen, K

    1981-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans Eidam strain 300 was found to be capable of synthesizing 24.9% oil or remarkably low free fatty acidity, in a chemically defined medium with 34% glucose as sole carbon source. although the total content of oil synthesized was less, utilization of the carbon source is better as shown by the high (8.4) fat coefficient. The major component fatty acids of the oil were palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic and are influenced by the source of carbon. Palmitoleic acid is present in traces, confirming thereby the general observation that high oil formers produce oil of low hexadecenoic acid content. The relatively high stearic acid content of the oil distinguishes it from those of other microorganisms and resembles the oil produced by certain tropical plants, such as Madhuca latifolia. PMID:7026394

  10. Doped semiconductor nanoparticles synthesized in gas-phase plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, R. N.; Almeida, A. J.

    2015-08-01

    Crystalline nanoparticles (NPs) of semiconductor materials have been attracting huge research interest due to their potential use in future applications like photovoltaics and bioimaging. The important role that intentional impurity doping plays in semiconductor technology has ignited a great deal of research effort aiming at synthesizing semiconductor NPs doped with foreign impurities and at understanding their physical and chemical properties. In this respect, plasma-grown semiconductor NPs doped in situ during synthesis have been key in studies of doped NPs. This article presents a review of the advances in understanding the properties of doped semiconductor NPs synthesized by means of plasma methods and the role played by these NPs for our current understanding of doped NPs and the general behavior of doping in nanoscale materials.

  11. Hydrothermally synthesized barium fluoride nanocubes for thermoluminescence dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadane, Mahesh S.; Dahiwale, S. S.; Bhoraskar, V. N.; Dhole, S. D.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we report a hydrothermally synthesized Dy doped BaF2 (BaF2:Dy) nanocubes and its Thermoluminescence studies. The synthesized BaF2:Dy samples was found to posses FCC structure and having average size ~ 60-70 nm, as revealed through X-Ray Diffraction. Cubical morphology having size ~90 nm was observed from TEM analysis. The 60Co γ- ray irradiated BaF2:Dy TL dosimetric experiments shows a pre-dominant single glow peak at 153 °C, indicating a single level trap present as a metastable state. Furthermore, BaF2:Dy nanophosphor shows a sharp linear response from 10 Gy to 3 kGy, thus it can be applicable as a gamma dosimeter.

  12. Ultralight Weight Optical Systems Using Nano-Layered Synthesized Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Natalie; Breckinridge, James

    2014-01-01

    Optical imaging is important for many NASA science missions. Even though complex optical systems have advanced, the optics, based on conventional glass and mirrors, require components that are thick, heavy and expensive. As the need for higher performance expands, glass and mirrors are fast approaching the point where they will be too large, heavy and costly for spacecraft, especially small satellite systems. NASA Langley Research Center is developing a wide range of novel nano-layered synthesized materials that enable the development and fabrication of ultralight weight optical device systems that enable many NASA missions to collect science data imagery using small satellites. In addition to significantly reducing weight, the nano-layered synthesized materials offer advantages in performance, size, and cost.

  13. Practical enantiospecific syntheses of lysobisphosphatidic acid and its analogues.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guowei; Xu, Yong; Prestwich, Glenn D

    2006-02-01

    We describe a versatile, efficient, and practical method for the preparation of enantiomerically pure lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA), bisether analogues, and phosphorothioate analogues of LBPA from solketal. Phosphorylation of a protected sn-2-O-oleoyl glycerol with 2-cyanoethyl bis(N,N-diisopropylamino)phosphite, followed by oxidation and deprotection, generated the enantiomers of 2,2'-LBPA. The corresponding phosphorothioate analogues were obtained by oxidation with sulfur. The (R,R) and (S,S) enantiomers of both LBPA and phosphorothioate LBPA were synthesized from (S)- and (R)-solketal, respectively. The ether analogue of (S,S)-lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA) and its enantiomer were synthesized from the same enantiomer (S)-solketal by simply changing the sequence of deprotection steps. PMID:16438504

  14. Antibacterial and catalytic activities of green synthesized silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindhu, M. R.; Umadevi, M.

    2015-01-01

    The aqueous beetroot extract was used as reducing agent for silver nanoparticles synthesis. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface plasmon resonance peak of synthesized nanoparticles was observed at 438 nm. As the concentration of beetroot extract increases, absorption spectra shows blue shift with decreasing particle size. The prepared silver nanoparticles were well dispersed, spherical in shape with the average particle size of 15 nm. The prepared silver nanoparticles are effective in inhibiting the growth of both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The prepared silver nanoparticles reveal faster catalytic activity. This natural method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles offers a valuable contribution in the area of green synthesis and nanotechnology avoiding the presence of hazardous and toxic solvents and waste.

  15. Nanometrology of delignified Populus using mode synthesizing atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tetard, Laurene; Passian, Ali; Farahi, R H; Davison, Brian H; Jung, S; Ragauskas, A J; Lereu, Aude; Thundat, Thomas George

    2011-01-01

    The study of the spatially resolved physical and compositional properties of materials at the nanoscale is increasingly challenging due to the level of complexity of biological specimens such as those of interest in bioenergy production. Mode synthesizing atomic force microscopy (MSAFM) has emerged as a promising metrology tool for such studies. It is shown that, by tuning the mechanical excitation of the probe-sample system, MSAFM can be used to dynamically investigate the multifaceted complexity of plant cells. The results are argued to be of importance both for the characteristics of the invoked synthesized modes and for accessing new features of the samples. As a specific system to investigate, we present images of Populus, before and after a holopulping treatment, a crucial step in the biomass delignification process.

  16. Antifouling activity of green-synthesized 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Miriam; García, Mónica; Ruiz, Diego; Autino, Juan Carlos; Romanelli, Gustavo; Blustein, Guillermo

    2016-02-01

    In the search for new environmental-friendly antifoulants for replace metallic biocides, 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin was synthesized according to green chemistry procedures. This compound was characterized by current organic analysis and its antifouling properties were firstly evaluated on the bivalve Mytilus edulis platensis in the laboratory. In the second stage, a soluble matrix antifouling coating formulated with this compound was assayed in marine environment. Laboratory experiments showed that 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin was effective in inhibiting both the settlement as well as the byssogenesis of mussels. In addition, after exposure time in the sea, painted panels containing this compound showed strong antifouling effect on conspicuous species of the fouling community of Mar el Plata harbor. In conclusion, green-synthesized coumarin could be a suitable antifoulant candidate for marine protective coatings. PMID:26713560

  17. Method of synthesizing silica nanofibers using sound waves

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Jaswinder K.; Datskos, Panos G.

    2015-09-15

    A method for synthesizing silica nanofibers using sound waves is provided. The method includes providing a solution of polyvinyl pyrrolidone, adding sodium citrate and ammonium hydroxide to form a first mixture, adding a silica-based compound to the solution to form a second mixture, and sonicating the second mixture to synthesize a plurality of silica nanofibers having an average cross-sectional diameter of less than 70 nm and having a length on the order of at least several hundred microns. The method can be performed without heating or electrospinning, and instead includes less energy intensive strategies that can be scaled up to an industrial scale. The resulting nanofibers can achieve a decreased mean diameter over conventional fibers. The decreased diameter generally increases the tensile strength of the silica nanofibers, as defects and contaminations decrease with the decreasing diameter.

  18. Possibility of synthesizing a doubly magic superheavy nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Aritomo, Y.

    2007-02-15

    The possibility of synthesizing a doubly magic superheavy nucleus, {sup 298}114{sub 184}, is investigated on the basis of fluctuation-dissipation dynamics. In order to synthesize this nucleus, we must generate more neutron-rich compound nuclei because of the neutron emissions from excited compound nuclei. The compound nucleus {sup 304}114 has two advantages to achieving a high survival probability. First, because of low neutron separation energy and rapid cooling, the shell correction energy recovers quickly. Secondly, owing to neutron emissions, the neutron number in the nucleus approaches that of the double closed shell and the nucleus attains a large fission barrier. Because of these two effects, the survival probability of {sup 304}114 does not decrease until the excitation energy E{sup *}=50 MeV. These properties lead to a rather high evaporation residue cross section.

  19. A Novel Way for Synthesizing Phosphorus-Doped Zno Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We developed a novel approach to synthesize phosphorus (P)-doped ZnO nanowires by directly decomposing zinc phosphate powder. The samples were demonstrated to be P-doped ZnO nanowires by using scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectrum, Raman spectra and photoluminescence measurements. The chemical state of P was investigated by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) analyses in individual ZnO nanowires. P was found to substitute at oxygen sites (PO), with the presence of anti-site P on Zn sites (PZn). P-doped ZnO nanowires were high resistance and the related P-doping mechanism was discussed by combining EELS results with electrical measurements, structure characterization and photoluminescence measurements. Our method provides an efficient way of synthesizing P-doped ZnO nanowires and the results help to understand the P-doping mechanism.

  20. Method and apparatus for synthesizing anhydrous HNO.sub.3

    DOEpatents

    Coon, Clifford L.; Harrar, Jackson E.; Pearson, Richard K.; McGuire, Raymond R.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for electrochemically synthesizing anhydrous HNO.sub.3 from an aqueous solution of HNO.sub.3 includes oxidizing a solution of N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /aqueous HNO.sub.3 at an anode, while maintaining a controlled potential between the N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /aqueous HNO.sub.3 solution and the anode. A potential of about 1.80V vs. SCE is preferred. Anhydrous or aqueous HNO.sub.3 may be disposed at the cathode within the electrochemical cell. Aqueous HNO.sub.3 having a water content of up to about 12% by weight is utilized to synthesize anhydrous HNO.sub.3.

  1. Strong nonlinear photonic responses from microbiologically synthesized tellurium nanocomposites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liao, K.-S.; Wang, Jingyuan; Dias, S.; Dewald, J.; Alley, N.J.; Baesman, S.M.; Oremland, R.S.; Blau, W.J.; Curran, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    A new class of nanomaterials, namely microbiologically-formed nanorods composed of elemental tellurium [Te(0)] that forms unusual nanocomposites when combined with poly(m-phenylenevinylene-co-2,5-dioctoxy-phenylenevinylene) (PmPV) is described. These bio-nanocomposites exhibit excellent broadband optical limiting at 532 and 1064 nm. Nonlinear scattering, originating from the laser induced solvent bubbles and microplasmas, is responsible for this nonlinear behavior. The use of bacterially-formed Te(0) when combined with an organic chemical host (e.g., PmPV) is a new green method of nanoparticle syntheses. This opens the possibilities of using unique, biologically synthesized materials to advance future nanoelectronic and nanophotonic applications. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Strong nonlinear photonic responses from microbiologically synthesized tellurium nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Kang-Shyang; Wang, Jun; Dias, Sampath; Dewald, James; Alley, Nigel J.; Baesman, Shaun M.; Oremland, Ronald S.; Blau, Werner J.; Curran, Seamus A.

    2010-01-01

    A new class of nanomaterials, namely microbiologically-formed nanorods composed of elemental tellurium [Te(0)] that forms unusual nanocomposites when combined with poly( m-phenylenevinylene- co-2,5-dioctoxy-phenylenevinylene) (PmPV) is described. These bio-nanocomposites exhibit excellent broadband optical limiting at 532 and 1064 nm. Nonlinear scattering, originating from the laser induced solvent bubbles and microplasmas, is responsible for this nonlinear behavior. The use of bacterially-formed Te(0) when combined with an organic chemical host (e.g., PmPV) is a new green method of nanoparticle syntheses. This opens the possibilities of using unique, biologically synthesized materials to advance future nanoelectronic and nanophotonic applications.

  3. Syntheses of Octasubstituted Metal Phthalocyanines for Nonlinear Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Huaisong; Townsend, Cheryl; Sanghadasa, Mohan; Amai, Robert L. S.; Clark, Ronald D.; Penn, Benjamin

    1998-01-01

    Many organic materials can be used as nonlinear optical media. Phthalocyanines are of special interest because they show an unusually large third order nonlinear response, they are thermally and photochemically stable and they can be formed into oriented thin films (Langmuir-Blodgett films). They also can be easily complexed by a large variety of metals, which place them at the interface between organics and organometallics, and allows for fine tuning of the macro cycle electronic properties by the coordinated metal and substituent groups. A series of 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octaalkoxy metal-free and metal phthalocyanines and 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octaalkoxy metal phthalocyanines has been synthesized. Their nonlinear optical properties have been measured. The physical properties of all the phthalocyanines synthesized in this work are subject to both acid and solvent effects.

  4. Ground State Properties and Bubble Structure of Synthesized Superheavy Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. K.; Ikram, M.; Patra, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    We calculate the ground state properties of recently synthesized superheavy elements (SHEs) from Z = 105-118 along with the predicted proton magic Z = 120. The relativistic and nonrelativistic mean field formalisms are used to evaluate the binding energy (BE), charge radius, quadrupole deformation parameter and the density distribution of nucleons. We analyzed the stability of the nuclei based on BE and neutron to proton ratio. We also studied the bubble structure which reveals the special features of the superheavy nuclei.

  5. A complete algorithm for synthesizing modular fixtures for polygonal parts

    SciTech Connect

    Brost, R.C.; Goldberg, K.Y.

    1993-11-01

    Commercially-available nuclear fixturing systems typically include a square lattice of tapped and bushed holes with precision locating and clamping elements that can be rigidly attached to the lattice using dowel pins or expanding mandrels. Currently, human expertise is required to synthesize a suitable arrangements of these elements to hold a given part. Besides being time consuming, if the set of alternatives is not systematically explored, the designer may fail to find an acceptable fixture or may settle upon a suboptimal fixture. We consider a class of modular fixtures that prevent a part from translating or rotting in the plane using four point contacts on the part`s boundary. These fixtures are based on three round locators, each centered on a lattice point, and one translating clamp. We present an algorithm that accepts a polygonal part shape as input and synthesizes the set of all fixture designs that achieve form closure for the given part. The algorithm also allows the user to specify geometric access constraints on fixtures. If the part has n edges and its maximal diameter is d lattice units, the asymptotic running time of the algorithm is O(n{sup 5}d{sup 5}). We have implemented the algorithm and present example fixtures that it has synthesized. This implementation includes a metric to rank fixtures based on their ability to resist applied forces. We believe this is the first fixture synthesize algorithm that is complete in the sense that it is guaranteed to find an admissible fixture if one exists. Furthermore, the algorithm is guaranteed to find the optimal fixture, relative to any well-defined quality metric.

  6. Divergent Total Syntheses of Rhodomyrtosones A and B

    PubMed Central

    Gervais, Anais; Lazarski, Kiel E.; Porco, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report total syntheses of the tetramethyldihydroxanthene natural product rhodomyrtosone B and the related bis-furan β-triketone natural product rhodomyrtosone A. Nickel-(II)-catalyzed 1,4-conjugate addition of an α-alkylidene-β-dicarbonyl substrate was developed to access the congener rhodomyrtosone B, and oxygenation of the same monoalkylidene derivative followed by cyclization was employed to obtain the bis-furan natural product rhodomyrtosone A. PMID:26351970

  7. Activation of catalysts for synthesizing methanol from synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Blum, David B.; Gelbein, Abraham P.

    1985-01-01

    A method for activating a methanol synthesis catalyst is disclosed. In this method, the catalyst is slurried in an inert liquid and is activated by a reducing gas stream. The activation step occurs in-situ. That is, it is conducted in the same reactor as is the subsequent step of synthesizing methanol from a methanol gas stream catalyzed by the activated catalyst still dispersed in a slurry.

  8. Bioinspired Collective Syntheses of Iboga-Type Indole Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gaoyuan; Xie, Xingang; Sun, Haiyu; Yuan, Ziyun; Zhong, Zhuliang; Tang, Shouchu; She, Xuegong

    2016-05-20

    We present the application of a bioinspired collective synthesis strategy in the total syntheses of seven iboga-type indole alkaloids: (±)-tabertinggine, (±)-ibogamine, (±)-ibogaine, (±)-ibogaine hydroxyindolenine, (±)-3-oxoibogaine hydroxyindolenine, (±)-iboluteine, and (±)-ervaoffines D. In particular, tabertinggine and its congeners serve as iboga precursors for the subsequent biomimetic transformations into other iboga-type alkaloids. PMID:27160167

  9. Multifrequency Aperture-Synthesizing Microwave Radiometer System (MFASMR). Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, C. A.; Chang, M. U.

    1981-01-01

    Background material and a systems analysis of a multifrequency aperture - synthesizing microwave radiometer system is presented. It was found that the system does not exhibit high performance because much of the available thermal power is not used in the construction of the image and because the image that can be formed has a resolution of only ten lines. An analysis of image reconstruction is given. The system is compared with conventional aperture synthesis systems.

  10. Method of synthesizing metal doped diamond-like carbon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, Mayumi (Inventor); Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of synthesizing metal doped carbon films by placing a substrate in a chamber with a selected amount of a metalorganic compound. An electron cyclotron resonance is applied to the chamber in order to vaporize the metalorganic compound. The resonance is applied to the chamber until a metal doped carbon film is formed. The metalorganic compound is preferably selected from the group consisting of an organic salt of ruthenium, palladium, gold or platinum.

  11. Total Syntheses of Isowondonins Based on a Biosynthetic Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuai; Li, Feng; Jeon, Hongjun; Lee, Seokwoo; Shin, Jongheon; Kim, Sanghee

    2016-06-17

    The first total syntheses of (-)-isowondonin A and (-)-isowondonin B, which are unusual imidazole marine alkaloids, has been accomplished through the development of methods for the selective formation of styryl sulfate group and regioselective alkylation of the imidazole. Application of the Noyori asymmetric hydrogenation of ketones allows the asymmetric synthesis. These results in conjunction with ECD calculations led to the determination of the absolute configuration of isowondonins. PMID:27226031

  12. Nanoformulation and antimicrobial evaluation of newly synthesized thiouracil derivatives.

    PubMed

    Fadda, Ahmed A; Bayoumy, Nesma M; El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M

    2016-07-01

    The present work reports the synthesis of a new series of pyridopyrimidine derivatives. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by various analytical and spectral techniques. In addition, their antimicrobial activity was evaluated as well as modeling studies were performed to investigate their ability to recognize and bind to the biotin carboxylase (BC)-active site. The results showed a broad spectrum antibacterial and antifungal profile of the synthesized derivatives. Docking results demonstrated that all members of this class of new derivatives were able to recognize the active site of Escherichia coli BC and form different types of bonding interactions with key active site amino acid residues. Besides the compounds with promising antimicrobial activity in addition to 6-aminothiouracil, as control, were incorporated into polycaprolactone nanoparticles to improve their water solubility, permeability through physiological barriers and consequently enhanced therapeutic efficacy. The compounds-loaded nanoparticles were prepared using single emulsion-solvent evaporation technique, and their diameters were found to be in the range 136 ± 30 to 213 ± 28 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed a spherical and dense morphology of the nanoparticles. The results also showed high entrapment efficiency of the synthesized bioactive compounds in the nanoparticles (85 ± 5% to 91 ± 2%) with a desirable in vitro biodegradation and release profiles. PMID:26559404

  13. Novel optical password security technique based on optical fractal synthesizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kenan; Hu, Jiasheng; Wu, Xu

    2009-06-01

    A novel optical security technique for safeguarding user passwords based on an optical fractal synthesizer is proposed. A validating experiment has been carried out. In the proposed technique, a user password is protected by being converted to a fractal image. When a user sets up a new password, the password is transformed into a fractal pattern, and the fractal pattern is stored in authority. If the user is online-validated, his or her password is converted to a fractal pattern again to compare with the previous stored fractal pattern. The converting process is called the fractal encoding procedure, which consists of two steps. First, the password is nonlinearly transformed to get the parameters for the optical fractal synthesizer. Then the optical fractal synthesizer is operated to generate the output fractal image. The experimental result proves the validity of our method. The proposed technique bridges the gap between digital security systems and optical security systems and has many advantages, such as high security level, convenience, flexibility, hyper extensibility, etc. This provides an interesting optical security technique for the protection of digital passwords.

  14. A novel nanostructure of cadmium oxide synthesized by mechanochemical method

    SciTech Connect

    Tadjarodi, A.; Imani, M.

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} A novel nanostructure of CdO was synthesized by mechanochemical reaction followed by calcination. {yields} Mechanochemical method is a simple and low-cost to synthesize nanomaterials. {yields} The obtained precursor was characterized by FT-IR, NMR techniques and elemental analysis. {yields} SEM images showed cauliflower-like shape of sample with components average diameter of 68 nm. {yields} The rods and tubes bundles with single crystalline nature were revealed by ED pattern and TEM images. -- Abstract: Cauliflower-like cadmium oxide (CdO) nanostructure was synthesized by mechanochemical reaction followed calcination procedure. Cadmium acetate dihydrate and acetamide were used as reagents and the resulting precursor was calcinated at 450 {sup o}C for 2 h in air. The structures of the precursor and resultant product of the heating treatment were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction pattern (ED). SEM and TEM images revealed the cauliflower-like morphology of the sample. This structure includes the bundles of rods and tubes in nanoscale, which combine with each other and form the resulting morphology with the average diameter, 68 nm of the components. ED pattern indicated the single crystal nature of the formed bundles.

  15. Mechanical properties of microwave hydrothermally synthesized titanate nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, M.; Chung, C. C.; Deka, J. R.; Lin, C. H.; Chung, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    In this investigation titanate nanowires were synthesized by a microwave hydrothermal process and their nanomechanical characterization was carried out by a compression experiment via buckling instability using a nanomanipulator inside a scanning electron microscope. Nanowires of diameters 120-150 nm and length tens of microns can be synthesized by keeping a commercial nanoparticle inside a microwave oven at 350 W and 210 °C for 5 h. The nanowire was clamped between two cantilevered AFM tips attached to two opposing stages of the manipulator for nanomechanical characterization. The elasticity coefficients of the titanate nanowires were measured by applying a continuously increasing load and observing the buckling instability of the nanowires. The buckling behavior of a nanowire was analyzed from the series of SEM images of displacement of the cantilever attached to the nanowire due to application of load. The critical loads for different sized titanate nanowires were determined and their corresponding Young's modulus was computed with the Euler pinned-fixed end model. The Young's modulus of these microwave hydrothermal process synthesized titanate nanowires were determined to be approximately in the range 14-17 GPa. This investigation confirms the capability of the nanomanipulator via the buckling technique as a constructive device for measuring the mechanical properties of nanoscale materials.

  16. Bacteriocins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis: generalities and potential applications

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Marroquín, Elma Laura; Galán-Wong, Luis J.; Moreno-Medina, Víctor Ricardo; Reyes-López, Miguel Ángel; Pereyra-Alférez, Benito

    2016-01-01

    The members of the Bacillus thuringiensis group, commonly known as Bt, produce a huge number of metabolites, which show biocidal and antagonistic activity. B. thuringiensis is widely known for synthesizing Cry, Vip and Cyt proteins, active against insects and other parasporins with biocidal activity against certain types of cancerous cells. Nevertheless, B. thuringiensis also synthesizes compounds with antimicrobial activity, especially bacteriocins. Some B. thuringiensis bacteriocins resemble lantibiotics and other small linear peptides (class IIa) from the lactic acid bacteria bacteriocins classification system. Although many bacteriocins produced by Bt have been reported, there is no proper classification for them. In this work, we have grouped these based on molecular weight and functionality. Bacteriocins are small peptides synthesized by bacteria, presenting inhibitory activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and to a lesser extent against fungi. These molecules represent a good study model in the search for microbial control alternatives. Lactic acid bacteria produces a huge number of these types of molecules with great potential. Nonetheless, members of the Bacillus, cereus group, especially B. thuringiensis, emerge as an attractive alternative for obtaining bacteriocins showing novel activities. This review describes the potential applications of B. thuringiensis bacteriocins in the control of foodborne pathogens, environment and medical area. PMID:27340340

  17. A simple method for synthesizing and producing guitar sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Jesús A.; Rendón, Pablo L.

    2013-05-01

    An uncomplicated model is proposed to describe the transverse force exerted by a plucked string on a guitar bridge. This model incorporates the effect of internal damping, lending the synthesized sound a transient quality that makes it more realistic than sound produced without taking damping into account. The synthesized signals are then compared to actual measurements for both free and palm-muted vibrations, and show agreement in both cases. These synthesized signals can also be used to play MIDI files through a guitar acting as a modified loudspeaker cone, driving the instrument mechanically. The sound thus obtained is realistic and provides an interesting classroom exercise for an undergraduate audience. The main set-up is also affordable as a laboratory activity and for public demonstrations, and has the advantage of being simple to implement and flexible enough to allow different kinds of modification. It is, in fact, reliable enough to use as a tool for the comparison of different guitars driven in the same manner.

  18. Soft-Template-Synthesized Mesoporous Carbon for Oral Drug Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Dipendu; Warren, Kaitlyn E; Naskar, Amit K

    2014-01-01

    Template-synthesized mesoporous carbons were successfully used in in vitro investigations of controlled delivery of three model drugs, captopril, furosemide, and ranitidine hydrochloride. Captopril and furosemide exhibited desorption kinetics over 30 40 h, and ranitidine HCl had a complete release time of 5 10 h. As evident from the slow release kinetics, we contend that our mesoporous carbon is an improved drug-delivery medium compared to state-of-the-art porous silica-based substrates. The mesoporous carbons, synthesized from phloroglucinol and lignin, a synthetic and a sustainable precursor, respectively, exhibit BET surface area of 200 400 m2 g-1 and pore volume of 0.2 0.6 cm3 g-1. The phloroglucinol-based carbon has narrower pore widths and higher pore volume than the lignin-derived counterpart and maintains a longer release time. Numerical modeling of the release kinetics data reveals that the diffusivities of all the drugs from lignin-based carbon media are of equivalent magnitude (10-22 to 10-24 m2 s-1). However, a tailored reduction of pore width in the sorbent reduces the diffusivity of smaller drug molecules (captopril) by an order of magnitude. Thus, engineered pore morphology in our synthesized carbon sorbent, along with its potential to tailor the chemistry of its interaction with sorbet, can be exploited for optimal delivery system of a preferred drug within its therapeutic level and below the level of toxicity.

  19. Deep frequency modulation interferometry.

    PubMed

    Gerberding, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Laser interferometry with pm/Hz precision and multi-fringe dynamic range at low frequencies is a core technology to measure the motion of various objects (test masses) in space and ground based experiments for gravitational wave detection and geodesy. Even though available interferometer schemes are well understood, their construction remains complex, often involving, for example, the need to build quasi-monolithic optical benches with dozens of components. In recent years techniques have been investigated that aim to reduce this complexity by combining phase modulation techniques with sophisticated digital readout algorithms. This article presents a new scheme that uses strong laser frequency modulations in combination with the deep phase modulation readout algorithm to construct simpler and easily scalable interferometers. PMID:26072834

  20. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  1. Extended frequency turbofan model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, J. R.; Park, J. W.; Jaekel, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    The fan model was developed using two dimensional modeling techniques to add dynamic radial coupling between the core stream and the bypass stream of the fan. When incorporated into a complete TF-30 engine simulation, the fan model greatly improved compression system frequency response to planar inlet pressure disturbances up to 100 Hz. The improved simulation also matched engine stability limits at 15 Hz, whereas the one dimensional fan model required twice the inlet pressure amplitude to stall the simulation. With verification of the two dimensional fan model, this program formulated a high frequency F-100(3) engine simulation using row by row compression system characteristics. In addition to the F-100(3) remote splitter fan, the program modified the model fan characteristics to simulate a proximate splitter version of the F-100(3) engine.

  2. [High frequency ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Sattler, E

    2015-07-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound has become a standard procedure in clinical dermatology. Devices with intermediate high frequencies of 7.5-15 MHz are used in dermato-oncology for the staging and postoperative care of skin tumor patients and in angiology for improved vessel diagnostics. In contrast, the high frequency ultrasound systems with 20-100 MHz probes offer a much higher resolution, yet with a lower penetration depth of about 1 cm. The main indications are the preoperative measurements of tumor thickness in malignant melanoma and other skin tumors and the assessment of inflammatory and soft tissue diseases, offering information on the course of these dermatoses and allowing therapy monitoring. This article gives an overview on technical principles, devices, mode of examination, influencing factors, interpretation of the images, indications but also limitations of this technique. PMID:25636803

  3. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

  4. Multiwire thermocouples: Frequency response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forney, L. J.; Fralick, G. C.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental measurements are made with a novel two wire thermocouple. Signals from two wires of unequal diameters are recorded from the thermocouple suspended in constant flow with a periodic temperature fluctuation. It is demonstrated that the reconstructed signal from the two wire thermocouple requires no compensation for omega less than or equal to 2 omega(sub 1) where omega is the natural frequency of the smaller wire. A compensation factor is recommended for larger frequencies omega greater than 2 omega(sub 1). Theory and experimental measurements are compared with a novel three wire thermocouple. Signals from three wires of unequal diameters are recorded from the thermocouple suspended in constant flow with a periodic temperature fluctuation. It is demonstrated that the reconstructed signal from the three wire thermocouple requires no compensation for omega less than or equal to 5 omega(sub 1) where omega (sub 1) is the natural frequency of the smaller wire. The latter result represents a significant improvement compared to previous work with two wire thermocouples. A correction factor has also been derived to account for wires of arbitrary diameter. Measurements are recorded for multiwire thermocouples consisting of either two or three wires of unequal diameters. Signals from the multiwire probe are recorded for a reversing gas flow with a periodic temperature fluctuation. It is demonstrated that the reconstructed signal from the multiwire thermocouple requires no compensation provided omega/omega(sub 1) is less than 2.3 for two wires or omega/omega(sub 1) is less than 3.6 for three wires where omega(sub 1) is the natural frequency of the smaller wire based on the maximum gas velocity. The latter results were possible provided Fourier transformed data were used and knowledge of the gas velocity is available.

  5. Rapid frequency scan EPR.

    PubMed

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A; Quine, Richard W; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2011-08-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x, y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5T(2) after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5T(2). However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5T(2), even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B(1), periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation. PMID:21664848

  6. Rapid Frequency Scan EPR

    PubMed Central

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A.; Quine, Richard W.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2011-01-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x,y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5 T2 after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5 T2. However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5 T2, even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B1, periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation. PMID:21664848

  7. Drought Frequency Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, J.; Valdes, J. B.

    2003-04-01

    Droughts are related with prolonged time periods during moisture is significantly below normal situation. Drought indexes try to scale the main drought features based on similar definitions. The Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) is a well-known index, which for a given aggregation-time measures the deviation from the normality of the precipitation. One of the SPI weak points in the representation of drought phenomenon is that drought duration should be analyzed by using different aggregation-times. In this work, a new index is presented, which simultaneously characterize droughts based on the deviation from the normal precipitation regime and the drought persistence, both from the statistical point of view. The new index does not require aggregation at different time-lengths. Instead droughts are treated as multivariate events, whose dimensionality depends on the duration. Probabilistic events with different dimensionalities are compared on a common dimension of interest. In this case the dimension chosen is the mean frequency of recurrence. The derived index, named Drought Frequency Index (DFI) may be used to characterize historical droughts or current situation. It can be apply not only over precipitation but also over flows or other hydroclimatic variables. The new index was applied to several places in USA and Spain both for precipitation and flow historical sequences, and compared with SPI. The DFI allows the representation of the main drought characteristics in a single value, based on the stochastic feature of the phenomenon, and scaled on the mean frequency of recurrence.

  8. Active frequency selective surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchwald, Walter R.; Hendrickson, Joshua; Cleary, Justin W.; Guo, Junpeng

    2013-05-01

    Split ring resonator arrays are investigated for use as active elements for the realization of voltage controllable frequency selective surfaces. Finite difference time domain simulations suggest the absorptive and reflective properties of such surfaces can be externally controlled through modifications of the split ring resonator gap impedance. In this work, such voltage-controlled resonance tuning is obtained through the addition of an appropriately designed high electron mobility transistor positioned across the split ring resonator gap. It is shown that a 0.5μm gate length high electron mobility transistor allows voltage controllable switching between the two resonant conditions associated with a split ring resonator and that of a closed loop geometry when the surface is illuminated with THz radiation. Partial switching between these two resonant conditions is observed at larger gate lengths. Such active frequency selective surfaces are proposed, for example, for use as modulators in THz detection schemes and as RF filters in radar applications when scaled to operate at GHz frequencies.

  9. Fiber optic frequency transfer link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primas, Lori E. (Inventor); Sydnor, Richard L. (Inventor); Lutes, George F. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A reference frequency distribution system is disclosed for transmitting a reference frequency from a reference unit to a remote unit while keeping the reference frequency at the reference unit and the remote unit in phase. A fiber optic cable connects the reference unit to the remote unit. A frequency source at the reference unit produces a reference frequency having an adjustable phase. A fiber optic transmitter at the reference unit modulates a light beam with the reference frequency and transmits the light beam into the fiber optic cable. A 50/50 reflector at the remote unit reflects a first portion of the light beam from the reference unit back into the fiber optic cable to the reference unit. A first fiber optic receiver disposed at the remote unit receives a second portion of the light beam and demodulates the reference frequency to be used at the remote unit. A second fiber optic receiver disposed at the reference unit receives the first portion of the light beam and demodulates a reference frequency component. A phase conjugator is connected to the frequency source for comparing the phase of the reference frequency component to the phase of the reference frequency modulating the light beam being transmitted from the reference unit to maintain a conjugate (anti-symmetric) relationship between the reference frequency component and the reference frequency modulating the light beam where virtually no phase difference exists between the phase of the reference frequency component and the phase of the reference frequency modulating the light beam.

  10. Optical properties of petal-like aggregated nanocrystalline zinc oxide synthesized by laser ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Jafarkhani, P.; Chehrghani, A.; Torkamany, M.J.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Petal like ZnO nanocrystals are synthesized by high frequency laser ablation in water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical band gap of ZnO nanocrystals was tunable by changing the laser pulse energy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nonlinear optical properties and limiting threshold were obtained by Z-scan technique. -- Abstract: The results of the investigations carried out on the third-order nonlinearity in zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals (NCs) by Z-scan technique are included in this paper. ZnO NCs show negative nonlinearity and good nonlinear absorption behavior at 532 nm. The third-order optical susceptibility {chi}(3) increases with enlargement of NCs due to the size dependent enhancement of exciton oscillator strength. The synthesis of ZnO NCs was performed by laser ablation from a high-purity metallic target of Zn in distilled water medium. For the ablation process, a high frequency pulsed Nd:YAG laser was employed operating at 532 nm with 100 ns pulse duration. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy illustrated the enhancement of the size of ZnO NCs upon increasing the laser pulse energy applied in ablation process. Accordingly the corresponding optical band gap (E{sub g}) decrease by increasing the size of NCs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) associated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was utilized to characterize the crystalline phase and also for determining the ZnO NCs morphology.

  11. Studies of Some Cerium Doped Strontium Stannate Synthesized by Solid State Route

    SciTech Connect

    Kurre, Rakesh; Bajpai, P. K.

    2011-11-22

    Cerium doped ceramic compositions SrSn{sub 1-x}Ce{sub x}O{sub 3} (x = 0.00 ,0.01, 0.02, 0.04) have been synthesized by solid state reaction route and structurally characterized using x-ray diffraction. X-ray diffraction confirms the formation of single phase compositions having orthorhombic perovskite structure for all compositions. The lattice parameters change with cerium doping. Percentage experimental density decreases from 87.9% in undoped composition to 72.6%, 70.6%, 66.5% respectively with increase in cerium doping indicating that cerium is going to Sr site. The temperature dependent dielectric behavior shows low frequency dielectric dispersion at higher temperature and a weak dielectric anomaly emerging in the temperature range around 250 deg. C. D.C. and A.C. electrical conductivity variation with temperature and frequency show that the d.c. conductivity of the sample in lower temperature region is few orders of magnitude less than the a.c. conductivity and its variation with temperature is also different. The activation energy barriers for a.c. and d.c. conduction is also different.

  12. Electrical and electrochemical performance of Mn3O4 nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaik, Dadamiah P. M. D.; Rosaiah, P.; Hussain, O. M.

    2016-05-01

    Hausmannite Mn3O4 nanoparticles have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method at low temperature. The microstructural, electrical and dielectric properties were studied. The XRD data exhibited different diffraction peaks along with predominant (211) orientation corresponds to tetragonal structure of Mn3O4 with crystallite size of 65 nm. The SEM analysis reveals that the octahedral shape of grains with average grain size of 250 nm. The vibrational studies from Raman measurements confirmed the formation of Mn3O4. The impedance response of the Mn3O4 sample was studied over the frequency range of 1 Hz - 1 MHz in the temperature range from room temperature to 373 K. The conductivity of the sample was observed to be increased (1.86 × 10-5 S/m at 373 K) with temperature following the Arrhenius behavior with an estimated activation energy of 0.37 eV. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss were examined from 333K to 373K in the frequency range of 1 Hz - 1 MHz. The electrochemical performance of Mn3O4 electrode was examined in 1M K2SO4 aqueous electrolyte which exhibited a high specific capacitance of 356 F/g at a scan rate of 10 mV/s over a potential range -0.1 V - +0.9 V and showed excellent electrochemical stability during cycling.

  13. Femtosecond-laser-based synthesis of ultrastable microwave signals from optical frequency references.

    PubMed

    Bartels, A; Diddams, S A; Oates, C W; Wilpers, G; Bergquist, J C; Oskay, W H; Hollberg, L

    2005-03-15

    We use femtosecond laser frequency combs to convert optical frequency references to the microwave domain, where we demonstrate the synthesis of 10-GHz signals having a fractional frequency instability of < or =3.5 x 10(-15) at a 1-s averaging time, limited by the optical reference. The residual instability and phase noise of the femtosecond-laser-based frequency synthesizers are 6.5 x 10(-16) at 1 s and -98 dBc/Hz at a 1-Hz offset from the 10-GHz carrier, respectively. The timing jitter of the microwave signals is 3.3 fs. PMID:15792011

  14. State-of-the-art RF signal generation from optical frequency division.

    PubMed

    Hati, Archita; Nelson, Craig W; Barnes, Corey; Lirette, Danielle; Fortier, Tara; Quinlan, Franklyn; DeSalvo, Jason A; Ludlow, Andrew; Diddams, Scott A; Howe, David A

    2013-09-01

    We present the design of a novel, ultralow-phase-noise frequency synthesizer implemented with extremely-low-noise regenerative frequency dividers. This synthesizer generates eight outputs, viz. 1.6 GHz, 320 MHz, 160 MHz, 80 MHz, 40 MHz, 20 MHz, 10 MHz and 5 MHz for an 8 GHz input frequency. The residual single-sideband (SSB) phase noises of the synthesizer at 5 and 10 MHz outputs at 1 Hz offset from the carrier are -150 and -145 dBc/Hz, respectively, which are unprecedented phase noise levels. We also report the lowest values of phase noise to date for 5 and 10 MHz RF signals achieved with our synthesizer by dividing an 8 GHz signal generated from an ultra-stable optical-comb-based frequency division. The absolute SSB phase noises achieved for 5 and 10 MHz signals at 1 Hz offset are -150 and -143 dBc/Hz, respectively; at 100 kHz offset, they are -177 and -174 dBc/Hz, respectively. The phase noise of the 5 MHz signal corresponds to a frequency stability of approximately 7.6 × 10(-15) at 1 s averaging time for a measurement bandwidth (BW) of 500 Hz, and the integrated timing jitter over 100 kHz BW is 20 fs. PMID:24658712

  15. Radar frequency radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malowicki, E.

    1981-11-01

    A method is presented for the determination of radar frequency radiation power densities that the PAVE PAWS radar system could produce in its air and ground environment. The effort was prompted by the concern of the people in the vicinity of OTIS AFB MA and BEALE AFB CA about the possible radar frequency radiation hazard of the PAVE PAWS radar. The method is based on the following main assumptions that: (a) the total field can be computed as the vector summation of the individual fields due to each antenna element; (b) the individual field can be calculated using distances for which the field point is in the far field of the antenna element. An RFR computer program was coded for the RADC HE 6180 digital computer and exercised to calculate the radiation levels in the air and ground space for the present baseline and the possible Six DB and 10 DB growth systems of the PAVE PAWS radar system at OTIS AFB MA. The average radiation levels due to the surveillance fence were computed for three regions: in the air space in front of the radar, at the radar hazard fence at OTIS AFB MA and at representative ground points in the OTIS AFB vicinity. It was concluded that the radar frequency radiation of PAVE PAWS does not present a hazard to personnel provided there is no entry to the air hazard zone or to the area within the hazard fence. The method developed offers a cost effective way to determine radiation levels from a phased array radar especially in the near field and transition regions.

  16. Resonance frequency analysis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajiv K; Padmanabhan, Thallam V

    2011-01-01

    Initial stability at the placement and development of osseointegration are two major issues for implant survival. Implant stability is a mechanical phenomenon which is related to the local bone quality and quantity, type of implant, and placement technique used. The application of a simple, clinically applicable, non-invasive test to assess implant stability and osseointegration is considered highly desirable. Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) is one of such techniques which is most frequently used now days. The aim of this paper was to review and analyze critically the current available literature in the field of RFA, and to also discuss based on scientific evidence, the prognostic value of RFA to detect implants at risk of failure. A search was made using the PubMed database to find all the literature published on "Resonance frequency analysis for implant stability" till date. Articles discussed in vivo or in vitro studies comparing RFA with other methods of implant stability measurement and articles discussing its reliability were thoroughly reviewed and discussed. A limited number of clinical reports were found. Various studies have demonstrated the feasibility and predictability of the technique. However, most of these articles are based on retrospective data or uncontrolled cases. Randomized, prospective, parallel-armed longitudinal human trials are based on short-term results and long-term follow up are still scarce in this field. Nonetheless, from available literature, it may be concluded that RFA technique evaluates implant stability as a function of stiffness of the implant bone interface and is influenced by factors such as bone type, exposed implant height above the alveolar crest. Resonance frequency analysis could serve as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for detecting the implant stability of dental implants during the healing stages and in subsequent routine follow up care after treatment. Future studies, preferably randomized, prospective

  17. Frequency domain nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legare, Francois

    2016-05-01

    The universal dilemma of gain narrowing occurring in fs amplifiers prevents ultra-high power lasers from delivering few-cycle pulses. This problem is overcome by a new amplification concept: Frequency domain Optical Parametric Amplification - FOPA. It enables simultaneous up-scaling of peak power and amplified spectral bandwidth and can be performed at any wavelength range of conventional amplification schemes, however, with the capability to amplify single cycles of light. The key idea for amplification of octave-spanning spectra without loss of spectral bandwidth is to amplify the broad spectrum ``slice by slice'' in the frequency domain, i.e. in the Fourier plane of a 4f-setup. The striking advantages of this scheme, are its capability to amplify (more than) one octave of bandwidth without shorting the corresponding pulse duration. This is because ultrabroadband phase matching is not defined by the properties of the nonlinear crystal employed but the number of crystals employed. In the same manner, to increase the output energy one simply has to increase the spectral extension in the Fourier plane and to add one more crystal. Thus, increasing pulse energy and shortening its duration accompany each other. A proof of principle experiment was carried out at ALLS on the sub-two cycle IR beam line and yielded record breaking performance in the field of few-cycle IR lasers. 100 μJ two-cycle pulses from a hollow core fibre compression setup were amplified to 1.43mJ without distorting spatial or temporal properties. Pulse duration at the input of FOPA and after FOPA remains the same. Recently, we have started upgrading this system to be pumped by 250 mJ to reach 40 mJ two-cycle IR few-cycle pulses and latest results will be presented at the conference. Furthermore, the extension of the concept of FOPA to other nonlinear optical processes will be discussed. Frequency domain nonlinear optics.

  18. Microwave Frequency Polarizers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, Vien The; Mirel, Paul; Kogut, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the fabrication and analysis of microwave frequency polarizing grids. The grids are designed to measure polarization from the cosmic microwave background. It is effective in the range of 500 to 1500 micron wavelength. It is cryogenic compatible and highly robust to high load impacts. Each grid is fabricated using an array of different assembly processes which vary in the types of tension mechanisms to the shape and size of the grids. We provide a comprehensive study on the analysis of the grids' wire heights, diameters, and spacing.

  19. High frequency electromagnetic tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, W.; Ramirez, A.; Ueng, T.; Latorre, R.

    1989-09-01

    An experiment was conducted in G Tunnel at the Nevada Test Site to evaluate high frequency electromagnetic tomography as a candidate for in situ monitoring of hydrology in the near field of a heater placed in densely welded tuff. Tomographs of 200 MHz electromagnetic permittivity were made for several planes between boreholes. Data were taken before the heater was turned on, during heating and during cooldown of the rockmass. This data is interpreted to yield maps of changes in water content of the rockmass as a function of time. This interpretation is based on laboratory measurement of electromagnetic permittivity as a function of water content for densely welded tuff. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Frequency agile relativistic magnetrons

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, J.S.; Harteneck, B.D.; Price, H.D.

    1995-11-01

    The authors are developing a family of frequency agile relativistic magnetrons to continuously cover the bands from 1 to 3 GHz. They have achieved tuning ranges of > 33%. The magnetrons have been operated repetitively in burst mode at rates up to 100 pps for 10 sec. Power is extracted from two resonators, and is in the range of 400--600 MW, fairly flat across the tuning bandwidth. They are using a network of phase shifters and 3-dB hybrids to combine the power into a single arm and to provide a continuously adjustable attenuator.

  1. High-frequency ventilation.

    PubMed

    Crawford, M R

    1986-08-01

    Over the last six years high-frequency ventilation has been extensively evaluated both in the clinical and laboratory settings. It is now no longer the great mystery it once was, and it is now no longer believed (as many had hoped), that it will solve all the problems associated with mechanical pulmonary ventilation. Although the technique is safe and appears to cause no harm even in the long term, it has not yet been shown to offer any major advantages over conventional mechanical ventilation. PMID:3530042

  2. RADIO FREQUENCY ATTENUATOR

    DOEpatents

    Giordano, S.

    1963-11-12

    A high peak power level r-f attenuator that is readily and easily insertable along a coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer annular conductor without breaking the ends thereof is presented. Spaced first and second flares in the outer conductor face each other with a slidable cylindrical outer conductor portion therebetween. Dielectric means, such as water, contact the cable between the flares to attenuate the radio-frequency energy received thereby. The cylindrical outer conductor portion is slidable to adjust the voltage standing wave ratio to a low level, and one of the flares is slidable to adjust the attenuation level. An integral dielectric container is also provided. (AFC)

  3. Engineering an Escherichia coli platform to synthesize designer biodiesels.

    PubMed

    Wierzbicki, Michael; Niraula, Narayan; Yarrabothula, Akshitha; Layton, Donovan S; Trinh, Cong T

    2016-04-20

    Biodiesels, fatty acid esters (FAEs), can be synthesized by condensation of fatty acid acyl CoAs and alcohols via a wax ester synthase in living cells. Biodiesels have advantageous characteristics over petrodiesels such as biodegradability, a higher flash point, and less emission. Controlling fatty acid and alcohol moieties are critical to produce designer biodiesels with desirable physiochemical properties (e.g., high cetane number, low kinematic viscosity, high oxidative stability, and low cloud point). Here, we developed a flexible framework to engineer Escherichia coli cell factories to synthesize designer biodiesels directly from fermentable sugars. In this framework, we designed each FAE pathway as a biodiesel exchangeable production module consisting of acyl CoA, alcohol, and wax ester synthase submodules. By inserting the FAE modules in an engineered E. coli modular chassis cell, we generated E. coli cell factories to produce targeted biodiesels (e.g., fatty acid ethyl (FAEE) and isobutyl (FAIbE) esters) with tunable and controllable short-chain alcohol moieties. The engineered E. coli chassis carrying the FAIbE production module produced 54mg/L FAIbEs with high specificity, accounting for>90% of the total synthesized FAEs and ∼4.7 fold increase in FAIbE production compared to the wildtype. Fed-batch cultures further improved FAIbE production up to 165mg/L. By mixing ethanol and isobutanol submodules, we demonstrated controllable production of mixed FAEEs and FAIbEs. We envision the developed framework offers a flexible, alternative route to engineer designer biodiesels with tunable and controllable properties using biomass-derived fermentable sugars. PMID:26953744

  4. New quinternary selenides: Syntheses, characterizations, and electronic structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Ming-Yan; Lee, Chi-Shen

    2013-06-01

    Five quinternary selenides, Sr₂.₆₃Y₀.₃₇Ge₀.₆₃Sb₂.₃₇Se₈ (I), Sr₂.₆₃La₀.₃₇Ge₀.₆₃Sb₂.₃₇Se₈ (II), Sr₂.₇₁La₀.₂₉Sn₀.₇₇Bi₂.₂₃Se₈ (III), Ba₂.₆₇ La₀.₃₃ Sn₀.₆₇Sb₂.₃₃Se₈ (IV), and Ba₂.₆₇ La₀.₃₃Sn₀.₆₇Bi₂.₃₃Se₈ (V), were synthesized by solid-state reaction in fused silica tubes. These compounds are isostructural and crystallize in the Sr₃GeSb₂Se₈ structural-type, which belongs to the orthorhombic space group Pnma (no. 62). Three structural units, 1[MSe₃], 1[M₄Se₁₀] (M=Tt, Pn) and M´ (M´=groups II and III element), comprise the entire one-dimensional structure, separated by M´. Measurements of electronic resistivity and diffused reflectance suggest that IV and V have semiconducting properties. Electronic structure calculations confirm the site preferences of Sr/La element discovered by crystal structure refinement. - Graphical abstract: Quinternary selenides Ae₂.₆₇M₀.₃₃Tt₀.₆₇Pn₂.₃₃Se₈ (Ae, M, Tt, Pn=Sr/Ba, Y/La, Ge/Sn, Sb/Bi) were synthesized and their site preferences were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and electronic structure calculation. Highlights: • Five new quinternary selenides were synthesized and characterized. • Structural units, 1[MSe₃] and 1[M₄Se₁₀] (M=Tt, Pn), construct the one-dimensional structure. • Calculations of electronic structure confirm site preference of Sr/La sites.

  5. Analyzing and Synthesizing Phylogenies Using Tree Alignment Graphs

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephen A.; Brown, Joseph W.; Hinchliff, Cody E.

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees are used to analyze and visualize evolution. However, trees can be imperfect datatypes when summarizing multiple trees. This is especially problematic when accommodating for biological phenomena such as horizontal gene transfer, incomplete lineage sorting, and hybridization, as well as topological conflict between datasets. Additionally, researchers may want to combine information from sets of trees that have partially overlapping taxon sets. To address the problem of analyzing sets of trees with conflicting relationships and partially overlapping taxon sets, we introduce methods for aligning, synthesizing and analyzing rooted phylogenetic trees within a graph, called a tree alignment graph (TAG). The TAG can be queried and analyzed to explore uncertainty and conflict. It can also be synthesized to construct trees, presenting an alternative to supertrees approaches. We demonstrate these methods with two empirical datasets. In order to explore uncertainty, we constructed a TAG of the bootstrap trees from the Angiosperm Tree of Life project. Analysis of the resulting graph demonstrates that areas of the dataset that are unresolved in majority-rule consensus tree analyses can be understood in more detail within the context of a graph structure, using measures incorporating node degree and adjacency support. As an exercise in synthesis (i.e., summarization of a TAG constructed from the alignment trees), we also construct a TAG consisting of the taxonomy and source trees from a recent comprehensive bird study. We synthesized this graph into a tree that can be reconstructed in a repeatable fashion and where the underlying source information can be updated. The methods presented here are tractable for large scale analyses and serve as a basis for an alternative to consensus tree and supertree methods. Furthermore, the exploration of these graphs can expose structures and patterns within the dataset that are otherwise difficult to observe. PMID:24086118

  6. Comparative sinterability of combustion synthesized and commercial titanium carbides

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, B.W.

    1984-11-01

    The influence of various parameters on the sinterability of combustion synthesized titanium carbide was investigaged. Titanium carbide powders, prepared by the combustion synthesis process, were sintered in the temperature range 1150 to 1600/sup 0/C. Incomplete combustion and high oxygen contents were found to be the cause of reduced shrinkage during sintering of the combustion syntheized powders when compared to the shrinkage of commercial TiC. Free carbon was shown to inhibit shrinkage. The activation energy for sintering was found to depend on stoichiometry (C/Ti). With decreasing C/Ti, the rate of sintering increased. 29 references, 16 figures, 13 tables.

  7. Size evolution of ion beam synthesized Pb nanoparticles in Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huan; Zhu, Hongzhi

    2014-07-01

    The size evolution of Pb nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized by ion implantation in an epitaxial Al film has been experimentally investigated. The average radius R of Pb NPs was determined as a function of implantation fluence f. The R( f) data were analyzed using various growth models. Our observations suggest that the size evolution of Pb NPs is controlled by the diffusion-limited growth kinetics ( R 2∝ f). With increasing implantation current density, the diffusion coefficient of Pb atoms in Al is evident to be enhanced. By a comparative analysis of the R( f) data, values of the diffusion coefficient of Pb in Al were obtained.

  8. Prebiotic phosphate ester syntheses in a deep eutectic solvent.

    PubMed

    Gull, Maheen; Zhou, Manshui; Fernández, Facundo M; Pasek, Matthew A

    2014-02-01

    We report a route to synthesize a wide range of organophosphates of biological significance in a deep eutectic solvent (2:1 urea and choline chloride), utilizing various orthophosphate sources. Heating an organic alcohol in the solvent along with a soluble phosphorus source yields phosphorus esters of choline as well as that of the added organic in yields between 15 to 99 %. In addition, phosphite analogs of biological phosphates and peptides were also formed by the simple mixing of reagents and heating at 60-70 °C in the deep eutectic solvent. The presented dehydration reactions are relevant to prebiotic and green chemistry in alternative solvents. PMID:24368625

  9. Flavonoid Properties in Plant Families Synthesizing Betalain Pigments (Review).

    PubMed

    Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2015-06-01

    The anthocyanin pigments are contained in the flowers, fruits, leaves and roots of almost plant species. On the other hand, distribution of the betacyanins are limited in eight families of the order Caryophyllales, i.e. Aizoaceae, Amaranthaceae, Basellaceae, Cactaceae, Didiereaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Phytolaccaceae and Portulacaceae. However, other flavonoids, i.e. flavones, C-glycosylflavones, flavonols, flavanones, dihydroflavonols, chalcones, aurones, and flavan and proanthocyanidins, are synthesized in betalain-containing families. In this review, distribution and properties of the flavonoids in eight betalain-containing families are described. PMID:26197560

  10. Activation-Enabled Syntheses of Functionalized Pillar[5]arene Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Han, Jie; Hou, Xisen; Ke, Chenfeng; Zhang, Huacheng; Strutt, Nathan L; Stern, Charlotte L; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2015-07-01

    A series of regioselective di- and trifunctionalized pillar[5]arene derivatives have been synthesized by a deprotection-followed-by-activation strategy, and their constitutions have been established as a result of having access to their solid-state structures. De-O-methylation occurs in a stepwise manner at lower temperatures under kinetic control, affording the desired oligo-substituted pillar[5]arene derivatives. In addition, the regioisomers of these derivatives can be isolated by installing triflate groups on the free hydroxyl groups. PMID:26083303

  11. Synthesizing aluminum particles towards controlling electrostatic discharge ignition sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Eric S. Collins; Jeffery P. Gesner; Michelle L. Pantoya; Michael A. Daniels

    2014-02-01

    Aluminum particles were synthesized with shell thicknesses ranging from 2.7 to 8.3 nm and a constant diameter of 95 nm. These fuel particles were combined with molybdenum trioxide particles and the electrostatic discharge (ESD) sensitivity of the mixture was measured. Results show ignition delay increased as the alumina shell thickness increased. These results correlated with electrical resistivity measurements of the mixture which increased with alumina concentration. A model was developed using COMSOL for ignition of a single Al particle. The ignition delay in the model was consistent with the experimental results suggesting that the primary ESD ignition mechanism is joule heating.

  12. Properties of mechanochemically synthesized ZnS nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dutková, E; Baláz, P; Pourghahramani, P; Velumani, S; Ascencio, J A; Kostova, N G

    2009-11-01

    The bulk and surface properties of mechanochemically synthesized ZnS nanoparticles were studied. XRD, SEM, TEM (HRTEM), AFM, UV-VIS, low temperature nitrogen sorption as well as TPR characterization methods have been applied. Cubic ZnS nanocrystals (2-4 nm) with characteristic blue shift have been obtained by high-energy milling. There is an evidence of the nanocrystal aggregates formation in products of milling. The surface uniformity, homogeneity as well as enhanced uptake of hydrogen have been documented. PMID:19908571

  13. Studies toward the total syntheses of cucurbitacins B and D.

    PubMed

    Jung, Michael E; Lui, Rebecca M

    2010-11-01

    Synthetic efforts toward the convergent construction of the tetracyclic triterpenoids cucurbitacins B and D are described. The results of a Diels-Alder study examining the effects of steric and electronic variations of 2-methyl-2-cyclohexenone on the endo/exo-diastereoselectivity of the reaction are presented. The diastereomer of the core of the cucurbitacins, epimeric at C8, C9, and C10, 51, was synthesized via a highly regio- and stereoselective Diels-Alder reaction of the diene 4 and the novel dienophile 50. PMID:20873743

  14. Methods to Design and Synthesize Antibody-Drug Conjugates (ADCs)

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Houzong; Jiang, Feng; Lu, Aiping; Zhang, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) have become a promising targeted therapy strategy that combines the specificity, favorable pharmacokinetics and biodistributions of antibodies with the destructive potential of highly potent drugs. One of the biggest challenges in the development of ADCs is the application of suitable linkers for conjugating drugs to antibodies. Recently, the design and synthesis of linkers are making great progress. In this review, we present the methods that are currently used to synthesize antibody-drug conjugates by using thiols, amines, alcohols, aldehydes and azides. PMID:26848651

  15. Proposal of an Algorithm to Synthesize Music Suitable for Dance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morioka, Hirofumi; Nakatani, Mie; Nishida, Shogo

    This paper proposes an algorithm for synthesizing music suitable for emotions in moving pictures. Our goal is to support multi-media content creation; web page design, animation films and so on. Here we adopt a human dance as a moving picture to examine the availability of our method. Because we think the dance image has high affinity with music. This algorithm is composed of three modules. The first is the module for computing emotions from an input dance image, the second is for computing emotions from music in the database and the last is for selecting music suitable for input dance via an interface of emotion.

  16. Process for synthesizing titanium carbide, titanium nitride and titanium carbonitride

    DOEpatents

    Koc, R.; Glatzmaier, G.C.

    1995-05-23

    A process is disclosed for synthesizing titanium carbide, titanium nitride or titanium carbonitride. The process comprises placing particles of titanium, a titanium salt or titanium dioxide within a vessel and providing a carbon-containing atmosphere within the vessel. The vessel is heated to a pyrolysis temperature sufficient to pyrolyze the carbon to thereby coat the particles with a carbon coating. Thereafter, the carbon-coated particles are heated in an inert atmosphere to produce titanium carbide, or in a nitrogen atmosphere to produce titanium nitride or titanium carbonitride, with the heating being of a temperature and time sufficient to produce a substantially complete solid solution.

  17. Process for synthesizing titanium carbide, titanium nitride and titanium carbonitride

    DOEpatents

    Koc, Rasit; Glatzmaier, Gregory C.

    1995-01-01

    A process for synthesizing titanium carbide, titanium nitride or titanium carbonitride. The process comprises placing particles of titanium, a titanium salt or titanium dioxide within a vessel and providing a carbon-containing atmosphere within the vessel. The vessel is heated to a pyrolysis temperature sufficient to pyrolyze the carbon to thereby coat the particles with a carbon coating. Thereafter, the carbon-coated particles are heated in an inert atmosphere to produce titanium carbide, or in a nitrogen atmosphere to produce titanium nitride or titanium carbonitride, with the heating being of a temperature and time sufficient to produce a substantially complete solid solution.

  18. Bio-inspired routes for synthesizing efficient nanoscale platinum electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Jennifer N.; Wang, Joseph

    2014-08-31

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to use fundamental advances in bionanotechnology to design powerful platinum nanocrystal electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications. The new economically-viable, environmentally-friendly, bottom-up biochemical synthetic strategy will produce platinum nanocrystals with tailored size, shape and crystal orientation, hence leading to a maximum electrochemical reactivity. There are five specific aims to the proposed bio-inspired strategy for synthesizing efficient electrocatalytic platinum nanocrystals: (1) isolate peptides that both selectively bind particular crystal faces of platinum and promote the nucleation and growth of particular nanocrystal morphologies, (2) pattern nanoscale 2-dimensional arrays of platinum nucleating peptides from DNA scaffolds, (3) investigate the combined use of substrate patterned peptides and soluble peptides on nanocrystal morphology and growth (4) synthesize platinum crystals on planar and large-area carbon electrode supports, and (5) perform detailed characterization of the electrocatalytic behavior as a function of catalyst size, shape and morphology. Project Description and Impact: This bio-inspired collaborative research effort will address key challenges in designing powerful electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications by employing nucleic acid scaffolds in combination with peptides to perform specific, environmentally-friendly, simultaneous bottom-up biochemical synthesis and patterned assembly of highly uniform and efficient platinum nanocrystal catalysts. Bulk synthesis of nanoparticles usually produces a range of sizes, accessible catalytic sites, crystal morphologies, and orientations, all of which lead to inconsistent catalytic activities. In contrast, biological systems routinely demonstrate exquisite control over inorganic syntheses at neutral pH and ambient temperature and pressures. Because the orientation and arrangement of the templating biomolecules can be precisely

  19. Simulating and Synthesizing Substructures Using Neural Network and Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Youhua; Kapania, Rakesh K.; VanLandingham, Hugh F.

    1997-01-01

    The feasibility of simulating and synthesizing substructures by computational neural network models is illustrated by investigating a statically indeterminate beam, using both a 1-D and a 2-D plane stress modelling. The beam can be decomposed into two cantilevers with free-end loads. By training neural networks to simulate the cantilever responses to different loads, the original beam problem can be solved as a match-up between two subsystems under compatible interface conditions. The genetic algorithms are successfully used to solve the match-up problem. Simulated results are found in good agreement with the analytical or FEM solutions.

  20. Method of synthesizing polymers from a solid electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1984-10-19

    A method of synthesizing electrically conductive polymers from a solvent-free solid polymer electrolyte is disclosed. An assembly of a substrate having an electrode thereon, a thin coating of solid electrolyte including a solution of PEO complexed with an alkali salt, and a thin transparent noble metal electrode are disposed in an evacuated chamber into which a selected monomer vapor is introduced while an electric potential is applied across the solid electrolyte to hold the thin transparent electrode at a positive potential relative to the electrode on the substrate, whereby a highly conductive polymer film is grown on the transparent electrode between it and the solid electrolyte.

  1. Method of synthesizing polymers from a solid electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terje A.

    1985-01-01

    A method of synthesizing electrically conductive polymers from a solvent-free solid polymer electrolyte wherein an assembly of a substrate having an electrode thereon, a thin coating of solid electrolyte including a solution of PEO complexed with an alkali salt, and a thin transparent noble metal electrode are disposed in an evacuated chamber into which a selected monomer vapor is introduced while an electric potential is applied across the solid electrolyte to hold the thin transparent electrode at a positive potential relative to the electrode on the substrate, whereby a highly conductive polymer film is grown on the transparent electrode between it and the solid electrolyte.

  2. Process for synthesizing compounds from elemental powders and product

    DOEpatents

    Rabin, Barry H.; Wright, Richard N.

    1993-01-01

    A process for synthesizing intermetallic compounds from elemental powders. The elemental powders are initially combined in a ratio which approximates the stoichiometric composition of the intermetallic compound. The mixed powders are then formed into a compact which is heat treated at a controlled rate of heating such that an exothermic reaction between the elements is initiated. The heat treatment may be performed under controlled conditions ranging from a vacuum (pressureless sintering) to compression (hot pressing) to produce a desired densification of the intermetallic compound. In a preferred form of the invention, elemental powders of Fe and Al are combined to form aluminide compounds of Fe.sub.3 Al and FeAl.

  3. Improved frequency resolution for characterization of complex fractionated atrial electrograms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The dominant frequency of the Fourier power spectrum is useful to analyze complex fractionated atrial electrograms (CFAE), but spectral resolution is limited and uniform from DC to the Nyquist frequency. Herein the spectral resolution of a recently described and relatively new spectral estimation technique is compared to the Fourier radix-2 implementation. Methods In 10 paroxysmal and 10 persistent atrial fibrillation patients, 216 CFAE were acquired from the pulmonary vein ostia and left atrial free wall (977 Hz sampling rate, 8192 sample points, 8.4 s duration). With these parameter values, in the physiologic range of 3–10 Hz, two frequency components can theoretically be resolved at 0.24 Hz using Fourier analysis and at 0.10 Hz on average using the new technique. For testing, two closely-spaced periodic components were synthesized from two different CFAE recordings, and combined with two other CFAE recordings magnified 2×, that served as interference signals. The ability to resolve synthesized frequency components in the range 3–4 Hz, 4–5 Hz, …, 9–10 Hz was determined for 15 trials each (105 total). Results With the added interference, frequency resolution averaged 0.29 ± 0.22 Hz for Fourier versus 0.16 ± 0.10 Hz for the new method (p < 0.001). The misalignment error of spectral peaks versus actual values was ±0.023 Hz for Fourier and ±0.009 Hz for the new method (p < 0.001). One or both synthesized peaks were lost in the noise floor 13/105 times using Fourier versus 4/105 times using the new method. Conclusions Within the physiologically relevant frequency range for characterization of CFAE, the new method has approximately twice the spectral resolution of Fourier analysis, there is less error in estimating frequencies, and peaks appear more readily above the noise floor. Theoretically, when interference is not present, to resolve frequency components separated by 0.10 Hz using Fourier analysis

  4. Frequency shifts of high frequency p-modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Rekha

    1995-01-01

    Frequency shifts of high frequency p-modes during the solar cycle are calculated for a non-magnetic polytrope convection zone model. An isothermal chromospheric atmosphere threaded by a uniform horizontal magnetic field is correlated to this model. The relevant observations of such frequency changes are discussed. The calculated simultaneous changes in the field strength and chromospheric temperature result in the frequency shifts that are similar to those of the observations.

  5. Frequency selective bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowitt, M. S.; Fixsen, D. J.; Goldin, A.; Meyer, S. S.

    1996-10-01

    We propose a concept for radiometry in the millimeter, the submillimeter, and the far-IR spectral regions, the frequency selective bolometer (FSB). This system uses a bolometer as a coupled element of a tuned quasi-optical interference filter in which the absorption, the transmission, and the reflection characteristics of the filter depend on the frequency in a controlled manner. Several FSB's can be cascaded within a straight light pipe to produce a high-efficiency, compact, multiband radiometer. A prototype design is presented together with its anticipated performance based on a one-dimensional transmission-line model. Instruments based on FSB technology should have several advantages over current multiband bolometric radiometers including smaller and more compact cryogenic optics, reduced demands on cryostat size and weight, high coupling efficiency, minimum constraints on the geometry in the focal plane. An FSB system can be configured as a multiband, close-packed focal-plane array, permitting efficient use of the throughput of a telescope.

  6. Laser-frequency multiplication

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    A high quality mode locked pulse train was obtained at 9.55 micrometers, the CO2 wavelength chosen for frequency doubling into the atmospheric window at 4.8 micrometers. The pulse train consists of a 3 micro sec burst of 1.5 nsec pulses separated by 40 nsec, in a TEM(00) mode and with a total energy of 100 mJ. The pulse intensity without focussing is about 3 MW/sq.cm., already quite close to the target intensity of 10 MW/sq.cm. for frequency doubling in a AgGaSe2 crystal. The mode-locked train is obtained by intracavity modulation at 12.5 MHz using a germanium crystal driven with a power of about 30 Watts. Line selection is achieved firstly by the use of a 0.92 mm thick CaF2 plate at the Brewster angle within the cavity, which completely suppresses 10.6 micrometer band radiation. Secondly, a particular rotational line, the P20 at 9.55 micrometers, is selected by the injection of a continuous beam is mode-matched to the pulsed laser cavity using a long focal length lens, and for best line-locking it is necessary to fine tune the length of the pulsed laser resonator. Injection causes substantial depression of the gain switched spike.

  7. High-frequency ECG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tragardh, Elin; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2006-01-01

    The standard ECG is by convention limited to 0.05-150 Hz, but higher frequencies are also present in the ECG signal. With high-resolution technology, it is possible to record and analyze these higher frequencies. The highest amplitudes of the high-frequency components are found within the QRS complex. In past years, the term "high frequency", "high fidelity", and "wideband electrocardiography" have been used by several investigators to refer to the process of recording ECGs with an extended bandwidth of up to 1000 Hz. Several investigators have tried to analyze HF-QRS with the hope that additional features seen in the QRS complex would provide information enhancing the diagnostic value of the ECG. The development of computerized ECG-recording devices that made it possible to record ECG signals with high resolution in both time and amplitude, as well as better possibilities to store and process the signals digitally, offered new methods for analysis. Different techniques to extract the HF-QRS have been described. Several bandwidths and filter types have been applied for the extraction as well as different signal-averaging techniques for noise reduction. There is no standard method for acquiring and quantifying HF-QRS. The physiological mechanisms underlying HF-QRS are still not fully understood. One theory is that HF-QRS are related to the conduction velocity and the fragmentation of the depolarization wave in the myocardium. In a three-dimensional model of the ventricles with a fractal conduction system it was shown that high numbers of splitting branches are associated with HF-QRS. In this experiment, it was also shown that the changes seen in HF-QRS in patients with myocardial ischemia might be due to the slowing of the conduction velocity in the region of ischemia. This mechanism has been tested by Watanabe et al by infusing sodium channel blockers into the left anterior descending artery in dogs. In their study, 60 unipolar ECGs were recorded from the entire

  8. Ferroelectric and dielectric properties of nanocrystalline BiFeO3 multiferroic ceramics synthesized by solution combustion method (SCM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, Yogesh A.; Mahajan, Chandrashekhar M.; Abuassaj, Ebrahim M.; Jagtap, Prashant P.; Patil, Pramod B.; Bendre, Subhash T.

    2013-04-01

    Nanocrystalline multiferroic BiFeO3 ceramics was prepared by a novel solution combustion method (SCM). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies on structural properties of the synthesized ceramics reveal that the BiFeO3 ceramics has rhombhohedral perovskite structure with an average crystallite size of 15 nm. The ferroelectric P-E hysteresis loop measurement at room temperature shows unsaturated behavior with a partial reversal of polarization. Investigations on temperature dependence of dielectric constant in BiFeO3 demonstrate a clear dielectric anomaly at approximately around 380 °C, which corresponds to antiferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition (TN) and also evidences a possible coupling among the electric and magnetic dipoles of BiFeO3. A room temperature variation of dielectric constant " ɛ" and dielectric loss "tan δ" as a function of frequency in the range of 100 Hz — 1 MHz, confirms that both dielectric constant and loss are strong functions of frequency.

  9. Ultrasonic Resonance Spectrometry with Fourier Synthesized Pseudorandom Noise Excitation and Its Application to a Lyotropiec Liquid Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Haruki; Naito, Yasushi; Tsuboi, Yukitoshi; Mitaku, Shigeki; Okano, Koji

    1982-11-01

    Time domain measurement to obtain ultrasonic resonance spectra was made using Fourier Synthesized Pseudorandom Noise (FSPN) excitation in order to observe the viscoelastic property of a lyotropic liquid crystal. The FSPN with multiple frequency components was amplitude-modulated by a carrier signal with a much higher single frequency component, and a quadrature detection technique was used to obtain a shear ultrasonic resonance spectrum produced between two transducers. A reflection method was applied to observe mechanical impedance of viscous and elastic materials at about 3 MHz. The viscosities obtained for standard viscous materials agreed well with literature values, and the rigidity and viscosity of a lyotropic liquid crystal of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate with water were measured; they were ˜ 106 dyn/cm2 and ˜0.1 P, respectively.

  10. Multifunctional radio-frequency generator for cold atom experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chun-hua; Yan, Shu-hua

    2016-05-01

    We present a low cost radio-frequency (RF) generator suitable for experiments with cold atoms. The RF source achieves a sub-hertz frequency with tunable resolution from 0 MHz to 400 MHz and a maximum output power of 33 dBm. Based on a direct digital synthesizer (DDS) chip, we implement a ramping capability for frequency, amplitude and phase. The system can also operate as an arbitrary waveform generator. By measuring the stability in a duration of 600 s, we find the presented device performs comparably as Agilent33522A in terms of short-term stability. Due to its excellent performance, the RF generator has been already applied to cold atom trapping experiments.

  11. Newton algorithm for fitting transfer functions to frequency response measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanos, J. T.; Mingori, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the problem of synthesizing transfer functions from frequency response measurements is considered. Given a complex vector representing the measured frequency response of a physical system, a transfer function of specified order is determined that minimizes the sum of the magnitude-squared of the frequency response errors. This nonlinear least squares minimization problem is solved by an iterative global descent algorithm of the Newton type that converges quadratically near the minimum. The unknown transfer function is expressed as a sum of second-order rational polynomials, a parameterization that facilitates a numerically robust computer implementation. The algorithm is developed for single-input, single-output, causal, stable transfer functions. Two numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  12. Growth process of hydrogenated amorphous carbon films synthesized by atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced CVD using nitrogen and helium as a dilution gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Takanori; Sakurai, Takachika; Sato, Taiki; Shirakura, Akira; Suzuki, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous carbon films with various thicknesses were synthesized by dielectric barrier discharge-based plasma deposition under atmospheric pressure diluted with nitrogen (N2) and helium (He) at various pulse frequencies. The C2H2/N2 film showed cauliflower-like-particles that grew bigger with the increase in film’s thickness. At 5 kHz, the film with a thickness of 2.7 µm and smooth surface was synthesized. On the other hand, the films synthesized from C2H2/He had a smooth surface and was densely packed with domed particles. The domed particles extended with the increase in the film thickness, enabling it to grow successfully to 37 µm with a smooth surface.

  13. Magnetoresistive polyaniline-silicon carbide metacomposites: plasma frequency determination and high magnetic field sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Gu, Hongbo; Guo, Jiang; Khan, Mojammel Alam; Young, David P; Shen, T D; Wei, Suying; Guo, Zhanhu

    2016-07-20

    The Drude model modified by Debye relaxation time was introduced to determine the plasma frequency (ωp) in the surface initiated polymerization (SIP) synthesized β-silicon carbide (β-SiC)/polyaniline (PANI) metacomposites. The calculated plasma frequency for these metacomposites with different loadings of β-SiC nanoparticles was ranging from 6.11 × 10(4) to 1.53 × 10(5) rad s(-1). The relationship between the negative permittivity and plasma frequency indicates the existence of switching frequency, at which the permittivity was changed from negative to positive. More interestingly, the synthesized non-magnetic metacomposites, observed to follow the 3-dimensional (3-D) Mott variable range hopping (VRH) electrical conduction mechanism, demonstrated high positive magnetoresistance (MR) values of up to 57.48% and high MR sensitivity at low magnetic field regimes. PMID:27386820

  14. Synthesizing non-natural parts from natural genomic template

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Pawan K; Thwin, Chaw Su; Tun, Kyaw; Tsumoto, Yuko; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Eisenhaber, Frank; Surana, Uttam

    2009-01-01

    Background The current knowledge of genes and proteins comes from 'naturally designed' coding and non-coding regions. It would be interesting to move beyond natural boundaries and make user-defined parts. To explore this possibility we made six non-natural proteins in E. coli. We also studied their potential tertiary structure and phenotypic outcomes. Results The chosen intergenic sequences were amplified and expressed using pBAD 202/D-TOPO vector. All six proteins showed significantly low similarity to the known proteins in the NCBI protein database. The protein expression was confirmed through Western blot. The endogenous expression of one of the proteins resulted in the cell growth inhibition. The growth inhibition was completely rescued by culturing cells in the inducer-free medium. Computational structure prediction suggests globular tertiary structure for two of the six non-natural proteins synthesized. Conclusion To our best knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates artificial synthesis of non-natural proteins from existing genomic template, their potential tertiary structure and phenotypic outcome. The work presented in this paper opens up a new avenue of investigating fundamental biology. Our approach can also be used to synthesize large numbers of non-natural RNA and protein parts for useful applications. PMID:19187561

  15. Fringe compensation displacement measurement using synthesized reference beam TV holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornis, J.; Németh, A.

    1999-08-01

    The synthesized reference beam TV holographic technique is presented in this paper. In this method synthesized reference beams are used for compensating the deformation of the investigated object. The phase fronts of the reference beams are built from phase-shifted plane waves. These phase-shifted plane waves can be used periodically, so almost any phase front can be produced. The actual phase front can be built after the measurement using recorded pictures in the computer memory. Using this technique the sensitivity of the measurement can be changed after the recording, so this feature of the method is extremely valuable in industrial measurements, where repetition of the measurement is not always an easy task. In this way the fringe density at highly deformed points can be decreased, different components of the complicated fringe pattern can be removed, and the evaluation of the fringe system can be done more easily. This method can help to determine the sign of the deformation. A set of simulations and the results of real measurements are presented.

  16. Protein immobilization onto electrochemically synthesized CoFe nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Torati, Sri Ramulu; Reddy, Venu; Yoon, Seok Soo; Kim, CheolGi

    2015-01-01

    CoFe nanowires have been synthesized by the electrodeposition technique into the pores of a polycarbonate membrane with a nominal pore diameter of 50 nm, and the composition of CoFe nanowires varying by changing the source concentration of iron. The synthesized nanowire surfaces were functionalized with amine groups by treatment with aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) linker, and then conjugated with streptavidin-Cy3 protein via ethyl (dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide coupling chemistry. The oxide surface of CoFe nanowire is easily modified with aminopropyltriethoxysilane to form an amine terminating group, which is covalently bonded to streptavidin-Cy3 protein. The physicochemical properties of the nanowires were analyzed through different characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. Fluorescence microscopic studies and Fourier transform infrared studies confirmed the immobilization of protein on the nanowire surface. In addition, the transmission electron microscope analysis reveals the thin protein layer which is around 12–15 nm on the nanowire surfaces. PMID:25609966

  17. Method of synthesized phase objects for pattern recognition: matched filtering.

    PubMed

    Yezhov, Pavel V; Kuzmenko, Alexander V; Kim, Jin-Tae; Smirnova, Tatiana N

    2012-12-31

    To solve the pattern recognition problem, a method of synthesized phase objects is suggested. The essence of the suggested method is that synthesized phase objects are used instead of real amplitude objects. The former is object-dependent phase distributions calculated using the iterative Fourier-transform (IFT) algorithm. The method is experimentally studied with a Vander Lugt optical-digital 4F-correlator. We present the comparative analysis of recognition results using conventional and proposed methods, estimate the sensitivity of the latter to distortions of the structure of objects, and determine the applicability limits. It is demonstrated that the proposed method allows one: (а) to simplify the procedure of choice of recognition signs (criteria); (b) to obtain one-type δ-like recognition signals irrespective of the type of objects; (с) to improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for correlation signals by 20 - 30 dB on average. The spatial separation of the Fourier-spectra of objects and optical noises of the correlator by means of the superposition of the phase grating on recognition objects at the recording of holographic filters and at the matched filtering has additionally improved SNR (>10 dB) for correlation signals. To introduce recognition objects in the correlator, we use a SLM LC-R 2500 device. Matched filters are recorded on a self-developing photopolymer. PMID:23388812

  18. Evolutionary selection of enzymatically synthesized semiconductors from biomimetic mineralization vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Bawazer, Lukmaan A.; Izumi, Michi; Kolodin, Dmitriy; Neilson, James R.; Schwenzer, Birgit; Morse, Daniel E.

    2012-10-29

    The way nature evolves and sculpts materials using proteins inspires new approaches to materials engineering but is still not completely understood. Here, we present a cell-free synthetic biological platform to advance studies of biologically synthesized solid-state materials. This platform is capable of simultaneously exerting many of the hierarchical levels of control found in natural biomineralization, including genetic, chemical, spatial, structural, and morphological control, while supporting the evolutionary selection of new mineralizing proteins and the corresponding genetically encoded materials that they produce. DNA-directed protein expression and enzymatic mineralization occur on polystyrene microbeads in water-in-oil emulsions, yielding synthetic surrogates of biomineralizing cells that are then screened by flow sorting, with light-scattering signals used to sort the resulting mineralized composites differentially. We demonstrate the utility of this platform by evolutionarily selecting newly identified silicateins, biomineralizing enzymes previously identified from the silica skeleton of a marine sponge, for enzyme variants capable of synthesizing silicon dioxide (silica) or titanium dioxide (titania) composites. Mineral composites of intermediate strength are preferentially selected to remain intact for identification during cell sorting, and then to collapse postsorting to expose the encoding genes for enzymatic DNA amplification. Some of the newly selected silicatein variants catalyze the formation of crystalline silicates, whereas the parent silicateins lack this ability. The demonstrated bioengineered route to previously undescribed materials introduces in vitro enzyme selection as a viable strategy for mimicking genetic evolution of materials as it occurs in nature.

  19. Magnetic properties of bio-synthesized zinc ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeary, Lucas W.; Moon, Ji-Won; Rawn, Claudia J.; Love, Lonnie J.; Rondinone, Adam J.; Thompson, James R.; Chakoumakos, Bryan C.; Phelps, Tommy J.

    2011-12-01

    The magnetic properties of zinc ferrite (Zn-substituted magnetite, ZnyFe1-yFe2O4) formed by a microbial process compared favorably with chemically synthesized materials. A metal reducing bacterium, Thermoanaerobacter, strain TOR-39 was incubated with ZnxFe1-xOOH (x=0.01, 0.1, and 0.15) precursors and produced nanoparticulate zinc ferrites. Composition and crystalline structure of the resulting zinc ferrites were verified using X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and neutron diffraction. The average composition from triplicates gave a value for y of 0.02, 0.23, and 0.30 with the greatest standard deviation of 0.02. Average crystallite sizes were determined to be 67, 49, and 25 nm, respectively. While crystallite size decreased with more Zn substitution, the lattice parameter and the unit cell volume showed a gradual increase in agreement with previous literature values. The magnetic properties were characterized using a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer and were compared with values for the saturation magnetization (Ms) reported in the literature. The averaged Ms values for the triplicates with the largest amount of zinc (y=0.30) gave values of 100.1, 96.5, and 69.7 emu/g at temperatures of 5, 80, and 300 K, respectively indicating increased magnetic properties of the bacterially synthesized zinc ferrites.

  20. Fast synthesize ZnO quantum dots via ultrasonic method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weimin; Zhang, Bing; Ding, Nan; Ding, Wenhao; Wang, Lixi; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Qitu

    2016-05-01

    Green emission ZnO quantum dots were synthesized by an ultrasonic sol-gel method. The ZnO quantum dots were synthesized in various ultrasonic temperature and time. Photoluminescence properties of these ZnO quantum dots were measured. Time-resolved photoluminescence decay spectra were also taken to discover the change of defects amount during the reaction. Both ultrasonic temperature and time could affect the type and amount of defects in ZnO quantum dots. Total defects of ZnO quantum dots decreased with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time. The dangling bonds defects disappeared faster than the optical defects. Types of optical defects first changed from oxygen interstitial defects to oxygen vacancy and zinc interstitial defects. Then transformed back to oxygen interstitial defects again. The sizes of ZnO quantum dots would be controlled by both ultrasonic temperature and time as well. That is, with the increasing of ultrasonic temperature and time, the sizes of ZnO quantum dots first decreased then increased. Moreover, concentrated raw materials solution brought larger sizes and more optical defects of ZnO quantum dots. PMID:26611814

  1. Erythropoietin is involved in hemoprotein syntheses in developing human decidua.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Mitsuru; Yasuda, Yoshiko; Shimaoka, Masao; Tsuritani, Mitsuhiro; Koike, Eiji; Oiki, Masaaki; Matsubara, Junko; Taketani, Shigeru; Murakami, Hitoshi; Yamasaki, Harufumi; Okumoto, Katsumi; Hoshiai, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    Before establishment of feto-placental circulation, decidua can synthesize hemoproteins to maintain oxygen homeostasis in situ. Using the human decidua of induced abortions ranging from 5 to 8 weeks of gestation, we determined the expression levels of erythropoietin, erythropoietin receptor, cytoglobin, myoglobin, embryonic-, fetal- and adult hemoglobin mRNA by quantitative RT-PCR analysis and identified their proteins by Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. Erythropoietin signaling was demonstrated in phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway by Western blot, and the transcriptional factors for erythroid and non-erythroid heme synthesis were examined by RT-PCR analysis. In decidua, erythropoietin and its receptor mRNAs, erythropoietin receptor protein and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, were expressed with a peak at 6 weeks of gestation. Moreover, the decidua during 5 to 8 weeks of gestation expressed embryonic, fetal and adult hemoglobins additionally cytoglobin and myoglobin at transcriptional and protein levels. The heme portion of these hemoproteins is considered to be synthesized by non-erythroid δ-aminolevulinate synthase. These hemoproteins were discernible especially in decidual cells concomitant with cytotrophoblast cells and macrophage in these developing decidua. Considering the different capacity for oxygen binding and dissociation among hemoglobins with the oxygen storage capacity for cytoglobin and myoglobin, these hemoproteins appear to play a role in oxygen demand in decidua in situ before development of feto-placental circulation under the control of erythropoietin signaling. PMID:23480354

  2. Construction of a cyanobacterium synthesizing cyclopropane fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Machida, Shuntaro; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Iwane

    2016-09-01

    Microalgae have received much attention as a next-generation source of biomass energy. However, most of the fatty acids (FAs) from microalgae are multiply unsaturated; thus, the biofuels derived from them are fluid, but vulnerable to oxidation. In this study, we attempted to synthesize cyclopropane FAs in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 by expressing the cfa gene for cyclopropane FA synthase from Escherichia coli with the aim of producing FAs that are fluid and stable in response to oxidization. We successfully synthesized cyclopropane FAs in Synechocystis with a yield of ~30% of total FAs. Growth of the transformants was altered, particularly at low temperatures, but photosynthesis and respiration were not significantly affected. C16:1(∆9) synthesis in the desA(-)/desD(-) strain by expression of the desC2 gene for sn-2 specific ∆9 desaturase positively affected growth at low temperatures via promotion of various cellular processes, with the exceptions of photosynthesis and respiration. Estimation of the apparent activities of desaturases suggested that some acyl-lipid desaturases might recognize the lipid side chain. PMID:27263419

  3. Synthesized voice approach callouts for air transport operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    A flight simulation experiment was performed to determine the effectiveness of synthesized voice approach callouts for air transport operations. Flight deck data was first collected on scheduled air carrier operations to describe existing pilot-not-flying callout procedures in the flight context and to document the types and amounts of other auditory cockpit information during different types of air carrier operations. A flight simulation scenario for a wide-body jet transport airline training simulator was developed in collaboration with a major U.S. air carrier and flown by three-man crews of qualified line pilots as part of their normally scheduled recurrent training. Each crew flew half their approaches using the experimental synthesized voice approach callout system (SYNCALL) and the other half using the company pilot-not-flying approach callout procedures (PNF). Airspeed and sink rate performance was better with the SYNCALL system than with the PNF system for non-precision approaches. For the one-engine approach, for which SYNCALL made inappropriate deviation callouts, airspeed performance was worse with SYNCALL than with PNF. Reliability of normal altitude approach callouts was comparable for PNF on the line and in the simulator and for SYNCALL in the simulator.

  4. Glial GABA, synthesized by monoamine oxidase B, mediates tonic inhibition.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Bo-Eun; Woo, Junsung; Chun, Ye-Eun; Chun, Heejung; Jo, Seonmi; Bae, Jin Young; An, Heeyoung; Min, Joo Ok; Oh, Soo-Jin; Han, Kyung-Seok; Kim, Hye Yun; Kim, Taekeun; Kim, Young Soo; Bae, Yong Chul; Lee, C Justin

    2014-11-15

    GABA is the major inhibitory transmitter in the brain and is released not only from a subset of neurons but also from glia. Although neuronal GABA is well known to be synthesized by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the source of glial GABA is unknown. After estimating the concentration of GABA in Bergmann glia to be around 5-10 mM by immunogold electron microscopy, we demonstrate that GABA production in glia requires MAOB, a key enzyme in the putrescine degradation pathway. In cultured cerebellar glia, both Ca(2+)-induced and tonic GABA release are significantly reduced by both gene silencing of MAOB and the MAOB inhibitor selegiline. In the cerebellum and striatum of adult mice, general gene silencing, knock out of MAOB or selegiline treatment resulted in elimination of tonic GABA currents recorded from granule neurons and medium spiny neurons. Glial-specific rescue of MAOB resulted in complete rescue of tonic GABA currents. Our results identify MAOB as a key synthesizing enzyme of glial GABA, which is released via bestrophin 1 (Best1) channel to mediate tonic inhibition in the brain. PMID:25239459

  5. Multifunctional Martian habitat composite material synthesized from in situ resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, S.; Carranza, S.; Pillay, S.

    2010-09-01

    The two primary requirements for a Martian habitat structure include effective radiation shielding against the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) environment and sufficient structural and thermal integrity. To significantly reduce the cost associated with transportation of such materials and structures from earth, it is imperative that such building materials should be synthesized primarily from Martian in situ resources. This paper illustrates the feasibility of such an approach. Experimental results are discussed to demonstrate the synthesis of polyethylene (PE) from a simulated Martian atmosphere and the fabrication of a composite material using simulated Martian regolith with PE as the binding material. The radiation shielding effectiveness of the proposed composites is analyzed using results from radiation transport codes and exposure of the samples to high-energy beams that serve as a terrestrial proxy for the GCR environment. Mechanical and ballistic impact resistance properties of the proposed composite as a function of composition, processing parameters, and thermal variations are also discussed to evaluate the multifunctionality of such in situ synthesized composite materials.

  6. A simple route to synthesize manganese germanate nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, L.Z. Yang, Y.; Yuan, C.Z.; Duan Taike; Zhang Qianfeng

    2011-06-15

    Manganese germanate nanorods have been synthesized by a simple route using germanium dioxide and manganese acetate as the source materials. X-ray diffraction observation shows that the nanorods are composed of orthorhombic and monoclinic manganese germanate phases. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations display that the manganese germanate nanorods have flat tips with the length of longer than 10 micrometers and diameter of 60-350 nm, respectively. The role of the growth conditions on the formation of the manganese germanate nanorods shows that the proper selection and combination of the growth conditions are the key factor for controlling the formation of the manganese germanate nanorods. The photoluminescence spectrum of the manganese germanate nanorods exhibits four fluorescence emission peaks centered at 422 nm, 472 nm, 487 nm and 530 nm showing the application potential for the optical devices. - Research Highlights: {yields} Manganese germanate nanorods have been synthesized by simple hydrothermal process. {yields} The formation of manganese germanate nanorods can be controlled by growth conditions. {yields} Manganese germanate nanorods exhibit good PL emission ability for optical device.

  7. Syntheses and characterization of amphiphilic quaternary ammonium chitosan derivatives.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Pedro, Rafael; Schmitt, Carla C; Neumann, Miguel G

    2016-08-20

    Amphiphilic chitosan derivatives possess improved physico-chemical properties and could be used as carriers in drug delivery systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the behaviour of an amphiphilic system involving (5-pentyl) trimethylammonium and dodecyl aldehyde-modified chitosan. Amphiphilic chitosan derivatives were synthesized and characterized by (1)HNMR and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Self-assembled aggregates formed in aqueous solution have hydrophobic cores that were characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy using pyrene as probe and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The critical aggregation concentration of the aggregates in water varied from 0.004 to 0.037g/L and the average size distribution was in the 230-500nm range. The ζ-potential (+15.5 to +44.8mV) confirmed that the surfaces of the aggregates were positively charged and stable in physiological-like environments. TEM images suggest that the aggregates have a spherical shape, showing good agreement with DLS results. These results suggest that the synthesized copolymers have the capability of being used as carriers for hydrophobic drugs. PMID:27178913

  8. Boron Nitride Nanotubes Synthesized by Pressurized Reactive Milling Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, Janet B.

    2004-01-01

    Nanotubes, because of their very high strength, are attractive as reinforcement materials for ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). Recently there has been considerable interest in developing and applying carbon nanotubes for both electronic and structural applications. Although carbon nanotubes can be used to reinforce composites, they oxidize at high temperatures and, therefore, may not be suitable for ceramic composites. Boron nitride, because it has a higher oxidation resistance than carbon, could be a potential reinforcement material for ceramic composites. Although boron nitride nanotubes (BNnT) are known to be structurally similar to carbon nanotubes, they have not undergone the same extensive scrutiny that carbon nanotubes have experienced in recent years. This has been due to the difficulty in synthesizing this material rather than lack of interest in the material. We expect that BNnTs will maintain the high strength of carbon nanotubes while offering superior performance for the high-temperature and/or corrosive applications of interest to NASA. At the NASA Glenn Research of preparing BN-nTs were investigated and compared. These include the arc jet process, the reactive milling process, and chemical vapor deposition. The most successful was a pressurized reactive milling process that synthesizes BN-nTs of reasonable quantities.

  9. Heterodyne frequency measurements on N2O at 5.3 and 9.0 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, J. S.; Jennings, D. A.; Hinz, A.; Murray, J. S.; Maki, A. G.

    1985-01-01

    Heterodyne frequency measurements on the 01(1)1-00(0)0 band of N2O have been made with the use of a tunable-diode laser, CO laser transfer oscillator, and a CO2 laser frequency synthesizer. A beat frequency was measured between a CO laser and tunable-diode laser whose frequency was locked to the peak of N2O absorption features. The frequency of the CO laser was simultaneously determined by neasuring the beat frequency with respect to a reference synthesized from two CO2 lasers. New rovibrational constants are given for the 01(1)1 state of N2O, which are in excellent agreement with previous results, although the band center is 4 MHz higher than in the previous measurements. A table for the line frequencies and their absolute uncertainties is given for the N2O absorption lines in the wave-number region from 1830 to 1920 kaysers. Some additional frequency measurements near the lower-frequency end of the 02(0)0-00(0)0 band have also been made with respect to a C-12)(0-18)2 laser.

  10. Time, Frequency and Physical Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellwig, Helmut; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes several developments in atomic clocks and frequency standards pointing out the feasibility and practicality in adopting a unified standard of time and frequency to replace other base standards of length, mass, and temperature. (GA)

  11. Firewater system inadvertent actuation frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, J.A.; Eide, S.A.

    1993-04-01

    This paper presents some recommended generic values for fire protection system inadvertent actuation frequencies. The frequencies are based on actual data from Department of Energy and commercial reactor plant facilities.

  12. Firewater system inadvertent actuation frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, J.A. ); Eide, S.A. )

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents some recommended generic values for fire protection system inadvertent actuation frequencies. The frequencies are based on actual data from Department of Energy and commercial reactor plant facilities.

  13. Frequency and temperature dependence of complex strontium titanate electrorheological fluids under an alternating electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yong; Zhang, Yuling; Lu, Kunquan

    1998-05-01

    The electrorheological (ER) behavior of suspensions of water-free complex strontium titanate particles, synthesized by means of a modified sol-gel technique, in silicone oil have been investigated under an ac electric field. The frequency and temperature dependence of the shear stress show that the shear stress decreases monotonically with frequency and reaches a maximum value when the temperature is around 70 °C. The ER behavior has been explained on the basis of dielectric measurements.

  14. Frequency mixer having ferromagnetic film

    DOEpatents

    Khitun, Alexander; Roshchin, Igor V.; Galatsis, Kosmas; Bao, Mingqiang; Wang, Kang L.

    2016-03-29

    A frequency conversion device, which may include a radiofrequency (RF) mixer device, includes a substrate and a ferromagnetic film disposed over a surface of the substrate. An insulator is disposed over the ferromagnetic film and at least one microstrip antenna is disposed over the insulator. The ferromagnetic film provides a non-linear response to the frequency conversion device. The frequency conversion device may be used for signal mixing and amplification. The frequency conversion device may also be used in data encryption applications.

  15. Vowel generation for children with cerebral palsy using myocontrol of a speech synthesizer

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Chuanxin M.; Lee, Kangwoo; Houde, John F.; Sanger, Terence D.

    2015-01-01

    For children with severe cerebral palsy (CP), social and emotional interactions can be significantly limited due to impaired speech motor function. However, if it is possible to extract continuous voluntary control signals from the electromyograph (EMG) of limb muscles, then EMG may be used to drive the synthesis of intelligible speech with controllable speed, intonation and articulation. We report an important first step: the feasibility of controlling a vowel synthesizer using non-speech muscles. A classic formant-based speech synthesizer is adapted to allow the lowest two formants to be controlled by surface EMG from skeletal muscles. EMG signals are filtered using a non-linear Bayesian filtering algorithm that provides the high bandwidth and accuracy required for speech tasks. The frequencies of the first two formants determine points in a 2D plane, and vowels are targets on this plane. We focus on testing the overall feasibility of producing intelligible English vowels with myocontrol using two straightforward EMG-formant mappings. More mappings can be tested in the future to optimize the intelligibility. Vowel generation was tested on 10 healthy adults and 4 patients with dyskinetic CP. Five English vowels were generated by subjects in pseudo-random order, after only 10 min of device familiarization. The fraction of vowels correctly identified by 4 naive listeners exceeded 80% for the vowels generated by healthy adults and 57% for vowels generated by patients with CP. Our goal is a continuous “virtual voice” with personalized intonation and articulation that will restore not only the intellectual content but also the social and emotional content of speech for children and adults with severe movement disorders. PMID:25657622

  16. Vowel generation for children with cerebral palsy using myocontrol of a speech synthesizer.

    PubMed

    Niu, Chuanxin M; Lee, Kangwoo; Houde, John F; Sanger, Terence D

    2014-01-01

    For children with severe cerebral palsy (CP), social and emotional interactions can be significantly limited due to impaired speech motor function. However, if it is possible to extract continuous voluntary control signals from the electromyograph (EMG) of limb muscles, then EMG may be used to drive the synthesis of intelligible speech with controllable speed, intonation and articulation. We report an important first step: the feasibility of controlling a vowel synthesizer using non-speech muscles. A classic formant-based speech synthesizer is adapted to allow the lowest two formants to be controlled by surface EMG from skeletal muscles. EMG signals are filtered using a non-linear Bayesian filtering algorithm that provides the high bandwidth and accuracy required for speech tasks. The frequencies of the first two formants determine points in a 2D plane, and vowels are targets on this plane. We focus on testing the overall feasibility of producing intelligible English vowels with myocontrol using two straightforward EMG-formant mappings. More mappings can be tested in the future to optimize the intelligibility. Vowel generation was tested on 10 healthy adults and 4 patients with dyskinetic CP. Five English vowels were generated by subjects in pseudo-random order, after only 10 min of device familiarization. The fraction of vowels correctly identified by 4 naive listeners exceeded 80% for the vowels generated by healthy adults and 57% for vowels generated by patients with CP. Our goal is a continuous "virtual voice" with personalized intonation and articulation that will restore not only the intellectual content but also the social and emotional content of speech for children and adults with severe movement disorders. PMID:25657622

  17. FREQUENCY STABILIZING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Kerns, Q.A.; Anderson, O.A.

    1960-05-01

    An electronic control circuit is described in which a first signal frequency is held in synchronization with a second varying reference signal. The circuit receives the first and second signals as inputs and produces an output signal having an amplitude dependent upon rate of phase change between the two signals and a polarity dependent on direction of the phase change. The output may thus serve as a correction signal for maintaining the desired synchronization. The response of the system is not dependent on relative phase angle between the two compared signals. By having practically no capacitance in the circuit, there is minimum delay between occurrence of a phase shift and a response in the output signal and therefore very fast synchronization is effected.

  18. Frequency mixing crystal

    DOEpatents

    Ebbers, Christopher A.; Davis, Laura E.; Webb, Mark

    1992-01-01

    In a laser system for converting infrared laser light waves to visible light comprising a source of infrared laser light waves and means of harmoic generation associated therewith for production of light waves at integral multiples of the frequency of the original wave, the improvement of said means of harmonic generation comprising a crystal having the chemical formula X.sub.2 Y(NO.sub.3).sub.5 .multidot.2 nZ.sub.2 o wherein X is selected from the group consisting of Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Tl; Y is selected from the group consisting of Sc, Y, La, Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Al, Ga, and In; Z is selected from the group consisting of H and D; and n ranges from 0 to 4.

  19. Frequency doubling crystals

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Francis; Velsko, Stephan P.

    1989-01-01

    A systematic approach to the production of frequency conversion crystals is described in which a chiral molecule has attached to it a "harmonic generating unit" which contributes to the noncentrosymmetry of the molecule. Certain preferred embodiments of such harmonic generating units include carboxylate, guanadyly and imidazolyl units. Certain preferred crystals include L-arginine fluoride, deuterated L-arginine fluoride, L-arginine chloride monohydrate, L-arginine acetate, dithallium tartrate, ammonium N-acetyl valine, N-acetyl tyrosine and N-acetyl hydroxyproline. Chemical modifications of the chiral molecule, such as deuteration, halogenation and controlled counterion substitution are available to adapt the dispersive properties of a crystal in a particular wavelength region.

  20. Flying radio frequency undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzikov, S. V.; Vikharev, A. A.; Savilov, A. V.

    2014-07-21

    A concept for the room-temperature rf undulator, designed to produce coherent X-ray radiation by means of a relatively low-energy electron beam and pulsed mm-wavelength radiation, is proposed. The “flying” undulator is a high-power short rf pulse co-propagating together with a relativistic electron bunch in a helically corrugated waveguide. The electrons wiggle in the rf field of the −1st spatial harmonic with the phase velocity directed in the opposite direction in respect to the bunch velocity, so that particles can irradiate high-frequency Compton's photons. A high group velocity (close to the speed of light) ensures long cooperative motion of the particles and the co-propagating rf pulse.

  1. Radio frequency coaxial feedthrough

    DOEpatents

    Owens, Thomas L.

    1989-01-17

    An improved radio frequency coaxial transmission line vacuum feed-through provided based on the use of a half-wavelength annular dielectric pressure barrier disk, or multiple disks comprising an effective half wavelength structure to eliminate reflections from the barrier surfaces. Gas-tight seals are formed about the outer and inner diameter surfaces of the barrier disk using a sealing technique which generates radial forces sufficient to form seals by forcing the conductor walls against the surfaces of the barrier disks in a manner which does not deform the radii of the inner and outer conductors, thereby preventing enhancement of the electric field at the barrier faces which limits voltage and power handling capabilities of a feedthrough.

  2. High frequency nanotube oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Haibing; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2012-02-21

    A tunable nanostructure such as a nanotube is used to make an electromechanical oscillator. The mechanically oscillating nanotube can be provided with inertial clamps in the form of metal beads. The metal beads serve to clamp the nanotube so that the fundamental resonance frequency is in the microwave range, i.e., greater than at least 1 GHz, and up to 4 GHz and beyond. An electric current can be run through the nanotube to cause the metal beads to move along the nanotube and changing the length of the intervening nanotube segments. The oscillator can operate at ambient temperature and in air without significant loss of resonance quality. The nanotube is can be fabricated in a semiconductor style process and the device can be provided with source, drain, and gate electrodes, which may be connected to appropriate circuitry for driving and measuring the oscillation. Novel driving and measuring circuits are also disclosed.

  3. Instantaneous Frequency Attribute Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yedlin, M. J.; Margrave, G. F.; Ben Horin, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The instantaneous seismic data attribute provides a different means of seismic interpretation, for all types of seismic data. It first came to the fore in exploration seismology in the classic paper of Taner et al (1979), entitled " Complex seismic trace analysis". Subsequently a vast literature has been accumulated on the subject, which has been given an excellent review by Barnes (1992). In this research we will compare two different methods of computation of the instantaneous frequency. The first method is based on the original idea of Taner et al (1979) and utilizes the derivative of the instantaneous phase of the analytic signal. The second method is based on the computation of the power centroid of the time-frequency spectrum, obtained using either the Gabor Transform as computed by Margrave et al (2011) or the Stockwell Transform as described by Stockwell et al (1996). We will apply both methods to exploration seismic data and the DPRK events recorded in 2006 and 2013. In applying the classical analytic signal technique, which is known to be unstable, due to the division of the square of the envelope, we will incorporate the stabilization and smoothing method proposed in the two paper of Fomel (2007). This method employs linear inverse theory regularization coupled with the application of an appropriate data smoother. The centroid method application is straightforward and is based on the very complete theoretical analysis provided in elegant fashion by Cohen (1995). While the results of the two methods are very similar, noticeable differences are seen at the data edges. This is most likely due to the edge effects of the smoothing operator in the Fomel method, which is more computationally intensive, when an optimal search of the regularization parameter is done. An advantage of the centroid method is the intrinsic smoothing of the data, which is inherent in the sliding window application used in all Short-Time Fourier Transform methods. The Fomel technique

  4. High-Frequency Gated Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berard, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    New gated oscillator generates bursts of high-frequency sine waves, square waves, and triangular waves in response to control signals. Each burst starts at zero phase, with tight tolerances on signal amplitude and frequency. Frequencies in megahertz range are made possible by using high-speed comparators and high-speed flip-flop as fast-response threshold detector.

  5. Analysis of a digital technique for frequency transposition of speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digirolamo, V.

    1985-09-01

    Frequency transposition is the process of raising or lowering the frequency content (pitch) of an audio signal. The hearing impaired community has the greatest interest in the applications of frequency transposing. Though several analog and digital frequency transposing hearing aid systems have been built and tested, this thesis investigates a possible digital processing alternative. Pole shifting, in the z-domain, of an autoregressive (all pole) model of speech was proven to be a viable theory for changing frequency content. Since linear predictive coding (LPC) techniques are used to code, analyze and synthesize speech, with the resulting LPC coefficients related to the coefficients of an equivalent autoregressive model, a linear relationship between LPC coefficients and frequency tranposition is explored. This theoretical relationship is first established using a pure sine wave and then is extended into processing speech. The resulting speech synthesis experiments failed to substantiate the conjectures of this thesis. However, future research avenues are suggested that may lead toward a viable approach to transpose speech.

  6. The total syntheses of basiliolide C, epi-basiliolide C, and protecting-group-free total syntheses of transtaganolides C and D.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Jonny R; Nelson, Hosea M; Virgil, Scott C; Stoltz, Brian M

    2014-10-17

    The total syntheses of basiliolide C and previously unreported epi-basiliolide C are achieved by an Ireland-Claisen/Diels-Alder cascade. The development of a palladium catalyzed cross-coupling of methoxy alkynyl zinc reagents allows for the protecting-group-free syntheses of transtaganolides C and D. Syntheses of transtaganolides C and D are accomplished in a single operation to generate three rings, two all-carbon quaternary centers, and four tertiary stereocenters from a monocyclic, achiral precursor. PMID:25244187

  7. Syntheses, spectral characterization, single crystal X-ray diffraction and DFT computational studies of novel thiazole derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbazhagan, R.; Sankaran, K. R.

    2013-10-01

    A novel thiazole (E)-1-((E)-2-methyl-3-phenylallylidene)-2-(4-phenylthiazole-2-yl)hydrazine 2 and its derivatives 3-8 were synthesized by cyclo condensation of (1E)-1-((E)-2-methyl-3-phenylallylidene)thiosemicarbazide 1 with substituted 2-bromoacetophenones. The synthesized thiazole derivatives were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR analyses. For compound 8 single crystals X-ray diffraction analysis and density functional theory (DFT) calculation were carried out. The compound 8 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with a = 7.4601 (3) Å, b = 5.7259 (2) Å, c = 41.0823 (13) Å, α = 90°, β = 91.715 (2)° and γ = 90°. The molecular geometrical parameters, frontier molecular orbital energies (HOMO, LUMO), their energy gap (ΔE), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis of the compounds 2 and8 have been calculated by using DFT/B3LYP with 6-311G (d, p) level. In addition, IR frequencies, 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of compound 8 were also calculated by using DFT calculations at the same level basis set. The calculated geometrical parameters, IR frequencies, 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the compound 8 were in good agreement with the observed single crystal-XRD data, IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectral values.

  8. Microwave absorption properties of BaGdxFe12-xO19 nanoparticles synthesized by wet milling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaynar, Mehmet; Ozcan, Sadan; Shah, S.

    2013-03-01

    It is a big demand to have a wide band, easy to synthesize microwave absorption materials with a high absorption ratio according to their weight. As a solution, nanoparticles are used for the couple of years because of their tunable frequencies by just changing their particle size. Most interesting nano structures for this objective are ferrites. In this work as a microwave absorber, BaFe12O19 and BaGd2Fe10O19 nanoparticles with different particles size are synthesized by the wet milling process. Their crystal structure analyzed by XRD, mean particle sizes were calculated from XRD patterns using rietveld analysis and from TEM images. Magnetic properties are analyzed by using Quantum design VSM. Microwave absorption properties are measured by using coaxial transmission method with an Agilent E5071 VNA. With the change of the last milling time from 0 to 20-hour crystalline sizes are changed from 48 nm to 13 nm. Decrease of particle size give rise to a decrease at coercivity and saturation magnetization of the samples. Change at the hysteresis loops gives a clue to the change of the microwave absorption frequency which is directly observed from the microwave measurements. Supported by TUBITAK-BIDEB 2214-Abroad Research Scholarship program.

  9. A green chemistry approach for synthesizing biocompatible gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a fascinating class of nanomaterial that can be used for a wide range of biomedical applications, including bio-imaging, lateral flow assays, environmental detection and purification, data storage, drug delivery, biomarkers, catalysis, chemical sensors, and DNA detection. Biological synthesis of nanoparticles appears to be simple, cost-effective, non-toxic, and easy to use for controlling size, shape, and stability, which is unlike the chemically synthesized nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to synthesize homogeneous AuNPs using pharmaceutically important Ganoderma spp. We developed a simple, non-toxic, and green method for water-soluble AuNP synthesis by treating gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl4) with a hot aqueous extract of the Ganoderma spp. mycelia. The formation of biologically synthesized AuNPs (bio-AuNPs) was characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the biocompatibility of as-prepared AuNPs was evaluated using a series of assays, such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, and reactive oxygen species generation (ROS) in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). The color change of the solution from yellow to reddish pink and strong surface plasmon resonance were observed at 520 nm using UV-visible spectroscopy, and that indicated the formation of AuNPs. DLS analysis revealed the size distribution of AuNPs in liquid solution, and the average size of AuNPs was 20 nm. The size and morphology of AuNPs were investigated using TEM. The biocompatibility effect of as-prepared AuNPs was investigated in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by using various concentrations of AuNPs (10 to 100 μM) for 24 h. Our findings suggest that AuNPs are non-cytotoxic and biocompatible. To the best of our knowledge

  10. A green chemistry approach for synthesizing biocompatible gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, JaeWoong; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a fascinating class of nanomaterial that can be used for a wide range of biomedical applications, including bio-imaging, lateral flow assays, environmental detection and purification, data storage, drug delivery, biomarkers, catalysis, chemical sensors, and DNA detection. Biological synthesis of nanoparticles appears to be simple, cost-effective, non-toxic, and easy to use for controlling size, shape, and stability, which is unlike the chemically synthesized nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to synthesize homogeneous AuNPs using pharmaceutically important Ganoderma spp . We developed a simple, non-toxic, and green method for water-soluble AuNP synthesis by treating gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl4) with a hot aqueous extract of the Ganoderma spp . mycelia. The formation of biologically synthesized AuNPs (bio-AuNPs) was characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the biocompatibility of as-prepared AuNPs was evaluated using a series of assays, such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, and reactive oxygen species generation (ROS) in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). The color change of the solution from yellow to reddish pink and strong surface plasmon resonance were observed at 520 nm using UV-visible spectroscopy, and that indicated the formation of AuNPs. DLS analysis revealed the size distribution of AuNPs in liquid solution, and the average size of AuNPs was 20 nm. The size and morphology of AuNPs were investigated using TEM. The biocompatibility effect of as-prepared AuNPs was investigated in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by using various concentrations of AuNPs (10 to 100 μM) for 24 h. Our findings suggest that AuNPs are non-cytotoxic and biocompatible. To the best of our knowledge

  11. A green chemistry approach for synthesizing biocompatible gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, JaeWoong; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a fascinating class of nanomaterial that can be used for a wide range of biomedical applications, including bio-imaging, lateral flow assays, environmental detection and purification, data storage, drug delivery, biomarkers, catalysis, chemical sensors, and DNA detection. Biological synthesis of nanoparticles appears to be simple, cost-effective, non-toxic, and easy to use for controlling size, shape, and stability, which is unlike the chemically synthesized nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to synthesize homogeneous AuNPs using pharmaceutically important Ganoderma spp. We developed a simple, non-toxic, and green method for water-soluble AuNP synthesis by treating gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl4) with a hot aqueous extract of the Ganoderma spp. mycelia. The formation of biologically synthesized AuNPs (bio-AuNPs) was characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the biocompatibility of as-prepared AuNPs was evaluated using a series of assays, such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, and reactive oxygen species generation (ROS) in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). The color change of the solution from yellow to reddish pink and strong surface plasmon resonance were observed at 520 nm using UV-visible spectroscopy, and that indicated the formation of AuNPs. DLS analysis revealed the size distribution of AuNPs in liquid solution, and the average size of AuNPs was 20 nm. The size and morphology of AuNPs were investigated using TEM. The biocompatibility effect of as-prepared AuNPs was investigated in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by using various concentrations of AuNPs (10 to 100 μM) for 24 h. Our findings suggest that AuNPs are non-cytotoxic and biocompatible. To the best of our knowledge

  12. Using singlet oxygen to synthesize polyoxygenated natural products from furans.

    PubMed

    Montagnon, Tamsyn; Tofi, Maria; Vassilikogiannakis, Georgios

    2008-08-01

    [Reaction: see text]. Singlet oxygen is a powerful tool in the armament of the synthetic organic chemist and possibly in that of nature itself. In this Account, we illustrate a small selection of the many ways singlet oxygen can be harnessed in the laboratory to aid in the construction of the complex molecular motifs found in natural products. A more philosophical question is also addressed: namely, how much do singlet oxygen oxidations influence the biogenesis of these natural products? All the synthetic examples surveyed in this Account can be characterized as belonging to the same class because they all involve the oxidation of a substituted furan nucleus by singlet oxygen. Readily accessible and relatively simple furans can be transformed into a host of complex motifs present in a diverse range of natural products by the action of singlet-oxygen-mediated reaction sequences. These reactions are highly advantageous because they frequently deliver a rapid and dramatic increase in molecular complexity in high yield. Furthermore, an unusually wide structural diversity is exhibited by the molecular motifs obtained from these reaction sequences. For example, relatively minor modifications to the starting substrate and to the reaction conditions may lead to products as variable as spiroketal lactones, 3-keto-tetrahydrofurans, various types of bis-spiroketals, 4-hydroxy cyclopentenones, or spiroperoxylactones. In addition, two more specialized examples are discussed in this Account. The core of the prunolide molecules and the chinensine family of natural products were rapidly synthesized using effective and short singlet oxygen mediated strategies; this adds weight to the assertion that singlet oxygen is a very effective moderator of complex cascade reaction sequences. We also show how our synthetic investigations have provided evidence that these same strategies might be used in the biogenesis of these molecules. In the cases of the chinensines and the

  13. Frequency sensitivity for video compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Guiwon; Lee, Jonghwa; Lee, Chulhee

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the frequency sensitivity of the human visual system, which reacts differently at different frequencies in video coding. Based on this observation, we used different quantization steps for different frequency components in order to explore the possibility of improving coding efficiency while maintaining perceptual video quality. In other words, small quantization steps were used for sensitive frequency components while large quantization steps were used for less sensitive frequency components. We performed subjective testing to examine the perceptual video quality of video sequences encoded by the proposed method. The experimental results showed that a reduction in bitrate is possible without causing a decrease in perceptual video quality.

  14. Frequency-bin entangled photons

    SciTech Connect

    Olislager, L.; Emplit, P.; Nguyen, A. T.; Massar, S.; Merolla, J.-M.; Huy, K. Phan

    2010-07-15

    A monochromatic laser pumping a parametric down-conversion crystal generates frequency-entangled photon pairs. We study this experimentally by addressing such frequency-entangled photons at telecommunication wavelengths (around 1550 nm) with fiber-optics components such as electro-optic phase modulators and narrow-band frequency filters. The theory underlying our approach uses the notion of frequency-bin entanglement. Our results show that the phase modulators address coherently up to eleven frequency bins, leading to an interference pattern which can violate by more than five standard deviations a Bell inequality adapted to our setup.

  15. ADVANCES IN GREEN CHEMISTRY: CHEMICAL SYNTHESES USING MICROWAVE IRRADIATION, ISBN 81-901238-5-8

    EPA Science Inventory

    16. Abstract Advances in Green Chemistry: Chemical Syntheses Using Microwave Irradiation
    Microwave-accelerated chemical syntheses in solvents as well as under solvent-free conditions have witnessed an explosive growth. The technique has found widespread application predomi...

  16. SPPS Resins Impact the PNA-Syntheses' Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Pipkorn, Rüdiger; Rawer, Stephan; Wiessler, Manfred; Waldeck, Waldemar; Koch, Mario; Schrenk, Hans Hermann; Braun, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The personalized medicine, also documented as “individualized medicine”, is an effective and therapeutic approach. It is designed to treat the disease of the individual patient whose precise differential gene expression profile is well known. The trend in the biomedical and biophysical research shows important consequences for the pharmaceutical drug and diagnostics research. It requires a high variability in the design and safety of target-specific pharmacologically active molecules and diagnostic components for imaging of metabolic processes. A key technology which may fulfill the highest demands during synthesis of these individual drugs and diagnostics is the solid phase synthesis which is congenial to automated manufacturing. Additionally the choice of tools like resins and reagents is pivotal to synthesize drugs and diagnostics in high quality and yields. Here we demonstrate the solid phase synthesis effects dependent on the choice of resin and of the deprotection agent. PMID:23423830

  17. Nanosized hydroxyapatite powder synthesized from eggshell and phosphoric acid.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Jin; Yoon, Young-Soo; Lee, Myung-Hyun; Oh, Nam-Sik

    2007-11-01

    The present research describes synthesis of highly sinterable, nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HAp) powders using a wet chemical route with recycled eggshell and phosphoric acid as calcium and phosphorous sources. The raw eggshell was easily turned to CaO by the calcining process, and phosphoric acid was mixed with the calcined eggshell by the wet, ball-milling method. The crystalline development and microstructures of the synthesized powders and sintered samples were examined by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The observed phases on the powder synthesis process were dependent on the mixing ratio (wt%) of the calcined eggshell to phosphoric acid and the heating temperature. The ball-milled, nano-sized HAp powder, which has an average particle size of 70 nm, was fully densified at 1300 degrees C for 1h. The Ca/P ratio for stoichiometric composition of HAp was controlled by adjustment of the mixing ratio. PMID:18047119

  18. Retrospective dosimetry using synthesized nano-structure hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Ziaie, F; Hajiloo, N; Alipour, A; Amraei, R; Mehtieva, S I

    2011-06-01

    Micro and nano-structure hydroxyapatite samples were synthesized via several different methods. The samples were characterised utilising the Fourier transmission infra-red, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction methods, to find out the structure most similar to human tooth enamel, and the best method was found. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signals of the gamma-irradiated samples were measured using an EPR spectrometer system. A calibration curve was established by irradiation of the samples at four doses of 50-500 mGy. The parameters of the calibration curve, slope and intercept with dose axis are determined by linear regression analysis. This calibration curve can be used for human tooth enamel for retrospective dosimetry purposes. PMID:21131666

  19. Horizontal axis wind turbine post stall airfoil characteristics synthesization

    SciTech Connect

    Tangler, J.L. . Wind Energy Research Center); Ostowari, C. )

    1991-06-01

    Blade-element/momentum performance prediction codes are routinely used for wind turbine design and analysis. A weakness of these codes is their inability to consistently predict peak power upon which the machine structural design and cost are strongly dependent. The purpose of this study was to compare post-stall airfoil characteristics synthesization theory to a systematically acquired wind tunnel data set in which the effects of aspect ratio, airfoil thickness, and Reynolds number were investigated. The results of this comparison identified discrepancies between current theory and the wind tunnel data which could not be resolved. Other factors not previously investigated may account for these discrepancies and have a significant effect on peak power prediction. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Shape dependent heat transport through green synthesized gold nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Jisha; Thomas, Lincy; Kumar, B. Rajesh; Kurian, Achamma; George, Sajan D.

    2015-08-01

    Nanofluids hold promise as a more efficient coolant for thermoelectric devices. Despite the capability of tailoring the thermo physical properties of nanofluids, by tuning the particle parameters such as shape, size and concentration, the toxicity of chemicals used for the preparation of nanoparticles is a serious concern. Green synthesis of nanoparticles is emerging as an alternative to the conventional chemical and physical methods for the preparation of nanoparticles. In this work, the results of the preparation of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts as reducing agents are presented. The green synthesis route employed for the present study provides particles of similar size, but the shape of the particles is found to vary depending upon the source of the natural reducing agents. The thermal diffusivity values of the gold nanofluid measured using laser based dual beam thermal lens technique elucidate the role of shape and concentration of the green synthesized nanoparticles on the effective thermal diffusivity values of the nanofluids.