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Sample records for liguria region italy

  1. Efficacy of safety catheter devices in the prevention of occupational needlestick injuries: applied research in the Liguria Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Sossai, D; Di Guardo, M; Foscoli, R; Pezzi, R; Polimeni, A; Ruzza, L; Miele, M; Ottaggio, L; Fontana, V; Copello, F; Dellacà, P; Doria, M; Onesti, A; Montecucco, G; Risso, F; Nelli, M; Benvenuti, I; Santacroce, M; Giribaldi, L; Picelli, G; Simonini, S; Venturini, P

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare workers who use or may be exposed to needles are at risk of needlestick injuries, which can lead to serious infections by bloodborne pathogens. These injuries can be avoided by eliminating the unnecessary use of needles and using safety devices. The present study was aimed at evaluating the impact of a safety-engineered device, with passive fully automatic needlestick protection, on the rate of needlestick injuries among healthcare workers. The setting of the study was a network of five public healthcare institutions situated in a Northern Italian Region. Data on the type of device, the number of employees and the number of catheter devices used per year were collected through regular meetings with healthcare workers over a period of five years. The most notable result of this study was the huge risk reduction associated with safety devices. Indeed, the risk of needlestick injuries due to conventional devices was found to be 25-fold higher than that observed for safety devices. However, it is noteworthy that a considerable part of this excess can be explained by the different background number of devices used. Moreover, descriptive analysis suggested that individuals with a poor/moderate training level had a lower risk than those with good/high training, though the difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, there is convincing evidence of a causal connection between the introduction of safety devices and the reduction in needlestick injuries. This consideration should prompt the introduction of safety devices into daily clinical practice. PMID:27582628

  2. The occurrence of taeniids of wolves in Liguria (northern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Francesca; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Milanesi, Pietro; Serafini, Matteo; Magi, Marta; Deplazes, Peter; Macchioni, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Canids are definitive hosts of Taenia and Echinococcus species, which infect a variety of mammals as intermediate or accidental hosts including humans. Parasite transmission is based on domestic, semi-domestic and wildlife cycles; however, little is known of the epidemiological significance of wild large definitive hosts such as the wolf. In this study, 179 scats of wolves (Canis lupus italicus) collected throughout the Italian region of Liguria were analyzed for the detection of taeniid infection. Taeniid egg isolation was performed using a sieving/flotation technique, and the species level was identified by PCR (gene target: 12S rRNA and nad 1) followed by sequence analyses. Based on sequence homologies of ≥99%, Taenia hydatigena was identified in 19.6%, Taenia krabbei in 4.5%, Taenia ovis in 2.2%, Taenia crassiceps in 0.6%, Hydatigera taeniaeformis in 0.6% and Echinococcus granulosus in 5.6% of the samples. According to these results, Canis lupus italicus can be considered as involved in the wild (including cervids and rodents) and semi-domestic cycles (including sheep and goats) of taeniids in this area. PMID:26042204

  3. Analysis of climate and topographic effect on wildfire regime in Liguria, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorucci, Paolo; Biondi, Guido; Campo, Lorenzo; D'Andrea, Mirko; Degli Esposti, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    Wildfire risk is particularly significant in Italy, both in summer and winter season due to the high topographic and vegetation heterogeneity of the territory. Liguria is one of the few regions in Italy affected by wildfires both in summer and winter. Most of the fires in Italy occur in summer season and the burned area is largely greater than in winter season. In Liguria, the number of wildfires and the burned area is higher in winter than in summer. Winter fire regime is mainly due to frequent extremely dry winds from the north in condition of curing for most of the herbaceous species. Southern and central regions and the large islands are characterized by a severe summer fire regime, because of the higher temperatures and prolonged lack of precipitation. The threat of wildfires in Italy is not confined to wooded areas as they extend to agricultural areas and urban-forest interface areas. In view of the limited availability of fire risk management resources, most of which are used in the management of national and regional air services, it is necessary to precisely identify the areas most vulnerable to fire risk. The few resources available can thus be used on a yearly basis to mitigate problems in the areas at highest risk by defining a program of forest management interventions. The availability of a mapping of fire perimeters spans almost 20 years (1996-2013), and this, combined with a detailed knowledge of topography, climate and land cover allowed to understand which are the main features involved in forest fire occurrences and their behavior. The seasonality of the fire regime was also considered, partitioning the analysis in two macro season (November-April and May- October). Total precipitation and average air temperature obtained from the interpolation of 30 years-long time series from 164 raingauges and 127 thermometers series were considered. The analysis was based on a recursive-quantiles subdivision of the territory in classes based on the different

  4. The role of the sea on the flash floods events over Liguria (northwestern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassola, F.; Ferrari, F.; Mazzino, A.; Miglietta, M. M.

    2016-04-01

    The sensitivity to sea surface temperature (SST) of small-scale, flood-causing convective systems in Mediterranean coastal areas is analyzed by means of mesoscale numerical simulations. Two different SST initializations are considered: a coarse field provided by a global atmospheric model and a high-resolution multisatellite analysis. Quantitative precipitation forecasts are evaluated for a number of recent severe rainfall episodes in Liguria (northwestern Italy). In several cases, using a higher-resolution SST leads to more realistic precipitation estimates in the forecasting range 36-48 h. In the shorter range, the satellite SST has a limited, or even negative, impact, due to the relatively slow adjustment of initial atmospheric fields. In one case, the satellite SST is beneficial for the only run forced with accurate large-scale initial conditions. The results of this work suggest that a potentially significant improvement in severe precipitation forecasting in the Mediterranean could be achieved using realistic small-scale SST fields.

  5. Human-induced landscape changes and geo-hydrological risk: the Rupinaro catchment, Liguria, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giostrella, Paola; Faccini, Francesco; Maggi, Roberto; Cesare Mondini, Alessandro; Tarolli, Paolo; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    Small and steep watersheds are typical of Liguria, northern Italy. In these small watersheds, geo-hydrological hazards, including flash floods and shallow landslides, caused by high intensity rainfall are frequent and abundant. In the coastal valleys of Liguria, narrow flood plains have hosted human settlements and communication lines since the protohistoric period. Since then, a variety of human activities have modified the natural landscape significantly, and chiefly through land-use changes first in the flood-plains, and next along the slopes. We have studied the 11-square km Rupinaro catchment, west of Chiavari, which has been inhabited since the 8th century BC. Progressive human actions have modified the main river and its tributaries, which have become narrower and canalized, and locally they were covered completely. Human actions have also contributed to the increase in the runoff coefficients, and to the progradation of the main river into the Ligurian Sea. Demographic growth, socio-economic development and urbanization are the main drivers for the land use changes occurred in the Rupinaro catchment. Through a combined analysis of archaeological and palynologycal data, and the multi-temporal analysis of historical maps, aerial photographs and satellite imagery of different vintages, we have reconstructed phases of modifications of the river and the tributaries. We determined the land use changes calculating the loss of soil, analyzing statistics of buildings and demography for the last 150 years, and interpreting historical maps and aerial and satellite imagery. We found that land reclamations, the construction of embankments, and the rectification of rivers are the main human actions performed to obtain building areas along the main river course. Expansion of urban settlements in flood prone areas, and even in the main riverbed, have reached a critical limit has shown by the destructive flood event that has affected the Rupinaro catchment, and chiefly the

  6. Anaphylaxis: a one-year survey on Medical Emergency Service in Liguria (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ruffoni, S; Furgani, A; Schiavetti, I; Ciprandi, G

    2015-05-01

    Anaphylaxis is a severe, life-threatening, generalized or systemic hypersensitivity reaction. The diagnosis is mainly based on clinical ground. This study aimed at evaluating the records of phone calls and medical visits for anaphylaxis occurred in Region Liguria during 2013. The phone call is managed in each headquarter, and classified according to a level of care intensity and a presumed level of criticality, according to established criteria. Criticality is then re-evaluated (detected criticality) at the end of medical visit, following the same score adding the black code defining died patients. Most of the phone calls (553) to the MES were recorded in summer (37.4%). Anaphylaxis was confirmed in about half of patients. There was a fair agreement between presumed and detected criticality (k=0.322, p<0.001). In addition, 530 patients (95.8%) were transported to Emergency Room. In conclusion, the present study shows that anaphylaxis represents a serious and relevant medical problem in the general population at any age, and should always be carefully managed. PMID:25951146

  7. The influence of the maintenance of terraced areas on slope stability during the November 2014 flood event in Liguria (northwestern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordan, Daniele; Poggi, Flavio; Baldo, Marco; Cignetti, Martina

    2016-04-01

    Terraced environments are a widespread feature of the coastal settlement of eastern Liguria (northwestern Italy) and they constitute a well-known favorable role in slope stability. In this region, starting from the twentieth century, the progressive abandonment of agriculture determines a progressively increasing lack of maintenance of the terraces, consequently raising the level of slope instability. Moreover, it should be taken into account not only the level of terraces maintenance, but also their interaction with several factors as i) geological and geomorphological conditions, ii) soil properties, iii) hydrological and hydrogeological conditions, and iv) land use, causing an increase in landslides occurrence. The definition of managed terraces effects on slope stability and their response to external stress like a flood event is rather complicated; a possible approach is a statistical analysis of the effects of a flood event over a large terraced area, distinguishing the maintained sectors from the abandoned ones. After the November 2014 flood event, which affected several sectors of the Liguria region, where a high number of shallow landslides were triggered, an airborne LiDAR survey of the damaged area was carried out. In particular, a high resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM) resampled to a lower density (1 square meter grid spacing) and a photogrammetric coverage of the area was performed, in order to create a landslide map of the flood event. The surveyed area covered more than 380 square kilometers, and over 1600 shallow landslides triggered by the flood event were identified and inventoried. The high resolution DTM allowed the identification of terraced areas also in wooded sectors and a sharp mapping of the extension of terraced slopes in this portion of Liguria region. By considering: i) the terraced areas recognized through DTM analysis, ii) the mapped landslides, and iii) the land use classification, a correlation between the presence of terraces

  8. What if the 25 October 2011 event that struck Cinque Terre (Liguria) had happened in Genoa, Italy? Flooding scenarios, hazard mapping and damage estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestro, Francesco; Rebora, Nicola; Rossi, Lauro; Dolia, Daniele; Gabellani, Simone; Pignone, Flavio; Trasforini, Eva; Rudari, Roberto; De Angeli, Silvia; Masciulli, Cristiano

    2016-08-01

    During the autumn of 2011 two catastrophic, very intense rainfall events affected two different parts of the Liguria Region of Italy causing various flash floods. The first occurred in October and the second at the beginning of November. Both the events were characterized by very high rainfall intensities (> 100 mm h-1) that persisted on a small portion of territory causing local huge rainfall accumulations (> 400 mm 6 h-1). Two main considerations were made in order to set up this work. The first consideration is that various studies demonstrated that the two events had a similar genesis and similar triggering elements. The second very evident and coarse concern is that two main elements are needed to have a flash flood: a very intense and localized rainfall event and a catchment (or a group of catchments) to be affected. Starting from these assumptions we did the exercise of mixing the two flash flood ingredients by putting the rainfall field of the first event on the main catchment struck by the second event, which has its mouth in the biggest city of the Liguria Region: Genoa. A complete framework was set up to quantitatively carry out a "what if" experiment with the aim of evaluating the possible damages associated with this event. A probabilistic rainfall downscaling model was used to generate possible rainfall scenarios maintaining the main characteristics of the observed rainfall fields while a hydrological model transformed these rainfall scenarios in streamflow scenarios. A subset of streamflow scenarios is then used as input to a 2-D hydraulic model to estimate the hazard maps, and finally a proper methodology is applied for damage estimation. This leads to the estimation of the potential economic losses and of the risk level for the people that stay in the affected area. The results are interesting, surprising and in a way worrying: a rare but not impossible event (it occurred about 50 km away from Genoa) would have caused huge damages estimated between

  9. Crop changes from the XVI century to the present in a hill/mountain area of eastern Liguria (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Gentili, Rodolfo; Gentili, Elio; Sgorbati, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronological information on the composition and structure of agrocenoses and detailed features of land cover referring to specific areas are uncommon in ethnobotanical studies, especially for periods before the XIX century. The aim of this study was to analyse the type of crop or the characteristics of soil cover from the XVI century to the present. Methods This diachronic analysis was accomplished through archival research on the inventories of the Parish of St. Mary and those of the Municipality of Pignone and from recent surveys conducted in an area of eastern Liguria (Italy). Results Archival data revealed that in study area the primary means of subsistence during the last five centuries, until the first half of the XX century, was chestnuts. In the XVIII and XIX centuries, crop diversification strongly increased in comparison with previous and subsequent periods. In more recent times, the abandonment of agricultural practices has favoured the re-colonisation of mixed woodland or cluster-pine woodland. Conclusion Ancient documents in the ecclesiastic or municipal inventories can be a very useful tool for enhancing the knowledge of agricultural practice, as well as of subsistence methods favoured by local populations during a particular time and for reconstructing land use change over time. PMID:19361339

  10. Landslide hazard assessment : LIFE+IMAGINE project methodology and Liguria region use case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spizzichino, Daniele; Campo, Valentina; Congi, Maria Pia; Cipolloni, Carlo; Delmonaco, Giuseppe; Guerrieri, Luca; Iadanza, Carla; Leoni, Gabriele; Trigila, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Scope of the work is to present a methodology developed for analysis of potential impacts in areas prone to landslide hazard in the framework of the EC project LIFE+IMAGINE. The project aims to implement a web services-based infrastructure addressed to environmental analysis, that integrates, in its own architecture, specifications and results from INSPIRE, SEIS and GMES. Existing web services has been customized to provide functionalities for supporting environmental integrated management. The implemented infrastructure has been applied to landslide risk scenarios, developed in selected pilot areas, aiming at: i) application of standard procedures to implement a landslide risk analysis; ii) definition of a procedure for assessment of potential environmental impacts, based on a set of indicators to estimate the different exposed elements with their specific vulnerability in the pilot area. The landslide pilot and related scenario are focused at providing a simplified Landslide Risk Assessment (LRA) through: 1) a landslide inventory derived from available historical and recent databases and maps; 2) landslide susceptibility and hazard maps; 3) assessment of exposure and vulnerability on selected typologies of elements at risk; 4) implementation of a landslide risk scenario for different sets of exposed elements 5) development of a use case; 6) definition of guidelines, best practices and production of thematic maps. The LRA has been implemented in Liguria region, Italy, in two different catchment areas located in the Cinque Terre National Park, characterized by a high landslide susceptibility and low resilience. The landslide risk impact analysis has been calibrated taking into account the socio-economic damage caused by landslides triggered by the October 2011 meteorological event. During this event, over 600 landslides were triggered in the selected pilot area. Most of landslides affected the diffuse system of anthropogenic terraces and caused the direct

  11. Maintenance and recovery of agricultural terraces to reduce geo-hydrological hazards: the Santa Giulia in Centaura (Liguria, Italy) and Valstagna (Veneto, Italy) case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giostrella, Paola; Ferrarese, Francesco; Faccini, Francesco; Brandolini, Pierluigi; Lazzeri, Riccardo; Melillo, Massimo; Mozzi, Paolo; Varotto, Mauro; Tarolli, Paolo; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    Throughout the World, men have built terraced landscapes to gain ground suitable for cultivation in steep terrain. Beyond the historical and cultural importance of terraced slopes, terraces have played an important role for soil conservation and water management. In many areas, their abandonment has led to more frequent and/or abundant geo-hydrological hazards. We analyse two terraced areas in northern Italy, including (i) the Valstagna prealpine terraces (Veneto) where the Republic of Venice initiated the cultivation of tobacco in 1600, and (ii) the coastal terraces of Santa Giulia di Centaura (Liguria) where terraces host vineyards and olive groves since 2000 years. Using a combination of direct and indirect mapping methods and tools, including LiDAR topographic surveys, the visual interpretation of aerial photographs and the analysis of historical maps, we performed a systematic mapping of the terraces. Using the available maps, we determined statistics for the width, height and extent of stonewalls and we evaluated the historical evolution of the terraces for the past 50 years, considering changes in land use, the expansion of forest, and the changes in the precipitation regime. Finally, through a preliminary cost-benefit analysis, we propose good practices to help the recovery of the terraces in the two study areas.

  12. Groundwater vulnerability to climate variability: modelling experience and field observations in the lower Magra Valley (Liguria, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menichini, Matia; Doveri, Marco; El Mansoury, Bouabid; El Mezouary, Lhoussaine; Lelli, Matteo; Raco, Brunella; Scozzari, Andrea; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The aquifer of the Lower Magra Valley (SE Liguria, Italy) extends in a flat plain, where two main rivers (Magra and Vara) flow. These rivers are characterized by a wide variation of water level and water chemical composition (TDS, Cl and SO4) due to the combination of rainfall regime and the presence of thermal springs in the inner part of the catchment area. Groundwater flow is apparently controlled by stream water infiltration, which affects both water levels and water quality. In particular, the wide range of variation of some particular chemical species in the stream water influences the groundwater chemistry on a seasonal basis. In the area of interest, there is an important well-field, which supplies most of the drinking water to the nearby city of La Spezia. In this context, the groundwater system is exposed to a high degree of vulnerability, both in terms of quality and quantity. This study is aimed to develop a predictive flow and transport model in order to assess the vulnerability s.l. of the Magra Valley aquifer system and to evaluate its behaviour in awaited climate scenarios. A flow and transport model was developed by using MODFLOW and MT3DMS codes, and it's been calibrated in both steady state and transient conditions. The model confirmed the importance of the Magra river in the water balance and chemical composition of the extracted groundwater. In addition, a data-driven modelling approach was applied in order to determine boundary conditions (e.g. rivers and constant head or general head boundaries) of the physical model under hypothetic future climate scenarios. For this purpose, fully synthetic datasets have been generated as a training set of the data-driven scheme, with input variables inspired by selected climate models and input/output relationships estimated by past observations. An experimental run of the flow-transport model for 30 years ahead was performed, based on such hypothetic scenarios. This approach highlighted how the

  13. Geohydrological hazards and urban development in the Mediterranean area: an example from Genoa (Liguria, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccini, F.; Luino, F.; Sacchini, A.; Turconi, L.; De Graff, J. V.

    2015-12-01

    The metropolitan area and the city of Genoa has become a national and international case study for geohydrological risk, mainly due to the frequency of floods. In 2014, there were landslides again, as well as flash floods that have particularly caused casualties and economic damage. The weather features of the Gulf of Genoa and the geomorphological-environmental setting of the Ligurian coastal land are the predisposing factors that determine heavy rains and their resulting effects on the ground. This study analysed the characteristics of the main meteorological disasters that have hit Genoa since the start of the 20th century; changes in the rainfall regime are evaluated and the main stages of urbanization of the area are detailed, with the resulting changes to the drainage network, in order to identify the main causes of this high geohydrological risk. To this end, scientists have used climate data recorded at the station of Genoa University, in operation since 1833, and at Ponte Carrega station, located in the middle reach of the Bisagno stream, a well-known watercourse because of its frequent floods. Urban sprawl was evaluated through a multi-temporal mapping comparison, using maps available from the beginning of the 19th century up to the current regional technical maps. The average air temperature in Genoa shows a statistically significant increase, while the number of rainy days displays an equally clear decrease over time. The total annual rain value does not seem to indicate rather noticeable changes. The intensity of rain in Genoa expressed as rainfall rate, i.e.~the ratio of annual rainfall and number of rainy days, shows statistically significant growth. The geohydrological vulnerability in Genoa has increased over time due to urban development which has established modifications in land use, from agricultural to urban, especially in the valley floor. Waterways have been confined and reduced to artificial channels, often covered in their final stretch

  14. Sensitivity analysis of seismic hazard for Western Liguria (North Western Italy): A first attempt towards the understanding and quantification of hazard uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barani, Simone; Spallarossa, Daniele; Bazzurro, Paolo; Eva, Claudio

    2007-05-01

    The use of logic trees in probabilistic seismic hazard analyses often involves a large number of branches that reflect the uncertainty in the selection of different models and in the selection of the parameter values of each model. The sensitivity analysis, as proposed by Rabinowitz and Steinberg [Rabinowitz, N., Steinberg, D.M., 1991. Seismic hazard sensitivity analysis: a multi-parameter approach. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 81, 796-817], is an efficient tool that allows the construction of logic trees focusing attention on the parameters that have greater impact on the hazard. In this paper the sensitivity analysis is performed in order to identify the parameters that have the largest influence on the Western Liguria (North Western Italy) seismic hazard. The analysis is conducted for six strategic sites following the multi-parameter approach developed by Rabinowitz and Steinberg [Rabinowitz, N., Steinberg, D.M., 1991. Seismic hazard sensitivity analysis: a multi-parameter approach. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 81, 796-817] and accounts for both mean hazard values and hazard values corresponding to different percentiles (e.g., 16%-ile and 84%-ile). The results are assessed in terms of the expected PGA with a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years for rock conditions and account for both the contribution from specific source zones using the Cornell approach [Cornell, C.A., 1968. Engineering seismic risk analysis. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 58, 1583-1606] and the spatially smoothed seismicity [Frankel, A., 1995. Mapping seismic hazard in the Central and Eastern United States. Seismol. Res. Lett. 66, 8-21]. The influence of different procedures for calculating seismic hazard, seismic catalogues (epicentral parameters), source zone models, frequency-magnitude parameters, maximum earthquake magnitude values and attenuation relationships is considered. As a result, the sensitivity analysis allows us to identify the parameters with higher influence on the hazard. Only these

  15. The Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Dynamics of Influenza B Virus in Two Italian Regions during 2010-2015: The Experience of Sicily and Liguria.

    PubMed

    Tramuto, Fabio; Orsi, Andrea; Maida, Carmelo Massimo; Costantino, Claudio; Trucchi, Cecilia; Alicino, Cristiano; Vitale, Francesco; Ansaldi, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology of influenza B virus remained poorly studied in Italy, despite representing a major contributor to seasonal epidemics. This study aimed to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity of the hemagglutinin gene sequences of 197 influenza B strains circulating in both Southern (Sicily) and Northern (Liguria) Italy between 2010 and 2015. Upper respiratory tract specimens of patients displaying symptoms of influenza-like illness were screened by real-time RT-PCR assay for the presence of influenza B virus. PCR-positive influenza B samples were further analyzed by sequencing. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees were constructed and the amino-acid alignments were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed clusters in B/Victoria clade 1A/1B (n = 29, 14.7%), and B/Yamagata clades 2 (n = 112, 56.8%) and 3 (n = 56, 28.4%). Both influenza B lineages were found to co-circulate during the study period, although a lineage swap from B/Victoria to B/Yamagata occurred in Italy between January 2011 and January 2013. The most represented amino-acid substitutions were N116K in the 120-loop (83.9% of B/Yamagata clade 3 strains) and I146V in the 150-loop (89.6% of B/Victoria clade 1 strains). D197N in 190-helix was found in almost all viruses collected. Our findings provide further evidence to support the adoption of quadrivalent influenza vaccines in our country. PMID:27089319

  16. The Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Dynamics of Influenza B Virus in Two Italian Regions during 2010–2015: The Experience of Sicily and Liguria

    PubMed Central

    Tramuto, Fabio; Orsi, Andrea; Maida, Carmelo Massimo; Costantino, Claudio; Trucchi, Cecilia; Alicino, Cristiano; Vitale, Francesco; Ansaldi, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology of influenza B virus remained poorly studied in Italy, despite representing a major contributor to seasonal epidemics. This study aimed to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity of the hemagglutinin gene sequences of 197 influenza B strains circulating in both Southern (Sicily) and Northern (Liguria) Italy between 2010 and 2015. Upper respiratory tract specimens of patients displaying symptoms of influenza-like illness were screened by real-time RT-PCR assay for the presence of influenza B virus. PCR-positive influenza B samples were further analyzed by sequencing. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees were constructed and the amino-acid alignments were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed clusters in B/Victoria clade 1A/1B (n = 29, 14.7%), and B/Yamagata clades 2 (n = 112, 56.8%) and 3 (n = 56, 28.4%). Both influenza B lineages were found to co-circulate during the study period, although a lineage swap from B/Victoria to B/Yamagata occurred in Italy between January 2011 and January 2013. The most represented amino-acid substitutions were N116K in the 120-loop (83.9% of B/Yamagata clade 3 strains) and I146V in the 150-loop (89.6% of B/Victoria clade 1 strains). D197N in 190-helix was found in almost all viruses collected. Our findings provide further evidence to support the adoption of quadrivalent influenza vaccines in our country. PMID:27089319

  17. Active Ageing and Active Citizenship in Liguria: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palumbo, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Liguria has the oldest age structure in Europe because of a low birth rate and long lifespans and therefore is a very interesting laboratory region in which to experiment with active ageing policies. The generations that are now approaching retirement hold a high level of personal and professional resources; so the "new" elderly people…

  18. Effect of temperature on the release and remobilization of ecotoxic elements in AMD colloidal precipitates: the example of the Libiola copper mine, Liguria, (Italy).

    PubMed

    Consani, S; Carbone, C; Salviulo, G; Zorzi, F; Dinelli, E; Botter, R; Nodari, L; Badocco, D; Lucchetti, G

    2016-07-01

    Due to their characteristics, colloidal particles are able to control the dispersion of many organic and inorganic pollutants in soils and streams. Colloidal precipitates generated by acid mine drainage (AMD) process are usually amorphous or nanocrystalline materials, and their stability plays a crucial role in controlling the fate of metals released by sulphide oxydation. This paper describes a study of elements release (Fe, Al, Mn, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, S, Zn) due to desorption or destabilization of three different colloidal precipitates, two ochreous and a greenish-blue precipitate, sampled at the Libiola mine site (northwest Italy). The samples were heated at high temperature in order to verify this treatment as inertization process. At room temperature, the most easily extracted element was S (with released percentages from 8.39 to 29.17 %), but considerable amounts of Cu, Zn and Mn (up to 16.6, 610.6 and 595.6 mg/kg, respectively) were also observed in the leachates for greenish-blue precipitates. The highest release of elements (S > Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd > Co, Ni > Al, Fe, Cr), with minor differences depending on the mineralogical composition of the samples, was observed for heat-treated samples obtained through moderate heating and mainly formed by anhydrous phases. Samples treated at high temperature had the lowest release, with only Cu showing a significant concentration in the leachate of greenish-blue precipitates. The results showed that dissolution/desorption is limited from ochreous natural colloidal precipitates occurring at the Libiola mine site but also that high amounts of some metals can be remobilized from greenish-blue precipitates. The destabilization of all percipitates through dehydratation-dehydroxylation can further remobilize important amounts of ecotoxic elements. Heat treatment at high temperature could be a definitive, although expensive, way to fix heavy metals in the solid fraction, preventing their dispersion in the surrounding

  19. High-resolution analysis of 1 day extreme precipitation in a wet area centred over eastern Liguria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolini, Andrea; Brunetti, Michele; Maugeri, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    The north of Tuscany and eastern Liguria have experienced several exceptional precipitation episodes and floods during the last century, with serious damage to human life and the environment. In recent years, the damage related to these extreme events appears to increase. In this context, we perform a detailed investigation of observed 1-day precipitation extremes and their frequency distribution, based on a dense data set of high-quality, homogenized station records in 1951-2010. Our dataset is composed of about 800 precipitation series coming from the databases of various regional agencies of central and northern Italy (ARPA Emilia Romagna, ARPA Liguria, SIR Toscana and ARPA Piemonte). As well as for any other meteorological measure, physical signals in raw precipitation data series are often hidden behind measuring errors and non-climatic noise caused mainly by station relocation and changes in instruments, in the environment around the station or in the observing conventions. Therefore, we developed specific codes to control the possible outliers, identify periods of failure and malfunction of the weather station, and to control of the values recorded after periods of missing data (suspected cumulative values). Finally, we have subjected the longer series to the Craddock homogeneity test to verify the relative homogeneity of the records and, if necessary, we have homogenized them, to remove all signals of non-climatic origin. After this process of control and homogenization of the data, we have about 400 validated precipitation series available for the study area centred on the eastern Liguria (8.25°E - 43.50 °N to 11.00°E - 45.00 °N, of about 30.000 km2) that we use to estimate very high quantiles (return levels) corresponding to 10-, 50- and 100-year return periods, as predicted by a generalized extreme value distribution. Return level estimates are produced on a regular high-resolution grid (30 arcsec) using a variant of regional frequency analysis

  20. Epidemiology of HBV S-gene mutants in the Liguria Region, Italy: Implications for surveillance and detection of new escape variants.

    PubMed

    Sticchi, Laura; Caligiuri, Patrizia; Cacciani, Roberto; Alicino, Cristiano; Bruzzone, Bianca

    2013-03-01

    HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) variants may impair diagnosis or allow the virus to escape vaccine-induced immunity and their circulation in the population can represent a Public Health threat. Their prevalence, however, is not yet completely established. Evidence indicates that amino acid substitutions within HBsAg can lead to conformational changes which allow mutated HBV to escape the vaccine-induced antibodies used in the screening tests. In such scenario, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HBV S-Gene escape mutants by sequencing the gene in a cohort of Ligurian patients monitored for viral load, genotype and drug resistance and to evaluate the risk of false negative HBsAg detection by routine screening tests. From 2007 to 2011, in 256 consecutive samples from Ligurian HBV positive patients sequencing assay for detection of RT/S-Gene mutations using Trugene HBV Genotyping kit (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., Tarrytown, NY) was performed. Serological HBV tests and viral load were also performed. Analyzed sequences revealed G145R mutation in 8/256 (3.1%) examined sequences, it was alone in 5 patients and accompanied by other HBsAg mutations in 3 samples. HBsAg resulted undetectable by 3 of the 8 samples, derived from patients with multiple mutations: T126I-T131A-C139Y-E/D144G, T126I-M133L, and P120Q-T126I. The emergence of these mutants, at least the G145R, has already been addressed as a public health concern because of its capability of escaping the immune system. In the present study we point out a second aspect connected with their existence and with similar potential negative impact on public health, that is their capability of escape punctual detection. PMID:23296324

  1. Regional Development and Vocational Training. Development of Human Resources in Regions of Economic Reconversion Benefiting from Community Financial Support. Regional Monographs (Lorraine, Northern England, Province of Limburg, South-West of Ireland, Liguria, Andalusia). First Edition. CEDEFOP Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (West Germany).

    This publication contains monographs on vocational training and regional development for six regions of the European Communities. The monograph on Lorraine (France) by Gerard Calais describes basic training structures, redeployment policies, requalification of job seekers, and coordination of training efforts. Profiles of development technicians…

  2. Estimating temporal changes in extreme rainfall in Sicily Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorso, Brunella; Aronica, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    An intensification of extreme rainfall events have characterized several areas of peninsular and insular Italy since the early 2000s, suggesting an upward ongoing trend likely driven by climate change. In the present study temporal changes in 1-, 3-, 6-, 12- and 24-hour annual maxima rainfall series from more than 200 sites in Sicily region (Italy) are examined. A regional study is performed in order to reduce the uncertainty in change detection related to the limited length of the available records of extreme rainfall series. More specifically, annual maxima series are treated according to a regional flood index - type approach to frequency analysis, by assuming stationarity on a decadal time scale. First a cluster analysis using at-site characteristics is used to determine homogeneous rainfall regions. Then, potential changes in regional L-moment ratios are analyzed using a 10-year moving window. Furthermore, the shapes of regional growth curves, derived by splitting the records into separate decades, are compared. In addition, a jackknife procedure is used to assess uncertainty in the fitted growth curves and to identify significant trends in quantile estimates. Results reveal that, despite L-moment ratios show a general decreasing trend and that growth curves corresponding to the last decade (2000-2009) are usually less steep than the ones of the previous periods, rainfall quantile estimates have increased during the 2000s due to a large increase in regional average median, mainly in Western Sicily.

  3. Regional frequency analysis of extreme precipitation for Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestieri, Angelo; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley; Lo Conti, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of extreme precipitation has always been included among most relevant hydrological applications because of the several important activities linked to the availability of tools for the estimation of extreme rainfall quantiles. These activities include the design of hydraulic civil structures and the evaluation and management of hydraulic and hydrological risk. In this study a frequency analysis of annual maxima precipitation measurements has been carried out for the area of Sicily (Italy). A typical hierarchical regional approach has been adopted for the parameter estimation procedure based on the L-moments method. The identification of homogeneous regions within the procedure has been pursued with a data driven procedure constituted by a principal component analysis of an ensemble of selected auxiliary variables, and a K-means cluster analysis algorithm. Auxiliary variables comprise meteo-climatic information and a representation of the average seasonal distribution of intense events. Results have been evaluated by means of a Monte Carlo experiment based on the comparison between at-site and regional fitted frequency distributions. Moreover, results have been compared with previous analyses performed for the same area. The study provides an updated tool for the modelling of extreme precipitation for the area of Sicily (Italy), with different features respect to previous tools both in terms of definition of homogeneous zones and in terms of parameters of the frequency distribution. Meteo-climatic information and the seasonality of extreme events retrieved from the dataset has been proficuously exploited in the analysis.

  4. Improving regional universal newborn hearing screening programmes in Italy.

    PubMed

    Molini, E; Cristi, M C; Lapenna, R; Calzolaro, L; Muzzi, E; Ciciriello, E; Della Volpe, A; Orzan, E; Ricci, G

    2016-02-01

    The Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) programme aims at achieving early detection of hearing impairment. Subsequent diagnosis and intervention should follow promptly. Within the framework of the Ministry of Health project CCM 2013 "Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children", the limitations and strengths of current UNHS programs in Italy have been analysed by a group of professionals working in tertiary centres involved in regional UNHS programmes, using SWOT analysis and a subsequent TOWS matrix. Coverage and lost-to-follow up rates are issues related to UNHS programmes. Recommendations to improve the effectiveness of the UNHS programme have been identified. The need for homogeneous policies, high-quality information and dissemination of knowledge for operators and families of hearing-impaired children emerged from the discussion. PMID:27054385

  5. [Malaria and memory in the Veneto region of Italy].

    PubMed

    Pegoraro, Manuela; Crotti, Daniele

    2009-09-01

    Malaria and emigration are two terms deeply embedded in Veneto history, related to images far back in the past, unknown to younger generations. Losing one's own collective historical memory is a source of personal and cultural impoverishment and inevitably compromises one's awareness of the present, possibly leading to superficial judgements and hastily formed opinions. Such a situation is all the more serious in a geographical area, north-eastern Italy, where immigration is so abundant. In this paper the authors seek to retrieve, at least in part, this memory, especially in terms of history (to what extent malaria afflicted residents in Veneto and migrants from the region) and biology (how much imprinting from malaria has remained in the native population's genetic make-up). PMID:19838093

  6. Italy.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    For "Background Notes" on Italy, the U.S. State Department, Bureau of Public Affairs, covers geography, people, history, government, politics, economy, defense and foreign relations. Italy had 57.3 million persons in 1986, with a growth rate of 2.3%. The life expectancy is 73 years; the infant mortality rate is 14.3/1000 live births. 98% of the people are literate. The current constitutional republic has existed since 1948. Mean per capita income is $6,447. The people work mainly in services (60%), industry (30%) and agriculture (10%). Most of the country is mountainous, without significant food, energy or natural resources, so Italy's central position in the Mediterranean has influenced economic development since ancient times. The nation is highly homogeneous, as the government is centralized. Although there are several influential political parties, the diverse structure of the Christian Democrats has given them power since the war. The current prime minister, Bettino Craxi, is a member of the centralist Italian Socialist Party. The Italian Communist Party is the largest such party in the free world, polling 30% of the vote in 1983. Italy is a member of NATO. PMID:12177926

  7. Tomographic models and seismotectonics of the Reggio Emilia region, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciaccio, M. G.; Chiarabba, C.

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study is to define the Vp and Vp/Vs structure of the fault zone ruptured by the M L 5.1 earthquake of October 15, 1996 which occurred near Reggio Emilia (central-northern Italy). A 1-month-long seismic sequence followed the mainshock and occurred in a small region along the outer border of the northern Apenninic belt, at depth ranging between 10 and 17 km. P- and S-wave arrival times from 304 aftershocks recorded by two local dense seismic arrays installed in the epicentral region have been inverted to obtain one- and three-dimensional velocity models by using state of the art local earthquake tomographic techniques. Velocity models and aftershock relocation help us to infer the seismotectonic of the region. Earthquakes originated along a NW-dipping backthrust of a NE-trending main thrust, composing the western part of the broad Ferrara Arc. A main high Vp and high Vp/Vs region delineates a pop-up structure in the center of the area. The high Vp/Vs within the pop-up structure supports the presence of a zone with increased pore pressure. The hypocentral depth of both mainshock and aftershocks is greater than those usually found for the main seismogenic regions of the Apenninic belt. P-wave velocity values in the seismogenic area, obtained by tomography, are compatible with rocks of the Mesozoic cover and suggest that seismicity occurred within the Mesozoic units stack at present by compressional tectonics.

  8. Nowcasting and assessing thunderstorm risk on the Lombardy region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonelli, P.; Marcacci, P.; Bertolotti, E.; Collino, E.; Stella, G.

    2011-06-01

    The problem of severe thunderstorm risk in the Lombardy region (Italy) is serious. In fact during the warm season many thunderstorms (TS) occur in high density populated area located between the river Po and the Alps. In the year 2003, about 90 TS caused damage to people, houses, cars, agriculture and electrical lines. About 30 municipalities undergo damage by tornadoes. The 2003 summer was not particularly anomalous with respect to others for TS activity. In this region storms are well detected by some C-band radars and the Meteosat satellites, but the study of the correlation between these variables and the TS severity needs the collection of many met-data at the ground. Unfortunately the lack of a fine mesh met-station network forces the use of local press news or subjective reports to identify the impact of TS. Since 2006 ERSE has been collaborating with the Lombardy Region - Civil Protection Service/Office - in developing and testing a system to detect and nowcast severe thunderstorms, STAF (Storm Track Alert and Forecast). STAF is a nowcasting tool based on Radar and MSG (Meteosat Second Generation) data that selects only severe TS, tracks them and produces alert messages to users. In order to evaluate the severity of a TS, a crucial issue for STAF is the correlation between variables detected by the remote-sensing instruments and the effects at the ground. The paper describes a method to classify the severity of a TS by computing an index named "probability of damage" (PD). The index has been carried out by means of a storm archive, where radar and satellite data are stored together with damages reports from newspapers, all collected in 2003 summer. The index has been verified during the 2009 summer, when STAF was applied in a field test involving a group of Civil Protection observers and users. The results of this test are reported in the paper. The test has been also an occasion for verifying the effectiveness of information provided by STAF to selected

  9. Changes in precipitation regime in Tuscany Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporali, Enrica; Manetti, Simona; Chiarello, Valentina; Fatichi, Simone

    2014-05-01

    Changes in the rainfall patterns cause relevant effects on ecosystems, on water resource availability and on human activities. In the last decades, research on precipitation trend analysis has become a topic of particular interest to guide water resources planning and management, as well as a signal of climate change. The first step of the analysis is the accurate validation and quality control procedure of the available rainfall data, recorded from 1916 to 2010, by rain gauges with at least 30 years of measurements, located in the Tuscany Region, over an area of about 23.000 km2, in Central Italy. The time series of annual daily rainfall maxima recorded in 348 stations and of annual rainfall maxima of short duration (i.e. 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 hours) recorded in 149 stations are analyzed. In order to assess changes and possible presence of a trend in the precipitation patterns, three different statistical tests (Mann-Kendall, Spearman Rho and Cox-Stuart) for three different confidence levels (α=0.1, 0.05, 0.01) are applied. The analysis on the whole 1916-2010 period is carried out. However, with the aim to estimate whether trends appear mainly critical during a particular time interval, rainfall time series are also subdivided and analyzed over three partially overlapping 35-years periods: 1916-1950, 1945-1980 and 1975-2010. The proposed statistical analysis does not show strong evidence of nonstationarity, a slight trend appears in a certain number of stations and only few stations show a significant trend. Particularly, there is a prevalence of trends absence in the precipitation regime in Tuscany Region for the period 1916-2010 and during the 35 years overlapping sub-periods, except in the period 1945-1980 where the presence of a slight higher percent of "significant negative trend" is observed. Afterward, in order to investigate the presence of geographic patterns or correlation with topography or other morphologic characteristics, the trends over the whole study

  10. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in coastal areas: lessons learned from applications in Liguria, NW Mediterranean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovere, A.; Casella, E.; Pedroncini, A.; Mucerino, L.; Casella, M.; Cusati, L. A.; Vacchi, M.; Ferrari, M.; Firpo, M.

    2014-12-01

    In 2013 we started to apply small UAVs to the study of coastal areas in Liguria, NW Mediterranean Sea. In this region monitoring coastal evolution and the impact of sea storms is a primary administrative need, as a large part of the economic income derives from summer tourism. In two years, we accumulated almost 200 hours of flight with two different UAVs, a professional-grade Mikrokopter Okto and a consumer-grade Phantom DJI. We used photogrammetric and orthorectification techniques to obtain Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and orthophotos of different beaches in the region. Data from UAVs allowed us to answer several questions. What is the accuracy of DEMs obtained from UAVs in low-relief areas such as beaches? What are the problems encountered in the photogrammetric procedure near the shoreline? Are the results obtained with consumer-grade UAVs comparable to those obtained with professional-grade ones? Aside from these technical questions, we used the data obtained from UAVs for different local studies aimed at giving management tools to the local administrations. We used the cloudpoint obtained from DEMs and the orthophotos to set up a runup modelling chain, to detect short-term changes in the coastal zone, and to give a first estimate of the debris deposited on the beach after a major storm. As stated by Watts et al., 2012 (Remote Sensing 4, 1671-1692) the application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and photogrammetry techniques in earth sciences is flourishing, and has the potential to revolutionize the study of geomorphology. Surely, UAVs opened new research perspectives for our group, which has been actively working on coastal changes in Liguria for almost 25 years.

  11. Albanian: The Albanian Language in Education in Italy. Regional Dossiers Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belluscio, Giovanni, Comp.

    2010-01-01

    This regional dossier aims to provide concise, descriptive information and basic educational statistics about minority language education in a specific region of Europe--"Arberishtja" of Italy. Aspects that are addressed include features of the education system, recent educational policies, main actors, legal arrangements, and support structures,…

  12. Promoting ICT Entrepreneurship in the Campania Region of Italy: A Network of Academic Incubators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corti, Eugenio; Torello, Rita Ilenia

    2004-01-01

    The government of the Campania region in southern Italy has established a technology transfer centre for the information and communications technology (ICT) sector. The Regional Centre for ICT Competencies (RCICT) promotes the transfer of ICT to local small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and encourages the creation of new knowledge-based…

  13. The Marine Technology Liguria District, an opportunity for Collaboration and Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmisciano, C.; Tivegna, P.; Sgherri, R. G.; Gambetta, M.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Stefanelli, P.; Cocchi, L.

    2008-05-01

    This work focus on the newly born DLTM, namely the Distretto Ligure delle Tecnologie Marine, based in La Spezia, Liguria Region (IT). The main involved partners are: Ministries, Regione Liguria Council, Spedia SpA Company, Industries, SMEs (SMBs), Universities and National Research Institutes. The DLTM has been created as an answer to the local versus global needs of marine products innovation, technology and science. In order to provide, both the local and international community, effective solutions the DLTM aims to: - promote Innovation and pre-competitiveness of activities related to industrial research; - enhance the value and visibility of excellence areas existing in the Ligurian region (in the big enterprises as well as in SMEs) concerning marine technology; - enhance the value of academic activities focusing their R&D on industrial products/processes, assuring, evaluating and preventing environmental sustainability also in case of extreme events; - harmonize/make sustainable the economy and the society promoting scientific innovation and technological development, by means of Universities, Public and Private Research Institutes (at regional, national and EU level); - help the exchange of ideas and realization of projects aimed at developing the District objectives; - increase the dissemination and valorisation of District results and achievements, build capacity in the sectors of interest to the District. The DLTM is characterized by two main macro-themes. The first concerns infrastructures, materials and processes, while the second is committed to eco-compatible solutions for harbours, ships and coastal scenarios, security and control management of human activities, risky operations and extreme natural events. The former macro-theme is expected to provide the community with innovative solutions, technologies, materials, processes applied to marine sectors, shipyard and related subsystems and components, in a wide sense such as leisure, commercial, navy

  14. Institutional Innovation and Public Extension Services Provision: The Marche Regional Administration Reform in Central Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascucci, Stefano; De Magistris, Tiziana

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes how Marche Regional Administration (MRA) introduced an innovative institutional reform of an Agricultural Knowledge and Information System (AKIS) in central Italy. In order to study the main features of the MRA reform we used a methodological approach based on three steps: (i) first we applied a desk analysis to sketch the…

  15. National and regional rainfall thresholds for the possible initiation of landslides in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peruccacci, Silvia; Brunetti, Maria Teresa; Rossi, Mauro; Luciani, Silvia; Valigi, Daniela; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2010-05-01

    Landslides are frequent and widespread geomorphological phenomena in Italy. A nationwide investigation completed by the Italian National Geological Survey has identified approximately 5×105 landslides, an average of 1.6 slope failures per square kilometre. Most of the mapped slope failures are known - or considered - to be triggered by intense or prolonged rainfall. Determining the amount of rainfall that, when reached or exceeded, can result in landslides is important to forecast the possible occurrence of landslides in Italy. The Italian national Department for Civil Protection (DPC) is implementing a national landslide warning system based on rainfall thresholds, rainfall measurements, and quantitative rainfall forecasts. We are working with the DPC to define new rainfall thresholds to be implemented in the national system. For the purpose, we have compiled a catalogue of 875 rainfall events that have resulted in documented landslides in Italy since 1841, including 77 rainfall events in the Abruzzo Region (central Italy) in the period 2002-2009, and 145 rainfall events in the Calabria Region (southern Italy) in the period 2001-2009. For each event in the catalogue, we have collected information on: (i) the total amount of rainfall, (ii) the rainfall duration, (iii) the day and (when available) the time or period of the failure, (iv) the geographical location of the landslide, (v) the number of landslides, when more than a single failure was reported, and (vi) climatic information, including the mean annual precipitation (MAP) and the average number of rainy days in a year (RDs). We have experimented with two methods to define objective intensity-duration (ID) national rainfall thresholds for Italy, and regional rainfall the rainfall thresholds for the Abruzzo and the Calabria Regions. The first method exploits Bayesian statistical inference, and the second method adopts a Frequentist probabilistic approach. This is an improvement over existing methods that

  16. Regional Frequency Analysis of extreme rainfall events, Tuscany (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporali, E.; Chiarello, V.; Rossi, G.

    2014-12-01

    The assessment of extreme hydrological events at sites characterized by short time series or where no data record exists has been mainly obtained by regional models. Regional frequency analysis based on the index variable procedure is implemented here to describe the annual maximum of rainfall depth of short durations in Tuscany region. The probability distribution TCEV - Two Component Extreme Value is used in the frame of the procedure for the parameters estimation based on a three levels hierarchical approach. The methodology deal with the delineation of homogeneous regions, the identification of a robust regional frequency distribution and the assessment of the scale factor, i.e. the index rainfall. The data set includes the annual maximum of daily rainfall of 351 gauge stations with at least 30 years of records, in the period 1916 - 2012, and the extreme rainfalls of short duration, 1 hour and 3, 6, 12, 24 hours. Different subdivisions hypotheses have been verified. A four regions subdivision, coincident with four subregions, which takes into account the orography, the geomorphological and climatic peculiarities of the Tuscany region, has been adopted. Particularly, for testing the regional homogeneity, the cumulate frequency distributions of the observed skewness and variation coefficients of the recorded times series, are compared with the theoretical frequency distribution obtained through a Monte Carlo technique. The related L-skewness and L-variation coefficients are also examined. The application of the Student t -test and the Wilcoxon test for the mean, as well as the χ2 was also performed. Further tests of subdivision hypotheses have been made through the application of discordancy D and heterogeneity H tests and the analysis of the observed and the theoretical TCEV model growth curves. For each region the daily rainfall growth curve has been estimated. The growth curves for the hourly duration have been estimated when the daily rainfall growth curve

  17. Alien Insects in Italy: Comparing Patterns from the Regional to European Level

    PubMed Central

    Inghilesi, Alberto F.; Mazza, Giuseppe; Cervo, Rita; Gherardi, Francesca; Sposimo, Paolo; Tricarico, Elena; Zapparoli, Marzio

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of species outside their native range contributes to the loss of biodiversity, alters the structure and functioning of ecosystems, and damages economy and human health. Insects are one of the taxa with the highest frequency of introduction due to their high diversity, biological properties, and close association with human activities. Here, the allodiversity of Italian entomofauna was analyzed, with a focus on Tuscany (Central Italy). A list of alien insects in Tuscany is included. The status of the alien entomofauna in Italy was updated. The number of alien insects amounts to 122 in Tuscany and 923 in Italy. An introduction rate of 98 species per decade was estimated in Italy. In Tuscany, alien insects belong to 10 orders, mostly Coleoptera (38%), Hemiptera (Sternorrhyncha and Auchenorrhyncha) (23%), and Hymenoptera (13%). They have been most often introduced through vegetable items (ornamental plants or crops). Most species come from the Nearctic region (26%) and are both phytophagous (63%) and amphigonic (80%). Differences and similarities in introduction patterns and in insect abundances across orders among regional, national, and European scales, also considering worldwide abundances, are discussed. Finally, a paucity of information regarding the negative impacts of many species, except for economic pests, phytosanitary threats, and vectors of disease, is underlined. A deeper understanding of the alien insects' ecological impact might help designate policies aimed at preventing further introductions and control the invasive populations of already established species. PMID:24219427

  18. [Healthcare research and regional programming in Umbria (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Carlo; Minelli, Liliana

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between regional programming and national health research policy, and in particular evaluates the role that intellectual capital plays in innovation processes of knowledge-based organizations. The concepts of intellectual capital and knowledge-based organization are defined in the paper, as these are especially useful when speaking of university, healthcare systems and research and development companies. The paper also examines the various types of healthcare research (basic research, clinical trial, epidemiological research, valutative research) and the role that each type of research plays in healthcare programming at the national and regional levels. PMID:19219082

  19. Notes on the determinants of suicide rates in Italy's regions: a reply to Voracek (2009).

    PubMed

    Felice, Emanuele

    2010-06-01

    This article is a review of Voracek's report (2009) of aggregate intelligence and suicide rates in Italy's regions, contending some findings and proposing new evidence and suggestions for further research. Voracek did not use intelligence data, but educational attainment, which in Italy's regions is affected by sharp imbalances in the quality of public schools and may not reflect differences in intelligence. The statistical analyses were inadequate given the small number of cases; the resulting correlation could be meaningless or even misleading. The paper shows that when the analysis is extended to other variables (latitude) or historical periods (1911) the correlations reported by Voracek are not significant. This criticism is based on perspectives among different branches of psychology and cognitive sciences, economic and social history, and economic geography. PMID:20712161

  20. Pneumococcus and the Elderly in Italy: A Summary of Available Evidence Regarding Carriage, Clinical Burden of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections and On-Field Effectiveness of PCV13 Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Andrea; Ansaldi, Filippo; Trucchi, Cecilia; Rosselli, Roberto; Icardi, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is currently the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in adults, elderly and high-risk subjects worldwide. The clear benefits of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in childhood have been accompanied by a decrease of vaccine-serotype invasive diseases among adults in several countries, mainly due to the herd effect mediated by the reduction of vaccine-serotype nasopharyngeal colonization in both age groups, but this reduction in the incidence of pneumonia has not been observed. The "Community Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults" (CAPITA) study provided conclusive evidence about 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) efficacy in preventing CAP in adults and led Western countries to issue new recommendations for pneumococcal immunization targeting subjects >50 years and high-risk groups, with marked differences with respect to age and/or risk groups immunized, eligibility for reimbursement and national, regional or local implementation. Several Italian regions implemented PCV13 immunization programs in adults and interesting data have been come available in the last years, especially from Liguria, a Northern region with a high and long-lasting pneumococcal vaccine immunological pressure in infants. In this review, currently available evidence from Italy and Liguria regarding pneumococcal carriage, burden of CAP and LRTI, and on-field effectiveness of PCV13 immunization in adults and elderly will be summarized. PMID:27428964

  1. Pneumococcus and the Elderly in Italy: A Summary of Available Evidence Regarding Carriage, Clinical Burden of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections and On-Field Effectiveness of PCV13 Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Orsi, Andrea; Ansaldi, Filippo; Trucchi, Cecilia; Rosselli, Roberto; Icardi, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is currently the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in adults, elderly and high-risk subjects worldwide. The clear benefits of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in childhood have been accompanied by a decrease of vaccine-serotype invasive diseases among adults in several countries, mainly due to the herd effect mediated by the reduction of vaccine-serotype nasopharyngeal colonization in both age groups, but this reduction in the incidence of pneumonia has not been observed. The “Community Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults” (CAPITA) study provided conclusive evidence about 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) efficacy in preventing CAP in adults and led Western countries to issue new recommendations for pneumococcal immunization targeting subjects >50 years and high-risk groups, with marked differences with respect to age and/or risk groups immunized, eligibility for reimbursement and national, regional or local implementation. Several Italian regions implemented PCV13 immunization programs in adults and interesting data have been come available in the last years, especially from Liguria, a Northern region with a high and long-lasting pneumococcal vaccine immunological pressure in infants. In this review, currently available evidence from Italy and Liguria regarding pneumococcal carriage, burden of CAP and LRTI, and on-field effectiveness of PCV13 immunization in adults and elderly will be summarized. PMID:27428964

  2. Essential and toxic elements in honeys from a region of central Italy.

    PubMed

    Meli, M A; Desideri, D; Roselli, C; Benedetti, C; Feduzi, L

    2015-01-01

    Levels of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in several types of honey produced in a region of Central Italy were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The degree of humidity, sugar content, pH, free acidity, combined acidity (lactones), and total acidity were also measured. These elements were found to be present in honey in various proportions depending upon (1) the area foraged by bees, (2) flower type visited for collection of nectar, and (3) quality of water in the vicinity of the hive. Strong positive correlations occurred between Pb and Hg, Pb and Cd, Pb and Fe, Pb and Cr, Hg and Cd, and Hg and Fe. The honey products synthesized in Central Italy were of good quality, but not completely free of heavy metal contamination. Compared with established recommended daily intakes, heavy metals or trace element intoxication following honey consumption in Italy was found not to be a concern for human health. PMID:26039679

  3. Non-susceptible landslide areas in Italy and in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesini, I.; Ardizzone, F.; Alvioli, M.; Rossi, M.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-04-01

    We used landslide information for 13 study areas in Italy and morphometric information obtained from the 3 arc-second SRTM DEM to determine areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be null or negligible in Italy, and in the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. The morphometric information consisted in the local terrain slope computed in a square 3 × 3 cell moving window, and in the regional relative relief computed in a circular 15 × 15 cell moving window. We tested three different models to determine the non-susceptible landslide areas, including a linear model (LR), a quantile linear model (QLR), and a quantile non-linear model (QNL). We tested the performance of the three models using independent landslide information represented by the Italian Landslide Inventory (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia - IFFI). Best results were obtained using the QNL model. The corresponding zonation of non-susceptible landslide areas was intersected in a GIS with geographical census data for Italy. The result allowed determining that 57.5% of the population of Italy (in 2001) was located in areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be null or negligible, and that the remaining 42.5% was located in areas where some landslide susceptibility is expected. We applied the QNL model to the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, and we tested the synoptic non-susceptibility zonation using independent landslide information for three study areas in Spain. Results proved that the QNL model was capable of determining where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible in the Mediterranean area. We expect our results to be applicable in similar study areas, facilitating the identification of non-susceptible and susceptible landslide areas, at the synoptic scale.

  4. Non-susceptible landslide areas in Italy and in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesini, I.; Ardizzone, F.; Alvioli, M.; Rossi, M.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-08-01

    We used landslide information for 13 study areas in Italy and morphometric information obtained from the 3-arcseconds shuttle radar topography mission digital elevation model (SRTM DEM) to determine areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible in Italy and in the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. The morphometric information consisted of the local terrain slope which was computed in a square 3 × 3-cell moving window, and in the regional relative relief computed in a circular 15 × 15-cell moving window. We tested three different models to classify the "non-susceptible" landslide areas, including a linear model (LNR), a quantile linear model (QLR), and a quantile, non-linear model (QNL). We tested the performance of the three models using independent landslide information presented by the Italian Landslide Inventory (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia - IFFI). Best results were obtained using the QNL model. The corresponding zonation of non-susceptible landslide areas was intersected in a geographic information system (GIS) with geographical census data for Italy. The result determined that 57.5% of the population of Italy (in 2001) was located in areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible. We applied the QNL model to the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, and we tested the synoptic non-susceptibility zonation using independent landslide information for three study areas in Spain. Results showed that the QNL model was capable of determining where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible in the validation areas in Spain. We expect our results to be applicable in similar study areas, facilitating the identification of non-susceptible landslide areas, at the synoptic scale.

  5. Infant immunization coverage in Italy: estimates by simultaneous EPI cluster surveys of regions. ICONA Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Salmaso, S.; Rota, M. C.; Ciofi Degli Atti, M. L.; Tozzi, A. E.; Kreidl, P.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, a series of regional cluster surveys (the ICONA Study) was conducted simultaneously in 19 out of the 20 regions in Italy to estimate the mandatory immunization coverage of children aged 12-24 months with oral poliovirus (OPV), diphtheria-tetanus (DT) and viral hepatitis B (HBV) vaccines, as well as optional immunization coverage with pertussis, measles and Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) vaccines. The study children were born in 1996 and selected from birth registries using the Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) cluster sampling technique. Interviews with parents were conducted to determine each child's immunization status and the reasons for any missed or delayed vaccinations. The study population comprised 4310 children aged 12-24 months. Coverage for both mandatory and optional vaccinations differed by region. The overall coverage for mandatory vaccines (OPV, DT and HBV) exceeded 94%, but only 79% had been vaccinated in accord with the recommended schedule (i.e. during the first year of life). Immunization coverage for pertussis increased from 40% (1993 survey) to 88%, but measles coverage (56%) remained inadequate for controlling the disease; Hib coverage was 20%. These results confirm that in Italy the coverage of only mandatory immunizations is satisfactory. Pertussis immunization coverage has improved dramatically since the introduction of acellular vaccines. A greater effort to educate parents and physicians is still needed to improve the coverage of optional vaccinations in all regions. PMID:10593033

  6. Development of A Real Time Physically-based Flood Forecasting System In The Piemonte Region, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero, S. P.; Rabuffetti, D.; Buffo, M.; Graziadei, M.

    The development and implementation of the Piemonte RegionSs real-time Flood Fore- casting System is described. The area of interest is the Upper Po River basin (North- west Italy) of approximately 37000 km2 and its river network of about 3000 Km and 3 big lakes. FloodWatch, a GIS-based decision support system for real-time flood fore- casting has been developed and operationally used since June 2000 at the Piemonte RegionSs Room for the Situation of Natural Hazards in Torino, Italy. FloodWatch is based on MIKE 11 modules which provide a continuos lumped hydrological model- ing of 187 tree-structured subcatchments connected by a 1D distributed hydrodynamic model. It is directly linked to the existing telemetric system, which provides measured data from more than 270 meteorological stations (rainfall and temperature) and about 80 water level gauging stations. In addition, FloodWatch uses quantitative precipita- tion and temperature forecasts daily issued by the Regional Meteorological Service on the 11 zones in which the study area is subdivided. At present, FloodWatch auto- matically supplies operational forecasts of water-level and discharge at 73 locations for up to 48 hours. The development of a fast and reliable flow forecasting system for this large and heterogeneous river basin required careful balance between the need for rapid and accurate forecasts and of a correct representation of run-off generation, flood propagation, baseflows, snow accumulation and melting. Strengths and limits of the system are focused addressing the need for future development. Some results are presented with particular regard to the October 2000 flood event, when the northwest of Italy experienced one of the largest floods on record. Heavy and prolonged rainfall fell across the entire Po river basin. The flood inundated vast areas causing widespread damage and thousands of people were warned and alerted to evacuate.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from different regions of Italy and Pakistan.

    PubMed Central

    Sechi, L A; Zanetti, S; Delogu, G; Montinaro, B; Sanna, A; Fadda, G

    1996-01-01

    The use of the (GTG)5 oligonucleotide, a repetitive marker in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis chromosome, as a primer in association with an IS6110 outlooking primer has been successfully applied to a PCR-based fingerprinting method. This method classified 62 strains of M. tuberculosis, isolated from human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive and -seronegative patients in different regions of Italy and Pakistan, as having 53 different patterns. The results were compared with traditional IS6110 fingerprinting, by which 47 distinct patterns were observed. PMID:8784602

  8. Orbital Cyclicities Above and Below the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary, Umbria-Marche Region, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, D. T., Jr.; Petruny, L. W.; Rampino, M. R.; Prokoph, A.; Pope, K.; Fischer, A. G.; Montanari, A.; Ocampo, A. C.

    2000-01-01

    In the Umbria-Marche region of central Italy, the deep basinal carbonate Scaglia Rossa Formation contains an important sequence of Cretaceous-Tertiary strata including a detailed paleomagnetic record and the distal impactoclastic Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary clay layer. In addition to this significant paleomagnetic and impactoclastic record, the Scaglia Rossa also contains potentially important stratigraphic evidence of relatively long-term oceanic and atmospheric consequences of the Cretaceous-Tertiary bolide catastrophe, which we will describe for the first time herein. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Preliminary analysis of the Intensive Observation Period events occurred in Italy during the HyMeX campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, Rossella

    2013-04-01

    HyMeX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment) is a project aimed at a better understanding and quantification of the hydrological cycle and related processes in the Mediterranean. As a part of HyMeX, Special Observation Periods (SOPs) are dedicated to provide detailed and specific observations to study key processes leading to orographic precipitation (ORP), heavy precipitation events (HPEs), and flash flood events (FFEs) in certain Target Areas (TAs). Informed by numerical weather forecasts and standard observations, Intensive Operation Periods (IOPs) are declared during the SOPs. Specific observations in the TAs are provided by operational measurements (ground meteorological networks, soundings, and remote-sensing instruments), coupled with specific measurements during IOPs from several instruments, such as disdrometers, sodars, lidars, research radars, extra soundings, etc. In this paper an overview is presented of the HyMeX IOPs in Italy during SOP1 (5 September - 6 November, 2012). The Hydro-Meteorological sites of interest were: Liguria-Tuscany (LT), northeastern Italy (NEI) and central Italy (CI). Typical situations encountered for HPEs in LT involved upper-level southwesterly flow with low-level moist southerly or southeasterly flow over the Tyrrhenian and the Ligurian Sea. Highlights include a measurement of 300 mm/24h of rain at the border between Liguria and Emilia on Sept. 26, 2012 during IOP7b. For NEI region, HPEs mainly occurred with upper level southwesterly flow ahead of advancing troughs with low-level moist southerly or southeasterly flow over the Adriatic Sea. Highlights include 120 mm/24h of rain in Friuli Venezia Giulia on Sept. 12, 2012 during IOP2. For CI region, HPEs and FFEs, a slowly propagating cut-off low centered over southern Italy was observed; the associated easterly flow on the north side of the cut-off low would frequently bring moisture into east central Italy from the Adriatic Sea. Highlights include an event with

  10. National and regional approaches for the prediction of rainfall-induced landslides in Italy: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peruccacci, Silvia; Brunetti, Maria Teresa; Capparelli, Giovanna; Di Pilla, Sergio; Guzzetti, Fausto; Molari, Maurizio; Niccoli, Raffaele; Pagliara, Paola; Pizziolo, Marco; Ponziani, Francesco; Ratto, Sara Maria; Segoni, Samuele; Speranza, Gabriella; Tiranti, Davide; Tonellato, Robero; Vischi, Matteo

    2014-05-01

    In Italy, rainfall-induced landslides with severe consequences in terms of economic damage and casualties occur every year. The Italian National Department for Civil Protection (DPC) has the responsibility, in agreement with regional and local governments, to protect individuals and communities from natural hazards, including landslides. In particular, the DPC has a guiding role in projects and activities for the prevention, forecast and monitoring of landslide risk. The alert system for the landslide risk is assured by the DPC and by the Italian Regions through the network of the regional functional centres, the regional structures and the competence centres. More specifically, each Region has to define procedures and methods to set up customized early warning system for the prediction of rainfall-induced landslides. In this work, we report an overview of approaches, methods and early warning systems adopted by the DPC and by the Italian Regions to forecast the occurrence of rainfall-induced slope failures. This study is a description of the state of the art in the prediction of landslides triggered by rainfall at national and regional scale. The collection and organization of this information is of considerable interest both for the DPC, and for the individual Regions. This overview can be a starting point for a constructive debate about the local expertise, in order to improve the landslide prediction capability and to contribute to reducing landslide risk.

  11. Non-life insurance consumption in Italy: a sub-regional panel data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millo, Giovanni; Carmeci, Gaetano

    2011-09-01

    We analyze the consumption of non-life insurance across 103 Italian provinces in 1998-2002 in order to assess its determinants, in the light of the empirical literature. Using sub-regional data, we overcome an important limitation of cross-country analyses, i.e. the systemic heterogeneity due to country-specific characteristics. Individual heterogeneity is accounted for through panel data techniques. However, considering spatial units within a single market raises issues of cross-sectional or spatial dependence, either due to common nationwide and/or regional factors or to spatial proximity. We carefully assess spatial dependence, employing recent diagnostic tests, finding out that the regressors included in our specification successfully account for spatial dependence. Insurance turns out to depend on income, wealth and some demographics, as already established, but also on trust, judicial efficiency and borrowing conditions. These findings help in explaining the gap between Central-Northern Italy and the south of the country.

  12. Radon radioactivity in groundwater from the Calabria region, south of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, F.; D'Agostino, M.; Belvedere, A.; Marguccio, S.; Belmusto, G.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study the radon radioactivity in selected groundwater (boreholes and wells) from the Calabria region, south of Italy, was investigated. Water samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometry and by RAD7 + RAD H2O setup to determine the 222Rn activity concentration. Obtained values were used with the ingested dose conversion factor for 222Rn to estimate the annual effective dose for adult members of public due to consumption of the groundwater. The estimated average value was (88±5) μ Sv/y. It was compared with the estimated average annual effective dose due to ingestion of groundwater by the WHO (100 μ Sv/y) and that due to ingestion of food and water (290 μ Sv/y) by the UNSCEAR (2000). Results show that the presence of radon may not pose any radiological health hazard to the public due to the consumption of groundwater in the investigated region.

  13. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Menchetti, Laura; Mancini, Stefania; Catalani, Maria Chiara; Boccini, Beatrice; Diverio, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary In Italy, dog shelters are overcrowded because the rate of dog adoption is lower than that of abandonment. A project called “RandAgiamo” was implemented in a rescue shelter in central Italy. RandAgiamo provides training, socialization and advertising of adult shelter dogs. Official data of the Umbria regional health authorities from the year 2014 showed a higher rate of adoption in shelters involved in the project. RandAgiamo dogs had triple odds of being adopted compared to others housed in shelters of the same province. The increase in adoption rate can be beneficial for both dog welfare and shelter management. Abstract Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this “no-kill policy” has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project “RandAgiamo” implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs’ adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs’ visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (p < 0.001). The RandAgiamo project could be beneficial for the dogs’ welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities. PMID:26479385

  14. Ethnophytotherapeutical research in the high Molise region (Central-Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Lucchese, Fernando; Medori, Simone

    2008-01-01

    Background In the years 2003–2005 research was carried out concerning ethno-medicine in the high Molise (central- southern Italy), a region that has been the object of very little investigation from the ethnobotanical point of view. Upper Molise is a continuation of the mountain profiles of the Abruzzi Appenines: a series of hills, steep slopes and deep fluvial valleys making communications difficult. Primordial traditions (e.g. harvest feasts) are typical of the region. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews in the field. These were conducted on both an individual and group level, fresh plants gathered from surrounding areas being displayed. In other cases, individual interviews were conducted by accompanying the person involved to the places where they perform their activities (for example, in the woods with woodcutters, kitchen gardens and fields with housewives, pastures with shepherds, etc.). In total 54 individuals were interviewed. Results Data of 70 taxa belonging to 39 families were gathered. Among the species, 64 are used in human therapy, 5 as insect repellents, 11 in veterinary medicine, 1 to keep eggs and cheeses and 4 for magic purposes. The most important findings in ethno-medicine relate to the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. (wounds) and to some vascular plant species: Asplenium trichomanes L. and Ceterach officinarum Willd. (to regularize menstruation), Cyclamen hederifolium (chilblains), Centaurium erythraea Rafn. and Pulmonaria apennina Cristof. & Puppi (bruises), while in the ethno-veterinary field, we have Valeriana officinalis L. (wounds sustained by mules). Also worthy of note, given the isolation of the area, is the number of plants used to protect foodstuffs from parasites, among which Allium sativum L. and Capsicum frutescens L. Conclusion The research revealed a deep-rooted and widespread habit of husbanding the family's resources. Whilst isolation and snowfalls contributed to the widespread knowledge of means

  15. Unravelling the competing influence of regional uplift and active normal faulting in SW Calabria, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Alex; Roda Boluda, Duna; Boulton, Sarah; Erhardt, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The Neogene geological and geomorphological evolution of Southern Italy is complex and is fundamentally controlled by the subduction of the Ionian slab along the Apennine belt from the Calabrian Arc, and back-arc extension driven by trench rollback. In the area of Calabria and the Straits of Messina the presence of (i) uplifted, deformed and dissected basin sediments and marine terraces, ranging in age from the early to mid-Pleistocene and (ii) seismicity associated with NE-SW normal faults that have well-developed footwall topography and triangular facets have led workers to suggest that both significant regional uplift and extensional faulting in SW Calabria have played a role in generating relief in the area since the mid Pleistocene. However, there is considerable uncertainty in the rates of total surface uplift relative to sea level in both time and space, and the relative partitioning of this uplift between a mantle-driven regional signal, potentially related to a slab tear, and the active extensional structures. Additionally, despite the widespread recognition of normal faults in Calabria to which historical earthquakes are often linked, there is much less agreement on (i) which ones are active and for what length of time; (ii) how the faults interact; and (iii) what their throw and throw rates are. In particular, the ability to resolve both regional uplift and normal faulting in SW Calabria is essential in order to fully understand the tectonic history of the region, while an understanding of location and slip rate of active faults, in an area where the population numbers more than two million people, is essential to assess regional seismic hazards. Here we address these important questions using a combination of tectonic geomorphology and structural geology. We critically examine existing constraints on the rates and distribution of active normal faulting and regional uplift in the area, and we derive new constraints on the along-strike variation in throw

  16. Analysis of daily and monthly rainfall concentration in Southern Italy (Calabria region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coscarelli, R.; Caloiero, T.

    2012-01-01

    SummaryHigh percentages of the yearly total precipitation concentration in a few very rainy days can increase the risks of floods and soil instability. In this paper, an investigation of the spatial and temporal patterns of daily and monthly precipitation concentration in Calabria (Southern Italy) has been carried out by means of a homogenous daily precipitation data set. The results show that a very dishomogeneous temporal distribution of the daily rainfall characterizes the eastern side of the region with rain gauges in which one quarter of the rainiest days represents almost three quarters of the total pluviometric amount, and a western side which presents a more homogenous temporal distribution of the rainfall. Moreover, the application of the Mann-Kendall test has shown a clear tendency toward a weaker seasonality of the rainfall distribution.

  17. Characterization of monovarietal olive oils obtained from mills of Calabria region (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Piscopo, Amalia; De Bruno, Alessandra; Zappia, Angela; Ventre, Carmine; Poiana, Marco

    2016-12-15

    The qualitative characteristics of four monovarietal olive oils produced in Calabria region (Southern Italy) were evaluated. The aim of this work was to evidence the differences on chemical parameters due to variety and to growing environment. Results demonstrated a large variability in qualitative indexes according to the variety. Most of the Grossa di Gerace oils sampled in Ionian Southern coast revealed a high total acidity (percentage upper 0.8% of oleic acid). Fatty acid composition showed some varietal characters: in Grossa di Gerace oils possessed a low content of oleic acid and many Carolea oils showed a heptadecenoic acid level higher than 0.3% as European Rules requires for the extra virgin olive oil category. Carolea cultivar is widely grown in different sites of Calabria and so it is influenced by the different climatic conditions: the obtained oils strongly differed according to the production area. PMID:27451186

  18. Viral Isolates of a Novel Putative Phlebovirus in the Marche Region of Italy

    PubMed Central

    Remoli, Maria Elena; Fortuna, Claudia; Marchi, Antonella; Bucci, Paola; Argentini, Claudio; Bongiorno, Gioia; Maroli, Michele; Gradoni, Luigi; Gramiccia, Marina; Ciufolini, Maria Grazia

    2014-01-01

    Thirty pools from 900 (540 females and 360 males) Phlebotomus perfiliewi sandflies collected during the summer of 2012 in the Fermo area (Marche Region, central Italy) were tested for the presence of Phleboviruses. A nested polymerase chain reaction was performed using degenerated primers amplifying a fragment of the polymerase gene (large segment) and a fragment of the nucleoprotein gene (small segment) of the genus Phlebovirus. One pool was positive for Toscana virus, as expected from results of studies in the area, and six pools were positive for a putative novel Phlebovirus. Virus isolation in Vero cells was performed. Minimum field infection rates/1,000 insects processed for the novel and Toscana viruses were 6.7 and 1.0, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the novel Phlebovirus, tentatively named Fermo virus, placed it in the Sandfly Fever Naples virus serocomplex. PMID:24534812

  19. Radon Exposure Assessment and Relative Effective Dose Estimation to Inhabitants of Puglia Region, South Italy

    PubMed Central

    Quarto, Maria; Pugliese, Mariagabriella; La Verde, Giuseppe; Loffredo, Filomena; Roca, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations were measured in dwellings of the Puglia region in Southern Italy using LR-115 passive detectors. The results show that the radon concentrations varied from 15 ± 2 to 2166 ± 133 Bq/m3 with a geometric mean of 114 Bq/m3 and a geometric standard deviation of 2.3. An analysis on the factors affecting radon concentration such as age of the dwellings, floors, and stories, was performed. The mean effective dose to inhabitants has been calculated and found to be 8.2 mSv/y. Finally, for estimation of cancer risks, the lifetime risk and lung cancer cases per years per million have been calculated. PMID:26610543

  20. Ovine Paratuberculosis: A Seroprevalence Study in Dairy Flocks Reared in the Marche Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Anna Rita, Attili; Victor, Ngu Ngwa; Silvia, Preziuso; Luciana, Pacifici; Anastasia, Domesi; Vincenzo, Cuteri

    2011-01-01

    In order to fulfil the seroprevalence gap on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in ovine dairy farms of Marche region (central Italy), a stratified study was carried out on 2086 adult female sheep randomly chosen from 38 herds selected in Ancona and Macerata provinces. 73.7% flocks resulted infected by a commercial ELISA test (Pourquier, France), with a mean seroprevalence of 6.29% of sampled sheep in both provinces. A higher number of MAP seropositive ewes was recorded in the large herds' consistence than in the small and medium herds' consistence (P = 0.0269), and a greater percentage of infected sheep was obtained among female at early/late than in peak lactation stage (P = 0.0237). MAP infection was confirmed in 12.6% of infected farms by faecal culture. The true sheep-level seroprevalence was 15.1% ± 7.3%. PMID:21876850

  1. P-wave tomography of the Calabrian Arc region (South Italy) using a new 'a priori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orecchio, Barbara; Presti, Debora; Totaro, Cristina; Guerra, Ignazio; Neri, Giancarlo

    2010-05-01

    A recently published tomographic investigation of the Calabrian Arc, South Italy (Neri et al., SRL, 2009) has shown that the Ionian subducting slab appears in-depth continuous only beneath the central part of the Arc (southern Calabria), while it has already undergone detachment at the edges of the arcuate structure (northern Calabria and northeastern Sicily). Starting from this result we tried to better define the features of the slab by performing a new tomographic inversion of crust and upper lithosphere in the Calabrian Arc region. The starting velocity model was derived from the integration of a new crustal velocity model obtained applying the method proposed by Waldhauser et al. (GJI, 1998 and 2002) and a deep model used by Neri et al. (SRL, 2009). We merged these two models into an averaged regional one, ranging between the surface and 300km depth. Then we used it to perform a new P-wave tomographic inversion of shallow and deep earthquakes occurred between 1981 and 2008 in Southern Italy. We selected all the events with a minimum of 12P+S and 8 P+S readings for shallow and deep earthquakes respectively. The quality of the readings was, in the majority of cases, checked directly on the recordings. The final inversion dataset consists of 75141 P and 40118 S arrival times relative to 7050 earthquakes recorded at a total of 591 stations. All the data available from the national and local networks, including the CAT-SCAN and UniCal network, have been used for inversion. This new model reduced significantly the RMS parameter and allowed us to enlarge the inversion zone. The investigation, together with a detailed analysis of seismicity, allows us to propose an improved and more complete view of the subduction system with respect to the previous works, including Neri et al. (SRL, 2009).

  2. A statistical approach to evaluate flood risk at the regional level: an application to Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Mauro; Marchesini, Ivan; Salvati, Paola; Donnini, Marco; Guzzetti, Fausto; Sterlacchini, Simone; Zazzeri, Marco; Bonazzi, Alessandro; Carlesi, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Floods are frequent and widespread in Italy, causing every year multiple fatalities and extensive damages to public and private structures. A pre-requisite for the development of mitigation schemes, including financial instruments such as insurance, is the ability to quantify their costs starting from the estimation of the underlying flood hazard. However, comprehensive and coherent information on flood prone areas, and estimates on the frequency and intensity of flood events, are not often available at scales appropriate for risk pooling and diversification. In Italy, River Basins Hydrogeological Plans (PAI), prepared by basin administrations, are the basic descriptive, regulatory, technical and operational tools for environmental planning in flood prone areas. Nevertheless, such plans do not cover the entire Italian territory, having significant gaps along the minor hydrographic network and in ungauged basins. Several process-based modelling approaches have been used by different basin administrations for the flood hazard assessment, resulting in an inhomogeneous hazard zonation of the territory. As a result, flood hazard assessments expected and damage estimations across the different Italian basin administrations are not always coherent. To overcome these limitations, we propose a simplified multivariate statistical approach for the regional flood hazard zonation coupled with a flood impact model. This modelling approach has been applied in different Italian basin administrations, allowing a preliminary but coherent and comparable estimation of the flood hazard and the relative impact. Model performances are evaluated comparing the predicted flood prone areas with the corresponding PAI zonation. The proposed approach will provide standardized information (following the EU Floods Directive specifications) on flood risk at a regional level which can in turn be more readily applied to assess flood economic impacts. Furthermore, in the assumption of an appropriate

  3. Is variation management included in regional healthcare governance systems? Some proposals from Italy.

    PubMed

    Nuti, Sabina; Seghieri, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    The Italian National Health System, which follows a Beveridge model, provides universal healthcare coverage through general taxation. Universal coverage provides uniform healthcare access to citizens and is the characteristic usually considered the added value of a welfare system financed by tax revenues. Nonetheless, wide differences in practice patterns, health outcomes and regional usages of resources that cannot be justified by differences in patient needs have been demonstrated to exist. Beginning with the experience of the health care system of the Tuscany region (Italy), this study describes the first steps of a long-term approach to proactively address the issue of geographic variation in healthcare. In particular, the study highlights how the unwarranted variation management has been addressed in a region with a high degree of managerial control over the delivery of health care and a consolidated performance evaluation system, by first, considering it a high priority objective and then by actively integrating it into the regional planning and control mechanism. The implications of this study can be useful to policy makers, professionals and managers, and will contribute to the understanding of how the management of variation can be implemented with performance measurements and financial incentives. PMID:24050981

  4. Regional flood frequency analysis in Triveneto (Italy): climate and scale controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persiano, Simone; Castellarin, Attilio; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Brath, Armando

    2016-04-01

    The growing concern about the possible effects of climate change on flood frequency regime is leading Authorities to review previously proposed procedures for design-flood estimation, such as national regionalization approaches. Our study focuses on the Triveneto region, a broad geographical area in North-eastern Italy consisting of the administrative regions of Trentino-Alto Adige, Veneto and Friuli-Venezia Giulia. A reference procedure for design flood estimation in Triveneto is available from the Italian NCR research project "VA.PI.", which developed a regional model using annual maximum series (AMS) of peak discharges that were collected up to the 80s by the former Italian Hydrometeorological Service. We consider a very detailed AMS database that we recently compiled for ~80 catchments located in Triveneto. Our dataset includes the historical data mentioned above, together with more recent data obtained from Regional Services and annual maximum peak streamflows extracted from inflow series to artificial reservoirs and provided by dam managers. All ~80 study catchments are characterized in terms of several geomorphologic and climatic descriptors. The main objectives of our study are: (1) to check whether climatic and scale controls on flood frequency regime in Triveneto are similar to the controls that were recently found in Europe; (2) to verify the possible presence of trends as well as abrupt changes in the intensity and frequency of flood extremes by looking at changes in time of regional L-moments of annual maximum floods; (3) to assess the reliability and representativeness of the reference procedure for design flood estimation relative to flood data that were not included in the VA.PI. dataset (i.e. more recent data collected after the 80s and historical data provided by dam managers); (4) to develop an updated reference procedure for design flood estimation in Triveneto by using a focused-pooling approach (i.e. Region of Influence, RoI).

  5. Modelling and predicting urban atmospheric pollutants in the Aosta Valley region of Italy using a site-optimised model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirks, Kim N.; Nanni, Alessandro; Dirks, Vincent I.

    2006-01-01

    An effective simple site-optimised urban air pollution model for predicting CO, PM10, NO and NO2 concentrations is developed for the topographically complex region of the Aosta Valley in Italy. The good results suggest that such a model could be used to downscale mesoscale-forecasted surface conditions to give real-time site-specific pollution predictions.

  6. Allergy in urban elderly population living in Campania region (Southern Italy). A multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Liccardi, G; Baldi, G; Berra, A; Ciccarelli, A; Cutajar, M; D'Amato, M; D'Angelo, R; Gargano, D; Giannattasio, D; Leone, G; Lo Schiavo, M; Madonna, F; Montera, C; Monti, R; Parente, R; Pedicini, A; Pio, A; Russo, M; Salzillo, A; Stanziola, A; Vatrella, A; Manzi, F; Bilò, M B

    2016-07-01

    Given the increasing life expectancy observed in Western countries, there is a marked interest to know more about how aging could influence respiratory health. The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence, clinical characteristics and age of onset of allergic sensitization and clinical symptoms in a sample of atopic elders living in Campania region area (Southern Italy). Fourteen Allergy units or Centres examined a total of 462 patients. In this context 215 (46.53%) had positive skin prick tests (SPTs) to at least one allergen and were diagnosed with respiratory allergy. Parietaria represents the most common sensitizing agent in elders living in Campania region, followed by dust mites, grass pollen and Olea europaea. A relatively high percentage of atopic subjects suffered from respiratory symptoms at a fairly advanced age, namely 8.3% at 60-64 years, 10.2% at 65-70 and 5.7% at > 70 years. In conclusion, the prevalence and clinical significance of airway allergic sensitization in the elderly living in Campania region is more significant than expected in latter stages of life. Physicians should not neglect the role of atopy as a risk factor for the onset of allergic respiratory symptoms even in elderly patients. PMID:27425174

  7. Integrating emergy evaluation and geographic information systems for monitoring resource use in the Abruzzo region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Pulselli, Riccardo Maria

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an application of an environmental accounting method, namely emergy evaluation, developed for the monitoring and assessment of environmental resource use by local communities in the Abruzzo Region (Italy). Once quantified and classified according to their origin (renewable or non-renewable, local or external), emergy flows were elaborated through a geographic information system (GIS) that allowed us to represent their spatial distribution throughout the region. Outcomes took the form of patterns in which different emergy intensities, namely empower (unit: seJ yr(-1)), were represented through a graduated grey-scale and visualized on a cartographic basis. The concentration of emergy flows, depending on the activity of local communities, showed variable levels of environmental load in different areas. In particular, spatial zones with homogeneous values of empower density (unit: seJ yr(-1) km(-2))--high, medium and low--were detected in order to identify areas with a similar "thermodynamic" nature, emergy being a thermodynamics based function. This allowed for the representation, at a glance, of a kind of geography that mirrors the behavior of a population settled in an area as additional information for investigating the effects of the use of urban structures and functions and improving our understanding of regional systems. A combined use of emergy evaluation and GIS could thus provide a complementary view of a territorial system and inform policy makers for planning specific strategies of future development. PMID:20663603

  8. Using online databases for landslide susceptibility assessment: an example from the Veneto Region (northeastern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floris, M.; Iafelice, M.; Squarzoni, C.; Zorzi, L.; de Agostini, A.; Genevois, R.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, spatial data available in the Italian portals was used to evaluate the landslide susceptibility of the Euganean Hills Regional Park, located SW of Padua (northeastern Italy). Quality, applicability and possible analysis scales of the online data were investigated. After a brief overview on the WebGIS portals around the world, their contents and tools for natural risk analyses, a susceptibility analysis of the study area was carried out using a simple probabilistic approach that compared landslide distribution and influencing factors. The input factors used in the analysis depended on available data and included landslides, morphometric data (elevation, slope, curvature, profile and plan Curvature) and non-morphometric data (land use, distance to roads and distance to rivers). Great attention was paid to the pre-processing step, in particular the re-classification of continuous data that was performed following objective, geologic and geomorphologic criteria. The results of the study show that the simple probabilistic approach used for the susceptibility evaluation showed quite good accuracy and precision (repeatability). However, heuristic, statistical or deterministic methods could be applied to the online data to improve the prediction. The data available online for the Italian territory allows susceptibility assessment at medium and large scales. Morphometric factors, such as elevation and slope angle, are important because they implicitly include information that is not available, such as lithologic and structural data. The main drawback of the Italian online databases is the lack of information on the frequency of landslides; thus, a complete hazard analysis is not possible. Despite the good results achieved to date, collection and sharing of data on natural risks must be improved in Italy and around the world. The creation of spatial data infrastructure and more WebGIS portals is desirable.

  9. Central Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Clouds and haze cover most of the Italian peninsula in this view of central Italy (41.5N, 14.0E) but the Bay of Naples region with Mt. Vesuvius and the island of Capri are clear. The Adriatic Sea in the background separates Italy from the cloud covered Balkans of eastern Europe and the Tyrrhenian Sea in the foreground lies between the Italian mainland and the off scene islands of Corsica and Sardinia. Several aircraft contrails can also be seen.

  10. Perinatal outcomes among immigrant mothers over two periods in a region of central Italy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The number of immigrants has increased in Italy in the last twenty years (7.2% of the Italian population), as have infants of foreign-born parents, but scanty evidence on perinatal outcomes is available. The aim of this study was to investigate whether infants of foreign-born mothers living in Italy have different odds of adverse perinatal outcomes compared to those of native-born mothers, and if such measures changed over two periods. Methods The source of this area-based study was the regional hospital discharge database that records perinatal information on all births in the Lazio region. We analysed 296,739 singleton births born between 1996-1998 and 2006-2008. The exposure variable was the mother's region of birth. We considered five outcomes of perinatal health. We estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the association between mother's region of birth and perinatal outcomes. Results Perinatal outcomes were worse among infants of immigrant compared to Italian mothers, especially for sub-Saharan and west Africans, with the following crude ORs (in 1996-1998 and 2006-2008 respectively): 1.80 (95%CI:1.44-2.28) and 1.95 (95%CI:1.72-2.21) for very preterm births, and 1.32 (95%CI:1.16-1.50) and 1.32 (95%CI:1.25-1.39) for preterm births; 1.18 (95%CI:0.99-1.40) and 1.17 (95%CI:1.03-1.34) for a low Apgar score; 1.22 (95%CI:1.15-1.31) and 1.24 (95%CI:1.17-1.32) for the presence of respiratory diseases; 1.47 (95%CI:1.30-1.66) and 1.45 (95%CI:1.34-1.57) for the need for special or intensive neonatal care/in-hospital deaths; and 1.03 (95%CI:0.93-1.15) and 1.07 (95%CI:1.00-1.15) for congenital malformations. Overall, time did not affect the odds of outcomes differently between immigrant and Italian mothers and most outcomes improved over time among all infants. None of the risk factors considered confounded the associations. Conclusion Our findings suggest that migrant status is a risk factor for adverse perinatal

  11. Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project and geothermal activities in Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; Troiano, Antonio; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Mormone, Angela; Carlino, Stefano; Somma, Renato; Tramelli, Anna; Vertechi, Enrico; Sangianantoni, Agata; Piochi, Monica

    2013-04-01

    The Campanian volcanic area has a huge geothermal potential (Carlino et al., 2012), similar to the Larderello-Radicondoli-Amiata region, in Tuscany (Italy), which has been the first site in the World exploited for electric production. Recently, the Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project (CFDDP), sponsored by ICDP and devoted to understand and mitigate the extreme volcanic risk in the area, has also risen new interest for geothermal exploration in several areas of Italy. Following the new Italian regulations which favour and incentivise innovative pilot power plants with zero emission, several geothermal projects have started in the Campania Region, characterized by strict cooperation among large to small industries, Universities and public Research Centers. INGV department of Naples (Osservatorio Vesuviano) has the technical/scientific leadership of such initiatives. Most of such projects are coordinated in the framework of the Regional District for Energy, in which a large part is represented by geothermal resource. Leading geothermal projects in the area include 'FORIO' pilot plant project, aimed to build two small (5 MWe each one) power plants in the Ischia island and two projects aimed to build pilot power plants in the Agnano-Fuorigrotta area in the city of Naples, at the easternmost part of Campi Flegrei caldera. One of the Campi Flegrei projects, 'SCARFOGLIO', is aimed to build a 5 MWe geothermal power plant in the Agnano area, whereas the 'START' project has the goal to build a tri-generation power plant in the Fuorigrotta area, fed mainly by geothermal source improved by solar termodynamic and bio-mass. Meanwhile such projects enter the field work operational phase, the pilot hole drilling of the CFDDP project, recently completed, represents an important experience for several operational aspects, which should contitute an example to be followed by the next geothermal activities in the area. It has been furthermore a source of valuable data for geothermal

  12. [Analysis of the causes of death in the Umbria Region (Italy) 1994-2008].

    PubMed

    D'Alò, Daniela; Stracci, Fabrizio; Casucci, Paola; Stabile, Marco; La Rosa, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    The leading causes of death in the Umbria Region (Italy) between 1994-2008 were analysed and a comparison was made between data from three five-year time periods: 1994-1998, 1999-2003 and 2004-2008. Standardized rates of Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL) at 75 years, by gender and cause of death, were also measured. Mortality data was obtained from the Umbria Registry of causes of death; diagnoses were codified according to the International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD10). Mortality trends over time were analysed by using standardized mortality rates with the 2001 Umbria census data as the reference population . The joinpoint regression program was used to analyze rates calculated by the SEER (Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results) software of the National Cancer Institute (USA). Mortality for all causes, standardised by age, show a significantly decreasing trend from 1994 to 2008 in both genders. Mortality rates for cardiovascular diseases and malignant tumours show a significant constant decline in both genders. Standardised rates of YPLL at 75 years declined by 32% in males and 29% in females between the five-year period 1994-1998 and the period 2004-2008. In conclusion, a generalised decline in mortality and a shift towards older age groups is observed with a consequent decline in YPLL, allowing a positive judgment to be given regarding the efficacy of preventive, therapeutic and rehabilitation interventions implemented by the regional health care system. PMID:20859307

  13. A methodology for elemental and organic carbon emission inventory and results for Lombardy region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Caserini, Stefano; Galante, Silvia; Ozgen, Senem; Cucco, Sara; de Gregorio, Katia; Moretti, Marco

    2013-04-15

    This paper presents a methodology and its application for the compilation of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) emission inventories. The methodology consists of the estimation of EC and OC emissions from available total suspended particulate matter (TSP) emission inventory data using EC and OC abundances in TSP derived from an extensive literature review, by taking into account the local technological context. In particular, the method is applied to the 2008 emissions of Lombardy region, Italy, considering 148 different activities and 30 types of fuels, typical of Western Europe. The abundances estimated in this study may provide a useful basis to assess the emissions also in other emission contexts with similar prevailing sources and technologies. The dominant sources of EC and OC in Lombardy are diesel vehicles for EC and the residential wood combustion (RWC) for OC which together account for about 83% of the total emissions of both pollutants. The EC and OC emissions from industrial processes and other fuel (e.g., gasoline, kerosene and LPG) combustion are significantly lower, while non-combustion sources give an almost negligible contribution. Total EC+OC contribution to regional greenhouse gas emissions is positive for every sector assuming whichever GWP100 value within the range proposed in literature. An uncertainty assessment is performed through a Monte Carlo simulation for RWC, showing a large uncertainty range (280% of the mean value for EC and 70% for OC), whereas for road transport a qualitative analysis identified a narrower range of uncertainty. PMID:23454906

  14. Content of Cadmium and Lead in Vegetables and Fruits Grown in the Campania Region of Italy.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Mauro; Picazio, Giuseppe; Serpe, Paola; Lambiase, Sara; Cerino, Pellegrino

    2015-09-01

    Illegal practices of waste combustion and their burial in some land devoted to agricultural crops caused a severe economic crisis of the agriculture and food sector in the Campania region of Italy. To assess the levels of contamination by lead and cadmium, the only metals subject to European Union legislation, a system of monitoring of plant foods in the whole territory of the region has been promoted, with the goal of certifying productions and consumer protection. In fact, products that comply with European Union standards are assigned a Quick Response Code, which guarantees the traceability of the product (manufacturer and location). The code also ensures the safety of the product, as it allows the consumer to see the results of the analysis performed on the specific chain of production. The content of lead and cadmium was determined in 750 vegetable samples by using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry after microwave mineralization. These levels were below the maximum limits in all but three samples; two samples of tomatoes exceeded the maximum level of cadmium, and one sample of valerian contained an excess of lead. PMID:26319733

  15. Epidemiology of tetanus in the Marches Region of Italy, 1992-95.

    PubMed Central

    Prospero, E.; Appignanesi, R.; D'Errico, M. M.; Carle, F.

    1998-01-01

    Reported is the incidence of tetanus in the Marches Region of Italy for the period 1992-95. Data were obtained from both the regional public health committee's notification forms for infectious diseases and from hospital clinical records. A total of 36 cases were examined, comprising 7 males (19.4%) and 29 females. The raw annual incidence was 6.3 per million population; the standardized incidence for females was four times greater than that for males (9.2 and 2.4 per million population annually, respectively). The patients' ages varied from 31 years to 88 years (median, 73.5 years). The incidence among subjects older than 65 years was approximately ten times greater than that among younger individuals. Chronic wounds, such as trophic lesions, represented the site of tetanus infection in 14.3% of cases whose infection entry point was identified. Treatment of the 36 cases required a total of 1239 hospital days, of which 58.7% were in intensive care and 29.6% were in infectious diseases departments. The raw annual mortality rate for the period considered was 0.7 per million population; the case-fatality ratio was 11%. The results of our study confirm the limits of the current Italian immunization programmes, which exclude a large portion of the population from antitetanus protection. PMID:9615496

  16. Depth Dependent Intrinsic And Scattering Attenuation In The Lithospheric Structure Of The Friuli Region - Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, F.; del Pezzo, E.; Akinci, A.; di Luccio, F.; Malagnini, L.

    2002-12-01

    For a selected range of both scattering and intrinsic attenuation parameters we generated the seismic energy envelopes for several non uniform earth models reproducing the main features of the litosphere for the Friuli region (north-eastern Italy). The simulations were compared to the envelopes obtained for a earth model with constant velocity and scattering coefficient. Results were organized in nomograms. At the same time we obtained the envelopes calculated using the Multiple Lapse Time Window Analysis (MLTWA) applied to short period records of local and regional earthquakes occurred in the same area in the distance range 0 - 120 km for a uniform model. We used 11 frequency bands centered at respectively 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 Hz with 1 Hz bandwidth. The three energy windows for the analysis were calculated for a duration of 15 seconds, and coda normalization factor was evaluated at between 60 to 75 seconds from the origin time of each earthquake. After comparing the energies obtained by the application of MLTWA to the ones resulting from the uniform model, we extract qualitative information on the attenuative depth dependent structure for the investigated area.

  17. Depth dependent intrinsic and scattering attenuation in the lithospheric structure of the Friuli Region Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, F.; del Pezzo, E.; Malagnini, L.; di Luccio, F.; Akinci, A.

    2003-04-01

    For a selected set of earthquakes occurred in the Friuli region (north-eastern Italy), we calculated the seismic energy envelopes for the application of the Multiple Lapse Time Window Analysis (MLTWA). We first generated theoretical curves for a uniform model, which were fit to data from short period records of local and regional earthquakes in the distance range 20 - 70 km. We filtered the data in 11 frequency bands centered at respectively 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 Hz with ±1 Hz bandwidth. The three energy windows for the analysis were calculated for duration of 15 seconds, and coda normalization factor was evaluated at between 50 to 65 seconds from the origin time of each earthquake. In this way we estimate the intrinsic and scattering Q-inverse for a uniform earth model. Then, for a selected range of both scattering and intrinsic attenuation parameters we numerically generated the theoretical seismic energy envelopes for several non-uniform earth models reproducing the main features of the lithosphere for the Friuli region. The simulations were compared to the envelopes obtained for the uniform earth model (with constant velocity and scattering coefficient). Results were organized in nomograms that allow the determination of the intrinsic and scattering inverse-Q for a non-uniform earth model, starting from the estimates carried out for the uniform model. Results for the Friuli area show that: 1. the intrinsic inverse-Q estimate for a uniform model is close to the intrinsic inverse-Q estimate for a non-uniform model 2. scattering inverse-Q is always overestimated assuming a uniform model For a velocity earth model realistically valid for Friuli region the bias is, on average, a factor 2.

  18. Scale-Invariance in the Spatial Development of Landslides in the Umbria Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liucci, Luisa; Melelli, Laura; Suteanu, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the spatial distribution of mass movements is a major issue in the management and forecasting of landslide risk. In this context, the present study examines the most widespread types of landslide in the Umbria region (central Italy), that is, slides and flows, in order to establish if it is possible to identify a well-defined structure in their spatial pattern. By using the landslide inventory map available for the area and by resorting to the principles of fractal theory, the scaling properties of the landslide sample were investigated. The application of the box-counting algorithm to the maps of landslide triggering points and landslide areas allowed for the identification of a clear scale-invariant structure. Two distinct types of fractal behaviour were recognized, separated by a scale value of 1 km and characterized by capacity dimensions of 1.35 and 1.76, in the ranges of 25 m-1 km and 1-16 km, respectively. The comparison between the scaling exponents obtained from a map of points and one of areas, and the elaboration of the cumulative frequency distributions of landslide areas supported the interpretation of this result: the higher capacity dimension describes the spatial distribution of landslides in the Umbria region, while the lower contains additional information about their geometries, suggesting that the latter also possess scaling properties. Based on the finding of two different types of behaviour of landslides in space, the hypothesis is discussed that the contribution of each causal factor (i.e., predisposing and triggering factors) to the occurrence of landslide events and to their spatial development could be different in the two scale ranges identified, depending on its spatial variability at local and regional scale. According to this hypothesis, factors with high local variability (i.e., topographic attributes) would mainly affect the assortment of landslide geometries, while those with high regional variability (e.g., rainfalls

  19. Regional earthquake loss estimation in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huttenlau, Matthias; Winter, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Beside storm events geophysical events cause a majority of natural hazard losses on a global scale. However, in alpine regions with a moderate earthquake risk potential like in the study area and thereupon connected consequences on the collective memory this source of risk is often neglected in contrast to gravitational and hydrological hazards processes. In this context, the comparative analysis of potential disasters and emergencies on a national level in Switzerland (Katarisk study) has shown that earthquakes are the most serious source of risk in general. In order to estimate the potential losses of earthquake events for different return periods and loss dimensions of extreme events the following study was conducted in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol (Italy). The applied methodology follows the generally accepted risk concept based on the risk components hazard, elements at risk and vulnerability, whereby risk is not defined holistically (direct, indirect, tangible and intangible) but with the risk category losses on buildings and inventory as a general risk proxy. The hazard analysis is based on a regional macroseismic scenario approach. Thereby, the settlement centre of each community (116 communities) is defined as potential epicentre. For each epicentre four different epicentral scenarios (return periods of 98, 475, 975 and 2475 years) are calculated based on the simple but approved and generally accepted attenuation law according to Sponheuer (1960). The relevant input parameters to calculate the epicentral scenarios are (i) the macroseismic intensity and (ii) the focal depth. The considered macroseismic intensities are based on a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) of the Italian earthquake catalogue on a community level (Dipartimento della Protezione Civile). The relevant focal depth are considered as a mean within a defined buffer of the focal depths of the harmonized earthquake catalogues of Italy and Switzerland as well as

  20. MOMENT TENSOR SOLUTIONS OF RECENT EARTHQUAKES IN THE CALABRIAN REGION (SOUTH ITALY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orecchio, B.; D'Amico, S.; Gervasi, A.; Guerra, I.; Presti, D.; Zhu, L.; Herrmann, R. B.; Neri, G.

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study is to provide moment tensor solutions for recent events occurred in the Calabrian region (South Italy), an area struck by several destructive earthquakes in the last centuries. The seismicity of the area under investigation is actually characterized by low to moderate magnitude earthquakes (up to 4.5) not properly represented in the Italian national catalogues of focal mechanisms like RCMT (Regional Centroid Moment Tensor, Pondrelli et al., PEPI, 2006) and TDMT (Time Domain Moment Tensors, Dreger and Helmerger, BSSA, 1993). Also, the solutions estimated from P-onset polarities are often poorly constrained due to network geometry in the study area. We computed the moment tensor solutions using the “Cut And Paste” method originally proposed by Zhao and Helmerger (BSSA, 1994) and later modified by Zhu and Helmerger (BSSA, 1996). Each waveform is broken into the Pnl and surface wave segments and the source depth and focal mechanisms are determined using a grid search technique. The technique allows time shifts between synthetics and observed data in order to reduce dependence of the solution on the assumed velocity model and earthquake locations. This method has shown to provide good-quality solutions for earthquakes of magnitude as small as 2.5. The data set of the present study consists of waveforms from more than 100 earthquakes that were recorded by the permanent seismic network run by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) and about 40 stations of the NSF CAT/SCAN project. The results concur to check and better detail the regional geodynamic model assuming subduction of the Ionian lithosphere beneath the Tyrrhenian one and related response of the shallow structures in terms of normal and strike-slip faulting seismicity.

  1. Extending the temporal context of ethnobotanical databases: the case study of the Campania region (southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    De Natale, Antonino; Pezzatti, Gianni Boris; Pollio, Antonino

    2009-01-01

    Background Ethnobotanical studies generally describe the traditional knowledge of a territory according to a "hic et nunc" principle. The need of approaching this field also embedding historical data has been frequently acknowledged. With their long history of civilization some regions of the Mediterranean basin seem to be particularly suited for an historical approach to be adopted. Campania, a region of southern Italy, has been selected for a database implementation containing present and past information on plant uses. Methods A relational database has been built on the basis of information gathered from different historical sources, including diaries, travel accounts, and treatises on medicinal plants, written by explorers, botanists, physicians, who travelled in Campania during the last three centuries. Moreover, ethnobotanical uses described in historical herbal collections and in Ancient and Medieval texts from the Mediterranean Region have been included in the database. Results 1672 different uses, ranging from medicinal, to alimentary, ceremonial, veterinary, have been recorded for 474 species listed in the data base. Information is not uniformly spread over the Campanian territory; Sannio being the most studied geographical area and Cilento the least one. About 50 plants have been continuously used in the last three centuries in the cure of the same affections. A comparison with the uses reported for the same species in Ancient treatises shows that the origin of present ethnomedicine from old learned medical doctrines needs a case-by-case confirmation. Conclusion The database is flexible enough to represent a useful tool for researchers who need to store and compare present and previous ethnobotanical uses from Mediterranean Countries. PMID:19228384

  2. Aspergillus spp. colonization in exhaled breath condensate of lung cancer patients from Puglia Region of Italy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Airways of lung cancer patients are often colonized by fungi. Some of these colonizing fungi, under particular conditions, produce cancerogenic mycotoxins. Given the recent interest in the infective origin of lung cancer, with this preliminary study we aim to give our small contribution to this field of research by analysing the fungal microbiome of the exhaled breath condensate of lung cancer patients from Puglia, a region of Italy. Methods We enrolled 43 lung cancer patients and 21 healthy subjects that underwent exhaled breath condensate and bronchial brushing collection. The fungal incidence and nature of sample collected were analysed by using a selected media for Aspergillus species. Results For the first time we were able to analyse the fungal microbioma of the exhaled breath condensate. 27.9% of lung cancer patients showed a presence of Aspergillus niger, or A. ochraceus or Penicillium ssp. while none of the healthy subjects did so. Conclusion The results confirmed the high percentage of fungal colonization of the airways of lung cancer patients from Puglia, suggesting the need to conduct further analyses in this field in order to evaluate the exact pathogenetic role of these fungi in lung cancer as well as to propose efficient, empirical therapy. PMID:24548615

  3. Definition of radon prone areas in Friuli Venezia Giulia region, Italy, using geostatistical tools.

    PubMed

    Cafaro, C; Bossew, P; Giovani, C; Garavaglia, M

    2014-12-01

    Studying the geographical distribution of indoor radon concentration, using geostatistical interpolation methods, has become common for predicting and estimating the risk to the population. Here we analyse the case of Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG), the north easternmost region of Italy. Mean value and standard deviation are, respectively, 153 Bq/m(3) and 183 Bq/m(3). The geometric mean value is 100 Bq/m(3). Spatial datasets of indoor radon concentrations are usually affected by clustering and apparent non-stationarity issues, which can eventually yield arguable results. The clustering of the present dataset seems to be non preferential. Therefore the areal estimations are not expected to be affected. Conversely, nothing can be said on the non stationarity issues and its effects. After discussing the correlation of geology with indoor radon concentration It appears they are created by the same geologic features influencing the mean and median values, and can't be eliminated via a map-based approach. To tackle these problems, in this work we deal with multiple definitions of RPA, but only in quaternary areas of FVG, using extensive simulation techniques. PMID:25261867

  4. Biomonitoring with honeybees of heavy metals and pesticides in nature reserves of the Marche Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ruschioni, Sara; Riolo, Paola; Minuz, Roxana Luisa; Stefano, Mariassunta; Cannella, Maddalena; Porrini, Claudio; Isidoro, Nunzio

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out biomonitoring with honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) to assess the presence of pesticides and heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead) in all of the ten nature reserves of the Marche Region (central–eastern Italy). The study was carried out during the spring and summer seasons when the honeybees were active, over 3 years (2008–2010). Twenty-two colonies of honeybees bred in hives were used. Samples of live and dead honeybees and of honey were collected from 11 sampling stations from May to October in each year. No pesticide pollution was found. Significant differences in heavy metal concentrations were found among years, months and sites, and in particular situations. The analysis reveals that high heavy-metal concentrations occurred exclusively in live honeybees. For the seasonal averages, the most detected heavy metal was chromium, which exceeded the threshold more often than for the other elements, followed by cadmium and lead; nickel never exceeded the threshold. The data are discussed with an evaluation of the natural and anthropic sources taken from the literature and from local situations that were likely to involve heavy metal pollution. PMID:23797576

  5. Relationship between geo- and biodiversity: an example from the Piemonte Region (NW Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Enrico; Ghiraldi, Luca; Pistarino, Annalaura; Giardino, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The portion of floodplain located in the southern sector of Piemonte region (NW Italy) nearby the Langhe hills, is characterized by a complex and heterogeneous geomorphological system. It is the results of geological processes and climate changes occurred since Pliocene and continued in the Upper Pleistocene with the piracy of the Tanaro River, which because of the change of the base level it triggered processes of intense headward erosion, helped by the sedimentary nature of the substrate. As a consequence of this action the landscape can be subdivided in three main geomorphological units: i) the deep incisions on the floodplain where the main rivers flow; ii) the uplands rising above the plain characterized in the eastern portion by several fluvial terraces, while in the northern one they are cut by streams that dug deep gorges where marine deposits of the Piemonte Tertiary Basin outcrop; iii) the hilly area of Langhe and Roero, which shaped on sedimentary rocks, represents a monocline structure dipping to the north-west. The aim of the present work is to identify a complex of geomorphosites able to describe not only the geological and geomorphological evolution, but also the conditioning that the geomorphological features produce on the vegetation. In particular this kind of analysis has been carried out on a limited area located nearby the city of Cherasco. In this sector the presence of deep narrow gorges created a characteristic environment with ecological niches occupied by plant communities of alpine origin, considered as glacial relicts.

  6. Meteorological operational services for civil protection in Veneto region (North-eastern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbi, A.; Monai, M.; Zardini, F.

    2009-09-01

    The Meteorological Centre of Teolo (CMT), part of the Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention and Protection of the North-eastern Italian region Veneto (ARPAV), is the operational regional meteorological service. Since April 2009 the Centre is linked to and supplies meteorological monitoring and forecasting to the recently constituted Functional Centre of the regional civil protection (CFD Veneto), which operates in the framework of National Civil Protection. The CFD Veneto supplies a multi-disciplinary, technical-scientific support to civil protection activities, to early warnings of natural hazards, in particular related to hydrogeological, hydraulic, and avalanches risks. The north-eastern part of Italy is known to be one of the rainiest regions in Europe. The region Veneto, due to its topographic configuration which includes Alpine reliefs, plans and a coast exposed to the Adriatic Sea, is conducive to heavy and long-lasting precipitation events. Also, strong thunderstorm activity with high precipitation rates, hail, wind gusts, and even tornadoes are relatively frequent occurrences. In this contribution two recent examples of different types of extreme events are briefly analysed by means of the ARPAV multi-sensor observing system which includes weather radar and a dense surface network. We show some of the impacts of such weather events on the territory, the services provided by CFD Veneto, in terms of meteorological forecasting and nowcasting products, and hydrogeologic/hydraulic hazard bullettins. The analysis highlights the difficulty of an efficient wheather forecast for civil defence purposes in a complex situation as ours, where many types of different events are possible. Especially cases of rapid convective events with their intense and very localized phenomena are a significant challenge. It is well-known that such events can bring remarkable material damages and serious danger for the people. For this reason an effective warning system which

  7. Priority persistent contaminants in people dwelling in critical areas of Campania Region, Italy (SEBIOREC biomonitoring study).

    PubMed

    De Felip, Elena; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Bove, Crescenzo; Cori, Liliana; D'Argenzio, Angelo; D'Orsi, Giancarlo; Fusco, Mario; Miniero, Roberto; Ortolani, Rosanna; Palombino, Raffaele; Parlato, Antonino; Pelliccia, Maria Grazia; Peluso, Filomena; Piscopo, Giovanni; Pizzuti, Renato; Porpora, Maria Grazia; Protano, Domenico; Senofonte, Oreste; Spena, Silvana Russo; Simonetti, Andrea; di Domenico, Alessandro

    2014-07-15

    To investigate if protracted living in degraded environments of the Caserta and Naples provinces (Campania Region, Italy) had an impact on exposure of local people, highly toxic persistent contaminants were measured in blood, blood serum, and human milk of a large number of healthy donors. Sampling was carried out from 2008 to 2009. Blood was collected from over 850 20-64-year old donors; by pooling, 84 blood and 84 serum samples were obtained. Milk was donated by 52 mothers: specimens were pooled into six samples. Polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs, dioxin-like (DL) and non-dioxin-like (Σ6PCBs)), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) were measured in serum (organic biomarkers) and blood (metals); these chemicals and polybromobiphenyl ethers (Σ9PBDEs) were analyzed in milk. PCDD+PCDF, DL-PCB, TEQTOT, and Σ6PCB concentration ranges (medians) in serum were 6.26-23.1 (12.4), 3.42-31.7 (11.5), 10.0-52.8 (23.9) pgTEQ97/g fat, and 55.5-647 (219) ng/g fat, respectively, while in milk concentration ranges were 5.99-8.77, 4.02-6.15, 10.0-14.2 pgTEQ97/g fat, and 48.7-74.2 ng/g fat. Likewise, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb findings in blood spanned 2.34-13.4 (5.83), 0.180-0.930 (0.475), 1.09-7.60 (2.60), 10.2-55.9 (28.8) μg/L, respectively; only Pb could be measured in milk (2.78-5.99 μg/L). Σ9PBDE levels in milk samples were 0.965-6.05 ng/g fat. Biomarkers' concentrations were found to be compatible with their current values in European countries and in Italy, and consistent with an exposure primarily determined by consumption of commercial food from the large distribution system. Based on relatively higher biomarker values within the hematic biomonitoring database, the following municipalities were flagged as possibly deserving attention for health-oriented interventions: Brusciano and Caivano (As), Giugliano (Hg), Pianura (PCDDs+PCDFs), and Qualiano-Villaricca (As, Hg). The analysis of samples

  8. Preliminary notes about Heritage Stone Resources from Apulia region South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeone, Vincenzo; Doglioni, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Apulia region in south Italy is characterized by a calcareous basement of cretaceous limestone outcropping in the large Murgia highland in central Apulia and by the presence of Miocenic and Pleistocenic calcareous sandstone that historically the have been used for many buildings and architectural purpose and can be considered as part of heritage stone resources that still today are used for several building purpose. Here is presented a preliminary overview of the main kind of stone that can be properly included in the global stone resources. The main limestone stones are the Bari cretaceous limestone that have been used to build up many Apulia Romanic cathedrals as Trani Cathedral, and also many mediaeval castle as the famous Castel del Monte built by Fredric II. The most famous variety is Trani stone dug in large open quarry in the area at north of Bari. A second important stone resource is the Lecce sandstone. It is a quite homogeneous and compact Miocenic sandstone, made up by fragments of limestone and fossil carbonate with calcites cement and the presence of other substances included dispersion of clay minerals. It has a light-colored or pale yellow with tiny pink veins. It is dug in large quarries throughout the Salento peninsula in southern Apulia. It is a rock relatively soft and easily workable also due to the presence of small quantities of clay. Improves its characteristics of resistance as a result of drying. Even if it was largely used for architecture and decorative purpose it is easily degradable for effect of weathering effects. It was the base of famous monuments and decoration of Lecce Baroque in the XVIII century, including the palace of Celestine and the adjacent Santa Croce Church, the Church of Santa Chiara and the Cathedral. A third relevant heritage stone is the Gravina calcareous sandstone (Upper Pleistocene) largely outcropping along the border of Murge calcareous horst. It has been used for several historical ancient building (XVII

  9. Evolution of the techniques for subsidence monitoring at regional scale: the case of Emilia-Romagna region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitelli, G.; Bonsignore, F.; Pellegrino, I.; Vittuari, L.

    2015-11-01

    The recent decades have seen a significant evolution of the methodologies and techniques for the monitoring of subsidence on a regional scale: from the traditional levelling technique to GNSS and finally to SAR interferometry. The case study of Emilia-Romagna, Italy, is a prime example of this evolution. As known, the Emilia-Romagna plain is subject to a phenomenon of subsidence with a natural and an anthropogenic component, both of varying amounts depending on the area. The first contributes a few mm/year; the second, particularly evident in the last 60 years, is mainly correlated to excessive withdrawal of fluids from underground and reaches higher values (in the past, subsidence rates of several cm per year were observed in the Po delta and near Bologna). The geodetic monitoring of subsidence started in the 1950s by different entities, establishing and measuring levelling networks of varying size and with various characteristics, mainly located where the phenomenon was most clearly manifest. These local initiatives were not able to provide a consistent understanding of the phenomenon throughout the entire Emilia-Romagna plain. The first regional-scale monitoring of the Emilia-Romagna plain was initiated in 1999, with a large levelling network (about 3000 km) and a coupled network of 60 GNSS points. In subsequent years, the monitoring approach has mainly focused on the most modern remote sensing techniques integrated with each other, with the adoption of the method DInSAR calibrated to a GNSS Continuous Operating Reference Stations (CORS) database. The application of DInSAR methods resulted in subsidence maps with a greater level of detail. The paper analyzes the methodology choices made during 1999-2012, through three successive campaigns that adopted and integrated the different techniques.

  10. Exploiting teleconnection indices for probabilistic forecasting of drought class transitions in Sicily region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorso, Brunella; Cancelliere, Antonino

    2015-04-01

    In the present study two probabilistic models for short-medium term drought forecasting able to include information provided by teleconnection indices are proposed and applied to Sicily region (Italy). Drought conditions are expressed in terms of the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) at different aggregation time scales. More specifically, a multivariate approach based on normal distribution is developed in order to estimate: 1) on the one hand transition probabilities to future SPEI drought classes and 2) on the other hand, SPEI forecasts at a generic time horizon M, as functions of past values of SPEI and the selected teleconnection index. To this end, SPEI series at 3, 4 and 6 aggregation time scales for Sicily region are extracted from the Global SPEI database, SPEIbase , available at Web repository of the Spanish National Research Council (http://sac.csic.es/spei/database.html), and averaged over the study area. In particular, SPEIbase v2.3 with spatial resolution of 0.5° lat/lon and temporal coverage between January 1901 and December 2013 is used. A preliminary correlation analysis is carried out to investigate the link between the drought index and different teleconnection patterns, namely: the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Scandinavian (SCA) and the East Atlantic-West Russia (EA-WR) patterns. Results of such analysis indicate a strongest influence of NAO on drought conditions in Sicily with respect to other teleconnection indices. Then, the proposed forecasting methodology is applied and the skill in forecasting of the proposed models is quantitatively assessed through the application of a simple score approach and of performance indices. Results indicate that inclusion of NAO index generally enhance model performance thus confirming the suitability of the models for short- medium term forecast of drought conditions.

  11. Homogeneous regions in Italy: an analysis of the mean and extreme climate characteristics and their impact on agriculture.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, M.; Coccimiglio, P.

    2009-09-01

    Adverse environmental conditions, lasting for several days in a row, can cause stress over ecosystems, humans and animals with a negative impact on crop yield, human health, and on animal production and reproduction, to name few aspects, and therefore leading to severe economic losses. Namely, in the last decades, the enhanced frequency and intensity of summer heat waves in Italy have increased the importance of assessing the damages they cause. Another example is the occurrence of late spring frost causing damages not only to subsistence crops, but moreover for the so-called cash-crops. An example is the kiwifruit production in Italy specifically grown to fulfil the global demand, more than the national market, being the Italian production out of phase with the other major producers, such as New Zealand and South America. Using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) applied to daily maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation and then a hierarchical cluster analysis, based on Ward's method, on a set of 100 stations covering the period 1971-2006, we divided the 100 sites into 8 homogeneous classes. For each cluster the climate characteristics have been analyzed, in order to have a description of the mean climate of the cluster. In addition, we analyzed the occurrence of the extreme events in each cluster, their duration and intensity, and their trend over the last decades. Focusing on the kiwifruit production regions in Italy a first attempt is presented to compare actual/suitable production regions in Italy and similar regions in New Zealand from the point of view of their respective climate trends and variability. Long term trends in agroclimatic indices and results of comparison analysis will be discussed for regions in the two Countries. The study has been partly supported by the Short term mobility programme of the Italian National Research Council, under the sponsorship of the CNR-Agrofood Department.

  12. Modelling nitrogen leaching from sewage sludge application to arable land in the Lombardy region (northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Mattia; Perego, Alessia; Acutis, Marco

    2013-09-01

    Sewage sludge can be used as fertiliser, offering the possibility of safely recycling this waste product as a resource in agricultural applications. As the environmental concerns related to waste recycling in agricultural applications are well-known, restrictions on the use of sewage sludge have been implemented by the EU and local authorities. This work aimed to evaluate the nitrogen leaching associated with the application of sludge and the effectiveness of the temporal restrictions on its application implemented to safeguard the environment in the Lombardy region of northern Italy (120 days in Nitrate Vulnerable Zones and 90 days elsewhere) using the CropSyst model which was first validated. The effects of fertilisation using four different sludge types on N leaching were simulated at five sites under cultivation with maize and rice crops; six different timing schemes for sludge application were tested, three of which involved dates that were in agreement (AT) with the regulation, while the other three were not in agreement (NAT). We detected a significant effect of the sludge type and application timing, whereas the effect of their interaction was never significant. The mean annual leaching was 22 to 154 kg N ha(-1). The higher the ammonium N content in the sludge was, the greater the potential for N leaching was found to be. For the maize crop, the distribution of sludge in the late fall period resulted in significantly greater N leaching (61 kg N ha(-1)) and led to lower yields (9 t DM ha(-1)) compared to late winter fertilisation (49 kg N ha(-1); 10 t DM ha(-1)), whereas no differences in N leaching or yield were detected between AT and NAT, which was also observed for the rice crop. Therefore, the applied temporal constraints did not always appear to be advantageous for protecting the environment from leaching. PMID:23751334

  13. A radiometric and petrographic approach to risk assessment at Alte Madonie Mounts region (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Lanzo, G; Rizzo, S; Tomarchio, E

    2014-03-01

    The main goal of this work was to assess the radiological hazard at Alte Madonie Mounts region (north-central Sicily, Italy) in response to rumours of an increase in the incidence of cancer in this area. A correlation between the natural radionuclide contents and the petrographic features of the soil and rock samples was also evaluated. A total of 41 samples of selected soils and rocks were collected, powdered, dried and sealed in 'Marinelli' beakers for 20 d prior to measurement to ensure that a radioactive equilibrium between (226)Ra and (214)Bi had been reached. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to quantify the radioactivity concentrations. To determine (238)U and (232)Th activities, the 609.3-keV line from (214)Bi in secular equilibrium with (226)Ra and the 911-keV line from (228)Ac, with which (232)Th can be assumed to be in equilibrium, were used, respectively. The gamma transition of 1461 keV was used to determine (40)K activity. The average values of the concentrations of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K were 30, 17 and 227 Bq kg(-1), respectively, whereas the greatest values were 134, 59 and 748 Bq kg(-1), respectively. A linear relationship was found between the activity values of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K. An exception was found for a group of samples in which the (214)Bi activities were much higher than expected. The chemical compositions and mineralogical features of the samples permitted the justification of these anomalies. The results of the primordial radionuclide contents are reassuring from a radiation protection point of view because the activities of the uranium and thorium series products and of the (40)K do not present a significant radiological hazard. PMID:24106332

  14. Consumers and foodborne diseases: knowledge, attitudes and reported behavior in one region of Italy.

    PubMed

    Angelillo, I F; Foresta, M R; Scozzafava, C; Pavia, M

    2001-02-28

    A survey was conducted to investigate knowledge, attitudes and related behavior on foodborne diseases and food-handling practices among consumers in one region of Italy. A self-administered questionnaire was offered to a random sample of mothers of children attending public schools. Of the 394 responding mothers, 36% knew about all the six foodborne pathogens investigated but only 11.1% correctly indicated six related different food vehicles; education level was a predictor of this knowledge. A positive attitude towards foodborne disease control, significantly higher in older and more educated women, was reported by the great majority, who agreed that improper storage of food represents a health hazard (95.7%), that washing hands before handling unwrapped raw or cooked food reduces the risk of food poisoning (93.2%), and that the awareness of the temperature of the refrigerator is crucial in reducing risk of food poisoning (90.1%). Only 53.9% reported washing hands before and after touching raw or unwrapped food and 50.4% reported using soap to wash hands. A total of 75.6% clean kitchen benches after every use and 81.1% use hot water and soap for this purpose. Only 25.6% thaw food in the refrigerator and 49.9% put leftovers in the refrigerator soon after meals. Washing hands before and after touching unwrapped food was significantly higher in women living in larger families and who had been informed by physicians about foodborne diseases. Educational programs and the counseling efforts of physicians, particularly focused to less educated subjects, are greatly needed. PMID:11252498

  15. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and karst spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vita, P.; Allocca, V.; Manna, F.; Fabbrocino, S.

    2012-05-01

    Thus far, studies on climate change have focused mainly on the variability of the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle, investigating the impact of this variability on the environment, especially with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods. Conversely, the impacts of climate change on the recharge of aquifers and on the variability of groundwater flow have been less investigated, especially in Mediterranean karst areas whose water supply systems depend heavily upon groundwater exploitation. In this paper, long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater recharge were analysed by examining decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy), coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, from 1921 to 2010, using 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations with the most continuous functioning. The time series of the winter NAO index and of the discharges of 3 karst springs, selected from those feeding the major aqueducts systems, were collected for the same period. Regional normalised indexes of the precipitation, air temperature and karst spring discharges were calculated, and different methods were applied to analyse the related time series, including long-term trend analysis using smoothing numerical techniques, cross-correlation and Fourier analysis. The investigation of the normalised indexes highlighted the existence of long-term complex periodicities, from 2 to more than 30 yr, with differences in average values of up to approximately ±30% for precipitation and karst spring discharges, which were both strongly correlated with the winter NAO index. Although the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) had already been demonstrated in the long-term precipitation and streamflow patterns of different European countries and Mediterranean areas, the results

  16. Geodiversity of the Umbria region (central Italy): a GIS-based quantitative index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melelli, Laura; Pica, Alessia; Del Monte, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    The measure of natural range related to geological bedrock, landforms and geomorphological processes is the necessary starting point to geodiversity evaluation. Geodiversity plays a strategic role in landscape management. Whereas geotourism and geosites are identified as a driving power for the scientific and economic promotion of an area, the geodiversity knowledge is required for a complete and accurate research. For example, high values of this abiotic parameter identify and support the foundation of geoparks. According to this perspective, the geodiversity is the unifying factor for these areas of interest. While a subjective and qualitative approach may be adequate for geosites definition, identification and cultural promotion, the geodiversity concept needs a different evaluation method. A quantitative procedure allows achieving an objective and repeatable process exportable in different geographic units. Geographical Information Systems and spatial analysis techniques are the base to quantitative evaluation involving topographic, geological and geomorphological data. Therefore, the assessment of a numerical index derived from the overlay of spatial parameters can be conveniently computed in GIS environment. In this study, a geodiversity index is proposed where geological, geomorphological and landcover factors deriving mainly from maps and field survey; topographic ones are employed from DEM and remote sensed data. Each abiotic parameter is modelled in a grid format; focal functions do provide neighbourhood analysis and computing variety statistics. A particular extent is dedicated to topographic information and terrain roughness, that are strictly related to efficiency of geomorphological processes and generally corresponding to the abiotic components variability. The study area is located in central Italy and is characterized by a well known natural heritage. Thirty-seven geosites are detected in the Umbria region, where seven regional and one natural

  17. S wave attenuation and site effects in the region of Friuli, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Raúl R.; Pacor, Francesca; Sala, Alfio; Petrungaro, Carmine

    1996-10-01

    We used strong motion records from the 1976 Friuli earthquake (M 6.4) and 10 of the biggest aftershocks recorded by the National Accelerograph Network of the Electrical Power Company of Italy to estimate the quality factor Q of S waves in this region. The wide distance range of the recordings (10 < r < 190 km) permits us to analyze the spectral amplitude decay of the records using a nonparametric approach [e.g., Anderson and Quaas, 1988; Castro et al., 1990; Anderson, 1991]. We obtained attenuation functions for a set of 18 frequencies ranging between 0.4 and 25.0 Hz. The values of Q retrieved from the attenuation functions obtained follow the frequency-dependent relation Q = 20.4f. A test of the method was made using a second data set consisting of digital seismograms from the Friuli-Venezia Giulia Seismograph Network. In spite of the different size of the volume sampled by these data (10 < r < 131 km), the frequency dependence of Q obtained (Q = 16.1f0.92) is similar to that obtained with the strong motion data set. The near-surface attenuation was also estimated using the model proposed by Anderson and Hough [1984] and Anderson [1991]. We found that κ0 is smaller for the strong motion stations located on rock compared to stations located on either shallow or soft sediments. To estimate the site response of the strong motion stations, we corrected the spectral records for the attenuation effect and then inverted the corrected records to separate source and site effects using the inversion scheme proposed by Andrews [1986]. To verify the site amplification estimates obtained, we also calculated the transfer function of each site using Nakamura's [1989] method for S wave [e.g., Lermo and Chavez-García, 1993]. In general, the shapes of the site functions obtained with the inversion are consistent with the transfer functions obtained calculating the horizontal to vertical component ratio.

  18. The characteristics and activities of child and adolescent mental health services in Italy: a regional survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To date, no studies have assessed in detail the characteristics, organisation, and functioning of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). This information gap represents a major limitation for researchers and clinicians because most mental disorders have their onset in childhood or adolescence, and effective interventions can therefore represent a major factor in avoiding chronicity. Interventions and mental health care are delivered by and through services, and not by individual, private clinicians, and drawbacks or limitations of services generally translate in inappropriateness and ineffectiveness of treatments and interventions: therefore information about services is essential to improve the quality of care and ultimately the course and outcome of mental disorders in childhood and adolescence. The present paper reports the results of the first study aimed at providing detailed, updated and comprehensive data on CAMHS of a densely populated Italian region (over 4 million inhabitants) with a target population of 633,725 subjects aged 0-17 years. Methods Unit Chiefs of all the CAMHS filled in a structured 'Facility Form', with activity data referring to 2008 (data for inpatient facilities referred to 2009), which were then analysed in detail. Results Eleven CAMHS were operative, including 110 outpatient units, with a ratio of approximately 20 child psychiatrists and 23 psychologists per 100,000 inhabitants aged 0-17 years. All outpatient units were well equipped and organized and all granted free service access. In 2008, approximately 6% of the target population was in contact with outpatient CAMHS, showing substantial homogeneity across the eleven areas thereby. Most patients in contact in 2008 received a language disorder- or learning disability diagnosis (41%). First-ever contacts accounted for 30% of annual visits across all units. Hospital bed availability was 5 per 100,000 inhabitants aged 0-17 years. Conclusion The percentage of

  19. Potentiality of SENTINEL-1 for landslide detection: first results in the Molise Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barra, Anna; Monserrat, Oriol; Mazzanti, Paolo; Esposito, Carlo; Crosetto, Michele; Scarascia Mugnozza, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    A detailed inventory map, including information on landslide activity, is one of the most important input to landslide susceptibility and hazard analyses. The contribution of satellite SAR Interferometry in landslide risk mitigation is well-known within the scientific community. In fact, many encouraging results have been obtained, principally, in areas characterized by high coherence of the images (e.g. due to rock lithology or urban environment setting). In terms of coherence, the expected increased capabilities of Sentinel-1 for landslide mapping and monitoring are connected to both wavelength (55.5 mm) and short temporal baseline (12 days). The latter one is expected to be a key feature for increasing coherence and for defining monitoring and updating plans. With the aim of assessing these potentialities, we processed a set of 14 Sentinel-1 SLC images, acquired during a temporal span of 7 months, over the Molise region (Southern Italy), a critical area geologically susceptible to landslides. Even though Molise is mostly covered by crops and forested areas (63% and 35% respectively), that means a non-optimal coherence condition for SAR interferometry, promising results have been obtained. This has been achieved by integrating differential interferometric SAR techniques (12-days interferograms and time series) with GIS multilayer analysis (optical, geological, geomorphological, etc.). Specifically, analyzing a single burst of a Sentinel-1 frame (approximately 1875 km2), 62 landslides have been detected, thus allowing to improve the pre-existing inventory maps both in terms of landslide boundaries and state of activity. The results of our ongoing research show that Sentinel-1 can give a significant improvement in terms of exploitation of SAR data for landslide mapping and monitoring. As a matter of fact, by analyzing longer periods, it is expected to achieve a better understanding of landslide behavior and its relationship with triggering factors. This will be key

  20. Crustal structure, seismicity and seismotectonics of the Trentino region (Southern Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viganò, Alfio; Scafidi, Davide; Martin, Silvana; Spallarossa, Daniele; Froner, Luca; Groaz, Oscar

    2013-04-01

    The Trentino region is located at the junction between the central and eastern Southern Alps (Italy), at the intersection between the Giudicarie, Schio-Vicenza and Valsugana fault systems. This area is characterized by relevant lithological and structural lateral heterogeneities, both at the crustal and lithospheric scales. A low-to-moderate seismicity is located in the upper crust, where faults are seismically active under a dominant compressive with variable strike-slip component regime. Here we study the crustal structure of this portion of the Southern Alps (Adria plate) from interpretation of local earthquake tomography images, in relation with distribution of relocated seismicity and regional tectonic patterns. Local earthquake tomography derives from a set of 476 selected earthquakes in the period 1994-2007, with local magnitudes comprised between 0.8 and 5.3. Hypocenter distribution, and number and quality of manually-repicked phases (6322 P and 5483 S) ensure optimal seismic ray coverage. Original recordings are principally from the Provincia Autonoma di Trento (PAT), that manages the Trentino seismic network since 1981, and from other networks (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale - INOGS; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - INGV; others available via the European Integrated Data Archive). The code HYPOELLIPSE is used to perform initial earthquake relocations. The code VELEST is then used to calculate a new minimum 1-D velocity model, as input for tomography. The 3-D tomographic inversion (V P and V P-V S ratio) is obtained via the code SIMULPS, with the implementation of an accurate shooting ray-tracer. The crustal volume is discretized in order to have a regular grid with a homogenous horizontal spatial resolution of 7.5 km. The resolution in depth varies according to the obtained minimum 1-D velocity model. Reliability and accuracy of results are estimated by analyzing the Resolution Diagonal Elements of the

  1. Definition of a Sinkhole hazard methodology in the Pontina Plain (Latium Region, Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teoli, Pamela; Mazza, Roberto; Capelli, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    The work presented here is the continuation of " Sinkhole Project of Latium Region" (2002), carried out by Researchers of the Laboratory of Applied Geology and Hydrogeology of the Department of Geological Sciences of the University "Roma Tre", Rome (Italy), through which were found, in different plain of the whole Region, Sinkhole prone areas, using a methodology based on the superimposition of thematic layers corresponding to geological and anthropogenic breaking factors. In the last years several specific investigations have been conducted by Researchers of the Laboratory in the Pontina Plain, that is located in the south west of the Latium Region, concerning the geological-stratigraphic setting, the sketch of flow in the aquifers located in the Pontine depression, the chemiphysical groundwater characheteristics, the density of wells, the amount of well pumping and piezometric changes. This required the implementation of several piezometric and chemiphysical surveys, the collection and validation of a large number of stratigraphic and geophysical data. All data in the archive have been computerized and the maps vectorized. This makes it possible today to address the analysis with Geographical Information Systems and to start numerical flow simulations, regarding both the heavily drained deep confined aquifer, and the areas subject to the presence of an important water exchange between the recharge area in the Lepini Mountains (carbonatic ridge) and terrigenous aquifers of the plain. Among the main causes that trigger the catastrophic collapses there are, in fact, all the phenomena that cause the mass density reduction through erosion, leaching, dissolution. All these agents are associated with water circulation: flow, velocity, CO2 saturation rate, carbonates saturation rate. The spread in the Pontina plain of deep and high pumping wells, wrongly built without the correct way of progress, and without the realization of cemented portions properly located, can lead

  2. Flow-type landslides magnitude evaluation: the case study of the Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santo, Antonio; De Falco, Melania; Di Crescenzo, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    In the last years studies concerning the triggering and the run-out susceptibility for different kind of landslides have become more and more precise. In the most of the cases the methodological approach involve the production of detailed thematic maps (at least 1:5000 scale) which represent a very useful tool for territorial planning, especially in urbanized areas. More recently these researches were accompanied by the growth of other studies dealing with landslide magnitude evaluation (especially in terms of volume and velocity estimate). In this paper the results of a flow-type landslides magnitude evaluation are presented. The study area is located in Southern Italy and is very wide (1,500 square kilometres) including all the Campania region. In this context flow type landslides represent the most frequent instabilities as shown by the large number of victims and the huge economic damage caused in the last few centuries. These shallow landslides involve thin cohesionless, unsaturated pyroclastic soils found over steep slopes around Somma-Vesuvio and Phlegrean district, affecting a wide area where over 100 towns are located. Since the potential volume of flow-type landslides is a measure of event magnitude we propose to estimate the potential volume at the scale of slope or basin for about 90 municipalities affecting 850 hierarchized drainage basins and 900 regular slopes. An empirical approach recently proposed in literature (De Falco et al., 2012), allows to estimate the volume of the pyroclastic cover that can be displaced along the slope. The method derives from the interpretation of numerous geological and geomorphological data gathered from a vast amount of case histories on landslides in volcanic and carbonatic contexts and it is based on determining the thickness of the pyroclastic cover and the width of the detachment and erosion-transport zone. Thickness can be evaluated with a good degree of approximation since, in these landslides, the failure

  3. A Late Variscan Sn province: the Arburese region (SW Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naitza, Stefano; Secchi, Francesco; Oggiano, Giacomo; Cuccuru, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Late Variscan Sn - rich European provinces (e. g. Erzgebirge, Cornwall) are of particular relevance as they offer key insights into crustal evolution, intrusive processes and ore genesis. In Sardinia (Italy), small Sn deposits are only known in the Arburese historical mining region (SW Sardinia), hosted in low-grade metamorphics close to the contacts with intrusives. This region is characterised by two late variscan intrusions, which differ in age and composition: the Arbus and the Monte Linas pluton, aging 304 ± 1 Ma, and 289 ± 1 Ma respectively. They emplaced at shallow crustal levels and crosscut the basal thrust between the alloctonous prism and the foreland of the Variscan belt of Sardinia. The Arbus Pluton (AP) is a composite intrusion of piroxene- and amphibole- granodiorites hosting minor amounts of monzogabbroic rocks and cordierite-bearing granites with a wide core of leuco-monzogranites. Tourmaline greisens and pegmatites garnish the contact between the border facies and the host metamorphic rocks. The Monte Linas Pluton (MLP) has biotite monzogranite composition. The pluton is internally zoned, from medium grained monzogranite in the core to hololeucocratic fine-grained rock-types at the top, where often F-greisen, fayalite-pegmatite pods and sill are common. In both plutons the igneous associations are high-K ilmenite series, suggesting derivation from low- fO2 magmas possibly linked to a common crustal contribution; however, in the Linas Pluton magnetite in the fine-grained facies may indicate an increase in oxygen fugacity. The AP-related Sn ores consist of high-temperature As-Sn quartz veins. They are vertically zoned, from quartz-chlorite-cassiterite to large quartz-arsenopyrite veins. Ore microscopy and SEM-EDS analyses evidenced a vein texture made of thick idiomorphic and frequently twinned cassiterite crystals, alternated with several generations of banded/geodic quartz. Chlinoclore aggregates are included into the quartz. The arsenopyrite

  4. Ala(0)-actagardine, a new lantibiotic from cultures of Actinoplanes liguriae ATCC 31048.

    PubMed

    Vértesy, L; Aretz, W; Bonnefoy, A; Ehlers, E; Kurz, M; Markus, A; Schiell, M; Vogel, M; Wink, J; Kogler, H

    1999-08-01

    The actagardine-producing strain Actinoplanes liguriae ATCC 31048, forms an additional lantibiotic when it is cultured on mannitol and soya meal. The new compound, Ala(0)-actagardine (1), has been isolated by solid-phase extraction followed by a two-step chromatographic separation. The molecular formula of 1 is C84H129N21O25S4. Its chemical structure was determined by 2D-NMR analysis and was further confirmed by an amino acid analysis, Edman degradation, and partial synthesis from actagardine. 1 exhibits a slightly higher biological activity than the parent compound actagardine. The synthetic analogs Lys(0)-actagardine (2) and Ile(0)-actagardine (3) demonstrate also antibacterial activities and emphasize the importance of the N-terminus for further derivatization. PMID:10580386

  5. Non-Susceptible Landslide Areas in Italy and in the Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvioli, Massimiliano; Ardizzone, Francesca; Guzzetti, Fausto; Marchesini, Ivan; Rossi, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    Landslide susceptibility is the likelihood of a landslide occurring in a given area. Over the past three decades, researchers, and planning and environmental organisations have worked to assess landslide susceptibility at different geographical scales, and to produce maps portraying landslide susceptibility zonation. Little effort was made to determine where landslides are not expected, where susceptibility is null, or negligible. This is surprising because planners and decision makers are also interesting in knowing where landslides are not foreseen, or cannot occur in an area. We propose a method for the definition of non-susceptible landslide areas, at the synoptic scale. We applied the method in Italy and to the territory surrounding the Mediterranean Sea and we produced two synoptic-scale maps showing areas where landslides are not expected in Italy and in the Mediterranean area. To construct the method we used digital terrain elevation and landslide information. The digital terrain consisted in the 3-arc-second SRTM DEM, the landslide information was obtained for 13 areas in Italy where landslide inventory maps were available to us. We tested three different models to determine the non-susceptible landslide areas, including a linear model (LR), a quantile linear model (QLR), and a quantile non-linear model (QNL). Model performances have been evaluated using independent landslide information represented by the Italian Landslide Inventory (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia - IFFI). Best results were obtained using the QNL model. The corresponding zonation of non- susceptible landslide areas was intersected in a GIS with geographical census data for Italy. The results show that the 57.5% of the population of Italy (in 2001) was located in areas where landslide susceptibility was expected to be null or negligible, while the remaining 42.5% in areas where some landslide susceptibility was significant or not negligible. We applied the QNL model to the

  6. Ground motion prediction and earthquake scenarios in the volcanic region of Mt. Etna (Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Horst; Tusa, Giuseppina; Luciano, Scarfi; Azzaro, Raffaela

    2013-04-01

    One of the principal issues in the assessment of seismic hazard is the prediction of relevant ground motion parameters, e. g., peak ground acceleration, radiated seismic energy, response spectra, at some distance from the source. Here we first present ground motion prediction equations (GMPE) for horizontal components for the area of Mt. Etna and adjacent zones. Our analysis is based on 4878 three component seismograms related to 129 seismic events with local magnitudes ranging from 3.0 to 4.8, hypocentral distances up to 200 km, and focal depth shallower than 30 km. Accounting for the specific seismotectonic and geological conditions of the considered area we have divided our data set into three sub-groups: (i) Shallow Mt. Etna Events (SEE), i.e., typically volcano-tectonic events in the area of Mt. Etna having a focal depth less than 5 km; (ii) Deep Mt. Etna Events (DEE), i.e., events in the volcanic region, but with a depth greater than 5 km; (iii) Extra Mt. Etna Events (EEE), i.e., purely tectonic events falling outside the area of Mt. Etna. The predicted PGAs for the SEE are lower than those predicted for the DEE and the EEE, reflecting their lower high-frequency energy content. We explain this observation as due to the lower stress drops. The attenuation relationships are compared to the ones most commonly used, such as by Sabetta and Pugliese (1987)for Italy, or Ambraseys et al. (1996) for Europe. Whereas our GMPEs are based on small earthquakes, the magnitudes covered by the two above mentioned attenuation relationships regard moderate to large magnitudes (up to 6.8 and 7.9, respectively). We show that the extrapolation of our GMPEs to magnitues beyond the range covered by the data is misleading; at the same time also the afore mentioned relationships fail to predict ground motion parameters for our data set. Despite of these discrepancies, we can exploit our data for setting up scenarios for strong earthquakes for which no instrumental recordings are

  7. Regional Landslide Mapping Aided by Automated Classification of SqueeSAR™ Time Series (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannacone, J.; Berti, M.; Allievi, J.; Del Conte, S.; Corsini, A.

    2013-12-01

    Space borne InSAR has proven to be very valuable for landslides detection. In particular, extremely slow landslides (Cruden and Varnes, 1996) can be now clearly identified, thanks to the millimetric precision reached by recent multi-interferometric algorithms. The typical approach in radar interpretation for landslides mapping is based on average annual velocity of the deformation which is calculated over the entire times series. The Hotspot and Cluster Analysis (Lu et al., 2012) and the PSI-based matrix approach (Cigna et al., 2013) are examples of landslides mapping techniques based on average annual velocities. However, slope movements can be affected by non-linear deformation trends, (i.e. reactivation of dormant landslides, deceleration due to natural or man-made slope stabilization, seasonal activity, etc). Therefore, analyzing deformation time series is crucial in order to fully characterize slope dynamics. While this is relatively simple to be carried out manually when dealing with small dataset, the time series analysis over regional scale dataset requires automated classification procedures. Berti et al. (2013) developed an automatic procedure for the analysis of InSAR time series based on a sequence of statistical tests. The analysis allows to classify the time series into six distinctive target trends (0=uncorrelated; 1=linear; 2=quadratic; 3=bilinear; 4=discontinuous without constant velocity; 5=discontinuous with change in velocity) which are likely to represent different slope processes. The analysis also provides a series of descriptive parameters which can be used to characterize the temporal changes of ground motion. All the classification algorithms were integrated into a Graphical User Interface called PSTime. We investigated an area of about 2000 km2 in the Northern Apennines of Italy by using SqueeSAR™ algorithm (Ferretti et al., 2011). Two Radarsat-1 data stack, comprising of 112 scenes in descending orbit and 124 scenes in ascending orbit

  8. Local Earthquakes Tomography in the Southern Tyrrhenian Region (Italy): Geophysical and Petrological Inferences on Subducting Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calo, M.; Dorbath, C.; Luzio, D.; Rotolo, S. G.; D'Anna, G.

    2007-12-01

    The Calabrian Arc, Southern Italy, is characterised by the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere -since Middle Miocene- beneath the Tyrrhenian basin. The related Benioff zone is seismically active to a depth > 500 km. The tomoDD code [Zhang and Thurber, 2003] was adopted to perform the tomography, using a set of 2463 earthquakes located in the window 14°30' E - 17°E and 37°N - 41°N, and recorded by seismic networks of the INGV in the period 1981-2005. Several inversions were performed using different selections of absolute and differential data obtained varying the maximum RMS and the threshold of the inter-event distance. Various synthetic and experimental tests were executed to evaluate the resolution and stability of the tomographic inversion. The inversions carried out for the synthetic and the restoration-resolution test [Zhao et al., 1992] were repeated several times with the same procedure used in the inversion of experimental data. The lack of bias in the models, related to the different grid- node positions, was tested performing inversions rotating, translating and deforming the original grid. To evaluate the dependence on the initial model, several inversions were also done using different 1D and 3D models simulating slab features. Finally, 35 models resulting from the inversions were synthesized in an average model obtained by interpolating each velocity model into a fixed grid. Each velocity value interpolated was weighted with a corresponding DWS (Derivative Weight Sum) resulting thus a Weighted Average Velocity model. The highly resolved sections through the average Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs models allowed us to image several relevant features of the structure of the subducting Ionian slab and of the Southern Tyrrhenian mantle: -the hypocenters are localized in the NW dipping fast area (Vp>8.2 km/s), 50-60 km thick, most likely composed litospheric mantle. Just below, an aseismic low Vp zone (6.6 - 7.7 km/s) 20-25 km thick, is assigned to the partially

  9. Comparison of Predicted and Measured Soil Retention Curve in Lombardy Region Northern of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassar, Fatma; Rienzner, Michele; Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Water retention characteristics are crucial input parameters in any modeling study on water flow and solute transport. These properties are difficult to measure and therefore the use of both direct and indirect methods is required in order to adequately describe them with sufficient accuracy. Several field methods, laboratory methods and theoretical models for such determinations exist, each having their own limitations and advantages (Stephens, 1994). Therefore, extensive comparisons between estimated, field and laboratory results to determine it still requires their validity for a range of different soils and specific cases. This study attempts to make a contribution specifically in this connection. The soil water retention characteristics were determined in two representative sites (PMI-1 and PMI-5) located in Landriano field, in Lombardy region, northern Italy. In the laboratory, values of both volumetric water content (θ) and soil water matric potential (h) are measured in the same sample using the tensiometric box and pressure plate apparatus. Field determination of soil water retention involved measurements of soil water content with SENTEK probes, and matric potential with tensiometers. The retention curve characteristics were also determined using some of the most commonly cited and some recently developed PTFs that use soil properties such as particle-size distribution (sand, silt, and clay content), organic matter or organic Carbon content, and dry bulk density. Field methods are considered to be more representative than laboratory and estimation methods for determining water retention characteristics (Marion et al., 1996). Therefore, field retention curves were compared against retention curves obtained from laboratory measurements and PTFs estimations. The performances of laboratory and PTFs in predicting field measured data were evaluated using root mean square error (RMSE) and bias. The comparison showed that laboratory measurements were the most

  10. Notes about the uses of plants by one of the last healers in the Basilicata Region (South Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The paper refers to the knowledge and uses of plants and to the linked ritual practices as referred by Matteo (It.‘Zì Matteo’, En. ‘Uncle Matthew’), one of the last elder healers in the Basilicata Region (South Italy). Particular attention is also paid to the uses of ‘Vruca’ (Tamarix gallica L.) as a medicinal and magical plant used to heal common warts on various parts of the body. Methods After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through an open interview about the uses of the plants and on the associated ritual practices. For each species, data were collected that included the vernacular names, preparation, plant parts utilized and their method of use. Results The uses of 52 taxa are described. Among these, 43 are or were employed medicinally, eight as culinary foodstuffs, and 4 for domestic, handicraft or ethnoveterinary uses. Among the major findings: the ritual and magical use of Tamarix gallica L. to heal warts is described in detail; so far, no records of similar use were found in any Italian ethnobotanical studies conducted in southern Italy. Conclusion Phytotherapy in the Basilicata region is practiced by elderly people who resort to medicinal plants for mild illnesses; we interviewed one of those traditional healers who is very experienced in the field, and possesses rich ethno-pharmacological knowledge. PMID:22546322

  11. Seasonal monitoring and estimation of regional aerosol distribution over Po valley, northern Italy, using a high-resolution MAIAC product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvani, Barbara; Pierce, R. Bradley; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Ghermandi, Grazia; Teggi, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the new 1 km-resolved Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm is employed to characterize seasonal PM10 - AOD correlations over northern Italy. The accuracy of the new dataset is assessed compared to the widely used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 5.1 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data, retrieved at 0.55 μm with spatial resolution of 10 km (MYD04_L2). We focused on evaluating the ability of these two products to characterize both temporal and spatial distributions of aerosols within urban and suburban areas. Ground PM10 measurements were obtained from 73 of the Italian Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA) monitoring stations, spread across northern Italy, during a three-year period from 2010 to 2012. The Po Valley area (northern Italy) was chosen as the study domain because of its severe urban air pollution, resulting from it having the highest population and industrial manufacturing density in the country, being located in a valley where two surrounding mountain chains favor the stagnation of pollutants. We found that the global correlations between the bin-averaged PM10 and AOD are R2 = 0.83 and R2 = 0.44 for MYD04_L2 and for MAIAC, respectively, suggesting a greater sensitivity of the high-resolution product to small-scale deviations. However, the introduction of Relative Humidity (RH) and Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) depth corrections allowed for a significant improvement to the bin-averaged PM - AOD correlation, which led to a similar performance: R2 = 0.96 for MODIS and R2 = 0.95 for MAIAC. Furthermore, the introduction of the PBL information in the corrected AOD values was found to be crucial in order to capture the clear seasonal cycle shown by measured PM10 values. The study allowed us to define four seasonal linear correlations that estimate PM10 concentrations satisfactorily from the remotely sensed MAIAC AOD retrieval. Overall, the results show that

  12. Contribution to the knowledge of the folk plant medicine in Calabria region (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Passalacqua, N G; Guarrera, P M; De Fine, G

    2007-01-01

    A series of research on plants used in Calabria (Southern Italy) in the folk plant medicine was carried out in the last twenty years. The use of 104 taxa distributed into 42 families are described. Among the major findings: Ceterach officinarum as hypotensive; Heliotropium europaeum in the case of urinary inflammations; Silybum marianum for haemorrhoids; Arundo donax for pertussis and cystitis; Allium cepa for sties and flu; Laurus nobilis as galactagogue; Passiflora incarnata for burns, haemorrhoids and skin inflammations; Scrophularia canina for rhagas and wounds; Urtica membranacea for tussis and tonsillitis. PMID:17084993

  13. Natural and induced endoreic hydrological conditions in the Alta Murgia karstic region (Apulia, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canora, F.; Fidelibus, M. D.; Spilotro, G.

    2009-04-01

    A study aimed at understanding the hydrological processes in karst areas related to the presence of natural and artificial endoreic basins and their modification due to land use change, as well as the influence of above factors on the infiltration rate has been carried out in the Alta Murgia region (Apulia, Southern Italy). The region is a Cretaceous limestone plateau of the Apulian platform, characterized by a mature karstic landscape: due to its elevation, climatic conditions and lithology, the plateau constitutes the main recharge area of the Murgia aquifer. The typical karst topography is essentially related to the subterranean drainage (sinkholes, caves, conduit): surface and subsurface karst geomorphology is strictly interrelated with hydrology. The morphological features of the karstic plateau are defined by the high density of surface karstic forms (mainly dolines), the presence of exposed karst and karren fields, as well as by the extensive outcrop of fractured rocks. Karst surface shows, on the bottom of the morpho-structural depressions called "lame", natural distribution of modest deposits of "terra rossa" and regolith. The "lame" work as streams during and after intense rainfall events, often outlining a primordial ephemeral hydrographical network, frequently convergent towards dolines, poljes or endoreic basins. Alta Murgia shows many natural endoreic basin conditions in a quite flat morphology. In this environment, when intense rainfall events cover large areas and rainfall intensity exceeds the infiltration capacity of soils and/or sinkholes, significant runoff amounts are produced and stored in the basins causing floods. Most of the natural endoreic basins are small and independent: while the majority of them continue functioning as endoreic even in presence of extreme events of high return time, others (quasi-endoreic), under the same circumstances can start contributing to other basins, due to exceeding their water storage capability. This way

  14. Childhood vaccination coverage in Italy: results of a seven-region survey. The Italian Vaccine Coverage Survey Working Group.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    In Italy few data exist on vaccination coverage and timeliness. We therefore carried out cluster surveys on 12-23-month-olds in nine Italian cities and regions using standard Expanded Programme on Immunization methodology. The study areas accounted for 40% of all live births in Italy in 1991. Coverage levels for the third dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and for oral poliovirus vaccine, which are mandatory, exceeded 90% in all but one area. However, less than two-thirds of the children had completed the primary vaccine series by their first birthday. The commonest reason for failure to complete the series in time was that the child had been sick and was not brought for vaccination. For the two optional vaccines (pertussis and measles) coverage was much poorer, ranging from 8% to 71% for pertussis and from 9% to 53% for measles. The commonest reason given by the mothers for pertussis non-vaccination was that they had been advised against it, while for measles the commonest reasons were that the child was sick and that they had been advised against it. These findings suggest that although coverage for the mandatory vaccines is high, coverage for pertussis and measles is very low. Additional education of physicians and mothers is needed concerning the true contraindications for vaccination. Also, in the absence of legislation making pertussis and measles vaccines mandatory, greater efforts are needed to convince physicians and the public about the benefits of their use. PMID:7867134

  15. Interaction between regional and local tectonic forcing along a complex Quaternary extensional basin: Upper Tiber Valley, Northern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucci, S.; Mirabella, F.; Pazzaglia, F.; Barchi, M. R.; Melelli, L.; Tuccimei, P.; Soligo, M.; Saccucci, L.

    2014-10-01

    In extending areas undergoing regional tectonic uplift, the persistence of subsidence at a normal-fault hanging-wall depends on the competition between regional and local tectonic effects. When regional uplift exceeds the subsidence of the hanging-wall block, denudation prevails at both the hanging-wall and the foot-wall. When local tectonic subsidence exceeds regional uplift, sedimentation occurs over the hanging-wall block, supplied by foot-wall erosion. We analyzed a Pliocene-Quaternary continental basin, currently crossed by the Tiber River in Italy. The tectono-sedimentary evolution of the basin developed at the hanging-wall of a regional low-angle extensional detachment, the Alto Tiberina Fault, in the axial region of the Northern Apennines of Italy. This area is affected by regional uplift on the order of 0.5-1.0 mm/yr. The present-day activity of the fault is revealed by both microseismicity and geodetic (GPS) data. We investigated the mid- (10-100 ka) and long-term (0.5-3.0 Ma) evolution of the three depocenters by studying the continental Pleistocene succession infilling the basin as well as fluvial terraces and higher paleosurfaces carved into the Pleistocene deposits. By using surficial geologic data and an interpretation of a set of seismic reflection profiles, we show that the three depocenters experienced a fairly similar evolution during the Pliocene-Early Pleistocene, when a 1000-m-thick continental succession was deposited. On the contrary, geomorphological observations indicate that, at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene, a switch occurred in the evolution of the three depocenters. In the northernmost Sansepolcro sub-basin, bounding normal faults are active and hanging-wall subsidence outpaces regional uplift. Concurrently, in the Umbertide and Ponte Pattoli sub-basins uplift dominates over the hanging-wall subsidence, promoting river incision and exhumation of the Pleistocene deposits. For these two depocenters, by means of terrace

  16. Spatio-temporal patterns of distribution of West Nile virus vectors in eastern Piedmont Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background West Nile Virus (WNV) transmission in Italy was first reported in 1998 as an equine outbreak near the swamps of Padule di Fucecchio, Tuscany. No other cases were identified during the following decade until 2008, when horse and human outbreaks were reported in Emilia Romagna, North Italy. Since then, WNV outbreaks have occurred annually, spreading from their initial northern foci throughout the country. Following the outbreak in 1998 the Italian public health authority defined a surveillance plan to detect WNV circulation in birds, horses and mosquitoes. By applying spatial statistical analysis (spatial point pattern analysis) and models (Bayesian GLMM models) to a longitudinal dataset on the abundance of the three putative WNV vectors [Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas 1771), Culex pipiens (Linnaeus 1758) and Culex modestus (Ficalbi 1890)] in eastern Piedmont, we quantified their abundance and distribution in space and time and generated prediction maps outlining the areas with the highest vector productivity and potential for WNV introduction and amplification. Results The highest abundance and significant spatial clusters of Oc. caspius and Cx. modestus were in proximity to rice fields, and for Cx. pipiens, in proximity to highly populated urban areas. The GLMM model showed the importance of weather conditions and environmental factors in predicting mosquito abundance. Distance from the preferential breeding sites and elevation were negatively associated with the number of collected mosquitoes. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was positively correlated with mosquito abundance in rice fields (Oc. caspius and Cx. modestus). Based on the best models, we developed prediction maps for the year 2010 outlining the areas where high abundance of vectors could favour the introduction and amplification of WNV. Conclusions Our findings provide useful information for surveillance activities aiming to identify locations where the potential for WNV

  17. The views of experts and residents on social vulnerability to flash floods in an Alpine region of Italy.

    PubMed

    De Marchi, Bruna; Scolobig, Anna

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports on research work performed for Floodsite a European Community-funded project on the social aspects of vulnerability in the Adige/Sarca river basin of the Trentino-Alto Adige region, Italy. It identifies some limitations to the use of a fixed set of indicators, which fail to account for either local peculiarities or the intangible aspects that contribute to the shaping of social vulnerability. The authors employed a number of methods to investigate the opinions of professionals and residents on risk and safety, distinguishing between the individual and the institutional components of social vulnerability. Adopting a systemic perspective, they explored the interactions between these two elements, showing how they may give rise to unexpected phenomena. The 'safety paradox' and the 'efficiency paradox' are discussed, emerging when increased protection provided by structural devices and dedicated institutions translates into a lack of awareness and agency on the part of residents. PMID:21992718

  18. Land Contamination and Soil-Plant Interactions in the Imperina Valley Mine (Belluno, Venetian Region, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Fontana, Silvia; Zilioli, Diana

    2010-05-01

    In Italy, ore exploitation, particularly that of mixed sulphides, has been abandoned since the final thirty years of the last century, and a quantity of mine dumps has been discharged in wide areas of the land, provoking evident environmental damages to landscape, soil and vegetation, with potential risk for human health. The present study concerns the distribution and mobility of heavy metals (Ni, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe and Mn) in the soils of a mine site and their transfer to wild flora. Soils and wild plants were sampled from mixed sulphides mine dumps in Imperina valley (Belluno, Italy), and the concentrations of heavy metals were determined. Chemical analyses carried out on 10 soil profiles (mostly entisols) of the mineralised area revealed metal concentrations generally above the international target levels (Cu up to 3160 mg kg-1 , Pb up to 23600 mg kg-1, Zn up to 1588 mg kg-1, Fe up to 52,30 %). The concentrations of Ni, Cr and Mn, instead, are below the reference limits. Moreover, a highly significant correlation was observed between the concentrations of metals in soils (Fe, Pb, Zn and Cu). Metal concentration in selected wild plants of the mineralized area is moderately high, in particolar Cu, Pb, Zn in the roots of Plantago major, Pb and Zn in the leaves of Taraxacum officinale, Zn and Pb in Salix spp. The translocation coefficient (BAC) from soil to plant (hypogean portion), and within the plant (epigean portion) vary from 0,37 in Plantago major to 2,97 in Silene dioica, two known accumulator plants. Salix spp present high translocation coefficients from soil to plant, and from roots to leaves. In particular, essential metals present a translocation coefficient ≥1 (with the order Mn>Zn>Cu>Fe), while toxic metals have coefficients <1 (Pb

  19. Prevalence of multiple sclerosis in the Lazio region, Italy: use of an algorithm based on health information systems.

    PubMed

    Bargagli, Anna Maria; Colais, Paola; Agabiti, Nera; Mayer, Flavia; Buttari, Fabio; Centonze, Diego; Di Folco, Marta; Filippini, Graziella; Francia, Ada; Galgani, Simonetta; Gasperini, Claudio; Giuliani, Manuela; Mirabella, Massimiliano; Nociti, Viviana; Pozzilli, Carlo; Davoli, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Compared with other areas of the country, very limited data are available on multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence in Central Italy. We aimed to estimate MS prevalence in the Lazio region and its geographical distribution using regional health information systems (HIS). To identify MS cases we used data from drug prescription, hospital discharge and ticket exemption registries. Crude, age- and gender-specific prevalence estimates on December 31, 2011 were calculated. To compare MS prevalence between different areas within the region, we calculated age- and gender-adjusted prevalence and prevalence ratios using a multivariate Poisson regression model. Crude prevalence rate was 130.5/100,000 (95 % CI 127.5-133.5): 89.7/100,000 for males and 167.9/100,000 for females. The overall prevalence rate standardized to the European Standard Population was 119.6/100,000 (95 % CI 116.8-122.4). We observed significant differences in MS prevalence within the region, with estimates ranging from 96.3 (95 % CI 86.4-107.3) for Latina to 169.6 (95 % CI 147.6-194.9) for Rieti. Most districts close to the coast showed lower prevalence estimates compared to those situated in the eastern mountainous area of the region. In conclusion, this study produced a MS prevalence estimate at regional level using population-based health administrative databases. Our results showed the Lazio region is a high-risk area for MS, although with an uneven geographical distribution. While some limitations must be considered including possible prevalence underestimation, HIS represent a valuable source of information to measure the burden of SM, useful for epidemiological surveillance and healthcare planning. PMID:26886201

  20. Mediterranean storms and impact analysis on people of Calabria region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, O.; Polemio, M.; Pasqua, A. A.

    2010-09-01

    Mediterranean storms are a source of multiple hazards because they can trigger several types of damaging phenomena which may cause different types of impacts on a complex of natural and manmade elements in an incredible wide range of circumstances. Phenomena which occur during and after Mediterranean storms can be roughly sorted in some main groups: landslides, floods, erosion processes and sea storms. Each type of phenomenon is characterized by a proper dynamic and, according to the social and economical framework in which develops, it can cause different impacts. Despite during Mediterranean storms all these phenomena occur at the same time (or in a short while), often strongly amplifying damage and hinting emergency management, studies available in literature tend to analyze each type of phenomenon (and its impact) separately, supplying a fragmentary framework of effects. In the present work, basing on a 40-year dataset concerning effects of storms in Calabria (southern Italy), a classification of effects on people affected by the different types of phenomena triggered by rainfall is carried out. The results is a schematization of main circumstances during which the different types of phenomenon triggered by storms can hit, in some way, people, and the amount of damage reported. This kind of result can be useful in education programs for people living in risk prone areas, in order promote more conscious life-style and to avoid unnecessary risk-taking behavior.

  1. Natural radioactivity and metal contamination of river sediments in the Calabria region, south of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, F.; Marguccio, S.; D'Agostino, M.; Belvedere, A.; Belmusto, G.

    2016-05-01

    River sediments from eight different sites of the coast of Calabria, south of Italy, were sampled to determine natural radioactivity and metal concentrations, in order to assess any possible radiological hazard, the level of contamination and the possible anthropogenic impact in the area. Gamma and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry were employed and results of this study show that the mean activity concentrations of radium (in secular equilibrium with uranium) ranged from 15.1Bq/kg to 26.7Bq/kg, that of thorium from 21.8Bq/kg to 48.3Bq/kg and that of potassium from 541.3Bq/kg to 1452.2Bq/kg. In terms of mean mass concentrations, XRF analysis revealed that uranium was lower than 1.5ppm (minimum detectable value), thorium ranged from 6.1ppm to 10.3ppm while potassium ranged from 2.5% to 4.4%. The degree of sediment contaminations were computed using an enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index ( I geo for some potential hazardous elements. Results suggested that enrichment factor and geoaccumulation values of Pb and Mn were greatest among the studied metals. The study revealed that on the basis of computed indexes, the eight investigated rivers can be classified as no polluted ones.

  2. Development and transferability of a nitrogen dioxide land use regression model within the Veneto region of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcon, Alessandro; de Hoogh, Kees; Gulliver, John; Beelen, Rob; Hansell, Anna L.

    2015-12-01

    When measurements or other exposure models are unavailable, air pollution concentrations could be estimated by transferring land-use regression (LUR) models from other areas. No studies have looked at transferability of LUR models from regions to cities. We investigated model transferability issues. We developed a LUR model for 2010 using annual average nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations retrieved from 47 regulatory stations of the Veneto region, Northern Italy. We applied this model to 40 independent sites in Verona, a city inside the region, where NO2 had been monitored in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) during 2010. We also used this model to estimate average NO2 concentrations at the regulatory network in 2008, 2009 and 2011. Of 33 predictor variables offered, five were retained in the LUR model (R2 = 0.75). The number of buildings in 5000 m buffers, industry surface area in 1000 m buffers and altitude, mainly representing large-scale air pollution dispersion patterns, explained most of the spatial variability in NO2 concentrations (R2 = 0.68), while two local traffic proxy indicators explained little of the variability (R2 = 0.07). The performance of this model transferred to urban sites was poor overall (R2 = 0.18), but it improved when only predicting inner-city background concentrations (R2 = 0.52). Recalibration of LUR coefficients improved model performance when predicting NO2 concentrations at the regulatory sites in 2008, 2009 and 2011 (R2 between 0.67 and 0.80). Models developed for a region using NO2 regulatory data are unable to capture small-scale variability in NO2 concentrations in urban traffic areas. Our study documents limitations in transferring a regional model to a city, even if it is nested within that region.

  3. Contribution to the knowledge of the veterinary science and of the ethnobotany in Calabria region (Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Passalacqua, Nicodemo G; De Fine, Giuseppe; Guarrera, Paolo Maria

    2006-01-01

    Background A series of preliminary research projects on plants used in Calabria (Southern Italy) in veterinary science and in other ethno-botanical fields (minor nourishment, domestic and handicraft sector) was carried out in the last twenty years. From the ethno-botanical point of view, Calabria is one of the most interesting region, since in the ancient times it was subject to the dominant cultures of several people (Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Normans etc.). Until some decades ago the road network was poorly developed and villages were isolated, so that the culture of the "subsistence" and some archaic customs were kept. Methods Data were collected by means of "open" interviews to farmers, shepherds and housewives in the last twenty years. More than 100 informants were interviewed, mostly over 50 years old. Plants were identified by local informants through gathering in the area or through examination of the fresh plants collected by the researchers. The collected data were compared with pharmacobotanical papers mainly of southern Italy and with other studies, in order to highlight novelties or concordances of uses. Results The use of 62 taxa distributed into 34 families are described. Among these, 8 are or were employed in veterinary science, 8 as anti-parasitic agents, 19 in minor nourishment, 5 as seasoning, 38 for other uses. Some toxic species for cattle are also mentioned. Conclusion Among the major findings: the use of Helleborus bocconei for bronchitis of bovines and of Scrophularia canina for lameness in veterinary science; Nerium oleander and Urginea maritima as anti-parasitic agents; Epilobium angustifolium, Centaurea napifolia L. and C. sphaerocephala L. in minor nourishment. PMID:17156472

  4. Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Wolf (Canis lupus) Breeding Areas in a Mountainous Region of Central Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, Elena; Willis, Stephen G.; Passilongo, Daniela; Mattioli, Luca; Apollonio, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in Italy represent a relict west European population. They are classified as vulnerable by IUCN, though have increased in number and expanded their range in recent decades. Here we use 17 years of monitoring data (from 1993 to 2010) collected in a mountainous region of central Italy (Arezzo, Tuscany) in an ecological niche-based model (MaxEnt) to characterize breeding sites (i.e. the areas where pups were raised) within home ranges, as detected from play-back responses. From a suite of variables related to topography, habitat and human disturbance we found that elevation and distance to protected areas were most important in explaining the locality of wolf responses. Rendezvous sites (family play-back response sites) typically occurred between 800 and 1200 m a.s.l., inside protected areas, and were usually located along mountain chains distant from human settlements and roads. In these areas human disturbance is low and the densities of ungulates are typically high. Over recent years, rendezvous sites have occurred closer to urban areas as the wolf population has continued to expand, despite the consequent human disturbance. This suggests that undisturbed landscapes may be reaching their carrying capacity for wolves. This, in turn, may lead to the potential for increased human-wolf interactions in future. Applying our model, both within and beyond the species’ current range, we identify sites both within the current range and also further afield, that the species could occupy in future. Our work underlines the importance of the present protected areas network in facilitating the recolonisation by wolves. Our projections of suitability of sites for future establishment as the population continues to expand could inform planning to minimize future wolf-human conflicts. PMID:26035174

  5. Geo-hydrological risk management for civil protection purposes in the urban area of Genoa (Liguria, NW Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandolini, P.; Cevasco, A.; Firpo, M.; Robbiano, A.; Sacchini, A.

    2012-04-01

    Over the past century the municipal area of Genoa has been affected by recurring flood events and several landslides that have caused severe damage to urbanized areas on both the coastal-fluvial plains and surrounding slopes, sometimes involving human casualties. The analysis of past events' annual distribution indicates that these phenomena have occurred with rising frequency in the last seventy years, following the main land use change due to the development of harbour, industrial, and residential areas, which has strongly impacted geomorphological processes. Consequently, in Genoa, civil protection activities are taking on an increasing importance for geo-hydrological risk mitigation. The current legislative framework assigns a key role in disaster prevention to municipalities, emergency plan development, as well as response action coordination in disaster situations. In view of the geomorphological and environmental complexity of the study area and referring to environmental laws, geo-hydrological risk mitigation strategies adopted by local administrators for civil protection purposes are presented as examples of current land/urban management related to geo-hydrological hazards. Adopted measures have proven to be effective on several levels (planning, management, structure, understanding, and publication) in different cases. Nevertheless, the last flooding event (4 November 2011) has shown that communication and public information concerning the perception of geo-hydrological hazard can be improved.

  6. Diatom diversity and response in metal-polluted river environment: preliminary reports from Gromolo Torrent (Liguria, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capello, Marco; Tolotti, Raffaella; Bernabè, Dimitri; Carbone, Cristina; Consani, Sirio; Vagge, Greta; Cutroneo, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Mineral content and physico-chemical properties of the freshwaters are the main factors affecting both algal assemblages and distributions, while presence of dissolved silicon, low water conductivity, and rocky-mountain habitats host benthic diatom assemblages of high species richness. It is shown that diatoms are sensible to the freshwater acidification (used as pH indicators in acid waters), environmental and climate changes, river organic load, and heavy metal water pollution. For this characteristic, diatoms are among the major biological markers for a variety of environmental and stratigraphic applications. In particular, qualitative and quantitative analyses (assemblage analyses) together with biotic indices as well as morphological and ultrastructure parameterisation provide tools for detailed environmental control and paleo-environmental reconstructions. Severe environmental problems are typically caused by "abandoned mine" and are consequences of the cessation of the mining activity with a lack in infrastructure maintenance. The mine waters which flow into the Gromolo Torrent are almost acidic (pH varying from 2.4 to 5) and enriched in heavy metals and SO42-. This pollution is caused by Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) processes that interest the Libiola mining area, known as a typical example of active AMD processes. The aim of this work is: 1) to characterise the local benthic diatom assemblages along the acidic mine effluents that discharge from Libiola mine, the entire Gromolo torrent course, and in the marine area off the torrent mouth; 2) to identify the main diatom biomarker taxa; 3) to highlight striking situations of equilibrium-disequilibrium in the algal communities, and 4) to point out types and frequency of some teratologies affecting specific diatom taxa as a response to environmental stressors (such as metal-metalloid enrichment). A total of 17 diatom samples was collected and examined, including some marine samples. Diatoms were collected in the riverbed from the hard surface of selected cobblestone by scraping. In laboratory all the samples were washed (by digestion with hydrogen peroxide) and mounted according to the protocol used by the DISTAV Laboratories (University of Genoa). Identification and enumeration of diatom valves was performed using an LM Reichert Jung-Polyvar microscope with 1000x oil-immersion lens. Moreover, a representative subsample of each preparation was observed using SEM images providing an interesting iconographic dataset. Preliminary results show that diatom assemblages are characteristic (in both quality and quantity) in the three different environmental conditions highlighted: a) in AMD environment diatoms are quantitatively scarcely, represented by both typically pioneer and highly tolerant species; b) in the Gromolo torrent diatoms are well represented with fairly well-structured communities, but present specific types and different frequencies in teratological frustula, whereas c) in marine environment they are very poorly represented.

  7. Seismic anisotropy of the shallow crust in the Umbria-Marche (Italy) region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lorenzo, Salvatore; Trabace, Maria

    2011-11-01

    Small magnitude earthquake data, recorded during the 1997 Umbria-Marche (Italy) seismic crisis, have been used to study the shear wave splitting in the central Apennine. Using the method of diagonalization of the covariance matrix, a set of 1234 S waves impinging the Earth at an angle less than the critical angle has been selected. The cross-correlation method was used to estimate the splitting time between the two horizontal S components and the direction of the symmetry axis of the anisotropic structure. A further analysis, based on visual inspection of corrected traces, allowed us to estimate the anisotropic parameters for 884 S waves. An average splitting time <τ>=32.3∓4ms has been estimated. Splitting times do not generally show a clear pattern with distance, which is an indication of possible spatial variations of seismic anisotropy. A minimum 2 km depth of the anisotropic layer is estimated. The trend of normalized splitting time vs. depth roughly indicates a maximum 4-5 km depth of the anisotropic layer. The distribution of the fast symmetry axis indicates a main symmetry axis oriented along the direction of the maximum compressive stress in the area and a secondary symmetry axis almost orthogonal to the first one. The stereographic plots of fast axis direction seem exclude a depth dependence of anisotropic parameters. A clear spatial correlation between the directions of the fast symmetry axes at the considered stations and the orientations of the nearest fault systems and thrust fronts is found, which confirms the spatial variability in the anisotropic properties of the area, as inferred by the analysis of splitting times. Based also on previous studies, results are interpreted in terms of the extensive dilatancy anisotropy (EDA) model. The estimated crack density is always smaller than the critical coalescence value, enforcing the hypothesis that fluid-filled separated crack systems control the polarization of S waves.

  8. Agricultural terraces montoring and modeling: a field survey in Chianti region, Firenze, Italy – Second part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preti, Federico; Caruso, Marco; Dani, Andrea; Cassiani, Giorgio; Romano, Nunzio; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The two abstracts present the design and set-up of an experimental campaign which aims at sup-porting the modeling (conceptual and numerical) of water circulation in a terraced slope, and its in-fluence on stability of retaining dry stone walls. The case study is located at "Fattoria di Lamole" (Greve in Chianti, Firenze, Italy). At Lamole site both ancient and recently restored or rebuilt (with different techniques) dry stone walls are present. Furthermore the intense vineyards cultivation makes it very representative in terms of range of external stresses that affect both hillslopes and wall. The survey is developed within the bigger framework of landscape preservation as a way to prevent hydrogeological instabilities and landslide risks. Second Part A second effort is devoted to couple hydrological, hydraulic and geotechnical modeling: - Flow directions and the drainage area have been derived from DTM (high-resolution digital terrain model obtained by a terrestrial laser scanner.), and served for the RPII index calcula-tion (Tarolli et al., 2013), that is coherent with the critical spots observed in situ and marked with GPS. - Direct shear test on undisturbed and reconstituted soil samples will offer an estimation of the Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope parameters (friction angle and cohesion). - Retention curves related with different depths have been derived. - Geoelectric analysis in order to locate the bedrock and to determine the subterranean water flows originated from controlled infitration tests (1 l/s discharge). - A simple dry-wall stability model has been carried out; this model analyses the wall stability with finite elements method, evaluating pressures derived from uphill water infiltration, stone friction and buoyancy in retaining wall layers: simulated deformation are suitable with the observed ones. Acknowledgements Italian Research Project of Relevant Interest (PRIN2010-2011), prot. 20104ALME4, National network for monitoring, modeling, and

  9. Agricultural terraces montoring and modeling: a field survey in Chianti region, Firenze, Italy - First part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preti, Federico; Caruso, Marco; Dani, Andrea; Errico, Alessandro; Guastini, Enrico; Trucchi, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The two abstracts present the design and set-up of an experimental field plant whose aim is the study and modeling of water circulation in a terraced slope together with its influence on the stability of the retaining dry stone walls. The pilot plant is located at "Fattoria di Lamole" (Greve in Chianti, Firenze, Italy) where both ancient and recently restored or rebuilt dry stone retaining walls are present. The intense vineyards cultivation makes it very representative in terms of range of external stresses that affect both hillslopes and walls. The research is developed within a bigger framework of landscape preservation as a way to prevent hydrogeological instabilities and landslide risks. First Part A first/preliminary field survey was carried out in order to estimate the hydraulic and mechanical soil characteristics. Field saturated hydraulic conductivity measurements with the Simplified Falling Head (SFH) method on a terrace along an alignment were performed. Infiltrometer tests with a double ring device and soil texture determinations with both fine particle-size and skeleton fraction distributions were also performed. The Direct shear test on undisturbed and reconstituted soil samples will offer an estimation of the Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope parameters (friction angle and cohesion). A reference portion of a dry stone wall will be also monitored. Lateral earth pressure at backfill-retaining wall interface (compared to temperature and air pressure measured values), backfill volumetric water content (both in saturated and unsaturated states) and ground-water level are measured. Acknowledgements Italian Research Project of Relevant Interest (PRIN2010-2011), prot. 20104ALME4, National network for monitoring, modeling, and sustainable management of erosion processes in agricultural land and hilly-mountainous area

  10. Friulian: The Friulian Language in Education in Italy. Regional Dossiers Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petris, Cinzia, Comp.

    2014-01-01

    This regional dossier aims to provide a concise, description and basic statistics about minority language education in a specific region of Europe. Aspects that are addressed include features of the education system, recent educational policies, main actors, legal arrangements, and support structures, as well as quantitative aspects, such as the…

  11. Plants used in artisanal fisheries on the Western Mediterranean coasts of Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Artisanal fisheries in the Mediterranean, especially in Italy, have been poorly investigated. There is a long history of fishing in this region, and it remains an important economic activity in many localities. Our research entails both a comprehensive review of the relevant literature and 58 field interviews with practitioners on plants used in fishing activities along the Western Mediterranean Italian coastal regions. The aims were to record traditional knowledge on plants used in fishery in these regions and to define selection criteria for plant species used in artisanal fisheries, considering ecology and intrinsic properties of plants, and to discuss the pattern of diffusion of shared uses in these areas. Methods Information was gathered both from a general review of ethnobotanical literature and from original data. A total of 58 semi-structured interviews were carried out in Liguria, Latium, Campania and Sicily (Italy). Information on plant uses related to fisheries were collected and analyzed through a chi-square residual analysis and the correspondence analysis in relation to habitat, life form and chorology. Results A total of 60 plants were discussed as being utilized in the fisheries of the Western Italian Mediterranean coastal regions, with 141 different uses mentioned. Of these 141 different uses, 32 are shared among different localities. A multivariate statistical analysis was performed on the entire dataset, resulting in details about specific selection criteria for the different usage categories (plants have different uses that can be classified into 11 main categories). In some uses, species are selected for their features (e.g., woody), or habitat (e.g., riverine), etc. The majority of uses were found to be obsolete (42%) and interviews show that traditional fishery knowledge is in decline. There are several reasons for this, such as climatic change, costs, reduction of fish stocks, etc. Conclusions Our research correlates functional

  12. Application of the Flood-IMPAT procedure in the Valle d'Aosta Region, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minucci, Guido; Mendoza, Marina Tamara; Molinari, Daniela; Atun, Funda; Menoni, Scira; Ballio, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Flood Risk Management Plans (FRMPs) established by European "Floods" Directive (Directive 2007/60/EU) to Member States in order to address all aspects of flood risk management, taking into account costs and benefits of proposed mitigation tools must be reviewed by the same law every six years. This is aimed at continuously increasing the effectiveness of risk management, on the bases of the most advanced knowledge of flood risk and most (economically) feasible solutions, also taking into consideration achievements of the previous management cycle. Within this context, the Flood-IMPAT (i.e. Integrated Meso-scale Procedure to Assess Territorial flood risk) procedure has been developed aiming at overcoming limits of risk maps produced by the Po River Basin Authority and adopted for the first version of the Po River FRMP. The procedure allows the estimation of flood risk at the meso-scale and it is characterized by three main peculiarities. First is its feasibility for the entire Italian territory. Second is the possibility to express risk in monetary terms (i.e. expected damage), at least for those categories of damage for which suitable models are available. Finally, independent modules compose the procedure: each module allows the estimation of a certain type of damage (i.e. direct, indirect, intangibles) on a certain sector (e.g. residential, industrial, agriculture, environment, etc.) separately, guaranteeing flexibility in the implementation. This paper shows the application of the Flood-IMPAT procedure and the recent advancements in the procedure, aiming at increasing its reliability and usability. Through a further implementation of the procedure in the Dora Baltea River Basin (North of Italy), it was possible to test the sensitivity of risk estimates supplied by Flood-IMPAT with respect to different damage models and different approaches for the estimation of assets at risk. Risk estimates were also compared with observed damage data in the investigated areas

  13. Advective heat transport associated to regional Earth degassing in central Apennine (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardellini, Carlo; Chiodini, Giovanni; Caliro, Stefano; Chiarabba, Claudio; Frondini, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    The main springs of central Italy Apennines were investigated, in order to compute the amount of heat transported by groundwaters and to compute the fraction of heat due to the geothermal heat flux. The 46 investigated springs represent a significant portion of the permeable structures of the Apennine being characterised by a cumulative flow rate of 130 m3/s, i.e. ~ 50% of the water discharged in this sector of the Apennines. The groundwaters are characterised by relatively low temperatures, but the occurrence of an heat anomaly is evident when the differences between the temperatures of springs and recharge waters are compared with the corresponding altitude difference. A total amount of heat of ~ 2.1 × 109 J/s has been estimated to be transported by these groundwaters. Most of this heat (57%) is given by geothermal warming while the remaining 43% is due to gravitational potential energy dissipation. The computed geothermal warming implies very high heat flux, with values higher than 300 mW/m2, in a large sector of the Apennines which was considered to date be characterised by normal to low conductive heat flux. The same area is affected by high fluxes of CO2 from a deep source and the strict correlation between the geothermal warming and the input of deep CO2-rich fluids is testified by the fact that all the thermally anomalous groundwaters are also affected by the input of deeply derived CO2 contrary to those not thermally anomalous which display any input of deeply derived CO2. This correspondence reasonably suggest the geothermal heat is transported from depth by CO2 rich fluids, which enter the aquifers and mix with infiltrating waters. The amount of geothermal heat transported by central Apennine cold groundwaters is in absolute very high. It results the double than the hydrothermal heat discharge of the US Cascade Range (~1×103 MW) and is about the half of the total heat discharged at Yellowstone, one of the largest hydrothermal system of the world (5-6

  14. A model of laboratory surveillance for neuro-arbovirosis applied during 2012 in the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pierro, A; Landini, M P; Gaibani, P; Rossini, G; Vocale, C; Finarelli, A C; Cagarelli, R; Sambri, V; Varani, S

    2014-07-01

    Arboviruses with neuroinvasive potential are gaining more attention due to the increased number of cases of autochthonous and imported infections in the human host. Diagnosis of infection caused by these viruses in patients with central nervous system (CNS) diseases is still underestimated and these infections represent an emerging threat to public health. We describe a model suitable for the laboratory surveillance of neuro-arbovirosis that was applied in the Emilia-Romagna region, north-eastern Italy, during the 2012 summer season. One hundred and twenty cases of suspected neuroinvasive infection were tested for arboviral agents on the basis of clinical and laboratory signs and epidemiological data. The most common virus detected was Toscana virus (TOSV): anti-TOSV specific antibodies or viral components were detected in 28.3% of the cases; 79.4% of the TOSV cases were in the acute phase of infection. No cases resulted in acute phase for West Nile (WNV), Usutu (USUV), Chikungunya (CHIKV) or Dengue (DENV) virus infection. Conversely, two patients with a history of staying in a tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) endemic area showed a probable TBEV infection. These results emphasize the importance of a complete and 'ready to act' laboratory diagnostic system to be implemented within the larger frame of a regional integrated surveillance system. PMID:24329773

  15. Outbreak of fatal nitrate toxicosis associated with consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare) in cattle farmed in Campania region (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Costagliola, Alessandro; Roperto, Franco; Benedetto, Domenico; Anastasio, Aniello; Marrone, Raffaele; Perillo, Antonella; Russo, Valeria; Papparella, Serenella; Paciello, Orlando

    2014-05-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are toxicants that have become increasingly significant environmental chemicals. Increase in environmental distribution of nitrogenous compounds, especially in surface and ground water, has been attributed to the intensive use of nitrate as agricultural fertilizers and to increasing amounts of nitrogenous wastes produced by municipalities, industries, and feedlots. The purpose of this study is to illustrate a fatal nitrate toxicosis in cattle associated with the consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare). Fifteen cows from the same farm suddenly developed weakness, muscular tremors, respiratory distress, and finally convulsions. The affected animals died within 24 to 48 h from the onset of the clinical signs. Five cows underwent a complete post-mortem examination. In all examined animals, gross lesions included presence of dark unclotted blood around the nostrils and the anal region, moderate inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and brown discoloration of the skeletal muscles and kidneys. The histological examination showed tubular degeneration and congestion of glomerular vessels in the kidney. Toxicological analysis detected nitrates at 4 672.2 ppm in the fennels used to feed the animals. The source of exposure to nitrates was identified in the fennels. The fennels were grown in a polluted area of the Campania region in southern Italy and distributed in a public market for human consumption. The waste from the sale of the fennels was fed to the cows. The accumulation of nitrates in some vegetables poses a risk not only for animal health but also for human and environmental safety. PMID:24453016

  16. Is there room for containing healthcare costs? An analysis of regional spending differentials in Italy.

    PubMed

    Francese, Maura; Romanelli, Marzia

    2014-03-01

    This work aims at identifying the determinants of health spending differentials among Italian regions and at highlighting potential margins for savings. The analysis exploits a data set for the 21 Italian regions and autonomous provinces starting in the early 1990s and ending in 2006. After controlling for standard healthcare demand indicators, remaining spending differentials are found to be significant, and they appear to be associated with differences in the degree of appropriateness of treatments, health sector supply structure and social capital indicators. In general, higher regional expenditure does not appear to be associated with better reported or perceived quality in health services. In the regions that display poorer performances, inefficiencies appear not to be uniformly distributed among expenditure items. Overall, results suggest that savings could be achieved without reducing the amount of services provided to citizens. This seems particularly important given the expected rise in spending associated with the forecasted demographic developments. PMID:23512733

  17. Subsidence monitoring update for Emilia-Romagna region (Italy) by integrated use of InSAR and GNSS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitelli, Gabriele; Bonsignore, Flavio; Del Conte, Sara; Novali, Fabrizio; Pellegrino, Immacolata; Vittuari, Luca

    2014-05-01

    The alluvial plain sector (Po Plain) of Emilia Romagna region (Northern Italy) is a subsiding sedimentary basin, due to both natural and human-induced subsidence phenomena. Different Institutions without a plan consistent at regional scale initially monitored subsidence. In 1999 ARPA (Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention) Emilia-Romagna, on behalf of the Emilia-Romagna Region and in collaboration with DICAM Department of the Bologna University, established a network composed by 2300 leveling benchmarks, connected to 60 GNSS points, covering the whole Po Plain sector of the region. In 2005-2006 a first radar interferometry (PSInSAR™) analysis was conducted, exploiting both ESA (ERS - Envisat) and Radarsat satellite data. ARPA, on behalf of the Emilia-Romagna Region, with advisory from DICAM and in collaboration with TRE Tele-Rilevamento Europa, has recently updated the regional subsidence map of the Po Plain sector, using a new integrated approach: in the last campaign, the measurement of the vertical displacement was in fact obtained by the combined use of permanent GNSS stations and advanced InSAR data. The integrated use of these complementary techniques allows to take advantage of the strengths offered by each approach, overcoming their weaknesses. A SqueeSAR™ analysis of Radarsat radar images, acquired between 2006 and 2011, was carried out over the whole regional plain territory (more than 13.000 km2), allowing to obtain a map of vertical displacement for more than 2.000.000 measurement points (MP), with an average point density of 200MP/km2. In parallel, the data from 17 permanent GNSS stations with a long acquisition period were processed with appropriate time series analysis in order to calibrate and validate the InSAR results. The final calibrated outcomes have permitted to obtain a complete and homogeneous map of the subsidence phenomena at regional scale, defining a both "absolute" and relative velocity datum with respect to the ITRF

  18. Regional Body-Wave Attenuation Using a Coda Source Normalization Method: Application to MEDNET Records of Earthquakes in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W R; Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L; Scognamiglio, L

    2007-02-01

    We develop a new methodology to determine apparent attenuation for the regional seismic phases Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg using coda-derived source spectra. The local-to-regional coda methodology (Mayeda, 1993; Mayeda and Walter, 1996; Mayeda et al., 2003) is a very stable way to obtain source spectra from sparse networks using as few as one station, even if direct waves are clipped. We develop a two-step process to isolate the frequency-dependent Q. First, we correct the observed direct wave amplitudes for an assumed geometrical spreading. Next, an apparent Q, combining path and site attenuation, is determined from the difference between the spreading-corrected amplitude and the independently determined source spectra derived from the coda methodology. We apply the technique to 50 earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 4.0 in central Italy as recorded by MEDNET broadband stations around the Mediterranean at local-to-regional distances. This is an ideal test region due to its high attenuation, complex propagation, and availability of many moderate sized earthquakes. We find that a power law attenuation of the form Q(f) = Q{sub 0}f{sup Y} fit all the phases quite well over the 0.5 to 8 Hz band. At most stations, the measured apparent Q values are quite repeatable from event to event. Finding the attenuation function in this manner guarantees a close match between inferred source spectra from direct waves and coda techniques. This is important if coda and direct wave amplitudes are to produce consistent seismic results.

  19. Magnetic and ground penetrating radar surveys for the research of Medieval settlements in the inland of the Marche Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavusi, M.; Giocoli, A.; Balasco, M.; Favulli, G.; Moscatelli, U.; Minguzzi, S.; Gnesi, D.; Virgili, S.

    2009-04-01

    This work was carried out in the framework of the R.I.M.E.M. project (Research on Medieval settlements in the inland of the Marche Region, Italy.) leaded by the Universities of Macerata and Udine and having the aim to produce a significant contribution for the comprehension of the settlement process in the Central and Southern Italy during the Late Roman Period and Early Middle Ages. Then, an extensive gradiometric survey were carried out, by using a vapour caesium magnetometer, in the area included amongst the municipal districts of Caldarola, Cessapalombo and San Ginesio, sited in the area closed to Macerata between the valleys of Chienti and Fiastra rivers. Moreover, in the most interesting areas, a 400 MHz 3D ground penetrating radar (GPR)survey was carried out in order to get the precise overlapping with the magnetic method. The Magnetic method is now a standard practice in the archaeological research taken into great consideration for its non-destructivity and quickness and its capability of mapping wide areas in quite a short lapse of time (Bavusi et al., 2008). Moreover the method provides an information well correlable with remote sensing data (Gallo et al, 2008). The GPR method is extremely useful for archaeologists thanks to its non-destructivity and capability of giving real-time and high-resolution data (Basile et al., 2000). Today the effectiveness of this method was improved by powerful 3D visualisation methods as well as 3D space, time or depth slices and iso-amplitude surfaces, too (Nuzzo et al., 2002). The integrations of several geophysical methods are usual (Sambuelli et al.1999, De Domenico et al., 2001; Chianese et al., 2004) particularly when a simple comparison in cross section along the same profiles can be performed. In this work the overlapping between two kinds of data was complicated by different outputs coming from two methods: maps for the magnetic method and cross sections for the GPR one. The 3D survey design for the GPR survey and

  20. Isotopic features of Emilia-Romagna region (North Italy) groundwaters: Environmental and climatological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, G.; Chahoud, A.; Dadomo, A.; Fava, A.

    2014-11-01

    18O/16O, D/H, tritium and carbon isotopes were analysed together with the main geochemical parameters of selected wells of groundwaters in the Emilia-Romagna region. The isotope data collected in a three-year monitoring program of surface waters allowed a subdivision of the studied region within the main feeding areas of the Po and Apennine Rivers. The isotopic investigation demonstrated the existence of palaeowaters hosted in deep aquifers in the plains and their overexploitation, which induced land subsidence phenomena. Groundwater stable isotopes have been utilized as a proxy for temperature and have shown significant atmospheric temperature variations over the past 30,000 years.

  1. Using online database for landslide susceptibility assessment with an example from the Veneto Region (north-eastern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floris, Mario; Squarzoni, Cristina; Zorzi, Luca; D'Alpaos, Andrea; Iafelice, Maria

    2010-05-01

    Landslide susceptibility maps describe landslide-prone areas by the spatial correlation between landslides and related factors, derived from different kinds of datasets: geological, geotechnical and geomechanical maps, hydrogeological maps, landslides maps, vector and raster terrain data, real-time inclinometer and pore pressure data. In the last decade, thanks to the increasing use of web-based tools for management, sharing and communication of territorial information, many Web-based Geographical Information Systems (WebGIS) were created by local governments or nations, University and Research Centres. Nowadays there is a strong proliferation of geological WebGIS or GeoBrowser, allowing free download of spatial information. There are global Cartographical Portals that provide a free download of DTM and other vector data related to the whole planet (http://www.webgis.com). At major scale, there are WebGIS regarding entire nation (http://www.agiweb.org), or specific region of a country (http://www.mrt.tas.gov.au), or single municipality (http://sitn.ne.ch/). Moreover, portals managed by local government and academic government (http://turtle.ags.gov.ab.ca/Peace_River/Site/) or by a private agency (http://www.bbt-se.com) are noteworthy. In Italy, the first national projects for the creation of WebGIS and web-based databases begun during the 1980s, and evolved, through years, to the present number of different WebGIS, which have different territorial extensions: national (Italian National Cartographical Portal, http://www.pcn.minambiente.it; E-GEO Project, http://www.egeo.unisi.it), interregional (River Tiber Basin Authority, www.abtevere.it ), and regional (Veneto Region, www.regione.veneto.it). In this way we investigated most of the Italian WebGIS in order to verify their geographic range and the availability and quality of data useful for landslide hazard analyses. We noticed a large variability of the accessing information among the different browsers. In

  2. Surveillance of healthcare-associated infections in Piemonte, Italy: results from a second regional prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) was previously performed in the Piemonte region in 2000. In the decade following the survey, many studies were performed at both the regional and hospital levels, and training courses were developed to address issues highlighted by the survey. In 2010, a second regional prevalence study was performed. The aim of this paper is to present the results of the second prevalence study and discuss them within the context of the HAI prevention and control programmes that have been implemented in the decade since the original survey was conducted. Methods The study involved all public hospitals in the Piemonte region. Uni- and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the main risk factors associated with HAIs, including both overall and site-specific infections. Results A total of 7841 patients were enrolled: 6.8% were affected by at least one HAI. The highest prevalence of HAIs was found in intensive care units (18.0%, 95% CI 14.0-22.6), while UTIs presented the highest relative frequency (26.7%), followed by respiratory tract infections (21.9%). The age of the patient, hospital size and urinary and central venous catheter status were significantly associated with HAIs. Conclusions The study results showed an increase in HAI prevalence, despite prevention and control efforts, as well as training implemented after the first regional survey. Nevertheless, these data are consistent with the current literature. Furthermore, despite its limits, the prevalence approach remains an important means for involving healthcare workers, emphasising HAIs and revealing critical problems that need be addressed. PMID:24899239

  3. Assessing the potential of farming regions to fulfill agro-environmental functions: a case study in tuscany (Italy).

    PubMed

    Marraccini, Elisa; Rapey, Hélène; Galli, Mariassunta; Lardon, Sylvie; Bonari, Enrico

    2013-03-01

    The increasing interest in agro-environmental management entails having tools to assess, monitor and map agro-environmental functions (AEFs) in different regional contexts. In Europe, decision-making in agro-environmental policies generally targets single functions instead of multiple ones and rarely considers the regional variability of agricultural or geo-physical conditions that may influence the fulfillment of functions. We propose and test a method to assess the potential of farming regions to fulfill a set of AEFs. The method was applied in the "Collina interna grossetana" farming region (Italy) and concerned three functions: protection of surface water from nitrates, protection of soil from erosion, and conservation of landscape diversity. These functions were qualified and mapped using various geo-physical and land cover descriptors from common geographical datasets. All of the descriptors were combined using geographical cluster analysis to identify their contribution to the three functions, and thus to assess the potential of the farming region to fulfill these functions. Three levels of potential were calculated, according to the more or less favorable fulfillment of soil and water functions. No totally favorable contribution to the functions was identified in the studied area. Moreover, we mapped the spatial patterns obtained for the different levels of potential. The landscape diversity function was found to be the least variable in the study area, while different patterns were identified for the other functions. In fact, the northern and central sections of the study region were organized more in the form of large core areas of different levels of potential, whereas the southern section presented more boundary areas, small core areas and isolated pixels. The method may help to establish local priorities in agro-environmental management pointing out where the set of functions is completely or partially fulfilled, as well as where and how it is more or

  4. Sensing Slow Mobility and Interesting Locations for Lombardy Region (italy): a Case Study Using Pointwise Geolocated Open Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovelli, M. A.; Oxoli, D.; Zurbarán, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    During the past years Web 2.0 technologies have caused the emergence of platforms where users can share data related to their activities which in some cases are then publicly released with open licenses. Popular categories for this include community platforms where users can upload GPS tracks collected during slow travel activities (e.g. hiking, biking and horse riding) and platforms where users share their geolocated photos. However, due to the high heterogeneity of the information available on the Web, the sole use of these user-generated contents makes it an ambitious challenge to understand slow mobility flows as well as to detect the most visited locations in a region. Exploiting the available data on community sharing websites allows to collect near real-time open data streams and enables rigorous spatial-temporal analysis. This work presents an approach for collecting, unifying and analysing pointwise geolocated open data available from different sources with the aim of identifying the main locations and destinations of slow mobility activities. For this purpose, we collected pointwise open data from the Wikiloc platform, Twitter, Flickr and Foursquare. The analysis was confined to the data uploaded in Lombardy Region (Northern Italy) - corresponding to millions of pointwise data. Collected data was processed through the use of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) in order to organize them into a suitable database. This allowed to run statistical analyses on data distribution in both time and space by enabling the detection of users' slow mobility preferences as well as places of interest at a regional scale.

  5. Analysis of coastal sea-level station records and implications for tsunami monitoring in the Adriatic Apulia region, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, Lidia; Tinti, Stefano; Tallarico, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The region of Apulia, southern Italy, was theater of one of the largest tsunami disaster in Italian history (the 30 July 1627 event) and is considered to be exposed to tsunami hazard coming from local Italian sources as well as from sources on the eastern side of the Adriatic and from the Ionian sea, including the Hellenic Arc earthquakes. Scientific interest for tsunami studies and monitoring in the region is only recent and this theme was specifically addressed by the international project OTRIONS, coordinated by the University of Bari. In the frame of this project the University of Bologna contributed to the analysis of the tsunami hazard and to the evaluation of the regional tide-gauge network with the scope of assessing its adequacy for tsunami monitoring. This latter is the main topic of the present work. In eastern Apulia, facing the Adriatic sea, the sea-level data network is sufficiently dense being formed of stations of the Italian tide-gauge network (Rete Mareografica Nazionale, RMN), of four additional stations operated by the Apulia Port Authority (in Brindisi, Ischitella, Manfredonia and Porto Cesareo) and of two more stations that were installed in the harbours of Barletta and Monopoli in the frame of the project OTRIONS with real-time data transmission and 1-sec sampling period. Pre-processing of the sea-level data of these stations included quality check and spectral analysis. Where the sampling rate was adequate, the records were also examined by means of the specific tools provided by the TEDA package. This is a Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm, developed by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna, that allows one to characterize the sea-level background signal in the typical tsunami frequency window (from 1 to several minutes) and consequently to optimize TEDA parameters for an efficient tsunami detection. The results of the analysis show stability of the spectral content and seasonal variations.

  6. A radiometric and petrographic interpretation of discrepancies on uranium content in samples collected at Alte Madonie Mounts region (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Lanzo, G; Rizzo, S; Tomarchio, E

    2014-03-01

    The main goal of this work is to evaluate a correlation between anomalous Uranium (U) content and petrographic features of some soil and rock samples collected at Alte Madonie Mounts region (North-central Sicily, Italy). A total of 41 samples of selected soils and rocks were collected, powdered, dried and sealed in "Marinelli" beakers for 20 days before the measurement to ensure that radioactive equilibrium between (226)Ra and (214)Bi was reached. Gamma-ray spectrometric analysis was used to quantify radioactivity concentrations. Mineralogical and chemical features of the samples were determined by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope - Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM-EDS) analyses. The average values of concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ac and (40)K were respectively 30, 17 and 227 Bq kg(-1) while the greatest values were 134, 59 and 748 Bq kg(-1). Linear relationships were observed between (226)Ra, (228)Ac and (40)K concentrations: the activities of (226)Ra and (228)Ac were comparable, while those of (40)K were about 10 times greater. An exception was highlighted for a group of samples where (226)Ra activities were much higher than expectations. Chemical compositions and mineralogical features of the samples have made it possible to justify these anomalies. PMID:24389108

  7. The geochemical and isotopic composition of aquifer systems in the deltaic region of the Po River plain (northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapti-Caputo, Dimitra; Martinelli, Giovanni

    2009-03-01

    The chemical and hydrodynamic characteristics of groundwater in deltaic regions are strongly influenced by the complex stratigraphy of these areas, caused by the continuously varying depositional environments associated with their recent hydrographic evolution. As a case study, the eastern sector of the Po River plain, northern Italy, has been investigated to understand the quality of the available groundwater resources. Based on the analysis of hydrochemical and isotopic data, the recharge characteristics, the groundwater residence time and the aquifer vulnerability are defined. The results show significant qualitative degradation of the unconfined aquifer due to the shallow depth to water, while in the underlying confined aquifer, a hydrochemical facies of Ca-HCO3 type prevails. The spatial variation and relationship between oxygen-18 and deuterium determine: firstly, hydraulic separation of the two hydrogeological units; secondly, direct infiltration of local precipitation to the unconfined aquifer; thirdly, the occurrence of waters originating in the Alps and locally from the Apennines, pervading the confined aquifer. The tritium results suggest local mixing between the superficial waters and the confined aquifer, occurring along the palaeo-river channels. This increases the pollution vulnerability of the confined hydrogeological unit within the plain, which is the only natural groundwater resource exploited for water supply.

  8. Evaluation of coastal vulnerability to flooding: comparison of two different methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perini, L.; Calabrese, L.; Salerno, G.; Ciavola, P.; Armaroli, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting and comparing two methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy, to evaluate coastal vulnerability and to produce hazard and risk maps for coastal floods, in the framework of the EU Floods Directive. The first approach was adopted before the directive had been issued. Three scenarios of damage were designed (1-, 10-, 100-year return periods), produced by the concurrent occurrence of a storm, high surge levels and high-water spring tidal levels. Wave heights were used to calculate run-up values along 187 equally spaced profiles, and these were added to the tidal and atmospheric water level contributions. The result is a list of 10 vulnerability typologies. To satisfy the requirements of the directive, the Geological, Seismic and Soil Service (SGSS) recently implemented a different methodology that considers three scenarios (10-, 100- and > 100-year return periods) in terms of wave setup (not including run-up) plus the contribution of surge levels as well as the occurrence of high-water springs. The flooded area extension is determined by a series of computations that are part of a model built into ArcGIS®. The model uses as input a high-resolution lidar DEM that is then processed using a least-path cost analysis. Inundation maps are then overlapped with land use maps to produce risk maps. The qualitative validation and the comparison between the two methods are also presented, showing a positive agreement.

  9. Evaluation of coastal vulnerability to flooding: comparison of two different methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perini, L.; Calabrese, L.; Salerno, G.; Ciavola, P.; Armaroli, C.

    2015-07-01

    This paper aims at presenting and comparing two methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna Region, northern Italy, to evaluate coastal vulnerability and to produce hazard and risk maps for coastal floods, in the framework of the EU Floods Directive. The first approach was adopted before the Directive had been issued. Three scenarios of damage were designed (1, 10, 100-year return periods), produced by the concurrent happening of a storm, high surge levels and high water spring tidal levels. Wave heights were used to calculate run-up values along 187 equally spaced profiles and these were added to the tidal and atmospheric water level contributions. The result is a list of ten vulnerability typologies. To satisfy the requests of the Directive, the Geological, Seismic and Soil Service (SGSS) recently implement a different methodology that considers three scenarios (10, 100 and > 100-year return periods) in terms of set-up (not including run-up) plus the contribution of surge levels as well as the High Water Springs. The flooded area extension is determined by a series of computations that are part of a model built into ArcGIS®. The model uses as input a high resolution Lidar DEM that is then processed using the Cost-Distance tool of ArcGIS®. Inundation maps are then overlapped to land use maps to produce risk maps. The qualitative validation and the comparison between the two methods are also presented, showing a positive agreement.

  10. GEOELECTRICAL TOMOGRAPHY AS AN OPERATIVE TOOL FOR THE EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT OF LANDSLIDE: AN APPLICATION IN BASILICATA REGION, ITALY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerardo, C.; Lapenna, V.; Loperte, A.; Perrone, A.

    2009-12-01

    A new approach has been applied for investigating some landslides of recent genesis in Basilicata region (southern Italy), in particular a geophysical technique has been used to study a landslide bodies. Electrical resistivity tomography method has been applied to obtain information about the deep characteristics of the landslide bodies. The high resolution of the 2D ERTs allowed to locate the possible sliding surfaces of the landslide body. They also highlighted areas characterized by high water content, the increase of the saturation degree and pore pressures in these areas could have caused a weakening of the slopes. The information obtained by the application of indirect surveys appeared to be particularly useful for the end users involved in the risks management. In particular, taking into account the cycle of landslides emergency, the obtained data could give a valid contribution during the post-event phase which mainly regards the damage valuation. Indeed, only a corrected assessment of the damage and a precise geometric reconstruction of the landslide body, can direct the intervention actions of the end users. The results represent a valid cognitive support to choose the most appropriate technical solution for strengthening of the slopes and an example of best practice for the cooperation between the research activity (IMAA-CNR) and field emergency (Basilicata Civil Protection).

  11. Determination of estrogenic activity in the river Chienti (Marche Region, Italy) by using in vivo and in vitro bioassays.

    PubMed

    Cocci, Paolo; Palermo, Francesco Alessandro; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Miano, Antonino; Mosconi, Gilberto

    2016-05-01

    Environmental estrogen-like compounds (i.e. xenoestrogens) are a variety of pollutants, ranging from synthetic to natural occurring molecules, that are found in surface and waste waters over a wide range of concentrations. In aquatic environment, the overall estrogenic activity is often due to the presence of a mixture of chemicals and their degraded products which can induce synergistic effects. Current strategies for monitoring estrogen-like chemicals are based on the use of a battery of in vivo and in vitro ecotoxicological tests. In this regard, the aim of the present work was to carry out a bio-monitoring study for testing estrogenicity of the Chienti river (Marche Region, Italy) by using both an E-screen and a vitellogenin (Vtg) induction assay in juvenile goldfish. Three sites were used for analysis, localized at the mouth (sampling point 1), in the middle (sampling point 2) and at the origin (sampling point 3) of Chienti river. For most of the water samples (i.e. samples collected at sampling points 2 and 3), clear estrogenic activity was detected in the E-screen assay suggesting different proliferation activities in function of the collecting site. In contrast, the Vtg ELISA demonstrated that water samples collected from each sampling point were estrogenic. Overall, we showed for the first time that the estrogenic activities in water samples from the Chienti river were significant in both in vivo and in vitro; we also observed a different sensitivity between bioassays. PMID:27155408

  12. Factors influencing surgical delay after hip fracture in hospitals of Emilia Romagna Region, Italy: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Belotti, Laura Maria Beatrice; Bartoli, Simona; Trombetti, Susanna; Montella, Maria Teresa; Toni, Aldo; De Palma, Rossana

    2013-01-01

    Hip fracture is becoming a major public health concern, with associated mortality and morbidity particularly in the elderly. This study aims to investigate factors (i.e. patient factors and hospital variables) associated with increased risk for delaying surgery after hip fractures, and to assess whether and to what extent timing was associated with mortality risk. All patients aged 65 and over, resident in Emilia Romagna Region (Italy) and admitted to hospital for hip fracture (2009 - 2010) were selected. Data on surgical delay were adjusted using multilevel logistic regression model. A Cox proportional hazard model was fitted to a propensity score matched sample to assess mortality between delayed and early treated patients. Of the 10, 995 patients included (mean age: 83.3 years), 44.9% underwent surgery within 2 days. Significant risk factors for delayed surgery were: gender (OR: 1.16), comorbidity (OR: 1.29), anticoagulant (OR: 7.64) ,antiplatelet medication (OR: 2.43) , type of procedure (OR: 1.37) and day of admission (OR: Thu-Fri: 6.05; Sat-Sun: 1.17). Type of hospital and annual volume of hip fracture surgeries were not sufficient to explain hospital variability. A significant difference in mortality rate between early and delayed surgery emerged six months post surgery. PMID:23397198

  13. Depth-to-the-bottom optimization for magnetic data inversion: Magnetic structure of the Latium volcanic region, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caratori Tontini, F.; Cocchi, L.; Carmisciano, C.

    2006-11-01

    We present an algorithm for the linear inversion of two-dimensional (2-D) surface magnetic data to obtain 3-D models of the susceptibility of the source. The forward model is discretized by a mesh of prismatic cells with constant magnetization that allows the recovery of a complete 3-D generating source. As the number of cells are normally greater than the amount of available data, we have to solve an underdetermined linear inverse problem. A Tikhonov regularization of the solution is introduced as a depth-weighting function adapted from Li and Oldenburg (1996) to close the source toward the bottom. The main novelty of this method is a first-stage optimization that gives information about the depth to the bottom of the generating source. This parameter permits both the evaluation of the appropriate vertical extension of the mesh and the definition of the shape of the regularizing depth-weighting distribution. After discussing the performance of this method by showing the results of various synthetic tests, we invert the magnetic anomalies of the volcanic edifices in the Latium region in central Italy to define their 3-D source distribution.

  14. Effects of selected soil properties on phytoremediation applicability for heavy-metal-contaminated soils in the Apulia region, Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Farrag, K; Senesi, N; Rovira, P Soler; Brunetti, G

    2012-11-01

    Phytoremediation is a well-known promising alternative to conventional approaches used for the remediation of diffused and moderated contaminated soils. The evaluation of the accumulation, availability, and interactions of heavy metals in soil is a priority objective for the possible use of phytoremediation techniques such as phytoextraction and phytostabilization. The soils used in this work were collected from a number of sites inside a protected area in the Apulia region (Southern Italy), which were contaminated by various heavy metals originated from the disposal of wastes of different sources of origin. Soils examined contained Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in amounts exceeding the critical limits imposed by EU and Italian laws. However, the alkaline conditions, high organic matter content, and silty to silty loamy texture of soils examined would suggest a reduced availability of heavy metals to plants. Due to the high total content but the low available fraction of heavy metals analyzed, especially Cr, phytoextraction appears not to be a promising remediation approach in the sites examined, whereas phytostabilization appears to be the best technique for metal decontamination in the studied areas. PMID:22083403

  15. Improvements of the Regional Seismic network of Northwestern Italy in the framework of ALCoTra program activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosco, Fabrizio

    2014-05-01

    Arpa Piemonte (Regional Agency for Environmental Protection), in partnership with University of Genoa, manages the regional seismic network, which is part of the Regional Seismic network of Northwestern Italy (RSNI). The network operates since the 80s and, over the years, it has developed in technological features, analysis procedures and geographical coverage. In particular in recent years the network has been further enhanced through the integration of Swiss and French stations installed in the cross-border area. The environmental context enables the installation of sensors in sites with good conditions as regards ambient noise and limited local amplification effects (as proved by PSD analysis, signal quality monitoring via PQLX, H/V analysis). The instrumental equipment consists of Broadband and Very Broadband sensors (Nanometrics Trillium 40" and 240") and different technological solutions for signals real-time transmission (cable, satellite, GPRS), according to the different local environment, with redundant connections and with experimental innovative systems. Digital transmission and acquisition systems operate through standard protocols (Nanometrics, SeedLink), with redundancy in data centers (Genoa, Turin, Rome). Both real-time automatic and manual operational procedures are in use for signals analysis (events detection, picking, focal parameters and ground shaking determination). In the framework of cross-border cooperation program ALCoTra (http://www.interreg-alcotra.org), approved by the European Commission, several projects have been developed to improve the performances of seismic monitoring systems used by partners (Arpa Piemonte, Aosta Valley Region, CNRS, Joseph Fourier University). The cross-border context points out first of all the importance of signals sharing (from 14 to 23 stations in narrow French-Italian border area, with an increase of over 50%) and of coordination during new stations planning and installation in the area. In the ongoing

  16. A new regional RADAR network for nowcasting applications: the RESMAR achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonini, Andrea; Melani, Samantha; Mazza, Alessandro; Ortolani, Alberto; Gozzini, Bernardo; Corongiu, Manuela; Cristofori, Simone

    2013-04-01

    Monitoring weather phenomena from radar has an essential role in nowcasting applications. As one of the most useful sources of quantitative precipitation estimation, rainfall radar analysis can be a very useful research tool in supporting methods for rainfall forecasting. Its short-term prediction is often needed in various meteorological and hydrological applications where accurate prediction of rainfall is essential from national service and civil protection forecasting up to agriculture and urban issues. Very recently, Tuscany region (central Italy) is equipped with two X-band radars with a maximum range of 108 km, a beam width of 3° and a high spatial resolution (i.e., radial resolution up to 90m), located in Livorno and Cima del Monte (Elba island) sites. The first system is property of Livorno's port Authority, the second one of Consorzio LaMMA (Laboratory of Monitoring and Environmental Modelling for the sustainable development) who has installed it in the framework of "RESMAR - Environmental Resources in the MARitime Space" activities, a strategic project, financed in the framework of the European Cross-Border Cooperation Programme Italy-France "Maritime", coordinated by the Liguria Region Administration. Both systems are managed by LaMMA. The cross-border sharing of such relevant meteorological observation instruments and the integration of these data with existing tools and methodologies is intended to improve operational regional weather services in nowcasting activities and their impacts on the territory, as those related to LaMMA daily issues. This sharing is widely promoted within RESMAR project between the different partner regions (ARPA-Sardinia, Meteo-France and Liguria). The integration of these data with other complementary and ancillary measurements is also needed to increase the reliability and accuracy of radar measurements in view of both a better meteorological phenomena understanding and quantitative precipitation estimation. The use of

  17. Sedimentary geochemistry depicts 2700 years of regional climate and land use change in the Rieti Basin, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, C.; Noble, P. J.; Mensing, S. A.; Tunno, I.; Sagnotti, L.; Florindo, F.; Cifnani, G.; Zimmerman, S. R. H.; Piovesan, G.

    2014-12-01

    A 14.4 m thick sedimentary sequence was recovered in multiple cores from Lago Lungo in the Rieti Basin, an intrapenninic extensional basin ~80 km north of Rome, Italy. This sequence provides a high-resolution record of environmental change related to climatic influence and anthropogenic landscape alteration. Pollen analyses, corroborated with historical records of land-use change, define the major shifts in forest composition and their historical context. An age model of the sequence was built using ties to regional cultigen datums and archaeomagnetic reference curves. Here we focus on sedimentologic and geochemical data (scanning XRF) from the Roman Period through the Little Ice Age (LIA). The base of the sequence (ca. 680 BCE- 1 CE) is marked by a steady increase in fine-grained detrital elements Ti, Rb, and K, and corresponding decrease in Ca, representing a transition from the unaltered system after the Romans constructed a channel that the basin. The Medieval Period (MP; 900-1350 CE) is lithologically distinct, composed of varicolored bands of alternating silt, clay, and calcareous concretions. Low counts of Ca, high detrital elements and frequent abrupt peaks in levels of the redox elements Fe and Mn indicate episodic clastic influx. Pollen data indicate that the greatest degree of deforestation and erosion occurred during the MP, supported by mean sedimentation rates of ca. 1cm/year, over twice the rate of the underlying interval. The Medieval climate was warmer and more stable, population increased, and elevations >1000 m were exploited for agriculture. The influence of the Velino River on the lake appears to increase during the MP through channel migration, increased flooding, or increased overland flow. The next transition (1350 CE) marks the start of the LIA and is coincident with the Black Plague. Historical records document a large earthquake in 1349 that severely struck Central Italy, with possible effects on the lake's depositional and hydrochemical

  18. Seismic Features of The June 1999 Tectonic Swarm In The Stromboli Volcano Region, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falsaperla, S.; Alparone, S.; Spampinato, S.

    Crustal tectonic seismicity in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea is characterized by high occurrence rates of earthquakes to the west of the alignment of Salina, Lipari and Vulcano islands in the Aeolian Archipelago. Only few earthquakes affect the crustal region east of these islands where, conversely, intermediate and deep seismicity plays a relevant role (Falsaperla and Spampinato, 1999). According to this evidence, the in- terest roused by the seismic swarm of between June 6 and 17, 1999 recorded at the Aeolian Island Seismic Network was twofold. First, the number of earthquakes (78) that affected the Stromboli submarine edifice in a short time interval. Secondly, despite the maximum magnitude Md 3.2, the overall energy release was relatively conspicu- ous in comparison with swarms in this region occurred in the last century. We localize the swarm about 6 km to Northeast of the Stromboli island at a depth less than 12 km. The source region was identified using standard methods of hypocentral location as well as azimuth analysis. It is worth noting that volcanic activity at Stromboli did not change significantly during the swarm nor throughout the following months. There- fore, the seismic swarm had no link with volcanic activity observed at the surface. According to their signature, most of the earthquakes share similar waveform and fre- quency content, and can be divided into families. We identify some earthquakes - with magnitude up to Md 3 - having relatively low frequency content at different seismic stations. This anomalous feature leads us to hypothesize the presence of fluid circu- lation and/or propagation of seismic waves in a ductile medium. Our hypothesis is in agreement with studies on marine geology, which highlight various forms of subma- rine volcanism in the southern basin of the Tyrrhenian Sea.

  19. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Menchetti, Laura; Mancini, Stefania; Catalani, Maria Chiara; Boccini, Beatrice; Diverio, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this 'no-kill policy' has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project "RandAgiamo" implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs' adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs' visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (P < 0.001). The RandAgiamo project could be beneficial for the dogs' welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities. PMID:26479385

  20. The influence of climate variability on chemical composition of European wines: a regional scale study (Italy and Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbante, Carlo; Polo, Fabio; Cozzi, Giulio; Ogrinc, Nives; Turetta, Clara

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is having an increasing influence on vine phenology and grape composition, affecting vinifications, wine chemistry and the quality of productions. Wine grape cultivation provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Moreover, on a regional level and on a shorter time scale, the seasonal weather conditions modify the quality of yields determining the final properties of wine. In the present research, we studied wines from Italy and Slovenia with the purpose of differentiating them by the different vintages (from 2009 to 2012), which are supposed to be influenced by temperature and rain during each year's growing season. Specific chemical techniques were used, in particular mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and isotopic mass spectrometry (IRMS), both of which are usually employed to detect wine adulterations and to establish the geographical provenance of wines. In particular, we investigated the relationship between macro- and micro-elements, Rare Earth Elements and stable isotopes [δ13C, δ18O, (D/H)I, (D/H)II]. The datasets were examined via statistical techniques to show their relation to weather conditions as well as their mutual connection. Italian and Slovenian wines were distinguished, with the exception of few samples, by both TEs and REEs results. This separation, due to different elemental compositions, may be justified as being part of two distinct environmental and geographical belongings (terroir) but also to the processes of wine production, from the harvest to the bottling, which have certainly interfered and characterized the products. In the case of Italian wines the weather conditions were evidenced with an important separation of stable isotopes which they confirmed to be very sensitive Regarding Slovenian wines, the studied regions were characterized of

  1. Spatial, seasonal trends and transboundary transport of PM2.5 inorganic ions in the Veneto region (Northeastern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiol, Mauro; Benetello, Francesca; Harrison, Roy M.; Formenton, Gianni; De Gaspari, Francesco; Pavoni, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    The Veneto region lies in the eastern part of the Po Valley (Italy). This is one of the hotspots in Europe for air quality, where efforts to meet the European standard for PM2.5 according to current and future legislation have been generally unsuccessful. Recent data indicating that ammonium, nitrate and sulphate account for about one third of total PM2.5 mass show that secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) plays a key role in the exceedence of the standards. A sampling campaign for PM2.5 was carried out simultaneously in six major cities (2012-2013). The water soluble inorganic ions were quantified and data processed to: (1) investigate the seasonal trends and the spatial variations of the ionic component of aerosol; (2) identify chemical characteristics at the regional-scale and (3) assess the potential effects of long-range transport using back-trajectory cluster analysis and concentration-weighted trajectory (CWT) models. Results indicated that PM2.5 and SIA ions have an increasing gradient in concentrations from North (mountain) to South (lowland) and from East (coastal) to West (more continental), whereas K+ and Ca2+ levels are quite uniformly distributed. Similar seasonal trends in PM2.5 and ions are seen across the region. Simultaneous daily changes were observed and interpreted as a consequence of similar emission sources, secondary pollutant generation and accumulation/removal processes. Sulphate and nitrate were not directly related to the concentrations of their precursor gases and were generally largely, but not completely, neutralised by ammonium. The clustering of back-trajectories and CWT demonstrate that the long-range movement of the air masses has a major impact upon PM2.5 and ion concentrations: an area spreading from Eastern to Central Europe was identified as a main potential source for most ions. The valley sites are also heavily influenced by local emissions in slow moving northerly air masses. Finally, two episodes of high nitrate levels were

  2. Mass balance and life cycle assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system implemented in Lombardia Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, L; Falbo, A; Forte, F; Grosso, M; Rigamonti, L

    2015-08-15

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in Europe, whose content of hazardous substances as well as of valuable materials makes the study of the different management options particularly interesting. The present study investigates the WEEE management system in Lombardia Region (Italy) in the year 2011 by applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. An extensive collection of primary data was carried out to describe the main outputs and the energy consumptions of the treatment plants. Afterwards, the benefits and burdens associated with the treatment and recovery of each of the five categories in which WEEE is classified according to the Italian legislation (heaters and refrigerators - R1, large household appliances - R2, TV and monitors - R3, small household appliances - R4 and lighting equipment - R5) were evaluated. The mass balance of the treatment and recovery system of each of the five WEEE categories showed that steel and glass are the predominant streams of materials arising from the treatment; a non-negligible amount of plastic is also recovered, together with small amounts of precious metals. The LCA of the regional WEEE management system showed that the benefits associated with materials and energy recovery balance the burdens of the treatment processes, with the sole exception of two impact categories (human toxicity-cancer effects and freshwater ecotoxicity). The WEEE categories whose treatment and recovery resulted more beneficial for the environment and the human health are R3 and R5. The contribution analysis showed that overall the main benefits are associated with the recovery of metals, as well as of plastic and glass. Some suggestions for improving the performance of the system are given, as well as an indication for a more-in-depth analysis for the toxicity categories and a proposal for a new characterisation method for WEEE. PMID:25913003

  3. Determinants of land take at the regional scale: a study concerning Sardinia (Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Zoppi, Corrado Lai, Sabrina

    2015-11-15

    In its “Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe” (Communication COM(2011) 571 of 20 September 2011), the European Commission (EC) established an ambitious goal for the European Union (EU), that of achieving no land take by 2050; towards this aim, a key milestone for the year 2020 was set, by stating that European policies in the programming period 2014–2020 ought to consider both their direct and their indirect impacts on land use in the EU. Within this framework, this paper builds upon the findings of a previous paper (Zoppi and Lai, 2014), in which we estimated the magnitude of land take over a short period of time (2003–2008) in Sardinia, an Italian NUTS2 region, and we assessed whether and how land take is related to a set of variables that are regarded as important determinants in the literature, such as parcel size, accessibility, and proximity to main cities and towns, to the coastline, or to protected areas. In this paper we study the land-taking process taking Sardinia as a case study, in two larger time periods, 1960–1990 and 1990–2008. We assess if, and to what extent, these factors reveal similar, or different, effects in the two periods, and try to identify consistencies concerning the determinants of land take. - Highlights: • Population density and parcel size significantly affect the magnitude of land take. • The presence of nature conservation areas hinders land taking processes. • Extensive urbanization might effectively preserve non-artificial land. • Balanced accessibility of settlements and nature conservation regional policies can effectively contrast land take. • Size of non-artificial land parcels that become artificial is negatively and significantly connected to land take.

  4. Carbonaceous PM(2.5) and secondary organic aerosol across the Veneto region (NE Italy).

    PubMed

    Khan, Md Badiuzzaman; Masiol, Mauro; Formenton, Gianni; Di Gilio, Alessia; de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Agostinelli, Claudio; Pavoni, Bruno

    2016-01-15

    Organic and elemental carbon (OC-EC) were measured in 360 PM2.5 samples collected from April 2012 to February 2013 at six provinces in the Veneto region, to determine the factors affecting the carbonaceous aerosol variations. The 60 daily samples have been collected simultaneously in all sites during 10 consecutive days for 6 months (April, June, August, October, December and February). OC ranged from 0.98 to 22.34 μg/m(3), while the mean value was 5.5 μg/m(3), contributing 79% of total carbon. EC concentrations fluctuated from 0.19 to 11.90 μg/m(3) with an annual mean value of 1.31 μg/m(3) (19% of the total carbon). The monthly OC concentration gradually increased from April to December. The EC did not vary in accordance with OC. However the highest values for both parameters were recorded in the cold period. The mean OC/EC ratio is 4.54, which is higher than the values observed in most of the other European cities. The secondary organic carbon (SOC) contributed for 69% of the total OC and this was confirmed by both the approaches OC/EC minimum ratio and regression. The results show that OC, EC and SOC exhibited higher concentration during winter months in all measurement sites, suggesting that the stable atmosphere and lower mixing play important role for the accumulation of air pollutant and hasten the condensation or adsorption of volatile organic compounds over the Veneto region. Significant meteorological factors controlling OC and EC were investigated by fitting linear models and using a robust procedure based on weighted likelihood, suggesting that low wind speed and temperature favour accumulation of emissions from local sources. Conditional probability function and conditional bivariate probability function plots indicate that both biomass burning and vehicular traffic are probably the main local sources for carbonaceous particulate matter emissions in two selected cities. PMID:26519578

  5. Use of Remote Sensing data, terrain analysis and stochastic modeling to predict current and future flood risk in a small Mediterranean catchment (T. Teiro, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scopesi, Claudia; Maerker, Michael; Bachofer, Felix; Rellini, Ivano; Firpo, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Mediterranean catchments are particularly sensitive to temperature oscillations, rainfall intensity and human activities. Especially intensive precipitation events, changing land-use and thin soil layer trigger surface runoff generation and hence, soil erosion, sediment transport, flooding and related damages. In this study, we illustrate the use of Remote Sensing techniques to derive spatially distributed input data to assess surface runoff and river discharges in a small Mediterranean watershed in Liguria region. (NW of Italy). Particularly we focus on the triggering land-cover and soil information that can be derived with multispectral remote sensing techniques together with terrain analysis and stochastic modelling. To study the hydrological dynamics of the Teiro catchment we applied the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number method for different precipitation events related to return periods. The discharges obtained show reasonable values that have been validated with mapped flooded areas of the 04.10.2011 flood event. This event corresponds roughly to a 10 years return period. However, it is striking that a 50 years return period event yield the double amount of discharge and thus is a major threat for the local population.

  6. Toward an integrated regional and on-site Earthquake Early Warning System for Southern Italy: test and performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emolo, A.; Zollo, A.; Elia, L.; Martino, C.; Colombelli, S.; Festa, G.; Iannaccone, G.

    2011-12-01

    We present an approach to Earthquake Early Warning for Southern Italy that integrates regional and on-site systems. The regional approach is based on the PRESTo (PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem) software platform. PRESTo processes the 3C acceleration data streams from the stations of the Irpinia Seismic Network (ISNet) for P-waves arrival detection and, once an event has been detected, provides location and magnitude estimations, and peak ground motion predictions at target sites. The earthquake location is obtained through an evolutionary, real-time probabilistic approach based on an equal differential time formulation profiting of information from both triggered and not-yet-triggered stations. The magnitude is estimated by an empirical relation that correlates it with the peak displacement measured on the first 2-4s of signal, starting at the detected P-wave. The peak ground motion parameters at a site of interest can be finally estimated by specific ground motion prediction equations once that the location and magnitude are known. All estimates are provided as a probability density functions with an uncertainty that typically decreases with time. Alarm messages can thus reach vulnerable structures before the destructive waves. PRESTo has been under continuous real-time testing during the past two years using data streaming from ISNet and has produced a bulletin of about a hundred low-magnitude events. Meanwhile, PRESTo has been tested off-line playing back in the system both real and synthetic seismograms for moderate-to-large events. The tests performed have shown that a stable solution is generally reached within 10s from the origin time when a dense seismic network is deployed in the source area. The on-site system is based on the real-time measurement, at near-source stations located at increasing distances from the earthquake epicenter, of the peak displacement and P-wave dominant period, measured on a 3s window after the first P arrival

  7. Regional hydrogeochemical groundwater characterization and Natural Arsenic occurrence in Upper Valtellina Valley (Central Italian Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena Reyes, Fredy; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Basiricò, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the research is the characterization of the alpine Upper Valtellina Valley (central Italian Alps, 800 km2) aquifers by means of hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical, As speciation, isotopic and whole-rock analyses. In particular, the main focus of the study was the understanding of the processes responsible for As release and mobilization into the groundwater. Historical chemical data from springs, wells, lakes, rivers and public fountains were collected from the Lombardy Region Health Agency (ASL) and implemented into a geodatabase. The available groundwater chemistry analyses (3050) from five municipalities (Bormio, Livigno, Valdidentro, Valdisotto and Valfurva) cover a relatively long time span between 1996 and 2011. Moreover, samples across the entire study area and covering one full hydrologic year 2012-2013 were collected during four different campaigns (June 2012, October 2012, May 2013, and September 2013) and analyzed . During these campaigns, water samples have been collected from both cold springs and thermal springs. The hydrogeochemistry of aquifers and superficial waters through the hydrologic year, and the long-term regional As distribution and time variability were analyzed. Although the studied springs belong to different catchments with different hydrochemical and lithological conditions, they present some typical characteristics: (1) the water types are dominated by dissolution of the main ions Ca - Mg and SO4-HCO3; (2) the Cl concentration is always very low, and poorly correlated with other ions; (3) the circulation time obtained from isotopic data ranges between 5 and 10 years for thermal springs and it is lower than 2 years for cold springs; (4) the average yearly temperatures (about 12°C for cold springs, and between 18°C and 42° for thermal springs) are nearly constant through the year; (5) dominant oxidizing environments have been observed for most of the cold springs and also for the thermal springs; (6) anthropogenic

  8. Perception of Forest Values in the Alpine Community of Trentino Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paletto, Alessandro; Maino, Federica; De Meo, Isabella; Ferretti, Fabrizio

    2013-02-01

    Values are generally defined as social facts that orientate individual and collective actions, and consequently influence political, economic and social systems. The evaluation of natural resource values is considered an important instrument to support decision making in environmental policy. The forest is an important renewable resource that provides a mix of social, economic and environmental values for society. The paper presents a survey method to collect and analyse individual preferences relating to three macro-categories of forest values. The survey method was tested in the Trentino region (north-east of the Italian Alps) and will soon be extended to other areas. The results of the questionnaires provided evidence that the forest economic value is perceived as least important, while the environmental values were appreciated the most. Regarding the principle social variables, males tended to give higher scores to all three macro-categories compared to females. Moreover, people with a low education also gave higher scores to all three categories in comparison to the more educated individuals.

  9. Gamma-spectrometric measurement of radioactivity in agricultural soils of the Lombardia region, northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Laura; Carini, Franca; Rossi, Riccardo; Gatti, Marina; Cenci, Roberto M; Beone, Gian Maria

    2015-04-01

    This work is part of a wider monitoring project of the agricultural soils in Lombardia, which aims to build a database of topsoil properties and the potentially toxic elements, organic pollutants and gamma emitting radionuclides that the topsoils contain. A total of 156 agricultural soils were sampled according to the LUCAS (Land Use/Cover Area frame statistical Survey) standard procedure. The aim was to provide a baseline to document the conditions present at the time of sampling. The results of the project concerning soil radioactivity are presented here. The aim was to assess the content of (238)U, (232)Th, (137)Cs and (40)K by measuring soil samples by gamma spectrometry. (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K activities range 24-231, 20-70, and 242-1434 Bq kg(-1) respectively. The geographic distribution of (238)U reflects the geophysical framework of the Lombardia region: the soils with high content of uranium are distributed for the most part in the South Alpine belt, where the presence of magmatic rocks is widespread. These soils show an higher activity of (238)U than of (232)Th. The (238)U activities become lower than (232)Th when soils are located in the plain, originating from basic sedimentary rocks. (137)Cs activity ranges 0.4-86.8 kBq m(-2). The lowest activity of (137)Cs is in the plain, whereas the highest is in the North on soils kept as lawn or pasture. The (137)Cs activity of some samples suggests the presence of accumulation processes that lead to (137)Cs enriched soils. This is the first survey of gamma emitting radionuclides in Lombardia that is based on the LUCAS standard sampling. The results from this monitoring campaign are important for the human radiation exposure and provide the zero point, which will be useful for assessing future effects due to external factors such as human activities. PMID:25636137

  10. Active oblique extension in the central Apennines (Italy): evidence from the Fucino region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccardi, Luigi; Gaudemer, Yves; Tapponnier, Paul; Boccaletti, Mario

    1999-11-01

    The Fucino Basin is a flat Quaternary depression within the central Apennines. It is surrounded by active normal faults with small oblique-slip components. Surface faulting was observed along the east side of the basin during the Ms=7.0 Avezzano earthquake of 1915. In order to understand the kinematics of recent strain better and to assess the seismic hazard of this region, we carried out a detailed geomorphic and structural study of the faults around the basin. Fault scarp heights were accurately measured with total station profiles, and vertical slip rates were estimated assuming slope offsets to post-date the end of periglacial abrasion (14+/-4 kyr BP). To the north, the most prominent fault, the Magnola fault, appears to have an average postglacial throw rate of 0.7+/-0.3 mm yr-1 and, together with the Velino fault, to be capable of generating earthquakes of maximum magnitudes of 6.9-7.3 with recurrence intervals of 1000-3000 yr. East of the basin, the Serrone, Parasano and Ventrino faults form a right-stepping horsetail of the Giovenco fault. Current vertical slip rates on the three former faults appear to be between 0.5 and 1.4, 0.5 and 1.0, and 0.3 and 1.1 mm yr-1, respectively. Infrequent maximum-magnitude earthquakes on them may also exceed 7, particularly in the case of coupled rupture, with loosely constrained recurrence intervals (up to several thousand years). The right-lateral slip components implied by the most recent slickensides and by geomorphic offsets on the NW-SE-trending normal faults of the area suggest that the blocks they bound rotate counterclockwise, consistent with oblique left slip on the NNW-SSE-trending Giovenco and Ovindoli faults to the east. Sinistral shear parallel to the latter faults, the maximum relief across the Magnola fault, and the postglacial slope offsets measured suggest that the extension rate across the central Apennines might be of the order of 6+/-3 mm yr-1 in a N20 deg+/-10 degE direction, more northerly than

  11. A Radar and Gauge hourly precipitation database for calibration and statistical purposes over Lombardy Region - Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcacci, P.; Bonelli, P.; Lacavalla, M.; Vaghi, L.; Molari, M.; Musolino, A. E.; La Rocca, L.; Bertolotti, E.

    2012-04-01

    The Lombardy territory is partly characterized by the Alps Chain and by flat terrain, belonging to the Po river basin. Precipitation amount is a crucial meteorological variable, needed in hydrology, agriculture and energy evaluations. On this territory different rain-gauge networks have been run in the last ten years with different degree of reliability and areal distribution. At the same time the Swiss C-band radar of Mount Lema (1624 m.), near the city of Locarno, managed by Meteo Swiss, has produced rainfall amount data with an high level of continuity and quality on almost the whole Lombardy territory. Although it is widely recognized that radar precipitation estimates are affected by errors in mountainous areas, mostly due to the shield effects, this source of data remains of great value for its high resolution property and real-time availability. Any effort to explain differences between radar and gauges estimations needs a tool able to manage a sufficient large data-set. In order to get such a tool on the Lombardy region, a data-base of ten years (2000-2009) of hourly precipitation amount from the Monte Lema radar and from the various gauge networks has been carried out. A radar-gauges calibration method has been tested and applied to the whole data-set. The calibration method is based on the relation between precipitation estimate error and the radar visibility. A subset of gauges have been selected in order to set up the method, a different subset has been used to test it. Hourly precipitation radar estimate has been re-computed taking into account the corrections obtained. The data-base, developed in a open source MySQL environment, contains both the original radar precipitation estimates and the corrected data, grid and gauges coordinates are also provided. Some query-procedures allow to compute areal precipitation amounts, statistical distribution, scatter plot diagram and correlation coefficients between gauge measurements and radar estimates. Examples

  12. Pb isotopic constrains and environmental risk assessment of the Domizio Flegreo and Agro Aversano area (Campania region, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezza, Carmela; Albanese, Stefano; Ayuso, Robert; Lima, Annamaria; Sorvari, Jaana; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive geochemical environmental study focused on topsoil, groundwater, vegetable (corn) and human hair samples has been carried out in the Domizio-Flegreo Littoral and Agro Aversano areas in Southern Italy, covering 1287 km2 and including 90 municipalities. Within the framework of thethis study a focus was also carried on some specific sites (Teverola, Trentola-Ducenta, Giugliano, Castelvolturno and Acerra), that may have been affected by different sources of pollution (industrial and agricultural) and by the large presence of illegal buried waste disposals. Among the industrial sites that are expected to contribute to the contamination of the region a car and a chemical factory producing polyester fibres could be taken into account together with an urban waste incineration plant that is in operation since 2009 within the Acerra municipality administrative area. The research is based on 1064 topsoil samples, 27 groundwater samples, 24 samples of human hair and 13 corn samples taken in across the whole study area. Although samples were analysed for 53 elements at ACME Analytical Laboratories (Vancouver, Canada) by means of ICP-MS and ICP-ES after an aqua regia digestion, we focused on 15 key elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V and Zn), for which the Italian Environmental Law 152/06 establishes trigger and action limits for both residential/recreational and industrial/commercial land use, based on the risks to human health. All the chemical data were statistically treated and dot and interpolated maps were produced by means of the GeoDAS software. Maps showing the distribution of contamination factors (1) (Hakanson,1980) for each key element were also created. In general, As, Pb, Cr, Cd and Hg resulted to be the most critical pollutants for the area. Furthermore, Pb isotopic analyses on soil, water, corn and hair were conducted in order to distinguish between possible sources of contamination and geogenic and/or anthropogenic

  13. The OSMATER project: promotion of stone materials from the Verbano-Cusio-Ossola region (Italy) and the Canton Ticino (Switzerland).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, Alessandro; Antonella Dino, Giovanna

    2013-04-01

    The OSMATER (sub-Alpine Observatory Materials Territory Restoration) project, funded by the Piedmont Region (Italy) and the European Community, involved four Italian scientific bodies (Polytechnic of Turin, University of Turin, University of Milan-Bicocca, University of Bologna) and Switzerland (SUPSI). The aim was to investigate the present and historical quarrying and processing activities in the cross-border area between the Ossola Valley (Italy) and the Canton Ticino (Switzerland), and the use of dimension stones in local and national architecture. These materials are in many ways a "unique case", for their abundance and lithological variety. In the past, their extraction, processing and application characterized in a decisive way the architectural and constructive culture, both in terms of prestigious architecture and civil buildings, establishing a relationship between "stones and culture", "territory and its resources". In recent years, many of these traditions are losing importance and interest: this results in a loss of knowledge and historical memory, due mainly to the drastic changes in the market. The loss of this knowledge is likely to become irreversible in the short term, with the disappearance of people and social groups depositary of tradition. We can deduce that the creation of an "observatory", like OSMATER, is desirable and essential indeed, if we want to preserve the historical memory of the stone industry of an entire production area. The OSMATER project aimed the knowledge, recovery and enhancement of the architectural and cultural heritage of the cross-border area, through the census and classification of rocks, quarries (both active and historical - since Roman age), monuments and construction techniques typical of the sub-Alpine region, in order to create a documentation centre through a dedicated website. The first phase of the project was devoted to the identification of architectural works built with stone materials, with particular

  14. Potential risks of nitrate pollution in aquifers from agricultural practices in the Nurra region, northwestern Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghiglieri, Giorgio; Barbieri, Giulio; Vernier, Antonio; Carletti, Alberto; Demurtas, Nicola; Pinna, Rosanna; Pittalis, Daniele

    2009-12-01

    SummaryThe paper describes the methodological and innovative approach, which aims to evaluate the potential risk of nitrate pollution in aquifers from agricultural practices by combining intrinsic aquifer vulnerability to contamination, according to the SINTACS R5 method, with agricultural nitrates hazard assessment, according to the IPNOA index. The proposed parametric model adopts a geographically based integrated evaluation system, comprising qualitative and semi-quantitative indicators. In some cases, the authors have modified this model, revising and adjusting scores and weights of the parameter to account for the different environmental conditions, and calibrating accordingly. The method has been successfully implemented and validated in the pilot area of the Alghero coastal plain (northwestern Sardinia, Italy) where aquifers with high productivity are present. The classes with a major score (high potential risk) are in the central part of the plain, in correspondence with the most productive aquifers, where most actual or potential pollution sources are concentrated. These are mainly represented by intensive agricultural activities, by industrial agglomerate and diffused urbanisation. For calibrating the model and optimizing and/or weighting the examined factors, the modelling results were validated by comparison with groundwater quality data, in particular nitrate content, and with the potential pollution sources census data. The parametric method is a popular approach to groundwater vulnerability assessment, in contrast to groundwater flow model and statistical method ones: it is, indeed, relatively inexpensive and straightforward, and use data commonly available or that can be estimated. The zoning of nitrate vulnerable areas provides regional authorities with a useful decision support tool for planning land-use properly managing groundwater and combating and/or mitigating desertification processes. However, a careful validation of the results is

  15. Water quality assessment of carbonate aquifers in southern Latium region, Central Italy: a case study for irrigation and drinking purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sappa, Giuseppe; Ergul, Sibel; Ferranti, Flavia

    2014-06-01

    In southern Latium region, Central Italy, groundwater and spring water resources in the carbonate aquifers are the major contributors of drinking and irrigation water supply. The aim of this study was to review hydrochemical processes that control the groundwater chemistry and to determine the suitability of springs and groundwater for irrigation and drinking purposes on the basis of the water quality indices. Physical (pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids) and hydrochemical characteristics (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3 -, Cl-, and SO4 -) of springs and groundwater were determined. To assess the water quality, chemical parameters like sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), total hardness, Mg-hazard (MH), sodium percentage (Na %), salinity hazard, permeability index, and Kelly's ratio were calculated based on the analytical results. A Durov diagram plot revealed that the groundwater has been evolved from Ca to HCO3 recharge water, followed by mixing and reverse ion exchange processes, due to the respective dominance of Na-Cl and Ca-Cl water types. According to Gibbs's diagram plots, chemical weathering of rock forming minerals is the major driving force controlling water chemistry in this area. Groundwater and spring samples were grouped into six categories according to irrigation water quality assessment diagram of US Salinity Laboratory classification and most of the water samples distributed in category C2-S1 and C3-S1 highlighting medium to high salinity hazard and low sodium content class. The results of hydrochemical analyses and the calculated water quality parameters suggest that most of the water samples are suitable for irrigation and drinking purposes, except for the samples influenced by seawater and enhanced water-rock interaction. High values of salinity, Na %, SAR, and MH at certain sites, restrict the suitability for agricultural uses.

  16. Indicators of breast cancer severity and appropriateness of surgery based on hospital administrative data in the Lazio Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Schifano, Patrizia; Papini, Paolo; Agabiti, Nera; Scarinci, Marina; Borgia, Piero; Perucci, Carlo A

    2006-01-01

    Background Administrative data can serve as an easily available source for epidemiological and evaluation studies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of hospital administrative data to determine breast cancer severity and the appropriateness of surgical treatment. Methods the study population consisted of 398 patients randomly selected from a cohort of women hospitalized for first-time breast cancer surgery in the Lazio Region, Italy. Tumor severity was defined in three different ways: 1) tumor size; 2) clinical stage (TNM); 3) severity indicator based on HIS data (SI). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) of the severity indicator in evaluating appropriateness of surgery were calculated. The accuracy of HIS data was measured using Kappa statistic. Results Most of 387 cases were classified as T1 and T2 (tumor size), more than 70% were in stage I or II and the SI classified 60% of cases in medium-low category. Variation from guidelines indications identified under and over treatments. The accuracy of the SI to predict under-treatment was relatively good (58% of all procedures classified as under-treatment using pT where also classified as such using SI), and even greater predicting over-treatment (88.2% of all procedures classified as over treatment using pT where also classified as such using SI). Agreement between clinical chart and hospital discharge reports was K = 0.35. Conclusion Our findings suggest that administrative data need to be used with caution when evaluating surgical appropriateness, mainly because of the limited ability of SI to predict tumor size and the questionable quality of HIS data as observed in other studies. PMID:16464258

  17. Impact Of Landslides Along Road Network And Direct Cost Estimation: A Case Study In Marche Region, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvati, P.; Donnini, M.; Guzzetti, F.; Ardizzone, F.; Cardinali, M.; Bucci, F.; Fiorucci, F.; Alvioli, M.; Santangelo, M.

    2014-12-01

    In November and December 2013, the Marche region (Central Italy) was hit by three severe, but not rare, meteorological events. The maximum value of the three days cumulative rainfall (499 mm) was recorded at the rain gauge of Pintura di Bolognola. The intense rainfall caused floods along the rivers and triggered numerous landslides, mostly located in the hilly and mountainous terrain of the region. The territory is crossed by a large number of roads connecting small rural settlements. After the events, the Regional Civil Protection Office requested to the Research Institute for the geo-hydrological Protection (IRPI-CNR) a technical support to evaluate the hazard condition for different sites affected by landslides. For an area of approximately 200 km2, in the Municipalities of Acquasanta Terme and Roccafluvione, field surveys were carried out to identify the rainfall-induced landslides and to produce an event inventory map. More than 1,500 slope failures were mapped including earth flows, slide-earth flows, slides, rock-falls and complex slides. Field surveys were focused also to estimate qualitatively damages along the roads. Roads were classified in two classes: the main roads under the State responsibility and the secondary roads under the Municipality responsibility. The different types of damage were classified in three classes: i) aesthetic (minor), where the road functionality was not compromised; ii) functional (medium), where the functionality was compromised and iii) structural (severe) where roads are severely or completely damaged. Immediately after the event, the technicians of the Municipalities of Acquasanta Terme and Roccafluvione spent major efforts to partially restore the functionality of the secondary roads in order to guarantee the primary human needs. In the following ten days, they compiled a list of interventions, associated with the relative direct costs, aimed to the total restoration of the roads functionality. In collaboration with the

  18. Combining controlled-source seismology and receiver function information to derive 3-D Moho topography for Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spada, M.; Bianchi, I.; Kissling, E.; Agostinetti, N. Piana; Wiemer, S.

    2013-08-01

    information to derive the map of Moho topography in Italy and surrounding regions. Our results show high-frequency undulation in the Moho topography of three different Moho interfaces, the European, the Adriatic-Ionian, and the Liguria-Corsica-Sardinia-Tyrrhenia, reflecting the complexity of geodynamical evolution.

  19. [A full economic evaluation of extensive vaccination against rotavirus with RIX4414 vaccine at National and Regional level in Italy].

    PubMed

    Vitale, F; Barbieri, M; Dirodi, B; Vitali Rosati, G; Franco, E

    2013-01-01

    Vaccination of all healthy children against rotavirus (RV) has been recommended, since the availability of vaccines, both in Europe (PIDJ) and Italy (pediatricians). The aims of universal vaccination against RV include the protection of children against moderate/severe gastroenteritis forms by RV (GARV), prevent hospitalizations, reduce the severity and duration of the disease, and reduce morbidity and socioeconomic costs. Payers need to informed regarding the efficacy and the healthcare utilization related to RV vaccination in order to decide in favour of its extensive implementation. The aim of this paper is to assess the clinical and financial impact of the extensive vaccination aganist RV both at National and Regional level. Particular attention, compared to the previous analysis (Standaert et al, 2008) has been given to the influence of herd immunity (HI) on cost-utility results of vaccination against-RV. Methods. The analysis was conducted with the Markovian model previously used by Standaert B et al and updated for comparing costs and benefits associated with a situation of vaccination anti-RV that includes efficacy data due to HI, with a situation without vaccination. For the base case is assumed an annual coverage of 90%, where the effect of HI is present in the population at risk (0-5 years) and extended to children who have not been vaccinated, adding as conservative assumption, a further 10% to the efficacy of the vaccine, compared to 15% determined by several published studies. Two analysis have been made based on this model: a cost-utility analysis that compared vaccination with two doses of RIX441410 administered at 2 and 3 months after birth compared with no vaccination from National Health Service and Society perspective; a budget impact analysis at National and Regional level. The evaluation has as its main element the reduction of cases of infection through universal vaccination and consequent reduction of Garv events and nosocomial infections

  20. A physics-based earthquake simulator and its application to seismic hazard assessment in Calabria (Southern Italy) region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Console, Rodolfo; Nardi, Anna; Carluccio, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The characteristic earthquake hypothesis is not strongly supported by observational data because of the relatively short duration of historical and even paleoseismological records. For instance, for the Calabria (Southern Italy) region, historical information on strong earthquakes exist for at least two thousand years, but they can be considered complete for M > 6.0 only for the latest few centuries. As a consequence, characteristic earthquakes are seldom reported for individual fault segments, and hazard assessment is not reliably estimated by means of only minor seismicity reported in the historical catalogs. Even if they cannot substitute the information contained in a good historical catalog, physics-based earthquake simulators have become popular in the recent literature, and their application has been justified by a number of reasons. In particular, earthquake simulators can provide interesting information on which renewal models can better describe the recurrence statistics, and how this is affected by features as local fault geometry and kinematics. The use of a newly developed earthquake simulator has allowed the production of catalogs lasting 100,000 years and containing more than 100,000 events of magnitudes ≥ 4.5. The algorithm on which this simulator is based is constrained by several physical elements, as an average slip rate due to tectonic loading for every single segment in the investigated fault system, the process of rupture growth and termination, and interaction between earthquake sources, including small magnitude events. Events nucleated in one segment are allowed to expand into neighboring segments, if they are separated by a given maximum range of distance. The application of our simulation algorithm to Calabria region provides typical features in time, space and magnitude behaviour of the seismicity, which can be compared with those of the real observations. These features include long-term periodicity of strong earthquakes, short

  1. High-resolution investigation of the crustal structure of the Sicilian region (southern Italy) by local earthquake tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totaro, C.; Kukarina, E.; Koulakov, I.; Orecchio, B.; Presti, D.; Neri, G.

    2014-12-01

    We present a new seismic velocity model for the crust and uppermost mantle beneath Sicily (Southern Italy) and surrounding areas, obtained by local earthquake tomography. The Sicilian region represents a portion of the Apennine-Maghrebide fold-and-thrust belt developed in an area dominated by both the convergence between the European and Nubia plates and the extensional processes linked to the opening of the Tyrrhenian basin (Malinverno and Ryan, 1986; Faccenna et al., 1996). Four major seismogenic domains characterize the region: (I) the Southern Tyrrhenian E-W striking domain undergoing N-S compression; (II) the northern Sicily domain presenting extensional regimes that vary from N-S, to the west, to WNW-ESE to the east; (III) the mainland Sicily domain comprising the Etna area and showing a mainly transpressional regime; (IV) the Hyblean Foreland domain (southeastern Sicily) with primarily strike-slip deformation. To perform the tomographic inversion, we selected ca. 7100 earthquakes that have occurred between 1990 and 2012 in the depth range 0-100km. Data and recordings have been derived by the Italian recording networks (www.ingv.it). By using the LOTOS code (Koulakov, 2009), we computed the distribution of Vp, Vs, and the Vp/Vs ratio in the study area. In order to increase the detail of our analysis with respect to previous study carried out in the same sector, we tested several spacing for the inversion grid and performed synthetic tests to estimate a possible effect of noise on the resolution as well as the optimal values of inversion parameters. The obtained velocity models, jointly evaluated with the hypocenter distribution and geological information, give us new constraints to geodynamical and structural knowledge of the study area. Main results evidence (i) the presence of a clear discontinuity in the P-wave velocity pattern between the Tyrrhenian off-shore of Sicily, characterized by high velocity anomalies, and the northern Sicilian on-shore, where a

  2. 11-14 November 2012 Umbria Region (Central Italy) flood event: from prediction to management for civil protection purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berni, Nicola; Pandolfo, Claudia; Stelluti, Marco; Zauri, Renato; Ponziani, Francesco; Francioni, Marco; Governatori Leonardi, Federico; Formica, Alessandro; Natazzi, Loredana; Costantini, Sandro

    2013-04-01

    Following laws and regulations concerning extreme natural events management, the Italian national hydrometeorological early warning system is composed by 21 regional offices (Functional Centres - CF). Umbria Region CF is located in Central Italy and provides early warning, monitoring and decision support systems (DSS) when significant flood/landslide events occur. The alert system is based on hydrometric and rainfall thresholds with detailed procedures for the management of critical events in which different roles of authorities and institutions involved are defined. For the real time flood forecasting system, at the CF several operational hydrological and hydraulic models were developed and implemented for a "dynamic" hazard/risk scenario assessment for Civil Protection DSS, useful also for the development of Flood Risk Management Plans according to the European "Floods Directive" 2007/60. In the period 11th-14th November 2012, a significant flood event occurred in Umbria (as well as Tuscany and northern Lazio). The territory was interested by intense and persistent rainfall; the hydro-meteorological monitoring network recorded locally rainfall depth over 300 mm in 72 hours and, generally, values greater than the seasonal averages all over the region. In the most affected area the recorded rainfall depths correspond to centenarian return period: one-third of the annual mean precipitation occurred in 2-3 days. Almost all rivers in Umbria have been involved, exceeding hydrometric thresholds, and several ones overflowed. Furthermore, in some cases, so high water levels have never been recorded by the hydrometric network. As in the major flood events occurred in the last years, dams (Montedoglio and Corbara dams along Tiber River and Casanuova dam along Chiascio River) and other hydraulic works for flood defense (e.g. along Chiani stream) played a very important mitigation role, storing high water volumes and avoiding the overlap of peak discharges downstream. During

  3. Uncertainty in drought monitoring by the Standardized Precipitation Index: the case study of the Abruzzo region (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergni, L.; Di Lena, B.; Todisco, F.; Mannocchi, F.

    2015-12-01

    As shown by several authors, drought monitoring by the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) presents some uncertainties, mainly dependent on the choice of the probability distribution used to describe the cumulative precipitation and on the characteristics (e.g., length and variability) of the dataset. In this paper, the uncertainty related to SPI estimates has been quantified and analyzed with regards to the case study of the Abruzzo region (Central Italy), by using monthly precipitation recorded at 75 stations during the period 1951-2009. First, a set of distributions suitable to describe the cumulative precipitation at the 3-, 6-, and 12-month time scales was identified by using L-moments ratio diagrams. The goodness-of-fit was evaluated by applying the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and the Normality test on the derived SPI series. Then the confidence intervals of SPI have been calculated by applying a bootstrap procedure. The size of the confidence intervals has been considered as a measure of uncertainty, and its dependence on several factors such as the distribution type, the time scale, the record length, and the season has been examined. Results show that the distributions Pearson type III (PE3), Weibull (WEI), Generalized Normal (GNO), Generalized Extreme Value (GEV), and Gamma (GA2) are all suitable to describe the cumulative precipitation, with a slightly better performance of the PE3 and GNO distributions. As expected, the uncertainty increases as the record length and time scale decrease. The leading source of uncertainty is the record length while the effects due to seasonality and time scale are negligible. Two-parameter distributions make it possible to obtain confidence intervals of SPI (particularly for extreme values) narrower than those obtained by three-parameter distributions. Nevertheless, due to a poorer goodness of fit, two-parameter distributions can provide less reliable estimates of the precipitation probability. In any event, independently

  4. Statistical characterisation of winter precipitation in the Abruzzo region (Italy) in relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergni, Lorenzo; Di Lena, Bruno; Chiaudani, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and winter precipitation at 75 stations in the Abruzzo region (Central Italy) during the period 1951-2009. The analysis was carried out for individual months (December, January, February, March) as well as for 3-month accumulation periods, December to February (DJF) and January to March (JFM). A composite analysis, based on the positive and negative values of the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) was used to compare the characteristics of precipitation associated with NAOI positive (NAO+) and negative (NAO-) conditions. Firstly, the NAO+ and NAO- precipitation subsets were compared by using the Brown-Forsythe and Mann-Whitney tests to assess the presence of significant differences in the variance and mean, respectively. Then the L-moment ratio diagrams were used to identify, for each period and NAO phase, the best-fitting two-parameter distribution. The NAO+ and NAO- conditions were also compared on the basis of the first (D1) and ninth (D9) precipitation deciles. The results show that the NAO mainly affects the mean precipitation amounts that are in most cases lower (higher) during the NAO+ (NAO-) phase, particularly for JFM. This influence is characterised by a relevant spatial variability that can be attributed to local factors (orography and distance from the sea). No significant differences were found in the precipitation variance, but this means that NAO+ precipitation, due to lower mean values, is relatively more variable than NAO- precipitation. The L-moment ratio diagrams reveal that the Weibull distribution always provides the best overall fitting for NAO- conditions (with the exception of DJF for which the log-normal is the best). For NAO+ conditions the best-fitting distributions become the generalized Pareto (January and February), the Weibull (DJF) and the Gamma (JFM), while no change in the distribution type is observed in December and March. In most cases, both D

  5. Preliminary Assessment of Rock Fall Hazard and Risk In The Central Part of The Nera Valley, Umbria Region, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghigi, S.; Guzzetti, F.; Reichenbach, P.; Detti, R.

    Rock falls are one of the most common types of fast moving landslides in mountain areas. They represent the most abundant landslides triggered by earthquakes. Rock falls are one of the primary causes of fatalities and of damage caused by landslides. Despite being widespread and highly destructive, only a few attempts have been made to establish rock fall hazard and the associate risk along transportation corridors in mountain areas. We present a preliminary assessment of rock fall hazard and risk for the central part of the Nera River Valley, in the Umbria Region of Central Italy. The Nera River, a tributary of the Tiber River, flows across the Apennines in a deep and narrow valley. Two national roads, the SS 305 and the SS 209, and several mountain villages are located along the valley bottom. The villages and the roads are frequently affected by rock falls. On October 1997, aftershocks of the Umbria-Marche earth- quake triggered hundreds of rock falls, ranging in size from few cubic decimeters, to some tens of cubic meter. Damage was severe and the two national roads were closed for several weeks. Following the earthquake defensive measures (including scaling, rock fences, elastic fences, and artificial tunnels) were installed along the valley. These costly defensive measures were installed without any specific assessment of rock fall hazard and the associated risk. Using a 3-dimensional, spatially distributed rock falls simulation program, we have quantitatively evaluated rock fall hazard along a 20 kilo- metres section of the central part of the valley. The source areas of rock falls (i.e., the detachment zones) were identified from vertical aerial photographs and in the field. Parameters controlling the loss of energy at impact points and during rolling were ob- tained from a surface geology map prepared updating a geological map through the analysis of aerial photographs and field surveys. Maps of the expected rock fall count, a proxy for the probability of

  6. Assessment of carbon pools in two soils from the Campania region (Southwest, Italy) under different forest types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez-Romero, Marta; Papa, Stefania; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; González-Pérez, José A.; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Coppola, Elio

    2014-05-01

    Soil is the largest carbon reservoir of terrestrial ecosystems, this reservoir is not inert, but it is constantly in a dynamic phase of accumulation an depletion. After the addition, in the soil, of organic residues of different origin and nature, two processes can occur in charge of SOM (Soil Organic Matter) during the pedogenesis: mineralization and humification. The accumulation of SOM in soil is controlled by the balance between carbon inputs and losses through mineralization and/or leaching. In particular the humification process leads to the formation of organic compounds (in some cases even complex organo-mineral) chemically stable able to distribute itself in the soil second rules of site-specific pedogenesis. The transport process along the profile can take very different forms which may extend in the formation of Bh horizons of accumulation in depth also strongly cemented (so-called ortstein). The transport process along the profile occurs for the occurrence of certain conditions such as deposition of high amounts of organic residues on the top of the profile, high porosity of the soil for the presence of coarse solid fractions (coarse sands or skeleton) that determinate a strong infiltrating capacity of the circulating waters, extreme temperatures can slow or stop the process of mineralization and/or humification in one intermediate step of the degradation process releasing organic metabolites with high or medium solubility and high loads of percolating water related to intense rainfall. The nature of the forest cover influence the quantity and quality of the organic materials deposited with marked differences between coniferous and deciduous especially in relation to resistance to degradation and production of intermediate metabolites. Two soils from Campania region located in Monte Santa Croce (Caserta, Italy) with andic properties, different forest cover (pine and chestnut) and that meets the requirements of the place and pedological formation

  7. Recreational Boating in Ligurian Marine Protected Areas (Italy): A Quantitative Evaluation for a Sustainable Management.

    PubMed

    Venturini, S; Massa, F; Castellano, M; Costa, S; Lavarello, I; Olivari, E; Povero, P

    2016-01-01

    Recreational boating is an important economic activity that can also represent a powerful source of interference for biological communities. The monitoring of the recreational boating in all Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) within the Liguria region was conducted in the 2010 summer season and it allowed to obtain information not provided by any official institution. The collaboration of geographically different MPAs in Liguria has led to the implementation of a monitoring framework of recreational boating, and this has made it possible to develop uniform management strategies for all the Ligurian marine parks. This study identifies the optimal number of boats for each MPAs, the number of boats that can anchor in the various parks without creating any impact on the biocenosis of merit, providing a first characterization of recreational boating in Liguria during the high touristic season and providing management recommendation to each MPAs. Generally, the Ligurian MPAs do not present critical situations, the number of boats in each MPA being below the optimal number, with the exception of Portofino MPA, where in the 12.5 % of monitored days more than 220 boats were counted and the mean density for weekend is 1.19 no boats/ha (4 times higher than weekday). The results confirm the dependence of the boats peaking from the holidays and the months of the summer, but also it highlights other factors that can contribute in the choice of the boaters. PMID:26289349

  8. Recreational Boating in Ligurian Marine Protected Areas (Italy): A Quantitative Evaluation for a Sustainable Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturini, S.; Massa, F.; Castellano, M.; Costa, S.; Lavarello, I.; Olivari, E.; Povero, P.

    2016-01-01

    Recreational boating is an important economic activity that can also represent a powerful source of interference for biological communities. The monitoring of the recreational boating in all Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) within the Liguria region was conducted in the 2010 summer season and it allowed to obtain information not provided by any official institution. The collaboration of geographically different MPAs in Liguria has led to the implementation of a monitoring framework of recreational boating, and this has made it possible to develop uniform management strategies for all the Ligurian marine parks. This study identifies the optimal number of boats for each MPAs, the number of boats that can anchor in the various parks without creating any impact on the biocenosis of merit, providing a first characterization of recreational boating in Liguria during the high touristic season and providing management recommendation to each MPAs. Generally, the Ligurian MPAs do not present critical situations, the number of boats in each MPA being below the optimal number, with the exception of Portofino MPA, where in the 12.5 % of monitored days more than 220 boats were counted and the mean density for weekend is 1.19 no boats/ha (4 times higher than weekday). The results confirm the dependence of the boats peaking from the holidays and the months of the summer, but also it highlights other factors that can contribute in the choice of the boaters.

  9. A multidisciplinary geomatics approach to morphometric and morphotectonic analysis of the Cannobino Basin (Piemonte Region, NW-Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacenetti, Marco; Ghiraldi, Luca; Giardino, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The paper presents an integrated multidisciplinary approach to the morphometric and morphotectonic characterization of the Cannobino Basin (Piemonte Region, NW-Italy). The basin is drained by the Cannobino river; in its first 8 km, it flows SE to NW along a wide valley characterized by glacial landforms; thereafter it suddenly turns South assuming a W to E direction, by flowing in a deeply entrenched valley to the intermontane basin of the Maggiore Lake. This area belongs to the Lepontine Alps, which from the geological point of view belong to the Southern Alps. His Hercynian basement is divided in two units: Ivrea-Verbano Zone (IVZ) and Serie dei Laghi (SDL). The IVZ outcrops in the northern sector of the basin, while the SDL outcrops in the southern and central sector. They separated by the Cossato-Mergozzo-Brissago (CMB) and Pogallo lines (PL). These major discontinuities and the neoctonic activity of their shear zones possibly control Quaternary evolution of the alpine relief. Detailed studies of the area are needed for understanding possible interactions of neotectonic activity, fluvial/glacial erosional/depositional processes and slope dynamics. Our focus is on drainage basin characteristics and its evolutionary stages in response to local and regional base level changes and to differential rock uplift. GIS methodologies combined with DEMs analyses are among the most common geomatics approaches to geomorphology. Based on this framework, an evaluation of the geomorphometric characteristic of the Cannobino Basin has been carried out by using an aerial LIDAR DEM (5x5 meters, Regione Piemonte, 2009). The workflow followed for calculating the geomorphic indexes can be summarized in different steps: i) drainage network extraction and hierarchization; ii) lineament features digitalization and interpretation; iii) azimuthal distribution of drainage pattern; iv) DEM analysis and evaluation of linear, areal indexes and SWAT profile. The multidisciplinary and innovative

  10. Geodiversity, geoheritage and cultural landscape: an example from the Messinian geosites of the Piemonte region (NW-Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Enrico; Natalicchio, Marcello; Ghiraldi, Luca; Lozar, Francesca; Dela Pierre, Francesco; Giardino, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The Piemonte region (NW-Italy) contains a remarkable diversity of landscapes, some of them included in and protected by the World Heritage list, as well as some recently proposed geosites which testify the dramatic paleoevironmental, paleobiological and paleoclimatic event that occurred in the Mediterranean area around 6 Ma ago during the so-called Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). However the link between landform, geodiversity, geoheritage, and cultural landscape has not yet fully explored. The aims of this study, promoted by the multidisciplinary research project 'PROGEO-Piemonte' (PROactive management of GEOlogical heritage in the Piemonte region), are: 1) to analyse the link between geosites and recent landscape modification, 2) to reconstruct the landscape evolution and, through geotourism, 3) to promote geological knowledge in an area with great potential for tourism. The study area is located in the SE part of the Cuneo plain, at the foot of the Langhe hills, where heterogeneous landforms, mainly related to the Tanaro river piracy, are observed. The sediments recording the MSC event, mostly consisting of thick gypsum layers, have been recently studied by a multidisciplinary approach and the results allowed the detailed reconstruction of the MSC evolution in this region. Two maps have been produced to disseminate the geodiversity knowledge (the geological - landscape map) and to promote geotourism fruition (the geotouristic map). The geological - landscape map deals with different geological and geomorphologic issues thanks to illustrations of the main features of the Messinian deposits, their depositional environments and the exposed landforms. To underline the high geodiversity of the area, it has been divided into several geomorphologic sectors based of their characteristic landforms and evolution. In each of these sectors, geosites have been identified to clarify the comprehension of the related topics at the widest public: particularly, the geosites help

  11. Burden of varicella in Italy, 2001-2010: analysis of data from multiple sources and assessment of universal vaccination impact in three pilot regions.

    PubMed

    Trucchi, Cecilia; Gabutti, Giovanni; Rota, Maria Cristina; Bella, Antonino

    2015-11-01

    Varicella represents the most widespread vaccine-preventable childhood infectious disease in Italy. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the burden of varicella in Italy and in three regions that first implemented universal varicella vaccination. Four data sources were analysed: statutory notification data, the National Hospital Discharge Database, mortality data, and the vaccination coverage reached in Sicilia, Veneto and Apulia. The incidence rates per 100,000 population were calculated using the Italian resident population provided by the Italian Institute of Statistics in 2001-2010. In 2001-2010, the mean annual incidence of notifications of varicella was 150.7 cases per 100,000 population, reaching 948.6 cases per 100,000 population in the paediatric age group. The annual incidence declined to 102.6 per 100,000 population in 2010. During the period considered, 20,295 hospitalizations for varicella were observed. The mean annual incidence was 3.4 per 100,000 population, reaching a minimum of 2.5 per 100,000 in 2009 and 2010. Of the hospitalizations, 68.4% occurred in the paediatric age group. The median length of hospital stay was 4 days. During 2001-2003 and 2006-2010, 33 deaths were reported. In the three regions considered, vaccination coverage increased steadily, reaching 81.5% in Sicily, 79.4% in Veneto and 75.6% in Apulia in 2010. During the same period, hospitalization and notification rates decreased significantly. This study demonstrated that varicella continues to represent a relevant health problem in Italy, especially in the paediatric age group. Data obtained from the three Italian regions that first introduced universal vaccination demonstrated that vaccination reduces the incidence of varicella and hospitalization rates. PMID:25813818

  12. [Health status and access to health services by the population of L'Aquila (Abruzzo Region, Italy) six years after the earthquake].

    PubMed

    Altobelli, Emma; Vittorini, Pierpaolo; Leuter, Cinzia; Bianchini, Valeria; Angelone, Anna Maria; Aloisio, Federica; Cofini, Vincenza; Zazzara, Francesca; Di Orio, Ferdinando

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters, such as the earthquake that occurred in the province of L'Aquila in central Italy, in 2009, generally increase the demand for healthcare. A survey was conducted to assess perception of health status an d use of health services in a sample of L'Aquila's resident population, five years after the event, and in a comparison population consisting of a sample of the resident population of Avezzano, a town in the same region, not affected by the earthquake. No differences were found in perception of health status between the two populations. Both groups reported difficulties in accessing specialized healthcare and rehabilitation services. PMID:27077558

  13. Characterization of medium enthalpy geothermal system in the Campania region (southern Italy): from geological data to resource modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montegrossi, G.; Inversi, B.; Scrocca, D.; Livani, M.; Petracchini, L.

    2012-04-01

    Within the framework of the VIGOR project, a characterization of medium enthalpy geothermal resources have been carried out in the Campania region (southern Italy), with a focus on the "Guardia dei Lombardi" area (province of Avellino). The VIGOR project began on the basis of an agreement between the Ministry of Economic Development and the Italian National Research Council, and it deal with the exploitation of innovative uses of geothermal energy in the so-called "regions of convergence"(Campania, Calabria, Puglia and Sicilia). Thanks to the intense hydrocarbon exploration, carried out particularly during the 1956-1996 period, an extensive data set made up by deep wells and seismic reflection profiles exist in the study area. The previous exploration demonstrated the presence of a fractured carbonate reservoir, mainly belonging to the Cretaceous section of the Apulian shallow water carbonate platform (e.g. Scrocca 2010 and references therein), which is deformed to shape a buried antiformal stack. The culmination of the uppermost thrust unit reaches a depth of about 200 m SSL (i.e., about 1100 m below the ground level). The reservoir fluids are made up by a CO2 gas cap, which rests above an accumulation of fresh water in the central and upper part of the culmination of the deep carbonatic acquifer (e.g., Monte Forcuso 1 and 2 wells), and a saline water along the flank of the buried anticline (e.g., Bonito 1 Dir, Ciccone 1 wells). Medium enthalpy geothermal resources with a reservoir fluid temperature up to 100°C have been estimated in previous assessments at depth of 2000 m below ground level (ENEL 1987; 1994). However, the presence of thermal springs (e.g. Terme di S. Teodoro) in the area suggests the presence of an active hydraulic circuit and provide further constraints about the geochemical characteristics of the reservoir waters, and the geothermometers investigation (Duchi et al. 1995) give a possible reservoir fluid temperature up to about 124 °C. In this

  14. Integrating soil map delineations properties and land use into soil carbon density assessment at regional scale (Emilia Romagna, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungaro, F.; Calzolari, C.

    2009-04-01

    Accurate estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) at regional scale are important to estimate the potential of soils as C reservoir. Different approaches can be used resulting in different degree of uncertainty associated to the estimates (Ungaro et al, 2005). Among the major source of uncertainty, land use, soil variability and bulk density for the reference depth are those with the greater influence on the final SOC stock estimation (Meersman, 2007). In order to reconstruct the spatial patterns of SOC at the landscape scale and to reduce the uncertainty associated to SOC stock estimates, an hybrid approach has been developed, combining the properties of the delineations of the regional 1:50.000 soil map with a geostatistical procedure (sequential Gaussian simulation). In the alluvial plain area of Emilia Romagna (10,734 km2) in Northern Italy, the available spatially explicit soil data (17,652 horizons from 3,302 profiles,), from 237 soil typological units, have been referred to 13 soil functional groups, divided in 42 subgroups. Based on the main geomorphic and pedogenetic processes, the soil functional groups and subgroups are defined in terms of top-soil textural classes (texture family), drainage class, slope, presence of organic materials (O horizons), flooding occurrence, origin of the parent material and presence of limestone. In order to take into account the influence of land use, the observations within each functional group have been further divided according to the different agricultural districts of the plain, characterized by different dominant land uses. The SOC density (Mg ha-1) of the 100 cm reference depth has been calculated as a weighed sum of the values calculated for each horizon., using a set of locally calibrated pedotransfer functions (Ungaro, 2007) whose inputs beside organic C are the sand, silt, and clay textural fractions The average values of each soil functional (sub)group of each district were used to assign a SOC density (Mg ha-1

  15. A contribution to the seismic hazard of the Apulia Region (Southern Italy): environmental effects triggered by historical earthquakes in last centuries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfido, Sabina; Alessio, Giuliana; Nappi, Rosa; De Lucia, Maddalena; Gaudiosi, Germana

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is a critical revision of the historical and recent seismicity of the Apulia and surrounding seismogenetic areas, for re-evaluating the macroseismic effects in MCS scale and ground effects in natural environment according to the ESI 2007 scale (Michetti et al., 2007) as a contribution to the seismic hazard of the region. The most important environmental effect due to historical earthquakes in the Apulia was the tsunami occurrence, followed by landslides, liquefaction phenomena, hydrological changes and ground cracks. The Apulia (Southern Italy) has been hit by several low energy and a few high energy earthquakes in the last centuries. In particular, the July 30, 1627 earthquake (I=X MCS, Rovida et al., 2011) and the May 5, 1646 event (I=X MCS), the strongest earthquakes of the Gargano promontory have been reviewed, together with the March 20, 1731 earthquake (I=IX MCS, Mw=6.5, Rovida et al., 2011), the most relevant of the Foggia province, and the February 20, 1743 earthquake (I=IX MCS, Mw= 7.1, Rovida et al., 2011, I ESI=X, Nappi et al, 2015), the strongest of the Salento area,. The whole Apulia region has also been struck by strong earthquakes of neighboring seismogenetic areas located in the Southern Apennines, Adriatic and Ionian Sea, Albania and Greece, well propagated throughout the Italian peninsula, and in particular in the southern regions, where the intensity degrees are higher, sometimes exceeding the limit of damage. Some well documented examples of Greek earthquakes strongly felt in the whole Apulia region were: the August 27, 1886 earthquake (Peloponnesus, Greece); the May 28, 1897 earthquake (Creta-Cypro); the June 26, 1926 earthquake (Creta and Cipro, Imax=X MCS), felt all over the Southern Italy; the August 28, 1962 earthquake (epicenter in Peloponnesus area). It is noteworthy that earthquakes located in the Southern Apennines were powerfully felt in the whole Apulia region; among the strongest historical events of the

  16. Evaluation of coastal vulnerability: comparison of two different methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armaroli, Clara; Perini, Luisa; Calabrese, Lorenzo; Ciavola, Paolo; Salerno, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    In the last years a large number of catastrophic events have occurred along worldwide coastlines (e.g.: 2012 Super-storm Sandy, US East Coast). European countries have to face similar calamities such as those caused by the recent Xaver cyclone (December 2013). The Emilia-Romagna coastline, Italy, along the North Adriatic Sea, is affected by storms that cause extensive damages. The coast has low elevations, is highly urbanised and there is a massive presence of defence structures. The area is micro-tidal (neap/spring tide ranges = 0.4/0.8 m), low energetic (65% Hs<=1 m) but subjected to significant surge levels (1 year return period = 0.85 m). Therefore an evaluation of the vulnerability of the coastal area is an urgent matter. The Regional Geological Survey has completed an analysis of three scenarios of damage produced by the concurrent happening of a marine storm and high surge levels (1-in-1, 10, 100 year return period) and high spring tidal levels (+0.45 m MSL). Wave heights were used to calculate run-up values along the whole coastline (on 187 equally spaced profiles extracted from LIDAR datasets). The result is a list of ten typology of different levels of damage obtained through the comparison between the computed water levels, for each scenario and along each profile, and the topography/human occupation of the coast. The assessment reveals that 60% of the coastline is vulnerable to the 1-in-1 year return period scenario, thus even modal meteorological conditions can generate significant losses. A comparison was made between the produced typologies and the actual damage caused by a recent storm and the correspondence is almost identical, underlining that the method is reliable. Because the above-mentioned methodology is only punctual, the Geological Survey has started a different evaluation of the areal extension of inundations. The methodology considers the concurrent happening of the same return period storms but in terms of wave set-up only (not including

  17. Venice, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast Italy. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading Italy at that time.

    This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne

  18. Modeling Study of the Marano and Grado Lagoon (Italy) to Support the Regional Water Protection Plan) TO SUPPORT THE REGIONAL WATER PROTECTION PLAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scroccaro, Isabella; Mattassi, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    The Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC (WFD) contemplates the classification of water bodies and establishes the quality objectives of water bodies to achieve a good status within 2015. Further, the Italian law which takes in the WFD with Decree n. 152/2006, allows to identify some water bodies as heavily modified (HMWB). The Regional Administration, involved in the setting up of the Water Protection Plan, according with the above mentioned decree and directive, has to establish specific programs to maintain or conform water quality to the requested quality objectives, also for heavily modified water bodies that have to reach the ecological potential. In the north-eastern part of Italy, in the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region, the Marano and Grado Lagoon is the most complex transitional ecosystem in which four water bodies have been temporarily classified as heavily modified. They are identified as FM1, FM2, FM3 and FM4. In particular, FM2 - "Paludo della Carogna" and FM3 - "Barbana" water bodies seem to be characterized by some confinement since they are delimited by a bridge, called "Ponte Belvedere". The preliminary evaluation of the quality status of FM2 and FM3 water bodies is conditioned by the value of one of the quality criteria: the macrophytes. In fact, macrophytes are represented by very few species in these two water bodies. In a preliminary way the overall judgement of FM2 and FM3 water bodies has been indicated by the experts as scarse. This means that a specific programme of measures has to be proposed to improve the quality status of these water bodies in order to reach the ecological potential. In this context modeling may be used as a scientific and technical tool to support the evaluation on FM2 and FM3 water bodies and the effectiveness of specific measures for the achievement of the quality objectives. Numerical simulations of the Marano and Grado lagoon were performed for hydrodynamic circulation, temperature and salinity behavior with the

  19. Seroprevalence and risk factors of infections with Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in hunting dogs from Campania region, southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Machacova, Tereza; Bartova, Eva; Sedlak, Kamil; Slezakova, Radka; Budikova, Marie; Piantedosi, Diego; Veneziano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Hunting dogs have probably a higher level of exposure to Neospora caninum Dubey, Carpenter, Speer, Topper et Uggla, 1988 and Toxoplasma gondii Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908 than other canine populations for their different lifestyle. The aim of our survey was to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii in hunting dogs from southern Italy and assess risk factors related to these protozoan infections. Blood samples were collected from 398 hunting dogs (19 different breeds, aged from 5 month to 14 years). The sera were screened by indirect fluorescence antibody test; a titre ≥ 50 was considered positive. Antibodies to N. caninum and T. gondii were detected in 59 (15%) dogs with titres from 50 to 3 200 and in 94 (24%) dogs with titres from 50 to 1 600, respectively, with co-infection in 25 (6%) dogs. Statistical difference (p ≤ 0.05) was found only for infection with T. gondii between two age groups: ≥ 2-4 years (16%) and ≥ 4-7 years (33%); other observed characteristics were without statistical significance. Our results suggest that the hunting dogs could play an important role in the transmission cycle of N. caninum between wild animals and livestock. This is the first detection of antibodies to T. gondii in hunting dogs in Italy. PMID:27189127

  20. Seismic moment tensors and regional stress in the area of the December 2013-January 2014, Matese earthquake sequence (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Sebastiano; Cammarata, Laura; Cangemi, Marianna; Cavallaro, Danilo; Di Martino, Roberto Maria; Firetto Carlino, Marco

    2014-12-01

    The main goal of this study is to provide moment tensor solutions for small and moderate earthquakes of the Matese seismic sequence in southern Italy for the period of December 2013-January 2014. We estimate the focal mechanisms of 31 earthquakes with local magnitudes related to the Matese earthquake seismic sequence (December 2013-January 2014) in Southern-Central Italy which are recorded by the broadband stations of the Italian National Seismic Network and the Mediterranean Very Broadband Seismographic Network (MedNet) run by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV). The solutions show that normal faulting is the prevailing style of seismic deformation in agreement with the local faults mapped out in the area. Comparisons with already published solutions and with seismological and geological information available allowed us to properly interpret the moment tensor solutions in the frame of the seismic sequence evolution and also to furnish additional information about less energetic seismic phases. Focal data were inverted to obtain the seismogenic stress in the study area. The results are compatible with the major tectonic domain of the area.

  1. The impact of Regional co-payment and National reimbursement criteria on statins use in Italy: an interrupted time-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Statins are among the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and their effectiveness is largely acknowledged. The consumption of statins increased four-fold during the 2000–2010 decade in Italy and national and regional control policies were developed. Restrictions to reimbursement were fixed at the national level, whereas co-payment was introduced in some, but not all, regions. The aim of the present study is to assess the impact of such policies on the consumption of statins in Italy between 2001–2007 among outpatients. Methods The statin use was measured in terms of defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DDD/1000 inh. day) from May 2001 to December 2007. The study was conducted in 17 out of 21 regions, nine of which had implemented a co-payment policy. Time trends in consumption before and after the introduction of co-payment policies and reimbursement criteria were examined using segmented regression analysis of interrupted time-series, adjusting for seasonal components. Results The consumption of statins increased by 22.9 DDD/1000 inh. day in May 2001 to 54.7 DDD/1000 inh. day in December 2007. On average, there was a 1.7% increase in statin use each month before the national guideline changed while the increase was about 0.5% afterwards. The revision of the reimbursement criteria was associated with a significant decrease in level (coefficient = −2.80, 95% CI −3.70 to −1.90 p-value <0.001) and trend (coefficient = −0.33, 95% CI −0.37 to −0.29 p-value <0.001). The introduction of co-payment was associated with a significant change in trend of consumption so that the overall use of the drug increased by 0.04 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.07, p-value < 0.001) DDD/1000 inh. day per month in the post-intervention period, but there was no evidence of a change in level of consumption (p-value = 0.163). Conclusions Consumption of statins in Italy increased almost three

  2. Hydrogeochemistry of regional aquifer systems from Tuscany (central Italy): the state of the art before the definition of a geochemical baseline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisi, Barbara; Battaglini, Raffaele; Raco, Brunella

    2013-04-01

    European Community Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its derivative regulations have recognized the urgent need to adopt specific measures against the contamination of water bodies by individual pollutants that may significantly affect the quality of water itself. Italian regulation takes into account the EU Directives, and charges the regional authorities to create monitoring networks and produce assessment reports on the contamination of groundwater. The knowledge of "natural baseline" for various dissolved elements in groundwaters on a regional scale becomes of primary importance to distinguish natural sources and anthropogenic inputs. The studied area includes the whole Tuscan regional district (central Italy) and covers an area of about 23,000 km2. From a geolithological point of view, Tuscan territory consists of several complexes outcropping regionally, the most typical features being the Mesozoic and Cenozoic carbonate and evaporitic formations, overlain by flysch sequences, as well as granite intrusions and volcanic rocks. Moreover, two geothermal areas (Larderello and Mt. Amiata), a large number of thermal springs and CO2-rich gas vents are mostly present in the central-southern part of Tuscany. Finally in southern Tuscany (e.g. Campiglia M.Ma, Mt. Amiata, Elba Island), mining districts, predominantly characterized by polimetallic sulphides ore deposits, were exploited since the Etruscan time. In this work statistical distribution models are used to develop summary statistics and estimate probabilities of exceeding water-quality standards according to the National Legislative Decree 152/06. Descriptive statistics on solute concentrations are based on geochemical data from the main Tuscan aquifers and investigated by the CNR-IGG (Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources of Pisa, Italy) and Department of Earth Sciences (University of Florence, Italy). The data processing was carried out on 4,767 water samples collected from 1997 to 2009. According to

  3. Daily estimates of fire danger using multitemporal satellite MODIS data: the experience of FIRE-SAT in the Basilicata Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanorte, R.; Lasaponara, R.; De Santis, F.; Aromando, A.; Nole, G.

    2012-04-01

    Daily estimates of fire danger using multitemporal satellite MODIS data: the experience of FIRE-SAT in the Basilicata Region (Italy) A. Lanorte, F. De Santis , A. Aromando, G. Nolè, R. Lasaponara, CNR-IMAA, Potenza, Italy In the recent years the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy) has been characterized by an increasing incidence of fire disturbance which also tends to affect protected (Regional and national parks) and natural vegetated areas. FIRE_SAT project has been funded by the Civil Protection of the Basilicata Region in order to set up a low cost methodology for fire danger/risk monitoring based on satellite Earth Observation techniques. To this aim, NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data were used. The spectral capability and daily availability makes MODIS products especially suitable for estimating the variations of fuel characteristics. This work presents new significant results obtained in the context of FIRE-SAT project. In order to obtain a dynamical indicator of fire susceptibility based on multitemporal MODIS satellite data, up-datable in short-time periods (daily), we used the spatial/temporal variations of following parameters: (1) Relative Greenness Index (2) Live and dead fuel moisture content (3) Temperature In particular, the dead fuel moisture content is a key factor in fire ignition. Dead fuel moisture dynamics are significantly faster than those observed for live fuel. Dead fine vegetation exhibits moisture and density values dependent on rapid atmospheric changes and strictly linked to local meteorological conditions. For this reason, commonly, the estimation of dead fuel moisture content is based on meteorological variables. In this study we propose to use MODIS data to estimate meteorological data (specifically Relative Humidity) at an adequate spatial and temporal resolution. The assessment of dead fuel moisture content plays a decisive role in determining a fire dynamic danger index in combination with other

  4. Environmental Monitoring and Analysis of Faecal Contamination in an Urban Setting in the City of Bari (Apulia Region, Italy): Health and Hygiene Implications

    PubMed Central

    Tarsitano, Elvira; Greco, Grazia; Decaro, Nicola; Nicassio, Francesco; Lucente, Maria Stella; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted in Italy to quantify the potential risk associated with dynamics and distribution of pathogens in urban settings. The aim of this study was to acquire data on the environmental faecal contamination in urban ecosystems, by assessing the presence of pathogens in public areas in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy). To determine the degree of environmental contamination, samples of dog faeces and bird guano were collected from different areas in the city of Bari (park green areas, playgrounds, public housing areas, parkways, and a school). A total of 152 canine faecal samples, in 54 pools, and two samples of pigeon guano from 66 monitored sites were examined. No samples were found in 12 areas spread over nine sites. Chlamydophila psittaci was detected in seven canine and two pigeon guano samples. Salmonella species were not found. On the other hand, four of 54 canine faecal samples were positive for reovirus. Thirteen canine faecal samples were positive for parasite eggs: 8/54 samples contained Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina eggs and 5/54 samples contained Ancylostoma caninum eggs. Our study showed that public areas are often contaminated by potentially zoonotic pathogens. PMID:21139871

  5. Environmental monitoring and analysis of faecal contamination in an urban setting in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy): health and hygiene implications.

    PubMed

    Tarsitano, Elvira; Greco, Grazia; Decaro, Nicola; Nicassio, Francesco; Lucente, Maria Stella; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2010-11-01

    Few studies have been conducted in Italy to quantify the potential risk associated with dynamics and distribution of pathogens in urban settings. The aim of this study was to acquire data on the environmental faecal contamination in urban ecosystems, by assessing the presence of pathogens in public areas in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy). To determine the degree of environmental contamination, samples of dog faeces and bird guano were collected from different areas in the city of Bari (park green areas, playgrounds, public housing areas, parkways, and a school). A total of 152 canine faecal samples, in 54 pools, and two samples of pigeon guano from 66 monitored sites were examined. No samples were found in 12 areas spread over nine sites. Chlamydophila psittaci was detected in seven canine and two pigeon guano samples. Salmonella species were not found. On the other hand, four of 54 canine faecal samples were positive for reovirus. Thirteen canine faecal samples were positive for parasite eggs: 8/54 samples contained Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina eggs and 5/54 samples contained Ancylostoma caninum eggs. Our study showed that public areas are often contaminated by potentially zoonotic pathogens. PMID:21139871

  6. Description of two measles outbreaks in the Lazio Region, Italy (2006-2007). Importance of pockets of low vaccine coverage in sustaining the infection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the launch of the national plan for measles elimination, in Italy, immunization coverage remains suboptimal and outbreaks continue to occur. Two measles outbreaks, occurred in Lazio region during 2006-2007, were investigated to identify sources of infection, transmission routes, and assess operational implications for elimination of the disease. Methods Data were obtained from several sources, the routine infectious diseases surveillance system, field epidemiological investigations, and molecular genotyping of virus by the national reference laboratory. Results Overall 449 cases were reported, sustained by two different stereotypes overlapping for few months. Serotype D4 was likely imported from Romania by a Roma/Sinti family and subsequently spread to the rest of the population. Serotype B3 was responsible for the second outbreak which started in a secondary school. Pockets of low vaccine coverage individuals (Roma/Sinti communities, high school students) facilitated the reintroduction of serotypes not endemic in Italy and facilitated the measles infection to spread. Conclusions Communities with low vaccine coverage represent a more serious public health threat than do sporadic susceptible individuals. The successful elimination of measles will require additional efforts to immunize low vaccine coverage population groups, including hard-to-reach individuals, adolescents, and young adults. An enhanced surveillance systems, which includes viral genotyping to document chains of transmission, is an essential tool for evaluating strategy to control and eliminate measles PMID:20219143

  7. Implementation of European Council resolution ResAP(2008)1 in Italy. National and regional regulation of tattoo practices: diversity and challenges.

    PubMed

    Renzoni, Alberto; Pirrera, Antonia; Novello, Francesco; Diamante, Maria Simonetta; Guarino, Carmine

    2015-01-01

    In Italy, tattoos and permanent make-up have become increasingly popular in recent years. The number of tattoo parlours has increased from 257 in 2009 to 2,055 in 2014, wich is a eight-fold increase over the last 6 years. Although there is no specific legislation, the Italian Ministry of Health issued a document containing the 'Guidelines for the implementation of procedures for tattooing and piercing in safe conditions'. This document has not been adopted by all Italian regions, principally regarding training course requirements for tattoo professionals, creating a highly fragmented situation that resembles the European scene in miniature. ResAP(2008)1, which is not mandatory in Italy but was made binding by Italian Decree n. 206/2005, has been applied uniformly throughout the country. Thus, as far as the safety of inks is concerned, the surveillance system appears to be working well. However, surveillance has highlighted the presence of non-compliant inks and potentially unsafe preparations for tattoo removal in the market. Updating and rebalancing the situation will be the goal in order to face the challenge of combining well-being with the on-going social demand of looking after and beautifying the body. This would include the growing fashion of tattoos, provided that the products that are used are safe and that tattooing is performed in controlled hygienic conditions that fully guarantee the health of consumers. PMID:25833645

  8. The geofingerprint of Pyroclastic Rocks/Typic Herorthents/Piedirosso chain surveyed in the Roccamonfina terroir, northwest Campania region, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercurio, M.; Grilli, E.; Morra, V.; Prohaska, T.; Buondonno, A.; Langella, A.

    2012-04-01

    KEYWORDS: geofingerprint, strontium isotope ratio, Campanian Ignimbrite, Typic Xerorthents, Roccamonfina Investigations were carried out to evaluate the geofingerprint of Piedirosso wine produced in the volcanic areas of Campania region (Southern Italy). The research was focused on the terroir located in the southern area of the Roccamonfina volcanic complex according to a procedure developed by the Authors. The protocol accounts for a careful sampling of the soil and the grapes (branches, leaves) within the vineyards of "Masseria Felicia" farm, located in Carano di Sessa Aurunca (Caserta), followed by a Piedirosso wine production (monocultivar) on a pilot plant scale (grape harvest 2009). Samples were digested by using strong acids (HF, HClO4) and suitably selected digestion programs. Only soil samples were analysed after treatments with NH4NO3 in order to simulate the labile fraction of metals in soil useful to estimate the 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio. ICP-MC-MS analyses allowed to determine the 87Sr/86Sr isotopic composition whereas ICP-QMS were carried out to measure Li, Be, B, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, U and Rare Earth Elements. Finally, XRPD analyses provided qualitative and semi-quantitative evaluations of the mineral phases occurring in soil samples. Suitable agronomic analyses allowed a careful soil classification. The soil profile exhibits an Ap1-Ap2-Ap3-C1-2C2-3C3-4C4 horizonation. The color varies from dark brown in Ap horizons to light yellowish brown in C horizons. Rock fragments distribution varies irregularly along soil profile. Texture is loam in all horizons, except Ap1, C1 and 3C3 that show a sandy loam texture. Mottles are evident in all horizons except in 3C3 with a contrasting colors as reddish yellow or strong brown. Redoximorphic features occur in poorly (C1) and very poorly (2C2, 4C4) drained horizons as coatings of iron and manganese oxides. Their color ranges between very dark gray and reddish

  9. The geofingerprint of Pyroclastic Rocks/Typic Herorthents/Piedirosso chain surveyed in the Roccamonfina terroir, northwest Campania region, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercurio, M.; Grilli, E.; Morra, V.; Prohaska, T.; Buondonno, A.; Langella, A.

    2012-04-01

    KEYWORDS: geofingerprint, strontium isotope ratio, Campanian Ignimbrite, Typic Xerorthents, Roccamonfina Investigations were carried out to evaluate the geofingerprint of Piedirosso wine produced in the volcanic areas of Campania region (Southern Italy). The research was focused on the terroir located in the southern area of the Roccamonfina volcanic complex according to a procedure developed by the Authors. The protocol accounts for a careful sampling of the soil and the grapes (branches, leaves) within the vineyards of "Masseria Felicia" farm, located in Carano di Sessa Aurunca (Caserta), followed by a Piedirosso wine production (monocultivar) on a pilot plant scale (grape harvest 2009). Samples were digested by using strong acids (HF, HClO4) and suitably selected digestion programs. Only soil samples were analysed after treatments with NH4NO3 in order to simulate the labile fraction of metals in soil useful to estimate the 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio. ICP-MC-MS analyses allowed to determine the 87Sr/86Sr isotopic composition whereas ICP-QMS were carried out to measure Li, Be, B, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, U and Rare Earth Elements. Finally, XRPD analyses provided qualitative and semi-quantitative evaluations of the mineral phases occurring in soil samples. Suitable agronomic analyses allowed a careful soil classification. The soil profile exhibits an Ap1-Ap2-Ap3-C1-2C2-3C3-4C4 horizonation. The color varies from dark brown in Ap horizons to light yellowish brown in C horizons. Rock fragments distribution varies irregularly along soil profile. Texture is loam in all horizons, except Ap1, C1 and 3C3 that show a sandy loam texture. Mottles are evident in all horizons except in 3C3 with a contrasting colors as reddish yellow or strong brown. Redoximorphic features occur in poorly (C1) and very poorly (2C2, 4C4) drained horizons as coatings of iron and manganese oxides. Their color ranges between very dark gray and reddish

  10. Diminishing high-frequency directivity due to a source effect: Empirical evidence from small earthquakes in the Abruzzo region, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacor, F.; Gallovič, F.; Puglia, R.; Luzi, L.; D'Amico, M.

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the directivity effects of ~250 aftershocks (magnitudes 3-5.5) of the Mw 6.1 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (central Italy). To this end, we estimate the apparent source spectra at each station removing path and site effects inferred by standard Generalized Inversion Technique. Then, we evaluate the residuals between the apparent source spectra and the event mean source spectrum at selected frequencies. We investigate azimuthal and frequency dependence of the residuals for 40 events with the best station coverage. For most of events with the strongest directivity effect (Mw 3.4-4.0), we observe a remarkable decrease of the directivity amplification at high frequencies, which has not yet been documented for such relatively small-magnitude events. Since there is negligible distance dependence, we ascribe this observation to a source phenomenon such as significant small-scale rupture propagation complexity.

  11. An integrated surveillance system of road traffic injuries in the Lazio region of Italy: results of a 5-year study (2001-2005).

    PubMed

    Chini, Francesco; Farchi, Sara; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Camilloni, Laura; Borgia, Piero

    2010-09-01

    Road traffic injuries represent a relevant public-health problem. In the Lazio region of Italy, a surveillance system was activated. The aim of this work is to describe the surveillance system and report the health information in terms of temporal trends for the 5-year period 2001-2005. We identified all emergency department (ED) visits in the emergency database and then linked them with hospital discharges and mortality registry. From the integrated database, we calculated the rates of emergency room visits, of hospital admissions, and of mortality, reporting the temporal trends. Between 2001 and 2005 the rate of ED visits was 3151 per 100,000 inhabitants. Hospitalisation rates showed a significant decreasing trend. The surveillance identified 22% more deaths in the study period than reported by the official statistics. The surveillance revealed a decreasing trend for hospital admissions and a decline in deaths in 2003 concurrent to the introduction of the driver's licence point system. PMID:20352552

  12. Biochemical Characterization and Antimicrobial and Antifungal Activity of Two Endemic Varieties of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) of the Campania Region, Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Fratianni, Florinda; Riccardi, Riccardo; Spigno, Patrizia; Ombra, Maria Neve; Cozzolino, Autilia; Tremonte, Patrizio; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2016-07-01

    Extracts of the bulbs of the two endemic varieties "Rosato" and "Caposele" of Allium sativum of the Campania region, Southern Italy, were analyzed. The phenolic content, ascorbic acid, allicin content, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activity were determined. Ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector performed polyphenol profile. The polyphenolic extracts showed antioxidant activity (EC50) lower than 120 mg. The amount of ascorbic acid and allicin in the two extracts was similar. Polyphenol extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and (only by the extract of Rosato) against Bacillus cereus. The extract of Caposele was more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillum citrinum. On the other hand, the extract of Rosato was effective against Penicillium expansum. PMID:27259073

  13. [Polycyclic aromatic hidrocarbons deposition in the Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily Region, Southern Italy) high-risk area following an oil refinery fire].

    PubMed

    Grechi, Daniele; Biggeri, Annibale

    2016-01-01

    On September 2014, a fire began within an oil refinery involving a storage tank containing several hundreds of thousands cubic meters of virgin naphtha. Mayors of neighbouring municipalities asked the Epidemiology and Prevention Society "Giulio A. Maccacaro" to carry out an environmental survey in order to evaluate what was the nature and how dangerous was suspended dust deposited by the fumes. In the following days, after fire had been extinguished we conducted a sample survey on the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and metals in particulate deposited on the soil on a radius of five kilometres from the refinery and we engaged the exposed population. The Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily Region, Southern Italy) high-risk area includes several industrial plants; among them, an oil refinery and a fuel powered energy plant. As reference area we selected the Sarroch municipality (Sardinia Region, Southern Italy), in the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea, which is geographically comparable, where a large oil refinery is located and where an environmental campaign with measurement of PAH and metals in particulate matter was ongoing. Qualitatively, metal composition of particulate matter resulted similar in the Sarroch and Milazzo samples. Instead, a large excess of PAH was documented in the Milazzo samples as compared to the Sarroch ones. In conclusion, the results of the analysis of the samples of particulate matter deposited in the Milazzo area in the days immediately following the oil refinery fire showed a high quantity of PAH, carcinogenic substances which pose major hazard to population health. The greater fall-out was registered in the proximity of the burnt storage tank and the West neighbourhood, and at lesser extent in the Southern neighbourhood. As a consequence, there was a population exposure to carcinogenic substances which could have reached the food chain. PMID:26951697

  14. Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes among Children and Adolescents in Italy between 2009 and 2013: The Role of a Regional Childhood Diabetes Registry

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, F.; Cappelli, M. G.; Vece, M. M.; Caputi, G.; Delvecchio, M.; Prato, R.; Martinelli, D.; Workgroup, Apulian Childhood-Onset Diabetes Registry

    2016-01-01

    Background. Surveillance represents a key strategy to control type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). In Italy, national data are missing. This study aimed at evaluating the incidence of T1DM in subjects <18 year olds in Apulia (a large southeastern region, about 4,000,000 inhabitants) and assessing the sensitivity of the regional Registry of Childhood-Onset Diabetes (RCOD) in the 2009–2013 period. Methods. We performed a retrospective study matching records from regional Hospital Discharge Registry (HDR), User Fee Exempt Registry (UFER), and Drugs Prescription Registry (DPR) and calculated T1DM incidence; completeness of each data source was also estimated. In order to assess the RCOD sensitivity we compared cases from the registry to those extracted from HDR-UFER-DPR matching. Results. During 2009–2013, a total of 917 cases (about 184/year) in at least one of the three sources and an annual incidence of 25.2 per 100,000 were recorded, lower in infant, increasing with age and peaked in 5- to 9-year-olds. The completeness of DPR was 78.7%, higher than that of UFER (64.3%) and of HDR (59.6%). The RCOD's sensitivity was 39.05% (360/922; 95% CI: 34.01%–44.09%). Conclusions. Apulia appeared as a high-incidence region. A full, active involvement of physicians working in paediatric diabetes clinics would be desirable to improve the RCOD performance. PMID:27092312

  15. Immunization coverage among splenectomized patients: Results of an ad hoc survey in Puglia Region (South of Italy).

    PubMed

    Martino, Carmen; Gallone, Maria Serena; Quarto, Michele; Germinario, Cinzia; Tafuri, Silvio

    2016-05-01

    Patients with anatomic or functional asplenia have a 10-50 times higher risk than general population to develop Overwhelming Post-Splenectomy Infection. Evidences are unanimous in recommending splenectomised patients to receive meningococcal, antipneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccinations according to a specific timing. In Italy there are no current data on the immunisation coverage in these patients. This study aims to investigate immunisation coverage in patients undergoing elective or urgent splenectomy for 2012-2013 in the 3 Apulian hospitals. The patients discharged with the code ICD-9-CM 41.5 - "Total splenectomy" were enrolled. The administration of vaccines was verified through consultation of medical records, archives of general practitioners and vaccination offices. In the study period, 166 subjects underwent splenectomy and none of them received vaccinations during hospitalization. 25 splenectomised patients (15.1%) received at least one of the recommended vaccinations. 21 patients (12.6%) received vaccine against Streptococcus pneumonia, 13 (7.8%) meningococcal vaccine, 10 patients (6%) Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine. The low vaccination coverage could be due both to poor perception of the risk of infection and to a lack of knowledge on vaccinations by surgeons. For this reason it is necessary to draw up and share operational protocols that establish the administration of vaccines. PMID:26890256

  16. Estimation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis load in raw bulk tank milk in Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy) by qPCR.

    PubMed

    Ricchi, Matteo; Savi, Roberto; Bolzoni, Luca; Pongolini, Stefano; Grant, Irene R; De Cicco, Caterina; Cerutti, Giulia; Cammi, Giuliana; Garbarino, Chiara A; Arrigoni, Norma

    2016-08-01

    Consumption of milk and dairy products is considered one of the main routes of human exposure to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Quantitative data on MAP load in raw cows' milk are essential starting point for exposure assessment. Our study provides this information on a regional scale, estimating the load of MAP in bulk tank milk (BTM) produced in Emilia-Romagna region (Italy). The survey was carried out on 2934 BTM samples (88.6% of the farms herein present) using two different target sequences for qPCR (f57 and IS900). Data about the performances of both qPCRs are also reported, highlighting the superior sensitivity of IS900-qPCR. Seven hundred and eighty-nine samples tested MAP-positive (apparent prevalence 26.9%) by IS900 qPCR. However, only 90 of these samples were quantifiable by qPCR. The quantifiable samples contained a median load of 32.4 MAP cells mL(-1) (and maximum load of 1424 MAP cells mL(-1) ). This study has shown that a small proportion (3.1%) of BTM samples from Emilia-Romagna region contained MAP in excess of the limit of detection (1.5 × 10(1) MAP cells mL(-1) ), indicating low potential exposure for consumers if the milk subsequently undergoes pasteurization or if it is destined to typical hard cheese production. PMID:26991108

  17. The history of derogations from chemical parametric values set by the European Drinking Water Directive (Council Directive 98/83/EC), in Italy and the Piedmont region.

    PubMed

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Marro, Silvia; Soardo, Vincenzo; Berruti, Renza; Maggi, Claudio; Cerrato, Elena; Ferrari, Romina; Gulino, Margherita

    2014-01-01

    Italian legislation (Article 13 of Legislative Decree 31/2001) provides for the possibility of establishing derogations from chemical parametric values for drinking water set by EU legislation (Council Directive 98/83/EC), if the supply of drinking water cannot be maintained by any other reasonable means. A derogation is possible only after obtaining a specific authorization and must be limited to the shortest time possible. This paper presents the history of derogations granted in Italy and the case of arsenic and nickel in Piedmont. From 2003 to 2009, 13 regions requested a derogation (Campania, Emilia Romagna, Latium, Lombardy, Marche, Piedmont, Apulia, Sardinia, Sicily, Tuscany, Trentino Alto Adige, Umbria, Venetia) at different times and for a total of 13 parameters. In 2012, tap water provided to almost one million Italians in 112 municipalities of three regions (Latium, Tuscany and Campania), did not comply with the legal limits for the following parameters: arsenic, boron and fluorides. Currently, in the Piedmont region there are no derogations from the maximum permitted concentrations of contaminants in drinking water. In the past derogations have been applied for the nickel parameter (years 2006-2007) and from the arsenic parameter (years 2006-2008). PMID:25194123

  18. Wastewater reuse in Italy.

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, S; Cirelli, G L; Indelicato, S

    2001-01-01

    In many parts of Italy, particularly in the South, it has become ever more difficult to meet the water demand. The recent years of drought and the constant increase of water demand for the civil sector have made irrigation supply more problematic. Wastewater reuse could represent a viable solution to meet water demand. The focus of this paper is on the regulation problems, hampering the development of wastewater reuse for irrigation, and on the potentials for reuse, particularly in Southern Italy. Planned exploitation of municipal wastewater could help meeting the irrigation water demand particularly in Southern Italy, where farmers have been practising uncontrolled wastewater reuse for a long time. In Northern and Central Italy, where available water resources generally meet water needs for different purposes, wastewater reuse could play an important role in controlling the pollution of water bodies. Despite the fact that Italian legislation is extremely strict and outdated, for several years in some regions, such as Sicily, wastewater reuse systems have been in operation; furthermore, several projects of wastewater reuse are currently in progress. PMID:11436802

  19. Chemical characterization and spatial distribution of PAHs and heavy hydrocarbons in rural sites of Campania Region, South Italy.

    PubMed

    Monaco, D; Riccio, A; Chianese, E; Adamo, P; Di Rosa, S; Fagnano, M

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the behaviour and distribution patterns of heavy hydrocarbons and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) priority pollutants, as listed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, were evaluated in 891 soil samples. The samples were collected in three expected polluted rural sites in Campania (southern Italy) as part of the LIFE11 ECOREMED project, funded by the European Commission, to test innovative agriculture-based soil restoration techniques. These sites have been selected because they have been used for the temporary storage of urban and building waste (Teverola), subject to illicit dumping of unknown material (Trentola-Ducenta), or suspected to be polluted by metals due to agricultural practices (Giugliano). Chemical analysis of soil samples allowed the baseline pollution levels to be determined prior to any intervention. It was found that these areas can be considered contaminated for residential use, in accordance with Italian environmental law (Law Decree 152/2006). Statistical analysis applied to the data proved that average mean concentrations of heavy hydrocarbons could be as high as 140 mg/kg of dry soil with peaks of 700 mg/kg of dry soil, for the Trentola-Ducenta site; the median concentration of analytical results for hydrocarbon (HC) concentration for the Trentola-Ducenta and Giugliano sites was 63 and 73.4 mg/kg dry soil, respectively; for Teverola, the median level was 35 mg/kg dry soil. Some PAHs (usually benzo(a)pyrene) also exceeded the maximum allowed level in all sites. From the principal component analysis applied to PAH concentrations, it emerged that pollutants can be supposed to derive from a single source for the three sites. Diagnostic ratios calculated to determine possible PAH sources suggest petroleum combustion or disposal practice. Our sampling protocol also showed large dishomogeneity in soil pollutant spatial distribution, even at a scale as small as 3.3 m, indicating that variability could emerge at very

  20. Serological detection of circulating Angiostrongylus vasorum antigen and specific antibodies in dogs from central and northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Guardone, L; Schnyder, M; Macchioni, F; Deplazes, P; Magi, M

    2013-02-18

    The most frequently employed method for the diagnosis of Angiostrongylus vasorum in dogs is the detection of first stage larvae (L1) in faeces. The sensitivity of coproscopy, however, is limited in case of low parasite load, intermittent larval excretion, and during pre-patency. An epidemiological survey on dogs was conducted applying serological methods in two Italian regions where angiostrongylosis is endemic in foxes. 265 dog serum samples from Tuscany (central Italy - site A) and 447 from Liguria (north-western Italy - site B) were tested with a sandwich-ELISA for detection of circulating antigen, and with an ELISA using A. vasorum adult somatic antigen purified by monoclonal antibodies for specific antibody detection. During previous examinations dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum (n=149), Dirofilaria immitis (n=40), Dirofilaria repens (n=30), Acanthocheilonema reconditum (n=27), Crenosoma vulpis (n=1), A. vasorum (n=2), Capillaria aerophila (n=35), Capillaria boehmi (n=3), Toxocara canis (n=68), Toxascaris leonina (n=5), hookworms (n=37) and Trichuris vulpis (n=39) were detected. Sera of these dogs were used to evaluate cross reactions. In site A, 2 dogs (0.8%) were seropositive for antibody and antigen detection and 4 (1.5%) for antibody detection only. From site B, 4 dogs (0.9%) were seropositive for both tests, while other 4 dogs (0.9%) for antigen detection only and 9 dogs (2%) for antibody detection only. Considering a subgroup of 347 dogs from site B which had also been tested with the Baermann technique, 2 (0.6%) were positive for both tests, 4 (1.2%) for antigen detection only and 9 (2.6%) for antibody detection only. The two dogs which were positive for both serological tests were also positive for A. vasorum L1 in the faeces. No significant difference in seropositivities was observed in the group of dogs with other proven parasitic infections. A. vasorum serology presents significant advantages (diagnosis before patency, single serum

  1. Soil microbial diversity and activity as terroir elements of Sangiovese vineyards in the Chianti Classico region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabiani, Arturo; Mocali, Stefano; Priori, Simone; Valboa, Giuseppe; Vignozzi, Nadia; Pellegrini, Sergio; Storchi, Paolo; Perria, Rita; Costantini, Edoardo

    2016-04-01

    Linking the uniqueness and quality of grapes and wine to the environment they are produced, based on the terroir concept, have recently become popular in many parts of world. The natural components of terroir are actually a set of processes, which together create a delicate equilibrium and regulation of its effect on products in both space and time. Climate, geology, geomorphology and soil are therefore the main environmental factors which make up the terroir effect on different scales. However, information on the impact of soil microbial communities on soil functions, grapevine plants and wine quality is still lacking. Thus, four of the most suitable areas (so called "cru") for the production of Sangiovese wine were chosen within the Barone Ricasoli farm of Brolio, the largest winery in the Chianti Classico area in central Italy: Fattoio, Miniera, Ceni and Colli-Agresto. Based on previous pedological and sensing technologies surveys, each area was further divided into two distinct homogeneous areas of about 1.5 ha called Basic Terroir Unit (UTB), which were monitored over 3 years (2012-2014) for the soil the chemical-physical variability (moisture, organic matter, nitrogen, potassium), the vineyard physiological status (water stress, grape production, characteristics of the grapes and wine) and the structure and activity of soil microbial communities (determined through DGGE, soil respiration and microbial biomass, respectively). The aim of the work was to assess the relationships among soil parameters and vine quality at intra- and inter- UTB level and, in particular, the potential impact of microbial composition and/or function on the terroir concept. The overall results highlighted a microbial community structure specific for each cru area and, in particular, associated to each UTB. Furthermore, microbial activity in Miniera and Ceni appeared to be positively related to Sangiovese quality, as determined through the Sangiovese Performance Index. However, except

  2. Trachyandesite scoria-flow and associated trachyte pyroclastic flow and surge at Roccamonfina Volcano (Roman Region, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannetti, Bernardino; Luongo, Giuseppe

    1994-02-01

    The pyroclastic deposits (6-7 km 2 in area) of Garofali (Roccamonfina Volcano, Italy) consist of the 239 ± 8 ka Grey Trachyandesite Scoriae of Riella (RTS) conformably capped by the Trachyte Tuff of Garofali (GTT), the latter consisting of pyroclastic flows, surges and overlying lapilli tuff. Locally, the uppermost part of the RTS consists of finely bedded surge deposits. Both RTS and GTT contain RTS-derived debris flows. Grain-size features suggest that the RTS can be interpreted as proximal scoria and lithic flow deposits. The flow origin is suggested by absence of bedding, emplacement of scoria clasts in a still plastic state, attitude to excavating channels in underlying pyroclastics, and grain size features. A surge origin for the transitional RTS is suggested by fine layering, presence of dune, pinch-and-swell structures and accretionary lapilli, and grain size. These characteristics become dominant in the surge component of the GTT, where they are associated with chute-and-pool structures. Grain size distributions show that the GTT deposits — both pyroclastic flows and surges — have a sorting similar to the RTS but a smaller median diameter. Gas-escape structures occur largely in the upper and lower levels of RTS and GTT, respectively. They result from strong gas-fluidification of the RTS during deposition of GTT. Isopach and isograde maps locate the source vent of the RTS between Tuorisichi and S. Lorenzo, but indicate that three source vents were active during eruption of the GTT. Measurements of dunes gave good directional vectors for the GTT. Absence of a depositional break between RTS and GTT deposits suggest that these represent two different episodes of the eruption of a compositionally zoned magma source, through one (RTS) and several (GTT) conduits. The eruption of the RTS was driven essentially by magmatic volatiles partially affected by preeruptive involvement of water. Eruption of the transitional RTS-GTT and mainly of GTT deposits developed

  3. Professional Acquisition of M. bovis in Calabria Region (Southern Italy): A Challenging Case of Osteomyelitis in a Migrant Patient from Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Quirino, Angela; Torti, Carlo; Strazzulla, Alessio; Nisticò, Salvatore; Galati, Luisa; Barreca, Giorgio Settimo; Lamberti, Angelo Giuseppe; Berardelli, Giuseppina; Pacciarini, Maria; Gasparini, Giorgio; Pisani, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Antonio; Liberto, Maria Carla; Focà, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    We report herein the first case of a coinfection with Brucella spp., M. bovis, and Enterobacter cloacae in a butcher who moved from Bulgaria to Italy. Molecular typing suggested professional acquisition of M. bovis in Italy. So, surveillance and preventive measures need to be implemented. PMID:26257970

  4. The management of multiple sclerosis by reference centers in south of Italy: a 2011 survey on health demands and needs in Campania region.

    PubMed

    de Waure, Chiara; Di Nardo, Francesco; Mazzucco, Walter; Nedovic, Darko; Battaglia, Mario Alberto; Busillo, Vincenzo; Di Iorio, Walter; Gallo, Antonio; Lanzillo, Roberta; Lombardi, Emilio; Maniscalco, Giorgia Teresa; Orefice, Giuseppe; Petracca, Maria; Romano, Felice; Sinisi, Leonardo; Spadera, Anna Pia; Spitaleri, Daniele; Vivo, Pasquale; Ricciardi, Walter

    2016-02-01

    This cross-sectional study has investigated the diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS) in the Campania Region (Italy). A survey involving all the reference centers for MS in Campania Region was conducted from March to August 2011. Centers responded to a web-administered questionnaire on management and clinical characteristics of MS patients. In the study period, 3263 patients (mean age 37 years, 66 % females) accessed the centers. Patients received a first diagnosis of MS in 161 cases (4.9 %). About 37 % of the subjects without a previous diagnosis came to the centers on their own initiative. All patients underwent a complete neurological examination and expanded disability status scale. The other most common investigations were magnetic resonance imaging (44.0 %) and evoked potentials (22.1 %). The number of treated patients was 2797 (87.1 %). The most used drugs were interferon β and glatiramer acetate. The time between diagnosis and initiation of therapy exceeded 6 months in 32 % of cases. Second-line drugs were under-used: 16 % of patients who might benefit from them show high clinical and radiological disease activity despite treatment with immunomodulant drugs. The MS care management of the surveyed centers showed consistent margins for improvement in 2011. Even though these data do not represent the current situation, they can be used to monitor improvements in MS care. PMID:26439919

  5. Evidence of Simultaneous Circulation of West Nile and Usutu Viruses in Mosquitoes Sampled in Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy) in 2009

    PubMed Central

    Calzolari, Mattia; Bonilauri, Paolo; Bellini, Romeo; Albieri, Alessandro; Defilippo, Francesco; Maioli, Giulia; Galletti, Giorgio; Gelati, Antoni; Barbieri, Ilaria; Tamba, Marco; Lelli, Davide; Carra, Elena; Cordioli, Paolo; Angelini, Paola; Dottori, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Background In recent years human diseases due to mosquito-borne viruses were increasingly reported in Emilia-Romagna region (Italy), from the chikungunya virus in 2007 to the West Nile virus (WNV) in 2008. An extensive entomological survey was performed in 2009 to establish the presence and distribution of mosquito arboviruses in this region, with particular reference to flaviviruses. Methodology/Principal Findings From May 6 to October 31, a total of 190,516 mosquitoes were sampled in georeferenced stations, grouped in 1,789 pools according date of collection, location, and species, and analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect the presence of RNA belong to Flavivirus genus. WNV was detected in 27 mosquito pools, producing sequences similar to those of birds and human strains obtained in 2008 outbreak, pointed out the probable virus overwintering. Isolation of WNV was achieved from one of these pools. Moreover 56 pools of mosquitoes tested positive for Usutu virus (USUV). Most PCR positive pools consisted of Culex pipiens, which also was the most analyzed mosquito species (81.4% of specimens); interestingly, USUV RNA was also found in two Aedes albopictus mosquito pools. Simultaneous circulation of WNV and USUV in the survey area was highlighted by occurrence of 8 mosquito WNV- and USUV-positive pools and by the overlaying of the viruses “hot spots”, obtained by kernel density estimation (KDE) analysis. Land use of sampled stations pointed out a higher proportion of WNV-positive Cx. pipiens pool in rural environments respect the provenience of total sampled pool, while the USUV-positive pools were uniformly captured in the different environments. Conclusions/Significance Obtained data highlighting the possible role of Cx. pipiens mosquito as the main vector for WNV and USUV in Northern Italy, and the possible involvement of Ae. albopictus mosquito in USUV cycle. The described mosquito-based surveillance could constitute the

  6. Cost containment: Europe. Italy.

    PubMed

    Apolone, G; Melotti, R; Repetto, F; Iapichino, G

    1994-08-01

    Through prepaid compulsory insurance managed by the central government, Italy's National Health Service (NHS) provides full coverage, free accessibility, and no or limited copayment by individuals when receiving health services. Although Italy spends less than other countries on health care (< 8% of the country's gross national product), the present NHS faces considerable difficulties, and its performance regarding quality, outcome, and spending has come under question. ICUs account for < 2% of total hospital beds, and the proportion of ICU patients is < 2.5% of all hospital patients (2.5% of all Italian hospital patients receive ICU care at some time during their hospital stay). Information from administrative databases and epidemiologic studies gives an interesting national picture of the situation in Italy regarding admission criteria case mix, and outcomes when compared with data from other countries. Important changes in the financial and institutional framework of the NHS are underway, yielding an unpredictable scenario for the future. Innovations focus mostly on cost containment and quality initiatives. These innovations will likely produce a new health service in which regions will have a more important role than in the past. Actions planned in a large Italian region by the local government are used as an example to explain the potential impact of this new trend on critical care medicine. PMID:8087596

  7. Seasonal trends and spatial variations of PM10-bounded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Veneto Region, Northeast Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiol, Mauro; Formenton, Gianni; Pasqualetto, Alberto; Pavoni, Bruno

    2013-11-01

    The Veneto Region extends for ˜18.4·103 km2 in the northeastern part of the Po Valley and includes mountains, hills, plain and coastal environments with very different and discontinuous anthropogenic pressures. Although many efforts have been made to mitigate air pollution, the European air quality standards for atmospheric pollutants are frequently breached. This study investigates the levels of eight PM10-bound PAHs collected in 21 stations categorized as rural background, urban and suburban backgrounds, traffic and industrial hot-spots during one year (2011). Data were statistically processed to detect the PAH seasonal trends, their relationship with other air pollutants and micro-meteorological parameters and the space variations at a regional scale. Results show that PAHs levels are relatively high in the largest part of the region, with 10 sites exceeding the levels of BaP targeted by the European legislation. Two sites exhibited anomalously high PAHs concentrations and this anomaly became even more evident when considering the population density as a surrogate for the potential anthropogenic pressure. The PAHs levels were found directly proportional to other gaseous pollutants (CO, NO, NOx, SO2) suggesting common polluting sources. The analysis of time trends of PAH concentrations reveals significant coincidences throughout the region, i.e. simultaneous changes are observed in most sites as a consequence of similar emission sources and accumulation/removal processes. In this scenario, the control strategies currently imposed at local level (e.g. traffic limitations) have proven scarcely effective in mitigating air pollution and a real coordination at regional or even interregional level cannot be further postponed. Peculiar features of the PAHs pollution in the Veneto were also identified and some measures for protecting the human health were suggested.

  8. 2015-2018 Regional Prevention Plan of Lombardy (Northern Italy) and sedentary prevention: a cross-sectional strategy to develop evidence-based programmes.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Liliana; Ripamonti, Ennio; Cereda, Danilo; Gelmi, Giusi; Pirrone, Lucia; Rebecchi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sector, life-course, and setting approaches are identified in the 2015-2018 Regional Prevention Plan (PRP) of Lombardy Region (Northern Italy) as valuable strategies to ensure the efficacy and sustainable prevention of the non-communicable disease (NCDs). The involvement of non-health sectors in health promotion activities represents a suitable strategy to affect on social, economic, and political determinants and to change environmental factors that could cause NCDs. A dialogue among communities, urban planning, and prevention know-how is a prerequisite to develop a system of policies suitable to promote healthy lifestyle in general and, specifically, active lifestyles. The 2015-2018 Lombardy PRP pursues its aims of health promotion and behavioural risk factors for NCDs prevention through programmes that implement their own setting networks (Health Promoting Schools - SPS; Workplace Health Promotion - WHP) and develop new networks. Sedentary lifestyle prevention and active lifestyle promotion are performed through the approach promoted by the Healthy Cities Programme (WHO), encouraging two main processes: 1. creating integrated capacity-building among health and social prevention services, academic research, and local stakeholders on different urban planning and design issues; 2. promoting community empowerment through active citizens participation. Through this process, Lombardy Region aims to orient its services developing evidence-based programmes and enhancing advocacy and mediating capacity skills in order to create a profitable partnership with non-health sectors. This paper reports the main impact data: 26,000 children that reach school by foot thanks to walking buses, 57% of 145 companies joining WHP are involved in promoting physical activity, 18,891 citizens who attend local walking groups. PMID:27436259

  9. A probabilistic method for evaluation of seismic amplification at a regional scale - A case study in some high seismic risk areas of the Northern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delle Donne, Dario; Ripepe, Maurizio; Lacanna, Giorgio; Marchetti, Emanuele; Fabbroni, Pierangelo; Baglione, Massimo; D'Intinosante, Vittorio

    2014-05-01

    Seismic amplification caused by local geological conditions has an important role in seismic risk assessment. The main parameters controlling seismic amplification are the shear wave velocities of shallow sub-surface (Vs) and the thickness of soft sediments (h). However, the knowledge of shear wave velocity profile is usually sparse and can not be measured over large areas. In this study we propose a method that integrates data from surface geological maps with data from subsurface seismo-stratigraphic well-logs, and is aimed to estimate seismic amplification over large areas (~100 km2) through a probabilistic approach. The methodology we developed is characterized by the following steps: 1. Analysis of the geological framework and definition of Seismic Units; 2. 1-D seismic modeling of each Seismic Unit; 3. Probability analysis of Seismic Amplification. Probability function of seismic amplification for each Seismic Unit is calculated for all the possible combinations of the expected values of Vs and thickness (h). We apply this approach to seismic areas in the Northern Apennines (Italy). Finally, the results of this analysis have been validated by seismic amplification measurements using local and regional earthquakes and with macro-seismic data. The comparison between the predicted amplification using this probabilistic approach and the measured seismic amplification shows a general agreement. This work is not intended as an alternative to the standard methodologies to calculate site effect, but offers a new approach to identify areas potentially more vulnerable.

  10. Analysis of cystic fibrosis gene mutations in children with cystic fibrosis and in 964 infertile couples within the region of Basilicata, Italy: a research study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cystic fibrosis is the most common autosomal recessive genetic disease in the Caucasian population. Extending knowledge about the molecular pathology on the one hand allows better delineation of the mutations in the CFTR gene and the other to dramatically increase the predictive power of molecular testing. Methods This study reports the results of a molecular screening of cystic fibrosis using DNA samples of patients enrolled from January 2009 to December 2013. Patients were referred to our laboratory for cystic fibrosis screening for infertile couples. In addition, we identified the gene mutations present in 76 patients affected by cystic fibrosis in the pediatric population of Basilicata. Results In the 964 infertile couples examined, 132 subjects (69 women and 63 men) resulted heterozygous for one of the CFTR mutations, with a recurrence of carriers of 6.85%. The recurrence of carriers in infertile couples is significantly higher from the hypothetical value of the general population (4%). Conclusions This study shows that in the Basilicata region of Italy the CFTR phenotype is caused by a small number of mutations. Our aim is to develop a kit able to detect not less than 96% of CTFR gene mutations so that the relative risk for screened couples is superimposable with respect to the general population. PMID:25304080

  11. Trace elements in free-range hen eggs in the Campania region (Italy) analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Esposito, Mauro; Cavallo, Stefania; Chiaravalle, Eugenio; Miedico, Oto; Pellicanò, Roberta; Rosato, Guido; Sarnelli, Paolo; Baldi, Loredana

    2016-06-01

    Eggs from hens raised on rural or domestic farms are a good indicator of environmental contamination, as the hens are in close contact with the ground and the air and can therefore accumulate heavy metals and other toxic contaminants from the environment as well as from the diet. In this paper, we report the results of the determination of 19 trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Tl, U, V, Zn) in 39 hen egg samples collected from domestic poultry farms in the territory dubbed the "Land of fires" in the Campania region (Italy). This area is characterized by environmental problems caused by the illegal dumping of industrial or domestic waste in fields or by roadsides. In some cases, these wastes have been burned, thereby spreading persistent contaminants into the atmosphere. The content of trace elements in whole egg samples was determined by mass spectrometer after a microwave-assisted digestion procedure. Because European legislation does not indicate maximum values of these elements in this foodstuff, the results were compared with the content of trace elements reported in literature for eggs, in particular home-produced eggs, in various countries. In some cases (Cd, Cu, Ni, Mn), the content determined in this study was in line with those reported elsewhere, in other cases (Pb, Cr), lower values were found. PMID:27147239

  12. Soil properties, strontium isotopic signatures and multi-element profiles to authenticate the origin of vegetables from small-scale regions: illustration with early potatoes from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Zampella, Mariavittoria; Quétel, Christophe R; Paredes, Eduardo; Goitom Asfaha, Daniel; Vingiani, Simona; Adamo, Paola

    2011-10-15

    We propose a method for the authentication of the origin of vegetables grown under similar weather conditions, in sites less than 10 km distance from the sea and distributed over a rather small scale area (58651 km(2)). We studied how the strontium (Sr) isotopic signature and selected elemental concentrations ([Mn], [Cu], [Zn], [Rb], [Sr] and [Cd]) in early potatoes from three neighbouring administrative regions in the south of Italy were related to the geological substrate (alluvial sediments, volcanic substrates and carbonate rocks) and to selected soil chemical properties influencing the bioavailability of elements in soils (pH, cation exchange capacity and total carbonate content). Through multiple-step multivariate statistics (PLS-DA) we could assign 26 potatoes (including two already commercialised samples) to their respective eight sites of production, corresponding to the first two types of geological substrates. The other 12 potatoes from four sites of production had similar characteristics in terms of the geological substrate (third type) and these soil properties could be grouped together. In this case, more discriminative parameters would be required to allow the differentiation between sites. The validation of our models included external prediction tests with data of potatoes harvested the year before and a study on the robustness of the uncertainties of the measurement results. Annual variations between multi-elemental and Sr isotopic fingerprints were observed in potatoes harvested from soils overlying carbonate rocks, stressing the importance of testing long term variations in authentication studies. PMID:21913249

  13. [Spatial representativeness of monitoring stations for air quality in Florence (Tuscany Region, Central Italy) according to ARPAT e LaMMA. Critical observations].

    PubMed

    Grechi, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    On March 2015, the Environmental Protection Agency of Tuscany Region (Central Italy) and the Laboratory of monitoring and environmental modelling published a Report on spatial representativeness of monitoring stations for Tuscan air quality, where they supported the decommissioning of modelling stations located in the Florentine Plain. The stations of Signa, Scandicci, and Firenze-Bassi, located in a further South area, were considered representative Believing that air quality of the Plain could be evaluated by these stations is a stretch. In this text the author show the inconsistency of the conclusion of the Report through correlation graphs comparing daily means of PM10 detected in the disposed stations and in the active ones, showing relevant differences between the reported values and the days when the limits are exceeded. The discrepancy is due to the fact that uncertainty of theoretical estimates is greater than the differences recorded by the stations considered as a reference and the areas they may represent. The area of the Plain has a population of 150,000 individuals and it is subject to a heavy environmental pression, which will change for the urban works planned for the coming years. The population's legitimate request for the analytical monitoring of air pollution could be met through the organization of participated monitoring based on the use of low-cost innovative tools. PMID:27290885

  14. Prediction of soil organic carbon in forest areas of the Piedmont region, Northern Italy, using environmental variables: vegetation and topographic patterns effect.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oueslati, Ines; Allamano, Paola; Bonifacio, Eleonora; Claps, Pierluigi; Laguardia, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is one of the most important parameters affecting soil hydraulic properties. It is easily measured by chemical analyses, but it is highly variable in space. Therefore the definition of a methodology allowing for SOC spatial prediction with a reasonable accuracy is crucial in large scale studies. This study aims at predicting the spatial variability of the soil organic carbon concentration (%SOC) in forest topsoils in Piedmont (North-western Italy) using spatially referenced environmental factors related to terrain morphology, climate, and vegetation. In this region 122 soil profiles were available with soil organic carbon concentrations at depths of 0 -10 cm, 10 -20 cm, 20 -30 cm, 0 -20 cm and 0 -30 cm and in the horizons A, B and C. For each point terrain attributes were derived from a 50 meters pixel digital elevation model (DEM), using the SAGA geographic information system. In addition basic NDVI statistics, such as the mean, minimum and maximum values, and the Fourier series phases (F1 and F2) and amplitudes (A1 and A2) for the 12 months and 6 months periods were evaluated from the long term monthly average NDVI series obtained by SPOT-Vegetation data. Mean annual precipitation estimates were also available for each sample. A multiple regression analysis were applied to investigate the relationship between the %SOC in different layers and horizons and the environmental descriptors. The relationships that we found show that the NDVI parameters and the precipitation are statistically significant predictors (P

  15. Interplay between regional uplift and glacio-eustasy in the Crotone Basin (Calabria, southern Italy) since 0.45 Ma: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zecchin, Massimo; Caffau, Mauro; Ceramicola, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    During the last 0.45 Ma, the Crotone Basin, a forearc basin located on the Ionian side of Calabria, southern Italy, experienced a phase of uplift that persists today. The transition from subsidence to uplift occurred close to the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 (ca. 0.4 Ma). The subsequent progressive emergence of the area was punctuated by several marine transgressions linked to high-frequency, high-magnitude glacio-eustatic changes, which are recorded as coastal terraces. These high-frequency sequences show a variable stacking pattern due to the interplay between glacio-eustasy, uplift and local physiography. In particular, a progressive SE-ward migration of the shoreline is documented in the study area since MIS 11. This trend was enhanced during the MIS 5.5 to MIS 2 time interval, due to the combined effect of uplift and lowering glacio-eustatic sea level until the Last Glacial Maximum. Moreover, the regional uplift also led to a physiographic change from relatively low-gradient to high-gradient settings between MIS 7.1 and MIS 5.5. A comparison between the late Quaternary geological record of the Crotone Basin and that of other basins is crucial to improve the present knowledge on past sea levels related to MISs. This ultimately will help to better understand the Holocene sea-level history and the human contribution to sea-level change, in order to predict future scenarios.

  16. Assessing climate change over the Marche Region (central Italy) from 1951 to 2050: toward an integrated strategy for climate impacts reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangelantoni, Lorenzo; Russo, Aniello; Marincioni, Fausto; Appiotti, Federica

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates consequences and future impacts of climate change on the social and natural systems of the Marche Region (one of the 20 administrative divisions of Italy). This Region, is located in central part of the peninsula and borders the Adriatic Sea on the East and the Apennine mountains on the West. The Region extends for about 60 km E-W, and has a NW-SE coastline of about 170 km, covering a total area of 9366 km2. Multimodel projections over the Marche Regions, on daily, monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation parameters, have been extracted from the outputs of a set of Regional Climate Models (RCMs) over Europe run by several research institutes participating to the EU ENSEMBLE project. These climate simulations refer to the boundary conditions of the IPCC A1B emission scenario, and have a horizontal resolution of 25km × 25km covering a time period from 1951 to 2050. Results detail a significant increase of daily, monthly and seasonal mean temperatures, especially in summer, with anomaly values reaching +3°C after the year 2025, referring to the model CliNo 1981-2010. Mountain areas show higher values of temperature anomalies than coastal ones of approximately 0.5 °C. Concurrently, a widespread decrease of seasonal precipitation appears to affect all seasons, except for autumn. Rainfall decrease and temperature increase could reduce the Region's aquifer recharge and overall availability of hydro resources. These alterations could affect human health, agricultural productivity, forest fires, coastal erosion, algal blooms and water quality. Ongoing analysis of extreme climatological indices (e.g. frequency of maximum daily temperature exceeding comfort thresholds) are expected to quantify such impacts. A first analysis, linking climate change to the hydrologic cycle, studied through the computation of the hydro-climatic intensity index (as defined by Giorgi et al., 2012), suggests for the Marche Region an increase of the intensity of

  17. A surveillance program on canine leishmaniasis in the public kennels of Emilia-Romagna Region, Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Santi, Annalisa; Renzi, Maria; Baldelli, Raffaella; Calzolari, Mattia; Caminiti, Antonino; Dell'Anna, Silvia; Galletti, Giorgio; Lombardini, Annalisa; Paternoster, Giulia; Tamba, Marco

    2014-03-01

    Since 2007, a canine leishmaniasis (CanL) surveillance program has been carried out in public kennels of the Emilia-Romagna region with the aim of providing health guarantees for dog adoptions. According to this program, monitoring activities were performed to verify the presence of sandflies and infected dogs, and a specific CanL risk class was assigned to each kennel, resulting in different control approaches (entomological and/or serological monitoring, clinical surveillance, therapeutic treatment of infected dogs, protections against vector bites). From 2007 to 2012, 20,931 dogs, 89.8% of which were identified by microchip and housed in 73 kennels, were examined using an indirect fluorescent antibody test. In all, 528 (2.8%) dogs tested positive, and 43.0% of these were asymptomatic. The authors used monitoring results, in particular serological tests performed on dogs at admittance to the kennel and annual controls of sentinel dogs, to estimate CanL risk in the whole region and to evaluate the efficacy of the preventive measures adopted. CanL seroprevalence in dogs tested at the admittance in kennels increased significantly from 2010 (1.0%; 29/2858) to 2012 (2.4%; 69/2841). In contrast, the number of seroconversions in sentinel dogs was stable in 2010 (1.2%; 11/896) and 2011 (1.6%; 13/825) and decreased in 2012 (0.9%; 8/850), suggesting the efficacy of the preventive measures applied. PMID:24575787

  18. An improved 1-D seismic velocity model for seismological studies in the Campania-Lucania region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrullo, Emanuela; De Matteis, Raffaella; Satriano, Claudio; Amoroso, Ortensia; Zollo, Aldo

    2013-10-01

    We present a 1-D velocity model of the Earth's crust in Campania-Lucania region obtained by solving the coupled hypocentre-velocity inverse problem for 1312 local earthquakes recorded at a dense regional network. The model is constructed using the VELEST program, which calculates 1-D `minimum' velocity model from body wave traveltimes, together with station corrections, which account for deviations from the simple 1-D structure. The spatial distribution of station corrections correlates with the P-wave velocity variations of a preliminary 3-D crustal velocity model that has been obtained from the tomographic inversion of the same data set of P traveltimes. We found that station corrections reflect not only inhomogeneous near-surface structures, but also larger-scale geological features associated to the transition between carbonate platform outcrops at Southwest and Miocene sedimentary basins at Northeast. We observe a significant trade-off between epicentral locations and station corrections, related to the existence of a thick low-velocity layer to the NE. This effect is taken into account and minimized by re-computing station corrections, fixing the position of a subset of well-determined hypocentres, located in the 3-D tomographic model.

  19. New inferences from spectral seismic energy measurement of a link between regional seismicity and volcanic activity at Mt. Etna, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, R.; Falsaperla, S.; Marrero, J. M.; Messina, A.

    2009-04-01

    The existence of a relationship between regional seismicity and changes in volcanic activity has been the subject of several studies in the last years. Generally, activity in basaltic volcanoes such as Villarica (Chile) and Tungurahua (Ecuador) shows very little changes after the occurrence of regional earthquakes. In a few cases volcanic activity has changed before the occurrence of regional earthquakes, such as observed at Teide, Tenerife, in 2004 and 2005 (Tárraga et al., 2006). In this paper we explore the possible link between regional seismicity and changes in volcanic activity at Mt. Etna in 2006 and 2007. On 24 November, 2006 at 4:37:40 GMT an earthquake of magnitude 4.7 stroke the eastern coast of Sicily. The epicenter was localized 50 km SE of the south coast of the island, and at about 160 km from the summit craters of Mt. Etna. The SSEM (Spectral Seismic Energy Measurement) of the seismic signal at stations at 1 km and 6 km from the craters highlights that four hours before this earthquake the energy associated with volcanic tremor increased, reached a maximum, and finally became steady when the earthquake occurred. Conversely, neither before nor after the earthquake, the SSEM of stations located between 80 km and 120 km from the epicentre and outside the volcano edifice showed changes. On 5 September, 2007 at 21:24:13 GMT an earthquake of magnitude 3.2 and 7.9 km depth stroke the Lipari Island, at the north of Sicily. About 38 hours before the earthquake occurrence, there was an episode of lava fountain lasting 20 hours at Etna volcano. The SSEM of the seismic signal recorded during the lava fountain at a station located at 6 km from the craters highlights changes heralding this earthquake ten hours before its occurrence using the FFM method (e.g., Voight, 1988; Ortiz et al., 2003). A change in volcanic activity - with the onset of ash emission and Strombolian explosions - was observed a couple of hours before the occurrence of the regional

  20. sup 40 Ar- sup 39 Ar and K-Ar dating of K-rich rocks from the Roccamonfina volcano, Roman Comagmatic Region, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Di Brozolo, F.R.; Di Girolamo, P.; Turi, B.; Oddone, M. )

    1988-06-01

    Roccamonfina is the northernmost Volcano of the Campanian area of the K-rich Roman comagmatic Region of Italy. It erupted a huge amount of pyroclastics and lavas belonging to both the Leucite-Basanite and Leucitite Series (LBLS) and the Shoshonite Series (SS), spread over an area of about 300 km{sup 2}. The above series correspond to the High-K Series (HKS) and Low-K Series (LKS) of Appleton (1971), respectively. {sup 40}Ar-{sup 39}Ar and K-Ar dating of samples from both series gave ages ranging from 0.656 to 0.096 Ma for the SS and from 1.03( ) to 0.053 Ma for the LBLS. These results indicate that the products of the two series were outpoured together at least between 0.7 and 0.1 Ma age, i.e. during both the so-called pre-caldera phase and the post-caldera phase of activity. The latest products of the volcanism at Roccamonfina were erupted just before the deposition of the Grey Campanian Ignimbrite, which erupted from vents located about 50 km to the south in the Phlegrean Fields near Naples and has an age of about 33,000 years. Taking into account all the available all the available radiometric data the authors conclude that Roccamonfina was active between 1.5 and 0.05 Ma ago, in excellent agreement with the stratigraphic evidence. In this same time span is concentrated the activity of all the centers of the Roman Region north of Naples.

  1. Finite element modelling of stress field perturbations and interseismic crustal deformation in the Val d'Agri region, southern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, Stefania; Mazzoli, Stefano; Megna, Antonella; Santini, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    The Val d'Agri area provides the opportunity to analyse active structures in a seismic region for which a large amount of subsurface data is available. This area, which was struck in 1857 by one of the most destructive earthquakes in Italy (MW = 7.03), represents a unique natural laboratory to gain new insights into geometry, modes and rates of faulting controlling crustal deformation in an actively extending orogen. In this study, a crustal geological section through the southern Apennines is discretized into a finite element model (FEM). We present a 2D elastoplastic FEM that reproduces stress perturbations and strain field around the Val d'Agri active fault system. The influence of fault strand activity on interseismic crustal deformation is tested by a series of computer models, whose predictions are compared with the horizontal velocity components of continuous GPS sites in the region and with stress directions and geological data. The best fit with available geological and geophysical constraints is obtained with a 300 km long, 29 km deep model formed by a multilayer including three components having different rheological characteristics and including several shallow, locked fault segments, which branch into a freely slipping major basement fault at depth. Finite element modelling provides new insights into the controversial and widely debated active tectonic setting of the study area, pointing out the fundamental role played by a structural reactivation process involving inherited, long-lived, mature fault systems at depth. Our FEM, reconciling apparently contrasting geological and geophysical constraints from the study area, points to maximum stress build up and strain accumulation at a depth of 15 ± 5 km. Such a depth range is suggested as the most likely one for the nucleation of large events such as the 1857 Val d'Agri earthquake.

  2. Probabilistic seismic hazard from historical macroseismic data: an application at the volcanic region of Mt. Etna (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzaro, R.; D'Amico, S.; Tuvè, T.

    2009-12-01

    Earthquakes are, by far, the most relevant source of hazard for the densely urbanised areas of Mt. Etna region. Local communities living in the eastern and southern flanks of the volcano continuously suffer social and economic losses due to the very high occurrence of damaging earthquakes, which produce intensities up to degree X EMS despite of low energy (M<5.0). Nevertheless, the assessment of seismic hazard at Etna is neglected in the practice at a national scale, being aimed to evaluate the areas more exposed to large crustal earthquakes in the perspective of improving seismic building codes. The state of art on the recent studies devoted to a detailed assessment of seismic hazard in the Etna region, is presented. The seismic hazard is performed following probabilistic approach (PSHA) by using macroseismic data (D’Amico and Albarello, 2007) as an alternative to the Cornell-McGuire methodology. The input dataset is the CMTE earthquake catalogue (Azzaro et al. 2000), covering a time-span of ca. 180 yrs, from which the site seismic histories, i.e. the database of intensity data available for a given locality, are derived. When historical information is missing, the completeness of the site seismic history is improved by integrating observed data with values calculated according to the decay of the intensity with distance from the epicenter. This step is faced with a procedure based on the Bayesian statistics (Zonno et al., 2009), which provides the probabilistic mode of binomial distribution of the intensity at a given site. Then, by a probability distribution considering the completeness of the catalogue and the uncertainty of intensity data, the seismic hazard is expressed in terms of the maximum expected intensity characterised by a 10% probability of exceedance over different exposure times (10 to 50 yrs). The results shows that if shorter exposure times are considered, the expected intensity due to local very frequent earthquakes reaches the same values

  3. Volatile organic compounds in truffle (Tuber magnatum Pico): comparison of samples from different regions of Italy and from different seasons.

    PubMed

    Federico, Vita; Cosimo, Taiti; Antonio, Pompeiano; Nadia, Bazihizina; Valentina, Lucarotti; Stefano, Mancuso; Amedeo, Alpi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from Tuber magnatum fruiting bodies were analyzed using a PTR-TOF-MS instrument. The aim was to characterize the VOC's profile of the fruiting bodies and identify if any VOCs were specific to a season and geographical areas. Multiple factorial analysis (MFA) was carried out on the signals obtained by MS. Experiments using ITS region sequencing proved that the T. magnatum life cycle includes the formation of fruiting bodies at two different times of the year. The VOCs profiles diverge when different seasonal and geographical productions are considered. Using PTR-TOF-MS, compounds present at levels as low pptv were detected. This made it possible to determine both the origin of fruiting bodies (Alba and San Miniato) and the two biological phases of fruiting bodies formation in San Miniato truffles. PMID:26224388

  4. The promotion of geotourism in protected areas: a proposal of itinerary through the Matese Massif (Campania and Molise regions, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosskopf, Carmen Maria; Filocamo, Francesca; Amato, Vincenzo; Cesarano, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    The Matese Massif is a ca. 1000 km2 wide and NW-SE elongated carbonate relief, located in the inner sector of the Southern Apennine chain. It has a tabular setting with steep structural slopes bordering the central high mountain sector including its major peaks and is crossed from approximately west to east by the border between Campania and Molise regions. The Matese Mountains represent a key area for the comprehension of the geological and tectonic evolution of the Southern Apennines since Mesozoic times. Its long-term geomorphological evolution has been controlled by Quaternary tectonics and climate variations that have allowed the temporary or permanent establishment of various environments and morphodynamics. Deposits and landforms originated by glacial, periglacial, karst and fluvial processes, along with a rich assemblage of tectonic-structural features and landforms of complex origin have given origin to a geological heritage of exceptional value. The geosites actually censured within the Campanian sector of Matese are reported in the Geosites Map of Campania, available at the website of Campania Region and partly included in the Italian Geosites Inventory of ISPRA. The geosites of the Molise sector have been recently assessed within the geosite inventory carried out by Molise University. They are reported in the Geosites Map of Molise, available at the website of Molise Region, and partly included in the ISPRA's National Inventory of Geosites. The Matese area is largely included in protected areas: the Campania portion falls within the Matese Regional Park, established in 2002, while most of the Molise sector falls in the extensive ZPS/SIC IT72222287. To better protect and exploit the unique natural and geological heritage of the Matese Massif, numerous initiatives aimed at the establishment of the National Park of Matese have continued for several years and very recent attempts to promote the Matese Geopark have been made, but unfortunately without any

  5. Volatile organic compounds in truffle (Tuber magnatum Pico): comparison of samples from different regions of Italy and from different seasons

    PubMed Central

    Federico, Vita; Cosimo, Taiti; Antonio, Pompeiano; Nadia, Bazihizina; Valentina, Lucarotti; Stefano, Mancuso; Amedeo, Alpi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from Tuber magnatum fruiting bodies were analyzed using a PTR-TOF-MS instrument. The aim was to characterize the VOC's profile of the fruiting bodies and identify if any VOCs were specific to a season and geographical areas. Multiple factorial analysis (MFA) was carried out on the signals obtained by MS. Experiments using ITS region sequencing proved that the T. magnatum life cycle includes the formation of fruiting bodies at two different times of the year. The VOCs profiles diverge when different seasonal and geographical productions are considered. Using PTR-TOF-MS, compounds present at levels as low pptv were detected. This made it possible to determine both the origin of fruiting bodies (Alba and San Miniato) and the two biological phases of fruiting bodies formation in San Miniato truffles. PMID:26224388

  6. A SOA-Based Solution to Monitor Vaccination Coverage Among HIV-Infected Patients in Liguria.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Barbara; Gazzarata, Roberta; Sticchi, Laura; Giacomini, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination in HIV-infected patients constitutes an essential tool in the prevention of the most common infectious diseases. The Ligurian Vaccination in HIV Program is a proposed vaccination schedule specifically dedicated to this risk group. Selective strategies are proposed within this program, employing ICT (Information and Communication) tools to identify this susceptible target group, to monitor immunization coverage over time and to manage failures and defaulting. The proposal is to connect an immunization registry system to an existing regional platform that allows clinical data re-use among several medical structures, to completely manage the vaccination process. This architecture will adopt a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach and standard HSSP (Health Services Specification Program) interfaces to support interoperability. According to the presented solution, vaccination administration information retrieved from the immunization registry will be structured according to the specifications within the immunization section of the HL7 (Health Level 7) CCD (Continuity of Care Document) document. Immunization coverage will be evaluated through the continuous monitoring of serology and antibody titers gathered from the hospital LIS (Laboratory Information System) structured into a HL7 Version 3 (v3) Clinical Document Architecture Release 2 (CDA R2). PMID:27577397

  7. Molecular and technological characterization of lactic acid bacteria from traditional fermented sausages of Basilicata region (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Bonomo, M G; Ricciardi, A; Zotta, T; Parente, E; Salzano, G

    2008-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from traditional fermented sausages of the Basilicata region were investigated by ARDRA-PCR and RAPD-PCR for taxonomic identification at species and strain level and characterized on the basis of the growth and acidification at different temperatures, incubation times, levels of NaCl and KNO(2), hydrolysis of sarcoplasmatic and myofibrillar proteins and antimicrobial, peptide/amino acid release and nitrate reductase activities. Lactobacillus sakei was the predominant species (67%) followed by Pediococcus pentosaceus (16%), Leuconostoc carnosum (8%), Lactobacillus plantarum (4%), Lactobacillus brevis (2%) and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (2%). The technological characterization revealed that most of the isolates had good acidifying and proteolytic properties. Moreover, Lb. sakei strains showed antimicrobial ability, while Leuconostoc strains the highest reduction of nitrates. This work was a preliminary study in the formulation of autochthonous starter cultures in order to standardize the production process of sausages, to preserve their typical organoleptic and sensory characteristics and to improve the quality of final product. PMID:22063864

  8. Damage caused by hydrological extremes in a region of southern Italy: comparison between the period 2002-2012 and the past century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, Olga; Pasqua, A. Aurora

    2013-04-01

    The concept of extreme hydrological event should be seen in a relative way, depending on the region for which it is defined, the parameters and the type of data utilized to assess it, and mainly taking into account the length of the period basing on which it is assessed. Measured data concerning rainfall and river flow, which allow statistical analysis of numerical values and assessment of events frequency, can be available for different periods, according to both the study area and the country; nevertheless, the length of the measurement series rarely exceeds 100 years. Thus, the extrapolation to the future of events trend, frequency, seasonality are based on a relatively short and recent period and even the "magnitude" and the classification of "extreme events" can be biased by the length of the observation period. Thus these characteristics may substantially change if their assessment is based on a wider temporal window. Especially in un-gauged basins and concerning severest events, historical data cannot provide systematically measured parameters but they can supply proxy data which allow enlarging the observation period, permitting a better weighing of both recent and old events. The present research is based on the use of a wide historical database concerning phenomena as floods, flash floods and landslides triggered by extreme meteorological events in Calabria (Southern Italy) since 19th century. This database is made of approximately 11,000 records and it includes data coming from different sources as newspapers, archives of national and regional agencies, scientific and technical reports, on-site surveys reports and information collected by interviewing both people involved and local administrators. The recent uploading of data concerning the effects caused in Calabria by these phenomena during the decade 2002-2012 allowed us to analyse a long and updated historical series of events. The aim is to compare -both in terms triggering rainfall and their

  9. The Irpinia Seismic Network (ISN): a new Monitoring Infrastructure for Seismic Alert Management in Campania Region, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannaccone, G.; Satriano, C.; Weber, E.; Cantore, L.; Corciulo, M.; Romano, L.; Martino, C.; Dicrosta, M.; Zollo, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Irpinia Seismic Network is an high dynamics, high density seismographic network under development in the Southern Apenninic chain. It is deployed in the area stroken by several destructive earthquakes during last centuries. In its final configuration the network will consist of more than fourty high dynamic seismic stations subdivided in physical subnetworks inter-connected by a robust data transmission system. The system is being designed with two primary targets: -Monitoring and analysis of background seismic activity produced by the active fault system which is the cause for large earthquakes in the past, included the 1980, Irpinia earthquake (Ms=6.9) - Development and experimentation of a prototype system for seismic early and post-event warning to be used for protecting public infrastructures and buildings of strategic relevance of the Regione Campania The seismic network will be completed in two stages: 1 - Deployment of 30 seismic stations along the Campania-Lucania Apenninic chain (to date almost completed) 2 - Setting up radio communication system for data transmission. Installation of 12 additional seismic stations (end of year 2006) To ensure an high dynamic recording range each site is equipped with two type of sensors: 30 force-balance accelerometer (model Guralp CMG5-T) and a velocimeter. In particular, 25 sites with short period three components instrument (model Geotech S13-J) and 5 with broad-band sensor (Nanometrics Trillium, with frequency response in the 0.033-50 Hz band). The used data logger is the Osiris-6 model produced by Agecodagis whose main features are: six channels, O/N 24 bit A/D converter, ARM processor with embedded Linux and open source software, two PCMCIA slots (used for two 5GB microdrive or one disk and wi-fi card), Ethernet, wi-fi and serial communication, low power cosumption (~1 W). Power is ensured by two 120 W solar panels and two 130 Ah gel batteries. Each recording site is equipped with a control/alarm system through

  10. Assessing climate change over the Marche Region (central Italy) from 1961 to 2100: projected changes in mean and severe precipitation (with a statistical evaluation of RCMs local performance).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangelantoni, Lorenzo; Coluccelli, Alessandro; Russo, Aniello

    2014-05-01

    Considering the 21st century projected precipitation over the Mediterranean basin, Marche region (central Italy, facing the Adriatic Sea) climate represents an interesting case of study, being located on a transition area between positive and negative change sign. Multi-model projections of daily mean precipitation over Marche region, have been extracted from the outputs of a set of 7 Regional Climate Models (RCMs) over Europe run by several research Institutes participating to the EU ENSEMBLE project. These climate simulations from 1961 to 2100 refer to the boundary conditions of the IPCC A1B emission scenario, with a horizontal resolution of 25km × 25km. Furthermore, two RCMs outputs from Med-CORDEX project, with a higher horizontal resolution (12km x 12km) and boundary conditions provided by the new Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5, are analyzed. Observed daily mean precipitation over Marche region domain have been extracted from E-OBS gridded data set (Version 9.0) covering the period 1970-2004. Concise statistical summary of how well employed RCMs reproduce past observed Marche region precipitation (1970-2004) in term of correlation, root-mean-square difference, and the ratio of variances are graphically displayed on 2D-Taylor diagram. This multi-statistical model performance evaluation easily allows: - to compare the agreement with observation of the 9 individual RCMs - to compare RCMs with different horizontal resolution (12 km and 25 km) - to evaluate the improvement provided by the RCMs ensemble. Results indicate that the best performance is obtained by the 9 RCMs ensemble. Differently than temperature (not shown), RCMs showed a lower capability in reproducing observed mean interannual precipitation distribution, and the increase in RCMs horizontal resolution (from 25 km to 12 km) did not provide evident performance improvements. Considering that alteration in hydrologic cycle is one of the most worrying climate change outcomes at

  11. Mosquito, Bird and Human Surveillance of West Nile and Usutu Viruses in Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy) in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Calzolari, Mattia; Gaibani, Paolo; Bellini, Romeo; Defilippo, Francesco; Pierro, Anna; Albieri, Alessandro; Maioli, Giulia; Luppi, Andrea; Rossini, Giada; Balzani, Agnese; Tamba, Marco; Galletti, Giorgio; Gelati, Antonio; Carrieri, Marco; Poglayen, Giovanni; Cavrini, Francesca; Natalini, Silvano; Dottori, Michele; Sambri, Vittorio; Angelini, Paola; Bonilauri, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2008, after the first West Nile virus (WNV) detection in the Emilia-Romagna region, a surveillance system, including mosquito- and bird-based surveillance, was established to evaluate the virus presence. Surveillance was improved in following years by extending the monitoring to larger areas and increasing the numbers of mosquitoes and birds tested. Methodology/Principal Findings A network of mosquito traps, evenly distributed and regularly activated, was set up within the surveyed area. A total of 438,558 mosquitoes, grouped in 3,111 pools and 1,276 birds (1,130 actively sampled and 146 from passive surveillance), were tested by biomolecular analysis. The survey detected WNV in 3 Culex pipiens pools while Usutu virus (USUV) was found in 89 Cx. pipiens pools and in 2 Aedes albopictus pools. Two birds were WNV-positive and 12 were USUV-positive. Furthermore, 30 human cases of acute meningoencephalitis, possibly caused by WNV or USUV, were evaluated for both viruses and 1,053 blood bags were tested for WNV, without any positive result. Conclusions/Significance Despite not finding symptomatic human WNV infections during 2010, the persistence of the virus, probably due to overwintering, was confirmed through viral circulation in mosquitoes and birds, as well as for USUV. In 2010, circulation of the two viruses was lower and more delayed than in 2009, but this decrease was not explained by the relative abundance of Cx. pipiens mosquito, which was greater in 2010. The USUV detection in mosquito species confirms the role of Cx. pipiens as the main vector and the possible involvement of Ae. albopictus in the virus cycle. The effects of meteorological conditions on the presence of USUV-positive mosquito pools were considered finding an association with drought conditions and a wide temperature range. The output produced by the surveillance system demonstrated its usefulness and reliability in terms of planning public health policies. PMID:22666446

  12. Usutu Virus Persistence and West Nile Virus Inactivity in the Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy) in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Calzolari, Mattia; Bonilauri, Paolo; Bellini, Romeo; Albieri, Alessandro; Defilippo, Francesco; Tamba, Marco; Tassinari, Massimo; Gelati, Antonio; Cordioli, Paolo; Angelini, Paola; Dottori, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Background The circulation of West Nile virus and Usutu virus was detected in the Emilia-Romagna region in 2008 and 2009. To evaluate the extent of circulation of both viruses, environmental surveillance, based on bird and mosquito testing, was conducted in 2008 and gradually improved over the years. Methods In February–March 2009–2011, 5,993 hibernating mosquitoes were manually sampled, out of which 80.1% were Culex pipiens; none tested positive for the viruses. From 2008 to 2011, 946,213 mosquitoes, sampled between May and October, were tested; 86.5% were Cx. pipiens. West Nile virus was detected in 32 Cx. pipiens pools, and Usutu virus was detected in 229 mosquito pools (217 Cx. pipiens, 10 Aedes albopictus, one Anopheles maculipennis s.l., and one Aedes caspius). From 2009 to 2011, of 4,546 birds collected, 42 tested positive for West Nile virus and 48 for Usutu virus. West Nile virus and Usutu virus showed different patterns of activity during the 2008–2011 surveillance period. West Nile virus was detected in 2008, 2009, and 2010, but not in 2011. Usutu virus, however, was continuously active throughout 2009, 2010, and 2011. Conclusions The data strongly suggest that both viruses overwinter in the surveyed area rather than being continually reintroduced every season. The lack of hibernating mosquitoes testing positive for the viruses and the presence of positive birds sampled early in the season support the hypothesis that the viruses overwinter in birds rather than in mosquitoes. Herd immunity in key bird species could explain the decline of West Nile virus observed in 2011, while the persistence of Usutu virus may be explained by not yet identified reservoirs. Reported results are comparable with a peri-Mediterranean circulation of the West Nile virus lineage 1 related strain, which became undetectable in the environment after two to three years of obvious circulation. PMID:23667694

  13. Assessing Adverse Events of Postprostatectomy Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Evaluation of Outcomes in the Regione Emilia-Romagna, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Timothy N.; Hegarty, Sarah E.; Rabinowitz, Carol; Maio, Vittorio; Hyslop, Terry; Dicker, Adam P.; Louis, Daniel Z.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Although the likelihood of radiation-related adverse events influences treatment decisions regarding radiation therapy after prostatectomy for eligible patients, the data available to inform decisions are limited. This study was designed to evaluate the genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and sexual adverse events associated with postprostatectomy radiation therapy and to assess the influence of radiation timing on the risk of adverse events. Methods: The Regione Emilia-Romagna Italian Longitudinal Health Care Utilization Database was queried to identify a cohort of men who received radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer during 2003 to 2009, including patients who received postprostatectomy radiation therapy. Patients with prior radiation therapy were excluded. Outcome measures were genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and sexual adverse events after prostatectomy. Rates of adverse events were compared between the cohorts who did and did not receive postoperative radiation therapy. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were developed for each class of adverse events, including models with radiation therapy as a time-varying covariate. Results: A total of 9876 men were included in the analyses: 2176 (22%) who received radiation therapy and 7700 (78%) treated with prostatectomy alone. In multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, the additional exposure to radiation therapy after prostatectomy was associated with increased rates of gastrointestinal (rate ratio [RR] 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-2.27; P<.001) and urinary nonincontinence events (RR 1.83; 95% CI 1.83-2.80; P<.001) but not urinary incontinence events or erectile dysfunction. The addition of the time from prostatectomy to radiation therapy interaction term was not significant for any of the adverse event outcomes (P>.1 for all outcomes). Conclusion: Radiation therapy after prostatectomy is associated with an increase in gastrointestinal and genitourinary adverse events. However

  14. Active faulting Vs other surface displacing complex geomorphic phenomena. Case studies from a tectonically active area, Abruzzi Region, central Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Sardo, Lorenzo; Gori, Stefano; Falcucci, Emanuela; Saroli, Michele; Moro, Marco; Galadini, Fabrizio; Lancia, Michele; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Pezzo, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    ., Jolivet, L. & Speranza, F., (1998). The role of pre-existing thrust faults and topography on the styles of extension in the Gran Sasso range (central Italy). Tectonophysics 292, 229-254. Falcucci, E., Gori, S., Moro, M., Fubelli, G., Saroli, M., Chiarabba, C., & Galadini, F. (2015). Deep reaching versus vertically restricted Quaternary normal faults: Implications on seismic potential assessment in tectonically active regions: Lessons from the middle Aterno valley fault system, central Italy. Tectonophysics, 651, 186-198. Galadini, F. & Giuliani R. (1993), Role of the structural geology analysis in the recent tectonics studies: an example from an area located SW of the Gran Sasso (Central Italy). Ann. Geof., 36 (1), 287-292.

  15. [Impact and state of the art of regional healthcare planning and management guidelines in a local health authority of the Lazio region (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Priori, Maria Rosaria; Barbato, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of health care planning and management guidelines, elaborated by the Lazio regional healthcare authority, on the organizational structure and operational processes of local health authorities and, more specifically, of the Roma C local health authority. The guidelines are made up of three volumes and mainly describe an operational model, rather than being a set of standard references aimed at standardizing the quality of information low systems in local healthcare authorities. The guidelines are essentially a didactic text, and were elaborated by a consulting firm, Engineering Management Consulting, on behalf of the Lazio regional authority. In the first section, the main concepts are defined, while in subsequent sections, detailed models regarding the specific subject matter are described. Although the guidelines represent a useful tool in the process of converting local health authorities of the Lazio region into "business" organizations, so far they have been of use only in the first phase of assessment of different organizational models for healthcare planning and management. There is still a long way ahead towards defining standard procedures and references for describing activities and costs. This is what should hopefully be achieved briefly and which will necessarily require the introduction of a data warehouse and business intelligence software that will allow monitoring of activities and making short term predictions through the use balanced scorecards and data mining. PMID:18084348

  16. Mineral magnetism and geomagnetic secular variation of marine and lacustrine sediments from central Italy: timing and nature of local and regional Holocene environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolph, Timothy C.; Vigliotti, Luigi; Oldfield, Frank

    2004-07-01

    Sediment core palaeomagnetic and mineral magnetic records from two crater lakes in central Italy and from the western margin of the Adriatic Sea have been used to evaluate local and regional responses to Holocene environmental change. In all cores, sediment magnetism reflects the interplay between catchment material and the in situ production of bacterial magnetite (magnetotactic bacteria). In the lakes, the earliest Holocene sediments record a waning catchment input that we attribute to rising lake levels and increased tree cover in the catchment. From ˜9000 to 5000 yr BP, both lakes become anoxic, a consequence of water-mass stratification driven by high lake levels. Bottom-water anoxia also developed in the Adriatic, with sapropel S1 produced between ˜9000 and 7000 yr BP. Subsequently, the lake and Adriatic mineral magnetic records show evidence for increased catchment delivery, consistent with pollen evidence for Bronze Age deforestation. In the lakes, this evidence is first recorded at ˜4300 yr BP and a number of distinct clearance events are recorded. In comparison, at Adriatic site RF93-30, lithogenic input increases abruptly at ˜3500 yr BP and is followed by a slowly changing record of waxing and waning sediment delivery. Inter-site comparisons of palaeomagnetic data point to a possible link between the magnitude of the bacterial magnetite component and the recorded magnetic inclination. The sites are at near identical latitudes and have similar sediment accumulation rates but the Adriatic sites have a core-average magnetic inclination that is some 10° steeper than the lake average values. We suggest that the large dipole moment of the magnetosome chains, which in life produce the passive alignment of the bacterium along the local geomagnetic field line, produce a more faithful (albeit smoothed) record of the geomagnetic field.

  17. Remote sensing for mapping soil moisture and drainage potential in semi-arid regions: Applications to the Campidano plain of Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Filion, Rébecca; Bernier, Monique; Paniconi, Claudio; Chokmani, Karem; Melis, Massimo; Soddu, Antonino; Talazac, Manon; Lafortune, Francois-Xavier

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of radar (ENVISAT ASAR and RADARSAT-2) and LANDSAT data to generate reliable soil moisture maps to support water management and agricultural practice in Mediterranean regions, particularly during dry seasons. The study is based on extensive field surveys conducted from 2005 to 2009 in the Campidano plain of Sardinia, Italy. A total of 12 small bare soil fields were sampled for moisture, surface roughness, and texture values. From field scale analysis with ENVISAT ASAR (C-band, VV polarized, descending mode, incidence angle from 15.0° to 31.4°), an empirical model for estimating bare soil moisture was established, with a coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.85. LANDSAT TM5 images were also used for soil moisture estimation using the TVX slope (temperature/vegetation index), and in this case the best linear relationship had an R(2) of 0.81. A cross-validation on the two empirical models demonstrated the potential of C-band SAR data for estimation of surface moisture, with and R(2) of 0.76 (bias +0.3% and RMSE 7%) for ENVISAT ASAR and 0.54 (bias +1.3% and RMSE 5%) for LANDSAT TM5. The two models developed at plot level were then applied over the Campidano plain and assessed via multitemporal and spatial analyses, in the latter case against soil permeability data from a pedological map of Sardinia. Encouraging estimated soil moisture (ESM) maps were obtained for the SAR-based model, whereas the LANDSAT-based model would require a better field data set for validation, including ground data collected on vegetated fields. ESM maps showed sensitivity to soil drainage qualities or drainage potential, which could be useful in irrigation management and other agricultural applications. PMID:26254021

  18. Characterization of atmospheric aerosols in the Po valley during the supersito campaigns - Part 3: Contribution of wood combustion to wintertime atmospheric aerosols in Emilia Romagna region (Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrogrande, Maria Chiara; Bacco, Dimitri; Ferrari, Silvia; Kaipainen, Jussi; Ricciardelli, Isabella; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa; Trentini, Arianna; Visentin, Marco

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the influence of wood combustion on PM in fall/winter that are the most favorable seasonal periods with presumed intense biomass burning for residential heating due to low temperatures. As a part of the Supersito project, nearly 650 PM2.5 samples were daily collected at urban and rural sites in Emilia Romagna (Northern Italy) in five intensive experimental campaigns throughout the years from 2011 to 2014. From specific compounds related to wood combustion a set of 58 organic compounds was determined, such as anhydrosugars, primary biological sugars, low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids, methoxylated phenols, PAHs and carbonaceous components (EC/OC). Levoglucosan was by far the most dominant anhydrosugar, both on a relative and an absolute basis (35-1043 ng m-3), followed by mannosan (7-121 ng m-3) and galactosan (4-52 ng m-3), indicating that wood burning for domestic heating is a diffuse regional source during the seasons studied. Different diagnostic ratios between anhydrosugars and methoxylated phenols were computed to discriminate the prevalent contribution of hardwood as combustion fuel. The investigated 19 high molecular weight PAHs were more abundant at the urban than at the rural site, with mean total value of 4.3 and 3.2 ng m-3 at MS and SP, respectively. The strong contribution of wood combustion to atmospheric PAHs was indicated by the positive correlation between levoglucosan and the most abundant PAHs (R2 = 0.71÷0.79) and individually with benzo(a)pyrene (R2 = 0.79). By using this correlation, it was estimated that wood burning contributed nearly 77% to BaP concentration in the winter months. Based on the ratio between levoglucosan and OC data, it could be concluded that the wood burning contributed about 35% to OC during the cold November-February periods and the contribution was similar at both sampling sites.

  19. Prevalence and characteristics of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from pigs and pork products in Umbria and Marche regions of Italy.

    PubMed

    Ercoli, Laura; Farneti, Silvana; Zicavo, Alessia; Mencaroni, Guerriero; Blasi, Giuliana; Striano, Gianluca; Scuota, Stefania

    2016-09-01

    In total 1095 samples from 675 pork products, 210 swine colon contents, and 210 swine carcass sponge swabs were collected in Umbria and Marche regions of Italy and examined for the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), also known as Verotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC). After an enrichment step, each sample was analysed by real-time PCR to detect the stx1, stx2, and eae genes. stx-Positive samples were further tested for the "top five" serogroup markers (O157, O26, O103, O111, O145) and cultured onto selective media. The isolates were assigned to stx subtypes and tested for the presence of aaiC and aggR genes. Out of 420 swine samples, 38.6% faecal samples and 13.8% carcass sponge swabs were stx-positive. In total, 33 E. coli STEC isolates were obtained from 30 samples (4 carcasses and 26 colon contents) indicating a culture-positive rate of 7.1%. A higher culture-positive rate was observed in faecal samples (12.4%) than in carcass sponge swabs (1.9%). Out of 675 pork samples, 19 (2.8%) were stx-positive. No STEC strains were isolated from stx-positive pork products. We concluded that STEC isolation from foodstuffs remains difficult, despite the application of ISO/TS 13136:2012. Furthermore, in accordance with the results of studies conducted in other countries, we observed that most of swine STEC strains carried stx2e gene and lacked of virulence genes, such as eae, aaiC and aggR, indicative of potential pathogenic characteristics for humans. Although the majority of STEC isolates did not express virulence factors correlating with severe human diseases, the association between swine STEC strains and human illness requires further investigations. PMID:27236076

  20. The experience of West Nile virus integrated surveillance system in the Emilia-Romagna region: five years of implementation, Italy, 2009 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Bellini, R; Calzolari, M; Mattivi, A; Tamba, M; Angelini, P; Bonilauri, P; Albieri, A; Cagarelli, R; Carrieri, M; Dottori, M; Finarelli, A C; Gaibani, P; Landini, M P; Natalini, S; Pascarelli, N; Rossini, G; Velati, C; Vocale, C; Bedeschi, E

    2014-01-01

    Predicting West Nile virus (WNV) circulation and the risk of WNV epidemics is difficult due to complex interactions of multiple factors involved. Surveillance systems that timely detect virus activity in targeted areas, and allow evidence-based risk assessments may therefore be necessary. Since 2009, a system integrating environmental (mosquitoes and birds) and human surveillance has been implemented and progressively improved in the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy. The objective is to increase knowledge of WNV circulation and to reduce the probability of virus transmission via blood, tissue and organ donation. As of 2013, the system has shown highly satisfactory results in terms of early detection capacity (the environmental surveillance component allowed detection of WNV circulation 3–4 weeks before human cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) occurred), sensitivity (capacity to detect virus circulation even at the enzootic level) and area specificity (capacity to indicate the spatial distribution of the risk for WNND). Strong correlations were observed between the vector index values and the number of human WNND cases registered at the province level. Taking into consideration two scenarios of surveillance, the first with environmental surveillance and the second without, the total costs for the period from 2009 to 2013 were reduced when environmental surveillance was considered (EUR 2.093 million for the first scenario vs EUR 2.560 million for the second). Environmental surveillance helped to reduce costs by enabling a more targeted blood unit testing strategy. The inclusion of environmental surveillance also increased the efficiency of detecting infected blood units and further allowed evidence-based adoption of preventative public health measures. PMID:25394257

  1. Geodiversity and geohazards of the Susa Valley (W-Alps, Italy): combining scientific research and new technologies for enhanced knowledge and proactive management of geoheritage in mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardino, Marco; Bacenetti, Marco; Perotti, Luigi; Giordano, Enrico; Ghiraldi, Luca; Palomba, Mauro

    2013-04-01

    Mountain regions have a range of geological and geomorphological features that make them very attractive for tourism activities. As a consequence, increased human "pressure" causes impacts on geoheritage sites and higher geomorphological risks. These effects are magnified by active geomorphic processes characterizing mountains areas, highly sensitive to climate change. In term of "human sensitivity", several sociological surveys have shown that "perceived risk", not "real risk", influences people's behavior towards natural hazards. The same approach can be applied to geodiversity and geoheritage. Based on these assumptions, we considered the possible strategic roles played by diffusion of scientific research and application of new technologies: 1) to enhance awareness, either of geodiversity or environmental dynamics and 2) to improve knowledge, both on geoheritage management and natural risk reduction. Within the activities of the "ProGEO-Piemonte Project" (Progetti d'Ateneo 2011, cofunded by Universita? degli Studi di Torino and Compagnia di San Paolo Bank Foundation), we performed a systematic review of geodiversity and natural hazards information in the Piemonte Region (NW-Italy). Then we focused our attention on the Susa Valley, an area of the Western Alps where the geoheritage is affected by very active morphodynamics, as well as by a growing tourism, after the 2006 winter Olympics. The Susa Valley became one of the 9 strategic geothematic areas have been selected to represent the geodiversity of the Piemonte region, each characterized by high potential for enhancement of public understanding of science, and recreation activities supported by local communities. Then we contributed to the awareness-raising communication strategy of the "RiskNat project" (Interreg Alcotra 2007-2013, Action A.4.3) by synthesizing geoscience knowledge on the Susa Valley and information on slope instabilities and models/prevention measures/warning systems. Visual representations

  2. Real time of earthquakes prone areas by RST analysis of satellite TIR radiances: results of continuous monitoring over Italy and Turkey regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramutoli, V.; Filizzola, C.; Genzano, N.; Lisi, M.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.

    2012-04-01

    Meteorological satellites offering global coverage, continuity of observations and long term time series (starting even 30 years ago) offer a unique possibility not only to learn from the past but also to guarantee continuous monitoring whereas other observation technologies are lacking because too expensive or (like in the case of earthquake precursor studies) or considered useless by decision-makers. Space-time fluctuations of Earth's emitted Thermal Infrared (TIR) radiation have been observed from satellite months to weeks before earthquakes occurrence. The general RST approach has been proposed (since 2001) in order to discriminate normal (i.e. related to the change of natural factor and/or observation conditions) TIR signal fluctuations from anomalous signal transient possibly associated to earthquake occurrence. Since then several earthquakes occurred in Europe, Africa and America have been studied by analyzing decades of satellite observations always using a validation/confutation approach in order to verify the presence/absence of anomalous space-time TIR transients in presence/absence of significant seismic activity. In the framework of PRE-EARTHQUAKES EU-FP7 Project (www.pre-earthquakes.org) , starting from October 2010 (still continuing) RST approach has been applied to MSG/SEVIRI data to generate TIR anomaly maps over Italian peninsula, continuously for all the midnight slots. Since September 2011 the same monitoring activity (still continuing) started for Turkey region. For the first time a similar analysis has been performed in real-time, systematically analyzing TIR anomaly maps in order to identify day by day possible significant (e.g. persistent in the space-time domain) thermal anomalies. During 2011 only in very few cases (1 in Italy in July and 2 in the Turkish region in September and November) the day by day analysis enhanced significant anomalies that in two cases were communicated to the other PRE-EARTHQUAKES partners asking for their

  3. Regional and local risk assessments of alluvial fans by combination of historical and geomorphological data on debris flows, the most damaging natural hazard in the Aosta Valley Region (NW-Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardino, Marco; Ratto, Sara; Alberto, Walter; Armand, Marco; Cignetti, Martina; Palomba, Mauro; Navillod, Evelyne

    2010-05-01

    The Aosta Valley (NW-Italy) is a small alpine Region (area = 3262 km2) where alluvial fans occupy large sectors of the main valley bottom and also of the tributary valleys; most towns and villages lie in these sectors which are frequently affected by different geomorphological processes, including debris flows. For a best environmental hazard assessment and management of alluvial fans, a research project has been carried out with a particular attention to debris flows, responsible for causing major damages to human activities and infrastructures. A debris flows inventory on a regional scale has been created, combining historical data (1900 to present), technical maps and geomorphological analysis on the alluvial fans areas. A complex methodology for data collection and analysis has been organized in two different stages. As a first step, aerial photointerpretation and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) analysis were conducted over the Aosta Valley Region to obtain a complete fans inventory and to identify the most affected sectors by debris flows. As a second step, data on debris flow events occurred in the Region has been collected from different sources, such as bibliographic and historical data, municipality hazard maps for land planning restriction and drainage basin technical studies. For each inventored debris flow, aerial photointerpretations have been performed to validate geomorphological and historical data, mostly collected during major regional flood events. Finally, the selected debris flow events has been formally organized in a GIS to perform spatial and statistical analysis. Application of the methodology to the complete Aosta Valley Region dataset involved the overcoming of some difficulties, such as: 1) correct identification of repeated events from different sources, 2) exact recognition of small phenomena by photointerpretation and 3) problems related to the rapid landforms obliteration. The preliminary results of the research activity are outlined

  4. Survey on gynecological cancer treatment by Piedmont, Liguria, and Valle d'Aosta group of AIRO (Italian Association of Radiation Oncology)

    PubMed Central

    Cattari, Gabriella; Delmastro, Elena; Bresciani, Sara; Gribaudo, Sergio; Melano, Antonella; Giannelli, Flavio; Tessa, Maria; Chiarlone, Renato; Scolaro, Tindaro; Krengli, Marco; Urgesi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We focused the attention on radiation therapy practices about the gynecological malignancies in Piedmont, Liguria, and Valle d'Aosta to know the current treatment practice and to improve the quality of care. Material and methods We proposed a cognitive survey to evaluate the standard practice patterns for gynecological cancer management, adopted from 2012 to 2014 by radiotherapy (RT) centers with a large amount of gynecological cancer cases. There were three topics: 1. Taking care and multidisciplinary approach, 2. Radiotherapy treatment and brachytherapy, 3. Follow-up. Results Nineteen centers treated gynecological malignancies and 12 of these had a multidisciplinary dedicated team. Radiotherapy option has been used in all clinical setting: definitive, adjuvant, and palliative. In general, 1978 patients were treated. There were 834 brachytherapy (BRT) treatments. The fusion between diagnostic imaging (magnetic resonance imaging – MRI, positron emission tomography – PET) and computed tomography (CT) simulation was used for contouring in all centers. Conformal RT and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were the most frequent techniques. The image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) was used in 10/19 centers. There were 8 active BRT centers. Brachytherapy was performed both with radical intent and as boost, mostly by HDR (6/8 centers). The doses for exclusive BRT were between 20 to 30 Gy. The doses for BRT boost were between 10 and 20 Gy. Four centers used CT-MRI compatible applicators but only one used MRI for planning. The BRT plans on vaginal cuff were still performed on traditional radiographies in 2 centers. The plan sum was evaluated in only 1 center. Only 1 center performed in vivo dosimetry. Conclusions In the last three years, multidisciplinary approach, contouring, treatment techniques, doses, and control systems were similar in Liguria-Piedmont and Valle d'Aosta. However, the technology implementation didn't translate in a real treatment

  5. The architecture of an incipient oceanic basin: a tentative reconstruction of the Jurassic Liguria-Piemonte basin along the Northern Apennines-Alpine Corsica transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marroni, Michele; Pandolfi, Luca

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, a scenario for the early evolution of the Jurassic oceanic Liguria-Piemonte basin is sketched. For this purpose, four selected examples of ophiolite sequences from the Northern Apennines and Corsica are described and analyzed. In the External Ligurian units (Northern Apennines), the ocean-continent transition of the Adria plate was characterized by a basement made up of subcontinental mantle and lower continental crust, covered by extensional allochthons of upper crust. Both, the basement rocks and the extensional allochthons are cut by basaltic dikes and covered by basalts and pelagic deposits. The conjugate ocean-continent transition of the Corsica margin, represented by the Balagne nappe (Corsica), was composed of mantle peridotites and gabbros covered by basaltic flows and minor breccias, that in addition include continent-derived clasts. By contrast, the innermost (i.e., closest to the ocean) preserved area observed in the Internal Ligurian (Northern Apennines) and Inzecca (Corsica) units consists of former morphological highs of mantle peridotites and gabbros, bordered by small basins where the basement is covered by a volcano-sedimentary complex, characterized by ophiolitic breccias and cherts interlayered with basaltic flows. The overall picture resulting from our reconstructions suggests an asymmetric architecture for the Liguria-Piemonte basin with a central area bounded by two different transition zones toward the continental margins. This architecture can be interpreted as the result of a rifting process whose development includes a final stage characterized by passive, asymmetric extension of the lithosphere along an east-dipping detachment fault system.

  6. Deep seated tectonic-gravitive failure and large landslide in the area from Scilla to Punta Pezzo (Calabria region South Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerricchio, A.; Doglioni, A.; Simeone, V.

    2012-04-01

    A critical analysis of the morphological characters of the Southern Calabria region in the area from Scilla (RC province- Southern Italy) to Messina Strait show some geomorphological anomalies due to deep tectonic-gravitational failures and landslides induced by the uplift of the same area. The above mentioned phenomena involve, in fact the whole structure of the ridge included between the coastline and Fiumara di Catona (Catona Torrent), starting from Melia Highland (Pian della Melia) towards the promontory of Punta Pezzo on Messina Strait; and have a severe influence on the morphological forms of the territory, on the surface and coastal erosion phenomena and probably, also on the effect of seismic shocks on large engineering works, as the-to-be built Messina Strait bridge, which is very close to Scilla and Punta Pezzo area. The evidence of these failure can be recognized in the arched morphological steps breaking down the crystalline rock masses, but specially in the hydrographic stream network that is so deep and irregular in crystalline rocks that cannot be imputed only to surficial erosion. In fact at the end of the main streams or torrents as Santa Trara or San Gregorio torrents (fiumare) there are not relevant alluvial fan deposits. These tectonic-gravitative failure have been favored by the presence of biotitic schists underlying gneiss and granite rock masses. The first ones has a stiffness lower than the seconds, so they are more deformable. It is also possible that schist rock masses overlie the more deformable phyllite rocks, not outcropping in the area, as it happen in other zones of Calabria region (Guerricchio e Al., 2007). Tectonic-gravitative failures have broken and disarticulated also the terraces of Late Pleistocene deposits lying over the crystalline basement multiplied by these failures, so that may seem terraces of different order. The coastal slope between Gioia Tauro and Scilla is quite high and in a sudden way changes its form just in the

  7. Raised Marine Terraces in the Sibari Plain (Calabria, Southern Italy): the Geological Record of Fast Regional Uplift and Local Fault Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucci, L.

    2002-12-01

    Raised Upper Pleistocene marine terraces testifying rapid regional uplift are a prominent characteristic of the coastal landscape of Calabria (southern Italy). In particular, in the Sibari Plain, located at the boundary between the southern Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, the combination of Pleistocene sea-level fluctuations and uplift caused the progressive filling of a wide embayment of the Ionian Sea and originated a spectacular flight of marine terraces. Aerial photo interpretation, field observations and morphological correlation of inner edge fragments and wavecut platforms led to the identification of six marine terraces at elevations ranging from 60 m to ~650 m. Some characteristic geomorphic properties of the emerged cliff-platform systems such as the platform-cliff ratio and the dissection percentage were used to better correlate remote terrace remnants and to discriminate between the identified strandlines. Two comparable lower age boundaries for the marine terraces in the area can be inferred by geological observations: 1) in some areas, the terraces are cut into and therefore postdate 1.0 Ma Gilbert-type fan deltas; 2) marine deposits of the terraces at the northern end of the study area contain magnetite derived from the Vulture volcano (located about 150 km NW), which started activity around 0.73 Ma. Merging ad hoc aminostratigraphy datings with datings coming from literature permitted to correlate each terrace in the sequence with a highstand of the paleosea-level, thus reconstructing the evolution of this section of the Ionian coast. Typical average uplift rates of 1.0-1.1 millimeters per year affect the area since Middle Pleistocene, with a presumable time of inception of 0.6-0.7 million years ago; the uplift is still active during the Holocene, possibly at a similar rate. The flight of terraces shows a long wavelength increase of the rate of uplift moving southward along the coast, due to large-scale geodynamic processes. At a more local scale

  8. Italy: health system review.

    PubMed

    Ferre, Francesca; de Belvis, Antonio Giulio; Valerio, Luca; Longhi, Silvia; Lazzari, Agnese; Fattore, Giovanni; Ricciardi, Walter; Maresso, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Italy is the sixth largest country in Europe and has the second highest average life expectancy, reaching 79.4 years for men and 84.5 years for women in 2011. There are marked regional differences for both men and women in most health indicators, reflecting the economic and social imbalance between the north and south of the country. The main diseases affecting the population are circulatory diseases, malignant tumours and respiratory diseases. Italy's health care system is a regionally based national health service that provides universal coverage largely free of charge at the point of delivery. The main source of financing is national and regional taxes, supplemented by copayments for pharmaceuticals and outpatient care. In 2012, total health expenditure accounted for 9.2 percent of GDP (slightly below the EU average of 9.6 percent). Public sources made up 78.2 percent of total health care spending. While the central government provides a stewardship role, setting the fundamental principles and goals of the health system and determining the core benefit package of health services available to all citizens, the regions are responsible for organizing and delivering primary, secondary and tertiary health care services as well as preventive and health promotion services. Faced with the current economic constraints of having to contain or even reduce health expenditure, the largest challenge facing the health system is to achieve budgetary goals without reducing the provision of health services to patients. This is related to the other key challenge of ensuring equity across regions, where gaps in service provision and health system performance persist. Other issues include ensuring the quality of professionals managing facilities, promoting group practice and other integrated care organizational models in primary care, and ensuring that the concentration of organizational control by regions of health-care providers does not stifle innovation. PMID:25471543

  9. Demographical, Viro-Immunological, Clinical and Therapeutical Characteristics of HIV-Infected Patients in an “Epidemiologically Unexplored” Region of Italy (Calabria Region): the CalabrHIV Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Postorino, Maria Concetta; Luciani, Filippo; Mangano, Carmelo; Carpentieri, Maria Stella; Scerbo, Paolo; Priamo, Armando; Berardelli, Giuseppina; Marino, Roberto; Vallone, Alfredo; Serrao, Nicola; Pisani, Vincenzo; Costa, Chiara; Terremoto, Albano; Foti, Giuseppe; Cosco, Lucio; Calderazzo, Massimo; Corigliano, Domenico; Scordo, Preziosa; Strazzulla, Alessio; Torti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives HIV epidemics may differ among epidemiological contexts. We aimed at constructing an HIV clinical cohort whose main epidemiological, clinical and therapeutical characteristics are described (the CalabrHIV cohort, Calabria Region, Southern Italy). Methods The CalabrHIV Cohort includes all HIV patients on active follow-up in all infectious disease centers in the Calabria Region as at October 2014. All information was recorded in a common electronic database. Not-infectious co-morbidities (such as cardiovascular diseases, bone fractures, diabetes, renal failure and hypertension) were also studied. Results 548 patients (68% males; 59% aged <50 years) were included in the CalabrHIV cohort. Major risk factors were: sexual transmission (49%) and intravenous drug use (34%). 39% patients had HCV and/or HBV co-infection. Amongst 404 patients who had a complete clinical history, 34% were AIDS presenters and 49.3% had CD4 count ≤350/mm3 at HIV diagnosis. 83% patients on HAART had undetectable HIV-RNA. Hypertension was the most frequent co-morbidity (21.5%). Multimorbidity was more frequent in >50 years old patients than in <50 years old ones (30% vs. 6%; p<0.0001). Co-morbidity was more frequent in HCV and/or HBV co-infected than in HIV mono-infected patients (46.6% vs. 31.7%: p=0.0006). Conclusion This cohort presentation study sheds light, for the first time, on HIV patients’ characteristics in the Calabria Region. We showed that HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis were affected by concomitant not-infectious co-morbidities more than the HIV mono-infected individuals. New HCV treatments are therefore to be implemented in the co-infected population. PMID:26543523

  10. Shear wave splitting of the 2009 L'Aquila seismic sequence: fluid saturated microcracks and crustal fractures in the Abruzzi region (Central Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccheschi, P.; Pastori, M.; Margheriti, L.; Piccinini, D.

    2016-03-01

    The Abruzzi region is located in the Central Apennines Neogene fold-and-thrust belt and has one of the highest seismogenic potential in Italy, with high and diffuse crustal seismicity related to NE-SW oriented extension. In this study, we investigate the detailed spatial variation in shear wave splitting providing high-resolution anisotropic structure beneath the L'Aquila region. To accomplish this, we performed a systematic analysis of crustal anisotropic parameters: fast polarization direction (ϕ) and delay time (δt). We benefit from the dense coverage of seismic stations operating in the area and from a catalogue of several accurate earthquake locations of the 2009 L'Aquila seismic sequence, related to the Mw 6.1 2009 L'Aquila main shock, to describe in detail the geometry of the anisotropic volume around the active faults that ruptured. The spatial variations both in ϕ and δt suggest a complex anisotropic structure beneath the region caused by a combination of both structural- and stress-induced mechanisms. The average ϕ is NNW-SSE oriented (N141°), showing clear similarity both with the local fault strike and the SHmax. In the central part of the study area fast axes are oriented NW-SE, while moving towards the northeastern and northwestern sectors the fast directions clearly diverge from the general trend of NW-SE and rotate accordingly to the local fault strikes. The above-mentioned fault-parallel ϕ distribution suggests that the observed anisotropy is mostly controlled by the local fault-related structure. Toward the southeast fast directions become orthogonal both to strike of the local mapped faults and to the SHmax. Here, ϕ are predominantly oriented NE-SW; we interpret this orientation as due to the presence of a highly fractured and overpressurized rock volume which should be responsible of the 90° flips in ϕ and the increase in δt. Another possible mechanism for NE-SW orientation of ϕ in the southeastern sector could be ascribed to the

  11. A System Dynamic Analysis approach to deal with complexity in water resources management: the case of groundwater protection in the Apulia region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Raffaele; Pluchinotta, Irene; Brugnach, Marcela; Pagano, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    The increasing complexity and uncertainty of water resources management is claiming changes in the role of tools and methods aiming to support decision makers. Complexity due to the densely interconnected networks in which decision-actors operate. Uncertainty arises because of the fact that whatever action other decision agents involved in the network are going to do is largely unknown. In these complex and uncertain environments, it is very difficult to determine how effective a policy will be. Part of the difficulty resides in the fact that any action choice will influence and be influenced by the actions choices of the other actors. While these interactions among a diversity of actors may contribute to the development of beneficial adaptive behaviours, they can also result in dysfunctional dynamics, often leading to policy resistance. Action choices are not neutral, but commensurate with the problem frames held by the actors making the decisions. Our research hypothesis is that neglecting differences in problem framings leads decision makers to oversimplify the complexity of the interactions within the system to be managed, and to act as if the system is as simple as the decision makers presume it to be. Therefore, decision tools and methodologies should support the decision makers to become aware of the complexity of the interaction space, to disclose and analyse the existing interconnections, and to govern those interactions. In these circumstances, decision makers could take advantage from the interactional nature of the knowledge creation process. In order to demonstrate the research hypothesis, a methodology based on System Dynamic Modelling (SDM) was implemented in the Apulia Region (Southern Italy) to support the implementation of the groundwater (GW) protection policy. Due to the increasing of GW withdrawal for irrigation purposes, several phenomena are drastically reducing the quality of the GW resources. In order to protect the quality of GW, the

  12. Studies on damage of D. suzukii on grapes cultivated in Apulia Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broutou, Oussama; Baser, Nuray; Porcelli, Francesco; Verrastro, Vincenzo; Lamaj, Flutura

    2014-05-01

    Studies on damage of D. suzukii on grapes cultivated in Apulia Region Oussama Broutou1, Nuray Baser1, Francesco Porcelli2, Vincenzo Verrastro1, Flutura Lamaj1 1International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies (CIHEAM)- Institute of Bari (IAMB), Italy 2Dept. of Soil, Plant and Food Science (Di.S.S.P.A.), University of Bari, Bari, Italy D. suzukii (Diptera Drosophilidae family, sub-genus Sophophora); is a vinegar fly, known as Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) in USA. This insect gained an increasing attention for its heavy infestations on strawberry, blueberry and raspberry in the U.S.A, occurred in 2008 and 2009. D. suzukii has been reported also in Europe, (Spain October 2008), and later on in Italy and France. The first captures occurred in Italy, in Trento province, in 2009. By 2010-2012, other captures were done in Italy, involving other regions, such as: Piemonte, Val d'Aosta, Lombardia, Liguria, Marche Campania and Sicilia. D. suzukii has been indicated by EPPO, as a possible threat for Mediterranean fruit production. An advanced study was carried out in order to find out the potential phytosanitary risk for Mediterranean grapes producing areas, considering that there are only few reports for damages on this crop. By the way Italy is at the third place in the world for grapes production (2011) and at the first place for grapes economical value (2011). The first identification of D. suzukii in Apulia was made in October 2012 and reported to the regional plant protection service in January 2013 by the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari (IAMB) and by Bari University (UNIBA). The aim of this study is to estimate the susceptibility of different grapes varieties to such a pest. Ten varieties of table grapes from nine different localities of Bari and Taranto province were used in this study. We tested 23 samples cultivated with organic agriculture method and 16 samples cultivated by conventional agriculture. Thirty berries were collected from

  13. Extraintestinal nematodes of the red fox Vulpes vulpes in north-west Italy.

    PubMed

    Magi, M; Guardone, L; Prati, M C; Mignone, W; Macchioni, F

    2015-07-01

    Extraintestinal nematodes of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) are a wide group of parasites that infect wild and domestic carnivores and occasionally humans. Nematodes in the cardiopulmonary system, stomach, urinary apparatus and muscle tissue of 165 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from north-west Italy (Liguria and Piedmont) were investigated between 2009 and 2012. Of the cardiopulmonary nematodes, a high prevalence of Angiostrongylus vasorum and Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila) was found, 78.2% and 41.8% respectively; Crenosoma vulpis (15.8%) and Filaroides spp. (4.8%) were also found. Spirocerca lupi (23.5%), Aonchotheca putorii (syn. Capillaria putorii) (8.6%) and Physaloptera spp. (2.5%) were detected in the stomach and Pearsonema plica (syn. Capillaria plica) (56.8%) in the bladder. Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) was also detected in the nasal cavities of one of the two foxes examined. A coprological examination revealed eggs of E. aerophilus, A. putorii, S. lupi, Physaloptera spp. and eggs of intestinal parasites. Filarial worms were absent in all the 165 animals examined, nor was there evidence of Trichinella spp. in any of the foxes. The foxes were found to host a high prevalence of many species of extraintestinal nematodes. The prevalence of A. vasorum in foxes found in the present study is among the highest in Europe. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, E. boehmi and Filaroides spp. have never been reported before in this host in Italy. PMID:24725462

  14. Spectral models for ground motion prediction in the L'Aquila region (central Italy): evidence for stress-drop dependence on magnitude and depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacor, F.; Spallarossa, D.; Oth, A.; Luzi, L.; Puglia, R.; Cantore, L.; Mercuri, A.; D'Amico, M.; Bindi, D.

    2016-02-01

    In this study we derive a spectral model describing the source, propagation and site characteristics of S waves recorded in central Italy. To this end, we compile and analyse a high-quality data set composed of more than 9000 acceleration and velocity waveforms in the local magnitude (Ml) range 3.0-5.8 recorded at epicentral distances smaller than 120 km. The data set spans the time period from 2008 January 1 to 2013 May 31, and includes also the 2009 L'Aquila (moment magnitude Mw 6.1, Ml = 5.8) sequence. This data set is suitable for the application of data-driven approaches to derive the empirical functions for source, attenuation and site terms. Therefore, we apply a non-parametric inversion scheme to the acceleration Fourier spectra of the S waves of 261 earthquakes recorded at 129 stations. In a second step, with the aim of defining spectral models suitable for the implementation in numerical simulation codes, we represent the obtained non-parametric source and propagation terms by fitting standard parametric models. The frequency-dependent attenuation with distance r shows a complex trend that we parametrize in terms of geometrical spreading, anelastic attenuation and high-frequency decay parameter k. The geometrical spreading term is described by a piecewise linear model with crossover distances at 10 and 70 km: in the first segment, the spectral ordinates decay as < tex - mathid = "IM0001" > r- 1.01 while in the second as < tex - mathid = "IM0002" > r- 1.68. Beyond 70 km, the attenuation decreases and the spectral amplitude attenuate as < tex - mathid = "IM0003" > r- 0.64. The quality factor Q(f ) and the high-frequency attenuation parameter k, are < tex - mathid = "IM0004" > Q(f) = 290f0.16 and k = 0.012 s, respectively, the latter being applied only for frequencies higher than 10 Hz. The source spectra are well described by ω2 models, from which seismic moment and stress drops of 231 earthquakes are estimated. We calibrate a new regional relationship

  15. Ground Penetrating Radar and Microwave Tomography for high resolution post-earthquake damage assessment of a public building in L'Aquila City (Abruzzo Region, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavusi, M.; Loperte, A.; Lapenna, V.; Soldovieri, F.; Moroni, C.

    2009-12-01

    After the earthquake occurred in Abruzzo Region (Italy) on the 6th April 2009, non invasive diagnostics investigations of public infrastructures were performed with the aim of providing an early damage assessment. This work deals with the exploitation of the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technique in order to get information about a reinforced concrete element of a public building in L'Aquila City. The structural element was a 400 x 30 cm x 100 cm cracked joist and the aim of the investigation was to gain information about the presence and location of the rebar layers and evaluate the result of injections of epoxy resin in the cracks. A GSSI SIR 3000 system with a 1500 MHz antenna was used to gain information about the corner formed by the joist and a pillar. Fifty profiles were acquired along orthogonal directions and making a measurement grid with 4 cm x 4 cm square cells. A 2D processing (trace removal, marker interpolation, zero time correction, hyperbolae velocity analysis , migration was) performed for each profile. Then, a 3D data representation for a volume 130 cm x 50 cm x 30 cm was built. Results show two layers of rebars: the first one located close to the investigation surface is made up by point reflectors well focused. A slice at the depth 8 cm allows to point out in a clear way the geometry of the upper layer of rebar. Differently, the deeper layer of rebar suffered focussing problems and no detailed information about the geometry of the layer was achieved. The possibility of overcome this drawback was offered by a novel data processing approach as the microwave-tomography (MT) technique. This technique faces an inverse scattering problem [1,2] and the adoption of the Born Approximation (BA) [2] makes it possible to tackle the realistic cases of large domains in a reasonable amount of time, as is usually for the civil engineering problems. The MT technique were first tested by processing one of the fifty collected profiles acquired on the joist and

  16. Monitoring landslide-induced deformation with TerraSAR-X Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI): Gimigliano case study in Calabria Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, S.; Cigna, F.; Del Ventisette, C.; Moretti, S.; Casagli, N.

    2012-04-01

    Landslide phenomena represent a major geological hazard worldwide, threatening human lives and settlements, especially in urban areas where the potential socio-economic losses and damages are stronger because of the higher value of the element at risk exposure and vulnerability. The impact of these natural disasters in highly populated and vulnerable areas can be reduced or prevented by performing a proper detection of such ground movements, in order to support an appropriate urban planning. Mapping and monitoring of active landslides and vulnerable slopes can greatly benefit from radar satellite data analysis, due to the great cost-benefits ratio, non-invasiveness and high precision of remote sensing techniques. This work illustrates the potential of Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) using X-band SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data for a detailed detection and characterization of landslide ground displacements at local scale. PSI analysis is a powerful tool for mapping and monitoring slow surface displacements, just particularly in built-up and urbanized areas where many radar benchmarks (the PS, Persistent Scatterers) are retrieved. We exploit X-band radar data acquired from the German satellite TerraSAR-X on Gimigliano site located in Calabria Region (Italy). The use of TerraSAR-X imagery significantly improves the level of detail of the analysis and extends the applicability of space-borne SAR interferometry to faster ground movements, due to higher spatial resolutions (up to 1 m), higher PS targets density and shorter repeat cycles (11 days) of X-band satellites with respect to the medium resolution SAR sensors, such as ERS1/2, ENVISAT and RADARSAT1/2. 27 SAR scenes were acquired over a 116.9 Km2 extended area from the satellite TerraSAR-X in Spotlight mode, along descending orbits, with a look angle of 34°, from November 2010 to October 2011. The images were processed by e-GEOS with the Persistent Scatterers Pairs (PSP) technique, providing the

  17. Quantitative Assessment of Radon-222 Degassing Phenomenon from the Investigation of Groundwater/Surface water Interaction (GSI) processes in Shallow Turbulent Rivers in Campania region, Southern Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuomo, A.; Guadagnolo, D.; Guida, D.; Guida, M.; Paschke, A.; Schubert, M.; Siervo, V.

    2012-04-01

    In the investigation of Groundwater/Surface water Interaction (GSI) processes in different water bodies typologies, the use of Environmental Tracers, like Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, have been proven to be an extremely reliable and powerful tool. In particular, among them the (short-lived) radionuclide Radon-222 (referred to as Radon), occurring in the gaseous phase in normal conditions of temperature and pressure, has the advantages to be almost chemically inert, easily detectable on site and its physical signal is not disturbed by any kind of anthropically produced "noise". Therefore, differently from other tracers of artificial nature, it can be safely and successfully employed especially in natural environments, like Natural Parks and Wildlife Protected Areas, because it does not contaminate the surrounding environments being a Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material. Radon, produced in every mineral matrix through the spontaneous decay of Radium, turns out to be rather soluble in water, even though depending on the temperature of the water body, and, therefore, it occurs ubiquitously in all kinds of natural waters. In particular, Radon activity concentrations values, measured in groundwater, are typically some (from three to four) orders of magnitude higher than those ones detected, instead, in surface waters. For such reasons Radon turns out to be a remarkable tool for the Groundwater/Surface water Interaction (GSI) processes and a good indicator for the localization and the semi-quantitative assessment of groundwater discharges into different kinds of water bodies like lakes, rivers and sea. This work summarizes some outcomes from a series of experimental measurements campaigns performed in relevant river basins of Campania region, southern Italy, where interdisciplinary investigations about Groundwater-River Interactions have been carried on using Radon as a Natural Tracer. The experimental measurement campaigns have been performed using the Radon

  18. Ground-based measurements of long-range transported aerosol at the rural regional background site of Monte Martano (Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroni, Beatrice; Castellini, Silvia; Crocchianti, Stefano; Piazzalunga, Andrea; Fermo, Paola; Scardazza, Francesco; Cappelletti, David

    2015-03-01

    Aerosol mass (PM10 and PM2.5) and chemical composition recorded in the 2009 at the rural background station of Monte Martano (MM, Central Italy) are presented in this work. The site, located at 1100 m (asl), features relatively low aerosol mass levels, due to the little influence of local anthropogenic pressure, and is influenced mainly by long-range transport phenomena. Chemical composition of PM10 and PM2.5 at MM is characterized by high levels of organic matter (OM), sulfates and nitrates, followed by crustal material, and ammonia. Sea Spray and elemental carbon (EC) accounted for a minor part of the total PM mass. The mass trends (PM10 and PM2.5) and chemical characteristics (OC, EC, major ions, trace elements) are compared with those of other similar sites in Europe and discussed in the framework of an extensive analysis of back trajectories (BT). As a result, three main advection routes to Central Italy (Northern Africa, West Mediterranean and Eastern Europe) have been individuated on the basis of the BT analysis and show significantly different PM2.5/PM10 and OC/EC ratios. Major ions and trace elements trends are also discussed within this framework, showing that annual averages are more influenced by long-range transport from Eastern Europe, which is the prevalent advection route to MM (and Central Italy) also according to BT analysis. Finally, the data collected allowed to estimate the impact of Saharan dust on PM10 which amounted to 22 μg m- 3 per intrusion event (22 events). The impact on PM2.5 resulted in 11 μg m- 3 per intrusion event.

  19. Linguistic Classification in Italy: Problems and Predictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, John Earl

    1980-01-01

    The schema generally used to describe the linguistic situation in Italy includes two categories: dialetto regionale (regional dialect) and italiano regionale (regional Italian). These stand apart from the widely accepted sociolinguistic model "variety--dialect--language." It is demonstrated that both these categories should be treated simply as…

  20. Overview of plasmapheresis in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tomasini, I

    1993-12-01

    The national law, concerning Blood Transfusion and Blood derivatives in Italy, aims at achieving self-sufficiency and assuring safety of blood, plasma and plasma derivatives, according to EEC ((EE-Directive 89/381) and to the Council of Europe (R-88/4)). According to this law it is the task of the Central National Authority, (ie Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS)), to coordinate the transfusion system nationwide. The adoption and the transmission to the ISS of Regional Blood Registers containing information about the local use of blood and blood derivatives is in progress. Up to now the data are collected from a network among Blood Centers by Società italiana di Immunoematologia e Trasufusione del Sangue-Associazione Italiana Centri Trasfusionali (SIITS-AICT) and these results show that in Italy the incorrect use of plasma and albumin and the insufficient practice of plasmapheresis are the major obstacles to the achievement of self-sufficiency. PMID:8013975

  1. A new species-complex within the trapdoor spider genus Nemesia Audouin 1826 distributed in northern and central Italy, with descriptions of three new species (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Nemesiidae).

    PubMed

    Decae, Arthur; Pantini, Paolo; Isaia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Three new Nemesia Audouin 1826 species from northern and central Italy are named. They share a combination of sexual characters, not found in other described species. A new species-complex within Nemesia is here referred to as the apenninica group. Within the apenninica group, N. apenninica n. sp., N. hastensis n. sp., and N. pedemontana n. sp. differ in the morphology of the male palpal organ and the female spermathecae. The three species have different kinds of geographical distributions. While N. apenninica and N. hastensis have locally restricted and geographically separated distributions, the distribution of N. pedemontana overlaps with that of both of these species and extends widely in northern and central Italy. In its periphery, the distribution of N. pedemontana overlaps with that of species other than the apenninica group, e.g., N. meridionalis (Costa, 1835) in southern Italy and N. manderstjernae (L. Koch, 1871) and N. carminans (Latreille, 1818) in Liguria. Information on burrow structure, phenology and habitat are provided for all three new species. Some aspects of the behavior and feeding are discussed for N. pedemontana and N. hastensis. PMID:26701576

  2. Late Miocene remagnetization within the internal sector of the Northern Apennines, Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiello, I.W.; Hagstrum, J.T.; Principi, G.

    2004-01-01

    Paleomagnetic and geologic evidence indicates that Upper Jurassic radiolarian cherts of both the Tuscan Cherts Formation (continental margin, Tuscan Units) and the Monte Alpe Cherts Formation (oceanic crust, Ligurian Units) were remagnetized during Miocene orogenesis of the Northern Apennines of Italy. Characteristic overprint magnetizations with reversed polarities have been found over a large area within the internal sector of the Northern Apennines, including eastern Liguria, Elba Island and the Thyrrenian margin, and west of the Middle Tuscan Ridge. The reversed-polarity overprint (average direction: D=177??, I=-52??, ??95=15??) was most likely acquired during Late Miocene uplift and denudation of the orogenic chain, and thermochemical remagnetization was a probable consequence of increased circulation of orogenic fluids. Similarly, mostly reversed-polarity directions of magnetization have been found by other workers in overlying post-orogenic Messinian sediments (D=177??, I=-57??, ??95=3??), which show little counterclockwise (CCW) vertical-axis rotation with respect to stable Europe (-8??5??). The Monte Alpe Cherts sampled at sites in the external sector of the Northern Apennines, close to major tectonic features, have normal- polarity overprint directions with in situ W-SW declinations. Since the overlying post-orogenic Messinian sediments have not been substantially rotated about vertical axes, the evidence points to an earlier,pre-Late Miocene remagnetization in the external parts of the orogenic chain. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Depositional architecture and sequence stratigraphy of Pleistocene coarse-grained deltas along the Ligurian coast (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciampalini, A.; Firpo, M.

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to develop a better understanding of the stratigraphy of the southern side of the Maritime Alps and of the Ligurian Sea during the Plio-Pleistocene. Five stratigraphic sections were measured and studied in the Segno River valley (Liguria, Italy). These sections are composed of Lower to Middle Pleistocene marine and continental deposits. Based on detailed mapping and sedimentological analysis, 12 marine and deltaic facies were identified. These facies were grouped into facies associations. Two allostratigraphic units were recognized, namely U1 and U2 from oldest to youngest. The lower unit (U1) represents the evolution of a coarse-grained delta developed in a valley or embayment. Within the deltaic sequence, transgressive and highstand systems tracts were recognized. The coarsening/shallowing upward trend observed within the sections suggests that the delta prograded rapidly in the landward portion of the canyon adjacent to the paleo-river outlet. The upper boundary of U1 is represented by a subaerial unconformity overlain by U2, which is composed of sediments deposited by several alluvial fan systems.

  4. Determinants of adherence to seasonal influenza vaccination among healthcare workers from an Italian region: results from a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Durando, P; Dini, G; Barberis, I; Bagnasco, A M; Iudici, R; Zanini, M; Martini, M; Toletone, A; Paganino, C; Massa, E; Sasso, L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Notwithstanding decades of efforts to increase the uptake of seasonal influenza (flu) vaccination among European healthcare workers (HCWs), the immunisation rates are still unsatisfactory. In order to understand the reasons for the low adherence to flu vaccination, a study was carried out among HCWs of two healthcare organisations in Liguria, a region in northwest Italy. Methods A cross-sectional study based on anonymous self-administered web questionnaires was carried out between October 2013 and February 2014. Through univariate and multivariate regression analysis, the study investigated the association between demographic and professional characteristics, knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of the study participants and (i) the seasonal flu vaccination uptake in the 2013/2014 season and (ii) the self-reported number of flu vaccination uptakes in the six consecutive seasons from 2008/2009 to 2013/2014. Results A total of 830 HCWs completed the survey. Factors statistically associated with flu vaccination uptake in the 2013/2014 season were: being a medical doctor and agreeing with the statements ‘flu vaccine is safe’, ‘HCWs have a higher risk of getting flu’ and ‘HCWs should receive flu vaccination every year’. A barrier to vaccination was the belief that pharmaceutical companies influence decisions about vaccination strategies. Discussion All the above-mentioned factors, except the last one, were (significantly) associated with the number of flu vaccination uptakes self-reported by the respondents between season 2008/2009 and season 2013/2014. Other significantly associated factors appeared to be level of education, being affected by at least one chronic disease, and agreeing with mandatory flu vaccination in healthcare settings. Conclusions This survey allows us to better understand the determinants of adherence to vaccination as a fundamental preventive strategy against flu among Italian HCWs. These findings should be used to improve and

  5. Off-Patent Generic Medicines vs. Off-Patent Brand Medicines for Six Reference Drugs: A Retrospective Claims Data Study from Five Local Healthcare Units in the Lombardy Region of Italy

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Giorgio L.; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico; Margonato, Alberto; Mencacci, Claudio; Montecucco, Carlo Maurizio; Trevisan, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The scientific documentation supporting the potential clinical and economic benefits of a growing use of off-patent generic drugs in clinical practice seems to be limited in Italy as yet. Methods We compared differences in outcomes between off-patent generic drugs and off-patent brand drugs in real clinical practice. The outcomes were: persistence and compliance with therapy, mortality, and other health resources consumption (hospitalizations, specialist examinations, other drugs) and total costs. Retrospective analysis was carried out by using the administrative databases of five Local Healthcare Units (ASLs - Aziende Sanitarie Locali) in the Lombardy Region of Italy. Data from the five ASLs were aggregated through a meta-analysis, which produced an estimate indicator of the mean or percentage difference between the two groups (branded vs. generic) and their respective significance tests. The therapeutic areas and studied drugs were: diabetes: metformin - A10BA02; hypertension: amlodipine - C08CA01; dyslipidemia: simvastatin - C10AA01; psychiatry: sertraline - N06AB06; cardiology: propafenone - C01BC03; osteoporosis: alendronate - M05BA04. Results The 5 Local Healthcare Units (ASL) represent a population of 3,847,004 inhabitants. The selected sample included 347,073 patients, or 9.02% of the total ASL population; 67% of the patients were treated with off-patent brand drugs. The average age was 68 years, with no difference between the two groups. After 34 months of observation, compliance and persistence were in favor to generic drugs in all therapeutic areas and statistically significant in the metformin, amlodipine, simvastatin, and sertraline groups. The clinical outcomes (hospitalizations, mortality, and other health costs) show no statistically significant differences between off-patent generic vs. off-patent brand medicines. Conclusions Off-patent generic drugs appear to be a therapy option of choice in Italy as well, based on clinical outcomes and economic

  6. Paleoceanographic Changes in the Lagonegro Basin (Southern Italy) during the Late Triassic Linked to Oceanic Rifting in the Western Tethyan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casacci, M.; Algeo, T. J.; Bertinelli, A.; Rigo, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Lagonegro Basin was part of the southwestern branch of the western Tethys, an actively spreading young ocean during the Late Triassic (Ciarapica and Passeri, 2002, 2005). The sedimentary environment was a deepening-upward basin, bordered to the north by the Apenninic and Apulian carbonate platforms. Paleoseismic activity is evidenced by frequent debris flows on the basin margins (Passeri et al., 2005). The Lagonegro succession is characterized by Permian to Miocene formations deposited in shallow to deep basinal environments. The Upper Triassic is comprised of deep-marine sediments belonging to the Calcari con Selce ("Cherty Limestone") Formation of late Ladinian to late Norian-early Rhaetian age and the Scisti Silicei ("Siliceous Shale") Formation of late Norian-early Rhaetian to Late Jurassic age. The "Transitional Interval" between these two formations is gradational over a 20- to 40-m interval (Miconnet, 1983). The Transitional Interval was investigated in three sections (Pignola-Abriola, Monte Volturino, and Madonna del Sirino) in the Southern Apennines (southern Italy), representing a proximal-to-distal transect across the Lagonegro Basin. The transition from mainly calcareous to mainly siliceous sedimentation may have been influenced by rapid, post-rift subsidence of the Lagonegro Basin. It also coincided with a shift to warmer or more humid conditions around the Norian/Rhaetian boundary, as reflected in a pronounced increase in the chemical index of alteration (CIA), a weathering proxy (Young and Nesbitt, 1998). Redox proxies indicate mainly oxic conditions in the deep basin, although organic-rich shale beds are present at multiple levels in the otherwise organic-poor succession. The abruptness of the transitions between organic-poor and -rich sediment layers suggests major changes in paleoceanographic conditions, possibly related to switches from lagoonal circulation (linked to a net negative water balance) to estuarine circulation (linked to a net

  7. Characteristics and major sources of carbonaceous aerosols in PM2.5 in Emilia Romagna Region (Northern Italy) from four-year observations.

    PubMed

    Pietrogrande, Maria Chiara; Bacco, Dimitri; Ferrari, Silvia; Ricciardelli, Isabella; Scotto, Fabiana; Trentini, Arianna; Visentin, Marco

    2016-05-15

    The concentrations of organic and elemental carbon in PM2.5 aerosol samples were measured in two sites of Emilia Romagna (Po Valley, Northern Italy) in eight campaigns during different seasons from 2011 to 2014. Strong seasonality was observed with the highest OC concentrations during the cold periods (≈ 5.5 μg m(-3)) and the lowest in the warm months (≈ 2.7 μg m(-3)) as well as with higher EC levels in fall/winter (≈ 1.4 μg m(-3)) in comparison with spring/summer (≈ 0.6 μg m(-3)). Concerning spatial variability, there were no statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between OC concentrations at the two sampling sites in each campaign, while the EC values were nearly twofold higher levels at the urban site than those at the rural one. Specific molecular markers were investigated to attempt the basic apportionment of OC by discriminating between the main emission sources of primary OC, such as fossil fuels burning - including traffic vehicle emission - residential wood burning, and bio-aerosol released from plants and microorganisms, and the atmospheric photo-oxidation processes generating OCsec. The investigated markers were low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids - to describe the contribution of secondary organic aerosol - anhydrosugars - to quantify primary emissions from biomass burning - bio-sugars - to qualitatively estimate biogenic sources - and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - to differentiate among different combustion emissions. Using the levoglucosan tracer method, contribution of wood smoke to atmospheric OC concentration was computed. Wood burning accounts for 33% of OC in fall/winter and for 3% in spring/summer. A clear seasonal trend is also observed for the impact of secondary processes with higher contribution in the warm seasons (≈ 63%) in comparison with that in colder months (≈ 33%), that is consistent with enhanced solar radiation in spring/summer. PMID:26925729

  8. The role of regional tectonics, magma pressure and gravitational spreading in earthquakes of the eastern sector of Mt. Etna volcano (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patanè, G.; Montalto, A.; Imposa, S.; Menza, S.

    1994-07-01

    Data concerning M ⩾ 3.3 earthquakes that occurred in the eastern sector of Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy) in the period 1984-1989 are here presented and discussed. Only events with reliable focal mechanisms and detailed macroseismic investigations have been considered. Instrumental information come from local seismic networks, both permanent and temporary, run by the University of Catania (UCT), the Seismological Observatory of Acireale (SOACR), the CNRS (Grenoble, France) and the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPG, France). Observations regarding the macroseismic effects have been collected by means of field recognitions mainly carried out by the authors. All available data are analyzed in light of the more recent interpretations on the kinematic behaviour of the shallowest structures of Etna, with particular reference to its eastern flank which, according to Borgia et al. (1992), is likely affected by a seaward gravitational migration, driven by the sliding of this sector of the volcanic apparatus over its clay-rich substratum. The results obtained support the hypothesis that the shallow seismicity of the eastern flank of Mt. Etna is related to a complex stress field due to the combined effects of: (a) the tectonics associated with the interaction between the African and Eurasian plates; (b) the rise of magma into the crust; and (c) the gravitative seaward sliding of the eastern sector of the volcano. In particular, we hypothesize that: (1) tectonic forces caused the end of the 1984 eruption, by means of a "locking mechanism"; (2) the increment of magma pressure at depth is periodically responsible for local re-orientation of the stress field acting on the volcano, which also produces earthquakes of high intensity; (3) shallow earthquakes ( z < = 5 km), showing eastward compression mechanism, could be related to the gravitational sliding of unbuttressed sectors of the volcanic body accompanying the emplacement of intrusive dykes.

  9. Study on the reduction of atmospheric mercury emissions from mine waste enriched soils through native grass cover in the Mt. Amiata region of Italy.

    PubMed

    Fantozzi, L; Ferrara, R; Dini, F; Tamburello, L; Pirrone, N; Sprovieri, F

    2013-08-01

    Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine-waste enriched soils were measured in order to compare the mercury fluxes of bare soils with those from other soils covered by native grasses. Our research was conducted near Mt. Amiata in central Italy, an area that was one of the largest and most productive mining centers in Europe up into the 1980s. To determine in situ mercury emissions, we used a Plexiglas flux chamber connected to a portable mercury analyzer (Lumex RA-915+). This allowed us to detect, in real time, the mercury vapor in the air, and to correlate this with the meteorological parameters that we examined (solar radiation, soil temperature, and humidity). The highest mercury flux values (8000ngm(-2)h(-1)) were observed on bare soils during the hours of maximum insulation, while lower values (250ngm(-2)h(-1)) were observed on soils covered by native grasses. Our results indicate that two main environmental variables affect mercury emission: solar radiation intensity and soil temperature. The presence of native vegetation, which can shield soil surfaces from incident light, reduced mercury emissions, a result that we attribute to a drop in the efficiency of mercury photoreduction processes rather than to decreases in soil temperature. This finding is consistent with decreases in mercury flux values down to 3500ngm(-2)h(-1), which occurred under cloudy conditions despite high soil temperatures. Moreover, when the soil temperature was 28°C and the vegetation was removed from the experimental site, mercury emissions increased almost four-fold. This increase occurred almost immediately after the grasses were cut, and was approximately eight-fold after 20h. Thus, this study demonstrates that enhancing wild vegetation cover could be an inexpensive and effective approach in fostering a natural, self-renewing reduction of mercury emissions from mercury-contaminated soils. PMID:23477569

  10. Study on the reduction of atmospheric mercury emissions from mine waste enriched soils through native grass cover in the Mt. Amiata region of Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Fantozzi, L.; Dini, F.; Tamburello, L.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.

    2013-08-15

    Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine-waste enriched soils were measured in order to compare the mercury fluxes of bare soils with those from other soils covered by native grasses. Our research was conducted near Mt. Amiata in central Italy, an area that was one of the largest and most productive mining centers in Europe up into the 1980s. To determine in situ mercury emissions, we used a Plexiglas flux chamber connected to a portable mercury analyzer (Lumex RA-915+). This allowed us to detect, in real time, the mercury vapor in the air, and to correlate this with the meteorological parameters that we examined (solar radiation, soil temperature, and humidity). The highest mercury flux values (8000 ng m{sup −2} h{sup −1}) were observed on bare soils during the hours of maximum insulation, while lower values (250 ng m{sup −2} h{sup −1}) were observed on soils covered by native grasses. Our results indicate that two main environmental variables affect mercury emission: solar radiation intensity and soil temperature. The presence of native vegetation, which can shield soil surfaces from incident light, reduced mercury emissions, a result that we attribute to a drop in the efficiency of mercury photoreduction processes rather than to decreases in soil temperature. This finding is consistent with decreases in mercury flux values down to 3500 ng m{sup −2} h{sup −1}, which occurred under cloudy conditions despite high soil temperatures. Moreover, when the soil temperature was 28 °C and the vegetation was removed from the experimental site, mercury emissions increased almost four-fold. This increase occurred almost immediately after the grasses were cut, and was approximately eight-fold after 20 h. Thus, this study demonstrates that enhancing wild vegetation cover could be an inexpensive and effective approach in fostering a natural, self-renewing reduction of mercury emissions from mercury-contaminated soils. -- Highlights: ► Mercury air/surface exchange

  11. First geophysical results on Musmeci Bridge next to Potenza city (Basilicata Region, South of Italy) in the framework of ISTIMES project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavusi, Massimo; Soldovieri, Francesco; Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Loperte, Antonio; Proto, Monica; Lapenna, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    This paper shows the preliminary results coming from the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys and data processing based on MT carried out on the Musmeci Bridge, in Potenza City (Basilicata, Italy), an important example of architectonic culture of the XX built in the 1968 by the Italian architect Sergio Musmeci. The bridge, at present day, suffers several aging related problems worse by the traffic growth of the last ten years. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technique is now an effective tool for non invasive diagnostic of reinforced concrete. However, the achievement of the full spatial resolution requires to perform long sessions of data processing affected by a level of the operator's subjectiveness increasing as long as the investigated scenario becomes complicated. This drawback can be mitigated by advanced data processing based on microwave-tomography (MT) which faces an inverse scattering problem (Leone and Soldovieri, 2003). In particular, the adoption of the a simplified model of the electromagnetic scattering as the Born Approximation (BA) makes it possible to tackle the realistic cases of large domains in a reasonable amount of time and via an automatic procedure. Previous studies aimed at characterizing the structure of the Musmeci bridge, have considered the coupling of the Georadar technique with the classic Pacometric investigations for the detection of the reinforcement bars and their spatial position. Main limitation related to both techniques consists in detecting only the shallowest embedded rebars. The preliminary results of this study show that the GPR associated to the MT inversion allow to provide very high spatial resolution data, to detect the embedded rebars deeper and deeper and to overcome the subjectiveness of the operator. Moreover, the MT algorithm allows to process a large amount of data in a short time. The bridge is one of the test-sites selected within the ISTIMES "Integrated System for Transport Infrastructure surveillance and

  12. Time dependent structural architecture of subsidiary fracturing and stress pattern in the tip region of an extensional growth fault system, Tarquinia basin, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsamo, F.; Storti, F.; Piovano, B.; Salvini, F.; Cifelli, F.; Lima, C.

    2008-06-01

    Fault tip regions, relay ramps and accommodation zones in between major segments of extensional fault systems provide zones of additional structural and stratigraphic complexities and also significantly affect their hydraulic behaviour. The great interest for both academic and industrial purposes encouraged specific studies of fault tip regions that, in some cases, produced controversial results. We approached the study of fault tip regions by integrating structural, AMS and stratigraphic analyses of the tip of an extensional growth fault system in the Tarquinia basin, on the Tyrrhenian side of the Northern Apennines. Detailed structural mapping indicates the occurrence of systematic relationships between the orientation of the main subsidiary fault zones, the orientation and position of the two main joint sets developed in the fault damage zones, and the overprinting relationships between the two main joint sets themselves. Microstructural analysis of fault core rocks indicates a progression of deformation from soft-sediment to brittle conditions. The AMS study supports the evolution of deformation under a constantly oriented stress field. By combining this multidisciplinary information we propose an evolutionary model for the tip of the extensional growth fault system that accounts for the progressively changing sediment rheological properties, and for the time dependent subsidiary deformation pattern by invoking the interplay between the regional stress field and the local, kinematically-derived one by fault activity. We also speculate on the overall implications for fluid flow of the proposed evolutionary model.

  13. New Time-independent and Time-dependent Seismic Source Models for the Calabria Region (Italy) for the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinci, Aybige; Burrato, Pierfrancesco; Falcone, Giuseppe; Mariucci, Maria Teresa; Murru, Maura; Tiberti, Mara Monica; Vannoli, Paola

    2015-04-01

    The present study is carried out in the framework of the S2-2014 COBAS Project "Constraining Observations into Seismic Hazard" co-funded by the Civil Protection Department of the Presidency of Council of Ministers (DPC) within the general agreement DPC-INGV for the period 2012-2021. The two areas identified as priority areas in the first phase of the activities by the 2012- 2021 Agreement DPC-INGV, namely the Po Plain and the Southern Apennines from Molise-Lazio to Basilicata-Calabria borders, require different strategies for calculating "the best seismic hazard". In this study we develop new time-independent and time-dependent seismic source models for the Calabria region starting from the new version of the DISS (Database of Individual Seismogenic Sources). This version of the Database DISS contains remarkable and notable new data and information on the seismogenic sources and their parameterizations in the Calabria region. The probability of the earthquake occurrences is calculated by developing models of seismicity-derived hazard sources, and models of earthquakes on faults/seismogenic sources. Mainly the four different classes of earthquake source models are developed to be included into the PSHA maps: (1) shallow crustal background seismicity (2) special zone that account for deep background seismicity (many earthquakes deeper than 30 kilometers occur beneath the Calabrian Arc and may have caused considerable damage in the Calabria region; these earthquakes have different ground-motion properties than shallow earthquakes) (3) uniform background source zones (4) finite faults/seismogenic sources as defined in the previous activity. The first three models are based on the earthquake catalog and characterize the hazard from earthquakes Mw>4.7. In most cases, the faults contribute most to the hazard for earthquakes larger than Mw5.5. The earthquake occurrence for the faults are modeled both as a Poisson time-independent process and introducing the various renewal

  14. Ten years of continuous observations of stratospheric ozone depleting gases at Monte Cimone (Italy)--comments on the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol from a regional perspective.

    PubMed

    Maione, M; Giostra, U; Arduini, J; Furlani, F; Graziosi, F; Lo Vullo, E; Bonasoni, P

    2013-02-15

    Halogenated gases potentially harmful to the stratospheric ozone layer are monitored worldwide in order to assess compliance with the Montreal Protocol requiring a phase out of these compounds on a global scale. We present the results of long term (2002-2011) continuous observation conducted at the Mt. Cimone GAW Global Station located on the highest peak of the Italian Northern Apennines, at the border of two important regions: the Po Valley (and the Alps) to the North and the Mediterranean Basin to the South. Bi-hourly air samples of CFC-12, CFC-11, CFC-114, CFC-115, H-1211, H-1301, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, HCFC-22, HCFC-142b, HCFC-124 and methyl bromide are collected and analysed using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, providing multi annual time series. In order to appreciate the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol from a regional perspective, trends and annual growth rates of halogenated species have been calculated after identification of their baseline values. A comparison with results from other international observation programmes is also presented. Our data show that the peak in the atmospheric mixing ratios of four chlorofluorocarbons, two halons and two chlorocarbons has been reached and all these species now show a negative atmospheric trend. Pollution episodes are still occurring for species like halon-1211, methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride, indicating fresh emissions from the site domain which could be ascribed both to fugitive un-reported uses of the compounds and/or emissions from banks. For the hydrofluorocarbons changes in the baseline are affected by emissions from fast developing Countries in East Asia. Fresh emissions from the site domain are clearly declining. Methyl bromide, for which the Mediterranean area is an important source region, shows, in a generally decreasing trend, an emission pattern that is not consistent with the phase-out schedule of this compound, with a renewed increase in the last two

  15. Regional uplift and local tectonic deformation recorded by the Quaternary marine terraces on the Ionian coast of northern Calabria (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucci, Luigi; Cinti, Francesca R.

    1998-06-01

    The setting of a flight of marine terraces along a 65-km-long section of the Ionian coast of northern Calabria is the result of the interaction between interglacial sea levels, regional uplift, and local fault-related elevation changes. Seven terraces with corresponding palaeoshoreline angles at elevations ranging from 12 m to ˜420 m were recognised by aerial photo interpretation and field surveying. The terraces were correlated to the oxygen isotope stages 1, 5a, 5c, 5e, 7, 9, 15, which correspond to the 7, 81, 102, 124, 215, 330 and ˜600 ka highstands of the palaeosea-level curve. The ˜600-ka-long regional ascent of the terraces took place at an average uplift rate of 0.67 mm/yr; this value slightly but progressively increases southward along the coastline. The elevation of the strandlines is related to the activity of tectonic structures. Three cases were analysed, allowing us: (1) to recognise the height anomalies of the terraces on the Sibari plain as the result of cumulated coseismic deformation caused by the normal Castrovillari fault, and on this basis calculate a minimum slip rate and a mean recurrence time for a single event of deformation; (2) to exclude the presence of significant vertical deformations and consequently activity on the easternmost section of the normal Pollino fault; and (3) to hypothesise the presence of an hitherto unknown active fault responsible for the strong vertical displacements of the flight of terraces near the river Avena. Finally, we find the ratio of the rate of regional uplift to the average rates of local tectonic deformation to be 2 to 3 : 1.

  16. Occupational cancer in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

    1999-01-01

    This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects. PMID:10350509

  17. Italy. [CME Country Reports].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    Ever since 1946, increased emigration in Italy has been paralleled by a slow but steady increase in educational activity. In 1971, Law No. 153 was adopted which provides for special educational arrangements to be made for migrant workers and their spouses adopted by the Italian Government are based on the need for Italian children to: (1) be…

  18. Personal Identity in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Sica, Luigia Simona

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses specifics of identity formation in Italian adolescents and emerging adults. We review consistent evidence illustrating that, in Italy, a progressive deferral of transition to adulthood strongly impacts youth identity development by stimulating identity exploration and postponement of identity commitments. We also consider…

  19. [Definition and adoption of a building code based on biological and ecological sustainability in the Local Health Authority 11 of Empoli (Tuscany Region, Central Italy): strengths and areas for improvement].

    PubMed

    Petronio, Maria Grazia; Battisti, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Built environment is an important social determinant of health, but nowadays local health authorities (LHAs) have lost their competences in the issuing of building permits, especially since a new legislation introduced the possibility of personal declaration of conformity. They are also usually excluded from the urban planning process. At the same time, in recent years construction of buildings has been developed with insufficient regard to environmental health requirements, proper exposure to sunlight and winds, comfort, building materials, consumption of resources, and waste production. To deal with these issues, an interdepartmental working group was set up under the direction of the Department of Prevention of the LHA of Empoli (Tuscany Region, Central Italy), with members of the Regional Environmental Protection Agency, along with experts of the 15 Municipalities included in the LHA territory and members of other local institutions. The objective of the Working Group was to define and propose as mandatory a set of rules for local governments aimed at regulating construction activities according to criteria of environmental sustainability, eco-efficiency, comfort, and healthiness of living areas, at the same time encouraging the responsible use of natural resources, the reduction of energy consumption and the use of renewable energy sources in order to place environmental safety and health at the heart of all building activities. Experts of six Municipalities joined the working group and the regulation framework was adopted (and made legally binding) in 8 out of 15 Municipalities, with an almost complete overlap with participation in the working group. The active participation of experts, whose work consists in examining municipal building, permits, and declarations, has therefore marked the difference in the transition from theory to practice. The level of know-how attained by the participants and their motivation and enthusiasm have been so relevant in the

  20. Understanding, promoting and protecting geodiversity and geoheritage of the Piemonte region (Italy) through innovative techniques and public engagement in Earth Science studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardino, Marco; Lozar, Francesca; Perotti, Luigi; Palomba, Mauro; Groppo, Chiara; Natalicchio, Marcello; Ghiraldi, Luca; Beltramo, Riccardo; Lombardo, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    The onset of Antropocene demonstrates the importance of considering both 1) geodiversity and 2) geoheritage as parts of the landscape "interfaces" where relationships between natural and socio-economic systems can be studied and interpreted. By definition: 1) is the variety, recognizable in nature ("diversity"), of geological features (rocks, minerals, fossils…), of geomorphological environments (and related forms and processes) and of soil characteristics; 2) is an integral part of the global natural heritage focusing on unique, special and representative sites of geological interests (geosites l.s.). In the Antropocene, both 1) and 2) hold a dynamic character, as the result of actions and interactions of natural and/or human factors. Therefore, geodiversity and geoheritage studies are essential for breaking down geological environments and human territories into their main parts and to understand the variables and mechanisms that control their changes. In this perspective, results of the multidisciplinary project PROGEO-Piemonte ("PROactive management of GEOlogical heritage in the Piemonte Region") are presented here: an innovative approach for assessing geodiversity in order to select areas of high potential value of geoheritage to be enhanced by targeted management actions. Since the geodiversity of Piemonte is materialized by elements of high scientific, educational, tourism, etc. value, the geosites where this geoheritage is preserved have been comprehensively analysed and characterized for encompassing both public and private interests. 9 strategic geothematic areas have been selected in the Piemonte Region to test this approach, and to improve social engagement aimed at protecting and promoting geodiversity ad geoheritage. The investigated areas represent the multifaceted geodiversity of Piemonte; each area is characterized by high potential for scientific studies, enhancement of public understanding of science, recreation activities and for economic

  1. How to analyse the typological features of stone terrace walls. A methodology applied to the rural landscape of the Tuscan Region (Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnoletti, Mauro; Conti, Leonardo; Frezza, Lorenza; Santoro, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Terraced systems currently represent an indubitable added value for Tuscany, as for other regions. This value goes beyond their original function of hosting new areas for cultivation. Indeed, the hydrological functions performed by such systems within the historic and modern agricultural matrix, including control of erosion, stabilisation of the slopes, prolongation of run-off times and the possible reduction of the volumes of surface runoff, are well-known. In addition they also play a strategic role in the conservation of biodiversity and in maintaining local identity value. These systems are evidence of the laborious knowledge built up by many generations of farmers in making the most of the territorial resources in terms of quality production through agronomic operations for the management of the crops. Within the framework of policies for the conservation and valorisation of the rural landscape, this recognised economic, environmental and historic-cultural value has engendered a growing awareness and sensitivity towards the safeguarding of such structural characteristics. Indeed, at national level the terraced agricultural systems come within the scope of actions scheduled in the National Strategic Plan for Rural Development 2007-2013, and the Cross-Compliance Decree envisages that they be maintained through the granting of economic aid as laid down in the Regional Development Plans, to be pursued through appropriate agronomic and environmental conditions in adherence to the obligatory management criteria for the protection of the soil. 18 sample areas, previously selected on the basis of the terracing intensity index (> 400 m/ha), were subjected to on-site surveys to determine the geo-typological features through the identification and measurement of the main technical-construction parameters of the dry stone walls. In view of the complexity of carrying out a census of the entire regional territory, it was essential to restrict the analysis to a limited

  2. A monitoring of chemical contaminants in waters used for field irrigation and livestock watering in the Veneto region (Italy), using bioassays as a screening tool.

    PubMed

    De Liguoro, Marco; Bona, Mirco Dalla; Gallina, Guglielmo; Capolongo, Francesca; Gallocchio, Federica; Binato, Giovanni; Di Leva, Vincenzo

    2014-03-01

    In this study, 50 livestock watering sources (ground water) and 50 field irrigation sources (surface water) from various industrialised areas of the Veneto region were monitored for chemical contaminants. From each site, four water samples (one in each season) were collected during the period from summer 2009 through to spring 2010. Surface water samples and ground water samples were first screened for toxicity using the growth inhibition test on Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the immobilisation test on Daphnia magna, respectively. Then, based on the results of these toxicity tests, 28 ground water samples and 26 surface water samples were submitted to chemical analysis for various contaminants (insecticides/acaricides, fungicides, herbicides, metals and anions) by means of UPLC-MS(n) HPLC-MS(n), AAS and IEC. With the exception of one surface water sample where the total pesticides concentration was greater than 4 μg L(-1), positive samples (51.9 %) showed only traces (nanograms per liter) of pesticides. Metals were generally under the detection limit. High concentrations of chlorines (up to 692 mg L(-1)) were found in some ground water samples while some surface water samples showed an excess of nitrites (up to 336 mg L(-1)). Detected levels of contamination were generally too low to justify the toxicity recorded in bioassays, especially in the case of surface water samples, and analytical results painted quite a reassuring picture, while tests on P. subcapitata showed a strong growth inhibition activity. It was concluded that, from an ecotoxicological point of view, surface waters used for field irrigation in the Veneto region cannot be considered safe. PMID:24271732

  3. Deep reaching versus vertically restricted Quaternary normal faults: Implications on seismic potential assessment in tectonically active regions: Lessons from the middle Aterno valley fault system, central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcucci, E.; Gori, S.; Moro, M.; Fubelli, G.; Saroli, M.; Chiarabba, C.; Galadini, F.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the Middle Aterno Valley fault system (MAVF), a poorly investigated seismic gap in the central Apennines, adjacent to the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake epicentral area. Geological and paleoseismological analyses revealed that the MAVF evolved through hanging wall splay nucleation, its main segment moving at 0.23-0.34 mm/year since the Middle Pleistocene; the penultimate activation event occurred between 5388-5310 B.C. and 1934-1744 B.C., the last event after 2036-1768 B.C. and just before 1st-2nd century AD. These data define hard linkage (sensu Walsh and Watterson, 1991; Peacock et al., 2000; Walsh et al., 2003, and references therein) with the contiguous Subequana Valley fault segment, able to rupture in large magnitude earthquakes (up to 6.8), that did not rupture since about two millennia. By the joint analysis of geological observations and seismological data acquired during to the 2009 seismic sequence, we derive a picture of the complex structural framework of the area comprised between the MAVF, the Paganica fault (the 2009 earthquake causative fault) and the Gran Sasso Range. This sector is affected by a dense array of few-km long, closely and regularly spaced Quaternary normal fault strands, that are considered as branches of the MAVF northern segment. Our analysis reveals that these structures are downdip confined by a decollement represented by to the presently inactive thrust sheet above the Gran Sasso front limiting their seismogenic potential. Our study highlights the advantage of combining Quaternary geological field analysis with high resolution seismological data to fully unravel the structural setting of regions where subsequent tectonic phases took place and where structural interference plays a key role in influencing the seismotectonic context; this has also inevitably implications for accurately assessing seismic hazard of such structurally complex regions.

  4. Italie: Parier sur la formation a distance (Italy: Betting on Distance Teacher Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begioni, Louis

    1993-01-01

    An Italian program providing professional training at a distance for French second-language teachers in Italy is described briefly. The program used teleconferencing to link regional programs for instructional sessions on specific themes. Because of positive response, the program will be continued. (MSE)

  5. Frequency dependent Qα and Qβ in the Umbria-Marche (Italy) region using a quadratic approximation of the coda-normalization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lorenzo, Salvatore; Bianco, Francesca; Del Pezzo, Edoardo

    2013-06-01

    The coda normalization method is one of the most used methods in the inference of attenuation parameters Qα and Qβ. Since, in this method, the geometrical spreading exponent γ is an unknown model parameter, the most part of studies assumes a fixed γ, generally equal to 1. However γ and Q could be also jointly inferred from the non-linear inversion of coda-normalized logarithms of amplitudes, but the trade-off between γ and Q could give rise to unreasonable values of these parameters. To minimize the trade-off between γ and Q, an inversion method based on a parabolic expression of the coda-normalization equation has been developed. The method has been applied to the waveforms recorded during the 1997 Umbria-Marche seismic crisis. The Akaike criterion has been used to compare results of the parabolic model with those of the linear model, corresponding to γ = 1. A small deviation from the spherical geometrical spreading has been inferred, but this is accompanied by a significant variation of Qα and Qβ values. For almost all the considered stations, Qα smaller than Qβ has been inferred, confirming that seismic attenuation, in the Umbria-Marche region, is controlled by crustal pore fluids.

  6. Concentrations of Contaminants with Regulatory Limits in Samples of Clam (Chamelea gallina) Collected along the Abruzzi Region Coast in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Visciano, Pierina; Scortichini, Giampiero; Suzzi, Giovanna; Diletti, Gianfranco; Schirone, Maria; Martino, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    Concentrations of pollutants with regulatory limits were determined in specimens of Chamelea gallina, a species of clam collected along the Abruzzi coastal region of the central Adriatic Sea. Nine sampling sites were selected to evaluate the distribution of contaminants in the environment and the health risk for consumers. The concentrations of all the examined compounds were lower than the maximums set by European legislation. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and total mercury were below the detection limit (0.18 μg/kg for benzo[a]anthracene, 0.30 μg/kg for chrysene, 0.12 μg/kg for benzo[b]fluoranthene, 0.08 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene, and 0.0050 mg/kg for total mercury) in all the analyzed samples. Mean concentrations of lead and cadmium were 0.104 and 0.110 mg/kg, respectively. Of the non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, PCB-153, PCB-180, and PCB-138 were the most abundant at all sampling sites (1a to 9a) at 0.25 mi (ca. 0.4 km) and at some sampling sites (1b, 2b, 3b, 5b and 7b) at 0.35 mi (ca. 0.56 km). Principal component analysis revealed that the concentrations of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls were similar at the majority of sampling sites, and O8CDD and 2,3,7,8-T4CDF were the predominant dioxin congeners. PMID:26319726

  7. Rites of passage in Italy.

    PubMed

    Field, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Unlike the vast number of public celebrations in Italy that are almost always associated with specific foods, rites of passage in that country are focused on pivotal private moments after the ceremonial crossing of a threshold; and food may or may not be a primary focus of the event. Recognition of birth, marriage, and death—the three major turning points in the intimate life of a family—may still be observed with dishes or ingredients traceable to the Renaissance, but many older traditions have been modified or forgotten entirely in the last thirty years. Financial constraints once preserved many customs, especially in the south, but regional borders have become porous, and new food trends may no longer reflect the authentic tradition. Can new movements, such as Slow Food, promote ancient values as the form and food of traditional events continue to change? PMID:21495289

  8. Active faulting Vs other surface displacing complex geomorphic phenomena. Case studies from a tectonically active area, Abruzzi Region, central Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Sardo, Lorenzo; Gori, Stefano; Falcucci, Emanuela; Saroli, Michele; Moro, Marco; Galadini, Fabrizio; Lancia, Michele; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Pezzo, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    How can be univocally inferred the genesis of a linear surface scarp as the result of an active and capable fault (FAC) in tectonically active regions? Or, conversely, how it is possible to exclude that a scarp is the result of a capable fault activation? Trying to unravel this open questions, we show two ambiguous case studies about the problem of the identification of active and capable faults in a tectonically active area just based on the presence of supposed fault scarps at surface. The selected cases are located in the area comprised between the Middle Aterno Valley Fault (MAVF) and the Campo Imperatore Plain (Abruzzi Region, central Apennines), nearby the epicentral area of the April 6th, 2009 L'Aquila earthquake. In particular, the two case studies analysed are located in a region characterized by a widespread Quaternary faults and by several linear scarps: the case studies of (i) Prata D'Ansidonia area and (ii) Santo Stefano di Sessanio area. To assess the origin and the state of activity of the investigated geomorphic features, we applied a classical geological and geomorphological approach, based on the analysis of the available literature, the interpretation of the aerial photographs, field surveying and classical paleoseismological approach, the latter consisting in digging excavations across the analysed scarps. These analysis were then integrated by morphometrical analyses. As for case (i), we focused on determining the geomorphic "meaning" of linear scarps carved onto fluvial-deltaic conglomerates (dated to the Early Pleistocene; Bertini and Bosi, 1993), up to 3 meters high and up to 1,5 km long, that border a narrow, elongated and flat-bottom depressions, filled by colluvial deposits. These features groove the paleo-landsurface of Valle Daria (Bosi and Bertini, 1970), wide landsurface located between Barisciano and Prata D'Ansidonia. Entwining paleoseismological trenching with geophysical analyses (GPR, ERT and microgravimetrical prospections), it

  9. Helium isotopes and tectonics in southern Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, Yuji; Wakita, Hiroshi ); Nuccio, M.P. ); Italiano, F.

    1989-06-01

    Geodynamic evolution of southern Italy can be understood within the framework of the Mediterranean-Alpine System. Subduction of a plate along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc under the Tyrrhenian Sea has been suggested by many geophysicists, although it is not yet confirmed and remains somewhat controversial. Helium isotope ratios provide useful information on the geotectonic structure of the region. The authors report here the {sup 3}H/{sup 4}He ratios of terrestrial gas samples from southern Italy. The observed {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios are relatively high in the Eolian volcanic arc region and low in the other areas. Dichotomous explanations are presented. Firstly, volcanic arc-forearc hypothesis suggests the subduction along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc. Secondly, horizontal transport hypothesis is described based on the relationship between the ratios and radial distance from the recent spreading basin in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea.

  10. Climate services for the assessment of climate change impacts and risks in coastal areas at the regional scale: the North Adriatic case study (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentina, Gallina; Torresan, Silvia; Giannini, Valentina; Rizzi, Jonathan; Zabeo, Alex; Gualdi, Silvio; Bellucci, Alessio; Giorgi, Filippo; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    At the international level, the interest for climate services is rising due to the social and economic benefits that different stakeholders can achieve to manage climate risks and take advantage of the opportunities associated with climate change impacts. However, there is a significant gap of tools aimed at providing information about risks and impacts induced by climate change and allowing non-expert stakeholders to use both climate-model and climate-impact data. Within the CLIM-RUN project (FP7), the case study of the North Adriatic Sea is aimed at analysing the need of climate information and the effectiveness of climate services for the integrated assessment of climate change impacts in coastal zones of the North Adriatic Sea at the regional to local scale. A participative approach was developed and applied to identify relevant stakeholders which have a mandate for coastal zone management and to interact with them in order to elicit their climate information needs. Specifically, the participative approach was carried out by means of two local workshops and trough the administration of a questionnaire related to climate information and services. The results of the process allowed identifying three major themes of interest for local stakeholders (i.e. hydro-climatic regime, coastal and marine environment, agriculture) and their preferences concerning key climate variables (e.g. extreme events, sea-level, wave height), mid-term temporal projections (i.e. for the next 30-40 years) and medium-high spatial resolution (i.e. from 1 to 50 km). Furthermore, the workshops highlighted stakeholder concern about several climate-related impacts (e.g. sea-level rise, storm surge, droughts) and vulnerable receptors (e.g. beaches, wetlands, agricultural areas) to be considered in vulnerability and risk assessment studies for the North Adriatic coastal zones. This information was used by climate and environmental risk experts in order to develop targeted climate information and

  11. Assessing climate change over the Marche Region (central Italy) from 1961 to 2100: projected changes in mean temperature and future heat waves characterization (with a statistical evaluation of RCMs local performance)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangelantoni, Lorenzo; Coluccelli, Alessandro; Russo, Aniello

    2014-05-01

    Marche region (central Italy, facing the Adriatic Sea) climate dynamics are connected to the Mediterranean basin, identified as one of the most sensitive areas to ongoing climate change. Taken into account difficulties to carry out an overarching assessment over the heterogeneous Mediterranean climate-change issues frame, we opted toward a consistent regional bordered study. Projected changes in mean seasonal temperature, with an introductory multi-statistical model performance evaluation and a future heat waves intensity and duration characterization, are here presented. Multi-model projections over Marche Region, on daily mean, minimum and maximum temperature, have been extracted from the outputs of a set of 7 Regional Climate Models (RCMs) over Europe run by several research Institutes participating to the EU ENSEMBLE project. These climate simulations from 1961 to 2100 refer to the boundary conditions of the IPCC A1B emission scenario, and have a horizontal resolution of 25km × 25km. Furthermore, two RCMs outputs from Med-CORDEX project, with a higher horizontal resolution (12km x 12km) and boundary conditions provided by the new Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5, are considered. Observed daily mean, minimum and maximum temperature over Marche region domain have been extracted from E-OBS gridded data set (Version 9.0) referring to the period 1970-2004. This twofold work firstly provides a concise statistical summary of how well employed RCMs reproduce observed (1970-2004) mean temperature over Marche region in term of correlation, root-mean-square difference, and ratio of their variances, graphically displayed on a 2D-Taylor diagram. This multi-statistical model performance evaluation easily allows: - to compare the agreement with observation of the 9 individual RCMs - to compare RCMs with different horizontal resolution (12 km and 25 km) - to evaluate the improvement provided by the RCMs ensemble. Results indicate that the 9 RCMs ensemble

  12. Bioengineering applied to erosion and stability control in the North Apennines (Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy): a check about critical aspects of the works.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selli, Lavinia; Cavazza, Claudio; Pavanelli, Donatella

    2013-04-01

    Because of its geological structure, in the Emilia-Romagna Region over 32,000 landslides have been identified. Several works have been made in order to control mass movement's dynamics and to secure of Reno and Lamone Mountain Basin Rivers, the road network and near by villages and towns. Most of the control works dealt with bioengineering practices: palisades piles, geotextiles, seedings, surface flow control works, dikes within main drainage ditches. In order to check about critical aspects related to the use of these techniques in the Apennines, a survey in this basins was designed with specific interest in the several kinds of works realised, in which plant species were mostly used and in the factors that affected the success or failure of the works. Territory encompasses steep slopes covered with woods to low reliefs covered with grasslands. It is characterized by prevailing clays, inducing instability, and arenaceous lithology with impermeable soils; drainage density is quite high and hillsides suffer extensive and severe erosion and slope stability problems. Chestnut woods mainly represent land use at higher altitudes, while coppice, pastures and crops are present on milder hillsides. The remaining part of the basin is covered by vineyards, orchards, ponds and urban areas, which are basically located in the valley floor. Precipitation events mainly consist of rainfall ranging between 950-1015 mm per year; few snowfalls occur during winter and a long dry season lasts from June until September. We have analyzed 187 works designed mainly for the consolidation of slope instabilities through a widespread enhancement of the vegetation cover. The surveyed works are classified as a function of their building features: it can be seen that cribwalls and palisades are by far the most common types, being the 24% and the 34% respectively of the works. As far as the most adopted plant species, they were silver willow (Salix alba), Spanish Broom (Spartium Junceum) and

  13. Determinants of out-of-hours service users' potentially inappropriate referral or non-referral to an emergency department: a retrospective cohort study in a local health authority, Veneto Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Toffanin, Roberto; Rigon, S; Sandonà, P; Carrara, T; Damiani, G; Baldo, V

    2016-01-01

    Background A growing presence of inappropriate patients has been recognised as one of the main factors influencing emergency department (ED) overcrowding, which is a very widespread problem all over the world. On the other hand, out-of-hours (OOH) physicians must avoid delaying the diagnostic and therapeutic course of patients with urgent medical conditions. The aim of this study was to analyse the appropriateness of patient management by OOH services, in terms of their potentially inappropriate referral or non-referral of non-emergency cases to the ED. Methods This was an observational retrospective cohort study based on data collected in 2011 by the local health authority No. 4 in the Veneto Region (Italy). After distinguishing between patients contacting the OOH service who were or were not referred to the ED, and checking for patients actually presenting to the ED within 24 hours thereafter, these patients’ medical management was judged as potentially appropriate or inappropriate. Results The analysis considered 22 662 OOH service contacts recorded in 2011. The cases of potentially inappropriate non-referral to the ED were 392 (1.7% of all contacts), as opposed to 1207 potentially inappropriate referrals (5.3% of all contacts). Age, nationality, type of disease and type of intervention by the OOH service were the main variables associated with the appropriateness of patient management. Conclusions These findings may be useful for pinpointing the factors associated with a potentially inappropriate patient management by OOH services and thus contribute to improving the deployment of healthcare and the quality of care delivered by OOH services. PMID:27503862

  14. Mapping Soil Water-Holding Capacity Index to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Phytoremediation Protocols and ExposureRisk to Contaminated Soils in a National Interest Priority Site of the Campania Region (Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, N.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture is an important state variable that influences water flow and solute transport in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system, and plays a key role in securing agricultural ecosystem services for nutrition and food security. Especially when environmental studies should be carried out at relatively large spatial scales, there is a need to synthesize the complex interactions between soil, plant behavior, and local atmospheric conditions. Although it relies on the somewhat loosely defined concepts of "field capacity" and "wilting point", the soil water-holding capacity seems a suitable indicator to meet the above-mentioned requirement, yet easily understandable by the public and stakeholders. This parameter is employed in this work to evaluate the effectiveness of phytoremediation protocols funded by the EU-Life project EcoRemed and being implemented to remediate and restore contaminated agricultural soils of the National Interest Priority Site Litorale Domizio-Agro Aversano. The study area is located in the Campania Region (Southern Italy) and has an extent of about 200,000 hectares. A high-level spotted soil contamination is mostly due to the legal or outlaw industrial and municipal wastes, with hazardous consequences also on groundwater quality. With the availability of soil and land systems maps for this study area, disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected at two different soil depths to determine basic soil physico-chemical properties for the subsequent application of pedotransfer functions (PTFs). Soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions were determined for a number of soil cores, in the laboratory with the evaporation experiments, and used to calibrate the PTFs. Efficient mapping of the soil hydraulic properties benefitted greatly from the use of the PTFs and the physically-based scaling procedure developed by Nasta et al. (2013, WRR, 49:4219-4229).

  15. Unraveling Landscape Complexity: Land Use/Land Cover Changes and Landscape Pattern Dynamics (1954-2008) in Contrasting Peri-Urban and Agro-Forest Regions of Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiraglia, D.; Ceccarelli, T.; Bajocco, S.; Perini, L.; Salvati, L.

    2015-10-01

    This study implements an exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics and a change detection analysis of land use and population density to assess landscape dynamics (1954-2008) in two physiographic zones (plain and hilly-mountain area) of Emilia Romagna, northern Italy. The two areas are characterized by different landscape types: a mixed urban-rural landscape dominated by arable land and peri-urban settlements in the plain and a traditional agro-forest landscape in the hilly-mountain area with deciduous and conifer forests, scrublands, meadows, and crop mosaic. Urbanization and, to a lesser extent, agricultural intensification were identified as the processes underlying landscape change in the plain. Land abandonment determining natural forestation and re-forestation driven by man was identified as the process of change most representative of the hilly-mountain area. Trends in landscape metrics indicate a shift toward more fragmented and convoluted patterns in both areas. Number of patches, the interspersion and juxtaposition index, and the large patch index are the metrics discriminating the two areas in terms of landscape patterns in 1954. In 2008, mean patch size, edge density, interspersion and juxtaposition index, and mean Euclidean nearest neighbor distance were the metrics with the most different spatial patterns in the two areas. The exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics contributed to link changes over time in both landscape composition and configuration providing a comprehensive picture of landscape transformations in a wealthy European region. Evidence from this study are hoped to inform sustainable land management designed for homogeneous landscape units in similar socioeconomic contexts.

  16. Conscientious objection in Italy.

    PubMed

    Minerva, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The law regulating abortion in Italy gives healthcare practitioners the option to make a conscientious objection to activities that are specific and necessary to an abortive intervention. Conscientious objectors among Italian gynaecologists amount to about 70%. This means that only a few doctors are available to perform abortions, and therefore access to abortion is subject to constraints. In 2012 the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF EN) lodged a complaint against Italy to the European Committee of Social Rights, claiming that the inadequate protection of the right to access abortion implies a violation of the right to health. In this paper I will discuss the Italian situation with respect to conscientious objection to abortion and I will suggest possible solutions to the problem. PMID:24861043

  17. Mount Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. Vesuvius, Italy was acquired September 26, 2000. The full-size false-color image covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. (Popocatepetl and Mount Fuji are other volcanos surrounded by dense urban areas.) In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  18. Mt. Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER image of Mt. Vesuvius Italy was acquired September 26, 2000, and covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. The image is centered at 40.8 degrees north latitude, 14.4 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  19. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress. PMID:26401793

  20. Recueil des legislations linguistiques dans le monde. Tome IV: La principaute d'Andorre, l'Espagne et l'Italie (Record of World Language-Related Legislation. Volume IV: The Principality of Andorra, Spain, and Italy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leclerc, Jacques, Ed.

    The volume is one of a series of six listing language-related legislation around the world. It contains the texts, in French, of laws of Andorra, Spain's central government, Spanish regions (Balearic Islands, Basque Provinces, Catalonia, and Valencia). Italy, and Italy's regions. The laws concern official languages, regional languages, language…

  1. Continuing Training in Firms and Trainer Development in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villa, Paola; Marchetti, Aldo

    In Italy, all responsibility for vocational training has been delegated to the regions. At the regional level, three types of training are available: training for work, on-the-job training, and training under special state legislation. No obligation is placed on employers to train the work force. Most worker training is informal and conducted…

  2. In Italy, North-South Differences in IQ Predict Differences in Income, Education, Infant Mortality, Stature, and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Regional differences in IQ are presented for 12 regions of Italy showing that IQs are highest in the north and lowest in the south. Regional IQs obtained in 2006 are highly correlated with average incomes at r = 0.937, and with stature, infant mortality, literacy and education. The lower IQ in southern Italy may be attributable to genetic…

  3. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    PubMed

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  4. The Bologna Process in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballarino, Gabriele; Perotti, Loris

    2012-01-01

    Italy was among the promoters of the Bologna Process and the early adopters of the reform. If one looks at its impact on the formal structure of curricula and study programmes, the reform undertaken under the Bologna banner seems to have been one of the major educational reforms ever achieved in Italy. This article describes how the Bologna…

  5. The Language Situation in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosi, Arturo

    2004-01-01

    This monograph provides an overview of the language situation in Italy, within the framework of language policy and language planning. It presents an account of multilingualism, linguistic diversity, social variation, educational issues and phenomena of language contact both within and outside Italy. The four main threads are (1) the current…

  6. Assessment of Karst Spring Features in a typical Mediterranean fluvial landscape with an Interdisciplinary Investigation nased on Radon-222 as an Environmental Indicator. The case study of the Bussento River basin (Campania region, Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuomo, A.; Guadagnuolo, D.; Guida, D.; Guida, M.; Knoeller, K.; Schubert, M.; Siervo, V.

    2012-04-01

    Karst aquifers provide 25% of the overall drinking water resources to the world's population and sustain aquatic life in most fluvial systems, providing several ecological services to human beings, although, because of their complex links between surface and groundwater, turn out to be very vulnerable to contamination and pollution. Hydrological assessment of karst systems reveals to be extremely complex and difficult and requires a stepwise multi-tracers approach. This work describes some of the most relevant findings obtained from the implementation of an interdisciplinary approach based on the use of Environmental Tracers, consisting of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides like Radon-222 (referred to as Radon), for the investigation of Groundwater/Surface water Interaction (GSI) processes in fluvial water bodies. In particular, Radon activity concentration measurement data having been collected from streamflow and instream springs during monthly field campaigns performed in a typical Mediterranean karst river basin: the Bussento river system (Campania region, Southern Italy). The general task has been to investigate the complex interactions and exchanges between streamflow and groundwater in a fluvial water body, at scales that are imperceptible to standard hydrological and hydraulic analyses. The Bussento River basin has been chosen as a study case for the following features of extreme relevance: Its location inside the Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park, its inclusion of a WWF Nature Reserve, it represents a remarkable Drinking Water resource for the territory and last but not least its system includes Submarine Groundwater Discharges (SGD) to the Policastro Gulf. All these issues causes, therefore, that the management of its relevant water resources requires not only groundwater protection for domestic drinking use, but also riverine wildlife preservation and coastal water quality maintenance. As a support for hydro-geomorphological and hydrological

  7. Using Radon-222 as a Naturally Occurring Tracer to investigate the streamflow-groundwater interactions in a typical Mediterranean fluvial-karst landscape: the interdisciplinary case study of the Bussento river (Campania region, Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuomo, Albina; Guida, Michele; Guida, Domenico; Villani, Paolo; Guadagnuolo, Davide; Longobardi, Antonia; Siervo, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Karst aquifers provide 25% of the overall drinking water resources to the world's population and sustain aquatic life in most fluvial systems, providing several ecological services to human beings, although, because of their complex links between surface and groundwater, turn out to be very vulnerable to contamination and pollution. This paper describes the preliminary findings from Radon-222 activity concentration measurement data collected in streamflow and instream springs during monthly field campaigns, performed from September 2007 to December 2008, in a typical Mediterranean karst river: the Bussento river (Campania region, Southern Italy). The general aim is to investigate the complex interactions and exchanges between streamflow and groundwater, at scales that are imperceptible to standard hydrological and hydraulic analyses. In fact, the study area is located inside the Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park and, therefore, the management of its relevant water resources requires not only groundwater protection for domestic drinking use, but also riverine wildlife preservation and coastal water quality maintenance. As a support for hydro-geomorphological and hydrological modelling for planning tasks, in application of the European Water Framework Directive (EWFD), a Bussento River Monitoring System (BRMS) has been built, at basin, segment and reach scale. Experimental data about 222Rn concentrations, in addition to physical-chemical and streamflow rate, have been acquired and managed from BRMS selected stations, sampling the streamflow and inflow spring waters by means of the Radon-in-Air analyzer, RAD7, together with the Radon-in-water accessories, Radon Water Probe and RAD7H2O (DURRIDGE Co. Inc.), for continuous and batch sampling measurements, respectively. During preliminary surveys, appropriate sampling procedures and measurement protocols have been tested, taking into account the different local hydrogeological and hydrological situations occurring

  8. Fukushima fallout at Milano, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ioannidou, Alexandra; Manenti, Simone; Gini, Luigi; Groppi, Flavia

    2012-12-01

    The radionuclides (131)I, (137)Cs and (134)Cs were observed in the Milano region (45°) of Italy early after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan. Increased atmospheric radioactivity was observed on an air filter taken on 30 March 2011, while the maximum activity of 467 μBq m(-3) for (131)I was recorded at April 3-4, 2011. The first evidence of Fukushima fallout was confirmed with (131)I and (137)Cs measured in precipitation at two sampling sites at Milano on 28 March, 2011, with the concentrations of (131)I and (137)Cs in the rainwater equal to 0.89 Bq L(-1) and 0.12 Bq L(-1), respectively. A sample of dry deposition that was collected 9 days after the first rainfall event of 27-28 March, 2011 showed that the dry deposition was more effective in the case of (137)Cs than it was for (131)I, probably because iodine was mainly in gaseous form whereas caesium was rapidly bound to aerosols and thus highly subject to dry deposition. The relatively high observed values of (137)Cs in grass, soil and fresh goat and cow milk samples were probably from Chernobyl fallout and global fallout from past nuclear tests rather than from the Fukushima accident. Finally, a dose assessment for the region of investigation showed clearly that the detected activities in all environmental samples were very far below levels of concern. PMID:22300481

  9. [Occupational epidemiology in Italy].

    PubMed

    Assennato, G; Bisceglia, L

    2003-01-01

    The development of Occupational Epidemiology in Italy is closely correlated with the political and social awareness of the needs of preventive strategies in the workplace. In the late '60s the Trade Unions supported a model of intervention based on the involvement of the so-called "Homogeneous group of workers" in the validation of the preventive measures taken on the workplace. In spite of the shortcomings of the model, it was extremely effective resulting in enhanced perception of the priority of preventive strategies and in the formation within the National Health Service of the Occupational Health Services. In Italy over the period 1973-2002 there has been an impressive trend of research in field of occupational epidemiology (a search on Medline shows an increasing trend over the years and, in terms of international comparison, higher figures than in Germany, France and Spain). Occupational Epidemiology is now present in the activities of the local Occupational Health Services and in the teaching activities of the Medical Schools throughout the country. PMID:14582235

  10. Myth and Reality: A Response to Lynn on the Determinants of Italy's North-South Imbalances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felice, Emanuele; Giugliano, Ferdinando

    2011-01-01

    In his article "In Italy, North-South differences in IQ predict differences in income, education, infant mortality, stature, and literacy," Richard Lynn claims to have found the reason causing the divergence between the Northern and the Southern regions of Italy. This article identifies the four main hypotheses formulated in his paper and presents…

  11. Reform and Reaction: Creating New Education and Training Structures in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polesel, John

    2006-01-01

    Despite concerns regarding Italy's high levels of early school-leaving, regional differences in educational outcomes and persistent inequalities, efforts to reform the country's complex system of senior secondary schooling have been repeatedly frustrated. Regarded by the left as contributing to the reproduction of social inequalities, Italy's…

  12. [Consistency and dynamics of immigration in Italy].

    PubMed

    Blangiardo, G C; Terzera, L

    2011-01-01

    According to recent data, foreign population currently in Italy is estimated to be 5,3 million, 550,000 irregular. Migration from Eastern Europe has progressively assumed leading position in the Italian panorama, downsizing other origins: betweenn 2005 and 2010, this component passed from 46% to 50,8% of the total immigrants, whereas all the other macro-areas have lost relative importance. Perspectives of slowing down of migration toward Italy could be real only when significant changes would happen in the areas at the origin of migration flow. In fact, if it is true that the demographic surplus from East Europe is bound to decrease through the process of local turnover of work supply, other great regions will show enormous excess of manpower. In North Africa, 3 million new workplaces will yearly be needed just to absorb excess of young workforce; in Latin America, the new workplaces to create will be almost twice as many. The sub Saharan Africa will however be under special observation, with 15-20 million places to create annually to absorb excess of offer. Italy could play as one of the safety valves of emigration. PMID:22187914

  13. Biodiversity of entomopathogenic nematodes in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tarasco, E; Clausi, M; Rappazzo, G; Panzavolta, T; Curto, G; Sorino, R; Oreste, M; Longo, A; Leone, D; Tiberi, R; Vinciguerra, M T; Triggiani, O

    2015-05-01

    An investigation was carried out on the distribution and biodiversity of steinernematid and heterorhabdtid entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) in nine regions of Italy in the period 1990-2010. More than 2000 samples were collected from 580 localities and 133 of them yielded EPN specimens. A mapping of EPN distribution in Italy showed 133 indigenous EPN strains belonging to 12 species: 43 isolates of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, 1 of H. downesi, 1 of H. megidis, 51 of Steinernema feltiae, 12 of S. affine, 4 of S. kraussei, 8 of S. apuliae, 5 of S. ichnusae, 3 of S. carpocapsae, 1 of S. vulcanicum, 3 of Steinernema 'isolate S.sp.MY7' of 'S. intermedium group' and 1 of S. arenarium. Steinernematids are more widespread than heterorhabditids and S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora are the most commonly encountered species. Sampling sites were grouped into 11 habitats: uncultivated land, orchard, field, sea coast, pinewood, broadleaf wood, grasslands, river and lake borders, caves, salt pan and moist zones; the soil texture of each site was defined and the preferences of habitat and soil texture of each species was assessed. Except for the two dominant species, S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora, EPN occurrence tends to be correlated with a specific vegetation habitat. Steinernema kraussei, H. downesi and H. megidis were collected only in Sicily and three of the species recently described - S. apuliae, S. ichnusae and S. vulcanicum - are known only from Italy and seem to be endemic. PMID:24721783

  14. Gestalt psychology in Italy.

    PubMed

    Verstegen, I

    2000-01-01

    Graz gestalt psychology was introduced into Italy after World War I with Vittorio Benussi's emigration to Padua. His earliest adherent, Cesare Musatti, defended Graz theory, but after Benussi's premature death became an adherent of the Berlin gestalt psychology of Wertheimer-Köhler-Koffka. He trained his two most important students, Fabio Metelli and Gaetano Kanizsa, in orthodox Berlin theory. They established rigid "schools" in Padua and Trieste. The structure of Italian academics allowed for such strict orthodoxy, quite unlike the situation in America, where scientific objectivity mitigated against schools. In the 1960s, some of the students of Metelli and Kanizsa (above all Bozzi) initiated a realist movement-felt in Kanizsa's late work-that was quite independent of that of J. J. Gibson. Finally, more recently, Benussi and Graz theorizing have been embraced again, sentimentally, as a predecedent to Kanizsa-Bozzi. PMID:10653614

  15. ShakeMap® implementation in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, A.; Quintiliani, M.; Lauciani, V.; Olivieri, M.; Malagnini, L.; Akinci, A.; Moro, M.; Milana, G.; Faenza, L.

    2007-12-01

    Italy is a seismically active country which has been site of several large and extremely damaging earthquakes causing hundreds to tens of thousands of casualties since historical times. In recent years, the "Dipartimento per la Protezione Civile" (DPC; Italian Civil Protection - an office dependent directly from the prime minister) has supported the project S4 driven specifically toward fast assessment of ground motion shaking in Italy in order to organize the emergency and direct the rescue teams. The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) has implemented the software package USGS-ShakeMap® to obtain maps of the peak ground motion parameters (PGM), and of the instrumentally derived intensities. The calculation of shakemaps at INGV relies mainly on broadband and strong motion data acquired by the Italian seismic network. Shakemap PGM data feeding relies on two concurrent seismic acquisition systems and maps are be determined as quickly as 5 minutes from origin time automatically or within 30 minutes using manually revised locations for earthquakes occurring on the national territory. In Italy, attenuation has been found to vary between different regions. For the smaller events (up to M 5.5) we have implemented a six-areas regionalized model (three separate sets of equations) following the relations of Malagnini and co-workers (Malagnini, et al., 2000; Malagnini, et al., 2002; Morasca, et al., 2006), the same used by the National Seismic Hazard Working Group (2004) for the compilation of the national hazard map; for larger earthquakes, the strong-motion-based equations by Ambraseys et al. (1996) are used. For the site corrections, we have implemented a classification based on the 1:100,000 geology map of Italy compiled and published by the "Servizio Geologico Nazionale". In this case, the geologic units have been gathered into five different classes A, B, C, D and E according to the EuroCode8 provisions, EC8, after Draft 6 of January 2003 on the base

  16. The role of historical agricultural terraces in geo-hydrological risk reduction: a case study from the Bisagno Stream Catchment (Genoa, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccini, Francesco; Giostrella, Paola; Paliaga, Guido; Piana, Pietro; Sacchini, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Terraces, traditionally sustained by dry stonewalls, occupy about thirty percent of the territory of Liguria. If constantly maintained, they effectively contribute to slow down the natural slope erosion. When no longer managed, terraces are recognized as one of the reasons for increased geomorphological risk along the slopes and, consequently, at the bottom of the valley. This study concerns the terraced landscapes of the Bisagno Stream catchment, internationally known for the recent and recurring floods which affected the city of Genoa. The Bisagno Stream catchment is an example of historical evolution of the territory both in terms of land use change and geo-hydrological risk. The catchment, whose highest point is Mount Candelozzo (1034 m), has a total area of 95 km2. In its terminal stretch the stream flows across the eastern part of Genoa city centre. It is a typical valley of the Genoa metropolitan area, with steep slopes and short times of concentration. Here the signs of the tragic floods which have affected the area since 1970 are still visible. The most recent and tragic geo-hydrological event in Liguria took place in the Bisagno Valley in October 2014. The study was carried out with a multi-temporal comparison of the terraced areas using aerial photographs and regional cartographic information. A further step will involve the analysis and classification of the terraces based on their maintenance condition and hydrogeological effectiveness, using some representative areas of the valley as cases study. The comparison between the distribution of terraces in the Bisagno valley and applied geomorphological cartography suggests the need of measures to reduce the risk according to a suitable set of priorities, including the recovery of the terraced areas and connected structures aimed to limit the accumulation of solid material along the main waterway.

  17. Influenza vaccination among the elderly in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Pregliasco, F.; Sodano, L.; Mensi, C.; Selvaggi, M. T.; Adamo, B.; D'Argenio, P.; Giussani, F.; Simonetti, A.; Carosella, M. R.; Simeone, R.; Dentizi, C.; Montanaro, C.; Ponzio, G.

    1999-01-01

    This article surveys the attitudes and perceptions of a random sample of the elderly population in three regions of Italy on the use and efficacy of influenza vaccine. The data were collected by direct interviews using a standard questionnaire. The results show that vaccination coverage against influenza is inadequate (26-48.6%). The major reasons for nonvaccination were lack of faith in the vaccine and disbelief that influenza is a dangerous illness. These data emphasize the need for a systematic education programme targeted at the elderly and the provision of influenza vaccination, with the increased cooperation of general practitioners. PMID:10083710

  18. On mechanisms triggering the levees failure along the Foenna stream on 1st January 2006 and which caused the flooding in the urban area of Sinalunga, Tuscany Region (Italy). A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camici, Stefania; Moramarco, Tommaso; Brocca, Luca; Melone, Florisa; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Perrone, Angela; Loperte, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    On 1st January 2006, during an ordinary flood event, a levee failure along the Foenna stream caused the flooding in the urban area of Sinalunga, a small town located in Tuscany region (Italy). The event was monitored by a public agency with the responsibility for the control and maintenance of the natural channel networks. Long time before of flooding, people living in the surrounding area of the stream blamed the presence of wild animals and of numerous burrows along the levees. Although the numerous actions of maintenance along the levees mainly for removing the burrows, a levee seepage occurred during that flood. The presence of an outflow located on the downstream face, almost 2 m below the levee top, caused the spurt of brown water denoting the presence of sediment erosion. On the upstream face of levee, a little hole of about 30 cm at the same height of the outflow was discovered. Although the agency workers tried to close the hole by using appropriate blankets, in short time the top of the levee subsided and the overtopping flow caused a trapezoidal breach typical for an earth-fill embankment. The formation of breach was so fast that in a little more of one hour the urban area near to the Foenna stream was flooded causing high economic damages. Mechanisms triggered the levees failure are the object of this work. The analysis of the event has been first addressed to assess the state of-fact of levees conditions along the Foenna stream, thus to understand how much the activity of wild animals, in particular that of porcupine, may have affected the hydraulic safety of the embankment. At the purpose, after the event, topographical surveys of cross sections have been done along with tomographic surveys by geoelectric technique for investigating the possible presence, besides of burrows, also of tunnels dug into the levees by animals. Then, the analysis of hydrometeorological conditions of the event has allowed to better understand the evolution of the flood and

  19. Italy INAF Data Center Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Italian INAF VLBI Data Center. Our Data Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics.

  20. The (Adverse) Effects of Expanding Higher Education: Evidence from Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppedisano, Veruska

    2011-01-01

    Over the period 1995-1998 Italy experienced an expansion of its higher education supply with the aim of reducing regional differences in educational attainment. This paper evaluates the effects of this policy on enrolment, drop out and academic performance. The paper combines differences across provinces in the number of campuses constructed with…

  1. Prevalence of prelingual deafness in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bubbico, L; Rosano, A; Spagnolo, A

    2007-02-01

    Neonatal hearing loss is the most frequent sensorial congenital defect in newborns. No data are available on worldwide prevalence of congenital deafness. World Health Organization (WHO) data indicate 1-4 cases per 1000 individuals, with a considerable increase in developing countries. A prevalence exceeding 1 per 1000 however, indicates a serious public health problem calling for urgent attention. Aim of the study was the evaluate the prevalence of prelingual deafness in the Italian population and determine the socio-demographic characteristics of the condition. Data were provided by the National Institute of Social Insurance (INPS) and the Italian Central Statistics Institute (ISTAT) and were collected in 18 out of the 20 Italian regions (98.2% of total population). All subjects recognized as deaf-mute by a special medical committee were included. According to law No. 509/1988, they had to present a mean bilateral sensorineural-hearing impairment, detected in neonatal age, which caused the damage in speech development and equal to 60 dB or more for 500-, 1000- and 2000-Hz frequency tones in the better ear. Prevalence rates were calculated according to region and age bracket using updated population data from census 2001. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical software package. A total of 40,887 cases of prelingual profound sensorineural hearing loss > or =60 dB were detected in Italy in 2003, for a total prevalence rate of 0.72 per 1000. The hearing impairment prevalence differs according to sex. The overall prevalence is 0.78 per 1000 for males and 0.69 per 1000 for females (p < 0.001). The hearing impairment prevalence differs according to region of residence (p < 0.001). The geographic distribution of prelingual deafness was found to be: North 15,644 cases (0.63 per 1000), Central Italy 7111 cases (0.64 per 1000), South and Islands 18,132 (0.87 per 1000). The prelingual hearing loss is highly prevalent in South Italy (Basilicata

  2. Prevalence of prelingual deafness in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bubbico, L; Rosano, A; Spagnolo, A

    2007-01-01

    Summary Neonatal hearing loss is the most frequent sensorial congenital defect in newborns. No data are available on worldwide prevalence of congenital deafness. World Health Organization (WHO) data indicate 1-4 cases per 1,000 individuals, with a considerable increase in developing countries. A prevalence exceeding 1 per 1,000 however, indicates a serious public health problem calling for urgent attention. Aim of the study was the evaluate the prevalence of prelingual deafness in the Italian population and determine the socio-demographic characteristics of the condition. Data were provided by the National Institute of Social Insurance (INPS) and the Italian Central Statistics Institute (ISTAT) and were collected in 18 out of the 20 Italian regions (98.2% of total population). All subjects recognized as deaf-mute by a special medical committee were included. According to law No. 509/1988, they had to present a mean bilateral sensorineural-hearing impairment, detected in neonatal age, which caused the damage in speech development and equal to 60 dB or more for 500-, 1,000- and 2,000-Hz frequency tones in the better ear. Prevalence rates were calculated according to region and age bracket using updated population data from census 2001. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical software package. A total of 40,887 cases of prelingual profound sensorineural hearing loss ≥ 60 dB were detected in Italy in 2003, for a total prevalence rate of 0.72 per 1,000. The hearing impairment prevalence differs according to sex. The overall prevalence is 0.78 per 1,000 for males and 0.69 per 1,000 for females (p < 0.001). The hearing impairment prevalence differs according to region of residence (p < 0.001). The geographic distribution of prelingual deafness was found to be: North 15,644 cases (0.63 per 1,000), Central Italy 7,111 cases (0.64 per 1,000), South and Islands 18,132 (0.87 per 1,000). The prelingual hearing loss is highly prevalent in South Italy

  3. Lake Garda, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This ASTER image was acquired on July 29, 2000 and covers an area of 30 by 57 km in northern Italy. Lake Garda was formed by glaciers during the last Ice Age, and is Italy's largest lake. Lago di Garda lies in the provinces of Verona, Brescia, and Trento, and is 51 kilometers (32 miles) long and from 3 to 18 kilometers (2 to 11 miles) wide. The Sarca is its chief affluent, and the lake is drained southward by the Mincio, which discharges into the Po River. Many villas are situated on its shores. On the peninsula of Sirmione, at the southern end of the lake, are the ruins of a Roman villa and a castle of the Scaligers, an Italian family of the 16th century. The RIGHT image has the land area masked out, and a harsh stretch was applied to the lake values to display variations in sediment load. Also visible are hundreds of boats and their wakes, criss-crossing the lake.

    The image is centered at 45.6 degrees north latitude, 10.6 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for

  4. Radioactivity in honey of the central Italy.

    PubMed

    Meli, Maria Assunta; Desideri, Donatella; Roselli, Carla; Feduzi, Laura; Benedetti, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    Natural radionuclides and (137)Cs in twenty seven honeys produced in a region of the Central Italy were determined by alpha ((235)U, (238)U, (210)Po, (232)Th and (228)Th) and gamma spectrometry ((137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra and (228)Ra). The study was carried out in order to estimate the background levels of natural ((40)K, (238)U and (232)Th and their progeny) and artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs) in various honey samples, as well as to compile a data base for radioactivity levels in that region. (40)K showed a mean activity of 28.1±23.0Bqkg(-1) with a range of 7.28-101Bqkg(-1). The mean of (210)Po activity resulted 0.40±0.46Bqkg(-1) with a range of 0.03-1.98Bqkg(-1). The mean of (238)U activity resulted 0.020±0.010Bqkg(-1). (226)Ra and (228)Ra resulted always <0.34 and <0.57Bqkg(-1) respectively, (235)U, (228)Th and (232)Th were always <0.007Bqkg(-1). (137)Cs resulted <0.10Bqkg(-1) in all samples. The committed effective doses due to (210)Po from ingestion of honey for infants, children and adults account for 0.002-5.13% of the natural radiation exposure in Italy. The honeys produced in Central Italy were of good quality in relation to the studied parameters, confirming the general image of a genuine and healthy food associated to this traditional products. PMID:26920304

  5. [Aedes albopictus in Italy: an underestimated health problem].

    PubMed

    Romi, R

    2001-01-01

    Since 1990, Ae. albopictus has spread in 9 regions and 30 provinces of the country. This species was introduced in Italy in shipments of scrap tires form the USA. In Italy, Ae. albopictus is the major biting pest throughout much of its range and, although there is no evidence that this mosquito is the vector of human disease in the country, the species might be involved in the transmission of some arboviruses which have been reported in the Mediterranean Basin. Aim of this paper is to provide an update on the distribution of Ae. albopictus in Italy and to renew the interest in a problem frequently underestimated. Public health implications after a ten-year presence of the species are also discussed. PMID:11758282

  6. Gypsum karst in Italy: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Waele, Jo; Chiarini, Veronica; Columbu, Andrea; D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Piccini, Leonardo; Vattano, Marco; Vigna, Bartolomeo; Zini, Luca; Forti, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Although outcropping only rarely in Italy, gypsum karst has been described in detail since the early XXth century (Marinelli, 1917). Gypsum caves are now known from almost all Italian regions (Madonia & Forti, 2003), but are mainly localised along the northern border of the Apennine chain (Emilia Romagna and Marche regions), Calabria, and Sicily, where the major outcrops occur. Recently, important caves have also been discovered in the underground gypsum quarries in Piedmont (Vigna et al., 2010). During the late 80s and 90s several multidisciplinary studies have been carried out in many gypsum areas. All this work converged into a comprehensive overview in 2003 (Madonia & Forti, 2003). Further detailed studies focused on the gypsum areas of Emilia Romagna (Chiesi et al., 2010; Forti & Lucci, 2010; Demaria et al., 2012; De Waele & Pasini, 2013; Ercolani et al., 2013; Columbu et al., 2015; Lucci & Piastra, 2015; Tedeschi et al., 2015) and of Sicily (Madonia & Vattano, 2011). Sinkholes related to Permo-Triassic gypsum have been studied in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Zini et al., 2015). This presentation will review the state of the art regarding different aspects of evaporite karst in Italy focusing on the main new results. References Chiesi M., et al. (2010) - Origin and evolution of a salty gypsum/anhydrite karst spring: the case of Poiano (Northern Apennines, Italy). Hydrogeology Journal, 18, pp. 1111-1124. Columbu A. et al. (2015) - Gypsum caves as indicators of climate-driven river incision and aggradation in a rapidly uplifting region. Geology, 43(6), 539-542. Demaria D. et al. (Eds.) (2012), Le Grotte Bolognesi, GSB-USB, 431 p. De Waele J., Pasini G. (2013) - Intra-messinian gypsum palaeokarst in the northern Apennines and its palaeogeographic implications. Terra Nova 25, pp. 199-205. Ercolani M., et al. (Eds.) (2013), I Gessi e la Cave i Monte Tondo. Studio multidisciplinare di un'area carsica nella Vena del Gesso Romagnola. Memorie Ist. It. Spel. II(26), 559 p

  7. Agricultural terraces and slope instability at Cinque Terre (NW Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandolini, Pierluigi; Cevasco, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Cinque Terre, located in the eastern Liguria, are one of the most representative examples of terraced coastal landscape within the Mediterranean region. They are the result of a century-old agricultural practice and constitute an outstanding example of human integration with the natural landscape. For this highly unusual man-made coastal landscape, the Cinque Terre have been recognized as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO since 1997 and became National Park in 1999. The complex network of retaining dry stone walls and drainage networks ensured through times the control of shallow water erosion and therefore, indirectly, favoured debris cover stability. The lack of maintenance of terracing due to farmer abandonment since the 1950s led to widespread slope erosion phenomena. The effects of such phenomena culminated during the 25 October 2011 storm rainfall event, when slope debris materials charged by streams gave rise to debris floods affecting both Monterosso and Vernazza villages. As the analysis of the relationships between geo-hydrological processes and land use in the Vernazza catchment highlighted, abandoned and not well maintained terraces were the most susceptible areas to shallow landsliding and erosion triggered by intense rainfall. As a consequence, the thousands of kilometres of dry stone walls retaining millions of cubic metres of debris cover at Cinque Terre currently constitute a potential menace for both villages, that are mainly located at the floor of deep cut valleys, and tourists. Given the increasing human pressure due to tourist activities, geo-hydrological risk mitigation measures are urgently needed. At the same time, restoration policies are necessary to preserve this extraordinary example of terraced coastal landscape. In this framework, the detailed knowledge of the response of terraced areas to intense rainfall in terms of slope instability is a topic issue in order to identify adequate land planning strategies as well as the areas where

  8. [Planning a Health Residence for Prison Security Measures, Tuscany (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Porfido, Eugenio; Colombai, Renato; Scarpa, Franco; Totaro, Michele; Tani, Luca; Baldini, Claudio; Baggiani, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Health Residences for Prison Security Measures are facilities hosting psychotic persons who have committed crimes and providing them with personalized rehabilitation and treatment plans to promote their reinstatement in society. The aim of this study was to describe the criteria for planning and designing a prison health residence in the Tuscany region (Italy), to be managed by the regional healthcare service, in line with current regulations, with dedicated staff for providing specific treatment plans and programmes. PMID:27510291

  9. Educational Documentation: Present and Future. Proceedings of an International Meeting (Florence, Italy, May 31-June 4, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biblioteca di Documentazione Pedagogica, Florence (Italy).

    The Library of Educational Documentation in Florence, Italy began work in 1980 on the establishment of an educational documentation system for Italy. Recognition of its role in this regard was accorded by the Regional Institutes for Educational Research, Innovation and Teacher Training (IRRSAE) and by the European Centre for Education (CEDE) in…

  10. Italy's Intelligent Educational Training Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    The Intelligent Educational Training Station has been developed in Italy to meet emerging school building needs. The project, for schools from the primary to upper secondary level, proposes flexible architecture for an "intelligent school" network, and was developed by CISEM, the Centre for Educational Innovation and Experimentation of Milan.

  11. Definition of national and local rainfall thresholds for the possible initiation of landslides in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetti, M. T.; Rossi, M.; Peruccacci, S.; Guzzetti, F.; Valigi, D.; Luciani, S.

    2009-09-01

    Landslides in Italy are triggered primarily by intense or prolonged rainfall. A database of 673 rainfall events, that have resulted in landslides in Italy, is available to us and was used to define Intensity-Duration (ID) rainfall thresholds, for the Italian territory and for local regional (administrative) zones. The database contains the cumulative rainfall measurement and the duration of the event before the landslide occurrence. In many cases, the geographical position and the time of the slope failure are available. We have proposed two objective methods to determine rainfall thresholds for landslide occurrence in Italy: one method is based on Bayesian inference, and a second method adopts a "frequentist" approach. Comparison of the equations indicates that the two methods give similar results. To investigate the dependence of rainfall thresholds on the local characteristics of the soil, we calculated rainfall thresholds for the Abruzzo region in Central Italy.

  12. Gridded monthly temperatures over Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioravanti, G.; Toreti, A.; Fraschetti, P.; Perconti, W.; Desiato, F.

    2010-09-01

    Temperature data represent a relevant source of information for environmental modelling, which usually relies on the availability of regularly distributed datasets. The CRU and the E-OBS archives are two examples of large-scale gridded products available for temperature. In order to fill the gap of having such a dataset freely available at national level, a high resolution (1 km) dataset for the whole Italian territory has been realized, made up of gridded monthly mean temperatures over Italy from 1961 to 2008. Available temperature data are provided by several national and regional networks and are consequently rather discontinuous in time and inhomogeneous in space. For this reason, our approach is based on the use of all data available for each month; this choice limits the consistency of gridded temperatures as time series but guarantees the best possible spatial estimate for each time period. The space interpolation was implemented by means of regression-kriging, a well-known geostatistical approach. Regression kriging is a variant of kriging interpolation which allows to exploit the auxiliary information provided by external variables. In this work, altitude and latitude of the input weather stations were found to be strongly correlated with temperature data and used as independent variables in the regression model. Ordinary kriging was then applied to describe the spatial correlation structure of the regression residuals. For each map, the most appropriate variogram function was estimated by means of an objective algorithm. In order to evaluate the quality of each interpolated surface, a cross validation analysis was performed, whose results were evaluated in terms of root mean square error, mean absolute error and mean squared deviation ratio. RMSE ranges between 1.0 and 1.5 °C, and improves, as expected, over the last years when a greater number of stations are available. The RMSE as function of the season was investigated as well. The monthly maps were

  13. Italy: illegal construction hampers basic services.

    PubMed

    1981-12-01

    Rome illustrates the contradictions in the economic development in Italy. The city is located midway between Italy's most developed region and its southern regions, which lag behind the rest of the country in economic development. The population of Rome is now 3 million. It is the largest city and has the largest land area. Rome accounts for only 5.6% of the total urban population of the country due to the distribution of large and medium-sized cities throughout Italy. In 1964, a public housing construction plan was drafted to meet the needs of lower income groups. It provided for the development, over 10 years, of about 740,000 units distributed throughout 64 new working districts. At the end of the 10-year period allotted for the program, only 25% of the projects were completed or underway. This was due to the lack of government funds for public housing and the lack of political commitment to allocate what little monies were available. This meant that large numbers of immigrants had no chance to obtain housing unless they moved into the illegal buildings located outside the construction zones circumscribed by the Urban Plan, or moved into zones intended for agricultural use. The sale prices of these zones were much lower than the price of the construction zones stipulated by law. The most dangerous consequence of illegal construction is the lack of services. Roads are unpaved and constitute a major source of dust pollution. Other areas of concern are the lack of a public sewer system, solid waste disposal, and the location of worksites near residential areas. After 1978, Rome experienced a marked decline in its growth rate, from 3.2% per year between 1951-1961 to 2.7% per year between 1971-1979. This trend is no longer due to immigration. It is a result of the displacement of people from the inner city. At this time an effort is being made to accommodate the rapid growth of the past while working to improve the quality of life for all residents. PMID:12311449

  14. Renaissance Neurosurgery: Italy's Iconic Contributions.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Anil; Khan, Imad Saeed; Apuzzo, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Various changes in the sociopolitical milieu of Italy led to the increasing tolerance of the study of cadavers in the late Middle Ages. The efforts of Mondino de Liuzzi (1276-1326) and Guido da Vigevano (1280-1349) led to an explosion of cadaver-centric studies in centers such as Bologna, Florence, and Padua during the Renaissance period. Legendary scientists from this era, including Leonardo Da Vinci, Andreas Vesalius, Bartolomeo Eustachio, and Costanzo Varolio, furthered the study of neuroanatomy. The various texts produced during this period not only helped increase the understanding of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology but also led to the formalization of medical education. With increased understanding came new techniques to address various neurosurgical problems from skull fractures to severed peripheral nerves. The present study aims to review the major developments in Italy during the vibrant Renaissance period that led to major progress in the field of neurosurgery. PMID:26585723

  15. Cowpox Virus in Llama, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Brozzi, Alberto; Eleni, Claudia; Polici, Nicola; D’Alterio, Gianlorenzo; Carletti, Fabrizio; Scicluna, Maria Teresa; Castilletti, Concetta; Capobianchi, Maria R.; Di Caro, Antonino; Autorino, Gian Luca; Amaddeo, Demetrio

    2011-01-01

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) was isolated from skin lesions of a llama on a farm in Italy. Transmission electron microscopy showed brick-shaped particles consistent with orthopoxviruses. CPXV-antibodies were detected in llama and human serum samples; a CPXV isolate had a hemagglutinin sequence identical to CPXV-MonKre08/1–2-3 strains isolated from banded mongooses in Germany. PMID:21801638

  16. Italy INAF Analysis Center Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activity of the Italian INAF VLBI Analysis Center. Our Analysis Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics. IRA runs the observatories of Medicina and Noto, where two 32-m VLBI AZ-EL telescopes are situated. This report contains the AC's VLBI data analysis activities and shortly outlines the investigations into the co-locations of space geodetic instruments.

  17. Seismic risk perception in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Risk perception is a fundamental element in the definition and the adoption of preventive counter-measures. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. This paper presents results of a survey on seismic risk perception in Italy conducted from January 2013 to present . The research design combines a psychometric and a cultural theoretic approach. More than 7,000 on-line tests have been compiled. The data collected show that in Italy seismic risk perception is strongly underestimated; 86 on 100 Italian citizens, living in the most dangerous zone (namely Zone 1), do not have a correct perception of seismic hazard. From these observations we deem that extremely urgent measures are required in Italy to reach an effective way to communicate seismic risk. Finally, the research presents a comparison between groups on seismic risk perception: a group involved in campaigns of information and education on seismic risk and a control group.

  18. Space Radar Image of Florence, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image shows land use patterns in and around the city of Florence, Italy, shown here in the center of the image. Florence is situated on a plain in the Chianti Hill region of Central Italy. The Arno River flows through town and is visible as the dark line running from the upper right to the bottom center of the image. The city is home to some of the world's most famous art museums. The bridges seen crossing the Arno, shown as faint red lines in the upper right portion of the image, were all sacked during World War II with the exception of the Ponte Vecchio, which remains as Florence's only covered bridge. The large, black V-shaped feature near the center of the image is the Florence Railroad Station. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. This image is centered at 43.7 degrees north latitude and 11.15 degrees east longitude with North toward the upper left of the image. The area shown measures 20 kilometers by 17 kilometers (12.4 miles by 10.6 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received.

  19. Mt. Etna, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On Sunday, November 3, 2002, Mt. Etna's ash-laden plume was imaged by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. The plume is seen blowing toward the south-southeast, over the city and airport of Catania, Sicily. The previous day, the plume was blowing toward the northwest, and posed no hazard to Catania. The current eruption of Mt. Etna, Europe's most active volcano, began on October 27. These sorts of observations from space may help civil defense authorities mitigate hazards from active eruptions. Space data may also help scientists evaluate the behavior and effects volcanic eruptions have on our global climate system.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science

  20. Medicine and hagiography in Italy c. 800-c. 1000.

    PubMed

    Pilsworth, C

    2000-08-01

    A vast range of sources, from chronicles, hagiography and the liturgy to medical manuscripts and charters, is at our disposal for the study of health and healing in Italy between the ninth and eleventh centuries. What is needed in order to exploit this material is a methodology for the careful examination of sources in their regional, social and political context. I focus on what hagiography can contribute to the study of medicine and disease, discussing in detail two ninth-century episcopal hagiographies, the Milanese second Vita Ambrosii, and the Vita Barbati from Benevento in southern Italy. At the same time, however, I stress the limitations of studying texts in isolation, given that one region, city, or community could be simultaneously producing a number of different kinds of evidence, with possibly more than one view of sickness and healing. There is great potential for medical history in further investigation of the archaeological, liturgical, and charter evidence from early medieval Italy. The study of all surviving manuscripts from this period, not just medical words, can provide a bridge between the detailed examination of a particular text and a discussion of the wider literary and cultural traditions into which they fitted. PMID:14535255

  1. Man-induced low-frequency seismic events in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latorre, Diana; Amato, Alessandro; Cattaneo, Marco; Carannante, Simona; Michelini, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    Unconventional seismic events in Italy are detected by scanning three years of continuous waveforms recorded by the Italian National Seismic Network. Cross correlation of signal templates with continuous seismic records has evidenced unusual events with similar low-frequency characteristics in several Italian regions. Spectral analysis and spatiotemporal distribution of these events, some of which are previously interpreted as tectonic long-period transients, suggest that they are not natural, but produced by huge cement factories. Since there are at least 57 full-cycle cement plants operating in Italy, each affecting areas of about 1250 to 2800 km2, we argue that significant portions of the Italian territory (23% to 51%) can be affected by this man-made noise. Seismic noise analyses, such as those used for microzonation or crustal structure investigations, as well as data mining techniques used to retrieve anomalous transient signals, should thus take into account this peculiar and pervasive source of seismic waves.

  2. Italy: An Open Air Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2016-04-01

    Imagine if you could see the River Styx, bathe in the Fountain of Youth, collect water which enhances fertility, wear a gem that heals bodily ailments, understand how our health is affected by geomagnetic fields, venture close to the flames of Hell on Earth and much, much, more. Know something? These things exist - on Earth - today - in Italy and you can visit them because Italy is an open air museum. Ann C. Pizzorusso, in her recent book, reveals how Italy's geology has affected its art, literature, architecture, religion, medicine and just about everything else. She explores the geologic birth of the land, describing the formation of the Alps and Apennines, romantic bays of Tuscany and Lazio, volcanoes of the south and Caribbean-like beaches of Puglia. But that's not all, from the first pages of this visually stunning book, the reader has the impression of being in an art museum, where one can wander from page to page to satisfy one's curiosity-- guided from time to time by the Etruscan priests, Virgil, Dante, Goethe or Leonardo da Vinci himself. Pizzorusso stitches together widely diverse topics - such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion - using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. Wonderfully illustrated with many photos licensed from Italian museums, HRH Elizabeth II and the Ministero Beni Culturali the book highlights the best works in Italian museums and those outside in the "open air museums." This approach can be used in any other country in the world and can be used for cultural tourism (a tour following the book has been organized for cultural and university groups), an ideal way of linking museums to the surrounding landscape.

  3. First reports of Trichinella pseudospiralis in wild boars (Sus scrofa) of Italy.

    PubMed

    Merialdi, Giuseppe; Bardasi, Lia; Fontana, Maria Cristina; Spaggiari, Brunella; Maioli, Giulia; Conedera, Gabriella; Vio, Denis; Londero, Mauro; Marucci, Gianluca; Ludovisi, Alessandra; Pozio, Edoardo; Capelli, Gioia

    2011-06-10

    Trichinella pseudospiralis is a non-encapsulated species infecting both mammals and birds. In Italy, this parasite was reported only in two night-birds of prey of Central Italy. In January 2010, Trichinella larvae were detected in three wild boars (Sus scrofa) of two regions of Northern Italy by enzymatic digestion. The parasites were identified as T. pseudospiralis by multiplex-PCR. The first infected wild boar was hunted in the Emilia Romagna region and the other two infected wild boars were bred outdoors in a small family farm of the Friuli Venezia Giulia region. These new epidemiological data reinforce the role of the wild boar as the main reservoir of T. pseudospiralis in Europe. PMID:21296503

  4. A preliminary attempt to determine the landslide hazard in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, Mario

    2013-04-01

    Determining landslide hazard at the national scale remains a difficult task. However, such a complex task needs to be accomplished to mitigate the landslide consequences, including loss of lives and economic and environmental damages. For administrative purposes, the Italian territory (303,000 km sq.) is subdivided in 20 regions that cover a large variety of natural environments, most of which are subject to landslide hazards. To determine landslide hazard in such a complex and diversified territory, the many natural and anthropogenic variables, and their variations, must be considered. In Italy, the Italian national Civil Protection Department (DPC), an office of the Prime Minister, is in charge of managing natural and human-made hazards, and the associated risk. For landslide (and flood) hazards, the DPC has subdivided the Italian territory into 134 "alert zones" (AZ), decided based on administrative and hydrological criteria. Here, we describe the results of a preliminary effort made by our research group - in the framework of a larger effort to forecast landslide hazard and risk in Italy - to describe landslide hazard in each AZ. For the purpose, we summarized in a specifically designed form the geographical, morphological, geological and landslide information available for each AZ. The form also contains general information on past landslide events and on the vulnerability to landslides of the AZ. We obtained the morphological information from the SRTM DEM with a grid resolution of 90 m × 90 m, and the geological and lithological information from the Geological Map of Italy, at the 1:500,000 scale, published by the Italian Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale (ISPRA). We used the morphological (terrain elevation and terrain gradient) and the lithological information to subdivide the Italian territory in three main morphological domains (plains, hills and mountains), and we computed the proportion of the three domains in each AZ. We

  5. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Lucia, Leporatti Maria

    2007-01-01

    Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture as a whole. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews, mainly of farmers, shepherds and elderly people, born or living in these areas for a long time. Voucher specimens of collected plants are preserved in the respective herbaria of the Authors and in the herbarium of "Roma Tre" University. Important contributions have been made by several students native to the areas under consideration. A comparative analysis with local specific ethnobotanical literature was carried out. Results The paper reports several examples concerning human and veterinary popular medicine and in addition some anti-parasitic, nutraceutic, dye and miscellaneous uses are also described. Moreover vernacular names and toponyms are cited. Eight regions of central and southern Italy (particularly Latium, Abruzzo, Marche and Basilicata) were investigated and the data obtained are presented in 32 papers. Most of the species of ethnobotanical interest have been listed in Latium (368 species), Marche (274) and Abruzzo (203). The paper also highlights particularly interesting aspects or uses not previously described in the specific ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion Phyto-therapy in central and southern Italy is nowadays practised by a few elderly people who resort to medicinal plants only for mild complaints (on the contrary food uses are still commonly practised). Nowadays therapeutic uses, unlike in the past, are less closely or not at all linked to ritual aspects. Several plants deserve to be taken

  6. Italy

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... hues, because sun glitter (an ensemble of specular reflection points, see below) causes smooth, wet surfaces to look brighter to a ... If the sea surface is calm, a single mirror-like reflection of the sun can be seen at the horizontal specular point. However, ...

  7. Patient and citizen participation in health care decisions in Italy.

    PubMed

    Goss, Claudia; Renzi, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing recognition in Western healthcare systems of the importance of considering preferences of patients and the public in tailoring health services and treatment plans. The active collaboration between doctor and patient has recently been encouraged through the shared decision-making model. Aim of the present contribution is to describe the current state of patient and public participation in healthcare in Italy. First, we will briefly outline the organization of the Italian National Health Service; second, we will describe the governmental and institutional initiatives regarding participation; third, some examples of associations and initiatives promoting patient participation will be provided; forth, we will report on research projects on patient participation published in peer-reviewed journals; and finally, we will provide some examples on training activities promoting patient participation. The Italian National Health Plan and many regional and local health authorities in Italy explicitly recognize the importance of patient/citizen participation in healthcare decisions at the macro, meso and micro level of decision-making. However, application of a shared model is still at an early stage in Italy. The reported experiences have yielded positive results and have shown that particular attention should be dedicated to more disadvantaged subgroups of the population, involving patient organisations, enhancing patient/citizen knowledge and adopting approaches that take the specific context into account. PMID:17601178

  8. Patterns of Y-STR variation in Italy.

    PubMed

    Brisighelli, F; Blanco-Verea, A; Boschi, I; Garagnani, P; Pascali, V L; Carracedo, A; Capelli, C; Salas, A

    2012-12-01

    The 17 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) included in the AmpFlSTR Yfiler Amplification Kit (AB Applied Biosystems) (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385ab, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and GATA H4.1) were typed in 292 samples from seven Italian regions. Population comparisons with other European samples were undertaken; for this purpose, two databases were collated from the literature: (a) 19 population samples including >2900 Yfiler profiles, and (b) 67 population samples including >15,000 minimum haplotype profiles. A total of 276 different Yfiler haplotypes were observed in Italy, and only one of them was shared among our seven population samples. The overall haplotype diversity (0.9996) was comparable to other European samples. AMOVA indicates that among population variance depends on the amount of Y-STRs used, being higher when using minimal haplotypes. This is probably due to the fact that Yfiler profiles are represented by singleton haplotypes in all the population samples raising the diversity values to the maximum theoretical value. AMOVA results seems to depend even more strongly on the amount of population samples used, the among population variance in Italy ranging from 2.82% to 11.03% (using 15 and 32 Italian populations samples, respectively). Variance is not as strongly stratified geographically within Italy, although it is notorious that latitude is more important than longitude in the distribution of variance. The results also indicated that Italy is less stratified than other European samples. The present study contributes to enrich the Y-chromosome databases regarding high-resolution Y-chromosome data sets and demonstrates that extended Y-STR profiles substantially increases the discriminatory capacity in individual identification for forensic purposes. PMID:22487686

  9. Grapevine Pinot gris virus seems to have recently been introduced to vineyards in Veneto, Italy.

    PubMed

    Bertazzon, Nadia; Filippin, Luisa; Forte, Vally; Angelini, Elisa

    2016-03-01

    Grapevine Pinot gris virus (GPGV), a member of the genus Trichovirus in the family Betaflexiviridae, was recently discovered in Italy and subsequently in other European countries and in Korea. In this study, we assessed the occurrence of GPGV in 441 samples from Western and Eastern Europe collected over the period 2002-2014. The results suggest that the virus had recently appeared in the Veneto region (Northeast Italy) and had been present in some Eastern European countries for at least 10 years. The molecular characterization of the 5'-terminal genomic region of several GPGV isolates from Italy and other European countries showed low polymorphism, with a maximum nucleotide sequence divergence of 3.2%. PMID:26666440

  10. Application of Skylab imagery to some geological and environmental problems in Italy. [and Sicily

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. M.; Tonelli, A. M.

    1975-01-01

    Four topics are considered: regional geology of Sicily, volcanic surveillance in southern Italy, hydrogeology (with special regard given to the discovery and mapping of paleoriverbeds), and crop investigation. The discovery of unknown lineaments and structures in Sicily contributes to the geological knowledge of this region and in particular to the mechanical phenomena involving the upper part of the crust. An attempt was made to relate the status of vegetation surrounding Etna volcano to the magmatic gas escapes filtering through the soil. False-color Skylab images were used to analyze the vigor of the Etnean forestal belt vegetation canopy in order to map possible gas-vent ways as well as the 'active' microfractures. In northern Italy, buried channels were mapped in the Venetian Plain, and a tentative cost-benefit evaluation was done in the field of vegetational studies, both disease detection and species inventory were performed in the Po River Delta and in northwestern Italy.

  11. Development of Guidelines for Health Impact Assessment in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bert, Fabrizio; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Di Stanislao, Francesco; Siliquini, Roberta; Tozzi, Quinto; Pizzuti, Renato; Rizzo, Liliana; Scondotto, Salvatore; Bux, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is a multidisciplinary method aimed at assessing the health effects of policies, plans, and projects using quantitative, qualitative, and participatory techniques. In many European countries, such as in Italy, there is a lack of implementation of HIA procedures and it would be necessary to develop instruments and protocols in order to improve the specific skills of professionals involved in the assessment process. This article aims to describe the development and implementation of HIA guidelines, promoted by the Italian National Agency for Regional Health Services (AGENAS), in 4 Southern Italian regions. Public health search engine and institutional Web sites were consulted to collect international data existing in this field. Monthly workshops were then organized with regional representatives to discuss the scientific literature and to identify the guidelines' contents: source of data, stakeholders, screening- and scoping-phase checklist tools, priority areas, monitoring, and reporting plans. Four regions (Calabria, Campania, Puglia, and Sicilia) took part in the project. This article describes the methodology of development and implementation of HIA guidelines in the Italian context. The tools created to collect data and assess health consequences (such as screening and scoping grids) are reported. This project represents the first structured initiative proposed and supported by the Ministry of Health aiming to introduce HIA in Italy. HIA should be considered a priority in the public health agenda, as a fundamental instrument in helping decision makers to make choices about alternatives to prevent disease/injury and to actively promote health. PMID:26125232

  12. Historical hydrology and database on flood events (Apulia, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonigro, Teresa; Basso, Alessia; Gentile, Francesco; Polemio, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    Historical data about floods represent an important tool for the comprehension of the hydrological processes, the estimation of hazard scenarios as a basis for Civil Protection purposes, as a basis of the rational land use management, especially in karstic areas, where time series of river flows are not available and the river drainage is rare. The research shows the importance of the improvement of existing flood database with an historical approach, finalized to collect past or historical floods event, in order to better assess the occurrence trend of floods, in the case for the Apulian region (south Italy). The main source of records of flood events for Apulia was the AVI (the acronym means Italian damaged areas) database, an existing Italian database that collects data concerning damaging floods from 1918 to 1996. The database was expanded consulting newspapers, publications, and technical reports from 1996 to 2006. In order to expand the temporal range further data were collected searching in the archives of regional libraries. About 700 useful news from 17 different local newspapers were found from 1876 to 1951. From a critical analysis of the 700 news collected since 1876 to 1952 only 437 were useful for the implementation of the Apulia database. The screening of these news showed the occurrence of about 122 flood events in the entire region. The district of Bari, the regional main town, represents the area in which the great number of events occurred; the historical analysis confirms this area as flood-prone. There is an overlapping period (from 1918 to 1952) between old AVI database and new historical dataset obtained by newspapers. With regard to this period, the historical research has highlighted new flood events not reported in the existing AVI database and it also allowed to add more details to the events already recorded. This study shows that the database is a dynamic instrument, which allows a continuous implementation of data, even in real time

  13. Legal abortion in Italy: 1980-1981.

    PubMed

    Tosi, S L; Grandolfo, M E; Spinelli, A; O'Reilly, K R; Hogue, C J

    1985-01-01

    In 1980 and 1981, there were 446,430 legal abortions performed in Italy. There were about 345 legal abortions per 1,000 live births in 1980 and 363 in 1981. About 1.6 percent of women aged 15-49 obtained abortions in both years. An analysis of the characteristics of Italian women who obtained abortions indicates that most were married (about 70 percent), aged 18-36 (74 percent), had had less than a high school education (74 percent) and had had at least one previous live birth (70-75 percent). In 1981, 88 percent of abortions were obtained in public hospitals; 58 percent were carried out at eight or fewer weeks of gestation; and 78 percent were performed under general anesthesia. Only 20 percent were performed without an overnight stay in the hospital; and over 40 percent of women were hospitalized for two days or longer. Infection after the abortion was reported in only 0.03 percent of cases in 1981, and hemorrhage was reported in only 0.27 percent. In 1981, between 43 percent and 84 percent of gynecologists (depending on the region of the country) declined to perform abortions on grounds of conscience. PMID:3872230

  14. Geoelectric monitoring of the Bagnaschino landslide (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochum, Birgit; Supper, Robert; Ottowitz, David; Pfeiler, Stefan; Kim, Jung-Ho; Lovisolo, Mario

    2013-04-01

    Landslides are one of the major natural threats to human lives, settlements and infrastructure. Permanent geoelectrical monitoring using the GEOMON4D instrumentation in combination with high resolution displacement monitoring by means of the DMS system was performed at an active landslide area in Italy (Bagnaschino). These sites are part of a geoelectrical monitoring network of the Geological Survey of Austria, which currently comprises six permanently monitored landslides in Europe. The Bagnaschino site represents a landslide/earthflow reactivated within an old landslide mass. The old landslide is situated on the slopes of the Val Casotto about 4 km SE of Torre Mondovì (NW Italy). Evident indications of deep-seated gravitational deformation suggest that the current slopes are in a condition of limit-equilibrium and are predisposed to slow instability, triggered most probably by rain and/or snow melting and river erosion at the foot. The recent landslide was activated during 1994 rainfall event. It covers an estimated area of 150,000 m² and comprises a displaced material of 1.2 million m³. It endangers a regional road and potential formation of a dam. For the purpose of early warning a DMS monitoring column with 60 m length was installed in October 2008. Total displacement recorded by DMS during the events between 2008 and 2010 was 600 mm. Subsequently, the GEOMON4D geoelectric monitoring system was installed there in 2010. Resistivity measurements are performed along a 224 m long profile, which is oriented parallel to the main movement direction. Its midpoint is next to the DMS station. One set of data comprising around 4000 gradient-type measurements is taken every 4 hours. For power supply a combination of a fuel cell and a solar panel is used. Within the observation interval one distinct displacement event was monitored. This event was accompanied by a decrease of electric resistivity. In addition to our standard analysis of resistivity data (e.g. time

  15. Performance assessment of fire-sat monitoring system based on satellite time series for fire danger estimation : the experience of the pre-operative application in the Basilicata Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanorte, Antonio; Desantis, Fortunato; Aromando, Angelo; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the results we obtained in the context of the FIRE-SAT project during the 2012 operative application of the satellite based tools for fire monitoring. FIRE_SAT project has been funded by the Civil Protection of the Basilicata Region in order to set up a low cost methodology for fire danger monitoring and fire effect estimation based on satellite Earth Observation techniques. To this aim, NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), ASTER, Landsat TM data were used. Novel data processing techniques have been developed by researchers of the ARGON Laboratory of the CNR-IMAA for the operative monitoring of fire. In this paper we only focus on the danger estimation model which has been fruitfully used since 2008 to 2012 as an reliable operative tool to support and optimize fire fighting strategies from the alert to the management of resources including fire attacks. The daily updating of fire danger is carried out using satellite MODIS images selected for their spectral capability and availability free of charge from NASA web site. This makes these data sets very suitable for an effective systematic (daily) and sustainable low-cost monitoring of large areas. The preoperative use of the integrated model, pointed out that the system properly monitor spatial and temporal variations of fire susceptibility and provide useful information of both fire severity and post fire regeneration capability.

  16. Attitudes towards physician-nurse collaboration in a primary care team-based setting: Survey-based research conducted in the chronic care units of the Tuscany region of Italy.

    PubMed

    Vegesna, Ashok; Coschignano, Christina; Hegarty, Sarah E; Karagiannis, Tom; Polenzani, Loretta; Messina, Emanuele; Zoli, Romeo; Maio, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Across the world, multidisciplinary teamwork has become an essential component in the care of patients with chronic conditions--the Chronic Care Units (CCUs) in the Italian region of Tuscany are no exception to this new era of collaboration. We sought to explore the attitudes towards collaboration of general practitioners (GPs) and nurses within the CCUs using the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes towards Physician-Nurse Collaboration (JSAPNC). The survey was sent electronically to 218 GPs and 46 nurses of 23 CCUs in two Local Health Authorities of Tuscany. A higher JSAPNC score is indicative of a more positive attitude towards physician-nurse collaboration. JSAPNC scores were calculated for both totals and by three factors: "shared education and collaboration," "caring versus curing," and "physician authority." A total of 133 healthcare professionals (94 GPs and 39 nurses) responded (response rate = 51.5%). Nurses reported significantly more positive attitudes towards collaboration than GPs (52.5 vs. 44.0, p < 0.01). This trend was also found in each of the three factors. This information adds to the scarce literature on nurse-physician collaboration in the primary care setting and highlights the need for considerable improvement given the rise of team-based outpatient care models. PMID:26833107

  17. Demoiselles and Drafts from Italy and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, M. Dane

    1988-01-01

    Recounts the adventures of a journey taken through France and Italy. Makes an analogy of this trip to that of the one Charles Dickens took in 1844. Describes silicified horizons of the southern Paris Basin, moraines, outcrops, and "Hoodoos." (RT)

  18. [Rosenfeld in Italy (1978 to 1985)].

    PubMed

    de Masi, Franco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I try to throw some light on Rosenfeld's thought and his way of working when he came to Italy. I would like to show, in a sketchy way, the evolution of his thought and in particular the new way he looked at clinical practice at that time. My point is that the Rosenfeld we met in Italy was able to open new horizons in clinical practice, implicitly questioning some of his own or his circle's previous viewpoints. PMID:26595987

  19. Ampelographic and DNA characterization of local grapevine accessions of the Tuscia area (Latium,Italy)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of local vines in the Tuscia area (Latium region, Italy) was documented by historical sources. Ampelographic and molecular characterization (35 morphological descriptors and 16 microsatellite loci) was carried out on accessions belonging to the most frequently mentioned local vines. S...

  20. Making Federalism Work in Italy. OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 590

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibbee, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    Fiscal federalism can be an important complement to structural reforms and budget consolidation. Empowering sub national governments, while at the same time making them accountable to local citizens in the uses of tax money, could improve the allocation of public resources and promote catch up of the lagging regions. Italy has launched itself in…

  1. An Evaluation Study of Youth Participation in Youth Work: A Case Study in Southern Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morciano, Daniele; Scardigno, Anna Fausta; Manuti, Amelia; Pastore, Serafina

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an evaluation study of a public programme financing a regional network of 157 youth centres in the South of Italy is presented. A theory-based evaluation model was adopted to explore the causal links between different types of participation experience. Evaluation questions focused on three main issues are: the perception of…

  2. Impacts of the 1669 eruption and the 1693 earthquakes on the Etna Region (Eastern Sicily, Italy): An example of recovery and response of a small area to extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branca, Stefano; Azzaro, Raffaele; De Beni, Emanuela; Chester, David; Duncan, Angus

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we trace the impact of the 1669 eruption and the 1693 earthquakes in eastern Sicily, their effects on the people living in the Etna region and, more particularly, in the city of Catania and its hinterland. The former event was the largest historic eruption of Etna, having a flow field with an area of ca. 40 km2 and a maximum flow length of ca. 17 km, whereas the latter - occurring only 24 years later - killed between 11,000 and 20,000 of Catania's estimated 20-27,000 inhabitants, plus many more in smaller settlements. Using a combination of field-based research, contemporary accounts and archival sources, the authors are able to draw a number of conclusions. First, the 1669 eruption, although it did not kill or injure, was economically the most devastating of historical eruptions. Although it affected a limited area, inundation by lava meant that land was effectively sterilized for centuries and, in a pre-industrial agriculturally-based economy, recovery could not occur quickly without outside assistance from the State. Indeed some of the worst affected municipalities (i.e. Comuni) were only able to support populations that were much reduced in size. Secondly, much of the damage caused to buildings by volcanic earthquakes was effectively masked, because most of the settlements affected were quickly covered by lava flows. The vulnerability to volcanic earthquakes of traditionally constructed buildings has, however, remained a serious example of un-ameliorated risk exposure through to the present day. A third conclusion is that the 1693 earthquakes, although more serious with respect to the number of people and the area they affected in terms of mortality, morbidity and their immediate economic impact, saw a rapid and sustained recovery. This was due in part to the fact that, in contrast to lava flows, an earthquake does not sterilize land, but more significant was the reduction in population numbers which served both to release and concentrate funds

  3. [Evolution and practical application of the concept of clinical governance in Italy].

    PubMed

    Trabacchi, V; Pasquarella, C; Signorelli, C

    2008-01-01

    Clinical Governances' roots in the United Kingdom's National Health Service and the following introduction of "Governo Clinico" in Italy are analyzed. Some definitions of Clinical Governance and "Governo clinico" are presented and discussed, by highlighting the main characteristics and differences, both conceptual and semiological. Finally, legal bases for the official empowerment of Healthcare Governance in Italy are described, by focusing on the Region Emilia-Romagna, whose recent Social and Sanitary Plan for 2008-2010 has developed concepts of integration, multidisciplinarity, responsibility and quality of socio-sanitary services. PMID:19069257

  4. Early heat waves over Italy and their impacts on durum wheat yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, G.; Toreti, A.; Ceglar, A.; De Sanctis, G.

    2015-05-01

    In the last decades the Euro-Mediterranean region has experienced an increase in extreme temperature events such as heat waves. These extreme weather conditions can strongly affect arable crop growth and final yields. Here, early heat waves over Italy from 1995 to 2013 are identified and characterised and their impact on durum wheat yields is investigated. As expected, results confirm the impact of the 2003 heat waves and highlight a high percentage of concurrence of early heat waves and significant negative yield anomalies in 13 out of 39 durum wheat production areas. In south-eastern Italy (the most important area for durum wheat production), the percentage of concurrent events exceeds 80%.

  5. Early heat waves over Italy and their impacts on durum wheat yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, G.; Toreti, A.; Ceglar, A.; De Sanctis, G.

    2015-07-01

    In the last decades the Euro-Mediterranean region has experienced an increase in extreme temperature events such as heat waves. These extreme weather conditions can strongly affect arable crop growth and final yields. Here, early heat waves over Italy from 1995 to 2013 are identified and characterised and their impact on durum wheat yields is investigated. As expected, results confirm the impact of the 2003 heat wave and highlight a high percentage of concurrence of early heat waves and significant negative yield anomalies in 13 out of 39 durum wheat production areas. In south-eastern Italy (the most important area for durum wheat production), the percentage of concurrent events exceeds 80 %.

  6. Health workforce governance in Italy.

    PubMed

    Vicarelli, Giovanna; Pavolini, Emmanuele

    2015-12-01

    More precise health workforce governance has become a prominent issue in healthcare systems. This issue is particularly important in Italy, given its strongly doctor-centered healthcare system and the dramatic aging of its physicians' labor force. Using different sources of information (statistical data, official planning documents and interviews with key informants), the article attempts to answer two questions. Why has the Italian healthcare systems found itself in the situation of a potential drastic reduction in the amount of doctors in the medium term without a rebalancing through a different mix of skills and professionals? How good is the capacity of the Italian healthcare system to plan healthcare workforce needs? The widespread presence of 'older' physicians is the result of the strong entry of doctors into the Italian healthcare system in the 1970s and 1980s. Institutional fragmentation, difficulties in drafting broad healthcare reforms, political instability and austerity measures explain why Italian health workforce forecasting and planning are still unsatisfactory, although recent developments indicate that changes are under way. In order to tackle these problems it is necessary to foster closer cooperation among a wide range of stakeholders, to move from uni-professional to multi-professional health workforce planning, and to partially re-centralise decision making. PMID:26470643

  7. Malaria epidemiological trends in Italy.

    PubMed

    Sabatinelli, G; Majori, G; D'Ancona, F; Romi, R

    1994-08-01

    Based on the official reports received from local health laboratories, an epidemiological analysis of malaria cases reported in Italy from 1989 to 1992 is presented. A total of 1,941 cases were reported, 1,287 among Italians and 654 among foreigners. The incidence of cases was on average 500 per year with a maximum in 1990. A slight, but constant decrease of incidence of malaria cases was recorded in this period among Italian citizens (-21.5%), while the incidence among foreigners increased (+80%). Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 74.2% of total infections, followed by P. vivax (19%). The highest number of cases was imported from Africa (86.5%), followed by Asia, South America, and Oceania. 11 cases were contracted in Europe (transfusion, airport and cryptic malaria). 26 people died from malaria during the four years, with a fatality rate of 2.3% among Italians. Other epidemiological features concerning incidence in the different categories of travellers, countries of infection, clinical and therapeutic aspects of cases, are also discussed. PMID:7843343

  8. New CALLISTO Station in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monstein, Chr.

    2013-10-01

    A new CALLISTO station is now active in Triest/Italy at the Astronomical Observatory premises located in Basovizza. It has been recently installed and set into operation on the 6th September 2013. The antenna has been installed on an old bunker named "Sissi" and is based on a commercial log-periodic antenna from RKB(http://www.rkb./articoli.asp?id=26), operating frequency 130-1000 MHz, gain of about 6-7 dBi. Beam&-width is of 103 degrees in the V plane and of 61 degrees in the H plane. Considering the site location, sun path variations during the year and beam-width, the antenna is installed fixed-mounted pointing towards South with an angle of 45 degrees in the V plane. This should cover all declination of solar path throughout the year with about 7 hours observation time centered around 12.00, local time. The front-end aerial is connected to a low noise preamplifier Mini-Circuits ZX60-33LN with 20dB of gain and 1.1dB of noise figure.

  9. CBRN mobile laboratories in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Giorgio; Giraudi, Giampaolo; Bellino, Mariarosa; Pazienza, Michele; Garibaldi, Claudio; Lancia, Corrado

    2009-05-01

    The paper describes the experiences in Italy with the CBRN (Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear) defense mobile laboratories. These laboratories were constructed by the Italian Army and the Italian Fire Brigades. The purpose of these mobile laboratories is to allow quick transport of the labs to the area of crisis in order to support emergency response in case of CBRN events. The differences between two alternative solutions will be developed in the paper. The first solution is when the lab is to be located in the "dangerous area" (this solution was chosen by the Italian Army) and the alternative approach is to place the mobile lab just outside the dangerous area (this approach was selected by the Italian Fire Brigades). One of the most important devices inside the lab is the isolator (also called "glove box") which allows safe ingress and handling of the "suspicious" samples from the external environment. The isolator has a special chamber for transfer of the sample from the outside. The pressure of the isolator is permanently kept below the air pressure inside the lab by means of one (or more) fan. The operators perform the sample preparations or part of the analysis by handling the sample with the gloves. The material flow inside the lab will be described depending on the kind of identification analysis to be done on the samples. Other devices installed on the mobile CBRN laboratories are: biohazard hood (UE regulation, containment level 2); autoclave; freezer; cleaning skid (tanks, pumps, etc.).

  10. Tuberculosis and leprosy in Italy: new skeletal evidence.

    PubMed

    Rubini, Mauro; Zaio, Paola; Roberts, Charlotte

    2014-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy are infections caused by Mycobacteria. This paper documents new skeletal evidence in Italy from the Iron Age site of Corvaro (Central Italy; 5th century BCE) and the Roman site of Palombara (Central Italy; 4th-5th century CE), and briefly reviews the extant evidence for these infections in Italy. The skeletal evidence for TB in Italy is more ancient than for leprosy, and is more common. The oldest evidence for both mycobacterial diseases is in the North of Italy, but this could be by chance, even if biomolecular models suggest a land route from the East to central Europe, especially for leprosy. PMID:24129278

  11. Metal mobility in river and sea sediments affected by mine drainage (Sestri Levante, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consani, Sirio; Capello, Marco; Cutroneo, Laura; Vagge, Greta; Zuccarelli, Andrea; Carbone, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    The Gromolo Torrent is a metal-polluted Apennine streamflow located near Sestri Levante (Liguria, Italy). It springs from the Monte Rocca Grande (850 m a.s.l.), and flows for 11.5 km through the Gromolo Valley before flowing into the Ligurian Sea. Inside the Gromolo basin is located the abandoned Fe-Cu mine of Libiola, which was the most important sulfide deposit of the Ligurian Apennines. In this mining site, extensive Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) processes are active, both inside the mine tunnels and in the sulfide rich waste-rock dumps; the solutions generated are characterised by low pH values and high amounts of dissolved SO42-, Fe, and other chemical elements such as Cu, Zn, Pb, Al, Co, and Ni. Moreover, exstensively precipitation of Fe and Cu-rich secondary minerals occurs both as soft crusts inside the mine adits and as loose suspensions associated with overland flow of mine drainage. AMD waters flowed into the uncontaminated Gromolo Torrent where abundant precipitation of amorphous Fe(III)-oxy-hydroxides occurred. The marine study area is characterised by the presence of the headland of Sestri Levante with two bays, the western one named "Baia delle Favole". The dynamics of the area is dominated by a permanent north-westward off-shore current flowing approximately along isobath, and an eastward counter-current along the north coast with a resulting drift of the coastal materials from the West to Est towards "Baia delle Favole". The bottom sediment are principally characterised by coarse materials, mostly consisting of fine sand, with a percentage of the fine sediment increasing inside the bay, where the dynamics is low. The aims of this work are to 1) evaluate the metal mobility of colloidal river precipitates for about 7 km up to its mouth in the Ligurian Sea; 2) verify the contamination state of the marine bottom sediments off the mouth of the Gromolo Torrent ("Baia delle Favole" of Sestri Levante), and 3) identify the main sources and diffusion ways of

  12. Tephrochronology offshore Ischia Island, Tyrrhenian sea, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insinga, Donatella; Sulpizio, Roberto; de Alteriis, Giovanni; Morabito, Simona; Morra, Vincenzo; Sprovieri, Mario; di Benedetto, Claudia; Lubritto, Carmine; Zanchetta, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    the coring site. The definition of the source area of these two major events is still a matter of debate. However, the Somma-Vesuvius complex reasonably sourced the Schiava deposits while a Campi Flegrei provenance for the Codola deposits cannot be ruled out (Di Vito et al., 2008). These latters, known as C10 tephra in the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic sea (Paterne et al., 1988; Giaccio et al., 2008), in particular, represent reliable regional markers for the whole central Mediterranean area. References De Vivo, B., Rolandi, G., Gans, P.B., Calvert, A., Bohrson,W.A., Spera, F.J., Belkin, H.E., 2001. New constraints on the pyroclastic eruptive history of the Campanian volcanic Plain (Italy). Mineralogy and Petrology 73, 47-65. Di Vito,M.A., Sulpizio, R., Zanchetta, G., D'Orazio, M., 2008. The late Pleistocene pyroclastic deposits of the Campanian Plain: newinsights into the explosive activity of Neapolitan volcanoes. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res.177, 19-48. Giaccio, B., Isaia, R., Fedele, F.G., Di Canzio, E., Hoffecker, J., Ronchitelli, A., Sinitsyn, A., Anikovich, M., Lisitsyn, S.N., 2008. The Campanian Ignimbrite and Codola tephra layers: two temporal/stratigraphic markers for the Early Upper Palaeloithic in southern Italy and eastern Europe. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 177, 210-228. Paterne M., Guichard F. & Labeyrie J., 1988. Explosive activity of the south Italian volcanoes during the past 80.000 years as determined by marine tephrochronology. J. Volcanol. Geother. Res. 34, 153-172. Paterne, M., Guichard, F., 1993. Triggering of volcanic pluses in the Campanian area, south Italy, by periodic deep magma in.ux. Journal of Geophysical Research 98 (B2), 1861-1873. Rio, D., Raffi, I., Villa, G., 1990. Pliocene-Pleistocene calcareous nannofossil distribution patterns in the western Mediterranean. In: Kastens, K.A. (Ed.), Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program. Scientific Results, vol. 107. Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, TX, pp. 513-533. Sulpizio, R., Zanchetta, G

  13. Obtaining Reimbursement in France and Italy for New Diabetes Products

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Elmar; Sonsalla, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers launching next-generation or innovative medical devices in Europe face a very heterogeneous reimbursement landscape, with each country having its own pathways, timing, requirements and success factors. We selected 2 markets for a deeper look into the reimbursement landscape: France, representing a country with central decision making with defined processes, and Italy, which delegates reimbursement decisions to the regional level, resulting in a less transparent approach to reimbursement. Based on our experience in working on various new product launches and analyzing recent reimbursement decisions, we found that payers in both countries do not reward improved next-generation products with incremental reimbursement. Looking at innovations, we observe that manufacturers face a challenging and lengthy process to obtain reimbursement. In addition, requirements and key success factors differ by country: In France, comparative clinical evidence and budget impact very much drive reimbursement decisions in terms of pricing and restrictions, whereas in Italy, regional key opinion leader (KOL) support and additional local observational data are key. PMID:25550411

  14. Structural damages of L'Aquila (Italy) earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, H.; Bilgin, H.; Yilmaz, S.; Binici, H.; Öztas, A.

    2010-03-01

    On 6 April 2009 an earthquake of magnitude 6.3 occurred in L'Aquila city, Italy. In the city center and surrounding villages many masonry and reinforced concrete (RC) buildings were heavily damaged or collapsed. After the earthquake, the inspection carried out in the region provided relevant results concerning the quality of the materials, method of construction and the performance of the structures. The region was initially inhabited in the 13th century and has many historic structures. The main structural materials are unreinforced masonry (URM) composed of rubble stone, brick, and hollow clay tile. Masonry units suffered the worst damage. Wood flooring systems and corrugated steel roofs are common in URM buildings. Moreover, unconfined gable walls, excessive wall thicknesses without connection with each other are among the most common deficiencies of poorly constructed masonry structures. These walls caused an increase in earthquake loads. The quality of the materials and the construction were not in accordance with the standards. On the other hand, several modern, non-ductile concrete frame buildings have collapsed. Poor concrete quality and poor reinforcement detailing caused damage in reinforced concrete structures. Furthermore, many structural deficiencies such as non-ductile detailing, strong beams-weak columns and were commonly observed. In this paper, reasons why the buildings were damaged in the 6 April 2009 earthquake in L'Aquila, Italy are given. Some suggestions are made to prevent such disasters in the future.

  15. ELF signals and EQLs in Central Italy in 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidani, Cristiano

    2010-05-01

    Instrumental studies of earthquake electromagnetic phenomena began in the 1800's in Italy. These studies were inspired by several observations reported on in the XVIII century collections of earthquake phenomena and the inventions of the first electric and magnetic instruments. From about fifteen years ago in Italy a VLF electromagnetic monitoring which concerns sub ionospheric channel of propagation has been active. It has produced interesting results in connection with seismic activity. Recently, a continuous monitoring of LF, ELF and SLF electromagnetic signals was started in Central Italy. This was done to verify the usefulness of this research field so to understand earthquake processes and forecasting. The first station started operating near the city of Fermo, in the Marche region in 2006; while a second station started operating in Perugia, in the Umbria region in 2008. The Fermo station was initially set up with only a low frequency amplifier but from mid 2007 it has also been equipped with a long wave radio receiver tuned at 150 KHz. The electrode and the antenna are oriented along a north-south direction. Signals are recorded in wave and spectral image files through a maximal sample frequency of 2-5.5 KHz, so that a maximum signal frequency of 1-2.75 KHz can be analysed, while minimum frequency is limited by amplifier band equal to 4 Hz. The Perugia station was set up with a couple of low frequency amplifiers which work on two orthogonal electrodes, oriented along north-south and east-west directions. At this station the maximum sample frequency is 2-22 KHz so a maximum signal frequency of 1-11 KHz can be analysed, while minimum frequency is limited to 4 Hz. Several signals were recorded before and after the Aquila earthquake and on the occasions of other central Italy seismic swarms in 2009. Here the search for a physical link between seismic events and electromagnetic signals is being carried out. At the opposite end of the electromagnetic spectrum

  16. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in wild boars from Calabria (Italy).

    PubMed

    Naccari, F; Giofrè, F; Licata, P; Martino, D; Calò, M; Parisi, N

    2004-01-01

    At present, there are no specific studies on the evaluation of environmental toxicological risks in Calabria (south of Italy) and on the presence of contaminants in the fauna of this region. The aim of the present research was to investigate the levels of contamination by OC pesticides and PCBs in some organs and tissues of wild boars (utilized as 'biological indicator') from various areas of Calabria. Quantitative determinations of organochlorines were carried out using GC-ECD and confirmed with GC-MS in 154 samples from wild boars (heart, liver, lung, kidney, muscle tissue and spleen) during the hunting season from 2000 to 2002. The results indicate the low residual levels of DDE in 8 samples and DDT in 4 samples and PCBs residues (Aroclor 1232) below the detection limits were found. Therefore, these results show that the Calabria region is not at contamination risk from organochlorines and moreover is free from health problems for the consumer of boar meat. PMID:15327158

  17. Oral hirudiniasis in a stray dog, first report in Italy

    PubMed Central

    RAELE, Donato Antonio; GALANTE, Domenico; CAFIERO, Maria Assunta

    2015-01-01

    In June 2014, a male stray dog was recovered at Ente Nazionale di Protezione Animali (ENPA) kennel of Manfredonia, Apulia region, showing oral bleeding and physical prostration. The dog fell in a water canal and was trapped. During the clinical examination, a specimen of leech was revealed into its oral cavity. The parasite, probably entered by drinking unfiltered and contaminated water, has been identified as an adult of aquatic leech Limnatis nilotica. Leeches could overrun wide variety of animals, and few reports about blood sucking leech infestations in mammals are available in literature. This paper describes here the first oral hirudiniasis in a dog in Italy and highlights the possibility of human nasopharyngeal leech-related infection in Apulia region. PMID:26004432

  18. John Ray in Italy: lost manuscripts rediscovered

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper discloses the content of two manuscripts of John Ray that have hitherto been unknown to Ray scholars. The manuscripts survive in the Hampshire Record Office, having descended through the Prideaux-Brune family. They record information about Ray's tour of Italy in the 1660s that does not appear in his Observations … made in a journey through … the Low-countries, Germany, Italy and France (1673), including a visit to the museum of Athanasius Kircher in Rome, and provide clues concerning the composition of Ray's 1673 book. PMID:24921104

  19. Foreign children with cancer in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been a noticeable annual increase in the number of children coming to Italy for medical treatment, just like it has happened in the rest of the European Union. In Italy, the assistance to children suffering from cancer is assured by the current network of 54 centres members of the Italian Association of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (AIEOP), which has kept records of all demographic and clinical data in the database of Mod.1.01 Registry since 1989. Methods We used the information stored in the already mentioned database to assess the impact of immigration of foreign children with cancer on centres' activity, with the scope of drawing a map of the assistance to these cases. Results Out of 14,738 cases recorded by all centres in the period from 1999 to 2008, 92.2% were born and resident in Italy, 4.1% (608) were born abroad and living abroad and 3.7% (538) were born abroad and living in Italy. Foreign children cases have increased over the years from 2.5% in 1999 to. 8.1% in 2008. Most immigrant children came from Europe (65.7%), whereas patients who came from America, Asia and Oceania amounted to 13.2%, 10.1%, 0.2%, respectively. The immigrant survival rate was lower compared to that of children who were born in Italy. This is especially true for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients entered an AIEOP protocol, who showed a 10-years survival rate of 71.0% vs. 80.7% (p < 0.001) for immigrants and patients born in Italy, respectively. Conclusions Children and adolescents are an increasingly important part of the immigration phenomenon, which occurs in many parts of the world. In Italy the vast majority of children affected by malignancies are treated in AIEOP centres. Since immigrant children are predominantly treated in northern Italy, these centres have developed a special expertise in treating immigrant patients, which is certainly very useful for the entire AIEOP network. PMID:21923939

  20. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (JAN 2002) (a) The Contractor represents that...

  1. Campland: Racial Segregation of Roma in Italy. Country Reports Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahn, Claude; Carlisle, Kathryn D.; Fregoli, Claudia; Kiuranov, Deyan; Petrova, Dimitrina

    This report addresses racial segregation and human rights abuses against Roma in Italy, focusing on: "Anti-Gypsyism in Italy"; "Roma in Italy: Racial Segregation"; "Abuses by Police and Judicial Authorities" (e.g., abusive raids and evictions, abusive use of firearms, torture and physical abuse, discriminatory targeting of Roma by police, theft by…

  2. Vector species of Culicoides midges implicated in the 2012‑2014 Bluetongue epidemics in Italy.

    PubMed

    Goffredo, Maria; Catalani, Monica; Federici, Valentina; Portanti, Ottavio; Marini, Valeria; Mancini, Giuseppe; Quaglia, Michela; Santilli, Adriana; Teodori, Liana; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, serotypes 1 and 4 of bluetongue virus (BTV) entered and co‑circulated in Sardinia. The following year, BTV‑1 spread all over Sardinia and invaded Sicily and the Italian Tyrrenian coast. In 2014, this strain spread extensively in mainland Italy, causing severe outbreaks. In late 2014, BTV‑4 was detected in Southern Italy (Apulia region). This study reports the detection of BTV in species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) collected in Italy during the epidemics between 2012 and 2014. A total of 2,925 pools (83,102 midges), sorted from 651 collections made on 339 affected farms of 12 Italian regions, were tested for the presence of BTV by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR). The study clearly shows that Culicoides imicola and Obsoletus complex have played a crucial role in the bluetongue (BT) epidemics in Italy in 2012‑2014. Nevertheless, it also shows that other species may have played a role in transmitting BTV during these outbreaks. Culicoides dewulfi and at least 3 species of the Pulicaris complex, namely Culicoides pulicaris, Culicoides newsteadi and Culicoides punctatus, were found positive to BTV. Serotype 1 was detected in all species tested, whereas the BTV‑4 was detected in the Obsoletus complex, C. imicola, and C. newsteadi. PMID:26129664

  3. [Inequalities in health in Italy].

    PubMed

    Caiazzo, Antonio; Cardano, Mario; Cois, Ester; Costa, Giuseppe; Marinacci, Chiara; Spadea, Teresa; Vannoni, Francesca; Venturini, Lorenzo

    2004-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequality and its impact on health is a growing concern in the European public health debate. In many countries, the issue is moving away from description towards the identification of the determinants of inequalities and the development of policies explicitly aimed at reducing inequalities in health. In Italy, ten years after the publication of the first report on inequalities in health, this topic is seldom present on the agenda of public policy makers. The purpose of this report is to update the Italian profile of social variation in health and health care in order to stimulate the debate on ways to tackle inequalities in health that are preventable. In the first section of this book, the threefold objective is to describe the principal mechanisms involved in the generation of social inequalities in health (Introduction); to report Italian data on the distribution and magnitude of this phenomenon in the last decade; and to evaluate policies and interventions in both the social (chapter 1.9, Section I) and the health sector (chapter 2.3, Section I), which are potentially useful to reduce health inequalities. It is intended for anyone who is in a position to contribute t o decision-making that will benefit the health of communities. For this reason, chapters are organized by specific determinants of inequalities on which interentions may have an impact. The methodological approach in the second section focuses on the best methods to monitor social inequalities including recommendations on social indicators, sources of information and study models, based on European guidelines revised for the Italian situation. According to data from national and local studies, mortality increases linearly with social disadvantage for a wide range of indicators at both the individual (education, social class, income, quality of housing) and the geographical level (deprivation indexes computed at different levels of aggregation). This positive correlation is evident

  4. First case report of invasive pseudoterranoviasis in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cavallero, Serena; Scribano, Daniela; D'Amelio, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    Members of the genera Anisakis and Pseudoterranova are the main causative agents of human anisakidosis: the disease is worldwide distributed, with major impact in countries with a large consumption of raw fish. Because of unspecific symptoms and limited diagnostic tools, incidence and burden of disease are probably underestimated. In Italy, all human infestations where the etiological agent has been properly identified, have been associated to the parasitic species Anisakis pegreffii, the most frequent anisakid in the Mediterranean area. Here, an invasive human case of pseudoterranoviasis is described for the first time in Italy: in 2015, a woman was found infected during a colonoscopy scheduled after the occurrence of nonspecific clinical symptoms. The nematode was found penetrating the ascending colon. The identification was performed by sequencing the mitochondrial region cox2 and by comparison to GenBank retrieved material using the BLAST search tool. The sample showed a 99% identity with Pseudoterranova decipiens sensu stricto. The record underlines the potential risk due to the consumption of raw or undercooked imported fishes. PMID:27395343

  5. The epidemiology of Varicella Zoster Virus infection in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Gabutti, Giovanni; Rota, Maria C; Guido, Marcello; De Donno, Antonella; Bella, Antonino; Ciofi degli Atti, Marta L; Crovari, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    Background The epidemiological importance of varicella and zoster and the availability of an efficacious and safe vaccine have led to an important international debate regarding the suitability of mass vaccination. The objective of the study was to describe the epidemiology of varicella and zoster in Italy and to determine whether there have been changes with respect to observations provided by an analogous study conducted 8 years ago, in order to define the most appropriate vaccination strategy. Methods A number of data sources were evaluated, a cross-sectional population-based seroprevalence study was conducted on samples collected in 2004, and the results were compared with data obtained in 1996. Results The data from active and passive surveillance systems confirm that varicella is a widespread infectious disease which mainly affects children. VZV seroprevalence did not substantially differ from that found in the previous study. The sero-epidemiological profile in Italy is different from that in other European countries. In particular, the percentage of susceptible adolescents is at least nearly twice as high as in other European countries and in the age group 20–39 yrs, approximately 9% of individuals are susceptible to VZV. Conclusion The results of this study can contribute to evaluating the options for varicella vaccination. It is possible that in a few years, in all Italian Regions, there will exist the conditions necessary for implementing a mass vaccination campaign and that the large-scale availability of MMRV tetravalent vaccines will facilitate mass vaccination. PMID:18954432

  6. Gay and lesbian couples in Italy: comparisons with heterosexual couples.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Paolo; Dèttore, Davide; Lasagni, Irene; Snyder, Douglas K; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina

    2014-12-01

    Assessing couple relationships across diverse languages and cultures has important implications for both clinical intervention and prevention. This is especially true for nontraditional relationships potentially subject to various expressions of negative societal evaluation or bias. Few empirically validated measures of relationship functioning have been developed for cross-cultural applications, and none have been examined for their psychometric sufficiency for evaluating same-sex couples across different languages and cultures. The current study examined the psychometric properties of an Italian translation of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory - Revised (MSI-R), a 150-item 13-scale measure of couple relationship functioning, for its use in assessing the intimate relationships of gay and lesbian couples in Italy. Results for these couples were compared to data from heterosexual married and unmarried cohabiting couples from the same geographical region, as well as to previously published data for gay, lesbian, and unmarried heterosexual couples from the United States. Findings suggest that, despite unique societal pressures confronting Italian same-sex couples, these relationships appear resilient and fare well both overall and in specific domains of functioning compared to heterosexual couples both in Italy and the United States. PMID:24867576

  7. "Intelligent" Primary School Project in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    Construction work is about to begin on a new "intelligent" primary school for 300 students (later to be expanded for 600) in the Municipality of Solaro in the province of Milan. This is the first primary school building in Italy designed according to the principles of the "intelligent school" as defined by the Centre for Educational Innovation and…

  8. An Urban Renewal School Project in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    The restoration of an historic school building in Battipaglia, Italy, will provide new public facilities and is hoped to boost urban renewal. The municipality of Battipaglia, in the province of Salerno, held an architectural competition for renovating the E. De Amicis Primary School and the surrounding area. The winning project, submitted by a…

  9. Italy's Treasures Are in Their Hands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocca, Francis X.

    2007-01-01

    Each year more than 300 applicants vie for 18 slots at the Central Institute of Restoration, the program responsible for the restoration of many of Italy's greatest works of art, and the training of experts in the repair of objects of artistic and/or cultural significance. Successful candidates must demonstrate knowledge of art history, chemistry,…

  10. Is There an America in Italy's Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, William K.

    2005-01-01

    When the author first heard that Italy wants to adopt the American model of education, his immediate reaction was, "Why would you want to do that?" American schools can scarcely teach students to read and write. American students are abysmally ignorant about history, geography, and world affairs. In international assessments of achievement,…

  11. School Quality and Family Background in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunello, G.; Checchi, D.

    2005-01-01

    We study whether the combined significant reduction in the pupil-teacher ratio and increase in parental education observed in Italy between the end of the second World War and the end of the 1980s have had a significant impact on the educational attainment and the labor market returns of a representative sample of Italians born between 1941 and…

  12. Education in Italy. Bulletin, 1919, No. 36

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Walter A.

    1919-01-01

    The economic and social exigencies brought about for Italy by her entrance into the war in May, 1915, inevitably led her educational thinkers to submit her traditional system of education to more careful scrutiny than ever before, and to recognize how inadequate it was along certain lines to meet the demands thrust upon it by the new conditions.…

  13. Runoff generation through ephemeral streams in south-east Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doglioni, A.; Simeone, V.; Giustolisi, O.

    2012-04-01

    Ephemeral streams are morphological elements, typical of karst areas, characterized by relatively large and flat bottom transects (Camarasa & Tilford, 2002). These occasionally drain runoff generated by extreme rainfall events, characterized by high return periods. The activation of these streams was investigated by several authors for the Mediterranean regions, and in particular for south Spain and north Africa (Camarasa & Segura, 2001; De Vera, 1984). However, there are few analyses for karst areas of south-east of Italy (Cotecchia, 2006; Polemio, 2010). South-east of Italy, in particular the central part of Apulia, is characterized by a karst morphology, with a moderately elevated plateau, namely Murgia, which is drained by a network of ephemeral streams. These are normally dry, relatively short-length and straights, and their main outlets are on the coast. They normally drain water after extraordinary rainfall events, which can generate very high discharges, which can potentially flood the areas close to the streams. For this reason, the definition of an activation threshold for ephemeral streams is a paramount problem, even if this constitutes a complex problem, since the dynamics of the catchment drained by these streams in highly non-linear and biased by multiple variables (e.g. urbanization, land use, etc.). The main problem affecting the analysis and prediction of flood events in karst semi-arid regions is the almost complete absence of discharge time-series, measured at the outlets of the ephemeral streams. This prevents from the identification of accurate statistics of flood events and on the determination of rainfall events, which may potentially generate floods. Indeed, floods and in general flash floods are relatively rare events for semi-arid karst regions, however they can be really severe and disruptive, causing serious damages to people and infrastructures. This work presents an analysis of the ephemeral stream activation in karst semi-arid areas

  14. Interregional comparison of karst disturbance: west-central Florida and southeast Italy.

    PubMed

    North, Leslie A; van Beynen, Philip E; Parise, Mario

    2009-04-01

    The karst disturbance index (KDI) consists of 31 environmental indicators contained within the five broad categories: geomorphology, hydrology, atmosphere, biota, and cultural. The purpose of this research is to apply the KDI to two distinct karst areas, west Florida, USA, and Apulia, Italy. Through its application, the utility of the index can be validated and other important comparisons can be made, such as differences in the karst legislations implemented in each region and the effect of time exposure to human occupation to each karst terrain. Humans have intensively impacted the karst of southeast Italy for thousands of years compared to only decades in west-central Florida. However, west-central Florida's higher population density allows the region to reach disturbance levels comparable to those reached over a longer period in Apulia. Similarly, Italian karst is more diverse than the karst found in west-central Florida, creating an opportunity to test all the KDI indicators. Overall, major disturbances for southeast Italy karst include quarrying, stone clearing, and the dumping of refuse into caves, while west-central Florida suffers most from the infilling of sinkholes, soil compaction, changes in the water table, and vegetation removal. The application of the KDI allows a benchmark of disturbance to be established and later revisited to determine the changing state of human impact for a region. The highlighting of certain indicators that recorded high levels of disturbance also allows regional planners to allocate resources in a more refined manner. PMID:19135774

  15. Evidence for bovine besnoitiosis being endemic in Italy--first in vitro isolation of Besnoitia besnoiti from cattle born in Italy.

    PubMed

    Gentile, A; Militerno, G; Schares, G; Nanni, A; Testoni, S; Bassi, P; Gollnick, N S

    2012-03-23

    Until 2009, bovine besnoitiosis had never been considered endemic in Italy and the only report on the disease in this country referred to animals imported from France shortly before. However, recently, an autochthonous outbreak of bovine besnoitiosis was reported in four herds located at the intersection of the borders between Emilia-Romagna, Toscana and Marche (Northern Apennine Mountains), which has led to an increased awareness concerning this disease. The present study describes a further outbreak of bovine besnoitiosis in Italy. The afflicted herd was a dairy herd with no evidence for contact with cattle from regions known to be endemic for bovine besnoitiosis. The farm investigation was initiated after a three-year old Holstein Friesian dairy cow with generalized thickening and lichenification of the skin was diagnosed with bovine besnoitiosis. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by gross pathology, histopathology, serology and PCR. Bradyzoites released from tissue cysts obtained from the skin of this animal enabled the first in vitro isolation of Besnoitia besnoiti in Italy. This isolate was named Bb-Italy1. Sequencing of a 2118 bp spanning region including the complete internal transcribed spacer 1 and parts of the 18S and the 5.8S rRNA gene from DNA extracted from skin-derived zoites revealed a 99.9% identity to sequences known for other B. besnoiti isolated from cattle in Europe. Two GKO mice which had been inoculated intraperitoneally with bovine skin-derived bradyzoites became ill 7 days post inoculation. Parasitophorous vacuoles with multiplying zoites were observed in the cell culture inoculated with peritoneal fluids of these mice and a B. besnoiti infection in the mice and in the cell culture could be confirmed by real-time PCR. A serological investigation in the afflicted herd using immunoblots and an immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) revealed an overall herd seroprevalence of 9.7% (31/321), whereas within the female animals older than 2

  16. A survey of yeasts in traditional sausages of southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Gardini, F; Suzzi, G; Lombardi, A; Galgano, F; Crudele, M A; Andrighetto, C; Schirone, M; Tofalo, R

    2001-07-01

    The evolution of the yeast population during manufacturing and ripening of 'salsiccia sotto sugna', a typical salami of the Lucania region (southern Italy), was investigated. Four different batches, produced in four farms in Lucania, were studied. Each batch showed a specific yeast population, and the most frequently isolated yeasts belonged to Debaryomyces hansenii and its anamorph Candida famata, and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Yarrowia lipolytica was isolated from three sausage batches. The Y. lipolytica isolates were further characterised, in particular for their lipolytic activity on pork fat. Lipolytic activity was maximal at pH 5.5, with oleic and palmitic acids as major free fatty acids produced. The use of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction allowed the detection of a high genetic heterogeneity among the isolates phenotypically assigned to the species Y. lipolytica. PMID:12702361

  17. Usutu virus in wild birds in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Manarolla, G; Bakonyi, T; Gallazzi, D; Crosta, L; Weissenböck, H; Dorrestein, G M; Nowotny, N

    2010-02-24

    Usutu virus (USUV) infection was diagnosed in two free-living blackbirds and in three captive owls belonging to two different species in northern Italy in the summers of 2006-2008. Diagnosis was established by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. RT-PCR was performed on frozen and on paraffin-embedded tissues (PET), respectively. From the frozen samples a partial sequence of the putative USUV E and NS1 proteins (1229 bp) was determined, whereas partial sequences of the putative NS3 (278 bp) and NS5 (159 bp) proteins were obtained from PET. Additionally, one partial sequence (163 bp) of the putative 3'UTR region was determined from all samples. Sequencing of the amplification products revealed 99.8-100% nucleotide identity of the Italian USUV strains to those from other central European countries. PMID:19720475

  18. Folk phytotherapeutical plants from Maratea area (Basilicata, Italy).

    PubMed

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Salerno, Giovanni; Caneva, Giulia

    2005-07-14

    Field ethnobotanical survey was undertaken for the period of 2002-2003 in the Tyrrhenian part of the Basilicata region of southern Italy. Data of 56 species of plants belonging to 29 families where gathered through interviews; among the species, 47 are used in human therapy, 6 as insect repellents, 15 in veterinary medicine, 1 for its ichthyotoxic properties and 3 for magic therapeutic purposes. The most important findings in ethnomedicine relate to Nasturtium officinale (renal colic, liver diseases), Foeniculum vulgare subsp. piperitum (mouth ulcers), Leopoldia comosa (toothache, headache), Micromeria graeca subsp. graeca (coughs) and Ceterach officinarum (malaria), while in the ethnoveterinary field, we have Pteridium aquilinum (wolf bites) and Spartium junceum (fractures of animal limbs). PMID:15878246

  19. Forest fires in Italy: An econometric analysis of major driving factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michetti, Melania; Pinar, Mehmet

    2013-04-01

    Despite the relevant fire risk to which Italy is subject from north to south, very few analysis focus on this area. This article investigates the causes of forest fires frequency and intensity in Italy during the first decade of the XXI century. The dynamical aspects of fire danger are explored through the use of panel data techniques which fully capture the impacts on forest fires of changes in both socio-economic and climatic conditions. Italy is treated as a unique region in a first model specification, while it is then split into 3 geographical areas (north, centre, and south) to capture locally specific aspects. Two different dependent variables are alternatively employed and a number of ad hoc tests are performed to corroborate the robustness of our estimates. Results highlight the importance of considering the fire situation separately for the northern, central, and southern parts of Italy. While the presence of railway networks positively affects fire risk, the impact of livestock depends on its specific composition. Favourable effects in fire reduction are represented by the increase in education levels (north and centre) and touristic flows (north and south), and by the containment of illegal activities (south). Weather patterns appear to be important determinants all over the Italian peninsula.

  20. DEMETER In The Context Of The Irrigation And Reclamation Consortia In Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fais, A.

    2006-08-01

    About 75% of agricultural production in Southern Italy depends on irrigation. Water is therefore a vital element, required by farmers timely, at a reasonable price and in the requested quantities. In Southern Italy water is relatively scarce and is not uniformly distributes: regions or areas with the most intensive agricultural irrigated crops have limited water availability. Furthermore, there is a very strong competition between irrigation and other uses of water (urban areas, industries and tourist resorts). Water management is highly fragmented, among over 60 local reclamation consortia, regional governments, organisms in charge of dams' maintenance and regulation. In this framework DEMETER could play a key role in water use optimization, but defining an operative level approach, and an agreement with the local water governance in financial supporting DEMETER services and technological tools up-take.

  1. Payment for performance (P4P): any future in Italy?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pay for Performance (P4P) programs, based on provision of financial incentives for service quality, have been widely adopted to enhance quality of care and to promote a more efficient use of health care resources whilst improving patient outcomes. In Italy, as in other countries, the growing concern over the quality of health services provided and the scarcity of resources would make P4P programs a useful means of improving their performance. The aim of this paper is to evaluate whether it is possible to implement P4P programs in the Lombardy Region, in Italy, based on the existing data set. Methods Thirteen quality measures were identified regarding four clinical conditions (acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure (HF), ischemic stroke and hip and knee replacement) on the basis of an international literature review. Data was collected using the database of three institutions, which included hospital discharge records (Scheda di Dimissione ospedaliera-SDO-) and letters of discharge. The study population was identified using both the Principal ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes and the discharge date. A Statistical Analysis System (SAS) program was used for the text analysis. Results It was possible to calculate almost all the parameters pertaining to the three hospitals as all the data required was available with the exception of inpatient mortality in two hospitals and smoking cessation advice/counseling in one hospital. Conclusions On the ground of this analysis, we believe that it is possible to implement a P4P program in the Lombardy Region. However, for this program to be initiated, all necessary data must be available in electronic format and uniformly collected. Moreover, several other factors must be assessed: which clinical conditions should be included, the threshold for each quality parameter, the amount of financial incentives offered and how they will be provided. PMID:21605472

  2. Morphology and evolution of sulphuric acid caves in South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; De Waele, Jo; Galdenzi, Sandro; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Vattano, Marco

    2016-04-01

    speleogenesis. Geology, 32: 369-372. De Waele J., Audra P., Madonia G., Vattano M., Plan L., D'Angeli I.M., Bigot J.-Y., Nobécourt J.-C., 2016 - Sulfuric acid speleogenesis (SAS) close to the water table: examples from southern France, Austria, and Sicily. Geomorphology, 253: 452-467. Furlani S., Cucchi F., Odorico R., 2010 - A new method to study micro-topographical changes in the intertidal zone: one year of TMEM measurements on a limestone removable slab (RRS). Z. Geomorph., 54(2): 137-151. Galdenzi S., 1997 - Initial geological observations in caves bordering the Sibari plain (southern Italy). J. Cave Karst Stud., 59: 81-86. Galdenzi S., 2012 - Corrosion of limestone tablets in sulfidic ground-water: measurements and speleogenetic implications. Int. J. Spel., 41(2): 149-159. Galdenzi S., Menichetti M., 1995 - Occurrence of hypogenic caves in a karst region: examples from central Italy. Environmental Geology, 26: 39-47. Galdenzi S., Cocchioni F., Filipponi G., Selvaggio R., Scuri S., Morichetti L., Cocchioni M., 2010 - The sulfidic thermal caves of Acquasanta Terme (central Italy). J. Cave Karst Stud. 72(1): 43-58. Jones, D.S., Polerecky, L., Galdenzi, S., Dempsey, B.A., Macalady, J.L., 2015 - Fate of sulfide in the Frasassi cave system and implications for sulfuric acid speleogenesis. Chemical Geology, 410: 21-27.

  3. Report on religious slaughter practices in Italy.

    PubMed

    Novelli, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The term 'religious slaughter' commonly refers to the practice of killing animals without stunning, according to the precepts of Jewish and Muslim religions. The aim of this paper is to assess the situation concerning ritual slaughtering in not-stun bovines, small ruminants, and poultry in Italy in 2012. The study was divided into 2 phases. During the rst phase, preliminary data about all slaughterhouses authorized for ritual slaughter in Italy in 2012 are collected through the compilation of a questionnaire sent to each plants. The second step involved a sampling of not-stun animals religiously slaughtered in 5 selected plants. Authors collected and compiled all informations about management, restrain system and rite taking into account in particular animal welfare. PMID:27033526

  4. Seasonal fluctuations of sap-feeding insect species infected by Xylella fastidiosa in apulian olive groves of southern Italy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study on seasonal abundance and infectivity by Xylella fastidiosa of Auchenorrhyncha species in the Apulia region of Italy was conducted to identify ideal periods for monitoring and adoption of potential control measures against insect vectors. Adult populations of Auchenorrhyncha species were mon...

  5. Meningococcal serogroup B vaccine in Italy: state-of-art, organizational aspects and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Signorelli, C; Chiesa, V; Odone, A

    2015-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis causes severe invasive meningococcal diseases (IMDs) in humans including meningitis and septicemia, responsible for serious clinical conditions and leading to life-long disabilities and death. Serogroup B dominates IMDs burden in Italy, accounting for over 60% of total cases. On January 2013 the European Medicine Agency (EMA) licensed the first serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine in Europe. A number of European countries and Regions have introduced the new MenB vaccine in their immunization schedule, including Italy. In this paper we present the state of art, related critical issues and future perspectives of MenB vaccine introduction in Italy, in the context of the most recent available epidemiological data. In particular, we systematically assess the ongoing processes in the 8 Italian regions and one autonomous province that have already introduced MenB vaccine. With the new 2014-2018 National Vaccine Prevention Plan including active MenB vaccine offer about to be adopted, it is of fundamental importance to gather further evidence on MenB vaccine clinical effectiveness, duration of protection and cost-effectiveness. Italian regions are called to organize and manage MenB immunization programs. Careful consideration will need to be devoted on timing, doses, and co-administration with other vaccines but also to economic assessments and strengthened communication to the general public. Our data will help to plan, implement and evaluate MenB immunization programmes in other Italian and international settings. PMID:26788733

  6. Twenty years of paleoseismology in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, Paolo; Galadini, Fabrizio; Pantosti, Daniela

    2008-05-01

    Italy has one of the most complete and historically extensive seismic catalogues in the World due to a unique and uninterrupted flow of written sources that have narrated its seismic history since about the end of the Iron Age. Seismic hazard studies have therefore always been mainly based upon this huge mass of data. Nevertheless, the Italian catalogue probably "lacks" many M ≥ 6.5 events, the seismogenetic structures responsible for which are characterized by recurrence times that are longer than the time span covered by our historical sources. For these reasons, and as in other countries, earthquake data that in Italy have been derived from paleoseismological studies should finally become a necessary ingredient in seismic risk assessment. Indeed, over the past 20 years, some hundred trenches have been excavated, supplying reliable and conclusive data on the recent activities of many faults. Through to many robust datings of surface fault events, these studies have provided the ages of several unknown or poorly known M ≥ 6.5 earthquakes. Here, we summarize the state of the art of paleoseismology in Italy, and present a first catalogue of 56 paleoearthquakes (PCI) that occurred mainly in the past 6 kyr. The PCI integrates the historical/instrumental seismic catalogue, and extends it beyond the recurrence time of the seismogenetic faults (2000 ± 1000 yr). We feel confident that the use of the PCI will enhance future probabilistic seismic hazard assessment, and thus contribute to more reliable seismic risk mitigation programs.

  7. Culture and the environment in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, David

    1985-03-01

    This essay evaluates the historical development and current background of human-environment relationships in Italy. The Italian landscape consists of very varied terrain, and periodically suffers from all kinds of natural hazard, especially earthquakes, landslides, floods, and accelerated soil erosion. Some measure of environmental conservation was achieved by the Etruscans and Romans, but the Classical period also marked the beginning of serious lowland waterlogging, malarial infestation, upland soil erosion, and deforestation, which all increased during the Middle Ages. From the Renaissance to the 18th century, there was a diffusion of planned landscapes and carefully managed estates; but by the 20th century, many rural areas could not support growing populations and much land was in need of improvement. Underdevelopment and latifundium agriculture increased the vulnerability to environmental hazards of the Mezzogiorno (Italian South), while the subsequent disappearance of the peasant culture seems not to have led to greatly improved conservation or land management. Poorly farmed or managed landscapes and poorly maintained historic towns have undergone some virtually irreversible degradation, especially with respect to landslides and earthquake damage. Elsewhere in Italy, unchecked urbanization, weak planning laws, and their inadequate enforcement have helped both to reduce environmental quality, by overdevelopment of valued landscapes, and to increase natural disaster vulnerability, by encouraging occupance of natural hazard zones. Although there are signs that the government is beginning to respond to the cumulative effect of environmental degradation, the measures are insufficient to reverse the overall trend toward decadence that characterizes human-land relationships in Italy.

  8. Early warning system to forecast rainfall-induced landslides in Italy (SANF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Mauro

    2010-05-01

    Harmful landslide events are frequent in Italy. In this Country, in 2009 rainfall-induced landslides have caused at least 208 casualties, in multiple landslide events. In the period 1950-2009, the average yearly number of harmful landslide events has exceeded 35, most of which rainfall-induced landslide events. These figures indicate the impact that rainfall-induced landslides have on the population of Italy. The Italian national Department for Civil Protection (DPC), an Office of the Prime Minister, and the Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection (IRPI), of the Italian National Research Council (CNR), are designing and implementing a prototype system to forecast the possible occurrence of rainfall-induced landslides in Italy. The system is based on two components. The first component consists of: (i) a set of national, regional, and local rainfall thresholds (of the intensity-duration (ID) type) for possible landslide imitation, (ii) a database of sub-hourly rainfall measurements obtained by a network of 1950 rain gauges in Italy, and (iii) quantitative rainfall forecasts acquired through numerical modelling. Every day, and for each individual rain gauge, the system compares the measured and the forecasted rainfall amounts against pre-defined thresholds, and assigns to each rain gauge a probability for possible landslide occurrence. This information is used to prepare synoptic-scale maps showing where rainfall-induced landslides are expected, in a period of time. The second component of the system consists of synoptic assessments of landslide hazard and risk in Italy, including small-scale zoning maps. The assessments are obtained through statistical modelling of thematic and environmental information, including national catalogues of historical landslides and of historical landslides with human consequences in Italy, in the period 1900-2005. Combination of the hazard and risk zonations with the daily forecasts for possible landslide occurrence, allows

  9. A national early warning system for rainfall-induced landslides in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzetti, F.; Rossi, M.; Peruccacci, S.; Brunetti, M.; Marchesini, I.; Ardizzone, F.; Balducci, V.; Bianchi, C.; Cardinali, M.; Fiorucci, F.; Mondini, A.; Reichenbach, P.; Salvati, P.; Tonelli, G.; Dello Buono, D.; Izzi, F.; Amato, L.; La Scaleia, G.; Maio, D.; Pagliara, P.; de Bernardinis, B.

    2010-12-01

    In Italy, intense or prolonged rainfall is the primary cause of landslides, and rainfall-induced slope failures occur every year, claiming lives, causing economic disruption, and producing environmental problems. In 2009, rainfall-induced landslides in Italy have caused more than 200 casualties (deaths, missing persons, injured people), in multiple landslide events. In the period 1950-2009, the average yearly number of harmful landslide events has exceeded 35, most of which were rainfall-induced landslide events. These figures indicate the impact that rainfall-induced landslides have on the population of Italy. The Italian national Department for Civil Protection (DPC), an Office of the Prime Minister, and the Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection (IRPI), of the Italian National Research Council (CNR), have designed and implemented a prototype system to forecast the possible occurrence of rainfall-induced landslides in Italy. The system is based on two main components. The first component consists of: (i) a set of national, regional, and local rainfall thresholds (of the intensity-duration (ID) type) for possible landslide occurrence, (ii) a database of sub-hourly rainfall measurements obtained by a nationwide network of 1950 rain gauges, and (iii) a database of daily quantitative rainfall forecasts obtained through numerical modelling. Every day, and for each individual rain gauge, the system compares the measured and the forecasted rainfall amounts against pre-defined thresholds, and assigns to each rain gauge a probability of possible landslide occurrence. This information is used to prepare synoptic-scale maps showing where rainfall induced landslides are expected, in a period of time. The second component of the system consists of synoptic assessments of landslide hazard and risk in Italy, including small-scale maps. The assessments were obtained through the statistical modelling of thematic and environmental information, including national

  10. Rainstorms in Calabria (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terranova, O.; Gariano, S. L.; Iaquinta, P.

    2012-04-01

    Many regions belonging to the Mediterranean basin are subject to a large number of catastrophic geo-hydrological events with high economic and social impact. Calabria, composed of several small basins with steep slopes and erodible soils, is frequently subject to rainfall-induced natural processes that cause dramatic consequences on the population (i.e. flash floods, intense soil erosion, fast slope movements). Proper understanding, interpreting and forecasting of rainfall events is a prerequisite for the adoption of appropriate mitigation measures and reducing the connected risk. This information is rarely available at the appropriate time scale (at the order of minutes) and does not have sufficient coverage in space. Thanks to the availability of observations with high temporal detail related to 155 sites in Calabria, a considerable amount of data were analysed in order to contribute to the quantitative and qualitative characterization of extreme rainfall events affecting the Calabrian territory. In particular, the study considers more than 152 thousands storms having different durations that took place in different seasons between 1989 and 2008. In order to classify rainfall events as "significant" with regard to their contribution to soil erosion, flooding and/or other geo-hydrological processes, 45534 storms were selected and analyzed. First, the analysis was carried out to characterize, in simple but effective, the rainfall events with regard to: i) magnitude; ii) locations with high frequency per year; iii) locations where they are most severe; iv) within-storm temporal patterns; vi) the season in which they occur, even in relation to their temporal structure and severity. As concerns the structure of the storm, the use of standardized rainfall profiles (SRP) to compare them, by simplifying analyses and presentation of data, is adopted in this study. In addition, the regional statistical analysis of the total rainfall of the events, due to its major

  11. 2-D Coda and Direct Wave Attenuation Tomography in Northern Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Morasca, P; Mayeda, K; Gok, R; Phillips, W S; Malagnini, L

    2007-10-17

    A 1-D coda method was proposed by Mayeda et al. (2003) in order to obtain stable seismic source moment-rate spectra using narrowband coda envelope measurements. That study took advantage of the averaging nature of coda waves to derive stable amplitude measurements taking into account all propagation, site, and Sto-coda transfer function effects. Recently this methodology was applied to micro earthquake data sets from three sub-regions of northern Italy (i.e., western Alps, northern Apennines and eastern Alps). Since the study regions were small, ranging between local-to-near-regional distances, the simple 1-D path assumptions used in the coda method worked very well. The lateral complexity of this region would suggest, however, that a 2-D path correction might provide even better results if the datasets were combined, especially when paths traverse larger distances and complicated regions. The structural heterogeneity of northern Italy makes the region ideal to test the extent to which coda variance can be reduced further by using a 2-D Q tomography technique. The approach we use has been developed by Phillips et al. (2005) and is an extension of previous amplitude ratio techniques to remove source effects from the inversion. The method requires some assumptions such as isotropic source radiation which is generally true for coda waves. Our results are compared against direct Swave inversions for 1/Q and results from both share very similar attenuation features that coincide with known geologic structures. We compare our results with those derived from direct waves as well as some recent results from northern California obtained by Mayeda et al. (2005) which tested the same tomographic methodology applied in this study to invert for 1/Q. We find that 2-D coda path corrections for this region significantly improve upon the 1-D corrections, in contrast to California where only a marginal improvement was observed. We attribute this difference to stronger lateral

  12. US quality control in Italy: present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbis, S.; Musacchio, C.; Guiot, C.; Spagnolo, R.

    2011-02-01

    US diagnostic equipments are widely diffused in Italy but, in spite of recommendations (e.g. ISPESL-Ministry of Health (1999) and SIRM (Società Italiana di Radiologia Medica, 2004), US quality controls are restricted to only a few public sanitary structure and a national (or even regional) quality assurance program for testing the performances of the US equipments is still missing. A joint Research Centre among the three Piedmontese Universities and INRIM, partially funded by Regione Piemonte, has been established in 2009 as Reference Centre for Medical Ultrasounds (CRUM). In addition to research, development and training tasks, the Centre aims at the local diffusion of the quality assurance in clinical US equipments. According to data from the Ministry of Health (2006), around 7 % of the Italian US diagnostic equipments (946 over 13526) are located in Piedmont: mostly (75.6%) in public hospitals, 9.3 % in conventionated hospitals, 4.3% in public and 10.8% in private territorial structures. The goal is the provision of a regional database, which progressively includes data related to acceptance test, status and QC tests and maintenance, in order to drive equipment turnover and carefully monitoring the overall equipment efficiency. Moreover, facilities are available at CRUM for monitoring both beam geometry and acoustic power and performing quantitative assessment of the delivered energy intensity.

  13. The financial crisis in Italy: implications for the healthcare sector.

    PubMed

    de Belvis, Antonio Giulio; Ferrè, Francesca; Specchia, Maria Lucia; Valerio, Luca; Fattore, Giovanni; Ricciardi, Walter

    2012-06-01

    The global economic and financial crisis is having and impact on the Italian healthcare system which is undergoing a devolution process from the central government to regions and where about one third of the regional governments (mainly in the central and southern part of the country) are facing large financial deficits. The paper briefly describes the current macro scenario and the main responses taken to face the crisis and highlights the downside risks of introducing "linear" cuts in the allocation of resources. While justified by the risk of a national debt default, present fiscal policies might increase inequalities in access to care, deteriorate overall health indicators and population wellbeing, and sharpen existing difference in the quality of care between regions. Preliminary evidence shows that the crisis is affecting the quality of nutrition and the incidence of psychiatric disorders. During this difficult financial situation Italy is also facing the risk of a major reduction in investments for preventive medicine, Evidence Based Medicine infrastructures, health information systems and physical capital renewal. This cost-cutting strategy may have negative long term consequences Also, important achievement in terms of limiting waiting lists, improving continuity of care and patients' centeredness, and promoting integration between social and health care may be negatively affected by unprecedented resources' cuts. It is essential that in such a period of public funding constraints health authorities monitor incidence of diseases and access to care of the most vulnerable groups and specifically target interventions to those who may be disproportionally hit by the crisis. PMID:22551787

  14. Campora: A Young Genetic Isolate in South Italy

    PubMed Central

    Colonna, Vincenza; Nutile, Teresa; Astore, Maria; Guardiola, Ombretta; Antoniol, Giuliano; Ciullo, Marina; Persico, M. Graziella

    2007-01-01

    Genetic isolates have been successfully used in the study of complex traits, mainly because due to their features, they allow a reduction in the complexity of the genetic models underlying the trait. The aim of the present study is to describe the population of Campora, a village in the South of Italy, highlighting its properties of a genetic isolate. Both historical evidence and multi-locus genetic data (genomic and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms) have been taken into account in the analyses. The extension of linkage disequilibrium (LD) regions has been evaluated on autosomes and on a region of the X chromosome. We defined a study sample population on the basis of the genealogy and exogamy data. We found in this population a few different mitochondrial and Y chromosome haplotypes and we ascertained that, similarly to other isolated populations, in Campora LD extends over wider region compared to large and genetically heterogeneous populations. These findings indicate a conspicuous genetic homogeneity in the genome. Finally, we found evidence for a recent population bottleneck that we propose to interpret as a demographic crisis determined by the plague of the 17th century. Overall our findings demonstrate that Campora displays the genetic characteristics of a young isolate. PMID:17476112

  15. Usutu virus in Italy: an emergence or a silent infection?

    PubMed

    Savini, Giovanni; Monaco, Federica; Terregino, Calogero; Di Gennaro, Annapia; Bano, Luca; Pinoni, Chiara; De Nardi, Roberta; Bonilauri, Paolo; Pecorari, Monica; Di Gialleonardo, Luigina; Bonfanti, Lebana; Polci, Andrea; Calistri, Paolo; Lelli, Rossella

    2011-08-01

    A two year study (2008-2009) was carried out to monitor the Usutu virus (USUV) circulation in Italy. Sentinel horses and chickens, wild birds and mosquitoes were sampled and tested for the presence of USUV and USUV antibodies within the WND National Surveillance plan. Seroconversion evidenced in sentinel animals proved that in these two years the virus has circulated in Tuscany, Emilia Romagna, Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia regions. In Veneto USUV caused a severe blackbird die-off disease involving at least a thousand birds. Eleven viral strains were detected in organs of 9 blackbirds (52.9%) and two magpies (0.5%) originating from Veneto and Emilia Romagna regions. USUV was also detected in a pool of Culex pipiens caught in Tuscany. According to the alignment of the NS5 partial sequences, no differences between the Italian USUV strains isolated from Veneto, Friuli and Emilia Romagna regions were observed. The Italian North Eastern strain sequences were identical to those of the strain detected in the brain of a human patient and shared a high similarity with the isolates from Vienna and Budapest. Conversely, there were few differences between the Italian strains which circulated in the North Eastern regions and the USUV strain detected in a pool of C. pipiens caught in Tuscany. A high degree of similarity at both nucleotide and amino acid level was also found when the full genome sequence of the Italian North Eastern isolate was compared with that of the strains circulating in Europe. The North Eastern Italian strain sequence exhibited 97% identity to the South African reference strain SAAR-1776. The deduced amino acid sequences of the Italian strain differed by 10 and 11 amino-acids from the Budapest and Vienna strains, respectively, and by 28 from the SAAR-1776 strain. According to this study two strains of USUVs are likely to have circulated in Italy between 2008 and 2009. They have developed strategies of adaptation and evolution to spread into new areas

  16. A statistical procedure for fire risk mapping in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorucci, Paolo; Biondi, Guido; Campo, Lorenzo; D'Andrea, Mirko

    2015-04-01

    The high topographic and vegetation heterogeneity makes Italy vulnerable to forest fires both in the summer and in winter. In particular, northern regions are predominantly characterized by a winter fire regime, mainly due to frequent extremely dry winds from the north, while southern and central regions and the large islands are characterized by a severe summer fire regime, because of the higher temperatures and prolonged lack of precipitation. The threat of wildfires in Italy is not confined to wooded areas as they extend to agricultural areas and urban-forest interface areas. In view of the limited availability of fire risk management resources, most of which are used in the management of national and regional air services, it is necessary to precisely identify the areas most vulnerable to fire risk. The few resources available can thus be used on a yearly basis to mitigate problems in the areas at highest risk by defining a program of forest management interventions, which is expected to make a significant contribution to the problem in a few years' time. Given the availability of fire perimeters mapped over a period spanning from 5 to 10 years, depending by the region, a statistical procedure was defined in order to assess areas at risk based on objective criteria by observing past fire events. The availability of fire perimeters combined with a detailed knowledge of topography and land cover allowed to understand which are the main features involved in forest fire occurrences and their behavior. The seasonality of the fire regime was also considered, partitioning the analysis in two macro season (November-April and May- October). In addition, the total precipitation obtained from the interpolation of 30 years-long time series from 460 raingauges and the average air temperature obtained downscaling 30 years ERA-INTERIM data series were considered. The analysis consists on the subdivision of the territory in classes based on the named information layers

  17. Spending on pharmaceuticals in Italy: macro constraints with local autonomy.

    PubMed

    Mapelli, Vittorio; Lucioni, Carlo

    2003-01-01

    Italy has a national health service (SSN) that is moving toward decentralization and empowerment of local health enterprises (LHEs)-the arms of the regions for delivering health services. Drug policy and spending decisions are both influenced by central government and local authorities. At the "macro" level, the government holds the power to decide the amount of drug expenditure, currently at 13% of total SSN expenditure; the pricing policy, price negotiation, reference price, and price cuts; criteria for reimbursement, inclusion in the positive list, and restrictive notes; and the copayments and exemptions. So far, the government concern has been predominantly on cost containment, and its approach in selecting drugs for reimbursement has been cost minimization. Italy has no centralized office for health technology assessment and this hinders the search for an efficient use of drugs. At the "micro" level, however, the LHEs are showing a great vitality in fostering a better use of drugs by general practitioners. One of the tools employed is local voluntary agreements between LHEs and general practitioners (GPs) that may be supported by economic incentives, in cash or in kind. In 2000 there were 61 agreements in place, 31% of total LHEs, which concerned the respect of drug expenditure ceilings and the local development and implementation of clinical guidelines (47% of LHEs). A traditional and widespread tool for controlling drug expenditure is providing GPs with regular reports on their drug prescriptions (59% of LHEs). Monitoring, moral suasion, and clinical guidelines are the main incentives for efficiency at local level, but focus on health outcomes is limited. The cost-containment mentality still prevails and the use of drug budget for purchasing better health is at its very early stage. PMID:12846924

  18. Investigation on the occurrence of Echinococcus multilocularis in Central Italy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent studies on geographic distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis in Europe show that it has a wider range than previously thought. It is unclear, however, if the wider distribution is due to its recent spreading or to a lack of previous data from the new areas. Italy, previously considered E. multilocularis-free, is now part of these new areas: infected foxes (the main definitive host of the tapeworm) have been observed in a Northern Alpine territory. Thus, more surveys need to be done in other Italian regions in order to monitor the spreading of E. multilocularis. The aim of the present study was to look for this parasite in 283 foxes collected in an Apennine area of Central Italy by different diagnostic methods. Results The foxes were heavily parasitized by 11 helminthic genera, but none of the animals was infected by E. multilocularis neither by E. granulosus (harboured adult worms or their DNA). Low specificity was observed in commercially available ELISA kits for the detection of E. multilocularis antigens in the faeces. Molecular diagnostics were sensitive and specific for the detection and identification of tapeworm eggs in faeces, but less sensitive, although specific, to adult tapeworms in the intestinal content. Conclusion Preliminarily, we can say that no E. multilocularis could be found in the study area. These data will enable us to follow temporal changes of the spatial distribution of the parasite in the study area of the Central Apennines. Due to its low specificity the ELISA kit for E. multilocularis coproantigens is not suitable for epidemiological surveys, whereas molecular diagnostics applied to faecal samples give useful results. Finally, absence of E. granulosus in foxes living in the endemic areas studied confirms the thought that this tapeworm prefers a different definitive host. PMID:19941652

  19. Evidences of increasing risk of dirofilarioses in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Giangaspero, A; Marangi, M; Latrofa, M S; Martinelli, D; Traversa, D; Otranto, D; Genchi, C

    2013-03-01

    Given the spread of Aedes albopictus from northern to southern Italy, and the lack of updated data on Dirofilaria infections, this study was carried out to assess the infection risk for dogs and cats in Apulia region. During a 2-year study, 175 A. albopictus female specimens and samples of blood from 427 dogs (309 privately owned dogs and 118 shelter dogs) and 12 cats were collected. All blood samples were subjected to a modified Knott method, to a test for the detection of circulating Dirofilaria immitis antigen, and to a Dirofilaria species-specific real-time PCR for the simultaneous detection of D. immitis and Dirofilaria repens, targeting on partial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 and internal transcribed spacer-2, respectively. Two abdomen and one thorax pools from A. albopictus were positive for D. immitis, with minimum infection rates of 1.14 and 0.51, respectively, and a probability of a single positive specimen to be infected of P = 0.6 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.12-1.73). Out of 439 examined subjects, 22 (5.0 %) tested positive for Dirofilaria spp. in at least one diagnostic test. A specific D. immitis infestation rate of 3.5 % was found among the privately owned dogs, while shelter dogs tested positive only for D. repens with a prevalence of 3.4 %; one cat tested molecularly positive for D. immitis. There was a significantly higher rate of positivity among guard dogs for D. immitis (odds ratio, 6.24, 95 % CI, 1.26-25.28; P < 0.05). The increasing risk of D. immitis infection in southern Italy is supported by the noteworthy positivity of A. albopictus populations and the cat. Our data highlight the usefulness to include filarioid infestation in routine diagnosis. PMID:23224639

  20. Cultural Heritage exposed to landslide and flood risk in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spizzichino, Daniele; Cacace, Carlo; Iadanza, Carla; Trigila, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Italy is the country that owns most of the world cultural heritage as it's clear from the list of sites of inestimable value to humanity, prepared by UNESCO under the Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage ratified in 1972. The Italian territory is also particularly prone to natural hazards such as landslides, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, subsidence and coastal erosion which undermine the protection and preservation of cultural heritage. Aim of the present work is to provide an estimate of architectural, monumental and archaeological heritage exposed to landslide and flood risk at national scale. The input data are: the Italian Cultural Heritage database (Carta del Rischio del patrimonio culturale) realized by ISCR (Central Institute for the Conservation and Restoration); the Italian Landslide Inventory (Progetto IFFI) developed by ISPRA (Italian National Institute for Environmental Protection and Research) and the Regions and Self-Governing Provinces of Italy and the flood hazard zones defined by the Italian River Basin Authorities. Italian landslide inventory contains more than 486,000 landslides affecting an area of about 20,800 km2, equal to 6.9% of Italian territory. In order to estimate the number and type of cultural heritage at risk some GIS processing have been carried out, overlapping information from the above mentioned databases. The analysis provided the following results: Cultural Heritage exposed to landslide risk were estimated to 5.511 (6.6%) while the ones exposed to flood risk results 9.859 (11.7%). Two case studies concerning landslide phenomena affecting important Italian municipalities and the flood risk of historical centre of Rome, have been also analyzed. These results could be used to identify priorities and plan field surveys, detailed studies and monitoring systems, allowing job scheduling of cultural heritage maintenance. This need becomes more and more a necessity taking into account

  1. Multi-locus microsatellite analysis supports the hypothesis of an autochthonous focus of Echinococcus multilocularis in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Casulli, A; Bart, J M; Knapp, J; La Rosa, G; Dusher, G; Gottstein, B; Di Cerbo, A; Manfredi, M T; Genchi, C; Piarroux, R; Pozio, E

    2009-06-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is characterised by a wide geographical distribution, encompassing three continents (North America, Asia and Europe) yet very low genetic variability is documented. Recently, this parasite has been detected in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) circulating in an Alpine region of Italy, close to Austria. This finding raised the question as to whether an autochthonous cycle exists in Italy or whether the infected foxes originated from the neighbouring regions of Austria. Studies have shown that multi-locus microsatellite analysis can identify genomic regions carrying mutations that result in a local adaptation. We used a tandem repeated multi-locus microsatellite (EmsB) to evaluate the genetic differences amongst adult worms of E. multilocularis collected in Italy, worms from neighbouring Austria and from other European and extra-European countries. Fluorescent PCR was performed on a panel of E. multilocularis samples to assess intra-specific polymorphism. The analysis revealed four closed genotypes for Italian samples of E. multilocularis which were unique compared with the other 25 genotypes from Europe and the five genotypes from Alaska. An analysis in the Alpine watershed, comparing Italian adult worms with those from neighbouring areas in Austria, showed a unique cluster for Italian samples. This result supports the hypothesis of the presence of an autochthonous cycle of E. multilocularis in Italy. EmsB can be useful for 'tracking' the source of infection of this zoonotic parasite and developing appropriate measures for preventing or reducing the risk of human alveolar echinococcosis. PMID:19150351

  2. Coxiella burnetii in Central Italy: Novel Genotypes Are Circulating in Cattle and Goats

    PubMed Central

    Di Domenico, Marco; Curini, Valentina; De Massis, Fabrizio; Di Provvido, Andrea; Scacchia, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Genotyping of bacteria is critical for diagnosis, treatment, and epidemiological surveillance. Coxiella burnetii, the etiological agent of Q fever, has been recognized to have a potential for bioterrorism purposes. Because few serosurveys have been conducted in Italy, there is still limited information about the distribution of this pathogen in natural conditions. In this paper, we describe the genotyping of C. burnetii strains by multispacer sequence typing (MST) detected in cattle and goat farms in the Abruzzi region of Italy. Biological samples (milk, aborted fetus) positive for C. burnetii DNA were sequenced in the spacer regions and compared with those already publicly available (http://ifr48.timone.univ-mrs.fr/MST_Coxiella/mst/group_detail). The MST profile of C. burnetii detected in milk samples demonstrated the presence of a new allele, whereas the C. burnetii spacer sequences from fetus and milk goat samples displayed a new allelic combination. The results suggest the circulation of novel genotypes of C. burnetii in Italy. PMID:25325314

  3. Cultural Explanations of Sleep Paralysis in Italy: The Pandafeche Attack and Associated Supernatural Beliefs.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Romanelli, Andrea; Hinton, Devon E

    2015-12-01

    The current study examines cultural explanations regarding sleep paralysis (SP) in Italy. The study explores (1) whether the phenomenology of SP generates culturally specific interpretations and causal explanations and (2) what are the beliefs and local traditions associated with such cultural explanations. The participants were Italian nationals from the general population (n = 68) recruited in the region of Abruzzo, Italy. All participants had experienced at least one lifetime episode of SP. The sleep paralysis experiences and phenomenology questionnaire were orally administered to participants. We found a multilayered cultural interpretation of SP, namely the Pandafeche attack, associated with various supernatural beliefs. Thirty-eight percent of participants believed that this supernatural being, the Pandafeche-often referred to as an evil witch, sometimes as a ghost-like spirit or a terrifying humanoid cat-might have caused their SP. Twenty-four percent of all participants sensed the Pandafeche was present during their SP. Strategies to prevent Pandafeche attack included sleeping in supine position, placing a broom by the bedroom door, or putting a pile of sand by the bed. Case studies are presented to illustrate the study findings. The Pandafeche attack thus constitutes a culturally specific, supernatural interpretation of the phenomenology of SP in the Abruzzo region of Italy. PMID:25802016

  4. Imported and autochthonous histoplasmosis in Italy: new cases and old problems.

    PubMed

    Farina, Claudio; Rizzi, Marco; Ricci, Lidia; Gabbi, Enrico; Caligaris, Silvio; Goglio, Antonio

    2005-09-01

    In the past the Italian soil was considered as a low-endemic pabulum for H. capsulatum var. capsulatum and only few autochthonous cases of histoplasmosis were reported in Italy, especially in the Po valley. The aim of the paper was to evaluate this possibility by reviewing the literature and providing our own personal data. Four additional cases of histoplasmosis were observed during 1999-2003 in AIDS immigrant or in Italian citizens, and in travellers to endemic areas. One of the AIDS patients was an autochthonous case of histoplasmosis. The Italian literature was reviewed. Recent cases and literature data confirm the possible autochthonous presence of histoplasmosis in Italy, especially in the Northern regions. PMID:16309355

  5. Improving earthquake hazard assessments in Italy: An alternative to “Texas sharpshooting”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peresan, Antonella; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2012-12-01

    The 20 May 2012 M = 6.1 earthquake that struck the Emilia region of northern Italy illustrates a common problem afflicting earthquake hazard assessment. It occurred in an area classified as "low seismic hazard" based on the current national seismic hazard map (Gruppo di Lavoro, Redazione della mappa di pericolosità sismica, rapporto conclusivo, 2004, http://zonesismiche.mi.ingv.it/mappa_ps_apr04/italia.html) adopted in 2006. That revision of the seismic code was motivated by the 2002 M = 5.7 earthquake that struck S. Giuliano di Puglia in central Italy, also a previously classified low-hazard area, resulting in damage and casualties. Previous code was updated in 1981-1984 after earlier maps missed the 1980 M = 6.5 Irpinia earthquake.

  6. Respiratory nematodes in cat populations of Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Angela; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Grillotti, Eleonora; Manzocchi, Simone; Perrucci, Stefania; Beraldo, Paola; Cazzin, Stefania; De Liberato, Claudio; Barros, Luciano A; Simonato, Giulia; Traversa, Donato

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of common respiratory parasites of domestic cats (the metastrongyloid "cat lungworm" Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and the trichuroid Capillaria aerophila) and of neglected respiratory nematodes of felids (Troglostrongylus brevior, Angiostrongylus chabaudi and Oslerus rostratus) was here evaluated in two and three geographical sites of Northern and Central Italy, respectively. In 2014-2015, individual fecal samples of 868 domestic cats were examined microscopically and genetically, and epidemiological data related to parasitic infections were evaluated as possible risk factors by binary logistic regression models. The most common parasite was A. abstrusus in both mono- and poli-specific infections, followed by T. brevior and C. aerophila, while cats scored negative for other parasites. Cats positive for A. abstrusus (1.9-17 % infection rate) and C. aerophila (0.9-4.8 % infection rate) were found in all examined sites, while cats scored positive for T. brevior (1-14.3 % infection rate) in four sites. Also, T. brevior was here found for the first time in a domestic cat from a mountainous area of Northern Italy. The occurrence of lungworms was statistically related to the presence of respiratory signs and more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. Cats living in site C of Central Italy resulted statistically more at risk of infection for lungworms than cats living in the other study sites, while animals ageing less than 1 year were at more risk for troglostrongylosis. Finally, the presence of lungworms was more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. These results are discussed under epidemiological and clinical points of views. PMID:26319524

  7. Causes of mortality across different immigrant groups in Northeastern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Ferroni, Eliana; Pigato, Mara; Avossa, Francesco; Saugo, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Background. Despite massive immigration towards Southern Europe in the last two decades, data on mortality by cause among